Science.gov

Sample records for open-label anecortave acetate

  1. The Digital Angiography Reading Center (DARC) role in the anecortave acetate clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Slakter, Jason S; Carvalho, Cynthia; Coleman, Hannah

    2007-01-01

    Advances in digital camera and computer technology have resulted in imaging systems providing clinically relevant information equivalent to traditional film-based techniques. The Digital Angiography Reading Center (DARC) was created to provide the next generation in reading center assessment for clinical trials of retinal disease. A fully digital angiographic imaging protocol was implemented with the anecortave acetate clinical studies. For image evaluation readers followed a standard manual of definitions and guidelines. Eligibility was determined based on protocol specific criteria. Rapid communication of images between the study sites and DARC permitted screening for eligibility and pre-treatment stratification of all patients prior to enrollment. This screening process was designed to eliminate angiographically ineligible patients from the clinical trials. The result was a reduction in the total number of patients needed to obtain sufficient evaluable patients for statistical assessment of treatment outcome. Digital angiography can be successfully used in clinical trials for retinal disease.

  2. In vitro transport and partitioning of AL-4940, active metabolite of angiostatic agent anecortave acetate, in ocular tissues of the posterior segment.

    PubMed

    Missel, Paul; Chastain, James; Mitra, Ashim; Kompella, Uday; Kansara, Viral; Duvvuri, Sridhar; Amrite, Aniruddha; Cheruvu, Narayan

    2010-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate partitioning into and transport across posterior segment tissues (sclera, retinal pigment epithelium (RPE)-choroid) of AL-4940, the active metabolite of angiostatic cortisene anecortave acetate (AL-3789). Transport of [(14)C]-AL-4940 was measured through RPE-choroid-sclera (RCS) and sclera, excised from Dutch Belted pigmented rabbits' eyes, in the directions of scleral to vitreal (S-->V) and vitreal to scleral (V-->S) for 3 h at 37 degrees C using Ussing chambers. Tissue integrity was monitored by transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER), potential difference (PD), and biochemical assay (LDH). Partitioning in RPE-choroid and sclera was determined separately for both [(14)C]-AL-4940 and [(14)C]-AL-3789. Mathematical analysis for bilaminate membranes used partitioning and transport data to derive diffusion coefficients for 2 tissue layers sclera and RPE-choroid. Partitioning of drug in tissue was comparable for both [(14)C]-AL-4940 and [(14)C]-AL-3789. Partition coefficients of drug in tissue were 2.2 for sclera and about 4 for RPE-choroid. Permeability through sclera alone was about 3 x 10(-5) cm/s and about 1 x 10(-5) cm/s through the RCS tissue, irrespective of the direction of transport (S-->V) or (V-->S). Results from bioelectrical and biochemical evaluation of tissue with modified LDH assay provided evidence that the RCS tissue preparation remained viable during the period of transport study. The thin RPE-choroid layer contributes significantly to resistance to drug transport, and diffusivity in this layer is 10 times less than in sclera. This experimental scheme is proposed as an important component for the development of a general ocular physiologically based pharmacokinetic model.

  3. In Vitro Transport and Partitioning of AL-4940, Active Metabolite of Angiostatic Agent Anecortave Acetate, in Ocular Tissues of the Posterior Segment

    PubMed Central

    Chastain, James; Mitra, Ashim; Kompella, Uday; Kansara, Viral; Duvvuri, Sridhar; Amrite, Aniruddha; Cheruvu, Narayan

    2010-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to evaluate partitioning into and transport across posterior segment tissues (sclera, retinal pigment epithelium (RPE)–choroid) of AL-4940, the active metabolite of angiostatic cortisene anecortave acetate (AL-3789). Methods Transport of [14C]-AL-4940 was measured through RPE–choroid–sclera (RCS) and sclera, excised from Dutch Belted pigmented rabbits’ eyes, in the directions of scleral to vitreal (S→V) and vitreal to scleral (V→S) for 3 h at 37°C using Ussing chambers. Tissue integrity was monitored by transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER), potential difference (PD), and biochemical assay (LDH). Partitioning in RPE–choroid and sclera was determined separately for both [14C]-AL-4940 and [14C]-AL-3789. Mathematical analysis for bilaminate membranes used partitioning and transport data to derive diffusion coefficients for 2 tissue layers sclera and RPE–choroid. Results Partitioning of drug in tissue was comparable for both [14C]-AL-4940 and [14C]-AL-3789. Partition coefficients of drug in tissue were 2.2 for sclera and about 4 for RPE–choroid. Permeability through sclera alone was about 3 × 10−5 cm/s and about 1 × 10−5 cm/s through the RCS tissue, irrespective of the direction of transport (S→V) or (V→S). Results from bioelectrical and biochemical evaluation of tissue with modified LDH assay provided evidence that the RCS tissue preparation remained viable during the period of transport study. Conclusions The thin RPE–choroid layer contributes significantly to resistance to drug transport, and diffusivity in this layer is 10 times less than in sclera. This experimental scheme is proposed as an important component for the development of a general ocular physiologically based pharmacokinetic model. PMID:20415622

  4. Abiraterone acetate for patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer progressing after chemotherapy: final analysis of a multicentre, open-label, early-access protocol trial.

    PubMed

    Sternberg, Cora N; Castellano, Daniel; Daugaard, Gedske; Géczi, Lajos; Hotte, Sebastien J; Mainwaring, Paul N; Saad, Fred; Souza, Ciro; Tay, Miah H; Garrido, José M Tello; Galli, Luca; Londhe, Anil; De Porre, Peter; Goon, Betty; Lee, Emma; McGowan, Tracy; Naini, Vahid; Todd, Mary B; Molina, Arturo; George, Daniel J

    2014-10-01

    In the final analysis of the phase 3 COU-AA-301 study, abiraterone acetate plus prednisone significantly prolonged overall survival compared with prednisone alone in patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer progressing after chemotherapy. Here, we present the final analysis of an early-access protocol trial that was initiated after completion of COU-AA-301 to enable worldwide preapproval access to abiraterone acetate in patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer progressing after chemotherapy. We did a multicentre, open-label, early-access protocol trial in 23 countries. We enrolled patients who had metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer progressing after taxane chemotherapy. Participants received oral doses of abiraterone acetate (1000 mg daily) and prednisone (5 mg twice a day) in 28-day cycles until disease progression, development of sustained side-effects, or abiraterone acetate becoming available in the respective country. The primary outcome was the number of adverse events arising during study treatment and within 30 days of discontinuation. Efficacy measures (time to prostate-specific antigen [PSA] progression and time to clinical progression) were gathered to guide treatment decisions. We included in our analysis all patients who received at least one dose of abiraterone acetate. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01217697. Between Nov 17, 2010, and Sept 30, 2013, 2314 patients were enrolled into the early-access protocol trial. Median follow-up was 5·7 months (IQR 3·5-10·6). 952 (41%) patients had a grade 3 or 4 treatment-related adverse event, and grade 3 or 4 serious adverse events were recorded in 585 (25%) people. The most common grade 3 and 4 adverse events were hepatotoxicity (188 [8%]), hypertension (99 [4%]), cardiac disorders (52 [2%]), osteoporosis (31 [1%]), hypokalaemia (28 [1%]), and fluid retention or oedema (23 [1%]). 172 (7%) patients discontinued the study

  5. A phase I, open-label, single-dose, mass balance study of 14C-labeled abiraterone acetate in healthy male subjects.

    PubMed

    Acharya, Milin; Gonzalez, Martha; Mannens, Geert; De Vries, Ronald; Lopez, Christian; Griffin, Thomas; Tran, NamPhuong

    2013-04-01

    1. Metabolic disposition of (14)C-abiraterone acetate (AA), a prodrug of abiraterone was assessed in a phase I, open-label, single-dose (1000 mg, approximately 100 μCi) study in healthy males (18-55 years, N = 8). Blood, urine, and faecal samples were obtained at specified timepoints for determination of abiraterone concentrations in the plasma, total radioactivity (TR), and the metabolite profile. 2. Most plasma AA concentrations were below the limit of quantification. The mean maximum plasma concentration (Cmax) of abiraterone was 10.4 ng/mL, mean area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC) from 0 to the last measurable plasma concentration (AUC0-last) was 74.8 ng·h/mL. The exposures for TR in plasma (Cmax = 3429 ng·eq/mL; AUC0-last = 26,683 ng eq·h/mL) and whole blood (Cmax = 1836 ng·eq/mL; AUC0-last = 12,162 ng·eq·h/mL) were >300-fold higher than abiraterone exposure in plasma. The majority of TR resided in the plasma compartment of blood. 3. Main circulating metabolites were abiraterone sulfate and N-oxide abiraterone sulfate. The main metabolite excreted in urine was N-oxide abiraterone sulfate (4.22% of TR). Major components of TR in faeces were unchanged AA (55.3% of TR) and abiraterone (22.3% of TR). Mean recovery of TR in faeces was 87.9%, indicating faeces as primary route of excretion.

  6. Polymer-delivered subcutaneous leuprolide acetate formulations achieve and maintain castrate concentrations of testosterone in four open-label studies in patients with advanced prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Shore, Neal D; Chu, Franklin; Moul, Judd; Saltzstein, Daniel; Concepcion, Raoul; McLane, John A; Atkinson, Stuart; Yang, Alex; Crawford, E David

    2017-02-01

    To determine whether luteinising hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) agonist, ATRIGEL(®) polymer-delivered, subcutaneous, leuprolide acetate (ADSC-LA), formulations suppressed serum testosterone to concentrations of ≤20 ng/dL. Data from four open-label, fixed-dose studies were evaluated. Male patients aged 40-86 years with advanced prostatic adenocarcinoma, whom had not undergone prior androgen-deprivation therapy (ADT), were treated with a depot formulation of ADSC-LA: 7.5 mg (1-month, 120 patients), 22.5 mg (3-month, 117 patients), 30 mg (4-month, 90 patients), or 45 mg (6-month, 111 patients). Serum testosterone was sampled at screening, baseline, 2, 4, 8 h after dosing, 1, 2, 3, and 7 days, and every week until the next dose, at which time, the sampling schedule repeated until the end of study (24 weeks for 1- and 3-month formulations, 32 weeks for 4-month, and 48 weeks for the 6-month). The primary analyses were mean serum testosterone concentrations and proportion of patients who achieved concentrations of ≤20 ng/dL. The mean (SE) serum testosterone concentrations at the end of study were consistently ≤20 ng/dL in each study, at 6.1 (0.4), 10.1 (0.7), 12.4 (0.8), and 12.6 (2.1) ng/dL for the 1-, 3-, 4-, and 6-month formulations, respectively. A high proportion of patients (94%, 90%, 92%, 96% for the 1-, 3-, 4-, and 6-month formulations, respectively) achieved testosterone concentrations of ≤20 ng/dL within 6 weeks, and 90-97% of patients in all studies maintained concentrations of ≤20 ng/dL from weeks 6-24. Recent studies have shown improved outcomes in patients with prostate cancer who consistently attained a more rigorous level of testosterone suppression (≤20 ng/dL) with ADT than the historical standard (≤50 ng/dL). All doses of ADSC-LA rapidly achieved and maintained mean serum testosterone to the more rigorous target concentration of ≤20 ng/dL. These data suggest that ADSC-LA delivers equivalent testosterone suppression

  7. Efficacy and safety of leuprorelin acetate 6-month depot in prostate cancer patients: a Phase III, randomized, open-label, parallel-group, comparative study in Japan.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Kazuhiro; Namiki, Mikio; Fujimoto, Tsukasa; Takabayashi, Nobuyoshi; Kudou, Kentarou; Akaza, Hideyuki

    2015-12-01

    Leuprorelin acetate (TAP-144-SR) is commonly used worldwide in prostate cancer patients. This study was conducted to assess the non-inferiority of a 6-month depot formulation of TAP-144-SR (TAP-144-SR [6M]) 22.5 mg to a 3-month depot formulation of TAP-144-SR (TAP-144-SR [3M]) 11.25 mg in prostate cancer patients in Japan. This was a 48-week Phase III, open-label, parallel-group comparative study. TAP-144-SR (6M) 22.5 mg (6M group) and TAP-144-SR (3M) 11.25 mg (3M group) were administered to 81 and 79 subjects, respectively. The primary endpoint was the rate of serum testosterone suppression to the castrate level (≤100 ng/dl). Serum testosterone of all subjects excluding one subject in the 3M group was suppressed to the castrate level throughout 48 weeks. The estimated between-group difference (6M group - 3M group) in suppression rate was 1.3% (95% confidence interval: -3.4, 6.8), and its lower confidence interval was more than -10% of the pre-determined allowable limit value to judge the non-inferiority. The prostate-specific antigen concentrations were stable throughout the study in both groups. Progressive disease in the best overall response based on the Response Evaluation Criteria In Solid Tumors was 0.0% for the 6M group and 2.6% for the 3M group. Adverse events occurred in 92.6% in the 6M group and 89.9% in the 3M group. Adverse events leading to discontinuation were reported in 2.5% in the 6M group and 3.8% in the 3M group. TAP-144-SR (6M) was not inferior to TAP-144-SR (3M) for the suppressive effect on serum testosterone level. TAP-144-SR (6M) was also as well tolerated as TAP-144-SR (3M). © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press.

  8. Efficacy and safety of leuprorelin acetate 6-month depot in prostate cancer patients: a Phase III, randomized, open-label, parallel-group, comparative study in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Kazuhiro; Namiki, Mikio; Fujimoto, Tsukasa; Takabayashi, Nobuyoshi; Kudou, Kentarou; Akaza, Hideyuki

    2015-01-01

    Objective Leuprorelin acetate (TAP-144-SR) is commonly used worldwide in prostate cancer patients. This study was conducted to assess the non-inferiority of a 6-month depot formulation of TAP-144-SR (TAP-144-SR [6M]) 22.5 mg to a 3-month depot formulation of TAP-144-SR (TAP-144-SR [3M]) 11.25 mg in prostate cancer patients in Japan. Methods This was a 48-week Phase III, open-label, parallel-group comparative study. TAP-144-SR (6M) 22.5 mg (6M group) and TAP-144-SR (3M) 11.25 mg (3M group) were administered to 81 and 79 subjects, respectively. The primary endpoint was the rate of serum testosterone suppression to the castrate level (≤100 ng/dl). Results Serum testosterone of all subjects excluding one subject in the 3M group was suppressed to the castrate level throughout 48 weeks. The estimated between-group difference (6M group − 3M group) in suppression rate was 1.3% (95% confidence interval: −3.4, 6.8), and its lower confidence interval was more than −10% of the pre-determined allowable limit value to judge the non-inferiority. The prostate-specific antigen concentrations were stable throughout the study in both groups. Progressive disease in the best overall response based on the Response Evaluation Criteria In Solid Tumors was 0.0% for the 6M group and 2.6% for the 3M group. Adverse events occurred in 92.6% in the 6M group and 89.9% in the 3M group. Adverse events leading to discontinuation were reported in 2.5% in the 6M group and 3.8% in the 3M group. Conclusions TAP-144-SR (6M) was not inferior to TAP-144-SR (3M) for the suppressive effect on serum testosterone level. TAP-144-SR (6M) was also as well tolerated as TAP-144-SR (3M). PMID:26486824

  9. Efficacy and safety of a three-times-weekly dosing regimen of glatiramer acetate in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis patients: 3-year results of the Glatiramer Acetate Low-Frequency Administration open-label extension study.

    PubMed

    Khan, Omar; Rieckmann, Peter; Boyko, Alexey; Selmaj, Krzysztof; Ashtamker, Natalia; Davis, Mat D; Kolodny, Scott; Zivadinov, Robert

    2017-05-01

    The 1-year placebo-controlled (PC) phase of the Glatiramer Acetate Low-Frequency Administration (GALA) study showed that glatiramer acetate 40 mg/mL three times weekly (GA40) significantly reduced annualized relapse rate (ARR) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) activity in patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis. Patients completing the PC phase were invited to an open-label (OL) extension. To evaluate the effects of early start (ES) and delayed start (DS) of GA40 over 3 years. A total of 97.2% of patients completing the PC phase received GA40 in the OL extension. ES ( n = 943) patients received GA40 throughout; DS ( n = 461) patients received placebo during the PC phase and GA40 during the OL phase. Relapse, MRI, disease progression, and safety were evaluated. A total of 1041 patients completed 3 years of follow-up. During the OL phase, ES and DS patients showed comparable ARRs (0.20-0.22) and similar numbers of gadolinium-enhancing T1 ( p = 0.49) and new or enlarging T2 lesions ( p = 0.51) at Year 3. ES patients showed significantly smaller changes in gray matter volume than DS patients from Months 12 to 36 (mean difference, 0.371%; p = 0.015), with similar trend in whole-brain volume ( p = 0.080). Adverse events were mild, consistent with the well-established glatiramer acetate (GA) safety profile. GA40 conferred treatment benefit over 3 years: sustained low ARR and lesion activity and favorable safety.

  10. Continuous long-term immunomodulatory therapy in relapsing multiple sclerosis: results from the 15-year analysis of the US prospective open-label study of glatiramer acetate

    PubMed Central

    Ford, C; Goodman, AD; Johnson, K; Kachuck, N; Lindsey, JW; Lisak, R; Luzzio, C; Myers, L; Panitch, H; Preiningerova, J; Pruitt, A; Rose, J; Rus, H; Wolinsky, J

    2010-01-01

    The ongoing US Glatiramer Acetate (GA) Trial is the longest evaluation of continuous immunomodulatory therapy in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS). The objective of this study was to evaluate up to 15 years of GA as a sole disease-modifying therapy. Two hundred and thirty-two patients received at least one GA dose since study initiation in 1991 (mITT cohort), and 100 (43%, Ongoing cohort) continued as of February 2008. Patients were evaluated every 6 months using the Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS). Mean GA exposures were 8.6 ±5.2, 4.81 ±3.69, and 13.6 ± 1.3 years and mean disease durations were 17, 13, and 22 years for mITT, Withdrawn and Ongoing cohorts, respectively. For Ongoing patients, annual relapse rates (ARRs) maintained a decline from 1.12±0.82 at baseline to 0.25 ± 0.34 per year; 57% had stable/improved EDSS scores (change ± 0.5 points); 65% had not transitioned to secondary progressive multiple sclerosis (SPMS); 38%, 18%, and 3% reached EDSS 4, 6, and 8. For all patients on GA therapy (the mITT cohort), ARRs declined from 1.18 ± 0.82 to 0.43 ± 0.58 per year; 54% had stable/improved EDSS scores; 75% had not transitioned to SPMS; 39%, 23%, and 5% reached EDSS 4, 6, and 8. In conclusion, multiple sclerosis patients with mean disease duration of 22 years administering GA for up to 15 years had reduced relapse rates, and decreased disability progression and transition to SPMS. There were no long-term safety issues. PMID:20106943

  11. A multicenter, open-label study to evaluate satisfaction and menopausal quality of life in women using transdermal estradiol/norethindrone acetate therapy for the management of menopausal signs and symptoms.

    PubMed

    Adler, George; Young, Douglas; Galant, Ron; Quinn, Laura; Witchger, Mary Sue; Maki, Kevin C

    2005-01-01

    This multicenter, open-label, single-arm study evaluated subject satisfaction and improvements in menopausal quality of life among menopausal women using the CombiPatch transdermal system consisting of 17beta-estradiol 0.05 mg plus norethindrone acetate 0.14 mg in a matrix patch formulation. The 193 postmenopausal women between the ages of 45 and 65 years who comprised the modified intent-to-treat population (at least one patch and one efficacy assessment) were required to have reported at least five daily moderate-to-severe hot flashes and episodes of nocturnal sweating upon study entry for at least 1 month and applied one patch twice a week for 12 weeks. At weeks 0, 6, and 12, the women completed the Menopause-Specific Quality of Life (MENQOL) Questionnaire and, as a secondary study outcome, reported the scale of their application site discomfort. During weeks 1-12, they also kept diary records of number and severity of hot flashes and four other menopausal symptoms. Skin tolerance and adherence of the transdermal system were evaluated at weeks 6 and 12 by qualified evaluators. At week 6 and the end of the study, both subjects and physicians rated their satisfaction with the system. Among women in the modified intent-to-treat population, transdermal 17beta-estradiol plus norethindrone acetate significantly reduced the mean daily number of moderate-to-severe hot flashes experienced by women from 4.1 at week 1 to 0.6 at week 12 (p < 0.0001). The mean ratings of headache severity, insomnia, and vaginal irritation/dryness also improved significantly by week 6 and were maintained at week 12. At week 12, 92.4% of the subjects and 97.3% of the physicians reported that they were 'satisfied' or 'very satisfied' with the transdermal hormone delivery system. The results of this study compare favorably with previous placebo-controlled studies of transdermal hormone therapy in managing menopausal signs and symptoms. Furthermore, quality of life was significantly improved by

  12. GLACIER: An open-label, randomized, multicenter study to assess the safety and tolerability of glatiramer acetate 40 mg three-times weekly versus 20 mg daily in patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Wolinsky, Jerry S; Borresen, T Erik; Dietrich, Dennis W; Wynn, Daniel; Sidi, Yulia; Steinerman, Joshua R; Knappertz, Volker; Kolodny, Scott

    2015-07-01

    The efficacy and safety of glatiramer acetate (GA) 20 mg/mL once-daily subcutaneous injections (GA20) in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) is well-established. However, injection-related adverse events (IRAEs) may impede treatment adherence and tolerability. GA 40 mg/mL three-times weekly (GA40) also has a favorable efficacy and safety profile. To evaluate the safety, tolerability, and patient experience when converting from GA20 to GA40. GLACIER was an open-label, randomized, parallel-group trial conducted at 31 sites in the US between June 2013 and December 2013. Stable RRMS patients on GA20 were randomized in a 1:1 ratio to continue with GA20 or convert to GA40. The adjusted mean annualized rate of IRAEs was the primary endpoint for this study. Additionally, the severity of IRAEs, rate of injection-site reactions (ISRs), and patient-reported MS impact and treatment satisfaction were compared for the two treatment groups over the 4-month core study. A total of 209 patients were randomized to convert to GA40 (n=108) or continue with GA20 (n=101). The adjusted mean annualized rate of IRAEs was reduced by 50% with GA40 (35.3 events per year; n=108) versus GA20 (70.4 events per year; n=101) (risk ratio (RR)=0.50; 95% confidence interval [CI]=0.34-0.74; p=0.0006). There was a 60% reduction in the rate of moderate/severe events (GA40 (n=108): 0.9 events per year versus GA20 (n=101): 2.2 events per year; RR=0.40; p=0.0021). Perception of treatment convenience improved for GA40-treated patients soon after converting and was sustained. The GLACIER study demonstrates a favorable IRAE and convenience profile of GA40 for RRMS patients. NCT01874145 available at clinicaltrial.gov. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Efficacy and safety of leuprorelin acetate 6-month depot, TAP-144-SR (6M), in combination with tamoxifen in postoperative, premenopausal patients with hormone receptor-positive breast cancer: a phase III, randomized, open-label, parallel-group comparative study.

    PubMed

    Kurebayashi, Junichi; Toyama, Tatsuya; Sumino, Shuuji; Miyajima, Eri; Fujimoto, Tsukasa

    2017-01-01

    Leuprorelin acetate, a luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone agonist, is used worldwide in premenopausal women with hormone receptor-positive breast cancer. This study was conducted to assess the non-inferiority of the 6-month depot formulation, TAP-144-SR (6M) 22.5 mg to the 3-month depot formulation, TAP-144-SR (3M) 11.25 mg in postoperative, premenopausal patients with hormone receptor-positive breast cancer. This was a 96-week phase III, randomized, open-label, parallel-group comparative study. All patients concomitantly received oral tamoxifen (20 mg daily). The primary endpoint was the suppression rate of serum estradiol (E2) to the menopausal level (≤30 pg/mL) from Week 4 through Week 48. In total, 167 patients were randomized to receive TAP-144-SR (6M) (n = 83) or TAP-144-SR (3M) (n = 84) and the E2 suppression rate was 97.6 and 96.4 %, respectively. The estimated between-group difference was 1.2 % (95 % confidence interval -5.2 to 7.8). The non-inferiority of TAP-144-SR (6M) to TAP-144-SR (3M) for E2 suppression was confirmed. As for safety, common adverse events were hot flush and injection site reactions including induration, pain, and erythema in both treatment groups, which were of ≤Grade 2 in severity and not serious. No significant between-group differences in safety profiles and tolerability were observed. TAP-144-SR (6M) was not inferior to TAP-144-SR (3M) for its suppressive effect on serum E2. TAP-144-SR (6M) was also as well tolerated as TAP-144-SR (3M).

  14. Open-Label Memantine in Fragile X Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erickson, Craig A.; Mullett, Jennifer E.; McDougle, Christopher J.

    2009-01-01

    Glutamatergic dysfunction is implicated in the pathophysiology of fragile X syndrome (FXS). The purpose of this pilot study was to examine the effectiveness and tolerability of memantine for a number of target symptoms associated with FXS. Medical records describing open-label treatment with memantine in 6 patients with FXS and a comorbid…

  15. Baclofen for binge eating: an open-label trial.

    PubMed

    Broft, Allegra I; Spanos, Alexia; Corwin, Rebecca L; Mayer, Laurel; Steinglass, Joanna; Devlin, Michael J; Attia, Evelyn; Walsh, B Timothy

    2007-12-01

    Baclofen is a GABA-B agonist that may be useful in the treatment of substance use disorders, and also reduces 'binge-like' eating in rodents. We hypothesized that baclofen might be effective in reducing binge eating episodes in binge eating disorder (BED) and bulimia nervosa (BN). Seven women with BED (n = 4) or BN (n = 3) took baclofen (60 mg/day) for 10 weeks. Six out of seven patients completed the full 10-week trial. Five out of seven participants (3 BED; 2 BN) demonstrated 50% or greater reduction of frequency of binge eating from beginning to end of the study. Three out of seven participants (2 BED; 1 BN) were free of binge eating at study end. Four out of seven participants elected to continue baclofen at study end. Baclofen was well tolerated by the participants. In this open-label trial, baclofen was associated with decreased binge eating frequency in patients with BED and BN. (c) 2007 by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Ethosuximide for Essential Tremor: An Open-Label Trial

    PubMed Central

    Gironell, Alexandre; Marin-Lahoz, Juan

    2016-01-01

    Background T-type calcium channel activation has been postulated to underlie rhythmicity in the olivo-cerebellar system that is implicated in ET. Ethosuximide reduces T-type calcium currents and can suppress tremor in two animal models of ET. We explored the effects of ethosuximide in subjects with ET in an open-label trial using both clinical scales and accelerometric recordings measures. We initially planned to conduct the trial with 15 patients, but due to lack of efficacy and a high incidence of adverse effects, the trial was stopped after seven patients had participated. Methods Seven patients diagnosed with ET were included in the study. The ethosuximide dose was 500 mg daily (BID). The main outcome measures were: 1) tremor clinical rating scale (TCRS) score, 2) accelerometric recordings, and 3) self-reported disability scale score. Results Five patients completed the study, and two dropped out due to adverse effects. There were no significant changes in clinical scores in motor task performance (TCRS 1+2), daily living activities (TCRS 3), or in the patients’ subjective assessment (TCRS 4) and global appraisal. There were no differences observed for accelerometry data or disability scale scores. Anxiety, nervousness, headache, and dizziness were reported by two patients while on ethosuximide, causing them to stop the trial. No patient preferred to continue ethosuximide treatment. Discussion The results of our exploratory study suggest that ethosuximide is not an effective treatment for ET. PMID:27625899

  17. Open-label escitalopram treatment for pathological skin picking.

    PubMed

    Keuthen, Nancy J; Jameson, Mariko; Loh, Rebecca; Deckersbach, Thilo; Wilhelm, Sabine; Dougherty, Darin D

    2007-09-01

    Pathological skin picking is characterized by dysfunctional, repetitive and excessive manipulation of the skin resulting in noticeable tissue damage. This study sought to assess the effectiveness of escitalopram in treating pathological skin picking. Twenty-nine individuals with pathological skin picking were enrolled in an 18-week, open-label trial of escitalopram. Study measures assessing skin picking severity and impact, anxiety, depression, and quality of life were given at baseline and weeks 2, 4, 6, 10, 14, and 18. The mean maximally tolerated dose was 25.0 mg (standard deviation=8.4). For the 19 study completers, pre-post-treatment analyses revealed significant improvements (P<0.05) on measures of skin picking severity and impact, quality of life, and self-rated anxiety and depression. Completer as well as intent-to-treat analyses indicated that approximately half of the sample satisfied full medication response criteria and one-quarter were partial medication responders. Correlational analyses indicated that changes in depression, anxiety, and quality of life co-occurred with reductions in skin picking severity but not impact. A high percentage of variance in severity, however, remained unexplained. These results suggest that escitalopram can be an effective agent in reducing pathological skin picking. The lack of medication response in a subset of our sample suggests the possibility of pathological skin picking subtypes.

  18. Tocotrienol Treatment in Familial Dysautonomia: Open-Label Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Cheishvili, David; Maayan, Channa; Holzer, Naama; Tsenter, Jeanna; Lax, Elad; Petropoulos, Sophie; Razin, Aharon

    2016-07-01

    Familial dysautonomia (FD) is an autosomal recessive congenital neuropathy, primarily presented in Ashkenazi Jews. The most common mutation in FD patients results from a single base pair substitution of an intronic splice site in the IKBKAP gene which disrupts normal mRNA splicing and leads to tissue-specific reduction of IKBKAP protein (IKAP). To date, treatment of FD patients remains preventative, symptomatic and supportive. Based on previous in vitro evidence that tocotrienols, members of the vitamin E family, upregulate transcription of the IKBKAP gene, we aimed to investigate whether a similar effects was observed in vivo. In the current study, we assessed the effects of tocotrienol treatment on FD patients' symptoms and IKBKAP expression in white blood cells. The initial daily doses of 50 or 100 mg tocotrienol, doubled after 3 months, was administered to 32 FD patients. Twenty-eight FD patients completed the 6-month study. The first 3 months of tocotrienol treatment was associated with a significant increase in IKBKAP expression level in FD patients' blood. Despite doubling the dose after the initial 3 months of treatment, IKBKAP expression level returned to baseline by the end of the 6-month treatment. Clinical improvement was noted in the reported clinical questionnaire (with regard to dizziness, bloching, sweating, number of pneumonia, cough episodes, and walking stability), however, no significant effect was observed in any clinical measurements (weight, height, oxygen saturation, blood pressure, tear production, histamine test, vibration threshold test, nerve conduction, and heart rate variability) following Tocotrienol treatment. In conclusion, tocotrienol treatment appears significantly beneficial by clinical evaluation for some FD patients in a few clinical parameters; however it was not significant by clinical measurements. This open-label study shows the complexity of effect of tocotrienol treatment on FD patients' clinical outcomes and on

  19. Open-label extension studies: do they provide meaningful information on the safety of new drugs?

    PubMed

    Day, Richard O; Williams, Kenneth M

    2007-01-01

    The number of open-label extension studies being performed has increased enormously in recent years. Often it is difficult to differentiate between these extension studies and the double-blind, controlled studies that preceded them. If undertaken primarily to gather more patient-years of exposure to the new drug in order to understand and gain confidence in its safety profile, open-label extension studies can play a useful and legitimate role in drug development and therapeutics. However, this can only occur if the open-label extension study is designed, executed, analysed and reported competently. Most of the value accrued in open-label extension studies is gained from a refinement in the perception of the expected incidence of adverse effects that have most likely already been identified as part of the preclinical and clinical trial programme. We still have to rely heavily on post-marketing safety surveillance systems to alert us to type B (unpredictable) adverse reactions because open-label extension studies are unlikely to provide useful information about these types of often serious and relatively rare adverse reactions. Random allocation into test and control groups is needed to produce precise incidence data on pharmacologically expected, or type A, adverse effects. Some increased confidence about incidence rates might result from the open-label extension study; however, as these studies are essentially uncontrolled and biased, the data are not of great value. Other benefits have been proposed to be gained from open-label extension studies. These include ongoing access to an effective but otherwise unobtainable medicine by the volunteers who participated in the phase III pivotal trials. However, there are unappreciated ethical issues about the appropriateness of enrolling patients whose response to previous treatment is uncertain, largely because treatment allocation in the preceding randomised, double-blind, controlled trial has not been revealed at the

  20. An Open-Label Trial of Escitalopram in Pervasive Developmental Disorders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owley, Thomas; Walton, Laura; Salt, Jeff; Guter, Stephen J., Jr.; Winnega, Marrea; Leventhal, Bennett L.; Cook, Edwin H., Jr.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To assess the effect of escitalopram in the treatment of pervasive developmental disorders (PDDs). Method: This 10-week study had a forced titration, open-label design. Twenty-eight subjects (mean age 125.1 [+ or -] 33.5 months) with a PDD received escitalopram at a dose that increased weekly to a maximum dose of 20 mg as tolerated. The…

  1. Open-Label Trial of Atomoxetine Hydrochloride in Adults with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Mats; Cederlund, Mats; Rastam, Maria; Areskoug, Bjorn; Gillberg, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    Background: While atomoxetine is an established treatment for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in children, few studies have examined its efficacy for adults. Methods: Open-label trial of atomoxetine in 20 individuals with ADHD, aged 19-47 years, for 10 weeks, and a total of one year for responders. Results: Ten patients met primary…

  2. An Open-Label Trial of Escitalopram in Pervasive Developmental Disorders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owley, Thomas; Walton, Laura; Salt, Jeff; Guter, Stephen J., Jr.; Winnega, Marrea; Leventhal, Bennett L.; Cook, Edwin H., Jr.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To assess the effect of escitalopram in the treatment of pervasive developmental disorders (PDDs). Method: This 10-week study had a forced titration, open-label design. Twenty-eight subjects (mean age 125.1 [+ or -] 33.5 months) with a PDD received escitalopram at a dose that increased weekly to a maximum dose of 20 mg as tolerated. The…

  3. Methylphenidate Transdermal System in Adults with Past Stimulant Misuse: An Open-Label Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McRae-Clark, Aimee L.; Brady, Kathleen T.; Hartwell, Karen J.; White, Kathleen; Carter, Rickey E.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This 8-week, open-label trial assessed the efficacy of methylphenidate transdermal system (MTS) in 14 adult individuals diagnosed with ADHD and with a history of stimulant misuse, abuse, or dependence. Method: The primary efficacy endpoint was the Wender-Reimherr Adult ADHD Scale (WRAADS), and secondary efficacy endpoints included the…

  4. STX209 (Arbaclofen) for Autism Spectrum Disorders: An 8-Week Open-Label Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erickson, Craig A.; Veenstra-Vanderweele, Jeremy M.; Melmed, Raun D.; McCracken, James T.; Ginsberg, Lawrence D.; Sikich, Linmarie; Scahill, Lawrence; Cherubini, Maryann; Zarevics, Peter; Walton-Bowen, Karen; Carpenter, Randall L.; Bear, Mark F.; Wang, Paul P.; King, Bryan H.

    2014-01-01

    STX209 (arbaclofen), a selective GABA-B agonist, is hypothesized to modulate the balance of excitatory to inhibitory neurotransmission, and has shown preliminary evidence of benefit in fragile X syndrome. We evaluated its safety, tolerability, and efficacy in non-syndromic autism spectrum disorders, in an 8-week open-label trial enrolling 32…

  5. Open-Label, Prospective Trial of Olanzapine in Adolescents with Subaverage Intelligence and Disruptive Behavioral Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Handen, Benjamin L.; Hardan, Antonio Y.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: Olanzapine, an atypical antipsychotic, has been shown to be efficacious for treatment of psychotic and mood disorders in adults. This prospective, open-label study was conducted to examine the safety and usefulness of olanzapine in treating disruptive behavior disorders in adolescents with subaverage intelligence. Method: Sixteen…

  6. Open-Label, Prospective Trial of Olanzapine in Adolescents with Subaverage Intelligence and Disruptive Behavioral Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Handen, Benjamin L.; Hardan, Antonio Y.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: Olanzapine, an atypical antipsychotic, has been shown to be efficacious for treatment of psychotic and mood disorders in adults. This prospective, open-label study was conducted to examine the safety and usefulness of olanzapine in treating disruptive behavior disorders in adolescents with subaverage intelligence. Method: Sixteen…

  7. Open-Label Trial of Atomoxetine Hydrochloride in Adults with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Mats; Cederlund, Mats; Rastam, Maria; Areskoug, Bjorn; Gillberg, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    Background: While atomoxetine is an established treatment for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in children, few studies have examined its efficacy for adults. Methods: Open-label trial of atomoxetine in 20 individuals with ADHD, aged 19-47 years, for 10 weeks, and a total of one year for responders. Results: Ten patients met primary…

  8. STX209 (Arbaclofen) for Autism Spectrum Disorders: An 8-Week Open-Label Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erickson, Craig A.; Veenstra-Vanderweele, Jeremy M.; Melmed, Raun D.; McCracken, James T.; Ginsberg, Lawrence D.; Sikich, Linmarie; Scahill, Lawrence; Cherubini, Maryann; Zarevics, Peter; Walton-Bowen, Karen; Carpenter, Randall L.; Bear, Mark F.; Wang, Paul P.; King, Bryan H.

    2014-01-01

    STX209 (arbaclofen), a selective GABA-B agonist, is hypothesized to modulate the balance of excitatory to inhibitory neurotransmission, and has shown preliminary evidence of benefit in fragile X syndrome. We evaluated its safety, tolerability, and efficacy in non-syndromic autism spectrum disorders, in an 8-week open-label trial enrolling 32…

  9. Methylphenidate Transdermal System in Adults with Past Stimulant Misuse: An Open-Label Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McRae-Clark, Aimee L.; Brady, Kathleen T.; Hartwell, Karen J.; White, Kathleen; Carter, Rickey E.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This 8-week, open-label trial assessed the efficacy of methylphenidate transdermal system (MTS) in 14 adult individuals diagnosed with ADHD and with a history of stimulant misuse, abuse, or dependence. Method: The primary efficacy endpoint was the Wender-Reimherr Adult ADHD Scale (WRAADS), and secondary efficacy endpoints included the…

  10. A 10-Month, Open-Label Evaluation of Desvenlafaxine in Outpatients With Major Depressive Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Pitrosky, Bruno; Padmanabhan, S. Krishna; Rosas, Gregory R.

    2011-01-01

    Background: The primary objective was to evaluate the long-term safety of desvenlafaxine (administered as desvenlafaxine succinate) during open-label treatment in adult outpatients with a primary DSM-IV diagnosis of major depressive disorder (MDD). Method: Depressed adult outpatients (≥ 18 years) who had completed 8-week, double-blind therapy (desvenlafaxine, venlafaxine extended release, or placebo) in a phase 3 study of desvenlafaxine for MDD received up to 10 months of open-label treatment with flexible-dose desvenlafaxine (200 to 400 mg/d). Safety assessments included physical examination, measurement of weight and vital signs, laboratory determinations, and 12-lead electrocardiogram recordings. Adverse events (AEs) and discontinuations due to AEs were monitored throughout the trial. The primary efficacy outcome was mean change from baseline on 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS-17) total score. The trial was conducted from August 2003 to March 2006. Results: The safety population included 1,395 patients who took at least 1 dose of open-label desvenlafaxine. Treatment-emergent AEs were reported by 1,238 of 1,395 patients (89%) during the open-label, on-therapy period. Treatment-emergent AEs reported by 10% or more patients were headache, nausea, hyperhidrosis, dizziness, dry mouth, insomnia, upper respiratory infection, nasopharyngitis, and fatigue. Adverse events were the primary reason for study discontinuation in 296 of 1,395 patients (21%). Ten patients (< 1%) had serious AEs that were considered possibly, probably, or definitely related to the study drug during the on-therapy period. No deaths occurred during the study. Conclusions: Desvenlafaxine can be safely administered for up to 12 months. No new safety findings were observed in this study. Trial Registration: clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT01309542 PMID:21977353

  11. The Effects of Levetiracetam on Alcohol Consumption in Alcohol-Dependent Subjects: An Open Label Study

    PubMed Central

    Sarid-Segal, Ofra; Piechniczek-Buczek, Joanna; Knapp, Clifford; Afshar, Maryam; Devine, Eric; Sickles, Laurie; Uwodukunda, Emma; Richambault, Courtney; Koplow, Jillian; Ciraulo, Domenic

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this open-label pilot study was to assess the efficacy and safety of the novel anticonvulsant agent, levetiracetam, for the treatment of alcohol dependence. A maximal dose of 2000 mg was administered daily for 10 weeks to alcohol dependent subjects (n = 20). Mean reported ethanol intake declined significantly from 5.3 to 1.7 standard drinks per day. Levetiracetam was well tolerated by most subjects. PMID:18584574

  12. Role of ranitidine in negative symptoms of schizophrenia--an open label study.

    PubMed

    Mehta, Varun S; Ram, Daya

    2014-12-01

    In this open label study, 75 patients with a diagnosis of schizophrenia were randomized to three groups of 25 each, receiving 150mg/day ranitidine, 300mg/day ranitidine and receiving only olanzapine. They were rated on PANSS at baseline, 4 and 8 weeks. There was a significant reduction in the scores of negative scale in patients receiving 300mg/day ranitidine in comparison to patients not receiving ranitidine at the end of 4 weeks but was not seen again when assessed at the end of 8 weeks. Though effective in reducing the negative symptoms, the effect was not sustained due to the tolerance to the actions of ranitidine.

  13. An Open-Labeled Trial of Ramelteon in Idiopathic Rapid Eye Movement Sleep Behavior Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Esaki, Yuichi; Kitajima, Tsuyoshi; Koike, Shigefumi; Fujishiro, Hiroshige; Iwata, Yasuyo; Tsuchiya, Akiko; Hirose, Marina; Iwata, Nakao

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder (RBD) is a parasomnia characterized by REM sleep without atonia and elaborate motor activity in association with dream mentation. The melatonin receptor agonist ramelteon has been documented as being effective in two patients with secondary RBD. However, there are no reports on ramelteon treatment for idiopathic RBD. Methods: In an open-labeled trial, we treated 12 consecutive patients with idiopathic RBD for at least 4 w with 8 mg ramelteon given within 30 min before bedtime. Results: Ramelteon treatment did not have a clear effect on REM sleep without atonia or an RBD severity scale measured by video-supported polysomnography. However, clinical assessment using a visual analog scale showed a trend toward significance and there were also definitely positive changes in some individual cases. Ramelteon was well tolerated in most patients, with minor side effects. Conclusions: Considering that ramelteon is associated with few side effects, further study may ascertain whether patients with RBD could be effectively treated by ramelteon, especially when clonazepam may not be suitable due to its side effects. Commentary: A commentary on this article appears in this issue on page 643. Citation: Esaki Y, Kitajima T, Koike S, Fujishiro H, Iwata Y, Tsuchiya A, Hirose M, Iwata N. An open-labeled trial of ramelteon in idiopathic rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder. J Clin Sleep Med 2016;12(5):689–693. PMID:26857053

  14. Adjunctive rufinamide in Lennox-Gastaut syndrome: a long-term, open-label extension study.

    PubMed

    Kluger, G; Glauser, T; Krauss, G; Seeruthun, R; Perdomo, C; Arroyo, S

    2010-09-01

    This open-label extension evaluated the long-term efficacy and tolerability of rufinamide in patients with Lennox-Gastaut syndrome (LGS) who had previously completed a 12-week double-blind study. In total, 124 patients (aged 4-37 years), receiving 1-3 concomitant antiepileptic drugs, were treated with rufinamide approximately 25-60 mg/kg/day. Efficacy was assessed by seizure frequency; tolerability by adverse events (AEs) and laboratory tests. Overall, patients were treated with rufinamide for a median (range) of 432 (10-1149) days. Reductions in seizure frequency were observed throughout the study; during the last 12 months of treatment, 41.0% and 47.9% of patients had > or = 50% reduction in total and tonic-atonic seizure frequency, respectively. The most common AEs were vomiting (30.6%) and pyrexia (25.8%). In this open-label extension, rufinamide appeared to be an effective long-term adjunctive therapy for the treatment of LGS-associated seizures in children and young adults.

  15. Effect of zolpidem in chronic disorders of consciousness: a prospective open-label study.

    PubMed

    Thonnard, Marie; Gosseries, Olivia; Demertzi, Athena; Lugo, Zulay; Vanhaudenhuyse, Audrey; Bruno, Marie-Aurélie; Chatelle, Camille; Thibaut, Aurore; Charland-Verville, Vanessa; Habbal, Dina; Schnakers, Caroline; Laureys, Steven

    2013-01-01

    Zolpidem has been reported as an "awakening drug" in some patients with disorders of consciousness (DOC). We here present the results of a prospective openlabel study in chronic DOC patients. Sixty patients (35±15 years; 18 females; mean time since insult ± SD: 4±5.5 years; 31 with traumatic etiology) with a diagnosis of vegetative state/unresponsive wakefulness syndrome (n=28) or minimally conscious state (n=32) were behaviorally assessed using the Coma Recovery Scale-Revised (CRS-R) before and one hour after administration of 10 mg of zolpidem. At the group level, the diagnosis did not change after intake of zolpidem (p=0.10) and CRS-R total scores decreased (p=0.01). Twelve patients (20%) showed improved behaviors and/or CRS-R total scores after zolpidem administration but in only one patient was the diagnosis after zolpidem intake found to show a significant improvement (functional object use), which suggested a change of diagnosis. However, in this patient, a double-blind placebo-controlled trial was performed in order to better specify the effects of zolpidem, but the patient, on this trial, failed to show any clinical improvements. The present open-label study therefore failed to show any clinically significant improvement (i.e., change of Effect of zolpidem in chronic disorders of consciousness: a prospective open-label study diagnosis) in any of the 60 studied chronic DOC patients.

  16. Bupropion treatment of olanzapine-associated weight gain: an open-label, prospective trial.

    PubMed

    Gadde, Kishore M; Zhang, Wei; Foust, Mariko S

    2006-08-01

    To examine the effectiveness of bupropion in reducing bodyweight gained during treatment with olanzapine. Eight subjects, who received olanzapine for an average duration of 26 months and had gained an average of 13.3 kg bodyweight, participated in a 24-week study in which they received open-label bupropion 150-300 mg/d while continuing olanzapine. The subjects were also provided low-key nutritional counseling. Change in bodyweight was the primary outcome of interest. Changes in fasting blood glucose and lipids were also examined in addition to changes in body composition and bone mineral density. Seven subjects completed the full 24-week study treatment. In the intent-to-treat sample, mean [SE] bodyweight decreased significantly over time (99.6 [5.9] kg to 96.2 [5.8] kg; F = 4.0; P < 0.001); average weight change for the eight subjects was -3.4 kg. Four of eight subjects lost > or =3% bodyweight. There was a significant reduction in total cholesterol. Weight loss did not have a negative effect on bone mineral density. Side effects were generally mild. Bupropion combined with a low-key dietary intervention appeared to be beneficial in reducing olanzapine-associated weight gain in some subjects in this open-label study.

  17. A randomized, open-label pilot comparison of gabapentin and bupropion SR for smoking cessation.

    PubMed

    White, William D; Crockford, David; Patten, Scott; El-Guebaly, Nady

    2005-10-01

    This 6-week, randomized, open-label pilot study estimated the treatment effect size of gabapentin (n = 17) compared with bupropion SR (n = 19) for smoking cessation, thereby allowing sample size calculations for a definitive comparison study. The primary outcome measure was smoking cessation. Secondary outcome measures included smoking reduction and withdrawal severity. Gabapentin was less efficacious than bupropion for smoking cessation but was associated with fewer dropouts from adverse effects. Withdrawal severity was less with bupropion. Bupropion remains the first-line non-nicotine pharmacotherapy for smoking cessation. Further study is required to determine if gabapentin has any useful role in smoking cessation. Based on our primary outcome measure, 79 subjects would be required in each treatment group of a two-armed study to achieve 90% power for detecting a difference in efficacy between gabapentin and bupropion.

  18. An open-label naturalistic pilot study of acamprosate in youth with autistic disorder.

    PubMed

    Erickson, Craig A; Early, Maureen; Stigler, Kimberly A; Wink, Logan K; Mullett, Jennifer E; McDougle, Christopher J

    2011-12-01

    To date, placebo-controlled drug trials targeting the core social impairment of autistic disorder (autism) have had uniformly negative results. Given this, the search for new potentially novel agents targeting the core social impairment of autism continues. Acamprosate is U.S. Food and Drug Administration-approved drug to treat alcohol dependence. The drug likely impacts both gamma-aminobutyric acid and glutamate neurotransmission. This study describes our initial open-label experience with acamprosate targeting social impairment in youth with autism. In this naturalistic report, five of six youth (mean age, 9.5 years) were judged treatment responders to acamprosate (mean dose 1,110 mg/day) over 10 to 30 weeks (mean duration, 20 weeks) of treatment. Acamprosate was well tolerated with only mild gastrointestinal adverse effects noted in three (50%) subjects.

  19. An Open-Label Naturalistic Pilot Study of Acamprosate in Youth with Autistic Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Early, Maureen; Stigler, Kimberly A.; Wink, Logan K.; Mullett, Jennifer E.; McDougle, Christopher J.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract To date, placebo-controlled drug trials targeting the core social impairment of autistic disorder (autism) have had uniformly negative results. Given this, the search for new potentially novel agents targeting the core social impairment of autism continues. Acamprosate is U.S. Food and Drug Administration–approved drug to treat alcohol dependence. The drug likely impacts both gamma-aminobutyric acid and glutamate neurotransmission. This study describes our initial open-label experience with acamprosate targeting social impairment in youth with autism. In this naturalistic report, five of six youth (mean age, 9.5 years) were judged treatment responders to acamprosate (mean dose 1,110 mg/day) over 10 to 30 weeks (mean duration, 20 weeks) of treatment. Acamprosate was well tolerated with only mild gastrointestinal adverse effects noted in three (50%) subjects. PMID:22136091

  20. A pilot open-label trial of zonisamide in Unverricht-Lundborg disease.

    PubMed

    Italiano, Domenico; Pezzella, Marianna; Coppola, Antonietta; Magaudda, Adriana; Ferlazzo, Edoardo; Bramanti, Placido; Striano, Salvatore; Zara, Federico; Striano, Pasquale

    2011-02-01

    Action myoclonus frequently remains the primary cause of disability in Unverricht-Lundborg disease (EPM1) patients. Pharmacological treatment of myoclonus in these patients continues to be challenging; indeed conventional AEDs may be poorly effective in monotherapy or even in combination. We carried out a pilot, open-label trial of add-on zonisamide (ZNS) in patients with EPM1. Twelve EPM1 patients with epilepsy and action myoclonus were included in the study. Oral ZNS was gradually titrated until the target dose of 6 mg/Kg/day. Unified Myoclonus Rating Scale was obtained in each subject before and after ZNS add-on. A significant reduction of myoclonus severity was reached after ZNS introduction. ZNS was generally well tolerated and only two patients withdrew due to mild adverse effects. Our trial suggests that ZNS may be a valuable therapeutic option in EPM1 patients.

  1. Pimecrolimus 1% cream in the treatment of facial psoriasis: a 16-week open-label study.

    PubMed

    Jacobi, Arnd; Braeutigam, Matthias; Mahler, Vera; Schultz, Erwin; Hertl, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Facial psoriasis requires a treatment approach other than topical corticosteroids which bear the risk of skin atrophy. Topical pimecrolimus has been shown to be effective in atopic eczema and recently in psoriasis. The aim of this open-label single-center investigator-initiated study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of pimecrolimus 1% cream in patients with facial psoriasis. 20 adults with facial psoriasis were enrolled. Pimecrolimus 1% cream was applied twice daily to psoriatic lesions of the face over an 8-week period. An 8-week follow-up was added. All clinical parameters showed a significant improvement after 8 and 16 weeks compared to baseline. Pimecrolimus 1% cream was effective and well tolerated. This is the first clinical study with a larger patient cohort reporting a relevant therapeutic effect and favorable safety profile of pimecrolimus 1% cream in facial psoriasis. (c) 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. Intraoral electrostimulator for xerostomia relief: a long-term, multicenter, open-label, uncontrolled, clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Alajbeg, Ivan; Falcão, Denise P; Tran, Simon D; Martín-Granizo, Rafael; Lafaurie, Gloria I; Matranga, Domenica; Pejda, Slavica; Vuletić, Lea; Mantilla, Rubén; Leal, Soraya C; Bezerra, Ana C Barreto; Ménard, Henri A; Kimoto, Suguru; Pan, Shaoxia; Maniegas, Lourdes; Krushinski, Cheryl A; Melilli, Dario; Campisi, Giuseppina; Paderni, Carlo; Mendoza, Gloria R Bautista; Yepes, Juan F; Lindh, Liselott; Koray, Meltem; Mumcu, Gonca; Elad, Sharon; Zeevi, Itai; Barrios, Beatriz C Aldape; López Sánchez, Rodrigo M; Lassauzay, Claire; Fromentin, Olivier; Beiski, Ben Z; Strietzel, Frank P; Konttinen, Yrjö T; Wolff, Andy; Zunt, Susan L

    2012-06-01

    A previous sham-controlled multinational study demonstrated the short-term efficacy and safety for xerostomia treatment of an intraoral device that delivers electrostimulation to the lingual nerve. The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that those beneficial effects would be sustained over an 11-month period. The device was tested on a mixed sample of 94 patients with xerostomia in an open-label, uncontrolled, prospective multicenter trial. Statutory outcome assessments were done at 5th, 8th, and 11th months and analyzed by multiple comparisons. Improvements achieved at month 5 from baseline were sustained throughout the follow-up period for the primary outcome, xerostomia severity, and the secondary outcomes resting whole salivary flow rate, xerostomia frequency, oral discomfort, and difficulties in speech, swallowing, and sleeping. No significant side effects were detected. The beneficial effects of a removable intraoral electrostimulating device were sustained for an 11-month period. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Laserlight cues for gait freezing in Parkinson's disease: an open-label study.

    PubMed

    Donovan, S; Lim, C; Diaz, N; Browner, N; Rose, P; Sudarsky, L R; Tarsy, D; Fahn, S; Simon, D K

    2011-05-01

    Freezing of gait (FOG) and falls are major sources of disability for Parkinson's disease (PD) patients, and show limited responsiveness to medications. We assessed the efficacy of visual cues for overcoming FOG in an open-label study of 26 patients with PD. The change in the frequency of falls was a secondary outcome measure. Subjects underwent a 1-2 month baseline period of use of a cane or walker without visual cues, followed by 1 month using the same device with the laserlight visual cue. The laserlight visual cue was associated with a modest but significant mean reduction in FOG Questionnaire (FOGQ) scores of 1.25 ± 0.48 (p = 0.0152, two-tailed paired t-test), representing a 6.6% improvement compared to the mean baseline FOGQ scores of 18.8. The mean reduction in fall frequency was 39.5 ± 9.3% with the laserlight visual cue among subjects experiencing at least one fall during the baseline and subsequent study periods (p = 0.002; two-tailed one-sample t-test with hypothesized mean of 0). Though some individual subjects may have benefited, the overall mean performance on the timed gait test (TGT) across all subjects did not significantly change. However, among the 4 subjects who underwent repeated testing of the TGT, one showed a 50% mean improvement in TGT performance with the laserlight visual cue (p = 0.005; two-tailed paired t-test). This open-label study provides evidence for modest efficacy of a laserlight visual cue in overcoming FOG and reducing falls in PD patients. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Open-label placebo treatment in chronic low back pain: a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Carvalho, Cláudia; Caetano, Joaquim Machado; Cunha, Lidia; Rebouta, Paula; Kaptchuk, Ted J.; Kirsch, Irving

    2016-01-01

    Abstract This randomized controlled trial was performed to investigate whether placebo effects in chronic low back pain could be harnessed ethically by adding open-label placebo (OLP) treatment to treatment as usual (TAU) for 3 weeks. Pain severity was assessed on three 0- to 10-point Numeric Rating Scales, scoring maximum pain, minimum pain, and usual pain, and a composite, primary outcome, total pain score. Our other primary outcome was back-related dysfunction, assessed on the Roland–Morris Disability Questionnaire. In an exploratory follow-up, participants on TAU received placebo pills for 3 additional weeks. We randomized 97 adults reporting persistent low back pain for more than 3 months' duration and diagnosed by a board-certified pain specialist. Eighty-three adults completed the trial. Compared to TAU, OLP elicited greater pain reduction on each of the three 0- to 10-point Numeric Rating Scales and on the 0- to 10-point composite pain scale (P < 0.001), with moderate to large effect sizes. Pain reduction on the composite Numeric Rating Scales was 1.5 (95% confidence interval: 1.0-2.0) in the OLP group and 0.2 (−0.3 to 0.8) in the TAU group. Open-label placebo treatment also reduced disability compared to TAU (P < 0.001), with a large effect size. Improvement in disability scores was 2.9 (1.7-4.0) in the OLP group and 0.0 (−1.1 to 1.2) in the TAU group. After being switched to OLP, the TAU group showed significant reductions in both pain (1.5, 0.8-2.3) and disability (3.4, 2.2-4.5). Our findings suggest that OLP pills presented in a positive context may be helpful in chronic low back pain. PMID:27755279

  5. Omega-3 eicosapentaenoic acid in bipolar depression: report of a small open-label study.

    PubMed

    Osher, Yamima; Bersudsky, Yuly; Belmaker, R H

    2005-06-01

    Epidemiologic studies have suggested that consumption of cold water fish oils may have some protective function against depression. This proposition is supported by a series of biochemical and pharmacologic studies that have suggested that fatty acids may modulate neurotransmitter metabolism and cell signal trans-duction in humans and that abnormalities in fatty acid and eicosanoid metabolism may play a causal role in depression. Aware of the critical need for antidepression treatments that might not carry the risk of precipitating a manic episode in bipolar patients, we decided to conduct an open-label add-on trial of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) in bipolar depression. Twelve bipolar I outpatients with depressive symptoms diagnosed by DSM-IV were treated with 1.5 to 2 g/day of the omega-3 fatty acid EPA for up to 6 months. The study was conducted between September 2001 and January 2003. Eight of the 10 patients who completed at least 1 month of follow-up achieved a 50% or greater reduction in Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression scores within 1 month. No patients developed hypomania or manic symptoms. No significant side effects were reported. This study is limited both by the open-label design and by the small sample size. As in all previous reported studies, patients in this study were treated in an outpatient setting, so that the most severely depressed bipolar patients (requiring hospitalization) are not represented. Although the ultimate utility of omega-3 fatty acids in bipolar depression is still an open question, we believe that these initial results are encouraging, especially for mild to moderate bipolar depression, and justify the continuing exploration of its use.

  6. Are open-Label Placebos Ethical? Informed Consent and Ethical Equivocations.

    PubMed

    Blease, Charlotte; Colloca, Luana; Kaptchuk, Ted J

    2016-07-01

    The doctor-patient relationship is built on an implicit covenant of trust, yet it was not until the post-World War Two era that respect for patient autonomy emerged as an article of mainstream medical ethics. Unlike their medical forebears, physicians today are expected to furnish patients with adequate information about diagnoses, prognoses and treatments. Against these dicta there has been ongoing debate over whether placebos pose a threat to patient autonomy. A key premise underlying medical ethics discussion is the notion that the placebo effect necessitates patient deception. Indeed, the American Medical Association guidelines imply that placebo treatment necessary entails a form of deception. As a consequence of this assumption, the fulcrum of debate on the use of placebo treatment has hinged on whether that deception is ever justified. Recently performed experiments with open-label transparently prescribed placebos have begun to challenge the notion that deception is necessary in eliciting the placebo effect and such effects necessarily involve a binary distinction between autonomy and beneficence. In this article we focus on the content of disclosures in distinctive open-label, transparently disclosed placebo studies and inquire whether they might be said to invoke deception in clinical contexts, and if so, whether the deception is unethical. We find that open placebos may be said to involve equivocation over how placebos work. However, drawing on surveys of patient attitudes we suggest that this equivocation appears to be acceptable to patients. We conclude that open placebos fulfil current American Medical Association guidelines for placebo use, and propose future research directions for harnessing the placebo effect ethically. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. ARE OPEN-LABEL PLACEBOS ETHICAL? INFORMED CONSENT AND ETHICAL EQUIVOCATIONS

    PubMed Central

    Blease, Charlotte; Colloca, Luana; Kaptchuk, Ted J

    2016-01-01

    The doctor-patient relationship is built on an implicit covenant of trust yet it was not until the post-World War Two era that respect for patient autonomy emerged as an article of mainstream medical ethics. Unlike their medical forebearers physicians today are expected to furnish patients with adequate information about diagnoses, prognoses and treatments. Against these dicta there has been ongoing debate over whether placebos pose a threat to patient autonomy. A key premise underlying medical ethics discussion is the notion that the placebo effect necessitates patient deception. Indeed, the American Medical Association guidelines imply that placebo treatment necessary entails a form of deception. As a consequence of this assumption, the fulcrum of debate on the use of placebo treatment has hinged on whether that deception is ever justified.. Recently performed experiments with open-label transparently prescribed placebos have begun to challenge the notion that deception is necessary in eliciting the placebo effect AND SUCH EFFECTS NECESSARILY INVOLVE A BINARY DISTIINCTION BETWEEN AUTONOMY AND BENEFICIENCE. In this paper we focus on the content of disclosures in distinctive open-label, transparently disclosed placebo studies and inquire whether they might be said to invoke deception in clinical contexts, and if so, whether the deception is unethical. We find that open placebos may be said to involve equivocation over how placebos work. However, drawing on surveys of patient attitudes we suggest that this equivocation appears to be acceptable to patients. We conclude that open placebos fulfil current American Medical Association guidelines for placebo use, and propose future research directions for harnessing the placebo effect ethically. PMID:26840547

  8. Design, objectives, execution and reporting of published open-label extension studies.

    PubMed

    Megan, Bowers; Pickering, Ruth M; Weatherall, Mark

    2012-04-01

    Open-label extension (OLE) studies following blinded randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of pharmaceuticals are increasingly being carried out but do not conform to regulatory standards and questions surround the validity of their evidence. OLE studies are usually discussed as a homogenous group, yet substantial differences in study design still meet the definition of an OLE. We describe published papers reporting OLE studies focussing on stated objectives, design, conduct and reporting. A search of Embase and Medline databases for 1996 to July 2008 revealed 268 papers reporting OLE studies that met our eligibility criteria. A random sample of 50 was selected for detailed review. Over 80% of the studies had efficacy stated as an objective. The most common methods of allocation at the start of the OLE were for all RCT participants to switch to one active treatment or for only participants on the new drug to continue, but in three studies all participants were re-randomized at the start of the OLE. Eligibility criteria and other selection factors resulted in on average of 74% of participants in the preceding RCT(s) enrolling in the OLE and only 57% completed it. Published OLE studies do not form a homogenous group with respect to design or retention of participants, and thus the validity of evidence from an OLE should be judged on an individual basis. The term 'open label' suggests bias through lack of blinding, but slippage in relation to the sample randomized in the preceding RCT may be the more important threat to validity. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  9. Erenumab (AMG 334) in episodic migraine: Interim analysis of an ongoing open-label study.

    PubMed

    Ashina, Messoud; Dodick, David; Goadsby, Peter J; Reuter, Uwe; Silberstein, Stephen; Zhang, Feng; Gage, Julia R; Cheng, Sunfa; Mikol, Daniel D; Lenz, Robert A

    2017-09-19

    To assess long-term safety and efficacy of anti-calcitonin gene-related peptide receptor erenumab in patients with episodic migraine (EM). Patients enrolled in a 12-week, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial (NCT01952574) who continued in an open-label extension (OLE) study will receive erenumab 70 mg every 4 weeks for up to 5 years. This preplanned interim analysis, conducted after all participants had completed the 1-year open-label follow-up, evaluated changes in monthly migraine days (MMD), achievement of ≥50%, ≥75%, and 100% reductions, Headache Impact Test (HIT-6) score, Migraine-Specific Quality of Life (MSQ), Migraine Disability Assessment (MIDAS), and safety. Data reported as observed without imputation for missing data. Of 472 patients enrolled in the parent study, 383 continued in the OLE with a median exposure to erenumab of 575 days (range 28-822 days). Mean (SD) MMD were 8.8 (2.6) at parent study baseline, 6.3 (4.2) at week 12 (beginning of OLE), and 3.7 (4.0) at week 64 (mean change from baseline [reduction] of 5.0 days). At week 64, 65%, 42%, and 26% achieved ≥50%, ≥75%, and 100% reduction in MMD, respectively. Mean HIT-6 scores were 60.2 (6.3) at baseline and 51.7 (9.2) at week 64. MSQ and MIDAS improvements from baseline were maintained through week 64. Safety profiles during the OLE were similar to those in the double-blind phase, which overall were similar to placebo. One-year efficacy, supported by functional improvements and favorable safety and tolerability profiles, supports further investigation of erenumab as a preventive treatment in patients with EM. NCT01952574. This study provides Class IV evidence that for patients with episodic migraine, erenumab reduces long-term MMD and improves headache-related disability and migraine-specific quality of life. © 2017 American Academy of Neurology.

  10. Risperidone in children and adolescents with conduct disorder: a single-center, open-label study.

    PubMed

    Ercan, Eyüp Sabri; Kutlu, Ayşe; Cıkoğlu, Sibel; Veznedaroğlu, Baybars; Erermiş, Serpil; Varan, Azmi

    2003-01-01

    Risperidone is one of the most commonly used atypical antipsychotic drugs in the treatment of children and adolescents. However, the data about its use in children and adolescents with conduct disorder (CD) are limited. The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness and tolerability of risperidone in controlling major symptoms of CD in children and adolescents diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), and severe CD. Children and adolescents were eligible for this single-center, open-label study if they met the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV) diagnostic criteria for ADHD and ODD and also were diagnosed with severe CD. The patients were treated with risperidone in an open-label fashion for 8 weeks, starting at a daily dosage of 0.25 mg or 0.5 mg (depending on their body weight) in 2 divided doses. The study population comprised 21 children and adolescents (17 boys, 4 girls) with a mean (SD) age of 10.8 (3.6) years. The mean (SD) dosage of risperidone at the end of 8 weeks of treatment was 1.27 (0.42) mg/d (range, 0.75-2.0 mg/d). On the basis of the global improvement subscale of the Clinical Global Impression scale, 16 of 20 patients (80%) were classified as responders. Significant improvements were observed after risperidone treatment in the inattention, hyperactivity/impulsivity, ODD, and CD subscales of the Turgay DSM-IV-Based Child and Adolescent Behavior Disorders Screening and Rating Scale (parent and teacher forms). No severe adverse events were reported. The results of this study are consistent with previous findings and suggest that risperidone may be an effective and well-tolerated atypical antipsychotic drug for the treatment of children and adolescents with CD. However, further studies, particularly placebo-controlled and double-blinded, are needed to better define the clinical use of risperidone in children and adolescents with CD.

  11. Armodafinil for fatigue associated with menopause: an open-label trial.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Fremonta; Freeman, Marlene P; Petrillo, Laura; Barsky, Maria; Galvan, Thania; Kim, Semmie; Cohen, Lee; Joffe, Hadine

    2016-02-01

    This study aims to obtain preliminary data on the efficacy of armodafinil for improving menopause-related fatigue and quality of life. Women (aged 40-65 y) experiencing menopause-related fatigue received open-label armodafinil therapy (up to 150 mg/d) for 4 weeks. Changes from baseline in Brief Fatigue Inventory score and Menopause-Specific Quality of Life (MENQOL) physical domain score were examined using the Wilcoxon signed rank test. Exploratory analyses examined the effects of armodafinil on hot flashes, overall quality of life, insomnia, depression, anxiety, and perceived cognitive performance. After open-label treatment, participants were randomized to double-blind continuation of armodafinil versus placebo for 2 weeks to examine whether treatment discontinuation would precipitate symptom recurrence. Of 29 eligible participants, 20 women (69.0%) completed the trial. During treatment with armodafinil (mean dose, 120 mg/d), median Brief Fatigue Inventory scores decreased by 57.7% from 5.2 (interquartile range [IQR], 4.6-6.2) to 2.2 (IQR, 1.1-4.4; P = 0.0002), and median MENQOL physical domain scores decreased by 51.3% from 3.9 (IQR, 2.3-4.8) to 1.9 (IQR, 1.3-2.7; P = 0.0001). Median hot flashes for 24 hours decreased by 48.3% from 2.9 (IQR, 1.1-4.6) to 1.5 (IQR, 0.4-2.4; P = 0.0005). Improvements in MENQOL total score (49%; P = 0.0001), cognitive function (59.2%; P = 0.0002), depressive symptoms (64.7%; P = 0.0006), insomnia (72.7%; P = 0.0012), and excessive sleepiness (57.1%; P = 0.0006) were noted. Randomized continuation (n = 10) or discontinuation (n = 10) did not indicate group differences. Armodafinil was well-tolerated; three women (12%) were withdrawn for adverse events. These preliminary results suggest a therapeutic effect of armodafinil on fatigue affecting quality of life during menopause, and a potential benefit for other menopause-related symptoms.

  12. Intravenous Immunoglobulin Therapy in Pediatric Narcolepsy: A Nonrandomized, Open-Label, Controlled, Longitudinal Observational Study

    PubMed Central

    Lecendreux, Michel; Berthier, Johanna; Corny, Jennifer; Bourdon, Olivier; Dossier, Claire; Delclaux, Christophe

    2017-01-01

    Study Objectives: Previous case reports of intravenous immunoglobulins (IVIg) in pediatric narcolepsy have shown contradictory results. Methods: This was a nonrandomized, open-label, controlled, longitudinal observational study of IVIg use in pediatric narcolepsy with retrospective data collection from medical files obtained from a single pediatric national reference center for the treatment of narcolepsy in France. Of 56 consecutively referred patients with narcolepsy, 24 received IVIg (3 infusions administered at 1-mo intervals) in addition to standard care (psychostimulants and/or anticataplectic agents), and 32 continued on standard care alone (controls). Results: For two patients in each group, medical files were unavailable. Of the 22 IVIg patients, all had cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) hypocretin ≤ 110 pg/mL and were HLA-DQB1*06:02 positive. Of the 30 control patients, 29 were HLA-DQB1*06:02 positive and of those with available CSF measurements, all 12 had hypocretin ≤ 110 pg/mL. Compared with control patients, IVIg patients had shorter disease duration, shorter latency to sleep onset, and more had received H1N1 vaccination. Mean (standard deviation) follow-up length was 2.4 (1.1) y in the IVIg group and 3.9 (1.7) y in controls. In multivariate-adjusted linear mixed-effects analyses of change from baseline in Ullanlinna Narcolepsy Scale (UNS) scores, high baseline UNS, but not IVIg treatment, was associated with a reduction in narcolepsy symptoms. On time-to-event analysis, among patients with high baseline UNS scores, control patients achieved a UNS score < 14 (indicating remission) less rapidly than IVIg patients (adjusted hazard ratio 0.18; 95% confidence interval: 95% confidence interval: 0.03, 0.95; p = 0.043). Shorter or longer disease duration did not influence treatment response in any analysis. Conclusions: Overall, narcolepsy symptoms were not significantly reduced by IVIg. However, in patients with high baseline symptoms, a subset of IVIg

  13. Methylphenidate, cognition, and epilepsy: A 1-month open-label trial.

    PubMed

    Adams, Jesse; Alipio-Jocson, Valerie; Inoyama, Katherine; Bartlett, Victoria; Sandhu, Saira; Oso, Jemima; Barry, John J; Loring, David W; Meador, Kimford J

    2017-10-09

    Cognitive difficulties are common in epilepsy. Beyond reducing seizures and adjusting antiepileptic medications, no well-validated treatment exists in adults. Methylphenidate is used effectively in children with epilepsy and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, but its effects in adults have not been systematically evaluated. We hypothesized that methylphenidate can safely improve cognition in adults with epilepsy. We detail here the open-label follow-up to a double-blind, placebo-controlled, single-dose study. Thirty epilepsy patients entered a 1-month open-label methylphenidate trial after a double-blind phase. Doses were titrated according to clinical practice and patient tolerance, ranging 20-40 mg/day. Primary measures included: Conners' Continuous Performance Test (CPT), Symbol-Digit Modalities Test (SDMT), and Medical College of Georgia Memory Test (MCG). Secondary measures were: Beck Depression Inventory, 2nd Edition (BDI-II), Beck Anxiety Inventory, Apathy Evaluation Scale (AES), Stimulant Side-Effect Checklist, Adverse Events Profile, Quality of Life in Epilepsy-89 (QOLIE-89), and seizure frequency. Fourteen healthy, nonmedicated controls were tested concurrently. Twenty-eight participants with epilepsy (13 men/15 women) completed the trial. Withdrawals occurred due to anxiety (n = 1) and fatigue (n = 1). Mean age was 36.4 years (range = 20-60). Epilepsy types were: focal (n = 21), generalized (n = 6), or unclassified (n = 1). Mean epilepsy duration was 12.3 years. Mean baseline seizure frequency was 2.8/month. There were significant improvements on methylphenidate for SDMT, MCG, CPT (the ability to discriminate between targets and nontargets [d'] hits, hit reaction time standard deviation, omissions, and commissions), and QOLIE subscales (energy/fatigue, attention/concentration, memory, and language; paired t tests; p ≤ 0.002). BDI-II and additional subscales also improved, at a lower level of statistical significance. Effect

  14. An Open-Label Study of Lamotrigine Adjunct or Monotherapy for the Treatment of Adolescents with Bipolar Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Kiki; Saxena, Kirti; Howe, Meghan

    2006-01-01

    Objective: The treatment of pediatric bipolar depression has not been well studied. The authors wished to prospectively study the efficacy of lamotrigine as adjunctive or monotherapy in adolescents with bipolar disorder who were experiencing a depressive episode. Method: This was an 8-week open-label trial of lamotrigine with 20 adolescents ages…

  15. An Open-Label Study of Lamotrigine Adjunct or Monotherapy for the Treatment of Adolescents with Bipolar Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Kiki; Saxena, Kirti; Howe, Meghan

    2006-01-01

    Objective: The treatment of pediatric bipolar depression has not been well studied. The authors wished to prospectively study the efficacy of lamotrigine as adjunctive or monotherapy in adolescents with bipolar disorder who were experiencing a depressive episode. Method: This was an 8-week open-label trial of lamotrigine with 20 adolescents ages…

  16. ADHD Treatment with Once-Daily OROS Methylphenidate: Final Results from a Long-term Open-Label Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilens, Timothy; McBurnett, Keith; Stein, Mark; Lerner, Marc; Spencer, Thomas; Wolraich, Mark

    2005-01-01

    Objective: Few studies have assessed effectiveness and tolerability of stimulants when used for prolonged periods in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). This article presents final results from an open-label, multisite study of a once-daily formulation of methylphenidate (MPH), OROS[R] MPH. Method: Subjects received OROS…

  17. Six-Week Open-Label Reboxetine Treatment in Children and Adolescents with Attention-Deficit/hyperactivity Disorder.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ratner, Sharon; Laor, Nathaniel; Bronstein, Yifat; Weizman, Abraham; Toren, Paz

    2005-01-01

    Objective: This open-label study assessed the effectiveness of reboxetine, a selective norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor, in children and adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) resistant to a previous methylphenidate trial. Method: Thirty-one child and adolescent outpatients, aged 8 to 18 (mean age, 11.7; SD = 2.87)…

  18. Six-Week Open-Label Reboxetine Treatment in Children and Adolescents with Attention-Deficit/hyperactivity Disorder.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ratner, Sharon; Laor, Nathaniel; Bronstein, Yifat; Weizman, Abraham; Toren, Paz

    2005-01-01

    Objective: This open-label study assessed the effectiveness of reboxetine, a selective norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor, in children and adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) resistant to a previous methylphenidate trial. Method: Thirty-one child and adolescent outpatients, aged 8 to 18 (mean age, 11.7; SD = 2.87)…

  19. Risperidone in Children with Disruptive Behavior Disorders and Subaverage Intelligence: A 1-Year, Open-Label Study of 504 Patients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Croonenberghs, Jan; Fegert, Joerg M.; Findling, Robert L.; de Smedt, Goedele; van Dongen, Stefan

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To determine the long-term safety and effectiveness of risperidone for severe disruptive behaviors in children. Method: A multisite, 1-year, open-label study of patients aged 5 to 14 years with disruptive behaviors and subaverage intelligence was conducted. Results: Seventy-three percent of the 504 patients enrolled completed the study.…

  20. Risperidone in Children with Disruptive Behavior Disorders and Subaverage Intelligence: A 1-Year, Open-Label Study of 504 Patients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Croonenberghs, Jan; Fegert, Joerg M.; Findling, Robert L.; de Smedt, Goedele; van Dongen, Stefan

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To determine the long-term safety and effectiveness of risperidone for severe disruptive behaviors in children. Method: A multisite, 1-year, open-label study of patients aged 5 to 14 years with disruptive behaviors and subaverage intelligence was conducted. Results: Seventy-three percent of the 504 patients enrolled completed the study.…

  1. Safety and efficacy of infliximab therapy in active behcet's uveitis: an open-label trial.

    PubMed

    Al-Rayes, H; Al-Swailem, R; Al-Balawi, M; Al-Dohayan, N; Al-Zaidi, S; Tariq, M

    2008-11-01

    In this open-label trial, ten male patients with active Behcet's uveitis were enrolled. Initially, two infliximab infusions (5 mg/kg) were given at weeks 0 and 2. The patients continued to receive conventional therapy on recurrence of severe uveitis (RSU) attack. The patients with further attack were regularly given infliximab infusions every 8 weeks. In cases of further RSU attacks, the infusion interval was reduced to 6 weeks. The total follow-up period was 3 years. The patients were monitored for RSU, visual acuity and adverse effects. Reduction in the doses of prednisolone was also monitored. After receiving two infliximab infusions at weeks 0 and 2, three patients remained attack-free and seven patients had another RSU attack between 8th and 47th week. These patients were regularly given infliximab at 8-week intervals. Five out of seven patients remained attack-free. In two patients who had further attack, infusion frequency was increased to 6 weeks. There was a remarkable improvement in visual acuity with no significant adverse reaction except mild respiratory tract infection (two patients), headache (one patient) and mild infusion reaction (one patient). Infliximab is a safe and effective drug for the management of Behcet's uveitis. Selection of optimal dose and frequency of infusion required standardization for individual patient.

  2. Long-term intrathecal ziconotide for chronic pain: an open-label study.

    PubMed

    Webster, Lynn R; Fisher, Robert; Charapata, Steven; Wallace, Mark S

    2009-03-01

    This open-label multicenter study evaluated the long-term safety and efficacy of intrathecal ziconotide and included 78 patients with chronic pain who had completed one of two previous ziconotide clinical trials. Each patient's initial ziconotide dose was based on his or her dose from the study of origin and was adjusted as necessary on the basis of adverse events and analgesic effect. The median ziconotide dose was 6.48 mcg/day (range, 0.00-120.00 mcg/day) at the Initial Visit and ranged from 5.52 to 7.20 mcg/day across all study visits. The most commonly reported new adverse events that were considered ziconotide related were memory impairment (11.3%); dizziness, nystagmus, and speech disorder (8.5% each); nervousness and somnolence (7.0% each); and abnormal gait (5.6%). There was no evidence of increased adverse event incidence at higher cumulative ziconotide doses. Elevations in creatine kinase were noted, but the proportion of patients with creatine kinase elevations did not change from the Initial Visit to the Termination Visit (4.1% each). Stable mean Visual Analog Scale of Pain Intensity scores during the three years of the study suggested no evidence of increased pain intensity with increased duration of ziconotide exposure. Long-term treatment with ziconotide appeared to be well tolerated and effective in patients whose response to ziconotide and ability to tolerate the drug had been previously demonstrated.

  3. Oral zinc sulfate treatment for viral warts: an open-label study.

    PubMed

    Mun, Je-Ho; Kim, Su-Han; Jung, Do-Sang; Ko, Hyun-Chang; Kim, Byung-Soo; Kwon, Kyung-Sool; Kim, Moon-Bum

    2011-06-01

    Viral warts, which are caused by the human papilloma virus, are a common problem in dermatology. Various modalities have been used to treat warts, but none are uniformly effective or directly antiviral. Recent studies show that oral zinc sulfate could be effective in the treatment of viral warts. Thirty-one patients with multiple, non-genital viral warts were recruited in this open-label clinical study. The patients were treated with oral zinc sulfate (10 mg/kg to a maximum dose of 600 mg/day) for 2 months and followed up with assessments for the resolution of their warts and for any evidence of recurrence after treatment. Among the 31 patients, 18 patients showed low serum zinc levels (58%). Of 26 patients who completed the study (84%), 13 (50%) showed complete resolution of their warts after 2 months of treatment. Complete responders remained free of lesions at 6-month follow-up. No serious side-effects were reported apart from nausea (16%), mild gastric pain (3%) and itching sensation (3%). Oral zinc sulfate was found to be a good option in the treatment of viral warts, as it was safe and effective without important side-effects. © 2010 Japanese Dermatological Association.

  4. Open-label pilot study of memantine in the treatment of compulsive buying.

    PubMed

    Grant, Jon E; Odlaug, Brian L; Mooney, Marc; O'Brien, Robert; Kim, Suck Won

    2012-05-01

    Although compulsive buying (CB) is relatively common, pharmacotherapy research for CB is limited. Memantine, an N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist, appears to reduce glutamate excitability and improve impulsive behaviors, suggesting it may help individuals with CB. Nine patients (8 females) with CB were enrolled in a 10-week open-label treatment study of memantine (dose ranging from 10 to 30 mg/d). Participants were enrolled from December 2008 until May 2010. The primary outcome measure was change from baseline to study endpoint on the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale-Shopping Version (Y-BOCS-SV). Of the 9 participants, 8 (88.9%) completed the 10-week study. Y-BOCS-SV scores decreased from a mean of 22.0 ± 1.3 at baseline to 11.0 ± 5.3 at endpoint (P < .001). Hours spent shopping per week and money spent shopping both decreased significantly (P < .001). The mean effective dose of memantine was 23.4 ± 8.1 mg/d. Memantine treatment was associated with diminished impulsive buying and improvements on cognitive tasks of impulsivity. In addition, the medication was well-tolerated. These findings suggest that pharmacologic manipulation of the glutamate system may target the impulsive behavior underlying CB. Placebo-controlled, double-blind studies are warranted in order to confirm these preliminary findings in a controlled design.

  5. Leflunomide treatment in corticosteroid-dependent myasthenia gravis: an open-label pilot study.

    PubMed

    Chen, Pei; Feng, Huiyu; Deng, Juan; Luo, Yufei; Qiu, Li; Ou, Changyi; Liu, Weibin

    2016-01-01

    Leflunomide is an effective drug used in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. Here we report the findings of an open-label pilot study, which found that leflunomide is also an effective treatment for myasthenia gravis (MG). This study recruited 15 corticosteroid-dependent MG patients. For 6 months, leflunomide 20 mg was given to these patients daily along with prednisone. The quantitative myasthenia gravis (QMG) scores and MG activities of daily living (MG-ADL) profiles were measured in these MG patients. After 6 months of treatment, 9 of the 15 patients enrolled in this study showed improvements in both QMG and MG-ADL. The mean QMG scores (13.4 to 8.5) and MG-ADL profiles (5.8 to 2.8) were significantly decreased (P = 0.01, 0.006 respectively). Furthermore, we found that the mean corticosteroid doses were reduced after treatment with leflunomide (24.3 to 12.3 mg per day). Leflunomide is a well-tolerated and efficacious treatment for corticosteroid-dependent MG, which may also enable lower doses of corticosteroids to be administered.

  6. Efficacy and safety of azithromycin for uncomplicated typhoid fever: an open label non-comparative study.

    PubMed

    Aggarwal, Anju; Ghosh, Apurba; Gomber, Sunil; Mitra, Monjori; Parikh, A O

    2011-07-01

    An open-labelled, non-comparative study was conducted in 117 children aged 2-12 years to evaluate the efficacy and safety of azithromycin (20mg/ kg/day for 6 days) for the treatment of uncomplicated typhoid fever. Of the patients enrolled based on a clinical definition of typhoid fever, 109 (93.1%) completed the study.Mean (SD) of duration of fever at presentation was 9.1(4.5) days. Clinical cure was seen in 102 (93.5%) subjects, while 7 were withdrawn from the study because of clinical deterioration. Mean day of response was 3.45±1.97. BACTEC blood culture was positive for Salmonella typhi in 17/109 (15.5%) and all achieved bacteriological cure. No serious adverse event was observed. Global well being assessed by the investigator and subjects was good in 95% cases which was done at the end of the treatment. Azithromycin was found to be safe and efficacious for the management of uncomplicated typhoid fever.

  7. Computerized cognitive remediation training for schizophrenia: an open label, multi-site, multinational methodology study.

    PubMed

    Murthy, N V; Mahncke, H; Wexler, B E; Maruff, P; Inamdar, A; Zucchetto, M; Lund, J; Shabbir, S; Shergill, S; Keshavan, M; Kapur, S; Laruelle, M; Alexander, R

    2012-08-01

    A recent single-site study (Fisher et al., 2009. Am J Psychiatry. 166 (7) 805-11) showed that repeated training with the Brain Fitness Program (BFP) improved performance on a battery of neuropsychological tasks. If replicated these data suggest an important non-pharmacological method for ameliorating cognitive impairment in schizophrenia. Our study evaluated the BFP training effects in an open-label, multi-site, multinational clinical trial. Fifty-five stable adult patients with schizophrenia on regular antipsychotic medication completed ≥ 32 BFP training sessions over 8-10 weeks. Training effects on cognitive performance and functional capacity outcome measures were measured using CogState® schizophrenia battery, UCSD Performance based Skills Assessment (UPSA-2) and Cognitive Assessment Interview (CAI). BFP training showed a large and significant treatment effect on a training exercise task (auditory processing speed), however this effect did not generalize to improved performance on independent CogState® assessment. There were no significant effects on UPSA-2 or CAI scores. Our study demonstrated the feasibility of implementing BFP training in a multi-site study. However, BFP training did not show significant treatment effects on cognitive performance or functional capacity outcome measures despite showing large and significant effects on a training exercise. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Flaxseed supplementation in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: a pilot randomized, open labeled, controlled study.

    PubMed

    Yari, Zahra; Rahimlou, Mehran; Eslamparast, Tannaz; Ebrahimi-Daryani, Naser; Poustchi, Hossein; Hekmatdoost, Azita

    2016-06-01

    A two-arm randomized open labeled controlled clinical trial was conducted on 50 patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Participants were assigned to take either a lifestyle modification (LM), or LM +30 g/day brown milled flaxseed for 12 weeks. At the end of the study, body weight, liver enzymes, insulin resistance and hepatic fibrosis and steatosis decreased significantly in both groups (p< 0.05); however, this reduction was significantly greater in those who took flaxseed supplementation (p < 0.05). The significant mean differences were reached in hepatic markers between flaxseed and control group, respectively: ALT [-11.12 compared with -3.7 U/L; P< 0.001], AST [-8.29 compared with -4 U/L; p < 0.001], GGT [-15.7 compared with -2.62 U/L; p < 0.001], fibrosis score [-1.26 compared with -0.77 kPa; p = 0.013] and steatosis score [-47 compared with -15.45 dB/m; p = 0.022]. In conclusion, flaxseed supplementation plus lifestyle modification is more effective than lifestyle modification alone for NAFLD management.

  9. Zuclopenthixol treatment of behavioral disturbances in mentally retarded children and adolescents: an open-label study.

    PubMed

    Spivak, B; Mozes, T; Mester, R; Kodelik, M; Weizman, A

    2001-01-01

    The present open-label study assessed the efficacy of zuclopenthixol, an thioxanthene neuroleptic with combined dopamine receptors (D1/D2) antagonist activity, in the treatment of severe behavioral disturbances in mentally retarded children and adolescents. A sample of 15 (11 males, 4 females) mentally retarded children and adolescents, ages 5-18 years (12.2 +/- 2.3 [mean +/- SD] years), all exhibiting severe behavioral disturbances, was evaluated. The 12-week zuclopenthixol treatment (up to 26 mg/day) was initiated after a week's washout from previous antipsychotic agents. An assessment of the behavioral disturbances was performed using the 14-item Checklist for Behavior Problems Involving Limited or No Social Awareness (CBP-NSA). The Udvalg for kliniske undersøgelser (UKU) Side Effect Rating Scale was used to assess the pharmacologic side effects. Results show a significant reduction in total CBP-NSA scores and in individual items such as hyperactivity, aggressive behavior, and temper tantrums (p < 0.001 for each). It seems that zuclopenthixol monotherapy is effective and well tolerated in the treatment of severe behavioral disturbances in mentally retarded children and adolescents. Double-blind, placebo-controlled studies are needed before definitive conclusions can be drawn regarding the efficacy and safety of zuclopenthixol for this population.

  10. An Open-Label Trial of Memantine for Cognitive Impairment in Patients with Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Ramaswamy, Sriram; Madabushi, Jayakrishna; Hunziker, John; Bhatia, Subhash C.; Petty, Frederick

    2015-01-01

    Background. Studies using standard neuropsychological instruments have demonstrated memory deficits in patients with PTSD. We evaluated the efficacy and safety of the N-methyl-D-aspartate antagonist memantine in veterans with PTSD and cognitive impairment. Methods. Twenty-six veterans with PTSD and cognitive impairment received 16 weeks of memantine in an open-label fashion. Cognition was assessed using the Spatial Span, Logical Memory I, and Letter-Number Sequencing subtests of the Wechsler Memory Scale III and the Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status (RBANS). RBANS measures attention, language, visuospatial skills, and immediate and delayed memories. The Clinician Administered PTSD Scale (CAPS), Hamilton Depression Scale (HAM-D), Hamilton Anxiety Scale (HAM-A), Quality of Life Enjoyment and Satisfaction Questionnaire (Q-LES-Q), and Sheehan Disability Scale (SDS) were secondary outcome measures. Results. There was a significant improvement in RBANS, both total and subscale scores (P < 0.05), over time. There was a reduction in total CAPS scores, avoidance/numbing symptoms (CAPS-C) and hyperarousal symptoms (CAPS-D), HAM-D, Q-LES-Q, and SDS scores. However, there was no reduction in reexperiencing (CAPS-B) and HAM-A scores. Memantine was well tolerated. Conclusions. Memantine improved cognitive symptoms, PTSD symptoms, and mood in veterans with PTSD. Randomized double-blind studies are needed to validate these preliminary observations. PMID:26064685

  11. Rotigotine Objectively Improves Sleep in Parkinson's Disease: An Open-Label Pilot Study with Actigraphic Recording

    PubMed Central

    Calandra-Buonaura, Giovanna; Guaraldi, Pietro; Doria, Andrea; Zanigni, Stefano; Nassetti, Stefania; Favoni, Valentina; Cevoli, Sabina; Provini, Federica; Cortelli, Pietro

    2016-01-01

    Sleep disturbances represent important predictors of poor quality of life (QoL) in Parkinson's disease (PD). This open-label pilot study aimed to objectively assess, by means of actigraphic recording, effect of rotigotine on sleep in PD patients with self-reported sleep complaints. 15 PD patients underwent one-week actigraphic recording before (T0) and during (T1) rotigotine treatment, which was titrated to the dose subjectively improving motor symptoms (4–8 mg/24 h). Sleep disturbances, daytime sleepiness, cognitive performance, QoL, and depression were also evaluated with questionnaires. Actigraphic recordings showed a significant reduction in nocturnal motor activity and mean duration of wake episodes after sleep onset during rotigotine treatment compared to baseline. In 10 patients presenting objective evidence of poor sleep quality at T0 (sleep efficiency ≤ 85%), rotigotine also significantly improved other sleep parameters and further reduced nocturnal motor activity and mean duration of wake episodes. A significant decrease in number and duration of daytime sleep episodes was also observed at T1. Finally we confirmed that rotigotine significantly improves perceived sleep quality and QoL. Our study showed for the first time that rotigotine is associated with an objective improvement of nocturnal and diurnal sleep disturbances in PD patients with self-reported sleep complaints. This study is registered with AIFA-observational study registry number 12021. PMID:26981312

  12. Transcutaneous supraorbital neurostimulation for the prevention of chronic migraine: a prospective, open-label preliminary trial.

    PubMed

    Di Fiore, Paola; Bussone, Gennaro; Galli, Alberto; Didier, Henri; Peccarisi, Cesare; D'Amico, Domenico; Frediani, Fabio

    2017-05-01

    Since chronic migraine is difficult to treat and often associated with medication overuse, non-invasive neurostimulation approaches are worth investigating. Transcutaneous supraorbital neurostimulation using the Cefaly(®) device is promising as a non-invasive preventive treatment for episodic migraine, but no data are available for chronic migraine. Our aim was to perform a preliminary evaluation of the efficacy of the Cefaly(®) device for the prophylaxis of chronic migraine with or without medication overuse. Primary endpoints were 50% reduction in monthly migraine days and 50% reduction in monthly medication use over 4 months. In an open-label study, twenty-three consecutive headache center patients with chronic migraine, diagnosed according to International Headache Society criteria, were recruited prospectively. After informed consent, patients were trained to use Cefaly(®) and instructed to use it for 20 min daily over 4 months. All patients received active neurostimulation. Thirty-five percent of the patients enrolled in the study achieved the study endpoints. Over half the patients had a greater than 50% reduction in acute medication consumption.

  13. Impact of a soy drink on climacteric symptoms: an open-label, crossover, randomized clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Tranche, Salvador; Brotons, Carlos; Pascual de la Pisa, Beatriz; Macías, Ramón; Hevia, Eduardo; Marzo-Castillejo, Mercè

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objectives: The objective of this study is to evaluate the effects of a soy drink with a high concentration of isoflavones (ViveSoy®) on climacteric symptoms. Methods: An open-label, controlled, crossover clinical trial was conducted in 147 peri- and postmenopausal women. Eligible women were recruited from 13 Spanish health centers and randomly assigned to one of the two sequence groups (control or ViveSoy®, 500 mL per day, 15 g of protein and 50 mg of isoflavones). Each intervention phase lasted for 12 weeks with a 6-week washout period. Changes on the Menopause Rating Scale and quality of life questionnaires, as well as lipid profile, cardiovascular risk and carbohydrate and bone metabolism were assessed. Statistical analysis was performed using a mixed-effects model. Results: A sample of 147 female volunteers was recruited of which 90 were evaluable. In both sequence groups, adherence to the intervention was high. Regular consumption of ViveSoy® reduced climacteric symptoms by 20.4% (p = 0.001) and symptoms in the urogenital domain by 21.3% (p < 0.05). It also improved health-related quality life by 18.1%, as per the MRS questionnaire (p <0.05). Conclusion: Regular consumption of ViveSoy® improves both the somatic and urogenital domain symptoms of menopause, as well as health-related quality of life in peri- and postmenopausal women. PMID:26806546

  14. Open-Label, Randomized Study of Transition From Tacrolimus to Sirolimus Immunosuppression in Renal Allograft Recipients

    PubMed Central

    Tedesco-Silva, Helio; Peddi, V. Ram; Sánchez-Fructuoso, Ana; Marder, Brad A.; Russ, Graeme R.; Diekmann, Fritz; Flynn, Alison; Hahn, Carolyn M.; Li, Huihua; Tortorici, Michael A.; Schulman, Seth L.

    2016-01-01

    Background Calcineurin inhibitor–associated nephrotoxicity and other adverse events have prompted efforts to minimize/eliminate calcineurin inhibitor use in kidney transplant recipients. Methods This open-label, randomized, multinational study evaluated the effect of planned transition from tacrolimus to sirolimus on kidney function in renal allograft recipients. Patients received tacrolimus-based immunosuppression and then were randomized 3 to 5 months posttransplantation to transition to sirolimus or continue tacrolimus. The primary end point was percentage of patients with 5 mL/min per 1.73 m2 or greater improvement in estimated glomerular filtration rate from randomization to month 24. Results The on-therapy population included 195 patients (sirolimus, 86; tacrolimus, 109). No between-group difference was noted in percentage of patients with 5 mL/min per 1.73 m2 or greater estimated glomerular filtration rate improvement (sirolimus, 34%; tacrolimus, 42%; P = 0.239) at month 24. Sirolimus patients had higher rates of biopsy-confirmed acute rejection (8% vs 2%; P = 0.02), treatment discontinuation attributed to adverse events (21% vs 3%; P < 0.001), and lower rates of squamous cell carcinoma of the skin (0% vs 5%; P = 0.012). Conclusions Our findings suggest that renal function improvement at 24 months is similar for patients with early conversion to sirolimus after kidney transplantation versus those remaining on tacrolimus. PMID:27500260

  15. Topiramate in add-on therapy: results from an open-label, observational study.

    PubMed

    Krakow, K; Lengler, U; Rettig, K; Schreiner, A; Schauble, B

    2007-10-01

    An open-label, observational prospective study assessed the effectiveness of topiramate (TPM) as add-on therapy. A total of 450 patients aged 12 and above with a diagnosis of epilepsy and at least one epileptic seizure during the 12-week retrospective baseline were to be documented. After baseline evaluation, topiramate was added. Ninety-five percent of patients had at least one baseline AED, most commonly Carbamazepine (53%) or Valproate (34%). In 5% TPM was started in monotherapy. Topiramate dose titration and target dose was determined by clinical response and side effect profile. Patients were intended to be followed for a total of 1 year which included 6 visits during which seizure frequency, adverse events, weight as well as clinical global impression were recorded. During the 12 weeks retrospective baseline, a median of 2.8 seizures per month were recorded which reduced significantly to 0.7 per month during the complete treatment phase (p < 0.0001). Seventy-two percent of patients had a > or =50% seizure reduction. Ten percent of patients were seizure free during the study. The most commonly reported adverse events were difficulties with memory (4.2%), somnolence (3.6%), and dizziness (2.7%). Overall, topiramate was well tolerated, and only 5% of patients discontinued treatment due to an adverse event. Retention in the study was higher than previously reported during randomized, dose controlled studies and is likely due to individualized doses as well as slower titration used.

  16. Open-label study of duloxetine for the treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    PubMed

    Dougherty, Darin D; Corse, Andrew K; Chou, Tina; Duffy, Amanda; Arulpragasam, Amanda R; Deckersbach, Thilo; Jenike, Michael A; Keuthen, Nancy J

    2015-01-01

    This study sought to investigate the efficacy of duloxetine for the treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder (DSM-IV). Twenty individuals were enrolled in a 17-week, open-label trial of duloxetine at Massachusetts General Hospital. Data were collected between March 2007 and September 2012. Study measures assessing obsessive-compulsive disorder symptoms, quality of life, depression, and anxiety were administered at baseline and weeks 1, 5, 9, 13, and 17. The primary outcome measures were the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale and Clinical Global Improvement scale. For the 12 study completers, pre- and posttreatment analyses revealed significant improvements (P<.05) on clinician- and self-rated measures of obsessive-compulsive disorder symptoms and quality of life. Among the 12 completers, more than one-half (n=7) satisfied full medication response criteria. Intention-to-treat analyses (n=20) showed similar improvements (P<.05) on primary and secondary study outcome measures. The results of this study suggest that duloxetine may provide a significant reduction in symptoms for patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00464698; http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00464698?term=NCT00464698&rank=1. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of CINP.

  17. Caffeine in Parkinson's disease: a pilot open-label, dose-escalation study.

    PubMed

    Altman, Robert D; Lang, Anthony E; Postuma, Ronald B

    2011-11-01

    Epidemiologic studies consistently find an inverse association between caffeine use and PD. Numerous explanations exist, but are difficult to evaluate as caffeine's symptomatic effect and tolerability in PD are unknown. We designed an open-label, 6-week dose-escalation study of caffeine to establish dose tolerability and evaluate potential motor/nonmotor benefits. Caffeine was started at 200 mg daily and was increased to a maximum of 1,000 mg. Of 25 subjects, 20 tolerated 200 mg, 17 tolerated 400 mg, 7 tolerated 800 mg, and 3 tolerated 1,000 mg. The most common adverse events were gastrointestinal discomfort, anxiety, and worsening/emerging tremor. At 400 mg daily, we found potential improvements in motor manifestations and somnolence (UPDRS III: -4.5 ± 4.6, P = 0.003; Epworth: -2.0 ± 3.0, P = 0.015). Maximum dose tolerability for caffeine in PD appears to be 100 to 200 mg BID. We found pilot preliminary evidence that caffeine may improve some motor and nonmotor aspects of PD, which must be confirmed in longer term, placebo-controlled, clinical trials. Copyright © 2011 Movement Disorder Society.

  18. Treatment of seasonal affective disorder with duloxetine: an open-label study.

    PubMed

    Pjrek, E; Willeit, M; Praschak-Rieder, N; Konstantinidis, A; Semlitsch, H V; Kasper, S; Winkler, D

    2008-05-01

    The aim of this observational study was to evaluate the effects of duloxetine in the treatment of seasonal affective disorder (SAD). 26 SAD patients were treated with open-label duloxetine 60-120 mg per day over 8 weeks. Ratings included the Structured Interview Guide for the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (SAD version; SIGH-SAD) and the Clinical Global Impression (CGI). To estimate treatment effects on social functioning in SAD we employed the Social Adaptation Self Evaluation Scale (SASS), the Sheehan Disability Scale (SDS), and assessments of days lost due to illness and days with reduction in productivity. Duloxetine led to a significant improvement (p<0.001) of SIGH-SAD, CGI severity, SASS, and SDS scores. Days lost due to illness and days with reduction in productivity were significantly diminished during treatment (p<0.001). Treatment with duloxetine over 8 weeks yielded a response rate (SIGH-SAD<50% of baseline value) of 80.8% and a remission rate (SIGH-SAD<8) of 76.9% in the intention to treat sample. The drop-out rate due to side effects was 15.4%. Our preliminary results indicate that duloxetine might be effective and able to ameliorate the negative social consequences of SAD.

  19. Effect of noninvasive vagus nerve stimulation on acute migraine: an open-label pilot study.

    PubMed

    Goadsby, P J; Grosberg, B M; Mauskop, A; Cady, R; Simmons, K A

    2014-10-01

    We sought to assess a novel, noninvasive, portable vagal nerve stimulator (nVNS) for acute treatment of migraine. Participants with migraine with or without aura were eligible for an open-label, single-arm, multiple-attack study. Up to four migraine attacks were treated with two 90-second doses, at 15-minute intervals delivered to the right cervical branch of the vagus nerve within a six-week time period. Subjects were asked to self-treat at moderate or severe pain, or after 20 minutes of mild pain. Of 30 enrolled patients (25 females, five males, median age 39), two treated no attacks, and one treated aura only, leaving a Full Analysis Set of 27 treating 80 attacks with pain. An adverse event was reported in 13 patients, notably: neck twitching (n = 1), raspy voice (n = 1) and redness at the device site (n = 1). No unanticipated, serious or severe adverse events were reported. The pain-free rate at two hours was four of 19 (21%) for the first treated attack with a moderate or severe headache at baseline. For all moderate or severe attacks at baseline, the pain-free rate was 12/54 (22%). nVNS may be an effective and well-tolerated acute treatment for migraine in certain patients. © International Headache Society 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  20. Autologous bone marrow mononuclear cell therapy for autism: an open label proof of concept study.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Alok; Gokulchandran, Nandini; Sane, Hemangi; Nagrajan, Anjana; Paranjape, Amruta; Kulkarni, Pooja; Shetty, Akshata; Mishra, Priti; Kali, Mrudula; Biju, Hema; Badhe, Prerna

    2013-01-01

    Cellular therapy is an emerging therapeutic modality with a great potential for the treatment of autism. Recent findings show that the major underlying pathogenetic mechanisms of autism are hypoperfusion and immune alterations in the brain. So conceptually, cellular therapy which facilitates counteractive processes of improving perfusion by angiogenesis and balancing inflammation by immune regulation would exhibit beneficial clinical effects in patients with autism. This is an open label proof of concept study of autologous bone marrow mononuclear cells (BMMNCs) intrathecal transplantation in 32 patients with autism followed by multidisciplinary therapies. All patients were followed up for 26 months (mean 12.7). Outcome measures used were ISAA, CGI, and FIM/Wee-FIM scales. Positron Emission Tomography-Computed Tomography (PET-CT) scan recorded objective changes. Out of 32 patients, a total of 29 (91%) patients improved on total ISAA scores and 20 patients (62%) showed decreased severity on CGI-I. The difference between pre- and postscores was statistically significant (P < 0.001) on Wilcoxon matched-pairs signed rank test. On CGI-II 96% of patients showed global improvement. The efficacy was measured on CGI-III efficacy index. Few adverse events including seizures in three patients were controlled with medications. The encouraging results of this leading clinical study provide future directions for application of cellular therapy in autism.

  1. Aripiprazole in L-dopa-induced dyskinesias: a one-year open-label pilot study.

    PubMed

    Meco, Giuseppe; Stirpe, Paola; Edito, Fabrizio; Purcaro, Carlo; Valente, Marcella; Bernardi, Silvia; Vanacore, Nicola

    2009-07-01

    Aripiprazole is a novel antipsychotic medication characterized by partial agonism at the D2 and 5-HT1A receptors and by antagonism at the 5-HT2A receptor. The aim of the present study was to evaluate, in an open-label pilot study, the effects and safety of very small doses of aripiprazole on L-dopa-induced dyskinesia of a group of PD patients who did not show a significant clinical benefit by pharmacological treatment with amantadine and mirtazapine. Twelve PD patients with peak-dose LID were enrolled in a period of 1 year. Aripiprazole dosage was of 0.625 mg/day. The ten patients who continued taking aripiprazole displayed a significant decrease in the intensity and frequency of dyskinesias in all parts of the body, particularly in trunk movements (AIMS score T(0) = 14.1 +/- 3.6 vs. final score 2.4. +/- 2.6; P = 0.005). Our study suggests that aripiprazole at very low doses is tolerated and could be efficacy in treating LID.

  2. An open label trial of C-1073 (mifepristone) for psychotic major depression.

    PubMed

    Belanoff, Joseph K; Rothschild, Anthony J; Cassidy, Frederick; DeBattista, Charles; Baulieu, Etienne-Emile; Schold, Clifford; Schatzberg, Alan F

    2002-09-01

    The rationale for treating patients with psychotic major depression (PMD) with glucocorticosteroid receptor (GR) antagonists is explained. Thirty patients with PMD, with Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAMD-21) scores of 18 or greater, were assigned in an open label trial to receive 50 mg, 600 mg, or 1200 mg of mifepristone for 7 days. All the subjects completed the protocol; there were no dropouts. Side effects were mild and sporadic. Of 19 subjects in the combined 600- and 1200-mg group, 13 had a 30% or greater decline in their Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS) scores, compared with 4 of 11 in the 50-mg group. In the 600- and 1200-mg group, 12 of 19 subjects showed a 50% decline in the BPRS positive symptom subscale, a more sensitive index for the symptoms seen in PMD, compared with 3 of 11 in the 50-mg group; 8 of 19 subjects in the 600- and 1200-mg group had a 50% decline in the HAMD-21, compared with 2 of 11 in the 50-mg group. These results suggest that short term use of GR antagonists may be effective in the treatment of psychotic major depression and that further blinded studies are warranted.

  3. An open-label pilot study of risperidone in the treatment of methamphetamine dependence.

    PubMed

    Meredith, Charles W; Jaffe, Craig; Yanasak, Elisia; Cherrier, Monique; Saxon, Andrew J

    2007-06-01

    Psychopharmacological treatments for methamphetamine (MA) dependence have questionable efficacy. Open-label risperidone was evaluated in veterans seeking MA dependence treatment. Participants (N = 11) received four weeks of risperidone. They provided weekly self-reports of substance use, urine drug screens, and adverse effects. Neuropsychological assessments and psychiatric symptomatology (Brief Symptom Inventory; BSI) were measured at baseline and follow-up. The eight completers had an average risperidone dose of 3.6 mg/day and decreased days of MA use during the trial from a mean of 13.0 (SD = 6.5) in the 30 days prior to starting risperidone to a mean of 0.125 (SD = 0.4; t = 5.7, p = .001), When measured over time, fine motor function (Grooved Peg Board Dominant Hand) was the only neuropsychological domain to improve significantly. No other domain changed significantly from baseline to follow-up among study completers. BSI data were converted to demographically corrected T-scores utilizing appropriate normative data (mean = 50, SD = 10). BSI somatization T-scores declined from a mean of 59.0 (SD = 8.4) to 51.8 (SD = 8.3; t = 2.7, p <.05), and positive symptom distress declined from a mean of 52.8 (SD =8.0) to 41.7 (SD = 8.6; t= 3.0, p <.05). Risperidone was well tolerated and associated with decreased MA use.

  4. Topical pimecrolimus 1% cream for resistant seborrheic dermatitis of the face: an open-label study.

    PubMed

    Ozden, Muge Guler; Tekin, Nilgun Solak; Ilter, Nilsel; Ankarali, Handan

    2010-01-01

    Treatment options for seborrheic dermatitis are numerous, including both topical and systemic agents (e.g. topical corticosteroids, oral antifungals, and psoralen plus UVA). However, long-term use of topical corticosteroids may lead to adverse effects. Pimecrolimus 1% cream is an effective and well tolerated treatment for seborrheic dermatitis. To explore the efficacy of pimecrolimus 1% cream for the treatment of seborrheic dermatitis lesions resistant to conventional treatments. Sixteen patients with resistant seborrheic dermatitis of the face applied pimecrolimus 1% cream twice daily for 2 weeks. The lesions were assessed clinically and the severity of the signs were assessed using a 4-point score. Additionally, the scores of all affected regions (paranasal, forehead, and eyebrows) were evaluated separately to assess whether different results would be obtained in different regions of the face. Also, patients completed self-assessments on a 100 mm Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) at each visit. Statistically significant reductions in the scores of all parameters were observed at day 7 and day 14 of the study. There were no significant differences between the responses on the three regions of the face. No adverse effects were reported except for temporary pruritus immediately after the application of pimecrolimus 1% cream in one patient. Although the interpretation of efficacy was limited by the open-label, non-controlled study design and the small number of patients, this trial suggests that pimecrolimus 1% cream may be a successful treatment choice for patients with resistant seborrheic dermatitis of the face.

  5. Mirtazapine in Comorbid Major Depression and Alcohol Dependence: An Open-Label Trial

    PubMed Central

    Cornelius, Jack R.; Douaihy, Antoine B.; Clark, Duncan B.; Chung, Tammy; Wood, D. Scott; Daley, Dennis

    2012-01-01

    Objective This was a first pilot study evaluating the acute phase (8-week) efficacy of the antidepressant medication mirtazapine for the treatment of depressive symptoms and drinking of subjects with comorbid major depressive disorder and alcohol dependence (MDD/AD). We hypothesized that mirtazapine would demonstrate within-group efficacy for the treatment of both depressive symptoms and drinking in these subjects. Methods We conducted a first open label study of the second generation antidepressant mirtazapine in 12 adult outpatient subjects with comorbid major depressive disorder/alcohol dependence. The pharmacological profile of that medication is unique among antidepressants, unrelated to tricyclics or selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors. Results Mirtazapine was well tolerated in this treatment population. Self-reported depressive symptoms decreased from 31.8 to 8.3 on the Beck Depression Inventory, a 74.0% decrease (p<0.001), and drinking decreased from 33.9 to 13.3 drinks per week, a 60.8% decrease (p<0.05). None of the subjects were employed full-time at baseline, but 9 of the 12 (75%) were employed full-time at end-of-study. Conclusions These preliminary findings suggest efficacy for mirtazapine for treating both the depressive symptoms and excessive alcohol use of comorbid major depressive disorder and alcohol dependence. Double-blind studies are warranted to further clarify the efficacy of mirtazapine in this population. PMID:23230395

  6. An open label pilot study of transcranial magnetic stimulation for pregnant women with major depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    Kim, Deborah R; Epperson, Neill; Paré, Emmanuelle; Gonzalez, Juan M; Parry, Samuel; Thase, Michael E; Cristancho, Pilar; Sammel, Mary D; O'Reardon, John P

    2011-02-01

    Despite the data that major depressive disorder (MDD) is common during pregnancy and that pregnant women prefer nonmedication treatment options, there is a paucity of research examining alternative treatments for this special population. We present the results of an open label pilot study examining treatment with transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) in pregnant women with MDD. Ten women with MDD in the second or third trimester of pregnancy were treated with 20 sessions of 1-Hz TMS at 100% of motor threshold (MT) to the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. The total study dose was 6000 pulses. Antenatal monitoring was performed during treatment sessions 1, 10, and 20. Seven of ten (70%) subjects responded (decrease ≥50% in Hamilton Depression Rating Scale [HDRS-17] scores). No adverse pregnancy or fetal outcomes were observed. All infants were admitted to the well baby nursery and were discharged with the mother. Mild headache was the only common adverse event and was reported by 4 of 10 (40%) subjects. TMS appears to be a promising treatment option for pregnant women who do not wish to take antidepressant medications.

  7. Long-term use of oxcarbazepine oral suspension in childhood epilepsy: open-label study.

    PubMed

    Rufo-Campos, Miguel; Casas-Fernández, Carlos; Martínez-Bermejo, Antonio

    2006-06-01

    Studies designed specifically for the pediatric population are needed to assess the tolerability and safety of the new antiepileptic drugs. The purpose of this study was to document the safety, ease of dosing, and acceptance of oxcarbazepine oral suspension in pediatric patients in monotherapy and polytherapy. A prospective, multicenter, open-label study was conducted at the neurology services of three pediatric university hospitals over 12 months. After obtaining signed informed consent, we enrolled a series of 62 patients with epilepsy aged between 2 months and 14 years who began oxcarbazepine treatment in monotherapy or in combination with other antiepileptic drugs to assess the seizure frequency, safety (adverse events), and acceptance of the pharmaceutical form by the patient's family. Fifty patients (80.6%) reduced seizures by at least 50%, 44 (71%) saw a reduction in seizure frequency of over 75%, and 29 (46.8%) were seizure free at the end of the study. The difference in the number of seizures before and after the study was statistically significant, both overall and by type of pathology. Adverse events occurred in four patients (6.4%) and required withdrawal of the drug in two cases (skin rash); three patients (4.8%) withdrew for inefficacy. Five patients (8.1%) withdrew from the treatment. We concluded that, in this series of patients, oxcarbazepine in oral suspension form was seen to help reduce seizure frequency, to have few side effects, and to be accepted by parents and patients.

  8. Vaginal mifepristone for the treatment of symptomatic uterine leiomyomata: an open-label study.

    PubMed

    Yerushalmi, Gil M; Gilboa, Yinon; Jakobson-Setton, Ariella; Tadir, Yona; Goldchmit, Chen; Katz, Danny; Seidman, Daniel S

    2014-02-01

    To evaluate the efficacy and safety of 3 months of vaginal mifepristone treatment on leiomyoma volume and related symptoms. Prospective, open-label, two tertiary centers, phase II clinical trial. Two tertiary medical centers in Israel. Thirty-three enrolled women, ages 30-53 years, diagnosed with symptomatic uterine fibroids. Patients received 10 mg mifepristone vaginally daily for 3 months. Reduction in uterine leiomyoma volume. Improvement in symptoms related to uterine fibroids was assessed with the use of the "Uterine Fibroid Symptoms Quality of Life Questionnaire" (UFS-QoL). The number of bleeding days, safety, and tolerability were secondary measures. Mifepristone treatment significantly reduced leiomyoma volume from 135.3 ± 22.9 cc at enrollment to 101.2 ± 22.4 cc after 3 months of treatment. The UFS-QoL Score significantly decreased from 20.7 ± 0.7 at enrollment to 14.0 ± 0.8 after 3 months of treatment. The number of bleeding days significantly decreased by 3.5 days. Endometrial biopsies showed no evidence of endometrial hyperplasia or cellular atypia. There were no major side effects during the course of the study, and treatment was well tolerated. Vaginal mifepristone may offer an effective treatment option for women with symptomatic uterine leiomyoma and can improve the patients' quality of life. NCT00881140. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. A prospective open-label study of home use of mifepristone for medical abortion in Nepal.

    PubMed

    Conkling, Kathryn; Karki, Chanda; Tuladhar, Heera; Bracken, Hillary; Winikoff, Beverly

    2015-03-01

    To assess the uptake and acceptability of self-administration of mifepristone at home for medical abortion in Nepal. A prospective, comparative, non-randomized, open-label study was conducted at two hospitals in Kathmandu, Nepal, between November 11, 2009, and January 15, 2011. All women in good health and aged 18 years or older who sought medical abortion after fewer than 64 days of pregnancy were enrolled. Participants were offered the choice of taking 200mg mifepristone orally in the clinic or at home; all participants self-administered 400 μg of sublingual misoprostol at home 24-72 hours later. All participants were scheduled to return to the clinic within 14 days of mifepristone administration for follow-up. Among 200 participants, 144 (72.0%) opted to take the mifepristone at home. Medical abortion was successful in 130 (95.6%) of 136 women in the home group who were followed up and 53 (94.6%) of 56 women in the clinic group. Only 4 (2.9%) women in the home group took the mifepristone after the scheduled time. Overall, 133 (97.8%) women in the home group stated that they would recommend home administration of mifepristone if a friend wanted a medical abortion. Self-administration of mifepristone outside the clinic should be offered to all women as part of routine medical abortion services in Nepal. Clinical trials.gov: NCT00994734. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  10. Neural correlates of change in major depressive disorder anhedonia following open-label ketamine.

    PubMed

    Lally, Níall; Nugent, Allison C; Luckenbaugh, David A; Niciu, Mark J; Roiser, Jonathan P; Zarate, Carlos A

    2015-05-01

    Anhedonia is a cardinal symptom of major depression and is often refractory to standard treatment, yet no approved medication for this specific symptom exists. In this exploratory re-analysis, we assessed whether administration of rapid-acting antidepressant ketamine was associated specifically with reduced anhedonia in medication-free treatment-refractory patients with major depressive disorder in an open-label investigation. Additionally, participants received either oral riluzole or placebo daily beginning 4 hours post-infusion. A subgroup of patients underwent fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography scans at baseline (1-3 days pre-infusion) and 2 hours post-ketamine infusion. Anhedonia rapidly decreased following a single ketamine infusion; this was sustained for up to three days, but was not altered by riluzole. Reduced anhedonia correlated with increased glucose metabolism in the hippocampus and dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) and decreased metabolism in the inferior frontal gyrus and orbitofrontal cortex (OFC). The tentative relationship between change in anhedonia and glucose metabolism remained significant in dACC and OFC, and at trend level in the hippocampus, a result not anticipated, when controlling for change in total depression score. Results, however, remain tenuous due to the lack of a placebo control for ketamine. In addition to alleviating overall depressive symptoms, ketamine could possess anti-anhedonic potential in major depressive disorder, which speculatively, may be mediated by alterations in metabolic activity in the hippocampus, dACC and OFC.

  11. A randomised, open-label study of umeclidinium versus glycopyrronium in patients with COPD.

    PubMed

    Rheault, Tara; Khindri, Sanjeev; Vahdati-Bolouri, Mitra; Church, Alison; Fahy, William A

    2016-04-01

    This study compared the efficacy and safety of once-daily umeclidinium 62.5 µg with once-daily glycopyrronium 50 µg in patients with moderate-to-severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. This was a 12-week, multicentre, randomised, open-label, parallel-group study (Clinicaltrials.gov: NCT02236611). Patients were randomised 1:1 to umeclidinium 62.5 µg or glycopyrronium 50 µg administered via Ellipta or Breezhaler dry powder inhaler, respectively. The primary endpoint was trough forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) at day 85 in the per-protocol population. Other endpoints included: weighted mean FEV1 over 0-24 h and patient-reported outcomes (transition dyspnoea index score and St George's Respiratory Questionnaire total score). Adverse events were also assessed. A total of 1037 patients were randomised to treatment. Umeclidinium was non-inferior (margin: -50 mL) to glycopyrronium (trough FEV1 at day 85 treatment difference: 24 mL, 95% confidence intervals: -5-54). Improvements in other endpoints were similar between treatments. Adverse event incidences were similar for umeclidinium (37%) and glycopyrronium (36%). Once-daily umeclidinium was non-inferior to once-daily glycopyrronium in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in trough FEV1 at day 85. Patient-reported outcomes and safety profiles were similar for both treatments.

  12. A randomised, open-label study of umeclidinium versus glycopyrronium in patients with COPD

    PubMed Central

    Khindri, Sanjeev; Vahdati-Bolouri, Mitra; Church, Alison; Fahy, William A.

    2016-01-01

    This study compared the efficacy and safety of once-daily umeclidinium 62.5 µg with once-daily glycopyrronium 50 µg in patients with moderate-to-severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. This was a 12-week, multicentre, randomised, open-label, parallel-group study (Clinicaltrials.gov: NCT02236611). Patients were randomised 1:1 to umeclidinium 62.5 µg or glycopyrronium 50 µg administered via Ellipta or Breezhaler dry powder inhaler, respectively. The primary endpoint was trough forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) at day 85 in the per-protocol population. Other endpoints included: weighted mean FEV1 over 0–24 h and patient-reported outcomes (transition dyspnoea index score and St George's Respiratory Questionnaire total score). Adverse events were also assessed. A total of 1037 patients were randomised to treatment. Umeclidinium was non-inferior (margin: −50 mL) to glycopyrronium (trough FEV1 at day 85 treatment difference: 24 mL, 95% confidence intervals: −5–54). Improvements in other endpoints were similar between treatments. Adverse event incidences were similar for umeclidinium (37%) and glycopyrronium (36%). Once-daily umeclidinium was non-inferior to once-daily glycopyrronium in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in trough FEV1 at day 85. Patient-reported outcomes and safety profiles were similar for both treatments. PMID:27730198

  13. Long-Term, Open-Label Safety and Efficacy of Atomoxetine in Adults with ADHD: Final Report of a 4-Year Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adler, Lenard A.; Spencer, Thomas J.; Williams, David W.; Moore, Rodney J.; Michelson, David

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Previously, data from 97 weeks of open-label atomoxetine treatment of adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) were reported. This final report of that study presents results from over 4 years of treatment. Method: Results were derived from the study of 384 patients (125 patients remaining in the open-label trial…

  14. Efficacy and Tolerability of a Combined Moxifloxacin/Dexamethasone Formulation for Topical Prophylaxis in Phacoemulsification: An Open-Label Single-Arm Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Espiritu, Cesar Ramon G.; Sy, Mary Ellen A.; Tayengco, Tommee Lynne G.

    2011-01-01

    Background. The use of a fixed-combination antibiotic corticosteroid for infection prophylaxis in Asian patients undergoing phacoemulsification has not been reported. Methods. A 15-day, open-label, single-arm trial of 64 patients for phacoemulsification with intraocular lens (IOL) implantation is described. Patients applied moxifloxacin 0.5%/dexamethasone 0.1% (Vigadexa) eye drops four times daily before and until 15 days after surgery. Anterior chamber (AC) reaction, visual acuity, ocular pain and signs, and intraocular pressure (IOP) were assessed at baseline and on postoperative days 1, 3, 8, and 15. Results. At day 15, 55 (91.7%) patients scored 0 (<5 cells) in AC reaction. No surgery-related infection occurred. Mean best-corrected visual acuity improved 0.5 logMAR from baseline to 0.0 logMAR (P < .0001). Mean IOP remained at 12-13 mm Hg over the 15-day treatment. Only 2 patients (3.1%) reported minimum ocular pain. Two (3.1%) patients were shifted to prednisolone acetate for severe inflammation. At the end of the study period, 8.3% were given fluorometholone for 1 week for AC reaction grade >0. No drug-related adverse event was reported. Conclusion. Following phacoemulsification and IOL implantation, the topical combination moxifloxacin 0.5%/dexamethasone 0.1% was effective in preventing infection and controlling inflammation and was well tolerated. PMID:21772987

  15. Open-label 24-week extension study of edaravone (MCI-186) in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    PubMed

    2017-10-01

    We aimed to explore the longer-term efficacy and safety of edaravone in an active-treatment extension period following the double-blind period of the second phase III study. Patients who met all the following criteria (scores ≥2 points on all 12 items of the revised amyotrophic lateral sclerosis functional rating scale [ALSFRS-R], forced vital capacity ≥80%, definite or probable ALS, and disease duration ≤2 years) were randomised to 60 mg intravenous edaravone or placebo for six cycles in the double-blind period, and then offered the opportunity to proceed to this 24-week open-label extension period. One hundred and twenty-three of 137 patients continued to the extension period: 65 edaravone-edaravone (E-E group) and 58 placebo-edaravone (P-E group). Change (mean ± standard deviation; SD) in the ALSFRS-R score from baseline in the double-blind period was -4.1 ± 3.4 and -6.9 ± 5.1 in the E-E group and P-E group, respectively, while it was -8.0 ± 5.6 in the E-E group and -10.9 ± 6.9 in the P-E group over the whole 48-week period. The ALSFRS-R score changed almost linearly throughout Cycles 1-12 in the E-E group. The most commonly reported adverse events were constipation, dysphagia, and contusion. There was no sudden deterioration in the ALSFRS-R score of the E-E group. No safety concerns related to edaravone were detected.

  16. Nutritional and Safety Outcomes from an Open-Label Micronutrient Intervention for Pediatric Bipolar Spectrum Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Gracious, Barbara; Arnold, L. Eugene; Failla, Mark; Chitchumroonchokchai, Chureeporn; Habash, Diane; Fristad, Mary A.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Objective The purpose of this study was to report the safety, tolerability, and serum micronutrient concentrations and their correlations with mood changes from an 8 week pilot feasibility study of a 36 ingredient multinutrient supplement, EMPowerplus (EMP+), for pediatric bipolar spectrum disorders (BPSD). Methods Ten children ages 6–12 received EMP+ escalating from one to four capsules t.i.d., with four children increased to the maximum suggested dose, five capsules t.i.d. Outcome measures were micronutrient concentrations in serum and red blood cells, vital signs, body mass index (BMI), dietary intake (Food Frequency Questionnaire and 24 hour dietary recall interview), and mood and global functioning ratings. Results Seven children (70%) completed the study. Three (30%) terminated early for tolerability and compliance issues. Adverse effects were mild and transient, and chiefly consisted of initial insomnia or gastrointestinal (GI) upset. No differences occurred in BMI (p=0.310) or waist–hip ratio (WHR; p=0.674) pre- to postsupplementation. Four of the tested serum vitamin concentrations increased from pre- to postsupplementation: vitamin A-retinol, vitamin B6, vitamin E-α-tocopherol; and folate (all p<0.05). The increase in serum 25-OH vitamin D approached significance (p=0.063). No differences were found in dietary intake pre- to postsupplementation, suggesting that blood nutrient level increases were caused by EMP+. Conclusions In this open prospective study, short-term use of EMP+ in children with BPSD appeared safe and well-tolerated, with a side effect profile preferable to first-line psychotropic drugs for pediatric bipolar spectrum disorders. A double-blind, randomized clinical trial is feasible, appears safe, and is warranted by open-label clinical outcomes and plausible mechanisms of action, combined with documentation of increased serum concentrations of specific micronutrients. PMID:24138009

  17. A pilot open label, single dose trial of fenobam in adults with fragile X syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Berry-Kravis, E; Hessl, D; Coffey, S; Hervey, C; Schneider, A; Yuhas, J; Hutchison, J; Snape, M; Tranfaglia, M; Nguyen, D V; Hagerman, R

    2009-01-01

    Objective: A pilot open label, single dose trial of fenobam, an mGluR5 antagonist, was conducted to provide an initial evaluation of safety and pharmacokinetics in adult males and females with fragile X syndrome (FXS). Methods: Twelve subjects, recruited from two fragile X clinics, received a single oral dose of 50–150 mg of fenobam. Blood for pharmacokinetic testing, vital signs and side effect screening was obtained at baseline and numerous time points for 6 h after dosing. Outcome measures included prepulse inhibition (PPI) and a continuous performance test (CPT) obtained before and after dosing to explore the effects of fenobam on core phenotypic measures of sensory gating, attention and inhibition. Results: There were no significant adverse reactions to fenobam administration. Pharmacokinetic analysis showed that fenobam concentrations were dose dependent but variable, with mean (SEM) peak values of 39.7 (18.4) ng/ml at 180 min after the 150 mg dose. PPI met a response criterion of an improvement of at least 20% over baseline in 6 of 12 individuals (4/6 males and 2/6 females). The CPT did not display improvement with treatment due to ceiling effects. Conclusions: Clinically significant adverse effects were not identified in this study of single dose fenobam across the range of dosages utilised. The positive effects seen in animal models of FXS treated with fenobam or other mGluR5 antagonists, the apparent lack of clinically significant adverse effects, and the potential beneficial clinical effects seen in this pilot trial support further study of the compound in adults with FXS. PMID:19126569

  18. Major depressive disorder, anhedonia and agomelatine: an open-label study.

    PubMed

    Di Giannantonio, M; Di Iorio, G; Guglielmo, R; De Berardis, D; Conti, C M; Acciavatti, T; Cornelio, M; Martinotti, G

    2011-01-01

    Despite a wide range of available antidepressants, the effect of the treatment is often suboptimal and there is a need for more effective and better tolerated drugs. Unlike other antidepressants, agomelatine represents a new approach to depression with an innovative mechanism of action. It is an agonist of melatoninergic receptors MT1 and MT2 and a selective antagonist of 5-HT2c receptors. In this open-label 8-week study we aimed to investigate the efficacy of agomelatine on depressive symptoms in patients with major depression. Secondary endpoints were the effect of agomelatine on anhedonia. Thirty major depressive patients received a flexible dose (25-50 mg; per os, daily) of agomelatine. Depressive (Hamilton Depression Scale) and anxious (Hamilton Anxiety Scale) symptoms, anhedonia (Snaith Hamilton Rating Scale), and sleep quality (Leeds Sleep Evaluation Questionnaire) were assessed. Twenty-four patients (80%) completed 8 weeks of treatment. Significant improvements were seen at all visits on the HAM-D (p<.05), HAM-A(p<.01), SHAPS (p<.05), LSEQ (p<.05). Nine subjects (30%) were responders and 5 (17%) remitters at week 1; 18 (60%) were remitters by the end of the trial. There was no serious adverse event. No aminotrasferase elevations were noted. In line with previous studies, in which agomelatine was associated with early clinical improvement, this study also provides evidence of an early response and the findings of improvements in depression scores. Moreover, this is the first study where agomelatine was effective in the treatment of anhedonia. Additional trials are needed to delineate the place of agomelatine in the contemporary pharmacotherapy for depressive disorders.

  19. A 10-month, open-label evaluation of desvenlafaxine in Japanese outpatients with major depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    Tourian, Karen; Wang, Ying; Ii, Yoichi

    2013-07-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the long-term safety of desvenlafaxine for continuation treatment of major depressive disorder (MDD) in Japanese patients. This was a phase 3, multicenter, 10-month, open-label study with flexible dosing of desvenlafaxine (25, 50, 100 mg/day). Japanese patients with MDD who had completed an 8-week, double-blind, placebo-controlled study in which patients received 25 or 50 mg/day desvenlafaxine or placebo were enrolled. In this study, patients received desvenlafaxine 25 mg/day from days 1 to 14, with subsequent upward titration, to a maximum of 100 mg/day, determined by clinical response. Of 304 patients, 75 (24.7%) discontinued during the on-therapy period; patient request was the most common reason (11.5%). Treatment-emergent adverse events were reported by 240 patients (78.9%) during the on-therapy period; the most common adverse events were nasopharyngitis (37.2%), somnolence (11.5%), headache (10.5%), and nausea (10.2%). For the ITT-LOCF population, the mean change from baseline in the 17-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAM-D₁₇) total score was -4.76 (95% confidence interval: -5.47 to -4.05); continued numerical improvements in the HAM-D₁₇ total scores and other depression outcome measures were observed irrespective of treatment in the previous study. Long-term use of desvenlafaxine was safe and well tolerated, with a clinical benefit/risk profile similar to that in other populations.

  20. Safety of long-term use of linezolid: results of an open-label study

    PubMed Central

    Vazquez, Jose A; Arnold, Anthony C; Swanson, Robert N; Biswas, Pinaki; Bassetti, Matteo

    2016-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to assess the long-term safety of linezolid in patients with chronic infections requiring treatment for ≥6 weeks. Enhanced monitoring for optic neuropathy was included to characterize the early development of this side effect and to identify ophthalmologic tests that might be valuable in early detection of this event. Methods This was a multicenter, open-label, pilot study of patients aged ≥18 years on long-term linezolid therapy. Matched control patients were included for baseline assessment comparison. Patients were assessed at study entry, monthly while on treatment, at the end of treatment, and 30 days following the last dose. Aggregate ocular safety data were reviewed. Response to treatment was reported. Results The study was terminated owing to slow enrollment. Twenty-four patients received linezolid; nine patients were included as matched controls. Linezolid was prescribed for a median of 80.5 days (range, 50–254 days). In patients with a reported clinical outcome, the majority were considered improved or cured. Common treatment-related adverse events (AEs) included anemia, peripheral neuropathy, polyneuropathy, vomiting, and asthenia, and were consistent with the known safety profile. Most AEs resolved or stabilized with discontinuation of treatment. Results of ophthalmologic tests in the one case adjudicated as probable linezolid-associated optic neuropathy revealed abnormal color vision, characteristic changes in the optic disk, and central scotomas in each eye. Conclusion In our small population, linezolid was generally well tolerated and AEs were consistent with the known safety profile. Extensive ophthalmologic testing of all 24 linezolid-treated patients identified one case adjudicated as probable, linezolid-associated optic neuropathy. PMID:27621644

  1. An Open Label Pilot Study of Adjunctive Asenapine for the Treatment of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Pilkinton, Patricia; Berry, Carlos; Norrholm, Seth; Bartolucci, Al; Birur, Badari; Davis, Lori L.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) remain the first-line treatment for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, adjunctive atypical antipsychotics are often used to target residual or refractory symptoms. Asenapine is a novel atypical antipsychotic that possesses a high serotonin (5-HT2A) to dopamine (D2) affinity ratio and alpha-adrenergic antagonism, which may be advantageous in treating PTSD. This pilot study aimed to identify the therapeutic potential of asenapine as an adjunctive treatment for PTSD. Method Eighteen subjects initiated treatment in this single-site prospective, open-label, 12-week trial of flexibly-dosed asenapine in Veterans with PTSD who had not responded to an adequate course of treatment with an SSRI, venlafaxine, or mirtazapine. Subjects remained on their antidepressant medication and were started on adjunctive asenapine 5 mg sublingual at bedtime, which was gradually titrated to a maximum of 10 mg twice per day, as tolerated. The primary outcome measure was the Clinician Administered PTSD Scale (CAPS) for DSM-IV. Results Fifteen subjects finished at least 4 weeks and eleven completed the 12 week study. There was a significant and clinically meaningful decrease in CAPS from baseline (77.56 ± 14.48) to week 4 (48.7 ± 30.6), and to week 12 (35.3 ± 19.7). Six participants experienced adverse events possibly related to asenapine; however, only three participants discontinued early due to related adverse events. Conclusion This pilot study demonstrated that adjunctive treatment with asenapine may provide additional benefit to some patients experiencing residual PTSD symptoms in spite of optimal antidepressant therapy. A larger efficacy study may be warranted. PMID:27738377

  2. An open-label trial of risperidone in children and adolescents with severe mood dysregulation.

    PubMed

    Krieger, Fernanda Valle; Pheula, Gabriel Ferreira; Coelho, Roberta; Zeni, Thamis; Tramontina, Silzá; Zeni, Cristian Patrick; Rohde, Luis Augusto

    2011-06-01

    The diagnosis and treatment of youth with severe nonepisodic irritability and hyperarousal, a syndrome defined as severe mood dysregulation (SMD), has been the focus of increasing concern and debate among clinicians and researchers. Our main objective was to assess the effectiveness of risperidone for youths with SMD. An 8-week open label trial with risperidone was conducted. We extensively assessed 97 subjects with semistructured and clinical interviews and enrolled 21 patients in the study. Risperidone was titrated from 0.5 to 3 mg/day in the first 2 weeks. Evaluations were performed at baseline and weeks 2, 4, 6, and 8. Clinical outcome measures were (1) Aberrant Behavior Checklist-Irritability Subscale, (2) Clinical Global Impressions, and (3) severity of co-morbid conditions. We found a significant reduction of the Aberrant Behavior Checklist-Irritability scores during the trial after risperidone use (p < 0.001). The scores at week 2 (mean = 12.03; standard error [SE] = 2.94), week 4 (mean = 15.48; SE = 2.93), week 6 (mean = 12.29; SE = 2.86), and week 8 (mean = 11.28; SE = 3.06) were significantly reduced compared with the baseline mean score (mean = 25.89; SE = 2.76) (p < 0.001). We also found an improvement in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, depression, and global functioning (p < 0.001). Risperidone was effective in reducing irritability in SMD youth. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first psychopharmacological trial in this group of patients with positive results. Further randomized, controlled studies are needed.

  3. Switching from rivaroxaban to warfarin: an open label pharmacodynamic study in healthy subjects

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Kenneth Todd; Byra, William; Vaidyanathan, Seema; Natarajan, Jaya; Ariyawansa, Jay; Salih, Hiba; Turner, Kenneth C

    2015-01-01

    Aims The primary objective was to explore the pharmacodynamic changes during transition from rivaroxaban to warfarin in healthy subjects. Safety, tolerability and pharmacokinetics were assessed as secondary objectives. Methods An open label, non-randomized, sequential two period study. In treatment period 1 (TP1), subjects received rivaroxaban 20 mg once daily (5 days), followed by co-administration with a warfarin loading dose regimen of 5 or 10 mg (for the 10 mg regimen, the dose could be uptitrated to attain target international normalized ratio [INR] ≥2.0) once daily (2–4 days). When trough INR values ≥2.0 were attained, rivaroxaban was discontinued and warfarin treatment continued as monotherapy (INR 2.0–3.0). During treatment period 2, subjects received the same warfarin regimen as in TP1, but without rivaroxaban. Results During co-administration, maximum INR and prothrombin time (PT) values were higher than with rivaroxaban or warfarin monotherapy. The mean maximum effect (Emax) for INR after co-administration was 2.79–4.15 (mean PT Emax 41.0–62.7 s), compared with 1.41–1.74 (mean PT Emax 20.1–25.2 s) for warfarin alone. However, rivaroxaban had the smallest effect on INR at trough rivaroxaban concentrations. Neither rivaroxaban nor warfarin significantly affected maximum plasma concentrations of the other drug. Conclusions The combined pharmacodynamic effects during co-administration of rivaroxaban and warfarin were greater than additive, but the pharmacokinetics of both drugs were unaffected. Co-administration was well tolerated. When transitioning from rivaroxaban to warfarin, INR monitoring during co-administration should be performed at the trough rivaroxaban concentration to minimize the effect of rivaroxaban on INR. PMID:25475601

  4. Zotepine for behavioural and psychological symptoms in dementia: an open-label study.

    PubMed

    Rainer, Michael K; Mucke, Hermann A M; Krüger-Rainer, Christine; Haushofer, Manfred; Kasper, Sigfried

    2004-01-01

    To provide initial information on the safety and efficacy of the atypical antipsychotic zotepine in the treatment of behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD). This was an open-label, single-centre field study. Twenty-four patients with BPSD associated with Alzheimer's disease (n=12) or other forms of dementia (n=12) were included. During the 8-week observation period, the patients received zotepine (Nipolept) [12.5-150 mg/day] for the psychotic components of BPSD; no other treatment interventions for BPSD were allowed. At baseline, day 28 and day 56, patients were evaluated using the Clinical Global Impressions (CGI) scale; the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), the Syndrome Brief Test (SKT) and the Age Concentration Test (AKT) to assess cognition; and the Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI) and the Cohen-Mansfield Agitation Inventory (CMAI) to assess BPSD. General adverse effects and, more specifically, the emergence of extrapyramidal symptoms were also assessed. There was no change from baseline to day 56 in the CGI score and the caregiver burden (as indicated by the caregiver-related section of the NPI). There was also no change in cognition (as assessed by the MMSE, SKT and AKT). The neuropsychiatric symptom score according to part 1 of the NPI (especially key psychotic symptoms, aggression and disinhibition) and the CMAI scores improved by 36% and 15%, respectively, between baseline and the end of the study in a highly statistically significant fashion. No significant differences in treatment response or adverse effect profile were noted between the 12 patients with Alzheimer's disease and the 12 patients with other types of dementia. Zotepine was well tolerated, with tiredness and sedation (five and four cases, respectively) being the most frequent complaints. No clinically significant emergence of extrapyramidal symptoms was seen. Zotepine appears to be well tolerated and effective in treating BPSD, consistent with the performance of other

  5. Metronidazole immediate release formulations: a fasting randomized open-label crossover bioequivalence study in healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    de Freitas Silva, M; Schramm, S G; Kano, E K; Koono, E E M; Manfio, J L; Porta, V; dos Reis Serra, C H

    2012-10-01

    Metronidazole is a BCS (Biopharmaceutics Classification System) class 1 drug, traditionally considered the choice drug in the infections treatment caused by protozoa and anaerobic microorganisms. This study aimed to evaluate bioequivalence between 2 different marketed 250 mg metronidazole immediate release tablets. A randomized, open-label, 2×2 crossover study was performed in healthy Brazilian volunteers under fasting conditions with a 7-day washout period. The formulations were administered as single oral dose and blood was sampled over 48 h. Metronidazole plasma concentrations were determined by a liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method. The plasma concentration vs. time profile was generated for each volunteer and the pharmacokinetic parameters Cmax, Tmax, AUC0-t, AUC0-∞, ke, and t1/2 were calculated using a noncompartmental model. Bioequivalence between pharmaceutical formulations was determined by calculating 90% CIs (Confidence Intervall) for the ratios of Cmax, AUC0-t, and AUC0-∞ values for test and reference using log-transformed data. 22 healthy volunteers (11 men, 11 women; mean (SD) age, 28 (6.5) years [range, 21-45 years]; mean (SD) weight, 66 (9.3) kg [range, 51-81 kg]; mean (SD) height, 169 (6.5) cm [range, 156-186 cm]) were enrolled in and completed the study. The 90% CIs for Cmax (0.92-1.06), AUC0-t (0.97-1.02), and AUC0-∞ (0.97-1.03) values for the test and reference products fitted in the interval of 0.80-1.25 proposed by most regulatory agencies, including the Brazilian agency ANVISA. No clinically significant adverse effects were reported. After pharmacokinetics analysis, it concluded that test 250 mg metronidazole formulation is bioequivalent to the reference product according to the Brazilian agency requirements. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  6. A randomized, open-label comparison of venlafaxine and fluoxetine in depressed outpatients.

    PubMed

    Diaz-Martinez, A; Benassinni, O; Ontiveros, A; Gonzalez, S; Salin, R; Basquedano, G; Martinez, R A

    1998-01-01

    In this randomized, open-label, 8-week comparative study, the efficacy and safety of venlafaxine and fluoxetine were assessed in outpatients with major depression. One hundred forty-five patients were assigned to receive venlafaxine 37.5 mg twice daily or fluoxetine 20 mg once daily. On day 15, if clinically indicated to improve patient response, the dosage could be increased at the investigator's discretion to venlafaxine 75 mg twice daily or fluoxetine 40 mg once daily. One hundred forty-five patients were evaluated for safety and 110, for efficacy. The mean age was 37 years, and 70% of the patients were female. In both treatment groups, mean scores on the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale decreased significantly between baseline (27.8, venlafaxine; 29.2, fluoxetine) and the end of the study (8.7, venlafaxine; 8.2, fluoxetine). Similarly, mean scores on the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale decreased significantly between baseline (31.4, venlafaxine; 31.6, fluoxetine) and the end of the study (8.3, venlafaxine; 7.6, fluoxetine). In venlafaxine patients, the most common adverse events were nausea (44.3%), headache (40.0%), insomnia (31.4%), dizziness (30.0%), and dry mouth (22.9%); in fluoxetine patients, they were headache (32.0%), nausea (28.0%), insomnia (24.0%), anxiety (21.3%), sleepiness (20.0%), and generalized tremor (20.0%). The results of this study indicate that venlafaxine is effective and well tolerated for the treatment of major depression at doses of 37.5 or 75 mg twice daily and not significantly different from fluoxetine 20 or 40 mg once daily.

  7. Outcomes of autologous bone marrow mononuclear cells for cerebral palsy: an open label uncontrolled clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Liem Thanh; Nguyen, Anh Tuan; Vu, Chinh Duy; Ngo, Doan V; Bui, Anh V

    2017-04-12

    Stem cell therapy has emerged as a promising method for improving motor function of patients with cerebral palsy. The aim of this study is to assess the safety and effectiveness of autologous bone marrow mononuclear stem cell transplantation in patients with cerebral palsy related to oxygen deprivation. An open label uncontrolled clinical trial was carried out at Vinmec International Hospital. The intervention consisted of two administrations of stem cells, the first at baseline and the second 3 months later. Improvement was monitored at 3 months and 6 months after the first administration of stem cells, using the Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM) and Modified Ashworth Score which measures muscle tone. No severe complications were recorded during the study. After transplantation, 12 patients encountered fever without infections and 9 patients experienced vomiting which was easily managed with medications. Gross motor function was markedly improved 3 months or 6 months after stem cell transplantation than at baseline. The post-transplantation GMFM-88 total score, each of its domains and the GMFM-66 percentile were all significantly higher (p-value < 0.001). Muscle spasticity also reduced significantly after transplantation (p-value < 0.001). The therapy was equally effective regardless of sex, age and GMFCS level (p-value > 0.05). Autologous bone marrow mononuclear cell transplantation appears to be a safe and effective therapy for patients with cerebral palsy. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02569775 . Retrospectively registered on October 15, 2015.

  8. Adjunctive agomelatine therapy in the treatment of acute bipolar II depression: a preliminary open label study

    PubMed Central

    Fornaro, Michele; McCarthy, Michael J; De Berardis, Domenico; De Pasquale, Concetta; Tabaton, Massimo; Martino, Matteo; Colicchio, Salvatore; Cattaneo, Carlo Ignazio; D’Angelo, Emanuela; Fornaro, Pantaleo

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The circadian rhythm hypothesis of bipolar disorder (BD) suggests a role for melatonin in regulating mood, thus extending the interest toward the melatonergic antidepressant agomelatine as well as type I (acute) or II cases of bipolar depression. Patients and methods Twenty-eight depressed BD-II patients received open label agomelatine (25 mg/bedtime) for 6 consecutive weeks as an adjunct to treatment with lithium or valproate, followed by an optional treatment extension of 30 weeks. Measures included the Hamilton depression scale, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, the Clinical Global Impression Scale–Bipolar Version, Young Mania Rating Scale, and body mass index. Results Intent to treat analysis results demonstrated that 18 of the 28 subjects (64%) showed medication response after 6 weeks (primary study endpoint), while 24 of the 28 subjects (86%) responded by 36 weeks. When examining primary mood stabilizer treatment, 12 of the 17 (70.6%) valproate and six of the 11 (54.5%) lithium patients responded by the first endpoint. At 36 weeks, 14 valproate treated (82.4%) and 10 lithium treated (90.9%) subjects responded. At 36 weeks, there was a slight yet statistically significant (P = 0.001) reduction in body mass index and Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index scores compared to respective baseline values, regardless of mood stabilizer/outcome. Treatment related drop-out cases included four patients (14.28%) at week 6 two valproate-treated subjects with pseudo-vertigo and drug-induced hypomania, respectively, and two lithium-treated subjects with insomnia and mania, respectively. Week 36 drop outs were two hypomanic cases, one per group. Conclusion Agomelatine 25 mg/day was an effective and well-tolerated adjunct to valproate/lithium for acute depression in BD-II, suggesting the need for confirmation by future double blind, controlled clinical trials. PMID:23430979

  9. Liposomal Bladder Instillations for IC/BPS: an Open-Label Clinical Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Peters, Kenneth M; Hasenau, Deborah; Killinger, Kim A; Chancellor, Michael B; Anthony, Michele; Kaufman, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Intravesical instillation of liposomes is a potentially new therapeutic option for subjects with interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome (IC/BPS). The aim of this study was to explore the safety and clinical outcomes of 4 weekly instillations of sphingomyelin liposomes in an open-label cohort of subjects with IC/BPS. Methods A total of fourteen symptomatic IC/BPS subjects were treated with intravesical liposomes once a week for 4 weeks. Safety measurements included lab specimen collection, vital signs, post void residual (PVR), and assessment of adverse events (AEs). Efficacy measurements included pain visual analog scales (VAS), voiding diaries, global response assessments (GRAs), and O'Leary-Sant Interstitial Cystitis Symptom and Problem Indices (ICSI and ICPI). Results No treatment-related adverse events (AE) were reported at any time over the course of the study. Urgency VAS scores significantly decreased at 4 weeks (p=0.0029) and 8 weeks (p=0.0112) post-treatment. Pain VAS scores significantly decreased at 4 weeks post-treatment (p=0.0073). Combined ICSI and ICPI scores improved significantly at 4 weeks and 8 weeks (p=0.002 for both time points) post-treatment. Responses to GRA showed improvement at 4 weeks post- instillation. No significant decrease in urinary frequency was found. Conclusion Sphingomyelin liposome instillations were well tolerated in subjects with IC/BPS with no AEs attributed to the test article. Treatment was associated with improvements in pain, urinary urgency, and overall symptom scores. Placebo controlled clinical trials are needed to assess this potential therapy for IC/BPS. PMID:25209396

  10. Dexmedetomidine versus propofol in dilatation and curettage: An open-label pilot randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Sethi, Priyanka; Sindhi, Sunil; Verma, Ankita; Tulsiani, K. L.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Traditionally propofol has been used for providing sedation in dilatation and curettage (D and C). Recently, dexmedetomidine has been tried, but very little evidence exists to support its use. Aims: The aim was to compare hemodynamic and recovery profile of both the drugs along with a degree of comfort experienced by patients and the usefulness of the drug to surgeons. Settings and Design: Tertiary care center and open-label randomized controlled trial. Materials and Methods: Patients posted for D and C were enrolled in two groups (25 each). Both groups received fentanyl 1 μg/kg intravenous (IV) at the beginning of the procedure. Group P received IV propofol in dose of 1.5 mg/kg over 10-15 min and Group D received dexmedetomidine at a loading dose of 1 μg/kg over 10 min, followed by 0.5 μg/kg/h infusion until Ramsay sedation score reached 3-4. Hemodynamic vitals were compared during and after the procedure. In the recovery room time to reach modified Aldrete score (MAS) of 9-10 and patient's and surgeon's satisfaction scores were also recorded and compared. Results: In Group D, patients had statistically significant lower heart rate at 2, 5, 10 and 15 min as compared to Group P. Hypotension was present in 52% in Group P and 4% in Group D (P < 0.05). MAS of 9-10 was achieved in 4.4 min in subjects in Group D in contrast to 16.2 min in Group P (P < 0.05). Group D showed higher patient and surgeon satisfaction scores (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Dexmedetomidine provide better hemodynamic and recovery profile than propofol. It can be a superior alternative for short surgical day care procedures. PMID:26240542

  11. Phenobarbitone versus phenytoin for treatment of neonatal seizures: an open-label randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Pathak, Garima; Upadhyay, Amit; Pathak, Umesh; Chawla, Deepak; Goel, Sneh P

    2013-08-01

    To compare the efficacy of phenobarbitone and phenytoin for treatment of neonatal seizures in term and near-term neonates. Open labeled randomized controlled trial. Neonatal intensive care unit of a level II unit from India, from November 2008 to September 2009. All term and late pre-term neonates admitted with clinically apparent seizures and not having any transient metabolic disorders (hypoglycemia or hypocalcemia) were randomly assigned. Phenobarbitone (n=54) or phenytoin (n=55) intravenously 20 mg/kg/dose over 20-30 min. Neonates whose seizures were not controlled by the assigned drug were then crossed over to be treated with other drug in same dose. Clinical control of seizures (seizure free period of 24 hours after giving anticonvulsant). Baseline characteristics including mean birthweight, gestation age and sex were comparable in both groups. Seizures were controlled in 8 of the 55 (14.5%) neonates who received phenytoin, as compared to 39 of 54 (72.2%) neonates who received phenobarbitone (P <0.001). In babies not responding to assigned drugs, after cross-over to the other drug, seizure control was achieved in 44/55 (80%) of the neonates assigned to receive phenytoin first as compared to 49/54 (91%) of those assigned to receive phenobarbitone first (P=0.014). After maximum dose of phenobarbitone seizures were controlled in 49/55(89%) in phenytoin group and 52/54 (96%) in phenobarbitone group (P<0.05). Phenobarbitone is more efficacious than phenytoin in control of clinical seizures in term or near-term neonates, irrespective of etiology. To evaluate serum vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) levels in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) during the induction phase of chemotherapy.

  12. Rufinamide for refractory focal seizures: an open-label, multicenter European study.

    PubMed

    Coppola, Giangennaro; Zamponi, Nelia; Kluger, Gerhard; Mueller, Arndt; Anna Rita, Mazzotta; Parisi, Pasquale; Isone, Claudia; Santoro, Elena; Curatolo, Paolo; Verrotti, Alberto

    2013-01-01

    The present study aimed to assess the efficacy and tolerability of rufinamide as adjunctive drug for the treatment of a large series of children, adolescents and adults with refractory cryptogenic or symptomatic focal epilepsy. Patients were recruited in a prospective, add-on, open-label treatment study from six Italian and one German centers for pediatric and adolescent epilepsy care. Inclusion criteria were: (1) age 3 years or more; (2) diagnosis of cryptogenic or symptomatic focal epilepsy refractory to at least three previous antiepileptic drugs (AEDs), alone or in combination; (3) more than one seizure per month in the last 6 months; (4) use of at least one other AED, but no more than three, at baseline; (5) informed consent from parents and/or caregivers. Sixty-eight patients (40 males, 28 females), aged between 3 and 63 years (mean 19.9 years, median 16.0)±SD 12.58, with cryptogenic (28 pts, 41.2%) or symptomatic focal epilepsy (40 pts, 58.8%), were recruited in the study. After a mean follow-up period of 10.4±10.29 months, twenty-two patients (32.3%) had a 50-99% seizure reduction, and none became seizure-free. Twelve patients (17.6%) had a 25-49% seizure decrease, while in 30 (44.1%) seizure frequency was unchanged. A seizure worsening was reported in 5 patients (7.3%). A better response to rufinamide occurred in frontal lobe seizures (51.6%) and secondary generalized tonic-clonic seizures (50%). Rufinamide was effective against focal-onset seizures, particularly in the treatment of secondary generalized frontal lobe seizures. Copyright © 2012 British Epilepsy Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Lactobacillus GG for treatment of acute childhood diarrhoea: An open labelled, randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Aggarwal, Sunny; Upadhyay, Amit; Shah, Dheeraj; Teotia, Neeraj; Agarwal, Astha; Jaiswal, Vijay

    2014-01-01

    Background & objectives: Randomized controlled trials in developed countries have reported benefits of Lactobacillus GG (LGG) in the treatment of acute watery diarrhoea, but there is paucity of such data from India. The study was aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of Lactobacillus GG in the treatment of acute diarrhoea in children from a semi-urban city in north India. Methods: In this open labelled, randomized controlled trial 200 children with acute watery diarrhoea, aged between 6 months to 5 years visiting outpatient department and emergency room of a teaching hospital in north India were enrolled. The children were randomized into receiving either Lactobacillus GG in dose of 10 billion cfu/day for five days or no probiotic medication in addition to standard WHO management of diarrhoea. Primary outcomes were duration of diarrhoea and time to change in consistency of stools. Results: Median (inter quartile range) duration of diarrhoea was significantly shorter in children in LGG group [60 (54-72) h vs. 78 (72-90) h; P<0.001]. Also, there was faster improvement in stool consistency in children receiving Lactobacillus GG than control group [36 (30-36) h vs. 42 (36-48) h; P<0.001]. There was significant reduction in average number of stools per day in LGG group (P<0.001) compared to the control group. These benefits were seen irrespective of rotavirus positivity in stool tests. Interpretation & conclusions: Our results showed that the use of Lactobacillus GG in children with acute diarrhoea resulted in shorter duration and faster improvement in stool consistency as compared to the control group. PMID:24820831

  14. The Efficacy of Neurofeedback in Patients with Major Depressive Disorder: An Open Labeled Prospective Study.

    PubMed

    Cheon, Eun-Jin; Koo, Bon-Hoon; Choi, Joong-Hyun

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of neurofeedback on depressive symptoms and electrophysiological disturbances in patients with major depressive disorder. We recruited participants suffering from depression to evaluate efficacy of left prefrontal beta with alpha/theta training. An 8-week, prospective, open-label study was undertaken. Twenty participants were recruited. The treatment protocol was twice or three times a week training of beta at F3 with alpha/theta at Pz for 8 weeks. When every visit, patients were received beta training for 30 min, and then alpha/theta training for 30 min. Baseline, 4 and 8 week scores of; the Hamilton rating scale for Depression (HAM-D), the Hamilton rating scale for Anxiety (HAM-A), the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI)-II, the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI), Clinical global impression-severity (CGI-S), and pre- and post-treatment resting state EEGs were compared. Interhemispheric alpha power asymmetry (A score) was computed for homologous sites F3-F4. Pre- and post-training clinical assessments revealed significant improvements in HAM-D, HAM-A, BDI, and CGI-S scores. Cumulative response rates by HAM-D were 35.0 and 75.0 % at 4 and 8 weeks, respectively, corresponding cumulative remission rates by HAM-D were 15.0 and 55.0 %, respectively. No significant differences were found between pre- and post-treatment A score. Neurofeedback treatment could improve depressive symptoms significantly. In addition, anxiety symptoms and clinical illness severity decreased significantly after neurofeedback treatment. Despite its several limitations, such as, small sample size and lack of a control group, this study suggested neurofeedback has significant effects in patients with major depressive disorder.

  15. Randomized, open-label trial of primaquine against vivax malaria relapse in Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Sutanto, Inge; Tjahjono, Bagus; Basri, Hasan; Taylor, W Robert; Putri, Fauziah A; Meilia, Rizka A; Setiabudy, Rianto; Nurleila, Siti; Ekawati, Lenny L; Elyazar, Iqbal; Farrar, Jeremy; Sudoyo, Herawati; Baird, J Kevin

    2013-03-01

    Radical cure of Plasmodium vivax infection applies blood schizontocidal therapy against the acute attack and hypnozoitocidal therapy against later relapse. Chloroquine and primaquine have been used for 60 years in this manner. Resistance to chloroquine by the parasite now requires partnering other blood schizontocides with primaquine. However, the safety and efficacy of primaquine against relapse when combined with other drugs have not been demonstrated. This randomized, open-label, and relapse-controlled trial estimated the efficacy of primaquine against relapse when administered with quinine or dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine for treatment of the acute infection. Among 650 soldiers who had returned to their malaria-free base in Java, Indonesia, after 12 months in malarious Papua, Indonesia, 143 with acute P. vivax malaria were eligible for study. One hundred sixteen enrolled subjects were randomized to these treatments: artesunate (200-mg dose followed by 100 mg/day for 6 days), quinine (1.8 g/day for 7 days) plus concurrent primaquine (30 mg/day for 14 days), or dihydroartemisinin (120 mg) plus piperaquine (960 mg) daily for 3 days followed 25 days later by primaquine (30 mg/day for 14 days). Follow-up was for 12 months. One hundred thirteen subjects were analyzable. Relapse occurred in 32 of 41 (78%) subjects administered artesunate alone (2.71 attacks/person-year), 7 of 36 (19%) administered quinine plus primaquine (0.23 attack/person-year), and 2 of 36 (6%) administered dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine plus primaquine (0.06 attack/person-year). The efficacy of primaquine against relapse was 92% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 81% to 96%) for quinine plus primaquine and 98% (95% CI = 91% to 99%) for dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine plus primaquine. Antirelapse therapy with primaquine begun a month after treatment of the acute attack with dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine proved safe and highly efficacious against relapse by P. vivax acquired in Papua, Indonesia.

  16. Istradefylline improves daytime sleepiness in patients with Parkinson's disease: An open-label, 3-month study.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Keisuke; Miyamoto, Masayuki; Miyamoto, Tomoyuki; Uchiyama, Tomoyuki; Watanabe, Yuka; Suzuki, Shiho; Kadowaki, Taro; Fujita, Hiroaki; Matsubara, Takeo; Sakuramoto, Hirotaka; Hirata, Koichi

    2017-09-15

    Istradefylline, a selective adenosine A2A receptor antagonist, has been reported to improve daily "off time" and motor symptoms in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). However, the effect of istradefylline on sleep problems has not been thoroughly investigated. We evaluated the effect of istradefylline on daytime sleepiness, sleep disturbances, and motor symptoms in 22 PD patients who were affected by the wearing off phenomenon in an open-label, 3-month study. Participants received 20-40mg/day istradefylline once daily (morning) over a 3-month period. The Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS), PD sleep scale (PDSS)-2 and PD Questionnaire (PDQ-8) were administered at baseline, 2weeks, 1month, 2months and 3months. At baseline and 3months, patients were evaluated on the Movement Disorder Society Revision of the Unified PD Rating Scale (MDS-UPDRS) parts III and IV. Twenty-one patients (95.5%) completed the study. At 3months, MDS-UPDRS part III (-5.3, p=0.0002) and part IV (-2.5, p=0.001) scores improved and off time decreased significantly (-50.1min, p=0.0004). PDQ-8 scores were unchanged at 3months. ESS scores decreased significantly at 2months and 3months (-2.4 and -3.3, respectively, p<0.0001), but the total PDSS-2 scores did not change. Istradefylline improved daytime sleepiness in PD patients, possibly through its effect on enhancing alertness. In addition, the lack of significant changes in the total PDSS-2 scores over the study period suggests istradefylline had no negative impact on sleep. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Long-term open-label study of pramipexole in patients with primary restless legs syndrome.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Yuichi; Kuroda, Kenji; Hirata, Koichi; Uchimura, Naohisa; Kagimura, Tatsuo; Shimizu, Tetsuo

    2010-07-15

    A phase III, open-label, long-term clinical study was performed to evaluate the safety and efficacy of pramipexole in a cohort of 141 Japanese patients with primary restless legs syndrome (RLS). The patients were started on pramipexole 0.25 mg/day and were subsequently maintained on that dose or switched to 0.125, 0.5, or 0.75 mg/day to achieve optimal efficacy and tolerability. The International Restless Legs Syndrome Study Group Rating Scale for restless legs syndrome (IRLS) score improved from 22.3+/-4.7 at baseline to 11.1+/-7.7 at week 8 and 4.9+/-5.9 at week 52. IRLS responders, defined as patients whose IRLS total score decreased by > or =50% from baseline, accounted for 67.4% at week 12 and 86.6% at week 52. Over 90% of patients were Clinical Global Impression-global improvement (CGI-I) and Patient Global Impression (PGI) responders. The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) score decreased from 7.9+/-3.1 at baseline to 4.6+/-2.9 at week 52. Similarly, the Japanese version of the Epworth Sleepiness Scale score decreased from 9.3+/-5.2 to 4.9+/-3.8. Baseline IRLS score < or =20 was significantly associated with a complete IRLS response in this long-term study. Adverse events were typical of nonergot dopamine agonists, mild in intensity, and decreased in frequency as the study progressed. RLS augmentation was not observed. Pramipexole 0.25-0.75 mg/day is efficacious, safe, and well tolerated in patients with RLS. Pramipexole showed good efficacy, particularly in patients with an IRLS total score <20.

  18. A multicentre open-label safety and efficacy study of tetrodotoxin for cancer pain

    PubMed Central

    Hagen, N.A.; Lapointe, B.; Ong–Lam, M.; Dubuc, B.; Walde, D.; Gagnon, B.; Love, R.; Goel, R.; Hawley, P.; Ngoc, A. Ho; du Souich, P.

    2011-01-01

    Background Cancer pain is highly prevalent, and existing treatments are often insufficient to provide adequate relief. Objectives We assessed the long-term safety and efficacy of subcutaneous tetrodotoxin treatment in reducing the intensity of chronic cancer-related pain. Methods In this multicentre open-label longitudinal trial, 30 μg tetrodotoxin was administered subcutaneously twice daily for 4 days in a heterogeneous cohort of patients with persistent pain despite opioids and other analgesics. “Responder” was defined as a mean reduction of 30% or more in pain intensity from baseline; and “clinical responder” as some pain reduction, but less than 30%, plus agreement on the part of both the patient and the physician that a meaningful analgesic response to treatment had occurred. Results Of 45 patients who entered the longitudinal trial, 41 had sufficient data for analysis. Of all 45 patients, 21 (47%) met the criteria for “responder” [16 patients (36%)] or “clinical responder” [5 patients (11%)]. Onset of pain relief was typically cumulative over days, and after administration ended, the analgesic effect subsided over the course of a few weeks. No evidence of loss of analgesic effect was observed during subsequent treatments (2526 patient–days in total and a maximum of 400 days in 1 patient). One patient withdrew from the study because of adverse events. Toxicity was usually mild (82%) or moderate (13%), and remained so through subsequent treatment cycles, with no evidence of cumulative toxicity or tolerance. Conclusions Long-term treatment with tetrodotoxin is associated with acceptable toxicity and, in a substantial minority of patients, resulted in a sustained analgesic effect. Further study of tetrodotoxin for moderate-to-severe cancer pain is warranted. PMID:21655148

  19. Amantadine augmentation therapy for obsessive compulsive patients resistant to SSRIs-an open-label study.

    PubMed

    Stryjer, Rafael; Budnik, Dana; Ebert, Tania; Green, Tamar; Polak, Lea; Weizman, Shira; Spivak, Baruch

    2014-01-01

    It has been hypothesized that glutamatergic dysfunction may play a role in the development of obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) and that glutamatergic modulation may ameliorate some of the OC symptoms. We evaluated the effectiveness of amantadine (AMN)- a weak, noncompetitive, antagonist of the N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA) receptor-as an adjunctive therapy to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), and its role in improving OC symptoms in cases refractory to SSRI pharmacotherapy alone. Eight patients (5 males and 3 females, aged 42.6 ± 13.1 years) that met Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision criteria for OCD, scored above 20 points on Yale Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS) and were unresponsive to at least one SSRI, completed an open label study of 6 weeks duration. AMN was added to the current stable SSRI regimen and baseline and endpoint changes in Y-BOCS, depression and anxiety levels were analyzed. Significant reductions in total Y-BOCS (28 ± 4.5 vs. 18.8 ± 8.8; P < 0.01; df = 7; t = 2.36), Y-BOCS compulsion sub-scale (15.3 ± 3.2 vs. 10.6 ± 4.7; P < 0.02; df = 7; t = 2.36), and Y-BOCS obsession sub-scale (12.7 ± 3.3 vs. 8.1 ± 5; P < 0.05; df = 7; t = 2.36) scores were obtained at endpoint. The anxiety and depression levels remained unaltered. AMN adjunction to SSRI treatment may lead to a significant reduction in OC symptoms, supporting the hypothesis that transduction of the glutamate signal via NMDA receptor may play a role in OCD. A large scale, double-blind, placebo-controlled study is warranted to confirm our results.

  20. Cardiovascular clinical trials in Japan and controversies regarding prospective randomized open-label blinded end-point design.

    PubMed

    Kohro, Takahide; Yamazaki, Tsutomu

    2009-02-01

    Recently, results of several cardiovascular clinical trials conducted in Japan were published. Most of them were designed as prospective randomized open-label blinded end-point (PROBE)-type trials, in which patients were randomly allocated to different regimens and both the patients and doctors are aware of the regimen being administered. Although the PROBE design enables performing trials resembling real-world practices, entails low costs and renders patient recruitment easier, it presents several conditions that have to be satisfied to acquire accurate results, due to its open-label nature. Principally, the so-called hard end points, which are judged by objective criteria, should be used as primary end points in order to prevent biases. In this article, a general description of various designs of clinical studies is provided, followed by a description of the PROBE design, and the precautions to be taken while conducting PROBE-designed trials by comparing trials conducted in Japan and the West.

  1. Brief Report: An Open-Label Study of the Neurosteroid Pregnenolone in Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fung, Lawrence K.; Libove, Robin A.; Phillips, Jennifer; Haddad, Francois; Hardan, Antonio Y.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the tolerability and efficacy of pregnenolone in reducing irritability in adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This was a pilot, open-label, 12-week trial that included twelve subjects with a mean age of 22.5 ± 5.8 years. Two participants dropped out of the study due to reasons unrelated to adverse…

  2. Brief Report: An Open-Label Study of the Neurosteroid Pregnenolone in Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fung, Lawrence K.; Libove, Robin A.; Phillips, Jennifer; Haddad, Francois; Hardan, Antonio Y.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the tolerability and efficacy of pregnenolone in reducing irritability in adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This was a pilot, open-label, 12-week trial that included twelve subjects with a mean age of 22.5 ± 5.8 years. Two participants dropped out of the study due to reasons unrelated to adverse…

  3. Long-term safety and efficacy of armodafinil in bipolar depression: A 6-month open-label extension study.

    PubMed

    Ketter, Terence A; Amchin, Jess; Frye, Mark A; Gross, Nicholas

    2016-06-01

    Safe/well-tolerated treatments for bipolar I depression remain limited. We assessed safety/tolerability of adjunctive open-label armodafinil, a wakefulness-promoting agent evaluated in 3 acute, controlled efficacy studies with variable efficacy results. Completers of three 8-week, double-blind, placebo-controlled adjunctive armodafinil studies (150-200 mg/day added to ongoing stable maintenance doses of 1 or 2 protocol-defined mood stabilizers) in bipolar I depression could enter this 6-month, open-label extension study. Objectives included evaluation of safety/tolerability (primary) and efficacy (secondary). 867 patients enrolled; 863 received ≥1 dose of armodafinil and 506 (58%) completed the 6-month study. Headache, insomnia, and anxiety were the most common adverse events (AEs) reported, whereas akathisia, nausea, sedation/somnolence, and weight increase were uncommon. Mean measures assessing emergence of mania, anxiety, insomnia, or suicidality showed no worsening. Discontinuations due to AEs occurred in 57 (7%) patients. Serious AEs occurred in 27 (3%) patients and were considered treatment-related in 8 (1%) patients. Depressive symptoms improved over the 6 months, as did patient functioning. Lack of placebo control. Adjunctive armodafinil was generally safe and well tolerated over 6 months of open-label treatment at 150-200 mg/day when taken with protocol-defined mood stabilizers for bipolar I depression. This 6-month open-label study suggested that armodafinil augmentation of bipolar maintenance therapies may have a favorable risk profile and may improve depressive symptoms in some patients with bipolar I depression. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Pharmacokinetic properties of pravastatin in Mexicans: An open-label study in healthy adult volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Escobar, Yesenia; Venturelli, Caterina R.; Hoyo-Vadillo, Carlos

    2005-01-01

    Background: The pharmacokinetic properties of pravastatin, particularlyAUC and Cmax, are variable by population. A description of the pharmacokinetic properties of pravastatin in Mexican mestizos was not found in a search of MEDLINE/PubMed (key terms: pravastatin, Mexican, and pharmacokinetics; years: 1966–2005). Because Mexicans and Japanese have common ancestors (Mongoloid group), they also have a common gene pool. This gene pool was modified by genetic “bottlenecks” that occurred when these populations migrated to the Americas and when the Mexican population mixed with the Spanish population during the 16th and 17th centuries. Previous studies in Japanese subjects showed 5 main mutations on the hepatic drug transporter OATP-C, resulting in higher Cmax and AUC values compared with whites. In the Japanese population, the rates of expression of the *1b and *15 alleles were 46% and 15%, respectively. Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the pharmacokinetic propertiesof pravastatin in healthy Mexican mestizo volunteers and to compare them with those in white and Japanese populations described in the literature. Methods: This open-label, uncontrolled pilot study of the pharmacokineticproperties of pravastatin was conducted at the Division of Pharmacology, Center for Research and Advanced Studies, Mexico City, Mexico. Healthy, adult, Mexican volunteers received a single dose of pravastatin 10 mg PO (tablet). High-performance liquid chromatography was used to determine plasma pravastatin concentrations between 15 minutes and 12 hours after dosing. Results: Twenty-four subjects (15 women, 9 men; mean age, 30.6 years)participated in the study. The mean (SD) Cmax was 9.5 (2.4) ng/mL; Tmax, 0.8 (0.3) hours; AUC0−∞ 35.7 (19.7) ng/mL - h; t1/2, 2.7 (1.1) hours; and mean residence time, 3.1 (1.1) hours. One volunteer (4%) had an AUC value that differed substantially from the rest of the study population, producing a bimodal distribution of the

  5. An open-label pilot trial of minocycline in children as a treatment for Angelman syndrome.

    PubMed

    Grieco, Joseph C; Ciarlone, Stephanie L; Gieron-Korthals, Maria; Schoenberg, Mike R; Smith, Amanda G; Philpot, Rex M; Heussler, Helen S; Banko, Jessica L; Weeber, Edwin J

    2014-12-10

    Minocycline, a member of the tetracycline family, has a low risk of adverse effects and an ability to improve behavioral performance in humans with cognitive disruption. We performed a single-arm open-label trial in which 25 children diagnosed with Angelman syndrome (AS) were administered minocycline to assess the safety and tolerability of minocycline in this patient population and determine the drug's effect on the cognitive and behavioral manifestations of the disorder. Participants, age 4-12 years old, were randomly selected from a pool of previously screened children for participation in this study. Each child received 3 milligrams of minocycline per kilogram of body weight per day for 8 weeks. Participants were assessed during 3 study visits: baseline, after 8-weeks of minocycline treatment and after an 8-week wash out period. The primary outcome measure was the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development 3rd Edition (BSID-III). Secondary outcome measures included the Clinical Global Impressions Scale (CGI), Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales 2nd Edition (VABS-II), Preschool Language Scale 4th Edition (PLS-IV) and EEG scores. Observations were considered statistically significant if p < 0.05 using ANOVA and partial eta squared (η(2)) was calculated to show effect size. Multiple comparisons testing between time points were carried out using Dunnett's post hoc testing. Significant improvement in the mean raw scores of the BSID-III subdomains communication and fine motor ability as well as the subdomains auditory comprehension and total language ability of the PLS-IV when baseline scores were compared to scores after the washout period. Further, improvements were observed in the receptive communication subdomain of the VABS-II after treatment with minocycline. Finally, mean scores of the BSID-III self-direction subdomain and CGI scale score were significantly improved both after minocycline treatment and after the wash out period. The clinical and

  6. Phase II open label study of valproic acid in spinal muscular atrophy.

    PubMed

    Swoboda, Kathryn J; Scott, Charles B; Reyna, Sandra P; Prior, Thomas W; LaSalle, Bernard; Sorenson, Susan L; Wood, Janine; Acsadi, Gyula; Crawford, Thomas O; Kissel, John T; Krosschell, Kristin J; D'Anjou, Guy; Bromberg, Mark B; Schroth, Mary K; Chan, Gary M; Elsheikh, Bakri; Simard, Louise R

    2009-01-01

    Preliminary in vitro and in vivo studies with valproic acid (VPA) in cell lines and patients with spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) demonstrate increased expression of SMN, supporting the possibility of therapeutic benefit. We performed an open label trial of VPA in 42 subjects with SMA to assess safety and explore potential outcome measures to help guide design of future controlled clinical trials. Subjects included 2 SMA type I ages 2-3 years, 29 SMA type II ages 2-14 years and 11 type III ages 2-31 years, recruited from a natural history study. VPA was well-tolerated and without evident hepatotoxicity. Carnitine depletion was frequent and temporally associated with increased weakness in two subjects. Exploratory outcome measures included assessment of gross motor function via the modified Hammersmith Functional Motor Scale (MHFMS), electrophysiologic measures of innervation including maximum ulnar compound muscle action potential (CMAP) amplitudes and motor unit number estimation (MUNE), body composition and bone density via dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA), and quantitative blood SMN mRNA levels. Clear decline in motor function occurred in several subjects in association with weight gain; mean fat mass increased without a corresponding increase in lean mass. We observed an increased mean score on the MHFMS scale in 27 subjects with SMA type II (p

  7. Phase II Open Label Study of Valproic Acid in Spinal Muscular Atrophy

    PubMed Central

    Swoboda, Kathryn J.; Scott, Charles B.; Reyna, Sandra P.; Prior, Thomas W.; LaSalle, Bernard; Sorenson, Susan L.; Wood, Janine; Acsadi, Gyula; Crawford, Thomas O.; Kissel, John T.; Krosschell, Kristin J.; D'Anjou, Guy; Bromberg, Mark B.; Schroth, Mary K.; Chan, Gary M.; Elsheikh, Bakri; Simard, Louise R.

    2009-01-01

    Preliminary in vitro and in vivo studies with valproic acid (VPA) in cell lines and patients with spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) demonstrate increased expression of SMN, supporting the possibility of therapeutic benefit. We performed an open label trial of VPA in 42 subjects with SMA to assess safety and explore potential outcome measures to help guide design of future controlled clinical trials. Subjects included 2 SMA type I ages 2–3 years, 29 SMA type II ages 2–14 years and 11 type III ages 2–31 years, recruited from a natural history study. VPA was well-tolerated and without evident hepatotoxicity. Carnitine depletion was frequent and temporally associated with increased weakness in two subjects. Exploratory outcome measures included assessment of gross motor function via the modified Hammersmith Functional Motor Scale (MHFMS), electrophysiologic measures of innervation including maximum ulnar compound muscle action potential (CMAP) amplitudes and motor unit number estimation (MUNE), body composition and bone density via dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA), and quantitative blood SMN mRNA levels. Clear decline in motor function occurred in several subjects in association with weight gain; mean fat mass increased without a corresponding increase in lean mass. We observed an increased mean score on the MHFMS scale in 27 subjects with SMA type II (p≤0.001); however, significant improvement was almost entirely restricted to participants <5 years of age. Full length SMN levels were unchanged and Δ7SMN levels were significantly reduced for 2 of 3 treatment visits. In contrast, bone mineral density (p≤0.0036) and maximum ulnar CMAP scores (p≤0.0001) increased significantly. Conclusions While VPA appears safe and well-tolerated in this initial pilot trial, these data suggest that weight gain and carnitine depletion are likely to be significant confounding factors in clinical trials. This study highlights potential strengths and limitations of various

  8. Prospective open label study of solifenacin for overactive bladder in children.

    PubMed

    Bolduc, Stéphane; Moore, Katherine; Nadeau, Geneviève; Lebel, Sylvie; Lamontagne, Pascale; Hamel, Micheline

    2010-10-01

    We evaluated the effect of solifenacin for urinary incontinence in children with overactive/neurogenic bladder refractory to oxybutynin or tolterodine. Pediatric patients presenting with refractory overactive bladder with incontinence were offered the opportunity to enter a prospective, open label protocol using adjusted dose regimens of 1.25 to 10 mg solifenacin. Study inclusion criteria were absent correctable neurological anomalies on magnetic resonance imaging, failure of symptoms to improve on intensive behavioral and medical (oxybutynin or tolterodine) therapy, and/or significant side effects of those agents. Followup consisted of a voiding diary, post-void residual urine measurement, urine culture, ultrasound and urodynamics. Families were questioned about continence, side effects, compliance, behavior change and quality of life. The primary end point was efficacy for continence and secondary end points were tolerability and safety. Enrolled in the study were 42 girls and 30 boys. Of the patients 27 with neurogenic bladder, of whom 11 were on clean intermittent catheterization, and 45 with overactive bladder completed a minimum 3-month followup. Patients were on solifenacin a mean of 15.6 months. Mean age at study initiation was 9.0 years. Mean ± SD urodynamic capacity improved from 146 ± 64 to 311 ± 123 ml and uninhibited contractions decreased from 70 ± 29 to 20 ± 19 cm H(2)O (p <0.01). Continence improved in all patients, including 24 who were dry, and 42 and 6 who were significantly and moderately improved, respectively. Of the patients 50 reported no side effects while 15 had mild and 3 had moderate side effects. Four patients withdrew from the protocol due to intolerable side effects. Four patients had significant post-void residual urine (greater than 20 ml). In children with overactive bladder refractory to oxybutynin or tolterodine solifenacin is an effective alternative to improve symptoms. Tolerability was acceptable and the adjusted dose

  9. Psilocybin with psychological support for treatment-resistant depression: an open-label feasibility study.

    PubMed

    Carhart-Harris, Robin L; Bolstridge, Mark; Rucker, James; Day, Camilla M J; Erritzoe, David; Kaelen, Mendel; Bloomfield, Michael; Rickard, James A; Forbes, Ben; Feilding, Amanda; Taylor, David; Pilling, Steve; Curran, Valerie H; Nutt, David J

    2016-07-01

    Psilocybin is a serotonin receptor agonist that occurs naturally in some mushroom species. Recent studies have assessed the therapeutic potential of psilocybin for various conditions, including end-of-life anxiety, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and smoking and alcohol dependence, with promising preliminary results. Here, we aimed to investigate the feasibility, safety, and efficacy of psilocybin in patients with unipolar treatment-resistant depression. In this open-label feasibility trial, 12 patients (six men, six women) with moderate-to-severe, unipolar, treatment-resistant major depression received two oral doses of psilocybin (10 mg and 25 mg, 7 days apart) in a supportive setting. There was no control group. Psychological support was provided before, during, and after each session. The primary outcome measure for feasibility was patient-reported intensity of psilocybin's effects. Patients were monitored for adverse reactions during the dosing sessions and subsequent clinic and remote follow-up. Depressive symptoms were assessed with standard assessments from 1 week to 3 months after treatment, with the 16-item Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptoms (QIDS) serving as the primary efficacy outcome. This trial is registered with ISRCTN, number ISRCTN14426797. Psilocybin's acute psychedelic effects typically became detectable 30-60 min after dosing, peaked 2-3 h after dosing, and subsided to negligible levels at least 6 h after dosing. Mean self-rated intensity (on a 0-1 scale) was 0·51 (SD 0·36) for the low-dose session and 0·75 (SD 0·27) for the high-dose session. Psilocybin was well tolerated by all of the patients, and no serious or unexpected adverse events occurred. The adverse reactions we noted were transient anxiety during drug onset (all patients), transient confusion or thought disorder (nine patients), mild and transient nausea (four patients), and transient headache (four patients). Relative to baseline, depressive symptoms were markedly reduced 1

  10. Foley Catheter for Induction of Labor at Term: An Open-Label, Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhiqun; Dai, Yimin; Zheng, Mingming; Xu, Biyun; Hu, Yali

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to determine the optimal Foley catheter balloon volume (30-mL vs. 80-mL) and the maximum time for cervical ripening (12 hours vs. 24 hours) to improve vaginal delivery rate within 24 hours of induction. Methods We conducted an open-label, randomized controlled trial in a teaching hospital in China. Women with a term singleton pregnancy, cephalic presentation, intact membrane and an unfavorable cervix (Bishop score <6) were randomly allocated, in 1:1:1:1 ratio, to receive either one of the four treatments: (1) 30-mL balloon for a maximum of 12 hours, (2) 30-mL balloon for a maximum of 24 hours, (3) 80-mL balloon for a maximum of 12 hours, and (4) 80-mL balloon for a maximum of 24 hours. The primary outcome was vaginal delivery within 24 hours. Secondary outcomes included cesarean section rate and maternal/neonatal morbidity. Data were analyzed on a per-protocol basis. Results Five hundred and four women were recruited and randomized (126 women in each group); nine women did not receive the assigned intervention. More women achieved vaginal delivery within 24 hours in 12-hour Foley catheter groups than in the 24-hour Foley catheter groups (30-mL/12 hours: 54.5%, 30-mL/24 hours: 33.1%, 80-mL/12 hours: 46.4%, 80-mL/24 hours: 24.0%, p < 0.001). Cesarean section rates and the incidence of chorioaminonitis were comparable among four groups. After adjustment for confounding factors, both ripening time and balloon size did not affect the proportion of women delivered vaginally within 24 hours of induction. Conclusion For women with an unfavorable cervix at term, induction of labor with a Foley catheter is safe and effective. Higher balloon volume (80-mL vs. 30-mL) and longer ripening time (24 hours vs. 12 hours) would not shorten induction to delivery interval or reduce cesarean section rate. Trial Registration Chinese Clinical trial registry (ChiCTR-TRC-13003044) PMID:26322635

  11. Open-label observational study of the homeopathic medicine Passiflora Compose for anxiety and sleep disorders.

    PubMed

    Villet, Stéphanie; Vacher, Véronique; Colas, Aurélie; Danno, Karine; Masson, Jean-Louis; Marijnen, Philippe; Bordet, Marie-France

    2016-02-01

    Anxiety and sleep disorders (SDS) are frequently treated with psychotropic drugs. Health authorities in France have been advised to improve access to alternative treatments such as homeopathic medicines. Our aim was to describe the socio-demographic characteristics and clinical progression of patients prescribed homeopathic medicine Passiflora Compose (PC) for anxiety and/or SDS. This was an open-label, observational study. Randomly selected general practitioners (GPs) known to prescribe homeopathic medicines recruited consecutive patients (≥18-years) prescribed PC. The following data were recorded at inclusion by the GP: socio-demographic data and anxiety severity (Hamilton anxiety rating scale or HAM-A); and by the patients: level of anxiety (STAI Spielberger self-assessment questionnaire) and SDS (Jenkins sleep scale or JSS). Anxiety and SDS were reassessed after 4 weeks of treatment using the same scales. A total of 639 patients (mean age: 46.3 ± 17.5 years; 78.6% female) were recruited by 98 GPs. Anxiety was present in 85.4% (HAM-A) and 93.3% (Spielberger State) at inclusion (mean scores: 17.8 ± 8.91 and 54.59 ± 11.69, respectively) and SDS was present in 74.0% (mean score: 15.24 ± 5.28). A total of 401 (62.7%) patients received PC alone and 167 (26.1%) PC + psychotropics. After 4 weeks, mean anxiety scores decreased by more than 7, 12 and 6 points (HAM-A, Spielberger State and Trait respectively), and SDS score by more than 4 points (JSS). Anxiety and/or SDS improved significantly in patients included on this study. PC could be an alternative to the use of psychotropic drugs for first intention treatment of anxiety and SDS. Further studies are needed to confirm those results. Copyright © 2015 The Faculty of Homeopathy. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Foley Catheter for Induction of Labor at Term: An Open-Label, Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Gu, Ning; Ru, Tong; Wang, Zhiqun; Dai, Yimin; Zheng, Mingming; Xu, Biyun; Hu, Yali

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the optimal Foley catheter balloon volume (30-mL vs. 80-mL) and the maximum time for cervical ripening (12 hours vs. 24 hours) to improve vaginal delivery rate within 24 hours of induction. We conducted an open-label, randomized controlled trial in a teaching hospital in China. Women with a term singleton pregnancy, cephalic presentation, intact membrane and an unfavorable cervix (Bishop score <6) were randomly allocated, in 1:1:1:1 ratio, to receive either one of the four treatments: (1) 30-mL balloon for a maximum of 12 hours, (2) 30-mL balloon for a maximum of 24 hours, (3) 80-mL balloon for a maximum of 12 hours, and (4) 80-mL balloon for a maximum of 24 hours. The primary outcome was vaginal delivery within 24 hours. Secondary outcomes included cesarean section rate and maternal/neonatal morbidity. Data were analyzed on a per-protocol basis. Five hundred and four women were recruited and randomized (126 women in each group); nine women did not receive the assigned intervention. More women achieved vaginal delivery within 24 hours in 12-hour Foley catheter groups than in the 24-hour Foley catheter groups (30-mL/12 hours: 54.5%, 30-mL/24 hours: 33.1%, 80-mL/12 hours: 46.4%, 80-mL/24 hours: 24.0%, p < 0.001). Cesarean section rates and the incidence of chorioaminonitis were comparable among four groups. After adjustment for confounding factors, both ripening time and balloon size did not affect the proportion of women delivered vaginally within 24 hours of induction. For women with an unfavorable cervix at term, induction of labor with a Foley catheter is safe and effective. Higher balloon volume (80-mL vs. 30-mL) and longer ripening time (24 hours vs. 12 hours) would not shorten induction to delivery interval or reduce cesarean section rate. Chinese Clinical trial registry (ChiCTR-TRC-13003044).

  13. Evaluation of open-label topiramate as primary or adjunctive therapy in infantile spasms.

    PubMed

    Zou, Li-Ping; Lin, Qing; Qin, Jiong; Cai, Fang-Cheng; Liu, Zhi-Sheng; Mix, Eilhard

    2008-01-01

    A multicenter open-label clinical trial was conducted to evaluate the clinical usefulness of topiramate (TPM) as primary or adjunctive therapy for infantile spasms in the postmarketing period in China. Thirty-four centers participated in the trial. Patients included in the study had 1 or more seizures per day before treatment. One hundred twenty (22.1%) very young patients with an age younger than 6 month and 64.2% of patients were younger than 1 year at start of treatment. All patients received a starting dose of 0.5 to 1 mg kg d TPM twice daily. The dosage was increased by 0.5 to 1 mg kg d every 5 to 7 days up to 3 to 5 mg kg d. The resulting range of the total TPM dosage was 25 to 200 mg d (3.57-20 mg kg d), with a median value of 73.9 mg d. Seizure outcomes were measured by intention-to-treat analysis. Patients were seen by a neurologist, and their data were evaluated at the day of inclusion and after 4, 8, 12, 16, and 20 weeks (from visit 1 to visit 5) of treatment. Five hundred forty-four patients entered the study. After 20 weeks of TPM treatment, 239 patients (43.9%) were seizure-free. A higher proportion of patients in the monotherapy group than in the add-on therapy group showed a seizure rate reduction. An increase in seizure frequency was observed in 8 patients (1.5%) during the 20-week treatment period. Nineteen patients were withdrawn before completing the study, and in 46 cases, some data of the structured data files and questionnaires were missing. No efficacy of TPM treatment was recorded in these cases. Adverse effects occurred in 211 patients (38.8%). Most frequent side effects were anorexia and somnolence. Topiramate proved to be an effective and safe monotherapy and add-on therapy in patients with infantile spasms younger than 1 year.

  14. A pilot open-label trial of minocycline in patients with autism and regressive features

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Minocycline is a tetracycline derivative that readily crosses the blood brain barrier and appears to have beneficial effects on neuroinflammation, microglial activation and neuroprotection in a variety of neurological disorders. Both microglial activation and neuroinflammation have been reported to be associated with autism. The study was designed to evaluate the effects of minocycline treatment on markers of neuroinflammation and autism symptomatology in children with autism and a history of developmental regression. Methods Eleven children were enrolled in an open-label trial of six months of minocycline (1.4 mg/kg). Ten children completed the trial. Behavioral measures were collected and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), serum and plasma were obtained before and at the end of minocycline treatment and were analyzed for markers of neuroinflammation. Results Clinical improvements were negligible. The laboratory assays demonstrated significant changes in the expression profile of the truncated form of brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) (P = 0.042) and hepatic growth factor (HGF) (P = 0.028) in CSF. In serum, the ratio of the truncated BDNF form and α-2 macroglobulin (α-2 M), was also significantly lower (P = 0.028) while the mature BDNF/α-2 M ratio revealed no difference following treatment. Only the chemokine CXCL8 (IL-8) was significantly different (P = 0.047) in serum while no significant changes were observed in CSF or serum in chemokines such as CCL2 (MCP-1) or cytokines such as TNF-α, CD40L, IL-6, IFN-γ and IL-1β when pre- and post-treatment levels of these proteins were compared. No significant pre- and post-treatment changes were seen in the profiles of plasma metalloproteinases, putative targets of the effects of minocycline. Conclusions Changes in the pre- and post-treatment profiles of BDNF in CSF and blood, HGF in CSF and CXCL8 (IL-8) in serum, suggest that minocycline may have effects in the CNS by modulating the

  15. An open-label pilot study of alefacept for the treatment of pyoderma gangrenosum.

    PubMed

    Foss, C E; Clark, A R; Inabinet, R; Camacho, F; Jorizzo, J L

    2008-08-01

    Pyoderma gangrenosum (PG) is a chronic inflammatory disease that causes painful cutaneous ulcers that are difficult to treat. Currently, systemic immunosuppressants, often including prednisone, are the mainstay of therapy. Long-term therapy with these agents is often required which exposes patients to possible adverse effects. An alternative treatment that is safe and effective is truly needed. To study the efficacy and safety of alefacept, which inhibits T-cell activation and selectively reduces the T-cell population, for treatment of PG. In this prospective open-label pilot study, four patients diagnosed with PG received weekly doses of 15 mg alefacept intramuscularly for 20 weeks with 12-week treatment-free follow-up. The primary efficacy end point was the proportion of patients achieving remission as defined by a Physician Global Assessment (PGA) of 'clear' or 'almost clear.' Secondary endpoints included proportion of patients achieving 50% improvement in PG lesion size (measured in mm) and proportion of patients achieving resolution of inflammation (an erythema score of 0 and a border thickness of 0 on scales of 0-4). By week 20, one (25%) of the four patients achieved remission, two showed marked improvement in severity on PGA, and one had slight improvement. One patient showed a 98% decrease in lesion size; two other patients evidenced a decrease in the number of small lesions as well as improvements in primary lesion sizes, but did not surpass the 50% criterion. All four patients showed improved erythema scores during treatment, though only one patient showed a complete resolution of inflammation. It may be difficult to generalize the results of this study to a larger population of patients with PG due to the small sample size and lack of a control group. A longer treatment interval might have been required. Safety and efficacy of long-term therapy is unknown. In this pilot study it appears that alefacept treatment may significantly reduce PG severity

  16. Rifaximin in non-alcoholic steatohepatitis: An open-label pilot study.

    PubMed

    Cobbold, Jeremy F L; Atkinson, Stephen; Marchesi, Julian R; Smith, Ann; Wai, Sann N; Stove, Julie; Shojaee-Moradie, Fariba; Jackson, Nicola; Umpleby, A Margot; Fitzpatrick, Julie; Thomas, E Louise; Bell, Jimmy D; Holmes, Elaine; Taylor-Robinson, Simon D; Goldin, Robert D; Yee, Michael S; Anstee, Quentin M; Thursz, Mark R

    2017-04-20

    Gut microbial dysbiosis is implicated in the pathogenesis of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). We investigated downstream effects of gut microbiota modulation on markers of hepatic inflammation, steatosis, and hepatic and peripheral insulin sensitivity in patients with NASH using rifaximin therapy. Patients with biopsy-proven NASH and elevated aminotransferase values were included in this open-label pilot study, all receiving 6 weeks rifaximin 400 mg twice daily, followed by a 6-week observation period. The primary endpoint was change in alanine aminotransferase (ALT) after 6 weeks of rifaximin. Secondary endpoints were change in hepatic lipid content and insulin sensitivity measured with a hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp. Fifteen patients (13 men and 2 women) with a median (range) age of 46 (32-63) years were included. Seven had diabetes on oral hypoglycemic medications and 8 had no diabetes. After 6 weeks of therapy, no differences were seen in ALT (55 [33-191] vs. 63 [41-218] IU/L, P = 0.41), peripheral glucose uptake (28.9 [19.4-48.3] to 25.5 [17.7-47.9] μmol/kg/min, P = 0.30), hepatic insulin sensitivity (35.2 [15.3-51.7]% vs. 30.0 [10.8-50.5]%, P = 0.47), or hepatic lipid content (21.6 [2.2-46.2]% vs. 24.8 [1.7-59.3]%, P = 0.59) before and after rifaximin treatment. After 12 weeks from baseline, serum ALT increased to 83 (30-217) IU/L, P = 0.02. There was a significant increase in the homeostasis model assessment-estimated insulin resistance index (P = 0.05). The urinary metabolic profile indicated a significant reduction in urinary hippurate with treatment, which reverted to baseline after cessation of rifaximin, although there was no consistent difference in relative abundance of fecal microbiota with treatment. These data do not indicate a beneficial effect of rifaximin in patients with NASH. © 2017 The Japan Society of Hepatology.

  17. An Open-Label, Rater-Blinded, Augmentation Study of Aripiprazole in Treatment-Resistant Depression

    PubMed Central

    Patkar, Ashwin A.; Peindl, Kathleen; Mago, Rajnish; Mannelli, Paolo; Masand, Prakash S.

    2006-01-01

    Background: About 30% to 46% of patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) fail to fully respond to initial antidepressants. While treatment-resistant depression commonly refers to nonresponse or partial response to at least 2 adequate trials with antidepressants from different classes, due to variability in terminology, a staging system based on prior treatment response has been suggested. Aripiprazole is a novel atypical antipsychotic with partial agonism at dopamine D2 and serotonin 5-HT1A receptors and antagonism at the 5-HT2 receptors. The present study evaluated whether augmentation with aripiprazole would be beneficial and tolerable in patients with treatment-resistant MDD who had failed 1 or more trials of antidepressants. Method: In an open-label, rater-blinded study conducted from March 2003 through December 2003, 10 patients with DSM-IV MDD without psychotic features who had failed to respond to an adequate trial of at least 1 antidepressant were prescribed aripiprazole (10–30 mg/day) for 6 weeks. The dose of preexisting antidepressants remained unchanged. Treatment response was defined as a 50% or greater reduction in score on the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAM-D) from baseline to end of treatment. Secondary efficacy measures included scores on the Clinical Global Impressions-Improvement (CGI-I) and -Severity (CGI-S) scales. Results: Eight of 10 patients had failed 2 or more antidepressant trials. The mean daily dose of aripiprazole was 13.21 mg. Intent-to-treat analysis showed that mean ± SD HAM-D scores reduced significantly from baseline (23.0 ± 8.1) to end of treatment (8.1 ± 6.0) (p < .001). There was a significant reduction in CGI-I (p < .05) and a trend toward decrease in CGI-S (p = .06) score. Seventy percent of the subjects were responders and 30% achieved remission. Common adverse effects were akathisia (20%), nausea (20%), and restlessness (20%). Conclusions: The study indicates the potential utility of aripiprazole as an

  18. An open-label, 6-month study of allopurinol safety in gout: The LASSO study.

    PubMed

    Becker, Michael A; Fitz-Patrick, David; Choi, Hyon K; Dalbeth, Nicola; Storgard, Chris; Cravets, Matt; Baumgartner, Scott

    2015-10-01

    Allopurinol is the most widely prescribed serum uric acid-lowering therapy (ULT) in gout. To achieve serum uric acid (sUA) concentrations associated with clinical benefit, allopurinol is serially uptitrated with sUA monitoring. Suboptimal dosing is a key contributor to poor clinical outcomes, but few data are available on the safety and efficacy of dose-titrated allopurinol, particularly at doses > 300 mg/d. The objective of this open-label study was to investigate the safety and efficacy of allopurinol under conditions where investigators were encouraged to titrate to optimal, medically appropriate doses. Long-term Allopurinol Safety Study Evaluating Outcomes in Gout Patients (LASSO) was a large, 6-month, multicenter study of allopurinol (NCT01391325). Adults meeting American Rheumatism Association Criteria for Classification of Acute Arthritis of Primary Gout and ≥ 2 gout flares in the previous year were eligible. Investigators were encouraged (but not required) to titrate allopurinol doses to achieve target sUA < 6.0mg/dL. The primary objective was evaluation of the safety of dose-titrated allopurinol by clinical and laboratory examinations at monthly visits. Secondary objectives included sUA-lowering efficacy and gout flare frequency. Of 1735 patients enrolled, 1732 received ≥ 1 allopurinol doses. The maximal daily allopurinol dose during study was < 300 mg in 14.4%, 300 mg in 65.4%, and > 300 mg in 20.2% of patients; dosing duration was 115.5, 152.0, and 159.7 days, respectively. Overall, baseline demographic characteristics and comorbidity rates were similar across these three categories, but patients receiving > 300-mg maximal dose had more severe gout. Treatment-emergent adverse events possibly related to allopurinol occurred in 15.2%, 9.5%, and 11.4% of patients in the < 300-, 300-, and > 300-mg categories, respectively. Rash incidence was low (1.5%) and allopurinol hypersensitivity syndrome was not reported. No clinically meaningful changes occurred

  19. Gatifloxacin versus chloramphenicol for uncomplicated enteric fever: an open-label, randomised, controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Arjyal, Amit; Basnyat, Buddha; Koirala, Samir; Karkey, Abhilasha; Dongol, Sabina; Agrawaal, Krishna Kumar; Shakya, Nikki; Shrestha, Kabina; Sharma, Manish; Lama, Sanju; Shrestha, Kasturi; Khatri, Nely Shrestha; Shrestha, Umesh; Campbell, James I; Baker, Stephen; Farrar, Jeremy; Wolbers, Marcel; Dolecek, Christiane

    2011-01-01

    Summary Background We aimed to investigate whether gatifloxacin, a new generation and affordable fluoroquinolone, is better than chloramphenicol for the treatment of uncomplicated enteric fever in children and adults. Methods We did an open-label randomised superiority trial at Patan Hospital, Kathmandu, Nepal, to investigate whether gatifloxacin is more effective than chloramphenicol for treating uncomplicated enteric fever. Children and adults clinically diagnosed with enteric fever received either gatifloxacin (10 mg/kg) once a day for 7 days, or chloramphenicol (75 mg/kg per day) in four divided doses for 14 days. Patients were randomly allocated treatment (1:1) in blocks of 50, without stratification. Allocations were placed in sealed envelopes opened by the study physician once a patient was enrolled into the trial. Masking was not possible because of the different formulations and ways of giving the two drugs. The primary outcome measure was treatment failure, which consisted of at least one of the following: persistent fever at day 10, need for rescue treatment, microbiological failure, relapse until day 31, and enteric-fever-related complications. The primary outcome was assessed in all patients randomly allocated treatment and reported separately for culture-positive patients and for all patients. Secondary outcome measures were fever clearance time, late relapse, and faecal carriage. The trial is registered on controlled-trials.com, number ISRCTN 53258327. Findings 844 patients with a median age of 16 (IQR 9–22) years were enrolled in the trial and randomly allocated a treatment. 352 patients had blood-culture-confirmed enteric fever: 175 were treated with chloramphenicol and 177 with gatifloxacin. 14 patients had treatment failure in the chloramphenicol group, compared with 12 in the gatifloxacin group (hazard ratio [HR] of time to failure 0·86, 95% CI 0·40–1·86, p=0·70). The median time to fever clearance was 3·95 days (95% CI 3·68–4·68

  20. Lumboperitoneal shunt surgery for idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (SINPHONI-2): an open-label randomised trial.

    PubMed

    Kazui, Hiroaki; Miyajima, Masakazu; Mori, Etsuro; Ishikawa, Masatsune

    2015-06-01

    Lumboperitoneal shunt surgery has the potential to alleviate symptoms of normal pressure hydrocephalus but the benefits of such surgery have not been tested in a randomised trial. The aim of this trial was to determine the safety and efficacy of the lumboperitoneal shunt surgery for this disorder. For the open-label randomised SINPHONI-2 trial, eligible participants (60-85 years of age) with idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus, with ventriculomegaly, and tightness of the high-convexity and medial subarachnoid spaces on MRI, were recruited from 20 neurological and neurosurgical centres in Japan. Enrolled participants were randomly assigned in a 1:1 ratio according to a random code generated by the trial statistician, with a permuted block design (using a block size of 4 or 6) within each centre, to receive lumboperitoneal shunt surgery within 1 month after randomisation, or to surgery postponed for 3 months. Patients and assessors were not masked to treatment assignment. The primary endpoint was favourable outcome, defined as an improvement of one point or more on the modified Rankin scale (mRS) at 3 months after randomisation, analysed by intention to treat, and the main secondary endpoint was the same outcome 12 months after surgery, analysed per protocol. This trial is registered with the University Hospital Medical Information Network Clinical Trials Registry (UMIN-CTR), number UMIN000002730. Between March 1, 2010, and Oct 19, 2011, 93 patients with idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus were enrolled and randomly assigned to the immediate treatment group (n=49) or the postponed treatment group (n=44). More patients in the immediate treatment group than in the postponed treatment group had an improvement of one point or more on the mRS at 3 months: 32 (65%) of 49 in the immediate group vs 2 (5%) of 44 in the postponed group (difference 61% [95% CI 42-68]; p<0·0001). The number of patients who had an improvement of one point or more on the mRS at 12

  1. Cannabidiol in patients with treatment-resistant epilepsy: an open-label interventional trial.

    PubMed

    Devinsky, Orrin; Marsh, Eric; Friedman, Daniel; Thiele, Elizabeth; Laux, Linda; Sullivan, Joseph; Miller, Ian; Flamini, Robert; Wilfong, Angus; Filloux, Francis; Wong, Matthew; Tilton, Nicole; Bruno, Patricia; Bluvstein, Judith; Hedlund, Julie; Kamens, Rebecca; Maclean, Jane; Nangia, Srishti; Singhal, Nilika Shah; Wilson, Carey A; Patel, Anup; Cilio, Maria Roberta

    2016-03-01

    Almost a third of patients with epilepsy have a treatment-resistant form, which is associated with severe morbidity and increased mortality. Cannabis-based treatments for epilepsy have generated much interest, but scientific data are scarce. We aimed to establish whether addition of cannabidiol to existing anti-epileptic regimens would be safe, tolerated, and efficacious in children and young adults with treatment-resistant epilepsy. In this open-label trial, patients (aged 1-30 years) with severe, intractable, childhood-onset, treatment-resistant epilepsy, who were receiving stable doses of antiepileptic drugs before study entry, were enrolled in an expanded-access programme at 11 epilepsy centres across the USA. Patients were given oral cannabidiol at 2-5 mg/kg per day, up-titrated until intolerance or to a maximum dose of 25 mg/kg or 50 mg/kg per day (dependent on study site). The primary objective was to establish the safety and tolerability of cannabidiol and the primary efficacy endpoint was median percentage change in the mean monthly frequency of motor seizures at 12 weeks. The efficacy analysis was by modified intention to treat. Comparisons of the percentage change in frequency of motor seizures were done with a Mann-Whitney U test. Between Jan 15, 2014, and Jan 15, 2015, 214 patients were enrolled; 162 (76%) patients who had at least 12 weeks of follow-up after the first dose of cannabidiol were included in the safety and tolerability analysis, and 137 (64%) patients were included in the efficacy analysis. In the safety group, 33 (20%) patients had Dravet syndrome and 31 (19%) patients had Lennox-Gastaut syndrome. The remaining patients had intractable epilepsies of different causes and type. Adverse events were reported in 128 (79%) of the 162 patients within the safety group. Adverse events reported in more than 10% of patients were somnolence (n=41 [25%]), decreased appetite (n=31 [19%]), diarrhoea (n=31 [19%]), fatigue (n=21 [13%]), and convulsion (n

  2. An open-label pilot study of icariin for co-morbid bipolar and alcohol use disorder.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Heather; Wignall, Nicholas; Brown, E Sherwood

    2016-03-01

    Bipolar disorder is associated with a very high prevalence of alcohol-related disorders. However, few studies have examined treatment in this population. Preclinical research suggests a role for the flavonoid icariin in mood and addictive disorders. In this open-label pilot study, we investigated the feasibility and safety of using icariin for persons with bipolar disorder and alcohol abuse or dependence. Ten participants with bipolar I or bipolar II disorders, currently depressed, and with active alcohol abuse or dependence were given open-label icariin of up to 300 mg/day for 8 weeks using a flexible dosing strategy. Participants were assessed using the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAMD), Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology-Self Report (QIDS-SR), Hamilton Rating Scale for Anxiety (HAMA), and Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS). Standard drinks, heavy drinking days, and drinking days were also quantified. Baseline and exit data were analyzed using the Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test. We observed a significant decrease in the HAMD (p = 0.012, d = 0.8), QIDS (p = 0.017, d = 0.7), and HAMA (p = 0.005, d = 1.4) scores. Heavy drinking days (p = 0.034, d = 1.1) and standard drinks (p = 0.038, d = 0.8) also decreased significantly. Icariin was well tolerated and no participants withdrew due to side-effects. Results from this uncontrolled study suggest icariin may decrease depressive symptoms and reduce alcohol consumption in persons with bipolar disorder and alcohol use. Improvement in mood and alcohol use was similar to that observed in an open-label trial of naltrexone in this population. Controlled trials, but at this point not routine clinical use, of icariin seem warranted.

  3. A randomized, open-label, controlled trial of gabapentin and phenobarbital in the treatment of alcohol withdrawal.

    PubMed

    Mariani, John J; Rosenthal, Richard N; Tross, Susan; Singh, Prameet; Anand, Om P

    2006-01-01

    Gabapentin was compared with phenobarbital for the treatment of alcohol withdrawal in a randomized, open-label, controlled trial in 27 inpatients. There were no significant differences in the proportion of treatment completers between treatment groups or the proportion of patients in each group requiring rescue medication for breakthrough signs and symptoms of alcohol withdrawal. There were no significant treatment differences in withdrawal symptoms or psychological distress, nor were there serious adverse events. These findings suggest that gabapentin may be as effective as phenobarbital in the treatment of alcohol withdrawal. Given gabapentin's favorable pharmacokinetic profile, further study of its effectiveness in treating alcohol withdrawal is warranted.

  4. Flecainide acetate acetic acid solvates.

    PubMed

    Veldre, Kaspars; Actiņs, Andris; Eglite, Zane

    2011-02-01

    Flecainide acetate forms acetic acid solvates with 0.5 and 2 acetic acid molecules. Powder X-ray diffraction, differential thermal analysis/thermogravimetric, infrared, and potentiometric titration were used to determine the composition of solvates. Flecainide acetate hemisolvate with acetic acid decomposes to form a new crystalline form of flecainide acetate. This form is less stable than the already known polymorphic form at all temperatures, and it is formed due to kinetic reasons. Both flecainide acetate nonsolvated and flecainide acetate hemisolvate forms crystallize in monoclinic crystals, but flecainide triacetate forms triclinic crystals. Solvate formation was not observed when flecainide base was treated with formic acid, propanoic acid, and butanoic acid. Only nonsolvated flecainide salts were obtained in these experiments.

  5. An Open-Label Study of Guanfacine Extended Release for Traumatic Stress Related Symptoms in Children and Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Grasso, Damion J.; Slivinsky, Michelle D.; Pearson, Geraldine S.; Banga, Alok

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Objective The purpose of this open-label pilot study was to investigate the effectiveness and tolerability of guanfacine extended release (GXR) 1–4 mg given in the evening, on the symptoms of traumatic stress (reexperiencing, avoidance, overarousal), generalized anxiety, and functional impairment in children and adolescents with a history of traumatic stress with or without posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). As many of our sample had associated attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms, we also assessed whether the presence of traumatic stress symptoms impaired the effectiveness of GXR in the treatment of comorbid ADHD symptoms. Methods Participants were 19 children and adolescents 6–18 years of age, with current traumatic stress symptoms. In an 8 week open-label design, each patient's scores on parent-, child-, and clinician-reported symptom rating scales assessing traumatic stress symptoms, generalized anxiety, ADHD symptoms, functional impairment, and global symptom severity and improvement (n=17) were evaluated off and on GXR using χ2 goodness-of-fit tests, paired t tests, and repeated measures analyses of variance (ANOVAs). To examine patterns of change in outcome measures across treatment, MPlus software was used to conduct linear growth curves modeled with individual-varying times of observation (i.e., random slopes). Results Using an average GXR daily dose of 1.19 mg±0.35 mg and an average weight-adjusted daily dose of 0.03 mg/kg±0.01 mg/kg, significant differences were found on all symptom severity measures. Parent reported UCLA Reaction Index scores assessing cluster B (reexperiencing), C (avoidant), and D (overarousal) symptoms significantly improved. In the presence of PTSD symptoms, children with ADHD experienced significantly improved ADHD symptom scores, suggesting that comorbidity does not attenuate an ADHD symptom response to GXR therapy. Medication was generally well tolerated. Conclusions Within the

  6. Pregabalin augmentation of antidepressants in patients with accident-related posttraumatic stress disorder: an open label pilot study.

    PubMed

    Pae, Chi-Un; Marks, David M; Han, Changsu; Masand, Prakash S; Patkar, Ashwin A

    2009-01-01

    This study evaluated the efficacy of pregabalin augmentation of antidepressant treatment in patients with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Nine patients meeting Diagnostic and Statistical Manual, fourth edition criteria for PTSD who were on stable doses of antidepressants were treated open label with flexibly dosed pregabalin for 6 weeks. All patients were assessed with the Short PTSD Rating Interview, Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale, Patient Global Impression-severity, Visual Analog Scale-pain, and Sheehan Disability Scale at baseline and weeks 2, 4, and 6. Significant reductions were observed in all effectiveness measures from week 4 to the end of the study. In particular, the numerical improvement of the Visual Analog Scale-pain score was most robust (-53.4%, P=0.007). Pregabalin augmentation was effective and well tolerated during the study. Our findings warrant adequately powered, placebo-controlled clinical trials to confirm the usefulness of pregabalin augmentation of antidepressants in patients with PTSD.

  7. The effects of amisulpride on five dimensions of psychopathology in patients with schizophrenia: a prospective open- label study

    PubMed Central

    Herrera-Estrella, Miguel; Apiquian, Rogelio; Fresan, Ana; Sanchez-Torres, Isabel

    2005-01-01

    Background The efficacy of antipsychotics can be evaluated using the dimensional models of schizophrenic symptoms. The D2/D3-selective antagonist amisulpride has shown similar efficacy and tolerability to other atypical antipsychotics. The aim of the present study was to determine the efficacy of amisulpride on the dimensional model of schizophrenic symptoms and tolerability in latin schizophrenic patients. Method Eighty schizophrenic patients were enrolled and 70 completed a prospective open-label 3-month study with amisulpride. The schizophrenic symptoms, psychosocial functioning and side-effects were evaluated with standardized scales. Results The patients showed significant improvement in the five dimensions evaluated. Amisulpride (median final dose 357.1 mg/d) was well-tolerated without treatment-emergent extrapyramidal side-effects. Conclusion Amisulpride showed efficacy on different psychopathological dimensions and was well tolerated, leading to consider this drug a first line choice for the treatment of schizophrenia. PMID:15869707

  8. Topical tretinoin 0.1% for pregnancy-related abdominal striae: an open-label, multicenter, prospective study.

    PubMed

    Rangel, O; Arias, I; García, E; Lopez-Padilla, S

    2001-01-01

    In an open-label, multicenter, prospective study, 20 women applied tretinoin (retinoic acid) cream 0.1% daily for 3 months to pregnancy-related stretch marks in the abdominal area. Efficacy was evaluated by analysis of one preselected target lesion, which was rated on a six-point scale (-1 = worse to 4 = cleared). At week 12, significant global improvement was noted from baseline in all stretch marks, and the target lesion decreased in length by 20% (P = .01). Erythema and scaling, the most common adverse events, occurred in 11 patients, decreased in severity after the first month of treatment, and were controlled with continued application of tretinoin and petroleum jelly ointment. In this small study, topical application of tretinoin significantly improved the clinical appearance of pregnancy-related stretch marks.

  9. Escitalopram in the treatment of patients with schizophrenia and obsessive-compulsive disorder: an open-label, prospective study.

    PubMed

    Stryjer, Rafael; Dambinsky, Yael; Timinsky, Igor; Green, Tamar; Kotler, Moshe; Weizman, Abraham; Spivak, Baruch

    2013-03-01

    The current data suggest that up to 50% of patients with schizophrenia have obsessive-compulsive (OC) symptoms coexisting with psychosis and between 7.8 and 46% of schizophrenia patients also have full-blown obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). The aim of this study was to examine the efficacy of the most selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor escitalopram in the management of OCD in schizophrenia patients. The study was an open-label prospective trial of 12 weeks' duration in which escitalopram at a dose of up to 20 mg/day was added to the existing antipsychotic drug regimen in schizophrenia patients with OCD. Fifteen patients (10 men/five women) with the diagnosis of schizophrenia and OCD were recruited for the study (mean age: 39±14, range 21-61 years) and received escitalopram according to the study design. A significant improvement was observed in the total Yale Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS) scores and in the scores of both the Y-BOCS-Obsession and the Y-BOCS-Compulsion subscale at the end point. In addition, a significant improvement was observed in the total scores of the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale and particularly in scores of anxiety, tension, depression, and preoccupation items. No adverse effects of escitalopram were reported by patients during the trial. In our prospective 12-week open-label study, escitalopram 20 mg/day was well tolerated and improved OC symptoms in schizophrenia patients. Our preliminary results are encouraging and a double-blind randomized study is required to confirm our results.

  10. Effects of chronic l-theanine administration in patients with major depressive disorder: an open-label study.

    PubMed

    Hidese, Shinsuke; Ota, Miho; Wakabayashi, Chisato; Noda, Takamasa; Ozawa, Hayato; Okubo, Tsutomu; Kunugi, Hiroshi

    2017-04-01

    l-theanine, an amino acid uniquely contained in green tea (Camellia sinensis), has been suggested to have various psychotropic effects. This study aimed to examine whether l-theanine is effective for patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) in an open-label clinical trial. Subjects were 20 patients with MDD (four males; mean age: 41.0±14.1 years, 16 females; 42.9±12.0 years). l-theanine (250 mg/day) was added to the current medication of each participant for 8 weeks. Symptoms and cognitive functions were assessed at baseline, 4, and 8 weeks after l-theanine administration by the 21-item version of the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD-21), State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), Stroop test, and Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia (BACS). HAMD-21 score was reduced after l-theanine administration (p=0.007). This reduction was observed in unremitted patients (HAMD-21>7; p=0.004) at baseline. Anxiety-trait scores decreased after l-theanine administration (p=0.012) in the STAI test. PSQI scores also decreased after l-theanine administration (p=0.030) in the unremitted patients at baseline. Regarding cognitive functions, response latency (p=0.001) and error rate (p=0.036) decreased in the Stroop test, and verbal memory (p=0.005) and executive function (p=0.016) were enhanced in the BACS test after l-theanine administration. Our study suggests that chronic (8-week) l-theanine administration is safe and has multiple beneficial effects on depressive symptoms, anxiety, sleep disturbance and cognitive impairments in patients with MDD. However, since this is an open-label study, placebo-controlled studies are required to consolidate the effects.

  11. Repeat treatment of acute hereditary angioedema attacks with open-label icatibant in the FAST-1 trial

    PubMed Central

    Malbrán, A; Riedl, M; Ritchie, B; Smith, W B; Yang, W; Banerji, A; Hébert, J; Gleich, G J; Hurewitz, D; Jacobson, K W; Bernstein, J A; Khan, D A; Kirkpatrick, C H; Resnick, D; Li, H; Fernández Romero, D S; Lumry, W

    2014-01-01

    Hereditary angioedema (HAE) is characterized by potentially life-threatening recurrent episodes of oedema. The open-label extension (OLE) phase of the For Angioedema Subcutaneous Treatment (FAST)-1 trial (NCT00097695) evaluated the efficacy and safety of repeated icatibant exposure in adults with multiple HAE attacks. Following completion of the randomized, controlled phase, patients could receive open-label icatibant (30 mg subcutaneously) for subsequent attacks. The primary end-point was time to onset of primary symptom relief, as assessed by visual analogue scale (VAS). Descriptive statistics were reported for cutaneous/abdominal attacks 1–10 treated in the OLE phase and individual laryngeal attacks. Post-hoc analyses were conducted in patients with ≥ 5 attacks across the controlled and OLE phases. Safety was evaluated throughout. During the OLE phase, 72 patients received icatibant for 340 attacks. For cutaneous/abdominal attacks 1–10, the median time to onset of primary symptom relief was 1·0–2·0 h. For laryngeal attacks 1–12, patient-assessed median time to initial symptom improvement was 0·3–1·2 h. Post-hoc analyses showed the time to onset of symptom relief based on composite VAS was consistent across repeated treatments with icatibant. One injection of icatibant was sufficient to treat 88·2% of attacks; rescue medication was required in 5·3% of attacks. No icatibant-related serious adverse events were reported. Icatibant provided consistent efficacy and was well tolerated for repeated treatment of HAE attacks. PMID:24749847

  12. Modafinil treatment in patients with seasonal affective disorder/winter depression: an open-label pilot study.

    PubMed

    Lundt, Leslie

    2004-08-01

    Hypersomnia is a cardinal symptom of seasonal affective disorder/winter depression. This open-label pilot study assessed modafinil, a novel wake-promoting agent, as treatment for seasonal affective disorder/winter depression. Total daily modafinil dose was 100 mg (all patients week 1), and 100 mg or 200 mg split dose (weeks 2-8). Efficacy assessments (weeks 1, 2, 5, and 8) included the Structured Interview Guide for the Hamilton Depression (HAM-D) Rating Scale, Seasonal Affective Disorder Version (SIGH-SAD), Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS), Clinical Global Impression of Change (CGI-C), Fatigue Severity Scale (FSS), and Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS). Thirteen patients (11 women; mean age, 41 years) were enrolled, 12 were evaluable for efficacy (100 mg dose, five patients; 200 mg dose, seven patients), and nine completed treatment. Modafinil significantly improved winter depression as shown by reductions from baseline in mean SIGH-SAD at week 1 (P<0.01) through week 8 (P<0.001 weeks 2-8) and MADRS total scores from week 2 through week 8 (P<0.01 for all). At week 8, mean SIGH-SAD total score was 17.1 (versus 37.2 at baseline, P<0.001), and mean MADRS total score was 13.3 (versus 26.9 at baseline, P<0.01). Modafinil significantly improved overall clinical condition at all time points (P<0.001). The response rate was 67% on the SIGH-SAD (29 item), HAM-D (21 item), and MADRS, and 100% on eight atypical SIGH-SAD items. Modafinil significantly reduced fatigue (FSS) and improved wakefulness (ESS) from weeks 2 through 8 (P<0.01). Modafinil was well tolerated. This was an open-label, single site study. Modafinil may be an effective and well-tolerated treatment in patients with seasonal affective disorder/winter depression.

  13. Ren Shen Yangrong Tang for Fatigue in Cancer Survivors: A Phase I/II Open-Label Study

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Yichen; Chen, Yanzhi

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objectives: This open-label, prospective, phase I/II trial was performed to establish the safety and efficacy of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) herbal products for treating non–anemia-related fatigue in patients with cancer. Although this practice is widespread in China, it has not been confirmed in a prospective clinical study. Design: Thirty-three patients who had completed cancer treatment, had stable disease and no anemia, and reported moderate to severe fatigue (rated ≥4 on a 0–10 scale) were enrolled in a TCM outpatient clinic. Patients took Ren Shen Yangrong Tang (RSYRT) decoction, a soup containing 12 TCM herbs, twice a day for 6 weeks. RSYRT aims to correct qi deficiency. Fatigue was assessed before and after RSYRT therapy, which all patients completed. Results: No discomfort or toxicity was observed. Before the study, all patients had had fatigue for at least 4 months. Fatigue severity decreased significantly from before therapy to 6 weeks after therapy: from 7.06 to 3.30 on a 0–10 scale (p<0.001). Fatigue category (mild, moderate, severe) shifted significantly (p=0.024): Of 22 patients with severe fatigue (rated ≥7) before therapy, 11 had mild fatigue and 11 had moderate fatigue after TCM treatment. The time-to-fatigue-alleviation was 2–3 weeks. Conclusion: RSYRT therapy was safe and was associated with fatigue improvement in nonanemic cancer survivors, consistent with historical TCM clinical practice experience. Because of a possible placebo effect in this open-label study, decoction RSYRT warrants further study in randomized clinical trials to confirm its effectiveness for managing moderate to severe fatigue. PMID:25918996

  14. Pregabalin augmentation of antidepressants in older patients with comorbid depression and generalized anxiety disorder-an open-label study.

    PubMed

    Karaiskos, Dimitrios; Pappa, Dimitra; Tzavellas, Elias; Siarkos, Kostas; Katirtzoglou, Everina; Papadimitriou, George N; Politis, Antonios

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this 12-week open-label study was to evaluate the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of pregabalin as an adjunctive treatment to antidepressants in older patients suffering from depression and comorbid generalized anxiety disorder (GAD). The initial sample of this open-label study consisted of 94 older patients fulfilling criteria for depression with comorbid GAD who were treated with antidepressants. Twenty of them who had received antidepressant monotherapy for an adequate time and shown partial response to the antidepressant prescribed, in terms of either anxiety or depressive symptomatology, followed the next phase. During the 12-week study period, pregabalin was gradually added to the previously prescribed antidepressant, reaching 225 mg/day over 4 weeks. Depression and anxiety scores as well as side effects were monitored. Within groups, differences of depression and anxiety scores at baseline and during the following 12 weeks of treatment were estimated with repeated-measure analysis of variance. A statistical significant reduction in depression scores was observed after the 4th week of treatment (p < 0.01), which further improved between the 8th and 12th weeks (p < 0.01). Concerning overall anxiety scores, a statistically significant improvement was noted between the 2nd and 4th weeks (p < 0.01), which further continued throughout the 8th (p < 0.05) and 12th weeks (p < 0.05). The present study demonstrated a good therapeutic response to pregabalin in patients with depression comorbid with GAD after a 12-week treatment period. Both anxiety and depressive symptomatology significantly improved, and minimal side effects were observed. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Levodopa—carbidopa intestinal gel in advanced Parkinson’s disease open-label study: Interim results

    PubMed Central

    Fernandez, Hubert H.; Vanagunas, Arvydas; Odin, Per; Espay, Alberto J.; Hauser, Robert A.; Standaert, David G.; Chatamra, Krai; Benesh, Janet; Pritchett, Yili; Hass, Steven L.; Lenz, Robert A.

    2013-01-01

    Levodopa–carbidopa intestinal gel (LCIG) delivered continuously via percutaneous endoscopic gastrojejunostomy (PEG-J) tube has been reported, mainly in small open-label studies, to significantly alleviate motor complications in Parkinson’s disease (PD). A prospective open-label, 54-week, international study of LCIG is ongoing in advanced PD patients experiencing motor fluctuations despite optimized pharmacologic therapy. Pre-planned interim analyses were conducted on all enrolled patients (n = 192) who had their PEG-J tube inserted at least 12 weeks before data cutoff (July 30, 2010). Outcomes include the 24-h patient diary of motor fluctuations, Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS), Clinical Global Impression-Improvement (CGI-I), Parkinson’s Disease Questionnaire (PDQ-39), and safety evaluations. Patients (average PD duration 12.4 yrs) were taking at least one PD medication at baseline. The mean (±SD) exposure to LCIG was 256.7 (±126.0) days. Baseline mean “Off” time was 6.7 h/day. “Off” time was reduced by a mean of 3.9 (±3.2) h/day and “On” time without troublesome dyskinesia was increased by 4.6 (±3.5) h/day at Week 12 compared to baseline. For the 168 patients (87.5%) reporting any adverse event (AE), the most common were abdominal pain (30.7%), complication of device insertion (21.4%), and procedural pain (17.7%). Serious AEs occurred in 60 (31.3%) patients. Twenty-four (12.5%) patients discontinued, including 14 (7.3%) due to AEs. Four (2.1%) patients died (none deemed related to LCIG). Interim results from this advanced PD cohort demonstrate that LCIG produced meaningful clinical improvements. LCIG was generally well-tolerated; however, device and procedural complications, while generally of mild severity, were common. PMID:23287001

  16. Mesoxalaldehyde acetals

    SciTech Connect

    Gordeeva, G.N.; Kalashnikov, S.M.; Popov, Yu.N.; Kruglov, E.A.; Imashev, U.B.

    1987-11-10

    The treatment of methylglyoxal acetals by alkyl nitrites in the presence of the corresponding aliphatic alcohols and hydrochloric acid leads to the formation of linear mesoxalaldehyde acetals, whose structure was established by NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. The major pathways for the decomposition of these molecules upon electron impact were established.

  17. Effects of early treatment with glatiramer acetate in patients with clinically isolated syndrome.

    PubMed

    Comi, Giancarlo; Martinelli, Vittorio; Rodegher, Mariaemma; Moiola, Lucia; Leocani, Letizia; Bajenaru, Ovidiu; Carra, Adriana; Elovaara, Irina; Fazekas, Franz; Hartung, Hans-Peter; Hillert, Jan; King, John; Komoly, Samuel; Lubetzki, Catherine; Montalban, Xavier; Myhr, Kjell-Morten; Preziosa, Paolo; Ravnborg, Mads; Rieckmann, Peter; Rocca, Maria A; Wynn, Daniel; Young, Carolyn; Filippi, Massimo

    2013-07-01

    The placebo-controlled phase of the PreCISe study showed that glatiramer acetate delayed onset of clinically definite multiple sclerosis (CDMS) in patients with clinically isolated syndrome and brain lesions on MRI. To compare the effects of early versus delayed glatiramer acetate treatment in the open-label phase of PreCISe. Patients with a clinically isolated syndrome suggestive of MS with unifocal manifestation and ≥2 T2-weighted brain lesions were randomized to receive glatiramer acetate 20 mg/d (early-treatment, n=198) or placebo (delayed-treatment, n=211) for 36 months or until conversion to CDMS, followed by open-label glatiramer acetate treatment for two years. Early glatiramer acetate treatment reduced CDMS conversion risk by 41% (hazard ratio 0.59, 95% confidence interval 0.44-0.80; p=0.0005) versus delayed-treatment, and was associated with a 972-day delay (185%) in conversion to CDMS, less brain atrophy (-28%, p=0.0209), fewer new T2 lesions/year (-42%, <0.0001) and lower T2 lesion volume (-22%, p=0.0005) versus delayed treatment. Adverse events were consistent with the established safety profile of glatiramer acetate. Effects of early glatiramer acetate treatment on the rate of conversion to CDMS and on MRI measures of disease activity and lesion burden support initiating glatiramer acetate treatment soon after the first clinical symptoms suggestive of MS and continuing treatment to sustain benefits.

  18. Efficacy and Tolerability of Asenapine Compared with Olanzapine in Borderline Personality Disorder: An Open-Label Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Bozzatello, Paola; Rocca, Paola; Uscinska, Maria; Bellino, Silvio

    2017-07-24

    Asenapine is a new second-generation antipsychotic that is understudied in borderline personality disorder (BPD). Only one study investigating the use of the drug in this indication (an open-label pilot study) has been conducted to date. The present open-label, randomized, controlled trial aimed to evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of asenapine in comparison with olanzapine, the most broadly studied antipsychotic in BPD. A total of 51 outpatients aged between 18 and 50 years with a diagnosis of BPD based on Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5) criteria were assigned for 12 weeks to asenapine (5-10 mg/day) or olanzapine (5-10 mg/day). Participants were assessed at baseline and after 12 weeks with the following instruments: the Clinical Global Impression Scale, Severity item (CGI-S), Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D), Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (HAM-A), Social Occupational Functioning Assessment Scale (SOFAS), Borderline Personality Disorder Severity Index (BPDSI), Barratt Impulsiveness Scale, version 11 (BIS-11), Modified Overt Aggression Scale (MOAS), Self-Harm Inventory (SHI), and Dosage Record and Treatment Emergent Symptom Scale (DOTES). Analysis of variance repeated measures was performed. Intention-to-treat analysis with last observation carried forward was conducted. There were 11 drop-outs (21.57%): six patients taking asenapine and five patients receiving olanzapine. Two patients who received asenapine stopped the drug, one due to oral hypoesthesia and the other due to moderate anxiety. Two patients receiving olanzapine discontinued the treatment because of significant weight gain (≥3 kg). The remaining seven drop-outs resulted from the lack of compliance with the trial prescription. Forty out of the 51 patients (78%) completed the trial: 19 patients received asenapine, while 21 patients received olanzapine. We found a significant within-subject effect (trial duration) for all rating scales

  19. Clinical evaluation of incadronate in korean patients with malignancy-associated hypercalcemia: An open-label, multicenter study

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sung-Bae; Lee, Jung Shin; Kim, Heung Tae; Im, Yong Hyuck; Kim, Tae Won; Ryoo, Baek Yeol; Park, Yeon Hee; Park, Joon Oh; Park, Keunchil; Katoh, Hitoshi; Yamamoto, Minoru

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background: Incadronate has been found to lessen the increase in corrected serum calcium levels in malignancy-associated hypercalcemia (MAH) in a Phase III study in Japan. The drug is currently used to treat MAH in Japan. Objective: The purpose of this study was to assess the clinical usefulness of incadronate in patients with MAH. Methods: This open-label study was conducted at 3 medical institutions in Korea. Korean patients with MAH (corrected serum calcium levels ≥11.0 mg/dL) were given a single 10-mg IV infusion of incadronate over 2 to 4 hours in 500 to 1000 mL of normal saline. Corrected calcium levels were determined and subjective symptoms and objective findings (ie, bone pain, spontaneous pain, pain from contusion, tenderness, other pain, loss of appetite, nausea and/or vomiting, thirst, constipation, fatigue, and disturbance of consciousness) were used to monitor the effectiveness of the drug for 6 days after the infusion. Symptoms were evaluated using a 4-point scale (0 = none to 3 = severe). Adverse events (AEs) were identified by patients' reports, and adverse drug events (ADEs) were assessed by the investigators throughout the study. Results: Twenty-four Korean patients (18 [75%]male, 6 [25%]female; mean age, 56.5 years) were included in the study; data from 22 and 24 patients were used to assess effectiveness and tolerability, respectively. Corrected serum calcium level was significantly decreased on day 6 after treatment compared with pretreatment on day 0 (baseline) (9.51 [0.89] mg/dL vs 11.83 [0.89] mg/dL; P < 0.001). The antihypercalcemic effect of incadronate became apparent as an inhibition of bone absorption a few days after infusion. Corrected serum calcium level was significantly decreased on days 2 to 6 (P < 0.001) after treatment compared with pretreatment at baseline. Evaluation of symptoms showed significant improvement in the incadronate-treated group (mean total score [range] at baseline, 8 [1–23] and day 6, 5.5 [1–17

  20. Sevelamer versus calcium carbonate in incident hemodialysis patients: results of an open-label 24-month randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Di Iorio, Biagio; Molony, Donald; Bell, Cynthia; Cucciniello, Emanuele; Bellizzi, Vincenzo; Russo, Domenico; Bellasi, Antonio

    2013-10-01

    Whether the use of sevelamer rather than a calcium-containing phosphate binder improves cardiovascular (CV) survival in patients receiving dialysis remains to be elucidated. Open-label randomized controlled trial with parallel groups. 466 incident hemodialysis patients recruited from 18 centers in Italy. Study participants were randomly assigned in a 1:1 fashion to receive either sevelamer or a calcium-containing phosphate binder (although not required by the protocol, all patients in this group received calcium carbonate) for 24 months. All individuals were followed up until completion of 36 months of follow-up or censoring. CV death due to cardiac arrhythmias was regarded as the primary end point. Blind event adjudication. At baseline, patients allocated to sevelamer had higher serum phosphorus (mean, 5.6 ± 1.7 [SD] vs 4.8 ± 1.4 mg/dL) and C-reactive protein levels (mean, 8.8 ± 13.4 vs 5.9 ± 6.8 mg/dL) and lower coronary artery calcification scores (median, 19 [IQR, 0-30] vs 30 [IQR, 7-180]). At study completion, serum phosphate levels were lower in the sevelamer arm (median dosages, 4,800 and 2,000 mg/d for sevelamer and calcium carbonate, respectively). After a mean follow-up of 28 ± 10 months, 128 deaths were recorded (29 and 88 due to cardiac arrhythmias and all-cause CV death). Sevelamer-treated patients experienced lower CV mortality due to cardiac arrhythmias compared with patients treated with calcium carbonate (HR, 0.06; 95% CI, 0.01-0.25; P < 0.001). Similar results were noted for all-cause CV mortality and all-cause mortality, but not for non-CV mortality. Adjustments for potential confounders did not affect results. Open-label design, higher baseline coronary artery calcification burden in calcium carbonate-treated patients, different mineral metabolism control in sevelamer-treated patients, overall lower than expected mortality. These results show that sevelamer compared to a calcium-containing phosphate binder improves survival in a cohort of

  1. Prospective, Naturalistic, Pilot Study of Open-Label Atomoxetine Treatment in Preschool Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Aman, Michael G.; Ghuman, Harinder S.; Reichenbacher, Thomas; Gelenberg, Alan; Wright, Ron; Rice, Sydney; Fort, Carolyn

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Objective The aim of this study was to report preliminary data regarding effectiveness and tolerability of atomoxetine in 3- to 5-year-old preschool children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Methods Nine boys and 3 girls (mean age = 5.0 ± 0.72 years) diagnosed with ADHD were treated with atomoxetine in an open-label pilot study. Atomoxetine was gradually titrated to a maximum dose of 1.8 mg/kg per day. Results There was a significant effect of time from baseline to end point on the parent-rated hyperactivity/impulsivity Swanson Nolan and Pelham (SNAP-IV-HI) subscale ratings (F[9, 11] = 6.32, p < 0.0001). The mean difference between the baseline and end-point parent SNAP-IV-HI scores was 10.2 ± 7.3 (p = 0.0005). The rate of positive response (defined as at least a 30% reduction in the end-point parent SNAP-IV-HI scores and a Clinical Global Impressions–Improvement [CGI-I] rating of Much Improved or Very Much Improved) was 75%. The Children's Global Assessment Scale scores improved significantly over time [F(9, 11) = 6.24 p < 0.001]. The mean end-point daily dose of atomoxetine was 1.59 ± 0.3 mg/kg. A high proportion (66.7%) of the preschoolers experienced side effects with atomoxetine. Side effects of defiance, tantrums, aggression, and irritability were most disconcerting to parents, and gastrointestinal complaints were the most commonly reported adverse effects. One child was terminated from the study due to “chest ache.” There were no changes in weight, height, or cardiovascular measures. Conclusion This open-label pilot study provides preliminary evidence of effectiveness and tolerability of atomoxetine for treating ADHD in preschool children, although double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled studies are needed to confirm this. PMID:19364293

  2. Acceptability of an open-label wait-listed trial design: Experiences from the PROUD PrEP study

    PubMed Central

    Brodnicki, Elizabeth; Desai, Monica; McCormack, Sheena; Nutland, Will; Wayal, Sonali; White, Ellen; Wood, Gemma; Barber, Tristan; Bell, Gill; Clarke, Amanda; Dolling, David; Dunn, David; Fox, Julie; Haddow, Lewis; Lacey, Charles; Nardone, Anthony; Quinn, Killian; Rae, Caroline; Reeves, Iain; Rayment, Michael; White, David; Apea, Vanessa; Ayap, Wilbert; Dewsnap, Claire; Collaco-Moraes, Yolanda; Schembri, Gabriel; Sowunmi, Yinka; Horne, Rob

    2017-01-01

    Background PROUD participants were randomly assigned to receive pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) immediately or after a deferred period of one-year. We report on the acceptability of this open-label wait-listed trial design. Methods Participants completed an acceptability questionnaire, which included categorical study acceptability data and free-text data on most and least liked aspects of the study. We also conducted in-depth interviews (IDI) with a purposely selected sub-sample of participants. Results Acceptability questionnaires were completed by 76% (415/544) of participants. After controlling for age, immediate-group participants were almost twice as likely as deferred-group participants to complete the questionnaire (AOR:1.86;95%CI:1.24,2.81). In quantitative data, the majority of participants in both groups found the wait-listed design acceptable when measured by satisfaction of joining the study, intention to remain in the study, and interest in joining a subsequent study. However, three-quarters thought that the chance of being in the deferred-group might put other volunteers off joining the study. In free-text responses, data collection tools were the most frequently reported least liked aspect of the study. A fifth of deferred participants reported ‘being deferred’ as the thing they least liked about the study. However, more deferred participants disliked the data collection tools than the fact that they had to wait a year to access PrEP. Participants in the IDIs had a good understanding of the rationale for the open-label wait-listed study design. Most accepted the design but acknowledged they were, or would have been, disappointed to be randomised to the deferred group. Five of the 25 participants interviewed reported some objection to the wait-listed design. Conclusion The quantitative and qualitative findings suggest that in an environment where PrEP was not available, the rationale for the wait-listed trial design was well understood and

  3. Short-term open-label chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla L.) therapy of moderate to severe generalized anxiety disorder.

    PubMed

    Keefe, John R; Mao, Jun J; Soeller, Irene; Li, Qing S; Amsterdam, Jay D

    2016-12-15

    Conventional drug treatments for Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD) are often accompanied by substantial side effects, dependence, and/or withdrawal syndrome. A prior controlled study of oral chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla L.) extract showed significant efficacy versus placebo, and suggested that chamomile may have anxiolytic activity for individuals with GAD. We hypothesized that treatment with chamomile extract would result in a significant reduction in GAD severity ratings, and would be associated with a favorable adverse event and tolerability profile. We report on the open-label phase of a two-phase randomized controlled trial of chamomile versus placebo for relapse-prevention of recurrent GAD. Subjects with moderate to severe GAD received open-label treatment with pharmaceutical-grade chamomile extract 1500mg/day for up to 8 weeks. Primary outcomes were the frequency of clinical response and change in GAD-7 symptom scores by week 8. Secondary outcomes included the change over time on the Hamilton Rating Scale for Anxiety, the Beck Anxiety Inventory, and the Psychological General Well Being Index. Frequency of treatment-emergent adverse events and premature treatment discontinuation were also examined. Of 179 subjects, 58.1% (95% CI: 50.9% to 65.5%) met criteria for response, while 15.6% prematurely discontinued treatment. Significant improvement over time was also observed on the GAD-7 rating (β=-8.4 [95% CI=-9.1 to -7.7]). A similar proportion of subjects demonstrated statistically significant and clinically meaningful reductions in secondary outcome ratings of anxiety and well-being. Adverse events occurred in 11.7% of subjects, although no serious adverse events occurred. Chamomile extract produced a clinically meaningful reduction in GAD symptoms over 8 weeks, with a response rate comparable to those observed during conventional anxiolytic drug therapy and a favorable adverse event profile. Future comparative effectiveness trials between chamomile and

  4. Vortioxetine (Lu AA21004) in the long-term open-label treatment of major depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    Baldwin, David S; Hansen, Thomas; Florea, Ioana

    2012-10-01

    The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the safety and tolerability of the investigational drug vortioxetine (Lu AA21004) in the long-term treatment of patients with major depressive disorder. Patients entered this 52-week, open-label extension study after completing an 8-week lead-in study. Safety and tolerability were evaluated at regular intervals on the basis of spontaneously reported adverse events (AEs), clinical safety laboratory tests, vital signs, ECG and physical examination. Effectiveness of treatment was assessed using the Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) total score. A total of 535 patients were treated and 61.3% (n = 328) completed the study, resulting in 393 patient years of exposure to vortioxetine. AEs reported by ≥10% of patients were nausea, headache, and nasopharyngitis. Taken together, six patients had eight AEs related to sexual dysfunction. There were no clinically significant safety findings with respect to mean changes of vital signs, weight, ECG parameters, or clinical laboratory values. Patients entered the extension study with a mean MADRS total score of 13.5 ± 8.7. The mean MADRS total score decreased (improved) by approximately 8 points to 5.5 ± 6.0 at Week 52 (OC). By the end of the study, the proportion of responders had increased from 63% to 94% (OC), as had the proportion in remission (MADRS ≤10), increasing from 42% to 83% (OC). Patients in remission (n = 226) at the start of this study had a relapse rate (MADRS ≥22) of 9.7%. As with all open-label studies, the conclusions that can be drawn are limited by the lack of a placebo control, making it difficult to assess causality of any changes in outcome measures. However, on the basis of these findings, vortioxetine (2.5, 5, 10 mg/day) demonstrated a favourable safety and tolerability profile and maintained effectiveness over 12 months of treatment. This study has the ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00694304.

  5. Effect of Micronutrients on Behavior and Mood in Adults with ADHD: Evidence from an 8-Week Open Label Trial with Natural Extension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rucklidge, Julia; Taylor, Mairin; Whitehead, Kathryn

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effect of a 36-ingredient micronutrient formula consisting mainly of minerals and vitamins in the treatment of adults with both ADHD and severe mood dysregulation (SMD). Method: 14 medication-free adults (9 men, 5 women; 18-55 years) with ADHD and SMD completed an 8-week open-label trial. Results: A minority reported…

  6. An Analysis of Patient Adherence to Treatment during a 1-Year, Open-Label Study of OROS[R] Methylphenidate in Children with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faraone, Stephen V.; Biederman, Joseph; Zimmerman, Brenda

    2007-01-01

    Objective: Treatment adherence is an important aspect of ADHD symptom management, but there are many factors that may influence adherence. Method: This analysis assessed adherence to OROS methylphenidate during a 1-year, open-label study in children. Adherence was defined as the number of days medication was taken divided by the number of days in…

  7. No evidence of harms of probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG ATCC 53103 in healthy elderly-a Phase I Open Label Study to assess safety, tolerability and cytokine responses

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Although Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG ATCC 53103 (LGG) has been consumed since the mid 1990s by between 2 and 5 million people daily, the scientific literature lacks rigorous clinical trials that describe the potential harms of LGG, particularly in the elderly. The primary objective of this open label...

  8. Effect of Micronutrients on Behavior and Mood in Adults with ADHD: Evidence from an 8-Week Open Label Trial with Natural Extension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rucklidge, Julia; Taylor, Mairin; Whitehead, Kathryn

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effect of a 36-ingredient micronutrient formula consisting mainly of minerals and vitamins in the treatment of adults with both ADHD and severe mood dysregulation (SMD). Method: 14 medication-free adults (9 men, 5 women; 18-55 years) with ADHD and SMD completed an 8-week open-label trial. Results: A minority reported…

  9. Efficacy of Atomoxetine for the Treatment of ADHD Symptoms in Patients with Pervasive Developmental Disorders: A Prospective, Open-Label Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernandez-Jaen, Alberto; Fernandez-Mayoralas, Daniel Martin; Calleja-Perez, Beatriz; Munoz-Jareno, Nuria; Campos Diaz, Maria del Rosario; Lopez-Arribas, Sonia

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Atomoxetine's tolerance and efficacy were studied in 24 patients with pervasive developmental disorder and symptoms of ADHD. Method: Prospective, open-label, 16-week study was performed, using the variables of the Clinical Global Impression Scale and the Conners' Scale, among others. Results: A significant difference was found between…

  10. Efficacy of Atomoxetine for the Treatment of ADHD Symptoms in Patients with Pervasive Developmental Disorders: A Prospective, Open-Label Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernandez-Jaen, Alberto; Fernandez-Mayoralas, Daniel Martin; Calleja-Perez, Beatriz; Munoz-Jareno, Nuria; Campos Diaz, Maria del Rosario; Lopez-Arribas, Sonia

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Atomoxetine's tolerance and efficacy were studied in 24 patients with pervasive developmental disorder and symptoms of ADHD. Method: Prospective, open-label, 16-week study was performed, using the variables of the Clinical Global Impression Scale and the Conners' Scale, among others. Results: A significant difference was found between…

  11. Adjunctive Lisdexamfetamine Dimesylate Therapy in Adult Outpatients With Predominant Negative Symptoms of Schizophrenia: Open-Label and Randomized-Withdrawal Phases

    PubMed Central

    Lasser, Robert A; Dirks, Bryan; Nasrallah, Henry; Kirsch, Courtney; Gao, Joseph; Pucci, Michael L; Knesevich, Mary A; Lindenmayer, Jean-Pierre

    2013-01-01

    Negative symptoms of schizophrenia (NSS), related to hypodopaminergic activity in the mesocortical pathway and prefrontal cortex, are predictive of poor outcomes and have no effective treatment. Use of dopamine-enhancing drugs (eg, psychostimulants) has been limited by potential adverse effects. This multicenter study examined lisdexamfetamine dimesylate (LDX), a d-amphetamine prodrug, as adjunctive therapy to antipsychotics in adults with clinically stable schizophrenia and predominant NSS. Outpatients with stable schizophrenia, predominant NSS, limited positive symptoms, and maintained on stable atypical antipsychotic therapy underwent a 3-week screening, 10-week open-label adjunctive LDX (20–70 mg/day), and 4-week, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled withdrawal. Efficacy measures included a modified Scale for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms (SANS-18) and Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) total and subscale scores. Ninety-two participants received open-label LDX; 69 received double-blind therapy with placebo (n=35) or LDX (n=34). At week 10 (last observation carried forward; last open-label visit), mean (95% confidence interval) change in SANS-18 scores was −12.9 (−15.0, −10.8; P<0.0001). At week 10, 52.9% of participants demonstrated a minimum of 20% reduction from baseline in SANS-18 score. Open-label LDX was also associated with significant improvement in PANSS total and subscale scores. During the double-blind/randomized-withdrawal phase, no significant differences (change from randomization baseline) were found between placebo and LDX in SANS-18 or PANSS subscale scores. In adults with clinically stable schizophrenia, open-label LDX appeared to be associated with significant improvements in negative symptoms without positive symptom worsening. Abrupt LDX discontinuation was not associated with positive or negative symptom worsening. Confirmation with larger controlled trials is warranted. PMID:23756608

  12. The role of benzodiazepines in breathlessness: a single site, open label pilot of sustained release morphine together with clonazepam.

    PubMed

    Allcroft, Peter; Margitanovic, Vera; Greene, Aine; Agar, Meera R; Clark, Katherine; Abernethy, Amy P; Currow, David C

    2013-07-01

    Breathlessness at rest or on minimal exertion despite optimal treatment of underlying cause(s) is distressing and prevalent. Opioids can reduce the intensity of chronic refractory breathlessness and an anxiolytic may be of benefit. This pilot aimed to determine the safety and feasibility of conducting a phase III study on the intensity of breathlessness by adding regular benzodiazepine to low-dose opioid. This is a single site, open label phase II study of the addition of regular clonazepam 0.5 mg nocte orally to Kapanol(R) 10 mg (sustained release morphine sulphate) orally mane together with docusate/sennosides in people with modified Medical Research Council Scale ≥2. Breathlessness intensity on day four was the efficacy outcome. Participants could extend for another 10 days if they achieved >15% reduction over their own baseline breathlessness intensity. Eleven people had trial medication (eight males, median age 78 years (68 to 89); all had COPD; median Karnofsky 70 (50 to 80); six were on long-term home oxygen. Ten people completed day four. One person withdrew because of unsteadiness on day four. Five participants reached the 15% reduction, but only three went on to the extension study, all completing without toxicity. This study was safe, feasible and there appears to be a group who derive benefits comparable to titrated opioids. Given the widespread use of benzodiazepines for the symptomatic treatment of chronic refractory breathlessness and its poor evidence base, there is justification for a definitive phase III study.

  13. Bias was reduced in an open-label trial through the removal of subjective elements from the outcome definition.

    PubMed

    Kahan, Brennan C; Doré, Caroline J; Murphy, Michael F; Jairath, Vipul

    2016-09-01

    To determine whether modifying an outcome definition to remove subjective elements reduced bias in a trial that could not use blinded outcome assessment. Reanalysis of an open-label trial comparing a restrictive vs. liberal transfusion strategy for gastrointestinal bleeding. The usual definition of the primary outcome, further bleeding, allows subjective clinical symptoms to be used alone for diagnosis, whereas the definition used in the trial required more objective confirmation by endoscopy. We compared treatment effect estimates for these two definitions. Fewer subjective symptom-identified events were confirmed using more objective methods in the restrictive arm (18%) than in the liberal arm (56%), indicating differential assessment between arms. An analysis using all events (both subjective and more objective) led to an odds ratio of 0.83 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.50-1.37). When only events confirmed using more objective methods were included, the odds ratio was 0.50 (95% CI: 0.32-0.78). The ratio of the odds ratios was 1.66, indicating that including unconfirmed events in the definition biased the treatment effect upward by 66%. Modifying the outcome definition to exclude subjective elements substantially reduced bias. This may be a useful strategy for reducing bias in trials that cannot blind outcome assessment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Phase II, Randomized, Open-Label Study of Pegfilgrastim-Supported VDC/IE Chemotherapy in Pediatric Sarcoma Patients

    PubMed Central

    Spunt, Sheri L.; Irving, Helen; Frost, Jami; Sender, Leonard; Guo, Matthew; Yang, Bing-Bing; Dreiling, Lyndah; Santana, Victor M.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose This multicenter, randomized, open-label study evaluated the efficacy, safety, and pharmacokinetics of a single subcutaneous pegfilgrastim injection with daily subcutaneous filgrastim administration in pediatric patients receiving myelosuppressive chemotherapy for sarcoma. Patients and Methods Forty-four patients with previously untreated, biopsy-proven sarcoma stratified into three age groups (0-5, 6-11, and 12-21 years) were randomly assigned in a 6:1 randomization ratio to receive a single pegfilgrastim dose of 100 μg/kg (n = 38) or daily filgrastim doses of 5 μg/kg (n = 6) after chemotherapy (cycles 1 and 3: vincristine-doxorubicin-cyclophosphamide; cycles 2 and 4: ifosfamide-etoposide). The duration of grade 4 neutropenia, time to neutrophil recovery, incidence of febrile neutropenia, and adverse events were recorded. Results Pegfilgrastim and filgrastim were similar for all efficacy and safety end points, and their pharmacokinetic profiles were consistent with those in adults. Younger children experienced more protracted neutropenia and had higher median pegfilgrastim exposure than older children. Conclusion A single dose of pegfilgrastim at 100 μg/kg administered once per chemotherapy cycle is comparable to daily injections of filgrastim at 5 μg/kg for pediatric sarcoma patients receiving myelosuppressive chemotherapy. PMID:20142595

  15. Effect of Facial Cosmetic Acupuncture on Facial Elasticity: An Open-Label, Single-Arm Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Yun, Younghee; Kim, Sehyun; Kim, Minhee; Kim, KyuSeok; Park, Jeong-Su; Choi, Inhwa

    2013-01-01

    Background. The use of acupuncture for cosmetic purposes has gained popularity worldwide. Facial cosmetic acupuncture (FCA) is applied to the head, face, and neck. However, little evidence supports the efficacy and safety of FCA. We hypothesized that FCA affects facial elasticity by restoring resting mimetic muscle tone through the insertion of needles into the muscles of the head, face, and neck. Methods. This open-label, single-arm pilot study was implemented at Kyung Hee University Hospital at Gangdong from August through September 2011. Participants were women aged 40 to 59 years with a Glogau photoaging scale III. Participants received five treatment sessions over three weeks. Participants were measured before and after FCA. The primary outcome was the Moire topography criteria. The secondary outcome was a patient-oriented self-assessment scale of facial elasticity. Results. Among 50 women screened, 28 were eligible and 27 completed the five FCA treatment sessions. A significant improvement after FCA treatment was evident according to mean change in Moire topography criteria (from 1.70 ± 0.724 to 2.26 ± 1.059, P < 0.0001). The most common adverse event was mild bruising at the needle site. Conclusions. In this pilot study, FCA showed promising results as a therapy for facial elasticity. However, further large-scale trials with a controlled design and objective measurements are needed. PMID:23983778

  16. Open-Label Study of Craving in Smokers With Schizophrenia Using Nicotine Nasal Spray Compared to Nicotine Patch

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Jill M.; Gandhi, Kunal K.; Karavidas, Maria Katsamanis; Steinberg, Marc L.; Lu, Shou-En; Foulds, Jonathan

    2009-01-01

    Rationale: Nicotine nasal spray (NNS) may be better for relieving acute cigarette cravings than other nicotine replacement and it may help smokers with schizophrenia because of its rapid onset of action. Objectives: We tested whether NNS was more effective than a nicotine patch (NP; 21 mg) in reducing cue-induced craving during a 3-day abstinence. Methods: Twenty-five smokers with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder (SA) were randomized to open-label NNS or NP treatment after baseline measures of craving were assessed. NNS users were instructed to dose at a minimum of 1/hour and up to a maximum of 40/day. Averages from a 4-item visual analogue scale (need, urge, want to smoke, crave a cigarette) measured craving. Results: Five subjects who smoked (4 NP, 1 NNS) were excluded, leaving 21 (11 NP, 10 NNS) for analyses. No differences were detected between groups on baseline craving. On day 3, NNS users reported significantly less craving in response to smoking cues compared to NP users (mean craving scores: NNS, 7.0; NP, 20.3; p = .014). A repeated measure ANCOVA demonstrated significantly reduced craving in the NNS group compared to the NP group from baseline to day 3 (F = 5.09; p = .037). NNS users took an average of 20 doses/day, and NNS was rated as being as easy to use as NP. Conclusions: The potential utility of NNS in smokers with schizophrenia supports the need for placebo-controlled studies. PMID:19763279

  17. A Prospective, Open-Label Study of Low-Dose Total Skin Electron Beam Therapy in Mycosis Fungoides

    SciTech Connect

    Kamstrup, Maria R.; Specht, Lena; Skovgaard, Gunhild L.; Gniadecki, Robert

    2008-07-15

    Purpose: To determine the effect of low-dose (4 Gy) total skin electron beam therapy as a second-line treatment of Stage IB-II mycosis fungoides in a prospective, open-label study. Methods and Materials: Ten patients (6 men, 4 women, average age 68.7 years [range, 55-82 years]) with histopathologically confirmed mycosis fungoides T2-T4 N0-N1 M0 who did not achieve complete remission or relapsed within 4 months after treatment with psoralen plus ultraviolet-A were included. Treatment consisted of low-dose total skin electron beam therapy administered at a total skin dose of 4 Gy given in 4 fractions over 4 successive days. Results: Two patients had a complete clinical response but relapsed after 3.5 months. Six patients had partial clinical responses, with a mean duration of 2.0 months. One patient had no clinical response. Median time to relapse was 2.7 months. One patient died of unrelated causes and did not complete treatment. Acute side effects included desquamation, xerosis, and erythema of the skin. No severe side effects were observed. Conclusion: Low-dose total skin electron beam therapy can induce complete and partial responses in Stage IB-II mycosis fungoides; however, the duration of remission is short. Low-dose total skin electron beam therapy may find application in palliative treatment of mycosis fungoides because of limited toxicity and the possibility of repeating treatments for long-term disease control.

  18. [Treatment with venlafaxine extended release for climacteric women with depression or anxiety diagnosis. An open-label study].

    PubMed

    Iglesias, C; Pato, E; Ocio, S; Ortigosa, J C; Santamarina, S; Merino, M J; Alonso, M J; Fernández, L; Alonso, J L; Rodríguez, L

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this observational study was to assess under real clinical practice conditions the effectiveness and safety of venlafaxine extended release in anxiety-depressed and hormone-related symptoms in climacteric women with anxiety or depressive disorders. Observational, prospective, open-label, multicenter, 24-week study, carried out in Spain. A sample of 45 outpatients, adult women between 45 and 55 years of age, diagnosed of depressive disorder, generalized anxiety disorder or social anxiety disorder were analyzed. Venlafaxine extended release was administered for 24 weeks at doses according to the investigator's clinical criteria. Of the total of 45 patients who were included in the study, 43 (95.6%) completed it. The patients' age range was of 47 to 55 years old, median of 50 and mean of 50.82. The clinical condition evolution was assessed with the evaluation scales scores: Blatt-Kuppermann Menopausal Index, Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, Hamilton Anxiety Scale and Clinical Global Impression. During the 24-week period, a significant decrease in the different scales scores showed a clinical improvement. The results achieved show that treatment with venlafaxine extended release significantly improved the clinical condition of climacteric patients with anxiety or depressive disorder. If these results are confirmed with placebo-controlled clinical trials, they will support the utility of Venlafaxine extended release in this kind of patients.

  19. Antidepressant monotherapy compared with combinations of antidepressants in the treatment of resistant depressive patients: a randomized, open-label study.

    PubMed

    Bares, Martin; Novak, Tomas; Kopecek, Miloslav; Stopkova, Pavla; Cermak, Jan; Kozeny, Jiri; Höschl, Cyril

    2013-02-01

    This randomized, 6-week, open-label study compared efficacy of CAD and antidepressant monotherapies (ADM) that had been chosen according to clinical judgment of the attending psychiatrist. A total of 60 inpatients (intent-to-treat analysis) with depressive disorder (≥ 1 unsuccessful antidepressant treatment) were randomly assigned to the interventions. The responders who completed the acute phase of study, were evaluated for relapse within 2 months of follow-up treatment. The primary outcome measure was change in the Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) and response was defined as a ≥ 50% reduction of MADRS score. Mean changes in total MADRS score from baseline to week 6 for patients in both treatment modalities were not different (ADM = 13.2 ± 8.6 points; CAD = 14.5 ± 9.5 points; P = 0.58). The analysis of covariance performed for significantly higher value of imipramine equivalent dose in CAD group showed only a non-significant between-group difference for total MADRS change (P = 0.17). There were also no differences between groups in response rate (ADM = 48%; CAD = 58%) and number of drop-outs in acute treatment as well as proportion of responders' relapses in the follow-up. Both treatment modalities produced clinically relevant reduction of depressive symptomatology in acute treatment of patients with resistant depression and their effect was comparable.

  20. Effects of risperidone on core symptoms of autistic disorder based on childhood autism rating scale: an open label study.

    PubMed

    Ghaeli, Padideh; Nikvarz, Naemeh; Alaghband-Rad, Javad; Alimadadi, Abbas; Tehrani-Doost, Mehdi

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of risperidone in patients afflicted by autistic disorder especially with regards to its three core symptoms, including "relating to others", "communication skills", and "stereotyped behaviors" based on Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS). An 8-week open-label study of risperidone for treatment of autistic disorder in children 4-17 years old was designed. Risperidone dose titration was as follow: 0.02 mg/kg/day at the first week, 0.04 mg/kg/day at the second week, and 0.06 mg/kg/day at the third week and thereafter. The outcome measures were scores obtained by CARS, Aberrant Behavior Checklist (ABC), and Clinical Global Impression-Improvement (CGI-I) scale. Fifteen patients completed this study. After 8 weeks, CARS total score decreased significantly, (P=0.001). At the end of the study, social interactions and verbal communication skills of the patients were significantly improved (P<0.001, P=0.03, respectively). However, stereotypic behaviors did not show any significant change in this study. Increase in appetite and somnolence were the most reported side effects. This study suggests that risperidone may be an effective treatment for the management of core symptoms of autistic disorder.

  1. An Open-Label Pilot Study to Assess the Efficacy and Safety of Virgin Coconut Oil in Reducing Visceral Adiposity

    PubMed Central

    Liau, Kai Ming; Lee, Yeong Yeh; Chen, Chee Keong; Rasool, Aida Hanum G.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction. This is an open-label pilot study on four weeks of virgin coconut oil (VCO) to investigate its efficacy in weight reduction and its safety of use in 20 obese but healthy Malay volunteers. Methodology. Efficacy was assessed by measuring weight and associated anthropometric parameters and lipid profile one week before and one week after VCO intake. Safety was assessed by comparing organ function tests one week before and one week after intake of VCO. Paired t-test was used to analyse any differences in all the measurable variables. Results. Only waist circumference (WC) was significantly reduced with a mean reduction of 2.86 cm or 0.97% from initial measurement (P = .02). WC reduction was only seen in males (P < .05). There was no change in the lipid profile. There was a small reduction in creatinine and alanine transferase levels. Conclusion. VCO is efficacious for WC reduction especially in males and it is safe for use in humans. PMID:22164340

  2. Effect of high-dose phenobarbital on oxidative stress in perinatal asphyxia: an open label randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Gathwala, Geeta; Marwah, Ashish; Gahlaut, Veena; Marwah, Poonam

    2011-08-01

    To evaluate the effect of high dose phenobarbital on lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzymes in perinatal asphyxia. Open label, Randomized controlled trial. Neonatal intensive care unit of a tertiary care teaching hospital. 72 full term inborn neonates with severe birth asphyxia. Neonates were randomized to Study (phenobarbital) group and Control group. The infants in the study group received phenobarbital infusion (40 mg/kg) within first two hours of life while babies in the control group did not receive any phenobarbital. Rest of the management in both the groups was as per the unit protocol for the management of hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy. A cerebrospinal fluid examination was done at 12 ± 2 hours of life to determine the levels of superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidise and malonyldialdehyde. 60 neonates were followed up at 1 month of age when a detailed neurological examination was done. Four neonates in the study group and six neonates in the control group died during the study. Two neonates in the study group were lost to follow up. The cerebrospinal fluid lipid peroxides and antioxidant enzymes were significantly lower in the phenobarbital group as compared to the control group. The neurological outcome at one month follow up was found to be comparable between the two groups. Phenobarbital (40 mg/kg) given in the first two hours of life in term neonates with perinatal asphyxia led to a decrease in CSF levels of lipid peroxides and antioxidant enzymes at 12 ± 2 hours of life.

  3. Rapid responders to frovatriptan in acute migraine treatment: results from a long-term, open-label study.

    PubMed

    Spierings, Egilius L H; Keywood, Charlotte

    2009-01-01

    The chronic nature of migraine and the reliance on acute treatment constitute the basis of the present long-term, open-label study. First, assessment of the tolerability and safety of frovatriptan, 2.5-7.5 mg taken orally over 24 hours, for the acute treatment of migraine, repeatedly over a 12-month period. Second, assessment of the efficacy and tolerability of a second, double-blind dose of 2.5-mg frovatriptan, compared with placebo, for nonresponse at 2 hours after treatment of moderate or severe headache with 2.5-mg frovatriptan. With regard to the first attack treated, 173 (36%) of the 486 subjects in the study did not take a second dose at 2 hours for nonresponse. At 2 hours and 4 hours, these "rapid responders" experienced a decrease in headache intensity from moderate or severe to mild or no pain in 84% and 98%, respectively ("headache response"). Six percent of them experienced recurrence of moderate or severe headache within 24 hours following a response at 4 hours and 12% took rescue medication. The response, measured in terms of median time to "complete migraine relief," was maintained over 30 subsequent migraine attacks, treated from attack 2 onwards over the course of 12 months. Frovatriptan provides a remarkably fast and high headache response in a subgroup of more than one-third of migraineurs, with a very low 24-hour headache recurrence and low rescue medication intake.

  4. Mirtazapine versus venlafaxine for the treatment of somatic symptoms associated with major depressive disorder: a randomized, open-labeled trial.

    PubMed

    Kang, Eun-Ho; Lee, In-Soo; Chung, Sang-Keun; Lee, Sang-Yeol; Kim, Eui-Jung; Hong, Jin-Pyo; Oh, Kang-Seob; Woo, Jong-Min; Kim, Seonwoo; Park, Joo-Eon; Yu, Bum-Hee

    2009-09-30

    Somatic symptoms are often important in the treatment of major depressive disorder (MDD). The aim of this open-labeled trial was to examine the efficacy of mirtazapine for the treatment of MDD with clinically significant somatic symptoms, as compared with venlafaxine. A total of 126 patients with MDD (score >/=18 on the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression-17) were included in both the intent-to-treat (n=73 in the mirtazapine group and n=53 in the venlafaxine group) and completer analysis (n=51 and n=37, respectively). After treatment, both treatment groups showed similar improvements in depressive symptoms. Repeated measures analysis of variance for the intent-to-treat population revealed that there were no significant differences in mean change of the Symptom Check List-90-Revised (SCL-90-R) somatization subscores between the two groups. For completers, there was a significant timextreatment interaction in the SCL-90-R somatization subscores, but the differences between the two groups at endpoint did not reach statistical significance in post-hoc analysis. In conclusion, this study suggests that overall efficacies of mirtazapine and venlafaxine are similar for the treatment of overall symptoms in MDD, and both drugs may be useful for the treatment of somatic symptoms in MDD patients.

  5. An open-label pilot study to assess the efficacy and safety of virgin coconut oil in reducing visceral adiposity.

    PubMed

    Liau, Kai Ming; Lee, Yeong Yeh; Chen, Chee Keong; Rasool, Aida Hanum G

    2011-01-01

    Introduction. This is an open-label pilot study on four weeks of virgin coconut oil (VCO) to investigate its efficacy in weight reduction and its safety of use in 20 obese but healthy Malay volunteers. Methodology. Efficacy was assessed by measuring weight and associated anthropometric parameters and lipid profile one week before and one week after VCO intake. Safety was assessed by comparing organ function tests one week before and one week after intake of VCO. Paired t-test was used to analyse any differences in all the measurable variables. Results. Only waist circumference (WC) was significantly reduced with a mean reduction of 2.86 cm or 0.97% from initial measurement (P = .02). WC reduction was only seen in males (P < .05). There was no change in the lipid profile. There was a small reduction in creatinine and alanine transferase levels. Conclusion. VCO is efficacious for WC reduction especially in males and it is safe for use in humans.

  6. Efficacy of Folic Acid Supplementation in Autistic Children Participating in Structured Teaching: An Open-Label Trial

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Caihong; Zou, Mingyang; Zhao, Dong; Xia, Wei; Wu, Lijie

    2016-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are recognized as a major public health issue. Here, we evaluated the effects of folic acid intervention on methylation cycles and oxidative stress in autistic children enrolled in structured teaching. Sixty-six autistic children enrolled in this open-label trial and participated in three months of structured teaching. Forty-four children were treated with 400 μg folic acid (two times/daily) for a period of three months during their structured teaching (intervention group), while the remaining 22 children were not given any supplement for the duration of the study (control group). The Autism Treatment Evaluation Checklist (ATEC) and Psychoeducational Profile-third edition (PEP-3) were measured at the beginning and end of the treatment period. Folic acid, homocysteine, and glutathione metabolism in plasma were measured before and after treatment in 29 autistic children randomly selected from the intervention group and were compared with 29 age-matched unaffected children (typical developmental group). The results illustrated folic acid intervention improved autism symptoms towards sociability, cognitive verbal/preverbal, receptive language, and affective expression and communication. Furthermore, this treatment also improved the concentrations of folic acid, homocysteine, and normalized glutathione redox metabolism. Folic acid supplementation may have a certain role in the treatment of children with autism. PMID:27338456

  7. Efficacy of Folic Acid Supplementation in Autistic Children Participating in Structured Teaching: An Open-Label Trial.

    PubMed

    Sun, Caihong; Zou, Mingyang; Zhao, Dong; Xia, Wei; Wu, Lijie

    2016-06-07

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are recognized as a major public health issue. Here, we evaluated the effects of folic acid intervention on methylation cycles and oxidative stress in autistic children enrolled in structured teaching. Sixty-six autistic children enrolled in this open-label trial and participated in three months of structured teaching. Forty-four children were treated with 400 μg folic acid (two times/daily) for a period of three months during their structured teaching (intervention group), while the remaining 22 children were not given any supplement for the duration of the study (control group). The Autism Treatment Evaluation Checklist (ATEC) and Psychoeducational Profile-third edition (PEP-3) were measured at the beginning and end of the treatment period. Folic acid, homocysteine, and glutathione metabolism in plasma were measured before and after treatment in 29 autistic children randomly selected from the intervention group and were compared with 29 age-matched unaffected children (typical developmental group). The results illustrated folic acid intervention improved autism symptoms towards sociability, cognitive verbal/preverbal, receptive language, and affective expression and communication. Furthermore, this treatment also improved the concentrations of folic acid, homocysteine, and normalized glutathione redox metabolism. Folic acid supplementation may have a certain role in the treatment of children with autism.

  8. Effects of quetiapine and olanzapine in patients with psychosis and violent behavior: a pilot randomized, open-label, comparative study

    PubMed Central

    Gobbi, Gabriella; Comai, Stefano; Debonnel, Guy

    2014-01-01

    Objective Patients suffering from psychosis are more likely than the general population to commit aggressive acts, but the therapeutics of aggressive behavior are still a matter of debate. Methods This pilot randomized, open-label study compared the efficacy of quetiapine versus olanzapine in reducing impulsive and aggressive behaviors (primary endpoints) and psychotic symptoms (secondary endpoints) from baseline to days 1, 7, 14, 28, 42, 56, and 70, in 15 violent schizophrenic patients hospitalized in a maximum-security psychiatric hospital. Results Quetiapine (525±45 mg) and olanzapine (18.5±4.8 mg) were both efficacious in reducing Impulsivity Rating Scale from baseline to day 70. In addition, both treatments reduced the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale, Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale, and Clinical Global Impression Scale scores at day 70 compared to baseline, and no differences were observed between treatments. Moreover, quetiapine, but not olanzapine, yielded an improvement of depressive symptoms in the items “depression” in Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale and “blunted affect” in Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale. Modified Overt Aggression Scale scores were also decreased from baseline to the endpoint, but due to the limited number of patients, it was not possible to detect a significant difference. Conclusion In this pilot study, quetiapine and olanzapine equally decreased impulsive and psychotic symptoms after 8 weeks of treatment. Double-blind, large studies are needed to confirm the validity of these two treatments in highly aggressive and violent schizophrenic patients. PMID:24855361

  9. Topical imiquimod 5% cream for pediatric plaque morphea: a prospective, multiple-baseline, open-label pilot study.

    PubMed

    Pope, Elena; Doria, Andrea S; Theriault, Marc; Mohanta, Arun; Laxer, Ronald M

    2011-01-01

    Therapeutic options for the treatment of plaque morphea are limited. We explored the efficacy and safety of imiquimod cream in children with plaque morphea. Prospective, open-label, double-baseline study, using imiquimod 5% cream topically for 9 months. The primary outcome measure was improvement in the thickening of morphea plaques using a visual analog scale (VAS) and the DIET score (dyspigmentation/induration/erythema/telangiectasia). Secondary outcome measures were clinicoradiographic correlations and frequency of adverse events. Nine patients, 89% females, with a mean age of 11.33 years (SD = 3.52) were enrolled. At 36 weeks, the mean VAS had decreased from 48.08 (SD = 18.85) to 22.7 (SD = 12.9) (p < 0.0001), and the mean DIET score from 4.38 (SD = 1.2) to 3.06 (SD = 1.39) (p = 0.23). There was very good interrater reliability between DIET score assessments (intraclass correlation coefficient, ICC = 0.75) and VAS (ICC = 0.59) and moderate agreement between parent and investigator VAS (ICC = 0.5). Ultrasonographically measured dermis thickness changed from 1.05 (SD = 0.34) to 0.95 (SD = 0.19) (p = 0.001). One patient experienced ulceration that required temporary discontinuation of intervention. This proof of concept study revealed that imiquimod 5% cream is effective in decreasing the thickening of plaque morphea and safe for pediatric use. Further prospective studies are warranted. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. Safety and tolerability of bosentan for digital ulcers in Japanese patients with systemic sclerosis: Prospective, multicenter, open-label study.

    PubMed

    Hamaguchi, Yasuhito; Sumida, Takayuki; Kawaguchi, Yasushi; Ihn, Hironobu; Tanaka, Sumiaki; Asano, Yoshihide; Motegi, Sei-Ichiro; Kuwana, Masataka; Endo, Hirahito; Takehara, Kazuhiko

    2017-01-01

    A multicenter, open-label study was performed to investigate the safety and tolerability of bosentan in Japanese patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc) and secondary digital ulcers. Twenty-eight patients were enrolled. The safety and tolerability of bosentan was monitored over 52 weeks of study treatment (primary end-point), while incidence and healing of digital ulcers were also assessed up to week 16. The following adverse events occurred in 5% or more of patients during the 52-week treatment period: upper respiratory tract infection (50.0%), abnormal liver function tests (42.9%), digital ulcers (25.0%), anemia (17.9%), peripheral edema (14.3%), diarrhea (10.7%), urinary tract infection (7.1%), arthralgia (7.1%), constipation (7.1%) and herpes zoster (7.1%). Eight patients experienced at least one serious adverse event, including drug-related serious adverse events in two patients, which were abnormal liver function tests and fluid retention (pericardial effusion) in one patient each. During the 16-week observation period, seven out of 28 patients (25%) developed new digital ulcers. In this study, adverse events were comparable with those previously reported with bosentan. Approximately half of the patients had adverse events associated with abnormal liver function tests, thus we conclude that liver function should be monitored regularly during treatment with bosentan.

  11. Cannabis (medical marijuana) treatment for motor and non-motor symptoms of Parkinson disease: an open-label observational study.

    PubMed

    Lotan, Itay; Treves, Therese A; Roditi, Yaniv; Djaldetti, Ruth

    2014-01-01

    The use of cannabis as a therapeutic agent for various medical conditions has been well documented. However, clinical trials in patients with Parkinson disease (PD) have yielded conflicting results. The aim of the present open-label observational study was to assess the clinical effect of cannabis on motor and non-motor symptoms of PD. Twenty-two patients with PD attending the motor disorder clinic of a tertiary medical center in 2011 to 2012 were evaluated at baseline and 30 minutes after smoking cannabis using the following battery: Unified Parkinson Disease Rating Scale, visual analog scale, present pain intensity scale, Short-Form McGill Pain Questionnaire, as well as Medical Cannabis Survey National Drug and Alcohol Research Center Questionnaire. Mean (SD) total score on the motor Unified Parkinson Disease Rating Scale score improved significantly from 33.1 (13.8) at baseline to 23.2 (10.5) after cannabis consumption (t = 5.9; P < 0.001). Analysis of specific motor symptoms revealed significant improvement after treatment in tremor (P < 0.001), rigidity (P = 0.004), and bradykinesia (P < 0.001). There was also significant improvement of sleep and pain scores. No significant adverse effects of the drug were observed. The study suggests that cannabis might have a place in the therapeutic armamentarium of PD. Larger, controlled studies are needed to verify the results.

  12. Effects of Shenfu Injection in the Treatment of Septic Shock Patients: A Multicenter, Controlled, Randomized, Open-Label Trial

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xinchao; Lin, Peihong; Wei, Jie; Cao, Yu; Pan, Shuming; Walline, Joseph; Qian, Chuanyun; Shan, Zhigang

    2016-01-01

    The effect of Shenfu on biochemical parameters and survival during resuscitation in patients with septic shock was examined. This was a multicenter, controlled, randomized, open-label trial carried out in 210 patients with septic shock from seven medical centers in China. They were randomized to Shenfu or saline. The primary outcome was lactate clearance. The secondary outcomes were shock index normalization, dose of vasopressors, ICU stay, hospital stay, and mortality. A total of 199 patients completed the trial. Blood pressure, heart rate, and other routine lab tests showed no difference between the groups. Lactate levels and lactate clearance were similar between the two groups. Hospital and ICU stay were similar between the two groups. When considering all patients, the 7- and 28-day mortality were similar between the two groups, but when considering only patients with lactate levels ≥4.5 mmol/L, the Shenfu group showed a better 7-day survival than the control group (7 days: 83.3% versus 54.5%, P = 0.034; 28 days: 72.7% versus 47.6%, P = 0.092). Shenfu may improve the 7-day survival in patients with impaired lactate clearance (≥4.5 mmol/L), but the mechanism for this effect is unclear. Additional studies are necessary to characterize the hemodynamic changes after Shenfu infusion. This trial is registered with ChiCTR-TRC-11001369. PMID:27446222

  13. Safety of the first dose of fingolimod for multiple sclerosis: results of an open-label clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In patients with relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS) fingolimod prevents disease relapses and delays disability progression. First dose administration of fingolimod is associated with a transient, dose-dependent decrease in heart rate (HR) in the 6 hours after drug intake. The aim of the study is to to assess safety and tolerability of the first dose of fingolimod in a cohort of Italian patients with RRMS without alternative therapeutic options. Methods Open-label, single arm, multicentre study. After the first dose of fingolimod, patients were observed for 6 hours and had their vital signs monitored hourly. Extended on-site monitoring was provided when required. Results Of the 906 patients enrolled in the study, most (95.2%) did not experience any adverse event (AE) following fingolimod administration. Cardiovascular AEs occurred in 18 patients and included bradycardia (1.3%), first-and second-degree atrioventricular block (0.1% and 0.2%), palpitations (0.1%), sinus arrhythmia (0.1%) and ventricular premature beats (0.1%). All events were self-limiting and did not require any intervention. Extended monitoring was required in 34 patients. Conclusions These results, in a population who better resembled real-world clinical practice in terms of concomitant diseases and medications, are consistent with previous clinical trials and confirmed that the first dose administration of fingolimod is generally safe and well tolerated. Trial registration EudraCT 2011-000770-60 PMID:24690227

  14. Testing the validity of the Danish urban myth that alcohol can be absorbed through feet: open labelled self experimental study

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, Christian Stevns; Færch, Louise Holmsgaard

    2010-01-01

    Objective To determine the validity of the Danish urban myth that it is possible to get drunk by submerging feet in alcohol. Design Open labelled, self experimental study, with no control group. Setting Office of a Danish hospital. Participants Three adults, median age 32 (range 31-35), free of chronic skin and liver disease and non-dependent on alcohol and psychoactive drugs. Main outcome measures The primary end point was the concentration of plasma ethanol (detection limit 2.2 mmol/L (10 mg/100 mL)), measured every 30 minutes for three hours while feet were submerged in a washing-up bowl containing the contents of three 700 mL bottles of vodka. The secondary outcome was self assessment of intoxication related symptoms (self confidence, urge to speak, and number of spontaneous hugs), scored on a scale of 0 to 10. Results Plasma ethanol concentrations were below the detection limit of 2.2 mmol/L (10 mg/100 mL) throughout the experiment. No significant changes were observed in the intoxication related symptoms, although self confidence and urge to speak increased slightly at the start of the study, probably due to the setup. Conclusion Our results suggest that feet are impenetrable to the alcohol component of vodka. We therefore conclude that the Danish urban myth of being able to get drunk by submerging feet in alcoholic beverages is just that; a myth. The implications of the study are many though. PMID:21156749

  15. Olanzapine augmentation in treatment-resistant panic disorder: a 12-week, fixed-dose, open-label trial.

    PubMed

    Sepede, Gianna; De Berardis, Domenico; Gambi, Francesco; Campanella, Daniela; La Rovere, Raffaella; D'Amico, Michele; Cicconetti, Alessandra; Penna, Laura; Peca, Silvana; Carano, Alessandro; Mancini, Enrico; Salerno, Rosa Maria; Ferro, Filippo Maria

    2006-02-01

    The purpose of our study was to evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of low-dose olanzapine augmentation in selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI)-resistant panic disorder (PD) with or without agoraphobia. In this 12-week, open-label study, 31 adult outpatients with treatment-resistant PD who had previously failed to respond to SSRI treatment were treated with fixed dose of olanzapine (5 mg/d) in addition to SSRI. Efficacy was assessed using the Panic Attack and Anticipatory Anxiety Scale (PAAAS), the Agoraphobic Cognitions Questionnaire (ACQ), the Hamilton Rating Scale for Anxiety (HAM-A), the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAM-D), the Global Assessment of Functioning Scale (GAF), and the Clinical Global Impression of Improvement (CGI-I). Twenty-six patients completed the trial period with a dropout rate of 16.1%. At week 12, 21 patients were responders (81.8%), and an overall improvement on all rating scales was observed in all patients both with or without agoraphobia. Fifteen patients (57.7%) achieved remission. Olanzapine was well tolerated and the most frequent adverse effects were mild-to-moderate weight gain and drowsiness. No extrapyramidal symptoms were reported. Olanzapine appears to be effective as augmentation strategy in the treatment of SSRI-resistant PD, but study limitations must be considered and placebo-controlled studies are needed.

  16. Finasteride in the treatment of Taiwanese men with androgenetic alopecia: a 12-month open-label study.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jeng-Hsien; Chen, Wen-Chieh

    2002-08-01

    Finasteride 1 mg/day is effective in the treatment of androgenetic alopecia (AGA). Our open-label study assessed the efficacy and safety of finasteride for the treatment of Taiwanese men with AGA. We enrolled 34 Taiwanese men (aged 18-40 yr) with AGA of modified Norwood/Hamilton scale (MNHS) grade II-V. In investigator assessments at 12 months, five of 21 subjects (23.8%) had two-grade improvement in MNHS grade and 12 of 21 subjects (57.1%) had one-grade improvement; the others remained at the same grade. In global photographic evaluation, five of 31 subjects (15.1%) had observable hair growth at 6 months and 11 of 21 subjects (52.4%) had observable hair growth at 12 months. Patient self-assessment of hair growth was favorable across all questions in the treatment course, more significantly at 12 months than at 6 months; nine of 21 subjects (42.9%) were satisfied with their overall appearance at 12 months. Serum prostate specific antigen levels had decreased by 23.4% at 12 months. Adverse effects, including abnormal liver function (5/34), were minimal, and the causal relationship with finasteride could not be established. Thus, in Taiwanese men with AGA, finasteride 1 mg/day for 1 year slowed the progression of hair loss and increased hair growth.

  17. An Open Label, Phase 2 Study of MABp1 Monotherapy for the Treatment of Acne Vulgaris and Psychiatric Comorbidity.

    PubMed

    Carrasco, Daniel; Stecher, Michael; Lefebvre, Gigi Claire; Logan, Alan C; Moy, Ronald

    2015-06-01

    Acne vulgaris is a common inflammatory skin disorder. There remain few rapid, safe, and effective therapy options for patients with moderate to severe acne vulgaris that also address psychological comorbidities such as anxiety. To assess the efficacy of interleukin 1 alpha blockade in patients with moderate to severe acne vulgaris using the true human monoclonal antibody MABp1. Eleven patients were administered open-label, subcutaneous injections of MABp1 over a six-week period. Objectives were assessment of safety, change in inflammatory lesion count and change in psychosocial functioning using two validated questionnaires. There were no serious adverse events, or adverse events greater than grade I. Median inflammatory lesion counts decreased 36% (IQR -44% to 1%). Anxiety scores improved (from median 6 to 1) as well as self-image assessment (2.3±0.9 to 2.1±0.1) as measured by the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale and the modified Body Image Disturbance Questionnaire. Patients had rapid improvement of skin lesions, as well as psychosocial functioning and anxiety. MABp1 may provide a safe and effective means for treating inflammatory acne lesions and. Further studies using this antibody are warranted in this patient population.

  18. Fluorouracil cream 0.5% for actinic keratoses on multiple body sites: an 18-month open-label study.

    PubMed

    Stough, Dow; Bucko, Alicia D; Vamvakias, George; Rafal, Elyse S; Davis, Steven A

    2010-05-01

    This prospective 18-month, open-label, multicenter study assessed the long-term safety and efficacy of fluorouracil cream 0.5% in 277 participants with multiple actinic keratoses (AKs) on the face/anterior scalp and other body sites. Two treatment/observation cycles were separated by 12 months. During treatment cycle 1 (TC1), all participants were treated with fluorouracil cream 0.5% for 4 weeks with 4-week follow-up. Twelve months later, all participants were assessed for treatment cycle 2 (TC2); participants with face/anterior scalp AKs (N = 98) were re-treated with fluorouracil cream 0.5% for 4 weeks with 4-week follow-up. Only 4 participants (7.4%) experienced a treatment-related adverse event (AE) that was not an application site reaction or eye irritation. No unexpected AEs were reported; most were mild or moderate. After TC1 (week 8), the number of AK lesions was significantly reduced on the face/anterior scalp and all other treated body sites (P < .0001). Clearance rates were 30.5% (hands), 39.8% (face/anterior scalp), and 79.1% (lips). After TC2 (week 60), face/anterior scalp AKs were significantly reduced (P < .0001) and the clearance rate was 33.3%. This study indicates that fluorouracil cream 0.5% with a patented microsponge delivery system was well-tolerated and effective in treating and preventing recurrence of AK lesions up to 18 months after initial treatment.

  19. Comparison of Prednisolone, Etoricoxib, and Indomethacin in Treatment of Acute Gouty Arthritis: An Open-Label, Randomized, Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Lingling; Liu, Shiqun; Guan, Meiping; Xue, Yaoming

    2016-01-01

    Background At present there are several kinds of medicine for treating acute gout arthritis (AGA). This study compared the efficacy and safety of prednisolone, etoricoxib, and indomethacin in the treatment of AGA. Material/Methods This was an open-label, randomized, active-comparator study in patients with AGA. Patients were randomized to 4 days of prednisolone 35 mg qd, etoricoxib 120 mg qd, or indomethacin 50 mg tid. The primary efficacy endpoint was the reduction of self-assessed pain in the index joint from baseline. Secondary endpoints included changes in physician’s assessment of tenderness, erythema, swelling, and joint activity; patient assessment of response to therapy; and safety. Results We analyzed 113 patients. Baseline demographics were comparable among treatment groups. Oral prednisolone, etoricoxib, and indomethacin were similarly effective in improving pain, tenderness, and joint activity over 4 days. For inflammation, oral prednisolone, etoricoxib, and indomethacin were similarly effective in reducing erythema, but prednisolone might be more effective in reducing swelling than indomethacin. The patient response to therapy was similar in the 3 groups. There were more total adverse events with indomethacin compared with the other 2 drugs. Conclusions Efficacy was comparable among prednisolone, etoricoxib, and indomethacin for the treatment of AGA. Prednisolone might be more effective in reducing inflammation and it had a better safety profile. PMID:26965791

  20. Quality of Life in Childhood Epilepsy in pediatric patients enrolled in a prospective, open-label clinical study with cannabidiol.

    PubMed

    Rosenberg, Evan C; Louik, Jay; Conway, Erin; Devinsky, Orrin; Friedman, Daniel

    2017-08-01

    Recent clinical trials indicate that cannabidiol (CBD) may reduce seizure frequency in pediatric patients with certain forms of treatment-resistant epilepsy. Many of these patients experience significant impairments in quality of life (QOL) in physical, mental, and social dimensions of health. In this study, we measured the caregiver-reported Quality of Life in Childhood Epilepsy (QOLCE) in a subset of patients enrolled in a prospective, open-label clinical study of CBD. Results from caregivers of 48 patients indicated an 8.2 ± 9.9-point improvement in overall patient QOLCE (p < 0.001) following 12 weeks of CBD. Subscores with improvement included energy/fatigue, memory, control/helplessness, other cognitive functions, social interactions, behavior, and global QOL. These differences were not correlated to changes in seizure frequency or adverse events. The results suggest that CBD may have beneficial effects on patient QOL, distinct from its seizure-reducing effects; however, further studies in placebo-controlled, double-blind trials are necessary to confirm this finding. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 International League Against Epilepsy.

  1. Effect of mouth cleaning with hinokitiol-containing gel on oral malodor: a randomized, open-label pilot study.

    PubMed

    Iha, Kosaku; Suzuki, Nao; Yoneda, Masahiro; Takeshita, Toru; Hirofuji, Takao

    2013-10-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of mouth cleaning with hinokitiol-containing gel on oral malodor. An open-label, randomized, controlled trial was conducted to assess oral malodor and clinical parameters related to oral malodor before and after mouth cleaning with hinokitiol-containing gel (n = 9) or with gel not including hinokitiol (n = 9). Mouth cleaning included the teeth, gingiva, and tongue and was carried out 3 times per day for 4 weeks. Organoleptic test (OLT) scores (P = .021), levels of hydrogen sulfide (P = .008) and methyl mercaptan (P = .020), frequency of bleeding on probing, average probing pocket depth, and plaque index significantly improved in the group using hinokitiol. In contrast, only the OLT score (P = .031) significantly improved in the control group after the treatment regimen. Mouth cleaning with hinokitiol-containing gel may be effective for reduction of oral malodor. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Micronutrients supplementation and nutritional status in cognitively impaired elderly persons: a two-month open label pilot study.

    PubMed

    von Arnim, Christine A F; Dismar, Stephanie; Ott-Renzer, Cornelia S; Noeth, Nathalie; Ludolph, Albert C; Biesalski, Hans K

    2013-11-15

    Malnutrition is a widespread problem in elderly people and is associated with cognitive decline. However, interventional studies have produced ambiguous results. For this reason, we wanted to determine the effect of micronutrient supplementation on blood and tissue levels and on general nutritional status in persons with mild or moderate cognitive impairment. We performed a 2-month, open-label trial, administering a daily micronutrient supplement to 42 memory clinic patients with mild cognitive deficits. Blood levels of antioxidants, zinc, and B vitamins were determined before and after supplementation. In addition, we assessed metabolic markers for B vitamins and intracellular (buccal mucosa cell [BMC]) antioxidant levels. Nutritional status was assessed by using the Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA). Blood levels of B vitamins, folic acid, lutein, β-carotene, α-carotene, and α-tocopherol increased significantly. Decreases in homocysteine levels and the thiamine pyrophosphate effect and an increase in holotranscobalamin were observed. We found no increase in intracellular antioxidant levels of BMC. The MNA score in subjects at risk for malnutrition increased significantly, mainly owing to better perception of nutritional and overall health status. Micronutrient supplementation improved serum micronutrient status, with improved metabolic markers for B vitamins but not for intracellular antioxidant status, and was associated with improved self-perception of general health status. Our data underline the necessity of determining micronutrient status and support the use of additional assessments for general health and quality of life in nutritional supplementation trials.

  3. Sustained improvement in patient-reported outcomes during long-term fesoterodine treatment for overactive bladder symptoms: pooled analysis of two open-label extension studies.

    PubMed

    Kelleher, Con J; Dmochowski, Roger R; Berriman, Sandra; Kopp, Zoe S; Carlsson, Martin

    2012-08-01

    • To evaluate the effects of long-term fesoterodine treatment on health-related quality of life (HRQL) and treatment satisfaction in subjects with overactive bladder (OAB) symptoms. • To determine the impact of gender and age on these effects. • This is a post hoc analysis of data pooled from identically designed open-label extensions of two randomized, double-blind, 12-week fesoterodine studies. • Initial treatment was once-daily fesoterodine 8 mg; subjects had the opportunity to receive open-label fesoterodine for ≥24 months. • After 1 month, subjects could elect dose reduction to 4 mg and subsequent re-escalation to 8 mg; dose reduction and re-escalation were each allowed once annually. • Changes in scores on the King's Health Questionnaire (KHQ), International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire-Short Form (ICIQ-SF) and a Likert scale evaluating severity of bladder-related problems were assessed at open-label baseline and months 12 and 24; treatment satisfaction was assessed at open-label baseline and at months 4, 12 and 24. • A total of 864 enrolled subjects were included (men, n= 182; women, n= 682; aged <45 years, n= 134; 45-64 years, n= 432; 65-74 years, n= 204; ≥75 years, n= 94); most subjects (77%) who continued treatment maintained the 8-mg dose. • Among subjects in the overall population, there were significant improvements in all KHQ domains, ICIQ-SF scores, and bladder-related problems at open-label baseline vs double-blind baseline (P < 0.05); additional significant improvements were observed at months 12 and 24 vs open-label baseline in all outcomes (P < 0.05) except for the KHQ General Health Perception domain. • When data were stratified by gender or age, significant improvements at open-label baseline vs double-blind baseline were further significantly enhanced or sustained at months 12 and 24 for most KHQ domains, and for ICIQ-SF scores and bladder-related problems for all groups. Women had significantly greater

  4. Vinyl acetate

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Vinyl acetate ; CASRN 108 - 05 - 4 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Eff

  5. Phenylmercuric acetate

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Phenylmercuric acetate ; CASRN 62 - 38 - 4 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinog

  6. Ethyl acetate

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Ethyl acetate ; CASRN 141 - 78 - 6 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Eff

  7. Ammonium acetate

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Ammonium acetate ; CASRN 631 - 61 - 8 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic

  8. Thallium acetate

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Jump to main content . Integrated Risk Information System Recent Additions | Contact Us Search : All EPA IRIS • You are here : EPA Home • Research • Environmental Assessment • IRIS • IRIS Summaries Redirect Page As of September 30 , 2009 , the assessment summary for Thallium acetate is included in t

  9. Safety profile and tolerability of up to 1 year of pregabalin treatment in 3 open-label extension studies in patients with fibromyalgia.

    PubMed

    Arnold, Lesley M; Emir, Birol; Murphy, T Kevin; Zeiher, Bernhardt G; Pauer, Lynne; Scott, Gayle; Petersel, Danielle

    2012-05-01

    Pain relief and an acceptable safety profile have been reported in randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of pregabalin in the treatment of fibromyalgia (FM) for up to 14 weeks. To evaluate the safety profile and tolerability of pregabalin (75-300 mg BID) treatment for up to 1 year in patients with FM. Twelve-week data were pooled from 3 open-label extension studies of pivotal RCTs. Study 1 was a 1-year extension of a 13-week RCT, and studies 2 and 3 were 12-week extensions of 14-week RCTs. The 1-year data were separately evaluated. The open-label data are summarized using descriptive statistics. Overall, 1206 patients (92.4% female) with a mean (SD) age of 48.8 (10.7) years received open-label extended pregabalin treatment. A total of 119 of 1206 patients (9.9%) permanently discontinued study participation due to treatment-emergent adverse events (all causality) at 12 weeks (pooled data) and 53 of 429 (12.4%) within 1 year. Consistent with previous RCTs, the most commonly reported treatment-emergent adverse events with open-label pregabalin treatment were dizziness, somnolence, headache, peripheral edema, and increased weight. The highest incidence rates in the pooled 12-week data were for dizziness (214 of 1206; 17.7%) and somnolence (96 of 1206; 8.0%). In ratings of severity (mild, moderate, severe), most were reported as mild to moderate. The mean (SD) change in patient-reported visual analog scale pain scores (0-100) from the open-label baseline to the end of treatment was -21 (30.5) in study 1 (1 year), -26.7 (28.8) in study 2 (12 weeks), and -20.1 (26.8) in study 3 (12 weeks). The data from these extension studies suggest that the adverse event safety profile and tolerability of patients with FM treated with open-label pregabalin (75-300 mg BID) for up to 1 year were stable and were consistent with those of previous studies. ClinicalTrials.gov identifiers: NCT00151528 (A0081057 [study 1]), NCT00282997 (A0081078 [study 2]), and NCT00346034 (A0081101 [study 3

  10. Artesunate versus quinine in the treatment of severe falciparum malaria in African children (AQUAMAT): an open-label, randomised trial.

    PubMed

    Dondorp, Arjen M; Fanello, Caterina I; Hendriksen, Ilse C E; Gomes, Ermelinda; Seni, Amir; Chhaganlal, Kajal D; Bojang, Kalifa; Olaosebikan, Rasaq; Anunobi, Nkechinyere; Maitland, Kathryn; Kivaya, Esther; Agbenyega, Tsiri; Nguah, Samuel Blay; Evans, Jennifer; Gesase, Samwel; Kahabuka, Catherine; Mtove, George; Nadjm, Behzad; Deen, Jacqueline; Mwanga-Amumpaire, Juliet; Nansumba, Margaret; Karema, Corine; Umulisa, Noella; Uwimana, Aline; Mokuolu, Olugbenga A; Adedoyin, Olanrewaju T; Johnson, Wahab B R; Tshefu, Antoinette K; Onyamboko, Marie A; Sakulthaew, Tharisara; Ngum, Wirichada Pan; Silamut, Kamolrat; Stepniewska, Kasia; Woodrow, Charles J; Bethell, Delia; Wills, Bridget; Oneko, Martina; Peto, Tim E; von Seidlein, Lorenz; Day, Nicholas P J; White, Nicholas J

    2010-11-13

    Severe malaria is a major cause of childhood death and often the main reason for paediatric hospital admission in sub-Saharan Africa. Quinine is still the established treatment of choice, although evidence from Asia suggests that artesunate is associated with a lower mortality. We compared parenteral treatment with either artesunate or quinine in African children with severe malaria. This open-label, randomised trial was undertaken in 11 centres in nine African countries. Children (<15 years) with severe falciparum malaria were randomly assigned to parenteral artesunate or parenteral quinine. Randomisation was in blocks of 20, with study numbers corresponding to treatment allocations kept inside opaque sealed paper envelopes. The trial was open label at each site, and none of the investigators or trialists, apart from for the trial statistician, had access to the summaries of treatment allocations. The primary outcome measure was in-hospital mortality, analysed by intention to treat. This trial is registered, number ISRCTN50258054. 5425 children were enrolled; 2712 were assigned to artesunate and 2713 to quinine. All patients were analysed for the primary outcome. 230 (8·5%) patients assigned to artesunate treatment died compared with 297 (10·9%) assigned to quinine treatment (odds ratio [OR] stratified for study site 0·75, 95% CI 0·63-0·90; relative reduction 22·5%, 95% CI 8·1-36·9; p=0·0022). Incidence of neurological sequelae did not differ significantly between groups, but the development of coma (65/1832 [3·5%] with artesunate vs 91/1768 [5·1%] with quinine; OR 0·69 95% CI 0·49-0·95; p=0·0231), convulsions (224/2712 [8·3%] vs 273/2713 [10·1%]; OR 0·80, 0·66-0·97; p=0·0199), and deterioration of the coma score (166/2712 [6·1%] vs 208/2713 [7·7%]; OR 0·78, 0·64-0·97; p=0·0245) were all significantly less frequent in artesunate recipients than in quinine recipients. Post-treatment hypoglycaemia was also less frequent in patients

  11. Ofatumumab maintenance versus observation in relapsed chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (PROLONG): an open-label, multicentre, randomised phase 3 study.

    PubMed

    van Oers, Marinus H J; Kuliczkowski, Kazimierz; Smolej, Lukáš; Petrini, Mario; Offner, Fritz; Grosicki, Sebastian; Levin, Mark-David; Gupta, Ira; Phillips, Jennifer; Williams, Vanessa; Manson, Stephanie; Lisby, Steen; Geisler, Christian

    2015-10-01

    Ofatumumab is a human anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody that has proven efficacy as monotherapy in refractory chronic lymphocytic leukaemia. We assessed the efficacy and safety of ofatumumab maintenance treatment versus observation for patients in remission after re-induction treatment for relapsed chronic lymphocytic leukaemia. This open-label, multicentre, randomised phase 3 study enrolled patients aged 18 years or older from 130 centres in 24 countries who had chronic lymphocytic leukaemia in complete or partial remission after second-line or third-line treatment. Eligible patients had a WHO performance status of 0-2, had a response assessment within the previous 3 months, did not have refractory disease, autoimmune haemolytic anaemia requiring treatment, chronic or active infection requiring treatment, and had not previously received maintenance treatment or autologous or allogeneic stem-cell transplant. Using a randomisation list generated by a central computerised system and an interactive voice recognition system, we randomly assigned (1:1) patients to receive ofatumumab (300 mg followed by 1000 mg 1 week later and every 8 weeks for up to 2 years) or undergo observation. Randomisation was stratified by number and type of previous treatment and remission status after induction treatment (block size of four). Treatment assignment was open label. The primary endpoint was investigator-assessed progression-free survival in the intention-to-treat population. We report the results of a prespecified interim analysis after two-thirds of the planned study events (disease progression or death) had happened. This trial is closed to accrual but follow-up is ongoing. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00802737. Between May 6, 2010, and June 19, 2014, we enrolled 474 patients: 238 patients were randomly assigned to receive ofatumumab maintenance treatment and 236 to undergo observation. One (<1%) patient in the ofatumumab group did not receive the

  12. Agomelatine versus Sertraline: An Observational, Open-labeled and 12 Weeks Follow-up Study on Efficacy and Tolerability

    PubMed Central

    Akpınar, Esma; Cerit, Cem; Talas, Anıl; Tural, Ümit

    2016-01-01

    Objective In this open-labeled, 12 weeks follow-up study, we aimed to compare the efficacy and tolerability of agomelatine with sertraline Methods The outpatients of adult psychiatry clinic who have a new onset of depression and diagnosed as ‘major depressive episode’ by clinician according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders 4th edition and prescribed agomelatine (25 mg/day) or sertraline (50 mg/day) were included in the study. Results The decline of mean Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) scores of agomelatine group was significantly higher than the sertraline group at the end of 2nd week; however, the difference was not significant at the end of 3 months. Mean Clinical Global Impression-Improvement scale (CGI-I) scores of agomelatine group was lower than sertraline group at first week. Mean CGI-Severity scale and CGI-I scores were favour to sertraline group at the end of the study. Remission rates were 46.7% for sertraline group and 33.3% for agomelatine group while response rates were 76.7% for both groups. Any patient from agomelatine group dropped-out due to adverse effects. The amount of side effects was also less with agomelatine. Conclusion Agomelatine has a rapid onset efficacy on depressive symptoms and this can be beneficial for some critical cases. Considering MADRS scores, agomelatine seems to have similar efficacy with sertraline but we also point the need for long term studies since CGI scores were favour to sertraline group at the end of the study. Agomelatine has a favourable tolerability profile both in terms of discontinuation and the amount of side effects compared to sertraline. PMID:27776387

  13. Pharmacokinetics of intravesical versus oral oxybutynin in healthy adults: results of an open label, randomized, prospective clinical study.

    PubMed

    Krause, Petra; Fuhr, Uwe; Schnitker, Jörg; Albrecht, Uwe; Stein, Raimund; Rubenwolf, Peter

    2013-11-01

    We investigated the pharmacokinetics of intravesical oxybutynin and discuss the clinical implications of the results. We performed an open label, randomized, 3-period crossover clinical study in 20 healthy adults. In periods 1 and 2 subjects received a single dose of 10 mg oxybutynin HCl solution intravesically or a 5 mg tablet orally. Period 3 comprised repeat intravesical applications (7 doses) of 10 mg oxybutynin HCl. Enantioselective concentrations of oxybutynin and N-desethyloxybutynin were quantified by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated by noncompartmental methods, analyzed by descriptive statistics and compared using the average bioequivalence approach. Systemic exposure to racemic oxybutynin after intravesical administration was significantly greater, yielding 294% (90% CI 211-408) of that after oral intake of immediate release preparations, as measured by the dose normalized area under the plasma concentration time curve. In contrast, systemic exposure to racemic N-desethyloxybutynin reached only 21% (90% CI 15-29). The area under the plasma concentration time curve ratio of N-desethyloxybutynin to oxybutynin was 14-fold decreased for intravesical administration. After intravesical multidose administration, the cumulation of oxybutynin (1.3-fold) and N-desethyloxybutynin (1.6-fold) was weak, absorption was prolonged and apparent elimination half-lives were longer. The study medication was well tolerated with a third of participants reporting anticholinergic adverse effects. Our study provides evidence of significantly higher bioavailability of intravesical vs oral administration of oxybutynin due to circumvention of the intestinal first pass metabolism. Given the high efficacy and decreased rate of adverse effects, intravesical oxybutynin should be considered in patients with neurogenic lower urinary tract dysfunction who do not tolerate oral administration or in whom oral preparations fail to improve

  14. Methylphenidate Transdermal System: A Multisite, Open-Label Study of Dermal Reactions in Pediatric Patients Diagnosed With ADHD

    PubMed Central

    Squires, Liza; Li, Yunfeng; Civil, Richard; Paller, Amy S.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To characterize dermal reactions and examine methylphenidate (MPH) sensitization in subjects receiving methylphenidate transdermal system (MTS). Method: This multicenter, open-label, dose-optimization study utilized MTS doses of 10, 15, 20, and 30 mg in children aged 6 to 12 years, inclusive (N = 305), with a DSM-IV-TR primary diagnosis of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. The study was conducted between January 8, 2007, and August 23, 2007. Subjects wore MTS on their hips for 9 hours per day, alternating sides daily for a total of 7 weeks. Assessments included the Experience of Discomfort scale, Transdermal System Adherence scale, and Dermal Response Scale (DRS; 0 = no irritation, 7 = strong reaction). On-study reevaluations were conducted to characterize DRS scores ≥ 4. Epicutaneous allergy patch testing was conducted for DRS scores ≥ 6, persistent DRS scores ≥ 4, DRS score increase following an assessment of ≥ 4, or DRS scores of 4 or 5 following elective discontinuation. Results: Approximately half of subjects experienced definite erythema at the patch site that generally dissipated within 24 hours. Four subjects experienced a DRS score of 4 (1%): erythema in 1 subject resolved on study treatment, 2 cases resolved poststudy and subjects tolerated oral MPH, and 1 subject discontinued treatment. The latter subject was referred for patch testing and was diagnosed with allergic contact sensitization to MPH. Conclusions: Few severe dermal effects were seen with MTS treatment. Dermal reactions were characterized as contact dermatitis and dissipated rapidly. On patch testing, 1 subject (0.3%) manifested sensitization to MPH. Trial Registration: clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00434213 PMID:21494336

  15. Sativex long-term use: an open-label trial in patients with spasticity due to multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Serpell, Michael G; Notcutt, William; Collin, Christine

    2013-01-01

    Sativex is an endocannabinoid system modulator principally containing Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD). During a 6-week randomised controlled trial, Sativex had a clinically relevant effect on spasticity associated with multiple sclerosis (MS). Patients self-titrated oromucosal Sativex to symptom relief or maximum tolerated dose (maximum of 130 mg THC and 120 mg CBD daily). The primary objective was to evaluate the safety and tolerability of long-term treatment by recording the incidence and severity of adverse events (AEs). Secondary outcomes were to determine evidence of developing tolerance and to assess the long-term dosing profile of Sativex. A validated 11-point Numerical Rating Scale of spasticity severity was used to assess efficacy. A total of 146 patients elected to enter this open-label follow-up safety trial. Mean treatment exposure was 334 days (standard deviation, SD = 209 days), and patients administered on average 7.3 (SD = 4.42) actuations per day. Fifty-two (36 %) patients withdrew from the study in the first year, 14 % due to AEs and 9 % due to lack of efficacy. Most AEs were mild/moderate in severity. Common (>10 %) treatment-related AEs were dizziness (24.7 %) and fatigue (12.3 %). Serious AEs occurred in five patients (3.4 %), with two psychiatric events reported by one patient. No psychoses, psychiatric AE trends, or withdrawal symptoms occurred following abrupt cessation of treatment. Baseline symptoms including spasticity did not deteriorate but were maintained to study completion in those patients who did not withdraw. No new safety concerns were identified with chronic Sativex treatment, and serious AEs were uncommon. There was no evidence of tolerance developing, and patients who remained in the study reported continued benefit.

  16. Switch from oral pramipexole or ropinirole to rotigotine transdermal system in advanced Parkinson's disease: an open-label study.

    PubMed

    Chung, Sun Ju; Kim, Jong-Min; Kim, Jae Woo; Jeon, Beom Seok; Singh, Pritibha; Thierfelder, Stephan; Ikeda, Junji; Bauer, Lars

    2015-05-01

    Investigate safety, feasibility and efficacy of switching therapy in patients with advanced-stage Parkinson's disease (PD) inadequately controlled with pramipexole (≤ 3.5 mg/day) or ropinirole (≤ 14 mg/day) to rotigotine transdermal system (≤ 14 mg/24 h; dose adjustments ≤ 16 mg/24 h permitted). PD0009 (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01711866) was an open-label study in patients with advanced-stage PD receiving levodopa, and experiencing sleep disturbance or early-morning motor impairment. Pramipexole/ropinirole was switched to equivalent dose rotigotine overnight or in two stages. During the 4-week treatment period rotigotine dose adjustments were permitted (up to 16 mg/24 h). Primary variable: Clinical Global Impressions (CGI) item 4: side effects (assessing safety) at end of treatment. 79/87 (91%) patients completed the study; 2 (2%) withdrew due to adverse events (AEs). Most (84; 97%) had CGI item 4 score < 3 indicating switch did not interfere with functioning; three experienced drug-related AEs interfering with functioning (score = 3). 62% patients improved on Patient Global Impression of Change, assessing effectiveness. AEs occurring ≥ 5%: application site pruritus (10%), application site erythema (7%), dizziness (7%), dyskinesia (7%), erythema (6%), pruritus (6%). Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale II and III, Parkinson's Disease Sleep Scale-2 and Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index were unchanged. Numerical improvements in 'off' time, awakenings and nocturias were observed. Switch from pramipexole or ropinirole to rotigotine (up to 14 mg/24 h) was feasible and possibly associated with some benefit.

  17. Effect of cyclic, low dose pyrimethamine treatment in patients with Late Onset Tay Sachs: an open label, extended pilot study.

    PubMed

    Osher, Etty; Fattal-Valevski, Aviva; Sagie, Liora; Urshanski, Nataly; Sagiv, Nadav; Peleg, Leah; Lerman-Sagie, Tally; Zimran, Ari; Elstein, Deborah; Navon, Ruth; Valevski, Avi; Stern, Naftali

    2015-04-17

    Late Onset Tay- Sachs disease (LOTS) is a rare neurodegenerative lysosomal storage disease which results from mutations in the gene encoding the α subunit (HEXA) of β-hexosaminidase enzyme (HexA). At the present time, no effective treatment exists for LOTS and other neurodegenerative diseases involving the central nerve system (CNS). Pyrimethamine (PMT) was previously shown to act as a HexA chaperone in human fibroblasts in vitro carrying some (e.g., αG269S), but not all LOTS-related mutations. The present study assessed the effect of cyclic, low dose and long term pyrimethamine treatment on HexA in subjects with LOTS. In an open label trial in 4 LOTS patients, PMT was initiated at an average daily dose of ~2.7 mg and administered cyclically guided by blood lymphocyte HexA activity for a mean duration of 82.8 (±22.5; SD) weeks (~1.5 year). HexA activity rose in all subjects, with a mean peak increase of 2.24 folds (±0.52; SD) over baseline activity (range 1.87-3). The mean treatment time required to attain this peak was of 15.7 (±4.8; SD) weeks. Following increase in activity, HexA gradually declined with the continued use of PMT, which was then stopped, resulting in the return of HexA activity to baseline. A second cycle of PMT treatment was then initiated, resulting again in an increase in HexA activity. Three of the patients experienced a measurable neuropsychiatric deterioration whereas one subject remained entirely stable. Cyclic low dose of PMT can increase HexA activity in LOTS patients. However, the observed increase is repeatedly transient and not associated with discernible beneficial neurological or psychiatric effects.

  18. An open-label tolerability and efficacy study of an aluminum sesquichlorohydrate topical foam in axillary and palmar primary hyperhidrosis.

    PubMed

    Innocenzi, Daniele; Ruggero, Arianna; Francesconi, Lidia; Lacarrubba, Francesco; Nardone, Beatrice; Micali, Giuseppe

    2008-07-01

    Primary hyperidrosis (PH) is a disorder characterized by excessive eccrine sweat gland production that primarily involves the axillae as well as palms and soles. Common first-line topical treatment for PH consists of aluminum salts (AS) that act by physically blocking eccrine sweat gland ducts. However, primary irritant contact dermatitis is a common side effect of AS treatment. Recently, a new low-residue, thermophobic foam formulation containing 20% aluminum sesquichlorohydrate has been developed (Nidrox, Mipharm S.p.A.). To evaluate the local tolerability and efficacy of 20% aluminum sesquichlorohydrate foam in the treatment of axillary and palmar PH. Twenty subjects affected by PH were enrolled in a multicenter, open-label study. Local tolerability was evaluated by physicians assessing itching, burning, and skin irritation using a four-point score (from 0: no symptoms to 3: severe symptoms). Skin irritation was quantified with a visual score. Efficacy was assessed by means of Minor test score using a four-point score (range 0-3). The foam was applied to clean dry skin, every night during the first 2 weeks and three times a week during the following 2 weeks. Clinical evaluations were performed at baseline, at day 14 and at day 28. Patients were monitored throughout the study for adverse events. All 20 subjects completed the study. The foam induced a significant reduction of the Minor score in comparison with baseline values (p = 0.0002) both at day 14 and at day 28. At the end of the 4-week treatment period, the foam reduced eccrine sweating by 61% (Minor score: 3.3 vs. 8.5). No skin irritation was observed during the trial except for one subject who experienced a mild and transient itching sensation. No other side effects were reported during the study. This new foam appears to be an effective and well-tolerated topical treatment in reducing sweating in patients with axillary and palmar PH.

  19. Prospective open-label clinical trial of trihexyphenidyl in children with secondary dystonia due to cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Sanger, Terence D; Bastian, Amy; Brunstrom, Jan; Damiano, Diane; Delgado, Mauricio; Dure, Leon; Gaebler-Spira, Deborah; Hoon, Alec; Mink, Jonathan W; Sherman-Levine, Sara; Welty, Leah J

    2007-05-01

    Although trihexyphenidyl is used clinically to treat both primary and secondary dystonia in children, limited evidence exists to support its effectiveness, particularly in dystonia secondary to disorders such as cerebral palsy. A prospective, open-label, multicenter pilot trial of high-dose trihexyphenidyl was conducted in 23 children aged 4 to 15 years with cerebral palsy judged to have secondary dystonia impairing function in the dominant upper extremity. All children were given trihexyphenidyl at increasing doses over a 9-week period up to a maximum of 0.75 mg/kg/d. Trihexyphenidyl was subsequently tapered off over the next 5 weeks. Objective motor assessments were performed at baseline, 9 weeks, and 15 weeks. The primary outcome measure was the Melbourne Assessment of Unilateral Upper Limb Function, tested in the dominant arm. Tolerability and safety were monitored closely throughout the trial. Of the 31 children who agreed to participate in the study, 5 failed to meet entry criteria and 3 withdrew due to nonserious adverse events (chorea, drug rash, and hyperactivity). Three children required a dosage reduction because of nonserious adverse events but continued to participate. The 23 children who completed the study showed a significant improvement in arm function at 15 weeks (P = .045) but not at 9 weeks (P = .985). Post hoc analysis showed that a subgroup (n = 10) with hyperkinetic dystonia (excess involuntary movements) worsened at 9 weeks (P = .04) but subsequently returned to baseline following taper of the medicine. The authors conclude that scientific evidence for the clinical use of trihexyphenidyl in cerebral palsy remains equivocal. Trihexyphenidyl may be a safe and effective for treatment for arm dystonia in some children with cerebral palsy if given sufficient time to respond to the medication. Post hoc analyses based on the type of movement disorder suggested that children with hyperkinetic forms of dystonia may worsen. A larger, randomized

  20. Randomized, Open-Label Study of the Pharmacokinetics and Safety of Oral and Intravenous Administration of Omadacycline to Healthy Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Haiying; Ting, Lillian; Machineni, Surendra; Praestgaard, Jens; Kuemmell, Andreas; Stein, Daniel S.; Sunkara, Gangadhar; Kovacs, Steven J.; Tanaka, S. Ken

    2016-01-01

    Omadacycline is a first-in-class aminomethylcycline antibiotic with microbiological activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative aerobes and anaerobes and atypical bacteria that is being developed for the treatment of acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections (ABSSSI) and community-acquired bacterial pneumonia (CABP). The bioavailability of a phase 3 tablet formulation relative to that obtained via intravenous (i.v.) administration (and of other oral formulations relative to that of the phase 3 tablet) was investigated in an open-label, randomized, four-period, crossover study with healthy subjects age 18 to 50 years. Subjects received omadacycline at 100 mg i.v., 300 mg orally as two different tablet formulations with different dissolution profiles, and 300 mg as an oral solution. Plasma omadacycline concentrations were determined using a validated liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method. Twenty of 24 subjects completed all treatment periods. The two tablet formulations produced equivalent total exposures. The phase 3 tablet produced an exposure equivalent to that of the 100-mg i.v. dose, with a geometric mean ratio (90% confidence intervals [CI]) for area under the concentration-time curve from 0 h to infinity [AUC∞]) of 1.00 (0.93, 1.07). The absolute bioavailability of the tablets was approximately 34.5%. Intersubject variability was consistent among the oral formulations (∼20 to 25%). Single oral and i.v. doses of omadacycline were well tolerated; three subjects experienced mild adverse events (dizziness, nausea, and vomiting) that resolved without intervention. A 300-mg dose of the tablet formulation of omadacycline intended for use in phase 3 studies produced a total exposure equivalent to that of a 100-mg i.v. dose. PMID:27736760

  1. Eldecalcitol improves muscle strength and dynamic balance in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis: an open-label randomized controlled study.

    PubMed

    Saito, Kimio; Miyakoshi, Naohisa; Matsunaga, Toshiki; Hongo, Michio; Kasukawa, Yuji; Shimada, Yoichi

    2016-09-01

    The antifracture efficacy of vitamin D in osteoporosis is due to its direct action on bones and indirect extraskeletal effects to prevent falls. Eldecalcitol is an analog of active vitamin D3 that improves bone mineral density and reduces the risk of osteoporotic fractures. However, the effects of eldecalcitol on muscle strength and static and dynamic postural balance are unclear. In this open-label randomized controlled study, we assessed the effects of eldecalcitol on muscle strength and static and dynamic postural balance in 50 postmenopausal women (mean age 74 years) with osteoporosis treated with bisphosphonate. Participants were randomly divided into a bisphosphonate group (alendronate at 35 mg/week; n = 25) or an eldecalcitol group (eldecalcitol at 0.75 μg/day and alendronate at 35 mg/week; n = 25) and were followed up for 6 months. Trunk muscle strength, including back extensor strength and iliopsoas muscle strength, was measured. Static standing balance was evaluated and the one leg standing test was performed to assess static postural balance. Dynamic sitting balance was evaluated and the 10-m walk test, functional reach test, and timed up and go test were performed to assess dynamic postural balance. At 6 months, there were no significant changes in any measure of muscle strength or balance in the bisphosphonate group, whereas eldecalcitol significantly increased back extensor strength (p = 0.012) and iliopsoas muscle strength (p = 0.035). Eldecalcitol also significantly improved findings on the timed up and go test (p = 0.001) and dynamic sitting balance (p = 0.015) at 6 months. These results with eldecalcitol may have an impact on prevention of falls.

  2. Acceptability of drug detection monitoring among participants in an open-label pre-exposure prophylaxis study.

    PubMed

    Koester, Kimberly A; Liu, Albert; Eden, Christopher; Amico, K Rivet; McMahan, Vanessa; Goicochea, Pedro; Hosek, Sybil; Mayer, Kenneth H; Grant, Robert M

    2015-01-01

    In the world of HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) research, there is emerging interest in providing study participants with pharmacokinetic results from drug level testing to guide adherence counseling. The iPrEx randomized control trial was the first study to produce meaningful results of PrEP in humans. In the iPrEx open-label extension (OLE) study, blood plasma samples collected in the first 12 weeks of study participation were tested for the presence of tenofovir/emtricitabine--the drugs which compromise PrEP. Study clinicians shared results (detectable/undetectable) with participants at their 24-week visit. We evaluated the acceptability of receiving these results among a subset of iPrEx OLE participants. We conducted in-depth interviews (n = 59) with participants (those with and those without drug detected) enrolled in Boston, Chicago, and San Francisco to assess their experiences with receiving drug detection feedback. Incorporating drug detection results into the clinical study visit was well received and no negative reactions were expressed. For about half of participants, receiving their drug detection lab result was useful while for others it was not important. In a few cases, no drug detected results led to increased efforts to take PrEP consistently and in most cases enhanced open discussion of missed doses. Participants reported a desire for greater specificity, particularly quantitative drug levels needed for protection. We recommend exploring strategies to increase the salience of drug level results, including using feedback to target adherence counseling, and reducing the time between specimen collection, testing, and receipt of results. Future studies should evaluate the feasibility and impact of providing more specific quantitative drug levels using biomarkers of longer term PrEP exposure, i.e., hair/dried blood spots.

  3. A multicenter, open-label, 52-week study of 2% rebamipide (OPC-12759) ophthalmic suspension in patients with dry eye.

    PubMed

    Kinoshita, Shigeru; Awamura, Saki; Nakamichi, Norihiro; Suzuki, Hiroyuki; Oshiden, Kazuhide; Yokoi, Norihiko

    2014-03-01

    To investigate the efficacy and safety of 2% rebamipide ophthalmic suspension administered 4 times daily for 52 weeks in patients with dry eye. Multicenter (17 sites), open-label, single-arm study. A total of 154 patients with dry eye were enrolled in this study. After a 2-week screening period, patients received 2% rebamipide, instilled as 1 drop in each eye, 4 times daily for 52 weeks. The signs and symptoms measures were assessed at baseline, at weeks 2 and 4, and at every 4 weeks thereafter. The objective signs were fluorescein corneal staining score, lissamine green conjunctival staining score, and tear film break-up time, while subjective symptoms were dry eye-related ocular symptoms (foreign body sensation, dryness, photophobia, eye pain, and blurred vision). The safety variable was the occurrence of adverse events. For all objective signs and subjective symptoms, the scores significantly improved at week 2 compared with baseline (P < .001, paired t test). Interestingly, further improvements of those scores were observed at every visit up to week 52. No deaths were reported, yet serious adverse events that were not thought to be drug related were observed in 6 patients. The incidence of any of the adverse events did not markedly increase throughout the 52-week treatment period. The results of this study show that 2% rebamipide is effective in improving both the objective signs and subjective symptoms of dry eye patients for at least 52 weeks. In addition, 2% rebamipide treatment was generally well tolerated. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. A New Viscous Cysteamine Eye Drops Treatment for Ophthalmic Cystinosis: An Open-Label Randomized Comparative Phase III Pivotal Study.

    PubMed

    Liang, Hong; Labbé, Antoine; Le Mouhaër, Jeannie; Plisson, Céline; Baudouin, Christophe

    2017-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of new viscous cysteamine hydrochloride (CH) eye drops (vCH 0.55%) compared with standard CH 0.10% drops treatment. This was an open-label, phase III, randomized, two-arm multicenter trial conducted at two centers in France. Cystinosis patients ≥2 years old were randomized 1:1 to receive eye drops, four times per day for 90 days in both eyes. We compared the superiority in reducing corneal cystine crystal density as assessed by in vivo confocal microscopy (IVCM). We also evaluated photophobia, corneal cystine crystal scores (CCCSs), and cystine crystal depth measured by optical coherence tomography. Safety objectives were to assess adverse events (AEs), local adverse drug reactions, and ocular safety parameters. We included 15 patients with vCH 0.55% and 16 patients with CH 0.10% drops for 90 days. The mean absolute change in IVCM total score at day 90 in the vCH 0.55% drops group (-4.6 ± 3.1) was significantly greater than and superior to the mean absolute change in the CH 0.10% drops group (-0.46 ± 3.38; P < 0.0001). Photophobia, CCCS, and corneal cystine crystal depth were significantly more improved in the vCH 0.55% drops group than in the CH 0.10% group. The most frequent local adverse drug reactions in both groups were stinging, burning, redness, and blurred vision. vCH 0.55% was effective in reducing corneal cystine crystal density and superior to treatment with CH 0.10% drops, which offer advantages over hospital pharmacy formulations and is a more preferable and convenient treatment option.

  5. Treatment with paliperidone in children with behavior disorders previously treated with risperidone: an open-label trial.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Mayoralas, Daniel Martín; Fernández-Jaén, Alberto; Muñoz-Jareño, Nuria; Calleja-Pérez, Beatriz; Fernández-Perrone, Ana Laura; Arribas, Sonia López

    2012-01-01

    Paliperidone is the main active metabolite of risperidone, with certain pharmacokinetic and tolerability characteristics that suggest it may be used in special groups, such as children. Our purpose is to document the clinical experience with the use of paliperidone in children with severe behavior problems that were partially refractory to treatment with risperidone and psychological treatment. This is a prospective 16-week open-label study of paliperidone in 18 patients (mean age, 13.4 years) with severe and excessive irritability in the context of generalized developmental disorders or attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Patients who had exhibited an inadequate response to treatment with risperidone (1.5-2 mg/d) over a treatment period of 6 months were treated with paliperidone at 3 mg/d. Symptom severity at the beginning of the study and in response to paliperidone were rated with the Clinical Global Impression (CGI) scale and Overt Aggression Scale. A significant difference was documented between the mean score before treatment and the score after the drug intervention with paliperidone. There was a noticeable clinical improvement in 50% of the cases, as reflected in the CGI. Severity of aggressive behavior, as assessed by the Overt Aggression Scale, decreased significantly after paliperidone treatment: mean (SD), 2.7 (0.92) before treatment versus 1.5 (0.60) after treatment. This compound was safe and well tolerated. Half of the patients clearly responded to paliperidone extended release. Tolerance to this treatment was distinctly better than to risperidone. These preliminary results lay the foundation for further research into the use of paliperidone to treat pediatric disruptive behavior disorders within the context of randomized, double-blind, controlled clinical trials.

  6. Prolonged-release melatonin for insomnia – an open-label long-term study of efficacy, safety, and withdrawal

    PubMed Central

    Lemoine, Patrick; Garfinkel, Doron; Laudon, Moshe; Nir, Tali; Zisapel, Nava

    2011-01-01

    Background Prolonged-release melatonin (PRM) 2 mg is indicated for insomnia in patients aged 55 years and older. A recent double-blind placebo-controlled study demonstrated 6-month efficacy and safety of PRM in insomnia patients aged 18–80 and lack of withdrawal and rebound symptoms upon discontinuation. Objective To investigate the efficacy, safety, and withdrawal phenomena associated with 6–12 months PRM treatment. Methods Data from a prospective 6–12-month open-label study of 244 community dwelling adults with primary insomnia, who had participated in a placebo-controlled, double-blind dose-ranging trial of PRM. Patients received PRM nightly, followed by a 2-week withdrawal period. Main outcome measures were patient-reported sleep quality ratings (diary), adverse events, vital signs, and laboratory tests recorded at each visit, and withdrawal symptoms (CHESS-84 [Check-list Evaluation of Somatic Symptoms]). Nocturnal urinary 6-sulfatoxymelatonin excretion, a measure of the endogenous melatonin production, was assessed upon discontinuing long-term PRM. Results Of the 244 patients, 36 dropped out, 112 completed 6 months of treatment, and the other 96 completed 12 months of treatment. The mean number of nights by which patients reported sleep quality as “good” or “very good” was significantly higher during PRM than before treatment. There was no evidence of tolerance to PRM. Discontinuation of PRM was not associated with rebound insomnia or withdrawal symptoms; on the contrary, residual benefit was observed. PRM was well tolerated, and there was no suppression of endogenous melatonin production. Conclusion Results support the efficacy and safety of PRM in primary insomnia patients aged 20–80 throughout 6–12 months of continuous therapy. PRM discontinuation even after 12 months was not associated with adverse events, withdrawal symptoms, or suppression of endogenous melatonin production. PMID:21845053

  7. The efficacy of the modified Atkins diet in North Sea Progressive Myoclonus Epilepsy: an observational prospective open-label study.

    PubMed

    van Egmond, Martje E; Weijenberg, Amerins; van Rijn, Margreet E; Elting, Jan Willem J; Gelauff, Jeannette M; Zutt, Rodi; Sival, Deborah A; Lambrechts, Roald A; Tijssen, Marina A J; Brouwer, Oebele F; de Koning, Tom J

    2017-03-07

    North Sea Progressive Myoclonus Epilepsy is a rare and severe disorder caused by mutations in the GOSR2 gene. It is clinically characterized by progressive myoclonus, seizures, early-onset ataxia and areflexia. As in other progressive myoclonus epilepsies, the efficacy of antiepileptic drugs is disappointingly limited in North Sea Progressive Myoclonus Epilepsy. The ketogenic diet and the less restrictive modified Atkins diet have been proven to be effective in other drug-resistant epilepsy syndromes, including those with myoclonic seizures. Our aim was to evaluate the efficacy of the modified Atkins diet in patients with North Sea Progressive Myoclonus Epilepsy. Four North Sea Progressive Myoclonus Epilepsy patients (aged 7-20 years) participated in an observational, prospective, open-label study on the efficacy of the modified Atkins diet. Several clinical parameters were assessed at baseline and again after participants had been on the diet for 3 months. The primary outcome measure was health-related quality of life, with seizure frequency and blinded rated myoclonus severity as secondary outcome measures. Ketosis was achieved within 2 weeks and all patients completed the 3 months on the modified Atkins diet. The diet was well tolerated by all four patients. Health-related quality of life improved considerably in one patient and showed sustained improvement during long-term follow-up, despite the progressive nature of the disorder. Health-related quality of life remained broadly unchanged in the other three patients and they did not continue the diet. Seizure frequency remained stable and blinded rating of their myoclonus showed improvement, albeit modest, in all patients. This observational, prospective study shows that some North Sea Progressive Myoclonus Epilepsy patients may benefit from the modified Atkins diet with sustained health-related quality of life improvement. Not all our patients continued on the diet, but nonetheless we show that the modified

  8. Acupuncture for patients with mild hypertension: study protocol of an open-label multicenter randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Several studies using acupuncture to treat essential hypertension have been carried out. However, whether acupuncture is efficacious for hypertension is still controversial. Therefore, this trial aims to evaluate the efficacy and safety of acupuncture for patients with mild hypertension. Methods/Design This is a large scale, open-label, multicenter, randomized controlled clinical trial with four parallel arms. We will recruit 428 hypertensive patients with systolic blood pressure (SBP) between 140 and 159 mmHg, diastolic blood pressure (DBP) between 90 and 99 mmHg. The participants will be randomly assigned to four different groups (three acupuncture groups and one waiting list group) (1).The affected meridian acupuncture group (n = 107) is treated with acupoints on the affected meridians (2).The non-affected meridian acupuncture group (n = 107) is treated with acupoints on the non-affected meridians (3).The invasive sham acupuncture group (n = 107) is provided with sham acupoints treatment (4).The waiting-list group (n = 107) is not offered any intervention until they complete the trial. Each patient allocated to acupuncture groups will receive 18 sessions of acupuncture treatment over 6 weeks. This trial will be conducted in 11 hospitals in China. The primary endpoint is the change in average 24-hSBP before and 6 weeks after randomization. The secondary endpoints are average SBP and average DBP during the daytime and night-time, and 36-Item Short Form Survey (SF-36), and so on. Discussion This is the first large scale, multicenter, randomized, sham controlled trial of acupuncture for essential hypertension in China. It may clarify the efficacy of acupuncture as a treatment for mild hypertension. Trial registration Clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT01701726 PMID:24216113

  9. High-dose nifuratel for simple and mixed aerobic vaginitis: A single-center prospective open-label cohort study.

    PubMed

    Liang, Qian; Li, Nan; Song, Shurong; Zhang, Aihua; Li, Ni; Duan, Ying

    2016-10-01

    The efficacy and safety of two nifuratel dosages for the treatment of aerobic vaginitis (AV) were compared. This was a prospective open-label cohort study of patients diagnosed and treated at the Tianjin Third Central Hospital between January 2012 and December 2013. The co-presence of bacterial vaginosis (BV), vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC), or/and trichomonal vaginitis (TV; mixed AV) was determined. Patients were randomized to nifuratel-500 (500 mg nifuratel, intravaginal, 10 days) or nifuratel-250 (250 mg nifuratel, intravaginal, 10 days), and followed-up for three to seven days after treatment completion. Primary and secondary outcomes were recovery rate and adverse events, respectively. The study included 142 patients with AV. Age was not significantly different between the groups (n = 71 each), and disease distribution was identical: 29 (40.85%) simple AV and 42 (59.15%) mixed AV (AV + BV, 42.86 %; AV + VVC, 30.95%; AV + TV, 26.19%). In patients with simple AV, the recovery rate did not differ significantly between the nifuratel-500 (26/29, 89.66%) and nifuratel-250 (22/29, 75.86%) groups. In patients with mixed AV, recovery rates were significantly higher in the nifuratel-500 than in the nifuratel-250 group (AV + BV, 88.89% vs 50.00 %; AV + VVC, 76.92 % vs 30.77 %; AV + TV, 90.91 % vs 36.36%; all P < 0.05). Only one patient (nifuratel-500) reported an adverse event (mild anaphylactic reaction). Nifuratel 500 mg showed good clinical efficacy for the treatment of AV, particularly mixed AV, and is superior to the 250 mg dosage in the treatment of mixed AV. © 2016 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  10. Nutritional route in oesophageal resection trial II (NUTRIENT II): study protocol for a multicentre open-label randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Berkelmans, Gijs H K; Wilts, Bas J W; Kouwenhoven, Ewout A; Kumagai, Koshi; Nilsson, Magnus; Weijs, Teus J; Nieuwenhuijzen, Grard A P; van Det, Marc J; Luyer, Misha D P

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Early start of an oral diet is safe and beneficial in most types of gastrointestinal surgery and is a crucial part of fast track or enhanced recovery protocols. However, the feasibility and safety of oral intake directly following oesophagectomy remain unclear. The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of early versus delayed start of oral intake on postoperative recovery following oesophagectomy. Methods and analysis This is an open-label multicentre randomised controlled trial. Patients undergoing elective minimally invasive or hybrid oesophagectomy for cancer are eligible. Further inclusion criteria are intrathoracic anastomosis, written informed consent and age 18 years or older. Inability for oral intake, inability to place a feeding jejunostomy, inability to provide written consent, swallowing disorder, achalasia, Karnofsky Performance Status <80 and malnutrition are exclusion criteria. Patients will be randomised using online randomisation software. The intervention group (direct oral feeding) will receive a liquid oral diet for 2 weeks with gradually expanding daily maximums. The control group (delayed oral feeding) will receive enteral feeding via a jejunostomy during 5 days and then start the same liquid oral diet. The primary outcome measure is functional recovery. Secondary outcome measures are 30-day surgical complications; nutritional status; need for artificial nutrition; need for additional interventions; health-related quality of life. We aim to recruit 148 patients. Statistical analysis will be performed according to an intention to treat principle. Results are presented as risk ratios with corresponding 95% CIs. A two-tailed p<0.05 is considered statistically significant. Ethics and dissemination Our study protocol has received ethical approval from the Medical research Ethics Committees United (MEC-U). This study is conducted according to the principles of Good Clinical Practice. Verbal and written informed consent is

  11. Combined gemcitabine and S-1 chemotherapy for treating unresectable hilar cholangiocarcinoma: a randomized open-label clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Zun-Qiang; Guan, Jiao; Tong, Da-Nian; Zhou, Guang-Wen

    2016-01-01

    Although the combination of cisplatin and gemcitabine (GEM) is considered the standard first-line chemotherapy against unresectable hilar cholangiocarcinoma (HC), its efficacy is discouraging. The present randomized open-label clinical trial aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of the GEM plus S-1 (GEM-S-1) combination against unresectable HC. Twenty-five patients per group were randomly assigned to receive GEM, S-1 or GEM-S-1. Neutropenia (56%) and leukopenia (40%) were the most common chemotherapy-related toxicities in the GEM-S-1 group. Median overall survival (OS) in the GEM-S-1, GEM and S-1 groups was 11, 10 and 6 months, respectively. GEM plus S-1 significantly improved OS compared to S-1 monotherapy (OR=0.68; 95%CI, 0.50–0.90; P=0.008). Median progression-free survival (PFS) times in the GEM-S-1, GEM and S-1 groups were 4.90, 3.70 and 1.60 months, respectively. GEM plus S-1 significantly improved PFS compared to S-1 monotherapy (OR=0.50; 95%CI, 0.27–0.91; P=0.024). Response rates were 36%, 24% and 8% in the GEM-S-1, GEM and S-1 groups, respectively. A statistically significant difference was found in response rates between the gemcitabine-S-1 and S-1 groups (36% vs 8%, P=0.017). Patients with CA19-9<466 U/ml were more responsive to chemotherapeutic agents than those with CA19-9≥571 U/ml (88.9% vs 0%, P<0.001). We conclude that the combination of GEM plus S-1 provides a better OS, PFS and response rate than S-1 monotherapy, but it did not significantly differ from GEM monotherapy. (ChiCTR-TRC-14004733). PMID:27058753

  12. Anti-tumour effects of lanreotide for pancreatic and intestinal neuroendocrine tumours: the CLARINET open-label extension study.

    PubMed

    Caplin, Martyn E; Pavel, Marianne; Ćwikła, Jarosław B; Phan, Alexandria T; Raderer, Markus; Sedláčková, Eva; Cadiot, Guillaume; Wolin, Edward M; Capdevila, Jaume; Wall, Lucy; Rindi, Guido; Langley, Alison; Martinez, Séverine; Gomez-Panzani, Edda; Ruszniewski, Philippe

    2016-03-01

    In the CLARINET study, lanreotide Autogel (depot in USA) significantly prolonged progression-free survival (PFS) in patients with metastatic pancreatic/intestinal neuroendocrine tumours (NETs). We report long-term safety and additional efficacy data from the open-label extension (OLE). Patients with metastatic grade 1/2 (Ki-67 ≤ 10%) non-functioning NET and documented baseline tumour-progression status received lanreotide Autogel 120 mg (n = 101) or placebo (n = 103) for 96 weeks or until death/progressive disease (PD) in CLARINET study. Patients with stable disease (SD) at core study end (lanreotide/placebo) or PD (placebo only) continued or switched to lanreotide in the OLE. In total, 88 patients (previously: lanreotide, n = 41; placebo, n = 47) participated: 38% had pancreatic, 39% midgut and 23% other/unknown primary tumours. Patients continuing lanreotide reported fewer adverse events (AEs) (all and treatment-related) during OLE than core study. Placebo-to-lanreotide switch patients reported similar AE rates in OLE and core studies, except more diarrhoea was considered treatment-related in OLE (overall diarrhoea unchanged). Median lanreotide PFS (core study randomisation to PD in core/OLE; n=101) was 32.8 months (95% CI: 30.9, 68.0). A sensitivity analysis, addressing potential selection bias by assuming that patients with SD on lanreotide in the core study and not entering the OLE (n=13) had PD 24 weeks after last core assessment, found median PFS remaining consistent: 30.8 months (95% CI: 30.0, 31.3). Median time to further PD after placebo-to-lanreotide switch (n=32) was 14.0 months (10.1; not reached). This OLE study suggests long-term treatment with lanreotide Autogel 120 mg maintained favourable safety/tolerability. CLARINET OLE data also provide new evidence of lanreotide anti-tumour benefits in indolent and progressive pancreatic/intestinal NETs. © 2016 The authors.

  13. Safety and efficacy of Adalimumab in the treatment of moderate to severe palmo-plantar psoriasis: an open label study.

    PubMed

    Richetta, A G; Mattozzi, C; Giancristoforo, S; D'Epiro, S; Cantisani, C; Macaluso, L; Salvi, M; Calvieri, S

    2012-01-01

    Psoriasis of the hands and feet is highly debilitating and difficult to treat. Lesions are very painfull, disabilitating and impair quality of life of patients. Most treatment options have limited efficacy, short duration of response and several adverse events. To investigate the safety and efficacy of Adalimumab in the management of palmo-plantar psoriasis. Adults patients with moderate to severe palmoplantar psoriasis were enrollend in this trial. They received a 6 courses of Adalimumab 40 mg 1 vial every 2 weeks. The study consisted of treatment period of 12 weeks (Weeks 1-12). Safety and efficacy were assessed at weeks 0.6 and 12. PGA (Physician's Global Assesment) and DLQI were used to measure the efficacy. Primary end point of the study was to evaluate patients who achieved a reduction in PGA at week 12. The secondary end point was to evaluate patients who achieved a 50% reduction in PGA at week 12. The tertiary end point evaluated patients who achieved a PGA rating of clear or almost clear. Of 11 patients enrolled 6 showed overall improvement of at least one point of PGA at week 12; 4 of them obtained a PGA of 0 while 5 patient of 11 a ≥ 50% improvement from the beginning of the study. 8 patients showed an increase in quality of life score while receiving the drug at week 12. No serious adverse events were reported during the study. Continuous treatment with Adalimumab for 12 weeks was safe and efficacious in this open-label clinical trial of patients with palmoplantar psoriasis.

  14. A prospective, open-label study of milnacipran in the prevention of headache in patients with episodic or chronic migraine.

    PubMed

    Engel, Emily Rubenstein; Kudrow, David; Rapoport, Alan M

    2014-03-01

    Migraine is a highly prevalent episodic and chronic neurological disorder that impacts otherwise healthy men and women in their most productive years. An anecdotal survey in our clinical practices suggested that milnacipran, a drug indicated for the treatment of fibromyalgia, reduced the incidence of headache in patients with migraine. In this 3-month, open-label, pilot study, 38 patients diagnosed with episodic migraine and 7 patients with chronic migraine maintained headache diaries to assess the effectiveness and tolerability of milnacipran in headache prevention. After a 1-month period to obtain baseline data, milnacipran treatment was initiated and doses were titrated up to 100 mg/day over 1 month. Maintenance therapy continued for an additional 3 months. The primary efficacy end point was change from baseline in the number of all headache days during the last 28 days of maintenance therapy analyzed, using last observation carried forward (LOCF). Change from baseline in migraine days during the last month of the maintenance period using LOCF was a secondary end point. Milnacipran 100 mg daily was associated with a significant reduction in headache (-4.2 days; P < 0.001) and migraine frequency (-2.2 days; P < 0.003). The adverse event profile was consistent with prior reports of milnacipran for the treatment of other conditions. However, compared with the recommended protocol, a more gradual increase in milnacipran dose was required to improve tolerability for some patients. The robust efficacy signal found in this study strongly suggests that a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of milnacipran in migraine and chronic headache is warranted.

  15. Benefits from sustained-release pyridostigmine bromide in myasthenia gravis: results of a prospective multicenter open-label trial.

    PubMed

    Sieb, Jörn Peter; Köhler, Wolfgang

    2010-11-01

    For more than 50 years the acetylcholinesterase inhibitor pyridostigmine bromide has been the drug of choice in the symptomatic therapy for myasthenia gravis. The sustained-release dosage form of pyridostigmine (SR-Pyr) is only available in a limited number of countries (e.g. in the United States and Germany). Astonishingly, the therapeutic usefulness of SR-Pyr has not yet been evaluated. In this non-interventional prospective open-label trial, 72 patients with stable myasthenia gravis were switched from instant-release dosage forms of pyridostigmine bromide to SR-Pyr. The results from the 37 patients younger than 60 years were separately analyzed. The initial daily dose of SR-Pyr was 288.1 ± 171.0mg. The drug switch was unproblematic in all patients. The number of daily doses was significantly reduced from 4.3 to 3.6 (p=0.011). The switch to SR-Pyr ameliorated the total quantified myasthenia gravis (QMG) score from 0.9 ± 0.5 to 0.6 ± 0.4 (p<0.001) in all patients and in the younger subgroup. This was accompanied by a significant improvement in the quality of life parameters. The health status valued by EuroQoL questionnaire improved from 0.626 ± 0.286 to 0.782 ± 0.186 (p<0.001). After switching to SR-Pyr, 28 adverse reactions disappeared and 24 adverse reactions occurred less frequent or weaker, however, 17 new adverse reactions were documented. Our results support the usefulness of SR-Pyr in an individualized therapeutic regimen to improve quality of life regardless of the patient's age in myasthenia gravis. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Phase II open-label study of bevacizumab combined with neoadjuvant anthracycline and taxane therapy for locally advanced breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Clavarezza, Matteo; Turazza, Monica; Aitini, Enrico; Saracchini, Silvana; Garrone, Ornella; Durando, Antonio; De Placido, Sabino; Bisagni, Giancarlo; Levaggi, Alessia; Bighin, Claudia; Restuccia, Eleonora; Scalamogna, Roberto; Galli, Anna; Del Mastro, Lucia

    2013-08-01

    Neoadjuvant anthracycline- and taxane-based chemotherapy is frequently administered in breast cancer. Pathological complete response (pCR) rates vary according to clinical disease stage and biology of breast cancer. The critical role of angiogenesis in the progression of breast cancer, together with significantly improved efficacy when bevacizumab is combined with chemotherapy in the metastatic setting, provides a strong rationale for evaluating the integration of bevacizumab into neoadjuvant chemotherapy regimens. A single-arm, multicentre, phase II, open-label study evaluated four 3-weekly cycles of FEC (5-fluorouracil 600 mg/m(2), epirubicin 90 mg/m(2) and cyclophosphamide 600 mg/m(2)) followed by 12 cycles of weekly paclitaxel (80 mg/m(2)) in combination with bevacizumab 10 mg/kg every 2 weeks as neoadjuvant therapy for HER2-negative stage III locally advanced or inflammatory breast carcinoma. The primary endpoint was pCR rate. Planned treatment was completed in 49 of the 56 enrolled patients. In the intent-to-treat population, the pCR rate was 21% and the clinical response rate was 59%. Breast-conserving surgery was achieved in 34% of patients. In the subgroup of 15 patients with triple-negative disease, the pCR rate was 47%. Grade 3 adverse events in ≥5% of patients were neutropenia, leucopenia, asthenia, and rash. One case each of hypertensive retinopathy and post-operative wound complication, both after treatment completion, were considered probably related to bevacizumab. There were no treatment-related deaths and no cardiac function abnormalities. This study indicates that FEC followed by weekly paclitaxel with bevacizumab is an active neoadjuvant regimen for locally advanced breast cancer, with no major safety concerns. NCT00559845. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Effectiveness of coenzyme Q10 in prophylactic treatment of migraine headache: an open-label, add-on, controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Shoeibi, Ali; Olfati, Nahid; Soltani Sabi, Mohsen; Salehi, Maryam; Mali, Sara; Akbari Oryani, Mahsa

    2017-03-01

    Despite the huge health and economic burden of migraine headache, few medications have been approved for its prophylactic treatment, most of which can potentially induce serious adverse effects. Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) is a supplement and has shown preliminary benefits in migraine prophylaxis. We aimed to assess this effect in an adult population. This is an open-label, parallel, add-on, match-controlled trial. Eighty patients diagnosed with migraine headache based on International Headache Society criteria were allocated to receiving only their current preventive drugs or their current preventive drugs plus 100 mg CoQ10 daily, matching for their baseline characteristics, and were assessed for frequency and severity of attacks, and ≥50 % reduction in attack frequency per month. Thirty-six and 37 patients were analyzed in CoQ10 and control groups, respectively. Number of attacks per month dropped significantly in the CoQ10 group (mean decrease: 1.6 vs. 0.5 among CoQ10 and control groups, respectively, p < 0.001). A significant reduction was also evident in the severity of headaches (mean decrease: 2.3 vs. 0.6 among CoQ10 and control groups, respectively, p < 0.001). For ≥50 % reduction in the frequency of attacks per month, the number needed to treat was calculated as 1.6. No side effects for CoQ10 were observed. This study suggests that CoQ10 might reduce the frequency of headaches, and may also make them shorter in duration, and less severe, with a favorable safety profile.

  18. Frovatriptan for acute treatment of migraine associated with menstruation: results from an open-label postmarketing surveillance study.

    PubMed

    Newman, Lawrence C; Harper, Samira; Jones, Beverly A; Campbell, John

    2009-08-01

    To examine the effectiveness and tolerability of acute treatment with frovatriptan in women experiencing menstrual migraine (MM) vs. female migraineurs with non-MM. This was an open-label postmarketing surveillance study (n = 7107) conducted in Germany to assess acute treatment with frovatriptan in one to three migraine attacks. This retrospective subanalysis evaluated acute frovatriptan treatment in women who experienced >or=1 MM attack vs. those women with non-MM attacks. Effectiveness and tolerability were graded using a 4-point scale (1 = very good, 2 = good, 3 = satisfactory, 4 = poor). Demographics were similar in MM (n = 1931) and non-MM patients (n = 2080), except that mean age (38.3 vs 45.3 years, respectively) and number of migraine attacks per month were less in the MM group than in the non-MM group (both p < 0.001). Although 98% of women reported that their previous migraines were moderate or severe, only one third in each treatment group previously used triptans. Prestudy medications were rated as good or very good for effectiveness by 20.3% and 19.2% of the MM and non-MM groups, respectively. In contrast, the effectiveness of frovatriptan was rated as very good or good by 92.7% and 90.9% of women in the MM and non-MM groups, respectively. Forty-three percent and 96% of all women rated their previous medication and frovatriptan, respectively, as having good or very good tolerability. Among women rating their previous medication as poor or satisfactory, most (94%) rated frovatriptan as very good or good. Acute frovatriptan treatment improved patient ratings of treatment effectiveness and tolerability in women with migraine associated with menses.

  19. Phase I, multicenter, open-label, dose-escalation study of sonidegib in Asian patients with advanced solid tumors.

    PubMed

    Minami, Hironobu; Ando, Yuichi; Ma, Brigette Buig Yue; Hsiang Lee, Jih-; Momota, Hiroyuki; Fujiwara, Yutaka; Li, Leung; Fukino, Koichi; Ito, Koji; Tajima, Takeshi; Mori, Asuka; Lin, Chia-Chi

    2016-10-01

    Sonidegib is a selective inhibitor of Smoothened receptor, which is a key regulator of the Hedgehog signaling pathway. The purpose of this study was to determine the maximum tolerated dose based on dose-limiting toxicity (DLT) and the recommended dose (RD) of sonidegib in Asian patients with advanced solid tumors. This was an open-label, single-arm, multicenter, two-group, parallel, dose-escalation, phase I study undertaken in Asian patients; group 1 included patients from Japan and group 2 included patients from Hong Kong and Taiwan. Dose escalation was guided by a Bayesian logistic regression model dependent on DLTs in cycle 1 and other safety findings. A total of 45 adult Asian patients with confirmed advanced solid tumors were enrolled. Group 1 included 21 patients (12 treated with 400 mg q.d. [once daily] and 9 treated with 600 mg q.d.) and group 2 included 24 patients (12 treated with 400 mg q.d., 8 treated with 600 mg q.d., and 4 treated with 800 mg q.d.). Elevation in creatine kinase was the DLT in both groups. The most common adverse events suspected to be related to sonidegib in both patient groups were increase in creatine kinase levels, myalgia, fatigue, and abnormal hepatic function. The RD of 400 mg q.d. was defined in both groups. Difference in tolerability was noted between the East Asian patients and Western population. The RD in East Asian patients (400 mg q.d.) was lower than in patients from Europe and the USA (800 mg q.d. and 250 mg twice daily). (Registered with Clinicaltrials.gov: NCT01208831.).

  20. Randomised, open-label, phase II study of gemcitabine with and without IMM-101 for advanced pancreatic cancer.

    PubMed

    Dalgleish, Angus G; Stebbing, Justin; Adamson, Douglas Ja; Arif, Seema Safia; Bidoli, Paolo; Chang, David; Cheeseman, Sue; Diaz-Beveridge, Robert; Fernandez-Martos, Carlos; Glynne-Jones, Rob; Granetto, Cristina; Massuti, Bartomeu; McAdam, Karen; McDermott, Raymond; Martín, Andrés J Muñoz; Papamichael, Demetris; Pazo-Cid, Roberto; Vieitez, Jose M; Zaniboni, Alberto; Carroll, Kevin J; Wagle, Shama; Gaya, Andrew; Mudan, Satvinder S

    2016-09-27

    Immune Modulation and Gemcitabine Evaluation-1, a randomised, open-label, phase II, first-line, proof of concept study (NCT01303172), explored safety and tolerability of IMM-101 (heat-killed Mycobacterium obuense; NCTC 13365) with gemcitabine (GEM) in advanced pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. Patients were randomised (2 : 1) to IMM-101 (10 mg ml(-l) intradermally)+GEM (1000 mg m(-2) intravenously; n=75), or GEM alone (n=35). Safety was assessed on frequency and incidence of adverse events (AEs). Overall survival (OS), progression-free survival (PFS) and overall response rate (ORR) were collected. IMM-101 was well tolerated with a similar rate of AE and serious adverse event reporting in both groups after allowance for exposure. Median OS in the intent-to-treat population was 6.7 months for IMM-101+GEM v 5.6 months for GEM; while not significant, the hazard ratio (HR) numerically favoured IMM-101+GEM (HR, 0.68 (95% CI, 0.44-1.04, P=0.074). In a pre-defined metastatic subgroup (84%), OS was significantly improved from 4.4 to 7.0 months in favour of IMM-101+GEM (HR, 0.54, 95% CI 0.33-0.87, P=0.01). IMM-101 with GEM was as safe and well tolerated as GEM alone, and there was a suggestion of a beneficial effect on survival in patients with metastatic disease. This warrants further evaluation in an adequately powered confirmatory study.

  1. Effectiveness of agomelatine on anhedonia in depressed patients: an outpatient, open-label, real-world study.

    PubMed

    Gargoloff, Pedro Damian; Corral, Ricardo; Herbst, Luis; Marquez, Miguel; Martinotti, Giovanni; Gargoloff, Pedro Rafael

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this real-world study was to evaluate the effect of agomelatine on anhedonia as primary endpoint in outpatients under treatment of major depressive episodes. The study was an open-label, multicenter, 8-week phase IV trial. Two hundred fifty-seven (257) patients were recruited, and 143 patients were included in the analysis. Agomelatine was administered orally as a 25-mg tablet. The dose could be increased to 50 mg after 2 weeks of treatment. An improvement in the severity of anhedonia (Snaith-Hamilton Pleasure Scale total score) was observed from 8.5 points at baseline to 4.1 at week 8, statistically significant (p < 0.05) from the first week. Significant decreases in scores on the severity of depression (Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology 16-item Self-Report [QIDS-SR-16]), anxiety (Generalized Anxiety Disorder 7-item scale), and in overall clinical status (CGI) were also found over 8 weeks, independently from the presence of a first or recurrence episode. Response (QIDS-SR-16 score ≥ 50% of baseline) at week 8 was observed in 65.7% of the patients, while 49.6% of the patients achieved remission (QIDS-SR-16 score ≤ 5). Agomelatine was shown to be effective on anhedonia, depression, and anxiety in subjects with major depression. The pragmatic design of the study reflects real-world clinical practice providing interesting insights into routine care management. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. UNBLOCK: an open-label, dose-finding, pharmacokinetic and safety study of bivalirudin in children with deep vein thrombosis.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, S H; Yee, D L; Lira, J; Goldenberg, N A; Young, G

    2015-09-01

    Direct thrombin inhibitors offer potential advantages over unfractionated heparin but have been poorly studied in children. To determine appropriate dosing of bivalirudin in children and adolescents and the relationship between activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) and plasma bivalirudin concentration. The UNBLOCK (UtilizatioN of BivaLirudin On Clots in Kids) study was an open-label, single-arm, dose-finding, pharmacokinetic, safety and efficacy study of bivalirudin for the acute treatment of deep vein thrombosis (DVT) in children aged 6 months to 18 years. Drug initiation consisted of a bolus dose (0.125 mg kg(-1) ) followed by continuous infusion (0.125 mg kg h(-1) ). Dose adjustments were based on the APTT, targeting a range of 1.5-2.5 times each patient's baseline APTT. Safety was assessed by specific bleeding endpoints and efficacy by repeat imaging at 48-72 h and 25-35 days. Eighteen patients completed the study. Following the bolus dose and the initial infusion rate, most patients' APTT values were within the target range. The infusion rate bivalirudin correlated more closely with drug concentration than the APTT. At 48-72 h, nine (50%) patients had complete or partial thrombus resolution, increasing to 16 (89%) at 25-35 days. No major and one minor bleeding event occurred. Bivalirudin demonstrated reassuring safety and noteworthy efficacy in terms of early clot resolution in children and adolescents with DVT. Although a widely available and familiar monitoring tool, the APTT correlates poorly with plasma bivalirudin concentration, possibly limiting its utility in managing pediatric patients receiving bivalirudin for DVT. © 2015 International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis.

  3. A phase 1/2, open-label study evaluating twice-daily administration of momelotinib in myelofibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Vikas; Mesa, Ruben A.; Deininger, Michael W.N.; Rivera, Candido E.; Sirhan, Shireen; Brachmann, Carrie Baker; Collins, Helen; Kawashima, Jun; Xin, Yan; Verstovsek, Srdan

    2017-01-01

    Momelotinib, a small-molecule inhibitor of Janus kinase 1 and Janus kinase 2, has demonstrated efficacy in myelofibrosis patients with 300 mg, once-daily dosing. This open-label, non-randomized, phase 1/2 study evaluated the safety and therapeutic benefit of momelotinib with twice-daily dosing. A total of 61 subjects with primary myelofibrosis or post–polycythemia vera/post–essential thrombocythemia myelofibrosis with intermediate- or high-risk disease received momelotinib. A phase 1 dose escalation identified 200 mg twice daily as the optimal dose to be expanded in phase 2. The most frequent adverse events were diarrhea (45.9%), peripheral neuropathy (44.3%), thrombocytopenia (39.3%), and dizziness (36.1%), the latter primarily due to a first-dose effect. The response assessment according to the 2006 International Working Group criteria (≥8 weeks duration at any time point) demonstrated spleen response by palpation of 72% (36/50) and anemia response of 45% (18/40). Spleen response by magnetic resonance imaging obtained at 24 weeks was 45.8% (27/59) for all subjects and 54.0% (27/50) for those with palpable splenomegaly at baseline. The symptoms of myelofibrosis were improved in most subjects. Cytokine analysis showed a rapid decline in interleukin-6 with momelotinib treatment, and a slower reduction in other inflammatory cytokines. In the subgroup of subjects with the JAK2V617F mutation at baseline (n=41), momelotinib significantly reduced the allele burden by 21.1% (median) at 24 weeks. These results provide evidence of tolerability and a potential therapeutic activity of momelotinib for subjects that support further evaluation in ongoing, phase 3 randomized trials. (clinicaltrials. gov identifier:01423058). PMID:27634203

  4. Rituximab in Children with Steroid-Dependent Nephrotic Syndrome: A Multicenter, Open-Label, Noninferiority, Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Rossi, Roberta; Bonanni, Alice; Quinn, Robert R.; Sica, Felice; Bodria, Monica; Pasini, Andrea; Montini, Giovanni; Edefonti, Alberto; Belingheri, Mirco; De Giovanni, Donatella; Barbano, Giancarlo; Degl’Innocenti, Ludovica; Scolari, Francesco; Murer, Luisa; Reiser, Jochen; Fornoni, Alessia; Ghiggeri, Gian Marco

    2015-01-01

    Steroid-dependent nephrotic syndrome (SDNS) carries a high risk of toxicity from steroids or steroid-sparing agents. This open-label, noninferiority, randomized controlled trial at four sites in Italy tested whether rituximab is noninferior to steroids in maintaining remission in juvenile SDNS. We enrolled children age 1–16 years who had developed SDNS in the previous 6–12 months and were maintained in remission with high prednisone doses (≥0.7 mg/kg per day). We randomly assigned participants to continue prednisone alone for 1 month (control) or to add a single intravenous infusion of rituximab (375 mg/m2; intervention). Prednisone was tapered in both groups after 1 month. For noninferiority, rituximab had to permit steroid withdrawal and maintain 3-month proteinuria (mg/m2 per day) within a prespecified noninferiority margin of three times the levels among controls (primary outcome). We followed participants for ≥1 year to compare risk of relapse (secondary outcome). Fifteen children per group (21 boys; mean age, 7 years [range, 2.6–13.5 years]) were enrolled and followed for ≤60 months (median, 22 months). Three-month proteinuria was 42% lower in the rituximab group (geometric mean ratio, 0.58; 95% confidence interval, 0.18 to 1.95 [i.e., within the noninferiority margin of three times the levels in controls]). All but one child in the control group relapsed within 6 months; median time to relapse in the rituximab group was 18 months (95% confidence interval, 9 to 32 months). In the rituximab group, nausea and skin rash during infusion were common; transient acute arthritis occurred in one child. In conclusion, rituximab was noninferior to steroids for the treatment of juvenile SDNS. PMID:25592855

  5. Rituximab in Children with Steroid-Dependent Nephrotic Syndrome: A Multicenter, Open-Label, Noninferiority, Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Ravani, Pietro; Rossi, Roberta; Bonanni, Alice; Quinn, Robert R; Sica, Felice; Bodria, Monica; Pasini, Andrea; Montini, Giovanni; Edefonti, Alberto; Belingheri, Mirco; De Giovanni, Donatella; Barbano, Giancarlo; Degl'Innocenti, Ludovica; Scolari, Francesco; Murer, Luisa; Reiser, Jochen; Fornoni, Alessia; Ghiggeri, Gian Marco

    2015-09-01

    Steroid-dependent nephrotic syndrome (SDNS) carries a high risk of toxicity from steroids or steroid-sparing agents. This open-label, noninferiority, randomized controlled trial at four sites in Italy tested whether rituximab is noninferior to steroids in maintaining remission in juvenile SDNS. We enrolled children age 1-16 years who had developed SDNS in the previous 6-12 months and were maintained in remission with high prednisone doses (≥0.7 mg/kg per day). We randomly assigned participants to continue prednisone alone for 1 month (control) or to add a single intravenous infusion of rituximab (375 mg/m(2); intervention). Prednisone was tapered in both groups after 1 month. For noninferiority, rituximab had to permit steroid withdrawal and maintain 3-month proteinuria (mg/m(2) per day) within a prespecified noninferiority margin of three times the levels among controls (primary outcome). We followed participants for ≥1 year to compare risk of relapse (secondary outcome). Fifteen children per group (21 boys; mean age, 7 years [range, 2.6-13.5 years]) were enrolled and followed for ≤60 months (median, 22 months). Three-month proteinuria was 42% lower in the rituximab group (geometric mean ratio, 0.58; 95% confidence interval, 0.18 to 1.95 [i.e., within the noninferiority margin of three times the levels in controls]). All but one child in the control group relapsed within 6 months; median time to relapse in the rituximab group was 18 months (95% confidence interval, 9 to 32 months). In the rituximab group, nausea and skin rash during infusion were common; transient acute arthritis occurred in one child. In conclusion, rituximab was noninferior to steroids for the treatment of juvenile SDNS.

  6. An open-label pilot study of pulsed electromagnetic field therapy in the treatment of failed back surgery syndrome pain

    PubMed Central

    Harper, Wayne L; Schmidt, William K; Kubat, Nicole J; Isenberg, Richard A

    2015-01-01

    Persistent pain following back surgery remains a major treatment challenge. The primary objective of this open-label exploratory study was to investigate the analgesic effectiveness of pulsed electromagnetic field therapy administered twice daily over a 45-day period in 34 subjects (68% female) with persistent or recurrent pain following back surgery. A secondary goal was to guide the design of future randomized controlled trials that could target responsive subpopulations. All predefined primary and secondary outcomes, including change in pain intensity (PI), physical function (Oswestry Disability Index), analgesic consumption, and overall well-being (Patient Global Impression of Change), are reported. A responder analysis (≥30% reduction in PI versus baseline) was added as a post hoc evaluation. Safety outcomes, as well as results of a cost-avoidance survey, are also summarized. Of the 30 per-protocol subjects who completed the study, 33% reported a clinically meaningful (≥30%) reduction in PI. A higher response rate (60%) was reported for subjects who had undergone discectomy prior to the trial compared to subjects who had undergone other types of surgical interventions (decompression or fusion) without discectomy. Improvements in PI were paralleled by improvements in secondary outcomes. Relative to baseline, responders reported an average 44% and 55% reduction in back PI and leg PI (respectively), and an average 13% improvement in Oswestry Disability Index scores. In the per-protocol population, 50% of responders and 12% of nonresponders reported less analgesia consumption at the end of treatment versus baseline. Sixty-seven percent of per-protocol responders and 0% of nonresponders reported clinically meaningful improvement in overall well-being on the Patient Global Impression of Change scale. PMID:25678825

  7. An open-label pilot study of pulsed electromagnetic field therapy in the treatment of failed back surgery syndrome pain.

    PubMed

    Harper, Wayne L; Schmidt, William K; Kubat, Nicole J; Isenberg, Richard A

    2015-01-01

    Persistent pain following back surgery remains a major treatment challenge. The primary objective of this open-label exploratory study was to investigate the analgesic effectiveness of pulsed electromagnetic field therapy administered twice daily over a 45-day period in 34 subjects (68% female) with persistent or recurrent pain following back surgery. A secondary goal was to guide the design of future randomized controlled trials that could target responsive subpopulations. All predefined primary and secondary outcomes, including change in pain intensity (PI), physical function (Oswestry Disability Index), analgesic consumption, and overall well-being (Patient Global Impression of Change), are reported. A responder analysis (≥30% reduction in PI versus baseline) was added as a post hoc evaluation. Safety outcomes, as well as results of a cost-avoidance survey, are also summarized. Of the 30 per-protocol subjects who completed the study, 33% reported a clinically meaningful (≥30%) reduction in PI. A higher response rate (60%) was reported for subjects who had undergone discectomy prior to the trial compared to subjects who had undergone other types of surgical interventions (decompression or fusion) without discectomy. Improvements in PI were paralleled by improvements in secondary outcomes. Relative to baseline, responders reported an average 44% and 55% reduction in back PI and leg PI (respectively), and an average 13% improvement in Oswestry Disability Index scores. In the per-protocol population, 50% of responders and 12% of nonresponders reported less analgesia consumption at the end of treatment versus baseline. Sixty-seven percent of per-protocol responders and 0% of nonresponders reported clinically meaningful improvement in overall well-being on the Patient Global Impression of Change scale.

  8. Open-Label Observational Study for Evaluating the Short-term Benefits of Rabeprazole Medication on Laryngopharyngeal Reflux

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Myung-Hee; Nam, Soon Yuhl; Park, Young-Hak

    2012-01-01

    Objectives The aims of this study were to determine the benefits of short-term empirical proton pump inhibitor (PPI) medication on laryngopharyngeal reflux (LPR) and to determine whether scores on the reflux symptom index (RSI) and the reflux finding score (RFS) could be combined to identify subgroups of patients that will more likely to improve with this medication. Methods Fifty-one Korean Otolaryngology Board-certified specialists joined this prospective, multi-center, and open-label observational study. A total of 1,142 adult patients with LPR was enrolled for 12 weeks of rabeprazol medication. According to pre-treatment scores on RSI and RFS, patients were divided into 4 subgroups. RFS and RSI were measured repeatedly with a month interval along the treatment period. Changes of RSI and RFS were analyzed in an overall study cohort as well as in each subgroup. Results Approximately 40% (n=455) of enrolled patients were followed up until 12 weeks of PPI treatment. Significant improvement in RSI was obtained in 29%, 58%, and 75% of patients after 4, 8, and 12 weeks of PPI medication. RFS was improved in 16%, 42%, and 57% of the patients with 4, 8, and 12 weeks of PPI medication. All subgroups showed improvement regardless of their pre-treatment scores on the RSI and RFS. Conclusion Even though RSI and RFS may be used as a general guideline for LPR management, pre-treatment RSI and RFS are not useful in predicting the patients' response to short-term PPI medication in the usual pattern of practice for LPR, which is mostly based on the physical evaluation and history taking. PMID:22468199

  9. FDG-PET in Semantic Dementia after 6 Months of Memantine: an Open-Label Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Chow, Tiffany W.; Fam, David; Graff-Guerrero, Ariel; Verhoeff, Nicolaas P. G.; Tang-Wai, David F.; Masellis, Mario; Black, Sandra E.; Wilson, Alan A.; Houle, Sylvain; Pollock, Bruce G.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To follow up on the increases we reported in normalized metabolic activity in salience network hubs from a 2-month open label study of memantine in frontotemporal dementia (FTD). Methods We repeated fluoro-deoxyglucose positron emission tomography (PET) after 6 months of drug use and subjected the data to an SPM analysis to reveal clusters of significant change from baseline. We also sought correlations between changes in behavioral disturbances on the Frontal Behavioral Inventory (FBI). Results Recruitment of one progressive nonfluent aphasia and one behavioral variant FTD precluded statistical analysis for any FTD subtype other than semantic dementia. The baseline-to-6-month interval showed increased normalized metabolic activity in the left orbitofrontal cortex (p<0.002) for 5 participants with semantic dementia. The 2–6 month interval revealed a late increase in normalized metabolic activity in the left insula (p<0.013), right insula (p<0.009), and left anterior cingulate (p<0.005). The right anterior cingulate showed both an initial increase and a delayed, further increase (2–6 month, p<0.016). FBI scores worsened by 43.3%. One participant with semantic dementia opted not to continue memantine beyond 2 months yet showed similar FDG-PET increases. Conclusions Increases in normalized cortical metabolic activity in salience network hubs were sustained in SD over a 6-month period. Since one participant without medication also showed these changes, further investigation is recommended through a double-blind, placebo-controlled study with FDG-PET as an outcome measure. PMID:22674572

  10. Replacement of warfarin with a novel oral anticoagulant in endoscopic mucosal resection: a multicentre, open-label, randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Yamada, Takuya; Kada, Akiko; Uraoka, Toshio; Kuwai, Toshio; Watanabe, Noriko; Sasaki, Yoshihiro; Mabe, Katsuhiro; Takahashi, Yasuo; Kagaya, Takashi; Kimura, Toshihisa; Hamada, Hiroshige; Saito, Akiko M; Harada, Naohiko

    2017-01-01

    Introduction This randomised controlled trial aims to compare the efficacy of warfarin replacement with apixaban without postoperative resumption of heparin with that of conventional heparin bridging in patients taking warfarin and scheduled to undergo endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR): specifically, by checking for reduction in proportion of postoperative bleeding following EMR. Methods and analysis The multicentre, open-label randomised parallel-group, controlled intervention study regards patients taking warfarin who are scheduled to undergo colon EMR. Enrolled patients have been taking oral warfarin for non-valvular atrial fibrillation or venous thrombosis on an outpatient basis, and have been found to have a colorectal polyp (including adenoma or early-stage cancer) for which EMR was indicated. They are assigned to one of two groups. The primary endpoint is proportion of postoperative bleeding. The secondary endpoints are hospital stay length, therapeutic endoscopy outcomes such as proportion of en bloc resection, proportion of perforation, proportion of intraoperative bleeding, incidence of cerebral infarction/systemic embolism events, incidence of adverse events and serious adverse events, and proportion of postoperative therapeutic endoscopy. Ethics and dissemination This trial was approved by the National Hospital Organization Central Review Board for Clinical Trials (19 April 2016). Discussion The paucity of reports with high evidence levels was considered problematic when the Japan Gastroenterological Endoscopy Society’s gastroenterological endoscopy guidelines were revised in 2012. The results of this trial will have high medical significance, as its data could serve as the basis for revisions in the next edition of the guidelines. Trial registration number This trial was registered in the University Hospital Medical Information Network Clinical Trials Registry (UMIN-CTR) accepted from the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE

  11. Safety and Efficacy of Memantine in Children with Autism: Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Study and Open-Label Extension

    PubMed Central

    Findling, Robert L.; Hardan, Antonio Y.; Hendren, Robert L.; Melmed, Raun D.; Kehinde-Nelson, Ola; Hsu, Hai-An; Trugman, Joel M.; Palmer, Robert H.; Graham, Stephen M.; Gage, Allyson T.; Perhach, James L.; Katz, Ephraim

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Objective: Abnormal glutamatergic neurotransmission is implicated in the pathophysiology of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). In this study, the safety, tolerability, and efficacy of the glutamatergic N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist memantine (once-daily extended-release [ER]) were investigated in children with autism in a randomized, placebo-controlled, 12 week trial and a 48 week open-label extension. Methods: A total of 121 children 6–12 years of age with Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th ed., Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR)-defined autistic disorder were randomized (1:1) to placebo or memantine ER for 12 weeks; 104 children entered the subsequent extension trial. Maximum memantine doses were determined by body weight and ranged from 3 to 15 mg/day. Results: There was one serious adverse event (SAE) (affective disorder, with memantine) in the 12 week study and one SAE (lobar pneumonia) in the 48 week extension; both were deemed unrelated to treatment. Other AEs were considered mild or moderate and most were deemed not related to treatment. No clinically significant changes occurred in clinical laboratory values, vital signs, or electrocardiogram (ECG). There was no significant between-group difference on the primary efficacy outcome of caregiver/parent ratings on the Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS), although an improvement over baseline at Week 12 was observed in both groups. A trend for improvement at the end of the 48 week extension was observed. No improvements in the active group were observed on any of the secondary end-points, with one communication measure showing significant worsening with memantine compared with placebo (p = 0.02) after 12 weeks. Conclusions: This trial did not demonstrate clinical efficacy of memantine ER in autism; however, the tolerability and safety data were reassuring. Our results could inform future trial design in this population and may facilitate the investigation of

  12. A parallel open-label trial to evaluate microbial cellulose wound dressing in the treatment of diabetic foot ulcers.

    PubMed

    Solway, Douglas R; Clark, William A; Levinson, Dennis J

    2011-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the rate of wound healing in diabetic foot ulcers (DFU) using either a microbial cellulose (MC) wound dressing or Xeroform™ Petrolatum gauze. In a parallel, open-label trial in which the primary outcome was the rate of wound healing and the time to wound closure, 15 ulcers in type II diabetic patients received an MC dressing. Wounds in 19 control patients with type II diabetes were treated with a Xeroform gauze dressing. All wounds were non infected, Wagner stage II or III and received standard care including debridement, non weight bearing limb support and weekly wound evaluation. The mean time to heal in the MC (±SE) treated group was 32 days ± 2.5 and for controls it was 48 days ± 4.7 (P < 0.01). The rate of weekly wound closure (mean ± SE) was 1.7 times faster in the MC-treated group (cellulose treated, -5.04% per week ± 0.38 versus control, -2.93% per week ± 0.19), (P < 0.001). Among covariants tested by univariate regression, only the original wound area correlated with the time to wound closure (P < 0.001). In conclusion, with the provision of current standards of care, the application of an MC dressing to a diabetic ulcer may enhance the rate of wound healing and shorten the time course of epithelisation. © 2010 The Authors. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd and Medicalhelplines.com Inc.

  13. Deep brain stimulation for Huntington's disease: long-term results of a prospective open-label study.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, Victoria; Cif, Laura; Biolsi, Brigitte; Garcia-Ptacek, Sara; Seychelles, Anne; Sanrey, Emily; Descours, Irene; Coubes, Christine; de Moura, Ana-Maria Ribeiro; Corlobe, Astrid; James, Syril; Roujeau, Thomas; Coubes, Philippe

    2014-07-01

    OBJECT.: To date, experience of globus pallidus internus (GPi) deep brain stimulation (DBS) in the treatment of Huntington's disease (HD) has been limited to a small number of case reports. The aim of this study was to analyze long-term motor outcome of a cohort of HD patients treated with GPi DBS. Seven patients with pharmacologically resistant chorea and functional impairment were included in a prospective open-label study from 2008 to 2011. The main outcome measure was the motor section of the Unified Huntington's Disease Rating Scale. The primary end point was reduction of chorea. Patients underwent MRI-guided bilateral GPi implantation. The median duration of follow-up was 3 years. A significant reduction of chorea was observed in all patients, with sustained therapeutic effect; the mean improvement on the chorea subscore was 58.34% at the 12-month follow-up visit (p = 0.018) and 59.8% at the 3-year visit (p = 0.040). Bradykinesia and dystonia showed a nonsignificant trend toward progressive worsening related to disease evolution and partly to DBS. The frequency of stimulation was 130 Hz for all patients. DBS-induced bradykinesia was managed by pulse-width reduction or bipolar settings. Levodopa mildly improved bradykinesia in 4 patients. Regular off-stimulation tests confirmed a persistent therapeutic effect of DBS on chorea. GPi DBS may provide sustained chorea improvement in selected HD patients with pharmacologically resistant chorea, with transient benefit in physical aspects of quality of life before progression of behavioral and cognitive disorders. DBS therapy did not improve dystonia or bradykinesia. Further studies including quality of life measures are needed to evaluate the impact of DBS in the long-term outcome of HD.

  14. A combined Phase I and II open-label study on the immunomodulatory effects of seaweed extract nutrient complex

    PubMed Central

    Myers, Stephen P; O’Connor, Joan; Fitton, J Helen; Brooks, Lyndon; Rolfe, Margaret; Connellan, Paul; Wohlmuth, Hans; Cheras, Phil A; Morris, Carol

    2011-01-01

    Background: Isolated fucoidans from brown marine algae have been shown to have a range of immune-modulating effects. This exploratory study aimed to determine whether a seaweed nutrient complex containing a blend of extracts from three different species of brown algae plus nutrients is safe to administer and has biological potential as an immune modulator. The study was undertaken as an open-label combined Phase I and II study. Methods: Participants (n = 10) were randomized to receive the study medication at either a 100 mg (n = 5) or 1000 mg (n = 5) dose over 4 weeks. The primary outcome measurement was in vivo changes in lymphocyte subsets. The secondary outcome measures were ex vivo changes in T-lymphocyte (CD4 and CD8) activation, phagocytosis of granulocytes and monocytes, T helper 1/T helper 2 cytokines, and serum oxygen radical absorbance capacity. Results: The preparation was found to be safe over the 4 weeks at both doses tested. There were no clinically relevant changes to blood measurements of hemopoietic, hepatic, or renal function. Immunomodulatory measurements showed no dose response between the two doses. The combined results from the two doses demonstrated a significant increase in cytotoxic T cell numbers and phagocytic capacity in monocytes, and a significant decrease in levels of the inflammatory cytokine interleukin 6. A separate analysis of the 100 mg dose (n = 5) alone showed a significant linear component over time (P < 0.05) for phagocytosis by both granulocytes and monocytes. Conclusion: The seaweed nutrient complex was safe to use when taken orally over 4 weeks. The preparation was demonstrated to have potential as an immune modulator, and this bioactivity deserves further exploration. PMID:21383915

  15. Open-label atomoxetine for attention-deficit/ hyperactivity disorder symptoms associated with high-functioning pervasive developmental disorders.

    PubMed

    Posey, David J; Wiegand, Ryan E; Wilkerson, Jennifer; Maynard, Melissa; Stigler, Kimberly A; McDougle, Christopher J

    2006-10-01

    The aim of this study was to conduct an initial evaluation of the efficacy of atomoxetine for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms in children with pervasive developmental disorders (PDDs). Children with PDDs and a nonverbal IQ of >or=70 received atomoxetine (target dose 1.2-1.4 mg/kg/day) during the course of an 8-week, open-label, prospective study. Standardized assessments of efficacy and tolerability were collected at regular intervals during the trial. Sixteen children and adolescents (mean age 7.7 +/- 2.2 years, age range 6-14 years) with autistic disorder (n = 7), Asperger's disorder (n = 7), or PDD not otherwise specified (n = 2) received atomoxetine (mean dose 1.2 +/- 0.3 mg/kg/day). Twelve participants (75%) were rated as "much" or "very much improved" on the Clinical Global Impressions-Improvement scale. The most significant improvement was seen in the area of ADHD symptoms as measured by the SNAP-IV and Aberrant Behavior Checklist (effect size = 1.0-1.9). Improvements of lesser magnitude (effect size = 0.4-1.1) were seen in irritability, social withdrawal, stereotypy, and repetitive speech. There were no significant changes on the Conners' Continuous Performance Test. Atomoxetine was well tolerated with the exception of 2 participants (13 %) who stopped medication due to irritability. Weight decreased by a mean of 0.8 kg during the 8-week trial. Placebo-controlled studies are indicated to determine atomoxetine's efficacy for ADHD symptoms in PDDs.

  16. A Randomised, Open-label, Comparative Study of Tranexamic Acid Microinjections and Tranexamic Acid with Microneedling in Patients with Melasma

    PubMed Central

    Budamakuntla, Leelavathy; Loganathan, Eswari; Suresh, Deepak Hurkudli; Shanmugam, Sharavana; Suryanarayan, Shwetha; Dongare, Aparna; Venkataramiah, Lakshmi Dammaningala; Prabhu, Namitha

    2013-01-01

    Background: Melasma is a common cause of facial hyperpigmentation with significant cosmetic deformity. Although several treatment modalities are available, none is satisfactory. Aim: To compare the therapeutic efficacy and safety of tranexamic acid (TA) microinjections versus tranexamic acid with microneedling in melasma. Materials and Methods: This is a prospective, randomised, open-label study with a sample size of 60; 30 in each treatment arms. Thirty patients were administered with localised microinjections of TA in one arm, and other 30 with TA with microneedling. The procedure was done at monthly intervals (0, 4 and 8 weeks) and followed up for three consecutive months. Clinical images were taken at each visit including modified Melasma Area Severity Index MASI scoring, patient global assessment and physician global assessment to assess the clinical response. Results: In the microinjection group, there was 35.72% improvement in the MASI score compared to 44.41% in the microneedling group, at the end of third follow-up visit. Six patients (26.09%) in the microinjections group, as compared to 12 patients (41.38%) in the microneedling group, showed more than 50% improvement. However, there were no major adverse events observed in both the treatment groups. Conclusions: On the basis of these results, TA can be used as potentially a new, effective, safe and promising therapeutic agent in melasma. The medication is easily available and affordable. Better therapeutic response to treatment in the microneedling group could be attributed to the deeper and uniform delivery of the medication through microchannels created by microneedling. PMID:24163529

  17. Gatifloxacin Versus Ofloxacin for the Treatment of Uncomplicated Enteric Fever in Nepal: An Open-Label, Randomized, Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Koirala, Samir; Basnyat, Buddha; Arjyal, Amit; Shilpakar, Olita; Shrestha, Kabina; Shrestha, Rishav; Shrestha, Upendra Man; Agrawal, Krishna; Koirala, Kanika Deshpande; Thapa, Sudeep Dhoj; Karkey, Abhilasha; Dongol, Sabina; Giri, Abhishek; Shakya, Mila; Pathak, Kamal Raj; Campbell, James; Baker, Stephen; Farrar, Jeremy; Wolbers, Marcel; Dolecek, Christiane

    2013-01-01

    Background Fluoroquinolones are the most commonly used group of antimicrobials for the treatment of enteric fever, but no direct comparison between two fluoroquinolones has been performed in a large randomised trial. An open-label randomized trial was conducted to investigate whether gatifloxacin is more effective than ofloxacin in the treatment of uncomplicated enteric fever caused by nalidixic acid-resistant Salmonella enterica serovars Typhi and Paratyphi A. Methodology and Principal Findings Adults and children clinically diagnosed with uncomplicated enteric fever were enrolled in the study to receive gatifloxacin (10 mg/kg/day) in a single dose or ofloxacin (20 mg/kg/day) in two divided doses for 7 days. Patients were followed for six months. The primary outcome was treatment failure in patients infected with nalidixic acid resistant isolates. 627 patients with a median age of 17 (IQR 9–23) years were randomised. Of the 218 patients with culture confirmed enteric fever, 170 patients were infected with nalidixic acid-resistant isolates. In the ofloxacin group, 6 out of 83 patients had treatment failure compared to 5 out of 87 in the gatifloxacin group (hazard ratio [HR] of time to failure 0.81, 95% CI 0.25 to 2.65, p = 0.73). The median time to fever clearance was 4.70 days (IQR 2.98–5.90) in the ofloxacin group versus 3.31 days (IQR 2.29–4.75) in the gatifloxacin group (HR = 1.59, 95% CI 1.16 to 2.18, p = 0.004). The results in all blood culture-confirmed patients and all randomized patients were comparable. Conclusion Gatifloxacin was not superior to ofloxacin in preventing failure, but use of gatifloxacin did result in more prompt fever clearance time compared to ofloxacin. Trial registration: ISRCTN 63006567 (www.controlled-trials.com). PMID:24282626

  18. Sertraline and rapid eye movement sleep without atonia: an 8-week, open-label study of depressed patients.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Bin; Hao, Yanli; Jia, Fujun; Tang, Yi; Li, Xueli; Liu, Wuhan; Arnulf, Isabelle

    2013-12-02

    Previous studies have reported that selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) may induce or exacerbate rapid eye movement (REM) sleep without atonia (RSWA) and increase the risk of developing REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD). However, most of these studies are retrospective and cross-sectional and employed small sample sizes and a mixture of SSRIs. In this 8-week open-label trial of sertraline in depressed patients (n = 31), depressed patients were administered 50mg sertraline at 8 am on the 1st day and subsequently titrated up to a maximum of 200mg/day. All patients underwent repeated video-polysomnography (vPSG) (baseline, 1st day, 14th day, 28th day, and 56th day). Both tonic (submental) and phasic (submental and anterior tibialis) RSWA events were visually counted. Tonic RSWA increased from 3.2 ± 1.8% at baseline to 5.1 ± 2.3% on the 1st day and 10.4 ± 2.7% on the 14th day; after that, measurements were stable until the 56th day. A similar profile was observed for phasic RSWA. The increases in tonic RSWA (r = 0.56, P = 0.004) and phasic RSWA (submental: r = -0.51, P = 0.02; anterior tibialis: r = 0.41, P = 0.04) were correlated with the degree of the prolonging of REM latency. All of RSWAs were not correlated with patients' demographic and clinical characteristics. Sertraline may induce or exacerbate RSWA. In contrast to idiopathic RBD, sertraline-related RSWA had the specific characteristics of being correlated with the degree of the prolonging of REM latency and no predominance of male sex and elder age, suggesting different pathophysiological mechanisms. The antidepressant-related RSWA should be a potential public health problem in the depressed patients. © 2013.

  19. Noninvasive diagnosis of hypolactasia with 4-Galactosylxylose (Gaxilose): a multicentre, open-label, phase IIB-III nonrandomized trial.

    PubMed

    Aragón, Juan J; Hermida, Carmen; Martínez-Costa, Oscar H; Sánchez, Valentina; Martín, Igor; Sánchez, José J; Codoceo, Rosa; Cano, José M; Cano, Ana; Crespo, Laura; Torres, Yolanda; García, Francisco J; Fernández-Mayoralas, Alfonso; Solera, Jesús; Martínez, Pilar

    2014-01-01

    Hypolactasia affects over half of the world population. Diagnosis remains problematic as currently available tests, such as the hydrogen breath test, have low reliability and lactose intolerance symptoms are unspecific. We evaluated the diagnostic performance and safety of a new noninvasive diagnostic test based on urine or serum measurement of D-xylose after lactase cleavage of orally administered 4-galactosylxylose (gaxilose). In a multicentre, open-label, nonrandomized, phase IIb-III study, consecutive patients with symptoms suggestive of lactose intolerance sequentially underwent intestinal biopsy for direct measurement of lactase activity (reference standard), hydrogen breath test, and blood glucose test after lactose challenge, 4- and 5-hour urine-based gaxilose test, and blood-based gaxilose test. For the gaxilose tests, 0 to 4 and 4 to 5 hours urine samples were taken after a 0.45 g gaxilose dose, whereas serum samples were taken 90 minutes after a 2.7 g dose for D-xylose determination. Genetic testing of hypolactasia was also assessed. Of the 222 patients enrolled, 203 completed all diagnostic tests; 108 were hypolactasic according to biopsy. The sensitivities and specificities and positive and negative predictive values of the gaxilose tests were all >90% versus 69% to 85% for the hydrogen breath test and the blood glucose test. The area under the ROC curve was significantly higher for the gaxilose tests (>0.9, P≤0.007). These tests also had higher sensitivity than genetic testing for hypolactasia and were well tolerated. The diagnostic performance of the gaxilose tests is excellent and can substantially improve the diagnosis of hypolactasia.

  20. Berberine containing quadruple therapy for initial Helicobacter pylori eradication: An open-label randomized phase IV trial.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Di; Ke, Li; Ni, Zhen; Chen, Yu; Zhang, Lin-Hui; Zhu, Shao-Hua; Li, Chan-Juan; Shang, Lei; Liang, Jie; Shi, Yong-Quan

    2017-08-01

    Due to increasing antimicrobial resistance, a bismuth-based quadruple regimen has been recommended as an alternative first-line therapy for Helicobacter pylori (H pylori) eradication. However, different results are varied greatly and the availability of bismuth was limited in some countries. We assessed the efficacy and safety of 14-day berberine-containing quadruple therapy as an alternative regimen for H pylori eradication. In a randomized, open-label, non-inferiority, phase IV trial between November 25, 2014, and October 15, 2015, 612 treatment-naive patients were randomly assigned to 14-day berberine-containing (n = 308) or 14-day bismuth-containing (n = 304) quadruple therapy. The primary outcomes were eradication rates determined by the C urea breath test (C-UBT) 28 days after the end of treatment. The secondary outcomes were adverse events and compliance. The baseline demographic data including age, gender, body mass index (BMI), general condition and severity score were not statistically different in both groups. The eradication rates in bismuth and berberine groups were 86.4% (266/308) and 90.1% (274/304) in intention-to-treat (ITT) analysis (P = .149), and 89.6% (266/297) and 91.3% (273/299) in per-protocol (PP) analysis (P = .470), respectively. No statistically significant difference was found in the overall incidence of adverse events between both groups (35.7% vs 28.6%, P = .060). Both regimens achieved the recommended efficacy for H pylori eradication. The berberine-containing quadruple regimen was not inferior to bismuth-containing quadruple regimen and can be recommended as an alternative regimen for H pylori eradication in the local region.

  1. Influence of Renal Impairment on the Pharmacokinetics of Afatinib: An Open-Label, Single-Dose Study.

    PubMed

    Wiebe, Sabrina; Schnell, David; Külzer, Raimund; Gansser, Dietmar; Weber, Anne; Wallenstein, Gudrun; Halabi, Atef; Conrad, Anja; Wind, Sven

    2017-06-01

    Afatinib is an oral irreversible ErbB-Family Blocker indicated for treatment of patients with EGFR mutation positive advanced non-small cell lung cancer. This trial assessed whether renal impairment influences the pharmacokinetics and safety of afatinib. This was an open-label, single-dose study. Pharmacokinetic parameters after afatinib 40 mg were investigated in subjects with moderate (n = 8) or severe (n = 8) renal impairment (estimated glomerular filtration rate 30-59 mL/min/1.73 m(2) and 15-29 mL/min/1.73 m(2), respectively) and healthy matched controls (n = 14). Plasma and urine samples were collected before and up to 14 days after dosing for pharmacokinetic and plasma protein-binding assessment. Primary endpoints were area under the plasma concentration-time curve from time zero to the last quantifiable concentration (AUClast) and maximum plasma concentration (C max) between subjects with renal impairment and healthy matched controls. Pharmacokinetic profiles and plasma protein binding were similar in all groups. The extent of exposure, as indicated by AUClast and C max, was generally similar between the matched treatment groups, with the exception of the geometric mean ratio of AUClast for subjects with severe renal impairment, which showed a trend towards a higher value compared with matched healthy subjects (150.0 % [90 % CI 105.3-213.7]) Inter-individual variability was moderate (geometric mean coefficient of variation 28-39 % for moderate impairment, 34-42 % for severe impairment). Afatinib was well tolerated and urinary excretion was minimal. Moderate-to-severe renal impairment had a minor influence on the pharmacokinetics of afatinib that was within the observed inter-individual variability, suggesting that afatinib treatment can be considered in this patient population. Registered at ClinicalTrials.gov as NCT02096718.

  2. Maternal vitamin D supplementation during pregnancy prevents vitamin D deficiency in the newborn: an open-label randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Rodda, C P; Benson, J E; Vincent, A J; Whitehead, C L; Polykov, A; Vollenhoven, B

    2015-09-01

    To determine whether maternal vitamin D supplementation, in the vitamin D deficient mother, prevents neonatal vitamin D deficiency. Open-label randomized controlled trial. Metropolitan Melbourne, Australia, tertiary hospital routine antenatal outpatient clinic. Seventy-eight women with singleton pregnancies with vitamin D deficiency/insufficiency (serum 25-OH Vit D < 75 nmol/l) at their first antenatal appointment at 12-16-week gestation were recruited. Participants were randomized to vitamin D supplementation (2000-4000 IU cholecalciferol) orally daily until delivery or no supplementation. The primary outcome was neonatal serum 25-OH vit D concentration at delivery. The secondary outcome was maternal serum 25-OH vit D concentration at delivery. Baseline mean maternal serum 25-OH vit D concentrations were similar (P = 0·9) between treatment (32 nmol/l, 95% confidence interval 26-39 nmol/l) and control groups (33 nmol/l, 95% CI 26-39 nmol/l). Umbilical cord serum 25-OH vit D concentrations at delivery were higher (P < 0·0001) in neonates of treatment group mothers (81 nmol/l, 95% CI; 70-91 nmol/l) compared with neonates of control group mothers (42 nmol/l, 95% CI; 34-50 nmol/l) with a strongly positive correlation between maternal serum 25-OH Vit D and umbilical cord serum 25-OH vit D concentrations at delivery (Spearman rank correlation coefficient 0·88; P < 0·0001). Mean maternal serum 25-OH Vit D concentrations at delivery were higher (P < 0·0001) in the treatment group (71 nmol/l, 95% CI; 62-81 nmol/l) compared with the control group (36 nmol/l, 95% CI; 29-42 nmol/l). Vitamin D supplementation of vitamin D deficient pregnant women prevents neonatal vitamin D deficiency. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Trazodone plus pregabalin combination in the treatment of fibromyalgia: a two-phase, 24-week, open-label uncontrolled study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Although trazodone is frequently used by fibromyalgia patients, its efficacy on this disease has not been adequately studied. If effective, pregabalin, whose beneficial effects on pain and sleep quality in fibromyalgia have been demonstrated, could complement the antidepressant and anxiolytic effects of trazodone. The aim of the present study was to assess the effectiveness of trazodone alone and in combination with pregabalin in the treatment of fibromyalgia. Methods This was an open-label uncontrolled study. Trazodone, flexibly dosed (50-300 mg/day), was administered to 66 fibromyalgia patients during 12 weeks; 41 patients who completed the treatment accepted to receive pregabalin, also flexibly dosed (75-450 mg/day), added to trazodone treatment for an additional 12-week period. Outcome measures included the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ), the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), the Brief Pain Inventory (BPI), the Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36), and the Patients' Global Improvement scale (PGI). Emergent adverse reactions were recorded. Data were analyzed with repeated measures one-way ANOVA and paired Student's t test. Results Treatment with trazodone significantly improved global fibromyalgia severity, sleep quality, and depression, as well as pain interference with daily activities although without showing a direct effect on bodily pain. After pregabalin combination additional and significant improvements were seen on fibromyalgia severity, depression and pain interference with daily activities, and a decrease in bodily pain was also apparent. During the second phase of the study, only two patients dropped out due to side effects. Conclusions Trazodone significantly improved fibromyalgia severity and associated symptomatology. Its combination with pregabalin potentiated this improvement and the tolerability of the drugs in association was good. Trial

  4. Aquatic therapy versus conventional land-based therapy for Parkinson's disease: an open-label pilot study.

    PubMed

    Vivas, Jamile; Arias, Pablo; Cudeiro, Javier

    2011-08-01

    To assess and compare 2 different protocols of physiotherapy (land or water therapy) for people with Parkinson's disease (PD) focused on postural stability and self-movement, and to provide methodological information regarding progression within the program for a future larger trial. Randomized, controlled, open-label pilot trial. Outpatients, Parkinson's disease Center of Ferrol-Galicia (Spain). Individuals (N=11) with idiopathic PD in stages 2 or 3 according to the Hoehn and Yahr Scale completed the investigation (intervention period plus follow-up). After baseline evaluations, participants were randomly assigned to a land-based therapy (active control group) or a water-based therapy (experimental group). Participants underwent individual sessions for 4 weeks, twice a week, for 45 minutes per session. Both interventions were matched in terms of exercise features, which were structured in stages with clear objectives and progression criteria to pass to the next phase. Participants underwent a first baseline assessment, a posttest immediately after 4 weeks of intervention, and a follow-up assessment after 17 days. Evaluations were performed OFF-dose after withholding medication for 12 hours. Functional assessments included the Functional Reach Test (FRT), the Berg Balance Scale (BBS), the UPDRS, the 5-m walk test, and the Timed Up and Go test. A main effect of both therapies was seen for the FRT. Only the aquatic therapy group improved in the BBS and the UPDRS. In this pilot study, physiotherapy protocols produced improvement in postural stability in PD that was significantly larger after aquatic therapy. The intervention protocols are shown to be feasible and seem to be of value in amelioration of postural stability-related impairments in PD. Some of the methodological aspects detailed here can be used to design larger controlled trials. Copyright © 2011 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. An open-label study of anidulafungin for the treatment of candidaemia/invasive candidiasis in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Nucci, Marcio; Colombo, Arnaldo L; Petti, Marco; Magana, Martin; Abreu, Paula; Schlamm, Haran T; Sanchez, Sonia P

    2014-01-01

    Incidence and mortality of candidaemia/invasive candidiasis (C/IC) is relatively high in Latin America versus North America and Europe. To assess efficacy and safety of intravenous (IV) anidulafungin in Latin American adults with documented C/IC. All patients in this open-label study received initial IV anidulafungin with optional step-down to oral voriconazole after 5 days; total treatment duration was 14-42 days. The primary endpoint was global response (clinical + microbiological response) at end of treatment (EOT); missing/indeterminate responses were failures. The study enrolled 54 patients; 44 had confirmed C/IC within 96 h before study entry and comprised the modified intent-to-treat population. Global response at EOT was 59.1% (95% CI: 44.6, 73.6), with 13 missing/indeterminate assessments. Thirty-day all-cause mortality was 43.1%. Fourteen patients (31.8%) were able to step-down to oral voriconazole; these patients had lower baseline acute physiological assessment and chronic health evaluation (APACHE) II scores and were less likely to have solid tumours or previous abdominal surgery. Anidulafungin was generally well tolerated with few treatment-related adverse events. Anidulafungin was associated with relatively low response rates influenced by a high rate of missing/indeterminate assessments and mortality comparable to other recent candidaemia studies in Latin America. In a subset of patients with lower APACHE II scores, short-course anidulafungin followed by oral voriconazole was successful. © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  6. Effects of probiotic Lactobacillus brevis KB290 on incidence of influenza infection among schoolchildren: an open-label pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Waki, N; Matsumoto, M; Fukui, Y; Suganuma, H

    2014-01-01

    Abstract We investigated the efficacy of dietary consumption of Lactobacillus brevis KB290 (KB290) against influenza in humans by a preliminary intervention study on elementary schoolchildren, using a commercially available probiotic drink. Subjects were divided into Groups A and B, and an open-label, parallel-group trial was conducted in two 8-week periods at a 1-month interval in winter 2013/2014. Group A was provided with a bottle of the test drink containing KB290 (about 6 billion colony-forming units) every school day in the first period and had no treatment in the second period, and vice versa for Group B. Epidemic influenza was not observed during the first period and only two of 1783 subjects were diagnosed. In the second period, the incidence of influenza in Groups A (no treatment) and B (provided the test drink) was 23·9 and 15·7%, respectively, and the difference was statistically significant (P < 0·001). The reduction in the incidence of influenza by KB290 consumption was especially remarkable in unvaccinated individuals. This is believed to be the first study to show a probiotic food reducing the incidence of influenza in schoolchildren, although further studies are needed to confirm the effectiveness of the probiotic strain KB290. Significance and Impact of the Study We demonstrated a reduction in the incidence of influenza in 1089 schoolchildren by continual intake of a probiotic drink containing Lactobacillus brevis KB290 (KB290), isolated from a traditional Japanese pickle ‘Suguki’. The effect was especially evident in subjects not inoculated with influenza vaccine. This is believed to be the first report to show reduced incidence of influenza in schoolchildren taking a probiotic food. Further studies are needed to confirm the effectiveness of the probiotic strain KB290, which may be useful in the development of potential anti-influenza agents derived from common foods. PMID:25294223

  7. Green tea (Camellia sinensis) for patients with knee osteoarthritis: A randomized open-label active-controlled clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Hashempur, Mohammad Hashem; Sadrneshin, Sara; Mosavat, Seyed Hamdollah; Ashraf, Alireza

    2016-12-18

    Green tea is known as a dietary supplement and a novel functional food worldwide. Since there are increasing preclinical evidence about efficacy of green tea for treating osteoarthritis, this study has aimed at assessing its efficacy and safety for patients with knee osteoarthritis. This is a randomized open-label active-controlled clinical trial. As many as fifty adults with osteoarthritis of knee were randomly allocated to receive the green tea extract (in dosage form of tablet) plus diclofenac tablet as "intervention group"; or: diclofenac tablet alone as "control group" for a period of four weeks. Patients were assessed at the beginning of intervention, and then 4 weeks later, in terms of pain score via visual analogue scale (VAS), and Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) questionnaire's total score in addition to its 3 sub-scores. Furthermore, they were asked about any adverse effects during intervention period. Mean differences of VAS pain, total WOMAC, and WOMAC physical function scores in green tea group showed a significant reduction, compared with the control group (P = 0.038, P = 0.006, and P = 0.004, respectively). However, No significant differences between the two groups were observed, regarding mean differences of WOMAC pain and stiffness scores of the enrolled patients (P = 0.163, and P = 0.150, respectively). Additionally, only 1 patient reported gastric upset [in control group]. It seems that green tea extract might well be considered as an adjunctive treatment both for control of pain and for the betterment of knee joint physical function in adults with osteoarthritis. However, further studies of longer duration and larger sample size are needed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  8. Cycle therapy of actinic keratoses of the face and scalp with 5% topical imiquimod cream: An open-label trial.

    PubMed

    Salasche, Stuart J; Levine, Norman; Morrison, Lynne

    2002-10-01

    Preliminary studies indicate that topically applied immune response modifiers may be an effective and safe method of treating actinic keratoses (AKs). Our aim was to study the potential efficacy of topical 5% imiquimod cream in the treatment of facial or scalp AKs and improve the safety profile by using a novel "cycle" dosing regimen. This pilot study is an open-label trial that included 25 patients who had between 5 and 20 discrete AKs within a cosmetic unit of the forehead, scalp, or cheek. Treatment consisted of once-daily application of 5% imiquimod cream, 3 times a week for 4 weeks. to the entire cosmetic unit, followed by a rest period of 4 weeks. The cycle was repeated if any AKs remained after a complete 8-week cycle. A maximum of 3 cycles was permitted (24 weeks). Thirty-three sites in 25 patients were evaluated. Compliance was excellent with a very tolerable safety profile. Complete clearing of all AKs was noted in 82% (27/33) of anatomic sites in 25 study subjects. Almost half the sites (15/33) were clear at the end of the first cycle. A "therapeutic interval" was noted during the rest period wherein clinical inflammation subsided but AKs continued to clear. An added effect was the uncovering and clinical appearance and subsequent eradication of incipient (subclinical) AKs in the treatment area. There was excellent compliance with the cycle therapy regimen. The observations and hypotheses made in this pilot study will be tested in controlled, randomized trials with larger study populations. The identification of a therapeutic interval may prove to be beneficial in formulating individualized dosing regimens.

  9. A randomized, open-label study of sirolimus versus cyclosporine in primary de novo renal allograft recipients.

    PubMed

    Flechner, Stuart M; Gurkan, Alihan; Hartmann, Anders; Legendre, Christophe M; Russ, Graeme R; Campistol, Josep M; Schena, Francesco P; Hahn, Carolyn M; Li, Huihua; Korth-Bradley, Joan M; Tai, Sandi See; Schulman, Seth L

    2013-05-27

    Despite a decreased incidence of acute rejection and early renal allograft loss due to calcineurin inhibitors (CNIs) in transplant recipients, nephrotoxicity associated with long-term CNI use remains an important issue. This study evaluated whether a CNI-free regimen, including sirolimus, mycophenolate mofetil, corticosteroids, and anti-interleukin-2 receptor antibody induction, results in improved long-term renal function. This open-label, randomized, parallel group, comparative study in primary de novo renal transplant recipients was planned for 48 months but terminated early because of high acute rejection rates in the sirolimus arm. Enrollment was stopped after ≈12 months, with 475 transplanted patients randomized (2:1) to sirolimus (n=314) or cyclosporine A (CsA) treatment (n=161). Mean length of follow-up after transplantation was 190 days; this article focuses on available data through 6 months. Mean±SD on-therapy Nankivell-calculated glomerular filtration rate was not significantly different between the sirolimus (69.1±18.7 mL/min) and CsA (66.0±15.2 mL/min) treatment groups. Occurrence and length of delayed graft function was not significantly different between groups. Patients in the sirolimus group experienced numerically lower survival rates (96.9% vs. 99.4%; P=0.14), with nine deaths reported with sirolimus and one with CsA; higher rates of biopsy-confirmed acute rejection (21.4% vs. 6.1%; P<0.001); and higher rates of discontinuations due to adverse events (17.4% vs. 6.8%; P=0.001). A sirolimus-based, CNI-free immunosuppressive regimen, when used with mycophenolate mofetil, corticosteroids, and anti-interleukin-2 receptor antibody induction, was associated with high rates of biopsy-confirmed acute rejection compared with CsA-based immunosuppression and is not recommended.

  10. Cyclosporine 0.05% Ophthalmic Emulsion for Dry Eye in Korea: A Prospective, Multicenter, Open-Label, Surveillance Study

    PubMed Central

    Byun, Yong-Soo; Rho, Chang Rae; Cho, Kyungjin; Choi, Jin A; Na, Kyung Sun

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To assess the effectiveness and tolerability of cyclosporine ophthalmic emulsion (CsA) 0.05% in patients with moderate to severe dry eye disease in Korea. Methods This was a prospective, multicenter, open-label, surveillance study of 392 Korean patients with moderate to severe dry eye disease who were treated with CsA 0.05% for three months. An assessment of effectiveness was performed at baseline, and after 1, 2, and 3 months. The primary effectiveness outcomes were changes in ocular symptoms and Schirmer score. The secondary effectiveness outcomes were a change in conjunctival staining, use of artificial tears, global evaluation of treatment, and patient satisfaction. The primary safety outcome was the incidence and nature of adverse events. Results A total of 362 patients completed the study. After three months, all ocular symptom scores were significantly reduced compared to the baseline values, while the Schirmer scores were significantly increased relative to baseline (p < 0.0001). After three months, there were significant reductions from baseline in conjunctival staining (p < 0.01) and use of artificial tears (p < 0.0001). According to clinicians' global evaluations, most patients (>50%) experienced at least a 25% to 50% improvement in symptoms from baseline at each follow-up visit. The majority of patients (72.0%) were satisfied with the treatment results, and 57.2% reported having no or mild symptoms after treatment. The most common adverse events were ocular pain (11.0%). Conclusions Our findings indicate that CsA 0.05% is an effective and tolerable treatment for dry eye disease in Korean clinical practice. PMID:22131772

  11. An open-label study of algorithm-based treatment versus treatment-as-usual for patients with schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Hirano, Jinichi; Watanabe, Koichiro; Suzuki, Takefumi; Uchida, Hiroyuki; Den, Ryosuke; Kishimoto, Taishiro; Nagasawa, Takashi; Tomita, Yusuke; Hara, Koichiro; Ochi, Hiromi; Kobayashi, Yoshimi; Ishii, Mutsuko; Fujita, Akane; Kanai, Yoshihiko; Goto, Megumi; Hayashi, Hiromi; Inamura, Kanako; Ooshima, Fumiko; Sumida, Mariko; Ozawa, Tomoko; Sekigawa, Kayoko; Nagaoka, Maki; Yoshimura, Kae; Konishi, Mika; Inagaki, Ataru; Saito, Takuya; Motohashi, Nobutaka; Mimura, Masaru; Okubo, Yoshiro; Kato, Motoichiro

    2013-01-01

    Objective The use of an algorithm may facilitate measurement-based treatment and result in more rational therapy. We conducted a 1-year, open-label study to compare various outcomes of algorithm-based treatment (ALGO) for schizophrenia versus treatment-as-usual (TAU), for which evidence has been very scarce. Methods In ALGO, patients with schizophrenia (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition) were treated with an algorithm consisting of a series of antipsychotic monotherapies that was guided by the total scores in the positive and negative syndrome scale (PANSS). When posttreatment PANSS total scores were above 70% of those at baseline in the first and second stages, or above 80% in the 3rd stage, patients proceeded to the next treatment stage with different antipsychotics. In contrast, TAU represented the best clinical judgment by treating psychiatrists. Results Forty-two patients (21 females, 39.0 ± 10.9 years-old) participated in this study. The baseline PANSS total score indicated the presence of severe psychopathology and was significantly higher in the ALGO group (n = 25; 106.9 ± 20.0) than in the TAU group (n = 17; 92.2 ± 18.3) (P = 0.021). As a result of treatment, there were no significant differences in the PANSS reduction rates, premature attrition rates, as well as in a variety of other clinical measures between the groups. Despite an effort to make each group unique in pharmacologic treatment, it was found that pharmacotherapy in the TAU group eventually became similar in quality to that of the ALGO group. Conclusion While the results need to be carefully interpreted in light of a hard-to-distinguish treatment manner between the two groups and more studies are necessary, algorithm-based antipsychotic treatments for schizophrenia compared well to treatment-as-usual in this study. PMID:24143104

  12. Thalidomide induces clinical remission and mucosal healing in adults with active Crohn's disease: a prospective open-label study.

    PubMed

    He, Yao; Mao, Ren; Chen, Fang; Xu, Ping-Ping; Chen, Bai-Li; Wu, Yun; Qiu, Yun; Zhang, Sheng-Hong; Feng, Rui; Zeng, Zhi-Rong; Ben-Horin, Shomron; Chen, Min-Hu

    2017-05-01

    Thalidomide is effective in inducing and maintaining clinical remission in children and adolescents with refractory Crohn's disease (CD). However, little is known about the efficacy and safety of thalidomide for adult patients with CD. We conducted a prospective open-label cohort study between January 2013 and April 2015. A total of 47 adult patients with active CD who were dependent/resistant or intolerant to corticosteroids and/or immunomodulators or biologics received 50-100 mg of thalidomide daily. Primary outcome was clinical remission evaluated at week 8. Endoscopic assessment was performed at week 24 and defined as endoscopic response (decrease in Crohn's Disease Endoscopic Index of Severity [CDEIS] score > 5 points from baseline CDEIS of 6 or more), complete endoscopic remission (CDEIS score < 3), and mucosal healing (MH) (no ulceration). A total of 47 adults with active CD were enrolled. The clinical remission rate was 14.9% and 23.4% at week 4 and week 8, but increased to 46.8% at week 12 and 53.2% at week 24 out of all the 47 patients included (intention-to-treat analysis). Altogether 32 patients consented and underwent ileocolonoscopy at week 24. The rate of endoscopic response and complete endoscopic remission were 68.4% and 43.8%. MH (no ulceration) was achieved in 28.1% of patients. Adverse events occurred in 27/47 (57.4%) patients but necessitated therapy discontinuation in only 5/47 (10.6%) of patients. Low-dose thalidomide was effective and tolerated for inducing and maintaining clinical remission in adult patients with active CD, but the optimal time frame for thalidomide to induce clinical remission may be longer than previously appreciated and is probably optimal at 12 weeks. MH could reasonably be achievable with thalidomide.

  13. Open-label versus double-blind placebo treatment in irritable bowel syndrome: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Ballou, Sarah; Kaptchuk, Ted J; Hirsch, William; Nee, Judy; Iturrino, Johanna; Hall, Kathryn T; Kelley, John M; Cheng, Vivian; Kirsch, Irving; Jacobson, Eric; Conboy, Lisa; Lembo, Anthony; Davis, Roger B

    2017-05-25

    Placebo medications, by definition, are composed of inactive ingredients that have no physiological effect on symptoms. Nonetheless, administration of placebo in randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and in clinical settings has been demonstrated to have significant impact on many physical and psychological complaints. Until recently, conventional wisdom has suggested that patients must believe that placebo pills actually contain (or, at least, might possibly contain) active medication in order to elicit a response to placebo. However, several recent RCTs, including patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), chronic low back pain, and episodic migraine, have demonstrated that individuals receiving open-label placebo (OLP) can still experience symptomatic improvement and benefit from honestly described placebo treatment. This paper describes an innovative multidisciplinary trial design (n = 280) that attempts to replicate and expand upon an earlier IBS OLP study. The current study will compare OLP to double-blind placebo (DBP) administration which is made possible by including a nested, double-blind RCT comparing DBP and peppermint oil. The study also examines possible genetic and psychological predictors of OLP and seeks to better understand participants' experiences with OLP and DBP through a series of extensive interviews with a randomly selected subgroup. OLP treatment is a novel strategy for ethically harnessing placebo effects. It has potential to re-frame theories of placebo and to influence how physicians can optimize watch-and-wait strategies for common, subjective symptoms. The current study aims to dramatically expand what we know about OLP by comparing, for the first time, OLP and DBP administration. Adopting a unique, multidisciplinary approach, the study also explores genetic, psychological and experiential dimensions of OLP. The paper ends with an extensive discussion of the "culture" of the trial as well as potential mechanisms of OLP and

  14. Phase 1, open-label study of MEDI-547 in patients with relapsed or refractory solid tumors.

    PubMed

    Annunziata, Christina M; Kohn, Elise C; LoRusso, Patricia; Houston, Nicole D; Coleman, Robert L; Buzoianu, Manuela; Robbie, Gabriel; Lechleider, Robert

    2013-02-01

    Targeting the cell-surface receptor EphA2, which is highly expressed in some solid tumors, is a novel approach for cancer therapy. We aimed to evaluate the safety profile, maximum tolerated dose (MTD), pharmacokinetics, and antitumor activity of MEDI-547, an antibody drug conjugate composed of the cytotoxic drug auristatin (toxin) linked to a human anti-EphA2 monoclonal antibody (1C1), in patients with solid tumors relapsed/refractory to standard therapy. In this phase 1, open-label study with planned dose-escalation and dose-expansion cohorts, patients received a 1-h intravenous infusion of MEDI-547 (0.08 mg/kg) every 3 weeks. Six patients received 0.08 mg/kg; all discontinued treatment. Dose escalation was not pursued. The study was stopped before cohort 2 enrollment due to treatment-related bleeding and coagulation events (hemorrhage-related, n = 3; epistaxis, n = 2). Therefore, lower doses were not explored and an MTD could not be selected. The most frequently reported treatment-related adverse events (AEs) were increased liver enzymes, decreased hemoglobin, decreased appetite, and epistaxis. Three patients (50%) experienced treatment-related serious AEs, including conjunctival hemorrhage, pain (led to study drug discontinuation), liver disorder, and hemorrhage. Best response included progressive disease (n = 5; 83.3%) and stable disease (n = 1; 16.7%). Minimal or no dissociation of toxin from 1C1 conjugate occurred in the blood. Serum MEDI-547 concentrations decreased rapidly, ~70% by 3 days post-dose. No accumulation of MEDI-547 was observed at 0.08 mg/kg upon administration of a second dose 3 weeks following dose 1. The safety profile of MEDI-547 does not support further clinical investigation in patients with advanced solid tumors.

  15. Tea tree oil gel for mild to moderate acne; a 12 week uncontrolled, open-label phase II pilot study.

    PubMed

    Malhi, Harsimran Kaur; Tu, Jenny; Riley, Thomas V; Kumarasinghe, Sujith Prasad; Hammer, Katherine A

    2017-08-01

    The efficacy, tolerability and acceptability of a tea tree oil gel (200 mg/g) and face wash (7 mg/g) were evaluated for the treatment of mild to moderate facial acne. In this open-label, uncontrolled phase II pilot study, participants applied tea tree oil products to the face twice daily for 12 weeks and were assessed after 4, 8 and 12 weeks. Efficacy was determined from total numbers of facial acne lesions and the investigator global assessment (IGA) score. Tolerability was evaluated by the frequency of adverse events and the mean tolerability score determined at each visit. Product acceptability was assessed via a questionnaire at the end of the study period. Altogether 18 participants were enrolled, of whom 14 completed the study. Mean total lesion counts were 23.7 at baseline, 17.2 at 4, 15.1 at 8 and 10.7 at 12 weeks. Total lesion counts differed significantly over time by repeated measures anova (P < 0.0001). The mean IGA score was 2.4 at baseline, 2.2 at 4, 2.0 at 8 and 1.9 at 12 weeks, which also differed significantly over time (P = 0.0094). No serious adverse events occurred and minor local tolerability events were limited to peeling, dryness and scaling, all of which resolved without intervention. This study shows that the use of the tea tree oil products significantly improved mild to moderate acne and that the products were well tolerated. © 2016 The Australasian College of Dermatologists.

  16. Anti-tumour effects of lanreotide for pancreatic and intestinal neuroendocrine tumours: the CLARINET open-label extension study

    PubMed Central

    Caplin, Martyn E; Pavel, Marianne; Ćwikła, Jarosław B; Phan, Alexandria T; Raderer, Markus; Sedláčková, Eva; Cadiot, Guillaume; Wolin, Edward M; Capdevila, Jaume; Wall, Lucy; Rindi, Guido; Langley, Alison; Martinez, Séverine; Gomez-Panzani, Edda; Ruszniewski, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    In the CLARINET study, lanreotide Autogel (depot in USA) significantly prolonged progression-free survival (PFS) in patients with metastatic pancreatic/intestinal neuroendocrine tumours (NETs). We report long-term safety and additional efficacy data from the open-label extension (OLE). Patients with metastatic grade 1/2 (Ki-67 ≤10%) non-functioning NET and documented baseline tumour-progression status received lanreotide Autogel 120 mg (n=101) or placebo (n=103) for 96 weeks or until death/progressive disease (PD) in CLARINET study. Patients with stable disease (SD) at core study end (lanreotide/placebo) or PD (placebo only) continued or switched to lanreotide in the OLE. In total, 88 patients (previously: lanreotide, n=41; placebo, n=47) participated: 38% had pancreatic, 39% midgut and 23% other/unknown primary tumours. Patients continuing lanreotide reported fewer adverse events (AEs) (all and treatment-related) during OLE than core study. Placebo-to-lanreotide switch patients reported similar AE rates in OLE and core studies, except more diarrhoea was considered treatment-related in OLE (overall diarrhoea unchanged). Median lanreotide PFS (core study randomisation to PD in core/OLE; n=101) was 32.8 months (95% CI: 30.9, 68.0). A sensitivity analysis, addressing potential selection bias by assuming that patients with SD on lanreotide in the core study and not entering the OLE (n=13) had PD 24 weeks after last core assessment, found median PFS remaining consistent: 30.8 months (95% CI: 30.0, 31.3). Median time to further PD after placebo-to-lanreotide switch (n=32) was 14.0 months (10.1; not reached). This OLE study suggests long-term treatment with lanreotide Autogel 120 mg maintained favourable safety/tolerability. CLARINET OLE data also provide new evidence of lanreotide anti-tumour benefits in indolent and progressive pancreatic/intestinal NETs. PMID:26743120

  17. Patient-posture and Ileal-intubation during colonoscopy (PIC): a randomized controlled open-label trial.

    PubMed

    Ahammed, Sk Mahiuddin; Das, Kshaunish; Sarkar, R; Dasgupta, J; Bandopadhyay, S; Dhali, G K

    2014-06-01

    Patient's posture change is commonly employed by a colonoscopist to achieve complete examination. We studied whether patient's posture (left-lateral decubitus vs supine) influenced the success rate of ileal intubation. In this prospective open-label randomized study performed in the Endoscopy Suite of a tertiary-care center, all adult outpatients referred for colonoscopy, in whom cecal intubation was achieved and who satisfied predefined inclusion criteria, were randomized to undergo ileal intubation in either of the above two postures. Colonoscopy (EC-201 WL, Fujinon) was performed after overnight poly-ethylene-glycol preparation, under conscious sedation and continuous pulse-oxymetry monitoring. After confirming cecal intubation, patients were randomized for ileal intubation. Success was defined by visualization of ileal mucosa or villi (confirmed by digital photography) and was attempted until limited by pain and/or time of ≥ 6 min. Of 320 eligible patients, 217 patients (150 males) were randomized, 106 to left-lateral decubitus and 111 to supine posture. At baseline, the two groups were evenly matched. Successful ileal intubation was achieved in 145 (66.8 %) patients overall, significantly higher in the supine posture (74.8 % versus 58.5 %; P = 0.014). On multivariate analysis, supine posture (P = 0.02), average/good right-colon preparation (P < 0.01), non-thin-lipped ileocecal (IC) valve (P < 0.001) and younger age (P = 0.02) were independent predictors of success. Positive ileal findings were recorded in 13 (9 %) patients. Ileoscopy is more successful in supine than in left-lateral decubitus posture. Age, bowel preparation and type of IC valve also determine success.

  18. Long-term safety, tolerability and efficacy of fesoterodine in subjects with overactive bladder symptoms stratified by age: pooled analysis of two open-label extension studies.

    PubMed

    Sand, Peter K; Heesakkers, John; Kraus, Stephen R; Carlsson, Martin; Guan, Zhonghong; Berriman, Sandra

    2012-02-01

    Previous work has demonstrated the efficacy and safety of fesoterodine in older and younger subjects with overactive bladder (OAB) symptoms. The effect of long-term fesoterodine treatment in different age groups has not been assessed. The aim was to determine the impact of age on the safety, tolerability and efficacy of long-term treatment with fesoterodine 8 mg in subjects with OAB syndrome. This was a pooled analysis of two identically designed open-label extensions of 12-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled studies. The setting was urology and general practice offices. Subjects who participated in the 12-week, double-blind studies and opted to continue long-term, open-label treatment with fesoterodine were included. Subjects were initiated on fesoterodine 8 mg/day at open-label baseline. After 1 month, subjects could elect dose reduction to 4 mg/day and subsequent re-escalation to 8 mg; each was permitted once annually. Maximal duration of open-label treatment ranged from 24 to 36 months. Discontinuations, subject-reported treatment tolerance, and efficacy (3-day diaries) were assessed at open-label baseline and months 1, 4, 8, 12 and 24. A total of 890 subjects were treated (age <45 years, n = 140; 45-64 years, n = 444; 65-74 years, n = 208; ≥75 years, n = 98); 49% continued treatment for ≥ 24 months (age <45 years, 43%; 45-64 years, 54%; 65-74 years, 50%; ≥75 years, 37%). Seventy-seven percent of subjects remained on fesoterodine 8 mg throughout treatment; this rate was highest among subjects aged ≥75 years (age <45 years, 72%; 45-64 years, 77%; 65-74 years, 73%; ≥75 years, 87%). Approximately 80% of continuing subjects were receiving fesoterodine 8 mg at each visit after open-label baseline up to 36 months. No new or unexpected safety signals were observed in any age group. Most subjects reported 'good' or 'excellent' treatment tolerance throughout the study (age <45 years, ≥90%; 45-64 years, ≥93%; 65

  19. A Nutritional Formulation for Cognitive Performance in Mild Cognitive Impairment: A Placebo-Controlled Trial with an Open-Label Extension.

    PubMed

    Remington, Ruth; Lortie, Jevin J; Hoffmann, Heather; Page, Robert; Morrell, Christopher; Shea, Thomas B

    2015-01-01

    Thirty-four individuals with mild cognitive impairment were randomized for 6 months to a nutraceutical formulation (NF: folate, alpha-tocopherol, B12, S-adenosyl methioinine, N-acetyl cysteine, acetyl-L-carnitine) or indistinguishable placebo, followed by a 6-month open-label extension in which all individuals received NF. The NF cohort improved in the Dementia Rating Scale (DRS; effect size >0.7) and maintained baseline performance in CLOX-1. The placebo cohort did not improve in DRS and declined in CLOX-1, but during the open-label extension improved in DRS and ceased declining in CLOX-1. These findings extend prior studies of NF efficacy for individuals without cognitive impairment and with Alzheimer's disease.

  20. The safety and tolerability of cariprazine in patients with manic or mixed episodes associated with bipolar I disorder: A 16-week open-label study.

    PubMed

    Ketter, Terence A; Sachs, Gary S; Durgam, Suresh; Lu, Kaifeng; Starace, Anju; Laszlovszky, István; Németh, György

    2017-08-18

    We evaluated the safety/tolerability of longer-term open-label treatment with cariprazine in patients who had responded to cariprazine for acute bipolar mania. In this multinational, multicenter study, open-label, flexible-dose, cariprazine 3-12mg/d was administered for up to 16 weeks to patients (18-65 years) with bipolar mania. Safety evaluations included adverse events (AEs), laboratory values, vital signs, and extrapyramidal symptom (EPS) scales. Symptom change was evaluated by Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS) total score change from baseline using the last observation carried forward approach. Of the 402 patients taking cariprazine, 33% completed the trial; the most frequent reasons for discontinuation were withdrawal of consent (20%), AEs (16%), and protocol violation (14%). Most common AEs leading to discontinuation were akathisia (4.7%) and depression (1.5%). Mean treatment duration was 57.7 days; mean cariprazine dose was 6.2mg/d. The incidence of serious AEs was 7.5% (most common: mania [2.2%], depression [1.2%]); 83.3% had treatment-emergent AEs, including akathisia (32.6%), headache (16.7%), constipation (10.7%), and nausea (10.4%). Mean body weight increased <1kg; 9.3% had ≥7% weight gain; 5.7% had sedation; 3% had somnolence. Mean changes in laboratory values, vital signs, ECGs, and ophthalmology parameters were not clinically significant. Mean YMRS total score decreased by -15.2 at week 16. Uncontrolled, open-label design. Open-label cariprazine 3-12 (mean 6.2) mg/d for up to 16 weeks was generally well tolerated, with low (<10%) rates of sedation and ≥7% weight gain. Although akathisia occurred in 33%, it yielded discontinuation in <5%. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Evaluation of the long-term safety and tolerability of cariprazine in patients with schizophrenia: results from a 1-year open-label study.

    PubMed

    Cutler, Andrew J; Durgam, Suresh; Wang, Yao; Migliore, Raffaele; Lu, Kaifeng; Laszlovszky, István; Németh, György

    2017-05-08

    Cariprazine, a dopamine D3/D2 partial agonist atypical antipsychotic with preferential binding to D3 receptors, is approved for the treatment of schizophrenia and manic or mixed episodes associated with bipolar I disorder. The efficacy and safety of cariprazine was established in three randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, 6-week trials in patients with acute exacerbation of schizophrenia. This 53-week study evaluated the long-term safety and tolerability of cariprazine in patients with schizophrenia. This was a multicenter, open-label, flexible-dose study of cariprazine 3-9 mg/d in adults with schizophrenia. Participants included new patients and patients who had completed one of two phase III lead-in studies (NCT01104766, NCT01104779). Eligible patients entered a no-drug screening period of up to 1 week followed by 48 weeks of flexibly dosed, open-label cariprazine treatment (3-9 mg/d) and 4 weeks of safety follow-up. A total of 586 patients received open-label cariprazine treatment, ~39% of whom completed the study. No unexpected safety issues or deaths were reported. The most common (≥10%) adverse events (AEs) observed were akathisia (16%), headache (13%), insomnia (13%), and weight gain (10%). Serious AEs occurred in 59 (10.1%) patients, and 73 (12.5%) patients discontinued the study due to AEs during open-label treatment. Mean changes in metabolic, hepatic, and cardiovascular parameters were not considered clinically relevant. Mean body weight increased by 1.5 kg during the study, prolactin levels decreased slightly, and measures of efficacy remained stable. Long-term cariprazine treatment at doses up to 9 mg/d appeared to be generally safe and well tolerated in patients with schizophrenia.

  2. Safety and tolerability of cariprazine in the long-term treatment of schizophrenia: results from a 48-week, single-arm, open-label extension study.

    PubMed

    Durgam, Suresh; Greenberg, William M; Li, Dayong; Lu, Kaifeng; Laszlovszky, Istvan; Nemeth, Gyorgy; Migliore, Raffaele; Volk, Stephen

    2017-01-01

    Cariprazine, a dopamine D3/D2 receptor partial agonist antipsychotic, demonstrated efficacy and tolerability in 6-week, randomized, placebo-controlled schizophrenia trials. Schizophrenia is a chronic disorder that requires continuous treatment; therefore, the long-term safety and tolerability profile of antipsychotic agents is an important factor in guiding clinician decisions. This single-arm, open-label extension study evaluated the long-term safety and tolerability of cariprazine in patients with schizophrenia. Patients enrolled in this study completed a 6-week, randomized, placebo- and active-controlled study and had responded (Clinical Global Impressions-Severity [CGI-S] ≤3; ≥20 % reduction in Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale [PANSS] total score) to treatment at the end of the lead-in study. Patients (N = 93) received flexibly dosed, open-label cariprazine (1.5-4.5 mg/day) for up to 48 weeks. Approximately 50 % (46/93) of patients completed the 48 weeks of open-label treatment. The most common adverse events (AEs) were akathisia (14 %), insomnia (14 %), and weight increased (12 %). Serious AEs (SAEs) occurred in 13 % of patients; 11 % discontinued due to AEs. Mean changes in metabolic parameters were generally small and not clinically relevant. Mean body weight increased by 1.9 kg from the start of the lead-in study to the end of the extension study. There were no discontinuations associated with change in metabolic parameters or body weight. Long-term cariprazine treatment was not associated with prolactin elevation or clinically significant changes in cardiovascular parameters. In this 48-week, single-arm trial, open-label cariprazine (1.5-4.5 mg/day) treatment was generally safe and well tolerated with no new safety concerns associated with long-term treatment.

  3. Single-dose, subcutaneous recombinant phenylalanine ammonia lyase conjugated with polyethylene glycol in adult patients with phenylketonuria: an open-label, multicentre, phase 1 dose-escalation trial.

    PubMed

    Longo, Nicola; Harding, Cary O; Burton, Barbara K; Grange, Dorothy K; Vockley, Jerry; Wasserstein, Melissa; Rice, Gregory M; Dorenbaum, Alejandro; Neuenburg, Jutta K; Musson, Donald G; Gu, Zhonghua; Sile, Saba

    2014-07-05

    Phenylketonuria is an inherited disease caused by impaired activity of phenylalanine hydroxylase, the enzyme that converts phenylalanine to tyrosine, leading to accumulation of phenylalanine and subsequent neurocognitive dysfunction. Phenylalanine ammonia lyase is a prokaryotic enzyme that converts phenylalanine to ammonia and trans-cinnamic acid. We aimed to assess the safety, tolerability, pharmacokinetic characteristics, and efficacy of recombinant Anabaena variabilis phenylalanine ammonia lyase (produced in Escherichia coli) conjugated with polyethylene glycol (rAvPAL-PEG) in reducing phenylalanine concentrations in adult patients with phenylketonuria. In this open-label, phase 1, multicentre trial, single subcutaneous injections of rAvPAL-PEG were given in escalating doses (0·001, 0·003, 0·010, 0·030, and 0·100 mg/kg) to adults with phenylketonuria. Participants aged 18 years or older with blood phenylalanine concentrations of 600 μmol/L or higher were recruited from among patients attending metabolic disease clinics in the USA. The primary endpoints were safety and tolerability of rAvPAL-PEG. Secondary endpoints were the pharmacokinetic characteristics of the drug and its effect on concentrations of phenylalanine. Participants and investigators were not masked to assigned dose group. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00925054. 25 participants were recruited from seven centres between May 6, 2008, and April 15, 2009, with five participants assigned to each escalating dose group. All participants were included in the safety population. The most frequently reported adverse events were injection-site reactions and dizziness, which were self-limited and without sequelae. Two participants had serious adverse reactions to intramuscular medroxyprogesterone acetate, a drug that contains polyethylene glycol as an excipient. Three of five participants given the highest dose of rAvPAL-PEG (0·100 mg/kg) developed a generalised skin rash

  4. Impact on abiraterone pharmacokinetics and safety: Open-label drug-drug interaction studies with ketoconazole and rifampicin.

    PubMed

    Bernard, Apexa; Vaccaro, Nicole; Acharya, Milin; Jiao, James; Monbaliu, Johan; De Vries, Ronald; Stieltjes, Hans; Yu, Margaret; Tran, Namphuong; Chien, Caly

    2015-01-01

    We evaluated the impact of a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor, ketoconazole, and a strong inducer, rifampicin, on the pharmacokinetic (PK) exposure of abiraterone in two studies in healthy men. All subjects received 1,000 mg of abiraterone acetate on Days 1 and 14. Study A subjects (n = 20) received 400 mg ketoconazole on Days 11-16. Study B subjects (n = 19) received 600 mg rifampicin on Days 8-13. Serial PK sampling was done on Days 1 and 14. Study A: When given with ketoconazole, abiraterone exposure increased by 9% for maximum plasma concentration (Cmax ) and 15% for area under the plasma concentration-time curve from 0 to time of the last quantifiable concentration (AUClast ) and AUC from time 0 to infinity (AUC∞ ) compared to abiraterone acetate alone. Study B: When given with rifampicin, abiraterone exposure was reduced to 45% for Cmax and AUC∞ and to 42% for AUClast compared to abiraterone acetate alone. Ketoconazole had no clinically meaningful impact on abiraterone exposure. Rifampicin decreased abiraterone exposure by half. Hence, strong CYP3A4 inducers should be avoided or used with careful evaluation of clinical efficacy when administered with abiraterone acetate.

  5. Over-the-counter nicotine patch therapy for smoking cessation: results from randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, and open label trials.

    PubMed Central

    Hays, J T; Croghan, I T; Schroeder, D R; Offord, K P; Hurt, R D; Wolter, T D; Nides, M A; Davidson, M

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy and safety of the nicotine patch for smoking cessation in an over-the-counter environment. The years of study were 1994 to 1995. METHODS: Parallel 6-week trials were conducted: a placebo-controlled trial of no-cost 22-mg, 24-hour nicotine patch therapy and an open label trial of the same therapy with patches purchased by subjects. Participants (n = 958) were 18 years or older, had smoked at least 15 cigarettes daily for at least 6 months, and were enrolled at 3 study sites. The main outcome measure was self-reported smoking abstinence confirmed by expired carbon monoxide measurements. RESULTS: Smoking cessation rates in the placebo-controlled trial were 16.8% and 9.6% at week 6 and 8.7% and 4.3% at week 24 for the active patch and placebo groups, respectively. Smoking cessation rates in the open label-pay trial were 19.0% and 10.8% at weeks 6 and 24, respectively. A slight increase in adverse cardiovascular events was noted only in the open label-pay group in comparison with the placebo group. CONCLUSIONS: In an over-the-counter environment, the 22-mg, 24-hour nicotine patch is effective and safe for smoking cessation treatment. PMID:10553392

  6. An open-label extension study of the safety and efficacy of risperidone in children and adolescents with autistic disorder.

    PubMed

    Kent, Justine M; Hough, David; Singh, Jaskaran; Karcher, Keith; Pandina, Gahan

    2013-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the long-term safety and efficacy of risperidone in treating irritability and related behaviors in children and adolescents with autistic disorders. In this 6 month (26 week) open-label extension (OLE) study, patients (5-17 years of age, who completed the previous fixed-dose, 6 week, double-blind [DB] phase) were flexibly dosed with risperidone based on body weight. The maximum allowed dose was 1.25 mg/day for those weighing 20 to <45 kg, and 1.75 mg/day for those weighing ≥ 45 kg. The study primarily assessed risperidone's safety; efficacy was assessed as a secondary end-point. Fifty-six (71%) out of 79 enrolled patients completed the OLE; the most common discontinuations were for insufficient response (7 [9%]) or adverse events (AE) (5 [6%]). The most common (≥ 5% frequency in the total group) AEs were increased appetite (11% [n=9]); increased weight and vomiting (9% [n=7] each); sedation, pyrexia, and upper respiratory tract infection (8% [n=6] each); nasopharyngitis (6% [n=5]); and somnolence and fatigue (5% [n=4] each). Extrapyramidal AEs were reported in 6 (8%) patients. Increase in mean weight (11-15%) and body mass index (5-10%) occurred; one patient discontinued because of weight increase. One potentially prolactin-related AE (irregular menstruation) was reported. The risperidone high-dose group had the greatest mean improvement in sleep visual analog scale (24.6). All groups showed additional improvement in efficacy scale scores during the OLE. During this OLE, safety findings with risperidone treatment (maximum weight-based dose of 1.25 mg/day or 1.75 mg/day) were consistent with those observed in the DB phase, and with the current safety information for risperidone in autistic, psychiatric, and behavioral disorders. Patients experienced some additional improvement in irritability and related behaviors. This phase-4 study is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT00576732).

  7. Sertraline and periodic limb movements during sleep: an 8-week open-label study in depressed patients with insomnia.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Bin; Hao, Yanli; Jia, Fujun; Li, Xueli; Ren, Yanzhen; Zhou, Ping; Liu, Wuhan; Wing, Yun Kwok

    2013-12-01

    Previous studies have reported that selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) might induce or exacerbate periodic limb movements during sleep (PLMS). However, most of these studies were retrospective and cross-sectional studies with small sample sizes on a selective SSRI, fluoxetine. Because different SSRIs have different pharmacologic profiles, it was not certain if other SSRIs also might lead to PLMS. Data were taken from an open-label 8-week trial of sertraline in depressive patients with insomnia (n=31). Depressed patients were administered sertraline 50mg at 8:00am on the first day, and the dosage was subsequently titrated up to a maximum of 200mg daily during the 8-week trial. All participants were tested by repeated polysomnography (PSG) (baseline, first day, 14th day, 28th day, and 56th day). Periodic leg movements (PLM) were visually counted and the PLM index (PLMI) was calculated. PLMS was defined as PLMI ⩾5, and significant PLMS was defined as PLMI ⩾15. Compared with baseline (PLMI, 3.6±1.5), all PLMI indices increased on the immediate administration of sertraline on the first day (PLMI, 5.1±3.9). From the 14th day onward, PLMI became stable and significantly higher than baseline and the first day (8.7±3.1 on the 14th day, 8.3±3.7 on the 28th day, and 8.5±3.6 on the 56th day; F[11.81]; P=.003). The clinical responses and PSG characteristics continuously improved during the 8-week trial. The PLMS group (PLMI ⩾5) had a higher arousal index (AI) than the non-PLMS group on the 14th day (9.4±5.5 vs 5.2±3.7; t test, 4.22; P=.03) and the 56th day (8.1±5.5 vs 4.3±3.7; z score, 3.11; P=.04); albeit, there was no significant clinical disturbances in the PLMS group. PLMS were increased during sertraline treatment, but only a few of the PLMS reached the significant level. This effect of sertraline on PLMS might be dosage dependent. Although the sertraline-induced PLMS did not seem to cause significant clinical disturbance, the PLMS group (PLMI

  8. Intravenous immunoglobulin for maintenance treatment of chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy: a multicentre, open-label, 52-week phase III trial.

    PubMed

    Kuwabara, Satoshi; Mori, Masahiro; Misawa, Sonoko; Suzuki, Miki; Nishiyama, Kazutoshi; Mutoh, Tatsuro; Doi, Shizuki; Kokubun, Norito; Kamijo, Mikiko; Yoshikawa, Hiroo; Abe, Koji; Nishida, Yoshihiko; Okada, Kazumasa; Sekiguchi, Kenji; Sakamoto, Ko; Kusunoki, Susumu; Sobue, Gen; Kaji, Ryuji

    2017-10-01

    Short-term efficacy of induction therapy with intravenous immunoglobulin (Ig) in patients with chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) is well established. However, data of previous studies on maintenance therapy were limited up to 24-week treatment period. We aimed to investigate the efficacy and safety of longer-term intravenous Ig therapy for 52 weeks. This study was an open-label phase 3 clinical trial conducted in 49 Japanese tertiary centres. 49 patients with CIDP who fulfilled diagnostic criteria were included. After an induction intravenous Ig therapy (0.4 g/kg/day for five consecutive days), maintenance dose intravenous Ig (1.0 g/kg) was given every 3 weeks for up to 52 weeks. The primary outcome measures were the responder rate at week 28 and relapse rate at week 52. The response and relapse were defined with the adjusted Inflammatory Neuropathy Cause and Treatment scale. At week 28, the responder rate was 77.6% (38/49 patients; 95% CI 63% to 88%), and the 38 responders continued the maintenance therapy. At week 52, 4 of the 38 (10.5%) had a relapse (95% CI 3% to 25%). During 52 weeks, 34 (69.4%) of the 49 enrolled patients had a maintained improvement. Adverse events were reported in 94% of the patients; two patients (66-year-old and 76-year-old men with hypertension or diabetes) developed cerebral infarction (lacunar infarct with good recovery), and the other adverse effects were mild and resolved by the end of the study period. Maintenance treatment with 1.0 g/kg intravenous Ig every 3 weeks is an efficacious therapy for patients with CIDP, and approximately 70% of them had a sustained remission for 52 weeks. Thrombotic complications should be carefully monitored, particularly in elderly patients with vascular risk factors. ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT01824251). © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise

  9. Open-label randomized clinical trial of atropine bolus injection versus incremental boluses plus infusion for organophosphate poisoning in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Abedin, Mohammed Joynal; Sayeed, Abdullah Abu; Basher, Ariful; Maude, Richard J; Hoque, Gofranul; Faiz, M A

    2012-06-01

    Severe organophosphate compound (OPC) poisoning is an important clinical problem in many countries of the world. Unfortunately, little clinical research has been performed and little evidence exists with which to determine the best therapy. A study was therefore undertaken to determine the optimal dosing regimen for atropine in the treatment of OPC poisoning. An open-label randomized clinical trial was conducted in Chittagong Medical College Hospital, Chittagong, Bangladesh, on 156 hospitalized individuals with OPC poisoning from June to September 2006. The aim was to compare the efficacy and safety of conventional bolus doses with individualized incremental doses of atropine for atropinization followed by continuous atropine infusion for management of OPC poisoning. Inclusion criteria were patients with a clear history of OPC poisoning with clear clinical signs of toxicity, i.e. features of cholinergic crisis. The patients were observed for at least 96 h. Immediate outcome and complications were recorded. Out of 156 patients, 81 patients received conventional bolus dose atropine (group A) and 75 patients received rapidly incremental doses of atropine followed by infusion (group B). The mortality in group 'A' was 22.5% (18/80) and in group 'B' 8% (6/75) (p < 0.05). The mean duration of atropinization in group 'A' was 151.74 min compared to 23.90 min for group 'B' (p < 0.001). More patients in group A experienced atropine toxicity than in group 'B' (28.4% versus 12.0%, p < 0.05); intermediate syndrome was more common in group 'A' than in group 'B' (13.6% versus 4%, p < 0.05), and respiratory support was required more often for patients in group 'A' than in group 'B' (24.7% versus 8%, p < 0.05). Rapid incremental dose atropinization followed by atropine infusion reduces mortality and morbidity from OPC poisoning and shortens the length of hospital stay and recovery. Incremental atropine and infusion should become the treatment of choice for OPC

  10. Pharmacokinetic interaction between maraviroc and fosamprenavir-ritonavir: an open-label, fixed-sequence study in healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Vourvahis, Manoli; Plotka, Anna; Mendes da Costa, Laure; Fang, Annie; Heera, Jayvant

    2013-12-01

    This open-label, fixed-sequence, phase 1 study evaluated the pharmacokinetic interaction between maraviroc (MVC) and ritonavir-boosted fosamprenavir (FPV/r) in healthy subjects. In period 1, subjects received 300 mg of MVC twice daily (BID; cohort 1) or once daily (QD; cohort 2) for 5 days. In period 2, cohort 1 subjects received 700/100 mg of FPV/r BID alone on days 1 to 10 and then FPV/r at 700/100 mg BID plus MVC at 300 mg BID on days 11 to 20; cohort 2 subjects received FPV/r at 1,400/100 mg QD alone on days 1 to 10 and then FPV/r at 1,400/100 mg QD plus MVC at 300 mg QD on days 11 to 20. Pharmacokinetic parameters, assessed on day 5 of period 1 and on days 10 and 20 of period 2, included the maximum plasma concentration (Cmax), the concentration at end of dosing interval (Cτ), and the area under the curve over dosing interval (AUCτ). Safety and tolerability were also assessed. MVC geometric mean AUCτ, Cmax, and Cτ were increased by 149, 52, and 374%, respectively, after BID dosing with FPV/r, and by 126, 45, and 80%, respectively, after QD dosing. Amprenavir (the active form of the prodrug fosamprenavir) and ritonavir exposures were decreased in the presence of MVC with amprenavir AUCτ, Cmax, and Cτ decreased by 34 to 36% in the presence of FPV/r plus maraviroc BID and by 15 to 30% with FPV/r plus MVC QD both compared to FPV/r alone. The overall all-causality adverse-event (AE) incidence rate was 96.4%; all AEs were of mild or moderate severity. Commonly reported treatment-related AEs (>20% of patients overall) included diarrhea, fatigue, abdominal discomfort, headache, and nausea. No serious AEs or deaths occurred. In summary, maraviroc exposure increased in the presence of FPV/r, whereas MVC coadministration decreased amprenavir and ritonavir exposures. MVC dosed at 300 mg BID with FPV/r is not recommended due to concerns of lower amprenavir exposures; however, no dose adjustment is warranted with MVC at 150 mg BID in combination with FPV/r based on

  11. Onset of bronchodilation with fluticasone/formoterol combination versus fluticasone/salmeterol in an open-label, randomized study.

    PubMed

    Aalbers, René; Brusselle, Guy; McIver, Tammy; Grothe, Birgit; Bodzenta-Lukaszyk, Anna

    2012-11-01

    The inhaled corticosteroid, fluticasone propionate (fluticasone), and the long-acting beta(2)-agonist, formoterol fumarate (formoterol), have been combined in a single aerosol inhaler (fluticasone/formoterol). In a randomized, open-label study, fluticasone/formoterol showed similar efficacy to fluticasone/salmeterol after 12 weeks of treatment. This post-hoc analysis compared the onset of bronchodilation with the two treatments. Adults with mild-to-moderate-severe persistent asthma were randomized to fluticasone/formoterol (100/10 or 250/10 μg twice daily [b.i.d.]) or fluticasone/salmeterol (100/50 or 250/50 μg b.i.d.) for 12 weeks. The onset of bronchodilation (the first post-dose time point at which the forced expiratory volume in 1 second [FEV(1)] was ≥12% greater than the pre-dose value), responder rates (the proportion of patients achieving bronchodilation), and changes in FEV(1) were assessed at days 0 (baseline) and 84. Fluticasone/formoterol (n = 101) provided more rapid onset of bronchodilation than fluticasone/salmeterol (n = 101) over the first 120 min post-dose on days 0 (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.47 [95% CI 1.05-2.05]) and 84 (HR = 1.77 [95% CI 1.14-2.73]). The odds of a patient achieving bronchodilation within 5 min of dosing were almost four-times higher with fluticasone/formoterol than with fluticasone/salmeterol on day 0 (odds ratio [OR] = 3.97 [95% CI 1.96-8.03]) and almost 10-times higher on day 84 (OR = 9.58 [95% CI 2.14-42.90]); the odds of achieving bronchodilation within 120 min post-dose were approximately twofold higher with fluticasone/formoterol on both days. The overall percentage increase in least-squares (LS) mean FEV1 during the 120-min post-dose period was significantly greater with fluticasone/formoterol than fluticasone/salmeterol on days 0 (LS mean treatment difference: 4.70% [95% CI 1.57-7.83]; P = 0.003) and 84 (2.79% [95% CI 0.65-4.93]; P = 0.011). These analyses showed that fluticasone/formoterol provided a faster onset of

  12. An Open-Label Extension Study of the Safety and Efficacy of Risperidone in Children and Adolescents with Autistic Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Hough, David; Singh, Jaskaran; Karcher, Keith; Pandina, Gahan

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the long-term safety and efficacy of risperidone in treating irritability and related behaviors in children and adolescents with autistic disorders. Methods: In this 6 month (26 week) open-label extension (OLE) study, patients (5–17 years of age, who completed the previous fixed-dose, 6 week, double-blind [DB] phase) were flexibly dosed with risperidone based on body weight. The maximum allowed dose was 1.25 mg/day for those weighing 20 to <45 kg, and 1.75 mg/day for those weighing ≥45 kg. The study primarily assessed risperidone's safety; efficacy was assessed as a secondary end-point. Results: Fifty-six (71%) out of 79 enrolled patients completed the OLE; the most common discontinuations were for insufficient response (7 [9%]) or adverse events (AE) (5 [6%]). The most common (≥5% frequency in the total group) AEs were increased appetite (11% [n=9]); increased weight and vomiting (9% [n=7] each); sedation, pyrexia, and upper respiratory tract infection (8% [n=6] each); nasopharyngitis (6% [n=5]); and somnolence and fatigue (5% [n=4] each). Extrapyramidal AEs were reported in 6 (8%) patients. Increase in mean weight (11–15%) and body mass index (5–10%) occurred; one patient discontinued because of weight increase. One potentially prolactin-related AE (irregular menstruation) was reported. The risperidone high-dose group had the greatest mean improvement in sleep visual analog scale (24.6). All groups showed additional improvement in efficacy scale scores during the OLE. Conclusions: During this OLE, safety findings with risperidone treatment (maximum weight-based dose of 1.25 mg/day or 1.75 mg/day) were consistent with those observed in the DB phase, and with the current safety information for risperidone in autistic, psychiatric, and behavioral disorders. Patients experienced some additional improvement in irritability and related behaviors. Clinical Trials Registry: This phase-4

  13. Multicenter, open-label, exploratory clinical trial with Rhodiola rosea extract in patients suffering from burnout symptoms.

    PubMed

    Kasper, Siegfried; Dienel, Angelika

    2017-01-01

    This study is the first clinical trial aiming to explore the clinical outcomes in burnout patients treated with Rhodiola rosea. The reported capacity of R. rosea to strengthen the organism against stress and its good tolerability offer a promising approach in the treatment of stress-related burnout. The aim of the treatment was to increase stress resistance, thus addressing the source rather than the symptoms of the syndrome and preventing subsequent diseases associated with a history of burnout. The objective of the trial was to provide the exploratory data required for planning future randomized trials in burnout patients in order to investigate the clinical outcomes of treatment with R. rosea dry extract in this target group. The study was planned as an exploratory, open-label, multicenter, single-arm trial. A wide range of rating scales were assessed and evaluated in an exploratory data analysis to generate hypotheses regarding clinical courses and to provide a basis for the planning of subsequent studies. A total of 118 outpatients were enrolled. A daily dose of 400 mg R. rosea extract (WS(®) 1375, Rosalin) was administered over 12 weeks. Clinical outcomes were assessed by the German version of the Maslach Burnout Inventory, Burnout Screening Scales I and II, Sheehan Disability Scale, Perceived Stress Questionnaire, Number Connection Test, Multidimensional Mood State Questionnaire, Numerical Analogue Scales for different stress symptoms and impairment of sexual life, Patient Sexual Function Questionnaire, and the Clinical Global Impression Scales. The majority of the outcome measures showed clear improvement over time. Several parameters had already improved after 1 week of treatment and continued to improve further up to the end of the study. The incidence of adverse events was low with 0.015 events per observation day. The trial reported here was the first to investigate clinical outcomes in patients suffering from burnout symptoms when treated with R

  14. Sequential docetaxel as adjuvant chemotherapy for early breast cancer (TACT): an open-label, phase III, randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Ellis, Paul; Barrett-Lee, Peter; Johnson, Lindsay; Cameron, David; Wardley, Andrew; O'Reilly, Susan; Verrill, Mark; Smith, Ian; Yarnold, John; Coleman, Robert; Earl, Helena; Canney, Peter; Twelves, Chris; Poole, Christopher; Bloomfield, David; Hopwood, Penelope; Johnston, Stephen; Dowsett, Mitchell; Bartlett, John M S; Ellis, Ian; Peckitt, Clare; Hall, Emma; Bliss, Judith M

    2009-05-16

    Incorporation of a taxane as adjuvant treatment for early breast cancer offers potential for further improvement of anthracycline-based treatment. The UK TACT study (CRUK01/001) investigated whether sequential docetaxel after anthracycline chemotherapy would improve patient outcome compared with standard chemotherapy of similar duration. In this multicentre, open-label, phase III, randomised controlled trial, 4162 women (aged >18 years) with node-positive or high-risk node-negative operable early breast cancer were randomly assigned by computer-generated permuted block randomisation to receive FEC (fluorouracil 600 mg/m(2), epirubicin 60 mg/m(2), cyclophosphamide 600 mg/m(2) at 3-weekly intervals) for four cycles followed by docetaxel (100 mg/m(2) at 3-weekly intervals) for four cycles (n=2073) or control (n=2089). For the control regimen, centres chose either FEC for eight cycles (n=1265) or epirubicin (100 mg/m(2) at 3-weekly intervals) for four cycles followed by CMF (cyclophosphamide 600 mg/m(2), methotrexate 40 mg/m(2), and fluorouracil 600 mg/m(2) at 4-weekly intervals) for four cycles (n=824). The primary endpoint was disease-free survival. Analysis was by intention to treat (ITT). This study is registered as an International Standard Randomised Controlled Trial, number ISRCTN79718493. All randomised patients were included in the ITT population. With a median follow-up of 62 months, disease-free survival events were seen in 517 of 2073 patients in the experimental group compared with 539 of 2089 controls (hazard ratio [HR] 0.95, 95% CI 0.85-1.08; p=0.44). 75.6% (95% CI 73.7-77.5) of patients in the experimental group and 74.3% (72.3-76.2) of controls were alive and disease-free at 5 years. The proportion of patients who reported any acute grade 3 or 4 adverse event was significantly greater in the experimental group than in the control group (p<0.0001); the most frequent events were neutropenia (937 events vs 797 events), leucopenia (507 vs 362), and

  15. Cixutumumab for patients with recurrent or refractory advanced thymic epithelial tumours: a multicentre, open-label, phase 2 trial.

    PubMed

    Rajan, Arun; Carter, Corey A; Berman, Arlene; Cao, Liang; Kelly, Ronan J; Thomas, Anish; Khozin, Sean; Chavez, Ariel Lopez; Bergagnini, Isabella; Scepura, Barbara; Szabo, Eva; Lee, Min-Jung; Trepel, Jane B; Browne, Sarah K; Rosen, Lindsey B; Yu, Yunkai; Steinberg, Seth M; Chen, Helen X; Riely, Gregory J; Giaccone, Giuseppe

    2014-02-01

    No standard treatment exists for refractory or relapsed advanced thymic epithelial tumours. We investigated the efficacy of cixutumumab, a fully human IgG1 monoclonal antibody targeting the insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor in thymic epithelial tumours after failure of previous chemotherapy. Between Aug 25, 2009, and March 27, 2012, we did a multicentre, open-label, phase 2 trial in patients aged 18 years or older with histologically confirmed recurrent or refractory thymic epithelial tumours. We enrolled individuals who had progressed after at least one previous regimen of platinum-containing chemotherapy, had an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of 0 or 1, and had measurable disease and adequate organ function. Eligible patients received intravenous cixutumumab (20 mg/kg) every 3 weeks until disease progression or development of intolerable toxic effects. The primary endpoint was the frequency of response, analysed on an intention-to-treat basis. We also did pharmacodynamic studies. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00965250. 49 patients were enrolled (37 with thymomas and 12 with thymic carcinomas) who received a median of eight cycles of cixutumumab (range 1-46). At the final actuarial analysis when follow-up data were updated (Nov 30, 2012), median potential follow-up (from on-study date to most current follow-up date) was 24·0 months (IQR 17·3-36·9). In the thymoma cohort, five (14%) of 37 patients (95% CI 5-29) achieved a partial response, 28 had stable disease, and four had progressive disease. In the thymic carcinoma cohort, none of 12 patients (95% CI 0-26) had a partial response, five had stable disease, and seven had progressive disease. The most common grade 3-4 adverse events in both cohorts combined were hyperglycaemia (five [10%]), lipase elevation (three [6%]), and weight loss, tumour pain, and hyperuricaemia (two each [4%]). Nine (24%) of 37 patients with thymoma developed autoimmune conditions

  16. An open-label, randomized, cross-over bioequivalence study of lafutidine 10 mg under fasting condition

    PubMed Central

    Dewan, Bhupesh; Chimata, Raghuram

    2010-01-01

    AIM: To assess the relative bioavailability and pharmacokinetic properties of two formulations (test and reference) of Lafutidine 10 mg. METHODS: The study was performed as an open label, randomized, two-way, two-period, two-treatment, single dose cross-over bioequivalence study, under non-fed condition to compare the pharmacokinetic profiles of the lafutidine formulation manufactured by Emcure Pharmaceuticals Ltd., India using an indigenously developed active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) and the commercially available Stogra® formulation, of UCB Japan Co., Ltd., Japan. The two treatments were separated by a wash-out period of 5 d. After an overnight fasting period of 10 h, the subjects were administered either the test or the reference medication as per the randomization schedule. Blood samples were collected at intervals up to 24 h, as per the approved protocol. Concentrations of lafutidine in plasma were analyzed by a validated liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) method, and a non-compartmental model was used for pharmacokinetic analysis. The pharmacokinetic parameters were subjected to a 4-way ANOVA accounting for sequence, subjects, period and treatment. Statistical significance was evaluated at 95% confidence level (P ≥ 0.05). RESULTS: The mean (± SD) values of the pharmacokinetic parameters (test vs reference) were Cmax (265.15 ± 49.84 ng/mL vs 246.79 ± 29.30 ng/mL, P < 0.05), Area under the curve (AUC)(0-t) (1033.13 ± 298.74 ng.h/mL vs 952.93 ± 244.07 ng.h/mL, P < 0.05), AUC(0-∞) (1047.61 ± 301.22 ng.h/mL vs 964.21 ± 246.45 ng.h/mL, P < 0.05), and t½(1.92 ± 0.94 h vs 2.05 ± 1.01 h, P < 0.05). The 90% confidence intervals (CI) for the test/reference ratio of mean Cmax, AUC(0-t), and AUC(0-∞) were within the acceptable range of 80.00 to 125.00. The mean times (± SD) to attain maximal plasma concentration (tmax) of lafutidine were 0.95 ± 0.24 h vs 1.01 ± 0.29 h (P < 0.05) for the test and the reference formulations

  17. The shortened infusion time of intravenous ibuprofen, part 2: a multicenter, open-label, surgical surveillance trial to evaluate safety.

    PubMed

    Gan, Tong J; Candiotti, Keith; Turan, Alparslan; Buvanendran, Asokumar; Philip, Beverly K; Viscusi, Eugene R; Soghomonyan, Suren; Bergese, Sergio D

    2015-02-01

    The literature and clinical data support the use of intravenous (IV) infusions of ibuprofen to control pain and reduce the opioid requirements associated with surgical pain. According to current guidelines, IV ibuprofen can be administered via a slow IV infusion performed during a 30-minute period. Although recent studies indicate that more rapid infusions may yield additional benefits for patients, the safety of such an approach needs further evaluation. The main purpose of this study was to determine the safety of single and multiple doses of IV ibuprofen (800 mg) administered over 5 to 10 minutes at the induction of anesthesia and after the surgical procedure for the treatment of postoperative pain. This was a Phase IV, multicenter, open-label, clinical surveillance study. It was conducted at 21 hospitals in the United States, and 300 adult hospitalized patients undergoing surgery were enrolled. The exclusion criteria for the study were: inadequate IV access; hypersensitivity to any component of IV ibuprofen, aspirin, or related products; and any active, clinically significant bleeding. Also excluded were patients who had taken NSAIDs <6 hours before administration of IV ibuprofen; pregnant or breastfeeding female patients; and patients in the perioperative period of coronary artery bypass graft surgery. Patients received 800 mg of IV ibuprofen administered over 5 to 10 minutes preoperatively. Vital signs, adverse events, and pain scores were assessed. Approximately 22% (65 of 300) of patients reported adverse events (serious and nonserious). The most common adverse event was infusion site pain (34 of 300 [11%]). No deaths were reported. Nine subjects reported serious adverse events, 8 of which occurred during the first 6 hours. All serious events reported were judged unrelated to ibuprofen. Of the 300 total patients, 2 (0.67%) discontinued the study drug due to an adverse event (1 patient discontinued the study because of infusion site pain, and 1 patient

  18. Effects of flexible-dose fesoterodine on overactive bladder symptoms and treatment satisfaction: an open-label study

    PubMed Central

    Wyndaele, J-J; Goldfischer, E R; Morrow, J D; Gong, J; Tseng, L-J; Guan, Z; Choo, M-S

    2009-01-01

    Aims: To evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of flexible-dose fesoterodine in subjects with overactive bladder (OAB) who were dissatisfied with previous tolterodine treatment. Methods: This was a 12-week, open-label, flexible-dose study of adults with OAB (≥ 8 micturitions and ≥ 3 urgency episodes per 24 h) who had been treated with tolterodine (immediate- or extended-release) for OAB within 2 years of screening and reported dissatisfaction with tolterodine treatment. Subjects received fesoterodine 4 mg once daily for 4 weeks; thereafter, daily dosage was maintained at 4 mg or increased to 8 mg based on the subject’s and physician’s subjective assessment of efficacy and tolerability. Subjects completed 5-day diaries, the Patient Perception of Bladder Condition (PPBC) and the Overactive Bladder Questionnaire (OAB-q) at baseline and week 12 and rated treatment satisfaction at week 12 using the Treatment Satisfaction Question (TSQ). Safety and tolerability were assessed. Results: Among 516 subjects treated, approximately 50% opted for dose escalation to 8 mg at week 4. Significant improvements from baseline to week 12 were observed in micturitions, urgency urinary incontinence episodes, micturition-related urgency episodes and severe micturition-related urgency episodes per 24 h (all p< 0.0001). Approximately 80% of subjects who responded to the TSQ at week 12 reported satisfaction with treatment; 38% reported being very satisfied. Using the PPBC, 83% of subjects reported improvement at week 12 with 59% reporting improvement ≥ 2 points. Significant improvements from baseline (p< 0.0001) exceeding the minimally important difference (10 points) were observed in OAB-q Symptom Bother and Health-Related Quality of Life (HRQL) scales and all four HRQL domains. Dry mouth (23%) and constipation (5%) were the most common adverse events; no safety issues were identified. Conclusion: Flexible-dose fesoterodine significantly improved OAB symptoms, HRQL, and rates of

  19. Masitinib in advanced gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) after failure of imatinib: A randomized controlled open-label trial

    PubMed Central

    Adenis, A.; Blay, J.-Y.; Bui-Nguyen, B.; Bouché, O.; Bertucci, F.; Isambert, N.; Bompas, E.; Chaigneau, L.; Domont, J.; Ray-Coquard, I.; Blésius, A.; Van Tine, B. A.; Bulusu, V. R.; Dubreuil, P.; Mansfield, C. D.; Acin, Y.; Moussy, A.; Hermine, O.; Le Cesne, A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Masitinib is a highly selective tyrosine kinase inhibitor with activity against the main oncogenic drivers of gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST). Masitinib was evaluated in patients with advanced GIST after imatinib failure or intolerance. Patients and methods Prospective, multicenter, randomized, open-label trial. Patients with inoperable, advanced imatinib-resistant GIST were randomized (1 : 1) to receive masitinib (12 mg/kg/day) or sunitinib (50 mg/day 4-weeks-on/2-weeks-off) until progression, intolerance, or refusal. Primary efficacy analysis was noncomparative, testing whether masitinib attained a median progression-free survival (PFS) (blind centrally reviewed RECIST) threshold of >3 months according to the lower bound of the 90% unilateral confidence interval (CI). Secondary analyses on overall survival (OS) and PFS were comparative with results presented according to a two-sided 95% CI. Results Forty-four patients were randomized to receive masitinib (n = 23) or sunitinib (n = 21). Median follow-up was 14 months. Patients receiving masitinib experienced less toxicity than those receiving sunitinib, with significantly lower occurrence of severe adverse events (52% versus 91%, respectively, P = 0.008). Median PFS (central RECIST) for the noncomparative primary analysis in the masitinib treatment arm was 3.71 months (90% CI 3.65). Secondary analyses showed that median OS was significantly longer for patients receiving masitinib followed by post-progression addition of sunitinib when compared against patients treated directly with sunitinib in second-line [hazard ratio (HR) = 0.27, 95% CI 0.09–0.85, P = 0.016]. This improvement was sustainable as evidenced by 26-month follow-up OS data (HR = 0.40, 95% CI 0.16–0.96, P = 0.033); an additional 12.4 months survival advantage being reported for the masitinib treatment arm. Risk of progression while under treatment with masitinib was in the same range as for sunitinib (HR = 1.1, 95% CI 0.6–2.2, P

  20. Microbiota Transfer Therapy alters gut ecosystem and improves gastrointestinal and autism symptoms: an open-label study.

    PubMed

    Kang, Dae-Wook; Adams, James B; Gregory, Ann C; Borody, Thomas; Chittick, Lauren; Fasano, Alessio; Khoruts, Alexander; Geis, Elizabeth; Maldonado, Juan; McDonough-Means, Sharon; Pollard, Elena L; Roux, Simon; Sadowsky, Michael J; Lipson, Karen Schwarzberg; Sullivan, Matthew B; Caporaso, J Gregory; Krajmalnik-Brown, Rosa

    2017-01-23

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are complex neurobiological disorders that impair social interactions and communication and lead to restricted, repetitive, and stereotyped patterns of behavior, interests, and activities. The causes of these disorders remain poorly understood, but gut microbiota, the 10(13) bacteria in the human intestines, have been implicated because children with ASD often suffer gastrointestinal (GI) problems that correlate with ASD severity. Several previous studies have reported abnormal gut bacteria in children with ASD. The gut microbiome-ASD connection has been tested in a mouse model of ASD, where the microbiome was mechanistically linked to abnormal metabolites and behavior. Similarly, a study of children with ASD found that oral non-absorbable antibiotic treatment improved GI and ASD symptoms, albeit temporarily. Here, a small open-label clinical trial evaluated the impact of Microbiota Transfer Therapy (MTT) on gut microbiota composition and GI and ASD symptoms of 18 ASD-diagnosed children. MTT involved a 2-week antibiotic treatment, a bowel cleanse, and then an extended fecal microbiota transplant (FMT) using a high initial dose followed by daily and lower maintenance doses for 7-8 weeks. The Gastrointestinal Symptom Rating Scale revealed an approximately 80% reduction of GI symptoms at the end of treatment, including significant improvements in symptoms of constipation, diarrhea, indigestion, and abdominal pain. Improvements persisted 8 weeks after treatment. Similarly, clinical assessments showed that behavioral ASD symptoms improved significantly and remained improved 8 weeks after treatment ended. Bacterial and phagedeep sequencing analyses revealed successful partial engraftment of donor microbiota and beneficial changes in the gut environment. Specifically, overall bacterial diversity and the abundance of Bifidobacterium, Prevotella, and Desulfovibrio among other taxa increased following MTT, and these changes persisted after

  1. Levodopa-Carbidopa Intestinal Gel in Advanced Parkinson'd Disease: Final 12-Month, Open-Label Results

    PubMed Central

    Fernandez, Hubert H; Standaert, David G; Hauser, Robert A; Lang, Anthony E; Fung, Victor SC; Klostermann, Fabian; Lew, Mark F; Odin, Per; Steiger, Malcolm; Yakupov, Eduard Z; Chouinard, Sylvain; Suchowersky, Oksana; Dubow, Jordan; Hall, Coleen M; Chatamra, Krai; Robieson, Weining Z; Benesh, Janet A; Espay, Alberto J

    2015-01-01

    Motor complications in Parkinson's disease (PD) are associated with long-term oral levodopa treatment and linked to pulsatile dopaminergic stimulation. l-dopa-carbidopa intestinal gel (LCIG) is delivered continuously by percutaneous endoscopic gastrojejunostomy tube (PEG-J), which reduces l-dopa-plasma–level fluctuations and can translate to reduced motor complications. We present final results of the largest international, prospective, 54-week, open-label LCIG study. PD patients with severe motor fluctuations (>3 h/day “off” time) despite optimized therapy received LCIG monotherapy. Additional PD medications were allowed >28 days post-LCIG initiation. Safety was the primary endpoint measured through adverse events (AEs), device complications, and number of completers. Secondary endpoints included diary-assessed off time, “on” time with/without troublesome dyskinesia, UPDRS, and health-related quality-of-life (HRQoL) outcomes. Of 354 enrolled patients, 324 (91.5%) received PEG-J and 272 (76.8%) completed the study. Most AEs were mild/moderate and transient; complication of device insertion (34.9%) was the most common. Twenty-seven (7.6%) patients withdrew because of AEs. Serious AEs occurred in 105 (32.4%), most commonly complication of device insertion (6.5%). Mean daily off time decreased by 4.4 h/65.6% (P < 0.001). On time without troublesome dyskinesia increased by 4.8 h/62.9% (P < 0.001); on time with troublesome dyskinesia decreased by 0.4 h/22.5% (P = 0.023). Improvements persisted from week 4 through study completion. UPDRS and HRQoL outcomes were also improved throughout. In the advanced PD population, LCIG's safety profile consisted primarily of AEs associated with the device/procedure, l-dopa/carbidopa, and advanced PD. LCIG was generally well tolerated and demonstrated clinically significant improvements in motor function, daily activities, and HRQoL sustained over 54 weeks. © 2014 The Authors. Movement Disorders published by Wiley

  2. Efficacy and safety of available treatments for visceral leishmaniasis in Brazil: A multicenter, randomized, open label trial.

    PubMed

    Romero, Gustavo Adolfo Sierra; Costa, Dorcas Lamounier; Costa, Carlos Henrique Nery; de Almeida, Roque Pacheco; de Melo, Enaldo Viera; de Carvalho, Sílvio Fernando Guimarães; Rabello, Ana; de Carvalho, Andréa Lucchesi; Sousa, Anastácio de Queiroz; Leite, Robério Dias; Lima, Simone Soares; Amaral, Thais Alves; Alves, Fabiana Piovesan; Rode, Joelle

    2017-06-01

    There is insufficient evidence to support visceral leishmaniasis (VL) treatment recommendations in Brazil and an urgent need to improve current treatments. Drug combinations may be an option. A multicenter, randomized, open label, controlled trial was conducted in five sites in Brazil to evaluate efficacy and safety of (i) amphotericin B deoxycholate (AmphoB) (1 mg/kg/day for 14 days), (ii) liposomal amphotericin B (LAMB) (3 mg/kg/day for 7 days) and (iii) a combination of LAMB (10 mg/kg single dose) plus meglumine antimoniate (MA) (20 mg Sb+5/kg/day for 10 days), compared to (iv) standard treatment with MA (20 mg Sb+5/kg/day for 20 days). Patients, aged 6 months to 50 years, with confirmed VL and without HIV infection were enrolled in the study. Primary efficacy endpoint was clinical cure at 6 months. A planned efficacy and safety interim analysis led to trial interruption. 378 patients were randomized to the four treatment arms: MA (n = 112), AmphoB (n = 45), LAMB (n = 109), or LAMB plus MA (n = 112). A high toxicity of AmphoB prompted an unplanned interim safety analysis and this treatment arm was dropped. Per intention-to-treat protocol final analyses of the remaining 332 patients show cure rates at 6 months of 77.5% for MA, 87.2% for LAMB, and 83.9% for LAMB plus MA, without statistically significant differences between the experimental arms and comparator (LAMB: 9.7%; CI95% -0.28 to 19.68, p = 0.06; LAMB plus MA: 6.4%; CI95% -3.93 to 16.73; p = 0.222). LAMB monotherapy was safer than MA regarding frequency of treatment-related adverse events (AE) (p = 0.045), proportion of patients presenting at least one severe AE (p = 0.029), and the proportion of AEs resulting in definitive treatment discontinuation (p = 0.003). Due to lower toxicity and acceptable efficacy, LAMB would be a more suitable first line treatment for VL than standard treatment. ClinicalTrials.gov identification number: NCT01310738. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01310738.

  3. Phase IV, Open-Label, Safety Study Evaluating the Use of Dexmedetomidine in Pediatric Patients Undergoing Procedure-Type Sedation.

    PubMed

    Jooste, Edmund H; Hammer, Gregory B; Reyes, Christian R; Katkade, Vaibhav; Szmuk, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Dexmedetomidine (Precedex™) may be used as an alternative sedative in children, maintaining spontaneous breathing, and avoiding tracheal intubation in a non-intubated moderate or deep sedation (NI-MDS) approach. This open-label, single-arm, multicenter study evaluated the safety of dexmedetomidine in a pediatric population receiving NI-MDS in an operating room or a procedure room, with an intensivist or anesthesiologist in attendance, for elective diagnostic or therapeutic procedures expected to take at least 30 min. The primary endpoint was incidence of treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs). Patients received one of two doses dependent on age: patients aged ≥28 weeks' gestational age to <1 month postnatal received dose level 1 (0.1 μg/kg load; 0.05-0.2 μg/kg/h infusion); those aged 1 month to <17 years received dose level 2 (1 μg/kg load; 0.2-2.0 μg/kg/h infusion). Sedation efficacy was assessed and defined as adequate sedation for at least 80% of the time and successful completion of the procedure without the need for rescue medication. In all, 91 patients were enrolled (dose level 1, n = 1; dose level 2, n = 90); of these, 90 received treatment and 82 completed the study. Eight patients in dose level 2 discontinued treatment for the following reasons: early completion of diagnostic or therapeutic procedure (n = 3); change in medical condition (need for intubation) requiring deeper level of sedation (n = 2); adverse event (AE; hives and emesis), lack of efficacy, and physician decision (patient not sedated enough to complete procedure; n = 1 each). Sixty-seven patients experienced 147 TEAEs. The two most commonly reported AEs were respiratory depression (bradypnea; reported per protocol-defined criteria, based on absolute respiratory rate values for age or relative decrease of 30% from baseline) and hypotension. Four patients received glycopyrrolate for bradycardia and seven patients received intravenous fluids for hypotension. SpO2 dropped by 10% in

  4. An analysis of baseline data from the PROUD study: an open-label randomised trial of pre-exposure prophylaxis.

    PubMed

    Dolling, David I; Desai, Monica; McOwan, Alan; Gilson, Richard; Clarke, Amanda; Fisher, Martin; Schembri, Gabriel; Sullivan, Ann K; Mackie, Nicola; Reeves, Iain; Portman, Mags; Saunders, John; Fox, Julie; Bayley, Jake; Brady, Michael; Bowman, Christine; Lacey, Charles J; Taylor, Stephen; White, David; Antonucci, Simone; Gafos, Mitzy; McCormack, Sheena; Gill, Owen N; Dunn, David T; Nardone, Anthony

    2016-03-24

    Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) has proven biological efficacy to reduce the sexual acquisition of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The PROUD study found that PrEP conferred higher protection than in placebo-controlled trials, reducing HIV incidence by 86 % in a population with seven-fold higher HIV incidence than expected. We present the baseline characteristics of the PROUD study population and place the findings in the context of national sexual health clinic data. The PROUD study was designed to explore the real-world effectiveness of PrEP (tenofovir-emtricitabine) by randomising HIV-negative gay and other men who have sex with men (GMSM) to receive open-label PrEP immediately or after a deferral period of 12 months. At enrolment, participants self-completed two baseline questionnaires collecting information on demographics, sexual behaviour and lifestyle in the last 30 and 90 days. These data were compared to data from HIV-negative GMSM attending sexual health clinics in 2013, collated by Public Health England using the genitourinary medicine clinic activity database (GUMCAD). The median age of participants was 35 (IQR: 29-43). Typically participants were white (81 %), educated at a university level (61 %) and in full-time employment (72 %). Of all participants, 217 (40 %) were born outside the UK. A sexually transmitted infection (STI) was reported to have been diagnosed in the previous 12 months in 330/515 (64 %) and 473/544 (87 %) participants reported ever having being diagnosed with an STI. At enrolment, 47/280 (17 %) participants were diagnosed with an STI. Participants reported a median (IQR) of 10 (5-20) partners in the last 90 days, a median (IQR) of 2 (1-5) were condomless sex acts where the participant was receptive and 2 (1-6) were condomless where the participant was insertive. Post-exposure prophylaxis had been prescribed to 184 (34 %) participants in the past 12 months. The number of STI diagnoses was high compared to those reported in

  5. The Japan Statin Treatment Against Recurrent Stroke (J-STARS): A Multicenter, Randomized, Open-label, Parallel-group Study.

    PubMed

    Hosomi, Naohisa; Nagai, Yoji; Kohriyama, Tatsuo; Ohtsuki, Toshiho; Aoki, Shiro; Nezu, Tomohisa; Maruyama, Hirofumi; Sunami, Norio; Yokota, Chiaki; Kitagawa, Kazuo; Terayama, Yasuo; Takagi, Makoto; Ibayashi, Setsuro; Nakamura, Masakazu; Origasa, Hideki; Fukushima, Masanori; Mori, Etsuro; Minematsu, Kazuo; Uchiyama, Shinichiro; Shinohara, Yukito; Yamaguchi, Takenori; Matsumoto, Masayasu

    2015-09-01

    Although statin therapy is beneficial for the prevention of initial stroke, the benefit for recurrent stroke and its subtypes remains to be determined in Asian, in whom stroke profiles are different from Caucasian. This study examined whether treatment with low-dose pravastatin prevents stroke recurrence in ischemic stroke patients. This is a multicenter, randomized, open-label, blinded-endpoint, parallel-group study of patients who experienced non-cardioembolic ischemic stroke. All patients had a total cholesterol level between 4.65 and 6.21 mmol/L at enrollment, without the use of statins. The pravastatin group patients received 10 mg of pravastatin/day; the control group patients received no statins. The primary endpoint was the occurrence of stroke and transient ischemic attack (TIA), with the onset of each stroke subtype set to be one of the secondary endpoints. Although 3000 patients were targeted, 1578 patients (491 female, age 66.2 years) were recruited and randomly assigned to pravastatin group or control group. During the follow-up of 4.9 ± 1.4 years, although total stroke and TIA similarly occurred in both groups (2.56 vs. 2.65%/year), onset of atherothrombotic infarction was less frequent in pravastatin group (0.21 vs. 0.64%/year, p = 0.0047, adjusted hazard ratio 0.33 [95%CI 0.15 to 0.74]). No significant intergroup difference was found for the onset of other stroke subtypes, and for the occurrence of adverse events. Although whether low-dose pravastatin prevents recurrence of total stroke or TIA still needs to be examined in Asian, this study has generated a hypothesis that it may reduce occurrence of stroke due to larger artery atherosclerosis. This study was initially supported by a grant from the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare, Japan. After the governmental support expired, it was conducted in collaboration between Hiroshima University and the Foundation for Biomedical Research and Innovation.

  6. Bone health nutraceuticals alter microarray mRNA gene expression: A randomized, parallel, open-label clinical study.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yumei; Kazlova, Valentina; Ramakrishnan, Shyam; Murray, Mary A; Fast, David; Chandra, Amitabh; Gellenbeck, Kevin W

    2016-01-15

    Dietary intake of fruits and vegetables has been suggested to have a role in promoting bone health. More specifically, the polyphenols they contain have been linked to physiological effects related to bone mineral density and bone metabolism. In this research, we use standard microarray analyses of peripheral whole blood from post-menopausal women treated with two fixed combinations of plant extracts standardized to polyphenol content to identify differentially expressed genes relevant to bone health. In this 28-day open-label study, healthy post-menopausal women were randomized into three groups, each receiving one of three investigational fixed combinations of plant extracts: an anti-resorptive (AR) combination of pomegranate fruit (Punica granatum L.) and grape seed (Vitis vinifera L.) extracts; a bone formation (BF) combination of quercetin (Dimorphandra mollis Benth) and licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra L.) extracts; and a fixed combination of all four plant extracts (AR plus BF). Standard microarray analysis was performed on peripheral whole blood samples taken before and after each treatment. Annotated genes were analyzed for their association to bone health by comparison to a gene library. The AR combination down-regulated a number of genes involved in reduction of bone resorption including cathepsin G (CTSG) and tachykinin receptor 1 (TACR1). The AR combination also up-regulated genes associated with formation of extracellular matrix including heparan sulfate proteoglycan 2 (HSPG2) and hyaluronoglucosaminidase 1 (HYAL1). In contrast, treatment with the BF combination resulted in up-regulation of bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2) and COL1A1 (collagen type I α1) genes which are linked to bone and collagen formation while down-regulating genes linked to osteoclastogenesis. Treatment with a combination of all four plant extracts had a distinctly different effect on gene expression than the results of the AR and BF combinations individually. These results could

  7. Masitinib in advanced gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) after failure of imatinib: a randomized controlled open-label trial.

    PubMed

    Adenis, A; Blay, J-Y; Bui-Nguyen, B; Bouché, O; Bertucci, F; Isambert, N; Bompas, E; Chaigneau, L; Domont, J; Ray-Coquard, I; Blésius, A; Van Tine, B A; Bulusu, V R; Dubreuil, P; Mansfield, C D; Acin, Y; Moussy, A; Hermine, O; Le Cesne, A

    2014-09-01

    Masitinib is a highly selective tyrosine kinase inhibitor with activity against the main oncogenic drivers of gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST). Masitinib was evaluated in patients with advanced GIST after imatinib failure or intolerance. Prospective, multicenter, randomized, open-label trial. Patients with inoperable, advanced imatinib-resistant GIST were randomized (1 : 1) to receive masitinib (12 mg/kg/day) or sunitinib (50 mg/day 4-weeks-on/2-weeks-off) until progression, intolerance, or refusal. Primary efficacy analysis was noncomparative, testing whether masitinib attained a median progression-free survival (PFS) (blind centrally reviewed RECIST) threshold of >3 months according to the lower bound of the 90% unilateral confidence interval (CI). Secondary analyses on overall survival (OS) and PFS were comparative with results presented according to a two-sided 95% CI. Forty-four patients were randomized to receive masitinib (n = 23) or sunitinib (n = 21). Median follow-up was 14 months. Patients receiving masitinib experienced less toxicity than those receiving sunitinib, with significantly lower occurrence of severe adverse events (52% versus 91%, respectively, P = 0.008). Median PFS (central RECIST) for the noncomparative primary analysis in the masitinib treatment arm was 3.71 months (90% CI 3.65). Secondary analyses showed that median OS was significantly longer for patients receiving masitinib followed by post-progression addition of sunitinib when compared against patients treated directly with sunitinib in second-line [hazard ratio (HR) = 0.27, 95% CI 0.09-0.85, P = 0.016]. This improvement was sustainable as evidenced by 26-month follow-up OS data (HR = 0.40, 95% CI 0.16-0.96, P = 0.033); an additional 12.4 months survival advantage being reported for the masitinib treatment arm. Risk of progression while under treatment with masitinib was in the same range as for sunitinib (HR = 1.1, 95% CI 0.6-2.2, P = 0.833). Primary efficacy analysis ensured

  8. Multicenter, open-label, exploratory clinical trial with Rhodiola rosea extract in patients suffering from burnout symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Kasper, Siegfried; Dienel, Angelika

    2017-01-01

    Purpose This study is the first clinical trial aiming to explore the clinical outcomes in burnout patients treated with Rhodiola rosea. The reported capacity of R. rosea to strengthen the organism against stress and its good tolerability offer a promising approach in the treatment of stress-related burnout. The aim of the treatment was to increase stress resistance, thus addressing the source rather than the symptoms of the syndrome and preventing subsequent diseases associated with a history of burnout. The objective of the trial was to provide the exploratory data required for planning future randomized trials in burnout patients in order to investigate the clinical outcomes of treatment with R. rosea dry extract in this target group. Methods The study was planned as an exploratory, open-label, multicenter, single-arm trial. A wide range of rating scales were assessed and evaluated in an exploratory data analysis to generate hypotheses regarding clinical courses and to provide a basis for the planning of subsequent studies. A total of 118 outpatients were enrolled. A daily dose of 400 mg R. rosea extract (WS® 1375, Rosalin) was administered over 12 weeks. Clinical outcomes were assessed by the German version of the Maslach Burnout Inventory, Burnout Screening Scales I and II, Sheehan Disability Scale, Perceived Stress Questionnaire, Number Connection Test, Multidimensional Mood State Questionnaire, Numerical Analogue Scales for different stress symptoms and impairment of sexual life, Patient Sexual Function Questionnaire, and the Clinical Global Impression Scales. Results The majority of the outcome measures showed clear improvement over time. Several parameters had already improved after 1 week of treatment and continued to improve further up to the end of the study. The incidence of adverse events was low with 0.015 events per observation day. Discussion The trial reported here was the first to investigate clinical outcomes in patients suffering from burnout

  9. Transarterial Chemoembolization of Unresectable Hepatocellular Carcinoma with Drug Eluting Beads: Results of an Open-Label Study of 62 Patients

    SciTech Connect

    Malagari, Katerina Chatzimichael, Katerina; Alexopoulou, Efthymia; Kelekis, Alexios; Hall, Brenda; Dourakis, Spyridon; Delis, Spyridon; Gouliamos, Athanasios; Kelekis, Dimitrios

    2008-03-15

    The purpose of this study was to assess the safety and efficacy of doxorubicin-loaded beads (DC Beads) delivered by transarterial embolization for the treatment of unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). This open-label, single-center, single-arm study included 62 cirrhotic patients with documented single unresectable HCC. Mean tumor diameter was 5.6 cm (range, 3-9 cm) classified as Okuda stages 1 (n = 53) and 2 (n = 9). Patients received repeat embolizations with doxorubicin-loaded beads every 3 months (maximum of three). The maximum doxorubicin dose was 150 mg per embolization, loaded in DC Beads of 100-300 or 300-500 {mu}m. Regarding efficacy, overall, an objective response according to the European Association for the Study of the Liver criteria was observed in 59.6%, 81.8%, and 70.8% across three treatments. A complete response was observed in 4.8% after the first procedure and 3.6% and 8.3% after the second and third procedures, respectively. At 9 months a complete response was seen in 12.2%, an objective response in 80.7%, progressive disease in 6.8%, and 12.2% showed stable disease. Mean tumor necrosis ranged from 77.4% to 83.9% (range, 28.6%-100%) across three treatments. {alpha}-Fetoprotein levels showed a mean decrease of 1123 ng/ml (95% CI = 846-1399; p = 3 x 10{sup -11}) after the first session and remained stable after the second and third embolizations (42 and 70 ng/ml decrease, respectively). Regarding safety, bilirubin, {gamma}-glutamyl transferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, and alkaline phosphatase showed only transient increases during the study period. Severe procedure-related complications were seen in 3.2% (cholecystitis, n 1; liver abscess, n = 1). Postembolization syndrome was observed in all patients. We conclude that hemoembolization using doxorubicin-loaded DC Beads is a safe and effective treatment of HCC as demonstrated by the low complication rate, increased tumor response, and sustained reduction of

  10. Randomized, open-label phase 2 study comparing frontline dovitinib versus sorafenib in patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Ann-Lii; Thongprasert, Sumitra; Lim, Ho Yeong; Sukeepaisarnjaroen, Wattana; Yang, Tsai-Shen; Wu, Cheng-Chung; Chao, Yee; Chan, Stephen L; Kudo, Masatoshi; Ikeda, Masafumi; Kang, Yoon-Koo; Pan, Hongming; Numata, Kazushi; Han, Guohong; Balsara, Binaifer; Zhang, Yong; Rodriguez, Ana-Marie; Zhang, Yi; Wang, Yongyu; Poon, Ronnie T P

    2016-09-01

    Angiogenesis inhibition by the vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR) and platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR) inhibitor sorafenib provides survival benefit in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC); however, angiogenic escape from sorafenib may occur due to angiogenesis-associated fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) pathway activation. In addition to VEGFR and PDGFR, dovitinib inhibits FGFR. Frontline oral dovitinib (500 mg/day, 5 days on, 2 days off; n = 82) versus sorafenib (400 mg twice daily; n = 83) was evaluated in an open-label, randomized phase 2 study of Asian-Pacific patients with advanced HCC. The primary and key secondary endpoints were overall survival (OS) and time to tumor progression (TTP) as determined by a local investigator, respectively. Patients included in the study were ineligible for surgical and/or locoregional therapies or had disease progression after receiving these therapies. The median OS (95% confidence interval [CI]) was 8.0 (6.6-9.1) months for dovitinib and 8.4 (5.4-11.3) months for sorafenib. The median TTP (95% CI) per investigator assessment was 4.1 (2.8-4.2) months and 4.1 (2.8-4.3) months for dovitinib and sorafenib, respectively. Common any-cause adverse events included diarrhea (62%), decreased appetite (43%), nausea (41%), vomiting (41%), fatigue (35%), rash (34%), and pyrexia (30%) for dovitinib and palmar-plantar erythrodysesthesia syndrome (66%) and decreased appetite (31%) for sorafenib. Subgroup analysis revealed a significantly higher median OS for patients in the dovitinib arm who had baseline plasma soluble VEGFR1 (sVEGFR1) and hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) below median levels versus at or above the median levels (median OS [95% CI]: sVEGFR1, 11.2 [9.0-13.8] and 5.7 [4.3-7.0] months, respectively [P = .0002]; HGF, 11.2 [8.9-13.8] and 5.9 [5.0-7.6] months, respectively [P = 0.0002]). Dovitinib was well tolerated, but activity was not greater than sorafenib as a frontline systemic therapy for

  11. An Open-Label, Randomized Trial of Methylphenidate and Atomoxetine Treatment in Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder.

    PubMed

    Shang, Chi-Yung; Pan, Yi-Lei; Lin, Hsiang-Yuan; Huang, Lin-Wan; Gau, Susan Shur-Fen

    2015-09-01

    The efficacy of both methylphenidate and atomoxetine has been established in placebo-controlled trials. The present study aimed to directly compare the efficacy of methylphenidate and atomoxetine in improving symptoms among children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The study sample included 160 drug-naïve children and adolescents 7-16 years of age, with DSM-IV-defined ADHD, randomly assigned to osmotic-release oral system methylphenidate (OROS-methylphenidate) (n=80) and atomoxetine (n=80) in a 24 week, open-label, head-to-head clinical trial. The primary efficacy measure was the score of the ADHD Rating Scale-IV Parents Version: Investigator Administered and Scored (ADHD-RS-IV). The secondary efficacy measures included the Clinical Global Impressions-ADHD-Severity (CGI-ADHD-S) and Chinese Swanson, Nolan, and Pelham IV scale (SNAP-IV), based on the ratings of investigators, parents, teachers, and subjects. At week 24, mean changes in ADHD-RS-IV Inattention scores were 13.58 points (Cohen's d, -3.08) for OROS-methylphenidate and 12.65 points (Cohen's d, -3.05) for atomoxetine; and mean changes in ADHD-RS-IV Hyperactivity-Impulsivity scores were 10.16 points (Cohen's d, -1.75) for OROS-methylphenidate and 10.68 points (Cohen's d, -1.87) for atomoxetine. In terms of parent-, teacher-, and self-ratings on behavioral symptoms, both of the two treatment groups significantly decreased on the SNAP-IV scores at the end-point, with effect sizes ranging from 0.9 to 0.96 on the Inattention subscale and from 0.61 to 0.8 on the Hyperactivity/Impulsivity subscale for OROS-methylphenidate; and from 0.51 to 0.88 on the Inattention subscale and from 0.29 to 0.57 on the Hyperactivity/Impulsivity subscale for atomoxetine. No statistically significant differences between treatment groups were observed on the outcome measures. Vomiting, somnolence, and dizziness were reported more often for atomoxetine than for OROS-methylphenidate, whereas insomnia was reported

  12. Tribendimidine and Albendazole for Treating Soil-Transmitted Helminths, Strongyloides stercoralis and Taenia spp.: Open-Label Randomized Trial

    PubMed Central

    Steinmann, Peter; Zhou, Xiao-Nong; Du, Zun-Wei; Jiang, Jin-Yong; Xiao, Shu-Hua; Wu, Zhong-Xing; Zhou, Hui; Utzinger, Jürg

    2008-01-01

    Background Tribendimidine is an anthelminthic drug with a broad spectrum of activity. In 2004 the drug was approved by Chinese authorities for human use. The efficacy of tribendimidine against soil-transmitted helminths (Ascaris lumbricoides, hookworm, and Trichuris trichiura) has been established, and new laboratory investigations point to activity against cestodes and Strongyloides ratti. Methodology/Principal Findings In an open-label randomized trial, the safety and efficacy of a single oral dose of albendazole or tribendimidine (both drugs administered at 200 mg for 5- to 14-year-old children, and 400 mg for individuals ≥15 years) against soil-transmitted helminths, Strongyloides stercoralis, and Taenia spp. were assessed in a village in Yunnan province, People's Republic of China. The analysis was on a per-protocol basis and the trial is registered with controlled-trials.com (number ISRCTN01779485). Both albendazole and tribendimidine were highly efficacious against A. lumbricoides and, moderately, against hookworm. The efficacy against T. trichiura was low. Among 57 individuals who received tribendimidine, the prevalence of S. stercoralis was reduced from 19.3% to 8.8% (observed cure rate 54.5%, p = 0.107), and that of Taenia spp. from 26.3% to 8.8% (observed cure rate 66.7%, p = 0.014). Similar prevalence reductions were noted among the 66 albendazole recipients. Taking into account “new” infections discovered at treatment evaluation, which were most likely missed pre-treatment due to the lack of sensitivity of available diagnostic approaches, the difference between the drug-specific net Taenia spp. cure rates was highly significant in favor of tribendimidine (p = 0.001). No significant adverse events of either drug were observed. Conclusions/Significance Our results suggest that single-dose oral tribendimidine can be employed in settings with extensive intestinal polyparasitism, and its efficacy against A. lumbricoides and hookworm was

  13. A 3-year, open-label, flexible-dosing study of milnacipran for the treatment of fibromyalgia.

    PubMed

    Arnold, Lesley M; Palmer, Robert H; Ma, Yimin

    2013-12-01

    To evaluate the effects of long-term milnacipran treatment in fibromyalgia patients. Patients completing a previous milnacipran study were eligible to participate in this long-term (up to 3.25 y), open-label study. After washout, dose escalation, and 8 weeks of stable-dose treatment (100 mg/d), patients received flexible doses of milnacipran (50 to 200 mg/d) for the remainder of the study. Safety evaluations included adverse events and vital signs. Clinical measures included weekly recall pain (visual analog scale [VAS]), Patient Global Disease Status (PGDS), and the Short Form-36 Health Survey (SF-36, including the Physical Component Summary [PCS] and Mental Component Summary scores). Cohort analyses were conducted to assess the effects of milnacipran over varying periods of time. Of 1227 patients entering the study, 585 (47.7%) were classified as completers, including 379 (30.9%) patients who were currently enrolled when the study was administratively terminated. Mean duration of treatment was 19 months, with 206 patients reaching the final visit and receiving 36 to 38 months of study treatment. The percentage of patients with ≥1 treatment-emergent adverse event was 88.3%, with nausea (25.9%) and headache (13.4%) being the most common events. Discontinuations due to adverse events occurred in 20.9% of patients. Potentially clinically significant increases in blood pressure or heart rate occurred in ≤1.1% of patients. Mean improvement from baseline in weekly recall VAS pain was 17.6; improvements in global status (PGDS) and physical functioning (SF-36 PCS) were also observed. In all patient cohorts, these improvements were observed by month 3 and remained relatively constant over time. At final study visit in the 3-year cohort, 70.3% of patients rated their overall fibromyalgia as "much improved" or "very much improved." No new safety concerns were identified in this long-term study. Sustained symptom improvements were found in fibromyalgia patients who

  14. Sequential docetaxel as adjuvant chemotherapy for early breast cancer (TACT): an open-label, phase III, randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Ellis, Paul; Barrett-Lee, Peter; Johnson, Lindsay; Cameron, David; Wardley, Andrew; O'Reilly, Susan; Verrill, Mark; Smith, Ian; Yarnold, John; Coleman, Robert; Earl, Helena; Canney, Peter; Twelves, Chris; Poole, Christopher; Bloomfield, David; Hopwood, Penelope; Johnston, Stephen; Dowsett, Mitchell; Bartlett, John MS; Ellis, Ian; Peckitt, Clare; Hall, Emma; Bliss, Judith M

    2009-01-01

    Summary Background Incorporation of a taxane as adjuvant treatment for early breast cancer offers potential for further improvement of anthracycline-based treatment. The UK TACT study (CRUK01/001) investigated whether sequential docetaxel after anthracycline chemotherapy would improve patient outcome compared with standard chemotherapy of similar duration. Methods In this multicentre, open-label, phase III, randomised controlled trial, 4162 women (aged >18 years) with node-positive or high-risk node-negative operable early breast cancer were randomly assigned by computer-generated permuted block randomisation to receive FEC (fluorouracil 600 mg/m2, epirubicin 60 mg/m2, cyclophosphamide 600 mg/m2 at 3-weekly intervals) for four cycles followed by docetaxel (100 mg/m2 at 3-weekly intervals) for four cycles (n=2073) or control (n=2089). For the control regimen, centres chose either FEC for eight cycles (n=1265) or epirubicin (100 mg/m2 at 3-weekly intervals) for four cycles followed by CMF (cyclophosphamide 600 mg/m2, methotrexate 40 mg/m2, and fluorouracil 600 mg/m2 at 4-weekly intervals) for four cycles (n=824). The primary endpoint was disease-free survival. Analysis was by intention to treat (ITT). This study is registered as an International Standard Randomised Controlled Trial, number ISRCTN79718493. Findings All randomised patients were included in the ITT population. With a median follow-up of 62 months, disease-free survival events were seen in 517 of 2073 patients in the experimental group compared with 539 of 2089 controls (hazard ratio [HR] 0·95, 95% CI 0·85–1·08; p=0·44). 75·6% (95% CI 73·7–77·5) of patients in the experimental group and 74·3% (72·3–76·2) of controls were alive and disease-free at 5 years. The proportion of patients who reported any acute grade 3 or 4 adverse event was significantly greater in the experimental group than in the control group (p<0·0001); the most frequent events were neutropenia (937 events vs 797 events

  15. Efficacy and safety of available treatments for visceral leishmaniasis in Brazil: A multicenter, randomized, open label trial

    PubMed Central

    Costa, Dorcas Lamounier; Costa, Carlos Henrique Nery; de Almeida, Roque Pacheco; de Melo, Enaldo Viera; de Carvalho, Sílvio Fernando Guimarães; Rabello, Ana; de Carvalho, Andréa Lucchesi; Sousa, Anastácio de Queiroz; Leite, Robério Dias; Lima, Simone Soares; Amaral, Thais Alves; Alves, Fabiana Piovesan; Rode, Joelle

    2017-01-01

    Background There is insufficient evidence to support visceral leishmaniasis (VL) treatment recommendations in Brazil and an urgent need to improve current treatments. Drug combinations may be an option. Methods A multicenter, randomized, open label, controlled trial was conducted in five sites in Brazil to evaluate efficacy and safety of (i) amphotericin B deoxycholate (AmphoB) (1 mg/kg/day for 14 days), (ii) liposomal amphotericin B (LAMB) (3 mg/kg/day for 7 days) and (iii) a combination of LAMB (10 mg/kg single dose) plus meglumine antimoniate (MA) (20 mg Sb+5/kg/day for 10 days), compared to (iv) standard treatment with MA (20 mg Sb+5/kg/day for 20 days). Patients, aged 6 months to 50 years, with confirmed VL and without HIV infection were enrolled in the study. Primary efficacy endpoint was clinical cure at 6 months. A planned efficacy and safety interim analysis led to trial interruption. Results 378 patients were randomized to the four treatment arms: MA (n = 112), AmphoB (n = 45), LAMB (n = 109), or LAMB plus MA (n = 112). A high toxicity of AmphoB prompted an unplanned interim safety analysis and this treatment arm was dropped. Per intention-to-treat protocol final analyses of the remaining 332 patients show cure rates at 6 months of 77.5% for MA, 87.2% for LAMB, and 83.9% for LAMB plus MA, without statistically significant differences between the experimental arms and comparator (LAMB: 9.7%; CI95% -0.28 to 19.68, p = 0.06; LAMB plus MA: 6.4%; CI95% -3.93 to 16.73; p = 0.222). LAMB monotherapy was safer than MA regarding frequency of treatment-related adverse events (AE) (p = 0.045), proportion of patients presenting at least one severe AE (p = 0.029), and the proportion of AEs resulting in definitive treatment discontinuation (p = 0.003). Conclusions Due to lower toxicity and acceptable efficacy, LAMB would be a more suitable first line treatment for VL than standard treatment. ClinicalTrials.gov identification number: NCT01310738. Trial registration

  16. Open-label, randomized, comparative, phase III study on effects of reducing steroid use in combination with Palonosetron

    PubMed Central

    Komatsu, Yoshito; Okita, Kenji; Yuki, Satoshi; Furuhata, Tomohisa; Fukushima, Hiraku; Masuko, Hiroyuki; Kawamoto, Yasuyuki; Isobe, Hiroshi; Miyagishima, Takuto; Sasaki, Kazuaki; Nakamura, Michio; Ohsaki, Yoshinobu; Nakajima, Junta; Tateyama, Miki; Eto, Kazunori; Minami, Shinya; Yokoyama, Ryoji; Iwanaga, Ichiro; Shibuya, Hitoshi; Kudo, Mineo; Oba, Koji; Takahashi, Yasuo

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare the efficacy of a single administration of dexamethasone (DEX) on day 1 against DEX administration on days 1–3 in combination with palonosetron (PALO), a second-generation 5-HT3 receptor antagonist, for chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) in non-anthracycline and cyclophosphamide (AC) moderately-emetogenic chemotherapy (MEC). This phase III trial was conducted with a multi-center, randomized, open-label, non-inferiority design. Patients who received non-AC MEC as an initial chemotherapy were randomly assigned to either a group administered PALO (0.75 mg, i.v.) and DEX (9.9 mg, i.v.) prior to chemotherapy (study treatment group), or a group administered additional DEX (8 mg, i.v. or p.o.) on days 2–3 (control group). The primary endpoint was complete response (CR) rate. The CR rate difference was estimated by logistic regression with allocation factors as covariates. The non-inferiority margin was set at −15% (study treatment group − control group). From April 2011 to March 2013, 305 patients who received non-AC MEC were randomly allocated to one of two study groups. Overall, the CR rate was 66.2% in the study treatment group (N = 151) and 63.6% in the control group (N = 154). PALO plus DEX day 1 was non-inferior to PALO plus DEX days 1–3 (difference, 2.5%; 95% confidence interval [CI]: −7.8%–12.8%; P-value for non-inferiority test = 0.0004). There were no differences between the two groups in terms of complete control rate (64.9 vs 61.7%) and total control rate (49.7% vs 47.4%). Anti-emetic DEX administration on days 2–3 may be eliminated when used in combination with PALO in patients receiving non-AC MEC. PMID:25872578

  17. Montelukast in the treatment of perennial allergic rhinitis in paediatric Japanese patients; an open-label clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Okubo, Kimihiro; Inoue, Yoichi; Numaguchi, Hirotaka; Tanaka, Kumi; Saito, Itori; Oshima, Nobuyuki; Matsumoto, Yuki; Prohn, Marita; Mehta, Anish; Nishida, Chisato; Philip, George

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: This study was conducted to evaluate the safety and tolerability, and population pharmacokinetics (PPK) of montelukast as well as efficacy in the treatment of perennial allergic rhinitis (PAR) in paediatric Japanese patients aged between 1 and 15 years. Methods: In this multi-centre, open-label trial, 87 paediatric Japanese patients with PAR received montelukast 4 mg oral granules (OG) for 4 weeks (1–5-year-olds, N = 15), 4 mg OG for 12 weeks (1–5-year-olds, N = 36), 5 mg chewable tablets (CT) for 12 weeks (6–9-year-olds, N = 18), or 5 mg CT for12 weeks (10–15-year-olds, N = 18). Clinical exams and laboratory assessments were conducted at study visits, and adverse events (AE) were monitored throughout the study up to 14 days after the last visit. Population pharmacokinetic approach was used to estimate AUC0–∞, Cmax, Tmax and apparent elimination half-life in each age group. Efficacy was assessed based on global evaluations by the subject’s caregiver. Results: There were no serious AEs and one discontinuation due to an AE. The most common AEs in any of the treatment groups were nasopharyngitis, pharyngitis, and acute sinusitis. Montelukast exposure (AUC0–∞) was similar in the 1–5-year-old group and the 6–9-year-old group, but 19% lower in the 10–15-year-old group. Among all patients, the total proportion of patients whose global evaluation was “very much better” was 5.7% (week 2), 11.5% (week 4), and 16.9% (week 12) reflecting improvement in symptoms over time. Conclusion: Montelukast was generally well tolerated in Japanese children with PAR. AUC0–∞was similar in 1–5 and 6–9-year-olds, while a lower exposure was observed in the 10–15-year-old group likely due to differences in bodyweight. The exposure in Japanese paediatric patients was generally consistent with that in non-Japanese paediatric and adult patients. As assessed by the patients’ caregivers, montelukast also

  18. A combined phase I and II open label study on the effects of a seaweed extract nutrient complex on osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Myers, Stephen P; O’Connor, Joan; Fitton, J Helen; Brooks, Lyndon; Rolfe, Margaret; Connellan, Paul; Wohlmuth, Hans; Cheras, Phil A; Morris, Carol

    2010-01-01

    Background: Isolated fucoidans from brown marine algae have been shown to have a range of anti-inflammatory effects. Purpose: This present study tested a Maritech® extract formulation, containing a blend of extracts from three different species of brown algae, plus nutrients in an open label combined phase I and II pilot scale study to determine both acute safety and efficacy in osteoarthritis of the knee. Patients and methods: Participants (n = 12, five females [mean age, 62 ± 11.06 years] and seven males [mean age, 57.14 ± 9.20 years]) with a confirmed diagnosis of osteoarthritis of the knee were randomized to either 100 mg (n = 5) or 1000 mg (n = 7) of a Maritech® extract formulation per day. The formulation contained Maritech® seaweed extract containing Fucus vesiculosis (85% w/w), Macrocystis pyrifera (10% w/w) and Laminaria japonica (5% w/w) plus vitamin B6, zinc and manganese. Primary outcome was the average comprehensive arthritis test (COAT) score which is comprised of four sub-scales: pain, stiffness, difficulty with physical activity and overall symptom severity measured weekly. Safety measures included full blood count, serum lipids, liver function tests, urea, creatinine and electrolytes determined at baseline and week 12. All adverse events were recorded. Results: Eleven participants completed 12 weeks and one completed 10 weeks of the study. Using a multilevel linear model, the average COAT score was reduced by 18% for the 100 mg treatment and 52% for the 1000 mg dose at the end of the study. There was a clear dose response effect seen between the two treatments (P ≤ 0.0005) on the average COAT score and each of the four COAT subscales (pain, stiffness, difficulty with physical activity and overall symptom severity) (P ≤ 0.05). The preparation was well tolerated and the few adverse events were unlikely to be related to the study medication. There were no changes in blood parameters measured over the course of the study with the exception of

  19. Holter-electrocardiogram-monitoring in patients with acute ischaemic stroke (Find-AFRANDOMISED): an open-label randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Wachter, Rolf; Gröschel, Klaus; Gelbrich, Götz; Hamann, Gerhard F; Kermer, Pawel; Liman, Jan; Seegers, Joachim; Wasser, Katrin; Schulte, Anna; Jürries, Falko; Messerschmid, Anna; Behnke, Nico; Gröschel, Sonja; Uphaus, Timo; Grings, Anne; Ibis, Tugba; Klimpe, Sven; Wagner-Heck, Michaela; Arnold, Magdalena; Protsenko, Evgeny; Heuschmann, Peter U; Conen, David; Weber-Krüger, Mark

    2017-04-01

    Atrial fibrillation is a major risk factor for recurrent ischaemic stroke, but often remains undiagnosed in patients who have had an acute ischaemic stroke. Enhanced and prolonged Holter-electrocardiogram-monitoring might increase detection of atrial fibrillation. We therefore investigated whether enhanced and prolonged rhythm monitoring was better for detection of atrial fibrillation than standard care procedures in patients with acute ischaemic stroke. Find-AFrandomised is an open-label randomised study done at four centres in Germany. We recruited patients with acute ischaemic stroke (symptoms for 7 days or less) aged 60 years or older presenting with sinus rhythm and without history of atrial fibrillation. Patients were included irrespective of the suspected cause of stroke, unless they had a severe ipsilateral carotid or intracranial artery stenosis, which were the exclusion criteria. We used a computer-generated allocation sequence to randomly assign patients in a 1:1 ratio with permuted block sizes of 2, 4, 6, and 8, stratified by centre, to enhanced and prolonged monitoring (ie, 10-day Holter-electrocardiogram [ECG]-monitoring at baseline, and at 3 months and 6 months of follow-up) or standard care procedures (ie, at least 24 h of rhythm monitoring). Participants and study physicians were not masked to group assignment, but the expert committees that adjudicated endpoints were. The primary endpoint was the occurrence of atrial fibrillation or atrial flutter (30 sec or longer) within 6 months after randomisation and before stroke recurrence. Because Holter ECG is a widely used procedure and not known to harm patients, we chose not to assess safety in detail. Analysis was by intention to treat. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01855035. Between May 8, 2013, and Aug 31, 2014, we recruited 398 patients. 200 patients were randomly assigned to the enhanced and prolonged monitoring group and 198 to the standard care group. After 6 months

  20. Tanacetum parthenium and Salix alba (Mig-RL) combination in migraine prophylaxis: a prospective, open-label study.

    PubMed

    Shrivastava, R; Pechadre, J C; John, G W

    2006-01-01

    Tanacetum parthenium (feverfew) has been used traditionally to treat migraine, and although its mechanism of action is not fully understood, serotonin 5-HT receptor blocking effects have been suggested. T. parthenium and Salix alba (white willow) either alone or in combination (Mig-RL) were recently shown to inhibit binding to 5-HT(2A/2C) receptors; T. parthenium failed to recognise 5-HT(1D) receptors, whereas S. alba or the combination did. It was hypothesised that S. alba in combination with T. parthenium may provide superior migraine prophylactic activity compared with T. parthenium alone. A prospective, open-label study was performed in 12 patients diagnosed with migraine without aura. Twelve weeks' treatment with T. parthenium 300 mg plus S. alba 300 mg (Mig-RL) twice daily was administered to determine the effects of therapy on migraine attack frequency (primary efficacy criterion), intensity and duration (secondary efficacy criteria), and quality of life, together with tolerability for patients. Attack frequency was reduced by 57.2% at 6 weeks (p < 0.029) and by 61.7% at 12 weeks (p < 0.025) in nine of ten patients, with 70% patients having a reduction of at least 50%. Attack intensity was reduced by 38.7% at 6 weeks (p < 0.005) and by 62.6% at 12 weeks (p < 0.004) in ten of ten patients, with 70% of patients having a reduction of at least 50%. Attack duration decreased by 67.2% at 6 weeks (p < 0.001) and by 76.2% at 12 weeks (p < 0.001) in ten of ten patients. Two patients were excluded for reasons unrelated to treatment. Self-assessed general health, physical performance, memory and anxiety also improved by the end of the study. Mig-RL treatment was well tolerated and no adverse events occurred. The remarkable efficacy of Mig-RL in not only reducing the frequency of migraine attacks but also their pain intensity and duration in this trial warrants further investigation of this therapy in a double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled investigation

  1. Impact of tiotropium + olodaterol on physical functioning in COPD: results of an open-label observational study

    PubMed Central

    Sauer, Rüdiger; Hänsel, Michaela; Buhl, Roland; Rubin, Roman A; Frey, Marcel; Glaab, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Background Maintaining and improving physical functioning is key to mitigating the cycle of deconditioning associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). We evaluated the impact of free combination of the long-acting anticholinergic tiotropium plus the long-acting β2-agonist olodaterol on physical functioning in a real-world clinical setting. Methods In this open-label noninterventional study, Global initiative for chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) B–D patients with COPD aged ≥40 years were treated for 4–6 weeks with either tiotropium 5 μg + olodaterol 5 μg (both via Respimat® inhaler) or tiotropium 18 μg (HandiHaler®) + olodaterol 5 μg (Respimat®) once daily. Physical functioning was assessed by the self-reported 10-item Physical Functioning Questionnaire (PF-10). The primary end point was the percentage of patients achieving therapeutic success, defined as a 10-point increase in the PF-10 between baseline (visit 1) and weeks 4–6 (visit 2). Secondary end points included absolute PF-10 scores, Physicians’ Global Evaluation, satisfaction with Respimat® and adverse events. Results A total of 1,858 patients were treated: 1,298 (69.9%) with tiotropium 5 μg + olodaterol 5 μg and 560 (30.1%) with tiotropium 18 μg + olodaterol 5 μg. At study end, 1,683 (92.6%) and 1,556 patients (85.6%) continued using tiotropium and olodaterol, respectively; 48.9% (95% confidence interval: 46.5, 51.3) achieved the primary end point. Therapeutic success rates were significantly higher for maintenance-naïve patients compared to those who had received prior therapy (59.1% vs 44.5%; P<0.0001), largely driven by maintenance-treatment-naïve GOLD B (59.8%) and C (63.0%) patients. Absolute physical functioning scores increased from an average baseline of 44.0 (standard deviation: 25.2) to 54.2 (standard deviation: 26.9) at visit 2. Patients’ general condition improved from baseline to visit 2, and patients were largely satisfied with the Respimat

  2. Sirolimus Use in Liver Transplant Recipients With Hepatocellular Carcinoma: A Randomized, Multicenter, Open-Label Phase 3 Trial

    PubMed Central

    Geissler, Edward K.; Schnitzbauer, Andreas A.; Zülke, Carl; Lamby, Philipp E.; Proneth, Andrea; Duvoux, Christophe; Burra, Patrizia; Jauch, Karl-Walter; Rentsch, Markus; Ganten, Tom M.; Schmidt, Jan; Settmacher, Utz; Heise, Michael; Rossi, Giorgio; Cillo, Umberto; Kneteman, Norman; Adam, René; van Hoek, Bart; Bachellier, Philippe; Wolf, Philippe; Rostaing, Lionel; Bechstein, Wolf O.; Rizell, Magnus; Powell, James; Hidalgo, Ernest; Gugenheim, Jean; Wolters, Heiner; Brockmann, Jens; Roy, André; Mutzbauer, Ingrid; Schlitt, Angela; Beckebaum, Susanne; Graeb, Christian; Nadalin, Silvio; Valente, Umberto; Turrión, Victor Sánchez; Jamieson, Neville; Scholz, Tim; Colledan, Michele; Fändrich, Fred; Becker, Thomas; Söderdahl, Gunnar; Chazouillères, Olivier; Mäkisalo, Heikki; Pageaux, Georges-Philippe; Steininger, Rudolf; Soliman, Thomas; de Jong, Koert P.; Pirenne, Jacques; Margreiter, Raimund; Pratschke, Johann; Pinna, Antonio D.; Hauss, Johann; Schreiber, Stefan; Strasser, Simone; Klempnauer, Jürgen; Troisi, Roberto I.; Bhoori, Sherrie; Lerut, Jan; Bilbao, Itxarone; Klein, Christian G.; Königsrainer, Alfred; Mirza, Darius F.; Otto, Gerd; Mazzaferro, Vincenzo; Neuhaus, Peter; Schlitt, Hans J.

    2016-01-01

    Background We investigated whether sirolimus-based immunosuppression improves outcomes in liver transplantation (LTx) candidates with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Methods In a prospective-randomized open-label international trial, 525 LTx recipients with HCC initially receiving mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitor–free immunosuppression were randomized 4 to 6 weeks after transplantation into a group on mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitor–free immunosuppression (group A: 264 patients) or a group incorporating sirolimus (group B: 261). The primary endpoint was recurrence-free survival (RFS); intention-to-treat (ITT) analysis was conducted after 8 years. Overall survival (OS) was a secondary endpoint. Results Recurrence-free survival was 64.5% in group A and 70.2% in group B at study end, this difference was not significant (P = 0.28; hazard ratio [HR], 0.84; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 0.62; 1.15). In a planned analysis of RFS rates at yearly intervals, group B showed better outcomes 3 years after transplantation (HR, 0.7; 95% CI, 0.48-1.00). Similarly, OS (P = 0.21; HR, 0.81; 95% CI, 0.58-1.13) was not statistically better in group B at study end, but yearly analyses showed improvement out to 5 years (HR, 0.7; 95% CI, 0.49-1.00). Interestingly, subgroup (Milan Criteria-based) analyses revealed that low-risk, rather than high-risk, patients benefited most from sirolimus; furthermore, younger recipients (age ≤60) also benefited, as well sirolimus monotherapy patients. Serious adverse event numbers were alike in groups A (860) and B (874). Conclusions Sirolimus in LTx recipients with HCC does not improve long-term RFS beyond 5 years. However, a RFS and OS benefit is evident in the first 3 to 5 years, especially in low-risk patients. This trial provides the first high-level evidence base for selecting immunosuppression in LTx recipients with HCC. PMID:26555945

  3. AN OPEN-LABEL EXTENSION STUDY OF PARATHYROID HORMONE RHPTH(1-84) IN ADULTS WITH HYPOPARATHYROIDISM.

    PubMed

    Lakatos, Peter; Bajnok, Laszlo; Lagast, Hjalmar; Valkusz, Zsuzsanna

    2016-05-01

    Hypoparathyroidism is characterized by inadequate parathyroid hormone (PTH), resulting in hypocalcemia, hyperphosphatemia, and bone abnormalities. Adults with hypoparathyroidism treated with recombinant human PTH, rhPTH(1-84), in the 24-week, phase III REPLACE study maintained serum calcium despite reductions in oral calcium and active vitamin D. This study assessed the long-term efficacy and safety of rhPTH(1-84) for hypoparathyroidism. This was a 24-week, open-label, flexible-dose extension study of REPLACE (REPEAT) conducted in 3 outpatient centers in Hungary. Patients who previously completed or enrolled in REPLACE received 50 μg/day rhPTH(1-84), escalated to 75 and then to 100 μg/day, if needed, to reduce active vitamin D and oral calcium. The primary endpoint was ≥50% reduction in oral calcium (or ≤500 mg/day) and active vitamin D (or calcitriol ≤0.25 μg/day or alfacalcidol ≤0.50 μg/day) with normocalcemia. Twenty-four patients (n = 16 previously treated with rhPTH[1-84]; n = 8 rhPTH[1-84]-naïve) were enrolled and completed the study. At Week 24, 75% of patients (95% confidence interval [CI], 53.3-90.2%) achieved the study endpoint; 58% eliminated oral calcium and active vitamin D. Urinary calcium, serum phosphate, and calcium × phosphate (Ca × P) product decreased by Week 24. Mean serum bone turnover markers increased with rhPTH(1-84). Treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs) were reported by 92% of patients. No serious adverse events (AEs) occurred. This study used a simplified treatment algorithm intended to better mimic typical clinical practice and demonstrated the extended efficacy and safety of rhPTH(1-84) in patients with hypoparathyroidism and confirmed the REPLACE findings. Sustained rhPTH(1-84) efficacy up to 48 weeks was observed despite treatment interruption between studies.

  4. Safety, Tolerability, and Efficacy of Quetiapine in Youth with Schizophrenia or Bipolar I Disorder: A 26-Week, Open-Label, Continuation Study

    PubMed Central

    Pathak, Sanjeev; Earley, Willie R.; Liu, Sherry; DelBello, Melissa

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Objective The purpose of this study was to describe the safety, tolerability, and efficacy of quetiapine monotherapy continued for up to 26-weeks in youth with schizophrenia or bipolar I disorder. Methods Medically healthy boys and girls with a baseline Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th ed. (DSM-IV-TR) diagnosis of schizophrenia (ages 13–17 years) or a manic episode of bipolar I disorder (ages 10–17 years) who participated in one of two acute, double-blind, placebo-controlled studies of immediate-release quetiapine were potentially eligible to enroll in a 26-week, open-label study. During the open-label study, quetiapine was flexibly dosed at 400–800 mg/day, with options to reduce dosing to 200 mg/day based on tolerability. Safety and tolerability outcomes assessed from open-label baseline to week 26 included adverse events (AEs), metabolic/laboratory parameters, extrapyramidal symptoms, suicidality, and vital signs. Results Of 381 patients enrolled in the open-label study (n=176, schizophrenia; n=205, bipolar disorder diagnosis), 237 patients (62.2%) completed the 26-week study period (71.0%, schizophrenia; 54.6%, bipolar disorder). The most common AEs reported during the study included somnolence, headache, sedation, weight increase, and vomiting. A total of 14.9% of patients experienced a shift to potentially clinically significant low levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and 10.2% of patients experienced a shift to potentially clinically significant high triglyceride levels. Weight gain ≥7% was reported in 35.6% of patients between open-label baseline and final visit. After adjustment for normal growth, 18.3% of study participants experienced clinically significant weight gain (i.e., increase in body mass index ≥0.5 standard deviations from baseline). Conclusions In this 26-week study, quetiapine flexibly dosed at 400–800 mg/day, with options to reduce dosing based on tolerability, was generally safe

  5. Open-label study assessing the long-term efficacy and safety of triple olmesartan/amlodipine/hydrochlorothiazide combination therapy for hypertension.

    PubMed

    Volpe, Massimo; de la Sierra, Alejandro; Ammentorp, Bettina; Laeis, Petra

    2014-05-01

    To reduce cardiovascular risk associated with hypertension, the majority of patients require at least two drugs to control their blood pressure (BP), and many require three or more. An open-label extension of a 10-week double-blind study assessed the long-term efficacy and safety of olmesartan/amlodipine/hydrochlorothiazide (OLM/AML/HCTZ) triple combination treatment in 2,509 patients with Grade 2-3 hypertension. After 8 weeks of single-blind OLM/AML/HCTZ 20/5/12.5 mg treatment, patients at BP goal [seated systolic/diastolic BP (SeSBP/SeDBP) <140/90 mmHg, or <130/80 mmHg for patients with diabetes, or chronic kidney or cardiovascular disease] entered open-label treatment for 36 weeks. Patients not at goal received 8 weeks of randomized, double-blind treatment before entering open-label treatment. During open-label treatment, patients received OLM/AML/HCTZ 20/5/12.5, 40/5/12.5, 40/5/25, 40/10/12.5 or 40/10/25 mg with up- or down-titration as needed to achieve BP goals. During open-label treatment, mean SeSBP/SeDBP levels remained within the ranges 120-140 and 75-85 mmHg, respectively. At study end, significant reductions from baseline were seen in each group for SeSBP (37-43 mmHg) and SeDBP (22-27 mmHg), and 78.1% of patients overall achieved BP goal. Categorical analysis of patients by baseline SeSBP (150-159, 160-169, 170-179, 180-189, 190 to <200 mmHg) correlated with changes in SeSBP. Patients in the lowest baseline category (150-159 mmHg) showed a reduction of 34.3 mmHg, and those in the highest category (190 to <200 mmHg) showed a 59.4 mmHg reduction. At baseline, 90.8% of patients had Grade 2 or 3 hypertension, but at study end 91.9% had normal/high-normal BP. The incidence of adverse events was similar across the treatment groups. In patients with Grade 2-3 hypertension, long-term treatment with OLM/AML/HCTZ triple combination therapy was well tolerated and effective. A high level of BP control and a substantial reduction in the level of

  6. Open-label treatment with desvenlafaxine in postmenopausal women with major depressive disorder not responding to acute treatment with desvenlafaxine or escitalopram.

    PubMed

    Soares, Claudio N; Thase, Michael E; Clayton, Anita; Guico-Pabia, Christine J; Focht, Kristen; Jiang, Qin; Kornstein, Susan G; Ninan, Phillip T; Kane, Cecelia P

    2011-03-01

    Preliminary clinical evidence indicates that menopausal status might impact on the efficacy of certain classes of antidepressants. The aim of this study was to evaluate open-label desvenlafaxine treatment (administered as desvenlafaxine succinate) in postmenopausal women who did not achieve clinical response to acute, double-blind treatment with desvenlafaxine or escitalopram. This phase IIIb, multicentre study included a 6-month open-label extension phase of patients who did not respond in the initial 8-week, randomized, double-blind acute phase. Postmenopausal women aged 40-70 years with a primary diagnosis of major depressive disorder were recruited. PRIMARY INTERVENTION: Non-responders to acute treatment with double-blind desvenlafaxine or escitalopram received flexible-dose, open-label desvenlafaxine 100-200 mg/day for the 6-month extension phase. The primary efficacy assessment was the 17-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAM-D(17)) total score. Secondary efficacy outcome measures were the Clinical Global Impressions-Improvement (CGI-I) and -Severity scales, Hamilton Rating Scale for Anxiety, Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology-Self-Report, Visual Analogue Scale-Pain Intensity and the Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS). Secondary health assessments were the Changes in Sexual Functioning Questionnaire, 5-Dimension EuroQoL Index, Health State Today, Menopause Rating Scale, Sheehan Disability Scale, treatment response (≥ 50% decrease in total HAM-D(17) and MADRS score from acute-phase baseline and CGI-I total score ≤ 2), HAM-D(17) remission (total score ≤ 7) and safety. Descriptive statistics were used to summarize outcomes. The efficacy analysis included 123 patients (desvenlafaxine/desvenlafaxine = 64; escitalopram/desvenlafaxine = 59). At final evaluation of the open-label extension phase, mean reductions from acute-phase baseline in HAM-D(17) total scores were -11.33 for the desvenlafaxine

  7. Immune plasma for the treatment of severe influenza: an open-label, multicentre, phase 2 randomised study.

    PubMed

    Beigel, John H; Tebas, Pablo; Elie-Turenne, Marie-Carmelle; Bajwa, Ednan; Bell, Todd E; Cairns, Charles B; Shoham, Shmuel; Deville, Jaime G; Feucht, Eric; Feinberg, Judith; Luke, Thomas; Raviprakash, Kanakatte; Danko, Janine; O'Neil, Dorothy; Metcalf, Julia A; King, Karen; Burgess, Timothy H; Aga, Evgenia; Lane, H Clifford; Hughes, Michael D; Davey, Richard T

    2017-06-01

    Influenza causes substantial morbidity and mortality despite available treatments. Anecdotal reports suggest that plasma with high antibody titres to influenza might be of benefit in the treatment of severe influenza. In this randomised, open-label, multicentre, phase 2 trial, 29 academic medical centres in the USA assessed the safety and efficacy of anti-influenza plasma with haemagglutination inhibition antibody titres of 1:80 or more to the infecting strain. Hospitalised children and adults (including pregnant women) with severe influenza A or B (defined as the presence of hypoxia or tachypnoea) were randomly assigned to receive either two units (or paediatric equivalent) of anti-influenza plasma plus standard care, versus standard care alone, and were followed up for 28 days. The primary endpoint was time to normalisation of patients' respiratory status (respiratory rate of ≤20 breaths per min for adults or age-defined thresholds of 20-38 breaths per min for children) and a room air oxygen saturation of 93% or more. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01052480. Between Jan 13, 2011, and March 2, 2015, 113 participants were screened for eligibility and 98 were randomly assigned from 20 out of 29 participating sites. Of the participants with confirmed influenza (by PCR), 28 (67%) of 42 in the plasma plus standard care group normalised their respiratory status by day 28 compared with 24 (53%) of 45 participants on standard care alone (p=0·069). The hazard ratio (HR) comparing plasma plus standard care with standard care alone was 1·71 (95% CI 0·96-3·06). Six participants died, one (2%) from the plasma plus standard care group and five (10%) from the standard care group (HR 0·19 [95% CI 0·02-1·65], p=0·093). Participants in the plasma plus standard care group had non-significant reductions in days in hospital (median 6 days [IQR 4-16] vs 11 days [5-25], p=0·13) and days on mechanical ventilation (median 0 days [IQR 0-6] vs 3 days

  8. Effectiveness of omalizumab in patients with inadequately controlled severe persistent allergic asthma: an open-label study.

    PubMed

    Niven, R; Chung, K F; Panahloo, Z; Blogg, M; Ayre, G

    2008-10-01

    In a 1-year, randomized, open-label study in patients with moderate-to-severe allergic (immunoglobulin E (IgE)-mediated) asthma, adding omalizumab to best standard care (BSC) significantly improved efficacy outcomes compared with BSC alone (control). We assessed the efficacy of omalizumab in the subgroup of patients with inadequately controlled severe persistent allergic asthma despite high-dose inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) plus a long-acting beta(2)-agonist (LABA), which reflects the European Union (EU) label population. Efficacy outcomes included annual asthma exacerbation rate, annual asthma deterioration-related incident (ADRI) rate, % predicted forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV(1)), asthma symptoms (Wasserfallen score) and quality of life (Mini Asthma Quality of Life Questionnaire (Mini-AQLQ)), which were compared in the omalizumab and control groups. Outcomes were also determined for omalizumab-treated patients judged to have responded to therapy (> or = 0.5-point improvement in Mini-AQLQ overall score at 27 weeks). In total, 164 patients (omalizumab, n=115; control, n=49) were receiving high-dose ICS plus a LABA. Annual asthma exacerbation rate was significantly reduced by 59% in the omalizumab group vs. control (1.26 vs. 3.06; P<0.001). ADRI rate was significantly reduced by 40% in the omalizumab group compared with control (5.61 vs. 9.40; P<0.05). Significant improvements were also seen in % predicted FEV(1) (71% vs. 60%; P<0.001), change from baseline in asthma symptom scores (-6.7 vs. 0.5; P<0.05) and Mini-AQLQ overall score (1.32 vs. 0.17; P<0.001). In omalizumab-treated patients, 71/102 (70%) were judged to have responded to therapy. In these Mini-AQLQ-assessed responders, exacerbation rate was reduced by 64% vs. control (1.12 vs. 3.06; P<0.001), ADRI rate was reduced by 50% vs. control (4.71 vs. 9.40; P<0.01). Percent predicted FEV(1) (73% vs. 60%; P<0.001), change from baseline in asthma symptom scores (-8.1 vs. 0.5; P<0.001) and Mini

  9. Gatifloxacin versus ceftriaxone for uncomplicated enteric fever in Nepal: an open-label, two-centre, randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Arjyal, Amit; Basnyat, Buddha; Nhan, Ho Thi; Koirala, Samir; Giri, Abhishek; Joshi, Niva; Shakya, Mila; Pathak, Kamal Raj; Mahat, Saruna Pathak; Prajapati, Shanti Pradhan; Adhikari, Nabin; Thapa, Rajkumar; Merson, Laura; Gajurel, Damodar; Lamsal, Kamal; Lamsal, Dinesh; Yadav, Bharat Kumar; Shah, Ganesh; Shrestha, Poojan; Dongol, Sabina; Karkey, Abhilasha; Thompson, Corinne N; Thieu, Nga Tran Vu; Thanh, Duy Pham; Baker, Stephen; Thwaites, Guy E; Wolbers, Marcel; Dolecek, Christiane

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background Because treatment with third-generation cephalosporins is associated with slow clinical improvement and high relapse burden for enteric fever, whereas the fluoroquinolone gatifloxacin is associated with rapid fever clearance and low relapse burden, we postulated that gatifloxacin would be superior to the cephalosporin ceftriaxone in treating enteric fever. Methods We did an open-label, randomised, controlled, superiority trial at two hospitals in the Kathmandu valley, Nepal. Eligible participants were children (aged 2–13 years) and adult (aged 14–45 years) with criteria for suspected enteric fever (body temperature ≥38·0°C for ≥4 days without a focus of infection). We randomly assigned eligible patients (1:1) without stratification to 7 days of either oral gatifloxacin (10 mg/kg per day) or intravenous ceftriaxone (60 mg/kg up to 2 g per day for patients aged 2–13 years, or 2 g per day for patients aged ≥14 years). The randomisation list was computer-generated using blocks of four and six. The primary outcome was a composite of treatment failure, defined as the occurrence of at least one of the following: fever clearance time of more than 7 days after treatment initiation; the need for rescue treatment on day 8; microbiological failure (ie, blood cultures positive for Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi, or Paratyphi A, B, or C) on day 8; or relapse or disease-related complications within 28 days of treatment initiation. We did the analyses in the modified intention-to-treat population, and subpopulations with either confirmed blood-culture positivity, or blood-culture negativity. The trial was powered to detect an increase of 20% in the risk of failure. This trial was registered at ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01421693, and is now closed. Findings Between Sept 18, 2011, and July 14, 2014, we screened 725 patients for eligibility. On July 14, 2014, the trial was stopped early by the data safety and monitoring board because S Typhi

  10. Cixutumumab and temsirolimus for patients with bone and soft-tissue sarcoma: a multicentre, open-label, phase 2 trial

    PubMed Central

    Schwartz, Gary K; Tap, William D; Qin, Li-Xuan; Livingston, Michael B; Undevia, Samir D; Chmielowski, Bartosz; Agulnik, Mark; Schuetze, Scott M; Reed, Damon R; Okuno, Scott H; Ludwig, Joseph A; Keedy, Vicki; Rietschel, Petra; Kraft, Andrew S; Adkins, Douglas; Van Tine, Brian A; Brockstein, Bruce; Yim, Vincent; Bitas, Christiana; Abdullah, Abdul; Antonescu, Cristina R; Condy, Mercedes; Dickson, Mark A; Vasudeva, Shyamprasad Deraje; Ho, Alan L; Doyle, L Austin; Chen, Helen X; Maki, Robert G

    2013-01-01

    Summary Background Preclinical studies have shown synergistic antitumour activity by inhibition of insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF-1R) and mTOR. The expression of IGF-1R seems to be crucial for this effect. We investigated the safety and efficacy of the combination of the IGF-1R antibody cixutumumab and the mTOR inhibitor temsirolimus in patients with chemotherapy-refractory bone and soft-tissue sarcomas according to IGF-1R expression by immunohistochemistry. Methods We undertook a multicentre, open-label, phase 2 study in 19 cancer centres in the USA. Patients aged at least 16 years with a histologically confirmed diagnosis of bone or soft-tissue sarcoma were allocated on the basis of IGF-1R expression by immunohistochemistry to one of three treatment groups: IGF-1R-positive soft-tissue sarcoma (group A), IGF-1R-positive bone sarcomas (group B), or IGF-1R-negative bone and soft-tissue sarcoma (group C). Patients received weekly treatment with cixutumumab (6 mg/kg, intravenous) and temsirolimus (25 mg, intravenous flat dose) in 6-week cycles. A Simon optimal two-stage design was used for every arm. The primary endpoint was progression-free survival (PFS) at 12 weeks by intention-to-treat analysis in the first 54 patients assigned to every treatment arm. Although patients still remain on treatment, this trial has completed enrolment and this represents the final analysis. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01016015. Findings Between Nov 18, 2009, and April 11, 2012, 388 patients were screened for IGF-1R expression and 54 were assigned to each arm. 17 of 54 patients in the IGF-1R-positive soft-tissue sarcoma group (31%; one-sided 95% CI lower bound 21%; two-sided 90% CI 21–43), 19 of 54 in IGF-1R-positive bone sarcoma group (35%; one-sided 95% CI lower bound 24%; two-sided 90% CI 24–47), and 21 of 54 in the IGF-1R-negative group (39%, one-sided 95% CI lower bound 28%; two-sided 90% CI 28–51) were progression free at 12 weeks

  11. Continuous positive airway pressure for children with undifferentiated respiratory distress in Ghana: an open-label, cluster, crossover trial.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Patrick T; Baiden, Frank; Brooks, Joshua C; Morris, Marilyn C; Giessler, Katie; Punguyire, Damien; Apio, Gavin; Agyeman-Ampromfi, Akua; Lopez-Pintado, Sara; Sylverken, Justice; Nyarko-Jectey, Kwadwo; Tagbor, Harry; Moresky, Rachel T

    2017-06-01

    In low-income and middle-income countries, invasive mechanical ventilation is often not available for children at risk of death from respiratory failure. We aimed to determine if continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP), a form of non-invasive ventilation, decreases all-cause mortality in children with undifferentiated respiratory distress in Ghana. This open-label, cluster, crossover trial was done in two Ghanaian non-tertiary hospitals where invasive mechanical ventilation is not routinely available. Eligible participants were children aged from 1 month to 5 years with a respiratory rate of more than 50 breaths per min in children 1-12 months old, or more than 40 breaths per min in children older than 12 months, and use of accessory muscles or nasal flaring. CPAP machines were allocated to one hospital during each study block, while the other hospital served as the control site. The initial intervention site was randomly chosen using a coin toss. 5 cm of water pressure was delivered via CPAP nasal prongs. The primary outcome measure was all-cause mortality rate at 2 weeks after enrolment in patients for whom data were available after 2 weeks. We also did post-hoc regression analysis and subgroup analysis of children by malaria status, oxygen saturation, and age. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01839474. Between Jan 20, 2014, and Dec 5, 2015, 2200 children were enrolled: 1025 at the intervention site and 1175 at the control site. Final analysis included 1021 patients in the CPAP group and 1160 patients in the control group. 2 weeks after enrolment, 26 (3%) of 1021 patients in the CPAP group, and 44 (4%) of 1160 patients in the control group, had died (relative risk [RR] of mortality 0·67, 95% CI 0·42-1·08; p=0·11). In children younger than 1 year, all-cause mortality was ten (3%) of 374 patients in the CPAP group, and 24 (7%) of 359 patients in the control group (RR 0·40, 0·19-0·82; p=0·01). After adjustment for study site

  12. Patient-optimized doses of fesoterodine improve bladder symptoms in an open-label, flexible-dose study.

    PubMed

    Wyndaele, Jean-Jacques; Goldfischer, Evan R; Morrow, Jon D; Gong, Jason; Tseng, Li-Jung; Choo, Myung-Soo

    2011-02-01

    To assess changes in overactive bladder (OAB) symptoms and patient-reported outcomes in a post hoc analysis in which subjects from a 12-week, open-label, flexible-dose fesoterodine study were stratified according to whether they opted for dose escalation. Subjects with OAB (eight or more micturitions and three or more urgency episodes per 24 h) who reported dissatisfaction with tolterodine within 2 years of screening received fesoterodine 4 mg once daily for 4 weeks, with an optional dose increase to 8 mg after week 4 based on discussion of efficacy and tolerability between the subject and investigator. Subjects completed 5-day diaries, the Patient Perception of Bladder Condition (PPBC) and Urgency Perception Scale (UPS) at baseline and weeks 4 and 12, and the Overactive Bladder Questionnaire (OAB-q) at baseline and week 12. Subjects rated treatment satisfaction at week 12. Dose escalation to 8 mg at week 4 was chosen by 255 (50%) of 513 subjects. At baseline, subjects who opted for dose escalation at week 4 (escalators) had significantly higher means for all diary variables except urgency urinary incontinence (UUI) episodes, significantly greater OAB-q Symptom Bother scores and significantly lower OAB-q health-related quality of life (HRQL) scores (all P < 0.05) compared to subjects who did not opt for dose escalation (non-escalators). There was no significant difference in the percentage of escalators (51%) and non-escalators (48%) who reported at least one UUI episode on baseline diary. At week 4 (before the decision to escalate was made), all outcomes were significantly improved vs baseline among both groups (all P < 0.0001), although non-escalators had significantly greater improvements in all diary variables and in PPBC and UPS scores than escalators (all P < 0.05), and the 5-day diary-dry rate (i.e. the percentage of subjects with at least one UUI episode on baseline diary and no UUI episodes on week 4 diary) was significantly higher (P = 0.0016) among non

  13. Treatment of infantile-onset spinal muscular atrophy with nusinersen: a phase 2, open-label, dose-escalation study.

    PubMed

    Finkel, Richard S; Chiriboga, Claudia A; Vajsar, Jiri; Day, John W; Montes, Jacqueline; De Vivo, Darryl C; Yamashita, Mason; Rigo, Frank; Hung, Gene; Schneider, Eugene; Norris, Daniel A; Xia, Shuting; Bennett, C Frank; Bishop, Kathie M

    2016-12-17

    Nusinersen is a 2'-O-methoxyethyl phosphorothioate-modified antisense drug being developed to treat spinal muscular atrophy. Nusinersen is specifically designed to alter splicing of SMN2 pre-mRNA and thus increase the amount of functional survival motor neuron (SMN) protein that is deficient in patients with spinal muscular atrophy. This open-label, phase 2, escalating dose clinical study assessed the safety and tolerability, pharmacokinetics, and clinical efficacy of multiple intrathecal doses of nusinersen (6 mg and 12 mg dose equivalents) in patients with infantile-onset spinal muscular atrophy. Eligible participants were of either gender aged between 3 weeks and 7 months old with onset of spinal muscular atrophy symptoms between 3 weeks and 6 months, who had SMN1 homozygous gene deletion or mutation. Safety assessments included adverse events, physical and neurological examinations, vital signs, clinical laboratory tests, cerebrospinal fluid laboratory tests, and electrocardiographs. Clinical efficacy assessments included event free survival, and change from baseline of two assessments of motor function: the motor milestones portion of the Hammersmith Infant Neurological Exam-Part 2 (HINE-2) and the Children's Hospital of Philadelphia Infant Test of Neuromuscular Disorders (CHOP-INTEND) motor function test, and compound motor action potentials. Autopsy tissue was analysed for target engagement, drug concentrations, and pharmacological activity. HINE-2, CHOP-INTEND, and compound motor action potential were compared between baseline and last visit using the Wilcoxon signed-rank test. Age at death or permanent ventilation was compared with natural history using the log-rank test. The study is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01839656. 20 participants were enrolled between May 3, 2013, and July 9, 2014, and assessed through to an interim analysis done on Jan 26, 2016. All participants experienced adverse events, with 77 serious adverse events reported in

  14. Methadone continuation versus forced withdrawal on incarceration in a combined US prison and jail: a randomised, open-label trial

    PubMed Central

    Rich, Josiah D; McKenzie, Michelle; Larney, Sarah; Wong, John B; Tran, Liem; Clarke, Jennifer; Noska, Amanda; Reddy, Manasa; Zaller, Nickolas

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background Methadone is an effective treatment for opioid dependence. When people who are receiving methadone maintenance treatment for opioid dependence are incarcerated in prison or jail, most US correctional facilities discontinue their methadone treatment, either gradually, or more often, abruptly. This discontinuation can cause uncomfortable symptoms of withdrawal and renders prisoners susceptible to relapse and overdose on release. We aimed to study the effect of forced withdrawal from methadone upon incarceration on individuals’ risk behaviours and engagement with post-release treatment programmes. Methods In this randomised, open-label trial, we randomly assigned (1:1) inmates of the Rhode Island Department of Corrections (RI, USA) who were enrolled in a methadone maintenance-treatment programme in the community at the time of arrest and wanted to remain on methadone treatment during incarceration and on release, to either continuation of their methadone treatment or to usual care—forced tapered withdrawal from methadone. Participants could be included in the study only if their incarceration would be more than 1 week but less than 6 months. We did the random assignments with a computer-generated random permutation, and urn randomisation procedures to stratify participants by sex and race. Participants in the continued-methadone group were maintained on their methadone dose at the time of their incarceration (with dose adjustments as clinically indicated). Patients in the forced-withdrawal group followed the institution’s standard withdrawal protocol of receiving methadone for 1 week at the dose at the time of their incarceration, then a tapered withdrawal regimen (for those on a starting dose >100 mg, the dose was reduced by 5 mg per day to 100 mg, then reduced by 3 mg per day to 0 mg; for those on a starting dose ≤100 mg, the dose was reduced by 3 mg per day to 0 mg). The main outcomes were engagement with a methadone maintenance

  15. Eculizumab in AQP4-IgG-positive relapsing neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders: an open-label pilot study.

    PubMed

    Pittock, Sean J; Lennon, Vanda A; McKeon, Andrew; Mandrekar, Jay; Weinshenker, Brian G; Lucchinetti, Claudia F; O'Toole, Orna; Wingerchuk, Dean M

    2013-06-01

    Complement activation after binding of an IgG autoantibody to aquaporin 4 (AQP4) is thought to be a major determinant of CNS inflammation and astrocytic injury in neuromyelitis optica. The aim of this study was to investigate the use of eculizumab--a therapeutic monoclonal IgG that neutralises the complement protein C5--in neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders. Between Oct 20, 2009, and Nov 3, 2010, we recruited patients from two US centres into an open-label trial. Patients were AQP4-IgG-seropositive, aged at least 18 years, had a neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder, and had at least two attacks in the preceding 6 months or three in the previous 12 months. Patients received meningococcal vaccine at a screening visit and 2 weeks later began eculizumab treatment. They received 600 mg intravenous eculizumab weekly for 4 weeks, 900 mg in the fifth week, and then 900 mg every 2 weeks for 48 weeks. The coprimary endpoints were efficacy (measured by number of attacks [new worsening of neurological function lasting for more than 24 h and not attributable to an identifiable cause]) and safety. Secondary endpoints were disability (measured by expanded disability status scale), ambulation (Hauser score), and visual acuity. At follow-up visits (after 6 weeks and 3, 6, 9, and 12 months of treatment; and 3 and 12 months after discontinuation), complete neurological examination was undertaken and an adverse event questionnaire completed. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00904826. We enrolled 14 patients, all of whom were women. After 12 months of eculizumab treatment, 12 patients were relapse free; two had had possible attacks. The median number of attacks per year fell from three before treatment (range two to four) to zero (zero to one) during treatment (p<0·0001). No patient had worsened disability by any outcome measure. Median score on the expanded disability status scale improved from 4·3 (range 1·0-8·0) before treatment to 3·5 (0-8·0

  16. Open-label, randomized, controlled pilot study of the effects of a glucosamine complex on Low back pain

    PubMed Central

    Tant, Laure; Gillard, Bruno; Appelboom, Thierry

    2005-01-01

    Background: A series of studies has suggested some efficacy of glucosamine in arthrosis of the knee, but virtually no documentation exists regarding its effects on low back pain. Objectives: The primary objective of this study was to examine whether a 12-week course of a glucosamine complex (GC) could benefit patients having low back pain despite a course of noninvasive physical therapy. In addition, we sought to delineate the subgroup of responders. Methods: This open-label, randomized, controlled study was conducted at the Division of Rheumatology and Physical Medicine, Erasme University Hospital, Brussels, Belgium. Male and female outpatients aged 40 to 80 years with low back pain (duration, ≥ 12 weeks; pain score on 10-cm visual analog scale [VAS] [0 = none to 10 = worst imaginable], ≥3 cm) despite noninvasive physical therapy (massage, stretching, heat application, and analgesics for ≥4 weeks) were included. Patients were randomly assigned to receive, in addition to conventional treatment (CT) (physical therapy plus analgesics/antiinflammatories), a GC (enriched with sulfonyl methane, silicon, and a botanical extract of Ribes nigrum) or CT alone (control) for 12 weeks. Pain at rest and on movement (effort) and early morning lumbar stiffness were measured every 4 weeks using the VAS. The primary end point was improvement in VAS score for pain at rest at 12 weeks. Two validated questionnaires were used to assess improvements in quality of life (QOL) (Oswestry Disability Questionnaire [ODQ] [10 items; scale: 0 = no disability to 60 = maximal disability] and Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaire [RMDQ] [24 items; scale: 0 = no disability to 24 = severe disability]). Responders were defined as patients who positively assessed the efficacy of the GC. At each visit, patients were also asked about possible adverse events. Results: Of 36 enrolled patients, 32 completed the study (18 men, 14 women; mean [SE] age, 64 [2] years; 17 in the GC group and 15 in the

  17. Salpingotomy versus salpingectomy in women with tubal pregnancy (ESEP study): an open-label, multicentre, randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Mol, Femke; van Mello, Norah M; Strandell, Annika; Strandell, Karin; Jurkovic, Davor; Ross, Jackie; Barnhart, Kurt T; Yalcinkaya, Tamer M; Verhoeve, Harold R; Graziosi, Giuseppe C M; Koks, Carolien A M; Klinte, Ingmar; Hogström, Lars; Janssen, Ineke C A H; Kragt, Harry; Hoek, Annemieke; Trimbos-Kemper, Trudy C M; Broekmans, Frank J M; Willemsen, Wim N P; Ankum, Willem M; Mol, Ben W; van Wely, Madelon; van der Veen, Fulco; Hajenius, Petra J

    2014-04-26

    Tubal ectopic pregnancy can be surgically treated by salpingectomy, in which the affected Fallopian tube is removed, or salpingotomy, in which the tube is preserved. Despite potentially increased risks of persistent trophoblast and repeat ectopic pregnancy, salpingotomy is often preferred over salpingectomy because the preservation of both tubes is assumed to offer favourable fertility prospects, although little evidence exists to support this assumption. We aimed to assess whether salpingotomy would improve rates of ongoing pregnancy by natural conception compared with salpingectomy. In this open-label, multicentre, international, randomised controlled trial, women aged 18 years and older with a laparoscopically confirmed tubal pregnancy and a healthy contralateral tube were randomly assigned via a central internet-based randomisation program to receive salpingotomy or salpingectomy. The primary outcome was ongoing pregnancy by natural conception. Differences in cumulative ongoing pregnancy rates were expressed as a fecundity rate ratio with 95% CI, calculated by Cox proportional-hazards analysis with a time horizon of 36 months. Secondary outcomes were persistent trophoblast and repeat ectopic pregnancy (expressed as relative risks [RRs] with 95% CIs) and ongoing pregnancy after ovulation induction, intrauterine insemination, or IVF. The researchers who collected data for fertility outcomes were masked to the assigned intervention, but patients and the investigators who analysed the data were not. All endpoints were analysed by intention to treat. We also did a (non-prespecified) meta-analysis that included the findings from the present trial. This trial is registered, number ISRCTN37002267. 446 women were randomly assigned between Sept 24, 2004, and Nov 29, 2011, with 215 allocated to salpingotomy and 231 to salpingectomy. Follow-up was discontinued on Feb 1, 2013. The cumulative ongoing pregnancy rate was 60·7% after salpingotomy and 56·2% after salpingectomy

  18. Analgesic effects of ketamine infusion therapy in korean patients with neuropathic pain: A 2-week, open-label, uncontrolled study

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Jin Gu; Lee, Chul Joong; Kim, Tae Hyeong; Sim, Woo Seok; Shin, Byung Seop; Lee, Sang Hyun; Nahm, Francis Sahngun; Lee, Pyung Bok; Kim, Yong Chul; Lee, Sang Chul

    2010-01-01

    Background: The overexcitation of the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor complex appears to play a critical role in the development of neuropathic pain, and ketamine acts as an antagonist to that receptor. Some publications have reported on the prominent relief of neuropathic pain with intravenous or subcutaneous ketamine infusions or a single-dose intravenous ketamine injection despite adverse effects. Objectives: The primary objective of this study was to determine the analgesic effect of intravenous ketamine infusion therapy for neuropathic pain refractory to conventional treatments. Secondary objectives included identifying the variables related to the analgesic effect and the pain descriptors susceptible to ketamine infusion. Methods: This 2-week, open-label, uncontrolled study was conducted in Korean patients with neuropathic pain recruited from the Samsung Seoul Hospital (Seoul, Republic of Korea) outpatient pain management unit. Patients were required to have a pain severity score >5 (visual analog scale [VAS], where 0 = no pain and 10 = worst pain imaginable) over a period of ≥1 month while on standard treatment. The patients were required to have shown no benefit from standard treatment and no pain relief lasting over 1 month. The ketamine infusion therapy was composed of 3 sessions performed consecutively every other day. Midazolam was administered concomitantly to reduce the occurrence of central nervous system-related adverse events (AEs) secondary to ketamine. Each session was as follows: ketamine 0.2 mg/kg and midazolam 0.1 mg/kg were administered intravenously for 5 minutes as a loading dose, followed by a continuous infusion of ketamine 0.5 mg/kg/h and midazolam 0.025 mg/kg/h for 2 hours. AEs were assessed in the following ways: close monitoring of ECG, blood pressure, oxygen saturation, and evaluating the need for treatment of AEs during infu- sion and until discharge by an attending anesthesiologist; an open question about discomfort at the end of

  19. Gatifloxacin versus ceftriaxone for uncomplicated enteric fever in Nepal: an open-label, two-centre, randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Arjyal, Amit; Basnyat, Buddha; Nhan, Ho Thi; Koirala, Samir; Giri, Abhishek; Joshi, Niva; Shakya, Mila; Pathak, Kamal Raj; Mahat, Saruna Pathak; Prajapati, Shanti Pradhan; Adhikari, Nabin; Thapa, Rajkumar; Merson, Laura; Gajurel, Damodar; Lamsal, Kamal; Lamsal, Dinesh; Yadav, Bharat Kumar; Shah, Ganesh; Shrestha, Poojan; Dongol, Sabina; Karkey, Abhilasha; Thompson, Corinne N; Thieu, Nga Tran Vu; Thanh, Duy Pham; Baker, Stephen; Thwaites, Guy E; Wolbers, Marcel; Dolecek, Christiane

    2016-05-01

    Because treatment with third-generation cephalosporins is associated with slow clinical improvement and high relapse burden for enteric fever, whereas the fluoroquinolone gatifloxacin is associated with rapid fever clearance and low relapse burden, we postulated that gatifloxacin would be superior to the cephalosporin ceftriaxone in treating enteric fever. We did an open-label, randomised, controlled, superiority trial at two hospitals in the Kathmandu valley, Nepal. Eligible participants were children (aged 2-13 years) and adult (aged 14-45 years) with criteria for suspected enteric fever (body temperature ≥38·0°C for ≥4 days without a focus of infection). We randomly assigned eligible patients (1:1) without stratification to 7 days of either oral gatifloxacin (10 mg/kg per day) or intravenous ceftriaxone (60 mg/kg up to 2 g per day for patients aged 2-13 years, or 2 g per day for patients aged ≥14 years). The randomisation list was computer-generated using blocks of four and six. The primary outcome was a composite of treatment failure, defined as the occurrence of at least one of the following: fever clearance time of more than 7 days after treatment initiation; the need for rescue treatment on day 8; microbiological failure (ie, blood cultures positive for Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi, or Paratyphi A, B, or C) on day 8; or relapse or disease-related complications within 28 days of treatment initiation. We did the analyses in the modified intention-to-treat population, and subpopulations with either confirmed blood-culture positivity, or blood-culture negativity. The trial was powered to detect an increase of 20% in the risk of failure. This trial was registered at ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01421693, and is now closed. Between Sept 18, 2011, and July 14, 2014, we screened 725 patients for eligibility. On July 14, 2014, the trial was stopped early by the data safety and monitoring board because S Typhi strains with high-level resistance to

  20. Oral versus intramuscular cobalamin treatment in megaloblastic anemia: a single-center, prospective, randomized, open-label study.

    PubMed

    Bolaman, Zahit; Kadikoylu, Gurhan; Yukselen, Vahit; Yavasoglu, Irfan; Barutca, Sabri; Senturk, Taskin

    2003-12-01

    Cobalamin (vitamin B12) deficiency, the most common cause of megaloblastic anemia, is treated with intramuscular (IM) cobalamin. It has been suggested by some investigators that oral (p.o.) cobalamin treatment may be as effective in the treatment of this condition, with the advantages of ease of administration and lower cost. This study assessed the effects and cost of p.o. versus i.m. cobalamin treatment in patients with megaloblastic anemia due to cobalamin deficiency. This was a 90-day, prospective, randomized, open-label study conducted at the Division of Hematology, Department of Internal Medicine, Adnan Menderes University Research and Practice Hospital (Aydin, Turkey). Patients aged > or =16 years with megaloblastic anemia due to cobalamin deficiency were randomized to receive 1000-microg cobalamin p.o. once daily for 10 days (p.o. group) or 1000-microg cobalamin i.m. once daily for 10 days (i.m. group). After 10 days, both treatments were administered once a week for 4 weeks, and after that, once a month for life. Patients were assessed for the presence of reticulocytosis between treatment days 5 and 10 until it was detected. Therapeutic effectiveness was assessed by measuring hematologic parameters on days 0, 10, 30, and 90 and serum vitamin B12 concentration on days 0 and 90. The Mini-Mental State Examination was used before and after the B12 therapy for cognitive function assessment and 125-Hz diapozone was used for vibration threshold testing. Neurologic sensory assessment, including soft-touch and pinprick examinations, was used to identify neuropathy at baseline and study end. Tolerability was assessed using laboratory tests and patient interview. Cost was assessed using the cost of the study drug and of the injection. Sixty patients completed the study 26 in the p.o. group (16 men, 10 women; mean [SD] age, 60 [15] years) and 34 in the i.m. group (17 men, 17 women; mean [SD] age, 64 [10] years). Reticulocytosis was observed in all patients. In the p

  1. Cabozantinib versus everolimus in advanced renal cell carcinoma (METEOR): final results from a randomised, open-label, phase 3 trial.

    PubMed

    Choueiri, Toni K; Escudier, Bernard; Powles, Thomas; Tannir, Nizar M; Mainwaring, Paul N; Rini, Brian I; Hammers, Hans J; Donskov, Frede; Roth, Bruce J; Peltola, Katriina; Lee, Jae Lyun; Heng, Daniel Y C; Schmidinger, Manuela; Agarwal, Neeraj; Sternberg, Cora N; McDermott, David F; Aftab, Dana T; Hessel, Colin; Scheffold, Christian; Schwab, Gisela; Hutson, Thomas E; Pal, Sumanta; Motzer, Robert J

    2016-07-01

    Cabozantinib is an oral inhibitor of tyrosine kinases including MET, VEGFR, and AXL. The randomised phase 3 METEOR trial compared the efficacy and safety of cabozantinib versus the mTOR inhibitor everolimus in patients with advanced renal cell carcinoma who progressed after previous VEGFR tyrosine-kinase inhibitor treatment. Here, we report the final overall survival results from this study based on an unplanned second interim analysis. In this open-label, randomised phase 3 trial, we randomly assigned (1:1) patients aged 18 years and older with advanced or metastatic clear-cell renal cell carcinoma, measurable disease, and previous treatment with one or more VEGFR tyrosine-kinase inhibitors to receive 60 mg cabozantinib once a day or 10 mg everolimus once a day. Randomisation was done with an interactive voice and web response system. Stratification factors were Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center risk group and the number of previous treatments with VEGFR tyrosine-kinase inhibitors. The primary endpoint was progression-free survival as assessed by an independent radiology review committee in the first 375 randomly assigned patients and has been previously reported. Secondary endpoints were overall survival and objective response in all randomly assigned patients assessed by intention-to-treat. Safety was assessed per protocol in all patients who received at least one dose of study drug. The study is closed for enrolment but treatment and follow-up of patients is ongoing for long-term safety evaluation. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01865747. Between Aug 8, 2013, and Nov 24, 2014, 658 patients were randomly assigned to receive cabozantinib (n=330) or everolimus (n=328). The median duration of follow-up for overall survival and safety was 18·7 months (IQR 16·1-21·1) in the cabozantinib group and 18·8 months (16·0-21·2) in the everolimus group. Median overall survival was 21·4 months (95% CI 18·7-not estimable) with

  2. Ponatinib versus imatinib for newly diagnosed chronic myeloid leukaemia: an international, randomised, open-label, phase 3 trial.

    PubMed

    Lipton, Jeffrey H; Chuah, Charles; Guerci-Bresler, Agnès; Rosti, Gianantonio; Simpson, David; Assouline, Sarit; Etienne, Gabriel; Nicolini, Franck E; le Coutre, Philipp; Clark, Richard E; Stenke, Leif; Andorsky, David; Oehler, Vivian; Lustgarten, Stephanie; Rivera, Victor M; Clackson, Timothy; Haluska, Frank G; Baccarani, Michele; Cortes, Jorge E; Guilhot, François; Hochhaus, Andreas; Hughes, Timothy; Kantarjian, Hagop M; Shah, Neil P; Talpaz, Moshe; Deininger, Michael W

    2016-05-01

    Ponatinib has shown potent activity against chronic myeloid leukaemia that is resistant to available treatment, although it is associated with arterial occlusion. We investigated whether this activity and safety profile would result in superior outcomes compared with imatinib in previously untreated patients with chronic myeloid leukaemia. The Evaluation of Ponatinib versus Imatinib in Chronic Myeloid Leukemia (EPIC) study was a randomised, open-label, phase 3 trial designed to assess the efficacy and safety of ponatinib, compared with imatinib, in newly diagnosed patients with chronic-phase chronic myeloid leukaemia. Patients from 106 centres in 21 countries were randomly assigned (1:1, with stratification by Sokal score at diagnosis) using an interactive voice and web response system to receive oral ponatinib (45 mg) or imatinib (400 mg) once daily until progression, unacceptable toxicity, or other criteria for withdrawal were met. Eligible patients were at least 18 years of age, within 6 months of diagnosis, and Philadelphia chromosome-positive by cytogenetic assessment, with Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of 0-2, and had not previously been treated with tyrosine kinase inhibitors. The primary endpoint was major molecular response at 12 months. Patients who remained on study and had molecular assessments at specified timepoints were studied at those timepoints. Safety analyses included all treated patients, as per study protocol. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01650805. Between Aug 14, 2012, and Oct 9, 2013, 307 patients were randomly assigned to receive ponatinib (n=155) or imatinib (n=152). The trial was terminated early, on Oct 17, 2013, following concerns about vascular adverse events observed in patients given ponatinib in other trials. Trial termination limited assessment of the primary endpoint of major molecular response at 12 months, as only 13 patients in the imatinib group and ten patients in the

  3. An open-label trial of a sumatriptan auto-injector for migraine in patients currently treated with subcutaneous sumatriptan.

    PubMed

    Landy, Stephen H; Tepper, Stewart J; Wein, Theodore; Schweizer, Edward; Ramos, Elodie

    2013-01-01

    To assess the ability of patients, during an acute migraine attack, to successfully self-inject a single dose of sumatriptan using a novel sumatriptan auto-injector (Alsuma(®)), and to evaluate the safety, tolerability, and effectiveness of this sumatriptan auto-injector during an acute migraine attack. This sumatriptan auto-injector is a single-use system for the rapid subcutaneous delivery of 6 mg of sumatriptan succinate in the acute management of migraine pain. This auto-injector was developed to address the clinical need for an easy-to-use and rapid-to-administer system that did not require any assembly during the time of an ongoing attack. This was an open-label, phase 3 trial conducted at 10 sites in the USA. Male or female adults, ages 18-60 years old, were eligible for study entry if they met International Headache Society criteria for migraine with or without aura, with at least 2 attacks per month, and if they reported use of subcutaneous injectable sumatriptan on at least 2 occasions within the previous 2 months. During the onset of a migraine attack of moderate-to-severe intensity, patients were asked to administer a 6-mg subcutaneous dose of sumatriptan using the auto-injector. Patients returned to the study site within 72 hours of the migraine for the post-treatment assessment visit. A total of 63 patients met entry criteria and received a dose of study medication (the intent-to-treat sample). Sixty-one patients (96.8%) reported injection in the thigh, and 2 patients (3.2%) reported injection in the arm. On the patient questionnaire, 100% of patients (95% confidence interval [CI] 94.3-100%) "agreed" or "agreed strongly" that the written instructions for the auto-injector were clear and easy to follow (30.2% "agreed"; 69.8% "agreed strongly"); 95.2% of patients (95% CI 86.7-99.0%) found that the auto-injector was easy to use (36.5% "agreed"; 58.7% "agreed strongly"), and 65.1% of patients (95% CI 52.0-76.7%) stated that they preferred the new auto

  4. Psychotherapy for depression in older veterans via telemedicine: a randomised, open-label, non-inferiority trial.

    PubMed

    Egede, Leonard E; Acierno, Ron; Knapp, Rebecca G; Lejuez, Carl; Hernandez-Tejada, Melba; Payne, Elizabeth H; Frueh, B Christopher

    2015-08-01

    Many older adults with major depression, particularly veterans, do not have access to evidence-based psychotherapy. Telemedicine could increase access to best-practice care for older adults facing barriers of mobility, stigma, and geographical isolation. We aimed to establish non-inferiority of behavioural activation therapy for major depression delivered via telemedicine to same-room care in largely male, older adult veterans. In this randomised, controlled, open-label, non-inferiority trial, we recruited veterans (aged ≥58 years) meeting DSM-IV criteria for major depressive disorder from the Ralph H Johnson Veterans Affairs Medical Center and four associated community outpatient-based clinics in the USA. We excluded actively psychotic or demented people, those with both suicidal ideation and clear intent, and those with substance dependence. The study coordinator randomly assigned participants (1:1; block size 2-6; stratified by race; computer-generated randomisation sequence by RGK) to eight sessions of behavioural activation for depression either via telemedicine or in the same room. The primary outcome was treatment response according to the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS) and Beck Depression Inventory (BDI; defined as a 50% reduction in symptoms from baseline at 12 months), and Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV, clinician version (defined as no longer being diagnosed with major depressive disorder at 12 months follow-up), in the per-protocol population (those who completed at least four treatment sessions and for whom all outcome measurements were done). Those assessing outcomes were masked. The non-inferiority margin was 15%. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00324701. Between April 1, 2007, and July 31, 2011, we screened 780 patients, and the study coordinator randomly assigned participants to either telemedicine (120 [50%]) or same-room treatment (121 [50%]). We included 100 (83%) patients in the per-protocol analysis in

  5. Daratumumab monotherapy in patients with treatment-refractory multiple myeloma (SIRIUS): an open-label, randomised, phase 2 trial.

    PubMed

    Lonial, Sagar; Weiss, Brendan M; Usmani, Saad Z; Singhal, Seema; Chari, Ajai; Bahlis, Nizar J; Belch, Andrew; Krishnan, Amrita; Vescio, Robert A; Mateos, Maria Victoria; Mazumder, Amitabha; Orlowski, Robert Z; Sutherland, Heather J; Bladé, Joan; Scott, Emma C; Oriol, Albert; Berdeja, Jesus; Gharibo, Mecide; Stevens, Don A; LeBlanc, Richard; Sebag, Michael; Callander, Natalie; Jakubowiak, Andrzej; White, Darrell; de la Rubia, Javier; Richardson, Paul G; Lisby, Steen; Feng, Huaibao; Uhlar, Clarissa M; Khan, Imran; Ahmadi, Tahamtan; Voorhees, Peter M

    2016-04-09

    New treatment options are needed for patients with multiple myeloma that is refractory to proteasome inhibitors and immunomodulatory drugs. We assessed daratumumab, a novel CD38-targeted monoclonal antibody, in patients with refractory multiple myeloma. In this open-label, multicentre, phase 2 trial done in Canada, Spain, and the USA, patients (age ≥18 years) with multiple myeloma who were previously treated with at least three lines of therapy (including proteasome inhibitors and immunomodulatory drugs), or were refractory to both proteasome inhibitors and immunomodulatory drugs, were randomly allocated in a 1:1 ratio to receive intravenous daratumumab 8 mg/kg or 16 mg/kg in part 1 stage 1 of the study, to decide the dose for further assessment in part 2. Patients received 8 mg/kg every 4 weeks, or 16 mg/kg per week for 8 weeks (cycles 1 and 2), then every 2 weeks for 16 weeks (cycles 3-6), and then every 4 weeks thereafter (cycle 7 and higher). The allocation schedule was computer-generated and randomisation, with permuted blocks, was done centrally with an interactive web response system. In part 1 stage 2 and part 2, patients received 16 mg/kg dosed as in part 1 stage 1. The primary endpoint was overall response rate (partial response [PR] + very good PR + complete response [CR] + stringent CR). All patients who received at least one dose of daratumumab were included in the analysis. The trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01985126. The study is ongoing. In part 1 stage 1 of the study, 18 patients were randomly allocated to the 8 mg/kg group and 16 to the 16 mg/kg group. Findings are reported for the 106 patients who received daratumumab 16 mg/kg in parts 1 and 2. Patients received a median of five previous lines of therapy (range 2-14). 85 (80%) patients had previously received autologous stem cell transplantation, 101 (95%) were refractory to the most recent proteasome inhibitors and immunomodulatory drugs used, and 103 (97

  6. Effect of comorbid tics on a clinically meaningful response to 8-week open-label trial of fluoxetine in obsessive compulsive disorder.

    PubMed

    Husted, David S; Shapira, Nathan A; Murphy, Tanya K; Mann, Giselle D; Ward, Herbert E; Goodman, Wayne K

    2007-01-01

    Currently, there are limited published data evaluating the effects of tics on serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SRI) monotherapy responses in treating obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). One retrospective case-controlled analysis of OCD patients treated with SRI monotherapy showed lesser improvement in OCD symptoms in patients with tics than those without. However, more recently there were preliminary reports of OCD subjects treated with SRI monotherapy which did not demonstrate poorer response in subjects with tics or Tourette's Syndrome (TS). The specific aim of this study was to investigate whether the presence of comorbid chronic tics affected "clinically meaningful improvement" [McDougle, C.J., Goodman, W.K., Leckman, J.F., Barr, L.C., Heninger, G.R., Price, L.H., 1993. The efficacy of fluvoxamine in obsessive-compulsive disorder: effects of comorbid chronic tic disorder. Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology 13, 354-358] of OCD in an 8-week open-label trial of fluoxetine monotherapy. Seventy-four adult subjects (13 patients with comorbid chronic tics and 61 patients without tics) with a primary DSM-IV OCD diagnosis were treated with up to 40mg fluoxetine for 8 weeks and had at least one post-baseline evaluation. The results indicate that there was a significant response by time in both fluoxetine-with-tic subjects and fluoxetine-without-tic subjects. Additionally, there were 3 (23.0%) OCD subjects with tics who had clinically meaningful improvement versus 16 (26.2%) OCD subjects without tics that demonstrated similar levels of improvement. These findings indicate that OCD patients with or without chronic tic disorders did not have a differential response to an 8-week open-label trial of fluoxetine. Limitations include the relatively low number of tic subjects and the open-label nature of the study. Additional data are needed on how comorbid tics may affect SRI treatment response in OCD.

  7. Safety, tolerability, and efficacy of vortioxetine (Lu AA21004) in major depressive disorder: results of an open-label, flexible-dose, 52-week extension study

    PubMed Central

    Jacobsen, Paula L.; Chen, Yinzhong; Serenko, Michael; Mahableshwarkar, Atul R.

    2014-01-01

    Patients with major depressive disorder often experience relapse after responding to treatment; therefore, maintenance therapy with antidepressants is recommended for maintaining response or remission. This multicenter, open-label, flexible-dose, 52-week extension study evaluated the long-term safety, tolerability, and maintenance of efficacy in study participants who had completed one of two randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, 8-week dose-ranging vortioxetine trials in study participants with major depressive disorder. At the open-label baseline, all study participants were switched to vortioxetine 5 mg/day for the first week, with subsequent dose adjustments from 2.5 to 10 mg/day on the basis of response and tolerability. Treatment with vortioxetine for 52 weeks was well tolerated, with no new safety signals identified. Among the 834 evaluable study participants, treatment-emergent adverse events were reported in 70.6%, with the most common in the combined (all doses) population of nausea (15.2%), headache (12.4%), nasopharyngitis (9.8%), diarrhea (7.2%), and dizziness (6.8%). The rate of adverse events related to sexual dysfunction was low and weight gain was minimal. Laboratory values, vital signs, ECGs, physical examinations, and Columbia-Suicide Severity Rating Scale results showed no trends of clinical concern. The change in the severity of depressive and anxiety symptoms was maintained throughout the study as reflected by a 24-item Hamilton Depression Scale total score of 8.2 at week 52 (from 17.6 at open-label baseline) in the observed case data set. PMID:24169027

  8. Safety, tolerability, and efficacy of vortioxetine (Lu AA21004) in major depressive disorder: results of an open-label, flexible-dose, 52-week extension study.

    PubMed

    Alam, Mohammed Y; Jacobsen, Paula L; Chen, Yinzhong; Serenko, Michael; Mahableshwarkar, Atul R

    2014-01-01

    Patients with major depressive disorder often experience relapse after responding to treatment; therefore, maintenance therapy with antidepressants is recommended for maintaining response or remission. This multicenter, open-label, flexible-dose, 52-week extension study evaluated the long-term safety, tolerability, and maintenance of efficacy in study participants who had completed one of two randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, 8-week dose-ranging vortioxetine trials in study participants with major depressive disorder. At the open-label baseline, all study participants were switched to vortioxetine 5 mg/day for the first week, with subsequent dose adjustments from 2.5 to 10 mg/day on the basis of response and tolerability. Treatment with vortioxetine for 52 weeks was well tolerated, with no new safety signals identified. Among the 834 evaluable study participants, treatment-emergent adverse events were reported in 70.6%, with the most common in the combined (all doses) population of nausea (15.2%), headache (12.4%), nasopharyngitis (9.8%), diarrhea (7.2%), and dizziness (6.8%). The rate of adverse events related to sexual dysfunction was low and weight gain was minimal. Laboratory values, vital signs, ECGs, physical examinations, and Columbia-Suicide Severity Rating Scale results showed no trends of clinical concern. The change in the severity of depressive and anxiety symptoms was maintained throughout the study as reflected by a 24-item Hamilton Depression Scale total score of 8.2 at week 52 (from 17.6 at open-label baseline) in the observed case data set.

  9. Rotigotine transdermal system for long-term treatment of patients with advanced Parkinson's disease: results of two open-label extension studies, CLEOPATRA-PD and PREFER.

    PubMed

    LeWitt, Peter A; Boroojerdi, Babak; Surmann, Erwin; Poewe, Werner

    2013-07-01

    Open-label extensions [studies SP516 (NCT00501969) and SP715 (NCT00594386)] of the CLEOPATRA-PD and PREFER studies were conducted to evaluate the safety, tolerability and efficacy of the dopaminergic agonist, rotigotine, over several years of follow-up in patients with advanced Parkinson's disease (PD). Eligible subjects completing the double-blind trials received open-label adjunctive rotigotine (≤16 mg/24 h) for up to 4 and 6 years in Studies SP516 and SP715, respectively. Safety and tolerability were assessed using adverse events, vital signs and laboratory parameters, and efficacy assessed using the unified Parkinson's disease rating scale (UPDRS). Of the 395 and 258 patients enrolled in the SP516 and SP715 studies, 48 and 45 % completed, respectively. Adverse events were typically dopaminergic effects [e.g., somnolence (18-25 %/patient-year), insomnia (5-7 %/patient-year), dyskinesias (4-8 %/patient-year) and hallucinations (4-8 %/patient-year)], or related to the transdermal application of a patch (application site reactions: 14-15 %/patient-year). There were no clinically relevant changes in vital signs or laboratory parameters in either study. Mean UPDRS part II (activities of daily living) and part III (motor function) total scores improved from double-blind baseline during dose titration, then gradually declined over the maintenance period. In study SP516, mean UPDRS part II and III total scores were 0.8 points above and 2.8 points below double-blind baseline, respectively, at end of treatment. In study SP715, mean UPDRS part II and III total scores were 4.1 points above and 0.2 points below baseline, respectively, at end of treatment. In these open-label studies, adjunctive rotigotine was efficacious with an acceptable safety and tolerability profile in patients with advanced PD for up to 6 years.

  10. Retraction statement: Manuka honey vs. hydrogel - a prospective, open label, multicentre, randomised controlled trial to compare desloughing efficacy and healing outcomes in venous ulcers.

    PubMed

    2015-09-01

    The following article from Journal of Clinical Nursing, 'Manuka honey vs. hydrogel - a prospective, open label, multicentre, randomised controlled trial to compare desloughing efficacy and healing outcomes in venous ulcers' by Georgina Gethin and Seamus Cowman published online on 25 August 2008 in Wiley Online Library (wileyonlinelibrary.com) and in Volume 18, pp. 466-474, has been retracted by agreement between the journal Editor-in-Chief, the authors and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. The retraction has been agreed due to errors in the data analysis which affect the article's findings.

  11. Increased Peritoneal Dialysis Exit Site Infections Using Topical Antiseptic Polyhexamethylene Biguanide Compared to Mupirocin: Results of a Safety Interim Analysis of an Open-Label Prospective Randomized Study

    PubMed Central

    Findlay, Andrew; Serrano, Charelle; Punzalan, Sally

    2013-01-01

    Prophylactic mupirocin for peritoneal catheter exit sites reduces exit site infection (ESI) risk but engenders antibiotic resistance. We present early interim safety analysis of an open-label randomized study comparing polyhexamethylene biguanide (PHMB) and mupirocin. A total of 106 patients randomized to 53 in each group were followed up for a mean of 12.68 months per patient. On safety analysis, the PHMB group had a significantly greater ESI rate than the mupirocin group (odds ratio [OR], 0.26; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.09 to 0.80), leading to discontinuation of the trial. PMID:23403425

  12. Continuous Intrathecal Infusion of Ziconotide for Treatment of Chronic Malignant and Nonmalignant Pain Over 12 Months: A Prospective, Open-label Study.

    PubMed

    Ellis, David J; Dissanayake, Sanjeeva; McGuire, Dawn; Charapata, Steven G; Staats, Peter S; Wallace, Mark S; Grove, Gene W; Vercruysse, Piet

    2008-01-01

    Objectives.  This study aims to assess the safety and efficacy of long-term intrathecal (IT) ziconotide infusion. Materials and Methods.  In this prospective study, 155 patients with severe chronic pain (48 with malignant pain, 107 with nonmalignant pain) who had been responsive to short-term IT ziconotide in a double-blind, placebo-controlled study received long-term, open-label IT ziconotide monotherapy. Efficacy assessments included the mean percentage change on the visual analog scale of pain intensity from baseline in the study of origin; safety was monitored by adverse event (AE) reports, periodic laboratory tests, and vital sign measurements. Results.  At the last available observation, the visual analog scale of pain intensity scores had decreased by a mean of 36.9% from baseline in the short-term trial (N = 144; 95% CI: 30.1-43.7%; p < 0.0001). The mean IT ziconotide dose remained stable over 12 months in the 31 patients who participated in the study for ≥ one year. Ziconotide-related AEs were reported in 147 out of 155 patients (94.8%); 39.4% of patients discontinued treatment because of AEs, the majority of which were considered ziconotide related. Conclusions.  Ziconotide IT monotherapy provided patients with analgesia for 12 months in this open-label study, with an acceptable benefit/risk profile and no evidence of tolerance.

  13. Safety and efficacy of adjunctive lacosamide among patients with partial-onset seizures in a long-term open-label extension trial of up to 8 years.

    PubMed

    Rosenfeld, William; Fountain, Nathan B; Kaubrys, Gintaras; Ben-Menachem, Elinor; McShea, Cindy; Isojarvi, Jouko; Doty, Pamela

    2014-12-01

    Long-term (up to 8 years of exposure) safety and efficacy of the antiepileptic drug lacosamide was evaluated in this open-label extension trial (SP615 [ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00552305]). Patients were enrolled following participation in a double-blind trial or one of two open-label trials of adjunctive lacosamide for partial-onset seizures. Dosage adjustments of lacosamide (100-800 mg/day) and/or concomitant antiepileptic drugs were allowed to optimize tolerability and seizure reduction. Of the 370 enrolled patients, 77%, 51%, and 39% had >1, >3, or >5 years of lacosamide exposure, respectively. Median lacosamide modal dose was 400mg/day. Common treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs) were dizziness (39.7%), headache (20.8%), nausea (17.3%), diplopia (17.0%), fatigue (16.5%), upper respiratory tract infection (16.5%), nasopharyngitis (16.2%), and contusion (15.4%). Dizziness (2.2%) was the only TEAE that led to discontinuation in >2% of patients. Ranges for median percent reductions in seizure frequency were 47-65%, and those for ≥ 50% responder rates were 49-63% for 1-, 3-, and 5-year completer cohorts. Exposure to lacosamide for up to 8 years was generally well tolerated, with a safety profile similar to previous double-blind trials, and efficacy was maintained.

  14. Methylphenidate treatment of adult male prison inmates with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder: randomised double-blind placebo-controlled trial with open-label extension.

    PubMed

    Ginsberg, Ylva; Lindefors, Nils

    2012-01-01

    Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is highly prevalent in prison inmates, but pharmacological treatment has not yet been evaluated in this group. To evaluate osmotic-release oral system (OROS) methylphenidate in adult male long-term prison inmates with ADHD. Randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled 5-week trial, followed by 47-week open-label extension in 30 prison inmates with ADHD and comorbid disorders. Primary outcome was level of ADHD symptoms after 5 weeks, evaluated by a masked assessor. Secondary outcomes were self-reported ADHD symptoms, global severity and global functioning throughout the 52-week trial, and post hoc treatment response and numbers needed to treat (NNT) (trial registration: NCT00482313.) Treatment significantly improved ADHD during the trial (P<0.001; Cohen's d = 2.17), with reduced symptom severity and improved global functioning. The placebo response, cardiovascular measures and adverse events were non-significant; the NNT was 1.1. Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder symptoms, global severity and global functioning continued to improve during the open-label extension. Osmotic-release oral system methylphenidate is an effective treatment for adult male prison inmates with ADHD.

  15. Efficacy and tolerability of quetiapine in the treatment of bipolar disorder: preliminary evidence from a 12-month open-label study.

    PubMed

    Altamura, A C; Salvadori, Daniele; Madaro, Donato; Santini, Annalisa; Mundo, Emanuela

    2003-09-01

    The literature on the use of quetiapine for the treatment of bipolar disorder (BD) is limited to case reports, and there are no systematic studies on the efficacy of quetiapine in the prophylactic treatment of BD. The aim of the present study was to compare the efficacy of flexible doses of quetiapine and well established mood stabilizers in the maintenance treatment of BD. Twenty-eight DSM-IV BD outpatients were consecutively recruited into the study and were randomized to receive one of two open-label treatments, with quetiapine or classical mood stabilizers at flexible doses for 12 months. Clinical assessment was carried out using BPRS, CGI, YMRS and the 21-item HAM-D at baseline (T0) and every 2 months until the end of the study. ANOVAs with repeated measures were applied to the rating scale scores considering the time and the treatment group as main factors. All patients experienced a significant improvement on the BPRS, CGI and HAM-D scores, with no significant side-effects and a good compliance. This study should be considered preliminary given the small sample size investigated and the open-label design. If these results will be replicated on larger samples and in controlled studies, there could be relevant implications for the use of quetiapine as an alternative maintenance treatment for BD.

  16. Comparison of long-term efficacy and safety of risperidone and haloperidol in children and adolescents with autistic disorder. An open label maintenance study.

    PubMed

    Gencer, Ozlem; Emiroglu, F Neslihan Inal; Miral, Suha; Baykara, Burak; Baykara, Aysen; Dirik, Eray

    2008-06-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate safety, efficacy and tolerability of risperidone in comparison with haloperidol in the long-term treatment of autistic disorder. This was an open-label continuation study of the randomized, double-blind, controlled trial of risperidone and haloperidol study for 12 week in autistic children and adolescents. A total of 28 subjects between 8 and 18 ages with autistic disorder were enrolled to the open label phase of the study. Behavioral rating scales (Clinical Global Impression Scale [CGI-I], Ritvo-Freeman Real Life Rating Scale [RF-RLRS]), Aberrant Behavior Checklist [ABC], Turgay DSM-IV Pervasive Developmental Disorder Rating Scale [TPDDRS]) and safety assessment scales (Extrapyramidal Symptoms Rating Scale [ESRS], UKU-Side Effect Rating Scale) were performed at 12, 16, 20 and 24 weeks, following the 12 week double-blind phase. Risperidone and haloperidol treatments were applied with a once daily dosage regimen as 0.01-0.08 mg/kg/day. Risperidone led to a significant greater reduction on CGI scale. There was significant improvement on RF-RLRS sensory motor and language subscale and ABC scores in risperidone group. Weight gain was observed more frequently in the haloperidol group at week 24. These results demonstrate that risperidone is more efficacious and well tolerated than haloperidol in the long-term maintenance treatment of autistic disorder.

  17. Reduced vaginal bleeding in postmenopausal women who receive combined norethindrone acetate and low-dose ethinyl estradiol therapy versus combined conjugated equine estrogens and medroxyprogesterone acetate therapy.

    PubMed

    Simon, James A; Liu, James H; Speroff, Leon; Shumel, Brad S; Symons, James P

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effects on vaginal bleeding patterns of continuous combined hormone replacement therapy with norethindrone acetate and ethinyl estradiol versus conjugated equine estrogens and medroxyprogesterone acetate. Three hundred fifty-seven postmenopausal women were selected randomly (in a blinded manner) to 12 months of treatment with 1 mg norethindrone acetate/5 microg ethinyl estradiol, placebo, or open-label 0.625 mg conjugated equine estrogens/2.5 mg medroxyprogesterone acetate (conjugated equine estrogens/medroxyprogesterone acetate [CEE/MPA]; Prempro). The incidence and duration of vaginal bleeding were assessed throughout the study. Statistical analyses used Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel methodology and analysis of variance. At 3 months, 1 mg norethindrone acetate/5 microg ethinyl estradiol therapy reduced the incidence of bleeding (12% vs 23%; P <.029) and bleeding and/or spotting (22% vs 44%; P <.001), compared with conjugated equine estrogens/medroxyprogesterone acetate therapy. The mean duration of bleeding and bleeding and/or spotting were also reduced with 1 mg norethindrone acetate/5 microg ethinyl estradiol therapy versus conjugated equine estrogens/medroxyprogesterone acetate (P =.004 and P <.001, respectively). The incidence of cumulative amenorrhea at every monthly interval was significantly better with 1 mg norethindrone acetate/5 microg ethinyl estradiol therapy versus conjugated equine estrogens/medroxyprogesterone acetate therapy (P <.05). Associated adverse event (ie, headache, breast pain) incidence rates were similar in the 2 active treatment groups. The 1 mg norethindrone acetate/5 microg ethinyl estradiol therapy provides significantly better control of vaginal bleeding than conjugated equine estrogens/medroxyprogesterone acetate therapy at all time points investigated in this 12-month study.

  18. Divalproex sodium extended-release for the prophylaxis of migraine headache in adolescents: results of a stand-alone, long-term open-label safety study.

    PubMed

    Apostol, George; Lewis, Donald W; Laforet, Genevieve A; Robieson, Weining Z; Fugate, Julie M; Abi-Saab, Walid M; Saltarelli, Mario D

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this long-term open-label study in adolescents was to assess the safety and tolerability of divalproex sodium extended-release in the prophylaxis of migraine headaches. Two formulations of divalproex sodium have demonstrated efficacy in the prevention of migraine headaches in adults. However, no medications are currently approved for this indication in adolescents, and long-term safety data on agents for migraine prevention are lacking for this younger population. Therefore, the current study was conducted to assess the long-term safety and tolerability of divalproex extended-release in adolescents with migraine headaches. This was a 12-month, phase 3, open-label, multicenter study of adolescents aged 12 to 17 years with migraine headaches diagnosed by International Headache Society criteria. Divalproex sodium extended-release was initiated at 500 mg/day for 15 days then increased to 1000 mg daily, with subsequent adjustments permitted within a dosing range of 250-1000 mg daily. Study visits were conducted at days 1 and 15 and months 1, 2, 3, 6, 9, and 12. Safety was evaluated by adverse event collection, laboratory assessments, physical and neurological examinations, vital signs, electrocardiograms, the Udvalg for Kliniske Undersøgelser Side Effect Rating Scale, the Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence, and the Behavioral Assessment Scale for Children. Efficacy was evaluated by following the number of migraine headache days reported in subjects' headache diaries over sequential 4-week intervals for the duration of the trial. A total of 241 subjects were enrolled and treated. The most frequently reported adverse events were nausea (19%), vomiting (18%), weight gain (12%), nasopharyngitis (11%), migraine (10%), and upper respiratory tract infection (10%). Ten (4%) subjects experienced serious adverse events, and 40 (17%) subjects discontinued because of an adverse event. Increases in ammonia levels were observed. No other clinically

  19. Role of antioxidant property of carvedilol in mild to moderate hypertensive patients: A prospective open-label study

    PubMed Central

    Ayashi, Saleh; Assareh, Ahmad Reza; Jalali, Mohammad Taha; Olapour, Samaneh; Yaghooti, Hamid

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Carvedilol is a nonselective third generation β-blocker that does not display the negative effects of traditional β-blockers. Regarding the antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and distinct metabolic properties of carvedilol which are similar to that of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and paraoxonase 1 (PON1), the present study intends to investigate the effects of carvedilol treatment on malondialdehyde (MDA) and soluble lectin-like ox-low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor (sLOX-1) as markers of oxidative stress in association to lipid profiles, apolipoproteins (apo), and PON1 activity in hypertensive patients. Patients and Methods: This clinical trial study was performed on forty patients with mild to moderate essential hypertension. Subjects were studied before and after 2 months treatment with carvedilol, 25 mg daily. Lipids and lipoproteins were measured using a biochemistry analyzer. PON and arylesterase activity were assayed using paraoxon and phenyl acetate as substrates, respectively. MDA was quantified using a chemical colorimetric assay. ELISA was used to measure sLOX-1. Results: Our results showed that carvedilol treatment decreased systolic and diastolic blood pressure as much as forty and 16 mmHg, respectively (P < 0.001). It also increased HDL, total cholesterol, and serum PON1 activity (P < 0.05), but the levels of triglyceride, LDL, apo A-I, and apo B did not significantly change. There was an inverse correlation between serum PON1 activity and serum MDA. Conclusion: This study confirmed the antihypertensive effect of the drug and its beneficial metabolic effects through augmenting HDL and PON1 activity. We propose that the antioxidant effects of carvedilol can be partially attributed to increased PON-1 activity. PMID:27756946

  20. An open-label, multicentre study to assess the safety and efficacy of a novel reflux suppressant (Gaviscon Advance) in the treatment of heartburn during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Lindow, S W; Regnéll, P; Sykes, J; Little, S

    2003-04-01

    This study investigated the efficacy and safety of a novel reflux suppressant, Gaviscon Advance, in the treatment of heartburn during pregnancy. The study was an open-label, multicentre, phase IV study in general practice and antenatal clinics in the UK and Republic of South Africa. Pregnant women (< or = 38 weeks gestation; n=150) aged 18-40 years suffering from heartburn were instructed to take Gaviscon Advance 5-10 ml, as required, to relieve symptoms. The main outcome measures were the efficacy rating of the study medication by the investigator and women after four weeks using a five-point efficacy scale. After four weeks the investigators' and women's rating of efficacy was 'very good' or 'good' in 88% and 90% of women, respectively. Most women (57%, n=83) reported symptom relief within 10 minutes. Thus Gaviscon Advance effectively and rapidly treats heartburn during pregnancy. Its use during pregnancy presents no known significant safety concerns for mother or child.

  1. Maintenance of Cognitive Performance and Mood for Individuals with Alzheimer's Disease Following Consumption of a Nutraceutical Formulation: A One-Year, Open-Label Study.

    PubMed

    Remington, Ruth; Bechtel, Cynthia; Larsen, David; Samar, Annemarie; Page, Robert; Morrell, Christopher; Shea, Thomas B

    2016-01-01

    Nutritional interventions have shown varied efficacy on cognitive performance during Alzheimer's disease (AD). Twenty-four individuals diagnosed with AD received a nutraceutical formulation (NF: folate, alpha-tocopherol, B12, S-adenosyl methioinine, N-acetyl cysteine, acetyl-L-carnitine) under open-label conditions (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01320527). Primary outcome was cognitive performance. Secondary outcomes were behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) and activities of daily living. Participants maintained their baseline cognitive performance and BPSD over 12 months. These findings are consistent with improvement in cognitive performance and BPSD in prior placebo-controlled studies with NF, and contrast with the routine decline for participants receiving placebo.

  2. Safety and Efficacy of Medical Cannabis Oil for Behavioral and Psychological Symptoms of Dementia: An-Open Label, Add-On, Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Shelef, Assaf; Barak, Yoram; Berger, Uri; Paleacu, Diana; Tadger, Shelly; Plopsky, Igor; Baruch, Yehuda

    2016-01-01

    Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is a potential treatment for Alzheimer's disease (AD). To measure efficacy and safety of medical cannabis oil (MCO) containing THC as an add-on to pharmacotherapy, in relieving behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD). Eleven AD patients were recruited to an open label, 4 weeks, prospective trial. Ten patients completed the trial. Significant reduction in CGI severity score (6.5 to 5.7; p <  0.01) and NPI score were recorded (44.4 to 12.8; p <  0.01). NPI domains of significant decrease were: Delusions, agitation/aggression, irritability, apathy, sleep and caregiver distress. Adding MCO to AD patients' pharmacotherapy is safe and a promising treatment option.

  3. Preliminary, open-label, pilot study of add-on oral Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol in chronic post-traumatic stress disorder.

    PubMed

    Roitman, Pablo; Mechoulam, Raphael; Cooper-Kazaz, Rena; Shalev, Arieh

    2014-08-01

    Many patients with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) achieve but partial remission with current treatments. Patients with unremitted PTSD show high rates of substance abuse. Marijuana is often used as compassion add-on therapy for treatment-resistant PTSD. This open-label study evaluates the tolerance and safety of orally absorbable Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) for chronic PTSD. Ten outpatients with chronic PTSD, on stable medication, received 5 mg of Δ(9)-THC twice a day as add-on treatment. There were mild adverse effects in three patients, none of which led to treatment discontinuation. The intervention caused a statistically significant improvement in global symptom severity, sleep quality, frequency of nightmares, and PTSD hyperarousal symptoms. Orally absorbable Δ(9)-THC was safe and well tolerated by patients with chronic PTSD.

  4. A Long-Term, Open-Label, Safety Study of Triple-Bead Mixed Amphetamine Salts (SHP465) in Adults With ADHD.

    PubMed

    Adler, Lenard A; Frick, Glen; Yan, Brian

    2017-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the long-term safety of triple-bead mixed amphetamine salts (MAS) in adults with ADHD. Adults meeting Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed., text rev.; DSM-IV-TR) ADHD criteria and satisfying study criteria from one of two antecedent studies were enrolled in this 52-week (dose titration, 4 weeks; dose maintenance, 11 months) open-label extension. The protocol included 12.5- to 75-mg triple-bead MAS but was amended to a maximum of 50-mg triple-bead MAS. Safety evaluations included treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs) and vital signs. Clinical outcome measures included ADHD Rating Scale-IV (ADHD-RS-IV) total score changes. Of 505 enrolled participants, 266 completed the study; the M ± SD daily dose during the study was 48.0 ± 15.96 mg. The most frequent TEAEs were insomnia (initial insomnia, insomnia, early morning awakening, middle insomnia; 38.2%), headache (25.7%), and dry mouth (20.2%). Study discontinuations were more frequent with higher doses of triple-bead MAS (37.5-75 mg) than with lower doses (12.5 and 25 mg). Blood pressure and pulse increases were observed at end-of-study. Mean ADHD-RS-IV total score decreases from antecedent study and open-label baselines at end-of-study were -23.3 ± 11.44 and -7.9 ± 13.19, respectively. Triple-bead MAS exhibited a long-term safety profile comparable with previous reports and demonstrated evidence of continued symptom control for up to 12 months.

  5. Safety and Exploratory Efficacy at 36 Months in Open-HART, an Open-Label Extension Study of Pridopidine in Huntington's Disease.

    PubMed

    McGarry, Andrew; Kieburtz, Karl; Abler, Victor; Grachev, Igor D; Gandhi, Sanjay; Auinger, Peggy; Papapetropoulos, Spyridon; Hayden, Michael

    2017-08-12

    Open-HART is an open-label extension of HART, a randomized, placebo-controlled, dose-ranging, parallel-group study. To evaluate safety and exploratory efficacy of open-label pridopidine over 36 months in subjects with Huntington's disease (HD). Open-HART subjects were treated with pridopidine 45 mg twice daily (BID). After initial evaluation by telephone (Week 1) and in person (Month 1), in-person visits occurred every 3 months, alternating between safety and clinical visits (safety plus Unified Huntington's Disease Rating Scale [UHDRS] assessment). The UHDRS was performed for pre-specified analysis as a secondary outcome measure. Adverse events (AEs), laboratory values, and electrocardiography were monitored throughout. Most subjects (89%) reported at least one AE, with 30% experiencing treatment-related AEs. The most common AEs during the first year were falls (12.7%), anxiety (9.3%), insomnia (8.5%), irritability (6.8%), and depression (5.9%). Ninety-nine percent of subjects took concomitant medications. Two seizures were reported as AEs. No arrhythmias or suicide attempts were reported. Five deaths occurred, all considered treatment unrelated. Secondary exploratory analyses of subjects on pridopidine demonstrated motor deterioration (as measured by the UHDRS total motor score) consistent with HD's natural history, as shown in large observational studies. A post-hoc, exploratory analysis of TFC performance compared to placebo groups from other long-term HD studies demonstrated no significant effect for pridopidine on TFC progression after correction for multiple comparisons. Pridopidine 45 mg BID was generally safe and tolerable in HD subjects over 36 months. TMS declined in a manner consistent with the known natural history of HD.

  6. Durability of clinical benefit with transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) in the treatment of pharmacoresistant major depression: assessment of relapse during a 6-month, multisite, open-label study.

    PubMed

    Janicak, Philip G; Nahas, Ziad; Lisanby, Sarah H; Solvason, H Brent; Sampson, Shirlene M; McDonald, William M; Marangell, Lauren B; Rosenquist, Peter; McCall, W Vaughn; Kimball, James; O'Reardon, John P; Loo, Colleen; Husain, Mustafa H; Krystal, Andrew; Gilmer, William; Dowd, Sheila M; Demitrack, Mark A; Schatzberg, Alan F

    2010-10-01

    Although transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) can be an effective acute antidepressant treatment, few studies systematically examine persistence of benefit. We assessed the durability of antidepressant effect after acute response to TMS in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) using protocol-specified maintenance antidepressant monotherapy. Three hundred one patients were randomly assigned to active or sham TMS in a 6-week, controlled trial. Nonresponders could enroll in a second, 6-week, open-label study. Patients who met criteria for partial response (i.e., >25% decrease from the baseline HAMD 17) during either the sham-controlled or open-label study (n = 142) were tapered off TMS over 3 weeks, while simultaneously starting maintenance antidepressant monotherapy. Patients were then followed for 24 weeks in a naturalistic follow-up study examining the long-term durability of TMS. During this durability study, TMS was readministered if patients met prespecified criteria for symptom worsening (i.e., a change of at least one point on the CGI-S scale for 2 consecutive weeks). Relapse was the primary outcome measure. Ten of 99 (10%; Kaplan-Meier survival estimate = 12.9%) patients relapsed. Thirty-eight (38.4%) patients met criteria for symptom worsening and 32/38 (84.2%) reachieved symptomatic benefit with adjunctive TMS. Safety and tolerability were similar to acute TMS monotherapy. These initial data suggest that the therapeutic effects of TMS are durable and that TMS may be successfully used as an intermittent rescue strategy to preclude impending relapse. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Aripiprazole once-monthly 400 mg for long-term maintenance treatment of schizophrenia: a 52-week open-label study

    PubMed Central

    Peters-Strickland, Timothy; Baker, Ross A; McQuade, Robert D; Jin, Na; Eramo, Anna; Perry, Pamela; Johnson, Brian R; Duca, Anna; Sanchez, Raymond

    2015-01-01

    Background: Long-term maintenance treatment with an antipsychotic is often required to prevent relapse and mitigate functional deterioration in patients with schizophrenia. Aims: This study assessed the long-term safety, tolerability, and maintenance of the therapeutic effect of aripiprazole once-monthly 400 mg (AOM 400) in patients with schizophrenia. Methods: This 52-week, open-label study included patients previously enrolled in 1 of 2 AOM 400 randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and de novo patients. Safety endpoints included adverse events (AEs), suicidality, extrapyramidal symptoms, injection-site pain, and clinically relevant changes in clinical and laboratory values. The primary efficacy endpoint was the percentage of stable patients at baseline who remained stable at the last visit of the AOM 400 maintenance phase. All endpoints were assessed with descriptive statistics; there were no formal planned statistical analyses. Results: Of 1,247 patients screened, 1,178 enrolled in the study (194 de novo and 984 patients from the RCTs) and 1,081 received maintenance treatment with AOM 400. The maintenance phase completion rate was 79.4% at 52 weeks. Treatment-emergent AEs in ⩾5% of patients during open-label AOM 400 treatment were headache (7.6%), nasopharyngitis (7.0%), anxiety (6.8%), and insomnia (6.6%). There were no clinically relevant changes in safety parameters of interest. Ninety-five percent of stable patients at baseline remained stable at their last visit during the AOM 400 maintenance phase. Conclusions: The long-term safety and tolerability profile of AOM 400 was comparable to the RCTs, and the long-term therapeutic effect was maintained. PMID:27336044

  8. The effect of increasing the dose of hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) in patients with refractory cutaneous lupus erythematosus (CLE): An open-label prospective pilot study.

    PubMed

    Chasset, François; Arnaud, Laurent; Costedoat-Chalumeau, Nathalie; Zahr, Noel; Bessis, Didier; Francès, Camille

    2016-04-01

    Up to 30% of patients with cutaneous lupus erythematosus (CLE) fail to respond to hydroxychloroquine (HCQ). We sought to evaluate the efficacy of increased daily doses of HCQ on cutaneous response in refractory CLE. We conducted an open-label prospective study between 2010 and 2014. Patients with CLE and HCQ blood level less than or equal to 750 ng/mL were included. The daily dose of HCQ was increased to reach blood concentrations greater than 750 ng/mL. The primary end point was the number of responders defined by an improvement of CLE Disease Area and Severity Index score (4 points or 20% decrease) in patients with HCQ blood concentration greater than 750 ng/mL. We included 34 patients (26 women; median age 45 [range 28-72] years). Two nonadherent patients were excluded. The median CLE Disease Area and Severity Index score before treatment was significantly improved after treatment (8 [range 2-30] vs 1.5 [range 0-30]), P < .001). The primary response criterion was reached in 26 (81%) of the 32 patients analyzed. A decrease in HCQ doses without further CLE flare (median follow-up 15.8 [range 3.06-77.4] months) was achieved in 15 of the 26 responders. The main limitations of the study are its open-label design and the limited number of patients included. Increasing HCQ doses to reach blood concentrations greater than 750 ng/mL should be considered before addition of other treatments in refractory CLE. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Efficacy and safety of long-acting pasireotide in Japanese patients with acromegaly or pituitary gigantism: results from a multicenter, open-label, randomized, phase 2 study.

    PubMed

    Tahara, Shigeyuki; Murakami, Mami; Kaneko, Tomomi; Shimatsu, Akira

    2017-07-28

    A multicenter, open-label, phase 2 study was conducted to investigate the efficacy and safety of long-acting pasireotide formulation in Japanese patients with acromegaly or pituitary gigantism. Medically naïve or inadequately controlled patients (on somatostatin analogues or dopamine agonists) were included. Primary end point was the proportion of all patients who achieved biochemical control (mean growth hormone [GH] levels<2.5μg/L and normalized insulin-like growth factor-1 [IGF-1]) at month 3. Thirty-three patients (acromegaly, n=32; pituitary gigantism, n=1) were enrolled and randomized 1:1:1 to receive open-label pasireotide 20mg, 40mg, or 60mg. The median age was 52 years (range, 31-79) and 20 patients were males. At month 3, 18.2% of patients (6/33; 90% confidence interval: 8.2%, 32.8%) had biochemical control (21.2% [7/33] when including a patient with mean GH<2.5μg/L and IGF-1< lower limit of normal). Reductions in the median GH and IGF-1 levels observed at month 3 were maintained up to month 12; the median percent change from baseline to month 12 in GH and IGF-1 levels were -74.71% and -59.33%, respectively. Twenty-nine patients completed the 12-month core phase, 1 withdrew consent, and 3 discontinued treatment due to adverse events (AEs; diabetes mellitus, hyperglycemia, liver function abnormality, n=1 each). Almost all patients (97%; 32/33) experienced AEs; the most common AEs were nasopharyngitis (48.5%), hyperglycemia (42.4%), diabetes mellitus (24.2%), constipation (18.2%), and hypoglycemia (15.2%). Serious AEs were reported in 7 patients with the most common being hyperglycemia (n=2). Long-acting pasireotide demonstrated clinically relevant efficacy and was well tolerated in Japanese patients with acromegaly or pituitary gigantism.

  10. Adjunctive triple chronotherapy (combined total sleep deprivation, sleep phase advance, and bright light therapy) rapidly improves mood and suicidality in suicidal depressed inpatients: an open label pilot study.

    PubMed

    Sahlem, Gregory L; Kalivas, Benjamin; Fox, James B; Lamb, Kayla; Roper, Amanda; Williams, Emily N; Williams, Nolan R; Korte, Jeffrey E; Zuschlag, Zachary D; El Sabbagh, Salim; Guille, Constance; Barth, Kelly S; Uhde, Thomas W; George, Mark S; Short, E Baron

    2014-12-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that combined total sleep deprivation (Wake therapy), sleep phase advance, and bright light therapy (Triple Chronotherapy) produce a rapid and sustained antidepressant effect in acutely depressed individuals. To date no studies have explored the impact of the intervention on unipolar depressed individuals with acute concurrent suicidality. Participants were suicidal inpatients (N = 10, Mean age = 44 ± 16.4 SD, 6F) with unipolar depression. In addition to standard of care, they received open label Triple Chronotherapy. Participants underwent one night of total sleep deprivation (33-36 h), followed by a three-night sleep phase advance along with four 30-min sessions of bright light therapy (10,000 lux) each morning. Primary outcome measures included the 17 item Hamilton depression scale (HAM17), and the Columbia Suicide Severity Rating Scale (CSSRS), which were recorded at baseline prior to total sleep deprivation, and at protocol completion on day five. Both HAM17, and CSSRS scores were greatly reduced at the conclusion of the protocol. HAM17 scores dropped from a mean of 24.7 ± 4.2 SD at baseline to a mean of 9.4 ± 7.3 SD on day five (p = .002) with six of the ten individuals meeting criteria for remission. CSSRS scores dropped from a mean of 19.5 ± 8.5 SD at baseline to a mean of 7.2 ± 5.5 SD on day five (p = .01). The results of this small pilot trial demonstrate that adjunctive Triple Chronotherapy is feasible and tolerable in acutely suicidal and depressed inpatients. Limitations include a small number of participants, an open label design, and the lack of a comparison group. Randomized controlled studies are needed.

  11. Crisaborole Topical Ointment, 2% in Patients Ages 2 to 17 Years with Atopic Dermatitis: A Phase 1b, Open-Label, Maximal-Use Systemic Exposure Study.

    PubMed

    Zane, Lee T; Kircik, Leon; Call, Robert; Tschen, Eduardo; Draelos, Zoe Diana; Chanda, Sanjay; Van Syoc, Merrie; Hebert, Adelaide A

    2016-07-01

    Phosphodiesterase-4 (PDE4) is a promising target in atopic dermatitis (AD) treatment. The pharmacokinetics (PK), safety, and efficacy of crisaborole topical ointment, 2% (formerly AN2728) (Anacor Pharmaceuticals, Palo Alto, CA), a boron-based benzoxaborole PDE4 inhibitor, were evaluated in children with mild to moderate AD. This phase 1b, open-label, maximal-use study of crisaborole topical ointment, 2% applied twice daily (dose 3 mg/cm(2) ) for 28 days enrolled patients ages 2 to 17 years with extensive AD involving 25% or more or 35% or more treatable body surface area, depending on age. Primary PK and safety assessments included systemic exposure to crisaborole and its metabolites after 7 days of treatment and the incidence of treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs). Secondary efficacy assessments included change from baseline in Investigator Static Global Assessment (ISGA), treatment success (ISGA score ≤1 with a two-grade or greater improvement from baseline), and improvement in five AD signs and symptoms. Of 34 patients enrolled, 31 completed the study. Crisaborole was rapidly absorbed, with limited systemic exposure between days 1 and 8. Twenty-three of 34 patients reported one or more TEAEs; 95% were mild or moderate and one patient discontinued because of a TEAE. Mean ISGA scores declined from 2.65 at baseline to 1.15 at day 29, 47.1% of patients achieved treatment success, and 64.7% of patients achieved ISGA scores of clear (0) or almost clear . Mean severity scores for AD signs and symptoms declined throughout the study. This open-label study provides evidence that crisaborole topical ointment, 2% was well tolerated, with limited systemic exposure under maximal-use conditions in patients ages 2 years and older. © 2016 The Authors. Pediatric Dermatology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Assessment of Denosumab in Korean Postmenopausal Women with Osteoporosis: Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial with Open-Label Extension

    PubMed Central

    Koh, Jung-Min; Chung, Dong Jin; Chung, Yoon-Sok; Kang, Moo-Il; Kim, In-Ju; Min, Yong-Ki; Oh, Han-Jin; Park, Il Hyung; Lee, Yil-Seob; Waterhouse, Brian; Nino, Antonio; Fitzpatrick, Lorraine A.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The efficacy and safety of denosumab was compared with placebo in Korean postmenopausal women with osteoporosis in this phase III study. Materials and Methods Women aged 60 to 90 years with a T-score of <-2.5 and ≥-4.0 at the lumbar spine or total hip were randomized to a single 60 mg subcutaneous dose of denosumab or placebo for the 6-month double-blind phase. Eligible subjects entered the 6-month open-label extension phase and received a single dose of denosumab 60 mg. Results Baseline demographics were similar in the 62 denosumab- and 64 placebo-treated subjects who completed the double-blind phase. Treatment favored denosumab over placebo for the primary endpoint {mean percent change from baseline in lumbar spine bone mineral density (BMD) at Month 6 [3.2% (95% confidence interval 2.1%, 4.4%; p<0.0001)]}; and secondary endpoints (mean percent change from baseline in lumbar spine BMD at Month 1, total hip, femoral neck, and trochanter BMD at Months 1 and 6, and median percent change from baseline in bone turnover markers at Months 1, 3, and 6). Endpoint improvements were sustained over 12 months in the open-label extension (n=119). There were no new or unexpected safety signals. Conclusion Denosumab was well tolerated and effective in increasing BMD and decreasing bone turnover markers over a 12-month period in Korean postmenopausal women. The findings of this study demonstrate that denosumab has beneficial effects on the measures of osteoporosis in Korean postmenopausal women. PMID:27189284

  13. Participant-perceived quality of life in a long-term, open-label trial of lisdexamfetamine dimesylate in adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Childress, Ann C; Cutler, Andrew J; Saylor, Keith; Gasior, Maria; Hamdani, Mohamed; Ferreira-Cornwell, M Celeste; Findling, Robert L

    2014-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess long-term improvement in quality of life (QOL) in adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) treated with lisdexamfetamine dimesylate (LDX). Adolescents with ADHD treated for ≥3 weeks in a 4 week, placebo-controlled study entered a 1 year, open-label study. After the 4 week dose optimization (30, 50, and 70 mg/day LDX) period, treatment was maintained for 48 additional weeks. Change from baseline (of prior study) to week 52/early termination (ET) (of open-label study) in ADHD Rating Scale IV (ADHD-RS-IV) assessed effectiveness, and the Youth QOL-Research Version (YQOL-R) assessed participant-perceived QOL. Post-hoc analyses described effectiveness and QOL for participants with self-perceived poor QOL at baseline (≥1 SD below the mean) versus all others, and for study completers versus study noncompleters. These post-hoc analyses included 265 participants. Participants with baseline self-perceived poor QOL (n=32) versus all others (n=232) exhibited robust YQOL-R perceptual score changes (improvement) with LDX, emerging by week 28 and maintained to week 52/ET. Week 52/ET mean change score ranged from +9.8 to +17.6 for participants with baseline self-perceived poor QOL and +0.4 to +5.1 for all others; week 52/ET improvements in ADHD-RS-IV total scores were similar, regardless of baseline YQOL-R total score. At week 52/ET, study completers had greater YQOL-R improvements than did noncompleters; ADHD-RS-IV total score changes were also numerically larger at week 52/ET for completers than for noncompleters. Participant-perceived QOL and ADHD symptoms improved from baseline with LDX in adolescents with ADHD; greatest improvements occurred among participants with baseline self-perceived poor QOL.

  14. Participant-Perceived Quality of Life in a Long-Term, Open-Label Trial of Lisdexamfetamine Dimesylate in Adolescents with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Cutler, Andrew J.; Saylor, Keith; Gasior, Maria; Hamdani, Mohamed; Ferreira-Cornwell, M. Celeste; Findling, Robert L.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Objectives: The purpose of this study was to assess long-term improvement in quality of life (QOL) in adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) treated with lisdexamfetamine dimesylate (LDX). Methods: Adolescents with ADHD treated for ≥3 weeks in a 4 week, placebo-controlled study entered a 1 year, open-label study. After the 4 week dose optimization (30, 50, and 70 mg/day LDX) period, treatment was maintained for 48 additional weeks. Change from baseline (of prior study) to week 52/early termination (ET) (of open-label study) in ADHD Rating Scale IV (ADHD-RS-IV) assessed effectiveness, and the Youth QOL-Research Version (YQOL-R) assessed participant-perceived QOL. Post-hoc analyses described effectiveness and QOL for participants with self-perceived poor QOL at baseline (≥1 SD below the mean) versus all others, and for study completers versus study noncompleters. Results: These post-hoc analyses included 265 participants. Participants with baseline self-perceived poor QOL (n=32) versus all others (n=232) exhibited robust YQOL-R perceptual score changes (improvement) with LDX, emerging by week 28 and maintained to week 52/ET. Week 52/ET mean change score ranged from +9.8 to +17.6 for participants with baseline self-perceived poor QOL and +0.4 to +5.1 for all others; week 52/ET improvements in ADHD-RS-IV total scores were similar, regardless of baseline YQOL-R total score. At week 52/ET, study completers had greater YQOL-R improvements than did noncompleters; ADHD-RS-IV total score changes were also numerically larger at week 52/ET for completers than for noncompleters. Conclusion: Participant-perceived QOL and ADHD symptoms improved from baseline with LDX in adolescents with ADHD; greatest improvements occurred among participants with baseline self-perceived poor QOL. PMID:24815910

  15. The Effect of Medicinal Cannabis on Pain and Quality-of-Life Outcomes in Chronic Pain: A Prospective Open-label Study.

    PubMed

    Haroutounian, Simon; Ratz, Yael; Ginosar, Yehuda; Furmanov, Karina; Saifi, Fayez; Meidan, Ronit; Davidson, Elyad

    2016-12-01

    The objective of this prospective, open-label study was to determine the long-term effect of medicinal cannabis treatment on pain and functional outcomes in participants with treatment-resistant chronic pain. The primary outcome was the change in the pain symptom score on the S-TOPS (Treatment Outcomes in Pain Survey-Short Form) questionnaire at the 6-month follow-up in an intent-to-treat population. Secondary outcomes included the change in S-TOPS physical, social, and emotional disability scales, the pain severity, and pain interference on the Brief Pain Inventory, sleep problems, and the change in opioid consumption. A total of 274 participants were approved for treatment; complete baseline data were available for 206 (intent-to-treat), and complete follow-up data for 176 participants. At follow-up, the pain symptom score improved from median 83.3 (95% confidence interval [CI], 79.2-87.5) to 75.0 (95% CI, 70.8-79.2) (P<0.001). The pain severity score (7.50 [95% CI, 6.75-7.75] to 6.25 [95% CI, 5.75-6.75]) and the pain interference score (8.14 [95% CI, 7.28-8.43] to 6.71 [95% CI, 6.14-7.14]) improved (both P<0.001), together with most social and emotional disability scores. Opioid consumption at follow-up decreased by 44% (P<0.001). Serious adverse effects led to treatment discontinuation in 2 participants. The treatment of chronic pain with medicinal cannabis in this open-label, prospective cohort resulted in improved pain and functional outcomes, and a significant reduction in opioid use. Results suggest long-term benefit of cannabis treatment in this group of patients, but the study's noncontrolled nature should be considered when extrapolating the results.

  16. Efficacy and safety of teneligliptin add-on to insulin monotherapy in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a 16-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial with an open-label period.

    PubMed

    Kadowaki, Takashi; Kondo, Kazuoki; Sasaki, Noriyuki; Miyayama, Kyoko; Yokota, Shoko; Terata, Ryuji; Gouda, Maki

    2017-09-01

    To assess the efficacy and safety of teneligliptin as add-on to insulin monotherapy in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). In a 16-week, double-blind period, 148 Japanese T2DM patients with inadequate glycemic control with insulin and diet/exercise therapies were randomized to placebo or teneligliptin 20 mg. In a subsequent 36-week, open-label period, all patients received teneligliptin once daily. The primary outcome measure was change in HbA1c at the end of the double-blind period. The difference between placebo and teneligliptin in change in HbA1c in the double-blind period (least squares mean ± SE) was -0.80% ± 0.11%; teneligliptin was superior (ANCOVA, P < 0.001). The HbA1c-lowering effect of teneligliptin was maintained throughout the open-label period. The incidence of adverse events was 53.5% with placebo and 44.2% with teneligliptin in the double-blind period, 66.7% in the placebo/teneligliptin group in the open-label period, and 77.9% in the teneligliptin/teneligliptin group over both double-blind/open-label periods. The incidence of hypoglycemic symptoms was 11.1% in the placebo/teneligliptin group in the open-label period and 27.3% in the teneligliptin/teneligliptin group over both double-blind/open-label periods. Teneligliptin was effective and well tolerated in Japanese T2DM patients with inadequate glycemic control. NCT02081599.

  17. An open-label, phase 2 trial of bicalutamide dose escalation from 50 mg to 150 mg in men with CAB and castration resistance. A Canadian Urology Research Consortium Study.

    PubMed

    Klotz, L; Drachenberg, D; Singal, R; Aprikian, A; Fradet, Y; Kebabdjian, M; Zarenda, M; Chin, J

    2014-12-01

    Bicalutamide is a widely used, relatively non-toxic anti-androgen, particularly when used in combination with androgen deprivation. In men on combined androgen blockade (CAB), the typical dose is 50 mg per day. For men receiving monotherapy with bicalutamide anti-androgen, the dose is 150 mg per day. The objective was to determine the PSA response rate to increasing bicalutamide to 150 mg per day in men who develop castrate-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) on CAB with goserelin acetate and bicalutamide 50 mg per day. A national, multicentre, phase 2, open-label study in men on CAB with a rising PSA>2.0. The primary end point of the trial was PSA response at 12 months, defined as a decline by 50% or more compared with baseline value. Partial response was defined as a PSA decline of 10-49%. Secondary end points were duration of PSA response, change in slope of serum PSA, change in ratio of free PSA: total PSA at 3 months, 6 months and 12 months as compared with baseline; duration of the bicalutamide withdrawal response after discontinuation; the rate of cardiovascular events; and toxicity. The study was initially planned to accrue 100 patients, but was closed early due to diminishing accrual. Sixty-four patients were accrued; 61 patients received trial treatment and constituted the intention-to-treat (ITT) cohort. 70% were M0. Among 59 evaluable ITT patients, 13 (22%) patients had a >50% PSA decline, 5 (8%) had a decline between 10 and 50%, 4 (7%) had stabilization and 37 (63%) had PSA progression. The median duration was 3.7 months (95% confidence interval of 0.92-6.21 months). In patients with early biochemical failure on CAB with bicalutamide 50 mg, an increase in dose to 150 mg of bicalutamide resulted in a PSA response of ⩾ 50% in 22% of patients. Toxicity was mild. Bicalutamide dose intensification may benefit a subset of patients with CRPC. We believe this relatively inexpensive approach warrants further evaluation.

  18. Long-Term Safety and Efficacy of Epratuzumab in the Treatment of Moderate-to- Severe Systemic Lupus Erythematosus: Results From an Open-Label Extension Study.

    PubMed

    Wallace, D J; Hobbs, K; Clowse, M E B; Petri, M; Strand, V; Pike, M; Merrill, J T; Leszczyński, P; Neuwelt, C M; Jeka, S; Houssiau, F; Keiserman, M; Ordi-Ros, J; Bongardt, S; Kilgallen, B; Galateanu, C; Kalunian, K; Furie, R; Gordon, C

    2016-04-01

    The primary objective was to assess the long-term safety of repeated courses of epratuzumab therapy in patients with moderate-to-severe systemic lupus erythematosus. Secondary objectives were to assess long-term efficacy and health-related quality of life (HRQOL). Eligible patients from the 12-week, phase IIb, randomized, placebo-controlled EMBLEM study enrolled into the open-label extension (OLE) study, SL0008. In the SL0008 study, patients received 1,200 mg epratuzumab infusions at weeks 0 and 2 of repeating 12-week cycles, plus standard of care. Safety measures included treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs) and serious TEAEs. Efficacy measures included combined treatment response, the British Isles Lupus Assessment Group score, the Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Disease Activity Index score, and the physician's and patient's global assessment of disease activity. Total daily corticosteroid dose and HRQOL (by the Short Form 36 health survey) were also assessed. A total of 113 of the 203 patients (55.7%) who entered the SL0008 study continued epratuzumab therapy until study closure (total cumulative exposure: 381.3 patient-years, median exposure: 845 days, and maximum exposure: 1,185 days/approximately 3.2 years). TEAEs were reported in 192 patients (94.6%); most common were infections and infestations (68.0%, 138 patients). Serious TEAEs were reported in 51 patients (25.1%), and 14 patients (6.9%) had serious infections. In patients treated for 108 weeks (n = 116), the median corticosteroid dose was reduced from 10.0 mg/day at OLE screening to 5.0 mg/day at week 108. Improvements in efficacy and HRQOL measures in EMBLEM were maintained in the OLE, while placebo patients exhibited similar improvements in disease activity upon a switch to epratuzumab. Open-label epratuzumab treatment was well tolerated for up to 3.2 years, and associated with sustained improvements in disease activity and HRQOL, while steroids were reduced. © 2016, American College of

  19. Efficacy and tolerability of solifenacin in patients aged ≥ 65 years with overactive bladder: post-hoc analysis of 2 open-label studies.

    PubMed

    Capo', James P; Lucente, Vincent; Forero-Schwanhaeuser, Sergio; He, Weizhong

    2011-01-01

    Antimuscarinics have proven efficacy as first-line therapy in overactive bladder (OAB); however, data on their use in older adults are needed. To assess the efficacy and tolerability of solifenacin in patients aged ≥ 65 years, we conducted post-hoc analyses of data from VESIcare® Open-Label Trial (VOLT) and VESIcare® Efficacy and Research Study US (VERSUS). In both of these 12-week, open-label, flexible-dosing studies involving 2645 patients with OAB for ≥ 3 months, patients received 5 mg solifenacin daily for 4 weeks, with an option to increase to 10 mg at week 4 (both studies) and week 8 (VOLT). VERSUS patients had received tolterodine extended release 4 mg for ≥ 4 weeks without sufficient subjective improvement in urgency (mean ≥ 3 urgency episodes/24 h). Baseline values 14 days after tolterodine washout were used for comparison with VOLT. Common study endpoints were the Patient Perception of Bladder Condition (PPBC) scale and the Overactive Bladder Questionnaire (OAB-q). VOLT used a horizontal visual analog scale (VAS), and diary-recorded symptom data were captured in VERSUS. In the full analysis sets (FAS), 40% of VOLT and 44% of VERSUS patients were aged ≥ 65 years. After 12 weeks of solifenacin, older patients experienced decreases in OAB symptoms, and improvements from baseline on the PPBC, OAB-q, and VAS. In total, 59% of older VOLT and 62% of older VERSUS patients reported ≥ 1 treatment-emergent adverse event (AE); the AEs were mostly anticholinergic and of mild-to-moderate severity. Results were consistent with younger patients and the FAS. In this large group of older patients, flexibly dosed solifenacin was associated with reductions in diary-documented OAB symptoms (VERSUS). In both studies, solifenacin was associated with improvements in measures assessing patients' perception of their bladder problems, symptom bother, and aspects of health-related quality of life. Adverse event rates in older patients were comparable to those in

  20. Epirubicin, oxaliplatin, and capecitabine with or without panitumumab for patients with previously untreated advanced oesophagogastric cancer (REAL3): a randomised, open-label phase 3 trial

    PubMed Central

    Waddell, Tom; Chau, Ian; Cunningham, David; Gonzalez, David; Okines, Alicia Frances Clare; Wotherspoon, Andrew; Saffery, Claire; Middleton, Gary; Wadsley, Jonathan; Ferry, David; Mansoor, Wasat; Crosby, Tom; Coxon, Fareeda; Smith, David; Waters, Justin; Iveson, Timothy; Falk, Stephen; Slater, Sarah; Peckitt, Clare; Barbachano, Yolanda

    2013-01-01

    Summary Background EGFR overexpression occurs in 27–55% of oesophagogastric adenocarcinomas, and correlates with poor prognosis. We aimed to assess addition of the anti-EGFR antibody panitumumab to epirubicin, oxaliplatin, and capecitabine (EOC) in patients with advanced oesophagogastric adenocarcinoma. Methods In this randomised, open-label phase 3 trial (REAL3), we enrolled patients with untreated, metastatic, or locally advanced oesophagogastric adenocarcinoma at 63 centres (tertiary referral centres, teaching hospitals, and district general hospitals) in the UK. Eligible patients were randomly allocated (1:1) to receive up to eight 21-day cycles of open-label EOC (epirubicin 50 mg/m2 and oxaliplatin 130 mg/m2 on day 1 and capecitabine 1250 mg/m2 per day on days 1–21) or modified-dose EOC plus panitumumab (mEOC+P; epirubicin 50 mg/m2 and oxaliplatin 100 mg/m2 on day 1, capecitabine 1000 mg/m2 per day on days 1–21, and panitumumab 9 mg/kg on day 1). Randomisation was blocked and stratified for centre region, extent of disease, and performance status. The primary endpoint was overall survival in the intention-to-treat population. We assessed safety in all patients who received at least one dose of study drug. After a preplanned independent data monitoring committee review in October, 2011, trial recruitment was halted and panitumumab withdrawn. Data for patients on treatment were censored at this timepoint. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00824785. Findings Between June 2, 2008, and Oct 17, 2011, we enrolled 553 eligible patients. Median overall survival in 275 patients allocated EOC was 11·3 months (95% CI 9·6–13·0) compared with 8·8 months (7·7–9·8) in 278 patients allocated mEOC+P (hazard ratio [HR] 1·37, 95% CI 1·07–1·76; p=0·013). mEOC+P was associated with increased incidence of grade 3–4 diarrhoea (48 [17%] of 276 patients allocated mEOC+P vs 29 [11%] of 266 patients allocated EOC), rash (29 [11%] vs two

  1. Epirubicin, oxaliplatin, and capecitabine with or without panitumumab for patients with previously untreated advanced oesophagogastric cancer (REAL3): a randomised, open-label phase 3 trial.

    PubMed

    Waddell, Tom; Chau, Ian; Cunningham, David; Gonzalez, David; Okines, Alicia Frances Clare; Frances, Alicia; Okines, Clare; Wotherspoon, Andrew; Saffery, Claire; Middleton, Gary; Wadsley, Jonathan; Ferry, David; Mansoor, Wasat; Crosby, Tom; Coxon, Fareeda; Smith, David; Waters, Justin; Iveson, Timothy; Falk, Stephen; Slater, Sarah; Peckitt, Clare; Barbachano, Yolanda

    2013-05-01

    EGFR overexpression occurs in 27-55% of oesophagogastric adenocarcinomas, and correlates with poor prognosis. We aimed to assess addition of the anti-EGFR antibody panitumumab to epirubicin, oxaliplatin, and capecitabine (EOC) in patients with advanced oesophagogastric adenocarcinoma. In this randomised, open-label phase 3 trial (REAL3), we enrolled patients with untreated, metastatic, or locally advanced oesophagogastric adenocarcinoma at 63 centres (tertiary referral centres, teaching hospitals, and district general hospitals) in the UK. Eligible patients were randomly allocated (1:1) to receive up to eight 21-day cycles of open-label EOC (epirubicin 50 mg/m(2) and oxaliplatin 130 mg/m(2) on day 1 and capecitabine 1250 mg/m(2) per day on days 1-21) or modified-dose EOC plus panitumumab (mEOC+P; epirubicin 50 mg/m(2) and oxaliplatin 100 mg/m(2) on day 1, capecitabine 1000 mg/m(2) per day on days 1-21, and panitumumab 9 mg/kg on day 1). Randomisation was blocked and stratified for centre region, extent of disease, and performance status. The primary endpoint was overall survival in the intention-to-treat population. We assessed safety in all patients who received at least one dose of study drug. After a preplanned independent data monitoring committee review in October, 2011, trial recruitment was halted and panitumumab withdrawn. Data for patients on treatment were censored at this timepoint. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00824785. Between June 2, 2008, and Oct 17, 2011, we enrolled 553 eligible patients. Median overall survival in 275 patients allocated EOC was 11.3 months (95% CI 9.6-13.0) compared with 8.8 months (7.7-9.8) in 278 patients allocated mEOC+P (hazard ratio [HR] 1.37, 95% CI 1.07-1.76; p=0.013). mEOC+P was associated with increased incidence of grade 3-4 diarrhoea (48 [17%] of 276 patients allocated mEOC+P vs 29 [11%] of 266 patients allocated EOC), rash (29 [11%] vs two [1%]), mucositis (14 [5%] vs none), and

  2. Usual versus tight control of systolic blood pressure in non-diabetic patients with hypertension (Cardio-Sis): an open-label randomised trial.

    PubMed

    Verdecchia, Paolo; Staessen, Jan A; Angeli, Fabio; de Simone, Giovanni; Achilli, Augusto; Ganau, Antonello; Mureddu, Gianfrancesco; Pede, Sergio; Maggioni, Aldo P; Lucci, Donata; Reboldi, Gianpaolo

    2009-08-15

    The level to which systolic blood pressure should be controlled in hypertensive patients without diabetes remains unknown. We tested the hypothesis that tight control compared with usual control of systolic blood pressure would be beneficial in such patients. In this randomised open-label trial undertaken in 44 centres in Italy, 1111 non-diabetic patients with systolic blood pressure 150 mm Hg or greater were randomly assigned to a target systolic blood pressure of less than 140 mm Hg (usual control; n=553) or less than 130 mm Hg (tight control; n=558). After stratification by centre, we used a computerised random function to allocate patients to either group. Observers who were unaware of randomisation read electrocardiograms and adjudicated events. Open-label agents were used to reach the randomised targets. The primary endpoint was the rate of electrocardiographic left ventricular hypertrophy 2 years after randomisation. Analysis was by intention to treat. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00421863. Over a median follow-up of 2.0 years (IQR 1.93-2.03), systolic and diastolic blood pressure were reduced by a mean of 23.5/8.9 mm Hg (SD 10.6/7.0) in the usual-control group and by 27.3/10.4 mm Hg (11.0/7.5) in the tight-control group (between-group difference 3.8 mm Hg systolic [95% CI 2.4-5.2], p<0.0001; and 1.5 mm Hg diastolic [0.6-2.4]; p=0.041). The primary endpoint occurred in 82 of 483 patients (17.0%) in the usual-control group and in 55 of 484 patients (11.4%) of the tight-control group (odds ratio 0.63; 95% CI 0.43-0.91; p=0.013). A composite cardiovascular endpoint occurred in 52 (9.4%) patients in the usual-control group and in 27 (4.8%) in the tight-control group (hazard ratio 0.50, 95% CI 0.31-0.79; p=0.003). Side-effects were rare and did not differ significantly between the two groups. Our findings lend support to a lower blood pressure goal than is recommended at present in non-diabetic patients with hypertension. Boehringer

  3. Adjunctive lacosamide for focal epilepsy: an open-label trial evaluating the impact of flexible titration and dosing on safety and seizure outcomes.

    PubMed

    Baulac, Michel; Coulbaut, Safia; Doty, Pamela; McShea, Cindy; De Backer, Marc; Bartolomei, Fabrice; Vlaicu, Mihaela

    2017-06-01

    To evaluate the safety and effectiveness of lacosamide in a real-life setting with the use of a flexible dose titration schedule and individualised maintenance doses up to the maximum approved dose of 400 mg/day. Adults with a diagnosis of focal seizures, with or without secondary generalization, were enrolled in this open-label Phase IV trial (NCT01235403). Lacosamide was initiated at 100 mg/day (50 mg bid) and uptitrated over a 12-week period to 200, 300 or 400 mg/day, based on safety and seizure control. Although dose increases were to be in increments of 100 mg/day, intermediate doses were permitted at each escalation step for one week for patients known to be particularly sensitive to starting new AEDs. After receiving a stable, effective dose for three weeks, patients entered the 12-week maintenance period. Primary outcomes were incidence of treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs) and withdrawal due to TEAEs. Seizure outcomes, all secondary, were median focal seizure frequency, ≥50% reduction in focal seizure frequency, and seizure freedom. One hundred patients with a mean age of 44 years were enrolled and 74 completed the trial. The incidence of TEAEs was 64.0% (n=100), with the most frequently reported (≥5% of patients) being dizziness, headache, and asthenia. Fourteen patients withdrew due to TEAEs, most frequently due to dizziness (six patients; 6.0%), vomiting (two patients; 2%), and tremor (two patients; 2%). Among patients with baseline and maintenance phase seizure data (n=75), median reduction in focal seizure frequency from baseline was 69.7% and the ≥50% responder rate was 69.3%. Among 74 patients who completed the maintenance phase, 21 (28.4%) were seizure-free. Flexible lacosamide dosing in this open-label trial was associated with a favourable tolerability and safety profile; the nature of the TEAEs was consistent with that observed in previous pivotal trials. Treatment with lacosamide was also associated with effective seizure

  4. Phase 1, Open-Label, Dose Escalation, Safety, and Pharmacokinetics Study of ME-344 as a Single Agent in Patients With Refractory Solid Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Bendell, Johanna C; Patel, Manish R; Infante, Jeffrey R; Kurkjian, Carla D; Jones, Suzanne F; Pant, Shubham; Burris, Howard A; Moreno, Ofir; Esquibel, Vanessa; Levin, Wendy; Moore, Kathleen N

    2015-01-01

    Background The current phase 1, open-label, dose escalation study was conducted to establish the safety, tolerability, pharmacokinetic profile, and preliminary antitumor activity of the novel mitochondrial inhibitor ME-344 in patients with refractory solid tumors. Methods Patients with refractory solid tumors were treated in a 3 + 3 dose escalation design. ME-344 was administered via intravenous infusion on days 1, 8, and 15 of the first 28-day cycle and weekly thereafter. Pharmacokinetics was assessed on days 1 and 15 of the first cycle. Results A total of 30 patients (median age, 65 years; 67% of whom were female) received ME-344. There were 5 dose-limiting toxicities reported. Four patients developed grade 3 neuropathy (2 patients each at doses of 15 mg/kg and 20 mg/kg) and 1 patient treated at a dose of 10 mg/kg developed a grade 3 acute myocardial infarction (toxicity was graded according to the National Cancer Institute Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events [version 4.03]). The maximum tolerated dose (MTD) was defined as 10 mg/kg weekly. The most common adverse events were nausea, dizziness, and fatigue. At the MTD of 10 mg/kg, the maximal plasma concentration (Cmax) was 25.8 µg/mL and the area under the concentration curve from time zero to infinity was 25.9 hour*µg/mL. One patient with small cell lung cancer achieved a partial response for ≥52 weeks. Four patients had prolonged stable disease (1 patient each with urothelial carcinoma [47 weeks], carcinoid tumor [≥40 weeks], cervical leiomyosarcoma [39 weeks], and cervical cancer [≥31 weeks]). Conclusions The once-weekly administration of ME-344 was generally well tolerated in the current study, a first-in-human study; dose-limiting neuropathy was noted, but not at the MTD. Exposures at the 10-mg/kg dose level suggest a sufficient therapeutic index. The preliminary clinical activity as a monotherapy supports the further clinical development of ME-344 in combination with chemotherapy. The

  5. Clinical safety and effectiveness of collagenase clostridium histolyticum injection in patients with Peyronie's disease: a phase 3 open-label study.

    PubMed

    Levine, Laurence A; Cuzin, Beatrice; Mark, Stephen; Gelbard, Martin K; Jones, Nigel A; Liu, Genzhou; Kaufman, Gregory J; Tursi, James P; Ralph, David J

    2015-01-01

    Collagenase clostridium histolyticum (CCH; Xiaflex, Auxilium Pharmaceuticals, Inc., Chesterbrook, PA, USA) is a Food and Drug Administration-approved, intralesional treatment for Peyronie's disease (PD). The aim of this study was to assess the safety and effectiveness of CCH in the treatment of PD. This phase 3, open-label study enrolled subjects who were CCH-naïve, were enrolled in a previous pharmacokinetic study, or had received placebo in an earlier phase 2 CCH study. Each treatment cycle included two intralesional injections of CCH 0.58 mg, approximately 24-72 hours apart, and plaque modeling 24-72 hours after the second injection of each cycle. The treatment cycle was repeated after 6 weeks for ≤4 treatment cycles. The co-primary end points were the mean percent change in penile curvature deformity and the mean improvement in PD bother score (range 0-16) from baseline to week 36. Of the 347 subjects treated with ≥1 injection, 238 had both a penile curvature measurement and a Peyronie's Disease Questionnaire response at baseline and ≥1 subsequent time point. Mean baseline penile curvature deformity was 53.0° and mean PD symptom bother was 7.3. Statistically significant mean improvements from baseline to week 36 were observed in both penile curvature deformity (34.4% [95% confidence interval {CI}, 31.2%, 37.6%]) and PD symptom bother score (3.3 [95% CI, 2.8, 3.7]). Most adverse events (AEs) were mild or moderate in severity and local to the penis. There were three serious treatment-related AEs, two penile hematomas and one corporal rupture; all resolved with treatment. Potentially clinically meaningful and statistically significant improvements in penile curvature deformity and PD symptom bother scores were observed with intralesional injection of CCH compared with baseline in men with PD. CCH was generally well tolerated, with AEs primarily transient and local to injection site. In conjunction with previous studies, the results of this open-label

  6. Safety and tolerability of divalproex sodium extended-release in the prophylaxis of migraine headaches: results of an open-label extension trial in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Apostol, George; Pakalnis, Ann; Laforet, Genevieve A; Robieson, Weining Z; Olson, Evelyn; Abi-Saab, Walid M; Saltarelli, Mario

    2009-01-01

    To evaluate the long-term safety and tolerability of divalproex sodium extended-release in the prophylaxis of migraine headaches in adolescents. Divalproex sodium has been approved for migraine prophylaxis in adults. A previous double-blind, placebo-controlled study of the efficacy and safety of divalproex sodium extended-release for prevention of migraine in adolescents was followed by the present long-term extension trial, which was designed to collect additional safety and tolerability data. This was a 12-month, Phase 3, open-label extension of a 3-month, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter study of adolescents aged 12 to 17 years with migraine headaches who had either completed the previous study or had discontinued because of lack of efficacy. Subjects from the previous trial who had experienced serious adverse events possibly or probably related to study drug were excluded. Divalproex sodium extended-release 500 mg daily was administered for 15 days then increased to 1000 mg. Study visits were conducted at days 1 and 15 and months 1, 2, 3, 6, 9, and 12. Safety assessments included adverse event collection, laboratory testing, physical and neurological examinations, vital signs, and electrocardiograms, as well as reproductive endocrine analyses for postmenarchal female subjects. Efficacy was evaluated by sequential 4-week migraine headache rates calculated from subjects' headache diaries. A total of 112 subjects enrolled in the trial. The most common adverse events were weight gain (15%), nausea (14%), somnolence (12%), upper respiratory tract infection (11%), increased ammonia (8%), and sinusitis (8%). Five (4%) subjects experienced serious adverse events, and 15 (13%) subjects prematurely discontinued because of an adverse event. Increased ammonia levels were noted in some individuals, and the mean ammonia level for all subjects increased 19.2 microm from baseline. No other clinically significant changes were observed in laboratory values, vital

  7. ADS-5102 (Amantadine) Extended-Release Capsules for Levodopa-Induced Dyskinesia in Parkinson's Disease (EASE LID 2 Study): Interim Results of an Open-Label Safety Study.

    PubMed

    Hauser, Robert A; Pahwa, Rajesh; Tanner, Caroline M; Oertel, Wolfgang; Isaacson, Stuart H; Johnson, Reed; Felt, Larissa; Stempien, Mary Jean

    2017-01-01

    Medical treatment of levodopa-induced dyskinesia (LID) in Parkinson's disease (PD) is an unmet need. ADS-5102 (amantadine) extended-release capsules is being developed for the treatment of LID in patients with PD. Evaluate the long-term safety and tolerability of 274 mg ADS-5102 for LID in PD. In an ongoing, open-label safety study (NCT02202551), PD patients with LID received 274 mg of ADS-5102 once daily at bedtime. Patients were recruited from previous ADS-5102 trials. In addition, patients were enrolled who were ineligible for previous ADS-5102 trials due to previous implantation of deep-brain stimulation (DBS) devices. The primary outcome measure was safety assessed through adverse events (AEs). Efficacy was assessed using the Movement Disorder Society-Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (MDS-UPDRS), Part IV and its subparts. For this interim analysis, 223 patients received ADS-5102 for a mean duration of 348 (SD 182) days. The most common AEs included falls (25.1%), visual hallucinations (19.3%), peripheral edema (13.0%), and constipation (12.6%). Overall, 32 patients (14.3%) discontinued due to an AE. In patients receiving placebo in previous studies, the mean MDS-UPDRS, Part IV scores decreased by 3.4 points from baseline (n = 78) to week 8 and remained stable through week 64 (n = 21). In patients receiving ADS-5102 in previous studies, the mean baseline (n = 61) MDS-UPDRS, Part IV score was low due to the response to ADS-5102 in previous studies and remained stable through week 64 (total of 88 weeks; n = 21). The effect was primarily due to reduction in item 4.2 (functional impact of dyskinesia) and item 4.4 (functional impact of motor fluctuations). ADS-5102 was generally well tolerated in all groups, including DBS patients, and the safety profile was consistent with previous controlled studies. Long-term durability and tolerability were shown from the double-blind studies through participation in the open-label study up to 88

  8. An Open-Label Study of Risperidone in the Improvement of Quality of Life and Treatment of Symptoms of Violent and Self-Injurious Behaviour in Adults with Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Read, Stephen G.; Rendall, Maureen

    2007-01-01

    Background: We examined the benefits of risperidone, including quality of life (QoL), in the treatment of violent and self-injurious behaviour in adults with moderate, severe or profound intellectual disability. Methods: Twenty-four participants received open-label, oral, flexible-dose risperidone of 0.5-6 mg/day for 12 weeks. Efficacy was…

  9. A Multicenter, Open-Label Trial to Evaluate the Quality of Life in Adults with ADHD Treated with Long-Acting Methylphenidate (OROS MPH): Concerta Quality of Life (CONQoL) Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mattos, Paulo; Rodrigues Louza, Mario; Fernandes Palmini, Andre Luis; de Oliveira, Irismar Reis; Lopes Rocha, Fabio

    2013-01-01

    The available literature provides few studies on the effectiveness of methylphenidate in improving quality of life in individuals with ADHD. Objective: To assess the effectiveness of Methyphenidate OROS formulation (OROS MPH) through QoL in adults with ADHD. Method: A 12-week, multicenter, open-label trial involving 60 patients was used. The…

  10. A Multicenter, Open-Label Trial to Evaluate the Quality of Life in Adults with ADHD Treated with Long-Acting Methylphenidate (OROS MPH): Concerta Quality of Life (CONQoL) Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mattos, Paulo; Rodrigues Louza, Mario; Fernandes Palmini, Andre Luis; de Oliveira, Irismar Reis; Lopes Rocha, Fabio

    2013-01-01

    The available literature provides few studies on the effectiveness of methylphenidate in improving quality of life in individuals with ADHD. Objective: To assess the effectiveness of Methyphenidate OROS formulation (OROS MPH) through QoL in adults with ADHD. Method: A 12-week, multicenter, open-label trial involving 60 patients was used. The…

  11. An Open-Label Study of Risperidone in the Improvement of Quality of Life and Treatment of Symptoms of Violent and Self-Injurious Behaviour in Adults with Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Read, Stephen G.; Rendall, Maureen

    2007-01-01

    Background: We examined the benefits of risperidone, including quality of life (QoL), in the treatment of violent and self-injurious behaviour in adults with moderate, severe or profound intellectual disability. Methods: Twenty-four participants received open-label, oral, flexible-dose risperidone of 0.5-6 mg/day for 12 weeks. Efficacy was…

  12. [Long-term opioid therapy in chronic noncancer pain. A systematic review and meta-analysis of efficacy, tolerability and safety in open-label extension trials with study duration of at least 26 weeks].

    PubMed

    Häuser, W; Bernardy, K; Maier, C

    2015-02-01

    The efficacy and safety of long-term (≥ 6 months) opioid therapy (LtOT) in chronic noncancer pain (CNCP) is under debate. A systematic review with meta-analysis of the efficacy and harms of opioids in open-label extension studies of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) has not been conducted until now. We screened MEDLINE and clinicaltrials.gov (through to December 2013), as well as reference sections of systematic reviews of long-term RCTs of opioids in CNCP. We included open-label extension trials with a study duration ≥ 26 weeks of RCTs of ≥ 2 weeks duration. Using a random effects model, pooled estimates of event rates for categorical data and standardized mean differences (SMD) for continuous variables were calculated. We included 11 open-label extension studies with 2445 participants with nociceptive (low back, osteoarthritis) and neuropathic (radicular, polyneuropathy) pain. Median study duration was 26 (range 26-108) weeks. Four studies tested oxycodone, two studies tramadol and buprenorphine; hydromorphone, morphine, oxymorphone and tapentadol were each tested in one study. Of the patients randomized at baseline, 28.5 % (95 % confidence interval, CI, 17.9-39.2 %) finished the open-label period; 53.5 % (95 % CI 38.1-68.2 %) of patients entering the open-label period finished the open-label period. In sum, the total loss was 71.5 % (95 % CI 60.9-83.1 %) of all patients primarily included into the RCT. A total of 4.9 % (95 % CI 2.9-8.2 %) of patients dropped out due lack of efficacy; 16.8 % (95 % CI 11.0-24.8 %) dropped out to due adverse events (AE) in the open-label period and 0.08 % (95 % CI 0.001-0.05 %) of patients died during the open-label period. Only one study systematically assessed aberrant drug behavior of the patients: 5.7 % (95 % CI 3.4-9.6 %) showed aberrant drug behavior in the opinion of the investigators and 2.6 % (95 % CI 1.2-5.8 %) were judged to show

  13. The effects of orally administered Beta-glucan on innate immune responses in humans, a randomized open-label intervention pilot-study.

    PubMed

    Leentjens, Jenneke; Quintin, Jessica; Gerretsen, Jelle; Kox, Matthijs; Pickkers, Peter; Netea, Mihai G

    2014-01-01

    To prevent or combat infection, increasing the effectiveness of the immune response is highly desirable, especially in case of compromised immune system function. However, immunostimulatory therapies are scarce, expensive, and often have unwanted side-effects. β-glucans have been shown to exert immunostimulatory effects in vitro and in vivo in experimental animal models. Oral β-glucan is inexpensive and well-tolerated, and therefore may represent a promising immunostimulatory compound for human use. We performed a randomized open-label intervention pilot-study in 15 healthy male volunteers. Subjects were randomized to either the β -glucan (n = 10) or the control group (n = 5). Subjects in the β-glucan group ingested β-glucan 1000 mg once daily for 7 days. Blood was sampled at various time-points to determine β-glucan serum levels, perform ex vivo stimulation of leukocytes, and analyze microbicidal activity. β-glucan was barely detectable in serum of volunteers at all time-points. Furthermore, neither cytokine production nor microbicidal activity of leukocytes were affected by orally administered β-glucan. The present study does not support the use of oral β-glucan to enhance innate immune responses in humans. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01727895.

  14. 5% Carbon Dioxide is safe but of limited efficacy as a treatment for paediatric non-convulsive status epilepticus: An open label observational study.

    PubMed

    Forsyth, Rob; Martland, Tim; Lai, Ming; Vadlamani, Gayatri; Hogan, Vanessa

    2016-07-01

    To establish the efficacy and tolerability of inhaled 5% carbon dioxide/95% oxygen as a treatment for paediatric non-convulsive status epilepticus (NCSE). In an open label clinical trial, children in NCSE were given high flow inhaled 5% carbon dioxide/95% oxygen by face mask for 120 s under EEG control. Six children (five male; ages 3-13; all with severe underlying epilepsy and disability) were recruited. Inhalation was well tolerated in all cases. Capillary blood gasses showed no significant derangements at the end of the inhalation. Effects on EEG normalisation were limited and transient, and no clinical improvements were noted. No adverse effects occurred. Inhaled 5% carbon dioxide/95% oxygen has been suggested as a potent, well tolerated anticonvulsant. An anticonvulsant without sedating and respiration-depressing effects would be particularly welcome in the management of NCSE where the justification for aggressive anticonvulsant therapy is often uncertain, however it appears that 5% carbon dioxide is of limited efficacy in this context. Copyright © 2016 European Paediatric Neurology Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Improvement in social and cognitive functioning associated with paliperidone extended-release treatment in patients with schizophrenia: a 24-week, single arm, open-label study

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Chuan; Yao, Shu Qiao; Xu, Yi Feng; Shi, Jian Guo; Xu, Xiu Feng; Zhang, Cong Pei; Jin, Hua; Yu, Xin

    2016-01-01

    Purpose This single-arm, open-label study aimed to explore the effects of extended-release paliperidone on social and cognitive function in patients with schizophrenia. Methods Paliperidone extended-release (flexible dose ranging from 3 to 12 mg/day orally) was administered for 24 weeks in patients with schizophrenia. Patient function was assessed using the personal and social performance scale, measurement and treatment research to improve cognition in schizophrenia initiative-consensus cognitive battery, positive and negative syndrome scale, and clinical global impression-severity. Results Ninety patients were included in the full analysis set, while 72 patients were included in the per protocol set. The personal and social performance score was 54.3±14.3 at baseline, and significantly increased to 73.4±12.6 at week 24 (P<0.001). For the measurement and treatment research to improve cognition in schizophrenia initiative-consensus cognitive battery assessment, six of the nine individual subtests, six of the seven cognitive domains, and total cognitive scores improved significantly (P<0.05) between baseline and endpoint. positive and negative syndrome scale total scores and clinical global impression-severity scores decreased gradually (P<0.001) from week 4 to the conclusion of the study. Conclusion Paliperidone extended-release treatment significantly improves social and neurocognitive function as well as symptoms in Chinese patients with schizophrenia. PMID:27601904

  16. Nonimmersive virtual reality mirror visual feedback therapy and its application for the treatment of complex regional pain syndrome: an open-label pilot study.

    PubMed

    Sato, Kenji; Fukumori, Satoshi; Matsusaki, Takashi; Maruo, Tomoko; Ishikawa, Shinichi; Nishie, Hiroyuki; Takata, Ken; Mizuhara, Hiroaki; Mizobuchi, Satoshi; Nakatsuka, Hideki; Matsumi, Masaki; Gofuku, Akio; Yokoyama, Masataka; Morita, Kiyoshi

    2010-04-01

    Chronic pain conditions such as phantom limb pain and complex regional pain syndrome are difficult to treat, and traditional pharmacological treatment and invasive neural block are not always effective. Plasticity in the central nervous system occurs in these conditions and may be associated with pain. Mirror visual feedback therapy aims to restore normal cortical organization and is applied in the treatment of chronic pain conditions. However, not all patients benefit from this treatment. Virtual reality technology is increasingly attracting attention for medical application, including as an analgesic modality. An advanced mirror visual feedback system with virtual reality technology may have increased analgesic efficacy and benefit a wider patient population. In this preliminary work, we developed a virtual reality mirror visual feedback system and applied it to the treatment of complex regional pain syndrome. A small open-label case series. Five patients with complex regional pain syndrome received virtual reality mirror visual feedback therapy once a week for five to eight sessions on an outpatient basis. Patients were monitored for continued medication use and pain intensity. Four of the five patients showed >50% reduction in pain intensity. Two of these patients ended their visits to our pain clinic after five sessions. Our results indicate that virtual reality mirror visual feedback therapy is a promising alternative treatment for complex regional pain syndrome. Further studies are necessary before concluding that analgesia provided from virtual reality mirror visual feedback therapy is the result of reversing maladaptive changes in pain perception.

  17. Final results of the European Advanced Renal Cell Carcinoma Sorafenib (EU-ARCCS) expanded-access study: a large open-label study in diverse community settings.

    PubMed

    Beck, J; Procopio, G; Bajetta, E; Keilholz, U; Negrier, S; Szczylik, C; Bokemeyer, C; Bracarda, S; Richel, D J; Staehler, M; Strauss, U P; Mersmann, S; Burock, K; Escudier, B

    2011-08-01

    The European Advanced Renal Cell Carcinoma Sorafenib (EU-ARCCS) expanded-access study provided sorafenib to advanced renal cell carcinoma (RCC) patients in whom previous systemic therapy had failed. The study assessed the safety and use of sorafenib for the treatment of advanced RCC in a large community-based patient population across 11 countries in Europe. EU-ARCCS was a single-arm, open-label trial of sorafenib in advanced RCC patients. End points included safety, time to progression, progression-free survival (PFS), and disease control rate (DCR). Subgroup analyses included age, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status, histology, prior therapy, and number and sites of metastases. About 1159 advanced RCC patients were enrolled. Most patients (94%) experienced drug-related adverse events (AEs) of any grade, with the most common grade ≥3 AEs including hand-foot skin reaction (13%), diarrhea (7%), fatigue (7%), hypertension (6%), and rash/desquamation (5%). The incidence of AEs in the subgroups was similar to that in the overall population. Median PFS was 6.6 months; DCR at ≥8 and ≥12 weeks was 85% and 78%, respectively. The sorafenib safety profile in European community-based practice settings was similar to that reported in clinical trials. The heterogeneous advanced RCC patient population in EU-ARCCS permitted assessment of sorafenib in important subpopulations of advanced RCC patients.

  18. Comparison of Ipragliflozin and Pioglitazone Effects on Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes: A Randomized, 24-Week, Open-Label, Active-Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Ito, Daisuke; Shimizu, Satoshi; Inoue, Kazuyuki; Saito, Daigo; Yanagisawa, Morifumi; Inukai, Kouichi; Akiyama, Yuji; Morimoto, Yoshihiro; Noda, Mitsuhiko; Shimada, Akira

    2017-10-01

    To compare the efficacy of ipragliflozin versus pioglitazone in patients with type 2 diabetes complicated by nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). In this open-label, randomized, active-controlled trial, we randomly assigned 66 patients with type 2 diabetes and NAFLD to receive ipragliflozin 50 mg (n = 32) or pioglitazone 15-30 mg (n = 34) orally once daily. The primary outcome was a change from baseline in the liver-to-spleen attenuation ratio (L/S ratio) on computed tomography at week 24. At week 24, the mean ± SD L/S ratio had increased by 0.22 (from 0.80 ± 0.24 to 1.00 ± 0.18) in the ipragliflozin group and 0.21 (from 0.78 ± 0.26 to 0.98 ± 0.16) in the pioglitazone group (P = 0.90). Serum aspartate and alanine aminotransferase levels, HbA1c, and fasting plasma glucose were similarly reduced in the two treatment groups. Nevertheless, body weight and visceral fat area showed significant reductions only in the ipragliflozin group compared with the pioglitazone group (P < 0.0001 and P = 0.0013, respectively). There were no serious adverse events in either group. Compared with pioglitazone, ipragliflozin exerts equally beneficial effects on NAFLD and glycemic control during the treatment of patients with type 2 diabetes complicated by NAFLD. Furthermore, ipragliflozin significantly reduced body weight and abdominal fat area. © 2017 by the American Diabetes Association.

  19. Effectiveness of a single application of 0·25% fipronil solution for the treatment of hirstiellosis in captive green iguanas (Iguana iguana): an open-label study.

    PubMed

    Farmaki, Rania; Simou, Chrisa; Papadopoulos, Elias; Koutinas, Alexander F; Saridomichelakis, Manolis N

    2013-08-01

    Hirstiella spp. are common ectoparasites of captive green iguanas (Iguana iguana). Suggested treatments are empirical and some of them are of low efficacy and potentially toxic. The objective of this open-label study was to investigate the short-term efficacy and safety of a single application of 0·25% fipronil solution for the treatment of hirstiellosis. The skin of 50 green iguanas was thoroughly examined with the aid of bright light and magnifying lenses. A total of 21 iguanas were found to be infested, harbouring 1-24 mites (median: 5). All 35 mites collected from 17 iguanas were identified as Hirstiella sp. Both infested and non-infested lizards, sharing the same enclosure, were carefully wiped with 0·25% fipronil solution. The safety and the efficacy of the treatment were evaluated after 2 days in 47/50 (94%) and 7 days in 29/50 (58%) iguanas. Compared with pre-treatment levels, the parasitic load did not changed significantly on the second day but was significantly lower on day 7 (P = 0·006). No adverse reactions were noticed. Based on these results a single whole-body application of 0·25% fipronil solution can be considered a safe and effective treatment for the reduction of parasitic burden in captive green iguanas infested by Hirstiella sp. mites.

  20. A multicenter open-label treatment protocol (HGT-GCB-058) of velaglucerase alfa enzyme replacement therapy in patients with Gaucher disease type 1: safety and tolerability.

    PubMed

    Pastores, Gregory M; Rosenbloom, Barry; Weinreb, Neal; Goker-Alpan, Ozlem; Grabowski, Gregory; Cohn, Gabriel M; Zahrieh, David

    2014-05-01

    To evaluate the safety of velaglucerase alfa in patients with type 1 Gaucher disease who received velaglucerase alfa in the US treatment protocol HGT-GCB-058 (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier NCT00954460) during a global supply shortage of imiglucerase. This multicenter open-label treatment protocol enrolled patients who were either treatment naïve or had been receiving imiglucerase. Patients received intravenous velaglucerase alfa every other week at a dose of 60 U/kg (treatment naïve) or 15-60 U/kg (previously treated). A total of 211 (including six treatment-naïve) patients were enrolled. Among the 205 previously treated patients, 35 (17.1%) experienced an adverse event considered related to study drug. Among the six treatment-naïve patients, one had an adverse event considered related to study drug. Infusion-related adverse events occurred in 28 (13.3%) of the 211 patients and usually occurred during the first three infusions. De novo, nonneutralizing, anti-velaglucerase alfa antibodies developed during treatment in one (<1.0%) previously treated patient and none of the treatment-naïve patients. The currently observed safety profile was consistent with those previously reported for imiglucerase and velaglucerase alfa phase III clinical trials. These results support the safety of initiating treatment with velaglucerase alfa or transitioning patients from imiglucerase therapy to velaglucerase alfa therapy.

  1. Noninterventional Open-Label Trial Investigating the Efficacy and Safety of Ectoine Containing Nasal Spray in Comparison with Beclomethasone Nasal Spray in Patients with Allergic Rhinitis

    PubMed Central

    Sonnemann, Uwe; Möller, Marcus

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. The current study aimed to compare the efficacy and safety of a classical anti-inflammatory beclomethasone nasal spray in comparison to a physic-chemical stabilizing ectoine containing nasal spray in the treatment of allergic rhinitis. Design and Methods. This was a noninterventional, open-label, observational trial investigating the effects of beclomethasone or ectoine nasal spray on nasal symptoms and quality of life. Over a period of 14 days, patients were asked to daily document their symptoms. Efficacy and tolerability were assessed by both physicians and patients. Results. Both treatments resulted in a significant decrease of TNSS values. An equivalence test could not confirm the noninferiority of ectoine treatment in comparison with beclomethasone treatment. Although clear symptom reduction was achieved with the ectoine products, the efficacy judgment showed possible advantages for the beclomethasone group. Importantly, tolerability results were comparably good in both groups, and a very low number of adverse events supported this observation. Both treatments resulted in a clear improvement in the quality of life as assessed by a questionnaire answered at the beginning and at the end of the trial. Conclusion. Taken together, it was shown that allergic rhinitis can be safely and successfully treated with beclomethasone and also efficacy and safety were shown for ectoine nasal spray. PMID:24976831

  2. Postural and Balance Disorders in Patients with Parkinson's Disease: A Prospective Open-Label Feasibility Study with Two Months of Action Observation Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Santamato, Andrea; Ranieri, Maurizio; Cinone, Nicoletta; Stuppiello, Lucia Anna; Valeno, Giovanni; De Sanctis, Jula Laura; Fortunato, Francesca; Solfrizzi, Vincenzo; Greco, Antonio; Seripa, Davide; Panza, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    Action observation treatment has been proposed as therapeutic option in rehabilitation of patients affected by Parkinson's disease (PD) to improve freezing of gait episodes. The purpose of this prospective open-label feasibility study was to evaluate the impact of 8-week action observation training (video-therapy) for the treatment of postural instability and balance impairment in PD patients. Fifteen PD patients aged under 80 years with scores of 1 to 3 on the Hoehn and Yahr staging and without evidence of freezing of gait were recruited. They underwent 24 sessions of video-therapy training based on carefully watching video clips on motor tasks linked to balance, subsequently performing the same observed movements. No statistically significant differences were observed in the identified outcome measures with the Berg Balance Scale and the Activities-Specific Balance Confidence Scale after two months of follow-up. In the present study, a short course of action observation treatment seems to be not effective in reducing balance impairments and postural instability in patients affected by mild to moderate PD. Further studies with larger samples, longer follow-up period, and standardized protocols of action observation treatment are needed to investigate the effects of this rehabilitation technique in the management of postural and balance disorders of PD patients. PMID:26798551

  3. Postural and Balance Disorders in Patients with Parkinson's Disease: A Prospective Open-Label Feasibility Study with Two Months of Action Observation Treatment.

    PubMed

    Santamato, Andrea; Ranieri, Maurizio; Cinone, Nicoletta; Stuppiello, Lucia Anna; Valeno, Giovanni; De Sanctis, Jula Laura; Fortunato, Francesca; Solfrizzi, Vincenzo; Greco, Antonio; Seripa, Davide; Panza, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    Action observation treatment has been proposed as therapeutic option in rehabilitation of patients affected by Parkinson's disease (PD) to improve freezing of gait episodes. The purpose of this prospective open-label feasibility study was to evaluate the impact of 8-week action observation training (video-therapy) for the treatment of postural instability and balance impairment in PD patients. Fifteen PD patients aged under 80 years with scores of 1 to 3 on the Hoehn and Yahr staging and without evidence of freezing of gait were recruited. They underwent 24 sessions of video-therapy training based on carefully watching video clips on motor tasks linked to balance, subsequently performing the same observed movements. No statistically significant differences were observed in the identified outcome measures with the Berg Balance Scale and the Activities-Specific Balance Confidence Scale after two months of follow-up. In the present study, a short course of action observation treatment seems to be not effective in reducing balance impairments and postural instability in patients affected by mild to moderate PD. Further studies with larger samples, longer follow-up period, and standardized protocols of action observation treatment are needed to investigate the effects of this rehabilitation technique in the management of postural and balance disorders of PD patients.

  4. Augmentation of light therapy in difficult-to-treat depressed patients: an open-label trial in both unipolar and bipolar patients

    PubMed Central

    Camardese, Giovanni; Leone, Beniamino; Serrani, Riccardo; Walstra, Coco; Di Nicola, Marco; Della Marca, Giacomo; Bria, Pietro; Janiri, Luigi

    2015-01-01

    Objectives We investigated the clinical benefits of bright light therapy (BLT) as an adjunct treatment to ongoing psychopharmacotherapy, both in unipolar and bipolar difficult-to-treat depressed (DTD) outpatients. Methods In an open-label study, 31 depressed outpatients (16 unipolar and 15 bipolar) were included to undergo 3 weeks of BLT. Twenty-five completed the treatment and 5-week follow-up. Main outcome measures Clinical outcomes were evaluated by the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS). The Snaith–Hamilton Pleasure Scale and the Depression Retardation Rating Scale were used to assess changes in anhedonia and psychomotor retardation, respectively. Results The adjunctive BLT seemed to influence the course of the depressive episode, and a statistically significant reduction in HDRS scores was reported since the first week of therapy. The treatment was well-tolerated, and no patients presented clinical signs of (hypo)manic switch during the overall treatment period. At the end of the study (after 5 weeks from BLT discontinuation), nine patients (36%, eight unipolar and one bipolar) still showed a treatment response. BLT augmentation also led to a significant improvement of psychomotor retardation. Conclusion BLT combined with the ongoing pharmacological treatment offers a simple approach, and it might be effective in rapidly ameliorating depressive core symptoms of vulnerable DTD outpatients. These preliminary results need to be confirmed in placebo-controlled, randomized, double-blind clinical trial on larger samples. PMID:26396517

  5. An open-label, multi-dose efficacy and safety study of intramuscular tetrodotoxin in patients with severe cancer-related pain.

    PubMed

    Hagen, Neil A; Fisher, Kim M; Lapointe, Bernard; du Souich, Patrick; Chary, Srini; Moulin, Dwight; Sellers, Ed; Ngoc, Anh Ho

    2007-08-01

    Cancer pain is a prevalent and serious public health issue, and more effective treatments are needed. This study evaluates the analgesic activity of tetrodotoxin, a highly selective sodium channel blocker, in cancer pain. A Phase IIa, open-label, multicenter, dose-escalation study of intramuscular tetrodotoxin was conducted in patients with severe, unrelieved cancer pain. The study design called for six ascending dose levels of intramuscular tetrodotoxin, administered over a four-day treatment period in hospitalized patients, with six patients to be enrolled within each successive dose level. Twenty-four patients underwent 31 courses of treatment at doses ranging from 15 to 90 microg daily, administered in divided doses, over four days. Most patients described transient perioral tingling or other mild sensory phenomena within about an hour of each treatment. Nausea and other toxicities were generally mild, but two patients experienced a serious adverse event, truncal and gait ataxia, that resolved over days. Seventeen of 31 treatments resulted in clinically meaningful reductions in pain intensity, and relief of pain persisted for up to two weeks or longer. Two patients had opioids held due to narcosis concurrent with relief of pain. Somatic, visceral, or neuropathic pain could all respond, but it was not possible to predict which patients were more likely to have an analgesic effect. Tetrodotoxin was overall safe. It effectively relieved severe, treatment-resistant cancer pain in the majority of patients and often for prolonged periods after treatment. It may have a novel mechanism of analgesic effect. Further study is warranted.

  6. A prospective open-label study to assess the efficacy and safety of a herbal medicinal product (Sinupret) in patients with acute rhinosinusitis.

    PubMed

    Passali, Desiderio; Loglisci, Michele; Passali, Giulio Cesare; Cassano, Pasquale; Rodriguez, Hugo Anibal; Bellussi, Luisa Maria

    2015-01-01

    We present a multicenter, prospective, open-label study to assess the efficacy and safety of a phytomedicine. The aim of the research was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of 14 days of treatment with Sinupret for acute rhinosinusitis. Sinupret is a herbal preparation used to restore and maintain the physiological function of the membranes in the sinus cavity. Sixty patients with acute rhinosinusitis based on the EPOS guidelines were enrolled in the study. Thirty patients were treated with Sinupret Forte, while 30 patients were treated with intranasal fluticasone furoate. The criteria for the evaluation of efficacy were the major symptom scores according to the investigator and the Health-Related Quality of Life score. The criteria used to evaluate safety were the number of patients with adverse events, the patients' vital signs, and laboratory safety. All patients considered showed significant improvements in symptoms. Among the patients treated with Sinupret, none had an adverse event, while 3 patients treated with fluticasone furoate had minor adverse events. The patients' vital signs and laboratory values were normal. The results of this study suggest that this phytomedicinal preparation has a significant level of efficacy in acute rhinosinusitis and that treatment is safe. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. Concordance between actual and pharmacogenetic predicted desvenlafaxine dose needed to achieve remission in major depressive disorder: a 10-week open-label study

    PubMed Central

    Müller, Daniel J.; Ng, Chee H.; Byron, Keith; Berk, Michael; Singh, Ajeet B.

    2017-01-01

    Background Pharmacogenetic-based dosing support tools have been developed to personalize antidepressant-prescribing practice. However, the clinical validity of these tools has not been adequately tested, particularly for specific antidepressants. Objective To examine the concordance between the actual dose and a polygene pharmacogenetic predicted dose of desvenlafaxine needed to achieve symptom remission. Materials and methods A 10-week, open-label, prospective trial of desvenlafaxine among Caucasian adults with major depressive disorder (n=119) was conducted. Dose was clinically adjusted and at the completion of the trial, the clinical dose needed to achieve remission was compared with the predicted dose needed to achieve remission. Results Among remitters (n=95), there was a strong concordance (Kendall’s τ-b=0.84, P=0.0001; Cohen’s κ=0.82, P=0.0001) between the actual and the predicted dose need to achieve symptom remission, showing high sensitivity (≥85%), specificity (≥86%), and accuracy (≥89%) of the tool. Conclusion Findings provide initial evidence for the clinical validity of a polygene pharmacogenetic-based tool for desvenlafaxine dosing. PMID:27779571

  8. Clinical effectiveness and safety of escitalopram and desvenlafaxine in patients of depression with anxiety: A randomized, open-label controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Maity, Nabakumar; Ghosal, Malay Kumar; Gupta, Anupam; Sil, Amrita; Chakraborty, Sushmita; Chatterjee, Suparna

    2014-01-01

    Aim: Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI) and serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRI) are effective in treating anxiety disorders associated with major depressive disorder (MDD). This randomized, controlled, parallel-group, open-label, phase 4 trial (CTRI/2012/08/002895) was undertaken to compare the effectiveness and safety of desvenlafaxine versus escitalopram, a standard antidepressant. Materials and Methods: Effectiveness was assessed using the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D17) and Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (HAM-A). Response to treatment was assessed by ≥50% decrease of baseline scores (responder rate). Safety and tolerability was evaluated by changes in routine laboratory parameters, vital signs, and adverse events reported by the subject and/or observed by the clinician. Results: Responder rates for both HAM-A and HAM-D scores at 8 weeks were better in the escitalopram group compared to the desvenlafaxine group (HAM-A 76.92% vs. 71.05%; HAM-D 79.48% vs 73.68%) but the differences were not statistically significant (P = 0.59 and P = 0.61). Within group changes of both scores, from baseline to subsequent visits in both treatment arms were statistically significant (P < 0.01). Conclusion: The effectiveness of desvenlafaxine was comparable to escitalopram, but escitalopram was better tolerated. PMID:25097285

  9. Clinical effectiveness and safety of escitalopram and desvenlafaxine in patients of depression with anxiety: a randomized, open-label controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Maity, Nabakumar; Ghosal, Malay Kumar; Gupta, Anupam; Sil, Amrita; Chakraborty, Sushmita; Chatterjee, Suparna

    2014-01-01

    Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI) and serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRI) are effective in treating anxiety disorders associated with major depressive disorder (MDD). This randomized, controlled, parallel-group, open-label, phase 4 trial (CTRI/2012/08/002895) was undertaken to compare the effectiveness and safety of desvenlafaxine versus escitalopram, a standard antidepressant. Effectiveness was assessed using the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D17) and Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (HAM-A). Response to treatment was assessed by ≥50% decrease of baseline scores (responder rate). Safety and tolerability was evaluated by changes in routine laboratory parameters, vital signs, and adverse events reported by the subject and/or observed by the clinician. Responder rates for both HAM-A and HAM-D scores at 8 weeks were better in the escitalopram group compared to the desvenlafaxine group (HAM-A 76.92% vs. 71.05%; HAM-D 79.48% vs 73.68%) but the differences were not statistically significant (P = 0.59 and P = 0.61). Within group changes of both scores, from baseline to subsequent visits in both treatment arms were statistically significant (P < 0.01). The effectiveness of desvenlafaxine was comparable to escitalopram, but escitalopram was better tolerated.

  10. Metformin Treatment in Type 2 Diabetes in Pregnancy: An Active Controlled, Parallel-Group, Randomized, Open Label Study in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes in Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Ainuddin, Jahan Ara; Karim, Nasim; Zaheer, Sidra; Ali, Syed Sanwer; Hasan, Anjum Ara

    2015-01-01

    Aims. To assess the effect of metformin and to compare it with insulin treatment in patients with type 2 diabetes in pregnancy in terms of perinatal outcome, maternal complications, additional insulin requirement, and treatment acceptability. Methods. In this randomized, open label study, 206 patients with type 2 diabetes in pregnancy who met the eligibility criteria were selected from the antenatal clinics. Insulin was added to metformin treatment when required, to maintain the target glycemic control. The patients were followed up till delivery. Maternal, and perinatal outcomes and pharmacotherapeutic characteristics were recorded on a proforma. Results. Maternal characteristics were comparable in metformin and insulin treated group. 84.9% patients in metformin group required add-on insulin therapy at mean gestational age of 26.58 ± 3.85 weeks. Less maternal weight gain (P < 0.001) and pregnancy induced hypertension (P = 0.029) were observed in metformin treated group. Small for date babies were more in metformin group (P < 0.01). Neonatal hypoglycemia was significantly less and so was NICU stay of >24 hours in metformin group (P < 0.01). Significant reduction in cost of treatment was found in metformin group. Conclusion. Metformin alone or with add-on insulin is an effective and cheap treatment option for patients with type 2 diabetes in pregnancy. This trial is registered with clinical trial registration number: Clinical trials.gov NCT01855763. PMID:25874236

  11. Clinical efficacy comparison of Saccharomyces boulardii and yogurt fluid in acute non-bloody diarrhea in children: a randomized, controlled, open label study.

    PubMed

    Eren, Makbule; Dinleyici, Ener C; Vandenplas, Yvan

    2010-03-01

    The purpose of this trial is to evaluate the clinical efficacy and cost/effectiveness of Saccharomyces boulardii compared with yogurt fluid (YF) in acute non-bloody diarrhea in children. This randomized, prospective open-label clinical trial includes 55 children (36 boys, 19 girls; mean age 21.2 +/- 28.2 months). Group A (N = 28) received lyophilized S. boulardii and group B (N = 27) received YF. The duration of diarrhea was shorter with S. boulardii but the hospital stay was reduced with YF, although these differences were not significant. However, diarrhea had resolved in significantly more children on day 3 in the S. boulardii group (48.5% versus 25.5%; P < 0.05). In outpatient cases, yogurt treatment was cheaper than S. boulardii whereas in hospitalized patients, treatment cost was similar. In conclusion, the effect of daily freshly prepared YF was comparable to S. boulardii in the treatment of acute non-bloody diarrhea in children. The duration of diarrhea was shorter in the S. boulardii group, expressed as a significantly higher number of patients with normal stools on day 3.

  12. Control of Moderate-to-Severe Plaque Psoriasis with Efalizumab: 24-Week, Open-Label, Phase IIIb/IV Latin American Study Results

    PubMed Central

    Stengel, Fernando M; Petri, Valeria; Campbell, Gladys AM; Dorantes, Gladys Leon; López, Magdalina; Galimberti, Ricardo L; Valdez, Raúl P; de Arruda, Lucia F; Guerra, Mario Amaya; Chouela, Edgardo N; Licu, Daiana

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Psoriasis is a debilitating, chronic inflammatory systemic disease affecting around 2% of the South American population. Biological therapies offer the possibility of long-term therapy with improved safety and efficacy. Methods We conducted a multicentre, open-label, single-arm, Phase IIIb/IV study of adult patients (18–75 years) with moderate-to-severe plaque psoriasis who were candidates for systemic therapy or phototherapy. Patients received efalizumab subcutaneously (1.0 mg/kg/wk). The primary endpoint was the proportion of patients achieving a Physician Global Assessment (PGA) rating of “excellent” or “cleared” at Week 24. Safety outcomes were adverse events (AEs), serious AEs (SAEs) and abnormalities on laboratory tests. Results Of 189 patients included in the intent-to-treat and safety populations, 104 (55.0%) were of Hispanic or Latino ethnicity. At Week 24, 92/189 (48.7%) patients achieved or maintained a PGA rating of “excellent” or “cleared”. AEs were reported by 161/189 (85.2%) patients, SAEs by 21/189 (11.1%). One patient died during the study (meningoencephalitis). Laboratory findings were consistent with previous experience. Conclusions Efalizumab demonstrated sustained control of psoriasis up to 24 weeks in patients from Latin America, confirming results seen in Phase III studies conducted in North America and Europe. PMID:20098510

  13. Safety and efficacy of levetiracetam for patients with panic disorder: results of an open-label, fixed-flexible dose study.

    PubMed

    Papp, Laszlo A

    2006-10-01

    To examine the safety and efficacy of the anticonvulsant levetiracetam in the treatment of patients with panic disorder. In an open-label, fixed-flexible dose study, 18 patients with panic disorder with or without agoraphobia (DSM-IV diagnostic criteria) were treated with levetiracetam for 12 weeks. Outcome was assessed with standard rating instruments (Clinical Global Impressions-Severity of Illness scale [CGI-S], Clinical Global Impressions-Improvement scale [CGI-I], and the 14-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Anxiety [HAM-A]) and by the number of panic attacks during the previous week. The study was conducted in 2 outpatient clinics in New York City from January 2004 through July 2005. Of the 13 patients completing the study, 11 were rated "very much" or "much" improved on the CGI-I. Panic attack frequency, anxiety (HAM-A), and global severity (CGI-S) ratings also demonstrated significant improvement (all p < .00). For most patients, clinical benefits were apparent after only 1 to 2 weeks of treatment. Levetiracetam was well tolerated with minimal side effects. Given its favorable pharmacokinetics, side effect profile, and, if confirmed, early onset of action and efficacy, levetiracetam might represent significant progress in the pharmacologic management of panic disorder.

  14. The Effects of Orally Administered Beta-Glucan on Innate Immune Responses in Humans, a Randomized Open-Label Intervention Pilot-Study

    PubMed Central

    Leentjens, Jenneke; Quintin, Jessica; Gerretsen, Jelle; Kox, Matthijs; Pickkers, Peter; Netea, Mihai G.

    2014-01-01

    Rationale To prevent or combat infection, increasing the effectiveness of the immune response is highly desirable, especially in case of compromised immune system function. However, immunostimulatory therapies are scarce, expensive, and often have unwanted side-effects. β-glucans have been shown to exert immunostimulatory effects in vitro and in vivo in experimental animal models. Oral β-glucan is inexpensive and well-tolerated, and therefore may represent a promising immunostimulatory compound for human use. Methods We performed a randomized open-label intervention pilot-study in 15 healthy male volunteers. Subjects were randomized to either the β -glucan (n = 10) or the control group (n = 5). Subjects in the β-glucan group ingested β-glucan 1000 mg once daily for 7 days. Blood was sampled at various time-points to determine β-glucan serum levels, perform ex vivo stimulation of leukocytes, and analyze microbicidal activity. Results β-glucan was barely detectable in serum of volunteers at all time-points. Furthermore, neither cytokine production nor microbicidal activity of leukocytes were affected by orally administered β-glucan. Conclusion The present study does not support the use of oral β-glucan to enhance innate immune responses in humans. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01727895 PMID:25268806

  15. Effect of 24-h continuous rotigotine treatment on stationary and non-stationary locomotion in de novo patients with Parkinson disease in an open-label uncontrolled study.

    PubMed

    Serrao, Mariano; Ranavolo, Alberto; Conte, Carmela; Davassi, Chiara; Mari, Silvia; Fasano, Alfonso; Chini, Giorgia; Coppola, Gianluca; Draicchio, Francesco; Pierelli, Francesco

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of a rotigotine transdermal patch on stationary and non-stationary locomotion in de novo Parkinson disease (PD) patients in an open-label uncontrolled study. A 3-D gait analysis system was used to investigate four different locomotor tasks: steady-state linear walking, gait initiation, gait termination and 180°-turning. A series of gait variables were measured for each locomotor task. PD patients who received rotigotine treatment (4-8 mg) displayed: (1) increased step length, gait speed, cadence and arm oscillations, and reduced double support duration and step asymmetry during steady-state linear gait; (2) increased initial step length during gait initiation; (3) increased final step length and gait speed, and decreased stability index during gait termination; (4) decreased duration of turning and head-pelvis delays during 180°-turning. The main finding that emerges from the present study is that the dopamine agonist rotigotine can improve various aspects of gait in de novo PD patients.

  16. Adding memantine to rivastigmine therapy in patients with mild-to-moderate alzheimer's disease: results of a 12-week, open-label pilot study.

    PubMed

    Riepe, Matthias W; Adler, Georg; Ibach, Bernd; Weinkauf, Birgit; Gunay, Ibrahim; Tracik, Ferenc

    2006-01-01

    At present, inhibition of cholines-terase is the treatment of choice for subjects with mild-to-moderate Alzheimer's disease (AD). Memantine, a noncompetitive antagonist at N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors, is currently used to treat subjects with moderate-to-severe AD. The goal of this multicenter, open-label pilot study was to investigate whether combination therapy with memantine added to rivastigmine is safe and beneficial in subjects with mild-to-moderate AD. Patients with a DSM-IV diagnosis of dementia of the Alzheimer's type (N = 95), who were treated with rivastigmine (6-12 mg/day) for a maximum duration of 24 weeks prior to baseline, received memantine (5-20 mg/day) in combination with rivastigmine for 12 weeks. The primary efficacy variable was the change in the Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale-cognitive subscale (ADAS-cog) total score at the end of 12 weeks compared with baseline. The study was conducted between September 15, 2003, and May 27, 2004. There was a statistically significant difference between baseline and week 12 for the ADAS-cog total score, showing a positive effect of combination therapy. Combination therapy did not evidence any unexpected safety concerns and was well-tolerated by most patients. Memantine in combination with rivastigmine appears to be safe and beneficial in patients with mild-to-moderate AD. Our results need to be confirmed in a large, long-term, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial.

  17. Digital palpation of endotracheal tube tip as a method of confirming endotracheal tube position in neonates: an open-label, three-armed randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Saboo, Ashwin R; Dutta, Sourabh; Sodhi, Kushaljit Singh

    2013-10-01

    To compare the malposition rates of endotracheal tubes (ETTs) when the insertional length (IL) is determined by a weight-based nomogram versus when IL is determined by palpation of the ETT tip. Open-label, randomized controlled trial (RCT). Level III neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). All newborn babies admitted in NICU requiring intubation. Subjects were randomly allocated to one of three groups, wherein IL was determined by (i) weight-based nomogram alone, (ii) weight-based nomogram combined with suprasternal palpation of ETT tip performed by specially trained neonatology fellows, or (iii) combination of weight-based and suprasternal methods by personnel not specially trained. Rate of malposition of ETT as judged on chest X-ray (CXR). Fifty seven babies were randomized into group 1(n = 15), group 2 (n = 20), and group 3 (n = 22). The proportion of correct ETT placement was highest in group 2, being 66.7%, 83.3%, and 66.7% in groups 1 through 3, respectively (P value = 0.58). No complication was attributable to palpation technique. Suprasternal palpation shows promise as a simple, safe, and teachable method of confirming ETT position in neonates. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Comparison of Low-Dose Rosuvastatin with Atorvastatin in Lipid-Lowering Efficacy and Safety in a High-Risk Pakistani Cohort: An Open-Label Randomized Trial

    PubMed Central

    Arshad, Abdul Rehman

    2014-01-01

    Background. Treatment of hyperlipidemia is helpful in both primary and secondary prevention of coronary heart disease and stroke. Aim. To compare lipid-lowering efficacy of rosuvastatin with atorvastatin. Methodology. This open-label randomized controlled trial was carried out at 1 Mountain Medical Battalion from September 2012 to August 2013 on patients with type 2 diabetes, hypertension, myocardial infarction, or stroke, meriting treatment with a statin. Those with secondary causes of dyslipidemia were excluded. Blood samples for estimation of serum total cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL-C, and LDL-C were collected after a 12-hour fast. Patients were randomly allocated to receive either atorvastatin 10 mg HS or rosuvastatin 5 mg HS daily. Lipid levels were rechecked after six weeks. Results. Atorvastatin was used in 63 patients and rosuvastatin in 66. There was a greater absolute and percent reduction in serum LDL-C levels with rosuvastatin as compared to atorvastatin (0.96 versus 0.54 mg/dL; P = 0.011 and 24.34 versus 13.66%; P = 0.045), whereas reduction in all other fractions was equal. Myalgias were seen in 5 (7.94%) patients treated with atorvastatin and 8 (12.12%) patients treated with rosuvastatin (P: 0.432). Conclusion. Rosuvastatin produces a greater reduction in serum LDL-C levels and should therefore be preferred over atorvastatin. PMID:24800084

  19. Immunogenicity and safety of 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine when administered to healthy Japanese adults aged ≥50 years. An open-label trial.

    PubMed

    Shiramoto, Masanari; Irie, Shin; Juergens, Christine; Yamaji, Masako; Tamai, Satoshi; Aizawa, Masakazu; Belanger, Todd; Gruber, William C; Scott, Daniel A; Schmoele-Thoma, Beate

    2014-01-01

    This open-label study was designed to assess immunogenicity and safety of 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) when administered to Japanese adults aged ≥50 years not previously vaccinated with 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine and to compare this Japanese study population with similar study populations in the United States (US; 50-64 years age group) and European Union (EU; ≥65 years age group). Functional antibody immune responses were measured by opsonophagocytic activity assays. Immune responses in both Japanese age groups showed significant pre/postvaccination fold rises for each serotype. In the Japanese 50-64 years age group, immune responses for the majority of serotypes were significantly lower than in the ≥65 years Japanese age group and generally lower than in the 50-64 years age group in the US study. Immune responses in the Japanese ≥65 years age group were significantly higher for the majority of serotypes compared with the ≥65 years age group in the EU study. The safety profiles across age groups and studies were generally similar. In conclusion, PCV13 elicited robust immune responses in the Japanese study population. The unanticipated higher immune responses observed in the older age group in the Japanese study are of interest and of potential benefit given the higher incidence of pneumococcal disease in older adults. PCV13 was well tolerated and safe.

  20. Impact of Yoga and Meditation on Cellular Aging in Apparently Healthy Individuals: A Prospective, Open-Label Single-Arm Exploratory Study.

    PubMed

    Tolahunase, Madhuri; Sagar, Rajesh; Dada, Rima

    2017-01-01

    This study was designed to explore the impact of Yoga and Meditation based lifestyle intervention (YMLI) on cellular aging in apparently healthy individuals. During this 12-week prospective, open-label, single arm exploratory study, 96 apparently healthy individuals were enrolled to receive YMLI. The primary endpoints were assessment of the change in levels of cardinal biomarkers of cellular aging in blood from baseline to week 12, which included DNA damage marker 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OH2dG), oxidative stress markers reactive oxygen species (ROS), and total antioxidant capacity (TAC), and telomere attrition markers telomere length and telomerase activity. The secondary endpoints were assessment of metabotrophic blood biomarkers associated with cellular aging, which included cortisol, β-endorphin, IL-6, BDNF, and sirtuin-1. After 12 weeks of YMLI, there were significant improvements in both the cardinal biomarkers of cellular aging and the metabotrophic biomarkers influencing cellular aging compared to baseline values. The mean levels of 8-OH2dG, ROS, cortisol, and IL-6 were significantly lower and mean levels of TAC, telomerase activity, β-endorphin, BDNF, and sirtuin-1 were significantly increased (all values p < 0.05) post-YMLI. The mean level of telomere length was increased but the finding was not significant (p = 0.069). YMLI significantly reduced the rate of cellular aging in apparently healthy population.

  1. Efficacy and safety of autologous cultured melanocytes delivered on poly (DL-lactic acid) film: a prospective, open-label, randomized, multicenter study.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Deepa; Kuchroo, Pushpa; Viswanathan, Chandra; Sachan, Shailendra; Shah, Bela; Bhatt, Deepa; Parasramani, Shrichand; Savant, Satish

    2012-12-01

    Small vitiliginous patches have been treated with epidermal grafts or their cell suspensions. In an attempt to overcome some of the shortcomings of cell suspension delivery, we have delivered melanocytes on a polymeric film. To evaluate the clinical effectiveness of a cultured graft consisting of autologous cultured melanocytes on a poly (DL-lactic acid) (PLA) film in subjects with stable vitiligo. A prospective open-label, randomized, multicenter clinical trial was conducted with 22 patients. Each subject was treated with cultured graft and polyurethane dressing (control arm) after epidermal ablation and followed for up to 9 months. The extent of repigmentation in the treated sites was compared with that control sites at days 90, 180, and 270. In the treatment arm, a minimum of 70% repigmentation was observed in five subjects at day 90; nine at day 180, and 10 at day 270. In the control arm, only one subject showed repigmentation until day 270. None of the test sites reported any recurrence of vitiliginous patches by the end of the study. Cultured melanocytes delivered on PLA film were efficacious and safe when applied on patients with stable vitiligo. © 2012 by the American Society for Dermatologic Surgery, Inc. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Evaluation of the effect of food and age on the pharmacokinetics of oral netupitant and palonosetron in healthy subjects: A randomized, open-label, crossover phase 1 study.

    PubMed

    Calcagnile, Selma; Lanzarotti, Corinna; Gutacker, Michaela; Jakob-Rodamer, Verena; Peter Kammerer, Klaus; Timmer, Wolfgang

    2015-09-01

    Antiemetic treatment compliance is important to prevent chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting, a feared chemotherapy side effect. NEPA, a new oral fixed combination of netupitant, a highly selective NK1 receptor antagonist (RA), and palonosetron, a second-generation 5-HT3 RA, targets dual antiemetic pathways with a single dose. This study investigated the effect of food intake and age on NEPA pharmacokinetics (PK) and safety. In this open-label, single-center, randomized, phase 1 study, 24 adults (18-45 years) received NEPA in a fed or fasted state during the first treatment period and in the alternative state in the next treatment period. Twelve elderly subjects (≥65 years) received NEPA in a fasted state. Blood samples were taken for netupitant and palonosetron PK analysis. In the fed condition, netupitant plasma exposure increased, whereas palonosetron PK parameters were not affected. Furthermore, elderly subjects showed increased netupitant and palonosetron exposure compared with adults. All adverse events were mild/moderate, with constipation and headache the most common. Although food intake and age altered NEPA PK, dose adjustments were not needed, as netupitant and palonosetron exposure increases did not lead to safety concerns in healthy subjects.

  3. Combination treatment of fingolimod with antidepressants in relapsing–remitting multiple sclerosis patients with depression: a multicentre, open-label study – REGAIN

    PubMed Central

    Bayas, Antonios; Schuh, Katrin; Baier, Monika; Vormfelde, Stefan Viktor; Koppai-Reiner, Joachim

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Approximately one in two patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) suffer from comorbid depression. The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the safety and tolerability of fingolimod and antidepressant combination in relapsing–remitting MS patients with mild-to-moderate depression. Efficacy outcome variables were quality of life (QoL), fatigue, disability and depression. Methods: Patients received open-label fingolimod 0.5 mg over 2 weeks, followed by fingolimod plus citalopram (40 mg), fluoxetine (40 mg) or venlafaxine (150 mg) over 16 weeks. The antidepressant was selected at the physician’s discretion. Results: In total, 54 patients were recruited at 25 centres across Germany. No new safety signals (including cardiac) emerged compared with previous clinical studies. Adverse events (mostly mild-to-moderate) were reported in 43 patients. A total of three patients had serious adverse events and 10 discontinued the study. QoL (mean [95% confidence interval]) improved by 2.2 (−3.3, −1.2; Patient Reported Indices for MS questionnaire), fatigue by 8.2 (−13.1, −3.3; modified Fatigue Impact Scale) and depression by 6.3 (−8.4, −4.2; Hamilton Depression Scale) points. However, the results must be interpreted cautiously owing to limited patient numbers. Conclusions: Combination of fingolimod with antidepressant medication showed no unexpected safety signals. Patient-reported outcomes (QoL, disability, fatigue and depression) remained stable or improved. PMID:27582893

  4. Peyronie's disease and low intensity shock wave therapy: Clinical outcomes and patient satisfaction rate in an open-label single arm prospective study in Australian men

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the efficacy, safety and patient satisfaction outcomes following low intensity extracorporeal shock wave therapy (LiESWT) in men with Peyronie's disease (PD) using a standardised protocol. Materials and Methods In this open-label single arm prospective study, patients with PD were enrolled following informed consent. Patient demographics, change in penile curvature and plaque hardness, International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF)-5 score, and overall satisfaction score (on a 5-point scale) were recorded. Treatment template consists of 3000 shock waves to the Peyronie's plaque over 20 minutes, twice weekly for 6 weeks. Results The majority of patients have PD history longer than 6 months (mean, 12.8 months; range, 6-28 months). Two thirds of patients have received and failed oral medical therapy. There were improvements in penile curvature (more than 15 degrees in 33% of men), plaque hardness (60% of men) and penile pain (4 out of 6 men) following LiESWT. There was a moderate improvement in IIEF-5 score (>5 points reported in 20% of men). No complication was reported and the majority of patients were satisfied (rated 4 out of 5; 70% of men) and would recommend this therapy to others. Conclusions In a carefully selected group of men with PD, LiESWT appears to be safe, has moderate efficacy and is associated with high patient satisfaction rate in the short term. PMID:26568796

  5. Comparison between IV immune globulin (IVIG) and anti-D globulin for treatment of immune thrombocytopenia: a randomized open-label study.

    PubMed

    Eghbali, Aziz; Azadmanesh, Peyman; Bagheri, Bahador; Taherahmadi, Hasan; Sadeghi Sedeh, Bahman

    2016-08-01

    To compare the effect of IV immune globulin (IVIG) and anti-D globulin (anti-D) for treatment of immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) in children. A randomized, open-label, single-center clinical trial was carried out in Amir-Kabir Hospital (Arak, Iran). The study was performed on 60 children with acute and chronic ITP, aged from 1 to 15 years. Patients were randomly assigned (1:1) to 50 μg/kg anti-D or 1 g/kg IVIG. Platelet counting was performed at baseline and at