Surgical incision care; Open wound care ... your wound again with sutures, you need to care for it at home, since it may take ... Your health care provider will tell you how often to change your dressing . To prepare for the dressing change: Clean your ...
Dinah, F; Adhikari, A
INTRODUCTION Most surgical wounds are closed primarily, but some are allowed to heal by secondary intention. This usually involves repeated packing and dressing of the raw wound surfaces. Although the long-term care of such wounds has devolved to the care of nurses in the community or out-patient setting, the initial wound dressing or cavity packing is done by the surgeon in the operating theatre. Many surgeons are unaware of the growth of the discipline of wound care, and still use traditional soaked gauze for dressing and packing open surgical wounds and cavities. RESULTS This review summarises the some of the modern alternatives available and the evidence – or the lack of it – for their use in both the acute and chronic setting. PMID:16460637
Yamamichi, Fukashi; Shigemura, Katsumi; Yamashita, Mauso; Tanaka, Kazushi; Arakawa, Soishi; Fujisawa, Masato
The number of open radical prostatectomy (RP) surgeries has been decreasing owing to the spread of laparoscopic and robotic surgery, which has implications for postoperative wound healing. The purpose of this study was to investigate and document the current status of postoperative wound healing and superficial surgical site infection (SSI) in open RPs. One hundred and seventy-five antegrade RPs with the same or similar kinds of prophylactic antibiotic administration were divided into two groups: (i) 'no intervention' (wound covering group) and (ii) 'washing', using a washing solution from the second postoperative day to the day of skin staple removal (wound washing group). We compared these groups for the occurrence of superficial SSI. The wound covering group had three (3·03%) cases of superficial SSI, with one case caused by methicillin sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA). The wound washing group had nine (11·8%) cases of superficial SSI, with three cases caused by MSSA, two cases caused by methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and one by Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The wound covering group showed a significantly lower ratio of superficial SSI (P = 0·0472). In conclusion, the postoperative wound status data in this study suggests that no wound intervention after RP resulted in a comparatively lower ratio of superficial SSI than in the wound washing group. © 2014 The Authors. International Wound Journal © 2014 Medicalhelplines.com Inc and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Cater, John E; van der Linden, Jan
Flow within a model surgical opening during insufflation with heated carbon dioxide was studied using computational fluid dynamics. A volume of fluid method was used to simulate the mixture of ambient air and carbon dioxide gas. The negative buoyancy of the carbon dioxide caused it to fill the wound and form a protective layer on the internal surfaces for a range of flow rates, temperatures, and angles of patient inclination. It was observed that the flow remained attached to the surface of the model due to the action of the Coanda effect. A flow rate of 10 L/min was sufficient to maintain a warm carbon dioxide barrier for a moderately sized surgical incision for all likely angles of inclination. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Edmiston, Charles E; Leaper, David; Spencer, Maureen; Truitt, Karen; Litz Fauerbach, Loretta; Graham, Denise; Johnson, Helen Boehm
The global push to combat the problem of antimicrobial resistance has led to the development of antimicrobial stewardship programs (ASPs), which were recently mandated by The Joint Commission and the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services. However, the use of topical antibiotics in the open surgical wound is often not monitored by these programs nor is it subject to any evidence-based standardization of care. Survey results indicate that the practice of using topical antibiotics intraoperatively, in both irrigation fluids and powders, is widespread. Given the risks inherent in their use and the lack of evidence supporting it, the practice should be monitored as a core part of ASPs, and alternative agents, such as antiseptics, should be considered. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Smith, Fiona; Dryburgh, Nancy; Donaldson, Jayne; Mitchell, Melloney
Surgical wounds that become infected are often debrided because clinicians believe that removal of this necrotic or infected tissue will expedite wound healing. There are numerous methods available but no consensus on which one is most effective for surgical wounds. To determine the effect of different methods of debridement on the rate of debridement and healing of surgical wounds. In March 2013, for this third update, we searched the Cochrane Wounds Group Specialised Register; the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library); Ovid MEDLINE; Ovid MEDLINE (In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations); Ovid EMBASE; and EBSCO CINAHL. We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) with outcomes including at least one of the following: time to complete debridement or time to complete healing. Two review authors independently reviewed the abstracts and titles obtained from the search, extracted data independently using a standardised extraction sheet and independently assessed methodological quality. One review author was involved in all stages of the data collection and extraction process, thus ensuring continuity. Five RCTs (159 participants) were eligible for inclusion; all compared treatments for infected surgical wounds and reported time required to achieve a clean wound bed (complete debridement). One trial compared an enzymatic agent (streptokinase/streptodornase) with saline-soaked dressings. Four trials compared the effectiveness of dextranomer beads or paste with other products (different comparator in each trial) to achieve complete debridement. Meta-analysis was not possible due to the unique comparisons within each trial. One trial reported that dextranomer achieved a clean wound bed significantly more quickly than Eusol, and one trial comparing enzymatic debridement with saline-soaked dressings reported that the enzyme-treated wounds were cleaned more quickly. However, methodological quality was poor in these two trials
Howard, N E; Phaff, M; Aird, J; Wicks, L; Rollinson, P
We compared early post-operative rates of wound infection in HIV-positive and -negative patients presenting with open tibial fractures managed with surgical fixation. The wounds of 84 patients (85 fractures), 28 of whom were HIV positive and 56 were HIV negative, were assessed for signs of infection using the ASEPIS wound score. There were 19 women and 65 men with a mean age of 34.8 years. A total of 57 fractures (17 HIV-positive, 40 HIV-negative) treated with external fixation were also assessed using the Checkett score for pin-site infection. The remaining 28 fractures were treated with internal fixation. No significant difference in early post-operative wound infection between the two groups of patients was found (10.7% (n = 3) vs 19.6% (n = 11); relative risk (RR) 0.55 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.17 to 1.8); p = 0.32). There was also no significant difference in pin-site infection rates (17.6% (n = 3) vs 12.5% (n = 5); RR 1.62 (95% CI 0.44 to 6.07); p = 0.47). The study does not support the hypothesis that HIV significantly increases the rate of early wound or pin-site infection in open tibial fractures. We would therefore suggest that a patient's HIV status should not alter the management of open tibial fractures in patients who have a CD4 count > 350 cells/μl.
Dryburgh, Nancy; Smith, Fiona; Donaldson, Jayne; Mitchell, Melloney
Surgical wounds that become infected are often debrided because clinicians believe that removal of this necrotic or infected tissue will expedite wound healing. There are numerous methods available but no consensus on which one is most effective for surgical wounds. The aim of this review is to determine the effect of different methods of debridement on the rate of debridement and healing of surgical wounds. We developed a search strategy to search the following electronic databases: Wounds Group Specialised Trials Register (searched 3/3/08) , Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (the Cochrane Library, 2008, issue 1), MEDLINE (1950 to February Week 3 2008 ), EMBASE (1980 to 2008 Week 09) and CINHAL (1982 to February Week 4 2008). We checked the citations within obtained studies to identify additional papers and also relevant conference proceedings. We contacted manufactures of wound debridement agents to ascertain the existence of published, unpublished and ongoing trials. Our search was not limited by language or publication status. We included relevant randomised controlled trials (RCT) with outcomes including at least one of the following: time to complete debridement, or time to complete healing. Two authors independently reviewed the abstracts and titles obtained from the search, two extracted data independently using a standardised extraction sheet, and two independently assessed methodological quality. One author was involved in all stages of the data collection and extraction process, thus ensuring continuity. Five RCTs were eligible for inclusion; all compared treatments for infected surgical wounds and reported time required to achieve a clean wound bed (complete debridement). One trial compared an enzymatic agent (Streptokinase/streptodornase) with saline-soaked dressings and reported the time to complete debridement. Four of the trials compared the effectiveness of dextranomer beads or paste with other products (different comparator
Smith, Fiona; Dryburgh, Nancy; Donaldson, Jayne; Mitchell, Melloney
Surgical wounds that become infected are often debrided because clinicians believe that removal of this necrotic or infected tissue will expedite wound healing. There are numerous methods available but no consensus on which one is most effective for surgical wounds. To determine the effect of different methods of debridement on the rate of debridement and healing of surgical wounds. For this second update we searched the Cochrane Wounds Group Specialised Register (searched 13 April 2011); the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library 2011, Issue 1); Ovid MEDLINE (2007 to March Week 5 2011); Ovid MEDLINE (In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations, April 11, 2011); Ovid EMBASE (2007 to 2011 Week 14); and EBSCO CINAHL (2007 to 8 April 2011). We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) with outcomes including at least one of the following: time to complete debridement or time to complete healing. Two review authors independently reviewed the abstracts and titles obtained from the search, extracted data independently using a standardised extraction sheet and independently assessed methodological quality. One review author was involved in all stages of the data collection and extraction process, thus ensuring continuity. Five RCTs (159 participants) were eligible for inclusion; all compared treatments for infected surgical wounds and reported time required to achieve a clean wound bed (complete debridement). One trial compared an enzymatic agent (streptokinase/streptodornase) with saline-soaked dressings. Four trials compared the effectiveness of dextranomer beads or paste with other products (different comparator in each trial) to achieve complete debridement. Meta-analysis was not possible due to the unique comparisons within each trial. One trial reported that dextranomer achieved a clean wound bed significantly more quickly than Eusol, and one trial comparing enzymatic debridement with saline-soaked dressings reported that the
... around the incision increases or becomes thick, tan, green, or yellow, or smells bad (pus). Also call if your temperature is above 100°F (37.7°C) for more than 4 hours. Alternative Names Surgical incision care; Closed wound care References Leong M, Phillips LG. ...
Mihaljevic, André L.; Müller, Tara C.; Kehl, Victoria; Friess, Helmut; Kleeff, Jörg
Importance Surgical site infections remain one of the most frequent complications following abdominal surgery and cause substantial costs, morbidity and mortality. Objective To assess the effectiveness of wound edge protectors in open abdominal surgery in reducing surgical site infections. Evidence Review A systematic literature search was conducted according to a prespecified review protocol in a variety of data-bases combined with hand-searches for randomized controlled trials on wound edge protectors in patients undergoing laparotomy. A qualitative and quantitative analysis of included trials was conducted. Findings We identified 16 randomized controlled trials including 3695 patients investigating wound edge protectors published between 1972 and 2014. Critical appraisal uncovered a number of methodological flaws, predominantly in the older trials. Wound edge protectors significantly reduced the rate of surgical site infections (risk ratio 0.65; 95%CI, 0.51–0.83; p = 0.0007; I2 = 52%). The results were robust in a number of sensitivity analyses. A similar effect size was found in the subgroup of patients undergoing colorectal surgery (risk ratio 0.65; 95%CI, 0.44–0.97; p = 0.04; I2 = 56%). Of the two common types of wound protectors double ring devices were found to exhibit a greater protective effect (risk ratio 0.29; 95%CI, 0.15–0.55) than single-ring devices (risk ratio 0.71; 95%CI, 0.54–0.92), but this might largely be due to the lower quality of available data for double-ring devices. Exploratory subgroup analyses for the degree of contamination showed a larger protective effect in contaminated cases (0.44; 95%CI, 0.28–0.67; p = 0.0002, I2 = 23%) than in clean-contaminated surgeries (0.72, 95%CI, 0.57–0.91; p = 0.005; I2 = 46%) and a strong effect on the reduction of superficial surgical site infections (risk ratio 0.45; 95%CI, 0.24–0.82; p = 0.001; I2 = 72%). Conclusions and Relevance Wound edge protectors significantly reduce the rate of
Göl, M K; Karahan, M; Ulus, A T; Erdil, N; Iscan, Z; Karabiber, N; Tasdemir, O; Bayazit, K
Nosocomial infections are one of the most feared complications after open heart surgery. A large retrospective study was conducted to evaluate the nature and scope of the problem. Between 1992 and 1998, 9352 patients who had undergone open heart surgery were evaluated. Bloodstream infections, pneumonia, and deep sternal wound infections were included. Univariate and logistic regression analyses were conducted to identify the high-risk patients that were likely to become infected. Three hundred forty-six infections in 276 patients were diagnosed. Age, preoperative albumin level, banked blood requirement, duration of operation, diabetes mellitus, previous open heart surgery, moderate or severe pericardial adhesions, obesity, postoperative low cardiac output, and postoperative cerebrovascular accident were found to be significant in univariate and logistic regression analyses for infectious outcome. Univariate analysis also revealed additional significant factors: fresh frozen plasma requirement, duration of cardiopulmonary bypass and cross-clamp, preoperative high levels of blood urea and glucose, presence of occlusive peripheral arterial disease, preoperative history of hypertension, and nasal carriage of Staphylococcus aureus. Methicillin resistant S. aureus was involved in 58.4% of the infections. Risk factors should be individualized for patients and every effort should be carried out to minimize infectious outcome.
... wounds heal, you may have a wound VAC (vacuum-assisted closure) dressing. It increases blood flow in ... helps with healing. This is a negative pressure (vacuum) dressing. There is a vacuum pump, a foam ...
Roberts, Christopher D.; Leaper, David J.; Assadian, Ojan
Scope and Significance: The topical use of antiseptics for wound care has a role in an antimicrobial stewardship strategy. However, the details of this role need clarification. Further clinical research into the use of topical antiseptics in wound care would lower the risk of furthering antibiotic resistance and contribute to more effective antibiotic use. As part of this research, experimental and surveillance data are needed on the resistance and tolerance patterns associated with topical antiseptic use in wound infections. Objective: The development of antibiotic resistance presents global challenges in terms of patient harm and increased healthcare costs. The treatment of “at risk” and infected wounds contributes to this conundrum. Synergies between antibiotics and antiseptics and their appropriate combined use need exploration. Approach: A review of available evidence on the appropriateness of antiseptics as a fundamental component of antimicrobial stewardship strategies has been undertaken. Innovation: Opening up new ways of thinking and identifying gaps of knowledge will lead to optimizing justification of antimicrobial choices and combinations. This may lead to changes in practice in terms of solutions for the prevention and treatment of wound infection. Conclusion: Antiseptics are an integral part of antimicrobial stewardship strategies for the prevention and treatment of surgical site and chronic open wound infections. PMID:28224049
Gheorghe, Adrian; Calvert, Melanie; Pinkney, Thomas D; Fletcher, Benjamin R; Bartlett, David C; Hawkins, William J; Mak, Tony; Youssef, Haney; Wilson, Sue
Assess the existing evidence on the clinical effectiveness of wound-edge protection devices (WEPDs) in reducing the surgical site infection (SSI) rate in patients undergoing open abdominal surgery. Surgical site infections are a common postoperative complication associated with considerable morbidity, extended hospital stay, increased health care costs, and reduced quality of life. Wound-edge protection devices have been used in surgery to reduce SSI rates for more than 40 years; however, they are yet to be cited in major clinical guidelines addressing SSI management. A review protocol was prespecified. A variety of sources were searched in November 2010 for studies containing primary data on the use of WEPDs in reducing SSI compared with standard care in patients undergoing open abdominal surgery. The outcome of interest was a well-specified, clinically based definition of an SSI. No language or time restrictions were applied. The quality assessment of the studies and the quantitative analyses were performed in line with the principles of the Cochrane Collaboration. Twelve studies reporting primary data from 1933 patients were included in the review. The quality assessment found all of them to be at considerable risk of bias. An exploratory meta-analysis was performed to provide a quantitative indication on the effect of WEPDs. The pooled risk ratio under a random effects model was 0.60 (95% confidence interval, 0.41-0.86), indicating a potentially significant benefit from the use of WEPDs. No indications of significant between-study heterogeneity or publication bias, respectively, were identified. Evidence to date suggests that WEPDs may be efficient in reducing SSI rates in patients undergoing open abdominal surgery. However, the poor quality of the existing studies and their small sample sizes raise the need for a large, good quality randomized controlled trial to validate this indication.
Vermeulen, Hester; Ubbink, Dirk T; Schreuder, Sanne M; Lubbers, Maarten J
Primary: to study the level of agreement among nurses and doctors in classifying the colour and exudation of open wounds according to the Red-Yellow-Black scheme. Secondary: to check their agreement with an international expert panel on whether their classification was correct. Nurses and doctors classify open wounds to assess systemic and local treatment options. Nowadays, several classification schemes are being used. The Red-Yellow-Black-scheme is commonly used for classifying open wounds or is part of other, more intricate, wound classification models. Eighteen representative photographs of red, yellow and black wounds were presented to 63 nurses and 79 doctors from the Department of Surgery. They classified these open wounds for colour and amount of exudation. Group kappa's (kappa) were calculated to assess inter- and intra-observer agreement and their agreement with an expert panel. Agreement among the 63 nurses on wound colour (kappa = 0.61; 95% CI: 0.49-0.74) and exudation (kappa = 0.49; 95% CI: 0.29-0.68) was moderate to good. Agreement among the 79 doctors was similar: kappa = 0.61; 95% CI 0.49-0.73 for wound colour and kappa = 0.48; 95% CI: 0.36-0.61 for exudation. Nurses' and doctors' agreement with the expert panel was also moderate to good: kappa-values ranged between 0.48 and 0.77. Based on the good to moderate inter-observer agreement as found in this study, the Red-Yellow-Black -scheme appears to be a reliable and accurate classification scheme to assess open (surgical) wounds. Such a scheme may enable nurses and doctors to select the appropriate treatment modalities and evaluate the progress of the healing process. The Red-Yellow-Black scheme is a helpful tool to classify all kinds of wounds and can be used as stand-alone classification method or as part of wound management concepts.
Surgery can be very useful in all phases of wound healing and in treating scars. It can be employed along with conservative therapy, either simultaneously or in a sequential manner. The spectrum of surgical measures includes debridement with excision of wound edges or necrotic areas, skin transplantation to cover granulating wounds, and simple excision or complex reconstructive approaches to scars. The advantages of surgical treatment are seen in all phases of wound healing and include rapid onset of action, avoidance of secondary infection and improved function. The shortened healing time helps save personal and material costs.
Arroyo, Ana Abejón; Casanova, Pabló López; Soriano, José Verdú; Torra I Bou, Joan-Enric
Surgical site infection (SSI) is a common postoperative complication and can cause avoidable morbidity and excessive costs for the health service. Novel dressings, designed specifically for postoperative wounds, can help to reduce the risk of SSI and other complications such as blistering. This study compared the use of a new polyurethane film surgical dressing (Opsite Post-Op Visible, Smith & Nephew, Hull, UK) with gauze and tape in the management of postoperative wounds. The results show that the polyurethane film dressing results in a significant reduction in SSI (1·4% versus 6·6%, P = 0·006) as well as a reduction in other postoperative wound complications (e.g. blistering and erythema). Economic analysis conducted alongside the study suggests that these improved outcomes can be achieved at a lower treatment cost than gauze and tape dressings. The modest incremental cost of the polyurethane film surgical dressing is easily offset by the reduction in the costs related to treating SSI and other wound complications associated with gauze and tape dressings.
Carvalho, Brendan; Clark, David J; Yeomans, David; Angst, Martin S
We describe a methodology by which we are able to collect and measure biochemical inflammatory and nociceptive mediators at the surgical wound site. Collecting site-specific biochemical markers is important to understand the relationship between levels in serum and surgical wound, determine any associations between mediator release, pain, analgesic use and other outcomes of interest, and evaluate the effect of systemic and peripheral drug administration on surgical wound biochemistry. This methodology has been applied to healthy women undergoing elective cesarean delivery with spinal anesthesia. We have measured wound exudate and serum mediators at the same time intervals as patient's pain scores and analgesics consumption for up to 48 hours post-cesarean delivery. Using this methodology we have been able to detect various biochemical mediators including nerve growth factor (NGF), prostaglandin E2 (PG-E2) substance P, IL-1β, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-7, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12, IL-13, IL-17, TNFα, INFγ, G-CSF, GM-CSF, MCP-1 and MIP-1β. Studies applying this human surgical wound bioassay have found no correlations between wound and serum cytokine concentrations or their time-release profile (J Pain. 2008; 9(7):650-7).1 We also documented the utility of the technique to identify drug-mediated changes in wound cytokine content (Anesth Analg 2010; 111:1452-9).2 PMID:23117346
Carvalho, Brendan; Clark, David J; Yeomans, David; Angst, Martin S
We describe a methodology by which we are able to collect and measure biochemical inflammatory and nociceptive mediators at the surgical wound site. Collecting site-specific biochemical markers is important to understand the relationship between levels in serum and surgical wound, determine any associations between mediator release, pain, analgesic use and other outcomes of interest, and evaluate the effect of systemic and peripheral drug administration on surgical wound biochemistry. This methodology has been applied to healthy women undergoing elective cesarean delivery with spinal anesthesia. We have measured wound exudate and serum mediators at the same time intervals as patient's pain scores and analgesics consumption for up to 48 hours post-cesarean delivery. Using this methodology we have been able to detect various biochemical mediators including nerve growth factor (NGF), prostaglandin E2 (PG-E2) substance P, IL-1β, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-7, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12, IL-13, IL-17, TNFα, INFγ, G-CSF, GM-CSF, MCP-1 and MIP-1β. Studies applying this human surgical wound bioassay have found no correlations between wound and serum cytokine concentrations or their time-release profile (J Pain. 2008; 9(7):650-7).(1) We also documented the utility of the technique to identify drug-mediated changes in wound cytokine content.
Johnston, Benjamin R; Ha, Austin Y; Kwan, Daniel
In this article, we outline the important role the surgeon plays in the management of chronic wounds. Debridement and washout are required for grossly infected wounds and necrotizing soft tissue infections. Cutaneous cancers such as squamous cell carcinomas may contribute to chronic wounds and vice versa; if diagnosed, these should be treated with wide local excision. Arterial, venous, and even lymphatic flows can be restored in select cases to enhance delivery of nutrients and removal of metabolic waste and promote wound healing. In cases where vital structures, such as bones, joints, tendons, and nerves, are exposed, vascularized tissue transfers are often required. These tissue transfers can be local or remote, the latter of which necessitates anastomoses of arteries and veins. Pressure sores are managed by relieving pressure, treating acute trauma or infection, and using rotation fasciocutaneous flaps. Lastly, the surgeon must always consider the possibility of osteomyelitis and retained foreign body as etiology for chronic wounds.
van Himbeeck, F J; van Knippenberg, L A; Niessen, M C; van Griethuysen, A J
During the period October 1983 to March 1987, 603 patients who underwent arterial surgical procedures were studied to determine the incidence and treatment of wound infections. Bypass procedures were performed in 395 patients (65.5%), in which autogenous vein was used for 158 grafts (26%), synthetic Dacron for 216 grafts (36%), and umbilical vein for 21 grafts (3.5%). Thrombo-endarterectomies, embolectomies and patch-grafts were performed in 208 patients (34.5%). An Infection Control Nurse examined and registered the wounds. The definition of wound infection used in our study is equivalent to Szilagyi grade II infection. Vascular surgery is classified as clean surgery, the clean wound infection rate being a useful measurement to evaluate preventative measures and surgical technique. Thirty-one patients (5.1%) developed a wound infection as a postoperative complication. The overall incidence of wound complications including haematoma and seroma following arterial reconstruction was 13%. The site of wound infection was predominantly the groin. The most common pathogen was Staphylococcus aureus which was found in 17 patients (2.8%). All infections resolved without further surgical intervention. The influence of possible aetiological factors is considered and the importance of prophylactic antibiotics and good surgical technique is stressed.
FJTCFILE Copy CD OPEN WOUND DRAINAGE VERSUS t’ WOUND EXCISION IN TREATING THE tMODERN ASSAULT RIFLE WOUND M. L. FACKLER, MD, J. P L. BRETEAU, DVM, CL...C.V. Mosby Company) (Printed in the U.S.A.) DTIC ELECTES JUN 141990 Open wound drainage versus wound excision in treating the modern assault rifle...assault rifle, provided with adequate open drainage and systemic penicillin, heals as rapidly when the body defense mechanisms handle the disrupted tissue
Candido, Luiz Claudio
Surgical exploration of cavities, sinuses, and specific antibiotic therapy are fundamental for the control fo cutaneous infection. Topical treatment will vary based on evaluation of the lesion, experience of the health care team, and the environment.
D7J FILE COPk " ’I Institute Report No. 256 •! • N ,Lt) Open Wound Drainage Versus Wound Excision N -" Oa on the Modern Battlefield 0) M. L. Facklsr...provided with adequate open drainage and systemic penicillin, heals as rapidly when the body defense mechanisms handle the disrupted tissue as when...modern generation assault rifle, provided with adequate open drainage and systemic penicillin, heals as rapidly when the body defense mechanisms
Bocca, M; Coscia, D; Bottalico, L; Libro, D
Aim of this study is to improve the in vivo knowledge about the real effects and the physiologic repair by a detached stitches silk suture in the 8th zone. The study has been carried out on 44 patients submitted to surgical extraction of the impacted 8th (19 upper and 25 lower) teeth. Clinical and histological controls have demonstrated the usefulness of this suture procedure, since it gives a good histological reaction and in easy and safe. Histological and clinical results have confirmed the usefulness of silk suture, presenting however the inconvenience of stitches removal and bacterial plaque on the surgical wound.
Kramer, Axel; Assadian, Ojan; Frank, Matthias; Bender, Claudia; Hinz, Peter
After reviewing the literature about the microbial spectrum, the risk factors of post-operative infections, and the results of surgical interventions, the following recommendation can be made for the management of bite wounds: fresh, open wounds: surgical debridement, if appropriate, then an antiseptic lavage with a fluid consisting of povidone iodine and ethanol (e.g., Betaseptic®), no antibiotics, primary wound closure nearly closed fresh wounds (e.g., cat bites): surgical debridement, if appropriate, dressing with an antiseptic-soaked compress for ~60 minutes with repeated soaking (e.g., Betaseptic®), no antibiotics older wounds after ~4 hours: surgical debridement, if appropriate, dressing with an antiseptic-soaked compress or bandage for ~60 minutes with repeated soaking (e.g., Betaseptic®), at the same time intravenous or dose-adapted oral antibiotics (Amoxicillin and/or clavulanic acid) older wounds after ~24 hours: surgical debridement, then antiseptic lavage (Betaseptic®), in case of clinically apparent infection or inflammation surgical revision with opening of wound and treatment with antibiotics according to resistogram (empirical start with Amoxicillin and/or clavulanic acid). For each kind of bite wound, the patient’s tetanus immunization status as well as the risk of exposure to rabies have to be assessed. Similarly, the possibility of other infections, such as lues (Syphilis), hepatitis B (HBV), hepatitis C (HBC), hepatitis D (HDV) and HIV, in the rare case of a human bite wound, has to be taken into account. PMID:20941334
Chopra, Karan; Tadisina, Kashyap K; Singh, Devinder P
Surgical site occurrences (SSO), specifically surgical site infections represent a significant burden in the US health care system. It has been hypothesised that postoperative dressing can help drive down SSO. We describe the successful use of a novel technique combining both closed incision and open negative pressure wound therapy in the management of a high-risk wound associated with lymphoedema of obesity.
Maeda, Sumiko; Sado, Tetsu; Sakurada, Akira; Okada, Yoshinori; Kondo, Takashi
Negative-pressure wound therapy is a newly developed, noninvasive technique to manage a wide variety of wounds. This novel therapy was successfully used to heal the wound after open-window thoracostomy without surgical closure. A 46-year-old woman was admitted to hospital because of a painful mass on the right side of her chest. Radiological findings revealed an abscess on the right chest wall that had ruptured into the right lung and caused empyema. Antibiotic therapy did not yield sufficient improvement. Open-window thoracostomy was performed to achieve a sterile pleural space, and negative-pressure wound therapy was then applied. The pleural space was reduced, and the patient was discharged home with self-administered wound care. The wound healed completely in 5 months without any need for surgical closure.
Kabon, Barbara; Akça, Ozan; Taguchi, Akiko; Nagele, Angelika; Jebadurai, Ratnaraj; Arkilic, Cem F.; Sharma, Neeru; Ahluwalia, Arundhathi; Galandiuk, Susan; Fleshman, James; Sessler, Daniel I.; Kurz, Andrea
Wound perfusion and oxygenation are important determinants of the development of postoperative wound infections. Supplemental fluid administration significantly increases tissue oxygenation in surrogate wounds in the subcutaneous tissue of the upper arm in perioperative surgical patients. We tested the hypothesis that supplemental fluid administration during and after elective colon resections decreases the incidence of postoperative wound infections. Patients undergoing open colon resection were randomly assigned to small (n=124, 8 mL·kg-1·h-1) or large volume (n=129, 16-18 mL·kg-1·h-1) fluid management. Our major outcomes were two distinct criteria for diagnosis of surgical wound infections: 1) purulent exudate combined with a culture positive for pathogenic bacteria and 2) Center for Disease Control criteria for diagnosis of surgical wound infections. All wound infections diagnosed using either criterion by a blinded observer in the 15 days following surgery were considered in the analysis. Wound healing was evaluated with the ASEPSIS scoring system. Of the patients given small fluid administration, 14 had surgical wound infections; 11 given large fluid therapy had infections, P=0.46. ASEPSIS wound healing scores were similar in both groups: 7±16 (small volume) vs. 8±14 (large volume), P=0.70. Our results suggest that supplemental hydration in the range tested does not impact wound infection rate. PMID:16244030
Kinon, Merritt D.; Nakhla, Jonathan; Brown, Kenroy; Bhashyam, Niketh; Yassari, Reza
Background: There exists an inherent risk of increased venous thromboembolism (VTE) in surgical spine patients, which is independent of their existing risk factors. Prophylaxis and treatment of VTE is an imprecise practice and may have serious complications even well after the initial surgery. Furthermore, there are no clear guidelines on how to manage postoperative spine patients with regards to the timing of anticoagulation. Case Description: Here, we present the case of a middle-aged male, status post L2/3 laminectomy and discectomy who developed bilateral below the knee deep venous thrombosis. He was started on Enoxaparin and transitioned to Warfarin and returned with axial back pain, and was found to have a postoperative hematoma almost 3 weeks later in a delayed fashion. Conclusion: Delayed surgical wound hematoma with neural compression is an important complication to identify and should remain high on the differential diagnosis in patients on warfarin who present with axial spinal pain. PMID:28144491
Hnatko, S. I.; Macdonald, G. R.; Rodin, A. E.
Published records of the frequency of wound sepsis are often unreliable sources of information on the general frequency of this complication because of unstandardized methods of reporting and because of the various views of different investigators as to what constitutes sepsis. A method of infection reporting, its study and analysis are outlined. A survey of postoperative infections by this method for the years 1959, 1960 and 1961 revealed infection rates of 2.02%, 1.20% and 1.14%, respectively. For the same period the percentages of wound infections caused by Staph. aureus were 83.06%, 69.8% and 51.8%, respectively. The most prevalent phage types were 55/53/54 and 52/80/81/82, although types 80/81/82 and 80 were also involved. Infections with Gram-negative organisms were encountered more often in 1961 than in 1959. The majority of these were of mixed type, and followed abdominal surgery. There is need for more comprehensive study and analysis of postoperative wound sepsis and its complications. It was apparent from this study that, statistically, a relatively low rate of postoperative infections may mask a high rate following a specific surgical procedure. PMID:13954844
Coutin, Julia V; Lanz, Otto I; Magnin-Bissel, Geraldine C; Ehrich, Marion F; Miller, Emily I; Werre, Stephen R; Riegel, Thomas O
To compare cefazolin concentrations in biopsied tissue samples collected from surgically created wounds treated with negative pressure wound therapy to those collected from surgically created wounds treated with nonadherent dressings. Prospective, controlled, experimental study. Adult female spayed Beagles (n = 12). Full thickness cutaneous wounds were created on each antebrachium (n = 24). Immediately after surgery, cefazolin (22 mg/kg intravenously [IV]) was administered to each dog and continued every 8 hours during the study. The right wound was randomly assigned to group I or group II whereas the wound on the contralateral antebrachium was assigned to the other group. Group I wounds were treated with negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) and group II wounds were treated with nonadherent dressings for 3 days. Dressings were changed and tissue biopsies obtained from wound beds at 24 hours intervals for both groups. Cefazolin wound tissue and plasma concentrations were measured by liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Blood samples for measuring plasma cefazolin concentrations were collected before biopsy sampling. At the time of surgery and at each subsequent bandage change, wound beds were swabbed and submitted for aerobic and anaerobic culture. After initiating cefazolin treatment, wound tissue antibiotic concentrations between treatment groups were not significantly different at any sampling time. Similarly, after initiating cefazolin treatment, plasma cefazolin concentrations were not significantly different at any sampling time for individual dogs. Using a canine experimental model, NPWT treatment of surgically created wounds does not statistically impact cefazolin tissue concentrations when compared with conventional nonadherent bandage therapy. © Copyright 2014 by The American College of Veterinary Surgeons.
Le Moel, Carole; Mounier, Roman; Ardic-Pulas, Taline
Literature reports a high prevalence of wounds in the hospital environment. A study devoted to wounds encountered in post-surgical intensive care has been carried out in a university hospital. This work highlighted the diversity of acute wounds mainly observed in intensive care and the difficulties nurses have in managing them.
Kraemer, Bruce A; Geiger, Scott E; Deigni, Oliver A; Watson, John Tracy
Open wounds of the distal third of the leg and foot with exposed bone, fractures, and hardware are challenging wounds for which to achieve stable coverage. The orthopedic advances in lower extremity fracture management over the last 30 years have allowed a rethinking of the standard operative approach to close these complex wounds. The ability of extracellular matrix (ECM) products to facilitate constructive remodeling of a wound seemed a reasonable approach for treatment, especially in patients who are often poor surgical candidates for more advanced reconstructive procedures. The authors reviewed 9 patients with 11 open fractures of the leg, ankle, or foot treated with a newer ECM wound healing device to total closure. The clinical course and patient management are reviewed. The authors conclude that newer ECM products can provide a reasonable method of management for patients who have wounds with exposed hardware, distal leg wounds, and open foot fractures compared to prolonged negative pressure wound therapy or complex reconstructive operative procedures.
Pokrywka, Marian; Byers, Karin
Surgical wound contamination leading to surgical site infection can result from disruption of the intended airflow in the operating room (OR). When personnel enter and exit the OR, or create unnecessary movement and traffic during the procedure, the intended airflow in the vicinity of the open wound becomes disrupted and does not adequately remove airborne contaminants from the sterile field. An increase in the bacterial counts of airborne microorganisms is noted during increased activity levels within the OR. Researchers have studied OR traffic and door openings as a determinant of air contamination. During a surgical procedure the door to the operating room may be open as long as 20 minutes out of each surgical hour during critical procedures involving implants. Interventions into limiting excessive movement and traffic in the OR may lead to reductions in surgical site infections in select populations.
Serin, Gediz Murat; Polat, Senol; Aksoy, Elif; İnanlı, Selçuk
The many benefits of the open-approach septorhinoplasty should not be excluded on the basis of columellar scarring alone. Technical factors that contributed to the favorable outcome of the columellar scar included proper planning of location and design of the incision used, meticulous closure, and good postoperative care. In the current study, we describe a simple postoperative wound care procedure that allows clean visualized wound with less crust formation, easy removal of the sutures by the surgeon, and better columellar scar in the early postoperative period.
Castagna, Alessandro; Fontani, Vania; Rinaldi, Salvatore; Mannu, Piero
Purpose To report preliminary results with the tissue optimization (TO) treatment with a radio electric asymmetric conveyer (REAC) in promoting the repair of surgical wounds. Patients and methods Two subjects, a 54-year-old male with a tear bruise on the upper third of the leg and a 19-year-old female with a stab wound to the hand, were treated with 12 REAC-TO treatment sessions. Results In both patients, the wounds showed shorter healing time compared with the time usually required for similar wounds, and good repair quality. Conclusion REAC device with its specific treatment protocols may be an alternative therapy for wound healing. PMID:21931498
King, Joseph J; Cerynik, Douglas L; Blair, James A; Harding, Susan P; Tom, James A
The purpose of this study is to describe the types of injuries and surgical treatments associated with open knee dislocations and to present the functional outcomes of these patients. Between 2001 and 2005, the medical records of patients that sustained traumatic open knee dislocations at our Level 1 Trauma Center were retrospectively reviewed. Initial surgical intervention was performed in all patients including placement of spanning external fixator, repair of vascular injuries if necessary, and irrigation and debridement of the open wounds. Ligamentous reconstruction was delayed until after limb salvage. The Short Form-12 was the primary outcome measure. Seven patients (five male, two female) had a mean age of 31.9 years (range 22-44) at the time of injury (five right, two left). Motorcycle accident was the most common cause (57%). Follow-up was a mean 27.6 months. The PCL was damaged in all patients. Three patients underwent angiography for absent/diminished pulses on initial exam with two requiring operative intervention. Three patients had associated common peroneal nerve injury (one iatrogenic). Ten (10.7) operative procedures were performed per patient (range 5-18) with an average of 6.6 debridements (range 2-11). Infection rate was 43% with one patient undergoing amputation for infection. Good to excellent results were found in 33% of patients. Most patients (86%) report some residual symptomatic or functional deficit. Due to the injury complexity in open traumatic knee dislocations, the surgical treatment is extensive and challenging. While infection rates are high, aggressive, individualized treatment can lead to satisfactory outcome although full return to activity is difficult to achieve using current treatment methods.
Alonso-Isa, M; Medina-Polo, J; Lara-Isla, A; Pérez-Cadavid, S; Arrébola-Pajares, A; Sopeña-Sutil, R; Benítez-Sala, R; Justo-Quintas, J; Gil-Moradillo, J; Passas-Martínez, J B; Tejido-Sánchez, A
Open surgery continues to have a fundamental role in urology, and one of its main complications is surgical wound infection. Our objective was to analyse surgical wound infection in patients who underwent surgery in our Department of Urology and to assess the risk factors, microorganisms and resistances by type of surgery. This was a prospective observational study that included 940 patients: 370 abdominal/open lumbar surgeries and 570 genitoperineal surgeries. We analysed age, sex, comorbidities, stay and type of surgery, as well as the causal microorganisms and antibiotic resistances. For genitoperineal surgery, we found 15 cases (2.6%) of surgical wound infection associated with previous urinary catheterisation. Most of the isolated microorganisms corresponded to enterobacteriaceae, highlighting the resistance to beta-lactam. In abdominal/lumbar surgery, we found 41 cases (11.1%) of surgical wound infection. The incidence rate was 3.3% in prostate surgery; 9.8% in renal surgery; and 45.0% in cystectomy. Heart disease was associated with a higher incidence rate of surgical wound infection. The most common microorganisms were Enterococcus spp. (27.1%), E.coli (22.9%) and Staphylococcus aureus (14.6%). Enterococcus and beta-lactamase-producing E.coli are resistant to ampicillin in 37.5% and 41.7% of cases, respectively. We found a low incidence rate of surgical wound infection in genitoperineal surgery, compared with renal surgery and cystectomy. The presence of heart disease and carrying a previous urinary catheter are factors associated with surgical wound infection. Enterococcus and E.coli are the most common pathogens, with high rates of resistance. Copyright © 2016 AEU. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Posluszny, Joseph A.; Conrad, Peggie; Halerz, Marcia; Shankar, Ravi; Gamelli, Richard L.
Typically, burn wound infections are classified by the organisms present in the wound within the first several days following injury or later, by routine surveillance cultures. With universal acceptance of early excision and grafting, classification of burn wound colonization in unexcised burn wounds is less relevant shifting clinical significance to open burn-related surgical wound infections (SWI). To better characterize SWIs and their clinical relevance, we identified the pathogens responsible for SWIs, their impact on rates of regrafting, and the relationship between SWI and nosocomial infection (NI) pathogens. Epidemiologic and clinical data for 71 adult patients with ≥20% TBSA burn were collected. Following excision and grafting, if a grafted site had clinical characteristics of infection, a wound culture swab was obtained and organism identified. Surveillance cultures were not obtained. SWI pathogen, anatomic location, post-burn day of occurrence and need for regrafting were compiled. A positive culture obtained from an isolated anatomic location at any time point after excision and grafting of that location was considered a distinct infection. Pathogens responsible for NIs (urinary tract infections, pneumonia, bloodstream and catheter-related bloodstream infections, pseudomembranous colitis and donor site infections) and their post-burn day were identified. The profiles of SWI pathogens and NI pathogens were then compared. Of the 71 patients included, 2 withdrew, 6 had no excision or grafting performed and 1 had incomplete data. Of the 62 remaining, 24 (39%) developed a SWI. In these 24 patients, 70 distinct infections were identified of which 46% required regrafting. Candida species (24%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (22%), Serratia marcescens (11%) and Staphylococcus aureus (11%) comprised the majority of pathogens. The development of a SWI with the need for regrafting increased overall length of stay, area of autograft, number of operative events and was
Tiemann, A. H.; Hofmann, G. O.
The basic treatment of osteomyelitis remains even today the surgical debridement in combination with a wound irrigation by lavage systems. Next to a comprehensive knowledge of the surgical techniques a profound knowledge of the lavage systems, the rinsing solutions used and the philosophies of revision programs are a must. In this article the typical hardware of modern lavage systems is analysed, their advantages and disadvantages are pointed out. In addition we investigate the value of common antiseptic wound irrigation solutions for their use in osteomyelitis therapy. Finally the two basic philosophies of wound revision and irrigation in the course of osteomyelitis therapy are presented and discussed. PMID:26504692
Sulamanidze, Marlen A; Sulamanidze, George M
Background: A cosmetically pleasing postoperative scar is an important aim of all aesthetic surgeries. Use of proper suture materials for delicate and gentle suturing of the operative injury is an important requirement for achieving satisfactory scars. However, closure of the edges of wounds by means of conventional suture materials does not always meet the requirements to achieve this objective. Aim: To simplify and facilitate the process of surgical wound closure, to improve the quality of scar, and to achieve a good cosmetic effect through the introduction of a new type of suture material. Materials and Methods: We have introduced a new surgical suturing material—a nontraumatic, barbed thread connected with the suture needle—APTOS SUTURE (European patent 1075843 as of 1999). Presented herein is a new modification of the technique of uninterrupted subcutaneous and intracutaneous suturing of wound edges, and the details of our experience with this material. Results: Our experience shows that, with use of APTOS, wound closure is carried out easily and quickly. The wound remains stable, the time of healing is shortened, and the process of suture removal is simplified, resulting in an aesthetically pleasing scar. Conclusions: The technique of surgical wound suturing proposed herein is a simple, facilitated, and efficient option of wound-edge closure, which can successfully be used, both in general and in aesthetic surgery for wound closure, such as plasty of scars, face lift, mammoplasty, and abdominal plasty. PMID:20808595
Schaum, Kathleen D.
Medicare patients' access to surgical dressings and topical wound care products is greatly influenced by the Medicare payment system that exists in each site of care. Qualified healthcare professionals should consider these payment systems, as well as the medical necessity for surgical dressings and topical wound care products. Scientists and manufacturers should also consider these payment systems, in addition to the Food and Drug Administration requirements for clearance or approval, when they are developing new surgical dressings and topical wound care products. Due to the importance of the Medicare payment systems, this article reviews the Medicare payment systems in acute care hospitals, long-term acute care hospitals, skilled nursing facilities, home health agencies, durable medical equipment suppliers, hospital-based outpatient wound care departments, and qualified healthcare professional offices. PMID:25126477
Schaum, Kathleen D
Medicare patients' access to surgical dressings and topical wound care products is greatly influenced by the Medicare payment system that exists in each site of care. Qualified healthcare professionals should consider these payment systems, as well as the medical necessity for surgical dressings and topical wound care products. Scientists and manufacturers should also consider these payment systems, in addition to the Food and Drug Administration requirements for clearance or approval, when they are developing new surgical dressings and topical wound care products. Due to the importance of the Medicare payment systems, this article reviews the Medicare payment systems in acute care hospitals, long-term acute care hospitals, skilled nursing facilities, home health agencies, durable medical equipment suppliers, hospital-based outpatient wound care departments, and qualified healthcare professional offices.
Pinheiro, A L; Browne, R M; Frame, J W; Matthews, J B
Precooling of tissues was investigated as a possible means of reducing thermal damage during CO2 laser surgery of the oral mucosa. The changes in mast cells in scalpel, and in non-cooled and precooled (tissue temperature lowered to approximately 10 degrees C) CO2 laser wounds were studied. Standard wounds five mm in length were created with the CO2 laser or scalpel on the dorsum of the tongues of 32 Sprague-Dawley rats under general anesthesia with fentanyl/fluanisone and midazolam. Animals were killed with excess anesthetic immediately or six hours after surgery, their tongues were removed, trimmed, fixed in neutral formalin and processed to paraffin wax. Acid (pH 1.4) toluidine blue stained sections were used to count normal and degranulated mast cells in five fields (0.1 mm2) located at defined positions immediately adjacent to the wound site. At both 0 and 6 hours normal mast cell numbers were significantly different between treatment groups (P<0.045; ANOVA) with mean numbers highest in scalpel wounds and lowest in uncooled laser wounds. Similarly, at 0 time, there were significant differences in degranulated mast cells between treatment groups (P=0.004; ANOVA) but highest numbers were detected in uncooled laser wounds and lowest in scalpel wounds. There were no significant differences in degranulated mast cell counts at six hours although there was a similar distribution in numbers between groups. Total numbers of mast cells (normal + degranulated) did not differ between treatment groups. These results demonstrated that i) laser wounds are associated with greater levels of mast cell degranulation than scalpel wounds and ii) precooling of tissues prior to laser treatment decreases the level of mast cell degranulation. It is concluded that tissue damage in CO2 laser surgery may be reduced by precooling of tissue.
Wysocki, Annette B
Open skin wounds are colonized with bacteria, and optimal wound care is required to prevent progression to infection. Intact skin normally provides protection from external environmental assaults. Disruption of the skin or tissue creating an open skin wound can result in infection, dehydration, hypothermia, scarring, compromised immunity, and changes in body image. Biofilms and bacterial genomics are areas of intense scientific investigation in the face of the emerging threat of bacterial resistance. Optimal wound care to prevent progression from colonization to infection remains the foundation of good clinical practice. On the basis of wound conditions, cleansing, debridement, measures to increase oxygenation and perfusion, adequate nutrition, and appropriate use of topical agents and antibiotics, when indicated, are the keys to managing open skin wounds. This article provides a targeted review of normal skin flora, wound healing, prevention of skin infection, colonization versus infection, biofilms, genomics and infectious disease, and management of open skin wounds.
Sørensen, Jens Lykke; Matzen, Steen Henrik
The indications for negative pressure wound treatment (NPWT) are increasing, e.g. for fixation of skin transplant and primary closed surgical wounds. The evidence for indications and positive effects are limited. NPWT should exclusively be used for fixation of split thickness skin transplants when immobilisation is otherwise difficult and for primary closed surgical wounds in selected patients at risk. Future high-quality investigations are necessary to pinpoint indications for topical negative pressure therapy, the effect of the different NPWT-modalities, and the overall economy compared to conventional bandages.
Davies, Jennifer; Khatib, Manaf; Bello, Fernando
Surgical simulation has benefited from a surge in interest over the last decade as a result of the increasing need for a change in the traditional apprentice model of teaching surgery. However, despite the recent interest in surgical simulation as an adjunct to surgical training, most of the literature focuses on laparoscopic, endovascular, and endoscopic surgical simulation with very few studies scrutinizing open surgical simulation and its benefit to surgical trainees. The aim of this review is to summarize the current standard of available open surgical simulators and to review the literature on the benefits of open surgical simulation. Open surgical simulators currently used include live animals, cadavers, bench models, virtual reality, and software-based computer simulators. In the current literature, there are 18 different studies (including 6 randomized controlled trials and 12 cohort studies) investigating the efficacy of open surgical simulation using live animal, bench, and cadaveric models in many surgical specialties including general, cardiac, trauma, vascular, urologic, and gynecologic surgery. The current open surgical simulation studies show, in general, a significant benefit of open surgical simulation in developing the surgical skills of surgical trainees. However, these studies have their limitations including a low number of participants, variable assessment standards, and a focus on short-term results often with no follow-up assessment. The skills needed for open surgical procedures are the essential basis that a surgical trainee needs to grasp before attempting more technical procedures such as laparoscopic procedures. In this current climate of medical practice with reduced hours of surgical exposure for trainees and where the patient's safety and outcome is key, open surgical simulation is a promising adjunct to modern surgical training, filling the void between surgeons being trained in a technique and a surgeon achieving fluency in that
Prinja, Aditya; Singh, Jagwant; Davis, Nwaka; Urwin, Gillian
An elderly gentleman presented with an open fracture of the calcaneum and ankle, following a boating accident. Despite treatment with repeated surgical debridement, delayed closure, prolonged antibiotics and strict adherence to national guidelines on the management of open fractures, he developed a wound infection with a rare organism, Shewanella putrefaciens, that appears to be increasing in prevalence.
Prinja, Aditya; Singh, Jagwant; Davis, Nwaka; Urwin, Gillian
An elderly gentleman presented with an open fracture of the calcaneum and ankle, following a boating accident. Despite treatment with repeated surgical debridement, delayed closure, prolonged antibiotics and strict adherence to national guidelines on the management of open fractures, he developed a wound infection with a rare organism, Shewanella putrefaciens, that appears to be increasing in prevalence. PMID:23417948
Baugh, Nancy; Zuelzer, Helen; Meador, Jill; Blankenship, Jolie
The number of surgical patients who are obese in the United States is rising, a trend that's likely to continue. Such patients are at higher risk than nonobese patients are for surgical site infections and other complications such as dehiscence, pressure ulcers, deep tissue injury, and rhabdomyolysis. This article details the factors that can contribute to such complications, including a high number of comorbidities, and offers practical suggestions for preventing them. Nurses should understand that special equipment, precautions, and protocols may be needed at every stage of care, and that obese patients aren't anomalies but rather a part of a growing population with particular needs.
Carvalho, Brendan; Clark, David J.; Yeomans, David; Angst, Martin S.
The objectives of this study were to test the feasibility of collecting and measuring inflammatory and nociceptive biochemical mediators at the surgical site; to evaluate the relationship between wound and serum levels; and to determine any associations between mediator release, pain and analgesic consumption post-cesarean delivery. Twenty healthy women undergoing elective cesarean delivery with spinal anesthesia were enrolled. Wound exudate and serum mediators, pain scores and analgesics consumption were measured at 1, 6, 24, and 48 hours post-cesarean. In wound exudate, 19 out of 20 mediators were reliably detected including IL-1β, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-7, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12, IL-13, IL-17, TNFα, INFγ, G-CSF, GM-CSF, MCP-1 and MIP-1β, nerve growth factor (NGF), prostaglandin E2 (PG-E2) and substance P. Wound PG-E2 and various cytokines peaked early, whereas NGF showed a more delayed release. There were no correlations between the concentration versus time profile of wound and serum cytokines. This study demonstrates the feasibility of collecting and measuring nociceptive and inflammatory mediators in surgical wounds at specific time points. The lack of significant correlations between wound and serum levels emphasizes the importance of determining site-specific release if localized pathologies are to be studied. PMID:19078937
Wang, Hui; Culley, Deborah J.; Marcantonio, Edward R.; Crosby, Gregory; Tanzi, Rudolph E.; Zhang, Yiying; Xie, Zhongcong
Post-operative cognitive dysfunction is associated with morbidity and mortality. However, its neuropathogenesis remains largely to be determined. Neuroinflammation and accumulation of β-amyloid (Aβ) have been reported to contribute to cognitive dysfunction in humans and cognitive impairment in animals. Our recent studies have established a pre-clinical model in mice, and have found that the peripheral surgical wounding without the influence of general anesthesia induces an age-dependent Aβ accumulation and cognitive impairment in mice. We therefore set out to assess the effects of peripheral surgical wounding, in the absence of general anesthesia, on neuroinflammation in mice with different ages. Abdominal surgery under local anesthesia was established in 9 and 18 month-old mice. The levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6), Iba1 positive cells (the marker of microglia activation), CD33, and cognitive function in mice were determined. The peripheral surgical wounding increased the levels of TNF-α, IL-6, and Iba1 positive cells in the hippocampus of both 9 and 18 month-old mice, and age potentiated these effects. The peripheral surgical wounding increased the levels of CD33 in the hippocampus of 18, but not 9, month-old mice. Finally, anti-inflammatory drug ibuprofen ameliorated the peripheral surgical wounding-induced cognitive impairment in 18 month-old mice. These data suggested that the peripheral surgical wounding could induce an age-dependent neuroinflammation and elevation of CD33 levels in the hippocampus of mice, which could lead to cognitive impairment in aged mice. Pending further studies, anti-inflammatory therapies may reduce the risk of postoperative cognitive dysfunction in elderly patients. PMID:24796537
Xu, Zhipeng; Dong, Yuanlin; Wang, Hui; Culley, Deborah J; Marcantonio, Edward R; Crosby, Gregory; Tanzi, Rudolph E; Zhang, Yiying; Xie, Zhongcong
Post-operative cognitive dysfunction is associated with morbidity and mortality. However, its neuropathogenesis remains largely to be determined. Neuroinflammation and accumulation of β-amyloid (Aβ) have been reported to contribute to cognitive dysfunction in humans and cognitive impairment in animals. Our recent studies have established a pre-clinical model in mice, and have found that the peripheral surgical wounding without the influence of general anesthesia induces an age-dependent Aβ accumulation and cognitive impairment in mice. We therefore set out to assess the effects of peripheral surgical wounding, in the absence of general anesthesia, on neuroinflammation in mice with different ages. Abdominal surgery under local anesthesia was established in 9 and 18 month-old mice. The levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6), Iba1 positive cells (the marker of microglia activation), CD33, and cognitive function in mice were determined. The peripheral surgical wounding increased the levels of TNF-α, IL-6, and Iba1 positive cells in the hippocampus of both 9 and 18 month-old mice, and age potentiated these effects. The peripheral surgical wounding increased the levels of CD33 in the hippocampus of 18, but not 9, month-old mice. Finally, anti-inflammatory drug ibuprofen ameliorated the peripheral surgical wounding-induced cognitive impairment in 18 month-old mice. These data suggested that the peripheral surgical wounding could induce an age-dependent neuroinflammation and elevation of CD33 levels in the hippocampus of mice, which could lead to cognitive impairment in aged mice. Pending further studies, anti-inflammatory therapies may reduce the risk of postoperative cognitive dysfunction in elderly patients.
Lipp, Allyson; Edwards, Peggy
Surgical face masks were originally developed to contain and filter droplets containing microorganisms expelled from the mouth and nasopharynx of healthcare workers during surgery, thereby providing protection for the patient. However, there are several ways in which surgical face masks could potentially contribute to contamination of the surgical wound, e.g. by incorrect wear or by leaking air from the side of the mask due to poor string tension. To determine whether disposable surgical face masks worn by the surgical team during clean surgery prevent postoperative surgical wound infection. We searched The Cochrane Wounds Group Specialised Register on 23 October 2013; The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library); Ovid MEDLINE; Ovid MEDLINE (In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations); Ovid EMBASE; and EBSCO CINAHL. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and quasi-randomised controlled trials comparing the use of disposable surgical masks with the use of no mask. Two review authors extracted data independently. Three trials were included, involving a total of 2113 participants. There was no statistically significant difference in infection rates between the masked and unmasked group in any of the trials. From the limited results it is unclear whether the wearing of surgical face masks by members of the surgical team has any impact on surgical wound infection rates for patients undergoing clean surgery.
Vincent, Marina; Edwards, Peggy
Surgical face masks were originally developed to contain and filter droplets containing microorganisms expelled from the mouth and nasopharynx of healthcare workers during surgery, thereby providing protection for the patient. However, there are several ways in which surgical face masks could potentially contribute to contamination of the surgical wound, e.g. by incorrect wear or by leaking air from the side of the mask due to poor string tension. To determine whether the wearing of disposable surgical face masks by the surgical team during clean surgery reduces postoperative surgical wound infection. In December 2015, for this seventh update, we searched: The Cochrane Wounds Specialised Register; The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials; Ovid MEDLINE; Ovid MEDLINE (In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations); Ovid EMBASE and EBSCO CINAHL. We also searched the bibliographies of all retrieved and relevant publications. There were no restrictions with respect to language, date of publication or study setting. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and quasi-randomised controlled trials comparing the use of disposable surgical masks with the use of no mask. Two review authors extracted data independently. We included three trials, involving a total of 2106 participants. There was no statistically significant difference in infection rates between the masked and unmasked group in any of the trials. We identified no new trials for this latest update. From the limited results it is unclear whether the wearing of surgical face masks by members of the surgical team has any impact on surgical wound infection rates for patients undergoing clean surgery.
Soares, Kevin C; Baltodano, Pablo A; Hicks, Caitlin W; Cooney, Carisa M; Olorundare, Israel O; Cornell, Peter; Burce, Karen; Eckhauser, Frederic E
Prophylactic incisional negative-pressure wound therapy use after ventral hernia repairs (VHRs) remains controversial. We assessed the impact of a modified negative-pressure wound therapy system (hybrid-VAC or HVAC) on outcomes of open VHR. A 5-year retrospective analysis of all VHRs performed by a single surgeon at a single institution compared outcomes after HVAC versus standard wound dressings. Multivariable logistic regression compared surgical site infections, surgical site occurrences, morbidity, and reoperation rates. We evaluated 199 patients (115 HVAC vs 84 standard wound dressing patients). Mean follow-up was 9 months. The HVAC cohort had lower surgical site infections (9% vs 32%, P < .001) and surgical site occurrences (17% vs 42%, P = .001) rates. Rates of major morbidity (19% vs 31%, P = .04) and 90-day reoperation (5% vs 14%, P = .02) were lower in the HVAC cohort. The HVAC system is associated with optimized outcomes following open VHR. Prospective studies should validate these findings and define the economic implications of this intervention. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Ochoa, Robert A; Punch, Laurie; Van Epps, Jeffrey; Gordon-Burroughs, Sherilyn; Martinez, Sylvia
Advanced wound management of complex surgical wounds remains a significant challenge as more patients are being hospitalized with infected wounds. Reducing recurrent infections and promoting granulation tissue formation is essential to overall wound healing. Wounds with acute infection and critical colonization require advanced multimodal approaches including systemic antibiotics, surgical debridement, and primary wound care. The goal in surgical wound management is to optimize clinical outcomes such as time to wound closure and functional recovery. A review of current literature suggests that negative pressure wound therapy with instillation (NPWT-i) is a viable adjunct therapy in the management of infected wounds especially in patients with medical comorbidities. The aim of this case series is to highlight the ability of NPWT-i as adjunct to prepare the wound bed for closure on infected surgical wounds that would normally require multiple operations to obtain source control. PMID:28083464
Rupert, Paula; Ochoa, Robert A; Punch, Laurie; Van Epps, Jeffrey; Gordon-Burroughs, Sherilyn; Martinez, Sylvia
Advanced wound management of complex surgical wounds remains a significant challenge as more patients are being hospitalized with infected wounds. Reducing recurrent infections and promoting granulation tissue formation is essential to overall wound healing. Wounds with acute infection and critical colonization require advanced multimodal approaches including systemic antibiotics, surgical debridement, and primary wound care. The goal in surgical wound management is to optimize clinical outcomes such as time to wound closure and functional recovery. A review of current literature suggests that negative pressure wound therapy with instillation (NPWT-i) is a viable adjunct therapy in the management of infected wounds especially in patients with medical comorbidities. The aim of this case series is to highlight the ability of NPWT-i as adjunct to prepare the wound bed for closure on infected surgical wounds that would normally require multiple operations to obtain source control.
Yeliseenko, Vladimir I.
Under the laser continuous irradiation one can observe on tissues and organs a whole complex of dystrophic processes including the coagulation necrosis as well as impairements in hemo- and microcirculation. The peculiarity of the inflammatory reaction in the healing process in laser wounds lies in an absence of demarcation leucocytic infiltration and lack of edema on a border of intact tissues and those with thermal necrosis; the healing process is characterised as well as with early proliferative phase. The main role in the reparative process belongs to cells of mononuclear phagocytic system ( macrophages ), wich make the reparative process like an aseptic productive inflammation.
Murphy, G K
Both the laboratory and the pathologist are frequently involved in medicolegal cases. A relatively infrequent though important example is the case involving study of gunshot wounds in surgical pathology. Procedures for the proper gross and microscopic examination of gunshot wound specimens have been documented in the literature, and are briefly reviewed. A protocol for documenting the chain of custody for physical evidence recovered in these cases must be strictly observed in each department of surgical pathology. A large hospital's surgical pathology files contained 70 gunshot wound cases for 1969-1978. Review employing Adelson's reference work revealed correct microscopic findings and diagnosis in 90% of specimens, the 11 errors all failures to recognize gunpowder residue in tissues. There were nine specimens of physical evidence. Two errors were made in the gross examination of these specimens, and despite a chain-of-custody protocol pathologists failed to adequately document 44% of them. The surgical pathologist has available ample resources for studying gunshot wound specimens. Using them he can correctly interpret most cases, at the same time fulfilling his medicolegal obligations.
von Hallern, Bernd
Following treatment with antibiotics and surgical incision, which resulted in the release of putrid exudate, the wound was rinsed thoroughly with octenisept and covered with an antimicrobial dressing. This regimen successfully eradicated the infection, with full healing occurring in 6 weeks.
Lui, T H
Acute Achilles tendon ruptures is one of the commonest tendon injury of the foot and ankle. The management of this problem is still controversial. Treatment can be classified into non-surgical and surgical types. Surgical management can be subdivided into open repair, percutaneous with or without adjunct of arthroscopy. In compare with non-surgical management, surgical management will decrease the tendon re-rupture rate. However, the possible surgical complications including wound breakdown and sural nerve injury are still quite significant. Percutaneous repair technique has the advantage of less chance of wound breakdown, but the rate of tendon re-rupture is higher than that after open tendon repair, because the repair is usually weaker than that achieved in open repair. Lui have described an endoscopic assisted repair with the Krackow locking suture. However, the technique is complicated and six portal wounds are needed. A simpler way of applying the Krackow suture through the portal wound has been described for reattachment of Achilles tendon insertion after endoscopic calcaneoplasty. We describe a mini-open approach of Achilles tendon repair with the Krackow locking suture. By means of release of the medial edge of the investing fascia, the Achilles tendon can be mobilized easily and the Krackow locking suture can be applied through a 1.5cm medial wound. Hopefully, this can improve the strength of repair and maintaining the advantage of minimally invasive tendon repair.
Gonzalez, Katherine W; Dalton, Brian G; Kurtz, Brendan; Keirsey, Michael C; Oyetunji, Tolulope A; St Peter, Shawn D
Wound classification has catapulted to the forefront of surgical literature and quality care discussions. However, it has not been validated in laparoscopy or children. We analyzed pediatric infection rates based on wound classification and reviewed the most common noninfectious complications which could be a more appropriate measure for quality assessment. We performed a retrospective review of 800 patients from 2011 to 2014 undergoing common procedures at a tertiary pediatric hospital. Demographics, procedure, wound classification and complications were analyzed using descriptive statistics. Infection rates were in the expected low range for clean procedures. However, 5% of pyloromyotomy patients required readmission and 10% of circumcision patients developed penile adhesions; 2% required reoperation. Ostomy reversal, a clean contaminated case, had 17% wound infections, whereas acute appendicitis, a contaminated case had only a 4% infection rate. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy (clean-contaminated or contaminated depending on inflammation) had 2% postoperative infections. Perforated appendicitis, a dirty procedure had an 18% infection rate, below the expected >27% for dirty cases in adults. Current wound classifications do not accurately approximate the risk of surgical site infections in children, particularly for laparoscopic procedures. It would be more appropriate to grade hospitals based on disease and procedure specific complications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Hoogenboom, Barbara J.
Bleeding or open wounds of the integumentary system occur frequently in athletics. Integumentary wounds vary from minor scrapes, blisters, and small punctures to more serious lacerations and arterial wounds that could threaten the life of the athlete. The Sports physical therapist (PT) must realize that integumentary wounds and subsequent bleeding can occur in many sports, and assessment and care of such trauma is an essential skill. The purpose of this “On the Sidelines” clinical commentary is to review types of integumentary wounds that may occur in sport and their acute management. Level of Evidence: 5 PMID:22666650
Hoogenboom, Barbara J; Smith, Danny
Bleeding or open wounds of the integumentary system occur frequently in athletics. Integumentary wounds vary from minor scrapes, blisters, and small punctures to more serious lacerations and arterial wounds that could threaten the life of the athlete. The Sports physical therapist (PT) must realize that integumentary wounds and subsequent bleeding can occur in many sports, and assessment and care of such trauma is an essential skill. The purpose of this "On the Sidelines" clinical commentary is to review types of integumentary wounds that may occur in sport and their acute management. 5.
John, Honeymol; Nimeri, Abdelrahman; Ellahham, Samer
Sheikh Khalifa Medical City's (SKMC) Surgery Institute was identified as a high outlier in Surgical Site Infections (SSI) based on the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (ACS NSQIP) - Semi-Annual Report (SAR) in January 2012. The aim of this project was to improve SSI rates through accurate wound classification. We identified SSI rate reduction as a performance improvement and safety priority at SKMC, a tertiary referral center. We used the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (ACS NSQIP) best practice guidelines as a guide. ACS NSQIP is a clinical registry that provides risk-adjusted clinical outcome reports every six months. The rates of SSI are reported in an observed/expected ratio. The expected ratio is calculated based on the risk factors of the patients which include wound classification. We established a multidisciplinary SSI taskforce. The members of the SSI taskforce included the ACS NSQIP team members, quality, surgeons, nurses, infection control, IT, pharmacy, microbiology, and it was chaired by a colorectal surgeon. The taskforce focused on five areas: pre-op showering and hair removal, skin antisepsis, prophylactic antibiotics, peri-operative maintenance of glycaemia, and normothermia. We planned audits to evaluate our wound classification and our SSI rates based on the SAR. Our expected SSI rates in general surgery and the whole department were 2.52% and 1.70% respectively, while our observed SSI rates were 4.68% and 3.57% respectively, giving us a high outlier status with an odd's ratio of 1.72 and 2.03. Wound classifications were identified as an area of concern. For example, wound classifications were preoperatively selected based on the default wound classification of the booked procedure in the Electronic Medical Record (EMR) which led to under classifying wounds in many occasions. A total of 998 cases were reviewed, our rate of incorrect wound classification
John, Honeymol; Nimeri, Abdelrahman; ELLAHHAM, SAMER
Sheikh Khalifa Medical City's (SKMC) Surgery Institute was identified as a high outlier in Surgical Site Infections (SSI) based on the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (ACS NSQIP) - Semi-Annual Report (SAR) in January 2012. The aim of this project was to improve SSI rates through accurate wound classification. We identified SSI rate reduction as a performance improvement and safety priority at SKMC, a tertiary referral center. We used the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (ACS NSQIP) best practice guidelines as a guide. ACS NSQIP is a clinical registry that provides risk-adjusted clinical outcome reports every six months. The rates of SSI are reported in an observed/expected ratio. The expected ratio is calculated based on the risk factors of the patients which include wound classification. We established a multidisciplinary SSI taskforce. The members of the SSI taskforce included the ACS NSQIP team members, quality, surgeons, nurses, infection control, IT, pharmacy, microbiology, and it was chaired by a colorectal surgeon. The taskforce focused on five areas: pre-op showering and hair removal, skin antisepsis, prophylactic antibiotics, peri-operative maintenance of glycaemia, and normothermia. We planned audits to evaluate our wound classification and our SSI rates based on the SAR. Our expected SSI rates in general surgery and the whole department were 2.52% and 1.70% respectively, while our observed SSI rates were 4.68% and 3.57% respectively, giving us a high outlier status with an odd's ratio of 1.72 and 2.03. Wound classifications were identified as an area of concern. For example, wound classifications were preoperatively selected based on the default wound classification of the booked procedure in the Electronic Medical Record (EMR) which led to under classifying wounds in many occasions. A total of 998 cases were reviewed, our rate of incorrect wound classification
Chovanec, Z; Veverková, L; Votava, M; Svoboda, J; Peštál, A; Doležel, J; Jedlička, V; Veselý, M; Wechsler, J; Čapov, I
The wound is a damage of tissue. The process of healing is influenced by many systemic and local factors. The most crucial and the most discussed local factor of wound healing is infection. Surgical site infection in the wound is caused by micro-organisms. This information is known for many years, however the conditions leading to an infection occurrence have not been sufficiently described yet. Correct sampling technique, correct storage, transportation, evaluation, and valid interpretation of these data are very important in clinical practice. There are many methods for microbiological sampling, but the best one has not been yet identified and validated. We aim to discuss the problem with the focus on the imprint technique.
Panait, Lucian; Rafiq, Azhar; Mohamed, Ahmed; Doarn, Charles; Merrell, Ronald C
The operating room (OR) was traditionally characterized as a closed environment, in which the view of the operative field was available to the surgeon and assistant only. In laparoscopy, integration of technology into the surgical theatre has transformed surgical procedures into minimally invasive events, with viewing of the surgical field using endoscopic cameras. Similar technical advances to the open surgical environment will allow visualization and coordination of finer surgical maneuvers on standard video monitors. The objective of this study was to develop optimal protocols for performing basic open surgical maneuvers without direct viewing of the operating field, instead watching a monitor that displays the image of the surgical field captured by an endoscopic camera. The AESOP robotic arm and Alpha Virtual Port (Computer Motion, Goleta, California) were used to hold the endoscopic camera in different positions relative to the surgeon and the operative table. The surgeons conducting the study evaluated six such different setups. Based on the average time to complete the task in each of these setups and the ease of adaptation to the new working conditions, we concluded that at least one of these setups could be translated into the OR. The advantages of integrating video image enhancement over classical open surgery (OS) are that the surgical field can be magnified to perform finer maneuvers, and to share views of the surgical field with additional clinicians and trainees.
Atiyeh, Bishara S; Ioannovich, John; Al-Amm, Christian A; El-Musa, Kusai A
The history of wound care and management closely parallels that of military surgery which has laid down the principles and dictated the practices of wound cleansing, debridement and coverage. From a treatment standpoint, there are essentially two types of wounds: those characterized by loss of tissue and those in which no tissue has been lost. In the event of tissue loss it is critical to determine whether vital structures such as bone, tendons, nerves and vessels have been exposed. It is also important to determine the amount of soft tissue contusion and contamination. In any case primary wound healing by early closure either primarily or with the help of grafts or flaps is preferred to secondary healing and wound contraction with subsequent contractures which interfere with range of motion and function. Whether the wound is acute or chronic, essential principles of wound care must be observed in order to avoid wound sepsis and achieve rapid and optimal wound healing. - Tissues must be handled gently. - Caustic solutions capable of sterilizing the skin should never be applied to the wound. It is desirable never to put anything in the wound that cannot be tolerated comfortably in the conjunctival sac. - All devitalized tissues must be debrided either hydrodynamically, chemically, mechanically or surgically. - All dead space must be obliterated. - Exposed vital structures must be covered by well vascularized tissues. An essential part of any wound management protocol is wound dressing. It cannot be too strongly emphasized that a wound dressing may have a profound influence on healing particularly of secondary type healing, a critical feature being the extent to which such dressing restricts the evaporation of water from the wound surface. A review of available dressing materials is reported with emphasis on the newly developed concept of moist environment for optimal healing. a practical guide for dressing selection is also proposed.
Pierpont, Yvonne N.; Dinh, Trish Phuong; Salas, R. Emerick; Johnson, Erika L.; Wright, Terry G.; Robson, Martin C.; Payne, Wyatt G.
Objective. The correlation between obesity and deficient wound healing has long been established. This review examines the current literature on the mechanisms involved in obesity-related perioperative morbidity. Methods. A literature search was performed using Medline, PubMed, Cochrane Library, and Internet searches. Keywords used include obesity, wound healing, adipose healing, and bariatric and surgical complications. Results. Substantial evidence exists demonstrating that obesity is associated with a number of postoperative complications. Specifically in relation to wound healing, explanations include inherent anatomic features of adipose tissue, vascular insufficiencies, cellular and composition modifications, oxidative stress, alterations in immune mediators, and nutritional deficiencies. Most recently, advances made in the field of gene array have allowed researchers to determine a few plausible alterations and deficiencies in obese individuals that contribute to their increased risk of morbidity and mortality, especially wound complications. Conclusion. While the literature discusses how obesity may negatively affect health on various of medical fronts, there is yet to be a comprehensive study detailing all the mechanisms involved in obesity-related morbidities in their entirety. Improved knowledge and understanding of obesity-induced physiological, cellular, molecular, and chemical changes will facilitate better assessments of surgical risks and outcomes and create efficient treatment protocols for improved patient care of the obese patient population. PMID:24701367
Kokotsakis, John; Hountis, Panagiotis; Antonopoulos, Nikolaos; Skouteli, Elian; Athanasiou, Thanos; Lioulias, Achilleas
Accurate suturing of penetrating cardiac injuries is difficult. Heart motion, ongoing blood loss, arrhythmias due to heart manipulation, and the near-death condition of the patient can all affect the outcome. Rapid intravenous injection of adenosine induces temporary asystole that enables placement of sutures in a motionless surgical field. Use of this technique improves surgical conditions, and it is faster than other methods. Herein, we describe our experience with the use of intravenous adenosine to successfully treat 3 patients who had penetrating heart wounds. PMID:17420798
ROSA, Roberto Maranhão; CAIADO, Rafael Coelho; REIS, Paulo Roberto de Melo; LACERDA, Elisângela de Paula Silveira; SUGITA, Denis Masashi; MRUÉ, Fátima
Background The number of malignancies increased alarmingly. Surgery constitutes one of the most efficient therapeutic modalities for the treatment of solid tumors. The neoplastic implant in surgical wound is a complication whose percentage of occurrence reported in the literature is variable, but sets with high morbidity and therapeutic difficulties. Protecting the wound is one of the recommended principles of oncologic surgery. Aim To evaluate the influence of wound protection in the development of tumor implantation. Methods Sarcoma 180 tumor cells were used, with intraperitoneal inoculation in Swiss mice. After the establishment of neoplastic ascites, animals were randomized into two groups of 10, each group consisting of five males and five females. In both groups, laparotomy and manipulation of intra-abdominal organs was performed. In a group laparotomy was performed using the protection of the abdominal wound and the other group without it. On the 9th postoperative day macroscopic evaluation of the operative scar was performed, which was later removed for microscopic evaluation. Results There was microscopic infiltration of tumor cells in the wound of all animals. However, the group that held the protection, infiltration was less intense when compared to the group without it. The infiltration was also more severe in females than in males of the same group. Conclusion Tumor infiltration into the wound was more intense in the group in which the protection of the surgical site was not performed, and in females when compared to males of the same group. PMID:25861061
Scalise, Alessandro; Calamita, Roberto; Tartaglione, Caterina; Pierangeli, Marina; Bolletta, Elisa; Gioacchini, Matteo; Gesuita, Rosaria; Di Benedetto, Giovanni
Advances in preoperative care, surgical techniques and technologies have enabled surgeons to achieve primary closure in a high percentage of surgical procedures. However, often, underlying patient comorbidities in addition to surgical-related factors make the management of surgical wounds primary closure challenging because of the higher risk of developing complications. To date, extensive evidence exists, which demonstrate the benefits of negative pressure dressing in the treatment of open wounds; recently, Incisional Negative Pressure Wound Therapy (INPWT) technology as delivered by Prevena™ (KCI USA, Inc., San Antonio, TX) and Pico (Smith & Nephew Inc, Andover, MA) systems has been the focus of a new investigation on possible prophylactic measures to prevent complications via application immediately after surgery in high-risk, clean, closed surgical incisions. A systematic review was performed to evaluate INPWT's effect on surgical sites healing by primary intention. The primary outcomes of interest are an understanding of INPWT functioning and mechanisms of action, extrapolated from animal and biomedical engineering studies and incidence of complications (infection, dehiscence, seroma, hematoma, skin and fat necrosis, skin and fascial dehiscence or blistering) and other variables influenced by applying INPWT (re-operation and re-hospitalization rates, time to dry wound, cost saving) extrapolated from human studies. A search was conducted for published articles in various databases including PubMed, Google Scholar and Scopus Database from 2006 to March 2014. Supplemental searches were performed using reference lists and conference proceedings. Studies selection was based on predetermined inclusion and exclusion criteria and data extraction regarding study quality, model investigated, epidemiological and clinical characteristics and type of surgery, and the outcomes were applied to all the articles included. 1 biomedical engineering study, 2 animal studies, 15
Rasilainen, Suvi Kaarina; Juhani, Mentula Panu; Kalevi, Leppäniemi Ari
This study was designed to describe the time-course and microbiology of colonization of open abdomen in critically ill surgical patients and to study its association with morbidity, mortality and specific complications of open abdomen. A retrospective cohort analysis was done. One hundred eleven consecutive patients undergoing vacuum-assisted closure with mesh as temporary abdominal closure method for open abdomen were analyzed. Microbiological samples from the open abdomen were collected. Statistical analyses were performed using Fisher's exact test for categorical variables. Mann-Whitney U test was used when comparing number of temporary abdominal closure changes between colonized and sterile patients. Kaplan-Meier analysis was done to calculate cumulative estimates for colonization. Cox regression analyses were performed to analyze risk factors for colonization. Microbiological samples were obtained from 97 patients. Of these 76 (78 %) were positive. Sixty-one (80 %) patients were colonized with multiple micro-organisms and 27 (36 %) were cultured positive for candida species. The duration of open abdomen treatment adversely affected the colonization rate. Thirty-three (34 %) patients were colonized at the time of laparostomy. After one week of open abdomen treatment 69, and after two weeks 76 patients were colonized with cumulative colonization estimates of 74 % and 89 %, respectively. Primary fascial closure rate was 80 % (61/76) and 86 % (18/21) for the colonized and sterile patients, respectively. The rate of wound complications did not significantly differ between these groups. Microbial colonization of open abdomen is associated with the duration of open abdomen treatment. Wound complications are common after open abdomen, but colonization does not seem to have significant effect on these. The high colonization rate described herein should be taken into account when primarily sterile conditions like acute pancreatitis and aortic aneurysmal rupture
Olson, M; O'Connor, M; Schwartz, M L
This report describes a 5-year prospective study of postoperative wound sepsis utilizing a careful program of wound surveillance. Surgical wounds following 20,193 operations on all surgical services were surveyed by a trained nurse epidemiologist. Daily examination of wounds, culture of all suspicious wounds, and 30-day outpatient clinic follow-up were performed. Results were disseminated at monthly intervals to all involved surgeons and operating room personnel. Prospective and ongoing analysis of results facilitated identification and rectification of specific problem areas. Wound infection rates demonstrated a steady decline over the course of the study, overall rates dropping from 4.2% to 1.9% (p less than 0.05). This reduction in incidence of postoperative wound sepsis of 55% is estimated to have saved 2740 inhospital days and nearly $750,000. PMID:6703787
Arata, Jumpei; Kozuka, Hiroaki; Kim, Hyung Wook; Takesue, Naoyuki; Vladimirov, B; Sakaguchi, Masamichi; Tokuda, Junichi; Hata, Nobuhiko; Chinzei, Kiyoyuki; Fujimoto, Hideo
In these days, patients and doctors in operation room are surrounded by many medical devices as resulting from recent advancement of medical technology. However, these cutting-edge medical devices are working independently and not collaborating with each other, even though the collaborations between these devices such as navigation systems and medical imaging devices are becoming very important for accomplishing complex surgical tasks (such as a tumor removal procedure while checking the tumor location in neurosurgery). On the other hand, several surgical robots have been commercialized, and are becoming common. However, these surgical robots are not open for collaborations with external medical devices in these days. A cutting-edge "intelligent surgical robot" will be possible in collaborating with surgical robots, various kinds of sensors, navigation system and so on. On the other hand, most of the academic software developments for surgical robots are "home-made" in their research institutions and not open to the public. Therefore, open source control software for surgical robots can be beneficial in this field. From these perspectives, we developed Open Core Control software for surgical robots to overcome these challenges. In general, control softwares have hardware dependencies based on actuators, sensors and various kinds of internal devices. Therefore, these control softwares cannot be used on different types of robots without modifications. However, the structure of the Open Core Control software can be reused for various types of robots by abstracting hardware dependent parts. In addition, network connectivity is crucial for collaboration between advanced medical devices. The OpenIGTLink is adopted in Interface class which plays a role to communicate with external medical devices. At the same time, it is essential to maintain the stable operation within the asynchronous data transactions through network. In the Open Core Control software, several
Kozuka, Hiroaki; Kim, Hyung Wook; Takesue, Naoyuki; Vladimirov, B.; Sakaguchi, Masamichi; Tokuda, Junichi; Hata, Nobuhiko; Chinzei, Kiyoyuki; Fujimoto, Hideo
Object In these days, patients and doctors in operation room are surrounded by many medical devices as resulting from recent advancement of medical technology. However, these cutting-edge medical devices are working independently and not collaborating with each other, even though the collaborations between these devices such as navigation systems and medical imaging devices are becoming very important for accomplishing complex surgical tasks (such as a tumor removal procedure while checking the tumor location in neurosurgery). On the other hand, several surgical robots have been commercialized, and are becoming common. However, these surgical robots are not open for collaborations with external medical devices in these days. A cutting-edge “intelligent surgical robot” will be possible in collaborating with surgical robots, various kinds of sensors, navigation system and so on. On the other hand, most of the academic software developments for surgical robots are “home-made” in their research institutions and not open to the public. Therefore, open source control software for surgical robots can be beneficial in this field. From these perspectives, we developed Open Core Control software for surgical robots to overcome these challenges. Materials and methods In general, control softwares have hardware dependencies based on actuators, sensors and various kinds of internal devices. Therefore, these control softwares cannot be used on different types of robots without modifications. However, the structure of the Open Core Control software can be reused for various types of robots by abstracting hardware dependent parts. In addition, network connectivity is crucial for collaboration between advanced medical devices. The OpenIGTLink is adopted in Interface class which plays a role to communicate with external medical devices. At the same time, it is essential to maintain the stable operation within the asynchronous data transactions through network. In the Open
Ojea, Alecsander R; Madi, Otavio; Neto, Rafael Melillo L; Lima, Sizenando E; de Carvalho, Bruno T; Ojea, Maria Juliana M R; Marcos, Rodrigo L; da Silva, Fabricio S; Zamuner, Stella R; Chavantes, Maria Cristina
Bariatric surgery is a successful method for weight loss in cases of morbid obesity; however, as an invasive procedure, surgical complications may occur. Low-level laser therapy (LLLT) has been increasingly used due to its effectiveness in controlling the inflammatory response, accelerating tissue repair, and reducing pain. The objective of this study was to investigate photobiomodulation effects after bariatric surgery and determine the laser actions during the inflammatory process, wound healing (clinical observation), and analgesia. This study was a randomized, placebo-controlled, clinical trial in which 85 patients underwent Roux en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) by conventional techniques (i.e., open surgery). Patients were divided into two groups and were irradiated with LLLT at 10 different points through the surgical scar in three sessions of applications: the laser group (laser-on) consisted of 43 patients who received the CW diode laser (MMOptics), while the placebo group (laser-off) consisted of 42 patients who were treated by the same protocol but with a disabled laser. Temperature was measured by a digital thermometer in both groups, and pain was evaluated using the visual analogue scale for pain. Biochemical analysis and digital images were used to document and evaluate the inflammatory response as well as tissue repair process at the surgical wound site. Patients in the laser group demonstrated diminished wound temperature as erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) compared with the placebo group, indicating better inflammatory process control as well as improved wound healing and reduced pain. LLLT applied with the described protocol led to a decrease by biochemical markers and wound temperature compared with the placebo, which indicated that LLLT was able to control the inflammatory process; in addition, seroma and pain were reduced and cicatrization was improved by this preventive procedure.
Jia-zi, Shi; Xiao, Zhai; Jun-hui, Li; Chun-yu, Xue; Hong-da, Bi
Abstract Management of large tissue defects resulting from local wide resection of perianal is a clinical challenge for surgeons. The aim of the present study was to investigate the efficacy of negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) following skin grafting on perianal surgical wound healing. Included in this study were 12 patients with perianal tumors who received skin grafting after perianal tumor resection between December 2012 and December 2014. A self-designed negative pressure drainage device was then applied to maintain a standard negative pressure at −150 mm Hg and removed on day 8 postoperation. The outcome was recorded immediately after NPWT and at 6-month follow-up. All skin grafts survived without infection, hematoma, and necrosis in all 12 patients. No tumor recurrence was detected during 6-month follow-up. Natural folds were observed around the anus. All patients showed normal bowel movements. NPWT following skin grafting was effective for perianal surgical wound healing and infection prevention, thus benefiting anatomical and functional recovery of the anus. PMID:27583890
Clinical features of surgical soft tissue wound healing in dentistry have been rarely discussed in the international literature. The aim of the present paper is to highlight both the main clinical findings of surgical wound healing, especially in periodontal and implant dentistry, and the wound healing monitoring procedures which should be followed. Wound inspection after careful food and plaque debridement is the essential part of wound healing monitoring. Periodontal and peri-implant probing should be performed only after tissue healing has been completed and not on a weekly basis in peri-implant tissue monitoring. Telephone follow-up and patient self-assessment scales can also be used the days following surgery to monitor the most common surgical complications such as pain, swelling, bleeding, and bruising. Wound healing monitoring is an important concern in all surgical procedures since it allows to identify signs or/and symptoms possibly related to surgical complications.
Edlich, Richard F; Drake, David B; Rodeheaver, George T; Winters, Kathryne L; Greene, Jill A; Gubler, K Dean; Long, William B; Britt, L D; Winters, Samuel P; Scott, Christine C; Lin, Kant Y
Syneture (division of U.S. Surgical, division of Tyco Healthcare, Norwalk, Connecticut, USA) STEEL sutures are monofilament stainless steel sutures composed of 316L stainless steel conforming to ASTM Standard F138 grade 2 (" Stainless steel bar and wire for surgical implant"). STEEL sutures meet all requirements established by the United States Pharmacopeia (USP) for nonabsorbable surgical sutures. Steel sutures are for use in abdominal wound closure, intestinal anastomosis, hernia repair, sternal closure, and skin closure. They are attached to the following types of surgical needles: Roto-Grip Needles and SCC Needle. The sutures and needles are packaged in a Mylar/Tyvek outer envelope. The purposes of this clinical review are two fold. First, we will report the performance of the Syneture STEEL suture product in the largest studies of suture performance ever reported in the literature. In addition, we will provide comprehensive information from the surgical literature that highlights the unique benefits of stainless steel sutures for the following wound closure techniques: sternal fixation, abdominal wound repair, inguinal hernia repair, and skin wound closure. Consorta Inc. (Rolling Meadows, Illinois), a leading healthcare resource management group purchasing organization, and Syneture, jointly with a clinician task force, designed a reproducible surgical evaluation program for needles and sutures in a large cooperative of healthcare systems. Because of the subjective nature of the more commonly used suture selection techniques, a nonexperimental observational study approach was designed to replace perception of performance characteristics with actual clinical experience. In a report involving 19 Consorta shareholder hospitals, they discussed the preliminary part (Phase I) of a large nonexperimental observational study of the clinical performance of surgical needles and sutures. Performance characteristics of the sutures and needles produced by Syneture that were
Susin, Cristiano; Fiorini, Tiago; Lee, Jaebum; De Stefano, Jamie A; Dickinson, Douglas P; Wikesjö, Ulf M E
Clinical studies have evaluated the effect of conventional periodontal surgical therapy. In general, although some clinical gain in tissue support may be attained, these therapies do not support regeneration of the periodontal attachment. Even though the biological possibility of periodontal regeneration has been demonstrated, the clinical application of this intrinsic potential appears difficult to harness; thus also conceptually most intriguing candidate protocols face clinical challenges. In this review, we explore the bioclinical principles, condiciones sine quibus non, that unleash the innate potential of the periodontium to achieve clinically meaningful periodontal regeneration (i.e. space-provision, wound stability and conditions for primary intention healing). Moreover, limiting factors and detrimental practices that may compromise clinical and biological outcomes are reviewed, as is tissue management in clinical settings.
Carrick, Matthew M; Morrison, C Anne; Alexis, D Jacob; Feanny, Mark A; Pham, Hoang Q; Welsh, Francis J; Norman, Michael A; Scott, Bradford G
Shotgun wound classification systems attempt to predict the need for surgical intervention based on the size of wounds, pellet spread, or distance from the weapon rather than clinical findings. A 5-year retrospective review of patients sustaining a thoracoabdominal shotgun wound was performed. Factors believed to be associated with the need for surgical intervention were examined using the Fisher exact test or an independent sample t test. Sixty-four patients suffered a thoracoabdominal shotgun wound. Fifty-nine percent required surgical intervention. Factors significantly associated with the need for surgical intervention were a low revised trauma score and systolic and diastolic blood pressure (P < .05). Distance from attacker, wound patterns, pellet size, and pellet spread were not found to have an association. Clinical indicators of hemorrhage and shock are associated with the need for surgical intervention, whereas pellet spread, pellet size, and distance from the attacker are not. This is a significant departure from traditional classification systems.
Webster, Joan; Scuffham, Paul; Stankiewicz, Monica; Chaboyer, Wendy P
Indications for the use of negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) are broadening with a range of systems now available on the market, including those designed for use on clean, closed incisions and skin grafts. Reviews have concluded that the evidence for the effectiveness of NPWT remains uncertain, however, it is a rapidly evolving therapy. Consequently, an updated systematic review of the evidence for the effects of NPWT on postoperative wounds expected to heal by primary intention is required. To assess the effects of NPWT on surgical wounds (primary closure, skin grafting or flap closure) that are expected to heal by primary intention. We searched the following electronic databases to identify reports of relevant randomised clinical trials: the Cochrane Wounds Group Specialised Register (searched 28 January 2014); the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; 2013, issue 12); Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (2013, issue 12); Ovid MEDLINE (2011 to January 2014); Ovid MEDLINE (In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations 24 January 2014); Ovid EMBASE (2011 to January 2014 Week 44); and EBSCO CINAHL (2011 to January 2014). We conducted a separate search to identify economic evaluations. We included trials if they allocated patients to treatment randomly and compared NPWT with any other type of wound dressing, or compared one type of NPWT with a different type of NPWT. We assessed trials for their appropriateness for inclusion and for their quality. This was done by three review authors working independently, using pre-determined inclusion and quality criteria. In this first update, we included an additional four trials, taking the total number of trials included to nine (785 participants). Three trials involved skin grafts, four included orthopaedic patients and two included general surgery and trauma surgery patients; all the included trials had unclear or high risk of bias for one or more of the quality indicators we assessed. Seven
Webster, Joan; Scuffham, Paul; Sherriff, Karen L; Stankiewicz, Monica; Chaboyer, Wendy P
Indications for the use of negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) are broadening with a range of systems on the market, including those designed for use on clean, closed incisions and skin grafts. Reviews have concluded that the evidence for the effectiveness of NPWT remains uncertain. However, this is a rapidly evolving therapy. Consequently, a systematic review of the evidence for the effects of NPWT on postoperative wounds expected to heal by primary intention is required. To assess the effects of NPWT on surgical wounds (primary closure or skin grafting) that are expected to heal by primary intention. We searched the following electronic databases to identify reports of relevant randomised clinical trials: the Cochrane Wounds Group Specialised Register (searched 11 November 2011); the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library 2011, Issue 4); Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (The Cochrane Library 2011, Issue 4); Ovid MEDLINE (2005 to October Week 4 2011); Ovid MEDLINE (In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations 8 November 2011); Ovid EMBASE (2009 to 2011 Week 44); and EBSCO CINAHL (1982 to 04 November 2011). We conducted a separate search to identify economic evaluations. We included trials if they allocated patients at random and compared NPWT with any other type of wound dressing or compared one type of NPWT with a different type of NPWT. We assessed trials for their appropriateness for inclusion and for their quality. This was done by three review authors working independently, using pre-determined inclusion and quality criteria. We included five eligible trials with a total of 280 participants. Two trials involved skin grafts and three acute wounds. Only one of the five trials reported the proportion of wounds completely healed and in this study all wounds healed. All five studies reported adverse events. In the four trials that compared standard dressings with negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) the adverse
A foetal bovine dermal repair scaffold (PriMatrix, TEI Biosciences) was used to treat complex surgical or traumatic wounds where the clinical need was to avoid skin flaps and to build new tissue in the wound that could be reepithelialised from the wound margins or closed with a subsequent application of a split-thickness skin graft (STSG). Forty-three consecutive cases were reviewed having an average size of 79·3 cm(2) , 50% of which had exposed tendon and/or bone. In a subset of wounds (44·7%), the implantation of the foetal dermal collagen scaffold was also augmented with negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT). Complete wound healing was documented in over 80% of the wounds treated, whether the wound was treated with the foetal bovine dermal scaffold alone (95·2%) or when supplemented with NPWT (82·4%). The scaffold successfully incorporated into wounds with exposed tendon and/or bone to build vascularised, dermal-like tissue. The new tissue in the wound supported STSGs however, in the majority of the cases (88·3%); wound closure was achieved through reepithelialisation of the incorporated dermal scaffold by endogenous wound keratinocytes. The foetal bovine dermal repair scaffold was found to offer an effective alternative treatment strategy for definitive closure of challenging traumatic or surgical wounds on patients who were not suitable candidates for tissue flaps.
Lassig, Amy Anne D; Bechtold, Joan E; Lindgren, Bruce R; Pisansky, Andrew; Itabiyi, Abayo; Yueh, Bevan; Joseph, Anne M
Smoking impairs wound healing, yet the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms are unclear. We evaluated tobacco-altered healing in head and neck surgery by studying the association between biomarkers and tobacco exposure, as well as cutaneous perfusion by smoking status. Prospective cohort study, tertiary/academic care center, 2011 to present. Patients who required head and neck surgery were enrolled prospectively. Postsurgical drain fluid was collected 24 hours postoperatively. Biomarkers associated with postulated mechanisms of smoking-impaired healing were assayed. These included interleukin-1, -6, and -8; tumor necrosis factor- alpha; transforming growth factor-beta; epidermal growth factor (EGF); basic fibroblastic growth factor (bFGF); C-reactive protein; vascular endothelial growth factor; soluble FMS-like tyrosine kinase-1 (sFLT-1); and placental growth factor. Tobacco exposure and clinical outcomes were recorded. Two sample two-sided t tests evaluated the differences in cytokine levels by tobacco exposure. In a second cohort, cutaneous vascular assessment via indocyanine green angiography was compared by smoking status. Twenty-eight patients were enrolled with drain fluid collection. Twenty-one subjects were current/former smokers, whereas seven were never smokers. EGF was higher in never smokers than smokers in a statistically significant manner (P = 0.030). Likewise, sFLT-1 was significantly higher in never smokers (P = 0.011). Cutaneous angiography revealed nonsmokers to have significantly higher cutaneous perfusion than smokers. In this head and neck surgical cohort, significantly higher EGF and sFLT-1 levels in wound fluid were associated with never smoking, suggesting that smoking has adverse effects on the inflammatory phase of wound healing. Cutaneous angiography supports the detrimental effect of smoking on skin perfusion. These findings suggest the need for further study as well as therapeutic targets for smokers undergoing surgery. IIb
Schlitz, Marilyn; Hopf, Harriet W; Eskenazi, Loren; Vieten, Cassandra; Radin, Dean
Distant healing intention (DHI) is one of the most common complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) healing modalities, but clinical trials to date have provided ambivalent support for its efficacy. One possible reason is that DHI effects may involve variables that are sensitive to unknown, uncontrolled, or uncontrollable factors. To examine 2 of those potential variables-expectation and belief-we explored the effects of DHI on objective and psychosocial measures associated with surgical wounds in 72 women undergoing plastic surgery. Participants were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 groups: blinded and receiving DHI (DH), blinded and not receiving DHI (control), and knowing that they were receiving DHI (expectancy). Outcome measures included collagen deposition in a surrogate wound and several self-report measures. DHI was provided by experienced distant healers. No differences in the main measures were observed across the three groups. Participants' previous belief in the efficacy of DHI was negatively correlated with the status of their mental health at the end of the study (P = .04, 2-tailed), and healers' perceptions of the quality of their subjective "contact" with the participants were negatively correlated both with change in mood (P = .001) and with collagen deposition (P = .04). A post-hoc analysis found that among participants assigned to receive DHI under blinded conditions, those undergoing reconstructive surgery after breast cancer treatment reported significantly better change in mood than those who were undergoing purely elective cosmetic surgery (P = .004). If future DHI experiments confirm the post-hoc observations, then some of the ambiguity observed in earlier DHI studies may be attributable to interactions among participants' and healers' beliefs, their expectations, and their motivations. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Schlitz, Marilyn; Hopf, Harriet W.; Eskenazi, Loren; Vieten, Cassandra; Radin, Dean
Distant healing intention (DHI) is one of the most common complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) healing modalities, but clinical trials to date have provided ambivalent support for its efficacy. One possible reason is that DHI effects may involve variables that are sensitive to unknown, uncontrolled, or uncontrollable factors. To examine two of those potential variables – expectation and belief – the effects of DHI were explored on objective and psychosocial measures associated with surgical wounds in 72 women undergoing plastic surgery. Participants were randomly assigned to one of three groups: blinded and receiving DHI (DH), blinded and not receiving DHI (Control), and knowing that they were receiving DHI (Expectancy). Outcome measures included collagen deposition in a surrogate wound and several self-report measures. DHI was provided by experienced distant healers. No differences in the main measures were observed across the three groups. Participants’ prior belief in the efficacy of DHI was negatively correlated with the status of their mental health at the end of the study (p = 0.04, two-tailed), and healers’ perceptions of the quality of their subjective “contact” with the participants were negatively correlated both with change in mood (p = 0.001) and with collagen deposition (p = 0.04). A post-hoc analysis found that among participants assigned to receive DHI under blinded conditions, those undergoing reconstructive surgery after breast cancer treatment reported significantly better change in mood than those who were undergoing purely elective cosmetic surgery (p = 0.004). If future DHI experiments confirm the post-hoc observations, then some of the ambiguity observed in earlier DHI studies may be attributable to interactions among participants’ and healers’ beliefs, their expectations, and their motivations. PMID:22742672
Fresno-García, Carmen; Alconero-Camarero, Ana Rosa; Fernández-Carro, Belén
Topical negative pressure therapy is an alternative treatment for complex wounds that consists of the direct application of sub-atmospheric pressure, obtaining a number of effects that are beneficial for tissues, promoting the healing of both acute and chronic wounds and complementing surgical procedures. We report the case of a 75 year old man diagnosed with surgical wound dehiscence after a femorotibial bypass graft, who was hospitalized again with the aim to perform the implantation of a topical negative pressure therapy in the infected wound. We designed a care plan for this patient following the steps of the scientific method and basing ourselves on the NANDA, NIC, and NOC taxonomies.
Kong, George Y X; Henderson, Robert H; Sandhu, Sukhpal S; Essex, Rohan W; Allen, Penelope J; Campbell, William G
Careful surgical management of traumatic wounds is important in open globe injury repair. This study examines the clinical outcomes following repair of open globe injuries with particular focus on wound-related issues. Retrospective, cohort study of consecutive open globe injuries presenting to a tertiary referral eye hospital from 1 January 2009 to 31 December 2011. A total of 267 eyes of 263 patients, mainly male (82.5%) with a mean age of 44.8 (range: 4-97) years. Average follow up was 6.9 months. All cases classified according to Ocular Trauma Classification Group. Visual outcomes, risk factors for and rates of postoperative complications and endophthalmitis. There were 83 globe ruptures, 182 penetrating and 2 perforating eye injuries, of which 43 cases had intraocular foreign body. Factors contributing to final visual acuity (VA) <6/60 were poor presenting VA (odds ratio [OR] = 16.0, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 4.81-53.1), globe rupture (OR = 4.64, [1.99-10.8]), retinal detachment (OR = 3.40, [1.19-9.74]) and age ≥50 (OR = 2.45, [1.05-5.74]). Wound leak occurred in 44 eyes (16%). Of these, 18 (41%) proceeded to re-suturing. Factors contributing to wound leak were stellate-shaped wound (OR = 3.28, [1.39-7.73]) and delayed presentation (OR = 2.80, [1.02-7.71]). Ten eyes (3.7%) developed endophthalmitis. Factors associated with endophthalmitis were delayed presentation (OR = 8.91, [1.71-46.6]), microbial keratitis (OR = 12.5, [1.85-85.0]) and lens capsule breach (OR = 12.4, [1.85-83.1]). Wound leak is an important postoperative complication of open globe injury repair. Delayed presentation is an important risk factor for postoperative wound leak and endophthalmitis. Prompt and meticulous wound management of open globe injury may reduce these complications. © 2015 Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Ophthalmologists.
Plattner, O; Akca, O; Herbst, F; Arkilic, C F; Függer, R; Barlan, M; Kurz, A; Hopf, H; Werba, A; Sessler, D I
Local wound heating improves tissue oxygen tension in postoperative patients. University hospital. Forty normothermic and well-hydrated patients recovering from elective open abdominal surgery. A comparison between an experimental bandage system (Warm-Up; Augustine Medical Inc, Eden Prairie, Minn) and conventional gauze covered with elastic adhesive (Medipore Dress-it; 3M, St Paul, Minn). The experimental system is heated to 38 degrees C and does not touch the wound. Subcutaneous tissue oxygen tension was measured postoperatively and on the first postoperative day. In a subgroup, we also evaluated the effects of bandage pressure per se on tissue oxygen. Initial postoperative tissue oxygen tensions were approximately 30 mm Hg greater with the experimental bandage, even before warming. Subcutaneous oxygen tension during heating remained significantly greater in patients with the warmed bandage than the conventional elastic bandage (116 +/- 40 vs 85 +/- 34 mm Hg, respectively) while the patients were breathing approximately 50% oxygen. The difference was smaller on the first postoperative day, but still statistically significant (82 +/- 30 vs 65 +/- 22 mm Hg, respectively). In the subgroup analysis, tissue oxygen tension increased significantly by 12 +/- 4 mm Hg when the heating bandage was substituted for a conventional bandage (P<.001). In normothermic and well-hydrated surgical patients, much benefit from the heating bandage system appears to result from pressure relief. These data suggest that relieving wound pressure markedly improves tissue perfusion and oxygenation.
Contractor, Dhruti; Amling, June; Brandoli, Cinzia; Tosi, Laura L
This article summarizes the results of a comprehensive review of the literature on the use of negative pressure wound therapy with reticulated open cell foam (NPWT/ROCF) as delivered by V.A.C.(R) Therapy (KCI, San Antonio, TX) in pediatric patients. A review of the literature revealed 20 articles that discussed the use of NPWT/ROCF in exclusively pediatric patients. Nine articles were retrospective reviews, and 11 were case studies. This review discusses the insights from these articles. This review discusses the versatility of NPWT/ROCF for use with pediatric patients with infected wounds; full-thickness burns; open fractures; large soft tissue wounds; surgical wounds of the chest, abdomen, and spine; pilonidal disease; and pressure ulcers. NPWT/ROCF has been used in children as young as a few weeks of age, and in children with comorbidities such as congenital heart disease, immunosuppression, and spina bifida. Wound healing in children can be delayed by impaired perfusion, infection, edema, and poor nutrition. Clinical considerations for using NPWT/ROCF in children can include differences in healing due to higher granulation rates requiring more frequent dressing changes, poor nutritional status, small size, and low weight. With pediatric patients, there is no consensus on foam (white or black) selection, optimum amount of negative pressure, frequency of NPWT/ROCF dressing changes, and interposing contact layer selection. Randomized prospective studies are needed to make recommendations for safe and efficacious clinical practice. Research regarding the effects of dressing types, adjunctive treatment, and wound healing in neonates and children is needed.
Samokhvalov, I M; Zavrazhnov, A A; Kornilov, E A; Margarian, S A
An investigation of materials of treatment of 130 wounded with combined wounds (CW) of extremity blood vessels during war in Afghanistan and in counter-terrorist operations in the Northern Caucasus has shown that the specific feature of surgical treatment of wounds of the extremity arteries associated with severe wounds of other localizations consists in limited possibilities to save the extremities. The scale MESS of a severity of extremity wounds was improved. It allowed a reliable prognosis for wounded with gunshot injuries of the arteries concerning necessary amputation (97%) or a possibility to save the extremity (100%). A strategy of surgical treatment of CW of the extremity arteries is proposed on the basis of an estimation of the general severity of the trauma, the V.A. Kornilov classification of the severity of acute ischemia and a FS-MESS scale of extremity injuries.
Valero, C.; Javierre, E.; García-Aznar, J. M.; Gómez-Benito, M. J.
SUMMARY Wound healing is a process driven by biochemical and mechanical variables in which new tissue is synthesised to recover original tissue functionality. Wound morphology plays a crucial role in this process, as the skin behaviour is not uniform along different directions. In this work we simulate the contraction of surgical wounds, which can be characterised as elongated and deep wounds. Due to the regularity of this morphology, we approximate the evolution of the wound through its cross-section, adopting a plane strain hypothesis. This simplification reduces the complexity of the computational problem while maintaining allows for a thorough analysis of the role of wound depth in the healing process, an aspect of medical and computational relevance that has not yet been addressed. To reproduce wound contraction we consider the role of fibroblasts, myofibroblasts, collagen and a generic growth factor. The contraction phenomenon is driven by cell-generated forces. We postulate that these forces are adjusted to the mechanical environment of the tissue where cells are embedded through a mechanosensing and mechanotransduction mechanism. To solve the non-linear problem we use the Finite Element Method and an updated Lagrangian approach to represent the change in the geometry. To elucidate the role of wound depth and width on the contraction pattern and evolution of the involved species, we analyse different wound geometries with the same wound area. We find that deeper wounds contract less and reach a maximum contraction rate earlier than superficial wounds. PMID:24443355
Valero, C; Javierre, E; García-Aznar, J M; Gómez-Benito, M J
Wound healing is a process driven by biochemical and mechanical variables in which a new tissue is synthesised to recover original tissue functionality. Wound morphology plays a crucial role in this process, as the skin behaviour is not uniform along different directions. In this work, we simulate the contraction of surgical wounds, which can be characterised as elongated and deep wounds. Because of the regularity of this morphology, we approximate the evolution of the wound through its cross section, adopting a plane strain hypothesis. This simplification reduces the complexity of the computational problem; while allows for a thorough analysis of the role of wound depth in the healing process, an aspect of medical and computational relevance that has not yet been addressed. To reproduce wound contraction, we consider the role of fibroblasts, myofibroblasts, collagen and a generic growth factor. The contraction phenomenon is driven by cell-generated forces. We postulate that these forces are adjusted to the mechanical environment of the tissue where cells are embedded through a mechanosensing and mechanotransduction mechanism. To solve the nonlinear problem, we use the finite element method (FEM) and an updated Lagrangian approach to represent the change in the geometry. To elucidate the role of wound depth and width on the contraction pattern and evolution of the involved species, we analyse different wound geometries with the same wound area. We find that deeper wounds contract less and reach a maximum contraction rate earlier than superficial wounds. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Topolav, J; Kirov, G; Markov, G; Girov, K; Nedkov, P; Georgieva, A
The authors adopt in clinical practice using of sterile hygroscopic wound dressings 'pampers type'. They use these dressings in 113 patients. The appropriate patients are these with limbs amputations, diabetic foot, suppurative and plenty secreting deep wounds, atonite and decubital wounds. The dressings are sterilised using paraformaldehyde sterilization which do not injure the synthetic materials. The hygroscopic dressings are non- allergic and are well tolerated by the patients. Using these dressings facilitate the medical team work and help to reduce the contamination of the hospital linen and the patients coverlet. They help for accelerating the wound healing process. They are also economic effective by reducing the amount of used dressing material.
Bizhan, Aarabi; Mossop, Corey; Aarabi, Judith Ann
Each year close to 20000 Americans are involved in gunshot wounds to the head (GSWH). Over 90% of the victims of GSWH eventually fail to survive and only a meager 5% of the patients have a chance to continue with a useful life. One of the fundamental jobs of providers is to realize who the best candidate for the best possible management is. Recent evidence indicates that a good Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score at the time of admission puts such patients at high priority for management. Lack of abnormal pupillary response to light, trajectory of slug away for central gray, and visibility of basal cisterns upgrade the need for utmost care for such a victim. Surgical management is careful attention to involvement of air sinuses and repair of base dura. Patients with diffuse injury should have intraventricular intracranial pressure (ICP) monitoring and if needed a timely decompressive craniectomy. Since close to 2% of patients with penetrating brain injury may harbor a vascular injury, subjects with injuries close to the Sylvian fissure and those with the fragment crossing two dural compartments should have computed tomography angiography and if needed digital subtraction angiography to rule out traumatic intracranial aneurysms. In case of a positive study, these patients should have endovascular management of their vascular injuries in order to prevent catastrophic intracerebral hematomas and permanent deficit. Although supported by class III data, subjects of GSWH need to be on broad spectrum antibiotics for a period of 3-5 days. If cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) fistulas are observed at any time during the patient's hospital course, they should be taken very seriously and appropriate management is needed to prevent deep intracranial infections.
Sahoo, Sambit; Haskins, Ivy N; Huang, Li-Ching; Krpata, David M; Derwin, Kathleen A; Poulose, Benjamin K; Rosen, Michael J
Recently introduced slow-resorbing biosynthetic and non-resorbing macroporous polypropylene meshes are being used in hernias with clean-contaminated and contaminated wounds. However, information about the use of biosynthetic meshes and their outcomes compared with polypropylene meshes in clean-contaminated and contaminated cases is lacking. Here we evaluate the use of biosynthetic mesh and polypropylene mesh in elective open ventral hernia repair (OVHR) and investigate differences in early wound morbidity after OVHR within clean-contaminated and contaminated cases. All elective, OVHR with biosynthetic mesh or uncoated polypropylene mesh from January 2013 through October 2016 were identified within the Americas Hernia Society Quality Collaborative. Association of mesh type with 30-day wound events in clean-contaminated or contaminated wounds was investigated using a 1:3 propensity-matched analysis. Biosynthetic meshes were used in 8.5% (175 of 2,051) of elective OVHR, with the majority (57.1%) used in low-risk or comorbid clean cases. Propensity-matched analysis in clean-contaminated and contaminated cases showed no significant difference between biosynthetic mesh and polypropylene mesh groups for 30-day surgical site occurrences (20.7% vs 16.7%; p = 0.49) or unplanned readmission (13.8% vs 9.8%; p = 0.4). However, surgical site infections (22.4% vs 10.9%; p = 0.03), surgical site occurrences requiring procedural intervention (24.1% vs 13.2%; p = 0.049), and reoperation rates (13.8% vs 4.0%; p = 0.009) were significantly higher in the biosynthetic group. Biosynthetic mesh appears to have higher rates of 30-day wound morbidity compared with polypropylene mesh in elective OVHR with clean-contaminated or contaminated wounds. Additional post-market analysis is needed to provide evidence defining best mesh choices, location, and surgical technique for repairing contaminated ventral hernias. Copyright © 2017 American College of Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc
Brock, W B; Barker, D E; Burns, R P
Temporary closure of abdominal surgical wounds is occasionally required when conditions of the abdominal wall or peritoneal cavity prevent closure or when early re-exploration is planned. The optimal temporary closure should contain and protect the contents of the peritoneal cavity from external contamination and injury; preserve the integrity of the abdominal wall; be simple to perform and maintain; provide ease of reentry; and have minimal adverse physiologic effects. Based on these criteria, a method of temporary abdominal wound closure (termed the vacuum pack) has been designed and evaluated. The operative technique includes 1) placement of a fenestrated polyethylene sheet between the abdominal viscera and anterior parietal peritoneum; 2) placement of a moist, sterile laparotomy towel over the polyethylene sheet; 3) placement of two closed suction drains over the towel; 4) placement of an adhesive backed drape over the entire wound, including a wide margin of surrounding skin; and 5) suction applied to the drains, creating a vacuum and rigid compression of the layers of closure material. This creates a tight, external seal of the adhesive backed drape and facilitates drainage of the peritoneal cavity. From April 1992-December 1993, this temporary abdominal wound closure was performed 56 times in 28 patients, ages 6-78 years, for periods of 1-11 days. The procedure was used in 17 trauma patients and 11 non-trauma patients. Indications for use included increased intra-abdominal pressure in nine, mandatory re-exploration in 10, and a combination of these indications in nine patients. Pre- and postprocedural airway and systemic blood pressures were unaffected by this closure.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
Iurkevich, V V; Fidarov, E Z; Bauér, V A
Experience of organization of the surgical care in the military hospital to 438 wounded in extremities during armed conflict in Republic of Chechnya is generalized. Maximum reduction of stages of medical evacuation of the wounded in extremities, approaching of the qualified and urgent specialized surgical care directly to the region of battle actions, use of opportunities for it one-moment rendering corresponded to principles of the modern military-medical doctrine. Due to realization of the requirements of the doctrine life of many wounded ++ was saved, terms of treatment, medical and social rehabilitation are reduced. Besides lethality, treatment cost and numbers of transferring to the reserve from the Armed Forces were reduced.
Sunilkumar; Parameshwaraiah, S; Shivakumar, H G
Formulations (ointment, cream and gel) of aqueous extract of C. asiatica, when applied topically, thrice daily for 24 days on the open wounds in rats increased cellular proliferation and collagen synthesis at the wound site, as evidenced by increase in collagen content and tensile strength. The treated wounds epithelialised faster and the rate of wound contraction was higher as compared to control wounds. The process of healing was better with gel formulation when compared to other two formulations.
Chang, Wei Chao; Turner, Akiva; Imon, Michael; Dyda, Anthony
Few studies focused on the construction of preoperative patient surgical risk profile using only patients' personal, social history, and comorbidity profiles. To identify risk factors for mechanical wound complications and postoperative infections in patients' preoperative profiles. Quantitative retrospective cohort study using 2009-2011 Health Care Utilization Project (HCUP) Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS) databases. 56,853 patients who underwent elective open intestinal resection. Predictors of mechanical wound complications and postoperative infections in patients' personal, social history, and comorbidity profiles. Patients age 18-39 were more likely to suffer mechanical wound complications compared to patients age 65-79 (OR = 1.9, 95% CI [1.5, 2.4], p < .01) and to patients age 80 and over (OR = 2.9, 95% CI [2.2, 3.8], p < .01). Patients age 18-39 were also more likely to suffer postoperative infections compared to patients age 65-79 (OR = 1.4, 95% CI [1.1, 1.6], p < .01) and to patients age 80 and over (OR = 2.0, 95% CI [1.6, 2.6], p < .01). Other most significant predictors included male gender, fluid and electrolyte disorders, pulmonary circulation disorders, and weight loss, as well as patients with comorbidities. All statistically significant predictors with positive estimates for postoperative infections were also statistically significant predictors of mechanical wound complications. Individual patient risk profile can be constructed using preoperative patient profiles for improving perioperative care coordination and patient care quality. Postoperative infections were associated with mechanical wound complications in patients undergoing elective open intestinal resection.
Chang, Wei Chao; Turner, Akiva; Imon, Michael; Dyda, Anthony
Background Few studies focused on the construction of preoperative patient surgical risk profile using only patients’ personal, social history, and comorbidity profiles. Objective To identify risk factors for mechanical wound complications and postoperative infections in patients’ preoperative profiles. Design Quantitative retrospective cohort study using 2009–2011 Health Care Utilization Project (HCUP) Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS) databases. Patients 56,853 patients who underwent elective open intestinal resection. Measurements Predictors of mechanical wound complications and postoperative infections in patients’ personal, social history, and comorbidity profiles. Results Patients age 18–39 were more likely to suffer mechanical wound complications compared to patients age 65–79 (OR = 1.9, 95% CI [1.5, 2.4], p < .01) and to patients age 80 and over (OR = 2.9, 95% CI [2.2, 3.8], p < .01). Patients age 18–39 were also more likely to suffer postoperative infections compared to patients age 65–79 (OR = 1.4, 95% CI [1.1, 1.6], p < .01) and to patients age 80 and over (OR = 2.0, 95% CI [1.6, 2.6], p < .01). Other most significant predictors included male gender, fluid and electrolyte disorders, pulmonary circulation disorders, and weight loss, as well as patients with comorbidities. All statistically significant predictors with positive estimates for postoperative infections were also statistically significant predictors of mechanical wound complications. Conclusions Individual patient risk profile can be constructed using preoperative patient profiles for improving perioperative care coordination and patient care quality. Postoperative infections were associated with mechanical wound complications in patients undergoing elective open intestinal resection. PMID:27833511
Fernandez-Moure, Joseph S; Van Eps, Jeffrey L; Cabrera, Fernando J; Barbosa, Zonia; Medrano Del Rosal, Guillermo; Weiner, Bradley K; Ellsworth, Warren A; Tasciotti, Ennio
Platelets are small anucleate cytoplasmic cell bodies released by megakaryocytes in response to various physiologic triggers. Traditionally thought to be solely involved in the mechanisms of hemostasis, platelets have gained much attention due to their involvement wound healing, immunomodulation, and antiseptic properties. As the field of surgery continues to evolve so does the need for therapies to aid in treating the increasingly complex patients seen. With over 14 million obstetric, musculoskeletal, and urological and gastrointestinal surgeries performed annually, the healing of surgical wounds continues to be of upmost importance to the surgeon and patient. Platelet-rich plasma, or platelet concentrate, has emerged as a possible adjuvant therapy to aid in the healing of surgical wounds and injuries. In this review, we will discuss the wound healing properties of platelet-rich plasma and various surgical applications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Samokhvalov, I M; Kotenko, P K; Severin, V V
There are two triage groups of the walking wounded in a medical company of a brigade/special-purpose medical team: those returning to fighting role and those who have to be evacuated to level 3 echelon of care. The main purposes of surgical care of the walking wounded in the 3rd echelon of care are the following: diagnosis of injury pattern ruling out severe damages and separation of the independent category of the walking wounded. There is medical evacuation of the walking wounded from the 3rd echelon to the 4th echelon deployed in a combat zone. The walking wounded who needs less than 30 days of staying in hospital are evacuated to the garrison military hospitals and medical treatment facilities subordinated to a district military hospital. The wounded with the prolonged period of hospitalization (more than 30 days) are evacuated toward the district military hospital. Treatment of the walking wounded should be accomplished in the military district where the armed conflict goes on.
Lee, Byung-Joo; Jeong, Jae-Hwi; Wang, Soo-Geun; Lee, Jin-Choon; Kim, Hwal-Woong
Objectives The tension on a wound is one of the important factors that determine the degree of fibrosis and scar formation. We hypothesized that local botulinum toxin type A (Botox) induced paralysis of the musculature subjacent to a surgical wound with a skin defect would minimize the repetitive tensile forces on the surgical wound's edges, and this will result in a decreased fibroplastic response and fibrosis of the wound. Methods This is a prospective randomized experimental study. Two distinct surgical wounds were made to the dorsum of 15 adult rats, respectively. One of the 2 wounds was injected with Botox, and the other wound was used as a control, and this was done for all the rats' wounds. We evaluated the wound size, the degree of fibrosis and inflammation, the blood vessel proliferation, the thickness of the wound and the expression of transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 in the wounds. Results There were significant differences of wound size at the 3rd and 4th week between the Botox and control groups (P<0.05). The Botox group showed less infiltration of inflammatory cells than the control group at the 2nd week (P<0.05). The Botox group showed a smaller number of fibroblasts and less fibrosis than the control group at the 4th week (P<0.05). The Botox group showed much strong collagen density than the control group at the 8th week (P<0.05). For the immunohistochemical staining, there was a lower transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 expression in the Botox group than that of the control group at the 4th week (P<0.05). Conclusion The wounds of the Botox-treated group showed a larger wound size, less infiltration of inflammatory cells and less fibrosis, a much greater amount of collagen and a lower expression of TGF-β1 than did the control group. Botox might be used to decrease the fibrosis of a surgical wound without damaging the epithelial growth in situations for which decreased fibrosis is necessary, such as for treating laryngeal, tracheal and nasal
Young, Christopher N.J.; Ng, Ka Ying Bonnie; Webb, Vanessa; Vidow, Sarah; Parasuraman, Rajeswari; Umranikar, Sameer
healed with no additional scarring beyond the boundaries of the original Cesarean incision. The patient was pleased with treatment outcomes, reporting no lasting pain or discomfort from the scar. Conclusions: This report represents the first documented use of NPWT to aid healing of an actively infected, open wound following extensive surgical debridement 10 days post-Cesarean section, confirming both the efficacy and tolerability of NPWT for the treatment of severe bacterial cellulitis in obstetric debridement. PMID:27977577
Dong, Yuanlin; Xu, Zhipeng; Huang, Lining; Zhang, Yiying; Xie, Zhongcong
Post-operative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) is associated with morbidity, mortality and increased cost of medical care. However, the neuropathogenesis and targeted interventions of POCD remain largely to be determined. We have found that the peripheral surgical wounding induces an age-dependent Aβ accumulation, neuroinflammation and cognitive impairment in aged mice. Pro-inflammatory cytokine interlukin-6 (IL-6) has been reported to be associated with cognitive impairment in rodents and humans. However, the role of IL-6 in the neuropathogenesis of POCD is unknown. We therefore employed pharmacological (IL-6 antibody) and genetic (knockout of IL-6) approach to investigate whether IL-6 contributed to the peripheral surgical wounding-induced cognitive impairment in aged mice. Abdominal surgery under local anesthesia (peripheral surgical wounding) was established in 18-month-old wild-type and IL-6 knockout mice (n = 6 to 10 in each group). Brain level of IL-6 and cognitive function in the mice were determined by western blot, ELISA at the end of procedure, and Fear Conditioning System at 7 days after the procedure. The peripheral surgical wounding increased the level of IL-6 in the hippocampus of aged wild-type, but not IL-6 knockout mice. IL-6 antibody ameliorated the peripheral surgical wounding-induced cognitive impairment in the aged wild-type mice. Finally, the peripheral surgical wounding did not induce cognitive impairment in the aged IL-6 knockout mice. These data suggested that IL-6 would be a required pro-inflammatory cytokine for the peripheral surgical wounding-induced cognitive impairment. Given this, further studies are warranted to investigate the role of IL-6 in the neuropathogenesis and targeted interventions of POCD. PMID:28217289
Stebbins, William G; Hanke, C William; Petersen, Jeffrey
Management of lower extremity wounds after Mohs micrographic surgery can pose a challenge to the surgeon. Postoperative reactive edema and inflammation can lead to a painful and protracted healing course. Unna boots deliver zinc oxide to the wound bed and surrounding skin while providing compression and occlusion of the wound. To evaluate the utility of weekly Unna boot therapy in decreasing postoperative edema, inflammation, and morbidity; minimizing postoperative wound care; and improving the rate of wound healing in patients with lower leg surgical defects. Ten patients (6 men, 4 women) aged 72 to 91 with postoperative defects on the distal lower extremity were treated with weekly Unna boots until wounds had sufficiently granulated or re-epithelialized. In all 10 patients, weekly Unna boot therapy was well tolerated, with high satisfaction levels relating to minimal postoperative wound care, rapid granulation, minimal pain, and excellent esthetic outcome of postoperative wounds. No infections or other complications were noted during the healing process. LIMITATIONS This was not a randomized, controlled trial. In patients with postoperative wounds of the lower leg, weekly Unna boots significantly improve the healing process, decrease postoperative pain, and minimize wound care. © 2011 by the American Society for Dermatologic Surgery, Inc.
De Caridi, Giovanni; Massara, Mafalda; Greco, Michele; Pipitò, Narayana; Spinelli, Francesco; Grande, Raffaele; Butrico, Lucia; de Franciscis, Stefano; Serra, Raffaele
Vacuum-assisted closure (VAC) therapy is a new emerging non-invasive system in wound care, which speeds up wound healing by causing vacuum, improving tissue perfusion and suctioning the exudates, and facilitating the removal of bacteria from the wound. The application of sub-atmospheric pressure on the lesions seems to alter the cytoskeleton of the cells on the wound bed, triggering a cascade of intracellular signals that increase the rate of cell division and subsequent formation of granulation tissue. The aim of this study is to analyse the results of VAC therapy used as an adjuvant therapy for the treatment of foot wounds in patients affected by critical limb ischaemia (CLI) (Rutherford 6 class) after distal surgical revascularisation, to promote and accelerate the healing of ulcers. Twenty-nine patients (20 males, 9 females; mean age 68·4) affected by CLI of Rutherford 6 class, after surgical revascularisation of the lower limb, underwent VAC therapy in order to speed up wound healing. Complete wound healing was achieved in 19 patients (65·51%), in an average period of 45·4 ± 25·6 days. VAC therapy is a valid aid, after surgical revascularisation, to achieve rapid healing of foot lesions in patients with CLI.
Aksamija, Goran; Mulabdic, Adi; Rasic, Ismar; Aksamija, Lejla
Objectives: The percentage of patients with difficult and prolonged healing of the wound is still high, while the immediate complications such as wound dehiscence occurs in up to 3 % of all treated patients in abdominal surgery. The aim of study was to analyze the risk factors and comorbidities in the group patients undergoing laparotomy and associated with early postoperative wound dehiscence. Methods: The retrospective study included all patients treated surgically at Clinic of General and Abdominal surgery, Clinical Center of the University of Sarajevo in the period from January 1, 2013 until January 1, 2016, with clinically verified surgical wound dehiscence. Results: The results showed statistically proportion of male patients (70%) compared to female (30%). The largest number of respondents were in age group 71-80. Surgical wound infection was evident in 61% of patients, malignant staining in 52%, hypoproteinemia was found in 50% of patients, anemia in 43%, peritonitis in 36% and diabetes in 14% of respondents. Of the total respondents with surgical wound dehiscence, 30 (68%) had comorbidities present. By analyzing the prevalence of comorbidity and risk factors recorded in relation to comorbidity, it was noted that hypertension is most often associated with hypoproteinemia (X2=4.399; p=0.036), wound infection (X2=4.112; p=0.043) and malignant diseases (X2=4.016; p=0.045). The frequency of the anemia, peritonitis and diabetes in the sample was not different in relation to the comorbidity conditions (p >0.05). Conclusions: The risk factors occurrence of surgical wound dehiscence in our study were identified as hypoproteinemia, malignant disease, anemia and peritonitis. The highest incidence of dehiscence was in patients operated on in medical emergencies, and in patients with malignant disease. PMID:27994299
Sahin, Hasan; Simsek, Tuncer; Turkon, Hakan; Kalkan, Yıldıray; Ozkul, Faruk; Ozkan, M Turgut Alper; Erbas, Mesut; Altinisik, Ugur; Demiraran, Yavuz
To investigate the effects of preoperative rectal ozone insufflation on surgical wound healing over the proinflammatory cytokines and histopathological changes. Twenty one rabbits were divided into 3 groups. Sham, surgical wound, and ozone applied (6 sessions, every other day 70 µg/mL in 12 mL O2-O3 mixture rectally) surgical wound groups were created. TNF-alpha and IL-6 levels from all rabbits were studied at the basal, 24th hour, and 72nd hour. The histopathological examination was done by removing the surgical scar tissue at the end of 72nd hour. TNF-alfa and IL-6 levels were significantly lower compared to the control group, in the rabbits treated with ozone. The increase in angiogenesis, the decrease in the number of inflammatory cells, epidermal and dermal regeneration, better collagen deposition, and increased keratinisation in stratum corneum were observed in the histopathological examination. It was determined that the wound healing noticeably accelerated in the ozone group. Preoperative rectal ozone insufflation had a positive effect on surgical wound healing in acute period.
Abreu, Andreza Miranda; Oliveira, Dhelfeson Willya Douglas; Marinho, Sandra Aparecida; Lima, Nádia Lages; de Miranda, João Luiz; Verli, Flaviana Dornela
Background. Fibroblasts on the edges of a surgical wound are induced to synthesize collagen during the healing process which is known as fibroplasia. Objective. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of the application of different substances on fibroplasia of cutaneous surgical wounds on rats. Materials and Methods. 48 Wistar rats were divided into three groups. A surgical wound 1 cm in diameter and 1 mm in depth was created on the dorsum of each animal. The surgical wounds were submitted to the topical application of an alcoholic extract of 30% propolis, 70% alcohol, or 0.001% dexamethasone in a cream base every 12 hours. The animals were sacrificed three, seven, 14, and 28 days postoperatively. The specimens were histologically processed and stained with Masson's trichrome. The assessment of fibroplasia was performed using a scoring system: (1) 5 to 25% collagen deposition; (2) 26 to 50% collagen deposition; (3) 51 to 75% collagen deposition; (4) more than 75% collagen deposition. Results. There were statistically significant differences in collagen deposition between the substances at all postoperative evaluation times. Conclusion. Propolis and alcohol promoted greater collagen deposition in surgical wounds than dexamethasone. PMID:22536526
Firat, Cemal; Geyik, Yilmaz
Maxillofacial traumas caused by gunshot wounds may cause quite varied defects. The objective of this study was to evaluate the reconstruction methods in 12 patients with gunshot wound-related mandibular and maxillofacial bony and soft tissue defects. Twelve patients who were operated on for maxillofacial gunshot wounds at our clinic between 2002 and 2012 were included in the study. Seven patients were wounded in a suicide attempt, and 5 were wounded as a result of an accident or in assaults. Two patients underwent reconstruction using free fibula osteocutaneous flap, 4 patients received the free radial forearm osteocutaneous flap, 2 patients received costal bone graft, and 3 patients received iliac bone grafts. Satisfactory functional and aesthetic outcomes were achieved in cases where staged secondary reconstruction, balloon treatment, and consecutive fat and steroid injections into the depressed scar areas were applied. In conclusion, the basic goal in maxillofacial reconstruction is the functional and aesthetic reconstruction of the contours. Because it is not easy to get perfect results with only 1 clinical approach or 1 method, the proper timing and reconstruction method should be selected.
Landa, Dymmie Lc; van Dishoeck, Anne-Margreet; Steyerberg, Ewout W; Hovius, Steven Er
The aim of this study was to assess the reliability of measurements using a wound-analysing tool and their interpretability. Wound surface areas and tissue types, such as granulation, slough and necrosis, in twenty digital photographs were measured using a specific software program. The ratio of these tissue types in a wound was calculated using a wound profile. We calculated the intraclass coefficient or κ for reliability, standard error of measurement (SEM) and smallest detectable change (SDC). The inter-rater reliability intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was 0·99 for surface area, 0·76 for granulation, 0·67 for slough and 0·22 for necrosis. The profiles gave an overall κ of 0·16. For test-retest reliability, the ICC was 0·99 for surface area, 0·81 for granulation, 0·80 for slough and 0·97 for necrosis. The agreement of the applied profiles in the test-retest was 66% (40-100). SEM and SDC for surface area were 0·10/0·27; for granulation, 6·88/19·08; for slough, 7·17/19·87; and for necrosis, 0·35/0·98, respectively. Measuring wound surface area and tissue types by means of digital photo analysis is a reliable and applicable method for monitoring wound healing in acute wounds in daily practice as well as in research.
Monreal, M; Callejas, J M; Lisbona, C; Martorell, A; Lerma, R; Boabaid, R; Mejía, S
We present a retrospective review of a series of patients from our Service submitted to surgical extra-anatomical grafts. Correlation between diverse variants and ulterior obliteration by thrombosis or infection of the surgical wounds is analyzed. The series included 133 patients surgically treated between 1986 and 1991. The studied variants were: sex, age, type of graft, the material used, length and type of anesthesia, presentation of hypotension during the surgical intervention, diabetes, platelet recount. Fourteen patients (11%) presented early graft obliteration and 15 (11%) presented an infection of their surgical wound. Only the platelet variant showed statistical differences in patients presenting infection. A high recount of platelets could be a factor risk of infection.
Negosanti, Luca; Sgarzani, Rossella; Nejad, Parissa; Pinto, Valentina; Tavaniello, Beatrice; Palo, Stefano; Oranges, Carlo Maria; Fabbri, Erich; Michelina, Veronica Vietti; Zannetti, Guido; Morselli, Paolo Giovanni; Cipriani, Riccardo
The treatment of complex wounds often requires multiple surgical debridement and eventually reconstruction with skin grafts or flaps, under local or general anesthesia. When the patient's general conditions contraindicate surgical procedures, topical negative pressure with vacuum assisted closure (VAC)) device can achieve wound healing with reduction of healing time and simpler management. We treated with VAC device four patients with complex wounds and important contraindications to surgery. In all the patients, we used VAC device with common protocol of topical negative pressure. The healing was obtained in a period variable between 18 and 40 days; the results were satisfactory in three cases, one patient developed an aesthetically unpleasant scar. We present our experience to propose VAC when surgical procedures are contraindicated.
Läuchli, S; Hafner, J; Wehrmann, C; French, L E; Hunziker, T
To evaluate the efficacy of a plant-derived wound dressing, a mixture of hypericum oil (Hypericum perforatum) and neem oil (Azadirachta indica), in scalp wounds with exposed bone. A retrospective review was conducted of all patients presenting with scalp wounds with exposed bone following the excision of skin tumours and treated with a plant-derived wound dressings (1 Primary Wound Dressing; Phytoceuticals AG), from January to July 2011. Time to healing, wound size, area of exposed bone, ease of handling, pain and complications were evaluated. Nine consecutive patients were analysed retrospectively. The patients' mean age was 81.2 ± 8.5 years (63-90 years), with a mean wound size of 13.2 ± 6.8cm(2) (0.4-22.6cm(2)) and 6.8 ± 6.5cm(2) (0.3-20.7cm(2)) of exposed bone. The time to complete healing by secondary intention was 4-20 weeks. A rapid induction of granulation tissue was observed, which covered the entire exposed bone surface in six out of nine cases (67%) after 4 weeks, and showed a reduction in the mean area of exposed bone of 95%. Dressing change was easy and without pain and there were no complications. This retrospective, non-controlled analysis suggests that ONE is a very simple to use, safe and potentially effective therapy for the treatment of scalp wounds with exposed bone. There were no external sources of funding for this study. The authors have no conflict of interest to declare.
Suh, Hyunsuk; Lee, A-Young; Park, Eun Jung; Hong, Joon Pio
Background Closed incisional wound surgery frequently leaves dead space under the repaired skin, which results in delayed healing. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) on incisional wounds with dead space after primary closure by evaluating the fluid volume through the suction drain, blood flow of the skin, tensile strength, and histology of the wounds. Methods Bilateral 25-cm-long incisional wounds with dead space were created on the back of 6 pigs by partially removing the back muscle and then suturing the skin with nylon sutures. NPWT (experimental group) or gauze dressing (control group) was applied over the closed incision for 7 days. Analysis of the wound included monitoring the amount of closed suction drain, blood perfusion unit, tensile strength of the repaired skin, and histology of the incision site. Results The drainage amount was significantly reduced in the experimental group (49.8 mL) compared to the control group (86.2 mL) (P = 0.046). Skin perfusion was increased in the experimental group with statistical significance compared to the control group (P = 0.0175). Collagen staining was increased in the experimental group. The tensile strength of the incision site was significantly higher in the experimental group (24.6 N at 7 days, 61.67 N at 21 days) compared to the control group (18.26 N at 7 days, 50.05 N at 21 days) (P = 0.02). Conclusion This study explains some of the mechanism for using NPWT in closed incision wounds with dead space. It demonstrates that NPWT significantly reduces drainage amount, increases skin perfusion, increases tensile strength, and has the tendency to promote collagen synthesis for closed wound with dead space indicating enhanced healing. PMID:25003432
Asadi, Sayyed Yazdan; Parsaei, Pouya; Karimi, Mehrdad; Ezzati, Sareh; Zamiri, Alaleh; Mohammadizadeh, Fereshteh; Rafieian-Kopaei, Mahmoud
Green tea (Camellia sinensis) has anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory properties and may enhance wound healing process. The present study, therefore, was aimed to examine the effect of green tea ethanolic extract on wound healing process. For this experimental study, 36 healthy male Wistar rats were randomly designated to three groups of A, B, and C which, respectively treated with, Vaseline + 0.6% green tea extract, Vaseline and normal saline for 21 days. Wounds' length and area were measured by caliper every other day and specimens were taken at 3rd, 12th, and 21st day for microscopical examinations. Data were analyzed by SPSS 16 using survival analysis (Breslow test), repeated measured ANOVA, one-way ANOVA and Mann-Whitney. P < 0.05 was considered as statistically significant. The mean healing duration of surgical wounds in groups A and B was 14.66 and 20.66 (P = 0.018), respectively. Decrease in healing duration in the group A was significantly higher within the first two weeks compared with control groups (P = 0.05). Microscopic examinations also indicated a significant difference in wound healing process between groups A and C throughout the whole study duration as well as groups A and B during the 3rd week of the study (P < 0.05). Green tea extract could help wound healing process, probably effective on surgical wounds healing.
Yip, A W; Yuen, K Y; Seto, W H; Choi, T K
A semiquantitative culture technique for early detection of surgical wound infection was done by rolling a segment of a plastic intravenous catheter across a blood agar plate after insertion into the most inflamed part of the wound on postoperative day 3. Patients were monitored daily for purulent discharge until healing. Of the 53 wounds studied, 44 (83%) had no growth or low-density superficial colonization on the blood agar (generally less than 15 colony-forming units and within the upper 1.5 cm of the catheter). None of these 44 wounds was subsequently infected; therefore, these colonies represented colonization. Of the 9 wounds (17%) that yielded greater than 15 colony-forming units and a diffuse subcutaneous pattern (colonies below the upper 1.5 cm of the catheter), all developed purulent discharge with a positive culture of the same organisms found by semiquantitative culture. This result differed significantly (P less than .01) from the 44 wounds without subsequent infection. This semiquantitative technique has the potential to distinguish infection from colonization and may be useful in diagnosing surgical wound infection.
Bhandari, Mohit; Jeray, Kyle J; Petrisor, Brad A; Devereaux, P J; Heels-Ansdell, Diane; Schemitsch, Emil H; Anglen, Jeff; Della Rocca, Gregory J; Jones, Clifford; Kreder, Hans; Liew, Susan; McKay, Paula; Papp, Steven; Sancheti, Parag; Sprague, Sheila; Stone, Trevor B; Sun, Xin; Tanner, Stephanie L; Tornetta, Paul; Tufescu, Ted; Walter, Stephen; Guyatt, Gordon H
The management of open fractures requires wound irrigation and débridement to remove contaminants, but the effectiveness of various pressures and solutions for irrigation remains controversial. We investigated the effects of castile soap versus normal saline irrigation delivered by means of high, low, or very low irrigation pressure. In this study with a 2-by-3 factorial design, conducted at 41 clinical centers, we randomly assigned patients who had an open fracture of an extremity to undergo irrigation with one of three irrigation pressures (high pressure [>20 psi], low pressure [5 to 10 psi], or very low pressure [1 to 2 psi]) and one of two irrigation solutions (castile soap or normal saline). The primary end point was reoperation within 12 months after the index surgery for promotion of wound or bone healing or treatment of a wound infection. A total of 2551 patients underwent randomization, of whom 2447 were deemed eligible and included in the final analyses. Reoperation occurred in 109 of 826 patients (13.2%) in the high-pressure group, 103 of 809 (12.7%) in the low-pressure group, and 111 of 812 (13.7%) in the very-low-pressure group. Hazard ratios for the three pairwise comparisons were as follows: for low versus high pressure, 0.92 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.70 to 1.20; P=0.53), for high versus very low pressure, 1.02 (95% CI, 0.78 to 1.33; P=0.89), and for low versus very low pressure, 0.93 (95% CI, 0.71 to 1.23; P=0.62). Reoperation occurred in 182 of 1229 patients (14.8%) in the soap group and in 141 of 1218 (11.6%) in the saline group (hazard ratio, 1.32, 95% CI, 1.06 to 1.66; P=0.01). The rates of reoperation were similar regardless of irrigation pressure, a finding that indicates that very low pressure is an acceptable, low-cost alternative for the irrigation of open fractures. The reoperation rate was higher in the soap group than in the saline group. (Funded by the Canadian Institutes of Health Research and others; FLOW Clinical
Taha, Mohamed; Davis, Niall F; Power, Richard; Mohan, Ponusamy; Forde, James; Smyth, Gordon; Little, Dilly M
Kidney transplant recipients are at an increased risk of developing surgical site wound complications due to their immunosuppressed status. We aimed to determine whether increased mid-abdominal circumference (MAC) is predictive for wound complications in transplant recipients. A prospective study was performed on all kidney transplant recipients from October 2014 to October 2015. "Controls" consisted of kidney transplant recipients without a surgical site wound complication and "cases" consisted of recipients that developed a wound complication. In total, 144 patients underwent kidney transplantation and 107 patients met inclusion criteria. Postoperative wound complications were documented in 28 (26%) patients. Patients that developed a wound complication had a significantly greater MAC, body mass index (BMI), and body weight upon renal transplantation (P<.001, P=.011, and P=.011, respectively). On single and multiple logistic regression analyses, MAC was a significant predictor for developing a surgical wound complication (P=.02). Delayed graft function and a history of preformed anti-HLA antibodies were also predictive for surgical wound complications (P=.003 and P=.014, respectively). Increased MAC is a significant predictor for surgical wound complications in kidney transplant recipients. Integrating clinical methods for measuring visceral adiposity may be useful for stratifying kidney transplant recipients with an increased risk of a surgical wound complication.
Lewis, R; Whiting, P; ter Riet, G; O'Meara, S; Glanville, J
: Seventeen trials met the inclusion criteria, all of which used the autolytic method of debridement. No studies were found that investigated sharp/surgical, biosurgical, mechanical, chemical or enzymatic debridement in the treatment of surgical wounds healing by secondary intention. No studies were found which investigated specialised wound care clinics that included the provision of care within a clinical setting (based in either primary or secondary care). The type of surgical wounds investigated by studies included in the review were those that had broken down postoperatively, perineal wounds resulting from proctolectomy or rectal excision, and those left open after pilonidal sinus excision or abscess incision, or wounds following a laparotomy. Four additional studies investigated treatment of postoperative wounds from toenail avulsions. (ABSTRACT TRUNCATED)
Mochizuki, Yumi; Tomioka, Hirofumi; Tushima, Fumihiko; Shimamoto, Hiroaki; Hirai, Hideaki; Oikawa, Yuu; Harada, Hiroyuki
Purpose: This study aimed to evaluate the coverage of oral wounds using either a polyglycolic acid (PGA) sheet or split-thickness skin grafting (STSG). Materials and Methods: A total of 119 cases of wound coverage using a PGA sheet and fibrin glue spray as well as 132 cases of wound coverage cases using STSG were reviewed retrospectively. The site of the excision area, perioperative conditions, and postoperative functional problems were evaluated. Results: The PGA group had significantly shorter operation time, earlier start of oral intake, and shorter hospitalization than the STSG group. If the PGA sheet over the wound with exposed bone could be protected by a surgical sprint, oral food intake could be started on the day after surgery at the earliest. When the size of the wound in the buccal excisional area was classified into two groups (<6 or ≥6 cm2), mouth opening in the STSG group was significantly larger at 3 months postoperatively. When the size of the wound in the tongue and floor of mouth was classified into two groups (<12 or ≥12 cm2), the STSG group had a significantly higher score in postoperative speech intelligibility. Conclusion: Selection of a PGA sheet or STSG based on the consideration of defect size, tumor location, patients’ local and general condition and tolerance for surgery could reduce the patients’ postsurgical dysfunctional problems. PMID:28299263
Tabaja, Hussam; Hajar, Zeina; Kanj, Souha S
Sternal wound infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis is an uncommon yet highly challenging disease that can be quite insidious with various presentations. We hereby provide a review of 10 cases in current literature and describe an additional case which illustrates the difficulties associated with diagnosis. We used PubMed and Google search engine to search the literature for all published papers reporting on cases of sternal M. tuberculosis infections post open-heart surgeries. A total of 11 cases were presented, including a case of our own. The majority were males and were exposed to endemic areas. The average age was 59.6 ± 15.5 years. Coronary artery bypass surgery accounted for 73% of procedures and the average time to symptoms onset was 12.2 ± 16.6 months. Diabetes was the most reported non-cardiac comorbidity. Presenting symptoms varied and only 5 patients had other organs involved. Blood tests and radiographic studies were neither sensitive nor specific. M. tuberculosis culture on debrided tissues was the most sensitive test but often forgotten initially. Diagnostic delay was seen in almost all cases, often leading to unnecessary courses of antibiotics and aggressive surgical interventions. Finally, all patients responded well to anti-tuberculosis treatment, with reported treatment duration ranging from 9 to 12 months. M. tuberculosis infection of the sternum should be suspected in late-onset sternal wound infections post open-heart surgery especially when the course is chronic and indolent.
Kuhns, Benjamin D.; Frank, Rachel M.; Pulido, Luis
Femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) is a common cause of hip pain, and when indicated, can be successfully managed through open surgery or hip arthroscopy. The goal of this review is to describe the different approaches to the surgical treatment of FAI. We present the indications, surgical technique, rehabilitation, and complications associated with (1) open hip dislocation, (2) reverse periacetabular osteotomy, (3) the direct anterior “mini-open” approach, and (4) arthroscopic surgery for FAI. PMID:26697431
Smyth, Matthew D; Vellimana, Ananth K; Asano, Eishi; Sood, Sandeep
Corpus callosotomy is a palliative surgical procedure for patients with refractory epilepsy. It can be performed through an open approach via a standard craniotomy and the aid of an operating microscope, or alternatively via a mini-craniotomy with endoscope assistance. The extent of callosal disconnection performed varies according to indications and surgeon preference. In this article, we describe both open and endoscopic surgical techniques for anterior and complete corpus callosotomy. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 International League Against Epilepsy.
Rozin, Yu A; Ivanenko, A A
The authors share their experience gained in rendering early specialized surgical care during combat operations in Donbas, having operated on a total of 139 wounded with lesions of large vessels, of these, 21 (15.1%) presenting with concomitant lesions of vessels. Reconstructive operations were carried out in 122 (87.8%) wounded, ligating operations - in 12 (8.6%), and primary amputations - in 5 (3.6%). Two (1.4%) patients died. Blood flow was restored in 117 (84.2%) patients, with six amputations performed after primary operations. The limb was saved in 116 (83.4%) wounded. Peculiarities of a vascular injury in Donbas comprise a large proportion of severe concomitant vascular wounds and lack of intermediate stages of evacuation. The prognosis of life and limb salvage largely depends on correctly chosen method of temporary arrest of bleeding at first stages of medical evacuation and shortening the terms of rendering first specialized surgical care. The variant of operation (reconstruction, ligation or primary amputation) in severe concomitant vascular wounds should be determined proceeding from the degree of ischaemia and severity of the condition of the wounded person, assessed by means of the Military Surgery - Mangled Extremity Severity Score.
Disa, J J; Vossoughi, J; Goldberg, N H
There are several anecdotal clinical articles claiming wound healing and scar superiority using obsidian (volcanic glass) scalpels. In order to determine if skin incisions made with obsidian were superior to those made with standard surgical steel, wound tensile strength, scar width, and histology were assessed in 40 adult male Sprague-Dawley rats. Each rat received two parallel 8-cm dorsal skin incisions, one with an obsidian scalpel and the other with a surgical steel scalpel (no. 15 blade). Data were analyzed by ANOVA. Tensile strength of the two wound types was not different at 7, 14, 21, and 42 days. Scar width, however, was significantly less in the obsidian wounds at 7, 10, and 14 days (p < 0.005). At 21 days, scar width was not different in the two groups. At 42 days, all wounds were barely detectable, thus precluding scar width analysis. A blinded histologic review suggested that obsidian wounds contained fewer inflammatory cells and less granulation tissue at 7 days.
Reinisch, Lou; West, Courtney; Rivas, Mike; Patil, Yash; Ossoff, Robert H.
As part of our computer assisted surgical techniques (CAST) program, we use computers to assist in the guidance of surgical lasers. The computer helps to create laser incisions with minimal widths, a reduction of collateral thermal damage, and regulates the rate of tissue ablation. Previous studies have compared laser incisions under manual control to incisions made with the CAST system. These studies were carried out with healthy animals. In this study, we compare the manual and CAST laser incisions on rats with induced diabetes. The diabetic rats have impaired wound healing and make a better model for our wound healing studies. Cutaneous incisions were made on the dorsal pelt using a carbon dioxide laser. The incisions were sutured and allowed to heal for 3, 7, 14, and 21 days. Wounds were analyzed histologically and with tensiometry. We have found definite advantages to the CAST program.
Rodríguez-Caravaca, Gil; de las Casas-Cámara, Gonzalo; Pita-López, María José; Robustillo-Rodela, Ana; Díaz-Agero, Cristina; Monge-Jodrá, Vicente; Fereres, José
The impact of surgical wound infection on public health justifies its surveillance and prevention. Our objectives were to estimate the incidence of surgical wound infection in breast procedures and assess its protocol of antibiotic prophylaxis and preoperative preparation. Observational multicentre prospective cohort study of incidence of surgical wound infection. Incidence was evaluated, stratified by National Nosocomial Infection Surveillance (NNIS) risk index and we calculated the standardized incidence ratio (SIR). The SIR was compared with Spanish rates and U.S. rates. The compliance and performance of the antibiotic prophylaxis and preoperative preparation protocol were assessed and their influence in the incidence of infection with the relative risk. Ten hospitals from the Comunidad de Madrid were included, providing 592 procedures. The cumulative incidence of surgical wound infection was 3.89% (95% CI: 2.3-5.5). The SIR was 1.82 on the Spanish rate and 2.16 on the American. Antibiotic prophylaxis was applied in 97.81% of cases, when indicated. The overall performance of antibiotic prophylaxis was 75%, and 53% for preoperative preparation. No association was found between infection and performance of prophylaxis or preoperative preparation (P>.05). Our incidence is within those seen in the literature although it is somewhat higher than the national surveillance programs. The performance of prophylaxis antibiotic must be improved, as well as the recording of preoperative preparation data. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.
Joret, Maximilian O; Dean, Anastasia; Cao, Colin; Stewart, Joanna; Bhamidipaty, Venu
The cost of treating diabetes-related disease in New Zealand is increasing and is expected to reach New Zealand dollars (NZD) 1.8 billion in 2021. The financial burden attached to the treatment of diabetic foot wounds is difficult to quantify and reported costs of treatment vary greatly in the literature. As of yet, no study has captured the true total cost of treating a diabetic foot wound. In this study, we investigate the total minimum cost of treating a diabetic foot ulcer at a tertiary institution. A retrospective audit of hospital and interhospital records was performed to identify adult patients with diabetes who were treated operatively for a diabetic foot wound by the department of vascular surgery at Auckland Hospital between January 2009 and June 2014. Costs from the patients' admissions and outpatient clinics from their first meeting to the achievement of a final outcome were tallied to calculate the total cost of healing the wound. The hospital's expenses were calculated using a fully absorbed activity-based costing methodology and correlated with a variety of demographic and clinical factors extracted from patients' electronic records using a general linear mixed model. We identified 225 patients accounting for 265 wound episodes, 700 inpatient admissions, 815 outpatient consultations, 367 surgical procedures, and 248 endovascular procedures. The total minimum cost to the Auckland city hospital was NZD 10,217,115 (NZD 9,886,963 inpatient costs; NZD 330,152 outpatient costs). The median cost per wound episode was NZD 29,537 (NZD 28,491 inpatient costs; NZD 834 outpatient cost). Wound healing was achieved in 70% of wound episodes (average length of healing, 9 months); 19% of wounds had not healed before the patient's death. Of every 3.5 wound episodes, one required a major amputation. Wound treatment modality, particularly surgical management, was the strongest predictor of high resource utilization. Wounds treated with endovascular intervention and no
Briusov, P G; Kuritsyn, A N; Urazovskiĭ, N Iu
The modern doctrine of military surgery is based on the concept of maximal and, if possible, simultaneous surgical aid to the wounded in the shortest period of time after the injury. It could be achieved by approximation of specialized surgical section to the zone of fighting and improvement of medical evaluation. These are conditions for applicability of modern methods of treatment and for perfecting of surgical strategies to the wounded, such as videothoracoscopy. To report the experience of the usage of videothoracoscopy in the treatment of the wounded with penetrating gunshot wounds of chest (PFAWT) in military hospital. 23 patients with PFWAT was administer surgical therapy: 19 patients had pleural draining at previous stages of medical evacuation, 4 patients were delivered directly from the battle Geld 1.5 hours after the injury. 11 patients with pleural drains and 4 patients, delivered from battle Geld, had indications for videothoracoscopy. These indications included ongoing intrapleural bleeding, clotted hemothorax and prolonged leakage of the air through the drain. Suturing of the lung wounds was performed by Endo-GIA-30 stapler. If it was impossible, manual suture EndoStitch USSC was used. In 2 cases was performed wedge-like resection by EndoGIA-30. The bleeding from the thoracic wall wounds was controlled by electrocautery. The clotted hemothorax was removed by fragmentation with EndoBabcock, washing out and aspiration through large diameter tubes. The duration of the procedure ranged from 40 to 90 minutes. None had suppurative complications. All patients was survived. The mean duration of inpatient period was 20 days, rehabilitation period-14 days.
Klinkert, Kerstin; Whelan, Derek; Clover, Anthony J P; Leblond, Anne-Laure; Kumar, Arun H S; Caplice, Noel M
A prolonged inflammatory phase is seen in aberrant wound healing and in chronic wounds. Macrophages are central to wound healing. Distinct macrophage subtypes have differing roles both in initial inflammation and in later tissue repair. Broadly, these cells can be divided into M1 and M2 macrophages. M2 macrophage proliferation and differentiation is regulated by colony-stimulating factor 1 (CSF-1) signalling and can be blocked by GW2580, a competitive cFMS kinase inhibitor, thereby allowing for analysis of the effect of M2 blockade on progression of surgical wounds. Macrophage Fas-induced apoptosis (MaFIA) transgenic mice with a macrophage-specific promoter used to express green fluorescent protein (GFP) were used to allow for cell tracking. The animals were treated by oral gavage with GW2580. Surgical wounds were created and harvested after 2 weeks for analysis. GW2580-treated mice had significantly more GFP+ cells in the surgical scar than vehicle-treated animals (GW2580, 68.0 ± 3.1%; vehicle, 42.8 ± 1.7%; p < 0.001), and GW2580 treatment depleted CD206+ M2 macrophages in the scar (GW2580, 1.4%; vehicle, 19.3%; p < 0.001). Treated animals showed significantly higher numbers of neutrophils (vehicle, 18.0%; GW2580, 51.3%; p < 0.01) and M1 macrophages (vehicle, 3.8%; GW2580, 12.8%; p < 0.01) in the scar compared to vehicle-treated animals. The total collagen content in the area of the scar was decreased in animals treated with GW2580 as compared to those treated with vehicle alone (GW2580, 67.1%; vehicle, 79.9%; p < 0.005). Depletion of M2 macrophages in surgical wounds via CSF-1 signalling blockade leads to persistent inflammation, with an increase in neutrophils and M1 macrophages and attenuated collagen deposition. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Krtička, M; Ira, D; Nekuda, V; Švancara, J; Mašek, M
PURPOSE OF THE STUDY Grade III open fractures are associated with infectious complications in 25-66% of injuries. Negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) applied to an injured soft tissue coverage provides an impermeable barrier between the injured structures and the external environment, in addition to early secretion draining and a positive effect on the site of application. All this also prevents secondary bacterial contamination. The objective of the study was to compare the results of treatment methods in view of infectious complications in patients with soft tissue injury in grade-III open fractures managed either by NPWT and primary closure or by covering with combined dressing fabric (COM) in combination with continual wound lavage. MATERIAL AND METHODS This retrospective study comprised 77 patients with 80 grade III open fractures treated in the years 2008-2012; of these, 39 patients with 41 fractures met the inclusion criteria and were finally evaluated. The patients were divided into two groups. The control group included 19 patients with 20 fractures treated by the standard surgical procedure using stabilisation with an external fixator or intramedullary nail, thorough soft tissue debridement, continual wound lavage and suture of skin lesions or using a primary coverage of the defect with COM. The trial group consisted of 20 patients with 21 fractures treated according to the same principle, but NPWT was applied to injured soft tissue coverage first and skin suture or any other type of skin defect coverage was carried out when the healing process was good and bacteriological findings were negative. The results of both methods were evaluated based on the following criteria: development of superficial or deep infection in the wound, interval to negative bacteriological findings and osteomyelitis rate. The results were analysed by Fisher's exact test and the Man Whitney U test. RESULTS Infectious complications were recorded in a total of 15 (37%) fractures
Zheng, Bin; Fung, Eric; Fu, Bo; Panton, Neely M; Swanström, Lee L
Performing laparoscopic procedures requires different skill sets and team dynamics compared with open procedures. We evaluated team composition and procedure time between these two surgical approaches using data collected from hospitals in the United State and Canada. A total of 1,260 general surgical cases were reviewed retrospectively, recording the number of operation personnel, procedure complexity, and the procedure time. Laparoscopic procedures (n = 930), on average, had a higher procedure difficulty coding which led to a longer procedure time and involved more people in the surgical team than open procedures (n = 330). When we selected cases with matched procedure difficulty coding, laparoscopic procedures (n = 450) still required longer procedure times and involved more operative personnel than open procedures (n = 92). Increased laparoscopic team size and procedure time must be influenced by factors other than case difficulty. The factors may derive from inherent complexity of the surgical setting and team dynamics unique to laparoscopic procedures.
Oxygen is an essential gas. Oxygen is also a biological medicine. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy is a treatment which is based on the respiration of pure oxygen in a particular pressurised environment (hyperbaric chamber). The pressure allows the diffusion of oxygen into the blood at a concentration which is ten/fifteen/twenty times the normal level. The increase in oxygen in bodily liquids stimulates the synthesis of a gas, nitric oxide (NO), which has a powerful anti-inflammatory effect and promotes the formation of new blood vessels (also through the employment of stem cells) thus accelerating the healing of wounds. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy reactivates metabolic processes which have stopped and is able to help the recovery and obvious improvement of patients suffering from several serious illnesses. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy is a medicine, and as such requires careful dosage, monitoring of its results, and prevention of possible side effects.
Chadi, Sami A; Vogt, Kelly N; Knowles, Sarah; Murphy, Patrick B; Van Koughnett, Julie Ann; Brackstone, Muriel; Ott, Michael C
Surgical site infections (SSIs) are the second most common form of nosocomial infection. Colorectal resections have high rates of SSIs secondary to the inherently contaminated intraluminal environment. Negative pressure wound therapy dressings have been used on primarily closed incisions to reduce surgical site infections in other surgical disciplines. No randomized control trials exist to support the use of negative pressure wound therapy following elective open colorectal resection to reduce surgical site infection. In this single-center, superiority designed prospective randomized open blinded endpoint controlled trial, patients scheduled for a colorectal resection via a laparotomy will be considered eligible. Patients undergoing laparoscopic resection will be enrolled but only randomized and included if the operation is converted to an open procedure. Exclusion criteria are patients receiving an abdominoperineal resection or a palliative procedure, as well as pregnant patients and those with an adhesive allergy. After informed consent, 300 patients will be randomized to the use of a standard adhesive gauze dressing or to a negative pressure wound device. Patients will be followed in hospital and reassessed on post-operative day 30. The primary outcome measure is SSI within the first 30 post-operative days. Secondary outcomes include the length of hospital stay, the number of return visits related to a potential or actual SSI, cost, and the need for homecare. The primary endpoint analysis follows the intention-to-treat principle. NEPTUNE is the first randomized controlled trial to investigate the role of incisional negative pressure wound therapy in decreasing the rates of surgical site infections in the abdominal incisions of patients following an elective, open colorectal resection. This low-risk intervention may help decrease the morbidity and costs associated with the development of an SSI in our patients. NCT02007018--clinicaltrials.gov; 5 December 2013.
Lyutenski, Stefan; Schwab, Burkard; Lenarz, Thomas; Salcher, Rolf; Majdani, Omid
The objective of the study was to examine the impact of the surgical wound closure technique as protection of the obliterated tympanomastoid cavity on the revision surgery rate after subtotal petrosectomy (SP). This is a retrospective case series conducted in a tertiary care referral center. 199 patients (212 ears) with recurrent chronic otitis media underwent SP followed by tympanomastoid obliteration with abdominal fat at a single tertiary referral center between 2005 and 2015. 124 SP were carried out without (group A), 74 with temporalis muscle flap (group B) and 14 with reinforcing material like polydioxanone foil or bovine pericardium or allogenic fascia lata (group C) for wound closure. The evaluated follow-up was either until the scheduled device implantation or 6 months postoperatively. We assessed the rate of postoperative wound healing disorder with revision surgery according to the surgical technique for closure of the obliterated cleft. Revision surgery due to impaired wound healing was necessary in 16 % of the total cases (group A: 18.5 %, group B: 10.8 %, group C: 21.4 %). Further analysis concerning the dehiscent area in both sites (retroauricular and blind sac of the external auditory canal) was conducted and discussed. There was no significant difference observed in the rate of revision surgery between the three groups. The wound healing process after SP is determined by many factors and cannot be significantly influenced solely by reinforcing tissue like the temporalis muscle flap or supporting materials.
Brem, Harold; Stojadinovic, Olivera; Diegelmann, Robert F; Entero, Hyacinth; Lee, Brian; Pastar, Irena; Golinko, Michael; Rosenberg, Harvey; Tomic-Canic, Marjana
Chronic wounds, such as venous ulcers, are characterized by physiological impairments manifested by delays in healing, resulting in severe morbidity. Surgical debridement is routinely performed on chronic wounds because it stimulates healing. However, procedures are repeated many times on the same patient because, in contrast to tumor excision, there are no objective biological/molecular markers to guide the extent of debridement. To develop bioassays that can potentially guide surgical debridement, we assessed the pathogenesis of the patients’ wound tissue before and after wound debridement. We obtained biopsies from three patients at two locations, the nonhealing edge (prior to debridement) and the adjacent, nonulcerated skin of the venous ulcers (post debridement), and evaluated their histology, biological response to wounding (migration) and gene expression profile. We found that biopsies from the nonhealing edges exhibit distinct pathogenic morphology (hyperproliferative/hyperkeratotic epidermis; dermal fibrosis; increased procollagen synthesis). Fibroblasts deriving from this location exhibit impaired migration in comparison to the cells from adjacent nonulcerated biopsies, which exhibit normalization of morphology and normal migration capacity. The nonhealing edges have a specific, identifiable, and reproducible gene expression profile. The adjacent nonulcerated biopsies have their own distinctive reproducible gene expression profile, signifying that particular wound areas can be identified by gene expression profiling. We conclude that chronic ulcers contain distinct subpopulations of cells with different capacity to heal and that gene expression profiling can be utilized to identify them. In the future, molecular markers will be developed to identify the nonimpaired tissue, thereby making surgical debridement more accurate and more efficacious. PMID:17515955
Macdonald, John M; Sims, Nancy; Mayrovitz, Harvey N
As the science of wound healing has evolved over the past two decades, so has awareness of the "hidden epidemic" of lymphedema. Substantial information has been accumulated regarding the pathophysiology and therapy of lymphedema. Until recently, the relationship between wound healing and the negative effects of associated peri-wound lymphedema has received little attention. Identifying wound-related lymph stasis and safe mobilization of the fluid are fundamentals that must be addressed for proper therapy. Experience gained from the successful treatment of primary and secondary lymphedema has proven very useful in the applications to wound-related lymphedema. The mobilization of lymph fluid from the peri-wound area with the use of reasoned compression is essential for proper therapy of the open wound, as are appropriate bandage selection and safeguards for bandage application.
Dutton, William D; Diaz, Jose J; Miller, Richard S
Over the past 30 years, surgical specialties have introduced and expanded the role of open abdominal management in complicated operative cases, necessitating an intensivist's understanding of the indications and unique intensive care unit (ICU) issues related to the open abdomen. When presented with the open abdomen, resuscitation to correct shock is of primary concern. This is accomplished by correction of hypothermia, acidosis, and coagulopathy in trauma and adequate resolution of intra-abdominal hypertension or source control in general surgery. These patients typically require deep sedation and often paralysis and benefit from low-volume ventilatory strategies to prevent and treat acute lung injury. Antibiotics must be tailored to the clinical situation, but in most cases, 24 hours of perioperative treatment is all that is required. In cases of gross contamination and peritonitis, a 5- to 7-day course of broad-spectrum antibiotics may be of benefit.Adequate source control has been demonstrated to have the greatest impact on outcome and when the patient's clinical milieu dictates, bedside washouts. Enteral nutrition should be instituted as early as possible after intestinal continuity has been reestablished. Additional protein is required to account for losses from the open abdomen. Reconstruction may require staging, but in general, should proceed following resolution of shock and control of sepsis. Elevated multiorgan dysfunction score, Acute Physiology And Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II), and a rise in peak inspiratory pressure portend poor source control and could result in failure of fascial closure. If unable to proceed to fascial closure, then considerations should be made for planned ventral hernia and subsequent abdominal wall reconstruction.
Efimenko, N A; Kokhan, E P; Galik, N I
The proffered paper provides the information about rendering surgical care for the wounded presenting with vascular injuries inflicted and sustained during wars Russia was engaged in, to be followed by a detailed description of the haemorrhage-arresting methods and techniques used in N. I. Pirogov's time, during World War I, the Great Patriotic War, as well as in local military conflicts and combat operations. Also depicted herein is the role surgeons of Russia have played in the development of vascular surgery, and, finally, due coverage is given to the statistical data concerning the methods of rendering care for those having suffered firearm wounds and injuries involving vascular lesions.
Background The management of brachial plexus injuries due to gunshot wounds is a surgical challenge. Better surgical strategies based on clinical and electrophysiological patterns are needed. The aim of this study is to clarify the factors which may influence the surgical technique and outcome of the brachial plexus lesions caused by gunshot injuries. Methods Two hundred and sixty five patients who had brachial plexus lesions caused by gunshot injuries were included in this study. All of them were male with a mean age of 22 years. Twenty-three patients were improved with conservative treatment while the others underwent surgical treatment. The patients were classified and managed according to the locations, clinical and electrophysiological findings, and coexisting lesions. Results The wounding agent was shrapnel in 106 patients and bullet in 159 patients. Surgical procedures were performed from 6 weeks to 10 months after the injury. The majority of the lesions were repaired within 4 months were improved successfully. Good results were obtained in upper trunk and lateral cord lesions. The outcome was satisfactory if the nerve was intact and only compressed by fibrosis or the nerve was in-contunuity with neuroma or fibrosis. Conclusion Appropriate surgical techniques help the recovery from the lesions, especially in patients with complete functional loss. Intraoperative nerve status and the type of surgery significantly affect the final clinical outcome of the patients. PMID:19627573
Tekgündüz, Kadir Şerafettin; Kepenekli, Eda; Demirelli, Yaşar; Caner, İbrahim; Kara, Mustafa
Newborns are more susceptible to infection; this makes proper wound care extremely important in them. Unfortunately, in spite of successful surgery, patients can die as a result of wound area infections. Herein, we report a case in which a combined therapy of chlorhexidine (a disinfectant) and saline (a cleansing agent used in wound care) was used effectively to treat the wound in a newborn infant with an antibiotic-resistant, Gram-negative, bacteria-related surgical site infection. © 2014 The Authors. International Wound Journal © 2014 Medicalhelplines.com Inc and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Fox, Joshua D; Prado, Giselle; Baquerizo Nole, Katherine L; Macquahe, Flor; Herskovitz, Ingrid; Rosa, Ashley; Akhtar, Shifa; Aldahan, Adam; Shah, Vidhi; Mlacker, Stephanie; Cardenas, Gabriel; Kirsner, Robert S
Patients' perceptions of their physician can affect subjective and objective outcomes. Physician attire influences patients' perceptions of their physician and consequently may affect patient outcomes. To determine patient preferences for different types of dermatologist attire in dermatology medical, surgical, and wound care clinics. We hypothesized that patients in the dermatology medical setting would prefer professional attire, while patients in the dermatology surgical and wound care setting would prefer surgical scrubs. This study analyzed responses to a cross-sectional, anonymous survey by English-speaking dermatology patients (aged 18 years or older) at general, surgical, and wound care clinics in an academic center in Miami, Florida. Patients who could not read and understand the survey were excluded. Participants received pictures of a physician wearing business attire, professional attire, surgical attire, and casual attire, and responded by indicating which physician they preferred for each of 19 questions. Frequencies of responses were recorded, and χ2 and regression tests were performed. Response frequencies. Surveys were administered to 261 persons, and 255 participated and completed enough of the questions to be included in the outcome analyses (118 men, 121 women, 22 unknown [did not answer sex question]), mean (SD) age, 56.3 (18.6) years; about 49% of those who reported their sex were men; 56% were Hispanic; and 85% were white. Approximately 72% of respondents held a college degree or higher. About 63%, 24%, and 13% of respondents were medical, surgical, and wound care dermatology patients, respectively. Roughly 73%, 19%, 6%, and 2% of cumulative responses were for professional, surgical, business, and casual attire, respectively. Respondents who received a picture of a black male or black female physician were more likely to exclusively prefer professional attire: unadjusted odds ratios (ORs) 3.21 (95% CI, 1.39-7.42) and 2.78 (95% CI, 1
Saco, Michael; Howe, Nicole; Nathoo, Rajiv; Cherpelis, Basil
Topical antibiotics are not indicated for postsurgical wound infection prophylaxis in clean and clean-contaminated dermatologic surgeries, yet many dermatologists continue to prescribe them. The objective of our systematic review and meta-analysis was to critically assess the efficacy of topical antibiotics in terms of preventing postsurgical wound infections in the dermatology outpatient setting. PubMed, Embase, MD Consult, Science Direct, Springer Link, DynaMed and Cochrane online medical databases were searched from 1980 to 2013. Using random effects modeling, the pooled odds ratio of developing a postsurgical wound infection was 0.71 (95% CI, 0.42-1.19). Pooled data of the four trials in the meta-analysis did not show a statistically significant difference in incidence of postsurgical wound infections between topical antibiotics and petrolatum/paraffin. In the setting of moist occlusive dressings, there is no statistically significant difference in prophylactic efficacy between applying and not applying ointment to surgical wounds. Wounds at increased risk of developing surgical site infections include wounds in diabetics, wounds located in certain anatomic regions, and wounds created by some surgical procedures. Petrolatum should be used instead of topical antibiotics as a prophylactic measure to prevent postsurgical wound infections in the outpatient dermatologic setting.
Olson, M M; MacCallum, J; McQuarrie, D G
For a one year period, hair was removed from the operative site with clippers rather than by shaving with a razor or by application of depilatories. The study involved comparison of clean (Class I) wound infection rates in 2,580 patients after clipping was instituted compared with 17,424 patients studied in seven preceding years. There was no significant change in the wound infection rate (1 per cent) when compared with the three years immediately preceding. There was no change in the identified distribution of the infecting organism. Failure to show a clear reduction in wound infection rate was probably related to the low historic base line rate. There were definite benefits achieved by avoiding cancellation of elective operations, by using operating room personnel more efficiently and by expediating the surgical schedule.
El Gatit, A; Abdul Razeq, M; El Snaini, F; Saad, K; Zaiton, A
This report describes a case of cortical blindness that followed successful surgical repair of two stab wounds in the heart in a 29-year old Libyan man. The patient presented in a state of pre cardiac arrest (shock and low cardiac output status), following multiple chest stab wounds. Chest tube was immediately inserted. Surgery was urgently performed suturing the two wounds; in the root of the aorta and in the left ventricle, and haemostasis was secured. Cardiac arrest was successfully prevented. The patient recovered smoothly, but 24 hours later he declared total blindness. Ophtalmic and neurological examinations and investigations that included fundoscopy, Electroencephalograms (EEGs) and Computed Tomography Scans revealed no abnormalities, apart from absence of alpha waves in the EEGs. We diagnosed the case as cortical blindness and continued caring for the patient conservatively. Three days later, the patient regained his vision gradually and was discharged on the 7th postoperative day without any remarks. PMID:21516165
Nolff, Mirja Christine; Fehr, Michael; Reese, Sven; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andrea E
Objectives The objective of this study was to evaluate negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) for the treatment of complicated wounds in cats. Methods Twenty cats undergoing open-wound treatment in two clinics were classed according to treatment method: NPWT (group A, n = 10) and polyurethane foam dressing (group B, n = 10). Pairs of patients from each group were matched based on wound conformation, localisation and underlying cause. Cats from both groups were compared in terms of duration of previous treatment, time to closure and complications. Results Signalment, duration of previous treatment, antibiotic and antiseptic treatment, and bacterial status were comparable between groups. Total time to wound closure was significantly shorter ( P = 0.046, strong effect size; Cohen d = 0.8) in group A (25.8 days, range 11.0-57.0 days) compared with group B (39.5 days, range 28.0-75.0 days). NPWT-treated wounds suffered fewer complications and became septic less frequently during treatment compared with wounds treated with a foam dressing. The progression of fat tissue necrosis was particularly well controlled under NPWT, resulting in fewer deaths due to this condition in this group. However, although a strong effect of NPWT on the progression of infection, fever and sepsis was detected (Cramer-V 0.5), this difference was not significant. Conclusions and relevance This study demonstrated that time to healing was considerably shorter, and complication rate lower, in NPWT-treated animals compared with foam dressing-treated cats. In particular, the effective management of infection by NPWT emphasises the value of NPWT in the treatment of cats suffering from infected wounds.
Deschka, Heinz; Erler, Stefan; El-Ayoubi, Lemir; Vogel, Cordula; Vöhringer, Luise; Wimmer-Greinecker, Gerhard
Deep sternal wound infections are significant and severe complications following cardiac surgery and substantially influence perioperative morbidity and mortality. We present the experience of our department using two different surgical treatments over a three-year period. Between January 2009 and December 2011, a total of 3274 cardiac procedures with complete median sternotomy were performed in our department. In 94 patients (3%), a deep sternal wound infection occurred, including sternal instability with consecutive surgical treatment. The patients either received wound debridement with sternum refixation and suction-irrigation drainage (SID; n = 72) or sternum refixation only (RF; n = 22) if there was sternal instability with limited signs of infection. SID was routinely installed for 7 days: the irrigation solution contained neomycin. In all cases, swabs were taken and analysed. The different methods were evaluated in respect of their clinical outcomes. The success rate-defined as single, uncomplicated procedure-of the SID treatment was 74%, compared with 59% of the isolated sternum refixation. Complications included continuous infection, recurrence of sternal instability and wound necrosis. Eighty-eight percent of the swabs in the SID group were positive, compared with 32% in the sternal refixation only group. The dominating pathogenic germs were coagulase-negative staphylococci and staphylococcus aureus. Mortality was 10% for the SID group and 5% for the RF group. Contrary to accepted opinion, the suction-irrigation drainage is an appropriate therapy for deep sternal wound infections. Nevertheless, deep sternal wound infections after cardiac surgery remain severe complications and are related to increased morbidity and mortality.
Deschka, Heinz; Erler, Stefan; El-Ayoubi, Lemir; Vogel, Cordula; Vöhringer, Luise; Wimmer-Greinecker, Gerhard
OBJECTIVES Deep sternal wound infections are significant and severe complications following cardiac surgery and substantially influence perioperative morbidity and mortality. We present the experience of our department using two different surgical treatments over a three-year period. METHODS Between January 2009 and December 2011, a total of 3274 cardiac procedures with complete median sternotomy were performed in our department. In 94 patients (3%), a deep sternal wound infection occurred, including sternal instability with consecutive surgical treatment. The patients either received wound debridement with sternum refixation and suction-irrigation drainage (SID; n = 72) or sternum refixation only (RF; n = 22) if there was sternal instability with limited signs of infection. SID was routinely installed for 7 days: the irrigation solution contained neomycin. In all cases, swabs were taken and analysed. The different methods were evaluated in respect of their clinical outcomes. RESULTS The success rate—defined as single, uncomplicated procedure—of the SID treatment was 74%, compared with 59% of the isolated sternum refixation. Complications included continuous infection, recurrence of sternal instability and wound necrosis. Eighty-eight percent of the swabs in the SID group were positive, compared with 32% in the sternal refixation only group. The dominating pathogenic germs were coagulase-negative staphylococci and staphylococcus aureus. Mortality was 10% for the SID group and 5% for the RF group. CONCLUSIONS Contrary to accepted opinion, the suction-irrigation drainage is an appropriate therapy for deep sternal wound infections. Nevertheless, deep sternal wound infections after cardiac surgery remain severe complications and are related to increased morbidity and mortality. PMID:23529753
Saleh, Farid; Palmieri, Beniamino; Lodi, Danielle; Al-Sebeih, Khalid
Background and aim: The increasing number of surgical procedures performed with local anesthesia, followed by immediate patient discharge from the hospital, emphasizes the need for a tight waterproof suture that is capable of maintaining its tensile strength in the postoperative phase when the wound tumescence, edema due to the anesthetic drug, and surgical trauma disappear. Moreover, the issue of having an accurate surgical wound closure is very relevant in vivo in order to prevent hemorrhage and exogenous microbial infections. This study aimed at designing a new a lab technique that could be used for evaluating the best surgical material. Using such a technique, we compared the wound-lip-sealing properties of three commonly-used suture threads, namely polyurethane, polypropylene, and polyamide. Materials and methods: The mechanical properties of same-size suture threads made from polyurethane, polypropylene, and polyamide, were compared in order to define the one that possess the best elastic properties by being able to counteract the tension-relaxation process in the first 12 hours following surgery. The tension holding capacity of the suture materials was measured in both in vivo and in vitro experiments. The surface area of the scar associated with the three different suture threads was measured and compared, and the permeability of the three different suture threads was assessed at 0 minute, 2 minute, 4 minute, 6 minute, and 8 minute- interval. Results: Results showed that polyurethane suture threads had significantly (P < 0.05) better tensile strength, elongation endurance before breakage, and better elasticity coefficient as compared to polypropylene and polyamide suture threads. Moreover, polyurethane suture threads were significantly (P < 0.05) more impermeable as compared to the other two suture thread types (polypropylene and polyamide). This impermeability was also associated with a tighter wound-lip-sealing ability, and with significantly (P < 0
König, L; Klopfleisch, R; Kershaw, O; Gruber, A D
The formation of biofilms on surgical implants is thought to play a major role in chronic infection and wound-healing disorders and has been rarely described in veterinary medicine. Due to poor and unreliable results from bacterial culturing, histology may be an economic tool for the detection of biofilms. In this study, the prevalence of biofilms on surgical suture materials and swabs with chronic wound-healing complications in dogs, cats, and horses was assessed by histologic examination using hematoxylin and eosin, Gram, and Giemsa stains, as well as periodic acid-Schiff reaction. Of the 91 tissue samples with intralesional suture material or swab residues associated with inflammation, only 2 contained bacterial colonies arranged in an extracellular polymeric matrix consistent with a biofilm. The results of this study suggest that biofilms on suture material may occur in veterinary medicine.
da Silva, Aline Batista; Peniche, Aparecida de Cassia Giani
The purpose of this review article was to understand and analyze the scientific production related to the occurrence of perioperative hypothermia and the incidence of infection on the surgical site. For this purpose, a search was conducted in the databases LILACS, MEDLINE, PubMed, CINAHL and Cochrane, using the health science descriptors DECS, from 2004 to 2009. A total of 91 articles were found. After eliminating duplicate items and using selection criteria for inclusion, six manuscripts remained for analysis. The studies were classified as retrospective, prospective, case studies, and clinical trials. After analysis, the majority of studies showed that hypothermia must be prevented during the perioperative period to reduce complications in the healing process of the surgical incision. Therefore, unadverted hypothermia directly influences in surgical site healing, increasing the incidence of infection in the surgical wound. PMID:25628208
Silva, Aline Batista da; Peniche, Aparecida de Cassia Giani
The purpose of this review article was to understand and analyze the scientific production related to the occurrence of perioperative hypothermia and the incidence of infection on the surgical site. For this purpose, a search was conducted in the databases LILACS, MEDLINE, PubMed, CINAHL and Cochrane, using the health science descriptors DECS, from 2004 to 2009. A total of 91 articles were found. After eliminating duplicate items and using selection criteria for inclusion, six manuscripts remained for analysis. The studies were classified as retrospective, prospective, case studies, and clinical trials. After analysis, the majority of studies showed that hypothermia must be prevented during the perioperative period to reduce complications in the healing process of the surgical incision. Therefore, unadverted hypothermia directly influences in surgical site healing, increasing the incidence of infection in the surgical wound.
Matsen, Frederick A.; Butler-Wu, Susan; Carofino, Bradley C.; Jette, Jocelyn L.; Bertelsen, Alexander; Bumgarner, Roger
Background: To explore the origin of Propionibacterium in surgical wounds and to suggest an optimized strategy for culturing this organism at the time of revision surgery, we studied the presence of this organism on the skin and in the surgical wounds of patients who underwent revision arthroplasty for reasons other than apparent infection. Methods: Specimens were cultured in broth and on aerobic and anaerobic media. The presence and degree of positivity of Propionibacterium cultures were correlated with sex. The results of dermal and deep cultures were correlated. Times to positivity and the yields of each media type and specimen source were investigated. Results: Propionibacterium grew in twenty-three of thirty cultures of specimens obtained preoperatively from the unprepared epidermis over the area where a skin incision was going to be made for a shoulder arthroplasty; males had a greater average degree of positivity than females (p < 0.002). Twelve of twenty-one male subjects and zero of twenty female subjects who had cultures of dermal specimens obtained during revision shoulder arthroplasty had positive findings for Propionibacterium (p = 0.0001). Twelve of twenty male subjects and only one of twenty female subjects had positive deep cultures (p = 0.0004). The positivity of dermal cultures for Propionibacterium was significantly associated with the positivity of deep cultures for this organism (p = 0.0001). If Propionibacterium was present in deep tissues, it was likely that it would be recovered by culture if four different specimens were obtained and cultured for a minimum of seventeen days on three different media: aerobic, anaerobic, and broth. Conclusions: Because the surgical incision of dermal sebaceous glands may be a source of Propionibacterium in deep wounds, strategies for minimizing the risk of Propionibacterium infections may need to be directed at minimizing the contamination of surgical wounds from these bacteria residing in rather than on the
Barnes, Sue; Spencer, Maureen; Graham, Denise; Johnson, Helen Boehm
Surgical wound irrigation has long been debated as a potentially critical intraoperative measure taken to prevent the development of surgical site infection (SSI). Unlike many other SSI prevention efforts, there are no official practice guidelines or recommendations from any major medical group for the practice of surgical irrigation. As a result, practitioner implementation of the 3 major irrigation variables (delivery method, volume, and solution additives) can differ significantly. A focus group of key thought leaders in infection prevention and epidemiology convened recently to address the implications of different surgical irrigation practices. They identified an urgent need for well-designed clinical trials investigating surgical irrigation practices, improved collaboration between surgical personnel and infection preventionists, and examination of existing evidence to standardize irrigation practices. The group agreed that current published data are sufficient to support the elimination of antibiotic solutions for surgical irrigation; the avoidance of surfactants for surgical irrigation; and the use of sterile normal saline, sterile water, and 1 medical device containing a sterile 0.05% chlorhexidine gluconate solution followed by sterile saline. Given the current lack of sufficient evidence identifying ideal delivery method and volume choices, expert opinion must be relied on to guide best practice. Copyright © 2014. Published by Mosby, Inc.
Del-Moral-Luque, J A; Checa-García, A; López-Hualda, Á; Villar-Del-Campo, M C; Martínez-Martín, J; Moreno-Coronas, F J; Montejo-Sancho, J; Rodríguez-Caravaca, G
Antibiotic prophylaxis is the most suitable tool for preventing surgical wound infection. This study evaluated adequacy of antibiotic prophylaxis in surgery for knee arthroplasty and its effect on surgical site infection. Prospective cohort study. We assessed the degree of adequacy of antibiotic prophylaxis, the causes of non-adequacy, and the effect of non-adequacy on surgical site infection. Incidence of surgical site infection was studied after a maximum incubation period of a year. To assess the effect of prophylaxis non-adequacy on surgical site infection we used the relative risk adjusted with the aid of a logistic regression model. The study covered a total of 1749 patients. Antibiotic prophylaxis was indicated in all patients and administered in 99.8% of cases, with an overall protocol adequacy of 77.6%. The principal cause of non-compliance was the duration of prescription of the antibiotics (46.5%). Cumulative incidence of surgical site infection was 1.43%. No relationship was found between prophylaxis adequacy and surgical infection (RR=1.15; 95% CI: .31-2.99) (P>.05). Surveillance and infection control programs enable risk factors of infection and improvement measures to be assessed. Monitoring infection rates enables us to reduce their incidence. Adequacy of antibiotic prophylaxis was high but could be improved. We did not find a relationship between prophylaxis adequacy and surgical site infection rate. Copyright © 2017 SECOT. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Shao, Kai; Han, Baoqin; Gao, Jinning; Jiang, Zhiwen; Liu, Weizhi; Liu, Wanshun; Liang, Ye
Diacetyl chitin (DAC) is an acidylated chitin obtained using acetic anhydride mixed perchloric acid system. By wet spinning and weaving technique, DAC has been successfully developed into a novel absorbable surgical suture. Thanks to the unique properties of chitins, the potential application of this novel monocomponent multifilament DAC suture may break the monopoly of synthetic polymer sutures in wound closure area. In this study, DAC was synthesized and characterized by multiple approaches including elemental analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FTIR), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). In addition, we performed the feasibility assessment of DAC suture (USP 2-0) as absorbable suture for wound healing. Several lines of evidences suggested that DAC suture had comparable mechanical properties as synthetic polymer sutures. Moreover, DAC suture retained approximately 63% of the original strength at 14 days and completely absorbed in 42 days with no remarkable tissue reaction in vivo. Most important of all, DAC suture significantly promoted skin regeneration with faster tissue reconstruction and higher wound breaking strength on a linear incisional wound model. All these results demonstrated the potential use of DAC suture in short- or middle-term wound healing, such as epithelial and connective tissue.
Goharshenasan, Peiman; Amini, Shahideh; Atria, Ali; Abtahi, Hamidreza; Khorasani, Ghasemali
The antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory activity of honey and its ability to accelerate wound healing make it an attractive option in surgical wound care. We performed a randomized clinical trial to compare the efficacy of honey dressing with conventional dressing regarding the aesthetic outcome. Bilateral symmetric incisions in randomly selected plastic surgical patients were randomly covered postoperatively with conventional dressing and honey dressing for five days. The aesthetic outcome of the two sides was rated on a Visual Analog Scale by the surgeon and the patient and compared at month three and six after surgery. Seventy two symmetrical incisions in 52 patients were evaluated during the study. The mean width of the scar after the third and the sixth month was 3.64 +/- 0.83 mm and 3.49 +/- 0.87 mm on the side that received honey dressing and 5.43 +/- 0.05 mm and 5.30+/- 1.35 mm in the control group. Wilcoxon signed-rank test showed significant difference between honey and conventional dressing outcomes at third and sixth month (p < 0.001). The healing process of the surgical wound and its final aesthetic result could be improved by using honey dressing. © 2016 S. Karger GmbH, Freiburg.
Frey, Joana M; Janson, Martin; Svanfeldt, Monika; Svenarud, Peter K; van der Linden, Jan A
The open surgical wound is exposed to cold and dry ambient air resulting in heat loss through radiation, evaporation, and convection. Also, general and neuraxial anesthesia decrease the patient's core temperature. Despite routine preventive measures mild intraoperative hypothermia is still common and contributes to postoperative morbidity and mortality. We hypothesized that local insufflation of warm fully humidified CO(2) would increase both the open surgical wound and core temperature. Eighty-three patients undergoing open colon surgery were equally and parallelly randomized to either standard warming measures including forced-air warming, warm fluids, and insulation of limbs and head, or to additional local wound insufflation of warm (37°C) humidified (100% relative humidity) CO(2) at a laminar flow (10 L/min) via a gas diffuser. Wound surface and core temperatures were followed with a heat-sensitive infrared camera and a tympanic thermometer. The mean wound area temperature during surgery was 31.3°C in the warm humidified CO(2) group compared with 29.6°C in the control group (P < 0.001, 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.2°C to 2.3°C). Also, the mean wound edge temperature during surgery was 30.1°C compared with 28.5°C in the control group (P < 0.001, 95% CI, 0.2°C to 0.7°C). Mean core temperature before start of surgery was similar with 36.7°C ± 0.5°C in the warm humidified CO(2) group versus 36.6°C ± 0.5°C in the control group (95% CI, 0.4 to -0.1°C). At end of surgery, the 2 groups differed significantly with 36.9 ± 0.5°C in the warm humidified CO(2) group versus 36.3 ± 0.5°C in the control group (P < 0.001, 95% CI, 0.38°C to 0.82°C). Moreover, only 8 patients of 40 in the warm humidified CO(2) group had a core temperature <36.5°C (20%, 95% CI, 7 to 33%), whereas in the control group this was the case in 24 of 39 (62%, 95% CI, 46% to 78%, P = 0.001) patients (difference of the percentages between the groups 42%, 95% CI, 22% to 61%, P < 0
Lavagna, S M; Secci, D; Chimenti, P; Bonsignore, L; Ottaviani, A; Bizzarri, B
Following studies on the properties of spontaneous plants in Sardinia we have evaluated the tissue regenerating action of a mixture of oily extracts of Hypericum perforatum and Calendula arvensis on surgical wounds from childbirth with caesarean section.
Cho, Eugenia H; Garcia, Ryan; Pien, Irene; Thomas, Steven; Levin, L Scott; Hollenbeck, Scott T
Wound breakdown after orthopaedic foot and ankle surgery may necessitate secondary soft tissue coverage. The foot and ankle region is challenging to reconstruct for orthopaedic and plastic surgeons owing to its complex bony anatomy and unique functional demands. Therefore, identifying strategies for plastic surgery of these wounds may help guide surgeons in defining the best treatment plan. We evaluated our current algorithmic approach for managing orthopaedic surgical wounds of the foot and ankle with respect to whether (1) prophylactic or simultaneous soft tissue coverage affected wound-healing complications (secondary plastic surgery, orthopaedic hardware removal, malunion, further orthopaedic surgery, ultimate failure) and (2) postoperative referral for soft tissue management was associated with wound location, size, and orthopaedic procedure. We retrospectively reviewed 112 patients who underwent elective orthopaedic foot or ankle surgery and required concomitant plastic surgery at our institution. Study end points included secondary plastic surgery procedures, hardware removal for infection, foot or ankle malunion, further orthopaedic surgery, and wound-healing failure as defined by a chronic nonhealing wound or need for amputation. Minimum followup was 0.6 months (mean, 24.9 months; range, 0.6-197 months). Four patients were lost to complete followup. We developed an algorithm that centers on two critical points of care: preoperative evaluation by the orthopaedic surgeon and evaluation and treatment by the plastic surgeon after referral. Compared with postoperative intervention, prophylactic or simultaneous soft tissue coverage did not lead to differences in frequency of secondary plastic surgery procedures (p = 0.55), hardware removal procedures (p = 0.13), malunions (p = 0.47), further orthopaedic surgery (p = 0.48), and ultimate failure (p = 0.27). Patients referred postoperatively for soft tissue management most frequently had dorsal ankle wounds (p < 0
Borges, Eline Lima; Pires, José Ferreira; Abreu, Mery Natali Silva; Lima, Vera Lúcia de Araújo; Silva, Patrícia Aparecida Barbosa; Soares, Sônia Maria
ABSTRACT Objective: to estimate the healing rate of complex surgical wounds and its associated factors. Method: retrospective cohort study from 2003 to 2014 with 160 outpatients of a Brazilian university hospital. Data were obtained through consultation of the medical records. Survival function was estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method and Cox regression model to estimate the likelihood of the occurrence of healing. Results: the complex surgical wound healing rate was 67.8% (95% CI: 60.8-74.9). Factors associated with a higher likelihood of wound healing were segmentectomy/quadrantectomy surgery, consumption of more than 20 grams/day of alcohol, wound extent of less that 17.3 cm2 and the length of existence of the wound prior to outpatient treatment of less than 15 days, while the use of hydrocolloid covering and Marlex mesh were associated with a lower likelihood of healing. Conclusion: the wound healing rate was considered high and was associated with the type of surgical intervention, alcohol consumption, type of covering, extent and length of wound existence. Preventive measures can be implemented during the monitoring of the evolution of the complex surgical wound closure, with possibilities of intervention in the modifiable risk factors. PMID:27737379
Latif, Mazlyzam Abdul; Zaki, Mohd Zulasyraf Mohd; Leng, Tai May; Rahman, Noor Hidayah Abdul; Arshad, Siti Aisyah; Hamid, Asmah
A. denudata is traditionally used to treat various skin disorders, including wounds. It is widely used by the traditional healers as an effective wound treatment. This study was done to determine A. denudata treatment effects on open wound healing activities in Wistar rat's skin. 120 Wistar rats (250-300 g) were divided into four main groups, 1.5% and 3% A. denudata stem juice treated group, 10% Solcoseryl® gel treated group as positive control and phosphate buffer saline (PBS) treated group as negative control. Six full thicknesses wounds (6mm) were induced bilaterally on the dorsal of the rat's skin. Rats were sacrificed on day 1, 3, 6, 10 and 14. The percentage of wound contraction, biochemical estimations, macroscopic observation and histological examinations were done to evaluate the wound healing activities. Results showed wounds treated with A. denudata stem juice possess a significant higher rate of wound contraction (p<0.001), total protein concentration (p<0.05), hexosamine concentration (p<0.001) and uronic acid concentration (p<0.001). Moreover, cathepsin B (p<0.05) and hydroxyproline (p<0.05) level showed lower concentration in wounds treated with A. denudata stem juice. Histological observation of wounds treated with A. denudata stem juice displayed organized epithelial layer with dense and compact collagen fibers. Both doses of A. denudata stem juice were found to enhance wound healing process. However, wounds treated with 3% A. denudata stem juice were reported to be more effective as a wound healing agent thus support its traditional usage. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Pandey, Vikas A; Wolfe, John H N
Simulation technology has a well-defined role in nonmedical professions such as aviation and over the last two decades has permeated medical training. The most successful surgical simulation is in the fields of laparoscopic and endovascular surgery. These two-dimensional scenarios, as in the aviation industry, lend themselves to simulation. Open simulators have been met with more resistance than their laparoscopic counterparts because of the difficulties in simulating the three-dimensional field. Engaging in persistent practice is what makes the expert and all trainees should aspire to this. Without knowing, all surgical trainees have engaged in deliberate practice when first learning to tie surgical knots. This deliberate practice should be used in all aspects of vascular surgical practice, and it is no longer acceptable to perform procedures such as arterial anastomoses for the first time on patients. Simulators exist for all aspects of vascular surgical training and vary in complexity and price. Some of these simulators are suitable for use at home or in a skills laboratory whereas others are more suitable for use in a specialized skills center. Training on these simulators can be offered at a local level or at a regional level in the skills center. Where surgical procedures are not commonly performed or expertise is required for a new innovation, it is more appropriate to have national or internationally based workshops under the auspices of surgical boards or societies. Simulation of crisis management, well known in aviation, has also been applied to vascular surgical practice and can offer benefit to senior trainees even when their performance on a noncrisis simulator has reached a plateau. This article identifies the areas where simulation in open vascular surgery can benefit the trainee. Copyright © 2012. Published by Mosby, Inc.
Acosta, Stefan; Björck, Martin; Petersson, Ulf
The aim of this paper was to review the literature on vacuum-assisted wound closure and mesh-mediated fascial traction (VAWCM) in open abdomen therapy. It was designed as systematic review of observational studies. A Pub Med, EMBASE and Cochrane search from 2007/01-2016/07 was performed combining the Medical Subject Headings "vacuum", "mesh-mediated fascial traction", "temporary abdominal closure", "delayed abdominal closure", "open abdomen", "abdominal compartment syndrome", "negative pressure wound therapy" or "vacuum assisted wound closure". Eleven original studies were found including patients numbering from 7 to 111. Six studies were prospective and five were retrospective. Nine studies were on mixed surgical (n = 9), vascular (n = 6) and trauma (n = 6) patients, while two were exclusively on vascular patients. The primary fascial closure rate per protocol varied from 80-100%. The time to closure of the open abdomen varied between 9-32 days. The entero-atmospheric fistula rate varied from 0-10.0%. The in-hospital survival rate varied from 57-100%. In the largest prospective study, the incisional hernia rate among survivors at 63 months of median follow-up was 54% (27/50), and 16 (33%) repairs out of 48 incisional hernias were performed throughout the study period. The study patients reported lower short form health survey (SF-36) scores than the mean reference population, mainly dependent on the prevalence of major co-morbidities. There was no difference in SF-36 scores or a modified ventral hernia pain questionnaire (VHPQ) at 5 years of follow up between those with versus those without incisional hernias. A high primary fascial closure rate can be achieved with the vacuum-assisted wound closure and meshmediated fascial traction technique in elderly, mainly non-trauma patients, in need of prolonged open abdomen therapy.
Liberatore, Vincenzo; Cavuşoğlu, M Cenk; Cai, Qingbo
In this paper, we present the design and techniques of GiPSiNet, an open source/open architecture network middleware being developed for surgical simulations. GiPSiNet extends GiPSi (General Interactive Physical Simulation Interface), our framework for developing organ level surgical simulations, to network environments. This network extension is non-trivial, since the network settings pose several serious problems for distributed surgical virtual environments such as band-width limit, delays, and packet losses. Our goal is to enhance the quality (fidelity and realism) of networked simulations in the absence of network QoS (Quality of Service) through the GiPSiNet middleware.
Karlakki, S.; Brem, M.; Giannini, S.; Khanduja, V.; Stannard, J.; Martin, R.
Objectives The period of post-operative treatment before surgical wounds are completely closed remains a key window, during which one can apply new technologies that can minimise complications. One such technology is the use of negative pressure wound therapy to manage and accelerate healing of the closed incisional wound (incisional NPWT). Methods We undertook a literature review of this emerging indication to identify evidence within orthopaedic surgery and other surgical disciplines. Literature that supports our current understanding of the mechanisms of action was also reviewed in detail. Results A total of 33 publications were identified, including nine clinical study reports from orthopaedic surgery; four from cardiothoracic surgery and 12 from studies in abdominal, plastic and vascular disciplines. Most papers (26 of 33) had been published within the past three years. Thus far two randomised controlled trials – one in orthopaedic and one in cardiothoracic surgery – show evidence of reduced incidence of wound healing complications after between three and five days of post-operative NPWT of two- and four-fold, respectively. Investigations show that reduction in haematoma and seroma, accelerated wound healing and increased clearance of oedema are significant mechanisms of action. Conclusions There is a rapidly emerging literature on the effect of NPWT on the closed incision. Initiated and confirmed first with a randomised controlled trial in orthopaedic trauma surgery, studies in abdominal, plastic and vascular surgery with high rates of complications have been reported recently. The evidence from single-use NPWT devices is accumulating. There are no large randomised studies yet in reconstructive joint replacement. Cite this article: Bone Joint Res 2013;2:276–84. PMID:24352756
Suzuki, Ryusuke; Kuroyanagi, Yoshimitsu
This study aimed to investigate the safety and utility of the polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA)-based tissue adhesive (PMMA-ta) for wound closure. This product is composed of 4-methacryloyloxyethyl trimellitate anhydride and methylmethacrylate as monomers, tri-n-butylborane as initiator, and PMMA powder as filler. These components are mixed at the time of use. This resulting paste hardens within several minutes. The safety of PMMA-ta was evaluated in an internal wound model using a cultured dermal substitute (CDS), i.e. a fibroblast-embedded collagen gel sheet. PMMA-ta was applied to one CDS, covered with a second CDS, and then cultured for 1 week (group II). A commercially available 2-octyl cyanoacrylate-based tissue adhesive (OCA) was used for comparative purposes (group I). No tissue adhesive was applied to the CDSs in the control group. Fibroblast viability was measured using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay. Cell viability in the group I was 36%, and cell viability in the group II was 84%, of that in the control group. These results indicate that PMMA-ta has lower cytotoxicity than OCA. Next, the usefulness of PMMA-ta as a tissue adhesive was evaluated in three different wound models using Sprague-Dawley rats: (1) a thin skin incision wound, (2) a thick skin incision wound, and (3) a full-thickness incision wound through the abdominal wall. The third experiment is the surgical incision model with the most severe condition. The comparative study using OCA was conducted only in the third experiment. Each wound healing process was evaluated macroscopically and histologically after 1 week, 2 weeks, and 3 months. An excellent macroscopic wound appearance was observed with both PMMA-ta and OCA, with only a slightly visible fine-line scar. Histologically, a typical primary healing was observed for both adhesives. Considering its safety and utility, PMMA-ta is therefore promising for use as a tissue adhesive in wound closure.
Dubrov, V É; Mitish, V A; Kobritsov, G P; Shabanov, V É; Baĭramov, Sh A; Khanin, M Iu
It was done the comparative analysis of treatment results of casualties with open injuries of limbs in emergency situations in peacetime. It was determined that traditional approach of field surgery is unacceptable for this group of casualties. It is connected with limitations of evacuation and high frequency of complications. The developed modified surgical protocol permits not only to provide specialized care to casualties with soft tissue trauma and open fracture of limbs but also to reduce frequency of deep suppuration in 1.9 times. Also it allows to decrease number of dressings for one patient and period of the wound defect preparation to reconstructive plastic surgeries in 2.6 and 1.5 times respectively.
Deng, Kai; Yu, Ai-Xi; Xia, Cheng-Yan; Li, Zong-Huan; Wang, Wei-Yang
The aim of this study was to investigate the efficiency of negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) combined with open bone graft (OBG; NPWT-OBG) for the treatment of bone and soft tissue defects with polluted wounds in an animal model. All rabbits with bone and soft tissue defects and polluted wounds were randomly divided into two groups, the experimental group (NPWT with bone graft) and the control group (OBG). The efficacy of the treatment was assessed by the wound conditions and healing time. Bacterial bioburdens and bony calluses were evaluated by bacteria counting and X-rays, respectively. Furthermore, granulation tissue samples from the wounds on days 0, 3, 7 and 14 of healing were evaluated for blood vessels and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) levels. Wounds in the experimental group tended to have a shorter healing time, healthier wound conditions, lower bacterial bioburden, improvement of the bony calluses and an increased blood supply compared with those in the control group. With NPWT, wound infection was effectively controlled. For wounds with osseous and soft tissue defects, NPWT combined with bone grafting was demonstrated to be more effective than an OBG.
Mintline, E M; Varga, A; Banuelos, J; Walker, K A; Hoar, B; Drake, Daniel; Weary, D M; Coetzee, J F; Stock, M L; Tucker, C B
Previous studies have shown that surgical castration wounds take between 10 and 61 d to heal. The objectives of this work were to describe healing, inflammation, lying behavior, and serum concentration of substance P after surgical castration in beef calves and to evaluate the effect of a possible intervention, a single injection of flunixin meglumine (1.1 mg/kg IV, a NSAID), on the healing process. Calves (mean±SE: 25±2.0 d of age; 54±1.4 kg BW) were surgically castrated with or without an injection of flunixin immediately before the procedure (n=24/treatment). Healing was measured with a 5-point scale (1=fresh wound, 5=no visible incision or inflammation) as well as weight gain, scrotal size, and scrotal surface temperature, on d 1, 2, 3, 7, 14, 21, 28, 35, 49, and 63 after castration. Serum concentration of substance P was recorded on all d, including d 0, but not d 63. Lying behavior was recorded with loggers from 2 d before to 29 d after castration. Inflammation, as measured by scrotal size, peaked on d 2 and 3 after the procedure (e.g., 51±1.0 mm on d 2 versus 28±1.3 mm before castration) and then declined with time (P<0.001). The first wound to score as fully healed (i.e., 5/5) was seen on d 28; by d 63, 98% of wounds were fully healed. The greatest changes in healing score occurred between d 21 and 35; this was also the peak of wound surface temperature and may correspond with revascularization. Serum concentration of substance P was highest before castration (41±1.2 pg/mL), possibly because the sample was collected after the lidocaine ring block was administered, which was likely painful, and because of separation from the dam and restraint. Values began to drop by d 3 (34±1.2 pg/mL) and leveled out by d 21 (30±1.2 pg/mL; P<0.001). Calves given flunixin had more lying bouts than those that received saline (flunixin by time interaction; P=0.052), but this pattern emerged on and after d 8, well after the 3 to 8 h half-life of this NSAID. In
Madajewski, Brian; Judy, Brendan F.; Mouchli, Anas; Kapoor, Veena; Holt, David; Wang, May D.; Nie, Shuming; Singhal, Sunil
Background Surgical resection remains the most effective therapy for solid tumors worldwide. The most important prognostic indicator for cure following cancer surgery is a complete resection with no residual disease. However, intraoperative detection of retained cancer cells after surgery is challenging, and residual disease continues to be the most common cause of local failure. We hypothesized visual enhancement of tumors using near-infrared imaging could potentially identify tumor deposits in the wound after resection. Methods A small animal model of surgery and retained disease was developed. Residual tumor deposits in the wound were targeted using an FDA approved imaging agent, indocyanine green, by the enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) effect. A novel hand-held spectrometer was used to optically visualize retained disease after surgery. Results We found residual disease using near-infrared imaging during surgery that was not visible to the naked eye or microCT. Furthermore, examination of tumor nodules was remarkably precise in delineating margins from normal surrounding tissues. This approach was most successful for tumors with increased neovasculature. Conclusions The results suggest that near-infrared examination of the surgical wound after curative resection can potentially enable the surgeon to locate residual disease. The data in this study is the basis of an ongoing Phase I/II clinical trial in patients who undergo resection for lung and breast cancer. PMID:22932668
Von Atzingen, Dênia Amélia Novato Castelli; Mendonça, Adriana Rodrigues dos Anjos; Mesquita Filho, Marcos; Alvarenga, Vinícius Alves; Assis, Vinícius Almeida; Penazzo, Afonso Esteves; Muzetti, Julio Henrique; Rezende, Thaisa Sousa
To investigate the efficacy of a 10% gel of unripe banana (Musa sapientum) peel in treating surgical wounds in rats. A longitudinal, prospective, randomized triple-blind study was conducted with 60 Wistar rats (Rattus norvegicus albinus) weighing approximately 400g. The animals were randomly divided into: control group (treated with gel containing no active ingredient) and study group (treated with 10% gel of unripe banana peel). The gel was applied every three days to a 4x4-cm surgical wound created on the back of each animal (day 0) in both groups. Tissue samples were collected for histological analysis on days 14, 21 and 28. On day 14, more extensive vascular proliferation (p=0.023), presence of mononuclear cells (p=0.000), fibroblast proliferation (p=0.012), re-epithelialization (p=0.000), and decreased presence of polymorphonuclear cells (p=0.010) were observed in the study group than in controls. No significant between-group difference in the presence of polymorphonuclear cells was found on day 21. Fibroblast proliferation was significantly greater (p=0.006) in the study group than in the control group on day 28. The 10% gel of unripe banana peel showed anti-inflammatory activity and stimulated wound healing in rat skin when compared with a gel containing no active ingredient.
Myers, S R; Navsaria, H A; Brain, A N; Purkis, P E; Leigh, I M
AIMS--To establish the structural changes that occur in deep surgical wounds engrafted with allogeneic sheets, their time course and inter-relation. METHODS--Deep surgical wounds following shave excision of tattoos (down to deep dermis/subcutaneous fat) were treated with sheets of sex mismatched allogeneic keratinocytes in 19 patients and then biopsied weekly until wound healing was complete. More superficial surgical wounds--that is, 20 standard skin graft donor sites, were biopsied at seven to 10 days (all healed) following application of keratinocyte allografts. All biopsy specimens were examined with a large panel of monoclonal antibodies to keratins, envelope proteins, basement membrane components, and to extracellular matrix components. RESULTS--The hyperproliferative keratin pair K6/16 was expressed in all wounds, for up to six weeks in keratinocyte grafted deep wounds, and up to six months in split thickness skin grafted wounds. CONCLUSIONS--Keratins 6 and 16 have not been detected in normal skin, although the relevant mRNA has. This raises the possibility of regulation at a post-transcriptional level allowing a rapid response to injury with cytoskeletal changes that may aid cell migration. This keratin pair offers the most sensitive marker for altered epidermis following wounding. Images PMID:8567992
Fernandez-Moure, Joseph S; Van Eps, Jeffrey L; Peress, Lilia; Cantu, Concepcion; Olsen, Randall J; Jenkins, Leslie; Cabrera, Fernando J; Tasciotti, Ennio; Weiner, Bradley K; Dunkin, Brian J
Surgical energy has been widely implemented because of ease of use, effective hemostasis, and surgical dissection. Studies demonstrate its use to be an independent risk factor for postoperative wound infection. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is the most common bacteria found in postoperative mesh infection. No reports are available on the sequelae of surgical energy use for open ventral hernia repair (oVHR) with mesh. We hypothesized that increasing amounts of surgical energy will result in higher infectious burden after oVHR with composite multifilament polyester mesh (Parietex™ PCO). New Zealand rabbits underwent bridging oVHR with Parietex™ PCO and were divided into three surgical treatment groups: (1) scalpel alone, (2) 120 J of energy, and (3) 600 J of energy. The bioprosthesis was then inoculated with 10(5) colony-forming units of MRSA. Rabbits were survived for 7 days with daily physical examination. Complete blood count, basci metabolic panel, and blood cultures were performed on postoperative days one, four, and seven. Surviving rabbits were killed, and meshes explanted for MRSA colony counts. Rabbits receiving the most surgical energy developed signs and symptoms of severe sepsis and wound necrosis within 24 h. In comparison, rabbits receiving no surgical energy had significantly less MRSA recovered from explanted mesh, significantly less bacteremia, and fewer adhesions. Increased use of surgical energy promoted greater colonization, exaggerated septic response to bacterial contamination, and more severe adhesions. In the absence of devitalized tissue, rabbits can effectively limit bacterial contamination. These findings support the surgical principles of proper tissue handling and highlight the detrimental effects of indiscriminant surgical energy usage, thus emphasizing the importance of programs such as Fundamental Use of Surgical Energy.
... sneeze to ease discomfort and protect your incision. Wound Care Care for your incision as instructed . If ... Instructions Getting out of bed after surgery Surgical wound care - open Wet to dry dressing changes Review ...
Chieng, Lee Onn; Hubbard, Zachary; Salgado, Christopher J; Levi, Allan D; Chim, Harvey
OBJECT A systematic review of the available evidence on the prophylactic and therapeutic use of flaps for the coverage of complex spinal soft-tissue defects was performed to determine if the use of flaps reduces postoperative complications and improves patient outcomes. METHODS A PubMed database search was performed to identify English-language articles published between 1990 and 2014 that contained the following phrases to describe postoperative wounds ("wound," "complex back wound," "postoperative wound," "spine surgery") and intervention ("flap closure," "flap coverage," "soft tissue reconstruction," "muscle flap"). RESULTS In total, 532 articles were reviewed with 17 articles meeting the inclusion criteria of this study. The risk factors from the pooled analysis of 262 patients for the development of postoperative complex back wounds that necessitated muscle flap coverage included the involvement of instrumentation (77.6%), a previous history of radiotherapy (33.2%), smoking (20.6%), and diabetes mellitus (17.2%). In patients with instrumentation, prophylactic coverage of the wound with a well-vascularized flap was shown to result in a lower incidence of wound complications. One study showed a statistically significant decrease in complications compared with patients where prophylactic coverage was not performed (20% vs 45%). The indications for flap coverage after onset of wound complications included hardware exposure, wound infection, dehiscence, seroma, and hematoma. Flap coverage was shown to decrease the number of surgical debridements needed and also salvage hardware, with the rate of hardware removal after flap coverage ranging from 0% to 41.9% in 4 studies. CONCLUSIONS Prophylactic coverage with flaps in high-risk patients undergoing spine surgery reduces complications, while therapeutic coverage following wound complications allows the salvage of hardware in the majority of patients.
Fialkova, M A; Smirnova, T Iu; Ivanova, G I; Aboiants, R K; Golubeva, V F
An experimental investigation of the ability of the chondroitinsulphate preparation produced from cattle tracheas, of rumalon and chonsuride to stimulate the regeneration of cutaneous coverings in case of their injury was carried out. A strength of the surgical cicatrix and its elongation at rupture in two weeks' injections of chondroitinsulphate increased in comparison with control. A stimulating effect of chondroitinsulphate to regeneration of flesh wound in case of local single action didn't differ essentially from the effect of chonsuride. In case of application of the preparations, an area of wound for the rats received chondroitinsulphate was already on the eighth day twice as less in comparison with the animals treated with chonsuride. Thus, a stimulating effect of chondroitinsulphate preparation to the regeneration of damaged cutaneous coverings by both parenteral and local administration was shown.
Young, Christopher N J; Ng, Ka Ying Bonnie; Webb, Vanessa; Vidow, Sarah; Parasuraman, Rajeswari; Umranikar, Sameer
beyond the boundaries of the original Cesarean incision. The patient was pleased with treatment outcomes, reporting no lasting pain or discomfort from the scar. This report represents the first documented use of NPWT to aid healing of an actively infected, open wound following extensive surgical debridement 10 days post-Cesarean section, confirming both the efficacy and tolerability of NPWT for the treatment of severe bacterial cellulitis in obstetric debridement.
Ferrari, Roberta; Boracchi, Patrizia; Romussi, Stefano; Ravasio, Giuliano; Stefanello, Damiano
Aim: Veterinarians have frequently to deal with wounds to the skin, subcutis, and underlying muscle. The aim was to explore the application of hyaluronic acid (HA)-containing dressing on open skin wounds in dogs. The progress of healing was assessed by wound area reduction and two scoring scales applied in human medicine. Materials and Methods: Ten client-owned dogs with 12 cutaneous open wounds healed by the second intention were included. All wounds were treated using available in commerce HA-containing wound dressing from admission to complete re-epithelialization. At every clinical examination, wound area and scale scoring assessments were performed. Results: After debridement, an increased wound size was obtained while an improvement was determined by both grading systems. The median numbers of return to the clinic for bandage change were 5 times. The median time to complete wound healing was 34.5 days. The mean wound area at day 7, 14, 21, and 28 were, respectively, 90.4%, 47.7%, 22.4%, and 14.8% of the original size (for linear measurement) and 95.5%, 54.4%, 23.10%, and 14.8% of the original size (for software measurement). Regarding wound healing assessment tools, the agreement between two operators was considered high for both scales. Conclusions: HA-containing dressing may be a possible wound treatment for cutaneous open wounds in dogs. The assessment of wound quality using scale scoring system could be useful especially in the 1st week and to direct clinical decision-making process. PMID:27047026
Gul Satar, N Y; Cangul, I T; Topal, A; Kurt, H; Ipek, V; Onel, G I
The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical and histopathological effects of two different dosages of alcohol extract of Tarantula cubensis (Theranekron) on open wounds. A total of 24 Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into Tarantula cubensis extract (TCE1, n=8) 1/10 diluted, TCE (TCE2, n=8), and (3) vehicle-control (0.2 ml of 96 % ethanol, n=8) groups. Experimental full-thickness 1 x 1cm wounds were created on dorsum skin. TCE or vehicle were given systemically by subcutaneous injections on postoperative days 1 and 4. Wound planimetry and procurement of biopsies was performed on days 4, 8, 12 and 16. The mean non-epithelialised wound area in the vehicle-control group was significantly larger than in the TCE1 group on days 4, 8, 12 and 16, and in the TCE2 group on days 8, 12 and 16 (p<0.05). The mean percentage of wound contraction was significantly higher in the TCE1 and TCE2 groups than in the vehicle control group on days 8, 12 and 16 (p<0.05). Histopathologically, wound healing was characterised by a significant decrease in the neutrophil counts and a significant increase in neovascularisation; neither were effected by TCE. Our results suggest that alcohol extract of Tarantula cubensis accelerates epithelialisation and, thus, has beneficial effects on open wound healing in rats.
Regner, Justin L; Kobayashi, Leslie; Coimbra, Raul
Since the mid-1990s the surgical community has seen a surge in the prevalence of open abdomens (OAs) reported in the surgical literature and in clinical practice. The OA has proven to be effective in decreasing mortality and immediate postoperative complications; however, it may come at the cost of delayed morbidity and the need for further surgical procedures. Indications for leaving the abdomen open have broadened to include damage control surgery, abdominal compartment syndrome, and abdominal sepsis. The surgical options for management of the OA are now more diverse and sophisticated, but there is a lack of prospective randomized controlled trials demonstrating the superiority of any particular method. Additionally, critical care strategies for optimization of the patient with an OA are still being developed. Review of the literature suggests a bimodal distribution of primary closure rates, with early closure dependent on postoperative intensive care management and delayed closure more affected by the choice of the temporary abdominal closure technique. Invariably, a small fraction of patients requiring OA management fail to have primary fascial closure and require some form of biologic fascial bridge with delayed ventral hernia repair in the future.
Mosiagin, V B; Ryl'kov, V F; Moiseev, A A
The data of the follow-up study of 60 patients with wounds of the neck are presented in this article. The authors describe the volume and severity of injuries of the neck and at the same time examine the difficulties of diagnostics and treatment. The scope of investigations, the necessity of consultation of "narrow" specialist, the volume of surgical handbook and the conservative therapy are determined. The significance of the up-to-date methods of instrumental researches, such as computed tomography, Doppler tomography, are emphasized particularly for evaluation of the injury volume.
Lins, Ruthinéia Diógenes Alves Uchôa; Gomes, Raquel Christina Barboza; dos Santos, Kátia Simone Alves; da Silva, Paula Vanessa; da Silva, Renata Torres Moreira; Ramos, Ianny Alves
Cyanoacrylate has been used in several fields of different surgical specialties as an adhesive for closure of gingival flaps and in mucous and cutaneous lacerations. One of its advantages is that it has an excellent immunological response. In view of aesthetic needs, cyanoacrylate has been applied with satisfactory results, when compared with sutures. It presents better coaptation of edges of cutaneous and mucosal lesions, smaller residual scars, and biocompatibility. However, it is limited to areas of little tissue tension. This work attempts to provide a literature review with the aim of revealing the advantages of using tissue adhesives, especially cyanoacrylates, in wound coaptation in comparison with conventional methods. PMID:23197206
Kaafarani, Haytham M A; Kaufman, Derrick; Reda, Domenic; Itani, Kamal M F
Surgical site infection (SSI) after ventral incisional hernia repair (VIH) can result in serious consequences. We sought to identify patient, procedure, and/or hernia characteristics that are associated with SSI in VIH. Between 2004 and 2006, patients were randomized in four Veteran Affairs (VA) hospitals to undergo laparoscopic or open VIH. Patients who developed SSI within eight weeks postoperatively were compared to those who did not. A bivariate analysis for each factor and a multiple logistic regression analysis were performed to determine factors associated with SSI. The variables studied included patient characteristics and co-morbidities (e.g., age, gender, race, ethnicity, body mass index, ASA classification, diabetes, steroid use), hernia characteristics (e.g., size, duration, number of previous incisions), procedure characteristics (e.g., open versus laparoscopic, blood loss, use of postoperative drains, operating room temperature) and surgeons' experience (resident training level, number of open VIH previously performed by the attending surgeon). Antibiotic prophylaxis, anticoagulation protocols, preparation of the skin, draping of the wound, body temperature control, and closure of the surgical site were all standardized and monitored throughout the study period. Out of 145 patients who underwent VIH, 21 developed a SSI (14.5%). Patients who underwent open VIH had significantly more SSIs than those who underwent laparoscopic VIH (22.1% versus 3.4%; P = 0.002). Among patients who underwent open VIH, those who developed SSI had a recorded intraoperative blood loss greater than 25 mL (68.4% versus 40.3%; P = 0.030), were more likely to have a drain placed (79.0% versus 49.3%; P = 0.021) and were more likey to be operated on by surgeons with less than 75 open VIH case experience (52.6% versus 28.4%; P = 0.048). Patient and hernia characteristics were similar between the two groups. In a multiple logistic regression analysis, the open surgical technique was
Kim, Bradford J; Aloia, Thomas A
Despite the creation of several programs to decrease the incidence of surgical site infection, it remains a common complication that has a significant impact on patient recovery and medical costs. The following is a description and brief outcome report of a modified primary closure technique used for dirty (Class IV) wounds. There were 14 consecutive patients who had a laparotomy with Class IV wounds treated by a single surgeon (TAA) from 2011 to 2015. All patients had a history of cancer and either showed signs suggestive for an acute abdomen and required an emergent exploratory laparotomy or were found to have purulent intraabdominal infection at the time of elective surgery. The operation and "modified primary closure" technique (subcutaneous wound wicks with stapled skin closure) were performed in every case. The modified primary closure technique was utilized in 14 patients with a Class IV wound. There were no 30-day mortalities or readmissions. Wound wicks were slowly advanced out over a 7-day period, and only one patient required subsequent wound packing of a single-wicked area. There were no superficial or deep surgical site infections, or wound dehiscence during the hospital course, or 30-day postoperative period. The modified primary closure technique is efficient and inexpensive and was effective in a series of 14 patients with wounds classified as dirty.
Goi, Takanori; Ueda, Yuki; Nakazawa, Toshiyuki; Sawai, Katsuji; Morikawa, Mitsuhiro; Yamaguchi, Akio
In addition to the general surgical-site infection prevention measures in colorectal cancer surgery, we performed a simple subcutaneous scrubbing procedure with gauze at the time of abdominal closure, which reduced the incidence of wound infections. There are 289 patients whose primary colon cancer lesions were removed by elective surgeries. They were divided into Group A (74 patients with no wound infection prevention measures who were treated from 2002 to 2003), Group B (76 patients with wound infection prevention measures who were treated from 2007 to 2008), and Group C (139 patients with subcutaneous scrubbing with gauze plus the measures in Group B who were treated from 2009 to 2012). The incidence in Group A was 23%, while the corresponding values in Group B and Group C were 14.5% and 2.9%, respectively. The incidence of wound infections was substantially reduced by additional subcutaneous scrubbing with a saline solution and gauze during closure of a surgical incision. This very simple procedure was considered useful for surgical site infection prevention. PMID:24444266
Yamamoto, Takumi; Yoshimatsu, Hidehiko; Hayashi, Akitatsu; Koshima, Isao
The treatment of deep pressure ulcer with a wide wound edge undermining (pocket) is challenging, especially when conservative treatments are ineffective. As most patients with a pressure ulcer suffer from systemic comorbidities, invasive surgery cannot be performed on all patients, and less invasive treatment is required. Less invasive surgical intervention to a deep pressure ulcer, parallel pocket incision (PPI), was performed on 10 patients with intractable pressure ulcers with a pocket formation. In PPI procedures, two parallel skin incisions were made to open up the deepest fold of the pocket and to preserve the skin overlying the pocket lesion; through the created incisions, the necrotic tissues around the deepest fold of the undermining could be easily removed, which facilitated spontaneous wound healing. Postoperative results and complications were evaluated. All PPI procedures were safely performed under local infiltration anesthesia without major postoperative complication; minor bleeding was seen intraoperatively in three patients, which could be easily controlled with electric cautery coagulation. Nine of 10 ulcers were cured after PPI, and one could not be followed up due to the patient's death non-related to the pressure ulcer. For the nine cured patients, the average time for cure was 14.9 weeks, and no recurrence was observed at postoperative 6 months. PPI is a simple, technically easy, and less invasive surgical intervention to an intractable pressure ulcer with a pocket, which can be safely performed under local infiltration anesthesia even on a patient with severe systemic comorbidities. Copyright © 2015 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
YILMAZ, Özge Turna; TOYDEMIR, T. Seval Fatma; KIRŞAN, İsmail; DOKUZEYLUL, Banu; GUNAY, Zeynep; KARACAM, Esra
The analgesic effect of wound infiltration with bupivacaine was evaluated in cats undergoing bilateral mastectomy. Twenty-one female cats with mammary gland tumors were anesthetized with propofol and oxygen-isoflurane anesthesia following premedication with atropine. In the trial group (Group I; n=11), 30 ml of saline containing 2 mg/kg of bupivacaine was infiltrated topically into the surgical wound right after removal of the mammary glands, whereas only saline solution was infiltrated in the control group (Group II; n=10). At the same time, carprofen (4 mg/kg) was also administered subcutaneously in both groups. Behavioral signs of pain were monitored during the recovery period after general anesthesia. In order to examine the behavioral changes associated with acute pain, a questionnaire was prepared and given to the owners to be completed 4 hr and then 10 hr after the operation. According to the owners’ anwers to the questionnaire, a pain score was specified using a “numerical rating scale” for each cat. Although some cats showed mild to moderate pain, the pain score recorded at 4 hr after the operation was significantly lower in Group I (P<0.001). No significant difference was found at 10 hr after the operation between the groups. The incidence of vocalization, aggression and convulsion within 2 hr after the operation was also lower in Group I. In conclusion, wound infiltration with bupivacaine before incisional closure provided reliable analgesia at least 4 hr after bilateral radical mastectomy in cats. PMID:25649941
Yilmaz, Özge Turna; Toydemir, T Seval Fatma; Kirşan, İsmail; Dokuzeylul, Banu; Gunay, Zeynep; Karacam, Esra
The analgesic effect of wound infiltration with bupivacaine was evaluated in cats undergoing bilateral mastectomy. Twenty-one female cats with mammary gland tumors were anesthetized with propofol and oxygen-isoflurane anesthesia following premedication with atropine. In the trial group (Group I; n=11), 30 ml of saline containing 2 mg/kg of bupivacaine was infiltrated topically into the surgical wound right after removal of the mammary glands, whereas only saline solution was infiltrated in the control group (Group II; n=10). At the same time, carprofen (4 mg/kg) was also administered subcutaneously in both groups. Behavioral signs of pain were monitored during the recovery period after general anesthesia. In order to examine the behavioral changes associated with acute pain, a questionnaire was prepared and given to the owners to be completed 4 hr and then 10 hr after the operation. According to the owners' anwers to the questionnaire, a pain score was specified using a "numerical rating scale" for each cat. Although some cats showed mild to moderate pain, the pain score recorded at 4 hr after the operation was significantly lower in Group I (P<0.001). No significant difference was found at 10 hr after the operation between the groups. The incidence of vocalization, aggression and convulsion within 2 hr after the operation was also lower in Group I. In conclusion, wound infiltration with bupivacaine before incisional closure provided reliable analgesia at least 4 hr after bilateral radical mastectomy in cats.
Perekhodov, S N; Kokhan, E P; Gliantsev, S P; Galik, N I
According to consolidated data the frequency of injuries of blood vessels during the Great Patriotic war 1941-1945 was 2.3-4.9%. In the first and the second period of the war the temporary hemostasia on the battlefield was delivered via surgical tubing, tamponade or compressing bandage; the final--via deligation of the arteries in the wound or overlap of hemostatic clamp or the amputation was performed. In the process of delivering of the knowledgeable medical assistance garrot was removed, traumatonesis was performed and the final hemostasia was performed via vasoligation in the wound or along it, than transfused. In some hospitals were organized special units for patients with injuries of vessels. In the third period of the war the main method of primary and secondary hemostasia was vasoligation in the wound or along it. The vessel suture was performed rarer than in the first and the second period. The methods of treatment and prophylaxis of complication of vessel's injury were examined.
XIMENES, Agláia Moreira Garcia; MELLO, Fernando Salvo Torres; de LIMA-JÚNIOR, Zailton Bezerra; FERREIRA, Cícero Faustino; CAVALCANTI, Amanda Dantas Ferreira; DIAS-FILHO, Adalberto Vieira
Background The choice of surgical technique to approach the appendicular stump depends mostly on skill and personal preference of the surgeon or on the protocol used in the service, and the influence of this choice in hospitalization time is not evaluated. Aim To evaluate the relation between surgical technique and postoperative hospitalization time in patients presenting with acute appendicitis. Methods Retrospective analysis of 180 patients who underwent open appendectomy. These where divided into three groups according to surgical technique: conventional appendectomy (simple ligation of the stump), tobacco pouch suture and Parker-Kerr suture. Data where crossed with hospitalization time (until three days, from four to six days and over seven days). Results A hundred and eighty patients with age from 15 to 85 years where included. From these, 95 underwent conventional technique, had an average hospitalization time of 3,9 days and seven had complications (surgical site infection, seroma, suture dehiscence and evisceration). In 67 patients, tobacco pouch suture was chosen and had average hospitalization time of 3,7 days and two complications (infection and seroma). In 18 Parker-Kerr suture was made, with average hospitalization time of 2,6 days, with no complication. Contingency coefficient between the variables hospitalization time and technique was 0,255 and Cramér's V was 0,186. Conclusion There was tendency to larger hospitalization time and larger number of complications in conventional appendectomy, whereas in patients where Parker-Kerr suture was performed, hospitalization time was significantly smaller. PMID:25184769
Lee, Jaewook; Kim, JiEun; Go, Jun; Lee, Jong Ho; Han, Dong-Wook; Hwang, DaeYoun; Lee, Jaebeom
The biological activities and therapeutic potential of phytochemical-decorated Au nanoparticles (Phyto-AuNPs) were investigated through the treatment of Phyto-AuNPs on the dorsal skin of rats via transdermal drug delivery process in order to regenerate surgical wounded and burned skin. Two different Phyto-AuNPs were applied to the dorsal skin: gallic acid-isoflavone--covered AuNPs (GI-AuNPs) and protocatechuic acid-isoflavone--covered AuNPs (PI-AuNPs). From the biological activity monitoring, it has been resulted that 5-fold thicker epidermis (ER), 50% reduction of metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1) level, 3-fold higher superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity were obtained in the Phyto-AuNP-treated group, compared with a vehicle group (deionized water (DI-water) treatment). Moreover, the Phyto-AuNPs treatment on the surgical and burn damaged Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats induced higher expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and angiopoietin-2 (Ang-2). It would be plausible that antioxidant property of Phyto-AuNPs assist the acceleration and activation of biomolecules in the healing mechanism, where Phyto-AuNPs can be potential candidates for skin regeneration and wound healing.
Hayashi, Ken; Ogawa, Soichiro; Yoshida, Motoaki; Yoshimura, Koichi
To compare intraocular pressure (IOP) immediately after cataract surgery, and surgically induced corneal astigmatism (SIA) and corneal shape changes between eyes with transconjunctival single-plane sclerocorneal incisions (TSSIs) and eyes with clear corneal incisions (CCIs). Bilateral eyes of 64 patients undergoing phacoemulsification were randomized to undergo 2.4-mm temporal TSSI or CCI. IOP was measured preoperatively, and in the immediate postoperative periods. SIA was determined using vector analysis, and corneal shape changes and irregular astigmatism were evaluated using a videokeratography preoperatively, and in the early postoperative periods. Wound hydration was performed in 23 eyes (35.9 %) of the TSSI group and in 60 (93.8 %) of the CCI group (P < 0.0001). Mean IOP was significantly higher in the TSSI group than in the CCI group at 30, 60, and 120 min postoperatively (P ≤ 0.0179). SIA tended to be smaller in the TSSI group than the CCI group, but the difference was not significant. The higher order irregular astigmatism was smaller in the TSSI group than in the CCI group at 2 days (P = 0.0312). The videokeratography revealed a wound-related flattening postoperatively in both groups; this change disappeared within 4 weeks in the TSSI group, whereas it persisted until 12 weeks in the CCI group. IOP was significantly higher immediately after TSSI than after CCI and required less wound hydration, suggesting better stability with TSSI. Higher order irregular astigmatism and wound-related corneal flattening were smaller after TSSI than after CCI in the early periods, suggesting that fewer corneal shape changes with TSSI.
Eberhardt, Doris; Berg, Almuth; Fleischer, Steffen; Langer, Gero
An appropriate postoperative wound management helps to prevent surgical site infections. However, ideal timing of dressing removal is an unresolved issue in current practice. The objective of this systematic review therefore was to provide a comprehensive synthesis of existing evidence concerning the efficacy of different periods of postoperative dressing removal in surgical wounds which are healing by primary intention. We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, The Cochrane Library (all in August 2011), and hand-searched additional sources. All randomised controlled trials that were comparing different periods of leaving dressings in place, including not dressing the surgical site at all, and covering wounds until suture removal were included. We conducted our systematic review and meta-analysis in accordance with the recommendations of the Cochrane Collaboration. Eight trials with a total of 2097 participants were included in our meta-analysis. All studies were at high or unclear risk of bias. This meta-analysis did not show a higher rate of wound infections or other wound complications associated with an early dressing removal in wounds that are healing by primary intention: risk difference (RD) -0.01; 95%-confidence interval (CI) -0.03, 0.01. However, conclusions are limited due to bad study quality of included studies. Finally more sound research is needed.
Kimberley, Nicholas A.; Kirkpatrick, Susan M.; Watters, James M.
Objective To compare the effects of laparoscopic and open surgical procedures on postoperative strength and respiratory mechanics. Design Prospective cohort study. Setting Adult university hospital. Participants Fifty-one women aged 21 to 62 years scheduled to undergo elective cholecystectomy or hysterectomy (or related procedures), otherwise in good health. Intervention Open or laparoscopic cholecystectomy or hysterectomy (or related procedures). Main Outcome Measures Maximum voluntary handgrip strength (HGS), forced vital capacity (VC), forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1), and maximal inspiratory pressure (MIP) were each measured preoperatively and on the first postoperative morning. A visual analogue pain scale score was evaluated in relation to performance of the postoperative strength and respiratory measurements. Results VC, FEV1 and MIP, but not HGS, were decreased after surgery. Postoperative VC, FEV1 and MIP were lower after open procedures than after laparoscopic procedures and after cholecystectomy than after hysterectomy (all p < 0.001). Pain scores were lower after laparoscopic than after open procedures (p < 0.005) and could account in part for differences in postoperative respiratory mechanics. Conclusions Cholecystectomy and hysterectomy do not result in generalized muscle weakness, unlike more major abdominal procedures. Postoperative alterations in respiratory mechanics are related to the site of the surgery, the use of an open versus a laparoscopic approach and postoperative pain. PMID:8697322
Sipponen, Arno; Kuokkanen, Opri; Tiihonen, Raine; Kauppinen, Harri; Jokinen, Janne J
Resin is a natural product of coniferous trees. Salves manufactured from spruce resin (Picea abies) have been used for centuries to treat wounds and skin infections. We report a pilot clinical trial designed to investigate healing rates, factors that contribute to delayed wound healing, cost-effectiveness, and incidence of allergic reactions when resin salve is used to treat complicated surgical wounds. The trial involved 23 patients in whom wound healing after surgery was delayed. These patients were assigned to resin salve treatment. The primary outcome measure was the number of days to complete wound healing. Secondary objectives included an assessment of factors contributing to delayed wound healing, an estimation of associated costs, and an investigation into the occurrence of allergic reactions related to resin salve therapy. The study achieved a healing rate of 100%. The mean ± SD healing time was 43 ± 24 days. The mean ± SD wound size (length × width × depth) was (29 ± 19) × (12 ± 7) × (4 ± 3) mm. Wound size, use of corticosteroids or other immunosuppressants, and immobilization were statistically significant (P < 0.05) contributors to delayed wound healing and impaired re-epithelialization. The total mean ± SD costs of the resin salve treatment were €45.0 ± 26.0 per patient during the entire treatment period and €1.2 ± 0.5 per treatment day. The rate of allergic reactions was 0%. The results of this pilot trial indicate that complicated surgical wounds may be treated successfully with resin salve. The treatment method is clinically effective and cost-effective, and the rate of allergic reactions is low. © 2012 The International Society of Dermatology.
Devaux, D; Steiner, A; Pipoz, F; Nuss, K
The aim of this retrospective study was to document secondary wound healing and outcome in 20 cattle that had undergone digit amputation at the level of the distal metaphysis of the first phalanx between April 2009 and June 2015. The surgical technique for amputation was simple and fast, and granulation tissue covered the stump of the first phalanx 9 to 30 days postoperatively. Complications associated with wound healing were seen in 7 animals and in 3, a second surgery was required; all 20 cattle were discharged from the clinic. Epithelial closure was complete after a mean of 3 months (range, 2 to 7 months). The mean postoperative survival time was 15 months (range, 1 to 34 months), and 6 animals were still alive at the time of follow-up inquiry. Wound healing and long-term outcome did not differ between cattle that had undergone a more intensive aftercare regime than those with a less intensive postoperative treatment.
Zakliczynski, Michael; Nozynski, Jerzy; Kocher, Alfred; Lizak, Maria K; Zakliczynska, Helena; Przybylski, Roman; Wojarski, Jacek; Zembala, Marian
The aim of this retrospective analysis was to assess the influence of rapamycin (RAPA) used perioperatively on surgical complications in heart transplant recipients. The study group consisted of 28 heart transplant recipients (26M/2F, 49.2+/-11 years) receiving 15 mg of RAPA before operation, 10 mg of RAPA on the first postoperative day (POD) and 5 mg daily (n=20) thereafter, or 5 mg daily starting on POD 2 (n=8), until the introduction of cyclosporine-A. A matched historical control group was composed of 28 patients (26M/2F, 49.7+/-9 years) receiving cyclosporine-A from POD 1. We compared a number of surgical complications and reinterventions among groups. Statistical significance was assessed using the chi-square test and the Mann-Whitney U-test. There were 16 (57%) patients in the study group vs. six (21%) in the control group requiring reintervention (p=0.014). Pericardial tamponade decompression was performed in seven (25%) vs. zero patients, and sternum refixation in seven (25%) vs. zero patients (p=0.015). None of the wounds was infected. The overall drainage volume was 4,213+/-5,996 vs. 1,911+/-1,728 mL (p=NS). The frequencies of biopsy-proven rejection and infection were comparable, except lower cytomegalovirus infection rates in the study group: three (11%) vs. 11 (39%) for the control group (p=0.023). The use of RAPA in the perioperative period of heart transplantation increases the risk of surgical wound-healing complications.
Craig, David H.; Owen, Cheri R.; Conway, William C.; Walsh, Mary F.; Downey, Christina; Basson, Marc D.
Iatrogenic tumor cell implantation within surgical wounds can compromise curative cancer surgery. Adhesion of cancer cells, in particular colon cancer cells, is stimulated by exposure to increased extracellular pressure through a cytoskeleton-dependent signaling mechanism requiring FAK, Src, Akt, and paxillin. Mechanical stimuli during tumor resection may therefore negatively impact patient outcome. We hypothesized that perioperative administration of colchicine, which prevents microtubule polymerization, could disrupt pressure-stimulated tumor cell adhesion to surgical wounds and enhance tumor-free survival. Ex vivo treatment of Co26 and Co51 colon cancer cells with colchicine inhibited pressure-stimulated cell adhesion to murine surgical wounds and blocked pressure-induced FAK and Akt phosphorylation. Surgical wound contamination with pressure-activated Co26 and Co51 cells significantly reduced tumor-free survival compared with contamination with tumor cells under ambient pressure. Mice treated with pressure-activated Co26 and Co51 cells from tumors preoperatively treated with colchicine in vivo displayed reduced surgical site implantation and significantly increased tumor-free survival compared with mice exposed to pressure-activated cells from tumors not pretreated with colchicine. Our data suggest that pressure activation of malignant cells promotes tumor development and impairs tumor-free survival and that perioperative colchicine administration or similar interventions may inhibit this effect. PMID:18704196
Lord, J W; Rossi, G; Daliana, M
Intraoperative antibiotic wound lavage has been used in all arterial reconstructive procedures for the past 7 years and reduced the incidence of early and late postoperative infections from 1.5% in 400 operations prior to 1969 to 0.23% (one post-hospital) in 434 patients operated since that date. In 226 consecutive clean major general surgical procedures since June 1971 there has been no early or late wound infections following intraoperative antibiotic wound lavage in contrast to an infection rate of 1.5% in 185 operations prior to that date. A double blind study of 200 patients undergoing operations for varicose veins was carried out as follows: The wounds of alternate patients were irrigated either with normal saline or with antibiotic solution. There were no gross (grade II) postoperative wound infections. Minor skin changes were noted in 93 of 632 incisions in the saline group and only 49 of 608 incisions irrigated with antibiotic solution (P less than 0.001). In clean operations without antibiotic wound lavage there was a 0.73% rate of in-hospital wound infections in 685 patients in contrast to a zero rate in 760 patients wherein intraoperative wound lavage was carried out throughout the operative procedure.
Brown, Brian; Tanner, Judith; Padley, Wendy
In this article we explore the experience of suffering from a surgical site infection, a common complication of surgery affecting around 5 per cent of surgical patients, via an interview study of 17 patients in the Midlands in the UK. Despite their prevalence, the experience of surgical site infections has received little attention so far. In spite of the impairment resulting from these iatrogenic problems, participants expressed considerable stoicism and we interpret this via the notion of emotional capital. This idea derives from the work of Pierre Bourdieu, Helga Nowotny and Diane Reay and helps us conceptualise the emotional resources accumulated and expended in managing illness and in gaining the most from healthcare services. Participants were frequently at pains not to blame healthcare personnel or hospitals, often discounting the infection's severity, and attributing it to chance, to 'germs' or to their own failure to buy and apply wound care products. The participants' stoicism was thus partly afforded by their refusal to blame healthcare institutions or personnel. Where anger was described, this was either defused or expressed on behalf of another person. Emotional capital is associated with deflecting the possibility of complaint and sustaining a deferential and grateful position in relation to the healthcare system. © 2014 The Authors. Sociology of Health & Illness © 2014 Foundation for the Sociology of Health & Illness/John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Brown, Brian; Tanner, Judith; Padley, Wendy
In this article we explore the experience of suffering from a surgical site infection, a common complication of surgery affecting around 5 per cent of surgical patients, via an interview study of 17 patients in the Midlands in the UK. Despite their prevalence, the experience of surgical site infections has received little attention so far. In spite of the impairment resulting from these iatrogenic problems, participants expressed considerable stoicism and we interpret this via the notion of emotional capital. This idea derives from the work of Pierre Bourdieu, Helga Nowotny and Diane Reay and helps us conceptualise the emotional resources accumulated and expended in managing illness and in gaining the most from healthcare services. Participants were frequently at pains not to blame healthcare personnel or hospitals, often discounting the infection's severity, and attributing it to chance, to ‘germs’ or to their own failure to buy and apply wound care products. The participants' stoicism was thus partly afforded by their refusal to blame healthcare institutions or personnel. Where anger was described, this was either defused or expressed on behalf of another person. Emotional capital is associated with deflecting the possibility of complaint and sustaining a deferential and grateful position in relation to the healthcare system. PMID:25470322
Díaz-Agero Pérez, Cristina; Robustillo Rodela, Ana; Pita López, María José; López Fresneña, Nieves; Monge Jodrá, Vicente
The Indicadores Clínicos de Mejora Continua de la Calidad (INCLIMECC) program was established in Spain in 1997. INCLIMECC is a prospective system of health care-associated infection (HAI) surveillance that collects incidence data in surgical and intensive care unit patients. The protocol is based on the National Healthcare Safety Network (NHSN) surveillance system, formerly known as the National Nosocomial Infection Surveillance (NNIS) system, and uses standard infection definitions from the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Each hospital takes part voluntarily and selects the units and surgical procedures to be surveyed. This report is a summary of the data collected between January 1997 and June 2012. A total of 370,015 patients were included, and the overall incidence of surgical wound infection (SWI) was 4.51%. SWI rates are provided by NHSN operating procedure category and NNIS risk index category. More than 27% of the patients received inadequate antibiotic prophylaxis, the main reason being unsuitable duration (57.05% of cases). Today, the INCLIMECC network includes 64 Spanish hospitals. We believe that an HAI surveillance system with trained personnel external to the surveyed unit is a key component not only in infection control and prevention, but also in a quality improvement system. Copyright © 2014. Published by Mosby, Inc.
Monich, Victor A.; Malinovskaya, Svetlana L.; Lokhmachova, Elvira; Vorobjev, Andrei
It is shown, that direct, of low-intensity luminescent incoherent radiation (LUMIR) exposure on the surgery skin wound, causes the acceleration of wound healing in rats. The influence of LUMIR spectrum at the wound healing processes was found.
Persson, M; Svenberg, T; Poppen, B
To find out what patients' attitudes were to wound care after abdominal operations to ensure that patients' own views were not violated by introducing a new method of wound care. Randomised study. University hospital, Sweden. 68 consecutive patients operated for benign gastrointestinal disease. Patients were randomised to have their abdominal wounds dressed or exposed. On their last day in hospital their attitudes were assessed by visual analogue score and questionnaire. Attitudes to wound care. There were no differences between the two groups in any of the variables studied. The visual analogue scores for postoperative pain were higher than had been anticipated. Most patients do not mind whether their wounds are covered with a dressing or not after abdominal operations.
Payne, Caroline; Edwards, Daren
Objectives: Traumatic wounds and surgery inherently have their complications. Localized infections, wound dehiscence, and excessive wound leakage can be devastating to the patient with a prolonged recovery, but it is also costly to the hospital with an increased length of stay, extra workload, and dressing changes. The single use PICO (Smith and Nephew Healthcare, Hull, United Kingdom) negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) dressing has revolutionized our management of various acute, chronic, and high output wounds. It requires fewer dressing changes than conventional practice, is used in the outpatient setting, and is a necessary adjuvant therapy to hasten wound healing. Aims: To observe the efficacy of the PICO vacuum-assisted healing within a cost improvement programme. Settings: Plastic surgery department, Royal London Hospital. Materials and Methods: Twenty-one patients with a diversity of postoperative or posttraumatic wounds were considered suitable for PICO application and treated totally on an outpatient basis once the PICO dressing was applied. All wounds were then subjected to continued PICO dressings until healed. Results: All patients tolerated the PICO well with no dressing failure or failure to comply. The number of dressings per patient ranged from 1 to 7. The cost per patient of treatment ranged from £120 to £1578. Estimated cost of all PICO dressing for 21 patients including plastic surgery dressing clinic appointments = £13,345. Median length of treatment to healing (days) = 16; standard deviation = 9.5. Eight patients would have had an inpatient bed stay with conventional therapy, total 24 bed days saved at Bartshealth @£325 per day. Conclusions: The outpatient application of a disposable NPWT can benefit a wide range of clinical wounds that optimizes patient care, promotes rapid wound healing, and importantly helps manage costs. PMID:24917894
Payne, Caroline; Edwards, Daren
Traumatic wounds and surgery inherently have their complications. Localized infections, wound dehiscence, and excessive wound leakage can be devastating to the patient with a prolonged recovery, but it is also costly to the hospital with an increased length of stay, extra workload, and dressing changes. The single use PICO (Smith and Nephew Healthcare, Hull, United Kingdom) negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) dressing has revolutionized our management of various acute, chronic, and high output wounds. It requires fewer dressing changes than conventional practice, is used in the outpatient setting, and is a necessary adjuvant therapy to hasten wound healing. To observe the efficacy of the PICO vacuum-assisted healing within a cost improvement programme. Plastic surgery department, Royal London Hospital. Twenty-one patients with a diversity of postoperative or posttraumatic wounds were considered suitable for PICO application and treated totally on an outpatient basis once the PICO dressing was applied. All wounds were then subjected to continued PICO dressings until healed. All patients tolerated the PICO well with no dressing failure or failure to comply. The number of dressings per patient ranged from 1 to 7. The cost per patient of treatment ranged from £120 to £1578. Estimated cost of all PICO dressing for 21 patients including plastic surgery dressing clinic appointments = £13,345. Median length of treatment to healing (days) = 16; standard deviation = 9.5. Eight patients would have had an inpatient bed stay with conventional therapy, total 24 bed days saved at Bartshealth @£325 per day. The outpatient application of a disposable NPWT can benefit a wide range of clinical wounds that optimizes patient care, promotes rapid wound healing, and importantly helps manage costs.
Xu, Jian; Geng, Xiang; Muhammad, Hassan; Wang, Xu; Huang, Jia-Zhang; Zhang, Chao; Ma, Xin
Gluteal muscle contracture is not very common, but cases are still seen in China. Open surgical treatment is considered as an efficient method to treat this disease. However, the type of incision that can provide best results is yet to be determined. The authors therefore compared various incisions to determine the better one. In this retrospective study, patients who underwent surgery with a traverse straight incision, a curved incision, a longitudinal straight incision, or an 'S'-shaped incision above the greater trochanter were enrolled and divided into four groups: A, B, C, and D. In each group, the patients were divided into different levels according to a specific standard. The four groups were compared in terms of incision length, postoperative drainage amounts, wound healing rates, visual analog scale scores, and improvement in the degree of range of motion (ROM). During the follow-up period, the validity of the results, complications, and recurrent cases were evaluated. In our study, incision length and visual analog scale score of the four groups showed no significant differences (P>0.05). Wound healing rates, drainage amount, improvement in ROM, validity of the results, and recurrences in group D were significantly the best (P<0.05). No significant differences in wound healing rates, drainage amount, and improvement in ROM were found in groups A, B, and C. In terms of validity of the results and 1-year recurrence, no significant difference was observed between groups A and B; however, these factors were better than those in group C. We concluded that the 'S'-shaped incision above the greater trochanter is the most efficient among the incisions described in this study. This incision has the following advantages: clear exposure, less damage, high safety rate, excellent results, and low recurrence rate.
Protocol for a randomised controlled trial of standard wound management versus negative pressure wound therapy in the treatment of adult patients with an open fracture of the lower limb: UK Wound management of Open Lower Limb Fractures (UK WOLFF)
Achten, Juul; Parsons, Nick R; Bruce, Julie; Petrou, Stavros; Tutton, Elizabeth; Willett, Keith; Lamb, Sarah E; Costa, Matthew L
Introduction Patients who sustain open lower limb fractures have reported infection risks as high as 27%. The type of dressing applied after initial debridement could potentially affect this risk. In this trial, standard dressings will be compared with a new emerging treatment, negative pressure wound therapy, for patients with open lower limb fractures. Methods and analysis All adult patients presenting with an open lower limb fracture, with a Gustilo and Anderson (G&A) grade 2/3, will be considered for inclusion. 460 consented patients will provide 90% power to detect a difference of eight points in the Disability Rating Index (DRI) score at 12 months, at the 5% level. A randomisation sequence, stratified by trial centre and G&A grade, will be produced and administered by a secure web-based service. A qualitative substudy will assess patients’ experience of giving consent for the trial, and acceptability of trial procedures to patients and staff. Patients will have clinical follow-up in a fracture clinic up to a minimum of 12 months as per standard National Health Service (NHS) practice. Functional and quality of life outcome data will be collected using the DRI, SF12 and EQ-5D questionnaires at 3, 6, 9 and 12 months postoperatively. In addition, information will be requested with regards to resource use and any late complications or surgical interventions related to their injury. The main analysis will investigate differences in the DRI score at 1 year after injury, between the two treatment groups on an intention-to-treat basis. Tests will be two sided and considered to provide evidence for a significant difference if p values are less than 0.05. Ethics and dissemination Ethical approval was given by NRES Committee West Midlands—Coventry & Warwickshire on 6/2/2012 (ref: 12/WM/0001). The results of the trial will be disseminated via peer-reviewed publications and presentations at relevant conferences. Trial registration number ISRCTN33756652. PMID
Background The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of acupuncture on wound healing after soft tissue or orthopaedic surgery in dogs. Methods 29 dogs were submitted to soft tissue and/or orthopaedic surgeries. Five dogs had two surgical wounds each, so there were totally 34 wounds in the study. All owners received instructions for post operative care as well as antibiotic and pain treatment. The dogs were randomly assigned to treatment or control groups. Treated dogs received one dry needle acupuncture treatment right after surgery and the control group received no such treatment. A veterinary surgeon that was blinded to the treatment, evaluated the wounds at three and seven days after surgery in regard to oedema (scale 0-3), scabs (yes/no), exudate (yes/no), hematoma (yes/no), dermatitis (yes/no), and aspect of the wound (dry/humid). Results There was no significant difference between the treatment and control groups in the variables evaluated three and seven days after surgery. However, oedema reduced significantly in the group treated with acupuncture at seven days compared to three days after surgery, possibly due the fact that there was more oedema in the treatment group at day three (although this difference was nor significant between groups). Conclusions The use of a single acupuncture treatment right after surgery in dogs did not appear to have any beneficial effects in surgical wound healing. PMID:20950467
Olsen, Margaret A.; Fraser, Victoria J.
We compared surveillance of surgical site infection after major breast operations using a combination of ICD-9-CM diagnosis codes to microbiology-based surveillance. The sensitivity was 87.5% for the coding algorithm and 78.1% for wound cultures. Our results suggest that SSI surveillance can be reliably performed using claims data. PMID:20334508
Park, Chul Hyun; Shon, Oog Jin; Kim, Gi Beom
Background: Traditionally, Gustilo Anderson grade IIIb open tibial fractures have been treated by initial wide wound debridement, stabilization of fracture with external fixation, and delayed wound closure. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the clinical and radiological results of staged treatment using negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) for Gustilo Anderson grade IIIb open tibial fractures. Materials and Methods: 15 patients with Gustilo Anderson grade IIIb open tibial fractures, treated using staged protocol by a single surgeon between January 2007 and December 2011 were reviewed in this retrospective study. The clinical results were assessed using a Puno scoring system for severe open fractures of the tibia at the last followup. The range of motion (ROM) of the knee and ankle joints and postoperative complication were evaluated at the last followup. The radiographic results were assessed using time to bone union, coronal and sagittal angulations and a shortening at the last followup. Results: The mean score of Puno scoring system was 87.4 (range 67–94). The mean ROM of the knee and ankle joints was 121.3° (range 90°–130°) and 37.7° (range 15°–50°), respectively. Bone union developed in all patients and the mean time to union was 25.3 weeks (range 16–42 weeks). The mean coronal angulation was 2.1° (range 0–4°) and sagittal was 2.7° (range 1–4°). The mean shortening was 4.1 mm (range 0–8 mm). Three patients had partial flap necrosis and 1 patient had total flap necrosis. There was no superficial and deep wound infection. Conclusion: Staged treatment using NPWT decreased the risks of infection and requirement of flap surgeries in Gustilo Anderson grade IIIb open tibial fractures. Therefore, staged treatment using NPWT could be a useful treatment option for Gustilo Anderson grade IIIb open tibial fractures. PMID:27746498
Jan, Haider; Waters, Natasha; Haines, Pat; Kent, Andrew
Cyanoacrylate adhesives offer the surgeon and patient an alternative to subcuticular suturing. LiquiBand® Surgical S (LBSS) is a new formulation with a blend of monomeric n-butyl and 2-octyl cyanoacrylates. In this study, the effectiveness, safety, and clinical utility of LBSS was compared to Vicryl(™) sutures for the closure of laparoscopic incisions. This was a prospective randomized study of LBSS skin adhesive versus Vicryl(™) sutures for the topical closure of laparoscopic surgical incisions. Subjects were asked to return at 2 weeks postsurgery to report complications and adverse events. Wounds were evaluated for apposition and cosmesis using a modified Hollander Wound Evaluation Scale (HWES). The Shapiro-Wilk test of normality was done. Independent-samples T test, Mann Whitney U test, and chi-square test were used to compare variables between the two wound closure methods. A total of 114 subjects participated in this trial completing all aspects of the study. Fifty-five subjects received sutures for topical wound closure, with 59 subjects receiving LBSS. Surgeons were found to be satisfied with 100 % of all applications using the LBSS device. One hundred percent of wounds closed with sutures and 98.9 % wounds closed with LBSS achieving an optimal HWES of 0. There was no statistical difference in cosmesis or complications for either method. Closure with LBSS was significantly faster by a mean of 2 min. LiquiBand® Surgical S is as good as sutures for the closure of laparoscopic wounds in terms of cosmesis and complications with the added benefit of being significantly faster.
McLister, Anna; Davis, James
It has been proposed that fluctuations in wound pH can give valuable insights into the healing processes in chronic wounds, but acquiring such data can be a technological challenge especially where there is little sample available. Developments in voltammetric pH sensing have opened up new avenues for the design of probes that can function in ultra-small volumes and can be inherently disposable but, as yet few can meet the demands of wound monitoring. A preliminary investigation of the pH response of a new redox wire prepared from a peptide homopolymer of tryptophan is presented and its potential applicability as a sensing material for use in smart dressings is critically discussed. PMID:27417774
Marković-Denić, Lj; Mihajlović, B; Cemerlić-Adjić, N; Nićin, S; Pavlović, K; Golubović, M
Despite modem surgical techniques, preoperative preventive use of antibiotics and optimal treatment of operative site, surgical site infections (SSI) are significant medical problem in the countries worldwide. The aim of this paper was to estimate the frequency of SSI after open heart surgery and to identify the most frequent causes of these infections. A prospective cohort study was performed during the period from January 2008 to December 2009 at the Clinic of Cardiovascular Surgery of the Institute of Cardiovascular Diseases, Vojvodina. The surveillance was consistent throughout the study period. During hospitalization, patients were evaluated daily by the infection control nurse. Isolation, identification and sensitivity tests of causative agents to antimicrobial drugs, obtained from patients' material, were carried out by standard microbiological methods. The descriptive epidemio-logical method was used. The incidence rates of hospital infections were calculated. During the study period, among 23 patients, 24 SSIs were registered. The average incidence rate of patients with SSI was 0.98% and SSI rate was 1.02% (ranged from 0% to 3.7%). There was no difference in the incidence rates according to gender (p = 0.65).The mean age of patients with SSI was 64.7 years. Except one, all patients had the ASA score higher than 2. The patients with SSIs were hospitalized approximately 3.8 times longer than the patient without SSI (p = 0.03). The most common causes of SSI were: Staphylococcus aureus (30%), coagulasa-negative Staphylococcus spp, Acinetobacter spp (8%), Enterococcus spp and Klebsiella pneumoniae. Although the incidence rate of hospital infections is low, it is necessary to maintain continuous surveillance of surgical site infections and to implement the preventive measures.
Nigim, Fares; Thomas, Ajith J.; Papavassiliou, Efstathios; Schneider, Benjamin E.; Critchlow, Jonathan F.; Chen, Clark C.; Siracuse, Jeffrey J.; Zinn, Pascal O.; Kasper, Ekkehard M.
Objectives: Ventriculoperitoneal shunting (VPS) is a mainstay of hydrocephalus therapy, but carries a significant risk of device malfunctioning. This study aims to compare the outcomes of laparoscopic ventriculoperitoneal shunting versus open ventriculoperitoneal shunting (OVPS) VPS-placement and reviews our findings in the pertinent context of the literature from 1993 to 2012. Materials and Methods: Between 2003 and 2012, a total of 232 patients underwent first time VPS placement at Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center. Of those, 155 were laparoscopically guided and 77 were done conventionally. We analyzed independent variables (age, gender, medical history, clinical presentation, indication for surgery and surgical technique) and dependent variables (operative time, post-operative complications, length of stay in the hospital) and occurrence of shunt failure. Results: Mean operative time was 43.7 min (18.0-102.0) in the laparoscopic group versus 63.0 min (30.0-151.0) in the open group, (P < 0.05). Length of stay was similar, 5 days in the laparoscopic and in the open group, (P = 0.945). The incidence of shunt failure during the entire follow-up period was not statistically different between the two groups, occurring in 14.1% in the laparoscopic group and 16.9% in the open group, (P = 0.601). Kaplan-Meier analysis demonstrated no difference in shunt survival between the two groups (P = 0.868), with functionality in 85% at 6-months and 78.5% at 1-year. Conclusion: According to our study, LVPS-placement results compare similarly to OVPS placement in most aspects. Since laparoscopic placement is not routinely indicated, we suggest a prospective study to assess its value as an alternate technique especially suitable in obese patients and patients with previous abdominal operations. PMID:25126122
Nigim, Fares; Thomas, Ajith J; Papavassiliou, Efstathios; Schneider, Benjamin E; Critchlow, Jonathan F; Chen, Clark C; Siracuse, Jeffrey J; Zinn, Pascal O; Kasper, Ekkehard M
Ventriculoperitoneal shunting (VPS) is a mainstay of hydrocephalus therapy, but carries a significant risk of device malfunctioning. This study aims to compare the outcomes of laparoscopic ventriculoperitoneal shunting versus open ventriculoperitoneal shunting (OVPS) VPS-placement and reviews our findings in the pertinent context of the literature from 1993 to 2012. Between 2003 and 2012, a total of 232 patients underwent first time VPS placement at Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center. Of those, 155 were laparoscopically guided and 77 were done conventionally. We analyzed independent variables (age, gender, medical history, clinical presentation, indication for surgery and surgical technique) and dependent variables (operative time, post-operative complications, length of stay in the hospital) and occurrence of shunt failure. Mean operative time was 43.7 min (18.0-102.0) in the laparoscopic group versus 63.0 min (30.0-151.0) in the open group, (P < 0.05). Length of stay was similar, 5 days in the laparoscopic and in the open group, (P = 0.945). The incidence of shunt failure during the entire follow-up period was not statistically different between the two groups, occurring in 14.1% in the laparoscopic group and 16.9% in the open group, (P = 0.601). Kaplan-Meier analysis demonstrated no difference in shunt survival between the two groups (P = 0.868), with functionality in 85% at 6-months and 78.5% at 1-year. According to our study, LVPS-placement results compare similarly to OVPS placement in most aspects. Since laparoscopic placement is not routinely indicated, we suggest a prospective study to assess its value as an alternate technique especially suitable in obese patients and patients with previous abdominal operations.
Shaikh, I; Willder, J M; Kumar, S
The aims of this study were to compare same day discharges and early complications after open and laparoscopic primary paraumbilical hernia (PUH) repair, including the procedures performed by surgical trainees (STs). All patients who had open (suture or mesh) and laparoscopic repair of primary PUH in the Day Surgery Unit (DSU) between January 2007 and June 2009 were identified from the hospital database. The database was questioned regarding the grade of operating surgeon, type of surgical repair, day of admission and discharge from the DSU, and a patient's return to surgical services. Data were stored in Microsoft Excel(®) (TM 2007). Statistical significance was determined using Fisher's exact test. PUH was repaired in 337 patients: 252/337 (74.8 %) had open and 85/337 (25.2 %) had laparoscopic repair. Significantly, more patients were discharged home on the day of surgery after an open repair compared to the laparoscopic repair: open repair 187/252 (74.2 %), laparoscopic repair 35/85 (41.17 %), P = 0.0001. Overall early complications such as wound complications and hospital re-visits were similar in both groups: open repair 6.3 % (16/252), laparoscopic repair 11.7 % (10/85), P = 0.1554. STs performed 142/337 (42.1 %) of the PUH repairs with similar same day discharges from the DSU: STs 64.7 % (92/142), consultant surgeons 66.7 % (130/195), P = 0.7285. The difference in hernia recurrence between open repair 7/252 (2.78 %) and laparoscopic group 0/85 was not significant (P = 0.1985). Patients with PUH repair were more likely to go home on the day of surgery after open than after laparoscopic repair. This was not affected by the grade of the operating surgeon. Early complications were similar following open and laparoscopic repair of primary PUH.
Dhas, Sindhu Priya; Anbarasan, Suruthi; Mukherjee, Amitava; Chandrasekaran, Natarajan
Bombyx mori silk fibers are an important biomaterial and are used in surgical sutures due to their remarkable biocompatibility. The major drawback to the application of biomaterials is the risk of bacterial invasion, leading to clinical complications. We have developed an easy and cost-effective method for fabrication of antibacterial silk fibers loaded with silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) by an in situ and ex situ process using an aqueous extract of Rhizophora apiculata leaf. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that well dispersed nanoparticles impregnated the silk fibers both in situ and ex situ. The crystalline nature of the AgNPs in the silk fibers was demonstrated by X-ray diffraction. The thermal and mechanical properties of the silk fibers were enhanced after they were impregnated with AgNPs. The silver-coated silk fibers fabricated by the in situ and ex situ method exhibited more than 90% inhibition against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus. Silk fibers doped with AgNPs were found to be biocompatible with 3T3 fibroblasts. The results obtained represent an important advance towards the clinical application of biocompatible AgNP-loaded silk fibers for prevention of surgical wound infections. PMID:26491317
Yu, Lulu; Kronen, Ryan J; Simon, Laura E; Stoll, Carolyn R T; Colditz, Graham A; Tuuli, Methodius G
To assess the effect of prophylactic negative pressure wound therapy on surgical site infections and other wound complications in women after cesarean delivery. We searched Ovid Medline, Embase, SCOPUS, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews and ClinicalTrials.gov. We included randomized controlled trials and observational studies comparing prophylactic negative pressure wound therapy to standard wound dressing for cesarean delivery. The primary outcome was surgical site infection after cesarean. Secondary outcomes were composite wound complications, wound dehiscence, wound seroma, endometritis, and hospital re-admission. Heterogeneity was assessed using Higgin's I(2). Relative risks with 95% confidence intervals were calculated using random effects models. Six randomized controlled trials and three cohort studies in high-risk mostly obese women met inclusion criteria and were included in the meta-analysis. Six were full-text articles, two published abstracts, and one report of trial results in ClinicalTrials.gov. Studies were also heterogeneous in the patients included and type of negative pressure wound therapy device. The risk of surgical site infection was significantly lower with use of prophylactic negative pressure wound therapy compared with standard wound dressing (7 studies: pooled RR 0.45; 95% CI 0.31, 0.66; ARR -6.0%, 95% CI -10.0%, -3.0%; NNT 17, 95% CI 10, 34). There was no evidence of significant statistical heterogeneity (I(2)=9.9%) or publication bias (Egger P=0.532). Of the secondary outcomes, only composite wound complications were significantly reduced in patients receiving prophylactic negative pressure wound therapy compared to standard dressing (9 studies: pooled RR 0.68, 95% CI 0.49, 0.94). Studies on the effectiveness of prophylactic negative pressure wound therapy at cesarean delivery are heterogeneous, but suggest a reduction in surgical site infection and overall wound complications. Larger definitive trials are needed to clarify the
Segatto, Ilenia; Berton, Stefania; Sonego, Maura; Massarut, Samuele; Fabris, Linda; Armenia, Joshua; Mileto, Mario; Colombatti, Alfonso; Vecchione, Andrea; Baldassarre, Gustavo; Belletti, Barbara
In early breast cancer, local relapses represent a determinant and not simply an indicator of risk for distant relapse and death. Notably, 90% of local recurrences occur at or close to the same quadrant of the primary cancer. Relevance of PI3K/mTOR/p70S6K signaling in breast tumorigenesis is very well documented. However, the pathway/s involved in the process of breast cancer local relapse are not well understood. The ribosomal protein p70S6K has been implicated in breast cancer cell response to post-surgical inflammation, supporting the hypothesis that it may be crucial also for breast cancer recurrence. Here, we show that p70S6K activity is required for the survival of breast cancer cells challenged in "hostile" microenvironments. We found that impairment of p70S6K activity in breast cancer cells strongly decreased their tumor take rate in nude mice. In line with this observation, if cells were challenged to grow in anchorage independence or in clonogenic assay, growth of colonies was strongly dependent on an intact p70S6K signaling. This in vitro finding was particularly evident when breast cancer cells were grown in the presence of wound fluids harvested following surgery from breast cancer patients, suggesting that the stimuli present in the post-surgical setting at least partially relied on activity of p70S6K to stimulate breast cancer relapse. From a mechanistic point of view, our results indicated that p70S6K signaling was able to activate Gli1 and up-regulate the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl2, thereby activating a survival response in breast cancer cells challenged in hostile settings. Our work highlights a previously poorly recognized function of p70S6K in preserving breast cancer cell survival, which could eventually be responsible for local relapse and opens the way to the design of new and more specific therapies aiming to restrain the deleterious effects of wound response.
Läuchli, Severin; Vannotti, Stefanie; Hafner, Jürg; Hunziker, Thomas; French, Lars
To evaluate efficacy and cost-effectiveness of a plant-derived wound dressing (ONE), a mixture of hypericum oil (Hypericum perforatum L.) and neem oil (Azadirachta indica A. Juss.), in scalp wounds with exposed bone. All patients with scalp wounds with exposed bone, following the excision of skin tumors, and treated with ONE in 2011 were included. Time of healing, wound size, area of exposed bone, ease of handling, pain, and complications were evaluated. Costs of dressings and nursing time were compared with those cited in literature for other treatment modalities. Fifteen consecutive patients with a mean age of 76.87 ± 10.3 years (59-90 years) were analyzed. The mean wound size was 10.9 ± 6.84 cm(2) (0.4-22.6 cm(2)) with 4.8 ± 5.9 cm(2) (0.3-20.7 cm(2)) of exposed bone. The time of complete healing by secondary intention was 8.1 (4-20) weeks. Rapid formation of granulation tissue was observed which after 4 weeks covered the entire exposed bone surface in 11 of 15 cases (73%). Dressing change was simple with no pain reported; no infections or other complications occurred. Using ONE for a mean healing time of 56.7 days resulted in mean costs of EUR 423.73, which is substantially lower than those published for fascia lata, negative pressure therapy, or collagen matrix followed by skin grafting (EUR 1,612.82, EUR 4,411.80 and EUR 1,503.72, respectively). This retrospective, non-controlled analysis supports ONE as a simple-to-use and safe treatment option for scalp wounds with exposed bone. Treatment costs compare favorably to those published for other treatment modalities.
Tarkin, Ivan S
This review serves to outline the current and evolving usages of negative pressure wound therapy with reticulated open cell foam (NPWT/ROCF) as delivered by V.A.C.(R) Therapy (KCI, San Antonio, TX) as an adjunctive treatment modality for optimal management of wounds associated with high energy musculoskeletal trauma.
Desman, Eric; Bartow, William; Anderson, Louise H
Chronic wounds such as diabetic foot ulcers (DFU) and venous leg ulcers (VLU) may take a long time to heal and increase the risk of complications. Previous studies have suggested human skin allograft may facilitate healing of these chronic wounds. A retrospective, descriptive study was conducted among outpatients with nonhealing DFU, VLU, surgical, or traumatic wounds managed with a meshed, partial-thickness, cryopreserved human skin allograft. Charts of all patients who received an allograft from 2011 to 2013 were abstracted if the wound was >1 cm2, had a duration>30 days, was adequately debrided, and was free of infection before the first allograft application. Primary outcome was percentage of wounds healed (ie, 100% epithelialized) at 12 and 20 weeks. Secondary outcome was the number of recorded adverse events. Wound measurements (area--calculated as width x length in cm2), wound type and duration, number of allograft applications, number of adverse events, and race, smoking status, and body mass index were abstracted. Of the 49 patients (average age 64.3 [SD 15.0]; 64% male) who met the inclusion criteria, 13 did not have medical follow-up through the primary outcomes at 12 and 20 weeks, leaving 36 patients (average age 65.1 [SD 15.4]; 67% male) available for analysis. The most common diagnoses were VLU (18 patients, 50%) and traumatic wounds (9 patients, 25%). Average wound size was 19.4 cm2 (SD 29.3, range 1.2-156, median 9.5), and average wound duration at initial treatment was 17.2 (SD 17.0, range 4-72, excluding outlier) weeks. Seventeen (17) wounds (47%) healed by 12 weeks, and 21 (58%) were healed by week 20 with an average of 3.3 (SD 2.0) allograft applications. No serious adverse events occurred. The results of this study are encouraging and add to the currently available literature on the use of allograft skin for chronic wounds, but the study design and sample size limit the ability to interpret the observations. Prospective, controlled clinical
Elmarsafi, Tammer; Garwood, Caitlin S; Steinberg, John S; Evans, Karen K; Attinger, Christopher E; Kim, Paul J
The primary aim of this study was to determine the effect of positive bacterial cultures at the time of closure on dehiscence rates. Pre- and post-débridement wound cultures from patients undergoing serial surgical débridement of infected wounds were compared with outcomes 30 days postoperatively. One-hundred patients were enrolled; 35 were excluded for incomplete culture data. Sixty-five patients were evaluated for species counts, including Coagulase negative Staphylococcus (CoNS), and semiquantitative culture data for each débridement. The post-débridement cultures on the date of closure had no growth in 42 patients (64.6%) of which 6 dehisced (14.3%), and 36 remained closed; with no statistically significant difference in dehiscence rates (p = 0.0664). Pre-débridement cultures from the 1st débridement of the 65 patients showed 8 patients had no growth, 29 grew 1 species, 19 grew 2 species, and 9 had 3-5 species. There was a reduction in the number of species and improvement of semiquantitative cultures with each subsequent débridement. The dehiscence rate for those who had 2 débridements (n = 42) was 21.4% at 30 day follow-up and 21.7% in those who had 3 débridements (n = 23). The number of débridements had no statistical significance on dehiscence rates. The presence of CoNS on the day of closure was a statistically significant risk for dehiscence within 30 days (p = 0.0091) postoperatively. This data demonstrates: (1) positive post-débridement cultures (scant/rare, growth in enrichment broth) at the time of closure did not affect overall dehiscence rates (p = 0.0664), (2) the number of species and semiquantitative culture results both improved with each subsequent débridement, (3) the number of surgical débridement did not influence postclosure dehiscence rates. (4) Positive cultures containing CoNS at the time of closure is a risk factor for dehiscence (p = 0.0091).
Greenblatt, David Yu; Rajamanickam, Victoria; Mell, Matthew W
Surgical site infection (SSI) after open surgery for lower extremity revascularization is a serious complication that may lead to graft infection, prolonged hospitalization, and increased cost. Rates of SSI after revascularization vary widely, with most studies reported from single institutions. The objective of this study was to describe the rate and predictors of SSI after surgery for arterial occlusive disease using national data, and to identify any association between SSI and length of hospital stay, reoperation, graft loss, and mortality. Patients who underwent lower extremity arterial bypass or thromboendarterectomy from 2005-2008 were identified from the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (ACS-NSQIP) participant use files. Multivariate logistic regression identified predictors of SSI. Odds ratios were adjusted for patient demographics, comorbidities, preoperative laboratory values, and operative factors. The association between SSI and other 30-day outcomes such as mortality and graft failure was determined. Of 12,330 patients who underwent revascularization, 1367 (11.1%) were diagnosed with an SSI within 30 days. Multivariate predictors of SSI included female gender (odds ratio [OR], 1.4; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.3-1.6), obesity (OR, 2.1; 95% CI, 1.8-2.4), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (OR, 1.2; 95% CI, 1.0-1.5), dialysis (OR, 1.5; 95% CI, 1.1-2.1), preoperative hyponatremia (OR, 1.2; 95% CI, 1.0-1.4), and length of operation >4 hours (OR, 1.4; 95% CI, 1.2-1.6). SSI was associated with prolonged (>10 days) hospital stay (OR, 1.8; 95% CI, 1.4-2.1) and higher rates of 30-day graft loss (OR, 2.3; 95% CI, 1.7-3.1) and reoperation (OR, 3.7; 95% CI, 3.1-4.6). SSI was not associated with increased 30-day mortality. SSI is a common complication after open revascularization and is associated with a more than twofold increased risk of early graft loss and reoperation. Several patient and operation-related risk
Thakur, Gagan; Thomas, Shaji; Bhargava, Darpan; Pandey, Ankit
Placental extract has been used as a therapeutic agent with application in various fields of medicine. Placental extract is well known for its effects on wound healing with anti-inflammatory, antiplatelet, and angiogenic effects and is also a biogenic modulator. The present study evaluated the effect of placental extract on wound healing, mouth opening, and postoperative patient discomfort in patients with oral submucous fibrosis treated with fibrotomy with buccal fat pad coverage and coronoidectomy. Ten subjects with oral submucous fibrosis who presented with mouth opening less than 20 mm were enrolled in the present prospective randomized controlled trial to assess the effects of placental extract on the fibrotomy wound covered with a pedicled buccal pad fat (5 patients allocated to the study group, group S and 5 to the control group, group C). The following criteria were used to analyze the postoperative effect of placental extract on fibrotomy wounds compared with that of the controls: subjective assessment of the wound, postoperative discomfort, and postoperative mouth opening assessed at 1, 2, and 4 weeks postoperatively. The average difference in the preoperative and fourth week postoperative mouth opening for group C was 13.8 ± 2.68 mm and was 21.20 ± 2.77 mm in group S. The median calculated for group C was a 15.0-mm increase in mouth opening and was 20.0 mm in group S. The results obtained with topical application of placental extract on fibrotomy wound healing and postoperative mouth opening were superior to those of the control group in whom placental extract was not used. Copyright © 2015 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Xie, Hua; Lucchesi, Lisa; Zheng, Bo; Ladich, Elena; Pineda, Teresa; Merten, Rose; Gregory, Cynthia; Rutten, Michael; Gregory, Kenton
Tropoelastin (TE), the soluble precursor of insoluble elastin fibers, is produced in minimal amounts in adults. Burn injuries result in inflexible collagen-rich scars because of lack of elastin fiber formation. We studied the feasibility of using recombinant human tropoelastin to enable elastin fiber production in burn and surgical scars to improve skin flexibility. In a swine hypertrophic burn scar model, normal skin and 3 × 3-cm partial thickness thermal burns underwent dermatome resection at 1 week post burn and randomized to four subcutaneous injections of saline or TE (either 0.5, 5, or 10 mg/ml) spaced 3 days apart. Two burn sites received TE injections after wound closure (0.5 or 10 mg/ml). At 90 days, skin hardness, flexibility, and histology were evaluated. All injury sites developed hypertrophic scars. New elastin fibers were found in burn scars in all injuries injected after skin closure with low (5/5) and high (6/6) TE doses (P < .05). No elastin fibers were observed without TE treatment. No significant differences in skin hardness, flexibility, or inflammation were observed. This is the first report demonstrating that subcutaneous injections of TE into surgical and burn injuries can safely produce new elastin fibers in scars. Despite the development of new elastin fibers, skin flexibility was not improved, possibly because of insufficient elastin fiber maturation or the hypertrophic model used. The ability to restore elastin fiber formation in adult skin after burns, trauma, and surgery may improve skin regeneration and reduce disabling complications of scar formation.
Tang, Wenbin; Li, Xiaojian; Deng, Zhongyuan; Zhang, Zhi; Zhang, Xuhui; Zhang, Tao; Zhong, Xiaomin; Chen, Bin; Liu, Changling
To investigate the effects of unified surgical scheme for wounds on the outcome of patients with extensive deep partial-thickness to full-thickness (briefly referred to as deep) burn. One hundred and thirty-seven patients with extensive deep burn hospitalized from July 2007 to November 2012 underwent unified surgery according to area of deep wound (unified scheme group, US). Among them, 57 patients with deep wound area less than 51% TBSA received escharectomy or tangential excision by stages followed by autologous mesh skin grafting; 52 patients with deep wound area from 51% to 80% TBSA underwent escharectomy or tangential excision by stages followed by autologous mesh skin grafting and/or small skin grafting, or escharectomy or tangential excision followed by large sheet of allogeneic skin covering plus autologous mesh skin grafting and/or small skin grafting after the removal of allogeneic skin; 28 patients with deep wound area larger than 80% TBSA received escharectomy or tangential excision by stages followed by autologous microskin grafting plus coverage of large sheet of allogeneic skin, or escharectomy or tangential excision followed by small autologous skin grafting and/or intermingled grafting with small autologous and/or allogeneic skin. Another 120 patients with extensive deep burn hospitalized from January 2002 to June 2007 who did not receive unified surgical scheme were included as control group (C). Except for the surgical methods in group US, in 53 patients with deep wound area less than 51% TBSA in group C escharectomy or tangential excision was performed followed by autologous small skin grafting; in 40 patients with deep wound area from 51% to 80% TBSA in group C escharectomy or tangential excision was performed followed by autologous microskin grafting plus large sheet of allogeneic skin covering, or escharectomy or tangential excision followed by large sheet of allogeneic skin embedded with stamp-like autologous skin; in 27 patients with deep
Scardina, G A; Carini, F; Noto, F; Messina, P
The aim of this research is to evaluate in vivo the characteristics of microcirculation after taking a biopsy sample from the oral mucosa. 20 patients were recruited to the study and all underwent an oral mucosa biopsy for the excision of benign neoformations. The modifications in the oral microcirculation were evaluated in vivo in correspondence to the surgical site through videocapillaroscopy at three different times: 30 min before the biopsy; 48 h after the biopsy; and 7 days after the biopsy. The statistical significance was checked with the Mann-Whitney U-test (P<0.05). The analysis of videocapillaroscopic patterns showed statistically significant variations relative to the capillary loop density; the diameter of the outgoing loop; and the length of the capillary loop. In conclusion, the study describes a simple and reproducible model for the study of wound healing from a microcirculatory point of view. Copyright © 2012 International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Miyaguchi, Shin-Ichi; Horii, Arata; Kambara, Rumi; Takemoto, Norihiko; Akazawa, Hitoshi; Takahashi, Nao; Baba, Hironori; Inohara, Hidenori
Postoperative pain is a remaining issue in tonsillectomy. Polyglycolic acid (PGA) is a biocompatible material used for absorbent suture reinforcement, and its sheet has been applied for covering defects after resection of oral carcinoma. The aim of this study is to examine whether the attachment of a PGA sheet to surgical wounds would reduce posttonsillectomy pain. In this prospective single-blind study, 17 consecutive adult patients were recruited who needed to undergo tonsillectomy, mainly due to habitual tonsillitis. Following bilateral tonsillectomies, a PGA sheet was attached with fibrin glue to only 1 side, without notification to patients of which side. Postoperative pain of each side was separately evaluated with a visual analog scale at 4 time points: before each meal and before sleep. Postoperative pain of both the PGA sheet-attached and nonattached sides was most severe before breakfast among 4 time points. Postoperative pain measured before breakfast was significantly more severe in the PGA sheet-attached side than the nonattached side. As such, this study provided solid data on the negative effects of PGA sheeting on posttonsillectomy pain.
Izquierdo-Blasco, J; Soler-Palacín, P; Campins-Martí, M; Vázquez Martínez, J L; Sanchez-de-Toledo, J
No Spanish guidelines for the prevention of surgical wound infection in paediatric cardiac surgery are currently available. The aim of this study was to analyse the nationwide variability in antibiotic prophylaxis use. An online questionnaire was distributed to all members of the Cardiology Group of the Spanish Society of Paediatric Intensive Care. Fifteen centres participated in the study. In heart surgery with no delayed sternal closure, all 15 centres used a 1st or 2nd generation cephalosporin in paediatric patients, while 3 hospitals used a broader-spectrum antibiotic therapy in neonates. Prophylaxis was maintained for 12-72h in 11 centres and until drainage removal in four. Thirteen centres used delayed sternal closure, eight of which followed the same protocol for these patients as for standard procedures. Prophylaxis was maintained for 12-72h in 6 centres, and until sternal closure at the rest. Five out of 10 centres performing extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) maintained the same antibiotic protocol as in standard surgery. A wide variability was observed in antibiotic prophylaxis use in high-risk patients. Thus, national protocols need to be standardised. Copyright © 2012 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.
Background A new technique for the treatment of children's phimosis is presented that minimizes the repairing time, the postoperative complications and maintains the physical foreskin appearance intact. Methods Eightyseven children with phimosis were treated with this new developed technique, between 2003 and 2005. Sutureless prepuceplasty creates a permanent surgical extension of the close prepuce. Stretching and retraction of phimotic foreskin reveals a tight prepuce ring that is cutting in its dorsal surface longitudinally. Rarely triple symmetric incisions in the preputial outlet are necessary. The foreskin is loose and moves absolutely free in bilateral courses. The wounds are healing by second intention. Antisepsis, steroids and Elicina cream, (which contains allantoin, collagen, elastin, glycolic acid and vitamins A, D, and E) should apply daily, for twenty to thirty days. Results The foreskin is moving in centripetal or efferent courses absolutely loosely, painlessly and bloodlessly. The mean time of follow-up was 27 months (one to four years). No complications were observed. Conclusion Sutureless prepuceplasty may present an acceptable alternative in children's phimosis reconstruction. PMID:18318903
A new technique for the treatment of children's phimosis is presented that minimizes the repairing time, the postoperative complications and maintains the physical foreskin appearance intact. Eightyseven children with phimosis were treated with this new developed technique, between 2003 and 2005. Sutureless prepuceplasty creates a permanent surgical extension of the close prepuce. Stretching and retraction of phimotic foreskin reveals a tight prepuce ring that is cutting in its dorsal surface longitudinally. Rarely triple symmetric incisions in the preputial outlet are necessary. The foreskin is loose and moves absolutely free in bilateral courses. The wounds are healing by second intention. Antisepsis, steroids and Elicina cream, (which contains allantoin, collagen, elastin, glycolic acid and vitamins A, D, and E) should apply daily, for twenty to thirty days. The foreskin is moving in centripetal or efferent courses absolutely loosely, painlessly and bloodlessly. The mean time of follow-up was 27 months (one to four years). No complications were observed. Sutureless prepuceplasty may present an acceptable alternative in children's phimosis reconstruction.
Calvert, Melanie; Bartlett, David C; Gheorghe, Adrian; Redman, Val; Dowswell, George; Hawkins, William; Mak, Tony; Youssef, Haney; Richardson, Caroline; Hornby, Steven; Magill, Laura; Haslop, Richard; Wilson, Sue; Morton, Dion
Objective To determine the clinical effectiveness of wound edge protection devices in reducing surgical site infection after abdominal surgery. Design Multicentre observer blinded randomised controlled trial. Participants Patients undergoing laparotomy at 21 UK hospitals. Interventions Standard care or the use of a wound edge protection device during surgery. Main outcome measures Surgical site infection within 30 days of surgery, assessed by blinded clinicians at seven and 30 days and by patient’s self report for the intervening period. Secondary outcomes included quality of life, duration of stay in hospital, and the effect of characteristics of the patient and operation on the efficacy of the device. Results 760 patients were enrolled with 382 patients assigned to the device group and 378 to the control group. Six patients in the device group and five in the control group did not undergo laparotomy. Fourteen patients, seven in each group, were lost to follow-up. A total of 184 patients experienced surgical site infection within 30 days of surgery, 91/369 (24.7%) in the device group and 93/366 (25.4%) in the control group (odds ratio 0.97, 95% confidence interval 0.69 to 1.36; P=0.85). This lack of benefit was consistent across wound assessments performed by clinicians and those reported by patients and across all secondary outcomes. In the secondary analyses no subgroup could be identified in which there was evidence of clinical benefit associated with use of the device. Conclusions Wound edge protection devices do not reduce the rate of surgical site infection in patients undergoing laparotomy, and therefore their routine use for this role cannot be recommended. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN 40402832 PMID:23903454
Pinkney, Thomas D; Calvert, Melanie; Bartlett, David C; Gheorghe, Adrian; Redman, Val; Dowswell, George; Hawkins, William; Mak, Tony; Youssef, Haney; Richardson, Caroline; Hornby, Steven; Magill, Laura; Haslop, Richard; Wilson, Sue; Morton, Dion
To determine the clinical effectiveness of wound edge protection devices in reducing surgical site infection after abdominal surgery. Multicentre observer blinded randomised controlled trial. Patients undergoing laparotomy at 21 UK hospitals. Standard care or the use of a wound edge protection device during surgery. Surgical site infection within 30 days of surgery, assessed by blinded clinicians at seven and 30 days and by patient's self report for the intervening period. Secondary outcomes included quality of life, duration of stay in hospital, and the effect of characteristics of the patient and operation on the efficacy of the device. 760 patients were enrolled with 382 patients assigned to the device group and 378 to the control group. Six patients in the device group and five in the control group did not undergo laparotomy. Fourteen patients, seven in each group, were lost to follow-up. A total of 184 patients experienced surgical site infection within 30 days of surgery, 91/369 (24.7%) in the device group and 93/366 (25.4%) in the control group (odds ratio 0.97, 95% confidence interval 0.69 to 1.36; P=0.85). This lack of benefit was consistent across wound assessments performed by clinicians and those reported by patients and across all secondary outcomes. In the secondary analyses no subgroup could be identified in which there was evidence of clinical benefit associated with use of the device. Wound edge protection devices do not reduce the rate of surgical site infection in patients undergoing laparotomy, and therefore their routine use for this role cannot be recommended. Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN 40402832.
Maimaris, C; Quinton, D N
Dog-bite wounds are often left open because of their reputation for infection if primarily closed. A prospective randomized trial comparing primary closure with leaving the wound open was performed to assess infection and cosmesis. Ninety-six patients with 169 lacerations had thorough surgical debridement and irrigation of their wounds. Ninety-two wounds were sutured and 77 left open. No prophylactic antibiotics were given. A total of 13 wounds developed infection: seven sutured and six unsutured wounds (not statistically significant), giving an overall infection rate of 7.7%. Significantly (P less than 0.01), more wound infections occurred in the hand in both groups compared to the rest of the body, indicating that particular attention should be paid to management of such wounds. It was concluded that dog-bite wounds should receive thorough surgical treatment and can be safely sutured at presentation. Special care should be given to hand wounds. PMID:3178974
Grint, Nicola J; Murison, Pamela J; Coe, Richard J; Waterman Pearson, Avril E
Elective ovariohysterectomy was performed on 66 cats. Surgical approach was flank (group F) or midline (group M) allocated by block randomisation. Pre-anaesthetic medication was acepromazine (0.1 mg/kg) via intramuscular injection. Anaesthesia was induced with intravenous thiopentone, and maintained with halothane in 100% oxygen. Carprofen (4 mg/kg) was administered by the subcutaneous route immediately after induction of anaesthesia. Postoperative pain and wound tenderness were assessed at 1, 3, 6, 9, 11-12 and 20-24h after the end of surgery, and the assessment outcome marked on visual analogue scales (VAS). Intervention analgesia (if pain VAS was >40 mm) was pethidine 4 mg/kg via intramuscular injection. Area under the curve (AUC) for VAS for pain and VAS for wound tenderness for each cat were calculated. AUC for wound tenderness was significantly greater for group F (P = 0.007). There was no significant difference for AUC for pain between the groups. In conclusion, wounds after flank ovariohysterectomy are significantly more tender than after midline ovariohysterectomy in the cat. This indicates that interactive methods, including wound palpation, must be used to assess postoperative pain and the findings should be appropriately weighted in the overall assessment.
Pellino, Gianluca; Sciaudone, Guido; Selvaggi, Francesco; Canonico, Silvestro
Surgical site events, including surgical site infections (SSI), represent a major problem in general surgery. SSI are responsible of nuisance for patients, and can lead to important complications and disability, often needing prolonged postoperative stay with specific treatment and recovery in Intensive Care Units. These justify the higher costs due to SSI. Despite the growing body of evidence concerning SSI in general surgery, literature dealing with SSI after colorectal surgery is scarce, reflecting in suboptimal perception of such a relevant issue by colorectal surgeons and health authorities in Italy, though colorectal surgery is associated with higher rates of SSI. The best strategy for reducing the impact of SSI on costs of care and patients quality of life would be the development of a preventive bundle, similar to that adopted in the US through the colorectal section of the National Surgery Quality Improvement Project of the American College of Surgeons (ACS-NSQIP). This policy has been showed to significantly reduce the rates of SSI. In this scenario, incisional negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) is likely to play a pivotal role. We herein reviewed the literature to report on the current status of preventive NPWT on surgical wounds of patients undergoing colorectal procedures with primary wound closure, suggesting evidence-based measures to reduce the impact of SSI, and to contain the costs associated with conventional NPWT devices by means of newer available technologies. Some explicative real life cases are presented.
Malgor, Rafael D.; Oderich, Gustavo S.; Andrews, James C.; McKusick, Michael; Kalra, Manju; Misra, Sanjay; Gloviczki, Peter; Bower, Thomas C.
Purpose To review the indications and results of open surgical and endovascular treatment for ureteral-iliac artery fistula (UIAF). Methods We reviewed the clinical data of 20 consecutive patients treated for 21 UIAFs between 1996 and 2010. Since 2004, iliac artery stent grafts were the primary treatment except for complex fistulas with enteric contamination or abscess. Endpoints were early morbidity and mortality, patient survival, vessel or graft patency, freedom from vascular or stent graft/graft infection, and freedom from recurrent bleeding. Results There were 20 patients, 15 females, and five males, with mean age of 63 ± 13 years. Predisposing factors for UIAF were prior tumor resection in 18 patients, radiation in 15, ureteral stents in 15, ileal conduits in four, and ileofemoral grafts in three. All patients presented with hematuria, which was massive in 10. Treatment included iliac stent grafts in 11 patients/12 fistulas (55%), with internal iliac artery (IAA) exclusion in nine, femoral crossover graft with IAA exclusion in five, direct arterial repair in three, and ureteral exclusion with percutaneous nephrostomy and no arterial repair in one. There were no early deaths. Five of eight patients treated by open surgical repair developed complications, which included enterocutaneous fistula in three and superficial wound infection in two. Four patients (36%) treated by iliac stent grafts had complications, including pneumonia, non-ST segment elevation myocardial infarction, buttock claudication, and early stent occlusion in one each. After a median follow-up of 26 months, no one had recurrent massive hematuria, but minor bleeding was reported in three. Patient survival at 5 years was 42% compared with 93% for the general population (P < .001). Freedom from any recurrent bleeding at 3 years was 76%. In the stent graft group, primary and secondary patency rates and freedom from stent graft infection at 3 years were 81%, 92%, and 100%. Conclusions UIAF is a
Shih, Hsueh-Fu; Ho, Te-Wei; Hsu, Jui-Tse; Chang, Chun-Che; Lai, Feipei; Wu, Jin-Ming
Postsurgical wound care has a great impact on patients' prognosis. It often takes few days, even few weeks, for the wound to stabilize, which incurs a great cost of health care and nursing resources. To assess the wound condition and diagnosis, it is important to segment out the wound region for further analysis. However, the scenario of this strategy often consists of complicated background and noise. In this study, we propose a wound segmentation algorithm based on Canny edge detector and genetic algorithm with an unsupervised evaluation function. The results were evaluated by the 112 clinical images, and 94.3% of images were correctly segmented. The judgment was based on the evaluation of experimented medical doctors. This capability to extract complete wound regions, makes it possible to conduct further image analysis such as intelligent recovery evaluation and automatic infection requirements.
Che, Lu; Lu, Xin; Pei, Li-Jian
Objective To investigate the efficacy and safety of continuous local anesthetic wound infiltration following open abdominal partial hepatectomy. Methods We performed a prospective, non-randomized, concurrent and controlled study. Patients undergoing open abdominal partial hepatectomy, according to their willingness, accepted one of the following managements for the postoperative pain: continuous wound catheter (CWC) infiltration, patient-controlled epidural analgesia (PCEA), patient-controlled intravenous analgesia of morphine (PCIAM), and patient-controlled intravenous analgesia of sufentanil (PCIAS). The primary outcome was postoperative visual analogue scale (VAS) scores at rest and on movement. Secondary outcomes included consumption of rescue medication, side effects, and complications associated with postoperative pain management. Results From August 2013 to December 2013, 80 patients were allocated to receive CWC (n=10), PCEA (n=22), PCIAM (n=29), or PCIAS (n=19). After adjusting for age, sex, body mass index, percentage of resected liver, operation time, and Amsterdam Preoperative Anxiety and Information Scale, there was no significant difference in the VAS scores at rest or on movement between Group CWC and the other groups, namely PCEA, PCIAM, and PCIAS, at 4, 12, 48, and 72 hours postoperatively (all P>0.05). The need for rescue medication was not significantly different between Group CWC and the other three groups at 48 and 72 hours postoperatively (all P>0.05). There was no significant difference in the incidence of postoperative nausea and vomiting or anal exsufflation time between group CWC and the other three groups (all P>0.05). No severe adverse effects associated with continuous wound infiltration were observed during the study period. Conclusions CWC has a comparable analgesic effect compared with traditional analgesia Methods at most time points postoperatively. CWC is a safe alternative for the postoperative analgesic management of open liver
Thomas, D. F.; Lambert, W. G.; Williams, K. L.
A simple technique of wound perfusion with bupivacaine (Marcain) which provides sustained postoperative analgesia is described. No complications nor side effects related to toxicity, hypersensitivity, infection, or impaired wound healing were encountered. Postoperative pain was reduced and analgesic requirements were significantly lower in patients undergoing both intermittent (P less than 0.01) and continuous (P = 0.1) wound perfusion (Student t test). Perfusion with isotonic saline was also found to be effective. This may represent a true therapeutic effect attributable to the removal or dilution of pain mediating substances in the wound. PMID:6347012
Harrison, Tara M; Stanley, Bryden J; Sikarskie, James G; Bohart, George; Ames, N Kent; Tomlian, Janice; Marquardt, Mark; Marcum, Annabel; Kiupel, Matti; Sledge, Dodd; Agnew, Dalen
A 14-yr-old female eastern black rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis michaeli) presented with progressive suppurative osteomyelitis in her left hind lateral toe. beta-Hemolytic Streptococcus sp. was isolated. The animal was treated with multiple systemic antibiotics, and topical wound cleansing. Repeated debridements and nail trimmings were performed for 5 mo prior to electing amputation. The toe was surgically amputated under general anesthesia between the first and second phalanges. Analgesia was diffused into the wound topically via a catheter and elastomeric pump. The open amputation site was covered with adherent drapes and a negative-pressure wound therapy device provided vacuum-assisted closure (V.A.C.) for 72 hr. Three months later this animal developed a deep dermal ulcer on the lateral aspect of the right hind limb, at the level of the stifle. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus was isolated. The wound was managed by initial daily lavage, followed by 1 mo of V.A.C. therapy, with 72 hr between dressing changes. Clinically, this therapy expedited the formation of healthy granulation tissue and overall healing was accelerated. The animal tolerated the machine and bandage changes well via operant conditioning. The use of negative-pressure wound therapy appeared to shorten time to resolution of slow-healing wounds in black rhinoceros.
Agarwal, Prateek; Burke, John F.; Abdullah, Kalil G.; Piazza, Matthew; Smith, Brian P.; Thawani, Jayesh P.; Malhotra, Neil R.
Background: We present a rare case of an intraparenchymal nonmissile penetrating spinal injury (NMPSI) occurring at the T11 level in a patient presenting without neurological deficit. Case Description: The patient sustained a knife wound that penetrated the lamina without incurring bony injury and entered the spinal cord at the T11 level. During surgery, the intramedullary penetration of the cord was confirmed, and following surgical removal of the knife, the patient fully recovered without losing any neurological function. Conclusions: The surgical management of NMPSI in patients who are neurologically intact is controversial. Here, we report surgical excision of a knife that penetrated the spinal cord at the T11 level, without the patient incurring further neurological deterioration. PMID:28144493
Neto, Luiz Gonzaga do Nascimento; Pinto, Luciano da Silva; Bastos, Rafaela Mesquita; Evaristo, Francisco Flávio Vasconcelos; Vasconcelos, Mayron Alves de; Carneiro, Victor Alves; Arruda, Francisco Vassiliepe Sousa; Porto, Ana Lúcia Figueiredo; Leal, Rodrigo Bainy; Júnior, Valdemiro Amaro da Silva; Cavada, Benildo Sousa; Teixeira, Edson Holanda
Lectins are a structurally heterogeneous group of highly specific carbohydrate-binding proteins. Due to their great biotechnological potential, lectins are widely used in biomedical research. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the healing potential of the lectin of Bauhinia variegata (nBVL) and its recombinant isoform (rBVL-1). Following surgical creation of dorsal skin wounds, seven groups of mice were submitted to topical treatment for 12 days with lectin, D-galactose, BSA and saline. The animals were anesthetized and euthanized on POD 2, 7 and 12 in order to evaluate the healing potential of each treatment. The parameters considered included wound size, contraction rate, epithelialization rate and histopathological findings. Wound closure was fastest in animals treated with rBVL-1 (POD 7). nBVL was more effective than the controls. All skin layers were reconstructed and keratin deposition increased. Our findings indicate that the lectin of Bauhinia variegata possesses pro-healing properties and may be employed in the treatment of acute skin wounds.
Solway, Douglas R; Clark, William A; Levinson, Dennis J
The purpose of this study was to compare the rate of wound healing in diabetic foot ulcers (DFU) using either a microbial cellulose (MC) wound dressing or Xeroform™ Petrolatum gauze. In a parallel, open-label trial in which the primary outcome was the rate of wound healing and the time to wound closure, 15 ulcers in type II diabetic patients received an MC dressing. Wounds in 19 control patients with type II diabetes were treated with a Xeroform gauze dressing. All wounds were non infected, Wagner stage II or III and received standard care including debridement, non weight bearing limb support and weekly wound evaluation. The mean time to heal in the MC (±SE) treated group was 32 days ± 2.5 and for controls it was 48 days ± 4.7 (P < 0.01). The rate of weekly wound closure (mean ± SE) was 1.7 times faster in the MC-treated group (cellulose treated, -5.04% per week ± 0.38 versus control, -2.93% per week ± 0.19), (P < 0.001). Among covariants tested by univariate regression, only the original wound area correlated with the time to wound closure (P < 0.001). In conclusion, with the provision of current standards of care, the application of an MC dressing to a diabetic ulcer may enhance the rate of wound healing and shorten the time course of epithelisation. © 2010 The Authors. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd and Medicalhelplines.com Inc.
Selvaggi, Francesco; Pellino, Gianluca; Sciaudone, Guido; Corte, Angela Della; Candilio, Giuseppe; Campitiello, Ferdinando; Canonico, Silvestro
Surgical site complications (SSC) negatively affect costs of care and prolong length of stay. Crohn's disease (CD) is a risk factor for SSC. CD patients often need surgery, sometimes requiring stoma. Our primary aim was to compare the effects on SSC of a portable device for NPWT (PICO, Smith & Nephew, London, UK) with gauze dressings after elective surgery for CD. Secondary aims were manageability and safety of PICO and its feasibility as home therapy. Between 2010 and 2012, 50 patients were assigned to treatment with either PICO (n = 25) or conventional dressings (n = 25). Each patient completed 12-month follow-up. Parameters of interests for primary aim were SSC, surgical complications, and readmission rates. Data on difficulties in managing PICO and device-related complications were also collected. Patients receiving PICO had less SSC, resulting in shorter hospital stay. At last follow-up, readmission rates were lower with PICO. No differences were observed in surgical complications between groups. No patients reported difficulties in managing the device. Among patients discharged with PICO, none needed to come back to the hospital for device malfunctioning or inability to manage it. PICO reduces SSC and length of stay in selected CD patients compared with conventional dressings. The device is safe and user friendly.
Arroyo Vázquez, Jorge; Bergström, Maria; Dot, Joan; Abu-Suboh-Abadia, Monder; Fonseca, Carla; Esteves, Marielle; Azadani, Asghar; Armengol, Jordi; Masachs, Miquel; Armengol-Miró, José Ramon; Park, Per-Ola
Investigations indicate that natural orifice translumenal endoscopic surgery (NOTES) procedures induce a less pronounced postoperative inflammatory response than open or laparoscopic surgery, inflicting less trauma. In NOTES procedures, no skin incision is performed. We compare the inflammatory response added by the type of incision by measuring C-reactive protein (CRP) and tumors necrosis factor-alfa (TNF-α). Twenty-seven pigs were randomized to open surgical, laparoscopic, or transgastric NOTES abdominal access. After completion of the accesses, no surgery was performed. All accesses were left open for 40 minutes followed by closure, animals were survived for 7 days. Blood samples were drawn at the start of the accesses, at 20 and 40 minutes during the procedure, and at postoperative day (POD) 1, 3, and 7. Analyses of CRP and TNF-α were performed. CRP increased in all animals until POD1. This increase was greater in the open group (P = .006). No significant differences in CRP-levels were found at POD 1, 3, or 7. TNF-α showed a peak during the procedure, at 20 and 40 minutes, with normalization at POD1 for 1/3 of the open and laparoscopic animals, but not for the NOTES animals. Due to variations within the groups, no statistical difference was shown between them. At postmortem, 1/3 of the pigs in the laparoscopic and open groups had wound infections, while no NOTES animals showed infections. This study provides no statistically significant differences in inflammatory response after the different abdominal accesses. However, the lack of a TNF-α-peak in the NOTES group might indicate a less pronounced response, supporting the initial theories.
Hennessy, M J; Banks, H H; Leach, R B; Quigley, T B
The civilian gunshot wound is a low velocity injury. Temporary cavitation does not occur in the low velocity wound and damage is confined to the projectile pathway. Extensive debridement is not indicated for this injury. Surgical cleansing is used to convert the open, contaminated wound to a clean, closed wound. Reparative and definitive reconstruction then follow to restore form and function with minimized patient hazard.
Orthopaedic limb reconstruction patients often have wounds that are difficult to heal either due to the underlying problems, their surgery, underlying comorbidities or a combination of these factors. Negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) is a useful tool with which to manage these wounds; however, many systems are not ideal for use in the patient's home, due in part to size and complexity. There are also staff training issues if transferring patients to an area which does not routinely use negative pressure systems. This paper reports the outcomes for some of the patients who were treated with a novel, single-use NPWT device in a orthopaedic trauma/limb reconstruction unit.
During the Great War, the French surgeon Alexis Carrel, in collaboration with the English chemist Henry Dakin, devised an antiseptic treatment for infected wounds. This paper focuses on Carrel’s attempt to standardise knowledge of infected wounds and their treatment, and looks closely at the vision of surgical skill he espoused and its difference from those associated with the doctrines of scientific management. Examining contemporary claims that the Carrel–Dakin method increased rather than diminished demands on surgical work, this paper further shows how debates about antiseptic wound treatment opened up a critical space for considering the nature of skill as a vital dynamic in surgical innovation and practice. PMID:26090737
Background Odontogenic necrotizing fasciitis of the neck is a fulminant infection of odontogenic origin that quickly spreads along the fascial planes and results in necrosis of the affected tissues. It is usually polymicrobial, occurs frequently in immunocompromised patients, and has a high mortality rate. Case presentation A 69-year old Mexican male had a pain in the maxillar right-canine region and a swelling of the submental and submandibular regions. Our examination revealed local pain, tachycardia, hyperthermia (39°C), and the swelling of bilateral submental and submandibular regions, which also were erythematous, hyperthermic, crepitant, and with a positive Godet sign. Mobility and third-degree caries were seen in the right mandibular canine. Bacteriological cultures isolated streptococcus pyogenes and staphylococcus aureus. The histopathological diagnosis was odontogenic necrotizing fasciitis of the submental and submandibular regions. The initial treatment was surgical debridement and the administration of antibiotics. After cultures were negative, the surgical wound was treated with a growth factor-enriched autologous plasma eight times every third day until complete healing occurred. Conclusions The treatment with a growth factor-enriched autologous plasma caused a rapid healing of an extensive surgical wound in a patient with odontogenic necrotizing fasciitis. The benefits were rapid tissue regeneration, an aesthetic and a functional scar, and the avoidance of further surgery and possible complications. PMID:21396085
Golub, A V; Kozlov, R S; Pleshkov, V G; Moskalev, A P; Alibegov, R A; Chelombitko, M A
To assess an incidence rate of surgical site infections (SSI) after open appendectomy and effectiveness of combined preventive measures (CPM). This study was performed at three surgical departments of Smolensk hospitals. A total of 150 consecutive patients (50 at each department) hospitalized since January 2012 were included into the retrospective observation (period I). In order to perform prospective evaluation of CPM, a total of 66 consecutive patients (randomized 1:1) hospitalized since December 2012 (period II) were followed up at each of the departments. Antibiotic prophylaxis (AP) with IV amoxicillin/clavulanate (1.2 g) was planned for all patients from period II. The study group (group 1) included patients with surgical wound closure with triclosan-coated polyglactin 910 and additionally with a skin 2-octylcyanoacrylate-based adhesive. The control group (group 2) included patients with surgical wound closure with non-triclosan-coated polyglactin 910. Each patient from the period II was assigned to an "Individual SSI Prevention Package" (IPP), which included an antibiotic, sutures, skin adhesive (only in a package for CPM) and label "AP" for patients' medical records. Patients' medical records were reviewed by one expert. Exclusion criteria were: age <14 years; transition to midline laparotomy; drainage of the abdominal cavity through the surgical wound; simultaneous interventions; secondary appendicitis; refusal to use of sutures from the IPP. In order to determine signs of SSI presence/absence within 30 days after surgery, attempts to contact with patients by phone were made. The data obtained was recorded into case report forms and then entered into the study database. A total of 322 patients were included into the final analysis (mean age: 34.8±17.1 years). The mean length of hospital stay was 8.2±2.5 days. The mean duration of hospital stay with or without SSI was 7.9±1.8 and 14.2±4.0 days, respectively (p<0.001). The AP during the periods I and II
Dai, Tianhong; Kharkwal, Gitika B; Tanaka, Masamitsu; Huang, Ying-Ying; Bil de Arce, Vida J
Background: Despite advances in traumatic wound care and management, infections remain a leading cause of mortality, morbidity and economic disruption in millions of wound patients around the world. Animal models have become standard tools for studying a wide array of external traumatic wound infections and testing new antimicrobial strategies. Results: Animal models of external traumatic wound infections reported by different investigators vary in animal species used, microorganism strains, the number of microorganisms applied, the size of the wounds and for burn infections, the length of time the heated object or liquid is in contact with the skin. Methods: This review covers experimental infections in animal models of surgical wounds, skin abrasions, burns, lacerations, excisional wounds and open fractures. Conclusions: As antibiotic resistance continues to increase, more new antimicrobial approaches are urgently needed. These should be tested using standard protocols for infections in external traumatic wounds in animal models. PMID:21701256
Branco, B C; Montero-Baker, M F; Mills, J L
The present review addresses the pros and cons of the current, wide variety of therapeutic options available for the treatment of acute limb ischemia (ALI). Despite five prospective randomized controlled trials comparing catheter directed thrombolysis and open surgical revascularization, no single treatment strategy can yet be considered optimal for patients with ALI. This report includes 20 years of published data to evaluate the efficacy and safety profile of thrombolytic agents and adjunctive endovascular techniques when compared to open surgical revascularization.
Benoit, Laurent; Cheynel, Nicolas; Ortega-Deballon, Pablo; Giacomo, Giovanni Di; Chauffert, Bruno; Rat, Patrick
Exposure of the surgical team to toxic drugs during hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC) remains a matter of great concern. In closed-abdomen HIPEC operating room staffs are not exposed to drugs, but the distribution of the heated liquid within the abdomen is not optimal. In open-abdomen HIPEC, the opposite is true. Even though the open-abdomen method is potentially more effective, it has not become a standard procedure because of the risk of exposure of members of the team to drugs. We present a new technique (closed HIPEC with open abdomen) which ensures protection against potentially contaminating exposure to liquids, vapours and aerosols, and allows permanent access to the whole abdominal cavity. Its principle is to extend the abdominal surgical wound upwards with a sort of “glove-box”. The cutaneous edges of the laparotomy are stapled to a latex «wall expander». The expander is draped over a special L-section metal frame placed above the abdomen. A transparent cover containing a « hand-access » port like those used in laparoscopic surgery is fixed inside the frame. In 10 patients, this device proved to be hermetic both for liquids and vapours. Intra-abdominal temperature was maintained between 42 and 43°C during most of the procedure. The whole abdominal cavity was accessible to the surgeon allowing optimal exposure of all peritoneal surfaces. This technique allows optimal HIPEC while limiting the potential toxic effects for the surgical, medical and paramedical teams. PMID:17929098
Kouketsu, Atsumu; Nogami, Shinnosuke; Fujiwara, Minami; Mori, Shiro; Yamauchi, Kensuke; Hashimoto, Wataru; Miyashita, Hitoshi; Kurihara, Jun; Kawai, Tadashi; Higuchi, Keisuke; Takahashi, Tetsu
Polyglycolic acid (PGA) sheets and commercial fibrin glue are commonly used to cover open wound surfaces in oral surgery. Compared to commercial fibrin glue composed of pooled allogeneic blood, autologous fibrin glue is less expensive and poses lower risks of viral infection and allergic reaction. Here, we evaluated postoperative pain, scar contracture, ingestion, tongue dyskinesia, and postoperative bleeding in 24 patients who underwent partial glossectomy plus the application of a PGA sheet and an autologous fibrin glue covering (autologous group) versus 11 patients in whom a PGA sheet and commercial fibrin glue were used (allogeneic group). The evaluated clinical measures were nearly identical in both groups. Remarkable wound surface granulation was recognized in two cases in the autologous group. No complications were observed in either group, including viral infection or allergic reaction. Abnormal postoperative bleeding in the wound region was observed in one case in the allogeneic group. Coagulation and adhesion of the autologous fibrin glue were equivalent to those of conventional therapy with a PGA sheet and commercial fibrin glue. Thus, our results show that covering wounds with autologous fibrin glue and PGA sheets may help avoid the risks of viral infection and allergic reaction in partial glossectomy cases.
Klein, Justin D; Turner, Christopher G B; Steigman, Shaun A; Ahmed, Azra; Zurakowski, David; Eriksson, Elof; Fauza, Dario O
Fetal wound healing involves minimal inflammation and limited scarring. Its mechanisms, which remain to be fully elucidated, hold valuable clues for wound healing modulation and the development of regenerative strategies. We sought to determine whether fetal wound healing includes a hitherto unrecognized cellular component. Two sets of fetal lambs underwent consecutive experiments at midgestation. First, fetuses received an intra-amniotic infusion of labeled autologous amniotic mesenchymal stem cells (aMSCs), in parallel to different surgical manipulations. Subsequently, fetuses underwent creation of 2 symmetrical, size-matched skin wounds, both encased by a titanium chamber. One of the chambers was left open and the other covered with a semipermeable membrane that allowed for passage of water and all molecules, but not any cells. Survivors from both experiments had their wounds analyzed at different time points before term. Labeled aMSCs were documented in all concurrent surgical wounds. Covered wounds showed a significantly slower healing rate than open wounds. Paired comparisons indicated significantly lower elastin levels in covered wounds at the mid time points, with no significant differences in collagen levels. No significant changes in hyaluronic acid levels were detected between the wound types. Immunohistochemistry for substance P was positive in both open and covered wounds. We conclude that fetal wound healing encompasses an autologous yet exogenous cellular component in naturally occurring aMSCs. Although seemingly not absolutely essential to the healing process, amniotic cells expedite wound closure and enhance its extracellular matrix profile. Further scrutiny into translational implications of this finding is warranted.
Background Open fractures frequently result in serious complications for patients, including infections, wound healing problems, and failure of fracture healing, many of which necessitate subsequent operations. One of the most important steps in the initial management of open fractures is a thorough wound irrigation and debridement to remove any contaminants. There is, however, currently no consensus regarding the optimal approach to irrigating open fracture wounds during the initial operative procedure. The selection of both the type of irrigating fluid and the pressure of fluid delivery remain controversial. The primary objective of this study is to investigate the effects of irrigation solutions (soap vs. normal saline) and pressure (low vs. high; gravity flow vs. high; low vs. gravity flow) on re-operation within one year among patients with open fractures. Methods/Design The FLOW study is a multi-center, randomized controlled trial using a 2 × 3 factorial design. Surgeons at clinical sites in North America, Europe, Australia, and Asia will recruit 2 280 patients who will be centrally randomized into one of the 6 treatment arms (soap + low pressure; soap + gravity flow pressure; soap + high pressure; saline + low pressure; saline + gravity flow pressure; saline + high pressure). The primary outcome of the study is re-operation to promote wound or bone healing, or to treat an infection. This composite endpoint of re-operation includes a narrow spectrum of patient-important procedures: irrigation and debridement for infected wound, revision and closure for wound dehiscence, wound coverage procedures for infected or necrotic wound, bone grafts or implant exchange procedures for established nonunion in patients with postoperative fracture gaps less than 1 cm, intramedullary nail dynamizations in the operating room, and fasciotomies for compartment syndrome. Patients, outcome adjudicators, and data analysts will be blinded. We will compare rates of re-operation at
Phase II Randomized Trial of Negative-Pressure Wound Therapy to Decrease Surgical Site Infection in Patients Undergoing Laparotomy for Gastrointestinal, Pancreatic, and Peritoneal Surface Malignancies
Shen, Perry; Blackham, Aaron U; Lewis, Stacey; Clark, Clancy J; Howerton, Russell; Mogal, Harveshp D; Dodson, Rebecca M; Russell, Gregory B; Levine, Edward A
BACKGROUND Surgical site infections (SSIs) remain a major source of morbidity and cost after resection of intra-abdominal malignancies. Negative-pressure wound therapy (NPWT) has been reported to significantly reduce SSIs when applied to the closed laparotomy incision. This article reports the results of a randomized clinical trial examining the effect of NPWT on SSI rates in surgical oncology patients with increased risk for infectious complications. STUDY DESIGN From 2012 to 2016, two hundred and sixty-five patients who underwent open resection of intra-abdominal neoplasms were stratified into 3 groups: gastrointestinal (n = 57), pancreas (n = 73), or peritoneal surface (n = 135) malignancy. They were randomized to receive NPWT or standard surgical dressing (SSD) applied to the incision from postoperative days 1 through 4. Primary outcomes of combined incisional (superficial and deep) SSI rates were assessed up to 30 days after surgery. RESULTS There were no significant differences in superficial SSIs (12.8% vs 12.9%; p > 0.99) or deep SSI (3.0% vs 3.0%; p > 0.99) rates between the SSD and NPWT groups, respectively. When stratified by type of surgery, there were still no differences in combined incisional SSI rates for gastrointestinal (25% vs 24%; p > 0.99), pancreas (22% vs 22%; p > 0.99), and peritoneal surface malignancy (9% vs 9%; p > 0.99) patients. When performing univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis of demographic and operative factors for the development of combined incisional SSI, the only independent predictors were preoperative albumin (p = 0.0031) and type of operation (p = 0.018). CONCLUSIONS Use of NPWT did not significantly reduce incisional SSI rates in patients having open resection of gastrointestinal, pancreatic, or peritoneal surface malignancies. Based on these results, at this time NPWT cannot be recommended as a therapeutic intervention to decrease infectious complications in these patient populations. PMID:28088597
Atzingen, Dênia Amélia Novato Castelli Von; Gragnani, Alfredo; Veiga, Daniela Francescato; Abla, Luis Eduardo Felipe; Mendonça, Adriana Rodrigues dos Anjos; Paula, Clayton Aparecido de; Juliano, Yara; Correa, José Carlos; Faria, Marcio Raimundo de; Ferreira, Lydia Masako
To determine the optimum concentration of a gel obtained from unripe banana (Musa sapientum) peel for wound treatment in rats. A randomized triple blind study was conducted with 40 Wistar rats, which were divided into 4 groups: CG, control group; G2%, 2% gel concentration group; G4%, 4% gel concentration group; and G10%, 10 % gel concentration group. The banana peel gel was applied daily, for 7 days, to a 4-cm(2) wound created on the back of each animal of all groups. After this period, the wounds were biopsied. Statistical analysis was carried out using the Kruskal-Wallis test complemented by the Student-Newman-Keuls test. Macroscopic examination revealed that partial epithelialization occurred in all groups. Wound contraction was also observed in all groups and ranged from 1.38 to 1.57 mm in the study groups, and from 1.03 to 1.10 mm in the control group, with significant differences (p < 0.05) between the groups: CG and G10%, G2% and G4%, G2% and G10%. The interquartile deviation was smaller between the groups CG and G4%. The 4% gel obtained from unripe banana peel (G4%) resulted in better epithelialization of wounds healed by secondary intention compared with other gel concentrations.
Sezgin, Billur; Ljohiy, Mbaraka; Akgol Gur, Sultan Tuna
Uncertainty in the management of animal-inflicted injuries, especially in rural settings, usually results in a general approach to leave all wounds to heal with secondary intention, which can lead to unsightly scarring and functional loss. This study focusus on different circumstances dealt with by plastic surgeons in a rural setting in Turkey and aims to configure what the general approach should be through an analysis of a wide spectrum of patients. Between June 2013 and December 2014, 205 patients who presented to the emergency department for animal-inflicted injuries were retrospectively analysed. Patients who consulted for plastic surgery were included in the analysis to determine which wounds require further attention. Patients with past animal-inflicted injuries who presented to the outpatient plastic surgery clinic with concerns such as non-healing open wounds or cosmetic or functional impairment were also evaluated. Statistical analysis demostrated a significantly lower rate of infection encountered in animal-inflicted open wounds (AIOWs) of patients who consulted for plastic surgery from the emergency department than those who presented to the outpatient clinic (P < 0·05). The main concern in the management of animal-inflicted wounds is their potential for infection, but this does not mean that every wound will be infected. The most important factor is being able to distinguish wounds that have a higher potential for infection and to select the type of wound management accordingly. An algorithm has been proposed as a guidance for the management of AIOWs, which covers the approach towards both domestic and stray animal-inflicted injuries. © 2015 Medicalhelplines.com Inc and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Pasek, Jarosław; Pasek, Tomasz; Sieroń, Aleksander
The intense development of methods of physical medicine has been noted recently. The new methods are treatment methods, which in many cases allow a reduction of treatment time and positively influence the quality of life of patients undergoing treatment. This applies to illnesses and injuries of the locomotor system and diseases affecting soft tissues, as well as chronic wounds. This article discusses the positive results of the treatment of a 63-year-old woman with a persisting chronic wound of her right lower extremity after knee joint endoprosthesis surgery. The physical medicine method applied, in the form of magnetoledtherapy, contributed to complete wound healing and alleviation of pain suffered, as well as improvement of the quality of life of the treated patient.
Pasek, Jarosław; Pasek, Tomasz; Sieroń, Aleksander
The intense development of methods of physical medicine has been noted recently. The new methods are treatment methods, which in many cases allow a reduction of treatment time and positively influence the quality of life of patients undergoing treatment. This applies to illnesses and injuries of the locomotor system and diseases affecting soft tissues, as well as chronic wounds. This article discusses the positive results of the treatment of a 63-year-old woman with a persisting chronic wound of her right lower extremity after knee joint endoprosthesis surgery. The physical medicine method applied, in the form of magnetoledtherapy, contributed to complete wound healing and alleviation of pain suffered, as well as improvement of the quality of life of the treated patient. PMID:25214792
Dressing primary surgical wounds is common, but the implications for surgical site infection (SSI) remain unknown. The Bluebelle study aimed to determine the feasibility of a randomised controlled trial (RCT) comparing 'simple', 'complex' or 'no' dressings on abdominal wounds, as prespecified in a funder's research brief. Bluebelle includes exploratory work (phase A) to inform a pilot version of the proposed RCT (phase B). Phase A aimed to investigate current dressing practices and perspectives on the proposed RCT, with a view to refining the forthcoming pilot. Mixed methods, including semi-structured interviews and document analysis. 6 UK hospitals. 51 patients and 92 clinical professionals from abdominal surgical specialities. Professionals had variable interpretations of what constitutes a 'dressing', particularly with respect to 'glue'-a product listed under 'wound-closure products' in the British National Formulary, which some surgeons reportedly applied as a 'wound covering'. Areas of ambiguity arising from interviews informed development of pragmatic definitions, including specification of conditions under which glue constituted a 'dressing'. Professionals reported that 'simple' dressings were routinely used in practice, whereas 'complex' dressings were not. This raised questions about the relevance of comparison groups, prompting the design of a survey to determine the types/frequency of dressing use in abdominal surgery (reported elsewhere). This confirmed that complex dressings were rarely used, while 'glue as a dressing' was used relatively frequently. 'Complex dressings' were therefore substituted for 'glue as a dressing' (following an updated Cochrane review, which found insufficient evidence to determine the effectiveness of 'glue as a dressing'). Patients and professionals acknowledged uncertainty around dressing use and SSI prevention, but felt dressings may serve practical and/or psychological benefits. This steered development of additional
Objectives Dressing primary surgical wounds is common, but the implications for surgical site infection (SSI) remain unknown. The Bluebelle study aimed to determine the feasibility of a randomised controlled trial (RCT) comparing ‘simple’, ‘complex’ or ‘no’ dressings on abdominal wounds, as prespecified in a funder's research brief. Bluebelle includes exploratory work (phase A) to inform a pilot version of the proposed RCT (phase B). Phase A aimed to investigate current dressing practices and perspectives on the proposed RCT, with a view to refining the forthcoming pilot. Design Mixed methods, including semi-structured interviews and document analysis. Setting 6 UK hospitals. Participants 51 patients and 92 clinical professionals from abdominal surgical specialities. Results Professionals had variable interpretations of what constitutes a ‘dressing’, particularly with respect to ‘glue’—a product listed under ‘wound-closure products’ in the British National Formulary, which some surgeons reportedly applied as a ‘wound covering’. Areas of ambiguity arising from interviews informed development of pragmatic definitions, including specification of conditions under which glue constituted a ‘dressing’. Professionals reported that ‘simple’ dressings were routinely used in practice, whereas ‘complex’ dressings were not. This raised questions about the relevance of comparison groups, prompting the design of a survey to determine the types/frequency of dressing use in abdominal surgery (reported elsewhere). This confirmed that complex dressings were rarely used, while ‘glue as a dressing’ was used relatively frequently. ‘Complex dressings’ were therefore substituted for ‘glue as a dressing’ (following an updated Cochrane review, which found insufficient evidence to determine the effectiveness of ‘glue as a dressing’). Patients and professionals acknowledged uncertainty around dressing use and SSI prevention, but felt
Weapon injuries in armed conflict are likely to receive medical attention. Other types of injuries, like traffic accidents, continue to occur during armed conflict. Injuries caused by weapons and by traffic accidents require treatment, but reports and figures to help in prioritizing care are scarce. In a prospective observational study, all emergency patients admitted to the surgical ward in a public hospital of the Central African Republic were evaluated for the cause of their main injury. The proportion of patients injured by weapons and by traffic accidents was analyzed with respect to the level of violence. Seventy-eight patients were included in this study. Weapon injuries accounted for 50 (64%) admissions and traffic accidents for 28 (36%). These proportions varied significantly according to the weekly level of violence (χ(2)=46.8; P<.001). People injured in traffic accidents are an important, but overlooked, drain on surgical resources in low-income countries with armed conflict. Their proportion in relation to weapon wounded fluctuates with the level of violence. Humanitarian medical organizations might prepare themselves not only for weapon injuries, but also for wounds caused by traffic accidents.
Kasithevar, Muthupandi; Periakaruppan, Prakash; Muthupandian, Saravanan; Mohan, Mahalakshmi
In order to investigate new effective and inexpensive nano-therapeutic approach for P. aeruginosa, staphylococcus aureus and coagulase negative staphylococci (CoNS), the present study reports an eco-friendly process for rapid synthesis of silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) using aqueous leaf extract of Corchorus Capsularis (CRCP). Formation of stable Ag-NPs at different time intervals gives mostly spherical particles with diameters ranging from 5 to 45 nm. The resulting Ag-NPs were characterized using Ultraviolet visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) analysis, Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and Energy Dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX). XRD study shows that the particles are crystalline in nature with face centered cubic geometry. TEM studies show the formation of Ag-NPs with average size of 20.52 nm. The antimicrobial activity of the synthesized Ag-NPs was investigated against multi drug resistant (MDR) P. aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus and CoNS isolates from post-surgical wound infections. The present study suggests that Ag-NPs synthesized from aqueous leaf extract of CRCP shows significant antibacterial potential against MDR isolates from post-surgical wound infections. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Roster, Brent; Kreulen, Christopher; Giza, Eric
Arthrodesis of the subtalar joint can be performed via both open and arthroscopic techniques. Both groups of procedures have their own relative indications and contraindications, as well as complications. Good results have been reported for both general procedures, although some studies suggest superiority with arthroscopic subtalar arthrodesis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Badalato, Gina M; Shapiro, Edan; Rothberg, Michael B; Bergman, Ari; RoyChoudhury, Arindam; Korets, Ruslan; Patel, Trushar; Badani, Ketan K
Handedness, or the inherent dominance of one hand's dexterity over the other's, is a factor in open surgery but has an unknown importance in robot-assisted surgery. We sought to examine whether the robotic surgery platform could eliminate the effect of inherent hand preference. Residents from the Urology and Obstetrics/Gynecology departments were enrolled. Ambidextrous and left-handed subjects were excluded. After completing a questionnaire, subjects performed three tasks modified from the Fundamentals of Laparoscopic Surgery curriculum. Tasks were performed by hand and then with the da Vinci robotic surgical system (Intuitive Surgical, Sunnyvale, California). Participants were randomized to begin with using either the left or the right hand, and then switch. Left:right ratios were calculated from scores based on time to task completion. Linear regression analysis was used to determine the significance of the impact of surgical technique on hand dominance. Ten subjects were enrolled. The mean difference in raw score performance between the right and left hands was 12.5 seconds for open tasks and 8 seconds for robotic tasks (P<.05). Overall left-right ratios were found to be 1.45 versus 1.12 for the open and robot tasks, respectively (P<.05). Handedness significantly differed between robotic and open approaches for raw time scores (P<.0001) and left-right ratio (P=.03) when controlling for the prior tasks completed, starting hand, prior robotic experience, and comfort level. These findings remain to be validated in larger cohorts. The robotic technique reduces hand dominance in surgical trainees across all task domains. This finding contributes to the known advantages of robotic surgery.
Turner, Keith H; Everett, Jake; Trivedi, Urvish; Rumbaugh, Kendra P; Whiteley, Marvin
Opportunistic infections caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa can be acute or chronic. While acute infections often spread rapidly and can cause tissue damage and sepsis with high mortality rates, chronic infections can persist for weeks, months, or years in the face of intensive clinical intervention. Remarkably, this diverse infectious capability is not accompanied by extensive variation in genomic content, suggesting that the genetic capacity to be an acute or a chronic pathogen is present in most P. aeruginosa strains. To investigate the genetic requirements for acute and chronic pathogenesis in P. aeruginosa infections, we combined high-throughput sequencing-mediated transcriptome profiling (RNA-seq) and genome-wide insertion mutant fitness profiling (Tn-seq) to characterize gene expression and fitness determinants in murine models of burn and non-diabetic chronic wound infection. Generally we discovered that expression of a gene in vivo is not correlated with its importance for fitness, with the exception of metabolic genes. By combining metabolic models generated from in vivo gene expression data with mutant fitness profiles, we determined the nutritional requirements for colonization and persistence in these infections. Specifically, we found that long-chain fatty acids represent a major carbon source in both chronic and acute wounds, and P. aeruginosa must biosynthesize purines, several amino acids, and most cofactors during infection. In addition, we determined that P. aeruginosa requires chemotactic flagellar motility for fitness and virulence in acute burn wound infections, but not in non-diabetic chronic wound infections. Our results provide novel insight into the genetic requirements for acute and chronic P. aeruginosa wound infections and demonstrate the power of using both gene expression and fitness profiling for probing bacterial virulence.
Busti, Anthony J; Hooper, Justin S; Amaya, Christopher J; Kazi, Salahuddin
Patients with various rheumatologic and inflammatory disease states commonly require drugs known to decrease the inflammatory or autoimmune response for adequate control of their condition. Such drugs include nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 inhibitors, corticosteroids, disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs), and biologic response modifiers. These drugs affect inflammation and local immune responses, which are necessary for proper wound healing in the perioperative setting, thereby potentially resulting in undesirable postoperative complications. Such complications include wound dehiscence, infection, and impaired collagen synthesis. The end result is delayed healing of soft tissue and bone wounds. The current literature provides insight into the effect of some of these drugs on wound healing. For certain drugs, such as methotrexate, trials have been conducted in humans and direct us on what to do during the perioperative period. Whereas with other drugs, we must rely on either small-animal studies or extrapolation of data from human studies that did not specifically look at wound healing. Unfortunately, no clear consensus exists on the need and optimum time for withholding therapy before surgery. Likewise, clinicians are often uncertain of the appropriate time to resume therapy after the procedure. For those drugs with limited or no data in this setting, the use of pharmacokinetic properties and biologic effects of each drug should be considered individually. In some cases, discontinuation of therapy may be required up to 4 weeks before surgery because of the long half-lives of the drugs. In doing so, patients may experience an exacerbation or worsening of disease. Clinicians must carefully evaluate individual patient risk factors, disease severity, and the pharmacokinetics of available therapies when weighing the risks and benefits of discontinuing therapy in the perioperative setting.
SanGiovanni, Thomas P; Kiebzak, Gary M
Prevention of surgical site infections and the reduction of wound-related complication rates have become increasingly emphasized by hospital task groups and government agencies given the degree of economic burden it places on the health care system. Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) contains growth factors and other biomolecules that promote endogenous microbicidal activity. We hypothesized that PRP would help prevent postoperative infection and delayed wound healing (DWH). We randomized patients having foot or ankle surgery to the treatment group receiving intraoperative PRP (applied to operative field) and platelet-poor plasma at closing (PPP, on the sutured skin) or the control group (no PRP/PPP). The incidence of deep surgical site infection and DWH (collectively called endpoints) was compared between groups (n = 250/group). PRP had a mean 5.3-fold platelet concentration compared to whole blood, with concentrated white blood cells. Mean age (±SD) of patients was 52 years (±15), 65% were women. Minor and major operative procedures were included. Patients were followed for 60 days. Seventy controls had PRP prepared for assay of growth factors. Procedure mix, ASA scores, mean operative times, and comorbidity mix were similar between groups. The primary result was no difference in number of endpoints between groups: 19 patients in the PRP group (7.6%) versus 18 controls (7.2%). Endpoints were deep surgical site infections in 2 PRP/PPP patients and 1 control, and DWH in 17 PRP/PPP patients and 17 controls. Analysis of PRP samples revealed a large variation in growth factor concentrations between patients. Intraoperative application of PRP/PPP did not reduce the incidence of postoperative infection or DWH. Growth factor profiles varied greatly between patients, suggesting that the potentially therapeutic treatment delivered was not consistent from patient-to-patient. Level I, prospective randomized trial. © The Author(s) 2015.
Hinkson, Larry; Siedentopf, Jan-Peter; Weichert, Alexander; Henrich, Wolfgang
A cesarean section rate of up to 19.4% is reported worldwide. Surgical site infection occurs with rates of up to 13.5%. Plastic-sheath wound retractors show reduced rates of surgical site infections in abdominal surgery. There is limited evidence in women having cesarean sections. This study evaluates the use of the Alexis(®) O C-Section Retractor in the prevention of surgical site infection in patients undergoing their first planned cesarean section compared to the traditional Collins self-retaining metal retractor. A single center, prospective, randomized, controlled, observational trial. The primary outcome is surgical site infection as defined by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The secondary outcomes included intraoperative surgical parameters, postoperative pain scores and the short and long-term satisfaction with wound healing. From October 2013 to December 2015 at the Charité University Hospital, Berlin. 98 patients to the Alexis(®) O C-Section Retractor group and 100 to the traditional Collins self-retaining metal retractor group. A statistically significant reduction in the rate of surgical site infections, when the Alexis(®) O C-Section Retractor was used for wound retraction compared to the traditional Collins metal self-retaining wound retractor, 1% vs. 8% (RR 7.84, 95% CI (2.45-70.71) p=0.035). The use of plastic-sheath wound retractors compared to the traditional self-retaining metal retractor in low risk women, having the first cesarean section is associated with a significantly reduced risk of surgical site infection. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Scalise, Alessandro; Tartaglione, Caterina; Bolletta, Elisa; Calamita, Roberto; Nicoletti, Giovanni; Pierangeli, Marina; Grassetti, Luca; Di Benedetto, Giovanni
According to the literature, incisional closure complications may range from postoperative surgical site infections, representing 17-22% of health care-associated infections, surgical wound dehiscence and formation of haematomas or seromas, and can lead to delayed or impaired incision healing. These kinds of situations are more common when wounds are closed under tension or in specific patient morbidities. Obesity, in particular, is associated with an impaired blood flow to tissues, predisposing the patient to increased risk of wound complications by various mechanisms. Incisional complications can become relevant economic burdens for health care systems because of an increase in the average length of hospital stay and readmissions, and additional medical and surgical procedures. Thus, a preventive therapy may have a critical role in the management of healing. Negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) technology as delivered by Prevena™ Customizable™ (Kinetic Concepts Inc., San Antonio, TX) has recently been the focus of a new investigation, as a prophylactic measure to prevent complications via immediate postoperative application in high-risk, clean, closed surgical incisions. The authors present a 62-year-old class II obese female, who underwent bilateral inguinal dermolipectomy. Prophylactic NPWT as delivered by Prevena™ was performed successfully over surgical incisions. Cosmetic and therapeutic results are shown.
Satake, H; Yamada, T; Kitamura, N; Yoshimura, T; Sasabe, E; Yamamoto, T
A case of prolonged unilateral temporomandibular joint (TMJ) dislocation, which was treated by open surgical reduction and post-surgical orthodontic therapy, is presented. A 58-year-old woman presented complaining of facial asymmetry and malocclusion. She had received surgery for a malignant tumour in the right retromolar region 7 years previously. It was considered that contraction of the pterygoid muscle by surgical injury caused anterior meniscal displacement and TMJ dislocation. Since manual manipulation failed, direct open reduction was performed after separation of the lateral pterygoid muscle from the condylar head and removal of the intra-articular scar tissues. Although the condylar head was returned to the glenoid fossa, optimal occlusion was not obtained because of compensatory tooth movement and inclination. Satisfactory occlusion and symmetric facial appearance were brought about by post-surgical orthodontic therapy.
Guilhen, Thiago Almeida; Vieira, Ana Beatriz Macedo; de Castro, Marcelo Claudiano; Hirata, Helton Hiroshi; Machado, Itibagi Rocha
Objective to assess the surgical technique using the modified palm open technique for the treatment of severe contractions of Dupuytren's disease. Methods over a period of four years, 16 patients underwent surgical treatment, and in its entirety belonged to stages III and IV of the classification proposed by Tubiana et al. We performed measurements of the extension deficit of the metacarpophalangeal joints, proximal and distal interphalangeal in preoperative, postoperative (3 months) and late postoperative period (5–8 years). Angles greater than 30° metacarpophalangeal joints and 15° proximal interphalangeal the results were considered surgical recurrence. Results there was obtained an average of 6.3° at the metacarpophalangeal joint, 13.8° in the proximal interphalangeal and distal interphalangeal at 1.9°. Conclusion the modified open palm technique is an effective method in the surgical treatment of severe contractures in Dupuytren's disease. PMID:26229769
Freedman, Michael; Stassen, Leo F A
A small number of medicaments are used in oral and maxillofacial surgery to dress wounds, relieve pain, prevent infection and promote healing. While these materials are routinely used, their constituents, uses and effects on oral tissues are rarely discussed. This literature review provides an overview of the constituents, uses and effects of the common materials--oxidised regenerated cellulose, Whitehead's varnish, Carnoy's solution, bismuth iodoform paraffin paste (BIPP), zinc oxide eugenol (ZOE) and Alvogyl.
Background. Pigmented villonodular synovitis (PVNS) is a rare benign tumor affecting large joints and prompts excision to prevent local destruction of the joint. The purpose of this case report is to describe two differing surgical approaches for management of PVNS of the hip in patients requiring concomitant treatment for additional hip pathology. Methods. This report discusses the presentation, clinical and radiographic findings, and operative management of two contrasting cases of PVNS of the hip. Case 1 describes a 31-year-old female with localized PVNS in addition to a labral tear treated with arthroscopic labral repair followed by tumor excision via a mini-open incision. Case 2 describes a 29-year-old male with more diffuse PVNS in addition to a cam deformity managed with open surgical dislocation of the hip, tumor excision, and restoration of the femoral head/neck junction. Results. This report demonstrates two cases of successful excision of PVNS of the hip in addition to addressing concomitant hip pathology in both cases. Conclusions. Open surgical dislocation of the hip or arthroscopic surgery with a mini-open incision may be used in appropriately selected patients to successfully excise PVNS lesions in addition to addressing concomitant hip pathology. PMID:28326214
Ellsworth, Bridget; Kamath, Atul F
Background. Pigmented villonodular synovitis (PVNS) is a rare benign tumor affecting large joints and prompts excision to prevent local destruction of the joint. The purpose of this case report is to describe two differing surgical approaches for management of PVNS of the hip in patients requiring concomitant treatment for additional hip pathology. Methods. This report discusses the presentation, clinical and radiographic findings, and operative management of two contrasting cases of PVNS of the hip. Case 1 describes a 31-year-old female with localized PVNS in addition to a labral tear treated with arthroscopic labral repair followed by tumor excision via a mini-open incision. Case 2 describes a 29-year-old male with more diffuse PVNS in addition to a cam deformity managed with open surgical dislocation of the hip, tumor excision, and restoration of the femoral head/neck junction. Results. This report demonstrates two cases of successful excision of PVNS of the hip in addition to addressing concomitant hip pathology in both cases. Conclusions. Open surgical dislocation of the hip or arthroscopic surgery with a mini-open incision may be used in appropriately selected patients to successfully excise PVNS lesions in addition to addressing concomitant hip pathology.
Tanious, Adam; Wooster, Mathew; Jung, Andrew; Nelson, Peter R; Armstrong, Paul A; Shames, Murray L
As the integrated vascular residency program reaches almost a decade of maturity, a common area of concern among trainees is the adequacy of open abdominal surgical training. It is our belief that although their overall exposure to open abdominal procedures has decreased, integrated vascular residents have an adequate and focused exposure to open aortic surgery during training. National operative case log data supplied by the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education were compiled for both graduating integrated vascular surgery residents (IVSRs) and graduating categorical general surgery residents (GSRs) for the years 2012 to 2014. Mean total and open abdominal case numbers were compared between the IVSRs and GSRs, with more in-depth exploration into open abdominal procedures by organ system. Overall, the mean total 5-year case volume of IVSRs was 1168 compared with 980 for GSRs during the same time frame (P < .0001). IVSRs reported nearly double the number of surgeon-chief cases compared with GSRs (452 vs 239; P < .0001). GSRs reported more than double the number of open abdominal procedures compared with IVSRs (205 vs 83; P < .0001). Sixty-five percent of the open abdominal experience for IVSRs was focused on procedures involving the aorta and its branches, with an average of 54 open aortic cases recorded throughout their training. The largest single contributor to open surgical experience for a GSR was alimentary tract surgery, representing 57% of all open abdominal cases. GSRs completed an average of 116 open alimentary tract surgeries during their training. Open abdominal surgery represented an average of 7.1% of the total vascular case volume for the vascular residents, whereas open abdominal surgery represented 21% of a GSR's total surgical experience. IVSRs reported almost double the number of total cases during their training, with double chief-level cases. Sixty-five percent of open abdominal surgeries performed by IVSRs involved the aorta
Kim, BoYeoul; Park, SungHee; Park, KyuJoo; Ryoo, SeungBum
To investigate the effects of a standardised care protocol as part of an enhanced recovery after surgery programme on the management of patients who underwent open colon surgery at the University Hospital, South Korea. Patients who undergo open colon surgery often have concerns about their care as they prepare for hospitalisation. By shortening hospital stay lengths, enhanced recovery after surgery programmes could reduce the number of opportunities for patient education and communication with nurses. Therefore, our surgical team developed an enhanced recovery after surgery programme, applied using a care protocol for patients with colorectal cancer, that spans the entire recovery process. A retrospective, comparative study was conducted using a care protocol as part of an enhanced recovery after surgery programme. Comparisons were made before and after the implementation of an enhanced recovery after surgery programme with a care protocol. Records of 219 patients who underwent open colon surgery were retrospectively audited. The records were grouped according to the care protocol used (enhanced recovery after surgery programme with a care protocol or traditional care programme). The outcomes, including postoperative bowel function recovery, postoperative pain control, recovery time and postoperative complications, were compared between two categories. Patients who were managed using the programme with a care protocol had shorter hospital stays, fewer complications, such as postoperative ileus wound infections, and emergency room visits than those who were managed using the traditional care programme. The findings can be used to facilitate the implementation of an enhanced recovery after surgery programme with a care protocol following open colon surgery. We present a care protocol that enables effective management using consistent and standardised education providing bedside care for patients who undergo open colon surgery. This care protocol empowers long
Trompetas, Vasileios; Sandison, Andrew Jp; Anderson, Hugh J
We report on the case of a 50-year-old woman with exsanguinating haemorrhage from the common femoral artery as a complication of recurrent vulvar cancer in the groin which was managed successfully with combined open surgical and endovascular intervention. She survived another three months and died from progressive disease without further episodes of bleeding. This complication is rare, presents dramatically, and is usually a terminal event. For those cases where intervention is considered appropriate, the option of combined open surgical and endovascular repair should be kept in mind.
Sandison, Andrew JP; Anderson, Hugh J
We report on the case of a 50-year-old woman with exsanguinating haemorrhage from the common femoral artery as a complication of recurrent vulvar cancer in the groin which was managed successfully with combined open surgical and endovascular intervention. She survived another three months and died from progressive disease without further episodes of bleeding. This complication is rare, presents dramatically, and is usually a terminal event. For those cases where intervention is considered appropriate, the option of combined open surgical and endovascular repair should be kept in mind. PMID:21278892
Campillo, V-E; Langonnet, S; Pierrefeu, A; Chaux-Bodard, A-G
The rabbit is one of the most widely used models for studying bone remodeling or dental implant osseointegration but very few data are available about the rabbit's mandible. The aim of this work was to describe the anatomy of the rabbit mandible and to estimate the available bone volume for experimental studies. First, with a dissection, the morphology of the mandible was described and the mental foramen, the position of the main salivary glands and muscular insertions were located. Then, by X-ray imaging, the position of the inferior alveolar canal, the dental root courses and volume and bone density were described. Finally, with frontal sections of the mandible body, the rabbit's dental and alveolar bone histological structure were assessed. Thus, the relevance of the rabbit mandible as an experimental model for wound healing or surgical therapies was discussed.
Borges, Eline Lima; Pires, José Ferreira; Abreu, Mery Natali Silva; Lima, Vera Lúcia de Araújo; Silva, Patrícia Aparecida Barbosa; Soares, Sônia Maria
to estimate the healing rate of complex surgical wounds and its associated factors. retrospective cohort study from 2003 to 2014 with 160 outpatients of a Brazilian university hospital. Data were obtained through consultation of the medical records. Survival function was estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method and Cox regression model to estimate the likelihood of the occurrence of healing. the complex surgical wound healing rate was 67.8% (95% CI: 60.8-74.9). Factors associated with a higher likelihood of wound healing were segmentectomy/quadrantectomy surgery, consumption of more than 20 grams/day of alcohol, wound extent of less that 17.3 cm2 and the length of existence of the wound prior to outpatient treatment of less than 15 days, while the use of hydrocolloid covering and Marlex mesh were associated with a lower likelihood of healing. the wound healing rate was considered high and was associated with the type of surgical intervention, alcohol consumption, type of covering, extent and length of wound existence. Preventive measures can be implemented during the monitoring of the evolution of the complex surgical wound closure, with possibilities of intervention in the modifiable risk factors. estimar a taxa de cicatrização de ferida cirúrgica complexa e seus fatores associados. coorte retrospectiva de 2003 a 2014 com 160 pacientes ambulatoriais de um hospital universitário brasileiro. Os dados foram obtidos por meio de consulta aos prontuários médicos. Função de sobrevida foi estimada pelo método de Kaplan-Meier e modelo de regressão de Cox para estimação do risco de ocorrência da cicatrização. a taxa de cicatrização da ferida cirúrgica complexa foi 67,8% (IC 95%: 60,8-74,9). Os fatores associados a um maior risco de cicatrização da ferida foram cirurgia de setorectomia / quadrantectomia, consumo de mais de 20 gramas/dia de etanol, extensão da ferida menor que 17,3 cm2 e tempo de existência da ferida pré-tratamento ambulatorial inferior
Segura-Sampedro, Juan José; Rivero-Belenchón, Inés; Pino-Díaz, Verónica; Rodríguez Sánchez, María Cristina; Pareja-Ciuró, Felipe; Padillo-Ruiz, Javier; Jimenez-Rodriguez, Rosa María
The objective of the present study is to assess the safety and feasibility of the use of telemedicine-based services for surgical wound care and to measure patient satisfaction with telemedicine-based follow-up. 24 patients were included, they were provided with a corporate mail address. On day 7 after surgery patients sent, via email, an image of their surgical wound together with a completed questionnaire in order to obtain an early diagnosis. Two independent physicians studied this information and the histologic analysis of the specimen. On day 8, all patients underwent face-to-face office examination by a third physician and all of them completed a satisfaction questionnaire at the end of the study. The use of telemedicine-based services showed a sensitivity of 100%, a specificity of 91.6%, a positive predictive value of 75% and a negative predictive value of 100%. Degree of concordance between the two physicians, as regards the necessity of face-to-face follow-up yielded a kappa coefficient of 0.42 (standard error 0.25 and confidence interval 95% (0.92-0.08), which means a moderate agreement between the two evaluations. 94% of patients were satisfied with telemedicine-based follow-up and 93% showed their preference for this procedure over conventional methods. The telemedicine-based follow-up, has proven to be feasible and safe for the evaluation of early postoperative complications. Patients reported high levels of satisfaction with the procedure. Telemedicine-based follow-up could become standard practice with the development of a specific mobile application.
Tavakoli, Fatemeh; Kruber, Sebastian; Münscher, Adrian; Gliese, Alexandra; Hansen, Nils‐Owe; Uschold, Stephanie; Eggert, Dennis; Robertson, Wesley D.; Gosau, Tobias; Sehner, Susanne; Kwiatkowski, Marcel; Schlüter, Hartmut; Schumacher, Udo; Knecht, Rainald; Miller, R.J. Dwayne
Background and Objective As a result of wound healing the original tissue is replaced by dysfunctional scar tissue. Reduced tissue damage during surgical procedures beneficially affects the size of the resulting scar and overall healing time. Thus the choice of a particular surgical instrument can have a significant influence on the postoperative wound healing. To overcome these problems of wound healing we applied a novel picosecond infrared laser (PIRL) system to surgical incisions. Previous studies indicated that negligible thermal, acoustic, or ionization stress effects to the surrounding tissue results in a superior wound healing. Study Design/Materials and Methods Using the PIRL system as a surgical scalpel, we performed a prospective wound healing study on rat skin and assessed its final impact on scar formation compared to the electrosurgical device and cold steel. As for the incisions, 6 full‐thickness, 1‐cm long‐linear skin wounds were created on the dorsum of four rats using the PIRL, an electrosurgical device, and a conventional surgical scalpel, respectively. Rats were euthanized after 21 days of wound healing. The thickness of the subepithelial fibrosis, the depth and the transverse section of the total scar area of each wound were analyzed histologically. Results After 21 days of wound healing the incisions made by PIRL showed minor scar tissue formation as compared to the electrosurgical device and the scalpel. Highly significant differences (P < 0.001) were noted by comparing the electrosurgical device with PIRL and scalpel. The transverse section of the scar area also showed significant differences (P = 0.043) when comparing PIRL (mean: 141.46 mm2; 95%CI: 105.8–189.0 mm2) with scalpel incisions (mean: 206.82 mm2; 95%CI: 154.8–276.32 mm2). The subepithelial width of the scars that resulted from using the scalpel were 1.3 times larger than those obtained by using the PIRL (95%CI: 1.0–1.6) though the difference was not
Petersen, Hannes; Tavakoli, Fatemeh; Kruber, Sebastian; Münscher, Adrian; Gliese, Alexandra; Hansen, Nils-Owe; Uschold, Stephanie; Eggert, Dennis; Robertson, Wesley D; Gosau, Tobias; Sehner, Susanne; Kwiatkowski, Marcel; Schlüter, Hartmut; Schumacher, Udo; Knecht, Rainald; Miller, R J Dwayne
As a result of wound healing the original tissue is replaced by dysfunctional scar tissue. Reduced tissue damage during surgical procedures beneficially affects the size of the resulting scar and overall healing time. Thus the choice of a particular surgical instrument can have a significant influence on the postoperative wound healing. To overcome these problems of wound healing we applied a novel picosecond infrared laser (PIRL) system to surgical incisions. Previous studies indicated that negligible thermal, acoustic, or ionization stress effects to the surrounding tissue results in a superior wound healing. Using the PIRL system as a surgical scalpel, we performed a prospective wound healing study on rat skin and assessed its final impact on scar formation compared to the electrosurgical device and cold steel. As for the incisions, 6 full-thickness, 1-cm long-linear skin wounds were created on the dorsum of four rats using the PIRL, an electrosurgical device, and a conventional surgical scalpel, respectively. Rats were euthanized after 21 days of wound healing. The thickness of the subepithelial fibrosis, the depth and the transverse section of the total scar area of each wound were analyzed histologically. After 21 days of wound healing the incisions made by PIRL showed minor scar tissue formation as compared to the electrosurgical device and the scalpel. Highly significant differences (P < 0.001) were noted by comparing the electrosurgical device with PIRL and scalpel. The transverse section of the scar area also showed significant differences (P = 0.043) when comparing PIRL (mean: 141.46 mm2; 95% CI: 105.8-189.0 mm2) with scalpel incisions (mean: 206.82 mm2; 95% CI: 154.8-276.32 mm2). The subepithelial width of the scars that resulted from using the scalpel were 1.3 times larger than those obtained by using the PIRL (95% CI: 1.0-1.6) though the difference was not significant (P < 0.083). The hypothesis that PIRL results in minimal scar
Toledo-Piza, Ana Rita de; Maria, Durvanei Augusto
Phyllocaulis boraceiensis mucus has been studied as a potential source of new natural compounds that are capable of inducing proliferation and remodeling tissue. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical aspects of healing in the wounded mouse skin, which was treated with an ointment that was composed of mucus, which was released by P boraceiensis. Mice were submitted to a 1-cm dorsal excision. The control group (T1) was treated with papain; the T2 group was treated with papain that was associated with 0.18 μg/μL of mucus; and the T3 group was treated with papain that was associated with 0.012 μg/μL of mucus. Accelerated proliferation was observed after 3 days in the T3 group, presenting a high deposition of fibroblasts at the wound margin, whereas accelerated proliferation in the T1 group began 5 days after surgery. The T2 group presented inflammation during all periods of observation, and even when healing had already begun, the new tissue showed capillary fragility. Remodeling began after 4 days in the T3 group, whereas remodeling began after 6 days in the other groups. T3 showed edema, hyperemia, and bleeding only until the fifth day, and granulation and scar tissues intensely appeared from the 11th day forward. T1 and T2 groups exhibited edema, hyperemia, and bleeding until the 11th day, and granulation and scar tissues appeared after the 13th day. The healing process and wound closure were efficient after the daily application of 0.012 μg/μL P boraceiensis mucus.
Au, Katherine; Ehrlich, H. Paul
In wound healing transforming growth factor β1 (TGFβ1), utilizing the Smad signaling pathway, advances connective tissue deposition, the transformation of fibroblasts into myofibroblasts and wound contraction. The compound SB-505124 disrupts the Smad signaling pathway by blocking activin receptor-like kinase phosphorylation of select Smad signaling proteins. Four full thickness excisional square 2×2 cm wounds were made on the rat dorsum. On day 2, the pair of wounds on the left received 1 uM SB-505124 in gel, and the pair on the right, controlz, received gel alone. Wounds were covered with nonocclusive dressings and treated redressed daily for 4 days. No differences in day 14 wound sizes between treatment groups were found. H&E stained sections revealed increased cell density in SB-505124 treated wounds. Polarized light microscopy showed collagen fiber bundles birefringence intensity and organization were equivalent between treatment groups. Myofibroblast populations, identified by α-smooth muscle actin staining, were the norm in controls but absent in SB-505124 treated wounds, which was confirmed by Western blot analysis. Blocking the Smad signaling pathway diminished connective tissue deposition and generated a deficiency in myofibroblast numbers, but wound contraction was unimpaired. The absence of myofibroblasts may be related to the blocking of the Smad signaling pathway or it may be related to the generation of less tension in treated wounds, related to reduced deposited connective tissue. These findings support the notion that wound contraction does not require the generation of myofibroblast contractile forces, but rather the organization of newly deposited collagen fiber bundles by forces related to fibroblast locomotion. PMID:20705067
King, Darlene R; Li, Weizhi; Squiers, John J; Mohan, Rachit; Sellke, Eric; Mo, Weirong; Zhang, Xu; Fan, Wensheng; DiMaio, J Michael; Thatcher, Jeffrey E
Multispectral imaging (MSI) is an optical technique that measures specific wavelengths of light reflected from wound site tissue to determine the severity of burn wounds. A rapid MSI device to measure burn depth and guide debridement will improve clinical decision making and diagnoses. We used a porcine burn model to study partial thickness burns of varying severity. We made eight 4 × 4 cm burns on the dorsum of one minipig. Four burns were studied intact, and four burns underwent serial tangential excision. We imaged the burn sites with 400-1000 nm wavelengths. Histology confirmed that we achieved various partial thickness burns. Analysis of spectral images show that MSI detects significant variations in the spectral profiles of healthy tissue, superficial partial thickness burns, and deep partial thickness burns. The absorbance spectra of 515, 542, 629, and 669 nm were the most accurate in distinguishing superficial from deep partial thickness burns, while the absorbance spectra of 972 nm was the most accurate in guiding the debridement process. The ability to distinguish between partial thickness burns of varying severity to assess whether a patient requires surgery could be improved with an MSI device in a clinical setting. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.
Dohmen, Pascal M.; Konertz, Wolfgang
Surgical site infections are a mean topic in cardiac surgery, leading to a prolonged hospitalization, and substantially increased morbidity and mortality. One source of pathogens is the endogenous flora of the patient’s skin, which can contaminate the surgical site. A number of preoperative skin care strategies are performed to reduce bacterial contamination like preoperative antiseptic showering, hair removal, antisepsis of the skin, adhesive barrier drapes, and antimicrobial prophylaxis. Furthermore we can also support the natural host defense by optimal intra-operative management of oxygen supply, normoglycemia, and temperature. Nevertheless we still have a number of patients, who develop a surgical site infection. Therefore new skin care strategies are introduced to reduce the contamination by the endogenous skin flora. We present the use of a new microbial sealant, InteguSeal®, which was evaluated in patients undergoing cardiac surgery. The preliminary results of this investigation showed a trend in surgical site infection reduction by the use of this new microbial sealant. PMID:20204082
from this study that if the fungal infec- 5. Spebar. M. J.. Pruitt. B. A.: Candidiasis in the hurned patient. J. tion can be recognized and surgically excised, the mor- Trauma. 21: 237-239, 1981. .• I’i I/ A,/* Di:; t iA . _
Clerici, Giacomo; Caminiti, Maurizio; Curci, Vincenzo; Quarantiello, Antonella; Faglia, Ezio
In this study, we evaluated the utility of a dermal substitute for preserving maximal foot length after urgent surgical debridement. Patients referred to our Diabetic Foot Center with foot lesions were assessed for sensory-motor neuropathy, infection and critical limb ischaemia. The presence of acute foot infection indicated the need for immediate surgical debridement. The degree of amputation, if necessary, was based on the amount of apparently non infected vital tissue. When vital tendon/bone tissue remained exposed, the lesion was covered with a dermal substitute. From January to December 2008, 393 patients underwent surgical treatment for diabetic foot syndrome; 30 patients underwent immediate surgical debridement resulting in exposed tendon and/or bone tissues. An average of 4.4 +/- 2.1 days following surgical debridement, all 30 patients underwent dermal regeneration template grafting to cover-exposed healthy tendon and bone tissues, instead of achieving primary wound closure with a proximal amputation. After 21 days, a skin graft was performed. Complete wound healing occurred in 26 patients (86.7%). In these patients, the amputation level was significantly more distal (P < 0.003) with respect to that potentially required for immediate wound closure. The average healing time was 74.1 +/- 28.9 days. Four patients underwent a more proximal amputation. No patients underwent major amputation. The use of the dermal substitute for treating exposed tendon and bone tissues allowed timely wound healing and preserved maximal foot length. Continued follow-up will allow assessment of long-term relapse and complication rates. Such treatment could constitute part of the comprehensive management of diabetic wounds.
Smitherman, Adam Derik; Woodall, Michael Neil; Alleyne, Cargill H; Rahimi, Scott Y
A 24-year-old man with a history of Klippel-Trenaunay-Weber syndrome presented with severe headache and neck pain. Work-up revealed subarachnoid hemorrhage and evidence of multiple intracranial aneurysms. The patient was treated with open surgical clipping of his ruptured aneurysm and is currently doing well. PMID:23314873
Kadota, Yasutaka; Nishida, Keiichiro; Hashizume, Kenzo; Nasu, Yoshihisa; Nakahara, Ryuichi; Kanazawa, Tomoko; Ozawa, Masatsugu; Harada, Ryozo; Machida, Takahiro; Ozaki, Toshifumi
To investigate the prevalence and the risk factors of surgical-site infection (SSI) and delayed wound healing (DWH) in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) underwent orthopedic surgery. We reviewed the records of 1036 elective orthopedic procedures undertaken in RA patients. Risk factors for SSI and DWH were assessed by logistic regression analysis using age, body mass index, disease duration, pre-operative laboratory data, surgical procedure, corticosteroid use, co-morbidity, and use of conventional synthetic disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (csDMARDs) and biological DMARDs (bDMARDs) as variables. SSI and DWH were identified in 19 cases and 15 cases, respectively. One case of SSI and three cases of DWH were recorded among 196 procedures in patients using bDMARDs. Foot and ankle surgery was associated with an increased risk of SSI (odds ratio (OR), 3.167; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.256-7.986; p = 0.015). Total knee arthroplasty (TKA; OR, 4.044; 95% CI, 1.436-11.389; p = 0.008) and disease duration (OR, 1.004; 95% CI, 1.000-1.007; p = 0.029) were associated with an increased risk of DWH. Our results indicated foot and ankle surgery, and TKA and disease duration as risk factors for SSI and DWH, respectively. bDMARDs was not associated with an increased risk of SSI and DWH.
Moffatt-Bruce, Susan D; Merritt, Robert E; D'Souza, Desmond M
Septic arthritis of the sternoclavicular joint (SCJ) is a rare condition accounting for 0.5% of bone and joint infections. The majority of cases require joint resection and advancement flaps to provide coverage to the resulting wound defect. However, in the setting of an infected wound space, surgeons are often inclined to allow wound healing by secondary intention. Negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) can be an important adjunct to promote and shorten wound healing time following SCJ resection. PMID:27843733
Petrisor, Bradley; Sun, Xin; Bhandari, Mohit; Guyatt, Gordon; Jeray, Kyle J; Sprague, Sheila; Tanner, Stephanie; Schemitsch, Emil; Sancheti, Parag; Anglen, Jeff; Tornetta, Paul; Bosse, Michael; Liew, Susan; Walter, Stephen
Open fractures are an important source of morbidity and are associated with delayed union, nonunion, and infection. Preventing infection through meticulous irrigation and debridement is an important goal in management, and different lavage fluids and irrigation techniques (e.g., high- or low-pressure lavage) have been described for this purpose. However, there are a limited number of randomized trials comparing irrigating solutions or irrigating technique. We compared the use of castile soap versus normal saline and high- versus low-pressure pulsatile lavage on the rates of reoperations and complications in patients with open fracture wounds. We conducted a multicenter, blinded, randomized 2 × 2 factorial pilot trial of 111 patients in whom an open fracture wound was treated with either castile soap solution or normal saline and either high- or low-pressure pulsatile lavage. The primary composite outcome of reoperation, measured at 12 months after initial operative procedure, included infection, wound healing problems, and nonunion. Planned reoperations were not included. Secondary outcomes included all infection, all wound healing problems, and nonunion as well as functional outcomes scores (EuroQol-5 dimensions and short form-12). Eighty-nine patients completed the 1-year follow-up. Among all patients, 13 (23%) in the castile soap group and 13 (24%) in the saline group had a primary outcome event (hazard ratio, 0.91, 95% confidence interval: 0.42-2.00, p = 0.52). Sixteen patients (28%) in the high-pressure group and 10 patients (19%) in the low-pressure group had a primary outcome event (hazard ratio 0.55, 95% confidence interval: 0.24-1.27, p = 0.17). Functional outcome scores showed no significant differences at any time point between groups. The fluid lavage of open wounds pilot randomized controlled trial demonstrated the possibility that the use of low pressure may decrease the reoperation rate for infection, wound healing problems, or nonunion. We have
Aird, J; Noor, S; Lavy, C; Rollinson, P
There are 33 million people worldwide currently infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). This complex disease affects many of the processes involved in wound and fracture healing, and there is little evidence available to guide the management of open fractures in these patients. Fears of acute and delayed infection often inhibit the use of fixation, which may be the most effective way of achieving union. This study compared fixation of open fractures in HIV-positive and -negative patients in South Africa, a country with very high rates of both HIV and high-energy trauma. A total of 133 patients (33 HIV-positive) with 135 open fractures fulfilled the inclusion criteria. This cohort is three times larger than in any similar previously published study. The results suggest that HIV is not a contraindication to internal or external fixation of open fractures in this population, as HIV is not a significant risk factor for acute wound/implant infection. However, subgroup analysis of grade I open fractures in patients with advanced HIV and a low CD4 count (< 350) showed an increased risk of infection; we suggest that grade I open fractures in patients with advanced HIV should be treated by early debridement followed by fixation at an appropriate time.
Liao, Qiande; Xu, Jian; Weng, Xiao-Jun; Zhong, Da; Liu, Zhiqin; Wang, Chenggong
To observe the effectiveness of vacuum sealing drainage (VSD) combined with anti-taken skin graft on open amputation wound by comparing with direct anti-taken skin graft. Between March 2005 and June 2010, 60 cases of amputation wounds for limbs open fractures were selected by using the random single-blind method. The amputation wounds were treated with VSD combined with anti-taken skin graft (test group, n = 30) and direct anti-taken skin graft (control group, n = 30). No significant difference was found in age, gender, injury cause, amputation level, defect size, preoperative albumin index, or injury time between 2 groups (P > 0.05). In test group, the redundant stump skin was used to prepare reattached staggered-meshed middle-thickness skin flap by using a drum dermatome dealing after amputation, which was transplanted amputation wounds, and then the skin surface was covered with VSD for continuous negative pressure drainage for 7-10 days. In control group, wounds were covered by anti-taken thickness skin flap directly after amputation, and conventional dress changing was given. To observe the survival condition of the skin graft in test group, the VSD device was removed at 8 days after operation. The skin graft survival rate, wound infection rate, reamputation rate, times of dressing change, and the hospitalization days in test group were significantly better than those in control group [ 90.0% vs. 63.3%, 3.3% vs. 20.0%, 0 vs. 13.3%, (2.0 +/- 0.5) times vs. (8.0 +/- 1.5) times, and (12.0 +/- 2.6) days vs. (18.0 +/- 3.2) days, respectively] (P < 0.05). The patients were followed up 1-3 years with an average of 2 years. At last follow-up, the scar area and grading, and two-point discrimination of wound in test group were better than those in control group, showing significant differences (P < 0.05). No obvious swelling occurred at the residual limbs in 2 groups. The limb pain incidence and the residual limb length were better in test group than those in control
Salt, vinegar and wine sounds more like a recipe from the Saturday kitchen, but in 1667 it was all a surgeon could use to close wounds, along with silk and linen strips. In providing this service, barbers and surgeons found themselves confused and intertwined, struggling for professional recognition that was about to experience reform. Allegations of neglect in the aftermath of a major seafaring battle on the very shores of our capital city required the court of King Charles II to search for a solution of supreme magnitude to accommodate the hundreds of maimed sailors who were littering the streets of London. A campaign to conceal the horrors of warfare began which lead to the implementation of the Greenwich charter and the construction of a hospital which the architect Christopher Wren helped to design.
Anglen, Jeffrey O
Irrigation of open fracture wounds is a commonly performed procedure, and irrigation additives have been used in an attempt to reduce the risk of infection. In vitro and animal studies have suggested that irrigation with detergent solution is more effective than irrigation with a solution containing antibiotic additives. This study was performed to compare the efficacy of those two solutions in the treatment of open fractures in humans. Adult patients with an open fracture of the lower extremity were prospectively randomized to receive irrigation with either a bacitracin solution or a nonsterile castile soap solution. The patients were followed clinically to assess for the development of infection, healing of the soft-tissue wound, and union of the fracture. Between 1995 and 2002, 400 patients with a total of 458 open fractures of the lower extremity were entered into the study. One hundred and ninety-two patients were assigned to the bacitracin group (B), and 208 were assigned to the castile soap group (C). Outcomes were available for 171 patients with a total of 199 fractures in group B and 180 patients with a total of 199 fractures in group C. The mean duration of follow-up was 500 days. There was no difference between groups B and C in terms of gender, the Gustilo-Anderson grade of the open fracture, the time between the injury and the irrigation, smoking, or alcohol use. There were significant differences in the mean age (thirty-eight compared with forty-two years, p = 0.01), duration of follow-up (560 compared with 444 days, p = 0.01), prevalence of hypotension (23% compared with 14%, p = 0.04), and duration of treatment with intravenous antibiotics (eleven compared with nine days, p = 0.02). An infection developed at thirty-five (18%) of the 199 fracture sites in group B and at twenty-six (13%) of the 199 fracture sites in group C. This difference was not significant (p = 0.2). Bone-healing was delayed for forty-nine (25%) of the 199 group-B fractures and
Vertrees, Amy; Greer, Lauren; Pickett, Chris; Nelson, Jeffery; Wakefield, Matthew; Stojadinovic, Alexander; Shriver, Craig
Optimal management of the open abdomen remains controversial. Retrospective review of patients injured during Operations Enduring Freedom and Iraqi Freedom returning to Walter Reed Army Medical Center (WRAMC) from January 2003 to October 2007 for treatment of open abdomen. Three hundred fifty-four patients were evacuated to WRAMC after laparotomy, including 86 patients (24%) with open abdomen. Three transferred patients were excluded. Eighty-three patients, mean age 26 years (range 18 to 54 years), sustaining injury from secondary blast (n = 47), gunshot (n = 29), and blunt trauma (n = 7) were studied. Surgical management included early definitive abdominal closure (EDAC, n = 56; 67%), primary fascial closure (n = 15; 18%), planned ventral hernia (PVH, n = 9; 11%) and vacuum-assisted closure with AlloDerm (n = 3; 4%). EDAC closure involves serial closure with Gore-Tex Dualmesh and final closure supplemented with polypropylene mesh (62%) or AlloDerm (31%). There was no substantial difference in injury mechanism, age, length of evacuation to WRAMC, or Injury Severity Score (average 30) according to closure type. Complications included removal of infected prosthetic mesh in 4 EDAC closure patients (5%). Overall morbidity was lowest (60%) in primary repair patients (p = 0.01). Rates of deep venous thrombosis, pulmonary embolism, abdominal wall hematoma, and infection did not differ between groups. Fistula rate was increased with PVH (20%). Two patients with PVH died. PVH and EDAC mesh complications have been minimized in the last 2 years of the study. Primary closure of fascia is ideal but not always possible. Early definitive closure has avoided PVH. Mesh-related complications have decreased with time.
Costanzo, Chiara; Garosi, Laurent S; Glass, Eric N; Rusbridge, Clare; Stalin, Catherine E; Volk, Holger A
PRESENTATION AND LESION LOCALISATION: Seven adult domestic shorthair cats were presented with a 1- to 6-day history of progressive neurological signs. A focal skin puncture and subcutaneous swelling over the dorsal part of the head were detected on physical examination. Neurological examination indicated lesion(s) in the right forebrain in four cats, multifocal forebrain in one cat, left forebrain in one cat, and multifocal forebrain and brainstem in the remaining cat. In all cats, magnetic resonance imaging revealed a space-occupying forebrain lesion causing a severe mass effect on adjacent brain parenchyma. CLINICAL APPROACH AND OUTCOME: All cats were managed with a combination of medical and surgical treatment. At surgery a small penetrating calvarial fracture was detected in all cats, and a tooth fragment was found within the content of the abscess in two cats. The combination of surgical intervention, intensive care and intravenous antimicrobials led to a return to normal neurological function in five cats. As this series of cases indicates, successful resolution of a brain abscess due to a bite injury depends on early recognition and combined used of antimicrobials and surgical intervention. A particular aim of surgery is to remove any skull and foreign body (tooth) fragments that may represent a continuing focus of infection. Copyright © 2011 ISFM and AAFP. All rights reserved.
Ito, Goshi; Koh, Myongsun; Fujita, Tadashi; Shirakura, Maya; Ueda, Hiroshi; Tanne, Kazuo
If a skeletal anterior open bite malocclusion is treated by orthognathic surgery directed only at the mandible, the lower jaw is repositioned upward in a counter-clockwise rotation. However, this procedure has a high risk of relapse. In the present study, the key factors associated with post-surgical stability of corrected skeletal anterior open bite malocclusions were investigated. Eighteen orthognathic patients were subjected to cephalometric analysis to assess the dental and skeletal changes following mandibular surgery for the correction of an anterior open bite. The patients were divided into two groups, determined by an increase or decrease in nasion-menton (N-Me) distance as a consequence of surgery. Changes in overbite, the displacements of molars and positional changes in Menton were evaluated immediately before and after surgery and after a minimum of one year post-operatively. The group with a decreased N-Me distance exhibited a significantly greater backward positioning of the mandible. The group with an increased N-Me distance experienced significantly greater dentoalveolar extrusion of the lower molars. A sufficient mandibular backward repositioning is an effective technique in the prevention of open bite relapse. In addition, it is important not to induce molar extrusion during post-surgical orthodontic treatment to preserve stability of the surgical open bite correction.
Matsunaka, Eriko; Ueki, Shingo; Makimoto, Kiyoko
The objective of this systematic review is to examine the impact of breastfeeding or bottle-feeding on surgical wound dehiscence after cleft lip repair in infants. Immediately after cleft lip repair in infants, breastfeeding and bottle-feeding are generally restricted. Alternative feeding methods such as spoon-feeding are recommended to avoid placing tension on the surgical wound. However, some studies have reported that alternative feeding methods are a source of stress to the infant and cause them to cry incessantly, resulting in postoperative weight loss. This suggests that these alternative feeding methods may have an unfavorable impact on surgical wound healing. However, a consensus on this topic has not been reached. The objective of this systematic review is to examine the impact of breastfeeding or bottle-feeding on surgical wound dehiscence after cleft lip repair in infants.Cleft lip and/or palate is a craniofacial anomaly and one of the most common birth defects. The incidence of cleft lip and/or palate differs among races, ethnic groups and geographical areas. The prevalence of cleft lip and/or palate is highest in South American countries (Bolivia: 22.94 per 10,000 live births; Paraguay: 14.90 per 10,000 live births), followed by Asian countries (China: 13.60 per 10,000 live births; Japan: 16.04 per 10,000 live births). The prevalence is lowest in African countries (3.54 per 10,000 live births). The overall worldwide prevalence is 7.9 per 10,000 births.A cleft lip and/or a cleft palate can occur separately, although they are more likely to occur together early in pregnancy. These anomalies can be surgically repaired. Without proper treatment, patients have aesthetic and functional problems, such as feeding disorders, otitis media and speech difficulties.Patients with cleft lip and/or palate usually undergo a combination of surgical procedures, speech therapy and orthodontic treatment from infancy to young adulthood. Comprehensive treatment is provided
Kumar, K.R. Ashok; Sarvagna, Jagadesh; Gadde, Praveen; Chikkaboriah, Shwetha
Introduction Hemostasis is a fundamental management issue post-operatively in minor oral surgical procedures. To ensure safety and therapeutic efficacy in patients, under oral anti coagulant therapy, is complicated by necessity for frequent determination of prothrombin time or international normalised ratio. Aim The aim of the study was to determine whether early hemostasis achieved by using Hemcon Dental Dressing (HDD) will affect post-operative care and surgical healing outcome in minor oral surgical procedures. Materials and Methods A total of 30 patients, aged 18 years to 90 years, except those allergic to seafood, who consented to participate, were enrolled into this study. Patients were required to have two or more surgical sites so that they would have both surgical and control sites. All patients taking Oral Anticoagulation Therapy (OAT) were included for treatment in the study without altering the anticoagulant regimens. Institutional Review Board approval was obtained for the same. The collected data was subjected to statistical analysis using unpaired t-test. Results All HDD surgically treated sites achieved hemostasis in 1.49 minutes and control wounds in 4.06 minutes (p < 0.001). Post-operative pain at HDD treated sites (1.87,1.27 on 1st and 3rd day respectively) was significantly lower than the control sites (4.0,1.87 on 1st and 3rd day respectively) p-value (0.001, 0.001 respectively). HDD treated oral surgery wounds achieved statistically significant improved healing both at 1st and 3rd post-operative days (p <0.0001). Conclusion The HDD has been proven to be a clinically effective hemostatic dressing material that significantly shortens bleeding time following minor oral surgical procedures under local anaesthesia, including those patients taking OAT. Patients receiving the HDD had improved surgical wound healing as compared to controls. PMID:27790577
Kumar, K R Ashok; Kumar, Jambukeshwar; Sarvagna, Jagadesh; Gadde, Praveen; Chikkaboriah, Shwetha
Hemostasis is a fundamental management issue post-operatively in minor oral surgical procedures. To ensure safety and therapeutic efficacy in patients, under oral anti coagulant therapy, is complicated by necessity for frequent determination of prothrombin time or international normalised ratio. The aim of the study was to determine whether early hemostasis achieved by using Hemcon Dental Dressing (HDD) will affect post-operative care and surgical healing outcome in minor oral surgical procedures. A total of 30 patients, aged 18 years to 90 years, except those allergic to seafood, who consented to participate, were enrolled into this study. Patients were required to have two or more surgical sites so that they would have both surgical and control sites. All patients taking Oral Anticoagulation Therapy (OAT) were included for treatment in the study without altering the anticoagulant regimens. Institutional Review Board approval was obtained for the same. The collected data was subjected to statistical analysis using unpaired t-test. All HDD surgically treated sites achieved hemostasis in 1.49 minutes and control wounds in 4.06 minutes (p < 0.001). Post-operative pain at HDD treated sites (1.87,1.27 on 1(st) and 3(rd) day respectively) was significantly lower than the control sites (4.0,1.87 on 1(st) and 3(rd) day respectively) p-value (0.001, 0.001 respectively). HDD treated oral surgery wounds achieved statistically significant improved healing both at 1(st) and 3(rd) post-operative days (p <0.0001). The HDD has been proven to be a clinically effective hemostatic dressing material that significantly shortens bleeding time following minor oral surgical procedures under local anaesthesia, including those patients taking OAT. Patients receiving the HDD had improved surgical wound healing as compared to controls.
Onesti, Maria G; Fino, Pasquale; Ponzo, Ida; Ruggieri, Martina; Scuderi, Nicolò
Some chronic ulcers often occur with slough, not progressing through the normal stages of wound healing. Treatment is long and other therapies need to be performed in addition to surgery. Patients not eligible for surgery because of ASA class (American Society of Anesthesiologists class) appear to benefit from chemical therapy with collagenase or hydrocolloids in order to prepare the wound bed, promoting the healing process. We describe four cases of traumatic, upper limb deep wounds caused by different physical and chemical agents, emphasising the effectiveness of treatment based on topical application of collagenase and hyaluronic acid (HA) before standardised surgical procedures. We performed careful disinfection of lesions combined with application of topical cream containing hyaluronic acid, bacterial fermented sodium hyaluronate (0·2%w/w) salt, and bacterial collagenase obtained from non-pathogenic Vibrio alginolyticus (>2·0 nkat1/g). In one patient a dermo-epidermal graft was used to cover the wide loss of substance. In two patients application of a HA-based dermal substitute was done. We obtained successful results in terms of wound healing, with satisfactory aesthetic result and optimal recovery of the affected limb functionality. Topical application of collagenase and HA, alone or before standardised surgical procedures allows faster wound healing.
Executive Summary Objective This review was conducted to assess the effectiveness of negative pressure wound therapy. Clinical Need: Target Population and Condition Many wounds are difficult to heal, despite medical and nursing care. They may result from complications of an underlying disease, like diabetes; or from surgery, constant pressure, trauma, or burns. Chronic wounds are more often found in elderly people and in those with immunologic or chronic diseases. Chronic wounds may lead to impaired quality of life and functioning, to amputation, or even to death. The prevalence of chronic ulcers is difficult to ascertain. It varies by condition and complications due to the condition that caused the ulcer. There are, however, some data on condition-specific prevalence rates; for example, of patients with diabetes, 15% are thought to have foot ulcers at some time during their lives. The approximate community care cost of treating leg ulcers in Canada, without reference to cause, has been estimated at upward of $100 million per year. Surgically created wounds can also become chronic, especially if they become infected. For example, the reported incidence of sternal wound infections after median sternotomy is 1% to 5%. Abdominal surgery also creates large open wounds. Because it is sometimes necessary to leave these wounds open and allow them to heal on their own (secondary intention), some may become infected and be difficult to heal. Yet, little is known about the wound healing process, and this makes treating wounds challenging. Many types of interventions are used to treat wounds. Current best practice for the treatment of ulcers and other chronic wounds includes debridement (the removal of dead or contaminated tissue), which can be surgical, mechanical, or chemical; bacterial balance; and moisture balance. Treating the cause, ensuring good nutrition, and preventing primary infection also help wounds to heal. Saline or wet-to-moist dressings are reported as
Russell, K M; Broderick, T J; Demaria, E J; Kothari, S N; Merrell, R C
Laparoscopy has advanced surgery by allowing the surgeon to operate within a patient's abdominal and pelvic cavity with minimal trauma and scarring. The coupling of a video camera to the laparoscopic telescope has had the secondary effect of allowing others to view the surgical field either on color video monitors or by watching the video feed over the Internet at a remote location. These advancements have allowed better teaching and mentoring of operations. Open procedures can benefit from this technology as well but have suffered in the past from inadequate methods to depict the open surgical field. We used the Alpha Port and Aesop robot to position a sterile laparoscopic telescope near the surgical field to view open cholecystectomies performed on five pigs and to send the video feed over the Internet to remote physicians. Viewing the video on the monitor, the surgeons performed the operation in a comfortable ergonomic upright position. Both the surgeons and the remote physicians found the quality of the video to be excellent, and the remote physicians felt comfortable learning and mentoring surgical procedures using this technique.
Nyc, Otakar; Krutova, Marcela; Kriz, Jiri; Matejkova, Jana; Bebrova, Eliska; Hysperska, Veronika; Kuijper, Ed J
Extra-intestinal infections caused by Clostridium difficile are rare. The risk of extra-intestinal infections associated with C. difficile may be particularly relevant in environments contaminated with C. difficile spores. This paper describes the case of a non-diarrheic patient colonized with C. difficile ribotype 014 in the intestinal tract who developed a post-surgical wound infection by C. difficile ribotype 078. The infection responded to metronidazole administered first intravenously and then orally. This case indicates that C. difficile may not only be related to diarrheic diseases, but also to infections of non-healing wounds, especially in situations when C. difficile is the only isolated pathogen.
Source and route of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis transmitted to the surgical wound during cardio-thoracic surgery. Possibility of preventing wound contamination by use of special scrub suits.
Tammelin, A; Hambraeus, A; Ståhle, E
The objective of this study was to trace the source and route of transmission of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis (MRSE) in the surgical wound during cardio-thoracic surgery, and to investigate the possibility of reducing wound contamination by wearing special scrub suits. In total 65 elective operations for coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) with or without concomitant valve replacement were investigated. All staff present in the operating room wore conventional scrub suits during 33 operations and special scrub suits during 32 operations. Samples were taken from the hands of the scrubbed team after surgical scrub but before putting on sterile gowns and gloves, and from patients' skin (incisional area of sternum and vein harvesting area of legs) after preoperative skin preparation with chlorhexidine gluconate. Air samples were taken during operations. Samples were also taken from the wound just before closure. Total counts of bacteria on sternal skin and from the wound (cfu/cm2) were calculated as well as total counts of bacteria in the air (cfu/m3). Strains of MRSE recovered from the different sampling sites were compared by pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). It was found that wearing special scrub suits did not reduce the number of air-samples where MRSE was found compared with conventional scrub suits. The risk factor most strongly associated with MRSE in the wound at the end of the operation was preoperative carriage of MRSE on sternal skin; RR 2.42 [95% CI 1.43-4.10], P= 0.021. By use of PFGE, it was possible to identify the probable source for four MRSE isolates recovered from the wound. In three cases the source was the patients own skin. Finding MRSE in air-samples, or on the hands of the scrubbed team, were not risk factors for the recovery of MRSE in the wound at the end of operation. In conclusion, with a total bacterial air count around 20 cfu/m3 and a low proportion of MRSE, the reduction of total air counts by use of tightly
Foster, L; Moore, P
In this randomised prospective parallel-group controlled study, a modern cellulose-based fibre dressing was compared with a traditional ribbon gauze and proflavine dressing, used intra- and post-operatively. The study evaluates each treatment for the reduction in pain, improvement in the quality of treatment and patient satisfaction. Forty patients, with wounds left to heal by secondary intention, were studied. The results show several significant advantages for the cellulose-based fibre dressing. Pain levels on removal at the first dressing change were significantly reduced in the cellulose-based fibre dressing group (p = 0.002); the ribbon gauze patients routinely required analgesia before removal of the first dressing. At one week, a significantly greater number of patients in the cellulose-based fibre dressing group stated that they would be happy to have their first dressing change carried out at home without analgesia compared to the ribbon gauze group. This would enable patients to be discharged earlier and could represent a considerable financial saving to the hospital.
McCallum, John C.; Bensley, Rodney P.; Darling, Jeremy D.; Hamdan, Allen D.; Wyers, Mark C.; Hile, Chantel; Guzman, Raul J.; Schermerhorn, Marc L.
Objective Lower extremity bypass grafts that develop stenoses are commonly treated with either open surgical or endovascular revision. Vein graft stenoses with unfavorable lesions (multiple lesions, lesions greater than 2cm in length, lesions in grafts less than 3 months old, lesions in grafts less than 3mm in diameter) fare worse than those with favorable lesions when treated with endovascular therapy. However, it is not known if unfavorable lesions fare better with surgical revision than with endovascular treatment or than favorable lesions treated with surgery. Methods We performed a retrospective review of 175 vein graft revisions performed at a single institution from 2000 to 2010. Characteristics of lesions treated with surgical and endovascular revision were identified. Cox proportional hazard models were used to identify predictors of revision failure (restenosis >75%, revision, or amputation). Results 91 (52%) failing vein grafts were treated with surgical revision and 84 (48%) with endovascular treatment, with a median follow up of 30 months. Favorable lesions fared better than unfavorable lesions after endovascular treatment, with 12-month freedom from failure of 59% vs 34% (P <.01), but not after surgical revision (66% vs 62%, P =.90). Unfavorable lesions had better freedom from failure after surgery than endovascular treatment (62%vs 34%, P <.01), while results in favorable lesions were similar (66% versus 59%, P =.57). Conclusion For the treatment of failing vein grafts, endovascular therapy appears adequate for favorable lesions while surgical revision is more durable for unfavorable lesions. PMID:26483000
Cassettari, Lucas Langoni; Dias, Pedro Colli Rocha; Lucchesi, Amanda Natália; Arruda, Maurício Ferraz de; Spadella, César Tadeu
To investigate the effect of zinc sulphate administered by transdermal iontophoresis (TDI) on mechanical resistance of surgical wounds performed in the skin of diabetic rats. One hundred and sixty male Wistar rats weighing approximately 250 g were submitted to an incision surgery at the anterior region of abdomen and randomly distributed into four experimental groups with 40 non-diabetic control animals (G1) and 40 untreated diabetic animals (G2), both without any treatment of incisions; 40 non-diabetic animals (G3) and 40 untreated diabetic animals (G4), both with incisions treated with zinc sulphate, administered for a period of four consecutive days after surgery, in sessions of ten minutes duration, using a continuous-current electrostimulator (Zn + TDI). Each experimental group was further divided into four subgroups with ten rats each to be evaluated on the 4th, 7th, 14th, and 21st day after surgery. In each period were analyzed clinical and laboratory from the animals, and measured the breaking strength and hydroxyproline content (OH-P) of the skin scars. Breaking strength (BS) was significantly reduced (p<0.05) in skin scars of untreated diabetic rats (G2) on the 7th, 14th, and 21st postoperative days when compared to non-diabetic control rats (G1). In contrast, BS in skin scars of non-diabetic and untreated diabetic rats (G3, G4) treated with Zn + TDI showed significant increase (p<0.05) in those periods when compared with their respective controls with untreated incisions. The OH-P content of the scars did not show statistically significant variation in all studied groups at four different times evaluated after surgery. Zinc sulphate administered by transdermal iontophoresis had beneficial effect on the mechanical resistance of scars produced in the skin of diabetic rats. This therapeutic may have potential to reduce the complications observed in surgical wounds of the skin in diabetic subjects, mainly in most vulnerable stages of incisions to dehiscences
Ng, Choong; Bialocerkowski, Andrea; Hinman, Rana
Background Anterior instability is a frequent complication following a traumatic glenohumeral dislocation. Frequently the underlying pathology associated with recurrent instability is a Bankart lesion. Surgical correction of Bankart lesions and other associated pathology is the key to successful treatment. Open surgical glenohumeral stabilisation has been advocated as the gold standard because of consistently low postoperative recurrent instability rates. However, arthroscopic glenohumeral stabilisation could challenge open surgical repair as the gold standard treatment for traumatic anterior glenohumeral instability. Objectives Primary evidence that compared the effectiveness of arthroscopic versus open surgical glenohumeral stabilisation was systematically collated regarding best-practice management for adults with traumatic anterior glenohumeral instability. Search strategy A systematic search was performed using 14 databases: MEDLINE, Cumulative Index of Nursing and Allied Health (CINAHL), Allied and Complementary Medicine Database (AMED), ISI Web of Science, Expanded Academic ASAP, Proquest Medical Library, Evidence Based Medicine Reviews, Physiotherapy Evidence Database, TRIP Database, PubMed, ISI Current Contents Connect, Proquest Digital Dissertations, Open Archives Initiative Search Engine, Australian Digital Thesis Program. Studies published between January 1984 and December 2004 were included in this review. No language restrictions were applied. Selection criteria Eligible studies were those that compared the effectiveness of arthroscopic versus open surgical stabilisation for the management of traumatic anterior glenohumeral instability, which had more than 2 years of follow up and used recurrent instability and a functional shoulder questionnaire as primary outcomes. Studies that used non-anatomical open repair techniques, patient groups that were specifically 40 years or older, or had multidirectional instability or other concomitant
Ingargiola, Michael J.; Daniali, Lily N.; Lee, Edward S.
Purpose: The application of incisional negative pressure wound therapy (INPWT) to clean, closed surgical incisions is a growing clinical practice. A systematic review was conducted to evaluate the effect of INPWT on surgical sites healing by primary intention. The primary outcomes of interest are incidence of complications (infection, dehiscence, seroma, hematoma, skin necrosis, or blistering). Methods: Two independent reviewers performed a search of the Ovid MEDLINE and EMBASE databases from 2006 to 2012 for published articles. Supplemental searches were performed using reference lists and conference proceedings. Studies were selected for inclusion based on predetermined inclusion and exclusion criteria. Data extraction regarding study quality, demographic and clinical characteristics, and outcomes was performed independently, and data on the incidence of infection was combined using a fixed-effects meta-analysis model. Results: Ten (5 randomized controlled trials and 5 observational) studies were included, which investigated the outcomes of 626 incisions on 610 patients. Six studies compared INPWT with sterile dry dressings (SDDs). The literature shows a significant decrease in rates of infection when using INPWT. Results on dehiscence do show a decrease in some studies, but results are inconsistent to make a conclusion. Because of limited studies, it is difficult to make any assertions on seroma, hematoma, and skin necrosis. Conclusions: This systematic review shows possible evidence of a decrease in the incidence of infection with application of INPWT. Looking at other variables such as dehiscence, seroma, hematoma, and skin necrosis show no consistent data and suggest further studies in order for proper recommendations for INPWT. PMID:24106562
Cavuşoğlu, M Cenk; Göktekin, Tolga G; Tendick, Frank
This paper presents the architectural details of an evolving open source/open architecture software framework for developing organ-level surgical simulations. Our goal is to facilitate shared development of reusable models, to accommodate heterogeneous models of computation, and to provide a framework for interfacing multiple heterogeneous models. The framework provides an application programming interface for interfacing dynamic models defined over spatial domains. It is specifically designed to be independent of the specifics of the modeling methods used, and therefore facilitates seamless integration of heterogeneous models and processes. Furthermore, each model has separate geometries for visualization, simulation, and interfacing, allowing the model developer to choose the most natural geometric representation for each case. Input/output interfaces for visualization and haptics for real-time interactive applications have also been provided.
Uccella, Stefano; Bonzini, Matteo; Palomba, Stefano; Fanfani, Francesco; Ceccaroni, Marcello; Seracchioli, Renato; Vizza, Enrico; Ferrero, Annamaria; Roviglione, Giovanni; Casadio, Paolo; Corrado, Giacomo; Scambia, Giovanni; Ghezzi, Fabio
To evaluate the impact of obesity on the outcomes of surgical treatment for endometrial cancer in general and also comparing laparoscopic and open abdominal approach. Retrospective case-control study (Canadian Task Force classification II-1). Obstetrics and Gynecology Department, University of Insubria, Varese, Catholic University of the Sacred Heart, Rome, International School of Surgical Anatomy, Sacred Heart Hospital, Negrar, and Sant'Orsola-Malpighi Hospital, Bologna, Italy. Data of consecutive patients who underwent surgery for endometrial cancer in 4 centers were reviewed. Univariate and multivariable analyses were performed. Adjustment for potential selection bias in surgical approach was made using propensity score (PS) matching. Laparoscopic or open surgical treatment for endometrial cancer. A total of 1266 patients were included, including 764 in the laparoscopy group and 502 in the open surgery group. A total of 391 patients (30.9%) were obese, including 238 (18.8%) with class I obesity, 89 (7%) with class II obesity, and 64 (5.1%) with class III obesity. The total number of complications, risk of wound complications, and venous thromboembolic events were higher in obese women compared with nonobese women. Blood transfusions, incidence/severity of postoperative complications, and postoperative hospital stay were significantly higher in the open surgery group compared with the laparoscopy group, irrespective of obesity. These differences remained significant in both multivariable analysis and PS-matched analysis. The percentage of patients who received lymphadenectomy declined significantly in patients with BMI ≥40 in both the laparoscopy and open surgery groups. Conversions from the initially intended minimally invasive approach to open surgery were 1.1% to 2.2% for women with BMI <40, but increased in those with BMI ≥40 (8.6%; p = .05). PS analysis showed a lower complication rate, shorter hospital stay, and greater likelihood of receiving
Fernandes, Miguel de Castro; Peres, Luciano Rodrigo; de Queiroz, Aristóteles Correia; Lima, José Queiroz; Turíbio, Flávio Moral; Matsumoto, Marcelo Hide
Objectives: To determine whether a time delay greater than 6h from injury to surgical debridement influences the infection rate in open fractures. Methods: During a period of 18 months, from October 2010 to March 2012, 151 open fractures were available for study in 142 patients in our hospital. The data were collected prospectively and the patients were followed up for 6 weeks. The patients were divided into two groups regarding the time delay from injury to surgical debridement (more or less than 6 hours). Results: Surgical debridement was carried out in less than 6h from injury in 90 (59.6%) fractures and after 6 hours from injury in 61 (40.4%) fractures. Infection rates were 12.22% and 13.24%, respectively. The global infection rate was 13.24%. Conclusion: A significantly increased infection rate was not observed in patients whose surgical debridement occurred more than 6h after injury. However, in the fractures of high-energy trauma, a statistically significant increase of the rate of infection was observed in those operated 6 hours after trauma. Level of Evidence II, Study Type Comparative and Prospective. PMID:26327794
Ganry, L; Hersant, B; Quilichini, J; Leyder, P; Meningaud, J P
Tridimensional (3D) surgical modelling is a necessary step to create 3D-printed surgical tools, and expensive professional software is generally needed. Open-source software are functional, reliable, updated, may be downloaded for free and used to produce 3D models. Few surgical teams have used free solutions for mastering 3D surgical modelling for reconstructive surgery with osseous free flaps. We described an Open-source software 3D surgical modelling protocol to perform a fast and nearly free mandibular reconstruction with microvascular fibula free flap and its surgical guides, with no need for engineering support. Four successive specialised Open-source software were used to perform our 3D modelling: OsiriX(®), Meshlab(®), Netfabb(®) and Blender(®). Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) data on patient skull and fibula, obtained with a computerised tomography (CT) scan, were needed. The 3D modelling of the reconstructed mandible and its surgical guides were created. This new strategy may improve surgical management in Oral and Craniomaxillofacial surgery. Further clinical studies are needed to demonstrate the feasibility, reproducibility, transfer of know how and benefits of this technique. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Bonardelli, Stefano; Cervi, Edoardo; Nodari, Franco; Guadrini, Cristina; Zanotti, Camilla; Giulini, Stefano Maria
Patients with abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) frequently have other abdominal pathologies of surgical interest (other diseases, OD). Out of 1,375 elective open aortic replacements for AAA, 315 cases with OD were subdivided in Group 1 (82 patients with "clean wound" OD) and Group 2 (233 patients with "clean-contaminated wound" OD). The results of the sub-groups in which OD was treated at the same time as AAA were analysed (1a, 66 cases and 2a, 86 cases) and compared with OD not treated at the same time as AAA (1b, 16 cases and 2b, 147 cases). EVAR was done in 12 patients with a infrarenal AAA and concomitant abdominal disease. In this group post-operative complications occurred in two patients (endoleaks) and no sign of endograft infection was developed. Mean follow-up was 36 months. Mortality was 0% in Group 1a, 1b, 2b and 5.8% in Group 2a. In Group 1a there were one haemoperitoneum, one ischaemic colitis and one graft infection. In Group 1b there were 4 nefrectomies for renal carcinoma and three emergency hernia repairs within 18 months from AAA operation. In Group 2a the follow-up was uneventful. In Group 2b there was no acute complication of OD and 57.2% of patients were subsequently operated for OD. In the EVAR group the 30-day and late mortality rates were 0 and 25%, respectively and all deaths were cancer-related. Contemporary correction of OD in open surgery for AAA should be performed in clean wound cases, while clean-contaminated operations can be done only in selected cases. EVAR is a valid alternative technique to open vascular surgery for the concomitant treatment of aortic aneurysms and abdominal pathologies.
Thimour-Bergström, Linda; Roman-Emanuel, Christine; Scherstén, Henrik; Friberg, Örjan; Gudbjartsson, Tomas; Jeppsson, Anders
OBJECTIVES The incidence of surgical site infection (SSI) after open vein harvesting in coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) patients ranges in different studies between 2 and 20%. Triclosan is an antibacterial substance that reduces the growth of bacteria by inhibiting fatty acid synthesis. We hypothesized that wound closure with triclosan-coated sutures would reduce SSI after open vein harvesting. METHODS An investigator-initiated prospective randomized double-blind single-centre study was performed with 374 patients, randomized to subcutaneous and intracutaneous leg-wound closure with either triclosan-coated sutures (Vicryl Plus® and Monocryl Plus®, Ethicon, Somerville, NJ, USA) (n = 184) or identical sutures without triclosan (n = 190) from the same manufacturer. All patients were followed up after 30 days (clinical visit) and 60 days (telephone interview). Primary endpoint was SSI within 60 days after surgery according to the definition of Center for Disease Control. Predefined secondary endpoints included culture-proven and antibiotic-treated SSI. RESULTS The primary endpoint occurred in 23 patients (12.5%) with triclosan-coated sutures and in 38 patients (20.0%) in the group without triclosan (P = 0.0497, risk ratio 0.63, (95% confidence interval 0.39–1.00). Corresponding figures for culture-proven infections were 7.6 vs 12.1%, (P = 0.15), and for antibiotic-treated infections, 10.9 vs 18.4%, (P = 0.039). Staphylococcus aureus and coagulase-negative staphylococci were the most common pathogens in both groups. Insulin-treated diabetes and vein-harvesting time were associated with SSI after vein harvesting. CONCLUSIONS Leg-wound closure with triclosan-coated sutures in CABG patients reduces SSIs after open vein harvesting. (ClinicalTrials.gov number NCT01212315). PMID:23435526
Billingham, M J; Basterfield, S J
The laparoscopic treatment of pediatric populations remains controversial. This review was conducted to compare the clinical and cost effectiveness of laparoscopic and open surgical approaches for a variety of surgical indications in pediatric populations. A computerized comprehensive search supplemented by a manual review of the literature was performed for all peer-reviewed publications comparing laparoscopic and open appendectomy, fundoplication and hernia repair cohorts. Outcomes of interest were length of stay (LOS), operating room (OR) time, complication rates and total hospital costs; aggregation of outcome rates was performed with the Mantel-Haenszel method. A total of 24 articles were identified that met the search and inclusion criteria. LOS was found to be significantly reduced in favor of the laparoscopic approach, with a weighted mean difference of -1.44 days, although the OR time was significantly increased, with a weighted mean difference of +12.8 min. Laparoscopic intervention was associated with a significantly reduced complication rate compared to the open approach (10.6 vs. 15.6%). Total hospital costs of the laparoscopic approaches were found to be insignificantly increased compared to the open techniques. This review further supports the use of minimally invasive surgery (MIS) in pediatric populations, demonstrating that the three types laparoscopic procedures reviewed resulted in better patient outcomes compared to open procedures, in the form of reduced LOS and overall complication rates. Increased utilization of this approach may prove beneficial to pediatric patients.
Rubin, Brian; Reddy, Daniel J; Kalman, Peter G
This article is the result of a debate. The motion proposed was "Infrainguinal endovascular procedures should be reserved for patients who do not have good open surgical options.'' Arguments in favor of the motion were offered by Daniel J. Reddy of Henry Ford Hospital in Detroit, MI, and arguments against the motion were offered by Peter Kalman of Loyola University Medical Center in Maywood, IL.
Franchin, Marco; Tozzi, Matteo; Soldini, Gabriele; Piffaretti, Gabriele
Lymphocele is a common complication after kidney transplantation. Although superinfection is a rare event, it generates a difficult management problem; generally, open surgical drainage is the preferred method of treatment but it may lead to complicated postoperative course and prolonged healing time. Negative pressure wound therapy showed promising outcomes in various surgical disciplines and settings. We present a case of an abdominal infected lymphocele after kidney transplantation managed with open surgery and negative pressure wound therapy. PMID:25374744
Gallo, Anna Lucia; Paladini, Federica; Romano, Alessandro; Verri, Tiziano; Quattrini, Angelo; Sannino, Alessandro; Pollini, Mauro
The resistance demonstrated by many microorganisms towards conventional antibiotics has stimulated the interest in alternative antimicrobial agents and in novel approaches for prevention of infections. Silver, a natural braod-spectrum antimicrobial agent known since antiquity, has been widely employed in biomedical field due to its recognized antibacterial, antifungal and antiviral properties. In this work, antibacterial silver coatings were deposited on absorbable surgical sutures through the in situ photo-chemical deposition of silver clusters. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) and thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA) were performed in order to investigate the presence and distribution of the silver clusters on the substrate. The amounts of silver deposited and released by the silver treated sutures were calculated through Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectroscopy (ICP-MS), and the results were related to the biodegradation of the material. The microbiological properties and the potential cytotoxicity of the silver-treated sutures were investigated in relation with hydrolysis experiments, in order to determine the effect of the degradation on antibacterial properties and biocompatibility. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Pérez-Mañanes, Rubén; Burró, Juan Arnal; Manaute, Jose Rojo; Rodriguez, Francisco Chana; Martín, Javier Vaquero
Opening wedge osteotomy has recently gained popularity, thanks to the recent implementation of locking plates, which have shown equivalent stability with greater reproducibility, accuracy, and longevity than the closing wedge techniques and a lower prosthetic conversion rate. We present a new "do-it-yourself" cutting guides system for tibial opening osteotomy. Using a conventional computed tomography digital image, a positioning guide and wedge spacers were printed in three dimensions (3D) for implementing the osteotomy and obtaining the planned correction. The surgeon makes the whole process in a do-it-yourself style. This new technique was used in eight cases. Previous opening osteotomies with the standard technique were used as control (20 cases). Surgical time, fluoroscopic time, and accuracy of the axial correction were measured. The use of a custom positioning guide reduced the surgical (31 minutes less) and fluoroscopic times (6.9 times less) while achieving a high-axis correction accuracy compared with the standard technique. Digitally planned and executed osteotomies under 3D printed osteotomy positioning guides help the surgeon to minimize human error while reducing surgical time. The reproducibility of this technique is very robust, allowing a transfer of the steps planned in a virtual environment to the operating table.
Jensen, Ute; Ruf, Sabine
The aim was to evaluate the short-term success rate of combined orthodontic-orthognathic surgical correction of anterior open bite. Fifteen patients (ages, 15-28 years) with open bite treated with a combined orthodontic-surgical approach were examined. Lateral cephalograms from before treatment, after treatment, and after an average of 18 months (range, 10-26 months) of retention were evaluated. Overbite was classified as normal (2-3.5 mm), borderline (0-1.5 mm), or relapse (<0 mm), and overjet as normal (2-3.5 mm) or relapse (≥4 and ≤1.5 mm). The average overbite was -3.2 mm before treatment, 1.8 mm after treatment, and 1.3 mm after retention. During active treatment, overbite and overjet were normalized in 53.3% and 66.7% of the subjects, respectively. After the retention period, 1 patient (6.7%) showed a negative overbite, whereas a borderline overbite was found in 53.3% of the subjects. Overjet relapsed in 40% of the subjects. Only 40% of the patients had a completely successful treatment with incisal contact and normal overjet and overbite. Orthodontic-surgical treatment of anterior open bite improves the overbite, but an excellent treatment outcome with normal overjet and overbite and proper incisal contact was achieved in only 40% of the subjects. Copyright © 2010 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
Gumanenko, E K; Samokhvalov, I M; Trusov, A A; Severin, V V; Golovko, K P
Broad usage of helicopters for an evacuation of wounded from the battle orders and forward aid station directly to Multiprophyle Military Hospitals of 1-st level during armed conflicts on Northern Caucasus has essentially changed the purposes and nature of a medical care to wounded in Separate Medical Battalions (SMB) of divisions. The primary goal of SMB became valuable preparedness of wounded to an evacuation from the battle orders of a division, that was reached by moving out of the surgeons and anesthesiologists to regimental aid station and medical companies. For adding up during armed conflicts on Northern Caucasus of medico tactical conditions it was justified: 73% wounded, admitted in SMB with damages of minimal and mean severity and not required emergency operations, after rendering them of initial physician care were evacuated by helicopters to Multiprophyle Military Hospitals of 1-st level. The analysis of experience of three SMB in Armed conflict 1999-2002 has shown, that the measures of initial surgical care should appear only for saving life of injured under the specially designed indications and with observance of a number of the relevant technical features, directional on acceleration and decreasing of surgical operations severity.
Kenngott, H G; Wünscher, J J; Wagner, M; Preukschas, A; Wekerle, A L; Neher, P; Suwelack, S; Speidel, S; Nickel, F; Oladokun, D; Albala, Lorenzo; Maier-Hein, L; Dillmann, R; Meinzer, H P; Müller-Stich, B P
Apart from animal testing and clinical trials, surgical research and laparoscopic training mainly rely on phantoms. The aim of this project was to design a phantom with realistic anatomy and haptic characteristics, modular design and easy reproducibility. The phantom was named open-source Heidelberg laparoscopic phantom (OpenHELP) and serves as an open-source platform. The phantom was based on an anonymized CT scan of a male patient. The anatomical structures were segmented to obtain digital three-dimensional models of the torso and the organs. The digital models were materialized via rapid prototyping. One flexible, using an elastic abdominal wall, and one rigid method, using a plastic shell, to simulate pneumoperitoneum were developed. Artificial organ production was carried out sequentially starting from raw gypsum models to silicone molds to final silicone casts. The reproduction accuracy was exemplarily evaluated for ten silicone rectum models by comparing the digital 3D surface of the original rectum with CT scan by calculating the root mean square error of surface variations. Haptic realism was also evaluated to find the most realistic silicone compositions on a visual analog scale (VAS, 0-10). The rigid and durable plastic torso and soft silicone organs of the abdominal cavity were successfully produced. A simulation of pneumoperitoneum could be created successfully by both methods. The reproduction accuracy of ten silicone rectum models showed an average root mean square error of 2.26 (0-11.48) mm. Haptic realism revealed an average value on a VAS of 7.25 (5.2-9.6) for the most realistic rectum. The OpenHELP phantom proved to be feasible and accurate. The phantom was consecutively applied frequently in the field of computer-assisted surgery at our institutions and is accessible as an open-source project at www.open-cas.org for the academic community.
Fukuda, H; Morikane, K; Kuroki, M; Kawai, S; Hayashi, K; Ieiri, Y; Matsukawa, H; Okada, K; Sakamoto, F; Shinzato, T; Taniguchi, S
To estimate the impact of surgical site infection (SSI) on postoperative resource consumption for colon and rectal open and laparoscopic surgeries after accounting for infection depth and patient characteristics, and to compare these estimates among institutions. We collected administrative and SSI-related data from eight Japanese hospitals, and used generalized linear models to estimate excess postoperative length of stay (LOS) and charges attributable to SSI. Covariates included wound class, American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) score, operation time, emergency, colostomy, trauma, implant, and comorbidities. We examined 1,108 colon surgery (CS) and 477 rectal surgery (RS) patients. For open surgery, the postoperative LOS in non-SSI patients was 13.5 (CS) and 15.9 days (RS). Compared with non-SSI patients, the postoperative LOS increased by 4.5 (CS) and 2.8 days (RS) for superficial SSI, 6.8 (CS) and 8.5 days (RS) for deep SSI, and 7.8 and 9.5 days for space/organ SSI. For laparoscopic surgery, the postoperative LOS was 9.8 (CS) and 14.6 days (RS). SSI was significantly associated with increased postoperative LOS for superficial SSI [by 4.8 (CS) and 3.6 days (RS)], deep SSI [by 10.3 (CS) and 23.9 days (RS)], and space/organ SSI [by 8.9 days (RS)]. The postoperative LOS among hospitals was 3.8-10.4 days (CS) and 1.3-12.2 days (RS). Postoperative SSI-attributable charges ranged from $386 to $2,873, depending on organ, procedure, and infection depth. This study quantified the impact of SSIs on resource consumption and confirmed significant cost variations among hospitals. These variations could not be explained by patient characteristics or infection type.
Atlan, M; Naouri, M; Lorette, G; Estève, E; Zakine, G
Constitutional painful callosities is an unusual pathology, integrated in the frame of "palmoplantar keratodermia" (PPK). Lesions are located at areas of support of the sole. These lesions are painful and disable the normal walking. Treatments are suspensive and painkillers. We report our experience of a single surgical treatment: surgical excision, split thickness skin graft applied on a dermal substitute and secured by negative wound therapy. A 28-year-old patient, affected by this disease, has a desire of pregnancy but her treatment is highly teratogen. A year post-op, wounds were healed. The walk was possible with a relief of the pain, without any ulcerations. The surgical treatment by excision and graft or flaps was previously reported for PPK. The use of dermal substitute was never described for this indication. Dermal substitute compensate the thickness of the soft tissue defect and give an accurate quality of elasticity in this localisation .The negative wound therapy enhances the quality and shortens the length of graft taking, and the adhesion of the dermal substitute on his bed. Copyright © 2009 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Bhosale, Priya R; Wei, Wei; Ernst, Randy D; Bathala, Tharakeswara K; Reading, Rhoda M; Wood, Christopher G; Bedi, Deepak G
The purpose of this study is to evaluate whether intraoperative ultrasound (IOUS) during open partial nephrectomy alters the surgical management for renal cell cancer (RCC). One hundred ninety-eight consecutive patients undergoing IOUS during open partial nephrectomy for RCC were selected for retrospective review of clinical and imaging data. Patient age and sex, the local extent of the primary lesion, and the presence of additional lesions were recorded. Ultrasound findings were compared with preoperative CT or MRI to determine whether the IOUS findings changed surgical management. Summary statistics were performed to assess what percentage of patients with additional IOUS findings had a change in their surgical management. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to estimate 5-year overall survival (OS) and event-free survival (EFS) rates for all patients. Patients were followed for 9-12 years to assess survival and measure recurrence rates. Twenty-one of 198 patients (10.6%; 95% CI, 6.7-15.8%) had additional findings on IOUS not seen on preoperative imaging. As a result, surgery was modified in 15 of these 21 patients (71.4%; 95% CI, 47.8-88.7%). The 5-year OS rate was 81%, and the EFS rate was 76% for the whole group; most deaths were due to unrelated causes. There was no statistically significant difference in OS (p = 0.867) and EFS (p = 0.069) rates among patients who had a change of management because of additional lesions seen by IOUS. IOUS performed during open partial nephrectomy for resection of RCC shows additional findings compared with preoperative cross-sectional imaging that may alter surgical management.
Giles, Kristina A; Wyers, Mark C; Pomposelli, Frank B; Hamdan, Allen D; Ching, Y Avery; Schermerhorn, Marc L
OBJECTIVES Obesity and morbid obesity have been shown to increase wound infections and occasionally mortality after many surgical procedures. Little is known about the relative impact of body mass index on these outcomes after open (OAR) and endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm repair (EVAR). METHODS The 2005–2007 National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (NSQIP), a multi-institutional risk-adjusted database, was retrospectively queried to compare perioperative mortality (in-hospital or 30-day) and postoperative wound infections after OAR and EVAR. Patient demographics, comorbidities, and operative details were analyzed. Body mass index (BMI) was calculated from height and weight variables and definitions of obesity and morbid obesity were defined as BMI > 30kg/m2 and BMI > 40kg/m2 respectively. Student's T-test, Wilcoxon Rank Sum, Chi-square, and multivariate logistic regression were used to compare outcomes. RESULTS There were 2,097 OAR and 3,358 EVAR. Compared to EVAR, OAR patients were younger, more likely to be female (26% vs. 17%, P < .001), and less obese (27% vs. 32%, P < .001). Mortality was 3.7% vs. 1.2% after OAR vs. EVAR respectively (RR 3.1, P < .001) and overall morbidity was 28% vs. 12% (RR 2.3, P < .001). Morbidly obese patients had a higher mortality for both OAR (7.3%) and EVAR (2.4%) than obese patients (3.9% OAR; 1.5% EVAR) or non-obese patients (3.7% OAR; 1.1% EVAR). Obese patients had a higher rate of wound infection vs. non-obese after open repair (6.3% vs. 2.4%, P < .001) and EVAR (3.3% vs. 1.5%, P < .001). Morbid obesity predicted mortality after OAR but not EVAR and obesity was an independent predictor of wound infection after OAR and EVAR. CONCLUSIONS Morbid obesity confers a worse outcome for mortality after AAA repair. Obesity is also a risk factor for infectious complications after OAR and EVAR. Obese patients and particularly morbidly obese patients should be treated with EVAR when anatomically feasible. PMID:20843627
Webb, Lawrence X
By hastening the resolution of edema and improving local microcirculation, topical negative pressure wound therapy (TNP) aids the establishment of early wound coverage. Its use in the setting of type III open fractures is reviewed. The author's initial use of TNP for closed surgical incisions and how it morphed its way into being applied to closed surgical wounds with heightened likelihood for infection is presented. Several case studies are presented to illustrate the role and the technique for management of acute or subacute infections involving bone and implant. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
ElSahwi, Karim S; Hooper, Charlene; De Leon, Maria C; Gallo, Taryn N; Ratner, Elena; Silasi, Dan-Arin; Santin, Alessandro D; Schwartz, Peter E; Rutherford, Thomas J; Azodi, Masoud
To compare the outcomes of 155 cases of endometrial cancer who had robot-assisted surgical staging to 150 open cases. Retrospective chart review of cases of endometrial cancer that underwent staging two different ways by two surgeons at an academic institution. Mean age was 62.4 years in the robotic arm and 65 (P=0.04) in the open arm. Mean body mass index was 34.5 Kg/m(2) in the robotic arm and 33 Kg/m(2) in the open arm (P=0.2). Pelvic and para-aortic lymph node dissection were performed in 94.8% and 67.7% of the robotic cases versus 95.3% and 74% of the open cases, respectively. Mean operative time was 127 min in the robotic arm, and 141 min in the open arm (P=0.0001). Mean lymph node count was 20.3 in the robotic arm, and 20 in the open arm (P=0.567). Mean estimated blood loss was 119 ml in the robotic arm and 185 in the open arm (P=0.015). Mean hospital stay was 1.5 days in the robotic arm, and 4 days in the open arm (P=0.0001). The incidence of postoperative ileus (0.6% vs. 10.7%, P=0.0001), infections (5.2% vs. 24%, P=0.0001), anemia/transfusion (1.3% vs. 7.7%, P=0.005), and cardiopulmonary complications (3.2% vs.14.7%, P=0.003) was significantly lower in the robotic arm vs. the open arm. There was one death in the robotic arm attributed to pre-existing cardiac condition. Robotic-assisted staging reaps the benefits of minimally invasive surgery without compromising the adequacy of the procedure. Dedication to the technique shortens the operative time. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Rath, Goutam; Hussain, Taqadus; Chauhan, Gaurav; Garg, Tarun; Kumar Goyal, Amit
The aim of the present study was to evaluate the wound healing performance of cefazolin-loaded gelatin nanofiber mats in post-operative wound. The obtained nanofibers were smooth, non-beaded and having diameter ranging from 620-680 nm. Nanofiber mats that are prepared exhibit high drug entrapment, excellent oxygen permeability and sustained drug release behavior. Further, medicated nanofiber mats showed an accelerated wound healing as compared to plain cefazolin. Macroscopical and histological evaluations demonstrated that cefazolin-loaded gelatin nanofiber showed increased epithelialization rate and collagen deposition. The results indicated that therapeutic strategies offer new prospects in the management of post-operative wound repair.
For burn patients, topical treatment is as important as systemic treatment. Reasonable and timely wound treatment will influence the homeostatic equilibrium, and the progression, the prognosis, and the outcome of the disease. The therapeutic principle should be varied for wounds with different depth of injury. But avoiding or at least alleviating infection, and accelerating healing period, were the common principles. In common, the medication for local wound treatment includes: topical antiseptic, surgical dressing products, artificial skins, and so on. Ideal topical antiseptic should have the following characteristics: the antimicrobial spectrum is broad, including Pseudomonas aeruginosa and MRSA; be able to penetrate necrotic tissue; does not induce drug resistance easily; no local irritating effect and not painful; no side effect to body;can be applied easily; low cost. The functions of surgical dressing include: protect the wounds, keep the microcirculation open, and accelerate wound healing. Artificial skin has been used as the autoskin carrier in skin transplantation operation for large burn area to protect the autoskin grafts, accelerate wound healing, and cover the wounds temporarily. Burns therapy has developed for 50 years in China, the study of local treatment for burn wounds has also experienced a tortuous path of trial and error. This review might contribute some ideas future research.
Thompson, James T; Marks, Malcolm W
Negative pressure wound therapy has become an increasingly important part of wound management. Over the last decade, numerous uses for this method of wound management have been reported, ranging from acute and chronic wounds, to closure of open sternal and abdominal wounds, to assistance with skin grafts. The biophysics behind the success of this treatment largely have focused on increased wound blood flow, increased granulation tissue formation, decreased bacterial counts, and stimulation of wound healing pathways through shear stress mechanisms. The overall success of negative pressure wound therapy has led to a multitude of clinical applications, which are discussed in this article.
Carlson, Russell M; Smith, Nicholas C; Dux, Katherine; Stuck, Rodney M
Human fibroblast-derived dermis skin substitute is a well-studied treatment for diabetic foot ulcers; however, no case series currently exist for its use in healing postoperative wounds of the lower extremity. A retrospective analysis was conducted on 32 lower extremity postoperative wounds treated weekly with human fibroblast-derived dermis skin substitute. Postoperative wounds were defined as a wound resulting from an open partial foot amputation, surgical wound dehiscence, or nonhealing surgical wound of the lower extremity. Wound surface area was calculated at 4 and 12 weeks or until wound closure if prior to 12 weeks. Postoperative wounds treated with weekly applications showed mean improvement in surface area reduction of 63.6% at 4 weeks and 96.1% at 12 weeks. More than 56% of all wounds healed prior to the 12-week endpoint. Additionally, only one adverse event was noted in this group. This retrospective review supports the use of human fibroblast-derived dermis skin substitute in the treatment of postoperative lower extremity wounds. This advanced wound care therapy aids in decreased total healing time and increased rate of healing for not only diabetic foot wounds but also postoperative wounds of the lower extremity, as demonstrated by this retrospective review.
Suction curettage; Surgical abortion; Elective abortion - surgical; Therapeutic abortion - surgical ... Surgical abortion involves dilating the opening to the uterus (cervix) and placing a small suction tube into the uterus. ...
Boonkong, Wasinee; Petsom, Amorn; Thongchul, Nuttha
Doxycycline and monosodium glutamate (MSG) loaded chitosan (CHI)/polylactic acid (PLA)/polycaprolactone (PCL) blend film was studied as a model device to deliver drug to targeted human organ which in this case was the skin with opened wound. The CHI/PLA/PCL blend film containing 60 % CHI, 28 % PLA, and 12 % PCL exhibited the good properties for making the dressing device. It was observed that doxycycline/MSG loaded CHI/PLA/PCL blend film could rapidly deliver both doxycycline and MSG at the high release percentage approaching 100 % loaded. MSG accelerated blood clotting and fibrin formation; thus, it exhibited the good hemostatic activity. The antibacterial activity of doxycycline loaded CHI/PLA/PCL blend film against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli as model bacteria was investigated. Doxycycline release played the crucial role in bacterial inhibition as observed from the lowest bacterial cell dry weight observed when compared with the control bacterial culture or the bacterial cultures with the presence of other films studied.
Peters, Christopher L; Stronach, Benjamin M; Pelt, Christopher E; Erickson, Jill A
Femoroacetabular impingement results from a lack of clearance between the femoral neck and the acetabulum. This condition is most commonly seen in the young adult presenting with hip pain after activity. There have been rapid advancements in the understanding of femoroacetabular impingement to include diagnostic, imaging, and treatment options. An open surgical dislocation approach has been developed that offers a safe and effective method to dislocate the hip and allow direct visualization and full access to treat the often complex intra-articular pathologies of femoroacetabular impingement. The ultimate goal of treatment in carefully selected patients is relief of hip pain and preservation of the hip joint.
Fabozzi, Massimiliano; Cirillo, Pia; Corcione, Francesco
This work is a topic highlight on the surgical treatment of the right colon pathologies, focusing on the literature state of art and comparing the open surgery to the different laparoscopic and robotic procedures. Different laparoscopic procedures have been described for the treatment of right colon tumors: Totally laparoscopic right colectomy, laparoscopic assisted right colectomy, laparoscopic facilitated right colectomy, hand-assisted right colectomy, single incision laparoscopic surgery colectomy, robotic right colectomy. Two main characteristics of these techniques are the different type of anastomosis: Intracorporeal (for totally laparoscopic right colectomy, single incision laparoscopic surgery colectomy, laparoscopic assisted right colectomy and robotic technique) or extracorporeal (for laparoscopic assisted right colectomy, laparoscopic facilitated right colectomy, hand-assisted right colectomy and open right colectomy) and the different incision (suprapubic, median or transverse on the right side of abdomen). The different laparoscopic techniques meet the same oncological criteria of radicalism as the open surgery for the right colon. The totally laparoscopic right colectomy with intracorporeal anastomosis and even more the single incision laparoscopic surgery colectomy, remain a technical challenge due to the complexity of procedures (especially for the single incision laparoscopic surgery colectomy) and the particular right colon vascular anatomy but they seem to have some theoretical advantages compared to the other laparoscopic and open procedures. Data reported in literature while confirming the advantages of laparoscopic approach, do not allow to solve controversies about which is the best laparoscopic technique (Intracorporeal vs Extracorporeal Anastomosis) to treat the right colon cancer. However, the laparoscopic techniques with intracorporeal anastomosis for the right colon seem to show some theoretical advantages (functional, technical
Fabozzi, Massimiliano; Cirillo, Pia; Corcione, Francesco
This work is a topic highlight on the surgical treatment of the right colon pathologies, focusing on the literature state of art and comparing the open surgery to the different laparoscopic and robotic procedures. Different laparoscopic procedures have been described for the treatment of right colon tumors: Totally laparoscopic right colectomy, laparoscopic assisted right colectomy, laparoscopic facilitated right colectomy, hand-assisted right colectomy, single incision laparoscopic surgery colectomy, robotic right colectomy. Two main characteristics of these techniques are the different type of anastomosis: Intracorporeal (for totally laparoscopic right colectomy, single incision laparoscopic surgery colectomy, laparoscopic assisted right colectomy and robotic technique) or extracorporeal (for laparoscopic assisted right colectomy, laparoscopic facilitated right colectomy, hand-assisted right colectomy and open right colectomy) and the different incision (suprapubic, median or transverse on the right side of abdomen). The different laparoscopic techniques meet the same oncological criteria of radicalism as the open surgery for the right colon. The totally laparoscopic right colectomy with intracorporeal anastomosis and even more the single incision laparoscopic surgery colectomy, remain a technical challenge due to the complexity of procedures (especially for the single incision laparoscopic surgery colectomy) and the particular right colon vascular anatomy but they seem to have some theoretical advantages compared to the other laparoscopic and open procedures. Data reported in literature while confirming the advantages of laparoscopic approach, do not allow to solve controversies about which is the best laparoscopic technique (Intracorporeal vs Extracorporeal Anastomosis) to treat the right colon cancer. However, the laparoscopic techniques with intracorporeal anastomosis for the right colon seem to show some theoretical advantages (functional, technical
The wide variety of dermatologic surgical procedures has resulted in a corresponding choice of wound dressings. Considering the chemical and physical properties as well as the function of the dressings, standardized dressing techniques can be performed with relatively few materials. This saves both time and money.
Goodney, Philip P.; Tavris, Dale; Lucas, F. Lee; Gross, Thomas; Fisher, Elliott S.; Finlayson, Samuel R. G.
Introduction Several reports suggest unexpectedly high rates of late abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) rupture occur after endovascular AAA repair (EVAR). However, a population-based study examining causes of late death after EVAR vs open surgical repair has not been performed. Methods We performed a retrospective cohort study of patients undergoing infrarenal AAA repair using information from the Medicare inpatient hospital discharge records (MedPAR files), physician claim files (Part B files, 20% sample), and Medicare Denominator Files for the years 2001 to 2004. Using the Social Security Death Index, we identified all “late” deaths, defined as deaths occurring >30 days and after hospital discharge. We used the National Death Index to identify cause of death information; in particular, those deaths that were likely caused by late rupture. We compared causes of late death and survival between EVAR and open repair using Wilcoxon log-rank and rank-sum tests. Results Between 2001 and 2004, 13,971 patients underwent AAA repair (6119 EVAR, 7852 open repair). After a mean follow-up of 1.6 years in the EVAR cohort and 1.9 years in the open cohort, mortality rates were similar across repair type (15.4% EVAR, 15.9% open repair), with an adjusted odds ratio for death after open repair of 0.98 (95% confidence interval, 0.90–1.07). Of the 2194 documented deaths, 523 occurred before discharge or ≤30 days, and 1671 occurred >30 days and after hospital discharge. Cause of death information for the 1671 late deaths was available from the National Death Index for 1515 (91%). The 15 most common codes for causes of late death were dominated by cardiac disease (atherosclerotic heart disease, acute myocardial infarction) and pulmonary disease (lung cancer, respiratory failure). Causes of late death with specific mention of aneurysm were identified in 37 patients (2.4% of all deaths), but this event was not more common in EVAR or open repair (15 [0.3%] in the EVAR group, 22 [0
Bonavina, Luigi; Bona, Davide; Abraham, Medhanie; Saino, Greta; Abate, Emmanuele
AIM: To assess the effectiveness of minimally invasive versus traditional open surgical approach in the treatment of Zenker diverticulum. METHODS: Between 1976 and 2006, 297 patients underwent transoral stapling (n = 181) or stapled diverticulectomy and cricopharyngeal myotomy (n = 116). Subjective and objective evaluations of the outcome of the two procedures were made at 1 and 6 mo after operation, and then every year. Long-term follow-up data were available for a subgroup of patients at a minimum of 5 and 10 years. RESULTS: The operative time and hospital stay were markedly reduced in patients undergoing the endosurgical approach. Overall, 92% of patients undergoing the endosurgical approach and 94% of those undergoing the open approach were symptom-free or were significantly improved after a median follow-up of 27 and 48 mo, respectively. At a minimum follow-up of 5 and 10 years, most patients were asymptomatic after both procedures, except for those individuals undergoing an endosurgical procedure for a small diverticulum (< 3 cm). CONCLUSION: Both operations relieve the outflow obstruction at the pharyngoesophageal junction, indicating that cricopharyngeal myotomy has an important therapeutic role in this disease independent of the resection of the pouch and of the surgical approach. Diverticula smaller than 3 cm represent a formal contraindication to the endosurgical approach because the common wall is too short to accommodate one cartridge of staples and to allow complete division of the sphincter. PMID:17552006
Steiner, Z; Mogilner, J
Acrylate glues used in a childrens' day care unit to close small surgical wounds were compared. In 157 children, aged 12 weeks to 3.7 years, either Histoacryl or Dermabond was used (respectively, H: Ethicon Inc., Johnson & Johnson, NJ or D: Dermabond, Braun Surgical Gmbh, Melsungen, Germany). Operations were for inguinal hernia (110 cases), hydrocele (25), undescended testis (16), umbilical hernia (13) and funiculocele (3). 1 week after surgery the wounds were evaluated in terms of integrity of closure, redness or infection, need for antibiotics, wound granuloma, and parental satisfaction with instructions and actual method of wound caring. 3 months after surgery the wound/scar was reexamined. The margins of the wounds were separated partially or completely in 8 of 85 in group H (9.4%) while in the D group, 2 wounds (2.4%) had partially opened (p < 0.05). There were no differences between the glues with regard to wound infection or cosmetic results. Parental satisfaction was higher with D (96%) than H (82%) but the difference was not statistically significant. It is convenient to use glue to close operative wounds in children after ambulatory surgery. The use of D significantly reduced wound ruptures compared to H. Long-term cosmetic results were similar.
Introduction The use of Negative Pressure Wound Therapy (NPWT) for temporary abdominal closure of open abdomen (OA) wounds is widely accepted. Published outcomes vary according to the specific nature and the aetiology that resulted in an OA. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a new NPWT system specifically used OA resulting from abdominal trauma. Methods A prospective study on trauma patients requiring temporary abdominal closure (TAC) with grade 1or 2 OA was carried out. All patients were treated with NPWT (RENASYS AB Smith & Nephew) to achieve TAC. The primary outcome measure was time taken to achieve fascial closure and secondary outcomes were complications and mortality. Results A total of 20 patients were included. Thirteen patients (65%) achieved fascial closure following a median treatment period of 3 days. Four patients (20%) died of causes unrelated to NPWT. Complications included fistula formation in one patient (5%) with spontaneous resolution during NPWT), bowel necrosis in a single patient (5%) and three cases of infection (15%). No fistulae were present at the end of NPWT. Conclusion This new NPWT kit is safe and effective and results in a high rate of fascial closure and low complication rates in the severely injured trauma patient. PMID:23305306
Hosemann, W; Dunker, I; Göde, U; Wigand, M E
Twenty two patients underwent standardized endoscopic follow-up for a period 3 months after a partial or complete intranasal ethmoidectomy. 370 endoscopic photographs were taken from the healing ethmoidal wound. After precise documentation of the site of removal, 157 biopsies of the regenerating mucosa were made. The endoscopic appearance of the wound was compared with the histological structure. Endoscopy showed that the process of wound healing of the respiratory mucosa could be subdivided into 4 phases: 1. Hemorrhagic crusting lasting up to 10 days 2. Obstructive lymphatic edema lasting up to 30 days 3. Mesenchymal tissue reaction lasting up to 3 months 4. Scar formation beginning after 3 months. The subdivision of wound healing phases enables the endoscopist to recognize retardation of healing and may lead to a staging of the postoperative therapeutic regime.
An alcoholic 50-year-old male patient with a history of schizophrenia sustained stab wounds into both ventricles and left lung, and survived following an emergency department thoracotomy. The EDT wound, however became infected requiring serial debridements of soft tissue, rib cartilage and sternum. Regional flap options such as pectoralis major and latissimus dorsi muscle flaps could not be employed due to inadequate reach of these flaps. Additionally, bilateral transection of the internal mammary arteries during emergency thoracotomy eliminated the use of rectus abdominis muscles as pedicled flaps based on the superior epigastric vasculature. Therefore, the EDT wound was reconstructed by using the right rectus abdominis muscle as a free flap. The deep inferior epigastric vessels of the flap were anastomosed to the right internal mammary vessels proximal to their transection level in the third-forth intercostal space. The flap healed with no further wound complications. PMID:20459668
Gilman, Kaitlyn; Ipaktchi, Kyros; Moore, Ernest E; Barnett, Carlton; Gurunluoglu, Raffi
An alcoholic 50-year-old male patient with a history of schizophrenia sustained stab wounds into both ventricles and left lung, and survived following an emergency department thoracotomy. The EDT wound, however became infected requiring serial debridements of soft tissue, rib cartilage and sternum. Regional flap options such as pectoralis major and latissimus dorsi muscle flaps could not be employed due to inadequate reach of these flaps. Additionally, bilateral transection of the internal mammary arteries during emergency thoracotomy eliminated the use of rectus abdominis muscles as pedicled flaps based on the superior epigastric vasculature. Therefore, the EDT wound was reconstructed by using the right rectus abdominis muscle as a free flap. The deep inferior epigastric vessels of the flap were anastomosed to the right internal mammary vessels proximal to their transection level in the third-forth intercostal space. The flap healed with no further wound complications.
Zaleska, Karolina; Suchorska, Wiktoria Maria; Przybyła, Anna; Murawa, Dawid
The wound healing process after surgery alters the area surrounding the original tumor and around the scar, and the modified microenvironment is more favorable for tumor recurrence. Intraoperative radiotherapy (IORT) is one of the more novel strategies in breast cancer (BC) treatment. Irradiation during surgery has effects on the tumor microenvironment, abrogating the proliferative cascade induced by surgical wound healing. The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of surgical wound fluids from IOERT treatment (RT-WF) compared with wound fluids from conservative-breast surgery only (WF) on the cancer stem cell phenotype in a panel of BC cell lines. Post-operative wound fluids were derived from patients with BC who underwent a tumor resection (quadrantectomy) plus intraoperative electron radiotherapy using a single dose of ≤10 Gy on the tumor bed and surrounding tissues, or from those who underwent a tumor resection without IOERT. Cell lines were incubated with 10% wound fluids, and after 4 days, the cluster of differentiation (CD)44(+)/CD24(-/low) phenotype and aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 (ALDH1) activity were determined by flow cytometry. The two types of fluid each affected the CD44(+)/CD24(-/low) phenotype. The results varied markedly between each cell line, even for the same histological subtypes. RT-WF decreased the CD44(+)/CD24(-/low) populations in the basal-like BT-549 and MDA-MB-468 cell lines, whereas in the luminal type MCF7 cell line, the two fluids inhibited these populations. The HER-OE subtypes harbored a minimal CD44(+)/CD24(-/low) population, but the growth of SK-BR-3 was stimulated by the two post-operative fluids. WF exhibited a stronger effect on ALDH1 activity compared with RT-WF. The stimulatory effect was dependent on the histological subtype of the cell line and the strongest dependence was observed in luminal subtypes characterized by low dehydrogenase activity in the control group. The present results enable a better
Zaleska, Karolina; Suchorska, Wiktoria Maria; Przybyła, Anna; Murawa, Dawid
The wound healing process after surgery alters the area surrounding the original tumor and around the scar, and the modified microenvironment is more favorable for tumor recurrence. Intraoperative radiotherapy (IORT) is one of the more novel strategies in breast cancer (BC) treatment. Irradiation during surgery has effects on the tumor microenvironment, abrogating the proliferative cascade induced by surgical wound healing. The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of surgical wound fluids from IOERT treatment (RT-WF) compared with wound fluids from conservative-breast surgery only (WF) on the cancer stem cell phenotype in a panel of BC cell lines. Post-operative wound fluids were derived from patients with BC who underwent a tumor resection (quadrantectomy) plus intraoperative electron radiotherapy using a single dose of ≤10 Gy on the tumor bed and surrounding tissues, or from those who underwent a tumor resection without IOERT. Cell lines were incubated with 10% wound fluids, and after 4 days, the cluster of differentiation (CD)44+/CD24−/low phenotype and aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 (ALDH1) activity were determined by flow cytometry. The two types of fluid each affected the CD44+/CD24−/low phenotype. The results varied markedly between each cell line, even for the same histological subtypes. RT-WF decreased the CD44+/CD24−/low populations in the basal-like BT-549 and MDA-MB-468 cell lines, whereas in the luminal type MCF7 cell line, the two fluids inhibited these populations. The HER-OE subtypes harbored a minimal CD44+/CD24−/low population, but the growth of SK-BR-3 was stimulated by the two post-operative fluids. WF exhibited a stronger effect on ALDH1 activity compared with RT-WF. The stimulatory effect was dependent on the histological subtype of the cell line and the strongest dependence was observed in luminal subtypes characterized by low dehydrogenase activity in the control group. The present results enable a better understanding of
Tsala, David Emery; Nga, Nnanga; Thiery, Bella Ndzana Martin; Bienvenue, Mballa Therese; Theophile, Dimo
The objective of the present study was to evaluate the antioxidant potential and the wound healing effect of the ethanolic extract of the bark of Calotropis procera. The antioxidant study was evaluated in vitro, using 2,2-diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and deoxyribose degradation assays. Wound healing was studied using excision and incision wound on normal and dexamethasone-suppressed wound healing rodent models. Alkaloids, flavonoids, proteins and phenols were screened in the extract used whereas saponins and true tannins were absent. The extract contains only 12.5 gallic acid equivalent and 399.54 rutin equivalent. It was found to inhibit DPPH and deoxyribose oxidation (IC50 = 24.24 and 5.40 respectively). In vivo study demonstrated a significant reduction in the epithelialization time (P < 0.001) to 17-18 days in normal and dexamethasone treated rats following the ethanolic extract of the bark of C. procera application. The same extract also significantly increased the breaking strength in dexamethasone treated rats. Histological examination of incision wounds of treated group showed matured extracellular matrix, numerous fibroblasts. This study illustrated an excellent potential of the bark of C. procera therapy on dermal wound healing, with a tentative mechanism of action related to improved collagen deposition and reduced inflammatory reaction.
Tsala, David Emery; Nga, Nnanga; Thiery, Bella Ndzana Martin; Bienvenue, Mballa Therese; Theophile, Dimo
The objective of the present study was to evaluate the antioxidant potential and the wound healing effect of the ethanolic extract of the bark of Calotropis procera. The antioxidant study was evaluated in vitro, using 2,2-diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and deoxyribose degradation assays. Wound healing was studied using excision and incision wound on normal and dexamethasone-suppressed wound healing rodent models. Alkaloids, flavonoids, proteins and phenols were screened in the extract used whereas saponins and true tannins were absent. The extract contains only 12.5 gallic acid equivalent and 399.54 rutin equivalent. It was found to inhibit DPPH and deoxyribose oxidation (IC50 = 24.24 and 5.40 respectively). In vivo study demonstrated a significant reduction in the epithelialization time (P < 0.001) to 17-18 days in normal and dexamethasone treated rats following the ethanolic extract of the bark of C. procera application. The same extract also significantly increased the breaking strength in dexamethasone treated rats. Histological examination of incision wounds of treated group showed matured extracellular matrix, numerous fibroblasts. This study illustrated an excellent potential of the bark of C. procera therapy on dermal wound healing, with a tentative mechanism of action related to improved collagen deposition and reduced inflammatory reaction. PMID:26401387
III and IV decubitus ulcers ). Wounds can also be classified by etiology as (a) surgical, (b) traumatic (such as mechanical or thermal injuries), and...had either decubitus ulcers or venous stasis ulcers . Each patient’s wound was measured with each of the three methods. First, the wound was...standardized and clinically available method to estimate wound volume is needed to determine rate of pressure ulcer healing. This quasi-experimental
Osman, Soleiman; Chou, Stephanie; Rosing, James; Sahar, David E.
Soft tissue coverage of the exposed Achilles tendon is a unique reconstructive challenge. In this report, we describe the management of a large posterior leg wound with exposed Achilles tendon using a free anterolateral thigh (ALT) flap. A careful review of alternative reconstructive options is included, along with their respective advantages and disadvantages. A 32-year-old white man suffered a fulminant right lower extremity soft tissue infection requiring extensive debridement of the entire posterior surface of the right leg. The resulting large soft tissue defect included exposure of the Achilles tendon. Reconstruction of the defect was achieved with an ALT flap and split-thickness skin graft for coverage of the Achilles tendon and gastrocnemius muscle, respectively. The patient was able to ambulate independently within 2 months of the procedure. PMID:24106563
Lavery, Lawrence A
The objective is to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of surgical off-loading to heal diabetic foot ulcers and prevent ulcer recurrence. Usually, structural foot deformities such as hallux rigidus, hammertoe deformities and equinus of the ankle contribute to abnormal pressure and shear forces and non-healing foot ulcers. Elective surgery to remove the deformity and restore joint mobility has been shown to be safe and effective to improve wound healing of recalcitrant ulcer and to reduce the risk of re-ulceration. Unfortunately, there is very little high-level evidence to help guide patient selection or to compare clinical outcomes. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Lee, Dong-Geun; Lee, Sun-Ho; Park, Se-Jun; Kim, Eun-Sang; Chung, Sung-Soo; Lee, Chong-Suh; Eoh, Whan
A retrospective case series. To compare the surgical outcomes of open-door and French-door cervical laminoplasty for decompressing multilevel cervical spinal cord compressions. Cervical laminoplasty is an effective method for decompressing multilevel cervical spinal cord compressions. Laminoplasty is usually classified as an open-door or French-door technique, but it is still unclear whether laminoplasty affects cervical alignment and clinical outcomes. Fifty-one patients underwent cervical laminoplasty over a 2-year period for cervical spondylotic myelopathy, ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament, or for a mixed-type condition. The following criteria were evaluated and compared retrospectively for open-door laminoplasty (group A) and French-door laminoplasty (group B): Nurick grades, Japanese Orthopedic Association (JOA) scores, neck disability index, and visual analog scale scores for axial neck pain and radiating pain. During radiologic evaluations, changes in cervical lordotic angles and range of motion were measured at C2-C7. Postoperatively, radiating pain improved significantly in both groups (P<0.05), but axial neck pain was more severe in both groups at last follow-up than preoperatively (P>0.05). Mean neurological improvement was 12.5% according to Nurick grades and 28% according to JOA scores in all study subjects. In particular, the mean Nurick grades showed significant improvement in group A (P<0.05), and the recovery rate was higher in group A than in group B according to Nurick grades (23.5% vs. 6.3%; P<0.05) and JOA scores (44.4% vs. 13%; P<0.05). In contrast, radiologically, cervical lordotic angle and range of motion were more significantly decreased in group B (P<0.05). Although open-door and French-door laminoplasty techniques were found to be effective for treating cervical compressive myelopathy, the open-door technique seems to be superior with respect to clinical and radiologic outcomes.
Han, Ian C; Puri, Sidharth; Wang, Jiangxia; Sikder, Shameema
Purpose The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether subspecialty training of the initial treating surgeon affects visual acuity and surgical outcomes in patients with open globe injuries. Design This study is a single-institution, retrospective case series. Methods The charts of adult patients with open globe injuries requiring surgical repair at the Wilmer Eye Institute between July 1, 2007 and July 1, 2012 were retrospectively reviewed. Clinical findings at presentation were recorded, and details of initial repair and follow-up surgeries were analyzed. Differences in visual acuity and surgical outcomes were compared based on subspecialty training of the initial surgeon. Results The charts of 282 adult patients were analyzed, and 193 eyes had at least 6 months of follow-up for analysis. Eighty-six eyes (44.6%) required follow-up surgery within the first year, and 39 eyes (20.2%) were enucleated. Eyes initially treated by a vitreoretinal (VR) surgeon were 2.3 times (P=0.003) more likely to improve by one Ocular Trauma Score (OTS) visual acuity category and 1.9 times (P=0.027) more likely to have at least one more follow-up surgery at 6 months compared to eyes treated by non-VR surgeons. Patients with more anterior injuries treated by a VR surgeon were more likely to improve by one OTS visual acuity category compared to those treated by non-VR surgeons (P=0.004 and 0.016 for Zones I and II, respectively). There was no difference in visual acuity outcomes for eyes with posterior injuries (P=0.515 for Zone III). Conclusion Eyes initially treated by a VR surgeon are more likely to improve by one OTS visual acuity category than those initially treated by a non-VR surgeon. However, patients initially treated by a VR surgeon also undergo more follow-up surgical rehabilitation, and improvement in visual acuity is more likely for anterior (Zone I and II injuries) than posterior (Zone III) injuries. PMID:26491240
Chen, Junhua; Li, Hongyu; Liu, Fei; Li, Bo; Wei, Yonggang
Abstract Although the number of laparoscopic liver resections (LRRs) has increased, studies of surgical outcomes in comparison with the conventional open approach are limited. The purpose of this study was to analyze the surgical outcomes (safety and efficacy) of LLR versus open liver resection (OLR) for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). We collected data on all patients who received liver resection for HCC between April 2015 and September 2016 in our institution, and retrospectively investigated the demographic and perioperative data, and also surgical outcomes. Laparoscopic liver resection was performed in 225 patients and OLR in 291. In patients who underwent minor hepatectomy, LLR associated with a shorter duration of operation time (200 vs 220 minutes; P < 0.001), less blood loss (100 vs 225 mL; P < 0.001), lower transfusion rate (3.0% vs 12.0%; P = 0.012), and shorter postoperative hospital stay (6 vs 7 days; P < 0.001) compared with OLR. Dietary recovery was relatively fast in the group of LLR, but there were no significant differences in hepatic inflow occlusion rate, complication rate, and transfusion volume. Patients who received major hepatectomy had a longer duration of operation (240 vs 230 minutes; P < 0.001), less blood loss (200 vs 400 mL; P < 0.001), lower transfusion rate (4.8% vs 16.5%; P = 0.002), lower hepatic inflow occlusion rate (68.3% vs 91.7%; P < 0.001), and shorter postoperative hospital stay (6 vs 8 days; P < 0.001). Complication rate (P = 0.366) and transfusion volume (P = 0.308) did not differ between groups. Laparoscopic liver resection is a feasible and safe alternative to OLR for HCC when performed by a surgeon experienced with the relevant surgical techniques, associated with less blood loss, lower transfusion rate, a rapid return to a normal diet, and shorter postoperative hospital stay with no compromise in complications. Further, long-term follow-up should be acquired for
Xu, Sheng-Gen; Mao, Zhao-Guang; Liu, Bin-Sheng; Zhu, Hui-Hua; Pan, Hui-Lin
Widespread overuse and inappropriate use of antibiotics contribute to increasingly antibiotic-resistant pathogens and higher health care costs. It is not clear whether routine antibiotic prophylaxis can reduce the rate of surgical site infection (SSI) in low-risk patients undergoing orthopaedic surgery. We designed a simple scorecard to grade SSI risk factors and determined whether routine antibiotic prophylaxis affects SSI occurrence during open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF) orthopaedic surgeries in trauma patients at low risk of developing SSI. The SSI risk scorecard (possible total points ranged from 5 to 25) was designed to take into account a patient's general health status, the primary cause of fractures, surgical site tissue condition or wound class, types of devices implanted, and surgical duration. Patients with a low SSI risk score (≤8 points) who were undergoing clean ORIF surgery were divided into control (routine antibiotic treatment, cefuroxime) and evaluation (no antibiotic treatment) groups and followed up for 13-17 months after surgery. The infection rate was much higher in patients with high SSI risk scores (≥9 points) than in patients with low risk scores assigned to the control group (10.7% vs. 2.2%, P<0.0001). SSI occurred in 11 of 499 patients in the control group and in 13 of 534 patients in the evaluation group during the follow-up period of 13-17 months. The SSI occurrence rate did not differ significantly (2.2% vs. 2.4%, P=0.97) between the control and evaluation groups. Routine antibiotic prophylaxis does not significantly decrease the rate of SSI in ORIF surgical patients with a low risk score. Implementation of this scoring system could guide the rational use of perioperative antibiotics and ultimately reduce antibiotic resistance, health care costs, and adverse reactions to antibiotics. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Bey, E; Gaget, O; Jund, J; Overs, C; Skowron, O
Compare the position of the undescended testis at clinical examination and under general anesthesia with the patency of an open processus vaginalis. We included children from 2 to 18 years of age operated for a unilateral or bilateral undescended testis between January 2006 and April 2014 at the Annecy Genevois hospital, France. The analysis was conducted considering that the individual was the testis. Testicular position before surgery, under general anesthesia and patency of open processus vaginalis as a surgical finding were prospectively recorded. Three hundred and six children were included. The analysis was conducted over 401 testes. The position at clinical examination was significantly linked to a persistent open processus vaginalis (P=0.0045). Over the 282 testes considered as candidate for Bianchi's procedure, as to say intra- or supra-scrotal under general anesthesia, 154 had a persistent processus vaginalis (55%). There is a link between a persistent processus vaginalis and the location of the undescended testis which should encourage us not to neglect the inguinal approach, and eventually to question the relevance of Bianchi's procedure. 4. Copyright Â© 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Lindstedt, Sandra; Hlebowicz, Joanna
High closure rates of the open abdomen have been reported following negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT). However, the method has occasionally been associated with increased development of intestinal fistulae. We have previously shown that the application of NPWT to the open abdomen causes a decrease in microvascular blood flow in the small intestinal loop and the omentum adjacent to the visceral protective layer of the dressing. In this study we investigate whether the negative pressure affects only small intestinal loops lying directly below the dressing or if it also affects small intestinal loops that are not in direct contact with the dressing. Six pigs underwent midline incision and application of NPWT to the open abdomen. The microvascular blood flow was measured in four intestinal loops at different depths from the visceral protective layer, at two different locations: beneath the dressing and at the anterior abdominal wall, before and after the application of NPWT of -50, -70, -100, -120, -150 and -170 mmHg, using laser Doppler velocimetry. Negative pressures between -50 and -170 mmHg caused a significant decrease in the microvascular blood flow in the intestinal loops in direct contact with the visceral protective layer. A slight, but significant, decrease in blood flow was also seen in the intestinal loops lying beneath these loops. The decrease in microvascular blood flow increased with the amount of negative pressure applied. No difference in blood flow was seen in the intestinal loops lying deeper in the abdominal cavity. A decrease in blood flow was seen in the upper two intestinal loops located apically and anteriorly, but not in the lower two, indicating that this is a local effect and that pressure decreases with distance from the source. A long-term decrease in blood flow in the intestinal wall may induce ischaemia and secondary necrosis in the intestinal wall, which could promote the development of intestinal fistulae. We believe that NPWT of
Krafcik, Brianna M; Sachs, Teviah E; Farber, Alik; Eslami, Mohammad H; Kalish, Jeffrey A; Shah, Nishant K; Peacock, Matthew R; Siracuse, Jeffrey J
General surgeons have traditionally performed open vascular operations. However, endovascular interventions, vascular residencies, and work-hour limitations may have had an impact on open vascular surgery training among general surgery residents. We evaluated the temporal trend of open vascular operations performed by general surgery residents to assess any changes that have occurred. The Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education's database was used to evaluate graduating general surgery residents' cases from 1999 to 2013. Mean and median case volumes were analyzed for carotid endarterectomy, open aortoiliac aneurysm repair, and lower extremity bypass. Significance of temporal trends were identified using the R(2) test. The average number of carotid endarterectomies performed by general surgery residents decreased from 23.1 ± 14 (11.6 ± 9 chief, 11.4 + 10 junior) cases per resident in 1999 to 10.7 ± 9 (3.4 ± 5 chief, 7.3 ± 6 junior) in 2012 (R(2) = 0.98). Similarly, elective open aortoiliac aneurysm repairs decreased from 7.4 ± 5 (4 ± 4 chief, 3.4 ± 4 junior) in 1999 to 1.3 ± 2 (0.4 ± 1 chief, 0.8 ± 1 junior) in 2012 (R(2) = 0.98). The number of lower extremity bypasses decreased from 21 ± 12 (9.5 ± 7 chief, 11.8 ± 9 junior) in 1999 to 7.6 ± 2.6 (2.4 ± 1.3 chief, 5.2 + 1.8 junior) in 2012 (R(2) = 0.94). Infrapopliteal bypasses decreased from 8.1 ± 3.8 (3.5 ± 2.2 chief, 4.5 ± 2.9 junior) in 2001 to 3 ± 2.2 (1 ± 1.6 chief, 2 ± 1.6 junior) in 2012 (R(2) = 0.94). General surgery resident exposure to open vascular surgery has significantly decreased. Current and future graduates may not have adequate exposure to open vascular operations to be safely credentialed to perform these procedures in future practice without advanced vascular surgical training. Copyright © 2016 Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Knez Ambrožič, Mojca; Hočevar Boltežar, Irena; Ihan Hren, Nataša
Skeletal anterior open bite (AOB) or apertognathism is characterized by the absence of contact of the anterior teeth and affects articulation parameters, chewing, biting and voice quality. The treatment of AOB consists of orthognatic surgical procedures. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of treatment on voice quality, articulation and nasality in speech with respect to skeletal changes. The study was prospective; 15 patients with AOB were evaluated before and after surgery. Lateral cephalometric x-ray parameters (facial angle, interincisal distance, Wits appraisal) were measured to determine skeletal changes. Before surgery, nine patients still had articulation disorders despite speech therapy during childhood. The voice quality parameters were determined by acoustic analysis of the vowel sound /a/ (fundamental frequency-F0, jitter, shimmer). Spectral analysis of vowels /a/, /e/, /i/, /o/, /u/ was carried out by determining the mean frequency of the first (F1) and second (F2) formants. Nasality in speech was expressed as the ratio between the nasal and the oral sound energies during speech samples. After surgery, normalizations of facial skeletal parameters were observed in all patients, but no statistically significant changes in articulation and voice quality parameters occurred despite subjective observations of easier articulation. Any deterioration in velopharyngeal insufficiency was absent in all of the patients. In conclusion, the surgical treatment of skeletal AOB does not lead to deterioration in voice, resonance and articulation qualities. Despite surgical correction of the unfavourable skeletal situation of the speech apparatus, the pre-existing articulation disorder cannot improve without professional intervention.
Morgan, B W; Read, J R; Solan, M C
Objective To examine the availability of working cameras in UK emergency departments and to discuss the merits of digital imaging over Polaroid. Design This study was conducted by means of a telephone questionnaire to 50 UK emergency departments. Results It was found that 80% were able to produce either a working Polaroid or digital camera, and that 63% of emergency departments had a digital camera available. Conclusions We report a pronounced increase in the ability of emergency departments to photograph open fractures, due in part to the availability of digital cameras. We recommend the appropriate use of these tools in the management of open fractures. PMID:18029517
Yeh, Kuang-Ting; Lee, Ru-Ping; Chen, Ing-Ho; Yu, Tzai-Chiu; Peng, Cheng-Huan; Liu, Kuan-Lin; Wang, Jen-Hung
Laminoplasty is a standard technique for treating patients with multilevel cervical spondylotic myelopathy. Modified expansive open-door laminoplasty (MEOLP) preserves the unilateral paraspinal musculature and nuchal ligament and prevents facet joint violation. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the midterm surgical outcomes of this less invasive technique. We retrospectively recruited 65 consecutive patients who underwent MEOLP at our institution in 2011 with at least 4 years of follow-up. Clinical conditions were evaluated by examining neck disability index, Japanese Orthopaedic Association (JOA), Nurick scale, and axial neck pain visual analog scale scores. Sagittal alignment of the cervical spine was assessed using serial lateral static and dynamic radiographs. Clinical and radiographic outcomes revealed significant recovery at the first postoperative year and still exhibited gradual improvement 1–4 years after surgery. The mean JOA recovery rate was 82.3% and 85% range of motion was observed at the final follow-up. None of the patients experienced aggravated or severe neck pain 1 year after surgery or showed complications of temporary C5 nerve palsy and lamina reclosure by the final follow-up. As a less invasive method for reducing surgical dissection by using various modifications, MEOLP yielded satisfactory midterm outcomes. PMID:27563676
Ditto, Antonino; Martinelli, Fabio; Bogani, Giorgio; Gasparri, Maria L; Di Donato, Violante; Zanaboni, Flavia; Lorusso, Domenica; Raspagliesi, Francesco
To investigate the safety, feasibility and effectiveness of laparoscopic approach in the management patients undergoing modified radical hysterectomy for early stage cervical cancer. Consecutive data of 157 women who had class II radical hysterectomy, for stage IA2 and stage IB1 <2 cm cervical cancer, were prospectively collected. Data of patients undergoing surgery via laparoscopy (LRH) were compared with those undergoing open surgical operations (RAH). A propensity-matched comparison (1:1) was carried out to minimize as possible selection biases. Post-operative complications were graded per the Clavien-Dindo classification. Five-year survival outcomes were assessed using Kaplan-Meier model. After the exclusion of 37 (23.5%) patients on the basis of propensity-matching, 60 patients undergoing LRH were compared with 60 patients undergoing RAH. No between-group differences in baseline, disease and pathological variables were observed (p > 0.05). Patients undergoing surgery via laparoscopy experienced longer operative time than patients undergoing RAH; while LRH correlated whit shorter length of hospitalization and lower blood loss in comparison to RAH. Intra- and post-operative complication rate was similar between groups (p = 1.00). The execution of LRH or RAH did not influence site of recurrence (p > 0.2) as well as survival outcomes, in term of 5-year disease-free (p = 0.29, log-rank test) and overall survivals (p = 0.50, log-rank test). Laparoscopic approach is a safe procedure, upholds the results of RAH, reducing invasiveness of open surgical operations. Further large prospective investigations are warranted. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Lepänluoma, M; Takala, R; Kotkansalo, A; Rahi, M; Ikonen, T S
The World Health Organization's surgical safety checklist is designed to improve adherence to operating room safety standards, and its use has been shown to reduce complications among surgical patients. The objective of our study was to assess the impact of the implementation of the checklist on safety-related issues in the operating room and on postoperative adverse events in neurosurgery. From structured questionnaires delivered to operating room personnel, answers were analyzed to evaluate communication and safety-related issues during 89 and 73 neurosurgical operations before and after the checklist implementation, respectively. From the analyzed operations, 83 and 67 patients, respectively, were included in a retrospective analysis of electronic patient records to compare the length of hospital stay, reported adverse events, and readmissions. In addition, the consistency of operating room documentation and patient records was assessed. Communication between the surgeon and the anesthesiologist was enhanced, and safety-related issues were better covered when the checklist was used. Unplanned readmissions fell from 25% to 10% after the checklist implementation (p = 0.02). Wound complications decreased from 19% to 8% (p = 0.04). The consistency of documentation of the diagnosis and the procedure improved. The use of the checklist improved safety-related performance and, contemporarily, reduced numbers of wound complications, and readmissions were observed.
Are, Chandrakanth; Lomneth, Carol; Stoddard, Hugh; Azarow, Kenneth; Thompson, Jon S
The aim of this study is to provide a preliminary review of a pilot curriculum to teach open surgical skills during general surgery residency and obtain initial feedback. The general surgery residency program introduced an open surgical skills training curriculum in 2009. The skills sessions are undertaken under the guidance of the faculty. An annual survey was distributed to the residents and faculty to obtain their feedback. A total of 50 sessions were conducted over the last 2 years. Ninety-five percent of the residents perceived this educational activity to be above average to exceptional with nearly 70% rating it as exceptional. Sixty-three percent of the faculty perceived it as above average to exceptional, with nearly 40% rating it as exceptional. The open surgical skills training curriculum was rated as the most educational activity in the program by residents and faculty alike. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Nielsen, Anna Marie; Andriessen, Anneke
Postsurgery dressing changes in diabetic foot amputation wounds and surgical wounds healing by secondary intention are often conducted in the operating room under general anesthesia. A prospective comparative cohort study was performed in 60 patients (n = 60: n = 30/n = 30) with secondary-intention surgical wounds (82% had forefoot and/or digit[s] amputations) to compare 2 different dressing types. Patients at the study center gave informed written consent, after which they were randomly allocated to one of the treatment groups. Group A received a biocellulose dressing with polyhexanide, and group B a hydrophobic dressing with dialkyl-carbamoyl-chloride. In both groups, gauze was used as secondary dressing and fixed with a film dressing. One day after surgery, the dressings were removed by the surgeon and patient-reported pain and dressing adherence/integrity were evaluated. The number of patients that required general anesthesia was determined during the procedure and afterward. All patients (n = 60; n = 30/n = 30) were included in the intention-to-treat analysis. Pain levels in group A were significantly (t (59) = 4.026, P < .000) lower upon dressing removal, when compared with group B; in group A, n = 21 reported no pain versus n = 8 (26%) for group B. In group A, the dressing adhered in 7 subjects (23%) versus n = 27 (90%) of cases in group B (P = .000). No anesthesia was required for the patients in group A, contrary to group B, where 16% of patients received general anesthesia for dressing removal. Pain levels were significantly lower and the dressing adhered significantly less in group A, compared with group B, demonstrating a better quality of life for the patients in group A.
Leclercq, Florence; Akodad, Mariama; Macia, Jean-Christophe; Gandet, Thomas; Lattuca, Benoit; Schmutz, Laurent; Gervasoni, Richard; Nogue, Erika; Nagot, Nicolas; Levy, Gilles; Maupas, Eric; Robert, Gabriel; Targosz, Frederic; Vernhet, Hélène; Cayla, Guillaume; Albat, Bernard
Major vascular complications (VC) remain frequent after transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) and may be associated with unfavorable clinical outcomes. The objective of this study was to evaluate the rate of VC after transfemoral TAVI performed using an exclusive open surgical access strategy. From 2010 to 2014, we included in a monocentric registry all consecutive patients who underwent transfemoral TAVI. The procedures were performed with 16Fr to 20Fr sheath systems. VC were evaluated within 30 days and classified as major or minor according to the Valve Academic Research Consortium 2 definition. The study included 396 patients, 218 were women (55%), median age was 85 years (81 to 88), and the median logistic Euroscore was 15.2% (11 to 23). The balloon-expandable SAPIEN XT and the self-expandable Medtronic Core Valve prosthesis were used in 288 (72.7%) and 108 patients (27.3%), respectively. The total length of the procedure was 68 ± 15 minutes including 13 ± 5 minutes for the open surgical access. Major and minor VC were observed in 9 (2.3%) and 16 patients (4%), respectively, whereas life-threatening and major bleeding concerned 18 patients (4.6%). The median duration of hospitalization was 5 days (interquartile range 2 to 7), significantly higher in patients with VC (7 days [5 to 15], p <0.001). Mortality at 1-month and 1-year follow-up (n = 26, 6.6%; and n = 67, 17.2%, respectively) was not related to major or minor VC (p = 0.6). In multivariable analysis, only diabetes (odds ratio 2.5, 95% confidence interval 1.1 to 6.1, p = 0.034) and chronic kidney failure (odds ratio 3.0, 95% confidence interval 1.0 to 9.0, p = 0.046) were predictive of VC, whereas body mass index, gender, Euroscore, and lower limb arteriopathy were not. In conclusion, minimal rate of VC and bleeding can be obtained after transfemoral TAVI performed using an exclusive surgical strategy, with a particular advantage observed in high-risk bleeding patients.
Percival, S L
Biofilms are ubiquitous, and have been observed in both acute and chronic wounds. Their role in wound healing and infection, however, remains controversial. The aim of this review was to provide an overview of the role and relevance of biofilms to surgical wounds. A search of PubMed, Science Direct and Web of Science databases was performed to identify studies related to biofilms. Specifically, studies were sought in acute and chronic wounds, and the management and treatment of non-healing and infected skin and wounds. Biofilms may develop in all open wounds. In chronic wounds, biofilms may play a role in prolonging and preventing healing, causing chronic inflammation and increasing the risk of infection. Controversies exist regarding the methods presently employed for biofilm detection and management and few data exist to underpin these decisions. Biofilms in acute surgical and chronic wounds appear to cause a delay in healing and potentially increase the risk of infection. Biofilms can be prevented and once developed can be controlled using wound desloughing and debridement. © 2017 BJS Society Ltd Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Cetinkaya, R A; Yilmaz, S; Ünlü, A; Petrone, P; Marini, C; Karabulut, E; Urkan, M; Kaya, E; Karabacak, K; Uyanik, M; Eker, I; Kilic, A; Gunal, A
The wound healing properties of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) gel have been documented in many studies. PRP gel has also become a promising agent for treating surgical site infections. In this study, we investigated the antibacterial activity and wound healing effectiveness of PRP in an animal model of Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus subsp. aureus (MRSA N315)-contaminated superficial soft tissue wounds. Subcutaneous wounds in Wistar Albino male rats were created by making two cm midline incisions followed by inoculation of microorganisms. Study groups comprised of Sham (no treatment), PRP alone, MRSA alone, MRSA + PRP, MRSA + Vancomycin, and MRSA + Vancomycin + PRP groups. We inoculated 0.1 mL (3 × 10(8) CFU/mL) of MRSA in contaminated groups. After 8 days, all rats were killed, wounds were excised and subjected to histopathologic examination, and MRSA counts were determined. MRSA counts in MRSA, MRSA + PRP, MRSA + Vancomycin and MRSA + Vancomycin + PRP groups were 5.1 × 10(6) (SD ± 0.4) CFU/mL, 4.3 × 10(6) (SD ± 0.7) CFU/mL, 2.3 × 10(6) (SD ± 0.3) CFU/mL, 1.1 × 10(6) (SD ± 0.4) CFU/mL, respectively. The inflammation scores of MRSA + PRP, MRSA + Vancomycin, and MRSA + Vancomycin + PRP groups were significantly lower than the MRSA group. MRSA + Vancomycin + PRP group inflammation score was significantly lower than the MRSA + PRP group. All treatment groups were effective in wound healing and decreasing the MRSA counts. MRSA + PRP combined created identical inflammation scores to the PRP group. More in vivo studies are required to corroborate these findings.
Saeed, Muhammad Azeem; Haque, Abdul; Ali, Aamir; Mohsin, Mashkoor; Bashir, Saira; Tariq, Ayesha; Afzal, Amna; Iftikhar, Tayyaba; Sarwar, Yasra
Escherichia coli are one of the leading causes of infection in wounds. Emerging multiple drug resistance among E. coli poses a serious challenge to antimicrobial therapy for wounds. This study was conducted to ascertain a baseline profile of antimicrobial resistance in E. coli isolates infecting surgical wounds. A total of 64 pus samples from hospitalized patients were screened and 29 (45.3%) were found to have E. coli, which were identified biochemically and confirmed by molecular methods. Using the disc diffusion method, antimicrobial resistance was observed toward tetracycline (100%), cefradine (100%), nalidixic acid (93.1%), ampicillin (86.2%), gentamicin (86.2%), cefixime (82.8%), ceftriaxone (82.8%), aztreonam (82.8%), ciprofloxacin (75.9%), streptomycin (72.4%), cefoperazone (65.5%), chloramphenicol (58.6%) and amikacin (58.6%). In an effort to find relevant genes, 11 different genes were targeted by PCR. Among these, the mutated gyrA gene was found to be the most prevalent (82.8%), followed by the TEM (72.4%), catP (68.9%), catA1 (68.9%), tetB (62.1%), blt (58.6%), bla(CTX-M-15) (27.6%), bla(TEM) (20.7%), bla(OXA) (17.2%), tetA (17.2%) and aadA1 (13.8%) genes. The presence of integrons was also studied among these isolates. The prevalence of class 1 integrons was the highest (44.8%), followed by class 2 (27.6%). Three (10.3%) isolates carried both class 1 and class 2 integrons (first report from E. coli infecting wounds). The high incidence of integrons points toward their facilitation for carriage of antimicrobial resistance genes; however, in nearly 37% isolates, no integrons were detected, indicating the significance of alternative mechanisms of gene transfer. Another salient finding was that all isolates were multidrug-resistant E. coli.
Efficacy of a dual-ring wound protector for prevention of incisional surgical site infection after Whipple's procedure (pancreaticoduodenectomy) with preoperatively-placed intrabiliary stents: protocol for a randomised controlled trial
Bressan, Alexsander K; Roberts, Derek J; Edwards, Janet P; Bhatti, Sana U; Dixon, Elijah; Sutherland, Francis R; Bathe, Oliver; Ball, Chad G
Introduction Among surgical oncology patients, incisional surgical site infection is associated with substantially increased morbidity, mortality and healthcare costs. Moreover, while adults undergoing pancreaticoduodenectomy with preoperative placement of an intrabiliary stent have a high risk of this type of infection, and wound protectors may significantly reduce its risk, no relevant studies of wound protectors yet exist involving this patient population. This study will evaluate the efficacy of a dual-ring wound protector for prevention of incisional surgical site infection among adults undergoing pancreaticoduodenectomy with preoperatively-placed intrabiliary stents. Methods and analysis This study will be a parallel, dual-arm, randomised controlled trial that will utilise a more explanatory than pragmatic attitude. All adults (≥18 years) undergoing a pancreaticoduodenectomy at the Foothills Medical Centre in Calgary, Alberta, Canada with preoperative placement of an intrabiliary stent will be considered eligible. Exclusion criteria will include patient age <18 years and those receiving long-term glucocorticoids. The trial will employ block randomisation to allocate patients to a commercial dual-ring wound protector (the Alexis Wound Protector) or no wound protector and the current standard of care. The main outcome measure will be the rate of surgical site infection as defined by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention criteria within 30 days of the index operation date as determined by a research assistant blinded to treatment allocation. Outcomes will be analysed by a statistician blinded to allocation status by calculating risk ratios and 95% CIs and compared using Fisher's exact test. Ethics and dissemination This will be the first randomised trial to evaluate the efficacy of a dual-ring wound protector for prevention of incisional surgical site infection among patients undergoing pancreaticoduodenectomy. Results of this study are expected
Arroyo-Novoa, Carmen Mabel; Figueroa-Ramos, Milagros I; Miaskowski, Christine; Padilla, Geraldine; Paul, Steven M; Rodríguez-Ortiz, Pablo; Stotts, Nancy A; Puntillo, Kathleen A
The purpose of this study was to evaluate differences in pain intensity, pain quality, physiological measures, and adverse effects when patients received morphine with saline (MS) compared with morphine and a small dose of ketamine (MK) before an open wound care procedure (WCP). A randomized, cross-over design was used to determine whether the addition of a small dose of ketamine would potentiate morphine's analgesic effects and decrease WCP pain intensity. Patients were randomized to receive either 0.1 mg/kg of morphine (8 mg maximum) plus saline intravenously (IV) or 0.05 mg/kg of morphine (4 mg maximum) plus ketamine 0.25 mg/kg IV before the WCP. Patients were crossed-over to receive the alternate treatment during the next WCP. Eleven male patients participated in the study. Mean rank of pain intensity during WCP-MK was significantly less than during WCP-MS (P=0.005). Mean±standard error of mean pain intensity during the WCP-MK was 3.09±0.99, whereas it was 6.82±0.92 during the WCP-MS. However, 91% of the patients had adverse effects (eg, strange sensations, hallucinations, blurred vision) with MK versus 0% with MS. Diastolic blood pressure was significantly higher during the WCP-MK. Ketamine with morphine significantly reduced procedural wound pain intensity during WCP. Adverse effects and higher diastolic BP occurred with MK. Further research is warranted to determine the optimal analgesic dose of ketamine or if the addition of a benzodiazepine would mitigate the psychotomimetic effects of ketamine.
Pate, M L; Nummer, B
The purpose of this study was to quantify the presence of minor open-wound hand injuries in addition to Salmonella, Staphylococcus aureus, coliforms, and Escherichia coli on the hands of farm workers who hand-harvest fruit crops in Utah. Data collection was conducted on four farms without USDA Good Agricultural Practices (GAP) certification and on two farms with GAP certification. This study identified essential safety issues that need to be addressed for improving the effectiveness of safety training for migrant farm workers. Farms that have a food safety audit program in place are less likely to have farm workers exposed to pathogenic bacteria and open-wound injuries to their hands. High frequency of S. aureus may indicate a potentially higher risk for wound infection within this worker population. This could lead to infections that are resistant to the antibiotics commonly used to treat ordinary staph infections, resulting in greater work loss time and medical expenses for these workers. Higher frequencies of bacterial presence on workers' hands on non-certified farms indicate a need to identify essential practices to improve worker hygiene habits and on-farm management practices to promote healthy hygiene. Open-wound injuries to migrant farm workers during hand-harvesting could create additional health problems with the possibility of infection and the spread of diseases. Continued research is needed to understand workers' acceptance of these injuries and barriers to personal protection.
Childress, Beverly B; Berceli, Scott A; Nelson, Peter R; Lee, W Anthony; Ozaki, C Keith
Surgical wounds for lower extremity revascularization are prone to infection and dehiscence. Acticoat Absorbent, an antimicrobial dressing, offers sustained release of ionic silver. We hypothesized that immediate application of Acticoat as a postoperative dressing would reduce wound complications in patients undergoing leg revascularization. All infrainguinal revascularization cases involving leg incisions at a single Veterans Administration Medical Center were identified from July 1, 2002, to September 30, 2005. The control group received conventional dressings, while the treatment group received an Acticoat dressing. Wound complication rates were captured via National Surgical Quality Improvement Program data. Patient characteristics and procedure distributions were similar between groups. The wound complication rate fell 64% with utilization of the Acticoat-based dressing (control 14% [17/118], treatment 5% [7/130]; P = 0.016). An Acticoat-based dressing system offers a potentially useful, cost-effective adjunct to reduce open surgical leg revascularization wound complications.
The aim of the therapy in open tibial fractures grade III was to cover the bone with soft tissue and achieve healed fracture without persistent infection. Open tibial fractures grade IIIC with massive soft tissue damage require combined orthopaedic, vascular and plastic-reconstructive procedures. Negative-pressure wound therapy (NPWT), used in two consecutive cases with open fracture grade IIIC of the tibia diaphysis, healed extensive soft tissue defect with exposure of the bone. NPWT eventually allowed for wound closure by split skin graft within 21-25 days. Ilizarov external fixator combined with application of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-7 at the site of delayed union enhanced definitive bone healing within 16-18 months.
Rath, Goutam; Hussain, Taqadus; Chauhan, Gaurav; Garg, Tarun; Goyal, Amit Kumar
Systemic antibiotic therapy in post-operative wound care remain controversial leading to escalation in levels of multi-resistant bacteria with unwanted morbidity and mortality. Recently zinc (Zn) because of multiple biophysiological functions, gain considerable interest for wound care. Based on our current understanding, the present study was designed with an intent to produce improve therapeutic approaches for post-operative wound management using composite multi-functional antibiotic carrier. The study involved the fabrication, characterization and pre-clinical evaluation of cefazolin nanofiber mats loaded with zinc oxide (ZnO) and comparing co-formulated mats with individual component, enable a side by side comparison of the benefits of our intervention. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the drug, ZnO nanoparticles (ZnONPs) and drug-ZnONP mixture against Staphylococcus aureus was determined using micro dilution assay. The fabricated nanofibers were then evaluated for in-vitro antimicrobial activity and the mechanism of inhibition was predicted by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Further these nanofiber mats were evaluated in-vivo for wound healing efficacy in Wistar rats. Study revealed that the average diameter of the nanofibers is around 200-900 nm with high entrapment efficiency and display sustained drug release behavior. The combination of ZnO and cefazolin in 1:1 weight ratio showed higher anti-bacterial activity of 1.9 ± 0.2 μg/ml. Transmission electron microscopy of bacterial cells taken from the zone of inhibition revealed the phenomenon of cell lysis in tested combination related to cell wall disruption. Further composite medicated nanofiber mats showed an accelerated wound healing as compared to plain cefazolin and ZnONP loaded mats. Macroscopical and histological evaluations demonstrated that ZnONP hybrid cefazolin nanofiber showed enhanced cell adhesion, epithelial migration, leading to faster and more efficient collagen synthesis
Garcia-Segui, A; Angulo, J C
Open adenomectomy (OA) is the surgery of choice for large volume benign prostatic hyperplasia, and laparoscopic adenomectomy (LA) represents a minimally invasive alternative. We present a long-term, prospective study comparing both techniques. The study consecutively included 199 patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia and prostate volumes>80g who were followed for more than 12 months. The patients underwent OA (n=97) or LA (n=102). We recorded and compared demographic and perioperative data, functional results and complications using a descriptive statistical analysis. The mean age was 69.2±7.7 years (range 42-87), and the mean prostate volume (measured by TRUS) was 112.1±32.7mL (range 78-260). There were no baseline differences among the groups in terms of age, ASA scale, prostate volume, PSA levels, Qmax, IPSS, QoL or treatments prior to the surgery. The surgical time (P<.0001) and catheter time (P<.0002) were longer in the LA group. Operative bleeding (P<.0001), transfusion rate (P=.0015) and mean stay (P<.0001) were significantly lower in the LA group. The LA group had a lower rate of complications (P=.04), but there were no significant differences between the groups in terms of major complications (Clavien score≥3) (P=.13) or in the rate of late complications (at one year) (P=.66). There were also no differences between the groups in the functional postoperative results: IPSS (P=.17), QoL (P=.3) and Qmax (P=.17). LA is a reasonable, safe and effective alternative that results in less bleeding, fewer transfusions, shorter hospital stays and lower morbidity than OA. LA has similar functional results to OA, at the expense of longer surgical times and longer catheter times. Copyright © 2016 AEU. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Tran, Linh N; Gupta, Priyanka; Poniatowski, Lauren H; Alanee, Shaheen; Dall’Era, Marc A; Sweet, Robert M
Background Technological advances have dramatically changed medical education, particularly in the era of work-hour restrictions, which increasingly highlights a need for novel methods to teach surgical skills. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the validity of a novel, computer-based, interactive, cognitive simulator for training surgeons to perform pelvic lymph node dissection (PLND). Methods Eight prostate cancer experts evaluated the content of the simulator. Contextual aspects of the simulator were rated on a five-point Likert scale. The experts and nine first-year residents completed a simulated PLND. Time and deviations were logged, and the results were compared between experts and novices using the Mann–Whitney test. Results Before training, 88% of the experts felt that a validated simulator would be useful for PLND training. After testing, 100% of the experts felt that it would be more useful than standard video training. Eighty-eight percent stated that they would like to see the simulator in the curriculum of residency programs and 56% thought it would be useful for accreditation purposes. The experts felt that the simulator aided in overall understanding, training indications, concepts and steps of the procedure, training how to use an assistant, and enhanced the knowledge of anatomy. Median performance times taken by experts and interns to complete a PLND procedure on the simulator were 12.62 and 23.97 minutes, respectively. Median deviation from the incorporated procedure pathway for experts was 24.5 and was 89 for novices. Conclusion We describe an interactive, computer-based simulator designed to assist in mastery of the cognitive steps of an open surgical procedure. This platform is intuitive and flexible, and could be applied to any stepwise medical procedure. Overall, experts outperformed novices in their performance on the trainer. Experts agreed that the content was acceptable, accurate, and representative. PMID:23745097
Carter, Yvonne M; Marshall, M Blair
Simulation has long been appreciated and used in professional industry training. The effectiveness of high-fidelity, low-cost simulators in such settings has led to its integration into surgical education for skill development. Simulation may possibly have a role in surgical specialty training. Replicas of a human torso with a posterolateral thoracotomy incision were constructed from poultry netting and casting fiberglass, and used to house a previously prepared bovine lung. After reviewing computerized instructional material, student volunteers were asked to perform a lobectomy with the assistance of a thoracic surgeon, who also evaluated the subjects. Objective data were collected from knowledge-based examinations and technical skills evaluation scales. Statistical analysis was performed with the Student's t test. The initial success rate was 88.9% (16 of 18). Significant improvements were appreciated in both subjective and objective measures by the third week with weekly repetition. The average operative time was reduced to 34.8 +/- 5 minutes from 48.5 +/- 4.9 minutes (p = 0.01). The average task-specific score was 7.8 +/- 0.8 (versus 5.6 +/- 2.1; p = 0.05), and students achieved an average global performance score of 28.6 +/- 3.8 (p = 0.01). Scores on knowledge-based examinations also significantly improved. This open lobectomy simulation can be used to effectively teach thoracic surgery techniques. Our results prove the effectiveness of simulation training in thoracic surgery. Additional studies will determine whether simulation is effective for different training levels in thoracic surgery.
Aranda-Narváez, José Manuel; Prieto-Puga Arjona, Tatiana; García-Albiach, Beatriz; Montiel-Casado, María Custodia; González-Sánchez, Antonio Jesús; Sánchez-Pérez, Belinda; Titos-García, Alberto; Santoyo-Santoyo, Julio
To compare the incidence and profile of surgical site infection (SSI) after laparoscopic (LA) or open (OA) appendicectomy. Observational and analytical study was conducted on patients older than 14years-old with suspected acute appendicitis operated on within a 4-year period (2007-2010) at a third level hospital (n=868). They were divided in two groups according to the type of appendicectomy (LA, study group, 135; OA, control group, 733). The primary endpoint was a surgical site infection (SSI), and to determine the overall rate and types (incisional/organ-space). The risk of SSI was stratified by: i)National Nosocomial Infection Surveillance (NNIS) index (low risk: 0E, 0 and 1; high risk: 2 and 3); ii)status on presentation (low risk: normal or phlegmonous; high risk: gangrenous or perforated). The statistical analysis was performed using the software SPSS. The main result and stratified analysis was determined with χ(2), and the risk parameters using OR and Mantel-Haenszel OR with 95%CI, accepting statistical significance with P<.05. Age, gender, ASA index and incidence of advanced cases were similar in both groups. The overall SSI rate was 13.4% (more than a half of them detected during follow-up after discharge). Type of SSI: OA, 13% (superficial 9%, deep 2%, organ-space 2%); AL, 14% (superficial 5%, deep 1%, organ-space 8%) (overall: not significant; distribution: P<.000). Stratified analysis showed that there is an association between incisional SSI/OA and organ-space SSI/LA, and is particularly stronger in those patients with high risk of postoperative SSI (high risk NNIS or gangrenous-perforated presentation). OA and LA are associated with a higher rate of incisional and organ-space SSI respectively. This is particularly evident in patients with high risk of SSI. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.
Surgical Wound Infection; Infection; Cesarean Section; Cesarean Section; Dehiscence; Complications; Cesarean Section; Complications; Cesarean Section, Wound, Dehiscence; Wound; Rupture, Surgery, Cesarean Section
Benazzo, Francesco; Zanon, Giacomo; Klersy, Catherine; Marullo, Matteo
The study aimed to compare two methods of open surgical treatment for midportion Achilles tendinopathy in sportsmen. A novel technique consisting in transferring some soleus fibres into the degenerated tendon to improve its vascularization and longitudinal tenotomies are evaluated and compared. From 2006 to 2011, fifty-two competitive and noncompetitive athletes affected by midportion Achilles tendinopathy were surgically treated and prospectively evaluated at 6 months and at a final 4-year mean follow-up. Twenty patients had longitudinal tenotomies, and thirty-two had soleus fibres transfer. Clinical outcome was evaluated by the American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS) score and the Victorian Institute of Sports Assessment-Achilles (VISA-A) score. Time to return to walk and to run and tendon thickening were also recorded. Patients in the soleus transfer group had a higher increase in AOFAS and VISA-A score at 6 months and at the mean 4-year final follow-up (by 5.4 points, 95 % CI 2.9-7.9, p < 0.001 and by 5.7 points, 95 % CI 2.5-8.9, p = 0.001, for AOFAS and VISA, respectively). They also needed less time to return to run: 98.9 ± 17.4 days compared to 122.2 ± 26.3 days for the longitudinal tenotomies group (p = 0.0019). The soleus transfer group had a greater prevalence of tendon thickening (59.4 % compared to 30.0 % in the longitudinal tenotomies group, p = 0.037). Open surgery for midportion Achilles tendinopathy is safe and effective in medium term. Despite similar outcomes in postoperative functional scores, soleus transfer allows a faster recovery but has a higher incidence of tendon thickening. These results should suggest the use of the soleus graft technique in high-level athletes. Prospective comparative study, Level II.
Lee, W C; Uddo, J F; Nance, F C
A 10-year retrospective study of patients with stab wounds to the abdomen managed under a protocol of selective management has been performed. Patients were assessed on the basis of clinical presentation and physical examination, with minimal diagnostic studies. Peritoneal lavage was not utilized in the evaluation of the patients. Two hundred and nineteen such patients were identified. One hundred and eleven of these patients were treated nonoperatively. Ninety patients were treated by immediate laparotomy. Eighteen patients, initially observed, underwent delayed laparotomy. One patient, not explored despite clear-cut indications for laparotomy, died of sepsis, emphasizing the need for strict adherence to the stated protocol. The negative or unnecessary laparotomy rate was 7.8%. The false-negative examination rate was 5.5%. Overall mortality rate was 2.3%. The accuracy of careful clinical evaluation and observation is comparable to, or better than, any other method currently available to identify intra-abdominal injuries in patients with abdominal stab wounds. The study suggests that selective management of stab wounds of the abdomen may be safely practiced in a smaller community hospital. PMID:6721604
EYE, *WOUNDS AND INJURIES), (*ADHESIVES, EYE), (*ACRYLIC RESINS, ADHESIVES), CORNEA , HEALING, TISSUES(BIOLOGY), TOLERANCES(PHYSIOLOGY), NECROSIS, SURGICAL SUPPLIES, STRENGTH(PHYSIOLOGY), SURGERY, THERAPY
Soolari, Nafiseh; Soolari, Ahmad
Background and Objective: Many clinicians will not treat patients presenting with bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaw following long-term use of bisphosphonates because of the lack of predictable outcomes. Materical and Methods: The patient presented with pain from a nonhealing lesion in the posterior maxilla following extraction of the maxillary right third molar. The lesion had not responded to any conventional dental treatment. The patient had suffered from breast cancer, and her treatment included several years of therapy with Zometa (zoledronic acid), a bisphosphonate. Results: The patient stopped taking Zometa and commenced rinsing with phosphate buffer–stabilized 0.1% chlorine dioxide–containing mouthwash. After 5 months, changes in the morphology of the lesion were noted and the soft tissue had closed over the open wound. Conclusion: Cessation of bisphosphonate therapy and usage of a phosphate buffer–stabilized 0.1% chlorine dioxide–containing mouthwash lessened the patient’s pain and resulted in closure of the soft tissue lesion. PMID:22135700
Ishikawa, Kosuke; Kusumi, Takaya; Hosokawa, Masao; Nishida, Yasunori; Sumikawa, Sosuke; Furukawa, Hiroshi
The purpose of this study was to clarify the incidence and risk factors for incisional surgical site infections (SSI) in patients undergoing elective open surgery for colorectal cancer. We conducted prospective surveillance of incisional SSI after elective colorectal resections performed by a single surgeon for a 1-year period. Variables associated with infection, as identified in the literature, were collected and statistically analyzed for their association with incisional SSI development. A total of 224 patients were identified for evaluation. The mean patient age was 67 years, and 120 (55%) were male. Thirty-three (14.7%) patients were diagnosed with incisional SSI. Multivariate analysis suggested that incisional SSI was independently associated with TNM stages III and IV (odds ratio [OR], 2.4) and intraoperative hypotension (OR, 3.4). The incidence of incisional SSI in our cohort was well within values generally reported in the literature. Our data suggest the importance of the maintenance of intraoperative normotension to reduce the development of incisional SSI.
Tada, Masahiro; Inui, Kentaro; Sugioka, Yuko; Mamoto, Kenji; Okano, Tadashi; Kinoshita, Takuya; Hidaka, Noriaki; Koike, Tatsuya
Biological disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (bDMARDs) have become more popular for treating rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Whether or not bDMARDs increase the postoperative risk of surgical site infection (SSI) has remained controversial. We aimed to clarify the effects of bDMARDs on the outcomes of elective orthopedic surgery. We used multivariate logistic regression analysis to analyze risk factors for SSI and delayed wound healing among 227 patients with RA (mean age, 65.0 years; disease duration, 16.9 years) after 332 elective orthopedic surgeries. We also attempted to evaluate the effects of individual medications on infection. Rates of bDMARD and conventional synthetic DMARD (csDMARD) administration were 30.4 and 91.0 %, respectively. Risk factors for SSI were advanced age (odds ratio [OR], 1.11; P = 0.045), prolonged surgery (OR, 1.02; P = 0.03), and preoperative white blood cell count >10,000/μL (OR, 3.66; P = 0.003). Those for delayed wound healing were advanced age (OR, 1.16; P = 0.001), prolonged surgery (OR, 1.02; P = 0.007), preoperative white blood cell count >10,000/μL (OR, 4.56; P = 0.02), and foot surgery (OR, 6.60; P = 0.001). Risk factors for SSI and medications did not significantly differ. No DMARDs were risk factors for any outcome examined. Biological DMARDs were not risk factors for postoperative SSI. Foot surgery was a risk factor for delayed wound healing.
Bosse, Michael J; Murray, Clinton K; Carlini, Anthony R; Firoozabadi, Reza; Manson, Theodore; Scharfstein, Daniel O; Wenke, Joseph C; Zadnik, Mary; Castillo, Renan C
Infection remains the most common and significant complication after high-energy fractures. The Bioburden Study is a multicenter, prospective, observational cohort study of wound bacterial bioburden and antibiotic care in severe open lower extremity fractures. The aims of this study are to (1) characterize the contemporary extremity wound "bioburden" at the time of definitive wound closure; (2) determine the concordance between polymerase chain reaction results and hospital microbiology; (3) determine, among those who develop deep infections, the concordance between the pathogens at wound closure and at deep infection; and (4) compare the probability of deep infection between those who did and did not receive an appropriate course of antibiotics based on bioburden at the time of wound closure. To address these aims, sites collected tissue samples from severe lower extremity injuries at the time of wound closure and at first surgery for treatment of a deep infection, nonunion, flap failure, amputation, or other complications (because these surgeries may be due to undetected infection). Otherwise, if no further surgical treatment occurred, participants were followed for 12 months. The study was conducted at 38 US trauma centers and has enrolled 655 participants aged 18-64 years. This is the first large multi-institutional study evaluating the wound bioburden of severe open tibia fractures and correlating this bioburden with the risk of wound complications after definitive soft tissue closure.
Chaushu, S; Becker, A; Zeltser, R; Vasker, N; Chaushu, G
This study assessed patient perceptions of immediate post-operative recovery after the surgical exposure of impacted maxillary teeth with an open-eruption technique. Thirty patients (24 females and six males) underwent surgical exposure of 39 impacted maxillary teeth using this technique. After surgery the patients were contacted by telephone daily for 7 days, to complete a health-related quality of life (HRQOL) questionnaire, which assessed their perception of recovery in four main areas: pain, oral function, general activity, and other symptoms. Severe pain was reported by 30 per cent of the patients in the first post-operative day (POD 1), which declined to 6.7 per cent by POD 6. Consumption of analgesics declined gradually over the post-operative days (POD 1: 80 per cent, POD 7: 20 per cent). Difficulty in eating required 5 days to reach minimal levels; enjoying everyday food, 2.5 days; school attendance, limitations in daily routine, swallowing, and speech, 2 days each; swelling, bad taste/smell, 1.5 days each; within 1 day all other measures attained minimal levels. The need for bone removal during the exposure resulted in delayed recovery with regard to the ability to eat. In general, females reported delayed recovery for pain. The present data may serve as basic guidelines against which future studies which assess post-operative management of patients after surgical exposure of impacted teeth by an open-eruption technique may be compared.
Yue, Brian Yin Ting; le Roux, Cara Michelle; Corlett, Russell; De La Harpe, David; Richardson, Martin; Ashton, Mark
Postoperative spinal wound dehiscence is a significant complication following the posterior midline approach. It is postulated that this approach disrupts the vasculature supplying the paraspinal muscles and overlying skin. Although the spinal vasculature has been investigated previously, the smaller arterioles have not been described in the context of the posterior midline approach. Eight cadaveric neck and posterior torso specimens were dissected after injection with a radio-opaque lead oxide mixture and subsequent radiographs taken were analyzed. The deep cervical, vertebral, superficial cervical, and occipital arteries consistently supplied the cervical paraspinal muscles. The latter two arteries also vascularized the overlying skin. The deep cervical arteries were found to be located lateral to the C3 to C6 vertebrae, vulnerable to damage with the posterior approach. In the thoracic region, the superior and posterior intercostal arteries consistently supplied the spinal muscles. In all specimens, two small anastomotic vessels posterior to the laminae were found connecting the intercostal artery perforators. Both the arterial perforators and their anastomotic channels were situated in the surgical field and susceptible to damage with the posterior approach. It is likely that the disruption in spinal vasculature contributes to the multifactorial problem of wound dehiscence with the posterior midline approach. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Nagoba, Basavraj; Gandhi, Rajan; Wadher, Bharat; Rao, Arunkumar; Selkar, Sohan
Infection is one of the most important obstacles in the wound-healing process. Conventional methods used for the treatment of wound infections have their own limitations and hence, are difficult to control. If infection is not addressed well in time, it will further increase morbidity and cost of treatment. An attempt was made to develop a simple and effective treatment modality by using citric acid as the sole antimicrobial agent to control bacterial infections of traumatic wounds. A total of 259 cases of traumatic wounds infected with a variety of bacteria were investigated for culture and susceptibility, and susceptibility to citric acid. Citric acid ointment (3%) was applied to traumatic wounds to determine its efficacy in their treatment of traumatic wounds. In a culture and susceptibility study, a total of 369 aerobic bacteria and 7 fungi were isolated, with Staphylococcus aureus (30.31%) being the most common isolate and ciprofloxacin (61.43%) being the most effective agent. All the isolates were found to be inhibited by citric acid in in vitro studies (minimum inhibitory concentration--500-2500 µg/ml). Citric acid ointment was found effective in controlling infections. Out of 259 cases, 244 (around 95%) were healed completely in 5-25 applications of 3% citric acid. As citric acid has antibacterial activity and wound-healing property; hence it is the best alternative for the treatment of traumatic wounds. Besides these properties, citric acid has no adverse effects and it is a good dressing agent.
Comparative study of the microvascular blood flow in the intestinal wall, wound contraction and fluid evacuation during negative pressure wound therapy in laparostomy using the V.A.C. abdominal dressing and the ABThera open abdomen negative pressure therapy system.
Lindstedt, Sandra; Malmsjö, Malin; Hlebowicz, Joanna; Ingemansson, Richard
This study aimed to compare the changes in microvascular blood flow in the small intestinal wall, wound contraction and fluid evacuation, using the established V.A.C. abdominal dressing (VAC dressing) and a new abdominal dressing, the ABThera open abdomen negative pressure therapy system (ABThera dressing), in negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT). Midline incisions were made in 12 pigs that were subjected to treatment with NPWT using the VAC or ABThera dressing. The microvascular blood flow in the intestinal wall was measured before and after the application of topical negative pressures of −50, −75 and −125mmHg using laser Doppler velocimetry. Wound contraction and fluid evacuation were also measured. Baseline blood flow was defined as 100% in all settings. The blood flow was significantly reduced to 64·6±6·7% (P <0·05) after the application of −50mmHg using the VAC dressing, and to 65·3±9·6% (P <0·05) after the application of −50mmHg using the ABThera dressing. The blood flow was significantly reduced to 39·6±6·7% (P <0·05) after the application of −125mmHg using VAC and to 40·5±6·2% (P <0·05) after the application of −125mmHg using ABThera. No significant difference in reduction in blood flow could be observed between the two groups. The ABThera system afforded significantly better fluid evacuation from the wound, better drainage of the abdomen and better wound contraction than the VAC dressing.
Maloku, Halit; Gashi, Zaim; Lazovic, Ranko; Islami, Hilmi; Juniku-Shkololli, Argjira
Objective: According to the ‘‘vascular’’ theory, arterial overflow in the superior hemorrhoidal arteries would lead to dilatation of the hemorrhoidal venous plexus. Hemorrhoid laser procedure (LHP) is a new laser procedure for outpatient treatment of hemorrhoids in which hemorrhoidal arterial flow feeding the hemorrhoidal plexus is stopped by laser coagulation. Aim: Our aim was to compare the hemorrhoid laser procedure with open surgical procedure for outpatient treatment of symptomatic hemorrhoids. Material and method: A comparison trial between hemorrhoid laser procedure or open surgical hemorrhoidectomy was made. This study was conducted at Aloka hospital in Kosovo. Patients with symptomatic grade III or grade IV hemorrhoids with minimal or complete mucosal prolapse were eligible for the study: 20 patients treated with the laser hemorrhoidoplasty, and 20 patients–with open surgery hemorrhoidectomy. Operative time and postoperative pain with visual analog scale, were evaluated. Results: A total number of 40 patients (23 men and 17 women, mean age, 46 years) entered the trial. Significant differences between laser hemorrhoidoplasty and open surgical procedure were observed in operative time and early postoperative pain. There was a statistically significant difference between the two groups regarding the early postoperative period: 1 week, 2 weeks, 3 weeks and 1 month after respective procedure (p<0.01). The procedure time for LHP was 15.94 min vs. 26.76 min for open surgery (p<0.01). Conclusion: The laser hemorrhoidoplasty procedure was more effective than open surgical hemorrhoidectomy. Postoperative pain and duration time are only two indicators for this difference between there procedures. PMID:25684841
Al-Hadidi, Nour; Griffith, James L; Al-Jamal, Mohammed S; Hamzavi, Iltefat
Vitiligo is an acquired skin disorder characterized by the destruction of melanocytes resulting in achromic macules and patches involving the affected skin. Multiple methods of treatments have emerged to manage vitiligo, including medical and surgical techniques. Among the surgical techniques described in the management of vitiligo are minipunch grafting, split-thickness skin grafting, hair follicle transplantation, suction blister grafting, and cultured and non-cultured autologous melanocyte transplantation. However, prior to grafting optimal recipient-site preparation is needed for graft survival and successful repigmentation outcomes. Similarly, post-operative care of the recipient site is vital to yielding a viable graft irrespective of the transplantation technique employed. This article reviews the multiple methods employed to prepare the recipient site in vitiligo surgeries and the post-surgical conditions which optimize graft viability. A pubmed search was conducted utilizing the key words listed below.
Al-Hadidi, Nour; Griffith, James L; Al-Jamal, Mohammed S; Hamzavi, Iltefat
Vitiligo is an acquired skin disorder characterized by the destruction of melanocytes resulting in achromic macules and patches involving the affected skin. Multiple methods of treatments have emerged to manage vitiligo, including medical and surgical techniques. Among the surgical techniques described in the management of vitiligo are minipunch grafting, split-thickness skin grafting, hair follicle transplantation, suction blister grafting, and cultured and non-cultured autologous melanocyte transplantation. However, prior to grafting optimal recipient-site preparation is needed for graft survival and successful repigmentation outcomes. Similarly, post-operative care of the recipient site is vital to yielding a viable graft irrespective of the transplantation technique employed. This article reviews the multiple methods employed to prepare the recipient site in vitiligo surgeries and the post-surgical conditions which optimize graft viability. A pubmed search was conducted utilizing the key words listed below. PMID:26157306
Houlind, Kim; Christensen, Johnny; Hallenberg, Christian; Jepsen, Jørn M.
Background Patients with critical lower limb ischemia without patent pedal arteries cannot be treated by the conventional arterial reconstruction. Venous arterialization has been suggested to improve limb salvage in this subgroup of patients but has not gained wide acceptance. We report our early experience after implementing deep and superficial venous arterialization of the lower limb. Materials and methods Ten patients with critical ischemia and without crural or pedal arteries available for conventional bypass surgery or angioplasty were treated with distal venous arterialization. Inflow was from the most distal unobstructed segment. Run-off was the dorsal pedal venous arch (n=5), the dorsal pedal venous arch and a concomitant vein of the posterior tibial artery (n=3), or the dorsal pedal venous arch and a concomitant vein of the common plantar artery (n=2) depending on the location of the ischemic lesion. Venous valves were destroyed using antegrade valvulotomes, guide wires, knob needles, or retrograde valvulotomes via an extra incision. Results Seven of the operated limbs were amputated after 23 (1–256) days (median [range]). The main reasons for amputation were lack of healing of either the original wound, of incisional wounds on the foot, or persisting pain at rest. In three cases, the bypass was open at the time of amputation. Two patients experienced complete wound healing after 231 and 342 days, respectively. By the end of follow-up, the last patient was ambulating with slow wound healing but without pain 309 days after surgery. Conclusion Venous arterialization may be used as a treatment of otherwise unsalveable limbs. The success rate is, however, limited. Technical optimization of the technique is warranted. PMID:24358432
Houlind, Kim; Christensen, Johnny; Hallenberg, Christian; Jepsen, Jørn M
Patients with critical lower limb ischemia without patent pedal arteries cannot be treated by the conventional arterial reconstruction. Venous arterialization has been suggested to improve limb salvage in this subgroup of patients but has not gained wide acceptance. We report our early experience after implementing deep and superficial venous arterialization of the lower limb. Ten patients with critical ischemia and without crural or pedal arteries available for conventional bypass surgery or angioplasty were treated with distal venous arterialization. Inflow was from the most distal unobstructed segment. Run-off was the dorsal pedal venous arch (n=5), the dorsal pedal venous arch and a concomitant vein of the posterior tibial artery (n=3), or the dorsal pedal venous arch and a concomitant vein of the common plantar artery (n=2) depending on the location of the ischemic lesion. Venous valves were destroyed using antegrade valvulotomes, guide wires, knob needles, or retrograde valvulotomes via an extra incision. Seven of the operated limbs were amputated after 23 (1-256) days (median [range]). The main reasons for amputation were lack of healing of either the original wound, of incisional wounds on the foot, or persisting pain at rest. In three cases, the bypass was open at the time of amputation. Two patients experienced complete wound healing after 231 and 342 days, respectively. By the end of follow-up, the last patient was ambulating with slow wound healing but without pain 309 days after surgery. Venous arterialization may be used as a treatment of otherwise unsalveable limbs. The success rate is, however, limited. Technical optimization of the technique is warranted.
Scolari Childress, Katherine M; Gavard, Jeffrey A; Ward, Donald G; Berger, Kinley; Gross, Gilad A
Surgical site infections (SSIs) are an important cause of morbidity following cesarean delivery, particularly in obese patients. Methods to reduce SSIs after cesarean delivery would have an important impact in obese obstetric patients. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the Alexis O cesarean delivery retractor, a barrier self-retaining retractor, reduces SSIs and wound disruptions in obese patients undergoing cesarean delivery. This was a randomized controlled trial of obese women (body mass index ≥ 30 kg/m(2)) undergoing nonemergent cesarean delivery. Patients were randomized to the treatment group (using the Alexis O cesarean delivery retractor) or to the control group (using conventional handheld retractors). The primary outcome was SSI or wound disruption during the 30 day postoperative period. Secondary outcomes included operative time, estimated blood loss, change in hemoglobin, antiemetic use, length of postoperative hospital stay, hospital readmission, and other postoperative complications. A total of 301 patients were enrolled in the study. One hundred forty-four patients were randomized to the treatment group and 157 to the control group. Baseline characteristics and indications for cesarean delivery were similar between the 2 groups. Median body mass index was 40.1 kg/m(2). There were no significant differences between the treatment and the control group in the primary outcome of SSI or wound disruption rates at the 30 day assessment (20.6% vs 17.6%, P = .62), during the postoperative inpatient hospitalization or at the 1-2 week postoperative visit. There were also no differences in the primary outcome when adjusting for obesity class or thickness of the subcuticular layer. Patients in the treatment group had lower rates of uterine exteriorization (54.3% vs 87.3%, P < .001), but there were no differences in all other outcomes. Use of the Alexis retractor in cesarean delivery deliveries did not decrease SSI or wound disruption rates in
Marconi, Michele; Ceragioli, Sabrina; Mocellin, Davide M; Alberti, Aldo; Tomei, Francesca; Adami, Daniele; Berchiolli, Raffaella N; Ferrari, Mauro
Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is associated with 43% of cases with common iliac artery aneurysms and an extension of prosthetic replacement distal to the iliac bifurcation is needed. The decision about preserving the hypogastric artery (HA) is a source of discussion, in particular when only one HA is interested. The low risk of pelvic ischemia, even if existing, has to be compared with the greater technical difficulty of the vascular reconstruction. The aim of this study is to evaluate retrospectively the perioperative results in patients who underwent ligation or reconstruction of the HA during open surgical procedures for AAA. Over a period of 11 years (January 2002 to December 2012), 1,487 patients were treated electively for AAA. In 235 cases (15.8%), the aneurysm involved the iliac bifurcation with need to extend distally the prosthetic reconstruction; among them, 63 patients were subjected to HA ligation (26.8%, group 1) and 172 to HA bypass (73.2%, group 2). Indication for ligation was the presence of extended HA aneurysm in 34 cases (54%) and heavy calcification of HA in 29 (46%). Perioperative mortality and morbidity rates were, respectively, 1.6% (1/63) and 7.9% (5/63) in group 1 and 1.2% (2/172) and 6.4% (11/172) in group 2 (P = 0.902 and 0.689). The incidence of buttock claudication was significantly higher in group 1 (6/63, 9.5% vs. 4/172, 2.3% P = 0.025), while there were no significant differences in other complications of pelvic ischemia. In group 2, higher intraoperative blood loss (754 ± 721 vs. 996 ± 608 mL, P = 0.011), longer operating time (283.2 ± 104.7 vs. 302 ± 109 min, P = 0.053), and longer postoperative length of stay (PLOS) (5.8 ± 2.2 vs. 6.7 ± 3.6 days, P = 0.049) occurred. HA bypass during open surgery for AAA is a safe procedure. If compared with ligation, it reduces the risk of buttock claudication without increasing perioperative morbidity and mortality. However, the increased complexity of the
Swinnen, K; Politis, C; Willems, G; De Bruyne, I; Fieuws, S; Heidbuchel, K; van Erum, R; Verdonck, A; Carels, C
The aim of this investigation was to assess skeletal and dento-alveolar stability after surgical-orthodontic correction of skeletal anterior open bite treated by maxillary intrusion (group A) versus extrusion (group B). The cephalometric records of 49 adult anterior open bite patients (group A: n = 38, group B: n = 11), treated by the same maxillofacial surgeon, were examined at different timepoints, i.e. at the start of the orthodontic treatment (T1), before surgery (T2), immediately after surgery (T3), early post-operatively (+/- 20 weeks, T4) and one year post-operatively (T5). A bimaxillary operation was performed in 31 of the patients in group A and in six in group B. Rigid internal fixation was standard. If maxillary expansion was necessary, surgically assisted rapid palatal expansion (SRPE) was performed at least 9 months before the Le Fort I osteotomy. Forty-five patients received combined surgical and orthodontic treatment. The surgical open bite reduction (A, mean 3.9 mm; B, mean 7.7 mm) and the increase of overbite (A, mean 2.4 mm; B, mean 2.7 mm), remained stable one year post-operatively. SNA (T2-T3), showed a high tendency for relapse. The clockwise rotation of the palatal plane (1.7 degrees; T2-T3), relapsed completely within the first post-operative year. Anterior facial height reduction (A, mean -5.5 mm; B, mean -0.8 mm) occurred at the time of surgery. It can be concluded that open bite patients, treated by posterior Le Fort I impaction as well as with anterior extrusion, with or without an additional bilateral sagittal split osteotomy (BSSO), one year post-surgery, exhibit relatively good clinical dental and skeletal stability.
Comparative analysis of perioperative surgical site infection after minimally invasive versus open posterior/transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion: analysis of hospital billing and discharge data from 5170 patients.
McGirt, Matthew J; Parker, Scott L; Lerner, Jason; Engelhart, Luella; Knight, Tyler; Wang, Michael Y
Surgical site infection (SSI) after lumbar fusion results in significant patient morbidity and associated medical resource utilization. Minimally invasive (MI) techniques for posterior/transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (P/TLIF) were introduced with the goals of smaller wounds, less tissue trauma, reduced blood loss, and quicker postoperative recovery, while maintaining comparable surgical results. Studies with sufficient power to directly compare the incidence of SSI following MI versus open P/TLIF procedures have been lacking. Furthermore, the direct medical cost associated with the treatment of SSI following the P/TLIF procedure is poorly understood and has not been adequately assessed. Thus, the aim in the present study was to determine the incidence of perioperative SSI in patients undergoing MI versus open P/TLIF and the direct hospital cost associated with the diagnosis and management of SSI after P/TLIF as reported in a large administrative database. The authors retrospectively reviewed hospital discharge and billing records from the Premier Perspective Database for 2003 to 2009 to identify patients undergoing 1- or 2-level MI or open P/TLIF for lumbar spondylotic disease, disc degeneration, or spondylolisthesis. The ICD-9-CM procedure codes were used to identify patients undergoing P/TLIF and those experiencing SSI. Infection-related costs were obtained from the total costs incurred by the hospital for SSI-related care provided during inpatient or hospital outpatient encounters. Five thousand one hundred seventy patients undergoing P/TLIF were identified. Demographic profiles, including the Charlson Comorbidity Index, were similar between MI and open cohorts. Overall, 292 patients (5.6%) experienced an SSI with a mean direct cost of $15,817 per SSI. For 1-level MI versus open P/TLIF, the incidence of SSI (38 [4.5%] vs 77 [4.8%], p = 0.77) and the mean SSI-associated cost per P/TLIF ($684 vs $724, p = 0.680) were similar. For 2-level MI versus open P
Bège, T; Berdah, S V; Brunet, C
Stab wounds represent the most common cause of penetrating wounds, occurring mainly in case of aggression or suicide attempt. Clinical severity depends on the superficial or penetrating aspect of the wound, its location and damaged organs. Medical management must be known because the vital risk is involved in penetrating wounds. Hemodynamically unstable patients should be operated without delay after performing a chest X-ray and ultrasound Focus assisted sonography for trauma (FAST) to guide the surgery. In the stable patients, the general clinical examination, exploration of the wound and medical imaging detect injuries requiring surgical management. Stab penetrating wounds require close and rapid collaboration between medical teams, tailored to the institution's resources.
Ganry, L; Quilichini, J; Bandini, C M; Leyder, P; Hersant, B; Meningaud, J P
Very few surgical teams currently use totally independent and free solutions to perform three-dimensional (3D) surgical modelling for osseous free flaps in reconstructive surgery. This study assessed the precision and technical reproducibility of a 3D surgical modelling protocol using free open-source software in mandibular reconstruction with fibula free flaps and surgical guides. Precision was assessed through comparisons of the 3D surgical guide to the sterilized 3D-printed guide, determining accuracy to the millimetre level. Reproducibility was assessed in three surgical cases by volumetric comparison to the millimetre level. For the 3D surgical modelling, a difference of less than 0.1mm was observed. Almost no deformations (<0.2mm) were observed post-autoclave sterilization of the 3D-printed surgical guides. In the three surgical cases, the average precision of fibula free flap modelling was between 0.1mm and 0.4mm, and the average precision of the complete reconstructed mandible was less than 1mm. The open-source software protocol demonstrated high accuracy without complications. However, the precision of the surgical case depends on the surgeon's 3D surgical modelling. Therefore, surgeons need training on the use of this protocol before applying it to surgical cases; this constitutes a limitation. Further studies should address the transfer of expertise. Copyright © 2017 International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Okura, Yasuhiko; Matsumura, Yasushi; Kuwata, Shigeki; Takeda, Hiroshi
This study describes a remote surgical guidance and navigation system developed for surgery using "Open-MRI" and high-speed network. We connected Osaka University Hospital and Kawasaki Hospital which has deployed Open- MRI with high speed IP over ATM network. The distance between two hospitals is approximately 50 km. Two video cameras were installed with an angle of 40 degrees on an open-MRI gantry to obtain intraoperative images. Two pairs of CODEC (AD/DA converter) were equipped on the network to transfer both images and sound in real time. A pointer system to indicate a region on an image was also developed. MRI images obtained by Open-MRI were transferred to a 3D workstation in Osaka University Hospital. The system was designed for a senior surgeon in Osaka University to advise regarding accurate needle direction for a remote patient by checking the reconstructed 3D images and schemata shown by the navigation software. The schemata were also superimposed on intraoperative images from two cameras, and the superimposed images were sent back to Kawasaki Hospital. This system allowed a surgeon in the operation room at Kawasaki Hospital to accurately view navigation schema under supervision by a senior surgeon in a remote university hospital with superimposion of intraoperative images. The pointer system allowed both doctors to share intraoperative images during a virtual-real surgical operation. A successful biopsy case using this newly developed system illustrates the effectiveness of this system.
Balsa, Ingrid M; Culp, William T N
Wound care requires an understanding of normal wound healing, causes of delays of wound healing, and the management of wounds. Every wound must be treated as an individual with regard to cause, chronicity, location, and level of microbial contamination, as well as patient factors that affect wound healing. Knowledge of wound care products available and when negative pressure wound therapy and drain placement is appropriate can improve outcomes with wound healing. Inappropriate product use can cause delays in healing. As a wound healing progresses, management of a wound and the bandage material used must evolve.
Gheorghe, Adrian; Roberts, Tracy E.; Pinkney, Thomas D.; Bartlett, David C.; Morton, Dion; Calvert, Melanie
Background Wound-edge protection devices (WEPDs) have been used in surgery for more than 40 years to reduce surgical site infection (SSI). No economic evaluation of WEPDs against any comparator has ever been conducted. The aim of the paper was to assess whether WEPDs are cost-effective in reducing SSI compared to standard care alone in the United Kingdom. Methods and Findings An economic evaluation was conducted alongside the ROSSINI trial. The study perspective was that of the UK National Health Service and the time horizon was 30 days post-operatively. The study was conducted in 21 UK hospitals. 760 patients undergoing laparotomy were randomised to either WEPD or standard care and 735 were included in the primary analysis. The main economic outcome was cost-effectiveness based on incremental cost (£) per quality adjusted life year (QALY) gained. Patients in the WEPD arm accessed health care worth £5,420 on average and gained 0.02131 QALYs, compared to £5,130 and 0.02133 QALYs gained in the standard care arm. The WEPD strategy was more costly and equally effective compared to standard care, but there was significant uncertainty around incremental costs and QALYs. The findings were robust to a range of sensitivity analyses. Conclusions There is no evidence to suggest that WEPDs can be considered a cost effective device to reduce SSI. Their continued use is a waste of limited health care resources. PMID:24748154
Gheorghe, Adrian; Roberts, Tracy E; Pinkney, Thomas D; Bartlett, David C; Morton, Dion; Calvert, Melanie
Wound-edge protection devices (WEPDs) have been used in surgery for more than 40 years to reduce surgical site infection (SSI). No economic evaluation of WEPDs against any comparator has ever been conducted. The aim of the paper was to assess whether WEPDs are cost-effective in reducing SSI compared to standard care alone in the United Kingdom. An economic evaluation was conducted alongside the ROSSINI trial. The study perspective was that of the UK National Health Service and the time horizon was 30 days post-operatively. The study was conducted in 21 UK hospitals. 760 patients undergoing laparotomy were randomised to either WEPD or standard care and 735 were included in the primary analysis. The main economic outcome was cost-effectiveness based on incremental cost (£) per quality adjusted life year (QALY) gained. Patients in the WEPD arm accessed health care worth £5,420 on average and gained 0.02131 QALYs, compared to £5,130 and 0.02133 QALYs gained in the standard care arm. The WEPD strategy was more costly and equally effective compared to standard care, but there was significant uncertainty around incremental costs and QALYs. The findings were robust to a range of sensitivity analyses. There is no evidence to suggest that WEPDs can be considered a cost effective device to reduce SSI. Their continued use is a waste of limited health care resources.
Guarda-Nardini, L; Manfredini, D; Berrone, S; Ferronato, G
Several conservative treatment approaches to the disorders of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) have been described in the literature. Nonetheless, in a minority of cases not respondent to reversible conservative therapies a surgical approach to the TMJ is needed. In recent years, a total temporomandibular joint replacement with alloplastic prosthesis have been introduced as a treatment option in the presence of a severely damaged or mutilated joint, mainly resulting from severe joint diseases, as in the case of complex inflammatory-degenerative diseases, or failure of previous surgeries. The present paper described a case report of a bilateral temporomandibular joint replacement intervention in a female patient with severe mouth opening restriction and pain in the TMJ area. Also, a discussion of the potential indications for TMJ replacement has been provided, along with the description of the surgical procedure.
Ramasubbu, Rohan A; Ramasubbu, Benjamin M
Background: Management of open tibial fractures is well documented in adults, with existing protocols outlining detailed treatment strategies. No clear guidelines exist for children. Surgical stabilization of tibial fractures in the pediatric population requires implants that do not disrupt the open epiphyses (growth plate). Both elastic stable intramedullary nails and external fixation can be used. The objective of this study was to identify the optimal method of surgical stabilization in the treatment of open tibial fractures in children. Materials and Methods: MEDLINE and Embase were searched from their inception to March 2014 using the following advanced search terms (Key words): “open tibia fracture,” “fracture fixation,” “external fixation,” “intramedullary,” and “bone nail.” Only studies in English and pertaining to children with open fractures treated with elastic stable intramedullary nails or external fixation between 1994 and 2014 were included. Twelve clinical studies were critically appraised. Results: Due to a paucity in the literature coupled with a nonsystematic presentation of results, it proved to be very difficult in extracting relevant results from the studies. This was further added by a variation in outcome measures. Consequently, the results we obtained were difficult to draw conclusions from. Conclusion: There is no conclusive evidence or best practice guidelines for their management. Thus, as is highlighted in this study, more research is needed to determine the optimum treatment strategy for this common pediatric injury. The existing literature is of poor quality; consisting mainly of retrospective reviews of patients’ medical records, charts, and radiographs. Carefully designed, high-quality prospective cohort studies utilizing a nationalized multi-hospital approach are needed to improve understanding before protocols and guidelines can be developed and implemented. PMID:27746486
MacKay, Douglas; Miller, Alan L
Healing of wounds, whether from accidental injury or surgical intervention, involves the activity of an intricate network of blood cells, tissue types, cytokines, and growth factors. This results in increased cellular activity, which causes an intensified metabolic demand for nutrients. Nutritional deficiencies can impede wound healing, and several nutritional factors required for wound repair may improve healing time and wound outcome. Vitamin A is required for epithelial and bone formation, cellular differentiation, and immune function. Vitamin C is necessary for collagen formation, proper immune function, and as a tissue antioxidant. Vitamin E is the major lipid-soluble antioxidant in the skin; however, the effect of vitamin E on surgical wounds is inconclusive. Bromelain reduces edema, bruising, pain, and healing time following trauma and surgical procedures. Glucosamine appears to be the rate-limiting substrate for hyaluronic acid production in the wound. Adequate dietary protein is absolutely essential for proper wound healing, and tissue levels of the amino acids arginine and glutamine may influence wound repair and immune function. The botanical medicines Centella asiatica and Aloe vera have been used for decades, both topically and internally, to enhance wound repair, and scientific studies are now beginning to validate efficacy and explore mechanisms of action for these botanicals. To promote wound healing in the shortest time possible, with minimal pain, discomfort, and scarring to the patient, it is important to explore nutritional and botanical influences on wound outcome.
Alcalde, I; Íñigo-Portugués, A; Carreño, N; Riestra, A C; Merayo-Lloves, J M
The purpose of this study is to assess the effectiveness of the topical application of cacicol regenerating agent (RGTA) in an experimental model of corneal ulcer after photorefractive keratectomy (PRK) in mice. Mice were subjected to PRK surgery with a 2.0mm ablation zone on the central cornea and 45mm of depth on a VISX Star S2 excimer laser. Corneas were treated topically with cacicol drops 1hour and 48hours after injury. Control groups received balanced salt solution (BSS) in the same dosage. Clinical and histopathological events were evaluated at 1, 2, 3 and 7 days after surgery. Sections obtained through the central region of the corneas were used to analyze the histopathological events of injured and healed corneas. αSMA (myofibroblast transformation), E cadherin (assembly of epithelial cells) and neuronal class III β-tubulin (innervation) were performed. Corneas treated topically with cacicol for 7 days showed a greater degree of transparency compared to controls. cacicol treated corneas showed improved epithelial cytoarchitecture. Analysis of αSMA profiles in the stroma showed that cacicol reduced or delayed the presence of myofibroblasts in the stroma compared to BSS (P<0.001). Finally, a putative neuroregenerative effect of cacicol was found in corneas subjected to an experimental PRK lesion. In some cases some interindividual variability could be observed due to the design of the experimental model. This is a limitation to consider, despite the statistical significance of the data. In a model of laser induced surgical lesions in the cornea, topical application of an RGTA (i.e. cacicol) could be involved in avoiding myofibroblast scarring formation and promoting nerve regeneration. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Cvetanovich, Gregory L; Chalmers, Peter N; Bach, Bernard R
Industry financial relationships for orthopaedic surgeons in the United States are now publicly reported in the Sunshine Act Open Payments database. We sought to present these data in a more easily understandable format and to describe how industry relationships in orthopaedic surgery compare with other surgical subspecialties. The Open Payments database was searched for all records of industry financial relationships for orthopaedic surgeons. Data analyzed included the value of reported financial relationships per surgeon, the type of financial relationship, and geographic region. Similar analytics were collected for neurological surgery, urology, plastic surgery, and otolaryngology. Data were normalized to the overall number of providers in each subspecialty in the United States from the American Medical Association 2012 data. For 12,320 orthopaedic surgeons, 58,127 industry financial relationships were reported, with a total value of $80.2 million. Royalties or licensing fees, which were received by 1.7% of U.S. orthopaedic surgeons, accounted for 69.5% of the total monetary value of payments to orthopaedic surgeons. Between August and December 2013, 50.1% of U.S. orthopaedic surgeons had a reported financial relationship. Orthopaedics had the second lowest percentage of physicians with industry financial relationships among the five surgical subspecialties studied. The overall value of payments per orthopaedic surgeon was higher than in the other subspecialties, driven by the large value of royalties and licensing. One-half of U.S. orthopaedic surgeons have industry financial relationships reported in the Open Payments database. Orthopaedic surgeons are less likely than most surgical subspecialists to receive industry payments, and the majority of the overall value of orthopaedic financial relationships is driven by a small number of orthopaedic surgeons receiving royalties and licensing for reimbursable innovation within the field. Copyright © 2015 by The
Purpose We report short term results of open surgical treatment for symptomatic femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) in patients over the age of 30 years. Materials and Methods Between May 2011 and June 2012, thirteen FAI hips (11 patients) with hip pain persisting longer than 6 months were treated by either surgical hip dislocation (SHD) or anterior mini-open. They were followed up for longer than 2 years. The 11 patients included 7 females and 4 males with a mean age of 45 (range, 33-60) years. They were clinically evaluated for modified Harris hip score (MHHS) and University of California at Los Angeles (UCLA) activity level. Their lateral center-edge angle, acetabular index, and alpha angle were measured and compared. Results Acetabuloplasties were performed for seven cases. Femoral osteochondroplasty was performed for all thirteen cases. At minimum follow-up of two year (range, 24-29 months), all patients had substantial relief in preoperative pain with improvement in range of motion. The median MHHS was significantly (P<0.05) improved from 61 points preoperatively to 87 points at the last follow-up. The median UCLA activity level was 7 (range, 5-8) at last follow-up. Radiological indices improved. Two cases showed mild residual pain attributable to adhesion between capsule and reshaped femoral head-neck area. Conclusion Open surgical treatment of FAI was a reliable and effective treatment method in symptomatic FAIs for patients over the age of 30 years without advanced arthritic change of hip joint at short term follow-up. PMID:27536632
Carson, Jeffrey S; Smith, Lynette; Are, Madhuri; Edney, James; Azarow, Kenneth; Mercer, David W; Thompson, Jon S; Are, Chandrakanth
The aim of this study was to analyze national trends in minimally invasive and open cases of all graduating residents in general surgery. A retrospective analysis was performed on data obtained from Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education logs (1999-2008) of graduating residents from all US general surgery residency programs. Data were analyzed using Mantel-Haenszel χ(2) tests and the Bonferroni adjustment to detect trends in the number of minimally invasive and open cases. Minimally invasive procedures accounted for an increasing proportion of cases performed (3.7% to 11.1%, P < .0001), with a proportional decrease in open cases. An increase in minimally invasive procedures with a proportional decrease in open procedures was noted in subcategories such as alimentary tract, abdominal, vascular, thoracic, and pediatric surgery (P < .0001). The results of this study demonstrate that general surgery residents in the United States are performing a greater number of minimally invasive and fewer open procedures for common surgical conditions. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Wound healing is a complex sequence of events, beginning with tissue injury, mediated by inflammation, and ending long after reepithelialization is complete. Research and controlled clinical experience have provided a better understanding so that clinicians can influence the events of healing to decrease pain, control bleeding, infection, and cosmetic result as well as speed the time for complete healing. The following is a summary of guidelines for the management of wound healing: (1) wound creation; wounds should be created with minimal necrosis of tissue in order to prevent delays in healing. Electrosurgical, cryosurgical, and laser surgical wounds heal more slowly than wounds created by scalpel excision or curettage. Electro-coagulation should be used sparingly in sutured wounds. Large lesions are best treated in a single stage rather than in divided treatments since the rate of wound healing is not proportional to the area but instead to the logarithm of the area. Thus, the total healing time is much shorter if done in a single treatment session. (2) use of drugs; corticosteroids given before or within three days of wounding in dose of prednisone 40 mg or greater will inhibit wound healing. Vitamin A topically or systemically may reverse this inhibition. Aspirin and other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents are more important for their effects on platelet function and bleeding than on wound healing. (3) wound dressings; the use of occlusive dressings to promote moist wound healing is the most significant advance in wound management. Occlusive dressings shorten the time for healing, decrease pain, reduce wound contamination, and improve the cosmetic result. (4) control of wound contraction and scar formation; at the time of wound formation, guiding sutures may be helpful in wound healing by secondary intention in order to control the direction of wound contraction and prevent distortion. Intralesional steroids may be useful for hypertrophic scars and keloids
Rimaz, Siamak; Alavi, Cyrus Emir; Sedighinejad, Abbas; Tolouie, Mohammad; Kavoosi, Sharareh; Koochakinejad, Leila
Background: Burn pain is recognized as being maximal during therapeutic procedures, and wound debridement can be more painful than the burn injury itself. Uncontrolled acute burn pain increases the stress response and the incidence of chronic pain and associated depression. Although opiates are excellent analgesics, they do not effectively prevent central sensitization to pain. The anticonvulsant gabapentin has been proven effective for treating neuropathic pain in large placebo-controlled clinical trials. Experimental and clinical studies have demonstrated antihyperalgesic effects in models with central neuronal sensitization. It has been suggested that central neuronal sensitization may play an important role in postoperative pain. Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of gabapentin on morphine consumption and postoperative pain in burn patients undergoing resection of burn wounds. Patients and Methods: In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, 50 burn patients received a single oral dose of gabapentin (1200mg) or placebo 2h before surgery. Anesthesia was induced with propofol and fentanyl and maintained by infusingpropofol, remifentanil, and 50% N2O in O2. All patients received patient-controlled analgesia with morphine at doses of 2.5 mg bolus and a lock-out time of 10 min for 24h before the operation. Pain was assessed on a visual analog scale (VAS) at rest and during movement at 1,4,8,12,16,20, and 24 h before the operation. Heart rate, oxygen saturation, mean arterial blood pressure, respiratory rate, sedation score, and morphine consumption were studied. Results: All the enrolled patients were able to complete the study; therefore, data from 50 patients wereanalyzed. The VAS scores at rest andduring movement at 1,4,8,12,16,20, and 24 h after the operation were significantly lower in the gabapentin group than in the placebo group (P < 0.05). Morphine consumption was significantly lessr in the gabapentin group than in