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Sample records for open-label clinical trial

  1. Cardiovascular clinical trials in Japan and controversies regarding prospective randomized open-label blinded end-point design.

    PubMed

    Kohro, Takahide; Yamazaki, Tsutomu

    2009-02-01

    Recently, results of several cardiovascular clinical trials conducted in Japan were published. Most of them were designed as prospective randomized open-label blinded end-point (PROBE)-type trials, in which patients were randomly allocated to different regimens and both the patients and doctors are aware of the regimen being administered. Although the PROBE design enables performing trials resembling real-world practices, entails low costs and renders patient recruitment easier, it presents several conditions that have to be satisfied to acquire accurate results, due to its open-label nature. Principally, the so-called hard end points, which are judged by objective criteria, should be used as primary end points in order to prevent biases. In this article, a general description of various designs of clinical studies is provided, followed by a description of the PROBE design, and the precautions to be taken while conducting PROBE-designed trials by comparing trials conducted in Japan and the West.

  2. Impact of a soy drink on climacteric symptoms: an open-label, crossover, randomized clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Tranche, Salvador; Brotons, Carlos; Pascual de la Pisa, Beatriz; Macías, Ramón; Hevia, Eduardo; Marzo-Castillejo, Mercè

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objectives: The objective of this study is to evaluate the effects of a soy drink with a high concentration of isoflavones (ViveSoy®) on climacteric symptoms. Methods: An open-label, controlled, crossover clinical trial was conducted in 147 peri- and postmenopausal women. Eligible women were recruited from 13 Spanish health centers and randomly assigned to one of the two sequence groups (control or ViveSoy®, 500 mL per day, 15 g of protein and 50 mg of isoflavones). Each intervention phase lasted for 12 weeks with a 6-week washout period. Changes on the Menopause Rating Scale and quality of life questionnaires, as well as lipid profile, cardiovascular risk and carbohydrate and bone metabolism were assessed. Statistical analysis was performed using a mixed-effects model. Results: A sample of 147 female volunteers was recruited of which 90 were evaluable. In both sequence groups, adherence to the intervention was high. Regular consumption of ViveSoy® reduced climacteric symptoms by 20.4% (p = 0.001) and symptoms in the urogenital domain by 21.3% (p < 0.05). It also improved health-related quality life by 18.1%, as per the MRS questionnaire (p <0.05). Conclusion: Regular consumption of ViveSoy® improves both the somatic and urogenital domain symptoms of menopause, as well as health-related quality of life in peri- and postmenopausal women. PMID:26806546

  3. Outcomes of autologous bone marrow mononuclear cells for cerebral palsy: an open label uncontrolled clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Liem Thanh; Nguyen, Anh Tuan; Vu, Chinh Duy; Ngo, Doan V; Bui, Anh V

    2017-04-12

    Stem cell therapy has emerged as a promising method for improving motor function of patients with cerebral palsy. The aim of this study is to assess the safety and effectiveness of autologous bone marrow mononuclear stem cell transplantation in patients with cerebral palsy related to oxygen deprivation. An open label uncontrolled clinical trial was carried out at Vinmec International Hospital. The intervention consisted of two administrations of stem cells, the first at baseline and the second 3 months later. Improvement was monitored at 3 months and 6 months after the first administration of stem cells, using the Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM) and Modified Ashworth Score which measures muscle tone. No severe complications were recorded during the study. After transplantation, 12 patients encountered fever without infections and 9 patients experienced vomiting which was easily managed with medications. Gross motor function was markedly improved 3 months or 6 months after stem cell transplantation than at baseline. The post-transplantation GMFM-88 total score, each of its domains and the GMFM-66 percentile were all significantly higher (p-value < 0.001). Muscle spasticity also reduced significantly after transplantation (p-value < 0.001). The therapy was equally effective regardless of sex, age and GMFCS level (p-value > 0.05). Autologous bone marrow mononuclear cell transplantation appears to be a safe and effective therapy for patients with cerebral palsy. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02569775 . Retrospectively registered on October 15, 2015.

  4. Intraoral electrostimulator for xerostomia relief: a long-term, multicenter, open-label, uncontrolled, clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Alajbeg, Ivan; Falcão, Denise P; Tran, Simon D; Martín-Granizo, Rafael; Lafaurie, Gloria I; Matranga, Domenica; Pejda, Slavica; Vuletić, Lea; Mantilla, Rubén; Leal, Soraya C; Bezerra, Ana C Barreto; Ménard, Henri A; Kimoto, Suguru; Pan, Shaoxia; Maniegas, Lourdes; Krushinski, Cheryl A; Melilli, Dario; Campisi, Giuseppina; Paderni, Carlo; Mendoza, Gloria R Bautista; Yepes, Juan F; Lindh, Liselott; Koray, Meltem; Mumcu, Gonca; Elad, Sharon; Zeevi, Itai; Barrios, Beatriz C Aldape; López Sánchez, Rodrigo M; Lassauzay, Claire; Fromentin, Olivier; Beiski, Ben Z; Strietzel, Frank P; Konttinen, Yrjö T; Wolff, Andy; Zunt, Susan L

    2012-06-01

    A previous sham-controlled multinational study demonstrated the short-term efficacy and safety for xerostomia treatment of an intraoral device that delivers electrostimulation to the lingual nerve. The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that those beneficial effects would be sustained over an 11-month period. The device was tested on a mixed sample of 94 patients with xerostomia in an open-label, uncontrolled, prospective multicenter trial. Statutory outcome assessments were done at 5th, 8th, and 11th months and analyzed by multiple comparisons. Improvements achieved at month 5 from baseline were sustained throughout the follow-up period for the primary outcome, xerostomia severity, and the secondary outcomes resting whole salivary flow rate, xerostomia frequency, oral discomfort, and difficulties in speech, swallowing, and sleeping. No significant side effects were detected. The beneficial effects of a removable intraoral electrostimulating device were sustained for an 11-month period. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Safety of the first dose of fingolimod for multiple sclerosis: results of an open-label clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In patients with relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS) fingolimod prevents disease relapses and delays disability progression. First dose administration of fingolimod is associated with a transient, dose-dependent decrease in heart rate (HR) in the 6 hours after drug intake. The aim of the study is to to assess safety and tolerability of the first dose of fingolimod in a cohort of Italian patients with RRMS without alternative therapeutic options. Methods Open-label, single arm, multicentre study. After the first dose of fingolimod, patients were observed for 6 hours and had their vital signs monitored hourly. Extended on-site monitoring was provided when required. Results Of the 906 patients enrolled in the study, most (95.2%) did not experience any adverse event (AE) following fingolimod administration. Cardiovascular AEs occurred in 18 patients and included bradycardia (1.3%), first-and second-degree atrioventricular block (0.1% and 0.2%), palpitations (0.1%), sinus arrhythmia (0.1%) and ventricular premature beats (0.1%). All events were self-limiting and did not require any intervention. Extended monitoring was required in 34 patients. Conclusions These results, in a population who better resembled real-world clinical practice in terms of concomitant diseases and medications, are consistent with previous clinical trials and confirmed that the first dose administration of fingolimod is generally safe and well tolerated. Trial registration EudraCT 2011-000770-60 PMID:24690227

  6. Multicenter, open-label, exploratory clinical trial with Rhodiola rosea extract in patients suffering from burnout symptoms.

    PubMed

    Kasper, Siegfried; Dienel, Angelika

    2017-01-01

    This study is the first clinical trial aiming to explore the clinical outcomes in burnout patients treated with Rhodiola rosea. The reported capacity of R. rosea to strengthen the organism against stress and its good tolerability offer a promising approach in the treatment of stress-related burnout. The aim of the treatment was to increase stress resistance, thus addressing the source rather than the symptoms of the syndrome and preventing subsequent diseases associated with a history of burnout. The objective of the trial was to provide the exploratory data required for planning future randomized trials in burnout patients in order to investigate the clinical outcomes of treatment with R. rosea dry extract in this target group. The study was planned as an exploratory, open-label, multicenter, single-arm trial. A wide range of rating scales were assessed and evaluated in an exploratory data analysis to generate hypotheses regarding clinical courses and to provide a basis for the planning of subsequent studies. A total of 118 outpatients were enrolled. A daily dose of 400 mg R. rosea extract (WS(®) 1375, Rosalin) was administered over 12 weeks. Clinical outcomes were assessed by the German version of the Maslach Burnout Inventory, Burnout Screening Scales I and II, Sheehan Disability Scale, Perceived Stress Questionnaire, Number Connection Test, Multidimensional Mood State Questionnaire, Numerical Analogue Scales for different stress symptoms and impairment of sexual life, Patient Sexual Function Questionnaire, and the Clinical Global Impression Scales. The majority of the outcome measures showed clear improvement over time. Several parameters had already improved after 1 week of treatment and continued to improve further up to the end of the study. The incidence of adverse events was low with 0.015 events per observation day. The trial reported here was the first to investigate clinical outcomes in patients suffering from burnout symptoms when treated with R

  7. Multicenter, open-label, exploratory clinical trial with Rhodiola rosea extract in patients suffering from burnout symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Kasper, Siegfried; Dienel, Angelika

    2017-01-01

    Purpose This study is the first clinical trial aiming to explore the clinical outcomes in burnout patients treated with Rhodiola rosea. The reported capacity of R. rosea to strengthen the organism against stress and its good tolerability offer a promising approach in the treatment of stress-related burnout. The aim of the treatment was to increase stress resistance, thus addressing the source rather than the symptoms of the syndrome and preventing subsequent diseases associated with a history of burnout. The objective of the trial was to provide the exploratory data required for planning future randomized trials in burnout patients in order to investigate the clinical outcomes of treatment with R. rosea dry extract in this target group. Methods The study was planned as an exploratory, open-label, multicenter, single-arm trial. A wide range of rating scales were assessed and evaluated in an exploratory data analysis to generate hypotheses regarding clinical courses and to provide a basis for the planning of subsequent studies. A total of 118 outpatients were enrolled. A daily dose of 400 mg R. rosea extract (WS® 1375, Rosalin) was administered over 12 weeks. Clinical outcomes were assessed by the German version of the Maslach Burnout Inventory, Burnout Screening Scales I and II, Sheehan Disability Scale, Perceived Stress Questionnaire, Number Connection Test, Multidimensional Mood State Questionnaire, Numerical Analogue Scales for different stress symptoms and impairment of sexual life, Patient Sexual Function Questionnaire, and the Clinical Global Impression Scales. Results The majority of the outcome measures showed clear improvement over time. Several parameters had already improved after 1 week of treatment and continued to improve further up to the end of the study. The incidence of adverse events was low with 0.015 events per observation day. Discussion The trial reported here was the first to investigate clinical outcomes in patients suffering from burnout

  8. Prospective open-label clinical trial of trihexyphenidyl in children with secondary dystonia due to cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Sanger, Terence D; Bastian, Amy; Brunstrom, Jan; Damiano, Diane; Delgado, Mauricio; Dure, Leon; Gaebler-Spira, Deborah; Hoon, Alec; Mink, Jonathan W; Sherman-Levine, Sara; Welty, Leah J

    2007-05-01

    Although trihexyphenidyl is used clinically to treat both primary and secondary dystonia in children, limited evidence exists to support its effectiveness, particularly in dystonia secondary to disorders such as cerebral palsy. A prospective, open-label, multicenter pilot trial of high-dose trihexyphenidyl was conducted in 23 children aged 4 to 15 years with cerebral palsy judged to have secondary dystonia impairing function in the dominant upper extremity. All children were given trihexyphenidyl at increasing doses over a 9-week period up to a maximum of 0.75 mg/kg/d. Trihexyphenidyl was subsequently tapered off over the next 5 weeks. Objective motor assessments were performed at baseline, 9 weeks, and 15 weeks. The primary outcome measure was the Melbourne Assessment of Unilateral Upper Limb Function, tested in the dominant arm. Tolerability and safety were monitored closely throughout the trial. Of the 31 children who agreed to participate in the study, 5 failed to meet entry criteria and 3 withdrew due to nonserious adverse events (chorea, drug rash, and hyperactivity). Three children required a dosage reduction because of nonserious adverse events but continued to participate. The 23 children who completed the study showed a significant improvement in arm function at 15 weeks (P = .045) but not at 9 weeks (P = .985). Post hoc analysis showed that a subgroup (n = 10) with hyperkinetic dystonia (excess involuntary movements) worsened at 9 weeks (P = .04) but subsequently returned to baseline following taper of the medicine. The authors conclude that scientific evidence for the clinical use of trihexyphenidyl in cerebral palsy remains equivocal. Trihexyphenidyl may be a safe and effective for treatment for arm dystonia in some children with cerebral palsy if given sufficient time to respond to the medication. Post hoc analyses based on the type of movement disorder suggested that children with hyperkinetic forms of dystonia may worsen. A larger, randomized

  9. Green tea (Camellia sinensis) for patients with knee osteoarthritis: A randomized open-label active-controlled clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Hashempur, Mohammad Hashem; Sadrneshin, Sara; Mosavat, Seyed Hamdollah; Ashraf, Alireza

    2016-12-18

    Green tea is known as a dietary supplement and a novel functional food worldwide. Since there are increasing preclinical evidence about efficacy of green tea for treating osteoarthritis, this study has aimed at assessing its efficacy and safety for patients with knee osteoarthritis. This is a randomized open-label active-controlled clinical trial. As many as fifty adults with osteoarthritis of knee were randomly allocated to receive the green tea extract (in dosage form of tablet) plus diclofenac tablet as "intervention group"; or: diclofenac tablet alone as "control group" for a period of four weeks. Patients were assessed at the beginning of intervention, and then 4 weeks later, in terms of pain score via visual analogue scale (VAS), and Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) questionnaire's total score in addition to its 3 sub-scores. Furthermore, they were asked about any adverse effects during intervention period. Mean differences of VAS pain, total WOMAC, and WOMAC physical function scores in green tea group showed a significant reduction, compared with the control group (P = 0.038, P = 0.006, and P = 0.004, respectively). However, No significant differences between the two groups were observed, regarding mean differences of WOMAC pain and stiffness scores of the enrolled patients (P = 0.163, and P = 0.150, respectively). Additionally, only 1 patient reported gastric upset [in control group]. It seems that green tea extract might well be considered as an adjunctive treatment both for control of pain and for the betterment of knee joint physical function in adults with osteoarthritis. However, further studies of longer duration and larger sample size are needed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  10. Combined gemcitabine and S-1 chemotherapy for treating unresectable hilar cholangiocarcinoma: a randomized open-label clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Zun-Qiang; Guan, Jiao; Tong, Da-Nian; Zhou, Guang-Wen

    2016-01-01

    Although the combination of cisplatin and gemcitabine (GEM) is considered the standard first-line chemotherapy against unresectable hilar cholangiocarcinoma (HC), its efficacy is discouraging. The present randomized open-label clinical trial aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of the GEM plus S-1 (GEM-S-1) combination against unresectable HC. Twenty-five patients per group were randomly assigned to receive GEM, S-1 or GEM-S-1. Neutropenia (56%) and leukopenia (40%) were the most common chemotherapy-related toxicities in the GEM-S-1 group. Median overall survival (OS) in the GEM-S-1, GEM and S-1 groups was 11, 10 and 6 months, respectively. GEM plus S-1 significantly improved OS compared to S-1 monotherapy (OR=0.68; 95%CI, 0.50–0.90; P=0.008). Median progression-free survival (PFS) times in the GEM-S-1, GEM and S-1 groups were 4.90, 3.70 and 1.60 months, respectively. GEM plus S-1 significantly improved PFS compared to S-1 monotherapy (OR=0.50; 95%CI, 0.27–0.91; P=0.024). Response rates were 36%, 24% and 8% in the GEM-S-1, GEM and S-1 groups, respectively. A statistically significant difference was found in response rates between the gemcitabine-S-1 and S-1 groups (36% vs 8%, P=0.017). Patients with CA19-9<466 U/ml were more responsive to chemotherapeutic agents than those with CA19-9≥571 U/ml (88.9% vs 0%, P<0.001). We conclude that the combination of GEM plus S-1 provides a better OS, PFS and response rate than S-1 monotherapy, but it did not significantly differ from GEM monotherapy. (ChiCTR-TRC-14004733). PMID:27058753

  11. Open-label randomized clinical trial of atropine bolus injection versus incremental boluses plus infusion for organophosphate poisoning in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Abedin, Mohammed Joynal; Sayeed, Abdullah Abu; Basher, Ariful; Maude, Richard J; Hoque, Gofranul; Faiz, M A

    2012-06-01

    Severe organophosphate compound (OPC) poisoning is an important clinical problem in many countries of the world. Unfortunately, little clinical research has been performed and little evidence exists with which to determine the best therapy. A study was therefore undertaken to determine the optimal dosing regimen for atropine in the treatment of OPC poisoning. An open-label randomized clinical trial was conducted in Chittagong Medical College Hospital, Chittagong, Bangladesh, on 156 hospitalized individuals with OPC poisoning from June to September 2006. The aim was to compare the efficacy and safety of conventional bolus doses with individualized incremental doses of atropine for atropinization followed by continuous atropine infusion for management of OPC poisoning. Inclusion criteria were patients with a clear history of OPC poisoning with clear clinical signs of toxicity, i.e. features of cholinergic crisis. The patients were observed for at least 96 h. Immediate outcome and complications were recorded. Out of 156 patients, 81 patients received conventional bolus dose atropine (group A) and 75 patients received rapidly incremental doses of atropine followed by infusion (group B). The mortality in group 'A' was 22.5% (18/80) and in group 'B' 8% (6/75) (p < 0.05). The mean duration of atropinization in group 'A' was 151.74 min compared to 23.90 min for group 'B' (p < 0.001). More patients in group A experienced atropine toxicity than in group 'B' (28.4% versus 12.0%, p < 0.05); intermediate syndrome was more common in group 'A' than in group 'B' (13.6% versus 4%, p < 0.05), and respiratory support was required more often for patients in group 'A' than in group 'B' (24.7% versus 8%, p < 0.05). Rapid incremental dose atropinization followed by atropine infusion reduces mortality and morbidity from OPC poisoning and shortens the length of hospital stay and recovery. Incremental atropine and infusion should become the treatment of choice for OPC

  12. Montelukast in the treatment of perennial allergic rhinitis in paediatric Japanese patients; an open-label clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Okubo, Kimihiro; Inoue, Yoichi; Numaguchi, Hirotaka; Tanaka, Kumi; Saito, Itori; Oshima, Nobuyuki; Matsumoto, Yuki; Prohn, Marita; Mehta, Anish; Nishida, Chisato; Philip, George

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: This study was conducted to evaluate the safety and tolerability, and population pharmacokinetics (PPK) of montelukast as well as efficacy in the treatment of perennial allergic rhinitis (PAR) in paediatric Japanese patients aged between 1 and 15 years. Methods: In this multi-centre, open-label trial, 87 paediatric Japanese patients with PAR received montelukast 4 mg oral granules (OG) for 4 weeks (1–5-year-olds, N = 15), 4 mg OG for 12 weeks (1–5-year-olds, N = 36), 5 mg chewable tablets (CT) for 12 weeks (6–9-year-olds, N = 18), or 5 mg CT for12 weeks (10–15-year-olds, N = 18). Clinical exams and laboratory assessments were conducted at study visits, and adverse events (AE) were monitored throughout the study up to 14 days after the last visit. Population pharmacokinetic approach was used to estimate AUC0–∞, Cmax, Tmax and apparent elimination half-life in each age group. Efficacy was assessed based on global evaluations by the subject’s caregiver. Results: There were no serious AEs and one discontinuation due to an AE. The most common AEs in any of the treatment groups were nasopharyngitis, pharyngitis, and acute sinusitis. Montelukast exposure (AUC0–∞) was similar in the 1–5-year-old group and the 6–9-year-old group, but 19% lower in the 10–15-year-old group. Among all patients, the total proportion of patients whose global evaluation was “very much better” was 5.7% (week 2), 11.5% (week 4), and 16.9% (week 12) reflecting improvement in symptoms over time. Conclusion: Montelukast was generally well tolerated in Japanese children with PAR. AUC0–∞was similar in 1–5 and 6–9-year-olds, while a lower exposure was observed in the 10–15-year-old group likely due to differences in bodyweight. The exposure in Japanese paediatric patients was generally consistent with that in non-Japanese paediatric and adult patients. As assessed by the patients’ caregivers, montelukast also

  13. Sevelamer versus calcium carbonate in incident hemodialysis patients: results of an open-label 24-month randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Di Iorio, Biagio; Molony, Donald; Bell, Cynthia; Cucciniello, Emanuele; Bellizzi, Vincenzo; Russo, Domenico; Bellasi, Antonio

    2013-10-01

    Whether the use of sevelamer rather than a calcium-containing phosphate binder improves cardiovascular (CV) survival in patients receiving dialysis remains to be elucidated. Open-label randomized controlled trial with parallel groups. 466 incident hemodialysis patients recruited from 18 centers in Italy. Study participants were randomly assigned in a 1:1 fashion to receive either sevelamer or a calcium-containing phosphate binder (although not required by the protocol, all patients in this group received calcium carbonate) for 24 months. All individuals were followed up until completion of 36 months of follow-up or censoring. CV death due to cardiac arrhythmias was regarded as the primary end point. Blind event adjudication. At baseline, patients allocated to sevelamer had higher serum phosphorus (mean, 5.6 ± 1.7 [SD] vs 4.8 ± 1.4 mg/dL) and C-reactive protein levels (mean, 8.8 ± 13.4 vs 5.9 ± 6.8 mg/dL) and lower coronary artery calcification scores (median, 19 [IQR, 0-30] vs 30 [IQR, 7-180]). At study completion, serum phosphate levels were lower in the sevelamer arm (median dosages, 4,800 and 2,000 mg/d for sevelamer and calcium carbonate, respectively). After a mean follow-up of 28 ± 10 months, 128 deaths were recorded (29 and 88 due to cardiac arrhythmias and all-cause CV death). Sevelamer-treated patients experienced lower CV mortality due to cardiac arrhythmias compared with patients treated with calcium carbonate (HR, 0.06; 95% CI, 0.01-0.25; P < 0.001). Similar results were noted for all-cause CV mortality and all-cause mortality, but not for non-CV mortality. Adjustments for potential confounders did not affect results. Open-label design, higher baseline coronary artery calcification burden in calcium carbonate-treated patients, different mineral metabolism control in sevelamer-treated patients, overall lower than expected mortality. These results show that sevelamer compared to a calcium-containing phosphate binder improves survival in a cohort of

  14. Effect of comorbid tics on a clinically meaningful response to 8-week open-label trial of fluoxetine in obsessive compulsive disorder.

    PubMed

    Husted, David S; Shapira, Nathan A; Murphy, Tanya K; Mann, Giselle D; Ward, Herbert E; Goodman, Wayne K

    2007-01-01

    Currently, there are limited published data evaluating the effects of tics on serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SRI) monotherapy responses in treating obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). One retrospective case-controlled analysis of OCD patients treated with SRI monotherapy showed lesser improvement in OCD symptoms in patients with tics than those without. However, more recently there were preliminary reports of OCD subjects treated with SRI monotherapy which did not demonstrate poorer response in subjects with tics or Tourette's Syndrome (TS). The specific aim of this study was to investigate whether the presence of comorbid chronic tics affected "clinically meaningful improvement" [McDougle, C.J., Goodman, W.K., Leckman, J.F., Barr, L.C., Heninger, G.R., Price, L.H., 1993. The efficacy of fluvoxamine in obsessive-compulsive disorder: effects of comorbid chronic tic disorder. Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology 13, 354-358] of OCD in an 8-week open-label trial of fluoxetine monotherapy. Seventy-four adult subjects (13 patients with comorbid chronic tics and 61 patients without tics) with a primary DSM-IV OCD diagnosis were treated with up to 40mg fluoxetine for 8 weeks and had at least one post-baseline evaluation. The results indicate that there was a significant response by time in both fluoxetine-with-tic subjects and fluoxetine-without-tic subjects. Additionally, there were 3 (23.0%) OCD subjects with tics who had clinically meaningful improvement versus 16 (26.2%) OCD subjects without tics that demonstrated similar levels of improvement. These findings indicate that OCD patients with or without chronic tic disorders did not have a differential response to an 8-week open-label trial of fluoxetine. Limitations include the relatively low number of tic subjects and the open-label nature of the study. Additional data are needed on how comorbid tics may affect SRI treatment response in OCD.

  15. Ethosuximide for Essential Tremor: An Open-Label Trial

    PubMed Central

    Gironell, Alexandre; Marin-Lahoz, Juan

    2016-01-01

    Background T-type calcium channel activation has been postulated to underlie rhythmicity in the olivo-cerebellar system that is implicated in ET. Ethosuximide reduces T-type calcium currents and can suppress tremor in two animal models of ET. We explored the effects of ethosuximide in subjects with ET in an open-label trial using both clinical scales and accelerometric recordings measures. We initially planned to conduct the trial with 15 patients, but due to lack of efficacy and a high incidence of adverse effects, the trial was stopped after seven patients had participated. Methods Seven patients diagnosed with ET were included in the study. The ethosuximide dose was 500 mg daily (BID). The main outcome measures were: 1) tremor clinical rating scale (TCRS) score, 2) accelerometric recordings, and 3) self-reported disability scale score. Results Five patients completed the study, and two dropped out due to adverse effects. There were no significant changes in clinical scores in motor task performance (TCRS 1+2), daily living activities (TCRS 3), or in the patients’ subjective assessment (TCRS 4) and global appraisal. There were no differences observed for accelerometry data or disability scale scores. Anxiety, nervousness, headache, and dizziness were reported by two patients while on ethosuximide, causing them to stop the trial. No patient preferred to continue ethosuximide treatment. Discussion The results of our exploratory study suggest that ethosuximide is not an effective treatment for ET. PMID:27625899

  16. Attenuation of immune activation in an open-label clinical trial for HIV-AIDS using a polyherbal formulation.

    PubMed

    Asokan, Mangaiarkarasi; Sachidanandam, Vijaya; Satish, Kadappa Shivappa; Ranga, Udaykumar

    2014-01-01

    To explain a stable clinical outcome observed in a previous pilot clinical trial using a polyherbal formulation (PHF) for HIV-AIDS, we, in the present study, evaluated the T cell functions from fresh and stored blood samples. In three clinical groups-the anti-retroviral therapy, PHF and control arms-we compared the circulating levels of lipopolysaccharide, LPS-binding protein, soluble CD14, aspartate transaminase (AST) and alanine transaminase (ALT). Additionally, we evaluated the expression of T cell markers and gag-specific immune responses. The PHF treatment significantly reduced the levels of sCD14, AST and ALT. In a cross-sectional analysis at 30 months post-treatment, in comparison to the control group, the PHF arm showed significantly low per-cell expression of PD1, CD95 and HLA-DR. The PHF treatment appears to have attenuated general immune activation and hepatic inflammation in the study participants. Targeting the mediators of immune activation must be pursued as a useful strategy for HIV-AIDS management.

  17. Safety and tolerability of fingolimod in patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis: results of an open-label clinical trial in Italy.

    PubMed

    Laroni, Alice; Brogi, Davide; Brescia Morra, Vincenzo; Guidi, Leonello; Pozzilli, Carlo; Comi, Giancarlo; Lugaresi, Alessandra; Turrini, Renato; Raimondi, Debora; Uccelli, Antonio; Mancardi, Giovanni Luigi

    2017-01-01

    The safety profile of fingolimod is well established in clinical trials and post-marketing studies. This study aimed to evaluate the safety and tolerability of fingolimod in a cohort of Italian patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS). This is a non-comparative, open-label, multicentre, interventional study conducted in patients with RRMS with no suitable alternative treatment option. Safety and tolerability of fingolimod 0.5 mg were assessed by recording adverse events (AEs) and serious AEs (SAEs). Of the 906 patients enrolled in the study, 91 % of the patients completed the study. AEs and SAEs were reported in 35.4 and 2.9 % of the patients, respectively. Most common AEs reported were headache (4.1 %), influenza (2.1 %), lymphopenia (1.8 %), asthenia (1.8 %) and pyrexia (1.8 %). Increased alanine aminotransferase levels and hypertension were reported as AE in 1.0 and 1.4 % of the patients, respectively. Macular oedema was reported in three patients. These results emphasize the safety of fingolimod in patients representing the real-world clinical practice in the Italian population. Fingolimod was safe and well tolerated in this population, which, compared to those enrolled in pivotal trials in terms of concomitant diseases and used medications, is broader. EudraCT 2011-000770-60.

  18. Semi-individualised Chinese medicine treatment as an adjuvant management for diabetic nephropathy: a pilot add-on, randomised, controlled, multicentre, open-label pragmatic clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Kam Wa; Ip, Tai Pang; Kwong, Alfred Siu Kei; Lui, Sing Leung; Chan, Gary Chi Wang; Cowling, Benjamin John; Yiu, Wai Han; Wong, Dickson Wai Leong; Liu, Yang; Feng, Yibin; Tan, Kathryn Choon Beng; Chan, Loretta Yuk Yee; Leung, Joseph Chi Kam; Lai, Kar Neng; Tang, Sydney Chi Wai

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Diabetes mellitus and diabetic nephropathy (DN) are prevalent and costly to manage. DN is the leading cause of end-stage kidney disease. Conventional therapy blocking the renin–angiotensin system has only achieved limited effect in preserving renal function. Recent observational data show that the use of Chinese medicine (CM), a major form of traditional medicine used extensively in Asia, could reduce the risk of end-stage kidney disease. However, existing clinical practice guidelines are weakly evidence-based and the effect of CM remains unclear. This trial explores the effect of an existing integrative Chinese–Western medicine protocol for the management of DN. Objective To optimise parameters and assess the feasibility for a subsequent phase III randomised controlled trial through preliminary evaluation on the effect of an adjuvant semi-individualised CM treatment protocol on patients with type 2 diabetes with stages 2–3 chronic kidney disease and macroalbuminuria. Methods and analysis This is an assessor-blind, add-on, randomised, controlled, parallel, multicentre, open-label pilot pragmatic clinical trial. 148 patients diagnosed with DN will be recruited and randomised 1:1 to a 48-week additional semi-individualised CM treatment programme or standard medical care. Primary end points are the changes in estimated glomerular filtration rate and spot urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio between baseline and treatment end point. Secondary end points include fasting blood glucose, glycated haemoglobin, brain natriuretic peptide, fasting insulin, C peptide, fibroblast growth factor 23, urinary monocyte chemotactic protein-1, cystatin C, nephrin, transforming growth factor-β1 and vascular endothelial growth factor. Adverse events are monitored through self-completed questionnaire and clinical visits. Outcomes will be analysed by regression models. Enrolment started in July 2015. Ethics and registration This protocol is approved by the Institutional

  19. FG-3019 anti-connective tissue growth factor monoclonal antibody: results of an open-label clinical trial in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Raghu, Ganesh; Scholand, Mary Beth; de Andrade, João; Lancaster, Lisa; Mageto, Yolanda; Goldin, Jonathan; Brown, Kevin K; Flaherty, Kevin R; Wencel, Mark; Wanger, Jack; Neff, Thomas; Valone, Frank; Stauffer, John; Porter, Seth

    2016-05-01

    FG-3019 is a fully human monoclonal antibody that interferes with the action of connective tissue growth factor, a central mediator in the pathogenesis of fibrosis.This open-label phase 2 trial evaluated the safety and efficacy of two doses of FG-3019 administered by intravenous infusion every 3 weeks for 45 weeks in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). Subjects had a diagnosis of IPF within the prior 5 years defined by either usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP) pattern on a recent high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) scan, or a possible UIP pattern on HRCT scan and a recent surgical lung biopsy showing UIP pattern. Pulmonary function tests were performed every 12 weeks, and changes in the extent of pulmonary fibrosis were measured by quantitative HRCT scans performed at baseline and every 24 weeks.FG-3019 was safe and well-tolerated in IPF patients participating in the study. Changes in fibrosis were correlated with changes in pulmonary function.Further investigation of FG-3019 in IPF with a placebo-controlled clinical trial is warranted and is underway. Copyright ©ERS 2016.

  20. DVC1-0101 to Treat Peripheral Arterial Disease: A Phase I/IIa Open-label Dose-escalation Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Yonemitsu, Yoshikazu; Matsumoto, Takuya; Itoh, Hiroyuki; Okazaki, Jin; Uchiyama, Makiko; Yoshida, Kumi; Onimaru, Mitsuho; Onohara, Toshihiro; Inoguchi, Hiroyuki; Kyuragi, Ryoichi; Shimokawa, Mototsugu; Ban, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Michiko; Inoue, Makoto; Shu, Tsugumine; Hasegawa, Mamoru; Nakanishi, Yoichi; Maehara, Yoshihiko

    2013-01-01

    We here report the results of a Phase I/IIa open-label four dose-escalation clinical study assessing the safety, tolerability, and possible therapeutic efficacy of a single intramuscular administration of DVC1-0101, a new gene transfer vector based on a nontransmissible recombinant Sendai virus (rSeV) expressing the human fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) gene (rSeV/dF-hFGF2), in patients with peripheral arterial disease (PAD). Gene transfer was done in 12 limbs of 12 patients with rest pain, and three of them had ischemic ulcer(s). No cardiovascular or other serious adverse events (SAEs) caused by gene transfer were detected in the patients over a 6-month follow-up. No infectious viral particles, as assessed by hemagglutination activity, were detected in any patient during the study. No representative elevation of proinflammatory cytokines or plasma FGF-2 was seen. Significant and continuous improvements in Rutherford category, absolute claudication distance (ACD), and rest pain were observed (P < 0.05 to 0.01). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first clinical trial of the use of a gene transfer vector based on rSeV. The single intramuscular administration of DVC1-0101 to PAD patients was safe and well tolerated, and resulted in significant improvements of limb function. Larger pivotal studies are warranted as a next step. PMID:23319060

  1. Effects of Lactobacillus salivarius-containing tablets on caries risk factors: a randomized open-label clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background To evaluate the effects of the lactic acid bacterium Lactobacillus salivarius on caries risk factors. Methods The study was performed in 64 healthy volunteers to evaluate the effects of L. salivarius-containing tablets on caries risk factors. The participants were divided randomly into four groups, and took tablets containing L. salivarius WB21, L. salivarius TI 2711, Ovalgen® DC (antibody against glucosyltransferase from Streptococcus mutans), or xylitol. Levels of mutans streptococci and lactobacilli, amount of salivary flow, salivary pH, and salivary buffering capacity were assessed before and after taking the tablets. Subsequently, a short-term administration trial using L. salivarius WB21-containing tablets was performed in eight healthy volunteers. The participants took L. salivarius WB21-containing tablets (2.0 × 109 colony forming units/day) for 2 weeks, and the numbers of mutans streptococci in saliva were counted. Results The levels of mutans streptococci seemed to decrease in the L. salivarius WB21, TI 2711, and Ovalgen® DC groups compared to the xylitol group, with no significant differences between the groups. Lactobacilli levels significantly increased in the L. salivarius WB21 and TI 2711 groups compared to the other groups. Concerning salivary flow and salivary pH, no significant differences were observed between the groups. The salivary buffering capacity significantly increased in the L. salivarius TI 2711 group (P = 0.003) and Ovalgen® DC group (P = 0.002) compared to the xylitol group. The short-term administration trial showed that the L. salivarius WB21-containing tablets significantly decreased the number of mutans streptococci (P = 0.039). Conclusion L. salivarius-containing tablets were suggested to increase resistance to caries risk factors. Trial registration UMIN000013160 (registration date: February 14, 2014). PMID:25178882

  2. Efficacy of thalidomide for the treatment of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: A phase II open label clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    STOMMEL, ELIJAH W.; COHEN, JEFFREY A.; FADUL, CAMILO E.; COGBILL, CHRISTOPHER H.; GRABER, DAVID J.; KINGMAN, LINDA; MACKENZIE, TODD; SMITH, JACQUELINE Y. CHANNON; HARRIS, BRENT T.

    2013-01-01

    Neuroinflammation through the cytokine, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) is thought to play an important role in the pathogenesis of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). We conducted a preliminary phase II trial of thalidomide, which reduces levels of TNF-α pre-transcriptionally and post-transcriptionally in vivo and has been shown to prolong disease duration and extend the lifespan of transgenic animal models of ALS. Patients who met diagnostic criteria for ALS received thalidomide at escalating doses to a target dose of 400 mg/day. The primary endpoints in the trial were the ALS Functional Rating Scale (ALSFRS) and pulmonary function testing (PFT) curves after nine months of thalidomide treatment that were compared to historical controls. Secondary endpoints were: survival stratified for newly diagnosed and progressive disease, toxicity, quality of life, and serum cytokine measurements. Twenty-three patients were enrolled, but only 18 were evaluable for the primary outcome. There was no improvement in the ALSFRS or PFT compared to historical controls. Thalidomide had several side-effects in our ALS patients. There was no significant shift in cytokine profile after treatment compared to baseline. In conclusion, treatment of ALS with the TNF-α inhibitor, thalidomide, does not appear to effectively modulate disease progression and can cause adverse effects. PMID:19922130

  3. Safety of Repeated Open-Label Treatment Courses of Intravenous Ofatumumab, a Human Anti-CD20 Monoclonal Antibody, in Rheumatoid Arthritis: Results from Three Clinical Trials

    PubMed Central

    Østergaard, Mikkel; Taylor, Peter C.; van Vollenhoven, Ronald F.; Chu, Myron; Mallett, Stephen; Perry, Hayley; Kurrasch, Regina

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the safety of ofatumumab retreatment in rheumatoid arthritis. Methods Patients with active rheumatoid arthritis participating in two phase III trials (OFA110635 and OFA110634) and a phase II extension trial (OFA111752) received individualised open-label ofatumumab retreatment (700 mg X 2 intravenous infusions two weeks apart) ≥24 weeks following the first course and ≥16 weeks following further courses. Retreatment required evidence of clinical response followed by disease relapse. These studies were prematurely terminated by the sponsor to refocus development on subcutaneous delivery. Due to differences in study designs and populations, data are summarised separately for each study. Results 483 patients (243, 148 and 92 in OFA110635, OFA110634 and OFA111752 respectively) received up to 7 treatment courses of intravenous ofatumumab; cumulative duration of exposure was 463, 182 and 175 patient-years, respectively. Mean time between courses was 17–47 weeks. Ofatumumab induced a profound depletion of peripheral B-lymphocytes. Retreated patients derived benefit based on improvement in DAS28. Adverse events were reported for 93% (226/243), 91% (134/148) and 76% (70/92), serious adverse events for 18% (44/243), 20% (30/148) and 12% (11/92) and serious infections for 3% (8/243), 5% (7/148) and 1% (1/92) of patients in OFA110635, OFA110634 and OFA111752, respectively. The most common adverse events were infusion-related reactions during the first infusion of the first course (48–79%); serious infusion-related reactions were rare (<1% [1/243], 5% [8/148], and 1% [1/92] of patients). Two deaths occurred (fulminant hepatitis B virus infection and interstitial lung disease). Conclusions Ofatumumab was generally well tolerated with no evidence of increased safety risks with multiple retreatments. Serious infections were uncommon and did not increase over time. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov 110635 ClinicalTrials.gov 110634 ClinicalTrials

  4. Effects of Lactobacillus salivarius-containing tablets on caries risk factors: a randomized open-label clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Nishihara, Tetsuyo; Suzuki, Nao; Yoneda, Masahiro; Hirofuji, Takao

    2014-09-02

    To evaluate the effects of the lactic acid bacterium Lactobacillus salivarius on caries risk factors. The study was performed in 64 healthy volunteers to evaluate the effects of L. salivarius-containing tablets on caries risk factors. The participants were divided randomly into four groups, and took tablets containing L. salivarius WB21, L. salivarius TI 2711, Ovalgen® DC (antibody against glucosyltransferase from Streptococcus mutans), or xylitol. Levels of mutans streptococci and lactobacilli, amount of salivary flow, salivary pH, and salivary buffering capacity were assessed before and after taking the tablets. Subsequently, a short-term administration trial using L. salivarius WB21-containing tablets was performed in eight healthy volunteers. The participants took L. salivarius WB21-containing tablets (2.0 × 10(9) colony forming units/day) for 2 weeks, and the numbers of mutans streptococci in saliva were counted. The levels of mutans streptococci seemed to decrease in the L. salivarius WB21, TI 2711, and Ovalgen® DC groups compared to the xylitol group, with no significant differences between the groups. Lactobacilli levels significantly increased in the L. salivarius WB21 and TI 2711 groups compared to the other groups. Concerning salivary flow and salivary pH, no significant differences were observed between the groups. The salivary buffering capacity significantly increased in the L. salivarius TI 2711 group (P = 0.003) and Ovalgen® DC group (P = 0.002) compared to the xylitol group. The short-term administration trial showed that the L. salivarius WB21-containing tablets significantly decreased the number of mutans streptococci (P = 0.039). L. salivarius-containing tablets were suggested to increase resistance to caries risk factors. UMIN000013160 (registration date: February 14, 2014).

  5. An open-label, pragmatic, randomized controlled clinical trial to evaluate the comparative effectiveness of daptomycin versus vancomycin for the treatment of complicated skin and skin structure infection.

    PubMed

    Kauf, Teresa L; McKinnon, Peggy; Corey, G Ralph; Bedolla, John; Riska, Paul F; Sims, Matthew; Jauregui-Peredo, Luis; Friedman, Bruce; Hoehns, James D; Mercier, Renée-Claude; Garcia-Diaz, Julia; Brenneman, Susan K; Ng, David; Lodise, Thomas

    2015-11-07

    Treatment of complicated skin and skin structure infection (cSSSI) places a tremendous burden on the health care system. Understanding relative resource utilization associated with different antimicrobials is important for decision making by patients, health care providers, and payers. The authors conducted an open-label, pragmatic, randomized (1:1) clinical study (N = 250) to compare the effectiveness of daptomycin with that of vancomycin for treatment of patients hospitalized with cSSSI caused by suspected or documented methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infection. The primary study end point was infection-related length of stay (IRLOS). Secondary end points included health care resource utilization, cost, clinical response, and patient-reported outcomes. Patient assessments were performed daily until the end of antibiotic therapy or until hospital discharge, and at 14 days and 30 days after discharge. No difference was found for IRLOS, total LOS, and total inpatient cost between cohorts. Hospital LOS contributed 85.9% to the total hospitalization cost, compared with 6.4% for drug costs. Daptomycin showed a nonsignificant trend toward a higher clinical success rate, compared with vancomycin, at treatment days 2 and 3. In the multivariate analyses, vancomycin was associated with a lower likelihood of day 2 clinical success (odds ratio [OR] = 0.498, 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.249-0.997; P < 0.05). This study did not provide conclusive evidence of the superiority of one treatment over the other in terms of clinical, economic, or patient outcomes. The data suggest that physician and patient preference, rather than drug acquisition cost, should be the primary driver of initial antibiotic selection for hospitalized patients with cSSSI. ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01419184 (Date: August 16, 2011).

  6. An Open Label Clinical Trial of a Multi-Ingredient Anti-Aging Moisturizer Designed to Improve the Appearance of Facial Skin.

    PubMed

    Herndon, James H; Jiang, Lily; Kononov, Tatiana; Fox, Theresa

    2015-07-01

    An open label clinical trial was conducted to determine the effectiveness of a multi-ingredient anti-aging moisturizer designed to improve the appearance of facial skin. Parameters studied included fine lines and wrinkles, clarity/brightness, visual roughness, tactile roughness, evenness of skin tone (redness), evenness of skin tone (hyperpigmentation) and overall appearance. Thirty-seven female subjects, ages 35-60 years completed the study. Effective ingredients incorporated into the facial anti-aging moisturizer include: Astragalus membranaceus root extract, a peptide blend including palmitoyl tripeptide-38, standardized rosemary leaf extract (ursolic acid), tetrahexyldecyl ascorbate (THD ascorbate) and ubiquinone (coenzyme Q10). Subjects were instructed to apply the moisturizer twice daily, once in the morning and once in the evening. Subjects were evaluated at baseline and after 4, 8, and 12 weeks of product usage. Clinical evaluations were conducted at each visit. A self-assessment questionnaire was conducted at week 4, week 8, and week 12. The self-assessment questionnaire included product efficacy inquiries and product aesthetic inquiries. Digital photography was conducted at baseline, week 8, and week 12. After 8 weeks of twice daily use, clinical evaluation results show that the multi-ingredient anti-aging moisturizer produced a statistically significant improvement in the scores of all clinical grading parameters assessed compared to baseline. A greater statistically significant improvement was seen at 12 weeks. At week 12, there was a statistically significant percentage of favorable results versus unfavorable results in all product efficacy and product aesthetic self-assessment questionnaire results. Digital photography supported the clinical grading and self-assessment questionnaire results. Additionally, the multi-ingredient anti-aging moisturizer is judged to be mild and well tolerated. Several tolerability parameters were assessed at all time

  7. Adjunctive Aripiprazole Treatment for Risperidone-Induced Hyperprolactinemia: An 8-Week Randomized, Open-Label, Comparative Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Jingyuan; Song, Xueqin; Ai, Xiaoqing; Gu, Xiaojing; Huang, Guangbiao; Li, Xue; Pang, Lijuan; Ding, Minli; Ding, Shuang; Lv, Luxian

    2015-01-01

    Objective The present study aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of adjunctive aripiprazole treatment in schizophrenia patients with risperidone-induced hyperprolactinemia. Methods One hundred and thirteen patients who were receiving a stable dose of risperidone were randomly assigned to either adjunctive aripiprazole treatment (10 mg/day) (aripiprazole group) or no additional treatment (control group) at a 1:1 ratio for 8 weeks. Schizophrenia symptoms were measured using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS). Rating scales and safety assessments (RSESE, BARS, UKU) were performed at baseline and at weeks 4 and 8. Serum levels of prolactin were determined at baseline and at weeks 2, 4, 6 and 8. Metabolic parameters were determined at baseline and again at weeks 4 and 8. Results One hundred and thirteen patients were enrolled in this study, and 107 patients completed the study (54 in the aripiprazole group, and 53 in the control group). PANSS-total scores in the aripiprazole group decreased significantly at week 4 (P = 0.003) and week 8 (P = 0.007) compared with the control group. PANSS-negative scores in the aripiprazole group also decreased significantly at week 4 (P = 0.005) and week 8 (P< 0.001) compared with the control group. Serum levels of prolactin in the aripiprazole group decreased significantly at week 2 (P< 0.001), week 4 (P< 0.001), week 6 (P< 0.001) and week 8 (P< 0.001) compared with the control group. There were no significant differences in changes of Fasting Plasma Glucose, Total cholesterol, Triglycerides and High Density Lipoprotein within each group at week 4 and 8 execpt low density lipoproteins. There was no significant difference in the incidence of adverse reactions between the two groups. Conclusions Adjunctive aripiprazole treatment may be beneficial in reducing serum levels of prolactin and improving negative symptoms in schizophrenia patients with risperidone-induced hyperprolactinemia. Trial Registration chictr.org Chi

  8. Long-term add-on pregabalin treatment in patients with partial-onset epilepsy: pooled analysis of open-label clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Uthman, Basim M; Bazil, Carl W; Beydoun, Ahmad; Schulze-Bonhage, Andreas; Benabou, Reina; Whalen, Ed; Emir, Birol; Griesing, Teresa; Leon, Teresa

    2010-06-01

    To evaluate the safety, tolerability, and efficacy of long-term pregabalin as add-on therapy for patients with poorly controlled partial seizures. Analysis of data from six long-term clinical trials involving 2,061 patients receiving open-label pregabalin 75-600 mg/day adjunctive therapy for partial onset epilepsy refractory to multiple antiepileptic drugs. Total pregabalin exposure was 3,877 person-years. The mean duration of pregabalin treatment was 534 days (range 0.3-8 years) and 59% completed 1 year. One-third of patients discontinued for lack of efficacy. The most common dose was >or=300 mg/day; over half took >or=450 mg/day. There was a mean reduction in the 28-day seizure rate of 25-40%, and more than 40% of all patients had a >or=50% reduction in seizures from baseline during the last 3 months of treatment. Twelve percent of all patients had a 6-month period continuously free of seizures. In the last year, 6% were seizure-free for the entire year. Pregabalin was generally well-tolerated and the safety profile favorable in patients treated for up to several years, with an adverse event (AE) profile similar to short-term placebo-controlled trials. Common AEs included CNS symptoms (dizziness, somnolence, headache, and asthenia), accidental injury, and weight gain. CNS AEs tended to be mild and transient. Rates of sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP), mortality, cancer, and status epilepticus were within the expected range for this population. Adjunctive pregabalin was effective, generally well tolerated, and safe in the long-term treatment of partial seizures, and provided clinically meaningful seizure reduction and freedom without evidence of tolerance over 2 years of follow-up.

  9. EXpanding Treatment for Existing Neurological Disease (EXTEND): An Open-Label Phase II Clinical Trial of Hydroxyurea Treatment in Sickle Cell Anemia

    PubMed Central

    Little, Courtney R; Reid, Marvin E; Soares, Deanne P; Taylor-Bryan, Carolyn; Knight-Madden, Jennifer M; Stuber, Susan E; Badaloo, Asha V; Aldred, Karen; Wisdom-Phipps, Margaret E; Latham, Teresa; Ware, Russell E

    2016-01-01

    Background Cerebral vasculopathy in sickle cell anemia (SCA) begins in childhood and features intracranial arterial stenosis with high risk of ischemic stroke. Stroke risk can be reduced by transcranial doppler (TCD) screening and chronic transfusion therapy; however, this approach is impractical in many developing countries. Accumulating evidence supports the use of hydroxyurea for the prevention and treatment of cerebrovascular disease in children with SCA. Recently we reported that hydroxyurea significantly reduced the conversion from conditional TCD velocities to abnormal velocities; whether hydroxyurea can be used for children with newly diagnosed severe cerebrovascular disease in place of starting transfusion therapy remains unknown. Objective The primary objective of the EXpanding Treatment for Existing Neurological Disease (EXTEND) trial is to investigate the effect of open label hydroxyurea on the maximum time-averaged mean velocity (TAMV) after 18 months of treatment compared to the pre-treatment value. Secondary objectives include the effects of hydroxyurea on serial TCD velocities, the incidence of neurological and non-neurological events, quality of life (QOL), body composition and metabolism, toxicity and treatment response, changes to brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and magnetic resonance angiography (MRA), genetic and serologic markers of disease severity, and cognitive and pulmonary function. Methods This prospective Phase II trial will enroll children with SCA in Jamaica, between the ages of 2 and 17 years, with either conditional (170-199 cm/sec) or abnormal (≥ 200 cm/sec) TCD velocities. Oral hydroxyurea will be administered daily and escalated to the maximum tolerated dose (MTD). Participants will be seen in the Sickle Cell Unit (SCU) in Kingston, Jamaica monthly until achieving MTD, and then every 3 months. TCD will be performed every 6 months. Results Currently, 43 participants have been enrolled out of a projected 50. There was one

  10. Metoclopramide or domperidone improves post-pyloric placement of spiral nasojejunal tubes in critically ill patients: a prospective, multicenter, open-label, randomized, controlled clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Hu, Bei; Ye, Heng; Sun, Cheng; Zhang, Yichen; Lao, Zhigang; Wu, Fanghong; Liu, Zhaohui; Huang, Linxi; Qu, Changchun; Xian, Lewu; Wu, Hao; Jiao, Yingjie; Liu, Junling; Cai, Juyu; Chen, Weiying; Nie, Zhiqiang; Liu, Zaiyi; Chen, Chunbo

    2015-02-13

    The use of prokinetic agents on post-pyloric placement of spiral nasojejunal tubes is controversial. The aim of the present study was to examine if metoclopramide or domperidone can increase the success rate of post-pyloric placement of spiral nasojejunal tubes. A multicenter, open-label, randomized, controlled trial was conducted in seven hospitals in China between April 2012 and February 2014. Patients admitted to the intensive care unit and requiring enteral nutrition for more than three days were randomly assigned to the metoclopramide, domperidone or control groups (1:1:1 ratio). The primary outcome was defined as the success rate of post-pyloric placement of spiral nasojejunal tubes, assessed 24 hours after initial placement. Secondary outcomes included success rate of post-D1, post-D2, post-D3 and proximal jejunum placement and tube migration distance. Safety of the study drugs and the tubes during the entire study period were recorded. In total, 307 patients were allocated to the metoclopramide (n = 103), domperidone (n = 100) or control group (n = 104). The success rate of post-pyloric placement after 24 hours in the metoclopramide, domperidone and control groups was 55.0%, 51.5% and 27.3%, respectively (P = 0.0001). Logistic regression analysis identified the use of prokinetic agents, Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) II score <20, Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score <12 and without vasopressor as independent factors influencing the success rate of post-pyloric placement. No serious drug-related adverse reaction was observed. Prokinetic agents, such as metoclopramide or domperidone, are effective at improving the success rate of post-pyloric placement of spiral nasojejunal tubes in critically ill patients. Chinese Clinical Trial Registry ChiCTR-TRC-12001956 . Registered 21 February 2012.

  11. Clonal Evolutionary Analysis during HER2 Blockade in HER2-Positive Inflammatory Breast Cancer: A Phase II Open-Label Clinical Trial of Afatinib +/- Vinorelbine

    PubMed Central

    Schmid, Ramona; Arpornwirat, Wichit; Chitapanarux, Imjai; Ganju, Vinod; Im, Seock-Ah; Kim, Sung-Bae; Dechaphunkul, Arunee; Maneechavakajorn, Jedzada; Spector, Neil; Yau, Thomas; Afrit, Mehdi; Ahmed, Slim Ben; Johnston, Stephen R.; Gibson, Neil; Herrero, Javier; Swanton, Charles

    2016-01-01

    Background Inflammatory breast cancer (IBC) is a rare, aggressive form of breast cancer associated with HER2 amplification, with high risk of metastasis and an estimated median survival of 2.9 y. We performed an open-label, single-arm phase II clinical trial (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01325428) to investigate the efficacy and safety of afatinib, an irreversible ErbB family inhibitor, alone and in combination with vinorelbine in patients with HER2-positive IBC. This trial included prospectively planned exome analysis before and after afatinib monotherapy. Methods and Findings HER2-positive IBC patients received afatinib 40 mg daily until progression, and thereafter afatinib 40 mg daily and intravenous vinorelbine 25 mg/m2 weekly. The primary endpoint was clinical benefit; secondary endpoints were objective response (OR), duration of OR, and progression-free survival (PFS). Of 26 patients treated with afatinib monotherapy, clinical benefit was achieved in 9 patients (35%), 0 of 7 trastuzumab-treated patients and 9 of 19 trastuzumab-naïve patients. Following disease progression, 10 patients received afatinib plus vinorelbine, and clinical benefit was achieved in 2 of 4 trastuzumab-treated and 0 of 6 trastuzumab-naïve patients. All patients had treatment-related adverse events (AEs). Whole-exome sequencing of tumour biopsies taken before treatment and following disease progression on afatinib monotherapy was performed to assess the mutational landscape of IBC and evolutionary trajectories during therapy. Compared to a cohort of The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) patients with HER2-positive non-IBC, HER2-positive IBC patients had significantly higher mutational and neoantigenic burden, more frequent gain-of-function TP53 mutations and a recurrent 11q13.5 amplification overlapping PAK1. Planned exploratory analysis revealed that trastuzumab-naïve patients with tumours harbouring somatic activation of PI3K/Akt signalling had significantly shorter PFS compared to those without

  12. Ringer's lactate, but not hydroxyethyl starch, prolongs the food intolerance time after major abdominal surgery; an open-labelled clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Li, Yuhong; He, Rui; Ying, Xiaojiang; Hahn, Robert G

    2015-05-06

    The infusion of large amounts of Ringer's lactate prolongs the functional gastrointestinal recovery time and increases the number of complications after open abdominal surgery. We performed an open-labelled clinical trial to determine whether hydroxyethyl starch or Ringer's lactate exerts these adverse effects when the surgery is performed by laparoscopy. Eighty-eight patients scheduled for major abdominal cancer surgery (83% by laparoscopy) received a first-line fluid treatment with 9 ml/kg of either 6% hydroxyethyl starch 130/0.4 (Voluven) or Ringer's lactate, just after induction of anaesthesia; this was followed by a second-line infusion with 12 ml/kg of either starch or Ringer's lactate over 1 hour. Further therapy was managed at the discretion of the attending anaesthetist. Outcome data consisted of postoperative gastrointestinal recovery time, complications and length of hospital stay. The order of the infusions had no impact on the outcome. Both the administration of ≥ 2 L of Ringer's lactate and the development of a surgical complication were associated with a longer time period of paralytic ileus and food intolerance (two-way ANOVA, P < 0.02), but only surgical complications prolonged the length of hospital stay (P < 0.001). The independent effect of Ringer's lactate and complications of food intolerance time amounted to 2 days each. The infusion of ≥ 1 L of hydroxyethyl starch did not adversely affect gastrointestinal recovery. Ringer's lactate, but not hydroxyethyl starch, prolonged the gastrointestinal recovery time in patients undergoing laparoscopic cancer surgery. Surgical complications prolonged the hospital stay.

  13. Effects of low calcium dialysate on the progression of coronary artery calcification in hemodialysis patients: An open-label 12-month randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Kim, Soo Jin; Lee, Young-Ki; Oh, Jieun; Cho, AJin; Noh, Jung Woo

    2017-09-15

    The association between the dialysate calcium level and coronary artery calcification (CAC) has not yet been evaluated in hemodialysis patients. The objective of this study was to determine whether lowering the dialysate calcium levels would decrease the progression of coronary artery calcification (CAC) compared to using standard calcium dialysate. We conducted an open-label randomized trial with parallel groups. The patients were randomly assigned to either 12-month treatment with low calcium dialysate (LCD; 1.25mmol/L, n=36) or standard calcium dialysate (SCD; 1.5mmol/L, n=40). The primary outcome was the change in the CAC scores assessed by 64-slice multidetector computed tomography after 12months. During the treatment period, CAC scores increased in both groups, especially significant in LCD group (402.5±776.8, 580.5±1011.9, P=0.004). When we defined progressors as patients at second and third tertiles of CAC changes, progressor group had a higher proportion of LCD-treated patients than SCD-treated patients (P=0.0229). In multivariate analysis, LCD treatment is a significant risk factor for increase in CAC scores (odds ratio=5.720, 95% CI: 1.219-26.843, P=0.027). Use of LCD may accelerate the progression of CAC in patients with chronic hemodialysis over a 12-month period. Clinical Research Information Service [Internet]; Osong (Chungcheongbuk-do): Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Ministry of Health and Welfare (Republic of Korea), 2010: KCT0000942. Available from: https://cris.nih.go.kr/cris/search/search_result_st01_kren.jsp?seq=3572&sLeft=2&type=my. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Stent thrombosis and major clinical events at 3 years after zotarolimus-eluting or sirolimus-eluting coronary stent implantation: a randomised, multicentre, open-label, controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Camenzind, Edoardo; Wijns, William; Mauri, Laura; Kurowski, Volkhard; Parikh, Keyur; Gao, Runlin; Bode, Christoph; Greenwood, John P; Boersma, Eric; Vranckx, Pascal; McFadden, Eugene; Serruys, Patrick W; O'Neil, William W; Jorissen, Brenda; Van Leeuwen, Frank; Steg, Ph Gabriel

    2012-10-20

    We sought to compare the long-term safety of two devices with different antiproliferative properties: the Endeavor zotarolimus-eluting stent (E-ZES; Medtronic, Inc) and the Cypher sirolimus-eluting stent (C-SES; Cordis, Johnson & Johnson) in a broad group of patients and lesions. Between May 21, 2007 and Dec 22, 2008, we recruited 8791 patients from 36 recruiting countries to participate in this open-label, multicentre, randomised, superiority trial. Eligible patients were those aged 18 years or older undergoing elective, unplanned, or emergency procedures in native coronary arteries. Patients were randomly assigned to either receive E-ZES and C-SES (ratio 1:1). Randomisation was stratified per centre with varying block sizes of four, six, or eight patients, and concealed with a central telephone-based or web-based allocation service. The primary outcome was definite or probable stent thrombosis at 3 years and was analysed by intention to treat. Patients and investigators were aware of treatment assignment. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00476957. PROTECT randomised 8791 patients, of whom 8709 provided consent to participate and were eligible: 4357 were allocated to the E-ZES group and 4352 patients to the C-SES group. At 3 years, rates of definite or probable stent thrombosis did not differ between groups (1·4% for E-ZES [predicted: 1·5%] vs 1·8% [predicted: 2·5%] for C-SES; hazard ratio [HR] 0·81, 95% CI 0·58-1·14, p=0·22). Dual antiplatelet therapy was used in 8402 (96%) patients at discharge, 7456 (88%) at 1 year, 3041 (37%) at 2 years, and 2364 (30%) at 3 years. No evidence of superiority of E-ZES compared with C-SES in definite or probable stent thrombosis rates was noted at 3 years. Time analysis suggests a difference in definite or probable stent thrombosis between groups is emerging over time, and a longer follow-up is therefore needed given the clinical relevance of stent thrombosis. Medtronic, Inc. Copyright © 2012

  15. Efficacy of memantine on neuropsychiatric symptoms associated with the severity of behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia: A six-month, open-label, self-controlled clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    LI, PAN; QUAN, WEI; ZHOU, YU-YING; WANG, YAN; ZHANG, HUI-HONG; LIU, SHUAI

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have focused on the curative effects of memantine in patients with mild-to-moderate frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD); however, its benefits in patients with moderate-to-severe FTLD have not been investigated. The present study explores the behavioral, cognitive and functional effects of memantine on behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD) in patients with mild and moderate-to-severe stage bvFTD. A total of 42 patients with bvFTD completed a 6-month treatment plan of 20 mg memantine daily in an open-label, self-controlled clinical trial. Patients were divided into two groups according to their Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) score: Mild (score, 21–26); and moderate-to-severe (score, 4–20). Primary endpoints included Neuropsychiatric Inventory Questionnaire (NPI-Q) and Clinic Dementia Rating (CDR) scores, and secondary endpoints comprised Neuropsychiatric Inventory Caregiver Distress Scale (NPI-D), MMSE, Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA), Activity of Daily Life (ADL) and Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD) scores. Memantine treatment had no effect on overall NPI-Q scores, with the exception of the agitation subdomain in all patients with bvFTD. However, patients with moderate-to-severe bvFTD exhibited a better performance than patients with mild bvFTD, demonstrated by improved NPI-Q total scores and subscales of agitation, depression, apathy and disinhibition. In the moderate-to-severe group, CDR and HAMD scores remained stable, but MMSE, MoCA and ADL scores were reduced after 6 months of treatment. Memantine was well-tolerated in patients. In conclusion, patients with moderate-to-severe bvFTD responded significantly better to memantine in comparison to patients with mild bvFTD with regard to their neuropsychiatric scores, while memantine did not present any cognitive or functional benefits in patients with mild bvFTD. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial with a larger number of patients is

  16. An open-label clinical trial to investigate the efficacy and safety of corifollitropin alfa combined with hCG in adult men with hypogonadotropic hypogonadism.

    PubMed

    Nieschlag, Eberhard; Bouloux, Pierre-Marc G; Stegmann, Barbara J; Shankar, R Ravi; Guan, Yanfen; Tzontcheva, Anjela; McCrary Sisk, Christine; Behre, Hermann M

    2017-03-07

    Hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (HH) in men results in insufficient testicular function and deficiencies in testosterone and spermatogenesis. Combinations of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) and recombinant follicle-stimulating hormone (recFSH) have been successful in the treatment of HH. Corifollitropin alfa is a long-acting FSH-analog with demonstrated action in women seeking infertility care. The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy and safety of corifollitropin alfa combined with hCG to increase testicular volume and induce spermatogenesis in men with HH. This was a Phase III, multi-center, open-label, single-arm trial of corifollitropin alfa in azoospermic men aged 18 to 50 years with HH. After 16 weeks of pretreatment of 23 subjects with hCG alone, 18 subjects with normalized testosterone (T) levels who remained azoospermic entered the 52-week combined treatment phase with hCG twice-weekly and 150 μg corifollitropin alfa every other week. The increase in testicular volume (primary efficacy endpoint) and induction of spermatogenesis resulting in a sperm count ≥1 × 10(6)/mL (key secondary efficacy endpoint) during 52 weeks of combined treatment were assessed. Safety was evaluated by the presence of anti-corifollitropin alfa antibodies and the occurrence of adverse events (AEs). Mean (±SD) testicular volume increased from 8.6 (±6.09) mL to 17.8 (±8.93) mL (geometric mean fold increase, 2.30 [95% CI: 2.03, 2.62]); 14 (77.8%) subjects reached a sperm count ≥1 × 10(6)/mL. No subject developed confirmed anti-corifollitropin alfa antibodies during the trial. Treatment was generally well tolerated. Corifollitropin alfa 150 μg administrated every other week combined with twice-weekly hCG for 52 weeks increased testicular volume significantly, and induced spermatogenesis in >75% of men with HH who had remained azoospermic after hCG treatment alone. ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01709331 .

  17. Relapse Prevention in Schizophrenia and Schizoaffective Disorder with Risperidone Long-Acting Injectable vs Quetiapine: Results of a Long-Term, Open-Label, Randomized Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Gaebel, Wolfgang; Schreiner, Andreas; Bergmans, Paul; de Arce, Rosario; Rouillon, Frédéric; Cordes, Joachim; Eriksson, Lars; Smeraldi, Enrico

    2010-01-01

    Chronic management of schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorders is frequently complicated by symptomatic relapse. An open-label, randomized, active-controlled, 2-year trial evaluated 710 patients with schizophrenia or related disorders who were switched from stable treatment with oral risperidone, olanzapine, or conventional neuroleptics to risperidone long-acting injectable (RLAI) or oral quetiapine. Primary effectiveness evaluation was time-to-relapse. Safety evaluations included adverse events (AEs) reported for the duration of the study, Extrapyramidal Symptom Rating Scale (ESRS), clinical laboratory tests, and vital signs. A total of 666 patients (n=329 RLAI, n=337 quetiapine) were evaluable for effectiveness measures. Baseline demographics were similar between treatment groups. Kaplan–Meier estimate of time-to-relapse was significantly longer with RLAI (p<0.0001). Relapse occurred in 16.5% of patients with RLAI and 31.3% with quetiapine. RLAI and quetiapine were both safe and well tolerated. Weight gain affected 7% of patients with RLAI and 6% with quetiapine, with mean end point increases of 1.25±6.61 and 0±6.55 kg, respectively. There were no significant between-group differences in weight gain. ESRS total scores decreased similarly after randomization to either RLAI or quetiapine. Extrapyramidal AEs occurred in 10% of patients with RLAI and 6% with quetiapine. Treatment-emergent potentially prolactin-related AEs were reported in 15 (5%) patients with RLAI and 5 (2%) patients with quetiapine; hyperprolactinemia was reported in 43 (13.1%) patients with RLAI and 5 (1.5%) patients with quetiapine. Somnolence occurred in 2% of patients with RLAI and 11% with quetiapine. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a randomized clinical trial directly comparing relapse prevention with a second-generation long-acting injectable antipsychotic and oral therapy. Time-to-relapse in stable patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder was

  18. Effectiveness of fluticasone furoate plus vilanterol on asthma control in clinical practice: an open-label, parallel group, randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Woodcock, Ashley; Vestbo, Jørgen; Bakerly, Nawar Diar; New, John; Gibson, J Martin; McCorkindale, Sheila; Jones, Rupert; Collier, Susan; Lay-Flurrie, James; Frith, Lucy; Jacques, Loretta; Fletcher, Joanne L; Harvey, Catherine; Svedsater, Henrik; Leather, David

    2017-09-10

    Evidence for management of asthma comes from closely monitored efficacy trials done in highly selected patient groups. There is a need for randomised trials that are closer to usual clinical practice. We did an open-label, randomised, controlled, two-arm effectiveness trial at 74 general practice clinics in Salford and South Manchester, UK. Patients aged 18 years or older with a general practitioner's diagnosis of symptomatic asthma and on maintenance inhaler therapy were randomly assigned to initiate treatment with a once-daily inhaled combination of either 100 μg or 200 μg fluticasone furoate with 25 μg vilanterol or optimised usual care and followed up for 12 months. The primary endpoint was the percentage of patients who achieved an asthma control test (ACT) score of 20 or greater or an increase in ACT score from baseline of 3 or greater at 24 weeks (termed responders), in patients with a baseline ACT score less than 20 (the primary effectiveness analysis population). All effectiveness analyses were done according to the intention-to-treat principle. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01706198. Between Nov 12, 2012, and Dec 16, 2016, 4725 patients were enrolled and 4233 randomly assigned to initiate treatment with fluticasone furoate and vilanterol (n=2114) or usual care (n=2119). 1207 patients (605 assigned to usual care, 602 to fluticasone furoate and vilanterol) had a baseline ACT score greater than or equal to 20 and were thus excluded from the primary effectiveness analysis population. At week 24, the odds of being a responder were higher for patients who initiated treatment with fluticasone furoate and vilanterol than for those on usual care (977 [71%] of 1373 in the fluticasone furoate and vilanterol group vs 784 [56%] of 1399 in the usual care group; odds ratio [OR] 2·00 [95% CI 1·70-2·34], p<0·0001). At week 24, the adjusted mean ACT score increased by 4·4 points from baseline in patients initiated with fluticasone

  19. Efficacy and safety of scorpion antivenom plus prazosin compared with prazosin alone for venomous scorpion (Mesobuthus tamulus) sting: randomised open label clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Objective Envenomation by Mesobuthus tamulus scorpion sting can result in serious cardiovascular effects. Scorpion antivenom is a specific treatment for scorpion sting. Evidence for the benefit of scorpion antivenom and its efficacy compared with that of commonly used vasodilators, such as prazosin, is scarce. We assessed the efficacy of prazosin combined with scorpion antivenom, compared with prazosin alone, in individuals with autonomic storm caused by scorpion sting. Design Prospective, open label randomised controlled trial. Setting General hospital inpatients (Bawaskar Hospital and Research Centre Mahad Dist-Raigad Maharashtra, India). Participants Seventy patients with grade 2 scorpion envenomation, older than six months, with no cardiorespiratory or central nervous system abnormalities. Intervention Scorpion antivenom plus prazosin (n=35) or prazosin alone (n=35) assigned by block randomisation. Treatment was not masked. Analysis was by intention to treat. Main outcome measures The primary end point was the proportion of patients achieving resolution of the clinical syndrome (sweating, salivation, cool extremities, priapism, hypertension or hypotension, tachycardia) 10 hours after administration of study drugs. Secondary end points were time required for complete resolution of clinical syndrome, prevention of deterioration to higher grade, doses of prazosin required overall and within 10 hours, and adverse events. The study protocol was approved by the independent ethics committee of Mumbai. Results Mean (SD) recovery times in hours for the prazosin plus scorpion antivenom group compared with the prazosin alone groups were: sweating 3 (1.1) v 6.6 (2.6); salivation 1.9 (0.9) v 3 (1.9); priapism 4.7 (1.5) v 9.4 (1.5). Mean (SD) doses of prazosin in the groups were 2 (2.3) and 4 (3.5), respectively. 32 patients (91.4%, 95% confidence interval 76.9% to 97.8%) in the prazosin plus antivenom group showed complete resolution of the clinical syndrome within 10 hours

  20. Recombinant fusion ESAT6-CFP10 immunogen as a skin test reagent for tuberculosis diagnosis: an open-label, randomized, two-centre phase 2a clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Li, F; Xu, M; Qin, C; Xia, L; Xiong, Y; Xi, X; Fan, X; Gu, J; Pu, J; Wu, Q; Lu, S; Wang, G

    2016-10-01

    We sought to assess the accuracy and safety of the ESAT6-CFP10 reagent in diagnosing tuberculosis (TB) disease. An open-label, randomized phase 2a trial was conducted in 56 healthy adults and 88 TB patients at one medical centre and one teaching hospital in China. All participants received 0.1, 0.5, 1 or 2 μg ESAT6-CFP10 in their right forearm. Moreover, 56 healthy volunteers and 56 patients were given tuberculin-purified protein derivative (TB-PPD) in their left forearm. The remaining 32 patients were administered placebo. The main outcome measure was induration diameter. An enzyme-linked immunospot (ELISPOT) assay was conducted before the skin test. The ESAT6-CFP10 test caused a higher positivity rate than placebo (81.2% (26/32) vs. 3.1% (1/32); p <0.001). The median maximum induration diameter after ESAT6-CFP10 injection was 17.0 (interquartile range (IQR), 14.0-21.7) mm, similar to that for TB-PPD (17.5 (IQR, 7.0-30.5) mm). The diagnostic accuracy of ESAT6-CFP10 was superior to that of TB-PPD (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC), 0.870 (95% confidence interval (CI), 0.796-0.944) vs. 0.686 (95% CI, 0.585-0.786); p <0.001). When analysed in all participants, ESAT6-CFP10 had comparable AUC values to the ELISPOT assay (0.849 (95% CI, 0.835-0.952) vs. 0.908 (95% CI, 0.852-0.965)). Local itching (12/144, 8.3%) and pain (26/144, 18.1%) were the main side effects of ESAT6-CFP10. No serious adverse events were reported. The ESAT6-CFP10 skin test appears to be a safe and promising tool; further testing will confirm its efficacy in identifying TB disease. Copyright © 2016 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Efficacy and safety of scorpion antivenom plus prazosin compared with prazosin alone for venomous scorpion (Mesobuthus tamulus) sting: randomised open label clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Bawaskar, Himmatrao Saluba; Bawaskar, Pramodini Himmatrao

    2011-01-05

    Envenomation by Mesobuthus tamulus scorpion sting can result in serious cardiovascular effects. Scorpion antivenom is a specific treatment for scorpion sting. Evidence for the benefit of scorpion antivenom and its efficacy compared with that of commonly used vasodilators, such as prazosin, is scarce. We assessed the efficacy of prazosin combined with scorpion antivenom, compared with prazosin alone, in individuals with autonomic storm caused by scorpion sting. Prospective, open label randomised controlled trial. General hospital inpatients (Bawaskar Hospital and Research Centre Mahad Dist-Raigad Maharashtra, India). Seventy patients with grade 2 scorpion envenomation, older than six months, with no cardiorespiratory or central nervous system abnormalities. Scorpion antivenom plus prazosin (n=35) or prazosin alone (n=35) assigned by block randomisation. Treatment was not masked. Analysis was by intention to treat. The primary end point was the proportion of patients achieving resolution of the clinical syndrome (sweating, salivation, cool extremities, priapism, hypertension or hypotension, tachycardia) 10 hours after administration of study drugs. Secondary end points were time required for complete resolution of clinical syndrome, prevention of deterioration to higher grade, doses of prazosin required overall and within 10 hours, and adverse events. The study protocol was approved by the independent ethics committee of Mumbai. Mean (SD) recovery times in hours for the prazosin plus scorpion antivenom group compared with the prazosin alone groups were: sweating 3 (1.1) v 6.6 (2.6); salivation 1.9 (0.9) v 3 (1.9); priapism 4.7 (1.5) v 9.4 (1.5). Mean (SD) doses of prazosin in the groups were 2 (2.3) and 4 (3.5), respectively. 32 patients (91.4%, 95% confidence interval 76.9% to 97.8%) in the prazosin plus antivenom group showed complete resolution of the clinical syndrome within 10 hours of administration of treatment compared with eight patients in the prazosin

  2. An open-label clinical trial of agalsidase alfa enzyme replacement therapy in children with Fabry disease who are naïve to enzyme replacement therapy

    PubMed Central

    Goker-Alpan, Ozlem; Longo, Nicola; McDonald, Marie; Shankar, Suma P; Schiffmann, Raphael; Chang, Peter; Shen, Yinghua; Pano, Arian

    2016-01-01

    Background Following a drug manufacturing process change, safety/efficacy of agalsidase alfa were evaluated in enzyme replacement therapy (ERT)-naïve children with Fabry disease. Methods In an open-label, multicenter, Phase II study (HGT-REP-084; Shire), 14 children aged ≥7 years received 0.2 mg/kg agalsidase alfa every other week for 55 weeks. Primary endpoints: safety, changes in autonomic function (2-hour Holter monitoring). Secondary endpoints: estimated glomerular filtration rate, left ventricular mass index (LVMI), midwall fractional shortening, pharmacodynamic parameters, and patient-reported quality-of-life. Results Among five boys (median 10.2 [range 6.7, 14.4] years) and nine girls (14.8 [10.1, 15.9] years), eight patients experienced infusion-related adverse events (vomiting, n=4; nausea, n=3; dyspnea, n=3; chest discomfort, n=2; chills, n=2; dizziness, n=2; headache, n=2). One of these had several hypersensitivity episodes. However, no patient discontinued for safety reasons and no serious adverse events occurred. One boy developed immunoglobulin G (IgG) and neutralizing antidrug antibodies. Overall, no deterioration in cardiac function was observed in seven patients with low/abnormal SDNN (standard deviation of all filtered RR intervals; <100 ms) and no left ventricular hypertrophy: mean (SD) baseline SDNN, 81.6 (20.9) ms; mean (95% confidence interval [CI]) change from baseline to week 55, 17.4 (2.9, 31.9) ms. Changes in SDNN correlated with changes in LVMI (r=−0.975). No change occurred in secondary efficacy endpoints: mean (95% CI) change from baseline at week 55 in LVMI, 0.16 (−3.3, 3.7) g/m2.7; midwall fractional shortening, −0.62% (−2.7%, 1.5%); estimated glomerular filtration rate, 0.15 (−11.4, 11.7) mL/min/1.73 m2; urine protein, −1.8 (−6.0, 2.4) mg/dL; urine microalbumin, 0.6 (−0.5, 1.7) mg/dL; plasma globotriaosylceramide (Gb3), −5.71 (−10.8, −0.6) nmol/mL; urinary Gb3, −1,403.3 (−3,714.0, 907.4) nmol/g creatinine

  3. Routine versus clinically driven laboratory monitoring and first-line antiretroviral therapy strategies in African children with HIV (ARROW): a 5-year open-label randomised factorial trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Summary Background No trials have investigated routine laboratory monitoring for children with HIV, nor four-drug induction strategies to increase durability of first-line antiretroviral therapy (ART). Methods In this open-label parallel-group trial, Ugandan and Zimbabwean children or adolescents with HIV, aged 3 months to 17 years and eligible for ART, were randomly assigned in a factorial design. Randomisation was to either clinically driven monitoring or routine laboratory and clinical monitoring for toxicity (haematology and biochemistry) and efficacy (CD4 cell counts; non-inferiority monitoring randomisation); and simultaneously to standard three-drug or to four-drug induction first-line ART, in three groups: three-drug treatment (non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor [NNRTI], lamivudine, abacavir; group A) versus four-drug induction (NNRTI, lamivudine, abacavir, zidovudine; groups B and C), decreasing after week 36 to three-drug NNRTI, lamivudine, plus abacavir (group B) or lamivudine, abacavir, plus zidovudine (group C; superiority ART-strategy randomisation). For patients assigned to routine laboratory monitoring, results were returned every 12 weeks to clinicians; for clinically driven monitoring, toxicity results were only returned for requested clinical reasons or if grade 4. Children switched to second-line ART for WHO stage 3 or 4 events or (routine laboratory monitoring only) age-dependent WHO CD4 criteria. Randomisation used computer-generated sequentially numbered tables incorporated securely within the database. Primary efficacy endpoints were new WHO stage 4 events or death for monitoring and change in CD4 percentage at 72 and 144 weeks for ART-strategy randomisations; the co-primary toxicity endpoint was grade 3 or 4 adverse events. Analysis was by intention to treat. This trial is registered, ISRCTN24791884. Findings 1206 children were randomly assigned to clinically driven (n=606) versus routine laboratory monitoring (n=600), and

  4. Randomized, open label, controlled clinical trial of oral administration of an egg albumin-based protein supplement to patients on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis.

    PubMed

    González-Espinoza, Liliana; Gutiérrez-Chávez, Jorge; del Campo, Fabiola Martín; Martínez-Ramírez, Héctor R; Cortés-Sanabria, Laura; Rojas-Campos, Enrique; Cueto-Manzano, Alfonso M

    2005-01-01

    Malnutrition is highly prevalent in patients on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) and is a strong predictor of increased morbidity and mortality. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of oral administration of an egg albumin-based protein supplement on the nutritional status of CAPD patients. In this randomized, open label, controlled clinical trial, 28 CAPD patients were allocated to a study (n = 13) or a control (n = 15) group. Both groups received conventional nutritional counseling; the study group received, additionally, an oral egg albumin-based supplement. During a 6-month follow-up, all patients had monthly clinical and biochemical evaluations and quarterly assessments of adequacy of dialysis and nutrition. Serum albumin Levels were not different between groups; however, a significant increase (baseline vs final) was observed in the study group (2.64+/-0.35 vs 3.05+/-0.72 g/dL) but not in the control group (2.66+/-0.56 vs 2.80+/-0.54 mg/dL). Calorie and protein intake increased more in the study group (calories 1331+/-432 vs 1872+/-698 kcal; proteins 1.0+/-0.3 vs 1.7+/-0.7 g/kg) than in the control group (calories 1423+/-410 vs 1567+/-381 kcal; proteins 1.0+/-0.4 vs 1.0+/-0.3 g/kg). Similarly, non-protein nitrogen appearance rate (nPNA) increased significantly more in the study (1.00+/-0.23 vs 1.18+/-0.35 g/kg/day) than in the control group (0.91+/-0.11 vs 0.97+/-0.14 g/kg/ day). Triceps skinfold thickness (TSF) and midarm muscle area (MAMA) displayed a nonsignificant trend to a greater increase in the study group (TSF 16.7+/-8.7 vs 18.3+/-10.7 mm; MAMA 23.8+/-6.2 vs 25.8+/-5.9 cm2) than in controls (TSF 16.4+/-5.7 vs 16.9+/-7.0 mm; MAMA 28.7+/-7.8 vs 30.0+/-7.9 cm2). At the end of follow-up, the frequency of patients with moderate or severe malnutrition decreased 6% in the control group and decreased 28% in the study group. At the final evaluation, the most important predictors of serum albumin were the oral egg albumin

  5. Long-term safety and efficacy of dalfampridine for walking impairment in patients with multiple sclerosis: Results of open-label extensions of two Phase 3 clinical trials

    PubMed Central

    Goodman, Andrew D; Bethoux, Francois; Brown, Theodore R; Schapiro, Randall T; Cohen, Ron; Marinucci, Lawrence N; Henney, Herbert R

    2015-01-01

    Background: In Phase 3 double-blind trials (MS-F203 and MS-F204), dalfampridine extended release tablets 10 mg twice daily (dalfampridine-ER; prolonged-release fampridine in Europe; fampridine modified or sustained release elsewhere) improved walking speed relative to placebo in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). Objectives: Evaluation of long-term safety and efficacy of dalfampridine-ER in open-label extensions (MS-F203EXT, MS-F204EXT). Methods: Patients received dalfampridine-ER 10 mg twice daily; and had Timed 25-Foot Walk (T25FW) assessments at 2, 14 and 26 weeks, and then every 6 months. Subjects were categorized as dalfampridine-ER responders or non-responders, based on their treatment response in the double-blind parent trials that assessed T25FW. Results: We had 269 patients enter MS-F203EXT and 154 patients complete it; for a maximum exposure of 5 years. We had 214 patients enter MS-F204EXT and 146 complete it; for a maximum exposure of 3.3 years. No new safety signals emerged and dalfampridine-ER tolerability was consistent with the double-blind phase. Improvements in walking speed were lost after dalfampridine-ER was discontinued in the parent trial, but returned by the 2-week assessment after re-initiation of the drug. Throughout the extensions, mean improvement in walking speed declined, but remained improved, among the double-blind responders as compared with non-responders. Conclusions: The dalfamipridine-ER safety profile was consistent with the parent trials. Although walking speed decreased over time, dalfampridine-ER responders continued to show improved walking speed, which was sustained compared with non-responders. PMID:25583832

  6. Long-term safety and efficacy of dalfampridine for walking impairment in patients with multiple sclerosis: Results of open-label extensions of two Phase 3 clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Goodman, Andrew D; Bethoux, Francois; Brown, Theodore R; Schapiro, Randall T; Cohen, Ron; Marinucci, Lawrence N; Henney, Herbert R; Blight, Andrew R

    2015-09-01

    In Phase 3 double-blind trials (MS-F203 and MS-F204), dalfampridine extended release tablets 10 mg twice daily (dalfampridine-ER; prolonged-release fampridine in Europe; fampridine modified or sustained release elsewhere) improved walking speed relative to placebo in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). Evaluation of long-term safety and efficacy of dalfampridine-ER in open-label extensions (MS-F203EXT, MS-F204EXT). Patients received dalfampridine-ER 10 mg twice daily; and had Timed 25-Foot Walk (T25FW) assessments at 2, 14 and 26 weeks, and then every 6 months. Subjects were categorized as dalfampridine-ER responders or non-responders, based on their treatment response in the double-blind parent trials that assessed T25FW. We had 269 patients enter MS-F203EXT and 154 patients complete it; for a maximum exposure of 5 years. We had 214 patients enter MS-F204EXT and 146 complete it; for a maximum exposure of 3.3 years. No new safety signals emerged and dalfampridine-ER tolerability was consistent with the double-blind phase. Improvements in walking speed were lost after dalfampridine-ER was discontinued in the parent trial, but returned by the 2-week assessment after re-initiation of the drug. Throughout the extensions, mean improvement in walking speed declined, but remained improved, among the double-blind responders as compared with non-responders. The dalfamipridine-ER safety profile was consistent with the parent trials. Although walking speed decreased over time, dalfampridine-ER responders continued to show improved walking speed, which was sustained compared with non-responders. © The Author(s), 2015.

  7. Clinical effectiveness and safety of escitalopram and desvenlafaxine in patients of depression with anxiety: A randomized, open-label controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Maity, Nabakumar; Ghosal, Malay Kumar; Gupta, Anupam; Sil, Amrita; Chakraborty, Sushmita; Chatterjee, Suparna

    2014-01-01

    Aim: Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI) and serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRI) are effective in treating anxiety disorders associated with major depressive disorder (MDD). This randomized, controlled, parallel-group, open-label, phase 4 trial (CTRI/2012/08/002895) was undertaken to compare the effectiveness and safety of desvenlafaxine versus escitalopram, a standard antidepressant. Materials and Methods: Effectiveness was assessed using the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D17) and Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (HAM-A). Response to treatment was assessed by ≥50% decrease of baseline scores (responder rate). Safety and tolerability was evaluated by changes in routine laboratory parameters, vital signs, and adverse events reported by the subject and/or observed by the clinician. Results: Responder rates for both HAM-A and HAM-D scores at 8 weeks were better in the escitalopram group compared to the desvenlafaxine group (HAM-A 76.92% vs. 71.05%; HAM-D 79.48% vs 73.68%) but the differences were not statistically significant (P = 0.59 and P = 0.61). Within group changes of both scores, from baseline to subsequent visits in both treatment arms were statistically significant (P < 0.01). Conclusion: The effectiveness of desvenlafaxine was comparable to escitalopram, but escitalopram was better tolerated. PMID:25097285

  8. Clinical effectiveness and safety of escitalopram and desvenlafaxine in patients of depression with anxiety: a randomized, open-label controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Maity, Nabakumar; Ghosal, Malay Kumar; Gupta, Anupam; Sil, Amrita; Chakraborty, Sushmita; Chatterjee, Suparna

    2014-01-01

    Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI) and serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRI) are effective in treating anxiety disorders associated with major depressive disorder (MDD). This randomized, controlled, parallel-group, open-label, phase 4 trial (CTRI/2012/08/002895) was undertaken to compare the effectiveness and safety of desvenlafaxine versus escitalopram, a standard antidepressant. Effectiveness was assessed using the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D17) and Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (HAM-A). Response to treatment was assessed by ≥50% decrease of baseline scores (responder rate). Safety and tolerability was evaluated by changes in routine laboratory parameters, vital signs, and adverse events reported by the subject and/or observed by the clinician. Responder rates for both HAM-A and HAM-D scores at 8 weeks were better in the escitalopram group compared to the desvenlafaxine group (HAM-A 76.92% vs. 71.05%; HAM-D 79.48% vs 73.68%) but the differences were not statistically significant (P = 0.59 and P = 0.61). Within group changes of both scores, from baseline to subsequent visits in both treatment arms were statistically significant (P < 0.01). The effectiveness of desvenlafaxine was comparable to escitalopram, but escitalopram was better tolerated.

  9. Efficacy and Tolerability of a Combined Moxifloxacin/Dexamethasone Formulation for Topical Prophylaxis in Phacoemulsification: An Open-Label Single-Arm Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Espiritu, Cesar Ramon G.; Sy, Mary Ellen A.; Tayengco, Tommee Lynne G.

    2011-01-01

    Background. The use of a fixed-combination antibiotic corticosteroid for infection prophylaxis in Asian patients undergoing phacoemulsification has not been reported. Methods. A 15-day, open-label, single-arm trial of 64 patients for phacoemulsification with intraocular lens (IOL) implantation is described. Patients applied moxifloxacin 0.5%/dexamethasone 0.1% (Vigadexa) eye drops four times daily before and until 15 days after surgery. Anterior chamber (AC) reaction, visual acuity, ocular pain and signs, and intraocular pressure (IOP) were assessed at baseline and on postoperative days 1, 3, 8, and 15. Results. At day 15, 55 (91.7%) patients scored 0 (<5 cells) in AC reaction. No surgery-related infection occurred. Mean best-corrected visual acuity improved 0.5 logMAR from baseline to 0.0 logMAR (P < .0001). Mean IOP remained at 12-13 mm Hg over the 15-day treatment. Only 2 patients (3.1%) reported minimum ocular pain. Two (3.1%) patients were shifted to prednisolone acetate for severe inflammation. At the end of the study period, 8.3% were given fluorometholone for 1 week for AC reaction grade >0. No drug-related adverse event was reported. Conclusion. Following phacoemulsification and IOL implantation, the topical combination moxifloxacin 0.5%/dexamethasone 0.1% was effective in preventing infection and controlling inflammation and was well tolerated. PMID:21772987

  10. Baclofen for binge eating: an open-label trial.

    PubMed

    Broft, Allegra I; Spanos, Alexia; Corwin, Rebecca L; Mayer, Laurel; Steinglass, Joanna; Devlin, Michael J; Attia, Evelyn; Walsh, B Timothy

    2007-12-01

    Baclofen is a GABA-B agonist that may be useful in the treatment of substance use disorders, and also reduces 'binge-like' eating in rodents. We hypothesized that baclofen might be effective in reducing binge eating episodes in binge eating disorder (BED) and bulimia nervosa (BN). Seven women with BED (n = 4) or BN (n = 3) took baclofen (60 mg/day) for 10 weeks. Six out of seven patients completed the full 10-week trial. Five out of seven participants (3 BED; 2 BN) demonstrated 50% or greater reduction of frequency of binge eating from beginning to end of the study. Three out of seven participants (2 BED; 1 BN) were free of binge eating at study end. Four out of seven participants elected to continue baclofen at study end. Baclofen was well tolerated by the participants. In this open-label trial, baclofen was associated with decreased binge eating frequency in patients with BED and BN. (c) 2007 by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. An open-label clinical trial of the effects of age and gender on the pharmacodynamics, pharmacokinetics and safety of the ghrelin receptor agonist anamorelin

    PubMed Central

    Leese, Philip T; Trang, John M; Blum, Robert A; de Groot, Eleanor

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To assess the effect of age and gender on the pharmacokinetics (PK) of the ghrelin receptor agonist anamorelin. Methods Three demographic cohorts of healthy subjects were enrolled in this single-center, open-label study. Subjects received a single oral dose (25 mg) of anamorelin HCl. Serial blood samples were collected over 24 hours to assess anamorelin PK and circulating growth hormone (GH) levels. Data were compared with a reference cohort. Results Anamorelin was rapidly absorbed in all cohorts; peak concentrations were observed 30–45 minutes and 2–4 hours post-dose, which declined biexponentially with mean terminal half-lives of 6–7 hours. An age effect on Cmax and AUC∞ was not apparent; however, mean AUC∞ values were approximately 1.8–1.9-fold higher in the female cohorts than in the reference male cohort. GH increase was rapid and virtually identical in both sexes, though attenuated in elderly subjects. No clinically significant safety or tolerability findings were observed. Conclusions While PK parameters do suggest higher exposure in females, this effect is considered to be modest given the variability of the 6–8 subjects per cohort. Moreover, no such effect was observed in the pharmacodynamic responses, thus, dose adjustment for age and gender is considered unnecessary. PMID:26640742

  12. Sudarshan Kriya yoga improves quality of life in healthy people living with HIV (PLHIV): results from an open label randomized clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Mawar, N.; Katendra, T.; Bagul, R.; Bembalkar, S.; Vedamurthachar, A.; Tripathy, S.; Srinivas, K.; Mandar, K.; Kumar, N.; Gupte, N.; Paranjape, R.S.

    2015-01-01

    Background & objectives: Improving quality of life (QOL) of healthy people living with HIV (PLHIV) is critical needing home-based, long-term strategy. Sudarshan Kriya yoga (SKY) intervention is acknowledged for its positive impact on health. It is hypothesised that SKY would improve PLHIV's QOL, justifying an evaluation. Methods: In this open label randomized controlled pilot trial, 61 adult PLHIV with CD4 count more than 400 cells/µl and Karnofsky scale score above 70 were enrolled. Those with cardiac disease, jaundice, tuberculosis, or on antiretroviral therapy/yoga intervention were excluded. All were given standard care, randomized to SKY intervention (31: I-SKY) and only standard of care in control (30: O-SOC) arms. The I-SKY participants were trained for six days to prepare for daily practice of SKY at home for 30 min. A validated 31-item WHOQOL-HIVBREF questionnaire was used to document effect in both arms from baseline to three visits at 4 wk interval. Results: Baseline QOL scores, hypertension and CD4 count were similar in both arms. An overall 6 per cent improvement of QOL scores was observed in I-SKY group as compared to O-SOC group, after controlling for baseline variables like age, gender, education and occupation (P =0.016); 12 per cent for physical (P =0.004), 11 per cent psychological (P =0.023) and 9 per cent level of independence (P =0.001) domains. Improvement in I-SKY observed at post-training and in the SKY adherence group showed increase in these two domains. Conclusions: A significant improvement in QOL scores was observed for the three health related QOL domains in SKY intervention arm. This low cost strategy improved physical and psychological state of PLHIV calling for upscaling with effective monitoring for sustainability of quality of life. PMID:25857500

  13. Pasireotide can induce sustained decreases in urinary cortisol and provide clinical benefit in patients with Cushing's disease: results from an open-ended, open-label extension trial.

    PubMed

    Schopohl, Jochen; Gu, Feng; Rubens, Robert; Van Gaal, Luc; Bertherat, Jérôme; Ligueros-Saylan, Monica; Trovato, Andrew; Hughes, Gareth; Salgado, Luiz R; Boscaro, Marco; Pivonello, Rosario

    2015-10-01

    Report the efficacy and safety of pasireotide sc in patients with Cushing's disease during an open-ended, open-label extension to a randomized, double-blind, 12-month, Phase III study. 162 patients entered the core study. 58 patients who had mean UFC ≤ ULN at month 12 or were benefiting clinically from pasireotide entered the extension. Patients received the same dose of pasireotide as at the end of the core study (300-1,200 μg bid). Dose titration was permitted according to efficacy or drug-related adverse events. 40 patients completed 24 months' treatment. Of the patients who entered the extension, 50.0% (29/58) and 34.5% (20/58) had controlled UFC (UFC ≤ ULN) at months 12 and 24, respectively. The mean percentage decrease in UFC was 57.3% (95% CI 40.7-73.9; n = 52) and 62.1% (50.8-73.5; n = 33) after 12 and 24 months' treatment, respectively. Improvements in clinical signs of Cushing's disease were sustained up to month 24. The most frequent drug-related adverse events in patients who received ≥1 dose of pasireotide (n = 162) from core baseline until the 24-month cut-off were diarrhea (55.6%), nausea (48.1%), hyperglycemia (38.9%), and cholelithiasis (31.5%). No new safety issues were identified during the extension. Reductions in mean UFC and improvements in clinical signs of Cushing's disease were maintained over 24 months of pasireotide treatment. The safety profile of pasireotide is typical for a somatostatin analogue, except for the frequency and degree of hyperglycemia; patients should be monitored for changes in glucose homeostasis. Pasireotide represents the first approved pituitary-targeted treatment for patients with Cushing's disease.

  14. The anti-CD6 antibody itolizumab provides clinical benefit without lymphopenia in rheumatoid arthritis patients: results from a 6-month, open-label phase I clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Pedro C; Prada, Dinorah M; Moreno, Ernesto; Aira, Lazaro E; Molinero, Claudino; Lopez, Ana M; Gómez, Jorge A; Hernandez, Isabel M; Martinez, Jose P; Reyes, Yusimi; Milera, Joel M; Hernandez, Maria V; Torres, Roberto; Avila, Yisel; Barrese, Yinet; Viada, Carmen; Montero, Enrique; Hernández, Patricia

    2017-09-30

    Itolizumab is a humanized anti-CD6 monoclonal antibody (mAb) that has previously shown encouraging results, in terms of safety and positive clinical effects, in a 6-week monotherapy clinical trial conducted in RA patients. The current phase I study evaluated the safety and clinical response for a longer treatment of 12 itolizumab intravenous doses in subjects with active RA despite previous DMARD therapy. Twenty one subjects were enrolled in four dose groups (0.1, 0.2, 0.4 and 0.8 mg/kg). Efficacy endpoints including American College of Rheumatology (ACR)20, ACR50 and ACR70 response rates and Disease Activity Score in 28 joints (DAS28) were monitored at baseline and at specific time points over a 10-week follow-up period. Itolizumab was well tolerated up to the highest tested dose. No related serious adverse events were reported and most adverse events were mild. Remarkably, itolizumab treatment did not produce lymphopenia and, therefore, was not associated with infections. All patients achieved a clinical response (ACR20) at least once during the study. Eleven subjects (55%) achieved at least a 20% improvement in ACR just one week after the first itolizumab administration. The clinical response was observed from the beginning of the treatment and was sustained over 24 weeks. The efficacy profile of this 12-week treatment was similar to that of the previous study (6-week treatment). These results reinforce the safety profile of itolizumab and provide further evidence on the clinical benefit from the use of this anti-CD6 mAb in RA patients. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. © 2017 British Society for Immunology.

  15. Effectiveness of Digital Medicines to Improve Clinical Outcomes in Patients with Uncontrolled Hypertension and Type 2 Diabetes: Prospective, Open-Label, Cluster-Randomized Pilot Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Frias, Juan; Raja, Praveen; Kim, Yoona; Savage, George; Osterberg, Lars

    2017-01-01

    Background Hypertension and type 2 diabetes mellitus are major modifiable risk factors for cardiac, cerebrovascular, and kidney diseases. Reasons for poor disease control include nonadherence, lack of patient engagement, and therapeutic inertia. Objective The aim of this study was to assess the impact on clinic-measured blood pressure (BP) and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) using a digital medicine offering (DMO) that measures medication ingestion adherence, physical activity, and rest using digital medicines (medication taken with ingestible sensor), wearable sensor patches, and a mobile device app. Methods Participants with elevated systolic BP (SBP ≥140 mm Hg) and HbA1c (≥7%) failing antihypertensive (≥2 medications) and oral diabetes therapy were enrolled in this three-arm, 12-week, cluster-randomized study. Participants used DMO (includes digital medicines, the wearable sensor patch, and the mobile device app) for 4 or 12 weeks or received usual care based on site randomization. Providers in the DMO arms could review the DMO data via a Web portal. In all three arms, providers were instructed to make medical decisions (medication titration, adherence counseling, education, and lifestyle coaching) on all available clinical information at each visit. Primary outcome was change in SBP at week 4. Other outcomes included change in SBP and HbA1c at week 12, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) at weeks 4 and 12, as well as proportion of patients at BP goal (<140/90 mm Hg) at weeks 4 and 12, medical decisions, and medication adherence patterns. Results Final analysis included 109 participants (12 sites; age: mean 58.7, SD years; female: 49.5%, 54/109; Hispanic: 45.9%, 50/109; income ≤ US $20,000: 56.9%, 62/109; and ≤ high school education: 52.3%, 57/109). The DMO groups had 80 participants (7 sites) and usual care had 29 participants (5 sites). At week 4, DMO resulted in a statistically greater SBP reduction than

  16. Usability of a novel disposable autoinjector device for ixekizumab: results from a qualitative study and an open-label clinical trial, including patient-reported experience

    PubMed Central

    Callis Duffin, Kristina; Bukhalo, Michael; Bobonich, Margaret A; Shrom, David; Zhao, Fangyi; Kershner, James R; Gill, Anne; Pangallo, Beth; Shuler, Catherine L; Bagel, Jerry

    2016-01-01

    Background Most biologic therapies for psoriasis are delivered via subcutaneous injection. Ixekizumab, an anti-interleukin 17A monoclonal antibody approved for patients with moderate-to-severe plaque psoriasis, is delivered subcutaneously via prefilled syringe or autoinjector. Here we report the results of an ixekizumab autoinjector usability study as well as the patient-reported experience with the autoinjector in a clinical trial. Methods The usability study enrolled 49 subjects (patients with a range of autoimmune conditions or their caregivers). Subjects were randomized to a trained or untrained group and were evaluated for their ability to perform an injection successfully when provided the device and the instructions for use. In the clinical trial, 102 subjects (patients with psoriasis or their caregivers) used the autoinjector to deliver injections of ixekizumab (80 mg every 2 weeks after a starting dose of 160 mg). At weeks 0, 4, and 8, subjects completed the subcutaneous administration assessment questionnaire, which assesses the ease of use and confidence with using an injection device. Results In the usability study, all subjects in the untrained arm performed successful injections, while two subjects in the trained arm had an injection failure. These incidences were not consistent with any pattern of issues with the device or the instructions for use. In the clinical trial, there were two injection failures of 674 total self-injections performed over 12 weeks. At the first use of the device, 95% of subjects either agreed or strongly agreed that the device was “overall easy to use”, and they felt “confident the dose was complete” according to the subcutaneous administration assessment questionnaire. Conclusion The ixekizumab autoinjector was used successfully by patients and caregivers with or without training. Subjects using the autoinjector in a clinical trial felt it was easy to use and felt confident while using it. PMID:27785115

  17. Lanreotide Autogel in the Treatment of Idiopathic Refractory Diarrhea: Results of an Exploratory, Controlled, Before and After, Open-label, Multicenter, Prospective Clinical Trial.

    PubMed

    Bisschops, Raf; De Ruyter, Vincent; Demolin, Gauthier; Baert, Didier; Moreels, Tom; Pattyn, Piet; Verhelst, Hans; Lepoutre, Luc; Arts, Joris; Caenepeel, Philip; Ooghe, Patrick; Codden, Thierry; Maisonobe, Pascal; Petrens, Elke; Tack, Jan

    2016-08-01

    Chronic idiopathic diarrhea is the passage of loose stools >3 times daily, or a stool weight >200 g/d, persisting for >4 weeks without clear clinical cause. Patients refractory to standard anti-diarrhetics have limited treatment options. Somatostatin analogues have the ability to reduce gastrointestinal secretions and motility. This study evaluated the efficacy and safety of lanreotide Autogel(*) 120 mg in chronic idiopathic diarrhea. Other anti-diarrhetics were not allowed during the study and were stopped at screening. Patients received lanreotide Autogel 120 mg at baseline and day 28. Stool frequency and consistency (Bristol Stool Scale) were recorded; quality of life (QoL) was assessed using the 36-item Short Form Health Survey and irritable bowel syndrome QoL questionnaires; adverse events were monitored. The primary outcome was the proportion of patients with a reduction of ≥50% or normalization to a mean of ≤3 stools/d at day 28. Thirty-three patients with >3 stools/d at baseline were included; mean (SD) age was 55.2 (16.4) years. Fourteen patients (42.4%) had a response to lanreotide Autogel at day 28 and 17 (51.5%) at day 56. Mean (SD) number of stools decreased significantly from 5.7 (2.2) at baseline to 3.7 (2.2) at day 56 overall (n = 32; P < 0.001). Significant and clinically meaningful improvements in disease-specific QoL were found in the overall populations. No new safety signals emerged. Lanreotide Autogel 120 mg decreased symptoms in these patients with chronic idiopathic refractory diarrhea, and meaningfully improved QoL. These finding have to be confirmed in further clinical trials. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00891371; Eudract CT 2009-009356-20. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier HS Journals, Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Effect of minoxidil topical foam on frontotemporal and vertex androgenetic alopecia in men: a 104-week open-label clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Kanti, V; Hillmann, K; Kottner, J; Stroux, A; Canfield, D; Blume-Peytavi, U

    2016-07-01

    Topical minoxidil formulations have been shown to be effective in treating androgenetic alopecia (AGA) for 12 months. Efficacy and safety in both frontotemporal and vertex regions over longer application periods have not been studied so far. To evaluate the effect of 5% minoxidil topical foam (5% MTF) in the frontotemporal and vertex areas in patients with moderate AGA over 104 weeks. An 80-week, open-label extension phase was performed, following a 24-week randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study in men with AGA grade IIIvertex to VI. Group 1 (n = 22) received ongoing 5% MTF for 104 weeks, Group 2 (n = 23) received placebo topical foam (plaTF) until week 24, followed by 5% MTF until week 104 during the extension phase. Frontotemporal and vertex target area non-vellus hair counts (f-TAHC, v-TAHC) and cumulative hair width (f-TAHW, v-TAHW) were assessed at baseline and at weeks 24, 52, 76 and 104. In Group 1, f-TAHW and f-TAHC showed a statistically significant increase from baseline to week 52 and week 76, respectively, returning to values comparable to baseline at week 104. No significant differences were found between baseline and week 104 in v-TAHC in Group 1 as well as f-TAHC, v-TAHC, f-TAHW and v-TAHW values in Group 2. 5% MTF is effective in stabilizing hair density, hair width and scalp coverage in both frontotemporal and vertex areas over an application period of 104 weeks, while showing a good safety and tolerability profile with a low rate of irritant contact dermatitis. © 2015 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  19. Effect of additive calcium administration on FGF23 levels in patients with mild chronic kidney disease treated with calcitriol: a randomized, open-labeled clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Han, Nayoung; Hong, Su Hyun; Kim, Yon Su; Kim, Dong Ki; Kim, In-Wha; Ji, Eunhee; Oh, Jung Mi

    2017-01-01

    Background The purpose of the present study was to determine the effect of additional calcium carbonate treatment on fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) levels in patients treated with calcitriol. Methods In this randomized, open-labeled, and parallel-group study, a total of 30 patients with early chronic kidney disease (CKD) and vitamin D deficiency were randomly assigned to two groups and received interventions for 8 weeks: 1) a combination of calcium carbonate and calcitriol group; and 2) calcitriol only group. The primary outcome was the difference in percentage change of serum FGF23 levels from baseline between the two groups. Secondary end points included the changes in serum levels of calcium, phosphate, parathyroid hormone (PTH), and 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25(OH)D) from baseline. Results Serum FGF23 levels were more elevated in the combination group than in the calcitriol-alone group. However, both mean change and percentage change in the serum FGF23 levels during the 8-week period were not significantly different between the two groups. Serum calcium level was increased significantly only in the combination treatment group. There was no significant difference in percentage change of serum calcium levels between the two groups. In addition, changes in serum levels of phosphate, 25(OH)D, or PTH were not significantly different between the two groups. In correlation analysis, changes in serum FGF23 levels were positively correlated with changes in serum calcium and phosphate levels, but not with changes in 25(OH)D or PTH levels. No serious adverse events were observed, however, there was one case of mild gastrointestinal discomfort. Conclusion This study revealed that additional calcium carbonate treatment significantly increased serum FGF23 levels in patients treated with calcitriol, with their synergistic effect in promoting intestinal calcium absorption. This suggests that serum FGF23 levels should be monitored regularly, especially in those who use

  20. An Open-Labeled Trial of Ramelteon in Idiopathic Rapid Eye Movement Sleep Behavior Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Esaki, Yuichi; Kitajima, Tsuyoshi; Koike, Shigefumi; Fujishiro, Hiroshige; Iwata, Yasuyo; Tsuchiya, Akiko; Hirose, Marina; Iwata, Nakao

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder (RBD) is a parasomnia characterized by REM sleep without atonia and elaborate motor activity in association with dream mentation. The melatonin receptor agonist ramelteon has been documented as being effective in two patients with secondary RBD. However, there are no reports on ramelteon treatment for idiopathic RBD. Methods: In an open-labeled trial, we treated 12 consecutive patients with idiopathic RBD for at least 4 w with 8 mg ramelteon given within 30 min before bedtime. Results: Ramelteon treatment did not have a clear effect on REM sleep without atonia or an RBD severity scale measured by video-supported polysomnography. However, clinical assessment using a visual analog scale showed a trend toward significance and there were also definitely positive changes in some individual cases. Ramelteon was well tolerated in most patients, with minor side effects. Conclusions: Considering that ramelteon is associated with few side effects, further study may ascertain whether patients with RBD could be effectively treated by ramelteon, especially when clonazepam may not be suitable due to its side effects. Commentary: A commentary on this article appears in this issue on page 643. Citation: Esaki Y, Kitajima T, Koike S, Fujishiro H, Iwata Y, Tsuchiya A, Hirose M, Iwata N. An open-labeled trial of ramelteon in idiopathic rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder. J Clin Sleep Med 2016;12(5):689–693. PMID:26857053

  1. Simplified antibiotic regimens for treatment of clinical severe infection in the outpatient setting when referral is not possible for young infants in Pakistan (Simplified Antibiotic Therapy Trial [SATT]): a randomised, open-label, equivalence trial.

    PubMed

    Mir, Fatima; Nisar, Imran; Tikmani, Shiyam S; Baloch, Benazir; Shakoor, Sadia; Jehan, Fyezah; Ahmed, Imran; Cousens, Simon; Zaidi, Anita K M

    2017-02-01

    Parenteral antibiotic therapy for young infants (aged 0-59 days) with suspected sepsis is sometimes not available or feasible in countries with high neonatal mortality. Outpatient treatment could save lives in such settings. We aimed to assess the equivalence of two simplified antibiotic regimens, comprising fewer injections and oral rather than parenteral administration, compared with a reference treatment for young infants with clinical severe infection. We undertook the Simplified Antibiotic Therapy Trial (SATT), a three-arm, randomised, open-label, equivalence trial in five communities in Karachi, Pakistan. We enrolled young infants (aged 0-59 days) who either presented at a primary health-care clinic or were identified by a community health worker with signs of clinical severe infection. We included infants who were not critically ill and whose family refused admission. We randomly assigned infants to either intramuscular procaine benzylpenicillin and gentamicin once a day for 7 days (reference); oral amoxicillin twice daily and intramuscular gentamicin once a day for 7 days; or intramuscular procaine benzylpenicillin and gentamicin once a day for 2 days followed by oral amoxicillin twice daily for 5 days. The primary outcome was treatment failure within 7 days of enrolment and the primary analysis was per protocol. We judged experimental treatments as efficacious as the reference if the upper bound of the 95% CI for the difference in treatment failure was less than 5·0. This trial is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01027429. Between Jan 1, 2010, and Dec 26, 2013, 2780 infants were deemed eligible for the trial, of whom 2453 (88%) were enrolled. Because of inadequate clinical follow-up or treatment adherence, 2251 infants were included in the per-protocol analysis. 820 infants (747 per protocol) were assigned the reference treatment of procaine benzylpenicillin and gentamicin, 816 (751 per protocol) were allocated amoxicillin and gentamicin, and

  2. A randomized, multicenter, open-label clinical trial to assess the immunogenicity of a meningococcal C vaccine booster dose administered to children aged 14 to 18 months.

    PubMed

    Díez-Domingo, Javier; Cantarino, M Victoria Planelles; Torrentí, Jose M Baldó; Sansano, M Isabel Ubeda; Rosich, Angels Jubert; Merino, Angel Hernández; de Miguel, Angel Gil; González, Javier Blanco; Marcos, Mar Duelo

    2010-02-01

    A booster meningococcal C (MenC) vaccine dose is recommended after the first year of life. The objective of this study was to assess its immunogenicity and factors that modify the immunoresponse. An open label study in which 389 children 14 to 18 months of age, previously primed with 3 doses of a MenC vaccine conjugated with CRM197 (MenC-CRM) or with 2 doses of a MenC vaccine conjugated with tetanus toxoid (MenC-TT), were randomized to be boosted with either of these vaccines and a DTaP-IPV-Hib vaccine at the same time. Immunogenicity against MenC and Haemophilus influenzae type b was assessed before and 1 month after the booster dose. Before the second year booster, 44.9% of the studied children had MenC bactericidal (SBA) seroprotection rate of > or =1:8, with no differences related to the vaccine used for priming, whereas the anti Hib antibody concentration was higher in children primed with the MenC-TT (0.59; 95% CI: 0.49-0.71 vs. 0.39; 95% CI: 0.32-0.48).One month after the MenC vaccine booster 99.5% of the children had SBA > or =1:128. Children primed with MenC-TT reached higher SBA titers: 6520 (95% CI: 5359-7932) than those primed with MenC-CRM: 1903 (95% CI: 1600-2262). Children primed with MenC-CRM had SBA titers of 2061 (95% CI: 1599-2627) when boosted with MenC-TT and 1746 (95% CI: 1378-2213) when boosted with MenC-CRM. Children primed with MenC-TT had SBA titers of 6786 (95% CI: 5023-9167) and 6278 (95% CI: 4841-8144) when boosted with MenC-TT or MenC-CRM. There was no difference in the PRP antibody concentration after boosting. A booster MenC dose induces high SBA and anti Hib response with over 99% of children seroprotected. Children primed with a MenC-TT vaccine reached SBA titers 3.5 times higher no matter which vaccine was used for boosting.

  3. Safety of an Escherichia coli-expressed bivalent human papillomavirus (types 16 and 18) L1 virus-like particle vaccine: an open-label phase I clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yue-Mei; Huang, Shou-Jie; Chu, Kai; Wu, Ting; Wang, Zhong-Ze; Yang, Chang-Lin; Cai, Jia-Ping; Jiang, Han-Min; Wang, Yi-Jun; Guo, Meng; Liu, Xiao-Hui; Huang, Hong-Jiang; Zhu, Feng-Cai; Zhang, Jun; Xia, Ning-Shao

    2014-01-01

    An Escherichia coli-expressed recombinant bivalent human papillomavirus (types 16 and 18) vaccine candidate has been shown to be safe and immunogenic in preclinical trials. The safety of this vaccine was analyzed in an open-label phase I clinical trial in Jiangsu province, China. Thirty-eight healthy women from 18 to 55 y of age were enrolled and vaccinated at 0, 1, and 6 mo. Adverse events that occurred within 30 d after each injection and serious adverse events that occurred throughout the study were recorded. In addition, blood parameters were tested before and after each injection. All but one woman received all 3 doses. Thirty-two (84.2%) of the participants reported adverse events, all adverse events of which were mild, of short duration and resolved spontaneously. No serious adverse events occurred during the study. Changes in blood parameters after each injection were random, mild, and not clinically significant. These preliminary results show that a new Escherichia coli-expressed recombinant HPV 16/18 bivalent vaccine is well tolerated in healthy women and support further immunogenicity and efficacy studies for this HPV vaccine candidate.

  4. The effects of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs on clinical outcomes, synovial fluid cytokine concentration and signal transduction pathways in knee osteoarthritis. A randomized open label trial.

    PubMed

    Gallelli, L; Galasso, O; Falcone, D; Southworth, S; Greco, M; Ventura, V; Romualdi, P; Corigliano, A; Terracciano, R; Savino, R; Gulletta, E; Gasparini, G; De Sarro, G

    2013-09-01

    We investigated the effects of celecoxib, diclofenac, and ibuprofen on the disease-specific quality of life, synovial fluid cytokines and signal transduction pathways in symptomatic knee osteoarthritis (OA). Ninety patients scheduled for a total knee arthroplasty (TKA) were randomized to six groups that were treated with low and high dosages of celecoxib, diclofenac or ibuprofen. At the time of the first admission (T0) and at surgery (T1 = 14 days after beginning of the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs)), samples of knee synovial fluid were obtained from each patient for analysis. During the surgery the synovial tissue was harvested from the knee of patients. The Western Ontario and McMaster universities (WOMAC) score was used to evaluate the patient disease-specific quality of life at T0 and T1. Microarray tests performed at T0 and T1 were used to evaluate the effects of NSAIDs on Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, Interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL8 and Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) concentration in the synovial fluid. Western blot assays evaluated the effects of NSAIDs on MAP kinase (MAPK) signal transduction pathway in the synovial membrane. NSAID treatment induced a statistically significant improvement in the WOMAC score and a statistically significant decrease in the IL-6, VEGF and TNF-alpha concentration in the synovial fluid. Higher dosages of NSAIDs provided a greater improvement in the disease-specific quality of life of patients and lower concentrations of pro-inflammatory cytokines in the synovial fluid. Inhibition of MAPKs was noted after NSAID treatment. Short-term NSAID treatment improves the patient disease-specific quality of life with a parallel decrease in pro-inflammatory synovial fluid cytokine levels in knee OA. Signal transduction pathways may be involved in regulating the anti-inflammatory effects of NSAIDs. ClinicalTrial.gov: NCT01860833. © 2013 Osteoarthritis Research Society International. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All

  5. Efficacy of Deferasirox for the treatment of iron overload in Chinese thalassaemia major patients: results from a prospective, open-label, multicentre clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Lai, Y-R; Liu, R-R; Li, C-F; Huang, S-L; Li, Q; Habr, D; Martin, N; Shen, Z-X

    2013-12-01

    To assess the efficacy and safety of deferasirox in Chinese thalassaemia major (TM) patients EPIC (Evaluation of Patients' Iron Chelation with Exjade(®)) was a large multi-national study and, notably, the first clinical trial of an iron chelator registered with the Chinese State Food and Drug Administration. Efficacy and safety of deferasirox were compared in Chinese (n = 117) and non-Chinese (n = 998) TM patients. Deferasirox was initiated at 20 mg kg(-1)  day(-1), with titration increments of 5-10 mg kg(-1) day(-1), based on serum ferritin trends and safety parameters. At baseline, Chinese patients were younger than non-Chinese (mean age 6·8 versus 19·5 years), with higher median serum ferritin (4519 vs 3058 ng mL(-1)). Over 1 year, mean actual deferasirox dose was similar for Chinese and non-Chinese patients (24·6 and 24·0 mg kg(-1)  day(-1), respectively); median serum ferritin did not change significantly from baseline in Chinese patients (+340 ng mL(-1), P = 0·102) and significantly decreased in non-Chinese patients (-220 ng mL(-1); P < 0·001). In the 1-year extension in Chinese patients, (mean actual deferasirox dose 33·6 mg kg(-1)  day(-1)), median serum ferritin decreased (-756 ng mL(-1); P = 0·0397), with a numerically higher reduction in patients aged ≥6 to  < 12 than <6 years (-982 vs -457 ng mL(-1), respectively). The safety profile of deferasirox in Chinese patients was similar to the overall population with respect to clinically-relevant findings. Age and deferasirox exposure influenced study findings, supporting the need for longer-term treatment and dose escalation to ≥30 mg kg(-1)  day(-1) to achieve neutral or negative iron balance in heavily iron overloaded and younger Chinese patients. © 2013 The Authors. Transfusion Medicine © 2013 British Blood Transfusion Society.

  6. Targeted simplification versus antipseudomonal broad-spectrum beta-lactams in patients with bloodstream infections due to Enterobacteriaceae (SIMPLIFY): a study protocol for a multicentre, open-label, phase III randomised, controlled, non-inferiority clinical trial.

    PubMed

    López-Cortés, Luis Eduardo; Rosso-Fernández, Clara; Núñez-Núñez, María; Lavín-Alconero, Lucía; Bravo-Ferrer, José; Barriga, Ángel; Delgado, Mercedes; Lupión, Carmen; Retamar, Pilar; Rodríguez-Baño, Jesús

    2017-06-09

    Within the context of antimicrobial stewardship programmes, de-escalation of antimicrobial therapy is one of the proposed strategies for reducing the unnecessary use of broad-spectrum antibiotics (BSA). The empirical treatment of nosocomial and some healthcare-associated bloodstream infections (BSI) frequently includes a beta-lactam with antipseudomonal activity as monotherapy or in combination with other drugs, so there is a great opportunity to optimise the empirical therapy based on microbiological data. De-escalation is assumed as standard of care for experts in infectious diseases. However, it is less frequent than it would desirable. The SIMPLIFY trial is a multicentre, open-label, non-inferiority phase III randomised controlled clinical trial, designed as a pragmatic 'real-practice' trial. The aim of this trial is to demonstrate the non-inferiority of de-escalation from an empirical beta-lactam with antipseudomonal activity to a targeted narrow-spectrum antimicrobial in patients with BSI due to Enterobacteriaceae. The primary outcome is clinical cure, which will be assessed at the test of cure visit. It will be conducted at 19 Spanish public and university hospitals. Each participating centre has obtained the approval of the ethics review committee, the agreement of the directors of the institutions and authorisation from the Spanish Regulatory Agency (Agencia Española del Medicamento y Productos Sanitarios). Data will be presented at international conferences and published in peer-reviewed journals. Strategies to reduce the use of BSA should be a priority. Most of the studies that support de-escalation are observational, retrospective and heterogeneous. A recent Cochrane review stated that well-designed clinical trials should be conducted to assess the safety and efficacy of de-escalation. The European Union Clinical Trials Register: EudraCT number 2015-004219-19. Clinical trials.gov: NCT02795949. Protocol version: V.2.0, dated 16 May 2016. All items from

  7. Body weight-based prednisolone versus body surface area-based prednisolone regimen for induction of remission in children with nephrotic syndrome: a randomized, open-label, equivalence clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Raman, Vaishnavi; Krishnamurthy, Sriram; Harichandrakumar, K T

    2016-04-01

    Body surface area (BSA)-based prednisolone dosing for childhood nephrotic syndrome (NS) leads to higher cumulative prednisolone doses than body weight (BW)-based dosing. The clinical effects of this higher dosage have not been evaluated in prospective studies. This parallel-group open-label randomized clinical trial enrolled 100 children with idiopathic NS, to receive BW-based (n = 50) or BSA-based (n = 50) prednisolone dosing by block randomization in a 1:1 ratio. The time taken for remission, relapse rate per 6 months, and adverse effects of steroids were analyzed in both groups. There was no significant difference in the time taken for remission in the BW group versus the BSA group (median (IQR) 7 (4.5-9) versus 5.5 (4-8) days; p = 0.082); similar results were observed on subgroup analysis in new-onset and infrequently-relapsing NS (IFRNS). The cumulative prednisolone dosage during the enrolment episode was higher in the BSA group. The incidence of hypertension was higher (p = 0.048) in the BSA group on per-protocol analysis. The relapse rates in the two groups per 6 months on follow-up were comparable. Clinical outcomes with BW-based dosing are equivalent to BSA dosing-related outcomes, although cumulative prednisolone doses are lower in the former. The practice of BW-based calculations for prescribing prednisolone in NS is a reasonable approach.

  8. Clinical efficacy of lamotrigine and changes in the dosages of concomitantly used psychotropic drugs in Alzheimer's disease with behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia: a preliminary open-label trial.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Hidenobu; Gen, Keishi

    2015-03-01

    We investigated the clinical efficacy and changes in the dosages of concomitantly used psychotropic drugs in lamotrigine therapy in Alzheimer's disease with behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD). This study was a 16-week, preliminary open-label trial. The subjects were 40 inpatients. The outcome measures assessed were BPSD and cognitive function. BPSD was assessed with the Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI) and cognitive function was assessed with the Mini-Mental State Examination. The changes in the dosages of concomitant psychotropic drugs were also assessed. Although the mean changes from baseline NPI scores and the two NPI subscales (anxiety and irritability) were significantly lower within the lamotrigine therapy group, no significant differences were found when we compared the lamotrigine therapy group to the control group. The mean decrease from baseline on the NPI agitation subscale, however, was significantly greater in the lamotrigine therapy group than in the control group (P < 0.05). Furthermore, the mean decrease from baseline in the diazepam-equivalent dose was significantly greater in the lamotrigine therapy group than in the control group (P < 0.05). The results of this study suggest that the administration of lamotrigine to patients with severe Alzheimer's disease with BPSD may be effective and may make it possible to avoid increasing the dosage of antipsychotic medications prescribed to elderly patients. © 2014 The Authors. Psychogeriatrics © 2014 Japanese Psychogeriatric Society.

  9. A randomized, open-label clinical trial to evaluate immunogenicity and safety of an indigenously developed DTwP-Hib tetravalent combination vaccine (Easyfour®-TT) with Quadrovax® in Indian infants.

    PubMed

    Mohanty, Lalitendu; Sharma, Sunil; Behera, Beauty; Panwar, Sachin; Paliwal, Charu; Singh, Anit; Gupta, Anu; Chilkoti, Deepak Chandra

    2017-09-02

    An open-label, randomized, multi-center trial was conducted to compare the immunogenicity and safety of an indigenously developed tetravalent DTwP-Hib vaccine, Easyfour®-TT with a commercially available vaccine, Quadrovax®. A total of 244 infants in good health, aged 6-10 weeks, were randomized in a 1:1 allocation to receive three doses of the test or comparator vaccine. Immunogenicity of the vaccines was determined by measuring the baseline and post-vaccination antibody response against the vaccine antigens; safety was evaluated in terms of local and systemic reactions (solicited and unsolicited) reported during the trial. Similar levels of seroprotection/seroresponse were achieved, 4 weeks after receiving 3 doses of Easyfour®-TT and Quadrovax®, and the antibody response of Easyfour®-TT was found non-inferior to Quadrovax®, against all four vaccine antigens. Both vaccines were well tolerated and had similar reactogenicity profiles, with a significantly lower occurrence of local (redness at injection site) and systemic reactions (irritability post-vaccination) with Easyfour®-TT vaccine as compared to Quadrovax® (p < 0.05). All adverse events resolved completely with no sequelae. All through the study, only one serious adverse event was observed that completely resolved upon treatment and was deemed unrelated to the vaccine administered. This study demonstrated that Easyfour®-TT vaccine was safe and immunogenic. CTRI/2014/12/005326 (registered with the Clinical Trial Registry of India (CTRI)).

  10. Evidence for safety of retreatment with a single intra-articular injection of Gel-200 for treatment of osteoarthritis of the knee from the double-blind pivotal and open-label retreatment clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Strand, Vibeke; Lim, Sooyeol; Takamura, Junko

    2016-06-01

    Gel-200 is a cross-linked hyaluronate single-injection device for treatment of osteoarthritis pain in the knee. This report summarizes new analyses of the safety of retreatment with Gel-200 from the 13-week, pivotal, multicenter, randomized controlled trial (RCT) followed by an open-label extension trial (OLE). 379 patients were enrolled in the RCT [Gel-200; phosphate-buffered saline (PBS)]. Safety of retreatment with Gel-200 was assessed by comparing adverse events (AEs) and device-related AEs reported through Week 4 following retreatment with Gel-200 to those reported in patients receiving their first injection in the OLE. 350 patients completed the initial RCT (231 Gel-200; 119 PBS); 258 patients enrolled in the OLE (162 Gel-200; 96 PBS). In total, 202 patients (125 Gel-200; 77 PBS) qualified for retreatment, while 56 (37 Gel-200; 19 PBS) did not. There were no significant demographic or disease characteristic differences between Gel-200 patients who were and were not retreated; those who were not eligible for retreatment experienced greater pain relief from Gel-200 in the RCT by all effectiveness endpoints (all p < 0.001), without differences in their safety profile. In the OLE, the safety of Gel-200, including percentages of patients who experienced any AEs (p = 0.547) and device-related AEs (p = 0.521), did not significantly differ between those receiving a second versus a first injection of Gel-200 following PBS in the RCT. In the OLE, the safety of a second injection of Gel-200 was comparable to that of a first injection and effectiveness was similar, as previously reported. ClinicalTrials.gov identification numbers NTC 00449696 and NTC 00450112.

  11. A Prospective, Randomized, Multicenter, Open-label Clinical Trial Comparing Intradiscal Biacuplasty to Conventional Medical Management for Discogenic Lumbar Back Pain.

    PubMed

    Desai, Mehul J; Kapural, Leonardo; Petersohn, Jeffrey D; Vallejo, Ricardo; Menzies, Robert; Creamer, Michael; Gofeld, Michael

    2016-07-01

    This study was a prospective, randomized, crossover, multicenter trial for the evaluation of comparative effectiveness of intradiscal biacuplasty (IDB) versus conventional medical management (CMM) in the treatment of lumbar discogenic pain. The objective was to demonstrate the superiority of IDB over CMM in the treatment of discogenic pain with respect to the primary outcome measure. Current therapeutic options for the treatment of chronic low back pain of discogenic origin are limited. CMM is often unsatisfactory with regard to the treatment of discogenic pain. IDB offers a minimally invasive treatment that has been demonstrated to be superior to placebo in the past. A total of 63 subjects with lumbar discogenic pain diagnosed via provocation discography were randomized to IDB + CMM (n = 29) or CMM-alone (n = 34). At 6 months, patients in the CMM-alone group were eligible for crossover if desired. The primary outcome measure was the change in visual analog scale (VAS) from baseline to 6 months. Secondary outcome measures included treatment "responders," defined as the proportion of subjects with a 2-point or 30% decrease in VAS scores. Other secondary measures included changes from baseline to 6 months in (1) short form (SF) 36-physical functioning, (2) Oswestry Disability Index, (3) Beck Depression Inventory, (4) Patient Global Impression of Change, (5) EQ-5D VAS, and (6) back pain-related medication usage. In the IDB cohort, the mean VAS score reduction exceeded that in the CMM cohort (-2.4 vs. -0.56; P = 0.02), and the proportion of treatment responders was substantially greater (50% vs. 18%). Differences in secondary measures favored IDB. No differences in opioid utilization were noted between groups. Superior performance of IDB with respect to all study outcomes suggests that it is a more effective treatment for discogenic pain than CMM-alone. 2.

  12. Lack of short-term adjunctive effect of systemic neridronate in non-surgical periodontal therapy of advanced generalized chronic periodontitis: an open label-randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Graziani, Filippo; Cei, Silvia; Guerrero, Adrian; La Ferla, Fabio; Vano, Michele; Tonetti, Maurizio; Gabriele, Mario

    2009-05-01

    To determine if the adjunctive use of intra-muscular neridronate (NE) during non-surgical periodontal treatment (PT) provides, in patients with generalized chronic periodontitis (GCP), adjunctive benefits as compared with PT alone 3 months after the completion of a 3-month NE therapy. Sixty GCP healthy patients were randomly assigned to control (CG) or test group (TG). CG patients received PT only. Thirty subjects in TG also received adjunctive NE (12.5 mg in an i.m. injection/week for 3 months). Clinical parameters were evaluated at baseline, at the end of NE treatment (3 months after PT) and 3 months after the completion of NE treatment (6 months after the beginning of PT). Groups were balanced at baseline and all clinical parameters showed improvement between baseline and follow-ups. At 6 months improvements from baseline at sites with deep pocket depth (>or=7 mm) were 3.2 mm [95% confidence interval (CI): 2.7-3.9] in CG and 3.0 mm (95% CI: 2.3-3.8) in TG with a non-significant difference of 0.2 mm (95% CI: -1.0-0.5; ANCOVA; p=0.549) between groups. Secondary outcomes did not show significant differences between groups. No major adverse events were reported. The adjunctive use of NE during PT did not result in additional short-term improvements in periodontal conditions of GCP patients when compared with PT.

  13. Transplantation of Autologous Ex Vivo Expanded Human Conjunctival Epithelial Cells for Treatment of Pterygia: A Prospective Open-label Single Arm Multicentric Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Vasania, Viraf Sam; Hari, Aarya; Tandon, Radhika; Shah, Sanjay; Haldipurkar, Suhas; Shah, Smitesh; Sachan, Shailendra; Viswanathan, Chandra

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To establish the efficacy and safety of ex vivo cultured autologous human conjunctival epithelial cell (hCjEC) transplantation for treatment of pterygia. Methods: Twenty-five patients with pterygia were recruited at different centers across the country. Autologous hCjEC grafts were prepared from conjunctival biopsy specimens excised from the healthy eye and cultured ex vivo on human amniotic membrane mounted on inserts using a unique mounting device. The hCjEC grafts were then transported in an in-house designed transport container for transplantation. Post-surgery, the patients were followed up on days 1, 7, 14, 30, 90, and 180 as per the approved study protocol. Clinical outcomes were assessed by slit lamp examination, visual acuity, imprint cytology, fluorescein/rose bengal staining, Schirmer's test, and photographic evaluation three and 6 months post-transplantation. Results: Two patients were lost to follow-up and final analysis included 23 cases. No recurrence of pterygium was observed in 18 (78.3%) patients; all of these eyes showed a smooth conjunctival surface without epithelial defects. Recurrence was observed in 5 (21.7%) patients at 3 months post-treatment. No conjunctival inflammation, secondary infections or other complications were reported. Adequate goblet cells were present in 19 (82.6%) patients at the site of transplantation. Conclusion: We have, for the 1st time, standardized a protocol for preparing autologous hCjEC grafts that can be safely transported to multiple centers across the country for transplantation. The clinical outcome was satisfactory for treating pterygia. PMID:25709763

  14. Open-Label Trial of Atomoxetine Hydrochloride in Adults with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Mats; Cederlund, Mats; Rastam, Maria; Areskoug, Bjorn; Gillberg, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    Background: While atomoxetine is an established treatment for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in children, few studies have examined its efficacy for adults. Methods: Open-label trial of atomoxetine in 20 individuals with ADHD, aged 19-47 years, for 10 weeks, and a total of one year for responders. Results: Ten patients met primary…

  15. Methylphenidate Transdermal System in Adults with Past Stimulant Misuse: An Open-Label Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McRae-Clark, Aimee L.; Brady, Kathleen T.; Hartwell, Karen J.; White, Kathleen; Carter, Rickey E.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This 8-week, open-label trial assessed the efficacy of methylphenidate transdermal system (MTS) in 14 adult individuals diagnosed with ADHD and with a history of stimulant misuse, abuse, or dependence. Method: The primary efficacy endpoint was the Wender-Reimherr Adult ADHD Scale (WRAADS), and secondary efficacy endpoints included the…

  16. Open-Label Trial of Atomoxetine Hydrochloride in Adults with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Mats; Cederlund, Mats; Rastam, Maria; Areskoug, Bjorn; Gillberg, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    Background: While atomoxetine is an established treatment for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in children, few studies have examined its efficacy for adults. Methods: Open-label trial of atomoxetine in 20 individuals with ADHD, aged 19-47 years, for 10 weeks, and a total of one year for responders. Results: Ten patients met primary…

  17. Methylphenidate Transdermal System in Adults with Past Stimulant Misuse: An Open-Label Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McRae-Clark, Aimee L.; Brady, Kathleen T.; Hartwell, Karen J.; White, Kathleen; Carter, Rickey E.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This 8-week, open-label trial assessed the efficacy of methylphenidate transdermal system (MTS) in 14 adult individuals diagnosed with ADHD and with a history of stimulant misuse, abuse, or dependence. Method: The primary efficacy endpoint was the Wender-Reimherr Adult ADHD Scale (WRAADS), and secondary efficacy endpoints included the…

  18. Open-label, randomized, non-inferiority clinical trial of artesunate-amodiaquine versus artemether-lumefantrine fixed-dose combinations in children and adults with uncomplicated falciparum malaria in Côte d'Ivoire.

    PubMed

    Toure, Offianan A; Assi, Serge B; N'Guessan, Tiacoh L; Adji, Gbessi E; Ako, Aristide B; Brou, Marie J; Ehouman, Marie F; Gnamien, Laeticia A; Coulibaly, M'Lanhoro A A; Coulibaly, Baba; Beourou, Sylvain; Bassinka, Issiaka; Soumahoro, Adama; Kadjo, Florence; Tano, Mea A

    2014-11-19

    Emergence of artemisinin resistance has raised concerns that the most potent anti-malarial drug may be under threat. Artesunate-amodiaquine (AS-AQ) and artemether-lumefantrine (AL) are, respectively, the first- and second-line treatments for uncomplicated falciparum malaria in Côte d'Ivoire. Constant monitoring by National Malaria Control Programme (NMCP) of drug efficacy is an important tool in establishing rational anti-malarial drug policies in Côte d'Ivoire. In an open label, randomized controlled clinical trial, children and adults were randomized to receive AS-AQ or AL. Both drug regimens were given for three days, and follow-up was for 42 days. The primary endpoint was the 42-day cure rate and was defined as proportion of patients with PCR-corrected cure rate after 42 days of follow-up. A total of 383 patients who were attending the Anonkoua-koute (Abidjan), Petit Paris (Korhogo) and Libreville (Man) hospitals and presenting with symptomatic acute uncomplicated falciparum malaria were randomized to receive AS-AQ (188) and AL (195). The intention-to-treat analysis showed effectiveness rates of 94.7% and 96.4% for AS-AQ and AL, respectively on day 42. After adjustment for PCR, these rates were 96.8% and 99%, respectively. At day 42, in per-protocol analysis, Adequate clinical and parasitological response (ACPR) PCR uncorrected was 97.8% and 97.4% for AS-AQ and AL, respectively. The PCR adjusted ACPR was 100% for each combination and both regimens were well tolerated. This study has shown the high efficacy of AS-AQ in patients of all ages with acute uncomplicated falciparum malaria and AS-AQ was non-inferior to AL. Continuous efficacy monitoring is recommended.

  19. Methylphenidate, cognition, and epilepsy: A 1-month open-label trial.

    PubMed

    Adams, Jesse; Alipio-Jocson, Valerie; Inoyama, Katherine; Bartlett, Victoria; Sandhu, Saira; Oso, Jemima; Barry, John J; Loring, David W; Meador, Kimford J

    2017-10-09

    Cognitive difficulties are common in epilepsy. Beyond reducing seizures and adjusting antiepileptic medications, no well-validated treatment exists in adults. Methylphenidate is used effectively in children with epilepsy and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, but its effects in adults have not been systematically evaluated. We hypothesized that methylphenidate can safely improve cognition in adults with epilepsy. We detail here the open-label follow-up to a double-blind, placebo-controlled, single-dose study. Thirty epilepsy patients entered a 1-month open-label methylphenidate trial after a double-blind phase. Doses were titrated according to clinical practice and patient tolerance, ranging 20-40 mg/day. Primary measures included: Conners' Continuous Performance Test (CPT), Symbol-Digit Modalities Test (SDMT), and Medical College of Georgia Memory Test (MCG). Secondary measures were: Beck Depression Inventory, 2nd Edition (BDI-II), Beck Anxiety Inventory, Apathy Evaluation Scale (AES), Stimulant Side-Effect Checklist, Adverse Events Profile, Quality of Life in Epilepsy-89 (QOLIE-89), and seizure frequency. Fourteen healthy, nonmedicated controls were tested concurrently. Twenty-eight participants with epilepsy (13 men/15 women) completed the trial. Withdrawals occurred due to anxiety (n = 1) and fatigue (n = 1). Mean age was 36.4 years (range = 20-60). Epilepsy types were: focal (n = 21), generalized (n = 6), or unclassified (n = 1). Mean epilepsy duration was 12.3 years. Mean baseline seizure frequency was 2.8/month. There were significant improvements on methylphenidate for SDMT, MCG, CPT (the ability to discriminate between targets and nontargets [d'] hits, hit reaction time standard deviation, omissions, and commissions), and QOLIE subscales (energy/fatigue, attention/concentration, memory, and language; paired t tests; p ≤ 0.002). BDI-II and additional subscales also improved, at a lower level of statistical significance. Effect

  20. Safety and Potential Effect of a Single Intracavernous Injection of Autologous Adipose-Derived Regenerative Cells in Patients with Erectile Dysfunction Following Radical Prostatectomy: An Open-Label Phase I Clinical Trial.

    PubMed

    Haahr, Martha Kirstine; Jensen, Charlotte Harken; Toyserkani, Navid Mohamadpour; Andersen, Ditte Caroline; Damkier, Per; Sørensen, Jens Ahm; Lund, Lars; Sheikh, Søren Paludan

    2016-03-01

    Prostate cancer is the most common cancer in men, and radical prostatectomy (RP) often results in erectile dysfunction (ED) and a substantially reduced quality of life. The efficacy of current interventions, principal treatment with PDE-5 inhibitors, is not satisfactory and this condition presents an unmet medical need. Preclinical studies using adipose-derived stem cells to treat ED have shown promising results. Herein, we report the results of a human phase 1 trial with autologous adipose-derived regenerative cells (ADRCs) freshly isolated after a liposuction. Seventeen men suffering from post RP ED, with no recovery using conventional therapy, were enrolled in a prospective phase 1 open-label and single-arm study. All subjects had RP performed 5-18 months before enrolment, and were followed for 6 months after intracavernosal transplantation. ADRCs were analyzed for the presence of stem cell surface markers, viability and ability to differentiate. Primary endpoint was the safety and tolerance of the cell therapy while the secondary outcome was improvement of erectile function. Any adverse events were reported and erectile function was assessed by IIEF-5 scores. The study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02240823. Intracavernous injection of ADRCs was well-tolerated and only minor events related to the liposuction and cell injections were reported at the one-month evaluation, but none at later time points. Overall during the study period, 8 of 17 men recovered their erectile function and were able to accomplish sexual intercourse. Post-hoc stratification according to urinary continence status was performed. Accordingly, for continent men (median IIEFinclusion = 7 (95% CI 5-12), 8 out of 11 men recovered erectile function (IIEF6months = 17 (6-23)), corresponding to a mean difference of 0.57 (0.38-0.85; p = 0.0069), versus inclusion. In contrast, incontinent men did not regain erectile function (median IIEF1/3/6 months = 5 (95% CI 5-6); mean difference 1

  1. An open-label trial of risperidone in children and adolescents with severe mood dysregulation.

    PubMed

    Krieger, Fernanda Valle; Pheula, Gabriel Ferreira; Coelho, Roberta; Zeni, Thamis; Tramontina, Silzá; Zeni, Cristian Patrick; Rohde, Luis Augusto

    2011-06-01

    The diagnosis and treatment of youth with severe nonepisodic irritability and hyperarousal, a syndrome defined as severe mood dysregulation (SMD), has been the focus of increasing concern and debate among clinicians and researchers. Our main objective was to assess the effectiveness of risperidone for youths with SMD. An 8-week open label trial with risperidone was conducted. We extensively assessed 97 subjects with semistructured and clinical interviews and enrolled 21 patients in the study. Risperidone was titrated from 0.5 to 3 mg/day in the first 2 weeks. Evaluations were performed at baseline and weeks 2, 4, 6, and 8. Clinical outcome measures were (1) Aberrant Behavior Checklist-Irritability Subscale, (2) Clinical Global Impressions, and (3) severity of co-morbid conditions. We found a significant reduction of the Aberrant Behavior Checklist-Irritability scores during the trial after risperidone use (p < 0.001). The scores at week 2 (mean = 12.03; standard error [SE] = 2.94), week 4 (mean = 15.48; SE = 2.93), week 6 (mean = 12.29; SE = 2.86), and week 8 (mean = 11.28; SE = 3.06) were significantly reduced compared with the baseline mean score (mean = 25.89; SE = 2.76) (p < 0.001). We also found an improvement in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, depression, and global functioning (p < 0.001). Risperidone was effective in reducing irritability in SMD youth. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first psychopharmacological trial in this group of patients with positive results. Further randomized, controlled studies are needed.

  2. A study protocol for a randomised open-label clinical trial of artesunate-mefloquine versus chloroquine in patients with non-severe Plasmodium knowlesi malaria in Sabah, Malaysia (ACT KNOW trial)

    PubMed Central

    Grigg, M J; William, T; Dhanaraj, P; Menon, J; Barber, B E; von Seidlein, L; Rajahram, G; Price, R N; Anstey, N M; Yeo, T W

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Malaria due to Plasmodium knowlesi is reported throughout South-East Asia, and is the commonest cause of it in Malaysia. P. knowlesi replicates every 24 h and can cause severe disease and death. Current 2010 WHO Malaria Treatment Guidelines have no recommendations for the optimal treatment of non-severe knowlesi malaria. Artemisinin-combination therapies (ACT) and chloroquine have each been successfully used to treat knowlesi malaria; however, the rapidity of parasite clearance has not been prospectively compared. Malaysia's national policy for malaria pre-elimination involves mandatory hospital admission for confirmed malaria cases with discharge only after two negative blood films; use of a more rapidly acting antimalarial agent would have health cost benefits. P. knowlesi is commonly microscopically misreported as P. malariae, P. falciparum or P. vivax, with a high proportion of the latter two species being chloroquine-resistant in Malaysia. A unified ACT-treatment protocol would provide effective blood stage malaria treatment for all Plasmodium species. Methods and analysis ACT KNOW, the first randomised controlled trial ever performed in knowlesi malaria, is a two-arm open-label trial with enrolments over a 2-year period at three district sites in Sabah, powered to show a difference in proportion of patients negative for malaria by microscopy at 24 h between treatment arms (clinicaltrials.gov #NCT01708876). Enrolments started in December 2012, with completion expected by September 2014. A total sample size of 228 is required to give 90% power (α 0.05) to determine the primary end point using intention-to-treat analysis. Secondary end points include parasite clearance time, rates of recurrent infection/treatment failure to day 42, gametocyte carriage throughout follow-up and rates of anaemia at day 28, as determined by survival analysis. Ethics and dissemination This study has been approved by relevant institutional ethics committees in

  3. A pilot open label, single dose trial of fenobam in adults with fragile X syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Berry-Kravis, E; Hessl, D; Coffey, S; Hervey, C; Schneider, A; Yuhas, J; Hutchison, J; Snape, M; Tranfaglia, M; Nguyen, D V; Hagerman, R

    2009-01-01

    Objective: A pilot open label, single dose trial of fenobam, an mGluR5 antagonist, was conducted to provide an initial evaluation of safety and pharmacokinetics in adult males and females with fragile X syndrome (FXS). Methods: Twelve subjects, recruited from two fragile X clinics, received a single oral dose of 50–150 mg of fenobam. Blood for pharmacokinetic testing, vital signs and side effect screening was obtained at baseline and numerous time points for 6 h after dosing. Outcome measures included prepulse inhibition (PPI) and a continuous performance test (CPT) obtained before and after dosing to explore the effects of fenobam on core phenotypic measures of sensory gating, attention and inhibition. Results: There were no significant adverse reactions to fenobam administration. Pharmacokinetic analysis showed that fenobam concentrations were dose dependent but variable, with mean (SEM) peak values of 39.7 (18.4) ng/ml at 180 min after the 150 mg dose. PPI met a response criterion of an improvement of at least 20% over baseline in 6 of 12 individuals (4/6 males and 2/6 females). The CPT did not display improvement with treatment due to ceiling effects. Conclusions: Clinically significant adverse effects were not identified in this study of single dose fenobam across the range of dosages utilised. The positive effects seen in animal models of FXS treated with fenobam or other mGluR5 antagonists, the apparent lack of clinically significant adverse effects, and the potential beneficial clinical effects seen in this pilot trial support further study of the compound in adults with FXS. PMID:19126569

  4. Safety and immunogenicity of a mRNA rabies vaccine in healthy adults: an open-label, non-randomised, prospective, first-in-human phase 1 clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Alberer, Martin; Gnad-Vogt, Ulrike; Hong, Henoch Sangjoon; Mehr, Keyvan Tadjalli; Backert, Linus; Finak, Greg; Gottardo, Raphael; Bica, Mihai Alexandru; Garofano, Aurelio; Koch, Sven Dominik; Fotin-Mleczek, Mariola; Hoerr, Ingmar; Clemens, Ralf; von Sonnenburg, Frank

    2017-07-25

    Vaccines based on mRNA coding for antigens have been shown to be safe and immunogenic in preclinical models. We aimed to report results of the first-in-human proof-of-concept clinical trial in healthy adults of a prophylactic mRNA-based vaccine encoding rabies virus glycoprotein (CV7201). We did an open-label, uncontrolled, prospective, phase 1 clinical trial at one centre in Munich, Germany. Healthy male and female volunteers (aged 18-40 years) with no history of rabies vaccination were sequentially enrolled. They received three doses of CV7201 intradermally or intramuscularly by needle-syringe or one of three needle-free devices. Escalating doses were given to subsequent cohorts, and one cohort received a booster dose after 1 year. The primary endpoint was safety and tolerability. The secondary endpoint was to determine the lowest dose of CV7201 to elicit rabies virus neutralising titres equal to or greater than the WHO-specified protective antibody titre of 0·5 IU/mL. The study is continuing for long-term safety and immunogenicity follow-up. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT02241135. Between Oct 21, 2013, and Jan 11, 2016, we enrolled and vaccinated 101 participants with 306 doses of mRNA (80-640 μg) by needle-syringe (18 intradermally and 24 intramuscularly) or needle-free devices (46 intradermally and 13 intramuscularly). In the 7 days post vaccination, 60 (94%) of 64 intradermally vaccinated participants and 36 (97%) of 37 intramuscularly vaccinated participants reported solicited injection site reactions, and 50 (78%) of 64 intradermally vaccinated participants and 29 (78%) of 37 intramuscularly vaccinated participants reported solicited systemic adverse events, including ten grade 3 events. One unexpected, possibly related, serious adverse reaction that occurred 7 days after a 640 μg intramuscular dose resolved without sequelae. mRNA vaccination by needle-free intradermal or intramuscular device injection induced virus

  5. A study protocol for a randomised open-label clinical trial of artesunate-mefloquine versus chloroquine in patients with non-severe Plasmodium knowlesi malaria in Sabah, Malaysia (ACT KNOW trial).

    PubMed

    Grigg, M J; William, T; Dhanaraj, P; Menon, J; Barber, B E; von Seidlein, L; Rajahram, G; Price, R N; Anstey, N M; Yeo, T W

    2014-08-19

    Malaria due to Plasmodium knowlesi is reported throughout South-East Asia, and is the commonest cause of it in Malaysia. P. knowlesi replicates every 24 h and can cause severe disease and death. Current 2010 WHO Malaria Treatment Guidelines have no recommendations for the optimal treatment of non-severe knowlesi malaria. Artemisinin-combination therapies (ACT) and chloroquine have each been successfully used to treat knowlesi malaria; however, the rapidity of parasite clearance has not been prospectively compared. Malaysia's national policy for malaria pre-elimination involves mandatory hospital admission for confirmed malaria cases with discharge only after two negative blood films; use of a more rapidly acting antimalarial agent would have health cost benefits. P. knowlesi is commonly microscopically misreported as P. malariae, P. falciparum or P. vivax, with a high proportion of the latter two species being chloroquine-resistant in Malaysia. A unified ACT-treatment protocol would provide effective blood stage malaria treatment for all Plasmodium species. ACT KNOW, the first randomised controlled trial ever performed in knowlesi malaria, is a two-arm open-label trial with enrolments over a 2-year period at three district sites in Sabah, powered to show a difference in proportion of patients negative for malaria by microscopy at 24 h between treatment arms (clinicaltrials.gov #NCT01708876). Enrolments started in December 2012, with completion expected by September 2014. A total sample size of 228 is required to give 90% power (α 0.05) to determine the primary end point using intention-to-treat analysis. Secondary end points include parasite clearance time, rates of recurrent infection/treatment failure to day 42, gametocyte carriage throughout follow-up and rates of anaemia at day 28, as determined by survival analysis. This study has been approved by relevant institutional ethics committees in Malaysia and Australia. Results will be disseminated to inform

  6. Cluster-randomized clinical trial examining the impact of platelet function testing on practice: the treatment with adenosine diphosphate receptor inhibitors: longitudinal assessment of treatment patterns and events after acute coronary syndrome prospective open label antiplatelet therapy study.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tracy Y; Henry, Timothy D; Effron, Mark B; Honeycutt, Emily; Hess, Connie N; Zettler, Marjorie E; Cohen, David J; Baker, Brian A; Berger, Peter B; Anstrom, Kevin J; Angiolillo, Dominick J; Peterson, Eric D

    2015-06-01

    Little is known about how clinicians use platelet function testing to guide choice and dosing of adenosine diphosphate receptor inhibitor (ADPri) therapy in routine community practice. The Treatment With Adenosine Diphosphate Receptor Inhibitors: Longitudinal Assessment of Treatment Patterns and Events After Acute Coronary Syndrome (ACS)-Prospective, Open Label, Antiplatelet Therapy Study (TRANSLATE-POPS) was a cluster-randomized trial in which 100 hospitals were assigned access to no-cost platelet function testing versus usual care for acute myocardial infarction patients treated with percutaneous coronary intervention. In both arms, ADPri treatment decisions were left up to the care team. The primary end point was the frequency of ADPri therapy adjustment before discharge. Secondary end points included 30-day rates of major adverse cardiovascular events and Global Utilization of Streptokinase and Tissue Plasminogen Activator for Occluded Coronary Arteries-defined bleeding events. Platelet function testing was performed in 66.9% of patients treated in intervention sites versus 1.4% of patients in usual care sites. Intervention arm patients were more likely to have ADPri therapy adjustment than usual care patients (14.8% versus 10.5%, P=0.004; odds ratio 1.68, 95% confidence interval 1.18-2.40); however, there were no significant differences in 30-day major adverse cardiovascular events (4.8% versus 5.4%, P=0.73; odds ratio 0.94, 95% confidence interval 0.66-1.34) or bleeding (4.3% versus 4.2%, P=0.33; odds ratio 0.86, 95% confidence interval 0.55-1.34). One-year outcomes were also not significantly different between groups. An as-treated analysis showed higher incidence of ADPri therapy adjustment among intervention arm patients who received platelet function testing than untested usual care arm (16.4% versus 10.2%, P<0.0001), but no significant differences in major adverse cardiovascular events or bleeding. TRANSLATE-POPS found that when clinicians routinely used

  7. An open-label randomized clinical trial of prophylactic paracetamol coadministered with 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine and hexavalent diphtheria toxoid, tetanus toxoid, 3-component acellular pertussis, hepatitis B, inactivated poliovirus, and Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccine.

    PubMed

    Rose, Markus A; Juergens, Christine; Schmoele-Thoma, Beate; Gruber, William C; Baker, Sherryl; Zielen, Stefan

    2013-06-21

    In two clinical trials, low-grade fever was observed more frequently after coadministration than after separate administration of two recommended routine pediatric vaccines. Since fever is an important issue with vaccine tolerability, we performed this open-label study on the efficacy and safety of prophylactic use of paracetamol (acetaminophen, Benuron®) in children administered routine 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV-7) coadministered with hexavalent vaccine (diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis-hepatitis B, poliovirus, Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccine [DTPa-HBV-IPV/Hib]) in Germany. Healthy infants (N = 301) who received a 3-dose infant series of PCV-7 and DTPa-HBV-IPV/Hib plus a toddler dose were randomly assigned 1:1 to prophylactic paracetamol (125 mg or 250 mg suppositories, based on body weight) at vaccination, and at 6-8 hour intervals thereafter, or a control group that received no paracetamol. Rectal temperature and local and other systemic reactions were measured for 4 days post vaccination; adverse events were collected throughout the study. In the intent-to-treat population, paracetamol reduced the incidence of fever ≥38°C, but this reduction was only significant for the infant series, with computed efficacy of 43.0% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 17.4, 61.2), and not significant after the toddler dose (efficacy 15.9%; 95% CI: -19.9, 41.3); results were similar in the per protocol (PP) population. Fever >39°C was rare during the infant series, such that there were too few cases for assessment. After the toddler dose, paracetamol effectively reduced fever >39°C, reaching statistical significance in the PP population only (efficacy 79%; 95% CI: 3.9, 97.7). Paracetamol also reduced reactogenicity, but there were few significant differences between groups after any dose. No vaccine-related serious adverse events were reported. Paracetamol effectively prevented fever and other reactions, mainly during the infant series

  8. Efficacy and safety of a nano-emulsion gel formulation of adapalene 0.1% and clindamycin 1% combination in acne vulgaris: a randomized, open label, active-controlled, multicentric, phase IV clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Prasad, Siva; Mukhopadhyay, Amiya; Kubavat, Amit; Kelkar, Amit; Modi, Ajay; Swarnkar, Bhavesh; Bajaj, Bobby; Vedamurthy, Maya; Sheikh, Shafiq; Mittal, Ravindra

    2012-01-01

    Acne vulgaris is a very common skin disease with a significant detrimental effect on the quality of life of the patients. To assess the comparative efficacy and safety of a nano-emulsion gel formulation of adapalene and clindamycin combination with its conventional formulation in the treatment of acne vulgaris of the face. It was a prospective, randomized, open label, active-controlled, multicentric, clinical trial. Eligible patients suffering from acne vulgaris of the face were randomized to receive once-daily treatment with a nano-emulsion gel or conventional gel formulation of adapalene 0.1% and clindamycin (as phosphate) 1% combination for 12 weeks. Total, inflammatory and noninflammatory lesion counts, with grading of acne severity were carried out on a monthly basis. Safety assessments were done to determine the comparative local and systemic tolerability. Two-tailed significance testing was carried out with appropriate statistical tests, and P-values < 0.05 were considered as significant. 209/212 patients enrolled in the study were eligible for efficacy and safety assessments in both nano-emulsion gel (118/119 patients) and conventional gel (91/93 patients) groups. Significantly better reductions in total (79.7% vs. 62.7%), inflammatory (88.7% vs. 71.4%) and noninflammatory (74.9% vs. 58.4%) lesions were reported with the nano-emulsion gel as compared to the conventional gel (P < 0.001 for all). Mean acne severity score also reduced significantly more with the nano-emulsion formulation (1.9 ± 0.9 vs. 1.4 ± 1.0; P < 0.001) than the comparator. Significantly lower incidence and lesser intensity of adverse events like local irritation (4.2% vs. 19.8%; P < 0.05) and erythema (0.8% vs. 9.9%; P < 0.05) were recorded with the nano-emulsion gel. The nano-emulsion gel formulation of adapalene and clindamycin combination appears to be more efficacious and better tolerated than the conventional formulation for the treatment of acne vulgaris in Indian patients

  9. Uptake of antiretroviral therapy and male circumcision after community-based HIV testing and strategies for linkage to care versus standard clinic referral: a multisite, open-label, randomised controlled trial in South Africa and Uganda.

    PubMed

    Barnabas, Ruanne V; van Rooyen, Heidi; Tumwesigye, Elioda; Brantley, Justin; Baeten, Jared M; van Heerden, Alastair; Turyamureeba, Bosco; Joseph, Philip; Krows, Meighan; Thomas, Katherine K; Schaafsma, Torin T; Hughes, James P; Celum, Connie

    2016-05-01

    Male circumcision decreases HIV acquisition by 60%, and antiretroviral therapy (ART) almost eliminates HIV transmission from HIV-positive people who are virally suppressed; however, coverage of these interventions has lagged behind targets. We aimed to assess whether community-based HIV testing with counsellor support and point-of-care CD4 cell count testing would increase uptake of ART and male circumcision. We did this multisite, open-label, randomised controlled trial in six research-naive communities in rural South Africa and Uganda. Eligible HIV-positive participants (aged ≥16 years) were randomly assigned (1:1:1) in a factorial design to receive lay counsellor clinic linkage facilitation, lay counsellor follow-up home visits, or standard-of-care clinic referral, and then (1:1) either point-of-care CD4 cell count testing or referral for CD4 testing. HIV-negative uncircumcised men (aged 16-49 years) who could receive secure mobile phone text messages were randomly assigned (1:1:1) to receive text message reminders, lay counsellor visits, or standard clinic referral. The study biostatistician generated the randomisation schedule via a computer-generated random number program with varying block sizes (multiples of six or three) stratified by country. Primary outcomes for HIV-positive people were obtaining a CD4 cell count, linkage to an HIV clinic, ART initiation, and viral suppression at 9 months, and for HIV-negative uncircumcised men were visiting a circumcision facility and uptake of male circumcision at 3 months. We assessed social harms as a safety outcome throughout the study. We did the primary analyses by intention to treat. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT02038582. Between June 6, 2013, and March 11, 2015, 15 332 participants were tested. 2339 (15%) participants tested HIV positive, of whom 1325 (57%) were randomly assigned to receive lay counsellor clinic linkage facilitation (n=437), lay counsellor follow-up home visits

  10. Phenobarbitone versus phenytoin for treatment of neonatal seizures: an open-label randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Pathak, Garima; Upadhyay, Amit; Pathak, Umesh; Chawla, Deepak; Goel, Sneh P

    2013-08-01

    To compare the efficacy of phenobarbitone and phenytoin for treatment of neonatal seizures in term and near-term neonates. Open labeled randomized controlled trial. Neonatal intensive care unit of a level II unit from India, from November 2008 to September 2009. All term and late pre-term neonates admitted with clinically apparent seizures and not having any transient metabolic disorders (hypoglycemia or hypocalcemia) were randomly assigned. Phenobarbitone (n=54) or phenytoin (n=55) intravenously 20 mg/kg/dose over 20-30 min. Neonates whose seizures were not controlled by the assigned drug were then crossed over to be treated with other drug in same dose. Clinical control of seizures (seizure free period of 24 hours after giving anticonvulsant). Baseline characteristics including mean birthweight, gestation age and sex were comparable in both groups. Seizures were controlled in 8 of the 55 (14.5%) neonates who received phenytoin, as compared to 39 of 54 (72.2%) neonates who received phenobarbitone (P <0.001). In babies not responding to assigned drugs, after cross-over to the other drug, seizure control was achieved in 44/55 (80%) of the neonates assigned to receive phenytoin first as compared to 49/54 (91%) of those assigned to receive phenobarbitone first (P=0.014). After maximum dose of phenobarbitone seizures were controlled in 49/55(89%) in phenytoin group and 52/54 (96%) in phenobarbitone group (P<0.05). Phenobarbitone is more efficacious than phenytoin in control of clinical seizures in term or near-term neonates, irrespective of etiology. To evaluate serum vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) levels in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) during the induction phase of chemotherapy.

  11. Effects of a 250-mL enema containing sodium phosphate on electrolyte concentrations in healthy volunteers: An open-label, randomized, controlled, two-period, crossover clinical trial*

    PubMed Central

    Sédaba, Belén; Azanza, Josh R.; Campanero, Miguel A.; Garcia-Quetglas, Emilio; Muñoz, Maria Josh; Marco, Santiago

    2006-01-01

    Background: Enemas are used by individuals with constipation and are often required before certain medical diagnostic procedures and surgical interventions. However, abnormalities in serum electrolyte concentrations have been associated with enema use. Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the changes in serum electrolyte concentrations (phosphorus, calcium, sodium, and potassium) and urinary phosphorus elimination after the administration of a sodium phosphate enema. Methods: Healthy volunteers aged 35 to 70 years were eligible for this open-label, randomized, controlled, 2-period, crossover clinical trial at the Clinical Research Unit of the University Hospital of Navarra, Pamplona, Spain. The study comprised 2 one-day periods separated by a 7-day washout. All subjects were randomly assigned in a 1:1 ratio to 1 of 2 study sequences: (1) a single dose of Enema Casen® 250 mL in the first period followed by no treatment (control) in the second period, or (2) no treatment in the first period followed by a single dose of the study drug in the second period. The sequence of treatment was assigned using a randomization table that was prepared before the beginning of the study. Serum concentrations of phosphorus, sodium, potassium, and calcium were measured in both periods. Urinary phosphorus elimination was measured for 12 hours after enema administration (Ae0–12) in a subset of the subjects in the second period. Adverse events (AEs) were monitored by the investigators throughout the study. Normal ranges for the electrolytes were as follows: phosphorus, 2.5 to 5 mg/dL; calcium, 8.5 to 10.5 mg/dL; sodium, 135 to 145 mEq/L; and potassium, 3.5 to 5 mEq/L. Results: Twenty-four subjects (12 men, 12 women; mean [SD] age, 47.8 [9.6] years [range, 36–68 years]) participated in the study. All of the subjects were white and none were smokers. Twelve hours after enema administration, mean serum phosphorus and sodium concentrations increased by a mean of 1.18 mg

  12. Results of a 14-Week, Multicenter, Prospective, Randomized, Open-Label, Noninferiority Clinical Trial Comparing the Antihypertensive Effect and Edema Incidence of Lacidipine and Amlodipine in Older Korean Patients with Mild-to-Moderate Hypertension☆

    PubMed Central

    Na, Jin Oh; Seo, Hong Seog; Choi, Cheol Ung; Lim, Hong Euy; Kim, Jin Won; Kim, Eung Ju; Han, Seong Woo; Rha, Seung-Woon; Park, Chang Gyu; Oh, Dong Joo

    2013-01-01

    Background It has been shown that administration of lacidipine markedly reduces systolic blood pressure in elderly patients with hypertension without increasing the incidence of cardiovascular events and total mortality. But in Korea, there were no available data about the effectiveness and safety of lacidipine. Objectives The goal of our study was to compare the effect of lacidipine and amlodipine besylate on sitting systolic blood pressure (SBP) and edema regression time as primary parameters, and sitting diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and tolerability as a secondary parameter in patients with hypertension. Method This was a prospective, randomized, open-label, noninferiority study in which patients received 14 weeks of treatment with either lacidipine or amlodipine besylate. Patients aged 55 to 80 years having uncomplicated, mild-to-moderate essential hypertension (SBP 140 to <180 mm Hg or DBP ≥90 mm Hg) and receiving no antihypertensive medications during the 2 weeks before randomization were randomly assigned to receive lacidipine or amlodipine. The incidence of adverse events was also assessed. Results In total, 315 patients (154 men, mean age 67.6 years) were included in the intent-to-treat analysis and randomly assigned to receive lacidipine (n = 162) or amlodipine besylate (n = 153); 286 patients were included in the per-protocol analysis (n = 150 for lacidipine, n = 136 for amlodipine) (12 in the lacidipine group and 17 in the amlodipine group were excluded from the per-protocol analysis due to consent withdrawal or protocol violation). There were no differences in demographic profiles between the 2 groups. Mean (SD) SBP changes at 14 weeks were −18.9 (12.7) mm Hg in the lacidipine group and −20.6 (12.4) mm Hg in the amlodipine group (P >0.05). Because the 1-sided 95% CI for the difference in mean SBP changes between groups (−4.18 to 0.72) was within the pre-specified lower limit (−5 mm Hg), lacidipine was considered noninferior to amlodipine

  13. A pilot open-label trial of minocycline in patients with autism and regressive features

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Minocycline is a tetracycline derivative that readily crosses the blood brain barrier and appears to have beneficial effects on neuroinflammation, microglial activation and neuroprotection in a variety of neurological disorders. Both microglial activation and neuroinflammation have been reported to be associated with autism. The study was designed to evaluate the effects of minocycline treatment on markers of neuroinflammation and autism symptomatology in children with autism and a history of developmental regression. Methods Eleven children were enrolled in an open-label trial of six months of minocycline (1.4 mg/kg). Ten children completed the trial. Behavioral measures were collected and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), serum and plasma were obtained before and at the end of minocycline treatment and were analyzed for markers of neuroinflammation. Results Clinical improvements were negligible. The laboratory assays demonstrated significant changes in the expression profile of the truncated form of brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) (P = 0.042) and hepatic growth factor (HGF) (P = 0.028) in CSF. In serum, the ratio of the truncated BDNF form and α-2 macroglobulin (α-2 M), was also significantly lower (P = 0.028) while the mature BDNF/α-2 M ratio revealed no difference following treatment. Only the chemokine CXCL8 (IL-8) was significantly different (P = 0.047) in serum while no significant changes were observed in CSF or serum in chemokines such as CCL2 (MCP-1) or cytokines such as TNF-α, CD40L, IL-6, IFN-γ and IL-1β when pre- and post-treatment levels of these proteins were compared. No significant pre- and post-treatment changes were seen in the profiles of plasma metalloproteinases, putative targets of the effects of minocycline. Conclusions Changes in the pre- and post-treatment profiles of BDNF in CSF and blood, HGF in CSF and CXCL8 (IL-8) in serum, suggest that minocycline may have effects in the CNS by modulating the

  14. Simplified antibiotic regimens compared with injectable procaine benzylpenicillin plus gentamicin for treatment of neonates and young infants with clinical signs of possible serious bacterial infection when referral is not possible: a randomised, open-label, equivalence trial.

    PubMed

    Tshefu, Antoinette; Lokangaka, Adrien; Ngaima, Serge; Engmann, Cyril; Esamai, Fabian; Gisore, Peter; Ayede, Adejumoke Idowu; Falade, Adegoke Gbadegesin; Adejuyigbe, Ebunoluwa A; Anyabolu, Chineme Henry; Wammanda, Robinson D; Ejembi, Clara L; Ogala, William N; Gram, Lu; Cousens, Simon

    2015-05-02

    WHO recommends hospital-based treatment for young infants aged 0-59 days with clinical signs of possible serious bacterial infection, but most families in resource-poor settings cannot accept referral. We aimed to assess whether use of simplified antibiotic regimens to treat young infants with clinical signs of severe infection was as efficacious as an injectable procaine benzylpenicillin-gentamicin combination for 7 days for situations in which hospital referral was not possible. In a multisite open-label equivalence trial in DR Congo, Kenya, and Nigeria, community health workers visited all newborn babies at home, identifying and referring unwell young infants to a study nurse. We stratified young infants with clinical signs of severe infection whose parents did not accept referral to hospital by age (0-6 days and 7-59 days), and randomly assigned each individual within these strata to receive one of the four treatment regimens. Randomisation was stratified by age group of infants. An age-stratified randomisation scheme with block size of eight was computer-generated off-site at WHO. The outcome assessor was masked. We randomly allocated infants to receive injectable procaine benzylpenicillin-gentamicin for 7 days (group A, reference group); injectable gentamicin and oral amoxicillin for 7 days (group B); injectable procaine benzylpenicillin-gentamicin for 2 days, then oral amoxicillin for 5 days (group C); or injectable gentamicin for 2 days and oral amoxicillin for 7 days (group D). Trained health professionals gave daily injections and the first dose of oral amoxicillin. Our primary outcome was treatment failure by day 8 after enrolment, defined as clinical deterioration, development of a serious adverse event (including death), no improvement by day 4, or not cured by day 8. Independent outcome assessors, who did not know the infant's treatment regimen, assessed study outcomes on days 4, 8, 11, and 15. Primary analysis was per protocol. We used a prespecified

  15. Foley Catheter for Induction of Labor at Term: An Open-Label, Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhiqun; Dai, Yimin; Zheng, Mingming; Xu, Biyun; Hu, Yali

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to determine the optimal Foley catheter balloon volume (30-mL vs. 80-mL) and the maximum time for cervical ripening (12 hours vs. 24 hours) to improve vaginal delivery rate within 24 hours of induction. Methods We conducted an open-label, randomized controlled trial in a teaching hospital in China. Women with a term singleton pregnancy, cephalic presentation, intact membrane and an unfavorable cervix (Bishop score <6) were randomly allocated, in 1:1:1:1 ratio, to receive either one of the four treatments: (1) 30-mL balloon for a maximum of 12 hours, (2) 30-mL balloon for a maximum of 24 hours, (3) 80-mL balloon for a maximum of 12 hours, and (4) 80-mL balloon for a maximum of 24 hours. The primary outcome was vaginal delivery within 24 hours. Secondary outcomes included cesarean section rate and maternal/neonatal morbidity. Data were analyzed on a per-protocol basis. Results Five hundred and four women were recruited and randomized (126 women in each group); nine women did not receive the assigned intervention. More women achieved vaginal delivery within 24 hours in 12-hour Foley catheter groups than in the 24-hour Foley catheter groups (30-mL/12 hours: 54.5%, 30-mL/24 hours: 33.1%, 80-mL/12 hours: 46.4%, 80-mL/24 hours: 24.0%, p < 0.001). Cesarean section rates and the incidence of chorioaminonitis were comparable among four groups. After adjustment for confounding factors, both ripening time and balloon size did not affect the proportion of women delivered vaginally within 24 hours of induction. Conclusion For women with an unfavorable cervix at term, induction of labor with a Foley catheter is safe and effective. Higher balloon volume (80-mL vs. 30-mL) and longer ripening time (24 hours vs. 12 hours) would not shorten induction to delivery interval or reduce cesarean section rate. Trial Registration Chinese Clinical trial registry (ChiCTR-TRC-13003044) PMID:26322635

  16. Safety and Immunogenicity of Modified Vaccinia Ankara-Bavarian Nordic Smallpox Vaccine in Vaccinia-Naive and Experienced Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Individuals: An Open-Label, Controlled Clinical Phase II Trial.

    PubMed

    Overton, Edgar Turner; Stapleton, Jack; Frank, Ian; Hassler, Shawn; Goepfert, Paul A; Barker, David; Wagner, Eva; von Krempelhuber, Alfred; Virgin, Garth; Meyer, Thomas Peter; Müller, Jutta; Bädeker, Nicole; Grünert, Robert; Young, Philip; Rösch, Siegfried; Maclennan, Jane; Arndtz-Wiedemann, Nathaly; Chaplin, Paul

    2015-04-01

    Background.  First- and second-generation smallpox vaccines are contraindicated in individuals infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). A new smallpox vaccine is needed to protect this population in the context of biodefense preparedness. The focus of this study was to compare the safety and immunogenicity of a replication-deficient, highly attenuated smallpox vaccine modified vaccinia Ankara (MVA) in HIV-infected and healthy subjects. Methods.  An open-label, controlled Phase II trial was conducted at 36 centers in the United States and Puerto Rico for HIV-infected and healthy subjects. Subjects received 2 doses of MVA administered 4 weeks apart. Safety was evaluated by assessment of adverse events, focused physical exams, electrocardiogram recordings, and safety laboratories. Immune responses were assessed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and a plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT). Results.  Five hundred seventy-nine subjects were vaccinated at least once and had data available for analysis. Rates of ELISA seropositivity were comparably high in vaccinia-naive healthy and HIV-infected subjects, whereas PRNT seropositivity rates were higher in healthy compared with HIV-infected subjects. Modified vaccinia Ankara was safe and well tolerated with no adverse impact on viral load or CD4 counts. There were no cases of myo-/pericarditis reported. Conclusions.  Modified vaccinia Ankara was safe and immunogenic in subjects infected with HIV and represents a promising smallpox vaccine candidate for use in immunocompromised populations.

  17. Safety and Immunogenicity of Modified Vaccinia Ankara-Bavarian Nordic Smallpox Vaccine in Vaccinia-Naive and Experienced Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Individuals: An Open-Label, Controlled Clinical Phase II Trial

    PubMed Central

    Overton, Edgar Turner; Stapleton, Jack; Frank, Ian; Hassler, Shawn; Goepfert, Paul A.; Barker, David; Wagner, Eva; von Krempelhuber, Alfred; Virgin, Garth; Meyer, Thomas Peter; Müller, Jutta; Bädeker, Nicole; Grünert, Robert; Young, Philip; Rösch, Siegfried; Maclennan, Jane; Arndtz-Wiedemann, Nathaly; Chaplin, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Background. First- and second-generation smallpox vaccines are contraindicated in individuals infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). A new smallpox vaccine is needed to protect this population in the context of biodefense preparedness. The focus of this study was to compare the safety and immunogenicity of a replication-deficient, highly attenuated smallpox vaccine modified vaccinia Ankara (MVA) in HIV-infected and healthy subjects. Methods. An open-label, controlled Phase II trial was conducted at 36 centers in the United States and Puerto Rico for HIV-infected and healthy subjects. Subjects received 2 doses of MVA administered 4 weeks apart. Safety was evaluated by assessment of adverse events, focused physical exams, electrocardiogram recordings, and safety laboratories. Immune responses were assessed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and a plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT). Results. Five hundred seventy-nine subjects were vaccinated at least once and had data available for analysis. Rates of ELISA seropositivity were comparably high in vaccinia-naive healthy and HIV-infected subjects, whereas PRNT seropositivity rates were higher in healthy compared with HIV-infected subjects. Modified vaccinia Ankara was safe and well tolerated with no adverse impact on viral load or CD4 counts. There were no cases of myo-/pericarditis reported. Conclusions. Modified vaccinia Ankara was safe and immunogenic in subjects infected with HIV and represents a promising smallpox vaccine candidate for use in immunocompromised populations. PMID:26380340

  18. A pilot open-label trial of zonisamide in Unverricht-Lundborg disease.

    PubMed

    Italiano, Domenico; Pezzella, Marianna; Coppola, Antonietta; Magaudda, Adriana; Ferlazzo, Edoardo; Bramanti, Placido; Striano, Salvatore; Zara, Federico; Striano, Pasquale

    2011-02-01

    Action myoclonus frequently remains the primary cause of disability in Unverricht-Lundborg disease (EPM1) patients. Pharmacological treatment of myoclonus in these patients continues to be challenging; indeed conventional AEDs may be poorly effective in monotherapy or even in combination. We carried out a pilot, open-label trial of add-on zonisamide (ZNS) in patients with EPM1. Twelve EPM1 patients with epilepsy and action myoclonus were included in the study. Oral ZNS was gradually titrated until the target dose of 6 mg/Kg/day. Unified Myoclonus Rating Scale was obtained in each subject before and after ZNS add-on. A significant reduction of myoclonus severity was reached after ZNS introduction. ZNS was generally well tolerated and only two patients withdrew due to mild adverse effects. Our trial suggests that ZNS may be a valuable therapeutic option in EPM1 patients.

  19. Foley Catheter for Induction of Labor at Term: An Open-Label, Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Gu, Ning; Ru, Tong; Wang, Zhiqun; Dai, Yimin; Zheng, Mingming; Xu, Biyun; Hu, Yali

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the optimal Foley catheter balloon volume (30-mL vs. 80-mL) and the maximum time for cervical ripening (12 hours vs. 24 hours) to improve vaginal delivery rate within 24 hours of induction. We conducted an open-label, randomized controlled trial in a teaching hospital in China. Women with a term singleton pregnancy, cephalic presentation, intact membrane and an unfavorable cervix (Bishop score <6) were randomly allocated, in 1:1:1:1 ratio, to receive either one of the four treatments: (1) 30-mL balloon for a maximum of 12 hours, (2) 30-mL balloon for a maximum of 24 hours, (3) 80-mL balloon for a maximum of 12 hours, and (4) 80-mL balloon for a maximum of 24 hours. The primary outcome was vaginal delivery within 24 hours. Secondary outcomes included cesarean section rate and maternal/neonatal morbidity. Data were analyzed on a per-protocol basis. Five hundred and four women were recruited and randomized (126 women in each group); nine women did not receive the assigned intervention. More women achieved vaginal delivery within 24 hours in 12-hour Foley catheter groups than in the 24-hour Foley catheter groups (30-mL/12 hours: 54.5%, 30-mL/24 hours: 33.1%, 80-mL/12 hours: 46.4%, 80-mL/24 hours: 24.0%, p < 0.001). Cesarean section rates and the incidence of chorioaminonitis were comparable among four groups. After adjustment for confounding factors, both ripening time and balloon size did not affect the proportion of women delivered vaginally within 24 hours of induction. For women with an unfavorable cervix at term, induction of labor with a Foley catheter is safe and effective. Higher balloon volume (80-mL vs. 30-mL) and longer ripening time (24 hours vs. 12 hours) would not shorten induction to delivery interval or reduce cesarean section rate. Chinese Clinical trial registry (ChiCTR-TRC-13003044).

  20. Clinical and instrumental evaluation of a cross-linked hyaluronic acid filler dermal injection: effects on nasolabial folds skin biophysical parameters and augmentation from a single-dose, monocentric, open-label trial.

    PubMed

    Cameli, Norma; Mariano, Maria; Serio, Mirko; Berardesca, Enzo

    2016-10-01

    When a hyaluronic acid dermal device to fill soft tissues is chosen, efficacy, safety and durability are key concerns. This is an open-label prospective study to instrumentally evaluate the effects of HA filler dermal injection on nasolabial folds skin biophysical parameters and augmentation. A single Italian site treated female subjects aged 40-55, for nasolabial folds, with a single standardized injection. The outcome was evaluated with objective quantitative measurements after 90 (T1) and 180 days (T2) from the injection comparing to baseline (T0) by means of Corneometer (skin hydration measurement), Cutometer (skin elasticity measurement), and Visioface devices for digital and UV computerized image analysis. Secondary endpoints were safety assessment, subject investigator satisfaction with the intervention. Assessment of aesthetic results included photographic documentation. The computerized image analysis confirmed the clinical assessment showing statistically significant reduction in nasolabial folds both at T1 and T2. Visioface® indexes showed a marked and statistical significant response. An excellent profile of satisfaction of the product at T2 from investigators and patients was recorded. Skin hydration and elasticity did not show significant changes. In our study, a standardized HA filler dermal injection on nasolabial folds did not influence skin biophysical parameters such as skin hydration and elasticity. Nasolabial folds showed a persistent and significative response at T2 confirmed by instrumental evaluation. The tolerability and safety profile of the product was excellent.

  1. An open-label pilot trial of minocycline in children as a treatment for Angelman syndrome.

    PubMed

    Grieco, Joseph C; Ciarlone, Stephanie L; Gieron-Korthals, Maria; Schoenberg, Mike R; Smith, Amanda G; Philpot, Rex M; Heussler, Helen S; Banko, Jessica L; Weeber, Edwin J

    2014-12-10

    Minocycline, a member of the tetracycline family, has a low risk of adverse effects and an ability to improve behavioral performance in humans with cognitive disruption. We performed a single-arm open-label trial in which 25 children diagnosed with Angelman syndrome (AS) were administered minocycline to assess the safety and tolerability of minocycline in this patient population and determine the drug's effect on the cognitive and behavioral manifestations of the disorder. Participants, age 4-12 years old, were randomly selected from a pool of previously screened children for participation in this study. Each child received 3 milligrams of minocycline per kilogram of body weight per day for 8 weeks. Participants were assessed during 3 study visits: baseline, after 8-weeks of minocycline treatment and after an 8-week wash out period. The primary outcome measure was the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development 3rd Edition (BSID-III). Secondary outcome measures included the Clinical Global Impressions Scale (CGI), Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales 2nd Edition (VABS-II), Preschool Language Scale 4th Edition (PLS-IV) and EEG scores. Observations were considered statistically significant if p < 0.05 using ANOVA and partial eta squared (η(2)) was calculated to show effect size. Multiple comparisons testing between time points were carried out using Dunnett's post hoc testing. Significant improvement in the mean raw scores of the BSID-III subdomains communication and fine motor ability as well as the subdomains auditory comprehension and total language ability of the PLS-IV when baseline scores were compared to scores after the washout period. Further, improvements were observed in the receptive communication subdomain of the VABS-II after treatment with minocycline. Finally, mean scores of the BSID-III self-direction subdomain and CGI scale score were significantly improved both after minocycline treatment and after the wash out period. The clinical and

  2. Lumboperitoneal shunt surgery for idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (SINPHONI-2): an open-label randomised trial.

    PubMed

    Kazui, Hiroaki; Miyajima, Masakazu; Mori, Etsuro; Ishikawa, Masatsune

    2015-06-01

    Lumboperitoneal shunt surgery has the potential to alleviate symptoms of normal pressure hydrocephalus but the benefits of such surgery have not been tested in a randomised trial. The aim of this trial was to determine the safety and efficacy of the lumboperitoneal shunt surgery for this disorder. For the open-label randomised SINPHONI-2 trial, eligible participants (60-85 years of age) with idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus, with ventriculomegaly, and tightness of the high-convexity and medial subarachnoid spaces on MRI, were recruited from 20 neurological and neurosurgical centres in Japan. Enrolled participants were randomly assigned in a 1:1 ratio according to a random code generated by the trial statistician, with a permuted block design (using a block size of 4 or 6) within each centre, to receive lumboperitoneal shunt surgery within 1 month after randomisation, or to surgery postponed for 3 months. Patients and assessors were not masked to treatment assignment. The primary endpoint was favourable outcome, defined as an improvement of one point or more on the modified Rankin scale (mRS) at 3 months after randomisation, analysed by intention to treat, and the main secondary endpoint was the same outcome 12 months after surgery, analysed per protocol. This trial is registered with the University Hospital Medical Information Network Clinical Trials Registry (UMIN-CTR), number UMIN000002730. Between March 1, 2010, and Oct 19, 2011, 93 patients with idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus were enrolled and randomly assigned to the immediate treatment group (n=49) or the postponed treatment group (n=44). More patients in the immediate treatment group than in the postponed treatment group had an improvement of one point or more on the mRS at 3 months: 32 (65%) of 49 in the immediate group vs 2 (5%) of 44 in the postponed group (difference 61% [95% CI 42-68]; p<0·0001). The number of patients who had an improvement of one point or more on the mRS at 12

  3. Gatifloxacin versus chloramphenicol for uncomplicated enteric fever: an open-label, randomised, controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Arjyal, Amit; Basnyat, Buddha; Koirala, Samir; Karkey, Abhilasha; Dongol, Sabina; Agrawaal, Krishna Kumar; Shakya, Nikki; Shrestha, Kabina; Sharma, Manish; Lama, Sanju; Shrestha, Kasturi; Khatri, Nely Shrestha; Shrestha, Umesh; Campbell, James I; Baker, Stephen; Farrar, Jeremy; Wolbers, Marcel; Dolecek, Christiane

    2011-01-01

    Summary Background We aimed to investigate whether gatifloxacin, a new generation and affordable fluoroquinolone, is better than chloramphenicol for the treatment of uncomplicated enteric fever in children and adults. Methods We did an open-label randomised superiority trial at Patan Hospital, Kathmandu, Nepal, to investigate whether gatifloxacin is more effective than chloramphenicol for treating uncomplicated enteric fever. Children and adults clinically diagnosed with enteric fever received either gatifloxacin (10 mg/kg) once a day for 7 days, or chloramphenicol (75 mg/kg per day) in four divided doses for 14 days. Patients were randomly allocated treatment (1:1) in blocks of 50, without stratification. Allocations were placed in sealed envelopes opened by the study physician once a patient was enrolled into the trial. Masking was not possible because of the different formulations and ways of giving the two drugs. The primary outcome measure was treatment failure, which consisted of at least one of the following: persistent fever at day 10, need for rescue treatment, microbiological failure, relapse until day 31, and enteric-fever-related complications. The primary outcome was assessed in all patients randomly allocated treatment and reported separately for culture-positive patients and for all patients. Secondary outcome measures were fever clearance time, late relapse, and faecal carriage. The trial is registered on controlled-trials.com, number ISRCTN 53258327. Findings 844 patients with a median age of 16 (IQR 9–22) years were enrolled in the trial and randomly allocated a treatment. 352 patients had blood-culture-confirmed enteric fever: 175 were treated with chloramphenicol and 177 with gatifloxacin. 14 patients had treatment failure in the chloramphenicol group, compared with 12 in the gatifloxacin group (hazard ratio [HR] of time to failure 0·86, 95% CI 0·40–1·86, p=0·70). The median time to fever clearance was 3·95 days (95% CI 3·68–4·68

  4. Open-label placebo treatment in chronic low back pain: a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Carvalho, Cláudia; Caetano, Joaquim Machado; Cunha, Lidia; Rebouta, Paula; Kaptchuk, Ted J.; Kirsch, Irving

    2016-01-01

    Abstract This randomized controlled trial was performed to investigate whether placebo effects in chronic low back pain could be harnessed ethically by adding open-label placebo (OLP) treatment to treatment as usual (TAU) for 3 weeks. Pain severity was assessed on three 0- to 10-point Numeric Rating Scales, scoring maximum pain, minimum pain, and usual pain, and a composite, primary outcome, total pain score. Our other primary outcome was back-related dysfunction, assessed on the Roland–Morris Disability Questionnaire. In an exploratory follow-up, participants on TAU received placebo pills for 3 additional weeks. We randomized 97 adults reporting persistent low back pain for more than 3 months' duration and diagnosed by a board-certified pain specialist. Eighty-three adults completed the trial. Compared to TAU, OLP elicited greater pain reduction on each of the three 0- to 10-point Numeric Rating Scales and on the 0- to 10-point composite pain scale (P < 0.001), with moderate to large effect sizes. Pain reduction on the composite Numeric Rating Scales was 1.5 (95% confidence interval: 1.0-2.0) in the OLP group and 0.2 (−0.3 to 0.8) in the TAU group. Open-label placebo treatment also reduced disability compared to TAU (P < 0.001), with a large effect size. Improvement in disability scores was 2.9 (1.7-4.0) in the OLP group and 0.0 (−1.1 to 1.2) in the TAU group. After being switched to OLP, the TAU group showed significant reductions in both pain (1.5, 0.8-2.3) and disability (3.4, 2.2-4.5). Our findings suggest that OLP pills presented in a positive context may be helpful in chronic low back pain. PMID:27755279

  5. Liposomal Bladder Instillations for IC/BPS: an Open-Label Clinical Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Peters, Kenneth M; Hasenau, Deborah; Killinger, Kim A; Chancellor, Michael B; Anthony, Michele; Kaufman, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Intravesical instillation of liposomes is a potentially new therapeutic option for subjects with interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome (IC/BPS). The aim of this study was to explore the safety and clinical outcomes of 4 weekly instillations of sphingomyelin liposomes in an open-label cohort of subjects with IC/BPS. Methods A total of fourteen symptomatic IC/BPS subjects were treated with intravesical liposomes once a week for 4 weeks. Safety measurements included lab specimen collection, vital signs, post void residual (PVR), and assessment of adverse events (AEs). Efficacy measurements included pain visual analog scales (VAS), voiding diaries, global response assessments (GRAs), and O'Leary-Sant Interstitial Cystitis Symptom and Problem Indices (ICSI and ICPI). Results No treatment-related adverse events (AE) were reported at any time over the course of the study. Urgency VAS scores significantly decreased at 4 weeks (p=0.0029) and 8 weeks (p=0.0112) post-treatment. Pain VAS scores significantly decreased at 4 weeks post-treatment (p=0.0073). Combined ICSI and ICPI scores improved significantly at 4 weeks and 8 weeks (p=0.002 for both time points) post-treatment. Responses to GRA showed improvement at 4 weeks post- instillation. No significant decrease in urinary frequency was found. Conclusion Sphingomyelin liposome instillations were well tolerated in subjects with IC/BPS with no AEs attributed to the test article. Treatment was associated with improvements in pain, urinary urgency, and overall symptom scores. Placebo controlled clinical trials are needed to assess this potential therapy for IC/BPS. PMID:25209396

  6. Nutritional route in oesophageal resection trial II (NUTRIENT II): study protocol for a multicentre open-label randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Berkelmans, Gijs H K; Wilts, Bas J W; Kouwenhoven, Ewout A; Kumagai, Koshi; Nilsson, Magnus; Weijs, Teus J; Nieuwenhuijzen, Grard A P; van Det, Marc J; Luyer, Misha D P

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Early start of an oral diet is safe and beneficial in most types of gastrointestinal surgery and is a crucial part of fast track or enhanced recovery protocols. However, the feasibility and safety of oral intake directly following oesophagectomy remain unclear. The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of early versus delayed start of oral intake on postoperative recovery following oesophagectomy. Methods and analysis This is an open-label multicentre randomised controlled trial. Patients undergoing elective minimally invasive or hybrid oesophagectomy for cancer are eligible. Further inclusion criteria are intrathoracic anastomosis, written informed consent and age 18 years or older. Inability for oral intake, inability to place a feeding jejunostomy, inability to provide written consent, swallowing disorder, achalasia, Karnofsky Performance Status <80 and malnutrition are exclusion criteria. Patients will be randomised using online randomisation software. The intervention group (direct oral feeding) will receive a liquid oral diet for 2 weeks with gradually expanding daily maximums. The control group (delayed oral feeding) will receive enteral feeding via a jejunostomy during 5 days and then start the same liquid oral diet. The primary outcome measure is functional recovery. Secondary outcome measures are 30-day surgical complications; nutritional status; need for artificial nutrition; need for additional interventions; health-related quality of life. We aim to recruit 148 patients. Statistical analysis will be performed according to an intention to treat principle. Results are presented as risk ratios with corresponding 95% CIs. A two-tailed p<0.05 is considered statistically significant. Ethics and dissemination Our study protocol has received ethical approval from the Medical research Ethics Committees United (MEC-U). This study is conducted according to the principles of Good Clinical Practice. Verbal and written informed consent is

  7. Long-term safety and seizure outcome in Japanese patients with Lennox-Gastaut syndrome receiving adjunctive rufinamide therapy: An open-label study following a randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Ohtsuka, Yoko; Yoshinaga, Harumi; Shirasaka, Yukiyoshi; Takayama, Rumiko; Takano, Hiroki; Iyoda, Kuniaki

    2016-03-01

    To evaluate the long-term safety and seizure outcome in Japanese patients with Lennox-Gastaut syndrome (LGS) receiving adjunctive rufinamide therapy. We conducted an open-label extension study following a 12-week multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of adjunctive rufinamide therapy in Japanese patients with LGS. Fifty-four patients participated in the extension study. Seizure frequency was evaluated until 52 weeks after the start of the extension study. Adverse events (AEs) were evaluated throughout both studies. Of the 54 patients, 41 (75.9%) completed the extension study. The median duration of exposure to rufinamide was 818.0 days in all 54 patients, and 38 patients (70.4%) received rufinamide for 2 years or more. The median percent change in the frequency of tonic-atonic seizures relative to the frequency at the start of the double-blind study was -39.3% (12 weeks), -40.6% (24 weeks), -46.8% (32 weeks), -47.6% (40 weeks), and -36.1% (52 weeks). Reduction of total seizure frequency was also maintained until 52 weeks. Frequent treatment-related AEs were somnolence (20.4%), decreased appetite (16.7%), transient seizure aggravation including status epilepticus (13.0%), vomiting (11.1%), and constipation (11.1%). Adverse events were mild or moderate, except for transient seizure aggravation in three patients. Adverse events resulting in discontinuation of rufinamide were decreased appetite, drug eruption, and worsening of underlying autism. When clinically notable weight loss was defined as a decrease ≥ 7% relative to baseline, 22 patients (40.7%) experienced weight loss at least once during long-term observation, although weight loss was reported as an AE in only three patients. This study demonstrated a long-term benefit of rufinamide as adjunctive therapy for Japanese patients with LGS. Exacerbation of seizures and decreased appetite/weight loss should be monitored carefully. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B

  8. Bias was reduced in an open-label trial through the removal of subjective elements from the outcome definition.

    PubMed

    Kahan, Brennan C; Doré, Caroline J; Murphy, Michael F; Jairath, Vipul

    2016-09-01

    To determine whether modifying an outcome definition to remove subjective elements reduced bias in a trial that could not use blinded outcome assessment. Reanalysis of an open-label trial comparing a restrictive vs. liberal transfusion strategy for gastrointestinal bleeding. The usual definition of the primary outcome, further bleeding, allows subjective clinical symptoms to be used alone for diagnosis, whereas the definition used in the trial required more objective confirmation by endoscopy. We compared treatment effect estimates for these two definitions. Fewer subjective symptom-identified events were confirmed using more objective methods in the restrictive arm (18%) than in the liberal arm (56%), indicating differential assessment between arms. An analysis using all events (both subjective and more objective) led to an odds ratio of 0.83 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.50-1.37). When only events confirmed using more objective methods were included, the odds ratio was 0.50 (95% CI: 0.32-0.78). The ratio of the odds ratios was 1.66, indicating that including unconfirmed events in the definition biased the treatment effect upward by 66%. Modifying the outcome definition to exclude subjective elements substantially reduced bias. This may be a useful strategy for reducing bias in trials that cannot blind outcome assessment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Armodafinil for fatigue associated with menopause: an open-label trial.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Fremonta; Freeman, Marlene P; Petrillo, Laura; Barsky, Maria; Galvan, Thania; Kim, Semmie; Cohen, Lee; Joffe, Hadine

    2016-02-01

    This study aims to obtain preliminary data on the efficacy of armodafinil for improving menopause-related fatigue and quality of life. Women (aged 40-65 y) experiencing menopause-related fatigue received open-label armodafinil therapy (up to 150 mg/d) for 4 weeks. Changes from baseline in Brief Fatigue Inventory score and Menopause-Specific Quality of Life (MENQOL) physical domain score were examined using the Wilcoxon signed rank test. Exploratory analyses examined the effects of armodafinil on hot flashes, overall quality of life, insomnia, depression, anxiety, and perceived cognitive performance. After open-label treatment, participants were randomized to double-blind continuation of armodafinil versus placebo for 2 weeks to examine whether treatment discontinuation would precipitate symptom recurrence. Of 29 eligible participants, 20 women (69.0%) completed the trial. During treatment with armodafinil (mean dose, 120 mg/d), median Brief Fatigue Inventory scores decreased by 57.7% from 5.2 (interquartile range [IQR], 4.6-6.2) to 2.2 (IQR, 1.1-4.4; P = 0.0002), and median MENQOL physical domain scores decreased by 51.3% from 3.9 (IQR, 2.3-4.8) to 1.9 (IQR, 1.3-2.7; P = 0.0001). Median hot flashes for 24 hours decreased by 48.3% from 2.9 (IQR, 1.1-4.6) to 1.5 (IQR, 0.4-2.4; P = 0.0005). Improvements in MENQOL total score (49%; P = 0.0001), cognitive function (59.2%; P = 0.0002), depressive symptoms (64.7%; P = 0.0006), insomnia (72.7%; P = 0.0012), and excessive sleepiness (57.1%; P = 0.0006) were noted. Randomized continuation (n = 10) or discontinuation (n = 10) did not indicate group differences. Armodafinil was well-tolerated; three women (12%) were withdrawn for adverse events. These preliminary results suggest a therapeutic effect of armodafinil on fatigue affecting quality of life during menopause, and a potential benefit for other menopause-related symptoms.

  10. Replacement of warfarin with a novel oral anticoagulant in endoscopic mucosal resection: a multicentre, open-label, randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Yamada, Takuya; Kada, Akiko; Uraoka, Toshio; Kuwai, Toshio; Watanabe, Noriko; Sasaki, Yoshihiro; Mabe, Katsuhiro; Takahashi, Yasuo; Kagaya, Takashi; Kimura, Toshihisa; Hamada, Hiroshige; Saito, Akiko M; Harada, Naohiko

    2017-01-01

    Introduction This randomised controlled trial aims to compare the efficacy of warfarin replacement with apixaban without postoperative resumption of heparin with that of conventional heparin bridging in patients taking warfarin and scheduled to undergo endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR): specifically, by checking for reduction in proportion of postoperative bleeding following EMR. Methods and analysis The multicentre, open-label randomised parallel-group, controlled intervention study regards patients taking warfarin who are scheduled to undergo colon EMR. Enrolled patients have been taking oral warfarin for non-valvular atrial fibrillation or venous thrombosis on an outpatient basis, and have been found to have a colorectal polyp (including adenoma or early-stage cancer) for which EMR was indicated. They are assigned to one of two groups. The primary endpoint is proportion of postoperative bleeding. The secondary endpoints are hospital stay length, therapeutic endoscopy outcomes such as proportion of en bloc resection, proportion of perforation, proportion of intraoperative bleeding, incidence of cerebral infarction/systemic embolism events, incidence of adverse events and serious adverse events, and proportion of postoperative therapeutic endoscopy. Ethics and dissemination This trial was approved by the National Hospital Organization Central Review Board for Clinical Trials (19 April 2016). Discussion The paucity of reports with high evidence levels was considered problematic when the Japan Gastroenterological Endoscopy Society’s gastroenterological endoscopy guidelines were revised in 2012. The results of this trial will have high medical significance, as its data could serve as the basis for revisions in the next edition of the guidelines. Trial registration number This trial was registered in the University Hospital Medical Information Network Clinical Trials Registry (UMIN-CTR) accepted from the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE

  11. Safety and efficacy of infliximab therapy in active behcet's uveitis: an open-label trial.

    PubMed

    Al-Rayes, H; Al-Swailem, R; Al-Balawi, M; Al-Dohayan, N; Al-Zaidi, S; Tariq, M

    2008-11-01

    In this open-label trial, ten male patients with active Behcet's uveitis were enrolled. Initially, two infliximab infusions (5 mg/kg) were given at weeks 0 and 2. The patients continued to receive conventional therapy on recurrence of severe uveitis (RSU) attack. The patients with further attack were regularly given infliximab infusions every 8 weeks. In cases of further RSU attacks, the infusion interval was reduced to 6 weeks. The total follow-up period was 3 years. The patients were monitored for RSU, visual acuity and adverse effects. Reduction in the doses of prednisolone was also monitored. After receiving two infliximab infusions at weeks 0 and 2, three patients remained attack-free and seven patients had another RSU attack between 8th and 47th week. These patients were regularly given infliximab at 8-week intervals. Five out of seven patients remained attack-free. In two patients who had further attack, infusion frequency was increased to 6 weeks. There was a remarkable improvement in visual acuity with no significant adverse reaction except mild respiratory tract infection (two patients), headache (one patient) and mild infusion reaction (one patient). Infliximab is a safe and effective drug for the management of Behcet's uveitis. Selection of optimal dose and frequency of infusion required standardization for individual patient.

  12. An open label trial of C-1073 (mifepristone) for psychotic major depression.

    PubMed

    Belanoff, Joseph K; Rothschild, Anthony J; Cassidy, Frederick; DeBattista, Charles; Baulieu, Etienne-Emile; Schold, Clifford; Schatzberg, Alan F

    2002-09-01

    The rationale for treating patients with psychotic major depression (PMD) with glucocorticosteroid receptor (GR) antagonists is explained. Thirty patients with PMD, with Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAMD-21) scores of 18 or greater, were assigned in an open label trial to receive 50 mg, 600 mg, or 1200 mg of mifepristone for 7 days. All the subjects completed the protocol; there were no dropouts. Side effects were mild and sporadic. Of 19 subjects in the combined 600- and 1200-mg group, 13 had a 30% or greater decline in their Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS) scores, compared with 4 of 11 in the 50-mg group. In the 600- and 1200-mg group, 12 of 19 subjects showed a 50% decline in the BPRS positive symptom subscale, a more sensitive index for the symptoms seen in PMD, compared with 3 of 11 in the 50-mg group; 8 of 19 subjects in the 600- and 1200-mg group had a 50% decline in the HAMD-21, compared with 2 of 11 in the 50-mg group. These results suggest that short term use of GR antagonists may be effective in the treatment of psychotic major depression and that further blinded studies are warranted.

  13. Efficacy and Tolerability of Asenapine Compared with Olanzapine in Borderline Personality Disorder: An Open-Label Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Bozzatello, Paola; Rocca, Paola; Uscinska, Maria; Bellino, Silvio

    2017-07-24

    Asenapine is a new second-generation antipsychotic that is understudied in borderline personality disorder (BPD). Only one study investigating the use of the drug in this indication (an open-label pilot study) has been conducted to date. The present open-label, randomized, controlled trial aimed to evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of asenapine in comparison with olanzapine, the most broadly studied antipsychotic in BPD. A total of 51 outpatients aged between 18 and 50 years with a diagnosis of BPD based on Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5) criteria were assigned for 12 weeks to asenapine (5-10 mg/day) or olanzapine (5-10 mg/day). Participants were assessed at baseline and after 12 weeks with the following instruments: the Clinical Global Impression Scale, Severity item (CGI-S), Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D), Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (HAM-A), Social Occupational Functioning Assessment Scale (SOFAS), Borderline Personality Disorder Severity Index (BPDSI), Barratt Impulsiveness Scale, version 11 (BIS-11), Modified Overt Aggression Scale (MOAS), Self-Harm Inventory (SHI), and Dosage Record and Treatment Emergent Symptom Scale (DOTES). Analysis of variance repeated measures was performed. Intention-to-treat analysis with last observation carried forward was conducted. There were 11 drop-outs (21.57%): six patients taking asenapine and five patients receiving olanzapine. Two patients who received asenapine stopped the drug, one due to oral hypoesthesia and the other due to moderate anxiety. Two patients receiving olanzapine discontinued the treatment because of significant weight gain (≥3 kg). The remaining seven drop-outs resulted from the lack of compliance with the trial prescription. Forty out of the 51 patients (78%) completed the trial: 19 patients received asenapine, while 21 patients received olanzapine. We found a significant within-subject effect (trial duration) for all rating scales

  14. A single-arm, open-label, phase 2 clinical trial evaluating disease response following treatment with BI-505, a human anti-intercellular adhesion molecule-1 monoclonal antibody, in patients with smoldering multiple myeloma

    PubMed Central

    Wichert, Stina; Juliusson, Gunnar; Johansson, Åsa; Sonesson, Elisabeth; Teige, Ingrid; Wickenberg, Anna Teige; Frendeus, Björn; Korsgren, Magnus; Hansson, Markus

    2017-01-01

    Background Smoldering multiple myeloma (SMM) is an indolent disease stage, considered to represent the transition phase from the premalignant MGUS (Monoclonal Gammopathy of Undetermined Significance) state towards symptomatic multiple myeloma (MM). Even though this diagnosis provides an opportunity for early intervention, few treatment studies have been done and the current standard of care is observation until progression. BI-505, a monoclonal antibody directed against intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) with promising anti-myeloma activity in preclinical trials, is a possible treatment approach for this patient category with potential to eliminate tumor cells with minimal long-term side effects. BI-505 was well tolerated in an earlier phase 1 trial. Methods and findings In this phase 2 trial the effects of BI-505 in patients with SMM were studied. Four patients were enrolled and three of them completed the first cycle of treatment defined as 5 doses of BI-505, a total of 43 mg/kg BW, over a 7-week period. In the three evaluable patients, BI-505 showed a benign safety profile. None of the patients achieved a response as defined per protocol. EudraCT number: 2012-004884-29. Conclusions The study was conducted to assess the efficacy, safety and pharmacodynamics of BI-505 in patients with SMM. BI-505 showed no clinically relevant efficacy on disease activity in these patients with SMM, even if well tolerated. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01838369. PMID:28158311

  15. Lactobacillus GG for treatment of acute childhood diarrhoea: An open labelled, randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Aggarwal, Sunny; Upadhyay, Amit; Shah, Dheeraj; Teotia, Neeraj; Agarwal, Astha; Jaiswal, Vijay

    2014-01-01

    Background & objectives: Randomized controlled trials in developed countries have reported benefits of Lactobacillus GG (LGG) in the treatment of acute watery diarrhoea, but there is paucity of such data from India. The study was aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of Lactobacillus GG in the treatment of acute diarrhoea in children from a semi-urban city in north India. Methods: In this open labelled, randomized controlled trial 200 children with acute watery diarrhoea, aged between 6 months to 5 years visiting outpatient department and emergency room of a teaching hospital in north India were enrolled. The children were randomized into receiving either Lactobacillus GG in dose of 10 billion cfu/day for five days or no probiotic medication in addition to standard WHO management of diarrhoea. Primary outcomes were duration of diarrhoea and time to change in consistency of stools. Results: Median (inter quartile range) duration of diarrhoea was significantly shorter in children in LGG group [60 (54-72) h vs. 78 (72-90) h; P<0.001]. Also, there was faster improvement in stool consistency in children receiving Lactobacillus GG than control group [36 (30-36) h vs. 42 (36-48) h; P<0.001]. There was significant reduction in average number of stools per day in LGG group (P<0.001) compared to the control group. These benefits were seen irrespective of rotavirus positivity in stool tests. Interpretation & conclusions: Our results showed that the use of Lactobacillus GG in children with acute diarrhoea resulted in shorter duration and faster improvement in stool consistency as compared to the control group. PMID:24820831

  16. A single-arm, open-label, phase 2 clinical trial evaluating disease response following treatment with BI-505, a human anti-intercellular adhesion molecule-1 monoclonal antibody, in patients with smoldering multiple myeloma.

    PubMed

    Wichert, Stina; Juliusson, Gunnar; Johansson, Åsa; Sonesson, Elisabeth; Teige, Ingrid; Wickenberg, Anna Teige; Frendeus, Björn; Korsgren, Magnus; Hansson, Markus

    2017-01-01

    Smoldering multiple myeloma (SMM) is an indolent disease stage, considered to represent the transition phase from the premalignant MGUS (Monoclonal Gammopathy of Undetermined Significance) state towards symptomatic multiple myeloma (MM). Even though this diagnosis provides an opportunity for early intervention, few treatment studies have been done and the current standard of care is observation until progression. BI-505, a monoclonal antibody directed against intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) with promising anti-myeloma activity in preclinical trials, is a possible treatment approach for this patient category with potential to eliminate tumor cells with minimal long-term side effects. BI-505 was well tolerated in an earlier phase 1 trial. In this phase 2 trial the effects of BI-505 in patients with SMM were studied. Four patients were enrolled and three of them completed the first cycle of treatment defined as 5 doses of BI-505, a total of 43 mg/kg BW, over a 7-week period. In the three evaluable patients, BI-505 showed a benign safety profile. None of the patients achieved a response as defined per protocol. EudraCT number: 2012-004884-29. The study was conducted to assess the efficacy, safety and pharmacodynamics of BI-505 in patients with SMM. BI-505 showed no clinically relevant efficacy on disease activity in these patients with SMM, even if well tolerated. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01838369.

  17. In Vitro Activity of Ceftazidime-Avibactam against Isolates in a Phase 3 Open-Label Clinical Trial for Complicated Intra-Abdominal and Urinary Tract Infections Caused by Ceftazidime-Nonsusceptible Gram-Negative Pathogens.

    PubMed

    Stone, Gregory G; Bradford, Patricia A; Newell, Paul; Wardman, Angela

    2017-02-01

    The in vitro activity of ceftazidime-avibactam was evaluated against 341 Gram-negative isolates from 333 patients in a randomized, phase 3 clinical trial of patients with complicated urinary tract or intra-abdominal infections caused by ceftazidime-nonsusceptible pathogens (NCT01644643). Ceftazidime-avibactam MIC90 values against Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (including several class B or D enzyme producers that avibactam does not inhibit) were 1 and 64 μg/ml, respectively. Overall, the ceftazidime-avibactam activity against ceftazidime-nonsusceptible isolates was comparable to the activity of ceftazidime-avibactam previously reported against ceftazidime-susceptible isolates. (This study has been registered at ClinicalTrials.gov under identifier NCT01644643.).

  18. Acupuncture for patients with mild hypertension: study protocol of an open-label multicenter randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Several studies using acupuncture to treat essential hypertension have been carried out. However, whether acupuncture is efficacious for hypertension is still controversial. Therefore, this trial aims to evaluate the efficacy and safety of acupuncture for patients with mild hypertension. Methods/Design This is a large scale, open-label, multicenter, randomized controlled clinical trial with four parallel arms. We will recruit 428 hypertensive patients with systolic blood pressure (SBP) between 140 and 159 mmHg, diastolic blood pressure (DBP) between 90 and 99 mmHg. The participants will be randomly assigned to four different groups (three acupuncture groups and one waiting list group) (1).The affected meridian acupuncture group (n = 107) is treated with acupoints on the affected meridians (2).The non-affected meridian acupuncture group (n = 107) is treated with acupoints on the non-affected meridians (3).The invasive sham acupuncture group (n = 107) is provided with sham acupoints treatment (4).The waiting-list group (n = 107) is not offered any intervention until they complete the trial. Each patient allocated to acupuncture groups will receive 18 sessions of acupuncture treatment over 6 weeks. This trial will be conducted in 11 hospitals in China. The primary endpoint is the change in average 24-hSBP before and 6 weeks after randomization. The secondary endpoints are average SBP and average DBP during the daytime and night-time, and 36-Item Short Form Survey (SF-36), and so on. Discussion This is the first large scale, multicenter, randomized, sham controlled trial of acupuncture for essential hypertension in China. It may clarify the efficacy of acupuncture as a treatment for mild hypertension. Trial registration Clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT01701726 PMID:24216113

  19. Dexmedetomidine versus propofol in dilatation and curettage: An open-label pilot randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Sethi, Priyanka; Sindhi, Sunil; Verma, Ankita; Tulsiani, K. L.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Traditionally propofol has been used for providing sedation in dilatation and curettage (D and C). Recently, dexmedetomidine has been tried, but very little evidence exists to support its use. Aims: The aim was to compare hemodynamic and recovery profile of both the drugs along with a degree of comfort experienced by patients and the usefulness of the drug to surgeons. Settings and Design: Tertiary care center and open-label randomized controlled trial. Materials and Methods: Patients posted for D and C were enrolled in two groups (25 each). Both groups received fentanyl 1 μg/kg intravenous (IV) at the beginning of the procedure. Group P received IV propofol in dose of 1.5 mg/kg over 10-15 min and Group D received dexmedetomidine at a loading dose of 1 μg/kg over 10 min, followed by 0.5 μg/kg/h infusion until Ramsay sedation score reached 3-4. Hemodynamic vitals were compared during and after the procedure. In the recovery room time to reach modified Aldrete score (MAS) of 9-10 and patient's and surgeon's satisfaction scores were also recorded and compared. Results: In Group D, patients had statistically significant lower heart rate at 2, 5, 10 and 15 min as compared to Group P. Hypotension was present in 52% in Group P and 4% in Group D (P < 0.05). MAS of 9-10 was achieved in 4.4 min in subjects in Group D in contrast to 16.2 min in Group P (P < 0.05). Group D showed higher patient and surgeon satisfaction scores (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Dexmedetomidine provide better hemodynamic and recovery profile than propofol. It can be a superior alternative for short surgical day care procedures. PMID:26240542

  20. Randomized, open-label trial of primaquine against vivax malaria relapse in Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Sutanto, Inge; Tjahjono, Bagus; Basri, Hasan; Taylor, W Robert; Putri, Fauziah A; Meilia, Rizka A; Setiabudy, Rianto; Nurleila, Siti; Ekawati, Lenny L; Elyazar, Iqbal; Farrar, Jeremy; Sudoyo, Herawati; Baird, J Kevin

    2013-03-01

    Radical cure of Plasmodium vivax infection applies blood schizontocidal therapy against the acute attack and hypnozoitocidal therapy against later relapse. Chloroquine and primaquine have been used for 60 years in this manner. Resistance to chloroquine by the parasite now requires partnering other blood schizontocides with primaquine. However, the safety and efficacy of primaquine against relapse when combined with other drugs have not been demonstrated. This randomized, open-label, and relapse-controlled trial estimated the efficacy of primaquine against relapse when administered with quinine or dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine for treatment of the acute infection. Among 650 soldiers who had returned to their malaria-free base in Java, Indonesia, after 12 months in malarious Papua, Indonesia, 143 with acute P. vivax malaria were eligible for study. One hundred sixteen enrolled subjects were randomized to these treatments: artesunate (200-mg dose followed by 100 mg/day for 6 days), quinine (1.8 g/day for 7 days) plus concurrent primaquine (30 mg/day for 14 days), or dihydroartemisinin (120 mg) plus piperaquine (960 mg) daily for 3 days followed 25 days later by primaquine (30 mg/day for 14 days). Follow-up was for 12 months. One hundred thirteen subjects were analyzable. Relapse occurred in 32 of 41 (78%) subjects administered artesunate alone (2.71 attacks/person-year), 7 of 36 (19%) administered quinine plus primaquine (0.23 attack/person-year), and 2 of 36 (6%) administered dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine plus primaquine (0.06 attack/person-year). The efficacy of primaquine against relapse was 92% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 81% to 96%) for quinine plus primaquine and 98% (95% CI = 91% to 99%) for dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine plus primaquine. Antirelapse therapy with primaquine begun a month after treatment of the acute attack with dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine proved safe and highly efficacious against relapse by P. vivax acquired in Papua, Indonesia.

  1. Open-label versus double-blind placebo treatment in irritable bowel syndrome: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Ballou, Sarah; Kaptchuk, Ted J; Hirsch, William; Nee, Judy; Iturrino, Johanna; Hall, Kathryn T; Kelley, John M; Cheng, Vivian; Kirsch, Irving; Jacobson, Eric; Conboy, Lisa; Lembo, Anthony; Davis, Roger B

    2017-05-25

    Placebo medications, by definition, are composed of inactive ingredients that have no physiological effect on symptoms. Nonetheless, administration of placebo in randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and in clinical settings has been demonstrated to have significant impact on many physical and psychological complaints. Until recently, conventional wisdom has suggested that patients must believe that placebo pills actually contain (or, at least, might possibly contain) active medication in order to elicit a response to placebo. However, several recent RCTs, including patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), chronic low back pain, and episodic migraine, have demonstrated that individuals receiving open-label placebo (OLP) can still experience symptomatic improvement and benefit from honestly described placebo treatment. This paper describes an innovative multidisciplinary trial design (n = 280) that attempts to replicate and expand upon an earlier IBS OLP study. The current study will compare OLP to double-blind placebo (DBP) administration which is made possible by including a nested, double-blind RCT comparing DBP and peppermint oil. The study also examines possible genetic and psychological predictors of OLP and seeks to better understand participants' experiences with OLP and DBP through a series of extensive interviews with a randomly selected subgroup. OLP treatment is a novel strategy for ethically harnessing placebo effects. It has potential to re-frame theories of placebo and to influence how physicians can optimize watch-and-wait strategies for common, subjective symptoms. The current study aims to dramatically expand what we know about OLP by comparing, for the first time, OLP and DBP administration. Adopting a unique, multidisciplinary approach, the study also explores genetic, psychological and experiential dimensions of OLP. The paper ends with an extensive discussion of the "culture" of the trial as well as potential mechanisms of OLP and

  2. An Open-Label Trial of Escitalopram in Pervasive Developmental Disorders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owley, Thomas; Walton, Laura; Salt, Jeff; Guter, Stephen J., Jr.; Winnega, Marrea; Leventhal, Bennett L.; Cook, Edwin H., Jr.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To assess the effect of escitalopram in the treatment of pervasive developmental disorders (PDDs). Method: This 10-week study had a forced titration, open-label design. Twenty-eight subjects (mean age 125.1 [+ or -] 33.5 months) with a PDD received escitalopram at a dose that increased weekly to a maximum dose of 20 mg as tolerated. The…

  3. An Open-Label Trial of Escitalopram in Pervasive Developmental Disorders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owley, Thomas; Walton, Laura; Salt, Jeff; Guter, Stephen J., Jr.; Winnega, Marrea; Leventhal, Bennett L.; Cook, Edwin H., Jr.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To assess the effect of escitalopram in the treatment of pervasive developmental disorders (PDDs). Method: This 10-week study had a forced titration, open-label design. Twenty-eight subjects (mean age 125.1 [+ or -] 33.5 months) with a PDD received escitalopram at a dose that increased weekly to a maximum dose of 20 mg as tolerated. The…

  4. Open-Label, Prospective Trial of Olanzapine in Adolescents with Subaverage Intelligence and Disruptive Behavioral Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Handen, Benjamin L.; Hardan, Antonio Y.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: Olanzapine, an atypical antipsychotic, has been shown to be efficacious for treatment of psychotic and mood disorders in adults. This prospective, open-label study was conducted to examine the safety and usefulness of olanzapine in treating disruptive behavior disorders in adolescents with subaverage intelligence. Method: Sixteen…

  5. Open-Label, Prospective Trial of Olanzapine in Adolescents with Subaverage Intelligence and Disruptive Behavioral Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Handen, Benjamin L.; Hardan, Antonio Y.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: Olanzapine, an atypical antipsychotic, has been shown to be efficacious for treatment of psychotic and mood disorders in adults. This prospective, open-label study was conducted to examine the safety and usefulness of olanzapine in treating disruptive behavior disorders in adolescents with subaverage intelligence. Method: Sixteen…

  6. An open-label Phase I/II clinical trial of pyrimethamine for the treatment of patients affected with chronic GM2 gangliosidosis (Tay-Sachs or Sandhoff variants).

    PubMed

    Clarke, Joe T R; Mahuran, Don J; Sathe, Swati; Kolodny, Edwin H; Rigat, Brigitte A; Raiman, Julian A; Tropak, Michael B

    2011-01-01

    Late-onset GM2 gangliosidosis is an autosomal recessive, neurodegenerative, lysosomal storage disease, caused by deficiency of ß-hexosaminidase A (Hex A), resulting from mutations in the HEXA (Tay-Sachs variant) or the HEXB (Sandhoff variant) genes. The enzyme deficiency in many patients with juvenile or adult onset forms of the disease results from the production of an unstable protein, which becomes targeted for premature degradation by the quality control system of the smooth endoplasmic reticulum and is not transported to lysosomes. In vitro studies have shown that many mutations in either the α or β subunit of Hex A can be partially rescued, i.e. enhanced levels of both enzyme protein and activity in lysosomes, following the growth of patient cells in the presence of the drug, pyrimethamine. The objectives of the present clinical trial were to establish the tolerability and efficacy of the treatment of late-onset GM2 gangliosidosis patients with escalating doses of pyrimethamine, to a maximum of 100 mg per day, administered orally in a single daily dose, over a 16-week period . The primary objective, tolerability, was assessed by regular clinical examinations, along with a panel of hematologic and biochemical studies. Although clinical efficacy could not be assessed in this short trial, treatment efficacy was evaluated by repeated measurements of leukocyte Hex A activity, expressed relative to the activity of lysosomal ß-glucuronidase. A total of 11 patients were enrolled, 8 males and 3 females, aged 23 to 50 years. One subject failed the initial screen, another was omitted from analysis because of the large number of protocol violations, and a third was withdrawn very early as a result of adverse events which were not drug-related. For the remaining 8 subjects, up to a 4-fold enhancement of Hex A activity at doses of 50 mg per day or less was observed. Additionally marked individual variations in the pharmacokinetics of the drug among the patients were

  7. An open-label Phase I/II clinical trial of pyrimethamine for the treatment of patients affected with chronic GM2 gangliosidosis (Tay–Sachs or Sandhoff variants)

    PubMed Central

    Clarke, Joe T.R.; Mahuran, Don J.; Sathe, Swati; Kolodny, Edwin H.; Rigat, Brigitte A.; Raiman, Julian A.; Tropak, Michael B.

    2010-01-01

    Late-onset GM2 gangliosidosis is an autosomal recessive, neurodegenerative, lysosomal storage disease, caused by deficiency of β-hexosaminidase A (Hex A), resulting from mutations in the HEXA (Tay–Sachs variant) or the HEXB (Sandhoff variant) genes. The enzyme deficiency in many patients with juvenile or adult onset forms of the disease results from the production of an unstable protein, which becomes targeted for premature degradation by the quality control system of the smooth endoplasmic reticulum and is not transported to lysosomes. In vitro studies have shown that many mutations in either the α or β subunit of Hex A can be partially rescued, i.e. enhanced levels of both enzyme protein and activity in lysosomes, following the growth of patient cells in the presence of the drug, pyrimethamine. The objectives of the present clinical trial were to establish the tolerability and efficacy of the treatment of late-onset GM2 gangliosidosis patients with escalating doses of pyrimethamine, to a maximum of 100 mg per day, administered orally in a single daily dose, over a 16-week period. The primary objective, tolerability, was assessed by regular clinical examinations, along with a panel of hematologic and biochemical studies. Although clinical efficacy could not be assessed in this short trial, treatment efficacy was evaluated by repeated measurements of leukocyte Hex A activity, expressed relative to the activity of lysosomal β-glucuronidase. A total of 11 patients were enrolled, 8 males and 3 females, aged 23 to 50 years. One subject failed the initial screen, another was omitted from analysis because of the large number of protocol violations, and a third was withdrawn very early as a result of adverse events which were not drug-related. For the remaining 8 subjects, up to a 4-fold enhancement of Hex A activity at doses of 50 mg per day or less was observed. Additionally marked individual variations in the pharmacokinetics of the drug among the patients were

  8. Traumatic optic neuropathy treatment trial (TONTT): open label, phase 3, multicenter, semi-experimental trial.

    PubMed

    Kashkouli, Mohsen Bahmani; Yousefi, Sahar; Nojomi, Marzieh; Sanjari, Mostafa Soltan; Pakdel, Farzad; Entezari, Morteza; Etezad-Razavi, Mohammad; Razeghinejad, Mohammad Reza; Esmaeli, Manuchehr; Shafiee, Masoud; Bagheri, Mansoureh

    2017-10-06

    Intravenously administered erythropoietin (EPO) was firstly commenced (phase 1) in patients with indirect traumatic optic neuropathy (TON) by this group in 2011. It was re-tested by another group (phase 2) in 2014. This multicenter clinical trial was designed to compare its effect with intravenous steroid and observation. Included were TON patients ≥5 years of age and with trauma-treatment interval of ≤3 weeks. Follow-up visits were set at 1, 2, 3, 7, 14, 30, and at least 90 days after treatment. EPO and methylprednisolone were infused intravenously every day for three consecutive days. Primary outcome measure was change in the best corrected visual acuity (BCVA). Secondary outcomes included change in color vision and relative afferent pupillary defect (RAPD), side effects, and factors affecting the final visual improvement. Out of 120 patients, 100 (EPO: 69, steroid: 15, observation: 16) were finally included. All three groups showed a significant improvement of BCVA which was not significantly different between the groups (adjusted for pretreatment BCVA). Color vision was significantly improved in the EPO group. Late treatment (>3 days) (odds ratio = 2.53) and initial BCVA of NLP (odds ratio = 5.74) significantly worsened visual recovery. No side effect was observed in any group. EPO, steroid, and observation showed a significant improvement of BCVA in patients with TON. Initial BCVA of NLP and late treatment (>3 days) were significant risk factors for visual improvement.

  9. Gatifloxacin Versus Ofloxacin for the Treatment of Uncomplicated Enteric Fever in Nepal: An Open-Label, Randomized, Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Koirala, Samir; Basnyat, Buddha; Arjyal, Amit; Shilpakar, Olita; Shrestha, Kabina; Shrestha, Rishav; Shrestha, Upendra Man; Agrawal, Krishna; Koirala, Kanika Deshpande; Thapa, Sudeep Dhoj; Karkey, Abhilasha; Dongol, Sabina; Giri, Abhishek; Shakya, Mila; Pathak, Kamal Raj; Campbell, James; Baker, Stephen; Farrar, Jeremy; Wolbers, Marcel; Dolecek, Christiane

    2013-01-01

    Background Fluoroquinolones are the most commonly used group of antimicrobials for the treatment of enteric fever, but no direct comparison between two fluoroquinolones has been performed in a large randomised trial. An open-label randomized trial was conducted to investigate whether gatifloxacin is more effective than ofloxacin in the treatment of uncomplicated enteric fever caused by nalidixic acid-resistant Salmonella enterica serovars Typhi and Paratyphi A. Methodology and Principal Findings Adults and children clinically diagnosed with uncomplicated enteric fever were enrolled in the study to receive gatifloxacin (10 mg/kg/day) in a single dose or ofloxacin (20 mg/kg/day) in two divided doses for 7 days. Patients were followed for six months. The primary outcome was treatment failure in patients infected with nalidixic acid resistant isolates. 627 patients with a median age of 17 (IQR 9–23) years were randomised. Of the 218 patients with culture confirmed enteric fever, 170 patients were infected with nalidixic acid-resistant isolates. In the ofloxacin group, 6 out of 83 patients had treatment failure compared to 5 out of 87 in the gatifloxacin group (hazard ratio [HR] of time to failure 0.81, 95% CI 0.25 to 2.65, p = 0.73). The median time to fever clearance was 4.70 days (IQR 2.98–5.90) in the ofloxacin group versus 3.31 days (IQR 2.29–4.75) in the gatifloxacin group (HR = 1.59, 95% CI 1.16 to 2.18, p = 0.004). The results in all blood culture-confirmed patients and all randomized patients were comparable. Conclusion Gatifloxacin was not superior to ofloxacin in preventing failure, but use of gatifloxacin did result in more prompt fever clearance time compared to ofloxacin. Trial registration: ISRCTN 63006567 (www.controlled-trials.com). PMID:24282626

  10. Safety of Recombinant Fusion Protein ESAT6-CFP10 as a Skin Test Reagent for Tuberculosis Diagnosis: an Open-Label, Randomized, Single-Center Phase I Clinical Trial.

    PubMed

    Li, Feng; Xu, Miao; Zhou, Lijun; Xiong, Yanqing; Xia, Lu; Fan, Xiaoyong; Gu, Jun; Pu, Jiang; Lu, Shuihua; Wang, Guozhi

    2016-09-01

    This trial was conducted to explore the safety of recombinant fusion protein ESAT6-CFP10 as a skin test reagent for the diagnosis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. Twenty-four healthy adult volunteers were recruited and randomized into four groups (groups A to D) to study four increasing doses of ESAT6-CFP10. All subjects in each dose group received an intradermal injection of reagent (0.1 ml) via the Mantoux technique. Then, the vital signs of all subjects were monitored, and skin reactions around injection sites and adverse events were recorded at different detection time points after the skin test. No serious adverse events were observed in this study. A total of 3 subjects had unexpected events. One subject in group A developed subcutaneous hemorrhage 24 h after the skin test, one subject in group B was found with red spots 15 min after the skin test, and another subject in group A showed abnormity during a chest X-ray after the skin test without affecting her health. One of three adverse events (red spots) was probably related to the recombinant ESAT6-CFP10 reagent. A single dose of 1, 5, 10, or 20 μg/ml of recombinant ESAT6-CFP10 as a skin test reagent for M. tuberculosis infection diagnosis is well tolerated and safe in China. (This study has been registered at ClinicalTrials.gov under registration no. NCT01999231.). Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  11. Safety of Recombinant Fusion Protein ESAT6-CFP10 as a Skin Test Reagent for Tuberculosis Diagnosis: an Open-Label, Randomized, Single-Center Phase I Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Li, Feng; Xu, Miao; Zhou, Lijun; Xiong, Yanqing; Xia, Lu; Fan, Xiaoyong; Gu, Jun; Pu, Jiang

    2016-01-01

    This trial was conducted to explore the safety of recombinant fusion protein ESAT6-CFP10 as a skin test reagent for the diagnosis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. Twenty-four healthy adult volunteers were recruited and randomized into four groups (groups A to D) to study four increasing doses of ESAT6-CFP10. All subjects in each dose group received an intradermal injection of reagent (0.1 ml) via the Mantoux technique. Then, the vital signs of all subjects were monitored, and skin reactions around injection sites and adverse events were recorded at different detection time points after the skin test. No serious adverse events were observed in this study. A total of 3 subjects had unexpected events. One subject in group A developed subcutaneous hemorrhage 24 h after the skin test, one subject in group B was found with red spots 15 min after the skin test, and another subject in group A showed abnormity during a chest X-ray after the skin test without affecting her health. One of three adverse events (red spots) was probably related to the recombinant ESAT6-CFP10 reagent. A single dose of 1, 5, 10, or 20 μg/ml of recombinant ESAT6-CFP10 as a skin test reagent for M. tuberculosis infection diagnosis is well tolerated and safe in China. (This study has been registered at ClinicalTrials.gov under registration no. NCT01999231.) PMID:27413070

  12. Prospective, randomized, open-label, pilot clinical trial comparing the effects of dexamethasone coadministered with diclofenac potassium or acetaminophen and diclofenac potassium monotherapy after third-molar extraction in adults

    PubMed Central

    Bamgbose, Babatunde Olamide; Akinwande, Jelili Adisa; Adeyemo, Wasiu Lanre; Ladeinde, Akinola Ladipo; Arotiba, Godwin Toyin; Ogunlewe, Mobolanle Olugbemiga

    2006-01-01

    Background: Patients who experience pain, swelling, and trismus after third-molar extraction are reported to experience a 3-fold higher rate of adverse effects (AEs) on quality of life compared with those who are asymptomatic after this surgery. Therefore, investigators emphasize the necessity for better control of this triad of sequelae. Steroids can reduce the risk for physiologic processes of inflammation, thereby suppressing the development of inflammation. Objective: The aim of this study was to compare the effects of dexamethasone 8 mg IM and diclofenac potassium (K) 50 mg PO, dexamethasone 8 mg IM and acetaminophen 1000 mg PO, and monotherapy with diclofenac K 50 mg PO on postoperative pain, swelling, and trismus after surgical removal of third molars. Methods: This prospective, randomized, open-label pilot study was conducted at the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Lagos University Teaching Hospital, Lagos, Nigeria. Patients were randomly allocated to 1 of 3 treatment groups: concomitant treatment with dexamethasone 8 mg IM and diclofenac K 50 mg PO or acetaminophen 1000 mg PO, or monotherapy with diclofenac K 50 mg PO. Overall analgesic efficacy of the drug combinations was assessed for 7 days postoperatively using a 4-point categorical pain-intensity rating scale (0 = no pain; 1 = mild pain; 2 = moderate pain; and 3 = severe pain). Facial swelling was measured in 1 dimension on days 1, 2, and 7 after surgery using a tape measure placed from the tip of the tragus, to gonion, to the tip of the contralateral tragus, and trismus was assessed using interincisal mouth-opening ability, measured using a vernier-calibrated caliper on postoperative days 1, 2, and 7. Tolerability was assessed using direct questioning of the patients at follow-up visits. Results: A total of 150 patients (50 per treatment group) were included in the analysis (76 women, 74 men; mean [SD] age, 26.8 [5.04] years [range, 18–45 years]; 100% Nigerian). The proportion of

  13. Mirtazapine versus venlafaxine for the treatment of somatic symptoms associated with major depressive disorder: a randomized, open-labeled trial.

    PubMed

    Kang, Eun-Ho; Lee, In-Soo; Chung, Sang-Keun; Lee, Sang-Yeol; Kim, Eui-Jung; Hong, Jin-Pyo; Oh, Kang-Seob; Woo, Jong-Min; Kim, Seonwoo; Park, Joo-Eon; Yu, Bum-Hee

    2009-09-30

    Somatic symptoms are often important in the treatment of major depressive disorder (MDD). The aim of this open-labeled trial was to examine the efficacy of mirtazapine for the treatment of MDD with clinically significant somatic symptoms, as compared with venlafaxine. A total of 126 patients with MDD (score >/=18 on the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression-17) were included in both the intent-to-treat (n=73 in the mirtazapine group and n=53 in the venlafaxine group) and completer analysis (n=51 and n=37, respectively). After treatment, both treatment groups showed similar improvements in depressive symptoms. Repeated measures analysis of variance for the intent-to-treat population revealed that there were no significant differences in mean change of the Symptom Check List-90-Revised (SCL-90-R) somatization subscores between the two groups. For completers, there was a significant timextreatment interaction in the SCL-90-R somatization subscores, but the differences between the two groups at endpoint did not reach statistical significance in post-hoc analysis. In conclusion, this study suggests that overall efficacies of mirtazapine and venlafaxine are similar for the treatment of overall symptoms in MDD, and both drugs may be useful for the treatment of somatic symptoms in MDD patients.

  14. Olanzapine augmentation in treatment-resistant panic disorder: a 12-week, fixed-dose, open-label trial.

    PubMed

    Sepede, Gianna; De Berardis, Domenico; Gambi, Francesco; Campanella, Daniela; La Rovere, Raffaella; D'Amico, Michele; Cicconetti, Alessandra; Penna, Laura; Peca, Silvana; Carano, Alessandro; Mancini, Enrico; Salerno, Rosa Maria; Ferro, Filippo Maria

    2006-02-01

    The purpose of our study was to evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of low-dose olanzapine augmentation in selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI)-resistant panic disorder (PD) with or without agoraphobia. In this 12-week, open-label study, 31 adult outpatients with treatment-resistant PD who had previously failed to respond to SSRI treatment were treated with fixed dose of olanzapine (5 mg/d) in addition to SSRI. Efficacy was assessed using the Panic Attack and Anticipatory Anxiety Scale (PAAAS), the Agoraphobic Cognitions Questionnaire (ACQ), the Hamilton Rating Scale for Anxiety (HAM-A), the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAM-D), the Global Assessment of Functioning Scale (GAF), and the Clinical Global Impression of Improvement (CGI-I). Twenty-six patients completed the trial period with a dropout rate of 16.1%. At week 12, 21 patients were responders (81.8%), and an overall improvement on all rating scales was observed in all patients both with or without agoraphobia. Fifteen patients (57.7%) achieved remission. Olanzapine was well tolerated and the most frequent adverse effects were mild-to-moderate weight gain and drowsiness. No extrapyramidal symptoms were reported. Olanzapine appears to be effective as augmentation strategy in the treatment of SSRI-resistant PD, but study limitations must be considered and placebo-controlled studies are needed.

  15. A randomized, open-label, Phase III clinical trial of nivolumab vs. therapy of investigator's choice in recurrent squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck: A subanalysis of Asian patients versus the global population in checkmate 141.

    PubMed

    Kiyota, Naomi; Hasegawa, Yasuhisa; Takahashi, Shunji; Yokota, Tomoya; Yen, Chia-Jui; Iwae, Shigemichi; Shimizu, Yasushi; Hong, Ruey-Long; Goto, Masahiro; Kang, Jin-Hyoung; Sum Kenneth Li, Wing; Ferris, Robert L; Gillison, Maura; Namba, Yoshinobu; Monga, Manish; Lynch, Mark; Tahara, Makoto

    2017-10-01

    To assess efficacy and safety of nivolumab versus investigator's choice of therapy (IC) in Asian patients with platinum-refractory recurrent or metastatic squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN). Thirty-four patients from Japan, Taiwan, Hong Kong, and Korea received nivolumab 3mg/kg (n=23) every 2weeks or IC (n=11), as part of a global trial (n=361), until intolerable toxicity or disease progression. The primary endpoint was overall survival (OS). Median OS was 9.5months (95% confidence interval [CI] 9.1-NR) with nivolumab and 6.2months (95% CI 2.6-NR) with IC. Seven (30.4%) patients receiving nivolumab and six (54.5%) receiving IC died. The hazard ratio (HR) for risk of death (nivolumab vs. IC) was 0.50 (95% CI 0.17-1.48). Median progression-free survival was 1.9months (95% CI 1.6-7.5) with nivolumab and 1.8months (95% CI 0.4-6.1) with IC (HR 0.57 [95% CI 0.25-1.33]). Objective response rates (complete+partial responses) were 26.1% (6/23 patients; 95% CI 10.2-48.4) for nivolumab and 0% (0/11 patients; 95% CI 0.0-28.5) for IC. Sixteen (69.6%) nivolumab-treated patients and 10 (90.9%) patients receiving IC had a treatment-related adverse event, most commonly decreased appetite (21.7%), pruritus, rash, and fatigue (17.4% each) with nivolumab, and nausea, stomatitis, and decreased appetite (27.3% each) with IC. Nivolumab demonstrated a survival advantage compared with conventional treatments in Asian patients with platinum-refractory recurrent or metastatic SCCHN, and was well tolerated. Clinical trial registration NCT02105636. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  16. Cycle therapy of actinic keratoses of the face and scalp with 5% topical imiquimod cream: An open-label trial.

    PubMed

    Salasche, Stuart J; Levine, Norman; Morrison, Lynne

    2002-10-01

    Preliminary studies indicate that topically applied immune response modifiers may be an effective and safe method of treating actinic keratoses (AKs). Our aim was to study the potential efficacy of topical 5% imiquimod cream in the treatment of facial or scalp AKs and improve the safety profile by using a novel "cycle" dosing regimen. This pilot study is an open-label trial that included 25 patients who had between 5 and 20 discrete AKs within a cosmetic unit of the forehead, scalp, or cheek. Treatment consisted of once-daily application of 5% imiquimod cream, 3 times a week for 4 weeks. to the entire cosmetic unit, followed by a rest period of 4 weeks. The cycle was repeated if any AKs remained after a complete 8-week cycle. A maximum of 3 cycles was permitted (24 weeks). Thirty-three sites in 25 patients were evaluated. Compliance was excellent with a very tolerable safety profile. Complete clearing of all AKs was noted in 82% (27/33) of anatomic sites in 25 study subjects. Almost half the sites (15/33) were clear at the end of the first cycle. A "therapeutic interval" was noted during the rest period wherein clinical inflammation subsided but AKs continued to clear. An added effect was the uncovering and clinical appearance and subsequent eradication of incipient (subclinical) AKs in the treatment area. There was excellent compliance with the cycle therapy regimen. The observations and hypotheses made in this pilot study will be tested in controlled, randomized trials with larger study populations. The identification of a therapeutic interval may prove to be beneficial in formulating individualized dosing regimens.

  17. Safety and efficacy of adjunctive lacosamide among patients with partial-onset seizures in a long-term open-label extension trial of up to 8 years.

    PubMed

    Rosenfeld, William; Fountain, Nathan B; Kaubrys, Gintaras; Ben-Menachem, Elinor; McShea, Cindy; Isojarvi, Jouko; Doty, Pamela

    2014-12-01

    Long-term (up to 8 years of exposure) safety and efficacy of the antiepileptic drug lacosamide was evaluated in this open-label extension trial (SP615 [ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00552305]). Patients were enrolled following participation in a double-blind trial or one of two open-label trials of adjunctive lacosamide for partial-onset seizures. Dosage adjustments of lacosamide (100-800 mg/day) and/or concomitant antiepileptic drugs were allowed to optimize tolerability and seizure reduction. Of the 370 enrolled patients, 77%, 51%, and 39% had >1, >3, or >5 years of lacosamide exposure, respectively. Median lacosamide modal dose was 400mg/day. Common treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs) were dizziness (39.7%), headache (20.8%), nausea (17.3%), diplopia (17.0%), fatigue (16.5%), upper respiratory tract infection (16.5%), nasopharyngitis (16.2%), and contusion (15.4%). Dizziness (2.2%) was the only TEAE that led to discontinuation in >2% of patients. Ranges for median percent reductions in seizure frequency were 47-65%, and those for ≥ 50% responder rates were 49-63% for 1-, 3-, and 5-year completer cohorts. Exposure to lacosamide for up to 8 years was generally well tolerated, with a safety profile similar to previous double-blind trials, and efficacy was maintained.

  18. Efficacy and safety of available treatments for visceral leishmaniasis in Brazil: A multicenter, randomized, open label trial

    PubMed Central

    Costa, Dorcas Lamounier; Costa, Carlos Henrique Nery; de Almeida, Roque Pacheco; de Melo, Enaldo Viera; de Carvalho, Sílvio Fernando Guimarães; Rabello, Ana; de Carvalho, Andréa Lucchesi; Sousa, Anastácio de Queiroz; Leite, Robério Dias; Lima, Simone Soares; Amaral, Thais Alves; Alves, Fabiana Piovesan; Rode, Joelle

    2017-01-01

    Background There is insufficient evidence to support visceral leishmaniasis (VL) treatment recommendations in Brazil and an urgent need to improve current treatments. Drug combinations may be an option. Methods A multicenter, randomized, open label, controlled trial was conducted in five sites in Brazil to evaluate efficacy and safety of (i) amphotericin B deoxycholate (AmphoB) (1 mg/kg/day for 14 days), (ii) liposomal amphotericin B (LAMB) (3 mg/kg/day for 7 days) and (iii) a combination of LAMB (10 mg/kg single dose) plus meglumine antimoniate (MA) (20 mg Sb+5/kg/day for 10 days), compared to (iv) standard treatment with MA (20 mg Sb+5/kg/day for 20 days). Patients, aged 6 months to 50 years, with confirmed VL and without HIV infection were enrolled in the study. Primary efficacy endpoint was clinical cure at 6 months. A planned efficacy and safety interim analysis led to trial interruption. Results 378 patients were randomized to the four treatment arms: MA (n = 112), AmphoB (n = 45), LAMB (n = 109), or LAMB plus MA (n = 112). A high toxicity of AmphoB prompted an unplanned interim safety analysis and this treatment arm was dropped. Per intention-to-treat protocol final analyses of the remaining 332 patients show cure rates at 6 months of 77.5% for MA, 87.2% for LAMB, and 83.9% for LAMB plus MA, without statistically significant differences between the experimental arms and comparator (LAMB: 9.7%; CI95% -0.28 to 19.68, p = 0.06; LAMB plus MA: 6.4%; CI95% -3.93 to 16.73; p = 0.222). LAMB monotherapy was safer than MA regarding frequency of treatment-related adverse events (AE) (p = 0.045), proportion of patients presenting at least one severe AE (p = 0.029), and the proportion of AEs resulting in definitive treatment discontinuation (p = 0.003). Conclusions Due to lower toxicity and acceptable efficacy, LAMB would be a more suitable first line treatment for VL than standard treatment. ClinicalTrials.gov identification number: NCT01310738. Trial registration

  19. Treatment with paliperidone in children with behavior disorders previously treated with risperidone: an open-label trial.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Mayoralas, Daniel Martín; Fernández-Jaén, Alberto; Muñoz-Jareño, Nuria; Calleja-Pérez, Beatriz; Fernández-Perrone, Ana Laura; Arribas, Sonia López

    2012-01-01

    Paliperidone is the main active metabolite of risperidone, with certain pharmacokinetic and tolerability characteristics that suggest it may be used in special groups, such as children. Our purpose is to document the clinical experience with the use of paliperidone in children with severe behavior problems that were partially refractory to treatment with risperidone and psychological treatment. This is a prospective 16-week open-label study of paliperidone in 18 patients (mean age, 13.4 years) with severe and excessive irritability in the context of generalized developmental disorders or attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Patients who had exhibited an inadequate response to treatment with risperidone (1.5-2 mg/d) over a treatment period of 6 months were treated with paliperidone at 3 mg/d. Symptom severity at the beginning of the study and in response to paliperidone were rated with the Clinical Global Impression (CGI) scale and Overt Aggression Scale. A significant difference was documented between the mean score before treatment and the score after the drug intervention with paliperidone. There was a noticeable clinical improvement in 50% of the cases, as reflected in the CGI. Severity of aggressive behavior, as assessed by the Overt Aggression Scale, decreased significantly after paliperidone treatment: mean (SD), 2.7 (0.92) before treatment versus 1.5 (0.60) after treatment. This compound was safe and well tolerated. Half of the patients clearly responded to paliperidone extended release. Tolerance to this treatment was distinctly better than to risperidone. These preliminary results lay the foundation for further research into the use of paliperidone to treat pediatric disruptive behavior disorders within the context of randomized, double-blind, controlled clinical trials.

  20. Quality of Life in Childhood Epilepsy in pediatric patients enrolled in a prospective, open-label clinical study with cannabidiol.

    PubMed

    Rosenberg, Evan C; Louik, Jay; Conway, Erin; Devinsky, Orrin; Friedman, Daniel

    2017-08-01

    Recent clinical trials indicate that cannabidiol (CBD) may reduce seizure frequency in pediatric patients with certain forms of treatment-resistant epilepsy. Many of these patients experience significant impairments in quality of life (QOL) in physical, mental, and social dimensions of health. In this study, we measured the caregiver-reported Quality of Life in Childhood Epilepsy (QOLCE) in a subset of patients enrolled in a prospective, open-label clinical study of CBD. Results from caregivers of 48 patients indicated an 8.2 ± 9.9-point improvement in overall patient QOLCE (p < 0.001) following 12 weeks of CBD. Subscores with improvement included energy/fatigue, memory, control/helplessness, other cognitive functions, social interactions, behavior, and global QOL. These differences were not correlated to changes in seizure frequency or adverse events. The results suggest that CBD may have beneficial effects on patient QOL, distinct from its seizure-reducing effects; however, further studies in placebo-controlled, double-blind trials are necessary to confirm this finding. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 International League Against Epilepsy.

  1. Cannabidiol in patients with treatment-resistant epilepsy: an open-label interventional trial.

    PubMed

    Devinsky, Orrin; Marsh, Eric; Friedman, Daniel; Thiele, Elizabeth; Laux, Linda; Sullivan, Joseph; Miller, Ian; Flamini, Robert; Wilfong, Angus; Filloux, Francis; Wong, Matthew; Tilton, Nicole; Bruno, Patricia; Bluvstein, Judith; Hedlund, Julie; Kamens, Rebecca; Maclean, Jane; Nangia, Srishti; Singhal, Nilika Shah; Wilson, Carey A; Patel, Anup; Cilio, Maria Roberta

    2016-03-01

    Almost a third of patients with epilepsy have a treatment-resistant form, which is associated with severe morbidity and increased mortality. Cannabis-based treatments for epilepsy have generated much interest, but scientific data are scarce. We aimed to establish whether addition of cannabidiol to existing anti-epileptic regimens would be safe, tolerated, and efficacious in children and young adults with treatment-resistant epilepsy. In this open-label trial, patients (aged 1-30 years) with severe, intractable, childhood-onset, treatment-resistant epilepsy, who were receiving stable doses of antiepileptic drugs before study entry, were enrolled in an expanded-access programme at 11 epilepsy centres across the USA. Patients were given oral cannabidiol at 2-5 mg/kg per day, up-titrated until intolerance or to a maximum dose of 25 mg/kg or 50 mg/kg per day (dependent on study site). The primary objective was to establish the safety and tolerability of cannabidiol and the primary efficacy endpoint was median percentage change in the mean monthly frequency of motor seizures at 12 weeks. The efficacy analysis was by modified intention to treat. Comparisons of the percentage change in frequency of motor seizures were done with a Mann-Whitney U test. Between Jan 15, 2014, and Jan 15, 2015, 214 patients were enrolled; 162 (76%) patients who had at least 12 weeks of follow-up after the first dose of cannabidiol were included in the safety and tolerability analysis, and 137 (64%) patients were included in the efficacy analysis. In the safety group, 33 (20%) patients had Dravet syndrome and 31 (19%) patients had Lennox-Gastaut syndrome. The remaining patients had intractable epilepsies of different causes and type. Adverse events were reported in 128 (79%) of the 162 patients within the safety group. Adverse events reported in more than 10% of patients were somnolence (n=41 [25%]), decreased appetite (n=31 [19%]), diarrhoea (n=31 [19%]), fatigue (n=21 [13%]), and convulsion (n

  2. The Effect of Aggressive Blood Pressure Control on the Recurrence of Atrial Fibrillation After Catheter Ablation: A Randomized, Open Label, Clinical Trial (Substrate Modification with Aggressive Blood Pressure Control: SMAC- AF).

    PubMed

    Parkash, Ratika; Wells, George A; Sapp, John L; Healey, Jeffrey S; Tardif, Jean-Claude; Greiss, Isabelle; Rivard, Léna; Roux, Jean-Francois; Gula, Lorne; Nault, Isabelle; Novak, Paul G; Birnie, David H; Ha, Andrew C; Wilton, Stephen B; Mangat, Iqwal; Gray, Christopher J; Gardner, Martin J; Tang, Anthony S L

    2017-02-22

    Background -Radiofrequency catheter ablation for atrial fibrillation has become an important therapy for AF, however recurrence rates remain high. We proposed to determine whether aggressive blood pressure (BP) lowering prevents recurrent atrial fibrillation (AF) after catheter ablation in patients with AF and a high symptom burden. Methods -We randomly assigned 184 patients with AF and a BP greater than 130/80 mmHg to aggressive BP (target <120/80 mm Hg) or standard BP treatment (target <140/90 mmHg) prior to their scheduled AF catheter ablation. The primary outcome was symptomatic recurrence of AF/atrial tachycardia/atrial flutter lasting greater than 30 seconds, determined 3 months beyond catheter ablation by a blinded endpoint evaluation. Results -The median follow-up was 14 months. At six months, the mean systolic BP in the aggressive BP treatment group was 123.2±13.2 versus 135.4±15.7mm Hg (p<0.001) in the standard treatment group. The primary outcome occurred in 106 patients, 54 (61.4%) in the aggressive BP treatment group, compared to 52 (61.2%) in the standard treatment group, (Hazard Ratio 0.94, 95% Confidence Interval 0.65-1.38, p=0.763). In the prespecified subgroup analysis of the influence of age, patients aged ≥ 61 years had a lower primary outcome event rate with aggressive BP (Hazard Ratio 0.58, 95% Confidence Interval (0.34, 0.97), p=0.013). There was a higher rate of hypotension requiring medication adjustment in the aggressive BP group (26% versus 0%). Conclusions -In this study, this duration of aggressive BP treatment did not reduce atrial arrhythmia recurrence after catheter ablation for AF, but resulted in more hypotension. Clinical Trial Registration -Clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00438113.

  3. Retraction statement: Manuka honey vs. hydrogel - a prospective, open label, multicentre, randomised controlled trial to compare desloughing efficacy and healing outcomes in venous ulcers.

    PubMed

    2015-09-01

    The following article from Journal of Clinical Nursing, 'Manuka honey vs. hydrogel - a prospective, open label, multicentre, randomised controlled trial to compare desloughing efficacy and healing outcomes in venous ulcers' by Georgina Gethin and Seamus Cowman published online on 25 August 2008 in Wiley Online Library (wileyonlinelibrary.com) and in Volume 18, pp. 466-474, has been retracted by agreement between the journal Editor-in-Chief, the authors and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. The retraction has been agreed due to errors in the data analysis which affect the article's findings.

  4. Sativex long-term use: an open-label trial in patients with spasticity due to multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Serpell, Michael G; Notcutt, William; Collin, Christine

    2013-01-01

    Sativex is an endocannabinoid system modulator principally containing Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD). During a 6-week randomised controlled trial, Sativex had a clinically relevant effect on spasticity associated with multiple sclerosis (MS). Patients self-titrated oromucosal Sativex to symptom relief or maximum tolerated dose (maximum of 130 mg THC and 120 mg CBD daily). The primary objective was to evaluate the safety and tolerability of long-term treatment by recording the incidence and severity of adverse events (AEs). Secondary outcomes were to determine evidence of developing tolerance and to assess the long-term dosing profile of Sativex. A validated 11-point Numerical Rating Scale of spasticity severity was used to assess efficacy. A total of 146 patients elected to enter this open-label follow-up safety trial. Mean treatment exposure was 334 days (standard deviation, SD = 209 days), and patients administered on average 7.3 (SD = 4.42) actuations per day. Fifty-two (36 %) patients withdrew from the study in the first year, 14 % due to AEs and 9 % due to lack of efficacy. Most AEs were mild/moderate in severity. Common (>10 %) treatment-related AEs were dizziness (24.7 %) and fatigue (12.3 %). Serious AEs occurred in five patients (3.4 %), with two psychiatric events reported by one patient. No psychoses, psychiatric AE trends, or withdrawal symptoms occurred following abrupt cessation of treatment. Baseline symptoms including spasticity did not deteriorate but were maintained to study completion in those patients who did not withdraw. No new safety concerns were identified with chronic Sativex treatment, and serious AEs were uncommon. There was no evidence of tolerance developing, and patients who remained in the study reported continued benefit.

  5. Efficacy and safety of available treatments for visceral leishmaniasis in Brazil: A multicenter, randomized, open label trial.

    PubMed

    Romero, Gustavo Adolfo Sierra; Costa, Dorcas Lamounier; Costa, Carlos Henrique Nery; de Almeida, Roque Pacheco; de Melo, Enaldo Viera; de Carvalho, Sílvio Fernando Guimarães; Rabello, Ana; de Carvalho, Andréa Lucchesi; Sousa, Anastácio de Queiroz; Leite, Robério Dias; Lima, Simone Soares; Amaral, Thais Alves; Alves, Fabiana Piovesan; Rode, Joelle

    2017-06-01

    There is insufficient evidence to support visceral leishmaniasis (VL) treatment recommendations in Brazil and an urgent need to improve current treatments. Drug combinations may be an option. A multicenter, randomized, open label, controlled trial was conducted in five sites in Brazil to evaluate efficacy and safety of (i) amphotericin B deoxycholate (AmphoB) (1 mg/kg/day for 14 days), (ii) liposomal amphotericin B (LAMB) (3 mg/kg/day for 7 days) and (iii) a combination of LAMB (10 mg/kg single dose) plus meglumine antimoniate (MA) (20 mg Sb+5/kg/day for 10 days), compared to (iv) standard treatment with MA (20 mg Sb+5/kg/day for 20 days). Patients, aged 6 months to 50 years, with confirmed VL and without HIV infection were enrolled in the study. Primary efficacy endpoint was clinical cure at 6 months. A planned efficacy and safety interim analysis led to trial interruption. 378 patients were randomized to the four treatment arms: MA (n = 112), AmphoB (n = 45), LAMB (n = 109), or LAMB plus MA (n = 112). A high toxicity of AmphoB prompted an unplanned interim safety analysis and this treatment arm was dropped. Per intention-to-treat protocol final analyses of the remaining 332 patients show cure rates at 6 months of 77.5% for MA, 87.2% for LAMB, and 83.9% for LAMB plus MA, without statistically significant differences between the experimental arms and comparator (LAMB: 9.7%; CI95% -0.28 to 19.68, p = 0.06; LAMB plus MA: 6.4%; CI95% -3.93 to 16.73; p = 0.222). LAMB monotherapy was safer than MA regarding frequency of treatment-related adverse events (AE) (p = 0.045), proportion of patients presenting at least one severe AE (p = 0.029), and the proportion of AEs resulting in definitive treatment discontinuation (p = 0.003). Due to lower toxicity and acceptable efficacy, LAMB would be a more suitable first line treatment for VL than standard treatment. ClinicalTrials.gov identification number: NCT01310738. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01310738.

  6. A randomized, open-label, controlled trial of gabapentin and phenobarbital in the treatment of alcohol withdrawal.

    PubMed

    Mariani, John J; Rosenthal, Richard N; Tross, Susan; Singh, Prameet; Anand, Om P

    2006-01-01

    Gabapentin was compared with phenobarbital for the treatment of alcohol withdrawal in a randomized, open-label, controlled trial in 27 inpatients. There were no significant differences in the proportion of treatment completers between treatment groups or the proportion of patients in each group requiring rescue medication for breakthrough signs and symptoms of alcohol withdrawal. There were no significant treatment differences in withdrawal symptoms or psychological distress, nor were there serious adverse events. These findings suggest that gabapentin may be as effective as phenobarbital in the treatment of alcohol withdrawal. Given gabapentin's favorable pharmacokinetic profile, further study of its effectiveness in treating alcohol withdrawal is warranted.

  7. Bupropion treatment of olanzapine-associated weight gain: an open-label, prospective trial.

    PubMed

    Gadde, Kishore M; Zhang, Wei; Foust, Mariko S

    2006-08-01

    To examine the effectiveness of bupropion in reducing bodyweight gained during treatment with olanzapine. Eight subjects, who received olanzapine for an average duration of 26 months and had gained an average of 13.3 kg bodyweight, participated in a 24-week study in which they received open-label bupropion 150-300 mg/d while continuing olanzapine. The subjects were also provided low-key nutritional counseling. Change in bodyweight was the primary outcome of interest. Changes in fasting blood glucose and lipids were also examined in addition to changes in body composition and bone mineral density. Seven subjects completed the full 24-week study treatment. In the intent-to-treat sample, mean [SE] bodyweight decreased significantly over time (99.6 [5.9] kg to 96.2 [5.8] kg; F = 4.0; P < 0.001); average weight change for the eight subjects was -3.4 kg. Four of eight subjects lost > or =3% bodyweight. There was a significant reduction in total cholesterol. Weight loss did not have a negative effect on bone mineral density. Side effects were generally mild. Bupropion combined with a low-key dietary intervention appeared to be beneficial in reducing olanzapine-associated weight gain in some subjects in this open-label study.

  8. An analysis of baseline data from the PROUD study: an open-label randomised trial of pre-exposure prophylaxis.

    PubMed

    Dolling, David I; Desai, Monica; McOwan, Alan; Gilson, Richard; Clarke, Amanda; Fisher, Martin; Schembri, Gabriel; Sullivan, Ann K; Mackie, Nicola; Reeves, Iain; Portman, Mags; Saunders, John; Fox, Julie; Bayley, Jake; Brady, Michael; Bowman, Christine; Lacey, Charles J; Taylor, Stephen; White, David; Antonucci, Simone; Gafos, Mitzy; McCormack, Sheena; Gill, Owen N; Dunn, David T; Nardone, Anthony

    2016-03-24

    Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) has proven biological efficacy to reduce the sexual acquisition of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The PROUD study found that PrEP conferred higher protection than in placebo-controlled trials, reducing HIV incidence by 86 % in a population with seven-fold higher HIV incidence than expected. We present the baseline characteristics of the PROUD study population and place the findings in the context of national sexual health clinic data. The PROUD study was designed to explore the real-world effectiveness of PrEP (tenofovir-emtricitabine) by randomising HIV-negative gay and other men who have sex with men (GMSM) to receive open-label PrEP immediately or after a deferral period of 12 months. At enrolment, participants self-completed two baseline questionnaires collecting information on demographics, sexual behaviour and lifestyle in the last 30 and 90 days. These data were compared to data from HIV-negative GMSM attending sexual health clinics in 2013, collated by Public Health England using the genitourinary medicine clinic activity database (GUMCAD). The median age of participants was 35 (IQR: 29-43). Typically participants were white (81 %), educated at a university level (61 %) and in full-time employment (72 %). Of all participants, 217 (40 %) were born outside the UK. A sexually transmitted infection (STI) was reported to have been diagnosed in the previous 12 months in 330/515 (64 %) and 473/544 (87 %) participants reported ever having being diagnosed with an STI. At enrolment, 47/280 (17 %) participants were diagnosed with an STI. Participants reported a median (IQR) of 10 (5-20) partners in the last 90 days, a median (IQR) of 2 (1-5) were condomless sex acts where the participant was receptive and 2 (1-6) were condomless where the participant was insertive. Post-exposure prophylaxis had been prescribed to 184 (34 %) participants in the past 12 months. The number of STI diagnoses was high compared to those reported in

  9. Maternal vitamin D supplementation during pregnancy prevents vitamin D deficiency in the newborn: an open-label randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Rodda, C P; Benson, J E; Vincent, A J; Whitehead, C L; Polykov, A; Vollenhoven, B

    2015-09-01

    To determine whether maternal vitamin D supplementation, in the vitamin D deficient mother, prevents neonatal vitamin D deficiency. Open-label randomized controlled trial. Metropolitan Melbourne, Australia, tertiary hospital routine antenatal outpatient clinic. Seventy-eight women with singleton pregnancies with vitamin D deficiency/insufficiency (serum 25-OH Vit D < 75 nmol/l) at their first antenatal appointment at 12-16-week gestation were recruited. Participants were randomized to vitamin D supplementation (2000-4000 IU cholecalciferol) orally daily until delivery or no supplementation. The primary outcome was neonatal serum 25-OH vit D concentration at delivery. The secondary outcome was maternal serum 25-OH vit D concentration at delivery. Baseline mean maternal serum 25-OH vit D concentrations were similar (P = 0·9) between treatment (32 nmol/l, 95% confidence interval 26-39 nmol/l) and control groups (33 nmol/l, 95% CI 26-39 nmol/l). Umbilical cord serum 25-OH vit D concentrations at delivery were higher (P < 0·0001) in neonates of treatment group mothers (81 nmol/l, 95% CI; 70-91 nmol/l) compared with neonates of control group mothers (42 nmol/l, 95% CI; 34-50 nmol/l) with a strongly positive correlation between maternal serum 25-OH Vit D and umbilical cord serum 25-OH vit D concentrations at delivery (Spearman rank correlation coefficient 0·88; P < 0·0001). Mean maternal serum 25-OH Vit D concentrations at delivery were higher (P < 0·0001) in the treatment group (71 nmol/l, 95% CI; 62-81 nmol/l) compared with the control group (36 nmol/l, 95% CI; 29-42 nmol/l). Vitamin D supplementation of vitamin D deficient pregnant women prevents neonatal vitamin D deficiency. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Cixutumumab for patients with recurrent or refractory advanced thymic epithelial tumours: a multicentre, open-label, phase 2 trial.

    PubMed

    Rajan, Arun; Carter, Corey A; Berman, Arlene; Cao, Liang; Kelly, Ronan J; Thomas, Anish; Khozin, Sean; Chavez, Ariel Lopez; Bergagnini, Isabella; Scepura, Barbara; Szabo, Eva; Lee, Min-Jung; Trepel, Jane B; Browne, Sarah K; Rosen, Lindsey B; Yu, Yunkai; Steinberg, Seth M; Chen, Helen X; Riely, Gregory J; Giaccone, Giuseppe

    2014-02-01

    No standard treatment exists for refractory or relapsed advanced thymic epithelial tumours. We investigated the efficacy of cixutumumab, a fully human IgG1 monoclonal antibody targeting the insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor in thymic epithelial tumours after failure of previous chemotherapy. Between Aug 25, 2009, and March 27, 2012, we did a multicentre, open-label, phase 2 trial in patients aged 18 years or older with histologically confirmed recurrent or refractory thymic epithelial tumours. We enrolled individuals who had progressed after at least one previous regimen of platinum-containing chemotherapy, had an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of 0 or 1, and had measurable disease and adequate organ function. Eligible patients received intravenous cixutumumab (20 mg/kg) every 3 weeks until disease progression or development of intolerable toxic effects. The primary endpoint was the frequency of response, analysed on an intention-to-treat basis. We also did pharmacodynamic studies. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00965250. 49 patients were enrolled (37 with thymomas and 12 with thymic carcinomas) who received a median of eight cycles of cixutumumab (range 1-46). At the final actuarial analysis when follow-up data were updated (Nov 30, 2012), median potential follow-up (from on-study date to most current follow-up date) was 24·0 months (IQR 17·3-36·9). In the thymoma cohort, five (14%) of 37 patients (95% CI 5-29) achieved a partial response, 28 had stable disease, and four had progressive disease. In the thymic carcinoma cohort, none of 12 patients (95% CI 0-26) had a partial response, five had stable disease, and seven had progressive disease. The most common grade 3-4 adverse events in both cohorts combined were hyperglycaemia (five [10%]), lipase elevation (three [6%]), and weight loss, tumour pain, and hyperuricaemia (two each [4%]). Nine (24%) of 37 patients with thymoma developed autoimmune conditions

  11. Intravenous immunoglobulin for maintenance treatment of chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy: a multicentre, open-label, 52-week phase III trial.

    PubMed

    Kuwabara, Satoshi; Mori, Masahiro; Misawa, Sonoko; Suzuki, Miki; Nishiyama, Kazutoshi; Mutoh, Tatsuro; Doi, Shizuki; Kokubun, Norito; Kamijo, Mikiko; Yoshikawa, Hiroo; Abe, Koji; Nishida, Yoshihiko; Okada, Kazumasa; Sekiguchi, Kenji; Sakamoto, Ko; Kusunoki, Susumu; Sobue, Gen; Kaji, Ryuji

    2017-10-01

    Short-term efficacy of induction therapy with intravenous immunoglobulin (Ig) in patients with chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) is well established. However, data of previous studies on maintenance therapy were limited up to 24-week treatment period. We aimed to investigate the efficacy and safety of longer-term intravenous Ig therapy for 52 weeks. This study was an open-label phase 3 clinical trial conducted in 49 Japanese tertiary centres. 49 patients with CIDP who fulfilled diagnostic criteria were included. After an induction intravenous Ig therapy (0.4 g/kg/day for five consecutive days), maintenance dose intravenous Ig (1.0 g/kg) was given every 3 weeks for up to 52 weeks. The primary outcome measures were the responder rate at week 28 and relapse rate at week 52. The response and relapse were defined with the adjusted Inflammatory Neuropathy Cause and Treatment scale. At week 28, the responder rate was 77.6% (38/49 patients; 95% CI 63% to 88%), and the 38 responders continued the maintenance therapy. At week 52, 4 of the 38 (10.5%) had a relapse (95% CI 3% to 25%). During 52 weeks, 34 (69.4%) of the 49 enrolled patients had a maintained improvement. Adverse events were reported in 94% of the patients; two patients (66-year-old and 76-year-old men with hypertension or diabetes) developed cerebral infarction (lacunar infarct with good recovery), and the other adverse effects were mild and resolved by the end of the study period. Maintenance treatment with 1.0 g/kg intravenous Ig every 3 weeks is an efficacious therapy for patients with CIDP, and approximately 70% of them had a sustained remission for 52 weeks. Thrombotic complications should be carefully monitored, particularly in elderly patients with vascular risk factors. ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT01824251). © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise

  12. An Open-Label, Randomized Trial of Methylphenidate and Atomoxetine Treatment in Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder.

    PubMed

    Shang, Chi-Yung; Pan, Yi-Lei; Lin, Hsiang-Yuan; Huang, Lin-Wan; Gau, Susan Shur-Fen

    2015-09-01

    The efficacy of both methylphenidate and atomoxetine has been established in placebo-controlled trials. The present study aimed to directly compare the efficacy of methylphenidate and atomoxetine in improving symptoms among children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The study sample included 160 drug-naïve children and adolescents 7-16 years of age, with DSM-IV-defined ADHD, randomly assigned to osmotic-release oral system methylphenidate (OROS-methylphenidate) (n=80) and atomoxetine (n=80) in a 24 week, open-label, head-to-head clinical trial. The primary efficacy measure was the score of the ADHD Rating Scale-IV Parents Version: Investigator Administered and Scored (ADHD-RS-IV). The secondary efficacy measures included the Clinical Global Impressions-ADHD-Severity (CGI-ADHD-S) and Chinese Swanson, Nolan, and Pelham IV scale (SNAP-IV), based on the ratings of investigators, parents, teachers, and subjects. At week 24, mean changes in ADHD-RS-IV Inattention scores were 13.58 points (Cohen's d, -3.08) for OROS-methylphenidate and 12.65 points (Cohen's d, -3.05) for atomoxetine; and mean changes in ADHD-RS-IV Hyperactivity-Impulsivity scores were 10.16 points (Cohen's d, -1.75) for OROS-methylphenidate and 10.68 points (Cohen's d, -1.87) for atomoxetine. In terms of parent-, teacher-, and self-ratings on behavioral symptoms, both of the two treatment groups significantly decreased on the SNAP-IV scores at the end-point, with effect sizes ranging from 0.9 to 0.96 on the Inattention subscale and from 0.61 to 0.8 on the Hyperactivity/Impulsivity subscale for OROS-methylphenidate; and from 0.51 to 0.88 on the Inattention subscale and from 0.29 to 0.57 on the Hyperactivity/Impulsivity subscale for atomoxetine. No statistically significant differences between treatment groups were observed on the outcome measures. Vomiting, somnolence, and dizziness were reported more often for atomoxetine than for OROS-methylphenidate, whereas insomnia was reported

  13. In vivo efficacy of artemether-lumefantrine and artesunate-amodiaquine for the treatment of uncomplicated falciparum malaria in children: a multisite, open-label, two-cohort, clinical trial in Mozambique

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Mozambique adopted artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) for the treatment of uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria in the year 2006, and since 2009 artemether-lumefantrine (AL) and artesunate-amodiaquine (ASAQ) have been proposed as alternative first-line treatments. A multicentre study was conducted in five sites across the country to assess the in vivo efficacy and tolerability of these two drugs. Methods Children aged six to 59 months with uncomplicated malaria were recruited between June 2011 and January 2012 in five sites across Mozambique (Montepuez, Dondo, Tete, Chokwe, and Manhiça), and treated with AL or ASAQ in a non-randomized study. Follow-up was organized following standard WHO recommendations for in vivo studies, and included daily visits during the three-day-long supervised treatment course, followed by weekly visits up to day 28. The study primary outcome was the day 28 PCR-corrected early treatment failure (ETF), late clinical failure (LCF), late parasitological failure (LPF), and adequate clinical and parasitological response (ACPR). PCR was performed centrally for all cases of recurrent parasitaemia from day 7 onwards to distinguish recrudescence from re-infection. Results Four-hundred and thirty-nine (AL cohort; five sites) and 261 (ASAQ cohort, three sites) children were recruited to the study. Day 28 PCR-corrected efficacy for AL was 96.0% (335/339; 95% CI: 93.4-97.8), while for ASAQ it was 99.6% (232/233; 95% CI: 97.6-99.9). The majority of recurring parasitaemia cases throughout follow-up were shown to be re-infections by PCR. Both drugs were well tolerated, with the most frequent adverse event being vomiting (AL 4.5% [20/439]; ASAQ 9.6% [25/261]) and no significant events deemed related to the study drugs. Conclusion This study confirms that both AL and ASAQ remain highly efficacious and well tolerated for the treatment of uncomplicated malaria in Mozambican children. Studies such as these should be replicated

  14. The shortened infusion time of intravenous ibuprofen, part 2: a multicenter, open-label, surgical surveillance trial to evaluate safety.

    PubMed

    Gan, Tong J; Candiotti, Keith; Turan, Alparslan; Buvanendran, Asokumar; Philip, Beverly K; Viscusi, Eugene R; Soghomonyan, Suren; Bergese, Sergio D

    2015-02-01

    The literature and clinical data support the use of intravenous (IV) infusions of ibuprofen to control pain and reduce the opioid requirements associated with surgical pain. According to current guidelines, IV ibuprofen can be administered via a slow IV infusion performed during a 30-minute period. Although recent studies indicate that more rapid infusions may yield additional benefits for patients, the safety of such an approach needs further evaluation. The main purpose of this study was to determine the safety of single and multiple doses of IV ibuprofen (800 mg) administered over 5 to 10 minutes at the induction of anesthesia and after the surgical procedure for the treatment of postoperative pain. This was a Phase IV, multicenter, open-label, clinical surveillance study. It was conducted at 21 hospitals in the United States, and 300 adult hospitalized patients undergoing surgery were enrolled. The exclusion criteria for the study were: inadequate IV access; hypersensitivity to any component of IV ibuprofen, aspirin, or related products; and any active, clinically significant bleeding. Also excluded were patients who had taken NSAIDs <6 hours before administration of IV ibuprofen; pregnant or breastfeeding female patients; and patients in the perioperative period of coronary artery bypass graft surgery. Patients received 800 mg of IV ibuprofen administered over 5 to 10 minutes preoperatively. Vital signs, adverse events, and pain scores were assessed. Approximately 22% (65 of 300) of patients reported adverse events (serious and nonserious). The most common adverse event was infusion site pain (34 of 300 [11%]). No deaths were reported. Nine subjects reported serious adverse events, 8 of which occurred during the first 6 hours. All serious events reported were judged unrelated to ibuprofen. Of the 300 total patients, 2 (0.67%) discontinued the study drug due to an adverse event (1 patient discontinued the study because of infusion site pain, and 1 patient

  15. Ponatinib versus imatinib for newly diagnosed chronic myeloid leukaemia: an international, randomised, open-label, phase 3 trial.

    PubMed

    Lipton, Jeffrey H; Chuah, Charles; Guerci-Bresler, Agnès; Rosti, Gianantonio; Simpson, David; Assouline, Sarit; Etienne, Gabriel; Nicolini, Franck E; le Coutre, Philipp; Clark, Richard E; Stenke, Leif; Andorsky, David; Oehler, Vivian; Lustgarten, Stephanie; Rivera, Victor M; Clackson, Timothy; Haluska, Frank G; Baccarani, Michele; Cortes, Jorge E; Guilhot, François; Hochhaus, Andreas; Hughes, Timothy; Kantarjian, Hagop M; Shah, Neil P; Talpaz, Moshe; Deininger, Michael W

    2016-05-01

    Ponatinib has shown potent activity against chronic myeloid leukaemia that is resistant to available treatment, although it is associated with arterial occlusion. We investigated whether this activity and safety profile would result in superior outcomes compared with imatinib in previously untreated patients with chronic myeloid leukaemia. The Evaluation of Ponatinib versus Imatinib in Chronic Myeloid Leukemia (EPIC) study was a randomised, open-label, phase 3 trial designed to assess the efficacy and safety of ponatinib, compared with imatinib, in newly diagnosed patients with chronic-phase chronic myeloid leukaemia. Patients from 106 centres in 21 countries were randomly assigned (1:1, with stratification by Sokal score at diagnosis) using an interactive voice and web response system to receive oral ponatinib (45 mg) or imatinib (400 mg) once daily until progression, unacceptable toxicity, or other criteria for withdrawal were met. Eligible patients were at least 18 years of age, within 6 months of diagnosis, and Philadelphia chromosome-positive by cytogenetic assessment, with Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of 0-2, and had not previously been treated with tyrosine kinase inhibitors. The primary endpoint was major molecular response at 12 months. Patients who remained on study and had molecular assessments at specified timepoints were studied at those timepoints. Safety analyses included all treated patients, as per study protocol. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01650805. Between Aug 14, 2012, and Oct 9, 2013, 307 patients were randomly assigned to receive ponatinib (n=155) or imatinib (n=152). The trial was terminated early, on Oct 17, 2013, following concerns about vascular adverse events observed in patients given ponatinib in other trials. Trial termination limited assessment of the primary endpoint of major molecular response at 12 months, as only 13 patients in the imatinib group and ten patients in the

  16. Single-dose pharmacokinetics of co-crystal of tramadol-celecoxib: Results of a four-way randomized open-label phase I clinical trial in healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Videla, Sebastián; Lahjou, Mounia; Vaqué, Anna; Sust, Mariano; Encabo, Mercedes; Soler, Lluis; Sans, Artur; Sicard, Eric; Gascón, Neus; Encina, Gregorio; Plata-Salamán, Carlos

    2017-08-15

    Co-crystal of tramadol-celecoxib (CTC) is a novel co-crystal molecule containing two active pharmaceutical ingredients under development by Esteve (E-58425) and Mundipharma Research (MR308). This Phase I study compared single-dose pharmacokinetics (PK) of CTC with those of the individual reference products [immediate-release (IR) tramadol and celecoxib] alone and in open combination. Healthy adults aged 18-55 years were orally administered four treatments under fasted conditions (separated by 7-day wash-out period): 200 mg IR CTC (equivalent to 88 mg tramadol and 112 mg celecoxib; Treatment 1); 100 mg IR tramadol (Treatment 2); 100 mg celecoxib (Treatment 3); and 100 mg IR tramadol and 100 mg celecoxib (Treatment 4). Treatment sequence was assigned using computer-generated randomization. PK parameters were calculated using noncompartmental analysis with parameters for CTC adjusted according to reference product dose (100 mg). Thirty-six subjects (28 male, mean age 36 years) participated. Tramadol PK parameters for Treatments-1, -2 and -4, respectively, were 263, 346 and 349 ng ml(-1) (mean maximum plasma concentration); 3039, 2979 and 3119 ng h ml(-1) (mean cumulative area under the plasma concentration-time curve); and 2.7, 1.8 and 1.8 h (median time to maximum plasma concentration). For Treatments 1, 3 and 4, the respective celecoxib PK parameters were 313, 449 and 284 ng ml(-1) ; 2183, 3093 and 2856 ng h ml(-1) ; and 1.5, 2.3 and 3.0 h. No unexpected adverse events were reported. PK parameters of each API in CTC were modified by co-crystallization compared with marketed formulations of tramadol, celecoxib, and their open combination. © 2017 The Authors. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of British Pharmacological Society.

  17. Safety and immunogenicity of novel respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) vaccines based on the RSV viral proteins F, N and M2-1 encoded by simian adenovirus (PanAd3-RSV) and MVA (MVA-RSV); protocol for an open-label, dose-escalation, single-centre, phase 1 clinical trial in healthy adults

    PubMed Central

    Green, C A; Scarselli, E; Voysey, M; Capone, S; Vitelli, A; Nicosia, A; Cortese, R; Thompson, A J; Sande, C S; de Lara, Catherine; Klenerman, P; Pollard, A J

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection causes respiratory disease throughout life, with infants and the elderly at risk of severe disease and death. RSV001 is a phase 1 (first-in-man), open-label, dose-escalation, clinical trial of novel genetic viral-vectored vaccine candidates PanAd3-RSV and modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA)-RSV. The objective of RSV001 is to characterise the (primary objective) safety and (secondary objective) immunogenicity of these vaccines in healthy younger and older adults. Methods and analysis Heterologous and homologous ‘prime’/boost combinations of PanAd3-RSV and single-dose MVA-RSV are evaluated in healthy adults. 40 healthy adults aged 18–50 years test one of four combinations of intramuscular (IM) or intranasal (IN) PanAd3-RSV prime and IM PanAd3 or IM MVA-RSV boost vaccination, starting at a low dose for safety. The following year an additional 30 healthy adults aged 60–75 years test either a single dose of IM MVA-RSV, one of three combinations of IN or IM PanAd3-RSV prime and PanAd3-RSV or MVA-RSV boost vaccination used in younger volunteers, and a non-vaccinated control group. Study participants are self-selected volunteers who satisfy the eligibility criteria and are assigned to study groups by sequential allocation. Safety assessment includes the daily recording of solicited and unsolicited adverse events for 1 week after vaccination, as well as visit (nursing) observations and safety bloods obtained at all scheduled attendances. Laboratory measures of RSV-specific humoral and cellular immune responses after vaccination will address the secondary end points. All study procedures are performed at the Centre for Clinical Vaccinology and Tropical Medicine (CCVTM), Oxford, UK. Ethics and dissemination RSV001 has clinical trial authorisation from the Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency (MHRA) and ethics approval from NRES Berkshire (reference 13/SC/0023). All study procedures adhere

  18. Gatifloxacin versus ceftriaxone for uncomplicated enteric fever in Nepal: an open-label, two-centre, randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Arjyal, Amit; Basnyat, Buddha; Nhan, Ho Thi; Koirala, Samir; Giri, Abhishek; Joshi, Niva; Shakya, Mila; Pathak, Kamal Raj; Mahat, Saruna Pathak; Prajapati, Shanti Pradhan; Adhikari, Nabin; Thapa, Rajkumar; Merson, Laura; Gajurel, Damodar; Lamsal, Kamal; Lamsal, Dinesh; Yadav, Bharat Kumar; Shah, Ganesh; Shrestha, Poojan; Dongol, Sabina; Karkey, Abhilasha; Thompson, Corinne N; Thieu, Nga Tran Vu; Thanh, Duy Pham; Baker, Stephen; Thwaites, Guy E; Wolbers, Marcel; Dolecek, Christiane

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background Because treatment with third-generation cephalosporins is associated with slow clinical improvement and high relapse burden for enteric fever, whereas the fluoroquinolone gatifloxacin is associated with rapid fever clearance and low relapse burden, we postulated that gatifloxacin would be superior to the cephalosporin ceftriaxone in treating enteric fever. Methods We did an open-label, randomised, controlled, superiority trial at two hospitals in the Kathmandu valley, Nepal. Eligible participants were children (aged 2–13 years) and adult (aged 14–45 years) with criteria for suspected enteric fever (body temperature ≥38·0°C for ≥4 days without a focus of infection). We randomly assigned eligible patients (1:1) without stratification to 7 days of either oral gatifloxacin (10 mg/kg per day) or intravenous ceftriaxone (60 mg/kg up to 2 g per day for patients aged 2–13 years, or 2 g per day for patients aged ≥14 years). The randomisation list was computer-generated using blocks of four and six. The primary outcome was a composite of treatment failure, defined as the occurrence of at least one of the following: fever clearance time of more than 7 days after treatment initiation; the need for rescue treatment on day 8; microbiological failure (ie, blood cultures positive for Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi, or Paratyphi A, B, or C) on day 8; or relapse or disease-related complications within 28 days of treatment initiation. We did the analyses in the modified intention-to-treat population, and subpopulations with either confirmed blood-culture positivity, or blood-culture negativity. The trial was powered to detect an increase of 20% in the risk of failure. This trial was registered at ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01421693, and is now closed. Findings Between Sept 18, 2011, and July 14, 2014, we screened 725 patients for eligibility. On July 14, 2014, the trial was stopped early by the data safety and monitoring board because S Typhi

  19. Gatifloxacin versus ceftriaxone for uncomplicated enteric fever in Nepal: an open-label, two-centre, randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Arjyal, Amit; Basnyat, Buddha; Nhan, Ho Thi; Koirala, Samir; Giri, Abhishek; Joshi, Niva; Shakya, Mila; Pathak, Kamal Raj; Mahat, Saruna Pathak; Prajapati, Shanti Pradhan; Adhikari, Nabin; Thapa, Rajkumar; Merson, Laura; Gajurel, Damodar; Lamsal, Kamal; Lamsal, Dinesh; Yadav, Bharat Kumar; Shah, Ganesh; Shrestha, Poojan; Dongol, Sabina; Karkey, Abhilasha; Thompson, Corinne N; Thieu, Nga Tran Vu; Thanh, Duy Pham; Baker, Stephen; Thwaites, Guy E; Wolbers, Marcel; Dolecek, Christiane

    2016-05-01

    Because treatment with third-generation cephalosporins is associated with slow clinical improvement and high relapse burden for enteric fever, whereas the fluoroquinolone gatifloxacin is associated with rapid fever clearance and low relapse burden, we postulated that gatifloxacin would be superior to the cephalosporin ceftriaxone in treating enteric fever. We did an open-label, randomised, controlled, superiority trial at two hospitals in the Kathmandu valley, Nepal. Eligible participants were children (aged 2-13 years) and adult (aged 14-45 years) with criteria for suspected enteric fever (body temperature ≥38·0°C for ≥4 days without a focus of infection). We randomly assigned eligible patients (1:1) without stratification to 7 days of either oral gatifloxacin (10 mg/kg per day) or intravenous ceftriaxone (60 mg/kg up to 2 g per day for patients aged 2-13 years, or 2 g per day for patients aged ≥14 years). The randomisation list was computer-generated using blocks of four and six. The primary outcome was a composite of treatment failure, defined as the occurrence of at least one of the following: fever clearance time of more than 7 days after treatment initiation; the need for rescue treatment on day 8; microbiological failure (ie, blood cultures positive for Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi, or Paratyphi A, B, or C) on day 8; or relapse or disease-related complications within 28 days of treatment initiation. We did the analyses in the modified intention-to-treat population, and subpopulations with either confirmed blood-culture positivity, or blood-culture negativity. The trial was powered to detect an increase of 20% in the risk of failure. This trial was registered at ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01421693, and is now closed. Between Sept 18, 2011, and July 14, 2014, we screened 725 patients for eligibility. On July 14, 2014, the trial was stopped early by the data safety and monitoring board because S Typhi strains with high-level resistance to

  20. Holter-electrocardiogram-monitoring in patients with acute ischaemic stroke (Find-AFRANDOMISED): an open-label randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Wachter, Rolf; Gröschel, Klaus; Gelbrich, Götz; Hamann, Gerhard F; Kermer, Pawel; Liman, Jan; Seegers, Joachim; Wasser, Katrin; Schulte, Anna; Jürries, Falko; Messerschmid, Anna; Behnke, Nico; Gröschel, Sonja; Uphaus, Timo; Grings, Anne; Ibis, Tugba; Klimpe, Sven; Wagner-Heck, Michaela; Arnold, Magdalena; Protsenko, Evgeny; Heuschmann, Peter U; Conen, David; Weber-Krüger, Mark

    2017-04-01

    Atrial fibrillation is a major risk factor for recurrent ischaemic stroke, but often remains undiagnosed in patients who have had an acute ischaemic stroke. Enhanced and prolonged Holter-electrocardiogram-monitoring might increase detection of atrial fibrillation. We therefore investigated whether enhanced and prolonged rhythm monitoring was better for detection of atrial fibrillation than standard care procedures in patients with acute ischaemic stroke. Find-AFrandomised is an open-label randomised study done at four centres in Germany. We recruited patients with acute ischaemic stroke (symptoms for 7 days or less) aged 60 years or older presenting with sinus rhythm and without history of atrial fibrillation. Patients were included irrespective of the suspected cause of stroke, unless they had a severe ipsilateral carotid or intracranial artery stenosis, which were the exclusion criteria. We used a computer-generated allocation sequence to randomly assign patients in a 1:1 ratio with permuted block sizes of 2, 4, 6, and 8, stratified by centre, to enhanced and prolonged monitoring (ie, 10-day Holter-electrocardiogram [ECG]-monitoring at baseline, and at 3 months and 6 months of follow-up) or standard care procedures (ie, at least 24 h of rhythm monitoring). Participants and study physicians were not masked to group assignment, but the expert committees that adjudicated endpoints were. The primary endpoint was the occurrence of atrial fibrillation or atrial flutter (30 sec or longer) within 6 months after randomisation and before stroke recurrence. Because Holter ECG is a widely used procedure and not known to harm patients, we chose not to assess safety in detail. Analysis was by intention to treat. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01855035. Between May 8, 2013, and Aug 31, 2014, we recruited 398 patients. 200 patients were randomly assigned to the enhanced and prolonged monitoring group and 198 to the standard care group. After 6 months

  1. An Open-Label Trial of Memantine for Cognitive Impairment in Patients with Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Ramaswamy, Sriram; Madabushi, Jayakrishna; Hunziker, John; Bhatia, Subhash C.; Petty, Frederick

    2015-01-01

    Background. Studies using standard neuropsychological instruments have demonstrated memory deficits in patients with PTSD. We evaluated the efficacy and safety of the N-methyl-D-aspartate antagonist memantine in veterans with PTSD and cognitive impairment. Methods. Twenty-six veterans with PTSD and cognitive impairment received 16 weeks of memantine in an open-label fashion. Cognition was assessed using the Spatial Span, Logical Memory I, and Letter-Number Sequencing subtests of the Wechsler Memory Scale III and the Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status (RBANS). RBANS measures attention, language, visuospatial skills, and immediate and delayed memories. The Clinician Administered PTSD Scale (CAPS), Hamilton Depression Scale (HAM-D), Hamilton Anxiety Scale (HAM-A), Quality of Life Enjoyment and Satisfaction Questionnaire (Q-LES-Q), and Sheehan Disability Scale (SDS) were secondary outcome measures. Results. There was a significant improvement in RBANS, both total and subscale scores (P < 0.05), over time. There was a reduction in total CAPS scores, avoidance/numbing symptoms (CAPS-C) and hyperarousal symptoms (CAPS-D), HAM-D, Q-LES-Q, and SDS scores. However, there was no reduction in reexperiencing (CAPS-B) and HAM-A scores. Memantine was well tolerated. Conclusions. Memantine improved cognitive symptoms, PTSD symptoms, and mood in veterans with PTSD. Randomized double-blind studies are needed to validate these preliminary observations. PMID:26064685

  2. Transcutaneous supraorbital neurostimulation for the prevention of chronic migraine: a prospective, open-label preliminary trial.

    PubMed

    Di Fiore, Paola; Bussone, Gennaro; Galli, Alberto; Didier, Henri; Peccarisi, Cesare; D'Amico, Domenico; Frediani, Fabio

    2017-05-01

    Since chronic migraine is difficult to treat and often associated with medication overuse, non-invasive neurostimulation approaches are worth investigating. Transcutaneous supraorbital neurostimulation using the Cefaly(®) device is promising as a non-invasive preventive treatment for episodic migraine, but no data are available for chronic migraine. Our aim was to perform a preliminary evaluation of the efficacy of the Cefaly(®) device for the prophylaxis of chronic migraine with or without medication overuse. Primary endpoints were 50% reduction in monthly migraine days and 50% reduction in monthly medication use over 4 months. In an open-label study, twenty-three consecutive headache center patients with chronic migraine, diagnosed according to International Headache Society criteria, were recruited prospectively. After informed consent, patients were trained to use Cefaly(®) and instructed to use it for 20 min daily over 4 months. All patients received active neurostimulation. Thirty-five percent of the patients enrolled in the study achieved the study endpoints. Over half the patients had a greater than 50% reduction in acute medication consumption.

  3. Mirtazapine in Comorbid Major Depression and Alcohol Dependence: An Open-Label Trial

    PubMed Central

    Cornelius, Jack R.; Douaihy, Antoine B.; Clark, Duncan B.; Chung, Tammy; Wood, D. Scott; Daley, Dennis

    2012-01-01

    Objective This was a first pilot study evaluating the acute phase (8-week) efficacy of the antidepressant medication mirtazapine for the treatment of depressive symptoms and drinking of subjects with comorbid major depressive disorder and alcohol dependence (MDD/AD). We hypothesized that mirtazapine would demonstrate within-group efficacy for the treatment of both depressive symptoms and drinking in these subjects. Methods We conducted a first open label study of the second generation antidepressant mirtazapine in 12 adult outpatient subjects with comorbid major depressive disorder/alcohol dependence. The pharmacological profile of that medication is unique among antidepressants, unrelated to tricyclics or selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors. Results Mirtazapine was well tolerated in this treatment population. Self-reported depressive symptoms decreased from 31.8 to 8.3 on the Beck Depression Inventory, a 74.0% decrease (p<0.001), and drinking decreased from 33.9 to 13.3 drinks per week, a 60.8% decrease (p<0.05). None of the subjects were employed full-time at baseline, but 9 of the 12 (75%) were employed full-time at end-of-study. Conclusions These preliminary findings suggest efficacy for mirtazapine for treating both the depressive symptoms and excessive alcohol use of comorbid major depressive disorder and alcohol dependence. Double-blind studies are warranted to further clarify the efficacy of mirtazapine in this population. PMID:23230395

  4. Methadone continuation versus forced withdrawal on incarceration in a combined US prison and jail: a randomised, open-label trial

    PubMed Central

    Rich, Josiah D; McKenzie, Michelle; Larney, Sarah; Wong, John B; Tran, Liem; Clarke, Jennifer; Noska, Amanda; Reddy, Manasa; Zaller, Nickolas

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background Methadone is an effective treatment for opioid dependence. When people who are receiving methadone maintenance treatment for opioid dependence are incarcerated in prison or jail, most US correctional facilities discontinue their methadone treatment, either gradually, or more often, abruptly. This discontinuation can cause uncomfortable symptoms of withdrawal and renders prisoners susceptible to relapse and overdose on release. We aimed to study the effect of forced withdrawal from methadone upon incarceration on individuals’ risk behaviours and engagement with post-release treatment programmes. Methods In this randomised, open-label trial, we randomly assigned (1:1) inmates of the Rhode Island Department of Corrections (RI, USA) who were enrolled in a methadone maintenance-treatment programme in the community at the time of arrest and wanted to remain on methadone treatment during incarceration and on release, to either continuation of their methadone treatment or to usual care—forced tapered withdrawal from methadone. Participants could be included in the study only if their incarceration would be more than 1 week but less than 6 months. We did the random assignments with a computer-generated random permutation, and urn randomisation procedures to stratify participants by sex and race. Participants in the continued-methadone group were maintained on their methadone dose at the time of their incarceration (with dose adjustments as clinically indicated). Patients in the forced-withdrawal group followed the institution’s standard withdrawal protocol of receiving methadone for 1 week at the dose at the time of their incarceration, then a tapered withdrawal regimen (for those on a starting dose >100 mg, the dose was reduced by 5 mg per day to 100 mg, then reduced by 3 mg per day to 0 mg; for those on a starting dose ≤100 mg, the dose was reduced by 3 mg per day to 0 mg). The main outcomes were engagement with a methadone maintenance

  5. Psychotherapy for depression in older veterans via telemedicine: a randomised, open-label, non-inferiority trial.

    PubMed

    Egede, Leonard E; Acierno, Ron; Knapp, Rebecca G; Lejuez, Carl; Hernandez-Tejada, Melba; Payne, Elizabeth H; Frueh, B Christopher

    2015-08-01

    Many older adults with major depression, particularly veterans, do not have access to evidence-based psychotherapy. Telemedicine could increase access to best-practice care for older adults facing barriers of mobility, stigma, and geographical isolation. We aimed to establish non-inferiority of behavioural activation therapy for major depression delivered via telemedicine to same-room care in largely male, older adult veterans. In this randomised, controlled, open-label, non-inferiority trial, we recruited veterans (aged ≥58 years) meeting DSM-IV criteria for major depressive disorder from the Ralph H Johnson Veterans Affairs Medical Center and four associated community outpatient-based clinics in the USA. We excluded actively psychotic or demented people, those with both suicidal ideation and clear intent, and those with substance dependence. The study coordinator randomly assigned participants (1:1; block size 2-6; stratified by race; computer-generated randomisation sequence by RGK) to eight sessions of behavioural activation for depression either via telemedicine or in the same room. The primary outcome was treatment response according to the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS) and Beck Depression Inventory (BDI; defined as a 50% reduction in symptoms from baseline at 12 months), and Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV, clinician version (defined as no longer being diagnosed with major depressive disorder at 12 months follow-up), in the per-protocol population (those who completed at least four treatment sessions and for whom all outcome measurements were done). Those assessing outcomes were masked. The non-inferiority margin was 15%. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00324701. Between April 1, 2007, and July 31, 2011, we screened 780 patients, and the study coordinator randomly assigned participants to either telemedicine (120 [50%]) or same-room treatment (121 [50%]). We included 100 (83%) patients in the per-protocol analysis in

  6. Cixutumumab and temsirolimus for patients with bone and soft-tissue sarcoma: a multicentre, open-label, phase 2 trial

    PubMed Central

    Schwartz, Gary K; Tap, William D; Qin, Li-Xuan; Livingston, Michael B; Undevia, Samir D; Chmielowski, Bartosz; Agulnik, Mark; Schuetze, Scott M; Reed, Damon R; Okuno, Scott H; Ludwig, Joseph A; Keedy, Vicki; Rietschel, Petra; Kraft, Andrew S; Adkins, Douglas; Van Tine, Brian A; Brockstein, Bruce; Yim, Vincent; Bitas, Christiana; Abdullah, Abdul; Antonescu, Cristina R; Condy, Mercedes; Dickson, Mark A; Vasudeva, Shyamprasad Deraje; Ho, Alan L; Doyle, L Austin; Chen, Helen X; Maki, Robert G

    2013-01-01

    Summary Background Preclinical studies have shown synergistic antitumour activity by inhibition of insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF-1R) and mTOR. The expression of IGF-1R seems to be crucial for this effect. We investigated the safety and efficacy of the combination of the IGF-1R antibody cixutumumab and the mTOR inhibitor temsirolimus in patients with chemotherapy-refractory bone and soft-tissue sarcomas according to IGF-1R expression by immunohistochemistry. Methods We undertook a multicentre, open-label, phase 2 study in 19 cancer centres in the USA. Patients aged at least 16 years with a histologically confirmed diagnosis of bone or soft-tissue sarcoma were allocated on the basis of IGF-1R expression by immunohistochemistry to one of three treatment groups: IGF-1R-positive soft-tissue sarcoma (group A), IGF-1R-positive bone sarcomas (group B), or IGF-1R-negative bone and soft-tissue sarcoma (group C). Patients received weekly treatment with cixutumumab (6 mg/kg, intravenous) and temsirolimus (25 mg, intravenous flat dose) in 6-week cycles. A Simon optimal two-stage design was used for every arm. The primary endpoint was progression-free survival (PFS) at 12 weeks by intention-to-treat analysis in the first 54 patients assigned to every treatment arm. Although patients still remain on treatment, this trial has completed enrolment and this represents the final analysis. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01016015. Findings Between Nov 18, 2009, and April 11, 2012, 388 patients were screened for IGF-1R expression and 54 were assigned to each arm. 17 of 54 patients in the IGF-1R-positive soft-tissue sarcoma group (31%; one-sided 95% CI lower bound 21%; two-sided 90% CI 21–43), 19 of 54 in IGF-1R-positive bone sarcoma group (35%; one-sided 95% CI lower bound 24%; two-sided 90% CI 24–47), and 21 of 54 in the IGF-1R-negative group (39%, one-sided 95% CI lower bound 28%; two-sided 90% CI 28–51) were progression free at 12 weeks

  7. Maintenance of Clinical and Radiographic Benefit With Intravenous Golimumab Therapy in Patients With Active Rheumatoid Arthritis Despite Methotrexate Therapy: Week-112 Efficacy and Safety Results of the Open-Label Long-Term Extension of a Phase III, Double-Blind, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Bingham, Clifton O; Mendelsohn, Alan M; Kim, Lilianne; Xu, Zhenhua; Leu, Jocelyn; Han, Chenglong; Lo, Kim Hung; Westhovens, Rene; Weinblatt, Michael E

    2015-12-01

    To evaluate the safety, efficacy, pharmacokinetics, immunogenicity, and radiographic progression through 2 years of treatment with intravenous (IV) golimumab plus methotrexate (MTX) in an open-label extension of a phase III trial of patients with active rheumatoid arthritis (RA) despite MTX therapy. In the phase III, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled GO-FURTHER trial, 592 patients with active RA were randomized (2:1) to intravenous golimumab 2 mg/kg plus MTX (Group 1) or placebo plus MTX (Group 2) at weeks 0 and 4, then every 8 weeks thereafter; placebo patients crossed over to golimumab at week 16 (early escape) or week 24 (crossover). The final golimumab infusion was at week 100. Assessments included American College of Rheumatology 20%, 50%, 70% (ACR20, ACR50, ACR70) response criteria, 28-joint count disease activity score using the C-reactive protein level (DAS28-CRP), physical function and quality of life measures, and changes in the modified Sharp/van der Heijde scores (SHS). Safety was monitored through week 112. In total, 486 patients (82.1%) continued treatment through week 100, and 68.1%, 43.8%, and 23.5% had an ACR20/50/70 response, respectively, at week 100. Clinical response and improvements in physical function and quality of life were generally maintained from week 24 through 2 years. Mean change from baseline to week 100 in SHS score was 0.74 in Group 1 and 2.10 in Group 2 (P = 0.005); progression from week 52 to week 100 was clinically insignificant in both groups. A total of 481 patients completed the safety followup through week 112; 79.1% had an adverse event, and 18.2% had a serious adverse event. Clinical response to IV golimumab plus MTX was maintained through week 100. Radiographic progression following golimumab treatment was clinically insignificant between week 52 and week 100. No unexpected adverse events occurred through week 112, and the safety profile was consistent with anti-tumor necrosis factor therapy. © 2015 The

  8. Cabozantinib versus everolimus in advanced renal cell carcinoma (METEOR): final results from a randomised, open-label, phase 3 trial.

    PubMed

    Choueiri, Toni K; Escudier, Bernard; Powles, Thomas; Tannir, Nizar M; Mainwaring, Paul N; Rini, Brian I; Hammers, Hans J; Donskov, Frede; Roth, Bruce J; Peltola, Katriina; Lee, Jae Lyun; Heng, Daniel Y C; Schmidinger, Manuela; Agarwal, Neeraj; Sternberg, Cora N; McDermott, David F; Aftab, Dana T; Hessel, Colin; Scheffold, Christian; Schwab, Gisela; Hutson, Thomas E; Pal, Sumanta; Motzer, Robert J

    2016-07-01

    Cabozantinib is an oral inhibitor of tyrosine kinases including MET, VEGFR, and AXL. The randomised phase 3 METEOR trial compared the efficacy and safety of cabozantinib versus the mTOR inhibitor everolimus in patients with advanced renal cell carcinoma who progressed after previous VEGFR tyrosine-kinase inhibitor treatment. Here, we report the final overall survival results from this study based on an unplanned second interim analysis. In this open-label, randomised phase 3 trial, we randomly assigned (1:1) patients aged 18 years and older with advanced or metastatic clear-cell renal cell carcinoma, measurable disease, and previous treatment with one or more VEGFR tyrosine-kinase inhibitors to receive 60 mg cabozantinib once a day or 10 mg everolimus once a day. Randomisation was done with an interactive voice and web response system. Stratification factors were Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center risk group and the number of previous treatments with VEGFR tyrosine-kinase inhibitors. The primary endpoint was progression-free survival as assessed by an independent radiology review committee in the first 375 randomly assigned patients and has been previously reported. Secondary endpoints were overall survival and objective response in all randomly assigned patients assessed by intention-to-treat. Safety was assessed per protocol in all patients who received at least one dose of study drug. The study is closed for enrolment but treatment and follow-up of patients is ongoing for long-term safety evaluation. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01865747. Between Aug 8, 2013, and Nov 24, 2014, 658 patients were randomly assigned to receive cabozantinib (n=330) or everolimus (n=328). The median duration of follow-up for overall survival and safety was 18·7 months (IQR 16·1-21·1) in the cabozantinib group and 18·8 months (16·0-21·2) in the everolimus group. Median overall survival was 21·4 months (95% CI 18·7-not estimable) with

  9. Pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and metabolism of triethylenetetramine in healthy human participants: an open-label trial.

    PubMed

    Lu, Jun; Poppitt, Sally D; Othman, Asma A; Sunderland, Tracey; Ruggiero, Katya; Willett, Michael S; Diamond, Lisa E; Garcia, Wilfredo D; Roesch, Benno G; Cooper, Garth J S

    2010-06-01

    The selective Cu(II)-chelator, triethylenetetramine (TETA), is undergoing clinical trials for the treatment of heart failure in patients with diabetes. Recently, the authors showed that 2 acetylated metabolites, N(1)-acetyltriethylenetetramine (MAT) and N(1),N(10)-diacetyltriethylenetetramine (DAT), are formed in humans following oral TETA administration. Thus, it became necessary to determine whether the N-acetyltransferase (NAT) 2 phenotype has any effects on the pharmacological properties and safety profile of TETA. Twelve fast and 12 slow NAT2-phenotype healthy participants were recruited. After oral drug administration, the authors collected plasma and urine samples, measured plasma concentrations of TETA and its 2 metabolites along with concomitant urinary copper concentrations, and performed safety tests. They present, for the first time, the complete 24-hour pharmacokinetic profiles of TETA, MAT, and DAT in humans. There was no evidence for clear-cut differences in pharmacokinetic profiles between fast and slow acetylators. Pharmacodynamic analysis showed no significant differences in cupruresis between the 2 NAT2 phenotypes. Safety results were consistent with TETA being well tolerated, and no significant differences in safety profiles were observed between the 2 phenotypes. Based on these data, NAT2 phenotype does not affect TETA's pharmacokinetic, pharmacodynamic, or safety profiles. TETA may be acetylated via an alternative mechanism, such as that catalyzed by spermidine/spermine N(1)-acetyltranferase.

  10. Continuous positive airway pressure for children with undifferentiated respiratory distress in Ghana: an open-label, cluster, crossover trial.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Patrick T; Baiden, Frank; Brooks, Joshua C; Morris, Marilyn C; Giessler, Katie; Punguyire, Damien; Apio, Gavin; Agyeman-Ampromfi, Akua; Lopez-Pintado, Sara; Sylverken, Justice; Nyarko-Jectey, Kwadwo; Tagbor, Harry; Moresky, Rachel T

    2017-06-01

    In low-income and middle-income countries, invasive mechanical ventilation is often not available for children at risk of death from respiratory failure. We aimed to determine if continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP), a form of non-invasive ventilation, decreases all-cause mortality in children with undifferentiated respiratory distress in Ghana. This open-label, cluster, crossover trial was done in two Ghanaian non-tertiary hospitals where invasive mechanical ventilation is not routinely available. Eligible participants were children aged from 1 month to 5 years with a respiratory rate of more than 50 breaths per min in children 1-12 months old, or more than 40 breaths per min in children older than 12 months, and use of accessory muscles or nasal flaring. CPAP machines were allocated to one hospital during each study block, while the other hospital served as the control site. The initial intervention site was randomly chosen using a coin toss. 5 cm of water pressure was delivered via CPAP nasal prongs. The primary outcome measure was all-cause mortality rate at 2 weeks after enrolment in patients for whom data were available after 2 weeks. We also did post-hoc regression analysis and subgroup analysis of children by malaria status, oxygen saturation, and age. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01839474. Between Jan 20, 2014, and Dec 5, 2015, 2200 children were enrolled: 1025 at the intervention site and 1175 at the control site. Final analysis included 1021 patients in the CPAP group and 1160 patients in the control group. 2 weeks after enrolment, 26 (3%) of 1021 patients in the CPAP group, and 44 (4%) of 1160 patients in the control group, had died (relative risk [RR] of mortality 0·67, 95% CI 0·42-1·08; p=0·11). In children younger than 1 year, all-cause mortality was ten (3%) of 374 patients in the CPAP group, and 24 (7%) of 359 patients in the control group (RR 0·40, 0·19-0·82; p=0·01). After adjustment for study site

  11. Dextrose and morrhuate sodium injections (prolotherapy) for knee osteoarthritis: a prospective open-label trial.

    PubMed

    Rabago, David; Patterson, Jeffrey J; Mundt, Marlon; Zgierska, Aleksandra; Fortney, Luke; Grettie, Jessica; Kijowski, Richard

    2014-05-01

    This study determined whether injection with hypertonic dextrose and morrhuate sodium (prolotherapy) using a pragmatic, clinically determined injection schedule for knee osteoarthritis (KOA) results in improved knee pain, function, and stiffness compared to baseline status. This was a prospective three-arm uncontrolled study with 1-year follow-up. The setting was outpatient. The participants were 38 adults who had at least 3 months of symptomatic KOA and who were in the control groups of a prior prolotherapy randomized controlled trial (RCT) (Prior-Control), were ineligible for the RCT (Prior-Ineligible), or were eligible but declined the RCT (Prior-Declined). The injection sessions at occurred at 1, 5, and 9 weeks with as-needed treatment at weeks 13 and 17. Extra-articular injections of 15% dextrose and 5% morrhuate sodium were done at peri-articular tendon and ligament insertions. A single intra-articular injection of 6 mL 25% dextrose was performed through an inferomedial approach. The primary outcome measure was the validated Western Ontario McMaster University Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC). The secondary outcome measure was the Knee Pain Scale and postprocedure opioid medication use and participant satisfaction. The Prior-Declined group reported the most severe baseline WOMAC score (p=0.02). Compared to baseline status, participants in the Prior-Control group reported a score change of 12.4±3.5 points (19.5%, p=0.002). Prior-Decline and Prior-Ineligible groups improved by 19.4±7.0 (42.9%, p=0.05) and 17.8±3.9 (28.4%, p=0.008) points, respectively; 55.6% of Prior-Control, 75% of Prior-Decline, and 50% of Prior-Ineligible participants reported score improvement in excess of the 12-point minimal clinical important difference on the WOMAC measure. Postprocedure opioid medication resulted in rapid diminution of prolotherapy injection pain. Satisfaction was high and there were no adverse events. Prolotherapy using dextrose and morrhuate sodium injections for

  12. Dextrose and Morrhuate Sodium Injections (Prolotherapy) for Knee Osteoarthritis: A Prospective Open-Label Trial

    PubMed Central

    Patterson, Jeffrey J.; Mundt, Marlon; Zgierska, Aleksandra; Fortney, Luke; Grettie, Jessica; Kijowski, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Objectives: This study determined whether injection with hypertonic dextrose and morrhuate sodium (prolotherapy) using a pragmatic, clinically determined injection schedule for knee osteoarthritis (KOA) results in improved knee pain, function, and stiffness compared to baseline status. Design: This was a prospective three-arm uncontrolled study with 1-year follow-up. Setting: The setting was outpatient. Participants: The participants were 38 adults who had at least 3 months of symptomatic KOA and who were in the control groups of a prior prolotherapy randomized controlled trial (RCT) (Prior-Control), were ineligible for the RCT (Prior-Ineligible), or were eligible but declined the RCT (Prior-Declined). Intervention: The injection sessions at occurred at 1, 5, and 9 weeks with as-needed treatment at weeks 13 and 17. Extra-articular injections of 15% dextrose and 5% morrhuate sodium were done at peri-articular tendon and ligament insertions. A single intra-articular injection of 6 mL 25% dextrose was performed through an inferomedial approach. Outcome measures: The primary outcome measure was the validated Western Ontario McMaster University Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC). The secondary outcome measure was the Knee Pain Scale and postprocedure opioid medication use and participant satisfaction. Results: The Prior-Declined group reported the most severe baseline WOMAC score (p=0.02). Compared to baseline status, participants in the Prior-Control group reported a score change of 12.4±3.5 points (19.5%, p=0.002). Prior-Decline and Prior-Ineligible groups improved by 19.4±7.0 (42.9%, p=0.05) and 17.8±3.9 (28.4%, p=0.008) points, respectively; 55.6% of Prior-Control, 75% of Prior-Decline, and 50% of Prior-Ineligible participants reported score improvement in excess of the 12-point minimal clinical important difference on the WOMAC measure. Postprocedure opioid medication resulted in rapid diminution of prolotherapy injection pain. Satisfaction was high and

  13. Repeat treatment of acute hereditary angioedema attacks with open-label icatibant in the FAST-1 trial

    PubMed Central

    Malbrán, A; Riedl, M; Ritchie, B; Smith, W B; Yang, W; Banerji, A; Hébert, J; Gleich, G J; Hurewitz, D; Jacobson, K W; Bernstein, J A; Khan, D A; Kirkpatrick, C H; Resnick, D; Li, H; Fernández Romero, D S; Lumry, W

    2014-01-01

    Hereditary angioedema (HAE) is characterized by potentially life-threatening recurrent episodes of oedema. The open-label extension (OLE) phase of the For Angioedema Subcutaneous Treatment (FAST)-1 trial (NCT00097695) evaluated the efficacy and safety of repeated icatibant exposure in adults with multiple HAE attacks. Following completion of the randomized, controlled phase, patients could receive open-label icatibant (30 mg subcutaneously) for subsequent attacks. The primary end-point was time to onset of primary symptom relief, as assessed by visual analogue scale (VAS). Descriptive statistics were reported for cutaneous/abdominal attacks 1–10 treated in the OLE phase and individual laryngeal attacks. Post-hoc analyses were conducted in patients with ≥ 5 attacks across the controlled and OLE phases. Safety was evaluated throughout. During the OLE phase, 72 patients received icatibant for 340 attacks. For cutaneous/abdominal attacks 1–10, the median time to onset of primary symptom relief was 1·0–2·0 h. For laryngeal attacks 1–12, patient-assessed median time to initial symptom improvement was 0·3–1·2 h. Post-hoc analyses showed the time to onset of symptom relief based on composite VAS was consistent across repeated treatments with icatibant. One injection of icatibant was sufficient to treat 88·2% of attacks; rescue medication was required in 5·3% of attacks. No icatibant-related serious adverse events were reported. Icatibant provided consistent efficacy and was well tolerated for repeated treatment of HAE attacks. PMID:24749847

  14. Daratumumab monotherapy in patients with treatment-refractory multiple myeloma (SIRIUS): an open-label, randomised, phase 2 trial.

    PubMed

    Lonial, Sagar; Weiss, Brendan M; Usmani, Saad Z; Singhal, Seema; Chari, Ajai; Bahlis, Nizar J; Belch, Andrew; Krishnan, Amrita; Vescio, Robert A; Mateos, Maria Victoria; Mazumder, Amitabha; Orlowski, Robert Z; Sutherland, Heather J; Bladé, Joan; Scott, Emma C; Oriol, Albert; Berdeja, Jesus; Gharibo, Mecide; Stevens, Don A; LeBlanc, Richard; Sebag, Michael; Callander, Natalie; Jakubowiak, Andrzej; White, Darrell; de la Rubia, Javier; Richardson, Paul G; Lisby, Steen; Feng, Huaibao; Uhlar, Clarissa M; Khan, Imran; Ahmadi, Tahamtan; Voorhees, Peter M

    2016-04-09

    New treatment options are needed for patients with multiple myeloma that is refractory to proteasome inhibitors and immunomodulatory drugs. We assessed daratumumab, a novel CD38-targeted monoclonal antibody, in patients with refractory multiple myeloma. In this open-label, multicentre, phase 2 trial done in Canada, Spain, and the USA, patients (age ≥18 years) with multiple myeloma who were previously treated with at least three lines of therapy (including proteasome inhibitors and immunomodulatory drugs), or were refractory to both proteasome inhibitors and immunomodulatory drugs, were randomly allocated in a 1:1 ratio to receive intravenous daratumumab 8 mg/kg or 16 mg/kg in part 1 stage 1 of the study, to decide the dose for further assessment in part 2. Patients received 8 mg/kg every 4 weeks, or 16 mg/kg per week for 8 weeks (cycles 1 and 2), then every 2 weeks for 16 weeks (cycles 3-6), and then every 4 weeks thereafter (cycle 7 and higher). The allocation schedule was computer-generated and randomisation, with permuted blocks, was done centrally with an interactive web response system. In part 1 stage 2 and part 2, patients received 16 mg/kg dosed as in part 1 stage 1. The primary endpoint was overall response rate (partial response [PR] + very good PR + complete response [CR] + stringent CR). All patients who received at least one dose of daratumumab were included in the analysis. The trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01985126. The study is ongoing. In part 1 stage 1 of the study, 18 patients were randomly allocated to the 8 mg/kg group and 16 to the 16 mg/kg group. Findings are reported for the 106 patients who received daratumumab 16 mg/kg in parts 1 and 2. Patients received a median of five previous lines of therapy (range 2-14). 85 (80%) patients had previously received autologous stem cell transplantation, 101 (95%) were refractory to the most recent proteasome inhibitors and immunomodulatory drugs used, and 103 (97

  15. Treatment of complicated urinary tract infection and acute pyelonephritis by short-course intravenous levofloxacin (750 mg/day) or conventional intravenous/oral levofloxacin (500 mg/day): prospective, open-label, randomized, controlled, multicenter, non-inferiority clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Ren, Hong; Li, Xiao; Ni, Zhao-Hui; Niu, Jian-Ying; Cao, Bin; Xu, Jie; Cheng, Hong; Tu, Xiao-Wen; Ren, Ai-Min; Hu, Ying; Xing, Chang-Ying; Liu, Ying-Hong; Li, Yan-Feng; Cen, Jun; Zhou, Rong; Xu, Xu-Dong; Qiu, Xiao-Hui; Chen, Nan

    2017-03-01

    To compare the efficacy and safety of short-course intravenous levofloxacin (LVFX) 750 mg with a conventional intravenous/oral regimen of LVFX 500 mg in patients from China with complicated urinary tract infections (cUTIs) and acute pyelonephritis (APN). This was a prospective, open-label, randomized, controlled, multicenter, non-inferiority clinical trial. Patients with cUTI and APN were randomly assigned to a short-course therapy group (intravenous LVFX at750 mg/day for 5 days) or a conventional therapy group (intravenous/oral regimen of LVFX at 500 mg/day for 7-14 days). The clinical, laboratory, and microbiological results were evaluated for efficacy and safety. The median dose of LVFX was 3555.4 mg in the short-course therapy group and 4874.2 mg in the conventional therapy group. Intention-to-treat analysis indicated the clinical effectiveness in the short-course therapy group (89.87%, 142/158) was non-inferior to that in the conventional therapy group (89.31%, 142/159). The microbiological effectiveness rates were also similar (short-course therapy: 89.55%, 60/67; conventional therapy: 86.30%, 63/73; p > 0.05). There were no significant differences in other parameters, including clinical and microbiological recurrence rates. The incidence of adverse effects and drug-related adverse effects were also similar for the short-course therapy group (21.95%, 36/164; 18.90%, 31/164) and the conventional therapy group (23.03%, 38/165; 15.76%, 26/165). Patients with cUTIs and APN who were given short-course LVFX therapy and conventional LVFX therapy had similar outcomes in clinical and microbiological efficacy, tolerance, and safety. The short-course therapy described here is a more convenient alternative to the conventional regimen with potential implication in anti-resistance and cost saving.

  16. Effects of Shenfu Injection in the Treatment of Septic Shock Patients: A Multicenter, Controlled, Randomized, Open-Label Trial

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xinchao; Lin, Peihong; Wei, Jie; Cao, Yu; Pan, Shuming; Walline, Joseph; Qian, Chuanyun; Shan, Zhigang

    2016-01-01

    The effect of Shenfu on biochemical parameters and survival during resuscitation in patients with septic shock was examined. This was a multicenter, controlled, randomized, open-label trial carried out in 210 patients with septic shock from seven medical centers in China. They were randomized to Shenfu or saline. The primary outcome was lactate clearance. The secondary outcomes were shock index normalization, dose of vasopressors, ICU stay, hospital stay, and mortality. A total of 199 patients completed the trial. Blood pressure, heart rate, and other routine lab tests showed no difference between the groups. Lactate levels and lactate clearance were similar between the two groups. Hospital and ICU stay were similar between the two groups. When considering all patients, the 7- and 28-day mortality were similar between the two groups, but when considering only patients with lactate levels ≥4.5 mmol/L, the Shenfu group showed a better 7-day survival than the control group (7 days: 83.3% versus 54.5%, P = 0.034; 28 days: 72.7% versus 47.6%, P = 0.092). Shenfu may improve the 7-day survival in patients with impaired lactate clearance (≥4.5 mmol/L), but the mechanism for this effect is unclear. Additional studies are necessary to characterize the hemodynamic changes after Shenfu infusion. This trial is registered with ChiCTR-TRC-11001369. PMID:27446222

  17. Effect of Micronutrients on Behavior and Mood in Adults with ADHD: Evidence from an 8-Week Open Label Trial with Natural Extension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rucklidge, Julia; Taylor, Mairin; Whitehead, Kathryn

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effect of a 36-ingredient micronutrient formula consisting mainly of minerals and vitamins in the treatment of adults with both ADHD and severe mood dysregulation (SMD). Method: 14 medication-free adults (9 men, 5 women; 18-55 years) with ADHD and SMD completed an 8-week open-label trial. Results: A minority reported…

  18. Effect of Micronutrients on Behavior and Mood in Adults with ADHD: Evidence from an 8-Week Open Label Trial with Natural Extension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rucklidge, Julia; Taylor, Mairin; Whitehead, Kathryn

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effect of a 36-ingredient micronutrient formula consisting mainly of minerals and vitamins in the treatment of adults with both ADHD and severe mood dysregulation (SMD). Method: 14 medication-free adults (9 men, 5 women; 18-55 years) with ADHD and SMD completed an 8-week open-label trial. Results: A minority reported…

  19. Acceptability of an open-label wait-listed trial design: Experiences from the PROUD PrEP study

    PubMed Central

    Brodnicki, Elizabeth; Desai, Monica; McCormack, Sheena; Nutland, Will; Wayal, Sonali; White, Ellen; Wood, Gemma; Barber, Tristan; Bell, Gill; Clarke, Amanda; Dolling, David; Dunn, David; Fox, Julie; Haddow, Lewis; Lacey, Charles; Nardone, Anthony; Quinn, Killian; Rae, Caroline; Reeves, Iain; Rayment, Michael; White, David; Apea, Vanessa; Ayap, Wilbert; Dewsnap, Claire; Collaco-Moraes, Yolanda; Schembri, Gabriel; Sowunmi, Yinka; Horne, Rob

    2017-01-01

    Background PROUD participants were randomly assigned to receive pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) immediately or after a deferred period of one-year. We report on the acceptability of this open-label wait-listed trial design. Methods Participants completed an acceptability questionnaire, which included categorical study acceptability data and free-text data on most and least liked aspects of the study. We also conducted in-depth interviews (IDI) with a purposely selected sub-sample of participants. Results Acceptability questionnaires were completed by 76% (415/544) of participants. After controlling for age, immediate-group participants were almost twice as likely as deferred-group participants to complete the questionnaire (AOR:1.86;95%CI:1.24,2.81). In quantitative data, the majority of participants in both groups found the wait-listed design acceptable when measured by satisfaction of joining the study, intention to remain in the study, and interest in joining a subsequent study. However, three-quarters thought that the chance of being in the deferred-group might put other volunteers off joining the study. In free-text responses, data collection tools were the most frequently reported least liked aspect of the study. A fifth of deferred participants reported ‘being deferred’ as the thing they least liked about the study. However, more deferred participants disliked the data collection tools than the fact that they had to wait a year to access PrEP. Participants in the IDIs had a good understanding of the rationale for the open-label wait-listed study design. Most accepted the design but acknowledged they were, or would have been, disappointed to be randomised to the deferred group. Five of the 25 participants interviewed reported some objection to the wait-listed design. Conclusion The quantitative and qualitative findings suggest that in an environment where PrEP was not available, the rationale for the wait-listed trial design was well understood and

  20. An open-label trial of a sumatriptan auto-injector for migraine in patients currently treated with subcutaneous sumatriptan.

    PubMed

    Landy, Stephen H; Tepper, Stewart J; Wein, Theodore; Schweizer, Edward; Ramos, Elodie

    2013-01-01

    To assess the ability of patients, during an acute migraine attack, to successfully self-inject a single dose of sumatriptan using a novel sumatriptan auto-injector (Alsuma(®)), and to evaluate the safety, tolerability, and effectiveness of this sumatriptan auto-injector during an acute migraine attack. This sumatriptan auto-injector is a single-use system for the rapid subcutaneous delivery of 6 mg of sumatriptan succinate in the acute management of migraine pain. This auto-injector was developed to address the clinical need for an easy-to-use and rapid-to-administer system that did not require any assembly during the time of an ongoing attack. This was an open-label, phase 3 trial conducted at 10 sites in the USA. Male or female adults, ages 18-60 years old, were eligible for study entry if they met International Headache Society criteria for migraine with or without aura, with at least 2 attacks per month, and if they reported use of subcutaneous injectable sumatriptan on at least 2 occasions within the previous 2 months. During the onset of a migraine attack of moderate-to-severe intensity, patients were asked to administer a 6-mg subcutaneous dose of sumatriptan using the auto-injector. Patients returned to the study site within 72 hours of the migraine for the post-treatment assessment visit. A total of 63 patients met entry criteria and received a dose of study medication (the intent-to-treat sample). Sixty-one patients (96.8%) reported injection in the thigh, and 2 patients (3.2%) reported injection in the arm. On the patient questionnaire, 100% of patients (95% confidence interval [CI] 94.3-100%) "agreed" or "agreed strongly" that the written instructions for the auto-injector were clear and easy to follow (30.2% "agreed"; 69.8% "agreed strongly"); 95.2% of patients (95% CI 86.7-99.0%) found that the auto-injector was easy to use (36.5% "agreed"; 58.7% "agreed strongly"), and 65.1% of patients (95% CI 52.0-76.7%) stated that they preferred the new auto

  1. Cathodal transcranial direct current stimulation in children with dystonia: a pilot open-label trial.

    PubMed

    Young, Scott J; Bertucco, Matteo; Sheehan-Stross, Rebecca; Sanger, Terence D

    2013-10-01

    Studies suggest that dystonia is associated with increased motor cortex excitability. Cathodal transcranial direct current stimulation can temporarily reduce motor cortex excitability. To test whether stimulation of the motor cortex can reduce dystonic symptoms in children, we measured tracking performance and muscle overflow using an electromyogram tracking task before and after stimulation. Of 10 participants, 3 showed a significant reduction in overflow, and a fourth showed a significant reduction in tracking error. Overflow decreased more when the hand contralateral to the cathode performed the task than when the hand ipsilateral to the cathode performed the task. Averaged over all participants, the results did not reach statistical significance. These results suggest that cathodal stimulation may allow a subset of children to control muscles or reduce involuntary overflow activity. Further testing is needed to confirm these results in a blinded trial and identify the subset of children who are likely to respond.

  2. A Protocol for the Pharmacokinetics of Enteric Coated Mycophenolate Sodium in Lupus Nephritis (POEMSLUN): an open-label, randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Ranganathan, Dwarakanathan; John, George T; Healy, Helen; Roberts, Matthew J; Fassett, Robert G; Lipman, Jeffrey; Kubler, Paul; Ungerer, Jacobus; McWhinney, Brett C; Lim, Aaron; Purvey, Megan; Reyaldeen, Reza; Roberts, Jason A

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Mycophenolate sodium, an enteric-coated tablet (EC-MPS), is as effective and safe as mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) in preventing transplant rejection. EC-MPS and MMF improve the outcome of severe lupus nephritis (LN) and have fewer side effects than pulsed intravenous cyclophosphamide. Blood concentrations of mycophenolic acid (MPA), the active metabolite of EC-MPS, vary between participants despite fixed dosing. Interpatient variability has been studied in transplantation, but not well documented in LN. The relationship between MPA concentration and its clinical effect on LN has not been described. Methods and analysis This is a prospective, open-label, randomised controlled trial. –32 participants with LN who meet the inclusion and exclusion criteria will be randomised into two groups: one receiving a fixed dose of EC-MPS and the second, a dosing regimen that is titrated with therapeutic drug monitoring. Included participants will have blood sampled over a period of 8–12 h on three different occasions. Pharmacokinetic parameters will be calculated using non-compartmental methods. Ethics and dissemination The Human Research and Ethics Committee of the Royal Brisbane Women's Hospital have approved this study. The study is registered with Australian and New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry—ACTRN12611000798965 We planned to present the de-identified information at conferences and publish the results in medical journals. Trial Registration ACTRN12611000798965 PMID:23929919

  3. Effect of micronutrients on behavior and mood in adults With ADHD: evidence from an 8-week open label trial with natural extension.

    PubMed

    Rucklidge, Julia; Taylor, Mairin; Whitehead, Kathryn

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the effect of a 36-ingredient micronutrient formula consisting mainly of minerals and vitamins in the treatment of adults with both ADHD and severe mood dysregulation (SMD). 14 medication-free adults (9 men, 5 women; 18-55 years) with ADHD and SMD completed an 8-week open-label trial. A minority reported transitory mild side effects. Significant improvements were noted across informants (self, observer, clinician) on measures of inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity, mood, quality of life, anxiety, and stress all with medium to very large effect sizes (all ps < .01); however, the mean of inattention remained in a clinical range whereas the means on measures of mood and hyperactivity/impulsivity were normalized. Follow-up data showed maintenance of changes or further improvement for those who stayed on the micronutrients. Although this study, as an open trial, does not in itself prove efficacy, it provides preliminary evidence supporting the need for a randomized clinical trial of micronutrients as treatment for the more complex presentations of ADHD.

  4. Simplification to dual therapy (atazanavir/ritonavir + lamivudine) versus standard triple therapy [atazanavir/ritonavir + two nucleos(t)ides] in virologically stable patients on antiretroviral therapy: 96 week results from an open-label, non-inferiority, randomized clinical trial (SALT study).

    PubMed

    Perez-Molina, J A; Rubio, R; Rivero, A; Pasquau, J; Suárez-Lozano, I; Riera, M; Estébanez, M; Palacios, R; Sanz-Moreno, J; Troya, J; Mariño, A; Antela, A; Navarro, J; Esteban, H; Moreno, S

    2017-01-01

    We evaluated whether maintenance therapy with atazanavir/ritonavir plus lamivudine (ATV/r + 3TC) was non-inferior to ATV/r plus two nucleosides (ATV/r + 2NUCs) at 96 weeks of follow-up. SALT is a multicentre, open-label, non-inferiority clinical trial in HIV-1-infected virologically suppressed patients. Hepatitis B virus surface antigen-negative subjects with no previous treatment failure/resistance mutations and HIV-1-RNA <50 copies/mL for ≥6 months were randomized (1 : 1) to ATV/r + 3TC or ATV/r + 2NUCs. The primary endpoint was HIV-1-RNA <50 copies/mL in the PP population. Non-inferiority was demonstrated if the lower bound of the 95% CI for the difference was not below -12%. Some 286 patients were analysed. At week 96, 74.4% had HIV-1-RNA <50 copies/mL in the ATV/r + 3TC arm versus 73.9% in the ATV/r + 2NUCs arm (95% CI for the difference, -9.9%-11.0%). In both groups, similar values were observed for patients with confirmed virological failure in ATV/r + 3TC versus ATV/r + 2NUCs (9 versus 5), death (1 versus 0), discontinuation due to ART-related toxicity (7 versus 11), withdrawal from the study (7 versus 9) and loss to follow-up (6 versus 6). One patient taking ATV/r + 2NUCs developed resistance mutations (M184V and L63P). Similar values were obtained for change in mean CD4 count [19 versus 18 cells/mm(3) (95% CI for the difference, -49.3-50.7), grade 3-4 adverse events (70.7% versus 70.2%) and changes in the global deficit score, -0.3 (95% CI, -0.5 to -0.1) for ATV/r + 3TC, versus -0.2 (95% CI, -0.4 to -0.1) for ATV/r + 2NUCs]. The long-term results of switching to ATV/r + 3TC show that this strategy is effective, safe and non-inferior to ATV + 2NUCs in virologically suppressed HIV-infected patients. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Effect of high-dose phenobarbital on oxidative stress in perinatal asphyxia: an open label randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Gathwala, Geeta; Marwah, Ashish; Gahlaut, Veena; Marwah, Poonam

    2011-08-01

    To evaluate the effect of high dose phenobarbital on lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzymes in perinatal asphyxia. Open label, Randomized controlled trial. Neonatal intensive care unit of a tertiary care teaching hospital. 72 full term inborn neonates with severe birth asphyxia. Neonates were randomized to Study (phenobarbital) group and Control group. The infants in the study group received phenobarbital infusion (40 mg/kg) within first two hours of life while babies in the control group did not receive any phenobarbital. Rest of the management in both the groups was as per the unit protocol for the management of hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy. A cerebrospinal fluid examination was done at 12 ± 2 hours of life to determine the levels of superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidise and malonyldialdehyde. 60 neonates were followed up at 1 month of age when a detailed neurological examination was done. Four neonates in the study group and six neonates in the control group died during the study. Two neonates in the study group were lost to follow up. The cerebrospinal fluid lipid peroxides and antioxidant enzymes were significantly lower in the phenobarbital group as compared to the control group. The neurological outcome at one month follow up was found to be comparable between the two groups. Phenobarbital (40 mg/kg) given in the first two hours of life in term neonates with perinatal asphyxia led to a decrease in CSF levels of lipid peroxides and antioxidant enzymes at 12 ± 2 hours of life.

  6. Efficacy of Folic Acid Supplementation in Autistic Children Participating in Structured Teaching: An Open-Label Trial

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Caihong; Zou, Mingyang; Zhao, Dong; Xia, Wei; Wu, Lijie

    2016-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are recognized as a major public health issue. Here, we evaluated the effects of folic acid intervention on methylation cycles and oxidative stress in autistic children enrolled in structured teaching. Sixty-six autistic children enrolled in this open-label trial and participated in three months of structured teaching. Forty-four children were treated with 400 μg folic acid (two times/daily) for a period of three months during their structured teaching (intervention group), while the remaining 22 children were not given any supplement for the duration of the study (control group). The Autism Treatment Evaluation Checklist (ATEC) and Psychoeducational Profile-third edition (PEP-3) were measured at the beginning and end of the treatment period. Folic acid, homocysteine, and glutathione metabolism in plasma were measured before and after treatment in 29 autistic children randomly selected from the intervention group and were compared with 29 age-matched unaffected children (typical developmental group). The results illustrated folic acid intervention improved autism symptoms towards sociability, cognitive verbal/preverbal, receptive language, and affective expression and communication. Furthermore, this treatment also improved the concentrations of folic acid, homocysteine, and normalized glutathione redox metabolism. Folic acid supplementation may have a certain role in the treatment of children with autism. PMID:27338456

  7. Efficacy of Folic Acid Supplementation in Autistic Children Participating in Structured Teaching: An Open-Label Trial.

    PubMed

    Sun, Caihong; Zou, Mingyang; Zhao, Dong; Xia, Wei; Wu, Lijie

    2016-06-07

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are recognized as a major public health issue. Here, we evaluated the effects of folic acid intervention on methylation cycles and oxidative stress in autistic children enrolled in structured teaching. Sixty-six autistic children enrolled in this open-label trial and participated in three months of structured teaching. Forty-four children were treated with 400 μg folic acid (two times/daily) for a period of three months during their structured teaching (intervention group), while the remaining 22 children were not given any supplement for the duration of the study (control group). The Autism Treatment Evaluation Checklist (ATEC) and Psychoeducational Profile-third edition (PEP-3) were measured at the beginning and end of the treatment period. Folic acid, homocysteine, and glutathione metabolism in plasma were measured before and after treatment in 29 autistic children randomly selected from the intervention group and were compared with 29 age-matched unaffected children (typical developmental group). The results illustrated folic acid intervention improved autism symptoms towards sociability, cognitive verbal/preverbal, receptive language, and affective expression and communication. Furthermore, this treatment also improved the concentrations of folic acid, homocysteine, and normalized glutathione redox metabolism. Folic acid supplementation may have a certain role in the treatment of children with autism.

  8. The Efficacy and Safety of Miconazole Nitrate Mucoadhesive Tablets versus Itraconazole Capsules in the Treatment of Oral Candidiasis: An Open-Label, Randomized, Multicenter Trial

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yang; Han, Ying; Lin, Mei; Wang, Wenmei; Guan, Xiaobing; Zhu, Shengrong; Zhang, Handong; Wang, Qintao; Chou, Lihong; Zhu, Xinghao; Hua, Hong

    2016-01-01

    Background Oral candidiasis (OC) is a common oral fungal infection. Recently, miconazole mucoadhesive tablets have been gaining attention for OC treatment. Despite trials in patients with human immunodeficiency virus and cancer, evidence of its application in the large-scale, general population with OC is lacking. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of miconazole nitrate mucoadhesive tablets in comparison with itraconazole capsules for OC treatment. Methods The study was a randomized, open-label, parallel-armed, multicenter clinical trial. Totally, 343 patients diagnosed with OC, who met the inclusion criteria, were randomly assigned to either a treatment group that received miconazole nitrate mucoadhesive tablets (10 mg) once daily or a control group that received itraconazole capsules (100 mg QD) for 2 weeks, and were followed up for 2 weeks. The clinical cure, improvement of clinical symptoms/signs, mycologic cure, and safety were evaluated. Results The mucoadhesive tablets (n = 171) did not show inferiority to itraconazole (n = 172) in the treatment of OC. At the end of the 14-day treatment, the clinical cure rates were 45.29% and 41.76% in the miconazole and itraconazole groups, respectively (P = 0.3472). At the end of the 14-day follow-up, the clinical cure rates were 51.18% and 41.76% in the miconazole and itraconazole groups, respectively (P = 0.0329). Adverse events occurred in 53 subjects (33 in the miconazole group and 20 in the itraconazole group). There was no statistical difference in the safety profile between miconazole and itraconazole (P = 0.0533). Thrombocytopenic purpura, although rare, occurred in one patient in the miconazole group and was considered a drug-related, severe adverse event. Conclusion Miconazole nitrate mucoadhesive tablets may be as effective as systemic itraconazole capsule for OC treatment. Physicians should be cautious about thrombocytopenic purpura occurring as a rare and serious adverse event of miconazole

  9. Artesunate versus quinine in the treatment of severe falciparum malaria in African children (AQUAMAT): an open-label, randomised trial.

    PubMed

    Dondorp, Arjen M; Fanello, Caterina I; Hendriksen, Ilse C E; Gomes, Ermelinda; Seni, Amir; Chhaganlal, Kajal D; Bojang, Kalifa; Olaosebikan, Rasaq; Anunobi, Nkechinyere; Maitland, Kathryn; Kivaya, Esther; Agbenyega, Tsiri; Nguah, Samuel Blay; Evans, Jennifer; Gesase, Samwel; Kahabuka, Catherine; Mtove, George; Nadjm, Behzad; Deen, Jacqueline; Mwanga-Amumpaire, Juliet; Nansumba, Margaret; Karema, Corine; Umulisa, Noella; Uwimana, Aline; Mokuolu, Olugbenga A; Adedoyin, Olanrewaju T; Johnson, Wahab B R; Tshefu, Antoinette K; Onyamboko, Marie A; Sakulthaew, Tharisara; Ngum, Wirichada Pan; Silamut, Kamolrat; Stepniewska, Kasia; Woodrow, Charles J; Bethell, Delia; Wills, Bridget; Oneko, Martina; Peto, Tim E; von Seidlein, Lorenz; Day, Nicholas P J; White, Nicholas J

    2010-11-13

    Severe malaria is a major cause of childhood death and often the main reason for paediatric hospital admission in sub-Saharan Africa. Quinine is still the established treatment of choice, although evidence from Asia suggests that artesunate is associated with a lower mortality. We compared parenteral treatment with either artesunate or quinine in African children with severe malaria. This open-label, randomised trial was undertaken in 11 centres in nine African countries. Children (<15 years) with severe falciparum malaria were randomly assigned to parenteral artesunate or parenteral quinine. Randomisation was in blocks of 20, with study numbers corresponding to treatment allocations kept inside opaque sealed paper envelopes. The trial was open label at each site, and none of the investigators or trialists, apart from for the trial statistician, had access to the summaries of treatment allocations. The primary outcome measure was in-hospital mortality, analysed by intention to treat. This trial is registered, number ISRCTN50258054. 5425 children were enrolled; 2712 were assigned to artesunate and 2713 to quinine. All patients were analysed for the primary outcome. 230 (8·5%) patients assigned to artesunate treatment died compared with 297 (10·9%) assigned to quinine treatment (odds ratio [OR] stratified for study site 0·75, 95% CI 0·63-0·90; relative reduction 22·5%, 95% CI 8·1-36·9; p=0·0022). Incidence of neurological sequelae did not differ significantly between groups, but the development of coma (65/1832 [3·5%] with artesunate vs 91/1768 [5·1%] with quinine; OR 0·69 95% CI 0·49-0·95; p=0·0231), convulsions (224/2712 [8·3%] vs 273/2713 [10·1%]; OR 0·80, 0·66-0·97; p=0·0199), and deterioration of the coma score (166/2712 [6·1%] vs 208/2713 [7·7%]; OR 0·78, 0·64-0·97; p=0·0245) were all significantly less frequent in artesunate recipients than in quinine recipients. Post-treatment hypoglycaemia was also less frequent in patients

  10. Simplified regimens for management of neonates and young infants with severe infection when hospital admission is not possible: study protocol for a randomized, open-label equivalence trial.

    PubMed

    2013-09-01

    In resource-limited settings, most young infants with signs of severe infection do not receive the recommended inpatient treatment with intravenous broad spectrum antibiotics for 10 days or more because such treatment is not accessible, acceptable or affordable to families. This trial was initiated in the Democratic Republic of Congo, Kenya and Nigeria to assess the safety and efficacy of simplified treatment regimens for the young infants with signs of severe infection who cannot receive hospital care. This is a randomized, open-label equivalence trial in which 3600 young infants with signs of clinical severe infection will be enrolled. The primary outcome is treatment failure in 7 days after enrollment, which includes death or worsening of the clinical condition on any day, or no improvement in the clinical condition by day 4 of treatment. Secondary outcomes include compliance with study therapy, adverse effects due to the study drugs and relapse or death during the week after completion of treatment. The results of this study, along with ongoing studies in Pakistan and Bangladesh, will inform the development of global policy for treatment of severe neonatal infections in resource-limited settings.

  11. Triple therapy with deferiprone, idebenone and riboflavin in Friedreich's ataxia - open-label trial.

    PubMed

    Arpa, J; Sanz-Gallego, I; Rodríguez-de-Rivera, F J; Domínguez-Melcón, F J; Prefasi, D; Oliva-Navarro, J; Moreno-Yangüela, M

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the study was to test the efficacy, safety and tolerability of triple therapy with deferiprone, idebenone and riboflavin in Friedreich's ataxia (FRDA) patients in a clinical pilot study. Patients included in this study were 10 males and three females, 14-61 years of age (average 30.2 ± 12.1), diagnosed with FRDA with normal ventricular function. Patients were treated with triple therapy with deferiprone at 5-25 mg/kg/day, idebenone at 10-20 mg/kg/day and riboflavin at 10-15 mg/kg/day for 15-45 months. The efficacy of this triple therapy was assessed by change from baseline on the scale for the assessment and rating of ataxia (SARA) and by the change from baseline in echocardiogram parameters. Four patients discontinued due to adverse events (AEs) related with deferiprone. The annual worsening rate (AWR) was estimated in this series as 0.96 (CI 95%: 0.462-1.608) SARA score, whereas AWR for our FRDA cohort was estimated as 2.05 ± 1.23 SARA score. LVMI only decreased by 6.5 g/m(2) (6.2%) at the end of the first year of therapy. LVEF remained stable, except in case of three patients. Our results seem to indicate some uncertain benefit on the neurological and heart functions of this triple therapy in FRDA. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Safety and tolerability of divalproex sodium extended-release in the prophylaxis of migraine headaches: results of an open-label extension trial in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Apostol, George; Pakalnis, Ann; Laforet, Genevieve A; Robieson, Weining Z; Olson, Evelyn; Abi-Saab, Walid M; Saltarelli, Mario

    2009-01-01

    To evaluate the long-term safety and tolerability of divalproex sodium extended-release in the prophylaxis of migraine headaches in adolescents. Divalproex sodium has been approved for migraine prophylaxis in adults. A previous double-blind, placebo-controlled study of the efficacy and safety of divalproex sodium extended-release for prevention of migraine in adolescents was followed by the present long-term extension trial, which was designed to collect additional safety and tolerability data. This was a 12-month, Phase 3, open-label extension of a 3-month, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter study of adolescents aged 12 to 17 years with migraine headaches who had either completed the previous study or had discontinued because of lack of efficacy. Subjects from the previous trial who had experienced serious adverse events possibly or probably related to study drug were excluded. Divalproex sodium extended-release 500 mg daily was administered for 15 days then increased to 1000 mg. Study visits were conducted at days 1 and 15 and months 1, 2, 3, 6, 9, and 12. Safety assessments included adverse event collection, laboratory testing, physical and neurological examinations, vital signs, and electrocardiograms, as well as reproductive endocrine analyses for postmenarchal female subjects. Efficacy was evaluated by sequential 4-week migraine headache rates calculated from subjects' headache diaries. A total of 112 subjects enrolled in the trial. The most common adverse events were weight gain (15%), nausea (14%), somnolence (12%), upper respiratory tract infection (11%), increased ammonia (8%), and sinusitis (8%). Five (4%) subjects experienced serious adverse events, and 15 (13%) subjects prematurely discontinued because of an adverse event. Increased ammonia levels were noted in some individuals, and the mean ammonia level for all subjects increased 19.2 microm from baseline. No other clinically significant changes were observed in laboratory values, vital

  13. Triple therapy with darbepoetin alfa, idebenone, and riboflavin in Friedreich's ataxia: an open-label trial.

    PubMed

    Arpa, Javier; Sanz-Gallego, Irene; Rodríguez-de-Rivera, Francisco J; Domínguez-Melcón, Francisco J; Prefasi, Daniel; Oliva-Navarro, Javier; Moreno-Yangüela, Mar; Pascual-Pascual, Samuel I

    2013-10-01

    Minimal objective evidence exists regarding management of Friedreich's ataxia (FRDA). Antioxidant and recombinant human erythropoietin therapies have been considered potential treatments to slow progression of FRDA in a small number of studies. The primary objective of the current study was to test the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of triple therapy-darbepoetin alfa, idebenone, and riboflavin-in FRDA in a clinical pilot study. Patients included in this study were nine females, 16 to 45 years of age (average 28 ± 8), diagnosed with FRDA with confirmed GAA repeat expansion mutations in the FXN gene and a GAA repeat ≥400 on the shorter allele. Patients had a baseline score between 8 and 28.5 (average 20.7 ± 8.3) on the scale for the assessment and rating of ataxia and 94.3 ± 27.2 g/m(2) in left ventricular mass index (LVMI). Patients had been treated with triple therapy with 150 μg darbepoetin alfa every 2 or 3 weeks, 10-20 mg/kg/day idebenone, and 10-15 mg/kg/day riboflavin for 32 ± 19.4 months (range of 8-56 months). Triple therapy was tolerated. Although not statistically significant, improvement of ataxia was observed during the first six 4-month periods of the study. Furthermore, a small decrease in disease progression during the first 2 years of treatment was observed. Long-term statistically nonsignificant improvement of LVMI and stability of the echocardiographic parameters could be considered. Triple therapy may slow disease progression of FRDA.

  14. Open-Label Trial of Immunogenicity and Safety of a 13-Valent Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine in Adults ≥50 Years of Age in Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Juergens, Christine; Ruiz Palacios, Guillermo M.; Vazquez-Narvaez, Jorge; Enkerlin-Pauwells, Hermann Leo; Sundaraiyer, Vani; Pathirana, Sudam; Kalinina, Elena; Gruber, William C.; Scott, Daniel A.; Schmoele-Thoma, Beate

    2014-01-01

    This open-label multicenter clinical trial conducted in Mexico assessed the immunogenicity and safety of a 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) in adults ≥50 years of age not previously vaccinated with the 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPSV23). The PCV13 elicited a robust immune response in this study population, as reflected by the magnitude of fold rises in functional antibody levels measured by serotype-specific opsonophagocytic activity (OPA) assays before and 1 month after vaccination. Although the prevaccination OPA geometric mean titers (GMTs) for the majority of the serotypes were significantly lower in the 50- to 64-year age group than those in the ≥65-year age group, the postvaccination immune responses were generally similar. The overall immune responses were higher for the majority of the serotypes in the Mexican study population than those in similar adult study populations who received the PCV13 in Europe and the United States. PCV13 was well tolerated, and there were no vaccine-related serious adverse events. In conclusion, PCV13 is safe and immunogenic when administered to adults ≥50 years of age in Mexico and has the potential to protect against vaccine-type pneumococcal disease. (This study has been registered at ClinicalTrials.gov under registration no. NCT01432262.) PMID:25499011

  15. The Efficacy and Safety of Miconazole Nitrate Mucoadhesive Tablets versus Itraconazole Capsules in the Treatment of Oral Candidiasis: An Open-Label, Randomized, Multicenter Trial.

    PubMed

    Yan, Zhimin; Liu, Xiaosong; Liu, Yang; Han, Ying; Lin, Mei; Wang, Wenmei; Guan, Xiaobing; Zhu, Shengrong; Zhang, Handong; Wang, Qintao; Chou, Lihong; Zhu, Xinghao; Hua, Hong

    2016-01-01

    Oral candidiasis (OC) is a common oral fungal infection. Recently, miconazole mucoadhesive tablets have been gaining attention for OC treatment. Despite trials in patients with human immunodeficiency virus and cancer, evidence of its application in the large-scale, general population with OC is lacking. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of miconazole nitrate mucoadhesive tablets in comparison with itraconazole capsules for OC treatment. The study was a randomized, open-label, parallel-armed, multicenter clinical trial. Totally, 343 patients diagnosed with OC, who met the inclusion criteria, were randomly assigned to either a treatment group that received miconazole nitrate mucoadhesive tablets (10 mg) once daily or a control group that received itraconazole capsules (100 mg QD) for 2 weeks, and were followed up for 2 weeks. The clinical cure, improvement of clinical symptoms/signs, mycologic cure, and safety were evaluated. The mucoadhesive tablets (n = 171) did not show inferiority to itraconazole (n = 172) in the treatment of OC. At the end of the 14-day treatment, the clinical cure rates were 45.29% and 41.76% in the miconazole and itraconazole groups, respectively (P = 0.3472). At the end of the 14-day follow-up, the clinical cure rates were 51.18% and 41.76% in the miconazole and itraconazole groups, respectively (P = 0.0329). Adverse events occurred in 53 subjects (33 in the miconazole group and 20 in the itraconazole group). There was no statistical difference in the safety profile between miconazole and itraconazole (P = 0.0533). Thrombocytopenic purpura, although rare, occurred in one patient in the miconazole group and was considered a drug-related, severe adverse event. Miconazole nitrate mucoadhesive tablets may be as effective as systemic itraconazole capsule for OC treatment. Physicians should be cautious about thrombocytopenic purpura occurring as a rare and serious adverse event of miconazole nitrate. Chinese Clinical Trial

  16. [Long-term opioid therapy in chronic noncancer pain. A systematic review and meta-analysis of efficacy, tolerability and safety in open-label extension trials with study duration of at least 26 weeks].

    PubMed

    Häuser, W; Bernardy, K; Maier, C

    2015-02-01

    The efficacy and safety of long-term (≥ 6 months) opioid therapy (LtOT) in chronic noncancer pain (CNCP) is under debate. A systematic review with meta-analysis of the efficacy and harms of opioids in open-label extension studies of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) has not been conducted until now. We screened MEDLINE and clinicaltrials.gov (through to December 2013), as well as reference sections of systematic reviews of long-term RCTs of opioids in CNCP. We included open-label extension trials with a study duration ≥ 26 weeks of RCTs of ≥ 2 weeks duration. Using a random effects model, pooled estimates of event rates for categorical data and standardized mean differences (SMD) for continuous variables were calculated. We included 11 open-label extension studies with 2445 participants with nociceptive (low back, osteoarthritis) and neuropathic (radicular, polyneuropathy) pain. Median study duration was 26 (range 26-108) weeks. Four studies tested oxycodone, two studies tramadol and buprenorphine; hydromorphone, morphine, oxymorphone and tapentadol were each tested in one study. Of the patients randomized at baseline, 28.5 % (95 % confidence interval, CI, 17.9-39.2 %) finished the open-label period; 53.5 % (95 % CI 38.1-68.2 %) of patients entering the open-label period finished the open-label period. In sum, the total loss was 71.5 % (95 % CI 60.9-83.1 %) of all patients primarily included into the RCT. A total of 4.9 % (95 % CI 2.9-8.2 %) of patients dropped out due lack of efficacy; 16.8 % (95 % CI 11.0-24.8 %) dropped out to due adverse events (AE) in the open-label period and 0.08 % (95 % CI 0.001-0.05 %) of patients died during the open-label period. Only one study systematically assessed aberrant drug behavior of the patients: 5.7 % (95 % CI 3.4-9.6 %) showed aberrant drug behavior in the opinion of the investigators and 2.6 % (95 % CI 1.2-5.8 %) were judged to show

  17. Over-the-counter nicotine patch therapy for smoking cessation: results from randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, and open label trials.

    PubMed Central

    Hays, J T; Croghan, I T; Schroeder, D R; Offord, K P; Hurt, R D; Wolter, T D; Nides, M A; Davidson, M

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy and safety of the nicotine patch for smoking cessation in an over-the-counter environment. The years of study were 1994 to 1995. METHODS: Parallel 6-week trials were conducted: a placebo-controlled trial of no-cost 22-mg, 24-hour nicotine patch therapy and an open label trial of the same therapy with patches purchased by subjects. Participants (n = 958) were 18 years or older, had smoked at least 15 cigarettes daily for at least 6 months, and were enrolled at 3 study sites. The main outcome measure was self-reported smoking abstinence confirmed by expired carbon monoxide measurements. RESULTS: Smoking cessation rates in the placebo-controlled trial were 16.8% and 9.6% at week 6 and 8.7% and 4.3% at week 24 for the active patch and placebo groups, respectively. Smoking cessation rates in the open label-pay trial were 19.0% and 10.8% at weeks 6 and 24, respectively. A slight increase in adverse cardiovascular events was noted only in the open label-pay group in comparison with the placebo group. CONCLUSIONS: In an over-the-counter environment, the 22-mg, 24-hour nicotine patch is effective and safe for smoking cessation treatment. PMID:10553392

  18. Augmentation of light therapy in difficult-to-treat depressed patients: an open-label trial in both unipolar and bipolar patients

    PubMed Central

    Camardese, Giovanni; Leone, Beniamino; Serrani, Riccardo; Walstra, Coco; Di Nicola, Marco; Della Marca, Giacomo; Bria, Pietro; Janiri, Luigi

    2015-01-01

    Objectives We investigated the clinical benefits of bright light therapy (BLT) as an adjunct treatment to ongoing psychopharmacotherapy, both in unipolar and bipolar difficult-to-treat depressed (DTD) outpatients. Methods In an open-label study, 31 depressed outpatients (16 unipolar and 15 bipolar) were included to undergo 3 weeks of BLT. Twenty-five completed the treatment and 5-week follow-up. Main outcome measures Clinical outcomes were evaluated by the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS). The Snaith–Hamilton Pleasure Scale and the Depression Retardation Rating Scale were used to assess changes in anhedonia and psychomotor retardation, respectively. Results The adjunctive BLT seemed to influence the course of the depressive episode, and a statistically significant reduction in HDRS scores was reported since the first week of therapy. The treatment was well-tolerated, and no patients presented clinical signs of (hypo)manic switch during the overall treatment period. At the end of the study (after 5 weeks from BLT discontinuation), nine patients (36%, eight unipolar and one bipolar) still showed a treatment response. BLT augmentation also led to a significant improvement of psychomotor retardation. Conclusion BLT combined with the ongoing pharmacological treatment offers a simple approach, and it might be effective in rapidly ameliorating depressive core symptoms of vulnerable DTD outpatients. These preliminary results need to be confirmed in placebo-controlled, randomized, double-blind clinical trial on larger samples. PMID:26396517

  19. The effectiveness and safety of adjunctive aripiprazole in Taiwanese patients with antidepressant-refractory major depressive disorder: a prospective, open-label trial.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shaw-Ji; Hsiao, Yi-Lin; Shen, Tsu-Wang; Chen, Shao-Tsu

    2012-02-01

    There is currently no published clinical trial on the safety and effectiveness of aripiprazole in Taiwanese patients with treatment-refractory major depressive disorder. We were interested in determining the applicability of current recommended doses of aripiprazole as an adjunct to antidepressant therapy in this population. We conducted a prospective, open-label nonrandomized, 4-week flexibly dosed (2.5-5 mg/d) trial with aripiprazole augmentation in 9 Taiwanese patients who had a history of nonresponse to at least 2 adequate courses of antidepressant therapy with different types of antidepressants. The primary end point for clinical effectiveness was mean change in the 17-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression at the end of the 4-week trial. Secondary end points for clinical effectiveness included mean change in Beck Depression Inventory and Beck Anxiety Inventory scores. The Systematic Assessment of Treatment Emergent Events-General Inquiry was used to assess adverse effects. All patients completed the trial and responded to treatment; the remission rate was 77.8%. The mean daily dose of adjunctive aripiprazole was 4.2 mg. Common treatment-emergent adverse events included insomnia and sedation (33.3%) and akathisia (22.2%). We found high effectiveness despite a lower mean daily dose of adjunctive aripiprazole (4.2 mg) when compared with previously reported findings; however, we also observed a higher frequency of treatment-emergent adverse effects. Additional studies are required to ascertain whether there are ethnic differences in the pharmacokinetics and/or pharmacodynamics of aripiprazole in treatment-refractory depression.

  20. Benefits from sustained-release pyridostigmine bromide in myasthenia gravis: results of a prospective multicenter open-label trial.

    PubMed

    Sieb, Jörn Peter; Köhler, Wolfgang

    2010-11-01

    For more than 50 years the acetylcholinesterase inhibitor pyridostigmine bromide has been the drug of choice in the symptomatic therapy for myasthenia gravis. The sustained-release dosage form of pyridostigmine (SR-Pyr) is only available in a limited number of countries (e.g. in the United States and Germany). Astonishingly, the therapeutic usefulness of SR-Pyr has not yet been evaluated. In this non-interventional prospective open-label trial, 72 patients with stable myasthenia gravis were switched from instant-release dosage forms of pyridostigmine bromide to SR-Pyr. The results from the 37 patients younger than 60 years were separately analyzed. The initial daily dose of SR-Pyr was 288.1 ± 171.0mg. The drug switch was unproblematic in all patients. The number of daily doses was significantly reduced from 4.3 to 3.6 (p=0.011). The switch to SR-Pyr ameliorated the total quantified myasthenia gravis (QMG) score from 0.9 ± 0.5 to 0.6 ± 0.4 (p<0.001) in all patients and in the younger subgroup. This was accompanied by a significant improvement in the quality of life parameters. The health status valued by EuroQoL questionnaire improved from 0.626 ± 0.286 to 0.782 ± 0.186 (p<0.001). After switching to SR-Pyr, 28 adverse reactions disappeared and 24 adverse reactions occurred less frequent or weaker, however, 17 new adverse reactions were documented. Our results support the usefulness of SR-Pyr in an individualized therapeutic regimen to improve quality of life regardless of the patient's age in myasthenia gravis. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Effectiveness of coenzyme Q10 in prophylactic treatment of migraine headache: an open-label, add-on, controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Shoeibi, Ali; Olfati, Nahid; Soltani Sabi, Mohsen; Salehi, Maryam; Mali, Sara; Akbari Oryani, Mahsa

    2017-03-01

    Despite the huge health and economic burden of migraine headache, few medications have been approved for its prophylactic treatment, most of which can potentially induce serious adverse effects. Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) is a supplement and has shown preliminary benefits in migraine prophylaxis. We aimed to assess this effect in an adult population. This is an open-label, parallel, add-on, match-controlled trial. Eighty patients diagnosed with migraine headache based on International Headache Society criteria were allocated to receiving only their current preventive drugs or their current preventive drugs plus 100 mg CoQ10 daily, matching for their baseline characteristics, and were assessed for frequency and severity of attacks, and ≥50 % reduction in attack frequency per month. Thirty-six and 37 patients were analyzed in CoQ10 and control groups, respectively. Number of attacks per month dropped significantly in the CoQ10 group (mean decrease: 1.6 vs. 0.5 among CoQ10 and control groups, respectively, p < 0.001). A significant reduction was also evident in the severity of headaches (mean decrease: 2.3 vs. 0.6 among CoQ10 and control groups, respectively, p < 0.001). For ≥50 % reduction in the frequency of attacks per month, the number needed to treat was calculated as 1.6. No side effects for CoQ10 were observed. This study suggests that CoQ10 might reduce the frequency of headaches, and may also make them shorter in duration, and less severe, with a favorable safety profile.

  2. Rituximab in Children with Steroid-Dependent Nephrotic Syndrome: A Multicenter, Open-Label, Noninferiority, Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Rossi, Roberta; Bonanni, Alice; Quinn, Robert R.; Sica, Felice; Bodria, Monica; Pasini, Andrea; Montini, Giovanni; Edefonti, Alberto; Belingheri, Mirco; De Giovanni, Donatella; Barbano, Giancarlo; Degl’Innocenti, Ludovica; Scolari, Francesco; Murer, Luisa; Reiser, Jochen; Fornoni, Alessia; Ghiggeri, Gian Marco

    2015-01-01

    Steroid-dependent nephrotic syndrome (SDNS) carries a high risk of toxicity from steroids or steroid-sparing agents. This open-label, noninferiority, randomized controlled trial at four sites in Italy tested whether rituximab is noninferior to steroids in maintaining remission in juvenile SDNS. We enrolled children age 1–16 years who had developed SDNS in the previous 6–12 months and were maintained in remission with high prednisone doses (≥0.7 mg/kg per day). We randomly assigned participants to continue prednisone alone for 1 month (control) or to add a single intravenous infusion of rituximab (375 mg/m2; intervention). Prednisone was tapered in both groups after 1 month. For noninferiority, rituximab had to permit steroid withdrawal and maintain 3-month proteinuria (mg/m2 per day) within a prespecified noninferiority margin of three times the levels among controls (primary outcome). We followed participants for ≥1 year to compare risk of relapse (secondary outcome). Fifteen children per group (21 boys; mean age, 7 years [range, 2.6–13.5 years]) were enrolled and followed for ≤60 months (median, 22 months). Three-month proteinuria was 42% lower in the rituximab group (geometric mean ratio, 0.58; 95% confidence interval, 0.18 to 1.95 [i.e., within the noninferiority margin of three times the levels in controls]). All but one child in the control group relapsed within 6 months; median time to relapse in the rituximab group was 18 months (95% confidence interval, 9 to 32 months). In the rituximab group, nausea and skin rash during infusion were common; transient acute arthritis occurred in one child. In conclusion, rituximab was noninferior to steroids for the treatment of juvenile SDNS. PMID:25592855

  3. Rituximab in Children with Steroid-Dependent Nephrotic Syndrome: A Multicenter, Open-Label, Noninferiority, Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Ravani, Pietro; Rossi, Roberta; Bonanni, Alice; Quinn, Robert R; Sica, Felice; Bodria, Monica; Pasini, Andrea; Montini, Giovanni; Edefonti, Alberto; Belingheri, Mirco; De Giovanni, Donatella; Barbano, Giancarlo; Degl'Innocenti, Ludovica; Scolari, Francesco; Murer, Luisa; Reiser, Jochen; Fornoni, Alessia; Ghiggeri, Gian Marco

    2015-09-01

    Steroid-dependent nephrotic syndrome (SDNS) carries a high risk of toxicity from steroids or steroid-sparing agents. This open-label, noninferiority, randomized controlled trial at four sites in Italy tested whether rituximab is noninferior to steroids in maintaining remission in juvenile SDNS. We enrolled children age 1-16 years who had developed SDNS in the previous 6-12 months and were maintained in remission with high prednisone doses (≥0.7 mg/kg per day). We randomly assigned participants to continue prednisone alone for 1 month (control) or to add a single intravenous infusion of rituximab (375 mg/m(2); intervention). Prednisone was tapered in both groups after 1 month. For noninferiority, rituximab had to permit steroid withdrawal and maintain 3-month proteinuria (mg/m(2) per day) within a prespecified noninferiority margin of three times the levels among controls (primary outcome). We followed participants for ≥1 year to compare risk of relapse (secondary outcome). Fifteen children per group (21 boys; mean age, 7 years [range, 2.6-13.5 years]) were enrolled and followed for ≤60 months (median, 22 months). Three-month proteinuria was 42% lower in the rituximab group (geometric mean ratio, 0.58; 95% confidence interval, 0.18 to 1.95 [i.e., within the noninferiority margin of three times the levels in controls]). All but one child in the control group relapsed within 6 months; median time to relapse in the rituximab group was 18 months (95% confidence interval, 9 to 32 months). In the rituximab group, nausea and skin rash during infusion were common; transient acute arthritis occurred in one child. In conclusion, rituximab was noninferior to steroids for the treatment of juvenile SDNS.

  4. A parallel open-label trial to evaluate microbial cellulose wound dressing in the treatment of diabetic foot ulcers.

    PubMed

    Solway, Douglas R; Clark, William A; Levinson, Dennis J

    2011-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the rate of wound healing in diabetic foot ulcers (DFU) using either a microbial cellulose (MC) wound dressing or Xeroform™ Petrolatum gauze. In a parallel, open-label trial in which the primary outcome was the rate of wound healing and the time to wound closure, 15 ulcers in type II diabetic patients received an MC dressing. Wounds in 19 control patients with type II diabetes were treated with a Xeroform gauze dressing. All wounds were non infected, Wagner stage II or III and received standard care including debridement, non weight bearing limb support and weekly wound evaluation. The mean time to heal in the MC (±SE) treated group was 32 days ± 2.5 and for controls it was 48 days ± 4.7 (P < 0.01). The rate of weekly wound closure (mean ± SE) was 1.7 times faster in the MC-treated group (cellulose treated, -5.04% per week ± 0.38 versus control, -2.93% per week ± 0.19), (P < 0.001). Among covariants tested by univariate regression, only the original wound area correlated with the time to wound closure (P < 0.001). In conclusion, with the provision of current standards of care, the application of an MC dressing to a diabetic ulcer may enhance the rate of wound healing and shorten the time course of epithelisation. © 2010 The Authors. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd and Medicalhelplines.com Inc.

  5. Berberine containing quadruple therapy for initial Helicobacter pylori eradication: An open-label randomized phase IV trial.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Di; Ke, Li; Ni, Zhen; Chen, Yu; Zhang, Lin-Hui; Zhu, Shao-Hua; Li, Chan-Juan; Shang, Lei; Liang, Jie; Shi, Yong-Quan

    2017-08-01

    Due to increasing antimicrobial resistance, a bismuth-based quadruple regimen has been recommended as an alternative first-line therapy for Helicobacter pylori (H pylori) eradication. However, different results are varied greatly and the availability of bismuth was limited in some countries. We assessed the efficacy and safety of 14-day berberine-containing quadruple therapy as an alternative regimen for H pylori eradication. In a randomized, open-label, non-inferiority, phase IV trial between November 25, 2014, and October 15, 2015, 612 treatment-naive patients were randomly assigned to 14-day berberine-containing (n = 308) or 14-day bismuth-containing (n = 304) quadruple therapy. The primary outcomes were eradication rates determined by the C urea breath test (C-UBT) 28 days after the end of treatment. The secondary outcomes were adverse events and compliance. The baseline demographic data including age, gender, body mass index (BMI), general condition and severity score were not statistically different in both groups. The eradication rates in bismuth and berberine groups were 86.4% (266/308) and 90.1% (274/304) in intention-to-treat (ITT) analysis (P = .149), and 89.6% (266/297) and 91.3% (273/299) in per-protocol (PP) analysis (P = .470), respectively. No statistically significant difference was found in the overall incidence of adverse events between both groups (35.7% vs 28.6%, P = .060). Both regimens achieved the recommended efficacy for H pylori eradication. The berberine-containing quadruple regimen was not inferior to bismuth-containing quadruple regimen and can be recommended as an alternative regimen for H pylori eradication in the local region.

  6. Epirubicin, oxaliplatin, and capecitabine with or without panitumumab for patients with previously untreated advanced oesophagogastric cancer (REAL3): a randomised, open-label phase 3 trial

    PubMed Central

    Waddell, Tom; Chau, Ian; Cunningham, David; Gonzalez, David; Okines, Alicia Frances Clare; Wotherspoon, Andrew; Saffery, Claire; Middleton, Gary; Wadsley, Jonathan; Ferry, David; Mansoor, Wasat; Crosby, Tom; Coxon, Fareeda; Smith, David; Waters, Justin; Iveson, Timothy; Falk, Stephen; Slater, Sarah; Peckitt, Clare; Barbachano, Yolanda

    2013-01-01

    Summary Background EGFR overexpression occurs in 27–55% of oesophagogastric adenocarcinomas, and correlates with poor prognosis. We aimed to assess addition of the anti-EGFR antibody panitumumab to epirubicin, oxaliplatin, and capecitabine (EOC) in patients with advanced oesophagogastric adenocarcinoma. Methods In this randomised, open-label phase 3 trial (REAL3), we enrolled patients with untreated, metastatic, or locally advanced oesophagogastric adenocarcinoma at 63 centres (tertiary referral centres, teaching hospitals, and district general hospitals) in the UK. Eligible patients were randomly allocated (1:1) to receive up to eight 21-day cycles of open-label EOC (epirubicin 50 mg/m2 and oxaliplatin 130 mg/m2 on day 1 and capecitabine 1250 mg/m2 per day on days 1–21) or modified-dose EOC plus panitumumab (mEOC+P; epirubicin 50 mg/m2 and oxaliplatin 100 mg/m2 on day 1, capecitabine 1000 mg/m2 per day on days 1–21, and panitumumab 9 mg/kg on day 1). Randomisation was blocked and stratified for centre region, extent of disease, and performance status. The primary endpoint was overall survival in the intention-to-treat population. We assessed safety in all patients who received at least one dose of study drug. After a preplanned independent data monitoring committee review in October, 2011, trial recruitment was halted and panitumumab withdrawn. Data for patients on treatment were censored at this timepoint. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00824785. Findings Between June 2, 2008, and Oct 17, 2011, we enrolled 553 eligible patients. Median overall survival in 275 patients allocated EOC was 11·3 months (95% CI 9·6–13·0) compared with 8·8 months (7·7–9·8) in 278 patients allocated mEOC+P (hazard ratio [HR] 1·37, 95% CI 1·07–1·76; p=0·013). mEOC+P was associated with increased incidence of grade 3–4 diarrhoea (48 [17%] of 276 patients allocated mEOC+P vs 29 [11%] of 266 patients allocated EOC), rash (29 [11%] vs two

  7. Epirubicin, oxaliplatin, and capecitabine with or without panitumumab for patients with previously untreated advanced oesophagogastric cancer (REAL3): a randomised, open-label phase 3 trial.

    PubMed

    Waddell, Tom; Chau, Ian; Cunningham, David; Gonzalez, David; Okines, Alicia Frances Clare; Frances, Alicia; Okines, Clare; Wotherspoon, Andrew; Saffery, Claire; Middleton, Gary; Wadsley, Jonathan; Ferry, David; Mansoor, Wasat; Crosby, Tom; Coxon, Fareeda; Smith, David; Waters, Justin; Iveson, Timothy; Falk, Stephen; Slater, Sarah; Peckitt, Clare; Barbachano, Yolanda

    2013-05-01

    EGFR overexpression occurs in 27-55% of oesophagogastric adenocarcinomas, and correlates with poor prognosis. We aimed to assess addition of the anti-EGFR antibody panitumumab to epirubicin, oxaliplatin, and capecitabine (EOC) in patients with advanced oesophagogastric adenocarcinoma. In this randomised, open-label phase 3 trial (REAL3), we enrolled patients with untreated, metastatic, or locally advanced oesophagogastric adenocarcinoma at 63 centres (tertiary referral centres, teaching hospitals, and district general hospitals) in the UK. Eligible patients were randomly allocated (1:1) to receive up to eight 21-day cycles of open-label EOC (epirubicin 50 mg/m(2) and oxaliplatin 130 mg/m(2) on day 1 and capecitabine 1250 mg/m(2) per day on days 1-21) or modified-dose EOC plus panitumumab (mEOC+P; epirubicin 50 mg/m(2) and oxaliplatin 100 mg/m(2) on day 1, capecitabine 1000 mg/m(2) per day on days 1-21, and panitumumab 9 mg/kg on day 1). Randomisation was blocked and stratified for centre region, extent of disease, and performance status. The primary endpoint was overall survival in the intention-to-treat population. We assessed safety in all patients who received at least one dose of study drug. After a preplanned independent data monitoring committee review in October, 2011, trial recruitment was halted and panitumumab withdrawn. Data for patients on treatment were censored at this timepoint. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00824785. Between June 2, 2008, and Oct 17, 2011, we enrolled 553 eligible patients. Median overall survival in 275 patients allocated EOC was 11.3 months (95% CI 9.6-13.0) compared with 8.8 months (7.7-9.8) in 278 patients allocated mEOC+P (hazard ratio [HR] 1.37, 95% CI 1.07-1.76; p=0.013). mEOC+P was associated with increased incidence of grade 3-4 diarrhoea (48 [17%] of 276 patients allocated mEOC+P vs 29 [11%] of 266 patients allocated EOC), rash (29 [11%] vs two [1%]), mucositis (14 [5%] vs none), and

  8. The influence of switching from risperidone to paliperidone on the extrapyramidal symptoms and cognitive function in elderly patients with schizophrenia: a preliminary open-label trial.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Hidenobu; Gen, Keishi; Inoue, Yuichi; Hibino, Hiroyuki; Mikami, Ayako; Matsumoto, Hideo; Mikami, Katsunaka

    2014-01-01

    This study was to evaluate the effects on clinical symptoms and cognitive function of switching the treatment of elderly patients with schizophrenia from risperidone to paliperidone (PAL). This study was a 12-weeks, preliminary open-label trial. The subjects were 17 inpatients. Their extrapyramidal symptoms (EPS) were assessed using the Drug-Induced Extrapyramidal Symptoms Scale (DIEPSS), Abnormal Involuntary Movement Scale (AIMS), and Barnes Akathisia Scale (BAS), and their cognitive function was assessed using the Brief Assessment Cognition in Schizophrenia: Japanese language version (BACS-J), and their clinical symptoms were assessed using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) and Clinical Global Impression-Severity of illness scale (CGI-S) at the 0 and 12 weeks. The DIEPSS and BAS significantly improved after switching from risperidone to PAL. Furthermore, improvement was found on AIMS. The mean change from baseline in z-score of the digit sequencing task was significantly increased. All items on the PANSS and CGI-S were not significant; however, changes in some cognitive function were correlated with changes in EPS. The results of this study suggest the possibility that switching elderly patients from risperidone to PAL may have improved pre-existing EPS, and may also have helped improve working memory.

  9. Tribendimidine and Albendazole for Treating Soil-Transmitted Helminths, Strongyloides stercoralis and Taenia spp.: Open-Label Randomized Trial

    PubMed Central

    Steinmann, Peter; Zhou, Xiao-Nong; Du, Zun-Wei; Jiang, Jin-Yong; Xiao, Shu-Hua; Wu, Zhong-Xing; Zhou, Hui; Utzinger, Jürg

    2008-01-01

    Background Tribendimidine is an anthelminthic drug with a broad spectrum of activity. In 2004 the drug was approved by Chinese authorities for human use. The efficacy of tribendimidine against soil-transmitted helminths (Ascaris lumbricoides, hookworm, and Trichuris trichiura) has been established, and new laboratory investigations point to activity against cestodes and Strongyloides ratti. Methodology/Principal Findings In an open-label randomized trial, the safety and efficacy of a single oral dose of albendazole or tribendimidine (both drugs administered at 200 mg for 5- to 14-year-old children, and 400 mg for individuals ≥15 years) against soil-transmitted helminths, Strongyloides stercoralis, and Taenia spp. were assessed in a village in Yunnan province, People's Republic of China. The analysis was on a per-protocol basis and the trial is registered with controlled-trials.com (number ISRCTN01779485). Both albendazole and tribendimidine were highly efficacious against A. lumbricoides and, moderately, against hookworm. The efficacy against T. trichiura was low. Among 57 individuals who received tribendimidine, the prevalence of S. stercoralis was reduced from 19.3% to 8.8% (observed cure rate 54.5%, p = 0.107), and that of Taenia spp. from 26.3% to 8.8% (observed cure rate 66.7%, p = 0.014). Similar prevalence reductions were noted among the 66 albendazole recipients. Taking into account “new” infections discovered at treatment evaluation, which were most likely missed pre-treatment due to the lack of sensitivity of available diagnostic approaches, the difference between the drug-specific net Taenia spp. cure rates was highly significant in favor of tribendimidine (p = 0.001). No significant adverse events of either drug were observed. Conclusions/Significance Our results suggest that single-dose oral tribendimidine can be employed in settings with extensive intestinal polyparasitism, and its efficacy against A. lumbricoides and hookworm was

  10. Sequential docetaxel as adjuvant chemotherapy for early breast cancer (TACT): an open-label, phase III, randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Ellis, Paul; Barrett-Lee, Peter; Johnson, Lindsay; Cameron, David; Wardley, Andrew; O'Reilly, Susan; Verrill, Mark; Smith, Ian; Yarnold, John; Coleman, Robert; Earl, Helena; Canney, Peter; Twelves, Chris; Poole, Christopher; Bloomfield, David; Hopwood, Penelope; Johnston, Stephen; Dowsett, Mitchell; Bartlett, John M S; Ellis, Ian; Peckitt, Clare; Hall, Emma; Bliss, Judith M

    2009-05-16

    Incorporation of a taxane as adjuvant treatment for early breast cancer offers potential for further improvement of anthracycline-based treatment. The UK TACT study (CRUK01/001) investigated whether sequential docetaxel after anthracycline chemotherapy would improve patient outcome compared with standard chemotherapy of similar duration. In this multicentre, open-label, phase III, randomised controlled trial, 4162 women (aged >18 years) with node-positive or high-risk node-negative operable early breast cancer were randomly assigned by computer-generated permuted block randomisation to receive FEC (fluorouracil 600 mg/m(2), epirubicin 60 mg/m(2), cyclophosphamide 600 mg/m(2) at 3-weekly intervals) for four cycles followed by docetaxel (100 mg/m(2) at 3-weekly intervals) for four cycles (n=2073) or control (n=2089). For the control regimen, centres chose either FEC for eight cycles (n=1265) or epirubicin (100 mg/m(2) at 3-weekly intervals) for four cycles followed by CMF (cyclophosphamide 600 mg/m(2), methotrexate 40 mg/m(2), and fluorouracil 600 mg/m(2) at 4-weekly intervals) for four cycles (n=824). The primary endpoint was disease-free survival. Analysis was by intention to treat (ITT). This study is registered as an International Standard Randomised Controlled Trial, number ISRCTN79718493. All randomised patients were included in the ITT population. With a median follow-up of 62 months, disease-free survival events were seen in 517 of 2073 patients in the experimental group compared with 539 of 2089 controls (hazard ratio [HR] 0.95, 95% CI 0.85-1.08; p=0.44). 75.6% (95% CI 73.7-77.5) of patients in the experimental group and 74.3% (72.3-76.2) of controls were alive and disease-free at 5 years. The proportion of patients who reported any acute grade 3 or 4 adverse event was significantly greater in the experimental group than in the control group (p<0.0001); the most frequent events were neutropenia (937 events vs 797 events), leucopenia (507 vs 362), and

  11. Masitinib in advanced gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) after failure of imatinib: A randomized controlled open-label trial

    PubMed Central

    Adenis, A.; Blay, J.-Y.; Bui-Nguyen, B.; Bouché, O.; Bertucci, F.; Isambert, N.; Bompas, E.; Chaigneau, L.; Domont, J.; Ray-Coquard, I.; Blésius, A.; Van Tine, B. A.; Bulusu, V. R.; Dubreuil, P.; Mansfield, C. D.; Acin, Y.; Moussy, A.; Hermine, O.; Le Cesne, A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Masitinib is a highly selective tyrosine kinase inhibitor with activity against the main oncogenic drivers of gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST). Masitinib was evaluated in patients with advanced GIST after imatinib failure or intolerance. Patients and methods Prospective, multicenter, randomized, open-label trial. Patients with inoperable, advanced imatinib-resistant GIST were randomized (1 : 1) to receive masitinib (12 mg/kg/day) or sunitinib (50 mg/day 4-weeks-on/2-weeks-off) until progression, intolerance, or refusal. Primary efficacy analysis was noncomparative, testing whether masitinib attained a median progression-free survival (PFS) (blind centrally reviewed RECIST) threshold of >3 months according to the lower bound of the 90% unilateral confidence interval (CI). Secondary analyses on overall survival (OS) and PFS were comparative with results presented according to a two-sided 95% CI. Results Forty-four patients were randomized to receive masitinib (n = 23) or sunitinib (n = 21). Median follow-up was 14 months. Patients receiving masitinib experienced less toxicity than those receiving sunitinib, with significantly lower occurrence of severe adverse events (52% versus 91%, respectively, P = 0.008). Median PFS (central RECIST) for the noncomparative primary analysis in the masitinib treatment arm was 3.71 months (90% CI 3.65). Secondary analyses showed that median OS was significantly longer for patients receiving masitinib followed by post-progression addition of sunitinib when compared against patients treated directly with sunitinib in second-line [hazard ratio (HR) = 0.27, 95% CI 0.09–0.85, P = 0.016]. This improvement was sustainable as evidenced by 26-month follow-up OS data (HR = 0.40, 95% CI 0.16–0.96, P = 0.033); an additional 12.4 months survival advantage being reported for the masitinib treatment arm. Risk of progression while under treatment with masitinib was in the same range as for sunitinib (HR = 1.1, 95% CI 0.6–2.2, P

  12. Masitinib in advanced gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) after failure of imatinib: a randomized controlled open-label trial.

    PubMed

    Adenis, A; Blay, J-Y; Bui-Nguyen, B; Bouché, O; Bertucci, F; Isambert, N; Bompas, E; Chaigneau, L; Domont, J; Ray-Coquard, I; Blésius, A; Van Tine, B A; Bulusu, V R; Dubreuil, P; Mansfield, C D; Acin, Y; Moussy, A; Hermine, O; Le Cesne, A

    2014-09-01

    Masitinib is a highly selective tyrosine kinase inhibitor with activity against the main oncogenic drivers of gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST). Masitinib was evaluated in patients with advanced GIST after imatinib failure or intolerance. Prospective, multicenter, randomized, open-label trial. Patients with inoperable, advanced imatinib-resistant GIST were randomized (1 : 1) to receive masitinib (12 mg/kg/day) or sunitinib (50 mg/day 4-weeks-on/2-weeks-off) until progression, intolerance, or refusal. Primary efficacy analysis was noncomparative, testing whether masitinib attained a median progression-free survival (PFS) (blind centrally reviewed RECIST) threshold of >3 months according to the lower bound of the 90% unilateral confidence interval (CI). Secondary analyses on overall survival (OS) and PFS were comparative with results presented according to a two-sided 95% CI. Forty-four patients were randomized to receive masitinib (n = 23) or sunitinib (n = 21). Median follow-up was 14 months. Patients receiving masitinib experienced less toxicity than those receiving sunitinib, with significantly lower occurrence of severe adverse events (52% versus 91%, respectively, P = 0.008). Median PFS (central RECIST) for the noncomparative primary analysis in the masitinib treatment arm was 3.71 months (90% CI 3.65). Secondary analyses showed that median OS was significantly longer for patients receiving masitinib followed by post-progression addition of sunitinib when compared against patients treated directly with sunitinib in second-line [hazard ratio (HR) = 0.27, 95% CI 0.09-0.85, P = 0.016]. This improvement was sustainable as evidenced by 26-month follow-up OS data (HR = 0.40, 95% CI 0.16-0.96, P = 0.033); an additional 12.4 months survival advantage being reported for the masitinib treatment arm. Risk of progression while under treatment with masitinib was in the same range as for sunitinib (HR = 1.1, 95% CI 0.6-2.2, P = 0.833). Primary efficacy analysis ensured

  13. Sequential docetaxel as adjuvant chemotherapy for early breast cancer (TACT): an open-label, phase III, randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Ellis, Paul; Barrett-Lee, Peter; Johnson, Lindsay; Cameron, David; Wardley, Andrew; O'Reilly, Susan; Verrill, Mark; Smith, Ian; Yarnold, John; Coleman, Robert; Earl, Helena; Canney, Peter; Twelves, Chris; Poole, Christopher; Bloomfield, David; Hopwood, Penelope; Johnston, Stephen; Dowsett, Mitchell; Bartlett, John MS; Ellis, Ian; Peckitt, Clare; Hall, Emma; Bliss, Judith M

    2009-01-01

    Summary Background Incorporation of a taxane as adjuvant treatment for early breast cancer offers potential for further improvement of anthracycline-based treatment. The UK TACT study (CRUK01/001) investigated whether sequential docetaxel after anthracycline chemotherapy would improve patient outcome compared with standard chemotherapy of similar duration. Methods In this multicentre, open-label, phase III, randomised controlled trial, 4162 women (aged >18 years) with node-positive or high-risk node-negative operable early breast cancer were randomly assigned by computer-generated permuted block randomisation to receive FEC (fluorouracil 600 mg/m2, epirubicin 60 mg/m2, cyclophosphamide 600 mg/m2 at 3-weekly intervals) for four cycles followed by docetaxel (100 mg/m2 at 3-weekly intervals) for four cycles (n=2073) or control (n=2089). For the control regimen, centres chose either FEC for eight cycles (n=1265) or epirubicin (100 mg/m2 at 3-weekly intervals) for four cycles followed by CMF (cyclophosphamide 600 mg/m2, methotrexate 40 mg/m2, and fluorouracil 600 mg/m2 at 4-weekly intervals) for four cycles (n=824). The primary endpoint was disease-free survival. Analysis was by intention to treat (ITT). This study is registered as an International Standard Randomised Controlled Trial, number ISRCTN79718493. Findings All randomised patients were included in the ITT population. With a median follow-up of 62 months, disease-free survival events were seen in 517 of 2073 patients in the experimental group compared with 539 of 2089 controls (hazard ratio [HR] 0·95, 95% CI 0·85–1·08; p=0·44). 75·6% (95% CI 73·7–77·5) of patients in the experimental group and 74·3% (72·3–76·2) of controls were alive and disease-free at 5 years. The proportion of patients who reported any acute grade 3 or 4 adverse event was significantly greater in the experimental group than in the control group (p<0·0001); the most frequent events were neutropenia (937 events vs 797 events

  14. Sirolimus Use in Liver Transplant Recipients With Hepatocellular Carcinoma: A Randomized, Multicenter, Open-Label Phase 3 Trial

    PubMed Central

    Geissler, Edward K.; Schnitzbauer, Andreas A.; Zülke, Carl; Lamby, Philipp E.; Proneth, Andrea; Duvoux, Christophe; Burra, Patrizia; Jauch, Karl-Walter; Rentsch, Markus; Ganten, Tom M.; Schmidt, Jan; Settmacher, Utz; Heise, Michael; Rossi, Giorgio; Cillo, Umberto; Kneteman, Norman; Adam, René; van Hoek, Bart; Bachellier, Philippe; Wolf, Philippe; Rostaing, Lionel; Bechstein, Wolf O.; Rizell, Magnus; Powell, James; Hidalgo, Ernest; Gugenheim, Jean; Wolters, Heiner; Brockmann, Jens; Roy, André; Mutzbauer, Ingrid; Schlitt, Angela; Beckebaum, Susanne; Graeb, Christian; Nadalin, Silvio; Valente, Umberto; Turrión, Victor Sánchez; Jamieson, Neville; Scholz, Tim; Colledan, Michele; Fändrich, Fred; Becker, Thomas; Söderdahl, Gunnar; Chazouillères, Olivier; Mäkisalo, Heikki; Pageaux, Georges-Philippe; Steininger, Rudolf; Soliman, Thomas; de Jong, Koert P.; Pirenne, Jacques; Margreiter, Raimund; Pratschke, Johann; Pinna, Antonio D.; Hauss, Johann; Schreiber, Stefan; Strasser, Simone; Klempnauer, Jürgen; Troisi, Roberto I.; Bhoori, Sherrie; Lerut, Jan; Bilbao, Itxarone; Klein, Christian G.; Königsrainer, Alfred; Mirza, Darius F.; Otto, Gerd; Mazzaferro, Vincenzo; Neuhaus, Peter; Schlitt, Hans J.

    2016-01-01

    Background We investigated whether sirolimus-based immunosuppression improves outcomes in liver transplantation (LTx) candidates with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Methods In a prospective-randomized open-label international trial, 525 LTx recipients with HCC initially receiving mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitor–free immunosuppression were randomized 4 to 6 weeks after transplantation into a group on mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitor–free immunosuppression (group A: 264 patients) or a group incorporating sirolimus (group B: 261). The primary endpoint was recurrence-free survival (RFS); intention-to-treat (ITT) analysis was conducted after 8 years. Overall survival (OS) was a secondary endpoint. Results Recurrence-free survival was 64.5% in group A and 70.2% in group B at study end, this difference was not significant (P = 0.28; hazard ratio [HR], 0.84; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 0.62; 1.15). In a planned analysis of RFS rates at yearly intervals, group B showed better outcomes 3 years after transplantation (HR, 0.7; 95% CI, 0.48-1.00). Similarly, OS (P = 0.21; HR, 0.81; 95% CI, 0.58-1.13) was not statistically better in group B at study end, but yearly analyses showed improvement out to 5 years (HR, 0.7; 95% CI, 0.49-1.00). Interestingly, subgroup (Milan Criteria-based) analyses revealed that low-risk, rather than high-risk, patients benefited most from sirolimus; furthermore, younger recipients (age ≤60) also benefited, as well sirolimus monotherapy patients. Serious adverse event numbers were alike in groups A (860) and B (874). Conclusions Sirolimus in LTx recipients with HCC does not improve long-term RFS beyond 5 years. However, a RFS and OS benefit is evident in the first 3 to 5 years, especially in low-risk patients. This trial provides the first high-level evidence base for selecting immunosuppression in LTx recipients with HCC. PMID:26555945

  15. Usual versus tight control of systolic blood pressure in non-diabetic patients with hypertension (Cardio-Sis): an open-label randomised trial.

    PubMed

    Verdecchia, Paolo; Staessen, Jan A; Angeli, Fabio; de Simone, Giovanni; Achilli, Augusto; Ganau, Antonello; Mureddu, Gianfrancesco; Pede, Sergio; Maggioni, Aldo P; Lucci, Donata; Reboldi, Gianpaolo

    2009-08-15

    The level to which systolic blood pressure should be controlled in hypertensive patients without diabetes remains unknown. We tested the hypothesis that tight control compared with usual control of systolic blood pressure would be beneficial in such patients. In this randomised open-label trial undertaken in 44 centres in Italy, 1111 non-diabetic patients with systolic blood pressure 150 mm Hg or greater were randomly assigned to a target systolic blood pressure of less than 140 mm Hg (usual control; n=553) or less than 130 mm Hg (tight control; n=558). After stratification by centre, we used a computerised random function to allocate patients to either group. Observers who were unaware of randomisation read electrocardiograms and adjudicated events. Open-label agents were used to reach the randomised targets. The primary endpoint was the rate of electrocardiographic left ventricular hypertrophy 2 years after randomisation. Analysis was by intention to treat. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00421863. Over a median follow-up of 2.0 years (IQR 1.93-2.03), systolic and diastolic blood pressure were reduced by a mean of 23.5/8.9 mm Hg (SD 10.6/7.0) in the usual-control group and by 27.3/10.4 mm Hg (11.0/7.5) in the tight-control group (between-group difference 3.8 mm Hg systolic [95% CI 2.4-5.2], p<0.0001; and 1.5 mm Hg diastolic [0.6-2.4]; p=0.041). The primary endpoint occurred in 82 of 483 patients (17.0%) in the usual-control group and in 55 of 484 patients (11.4%) of the tight-control group (odds ratio 0.63; 95% CI 0.43-0.91; p=0.013). A composite cardiovascular endpoint occurred in 52 (9.4%) patients in the usual-control group and in 27 (4.8%) in the tight-control group (hazard ratio 0.50, 95% CI 0.31-0.79; p=0.003). Side-effects were rare and did not differ significantly between the two groups. Our findings lend support to a lower blood pressure goal than is recommended at present in non-diabetic patients with hypertension. Boehringer

  16. A Prospective Open-Label Trial of Memantine Hydrochloride for the Treatment of Social Deficits in Intellectually Capable Adults With Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Gagan; Wozniak, Janet; Faraone, Stephen V; Fried, Ronna; Chan, James; Furtak, Stephannie; Grimsley, Emily; Conroy, Kristina; Kilcullen, J Ryan; Woodworth, K Yvonne; Biederman, Joseph

    2016-06-01

    This prospective 12-week open-label trial evaluates the tolerability and efficacy of memantine hydrochloride for the treatment of core social and cognitive deficits in adults with high-functioning autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Measures for assessment of therapeutic response included the Social Responsiveness Scale-Adult Research Version (SRS-A), disorder-specific Clinical Global Impression scales, Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Functioning-Adult Self-Report, Diagnostic Analysis of Nonverbal Accuracy Scale, and Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery. Eighteen adults (mean age, 28 ± 9.5 years) with high-functioning ASD (SRS-A raw score, 99 ± 17) were treated with memantine (mean dose, 19.7 ± 1.2 mg/d; range, 15-20 mg), and 17 (94%) completed the trial. Treatment with memantine was associated with significant reduction on informant-rated (SRS-A, -28 ± 25; P < 0.001) and clinician-rated (Clinical Global Impression-Improvement subscale ≤2, 83%) measures of autism severity. In addition, memantine treatment was associated with significant improvement in ADHD and anxiety symptom severity. Significant improvement was noted in nonverbal communication on the Diagnostic Analysis of Nonverbal Accuracy Scale test and in executive function per self-report (Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Functioning-Adult Self-Report Global Executive Composite, -6 ± 8.8; P < 0.015) and neuropsychological assessments (Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery). Memantine treatment was generally well tolerated and was not associated with any serious adverse events. Treatment with memantine appears to be beneficial for the treatment of ASD and associated psychopathology and cognitive dysfunction in intellectually capable adults. Future placebo-controlled trials are warranted.

  17. Custirsen in combination with docetaxel and prednisone for patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (SYNERGY trial): a phase 3, multicentre, open-label, randomised trial.

    PubMed

    Chi, Kim N; Higano, Celestia S; Blumenstein, Brent; Ferrero, Jean-Marc; Reeves, James; Feyerabend, Susan; Gravis, Gwenaelle; Merseburger, Axel S; Stenzl, Arnulf; Bergman, Andries M; Mukherjee, Som D; Zalewski, Pawel; Saad, Fred; Jacobs, Cindy; Gleave, Martin; de Bono, Johann S

    2017-04-01

    Clusterin is a chaperone protein associated with treatment resistance and upregulated by apoptotic stressors such as chemotherapy. Custirsen is a second-generation antisense oligonucleotide that inhibits clusterin production. The aim of the SYNERGY trial was to investigate the effect of custirsen in combination with docetaxel and prednisone on overall survival in patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer. SYNERGY was a phase 3, multicentre, open-label, randomised trial set at 134 study centres in 12 countries. Patients were eligible for participation if they had: metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer and had received no previous chemotherapy; prostate-specific antigen greater than 5 ng/mL; and a Karnofsky performance score of 70% or higher. Patients were randomly assigned 1:1 centrally to either the docetaxel, prednisone, and custirsen combination or docetaxel and prednisone alone. Patients were not masked to treatment allocation. Randomisation was stratified by opioid use for cancer-related pain and radiographic evidence of progression. All patients received docetaxel 75 mg/m(2) intravenously with 5 mg of prednisone orally twice daily. Patients assigned docetaxel, prednisone, and custirsen received weekly doses of custirsen 640 mg intravenously after three loading doses of 640 mg. The primary endpoint was overall survival analysed in the intention-to-treat population. Patients who received at least one study dose were included in the safety analysis set. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01188187. The trial is completed and final analyses are reported here. Between Dec 10, 2010, and Nov 7, 2012, 1022 patients were enrolled to the trial, of whom 510 were assigned docetaxel, prednisone, and custirsen and 512 were allocated docetaxel and prednisone. No difference in overall survival was recorded between the two groups (median survival 23·4 months [95% CI 20·9-24·8] with docetaxel, prednisone, and custirsen vs

  18. Salpingotomy versus salpingectomy in women with tubal pregnancy (ESEP study): an open-label, multicentre, randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Mol, Femke; van Mello, Norah M; Strandell, Annika; Strandell, Karin; Jurkovic, Davor; Ross, Jackie; Barnhart, Kurt T; Yalcinkaya, Tamer M; Verhoeve, Harold R; Graziosi, Giuseppe C M; Koks, Carolien A M; Klinte, Ingmar; Hogström, Lars; Janssen, Ineke C A H; Kragt, Harry; Hoek, Annemieke; Trimbos-Kemper, Trudy C M; Broekmans, Frank J M; Willemsen, Wim N P; Ankum, Willem M; Mol, Ben W; van Wely, Madelon; van der Veen, Fulco; Hajenius, Petra J

    2014-04-26

    Tubal ectopic pregnancy can be surgically treated by salpingectomy, in which the affected Fallopian tube is removed, or salpingotomy, in which the tube is preserved. Despite potentially increased risks of persistent trophoblast and repeat ectopic pregnancy, salpingotomy is often preferred over salpingectomy because the preservation of both tubes is assumed to offer favourable fertility prospects, although little evidence exists to support this assumption. We aimed to assess whether salpingotomy would improve rates of ongoing pregnancy by natural conception compared with salpingectomy. In this open-label, multicentre, international, randomised controlled trial, women aged 18 years and older with a laparoscopically confirmed tubal pregnancy and a healthy contralateral tube were randomly assigned via a central internet-based randomisation program to receive salpingotomy or salpingectomy. The primary outcome was ongoing pregnancy by natural conception. Differences in cumulative ongoing pregnancy rates were expressed as a fecundity rate ratio with 95% CI, calculated by Cox proportional-hazards analysis with a time horizon of 36 months. Secondary outcomes were persistent trophoblast and repeat ectopic pregnancy (expressed as relative risks [RRs] with 95% CIs) and ongoing pregnancy after ovulation induction, intrauterine insemination, or IVF. The researchers who collected data for fertility outcomes were masked to the assigned intervention, but patients and the investigators who analysed the data were not. All endpoints were analysed by intention to treat. We also did a (non-prespecified) meta-analysis that included the findings from the present trial. This trial is registered, number ISRCTN37002267. 446 women were randomly assigned between Sept 24, 2004, and Nov 29, 2011, with 215 allocated to salpingotomy and 231 to salpingectomy. Follow-up was discontinued on Feb 1, 2013. The cumulative ongoing pregnancy rate was 60·7% after salpingotomy and 56·2% after salpingectomy

  19. Abacavir, zidovudine, or stavudine as paediatric tablets for African HIV-infected children (CHAPAS-3): an open-label, parallel-group, randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Mulenga, Veronica; Musiime, Victor; Kekitiinwa, Adeodata; Cook, Adrian D; Abongomera, George; Kenny, Julia; Chabala, Chisala; Mirembe, Grace; Asiimwe, Alice; Owen-Powell, Ellen; Burger, David; McIlleron, Helen; Klein, Nigel; Chintu, Chifumbe; Thomason, Margaret J; Kityo, Cissy; Walker, A Sarah; Gibb, Diana M

    2016-02-01

    WHO 2013 guidelines recommend universal treatment for HIV-infected children younger than 5 years. No paediatric trials have compared nucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) in first-line antiretroviral therapy (ART) in Africa, where most HIV-infected children live. We aimed to compare stavudine, zidovudine, or abacavir as dual or triple fixed-dose-combination paediatric tablets with lamivudine and nevirapine or efavirenz. In this open-label, parallel-group, randomised trial (CHAPAS-3), we enrolled children from one centre in Zambia and three in Uganda who were previously untreated (ART naive) or on stavudine for more than 2 years with viral load less than 50 copies per mL (ART experienced). Computer-generated randomisation tables were incorporated securely within the database. The primary endpoint was grade 2-4 clinical or grade 3/4 laboratory adverse events. Analysis was intention to treat. This trial is registered with the ISRCTN Registry number, 69078957. Between Nov 8, 2010, and Dec 28, 2011, 480 children were randomised: 156 to stavudine, 159 to zidovudine, and 165 to abacavir. After two were excluded due to randomisation error, 156 children were analysed in the stavudine group, 158 in the zidovudine group, and 164 in the abacavir group, and followed for median 2·3 years (5% lost to follow-up). 365 (76%) were ART naive (median age 2·6 years vs 6·2 years in ART experienced). 917 grade 2-4 clinical or grade 3/4 laboratory adverse events (835 clinical [634 grade 2]; 40 laboratory) occurred in 104 (67%) children on stavudine, 103 (65%) on zidovudine, and 105 (64%), on abacavir (p=0·63; zidovudine vs stavudine: hazard ratio [HR] 0·99 [95% CI 0·75-1·29]; abacavir vs stavudine: HR 0·88 [0·67-1·15]). At 48 weeks, 98 (85%), 81 (80%) and 95 (81%) ART-naive children in the stavudine, zidovudine, and abacavir groups, respectively, had viral load less than 400 copies per mL (p=0·58); most ART-experienced children maintained suppression (p=1·00). All

  20. Abacavir, zidovudine, or stavudine as paediatric tablets for African HIV-infected children (CHAPAS-3): an open-label, parallel-group, randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Mulenga, Veronica; Musiime, Victor; Kekitiinwa, Adeodata; Cook, Adrian D; Abongomera, George; Kenny, Julia; Chabala, Chisala; Mirembe, Grace; Asiimwe, Alice; Owen-Powell, Ellen; Burger, David; McIlleron, Helen; Klein, Nigel; Chintu, Chifumbe; Thomason, Margaret J; Kityo, Cissy; Walker, A Sarah; Gibb, Diana M

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background WHO 2013 guidelines recommend universal treatment for HIV-infected children younger than 5 years. No paediatric trials have compared nucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) in first-line antiretroviral therapy (ART) in Africa, where most HIV-infected children live. We aimed to compare stavudine, zidovudine, or abacavir as dual or triple fixed-dose-combination paediatric tablets with lamivudine and nevirapine or efavirenz. Methods In this open-label, parallel-group, randomised trial (CHAPAS-3), we enrolled children from one centre in Zambia and three in Uganda who were previously untreated (ART naive) or on stavudine for more than 2 years with viral load less than 50 copies per mL (ART experienced). Computer-generated randomisation tables were incorporated securely within the database. The primary endpoint was grade 2–4 clinical or grade 3/4 laboratory adverse events. Analysis was intention to treat. This trial is registered with the ISRCTN Registry number, 69078957. Findings Between Nov 8, 2010, and Dec 28, 2011, 480 children were randomised: 156 to stavudine, 159 to zidovudine, and 165 to abacavir. After two were excluded due to randomisation error, 156 children were analysed in the stavudine group, 158 in the zidovudine group, and 164 in the abacavir group, and followed for median 2·3 years (5% lost to follow-up). 365 (76%) were ART naive (median age 2·6 years vs 6·2 years in ART experienced). 917 grade 2–4 clinical or grade 3/4 laboratory adverse events (835 clinical [634 grade 2]; 40 laboratory) occurred in 104 (67%) children on stavudine, 103 (65%) on zidovudine, and 105 (64%), on abacavir (p=0·63; zidovudine vs stavudine: hazard ratio [HR] 0·99 [95% CI 0·75–1·29]; abacavir vs stavudine: HR 0·88 [0·67–1·15]). At 48 weeks, 98 (85%), 81 (80%) and 95 (81%) ART-naive children in the stavudine, zidovudine, and abacavir groups, respectively, had viral load less than 400 copies per mL (p=0·58); most ART

  1. Clinical efficacy comparison of Saccharomyces boulardii and yogurt fluid in acute non-bloody diarrhea in children: a randomized, controlled, open label study.

    PubMed

    Eren, Makbule; Dinleyici, Ener C; Vandenplas, Yvan

    2010-03-01

    The purpose of this trial is to evaluate the clinical efficacy and cost/effectiveness of Saccharomyces boulardii compared with yogurt fluid (YF) in acute non-bloody diarrhea in children. This randomized, prospective open-label clinical trial includes 55 children (36 boys, 19 girls; mean age 21.2 +/- 28.2 months). Group A (N = 28) received lyophilized S. boulardii and group B (N = 27) received YF. The duration of diarrhea was shorter with S. boulardii but the hospital stay was reduced with YF, although these differences were not significant. However, diarrhea had resolved in significantly more children on day 3 in the S. boulardii group (48.5% versus 25.5%; P < 0.05). In outpatient cases, yogurt treatment was cheaper than S. boulardii whereas in hospitalized patients, treatment cost was similar. In conclusion, the effect of daily freshly prepared YF was comparable to S. boulardii in the treatment of acute non-bloody diarrhea in children. The duration of diarrhea was shorter in the S. boulardii group, expressed as a significantly higher number of patients with normal stools on day 3.

  2. Clinical Efficacy Comparison of Saccharomyces boulardii and Yogurt Fluid in Acute Non-Bloody Diarrhea in Children: A Randomized, Controlled, Open Label Study

    PubMed Central

    Eren, Makbule; Dinleyici, Ener C.; Vandenplas, Yvan

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this trial is to evaluate the clinical efficacy and cost/effectiveness of Saccharomyces boulardii compared with yogurt fluid (YF) in acute non-bloody diarrhea in children. This randomized, prospective open-label clinical trial includes 55 children (36 boys, 19 girls; mean age 21.2 ± 28.2 months). Group A (N = 28) received lyophilized S. boulardii and group B (N = 27) received YF. The duration of diarrhea was shorter with S. boulardii but the hospital stay was reduced with YF, although these differences were not significant. However, diarrhea had resolved in significantly more children on day 3 in the S. boulardii group (48.5% versus 25.5%; P < 0.05). In outpatient cases, yogurt treatment was cheaper than S. boulardii whereas in hospitalized patients, treatment cost was similar. In conclusion, the effect of daily freshly prepared YF was comparable to S. boulardii in the treatment of acute non-bloody diarrhea in children. The duration of diarrhea was shorter in the S. boulardii group, expressed as a significantly higher number of patients with normal stools on day 3. PMID:20207879

  3. Effectiveness and acceptability of accelerated repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) for treatment-resistant major depressive disorder: an open label trial.

    PubMed

    McGirr, Alexander; Van den Eynde, Frederique; Tovar-Perdomo, Santiago; Fleck, Marcelo P A; Berlim, Marcelo T

    2015-03-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a significant cause of worldwide disability and treatment resistance is common. High-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (HF-rTMS) has emerged as a treatment for MDD, and while efficacious, the daily commitment for typical 4-6 weeks of treatment poses a significant challenge. We aimed to determine the effectiveness and acceptability of an accelerated rTMS protocol for MDD. In this naturalistic trial, 27 patients with moderate to severe chronic and treatment-resistant MDD were treated with twice-daily HF-rTMS (10 Hz) applied over the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex for 2 consecutive weeks (60,000 pulses). The primary outcomes were rates of clinical remission and response (16-item Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology post-treatment score ≤ 6, and ≥ 50% reduction, respectively). Secondary outcomes were self-reported anxious symptoms, depressive symptoms and quality of life, and dropout rates as a proxy for acceptability. Ten (37.0%) patients met criteria for clinical remission and 15 (55.6%) were classified as responders, with comparable outcomes for both moderate and severe MDD. Clinician-rated improvements in depressive symptoms were paralleled in self-reported depressive and anxious symptoms, as well as quality of life. No patient discontinued treatment. This study is limited by short treatment duration that might be lengthened with corresponding improvements in effectiveness, limited duration of follow-up, small sample size, and an open-label design requiring randomized controlled replication. An accelerated protocol involving twice-daily sessions of HF-rTMS over the left DLPFC for 2 weeks was effective in treatment-resistant MDD, and had excellent acceptability. Additional research is required to optimize accelerated rTMS treatment protocols and determine efficacy using sham-controlled trials. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Clinical evaluation of incadronate in korean patients with malignancy-associated hypercalcemia: An open-label, multicenter study

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sung-Bae; Lee, Jung Shin; Kim, Heung Tae; Im, Yong Hyuck; Kim, Tae Won; Ryoo, Baek Yeol; Park, Yeon Hee; Park, Joon Oh; Park, Keunchil; Katoh, Hitoshi; Yamamoto, Minoru

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background: Incadronate has been found to lessen the increase in corrected serum calcium levels in malignancy-associated hypercalcemia (MAH) in a Phase III study in Japan. The drug is currently used to treat MAH in Japan. Objective: The purpose of this study was to assess the clinical usefulness of incadronate in patients with MAH. Methods: This open-label study was conducted at 3 medical institutions in Korea. Korean patients with MAH (corrected serum calcium levels ≥11.0 mg/dL) were given a single 10-mg IV infusion of incadronate over 2 to 4 hours in 500 to 1000 mL of normal saline. Corrected calcium levels were determined and subjective symptoms and objective findings (ie, bone pain, spontaneous pain, pain from contusion, tenderness, other pain, loss of appetite, nausea and/or vomiting, thirst, constipation, fatigue, and disturbance of consciousness) were used to monitor the effectiveness of the drug for 6 days after the infusion. Symptoms were evaluated using a 4-point scale (0 = none to 3 = severe). Adverse events (AEs) were identified by patients' reports, and adverse drug events (ADEs) were assessed by the investigators throughout the study. Results: Twenty-four Korean patients (18 [75%]male, 6 [25%]female; mean age, 56.5 years) were included in the study; data from 22 and 24 patients were used to assess effectiveness and tolerability, respectively. Corrected serum calcium level was significantly decreased on day 6 after treatment compared with pretreatment on day 0 (baseline) (9.51 [0.89] mg/dL vs 11.83 [0.89] mg/dL; P < 0.001). The antihypercalcemic effect of incadronate became apparent as an inhibition of bone absorption a few days after infusion. Corrected serum calcium level was significantly decreased on days 2 to 6 (P < 0.001) after treatment compared with pretreatment at baseline. Evaluation of symptoms showed significant improvement in the incadronate-treated group (mean total score [range] at baseline, 8 [1–23] and day 6, 5.5 [1–17

  5. A Complex Multiherbal Regimen Based on Ayurveda Medicine for the Management of Hepatic Cirrhosis Complicated by Ascites: Nonrandomized, Uncontrolled, Single Group, Open-Label Observational Clinical Study

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Manish V.; Patel, Kalapi B.; Gupta, Shivenarain; Michalsen, Andreas; Stapelfeldt, Elmar; Kessler, Christian S.

    2015-01-01

    Hepatic cirrhosis is one of the leading causes of death worldwide, especially if complicated by ascites. This chronic condition can be related to the classical disease entity jalodara in Traditional Indian Medicine (Ayurveda). The present paper aims to evaluate the general potential of Ayurvedic therapy for overall clinical outcomes in hepatic cirrhosis complicated by ascites (HCcA). In form of a nonrandomized, uncontrolled, single group, open-label observational clinical study, 56 patients fulfilling standardized diagnostic criteria for HCcA were observed during their treatment at the P. D. Patel Ayurveda Hospital, Nadiad, India. Based on Ayurvedic tradition, a standardized treatment protocol was developed and implemented, consisting of oral administration of single and compound herbal preparations combined with purificatory measures as well as dietary and lifestyle regimens. The outcomes were assessed by measuring liver functions through specific clinical features and laboratory parameters and by evaluating the Child-Pugh prognostic grade score. After 6 weeks of treatment and a follow-up period of 18 weeks, the outcomes showed statistically significant and clinically relevant improvements. Further larger and randomized trials on effectiveness, safety, and quality of the Ayurvedic approach in the treatment of HCcA are warranted to support these preliminary findings. PMID:26339267

  6. Effect of moderate alcohol consumption on fetuin-A levels in men and women: post-hoc analyses of three open-label randomized crossover trials

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Fetuin-A, a liver-derived glycoprotein that impairs insulin-signalling, has emerged as a biomarker for diabetes risk. Although moderate alcohol consumption has been inversely associated with fetuin-A, data from clinical trials are lacking. Thus, we evaluated whether moderate alcohol consumption decreases circulating levels of fetuin-A. Methods We analyzed data of three separate open-label, randomized, crossover trials: 1) 36 postmenopausal women consuming 250 ml white wine (25 g alcohol) or white grape juice daily for 6 weeks, 2) 24 premenopausal women consuming 660 ml beer (26 g alcohol) or alcohol-free beer daily for 3 weeks, and 3) 24 young men consuming 100 ml vodka (30 g alcohol) orange juice or only orange juice daily for 4 weeks. After each treatment period fasting blood samples were collected. Results Circulating fetuin-A concentrations decreased in men after vodka consumption (Mean ± SEM: 441 ± 11 to 426 ± 11 μg/ml, p = 0.02), but not in women after wine (448 ± 17 to 437 ± 17 μg/ml, p = 0.16) or beer consumption (498 ± 15 to 492 ± 15 μg/ml, p = 0.48) compared to levels after each corresponding alcohol-free treatment. Post-hoc power analyses indicated that the statistical power to detect a similar effect as observed in men was 30% among the postmenopausal women and 31% among the premenopausal women. Conclusions In these randomized crossover trials, moderate alcohol consumption decreased fetuin-A in men but not in women. This sex-specific effect may be explained by the relatively short intervention periods or the low statistical power in the trials among women. Trials registration ClinicalTrials.gov ID no’s: NCT00285909, NCT00524550, NCT00918918. PMID:24548643

  7. Deep brain stimulation plus best medical therapy versus best medical therapy alone for advanced Parkinson's disease (PD SURG trial): a randomised, open-label trial

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Adrian; Gill, Steven; Varma, Thelekat; Jenkinson, Crispin; Quinn, Niall; Mitchell, Rosalind; Scott, Richard; Ives, Natalie; Rick, Caroline; Daniels, Jane; Patel, Smitaa; Wheatley, Keith

    2010-01-01

    Summary Background Surgical intervention for advanced Parkinson's disease is an option if medical therapy fails to control symptoms adequately. We aimed to assess whether surgery and best medical therapy improved self-reported quality of life more than best medical therapy alone in patients with advanced Parkinson's disease. Methods The PD SURG trial is an ongoing randomised, open-label trial. At 13 neurosurgical centres in the UK, between November, 2000, and December, 2006, patients with Parkinson's disease that was not adequately controlled by medical therapy were randomly assigned by use of a computerised minimisation procedure to immediate surgery (lesioning or deep brain stimulation at the discretion of the local clinician) and best medical therapy or to best medical therapy alone. Patients were analysed in the treatment group to which they were randomised, irrespective of whether they received their allocated treatment. The primary endpoint was patient self-reported quality of life on the 39-item Parkinson's disease questionnaire (PDQ-39). Changes between baseline and 1 year were compared by use of t tests. This trial is registered with Current Controlled Trials, number ISRCTN34111222. Findings 366 patients were randomly assigned to receive immediate surgery and best medical therapy (183) or best medical therapy alone (183). All patients who had surgery had deep brain stimulation. At 1 year, the mean improvement in PDQ-39 summary index score compared with baseline was 5·0 points in the surgery group and 0·3 points in the medical therapy group (difference −4·7, 95% CI −7·6 to −1·8; p=0·001); the difference in mean change in PDQ-39 score in the mobility domain between the surgery group and the best medical therapy group was −8·9 (95% CI −13·8 to −4·0; p=0·0004), in the activities of daily living domain was −12·4 (−17·3 to −7·5; p<0·0001), and in the bodily discomfort domain was −7·5 (−12·6 to −2·4; p=0·004). Differences

  8. Thalidomide induces clinical remission and mucosal healing in adults with active Crohn's disease: a prospective open-label study.

    PubMed

    He, Yao; Mao, Ren; Chen, Fang; Xu, Ping-Ping; Chen, Bai-Li; Wu, Yun; Qiu, Yun; Zhang, Sheng-Hong; Feng, Rui; Zeng, Zhi-Rong; Ben-Horin, Shomron; Chen, Min-Hu

    2017-05-01

    Thalidomide is effective in inducing and maintaining clinical remission in children and adolescents with refractory Crohn's disease (CD). However, little is known about the efficacy and safety of thalidomide for adult patients with CD. We conducted a prospective open-label cohort study between January 2013 and April 2015. A total of 47 adult patients with active CD who were dependent/resistant or intolerant to corticosteroids and/or immunomodulators or biologics received 50-100 mg of thalidomide daily. Primary outcome was clinical remission evaluated at week 8. Endoscopic assessment was performed at week 24 and defined as endoscopic response (decrease in Crohn's Disease Endoscopic Index of Severity [CDEIS] score > 5 points from baseline CDEIS of 6 or more), complete endoscopic remission (CDEIS score < 3), and mucosal healing (MH) (no ulceration). A total of 47 adults with active CD were enrolled. The clinical remission rate was 14.9% and 23.4% at week 4 and week 8, but increased to 46.8% at week 12 and 53.2% at week 24 out of all the 47 patients included (intention-to-treat analysis). Altogether 32 patients consented and underwent ileocolonoscopy at week 24. The rate of endoscopic response and complete endoscopic remission were 68.4% and 43.8%. MH (no ulceration) was achieved in 28.1% of patients. Adverse events occurred in 27/47 (57.4%) patients but necessitated therapy discontinuation in only 5/47 (10.6%) of patients. Low-dose thalidomide was effective and tolerated for inducing and maintaining clinical remission in adult patients with active CD, but the optimal time frame for thalidomide to induce clinical remission may be longer than previously appreciated and is probably optimal at 12 weeks. MH could reasonably be achievable with thalidomide.

  9. Long-term treatment of Cushing's disease with pasireotide: 5-year results from an open-label extension study of a Phase III trial.

    PubMed

    Petersenn, S; Salgado, L R; Schopohl, J; Portocarrero-Ortiz, L; Arnaldi, G; Lacroix, A; Scaroni, C; Ravichandran, S; Kandra, A; Biller, B M K

    2017-07-01

    Treating hypercortisolism in patients with Cushing's disease after failed surgery often requires chronic medication, underlining the need for therapies with favourable long-term efficacy and safety profiles. In a randomised, double-blind study, 162 adult patients with persistent/recurrent or de novo Cushing's disease received pasireotide. Patients with mean urinary free cortisol at/below the upper limit of normal or clinical benefit at month 12 could continue receiving pasireotide during an open-ended, open-label phase, the outcomes of which are described herein. Sixteen patients received 5 years of pasireotide treatment. Among these, median (95% confidence interval) percentage change from baseline in mean urinary free cortisol was -82.6% (-89.0, -41.9) and -81.8% (-89.8, -67.4) at months 12 and 60. Eleven patients had mean urinary free cortisol ≤ upper limit of normal at month 60. Improvements in clinical signs were sustained during long-term treatment. The safety profile of pasireotide at 5 years was similar to that reported after 12 months. Fifteen of 16 patients experienced a hyperglycaemia-related adverse event; glycated haemoglobin levels were stable between months 6 and 60. Adverse events related to hyperglycaemia, bradycardia, gallbladder/biliary tract, and liver safety were most likely to first occur by month 6; adverse event severity did not tend to worsen over time. This represents the longest prospective trial of a medical therapy for Cushing's disease to date. A subset of patients treated with pasireotide maintained biochemical and clinical improvements for 5 years, with no new safety signals emerging. These data support the use of pasireotide as an effective long-term therapy for some patients with Cushing's disease.

  10. Use of clopidogrel with or without aspirin in patients taking oral anticoagulant therapy and undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention: an open-label, randomised, controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Dewilde, Willem J M; Oirbans, Tom; Verheugt, Freek W A; Kelder, Johannes C; De Smet, Bart J G L; Herrman, Jean-Paul; Adriaenssens, Tom; Vrolix, Mathias; Heestermans, Antonius A C M; Vis, Marije M; Tijsen, Jan G P; van 't Hof, Arnoud W; ten Berg, Jurriën M

    2013-03-30

    If percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is required in patients taking oral anticoagulants, antiplatelet therapy with aspirin and clopidogrel is indicated, but such triple therapy increases the risk of serious bleeding. We investigated the safety and efficacy of clopidogrel alone compared with clopidogrel plus aspirin. We did an open-label, multicentre, randomised, controlled trial in 15 centres in Belgium and the Netherlands. From November, 2008, to November, 2011, adults receiving oral anticoagulants and undergoing PCI were assigned clopidogrel alone (double therapy) or clopidogrel plus aspirin (triple therapy). The primary outcome was any bleeding episode within 1 year of PCI, assessed by intention to treat. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00769938. 573 patients were enrolled and 1-year data were available for 279 (98·2%) patients assigned double therapy and 284 (98·3%) assigned triple therapy. Mean ages were 70·3 (SD 7·0) years and 69·5 (8·0) years, respectively. Bleeding episodes were seen in 54 (19·4%) patients receiving double therapy and in 126 (44·4%) receiving triple therapy (hazard ratio [HR] 0·36, 95% CI 0·26-0·50, p<0·0001). In the double-therapy group, six (2·2%) patients had multiple bleeding events, compared with 34 (12·0%) in the triple-therapy group. 11 (3·9%) patients receiving double therapy required at least one blood transfusion, compared with 27 (9·5%) patients in the triple-therapy group (odds ratio from Kaplan-Meier curve 0·39, 95% CI 0·17-0·84, p=0·011). Use of clopiogrel without aspirin was associated with a significant reduction in bleeding complications and no increase in the rate of thrombotic events. Antonius Ziekenhuis Foundation, Strect Foundation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Randomized, open-label trial evaluating the preventive effect of tetracycline on afatinib induced-skin toxicities in non-small cell lung cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Arrieta, Oscar; Vega-González, María Teresa; López-Macías, Diego; Martínez-Hernández, Jorge Negueb; Bacon-Fonseca, Ludwing; Macedo-Pérez, Eleazar Omar; Ramírez-Tirado, Laura Alejandra; Flores-Estrada, Diana; de la Garza-Salazar, Jaime

    2015-06-01

    Afatinib has shown long progression free survival and improvement in quality of life in advanced Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC) patients. Although afatinib causes acneiform rash, it can be manageable. Tetracyclines are usually used to treat it; nonetheless, there is no trial that evaluates their prophylactic efficacy on afatinib induced-skin toxicities (AIST). This open-label, randomized, controlled trial assessed the preventive effect of tetracycline for reducing afatinib-skin toxicities in NSCLC patients receiving afatinib 40 mg/day. Patients were randomly assigned to receive pre-emptive treatment with tetracycline 250 mg every 12h for 4 weeks or not. Reactive treatment in both groups included general dermatological recommendations such as use of skin moisturizers, sunscreen and topical steroids, according to toxicity severity. All patients were blindly monitored for skin toxicities by an expert dermatologist at the start of treatment with afatinib (day 0), weeks 2 and 4 of treatment. The protocol is registered on clinicaltrials.gov (NCT01880515). We included 90 patients, no differences were found in clinical and dermatological baseline characteristics. Rash incidence of any grade, and grade ≥2 was less frequent in the pre-emptive arm vs. the control arm (44.5 vs. 75.6%, RR 0.4 [95% CI 0.17-0.99], p=0.046 and 15.6 vs. 35.6%, RR 0.35 [95% CI, 0.12-0.91], p=0.030, respectively). No difference was found in paronychia, xerosis, mucositis, folliculitis, and skin fissure. No adverse event was associated with tetracycline. Neither rash nor pre-emptive tetracycline impacted on response rate, progression-free or overall survivals. Pre-emptive tetracycline was well tolerated and reduced the rash incidence and severity associated with afatinib in more than 60%. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Safety and tolerability of intrathecal delivery of autologous bone marrow nucleated cells in children with cerebral palsy: an open-label phase I trial.

    PubMed

    Mancías-Guerra, Consuelo; Marroquín-Escamilla, Alma Rosa; González-Llano, Oscar; Villarreal-Martínez, Laura; Jaime-Pérez, José Carlos; García-Rodríguez, Fernando; Valdés-Burnes, Sagrario Lisete; Rodríguez-Romo, Laura Nely; Barrera-Morales, Dinorah Catalina; Sánchez-Hernández, José Javier; Cantú-Rodríguez, Olga Graciela; Gutiérrez-Aguirre, César Homero; Gómez-De León, Andrés; Elizondo-Riojas, Guillermo; Salazar-Riojas, Rosario; Gómez-Almaguer, David

    2014-06-01

    Cerebral palsy (CP) is related to severe perinatal hypoxia with permanent brain damage in nearly 50% of surviving preterm infants. Cell therapy is a potential therapeutic option for CP by several mechanisms, including immunomodulation through cytokine and growth factor secretion. In this phase I open-label clinical trial, 18 pediatric patients with CP were included to assess the safety of autologous bone marrow-derived total nucleated cell (TNC) intrathecal and intravenous injection after stimulation with granulocyte colony-stimulating factor. Motor, cognitive, communication, personal-social and adaptive areas were evaluated at baseline and 1 and 6 months after the procedure through the use of the Battelle Developmental Inventory. Magnetic resonance imaging was performed at baseline and 6 months after therapy. This study was registered in ClinicaTrials.gov (NCT01019733). A median of 13.12 × 10(8) TNCs (range, 4.83-53.87) including 10.02 × 10(6) CD34+ cells (range, 1.02-29.9) in a volume of 7 mL (range, 4-10.5) was infused intrathecally. The remaining cells from the bone marrow aspirate were administered intravenously; 6.01 × 10(8) TNCs (range, 1.36-17.85), with 3.39 × 10(6) cells being CD34+. Early adverse effects included headache, vomiting, fever and stiff neck occurred in three patients. No serious complications were documented. An overall 4.7-month increase in developmental age according to the Battelle Developmental Inventory, including all areas of evaluation, was observed (±SD 2.63). No MRI changes at 6 months of follow-up were found. Subarachnoid placement of autologous bone marrow-derived TNC in children with CP is a safe procedure. The results suggest a possible increase in neurological function. Copyright © 2014 International Society for Cellular Therapy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Feasibility and effectiveness of oral cholera vaccine in an urban endemic setting in Bangladesh: a cluster randomised open-label trial.

    PubMed

    Qadri, Firdausi; Ali, Mohammad; Chowdhury, Fahima; Khan, Ashraful Islam; Saha, Amit; Khan, Iqbal Ansary; Begum, Yasmin A; Bhuiyan, Taufiqur R; Chowdhury, Mohiul Islam; Uddin, Md Jasim; Khan, Jahangir A M; Chowdhury, Atique Iqbal; Rahman, Anisur; Siddique, Shah Alam; Asaduzzaman, Muhammad; Akter, Afroza; Khan, Arifuzzaman; Ae You, Young; Siddik, Ashraf Uddin; Saha, Nirod Chandra; Kabir, Alamgir; Riaz, Baizid Khoorshid; Biswas, Shwapon Kumar; Begum, Farzana; Unicomb, Leanne; Luby, Stephen P; Cravioto, Alejandro; Clemens, John D

    2015-10-03

    Cholera is endemic in Bangladesh with epidemics occurring each year. The decision to use a cheap oral killed whole-cell cholera vaccine to control the disease depends on the feasibility and effectiveness of vaccination when delivered in a public health setting. We therefore assessed the feasibility and protective effect of delivering such a vaccine through routine government services in urban Bangladesh and evaluated the benefit of adding behavioural interventions to encourage safe drinking water and hand washing to vaccination in this setting. We did this cluster-randomised open-label trial in Dhaka, Bangladesh. We randomly assigned 90 clusters (1:1:1) to vaccination only, vaccination and behavioural change, or no intervention. The primary outcome was overall protective effectiveness, assessed as the risk of severely dehydrating cholera during 2 years after vaccination for all individuals present at time of the second dose. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01339845. Of 268,896 people present at baseline, we analysed 267,270: 94,675 assigned to vaccination only, 92,539 assigned to vaccination and behavioural change, and 80,056 assigned to non-intervention. Vaccine coverage was 65% in the vaccination only group and 66% in the vaccination and behavioural change group. Overall protective effectiveness was 37% (95% CI lower bound 18%; p=0·002) in the vaccination group and 45% (95% CI lower bound 24%; p=0·001) in the vaccination and behavioural change group. We recorded no vaccine-related serious adverse events. Our findings provide the first indication of the effect of delivering an oral killed whole-cell cholera vaccine to poor urban populations with endemic cholera using routine government services and will help policy makers to formulate vaccination strategies to reduce the burden of severely dehydrating cholera in such populations. Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Effect of phenylephrine vs. ephedrine on frontal lobe oxygenation during caesarean section with spinal anesthesia: an open label randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Foss, Visti T.; Christensen, Robin; Rokamp, Kim Z.; Nissen, Peter; Secher, Niels H.; Nielsen, Henning B.

    2014-01-01

    Background: During caesarean section spinal anesthesia may provoke maternal hypotension that we prevent by administration of phenylephrine and/or ephedrine. Phenylephrine is however reported to reduce the near infrared spectroscopy-determined frontal lobe oxygenation (ScO2) but whether that is the case for patients exposed to spinal anesthesia is not known. Objectives: To evaluate the impact of phenylephrine vs. ephedrine on ScO2during caesarean section with spinal anesthesia in a single center, open-label parallel-group study with balanced randomization of 24 women (1:1). Secondary aims were to compare the effect of the two drugs on maternal hemodynamics and fetal heart rate. Intervention: Ephedrine (0.8–3.3 mg/min) vs. phenylephrine infusion (0.02–0.07 mg/min). Results: For the duration of surgery, administration of ephedrine maintained ScO2 (compared to baseline +2.1 ± 2.8%; mean ± SE, while phenylephrine reduced ScO2 (−8.6 ± 2.8%; p = 0.005) with a 10.7% difference in ScO2between groups (p = 0.0106). Also maternal heart rate was maintained with ephedrine (+3 ± 3 bpm) but decreased with phenylephrine (−11 ± 3 bpm); difference 14 bpm (p = 0.0053), but no significant difference in mean arterial pressure (p = 0.1904) or CO (p = 0.0683) was observed between groups. The two drugs also elicited an equal increase in fetal heart rate (by 19 ± 3 vs. 18 ± 3 bpm; p = 0.744). Conclusion: In the choice between phenylephrine and ephedrine for maintenance of blood pressure during caesarean section with spinal anesthesia, ephedrine maintains frontal lobe oxygenation and maternal heart rate with a similar increase in fetal heart rate as elicited by phenylephrine. Trial registration: Clinical trials NCT 01509521 and EudraCT 2001 006103 35. PMID:24624090

  15. Dabrafenib in BRAF V600E–Mutant Advanced Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer: an Open-label, Single arm, Multicenter, Phase 2 Trial

    PubMed Central

    Planchard, David; Kim, Tae Min; Mazieres, Julien; Quoix, Elisabeth; Riely, Gregory; Barlesi, Fabrice; Souquet, Pierre-John; Smit, Egbert F.; Groen, Harry J. M.; Kelly, Ronan J.; Cho, B. C.; Socinski, Mark A.; Pandite, Lini; Nase, Christine; Ma, Bo; D’Amelio, Anthony; Mookerjee, Bijoyesh; Curtis, C. Martin; Johnson, Bruce E.

    2016-01-01

    Background Activating BRAF V600E mutations are found in approximately 1–2% of adenocarcinomas of the lung offering an opportunity to test targeted therapy for this disease. Dabrafenib is an oral selective inhibitor of the BRAF kinase. The aim of this study was to assess the clinical activity of dabrafenib in patients with advanced BRAF V600E-mutant non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods In this phase 2, multicenter, nonrandomized, open-label study of previously treated and untreated patients with stage IV, metastatic NSCLC and BRAF V600E mutation, we evaluated the antitumor activity and safety of oral dabrafenib (150 mg twice daily). The primary endpoint was investigator-assessed overall response rate (ORR) in patients receiving ≥ 1 dose of study drug. Safety analysis was performed on the all-treated population (all previously treated and untreated patients receiving ≥ 1 dose of study drug). The study is ongoing but not enrolling participants in this cohort. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01336634. Findings Between August 2011 and February 2014 a total of 84 previously treated and untreated patients were enrolled. Investigator-assessed ORR for 78 pretreated patients was 33% (95% confidence interval [CI], 23·1 to 44·9). Independent review committee assessment of ORR was consistent with investigator-based assessment. Four of the six previously untreated patients had an objective response. One patient died on study due to intracranial hemorrhage that was considered by the investigator to be due to study drug. Serious adverse events were reported in 35 (42%) of 84 patients. The most frequent grade 3 or higher adverse events were cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (10 [12%] of 84 patients), asthenia (4 [5%] of 84 patients), and basal cell carcinoma (4 [5%] of 84 patients). Interpretation This is, to our knowledge, the first prospective trial focusing on BRAF V600E-mutant NSCLC to show clinical activity of a BRAF inhibitor. The

  16. Eggshell membrane: A possible new natural therapeutic for joint and connective tissue disorders. Results from two open-label human clinical studies

    PubMed Central

    Ruff, Kevin J; DeVore, Dale P; Leu, Michael D; Robinson, Mark A

    2009-01-01

    Background: Natural Eggshell Membrane (NEM®) is a novel dietary supplement that contains naturally occurring glycosaminoglycans and proteins essential for maintaining healthy joint and connective tissues. Two single center, open-label human clinical studies were conducted to evaluate the efficacy and safety of NEM® as a treatment for pain and inflexibility associated with joint and connective tissue disorders. Methods: Eleven (single-arm trial) and 28 (double-arm trial) patients received oral NEM® 500 mg once daily for four weeks. The primary outcome measure was to evaluate the change in general pain associated with the treatment joints/areas (both studies). In the single-arm trial, range of motion (ROM) and related ROM-associated pain was also evaluated. The primary treatment response endpoints were at seven and 30 days. Both clinical assessments were performed on the intent-to-treat (ITT) population within each study. Results: Single-arm trial: Supplementation with NEM® produced a significant treatment response at seven days for flexibility (27.8% increase; P = 0.038) and at 30 days for general pain (72.5% reduction; P = 0.007), flexibility (43.7% increase; P = 0.006), and ROM-associated pain (75.9% reduction; P = 0.021). Double-arm trial: Supplementation with NEM® produced a significant treatment response for pain at seven days for both treatment arms (X: 18.4% reduction; P = 0.021. Y: 31.3% reduction; P = 0.014). There was no clinically meaningful difference between treatment arms at seven days, so the Y arm crossed over to the X formulation for the remainder of the study. The significant treatment response continued through 30 days for pain (30.2% reduction; P = 0.0001). There were no adverse events reported during either study and the treatment was reported to be well tolerated by study participants. Conclusions: Natural Eggshell Membrane (NEM®) is a possible new effective and safe therapeutic option for the treatment of pain and inflexibility

  17. Methylphenidate treatment of adult male prison inmates with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder: randomised double-blind placebo-controlled trial with open-label extension.

    PubMed

    Ginsberg, Ylva; Lindefors, Nils

    2012-01-01

    Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is highly prevalent in prison inmates, but pharmacological treatment has not yet been evaluated in this group. To evaluate osmotic-release oral system (OROS) methylphenidate in adult male long-term prison inmates with ADHD. Randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled 5-week trial, followed by 47-week open-label extension in 30 prison inmates with ADHD and comorbid disorders. Primary outcome was level of ADHD symptoms after 5 weeks, evaluated by a masked assessor. Secondary outcomes were self-reported ADHD symptoms, global severity and global functioning throughout the 52-week trial, and post hoc treatment response and numbers needed to treat (NNT) (trial registration: NCT00482313.) Treatment significantly improved ADHD during the trial (P<0.001; Cohen's d = 2.17), with reduced symptom severity and improved global functioning. The placebo response, cardiovascular measures and adverse events were non-significant; the NNT was 1.1. Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder symptoms, global severity and global functioning continued to improve during the open-label extension. Osmotic-release oral system methylphenidate is an effective treatment for adult male prison inmates with ADHD.

  18. Deep brain stimulation of the subcallosal cingulate for treatment-refractory anorexia nervosa: 1 year follow-up of an open-label trial.

    PubMed

    Lipsman, Nir; Lam, Eileen; Volpini, Matthew; Sutandar, Kalam; Twose, Richelle; Giacobbe, Peter; Sodums, Devin J; Smith, Gwenn S; Woodside, D Blake; Lozano, Andres M

    2017-04-01

    Anorexia nervosa is a life-threatening illness. Brain circuits believed to drive anorexia nervosa symptoms can be accessed with surgical techniques such as deep brain stimulation (DBS). Initial results suggest that DBS of the subcallosal cingulate is safe and associated with improvements in mood and anxiety. Here, we investigated the safety, clinical, and neuroimaging outcomes of DBS of the subcallosal cingulate in a group of patients during 12 months of active stimulation. We did this prospective open-label trial at the Department of Surgery of the University of Toronto (Toronto, ON, Canada). Patients were eligible to participate if they were aged 20-60 years and had a diagnosis of anorexia nervosa (restricting or binge-purging subtype) and a demonstrated history of chronicity or treatment resistance. Following a period of medical stabilisation, patients underwent surgery for DBS and received open-label continuous stimulation for the entire 1 year study duration. The primary outcome was safety and acceptability of the procedure. The secondary outcomes were body-mass index (BMI), mood, anxiety, affective regulation, and anorexia nervosa-specific behaviours at 12 months after surgery, as well as changes in neural circuitry (measured with PET imaging of cerebral glucose metabolism at baseline and at 6 and 12 months after surgery). This trial was registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01476540. 16 patients with treatment-refractory anorexia nervosa were enrolled between September, 2011, and January, 2014, and underwent DBS of the subcallosal cingulate between November, 2011, and April, 2014. Patients had a mean age of 34 years (SD 8) and average illness duration of 18 years (SD 6). Two patients requested that their devices be removed or deactivated during the study, although their reasons for doing so were poorly defined. The most common adverse event was pain related to surgical incision or positioning that required oral analgesics for longer than 3-4 days

  19. Clinically Effective Treatment of Fibromyalgia Pain With High-Definition Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation: Phase II Open-Label Dose Optimization.

    PubMed

    Castillo-Saavedra, Laura; Gebodh, Nigel; Bikson, Marom; Diaz-Cruz, Camilo; Brandao, Rivail; Coutinho, Livia; Truong, Dennis; Datta, Abhishek; Shani-Hershkovich, Revital; Weiss, Michal; Laufer, Ilan; Reches, Amit; Peremen, Ziv; Geva, Amir; Parra, Lucas C; Fregni, Felipe

    2016-01-01

    Despite promising preliminary results in treating fibromyalgia (FM) pain, no neuromodulation technique has been adopted in clinical practice because of limited efficacy, low response rate, or poor tolerability. This phase II open-label trial aims to define a methodology for a clinically effective treatment of pain in FM by establishing treatment protocols and screening procedures to maximize efficacy and response rate. High-definition transcranial direct current stimulation (HD-tDCS) provides targeted subthreshold brain stimulation, combining tolerability with specificity. We aimed to establish the number of HD-tDCS sessions required to achieve a 50% FM pain reduction, and to characterize the biometrics of the response, including brain network activation pain scores of contact heat-evoked potentials. We report a clinically significant benefit of a 50% pain reduction in half (n = 7) of the patients (N = 14), with responders and nonresponders alike benefiting from a cumulative effect of treatment, reflected in significant pain reduction (P = .035) as well as improved quality of life (P = .001) over time. We also report an aggregate 6-week response rate of 50% of patients and estimate 15 as the median number of HD-tDCS sessions to reach clinically meaningful outcomes. The methodology for a pivotal FM neuromodulation clinical trial with individualized treatment is thus supported. Registered in Clinicaltrials.gov under registry number NCT01842009. In this article, an optimized protocol for the treatment of fibromyalgia pain with targeted subthreshold brain stimulation using high-definition transcranial direct current stimulation is outlined. Copyright © 2016 American Pain Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Intravenous carbamazepine as short-term replacement therapy for oral carbamazepine in adults with epilepsy: Pooled tolerability results from two open-label trials.

    PubMed

    Lee, Deborah; Kalu, Uwa; Halford, Jonathan J; Biton, Victor; Cloyd, James; Klein, Pavel; Bekersky, Ihor; Peng, Guangbin; Dheerendra, Suresh; Tolbert, Dwain

    2015-06-01

    To report tolerability findings and maintenance of seizure control from a pooled analysis of phase I open-label trial OV-1015 (NCT01079351) and phase III study 13181A (NCT01128959). Patients receiving a stable oral dosage of carbamazepine were switched to an intravenous (IV) carbamazepine formulation solubilized in a cyclodextrin matrix (at a 70% dosage conversion) for either a 15- or a 30-min infusion every 6 h for up to 7 days and then switched back. A subset of patients who tolerated 15-min infusions also received 2- to 5-min (rapid) infusions. Assessments included physical and laboratory evaluations, electrocardiography (ECG) studies, as well as adverse event (AE) monitoring for tolerability. Convulsion/seizure AE terms and data from seizure diaries were used as proxies for the assessment of consistency of seizure control between formulations. Of the 203 patients exposed to IV carbamazepine (30 min, n = 43; 15 min, n = 160), 113 received 149 rapid infusions. During infusion, the most commonly reported AEs (≥ 5%) were dizziness (19%), somnolence (6%), headache (6%), and blurred vision (5%). IV carbamazepine was not associated with clinically relevant cardiac AEs. The tolerability profile appeared similar between patients who received <1,600 mg/day (n = 174) and ≥ 1,600 mg/day (n = 29) carbamazepine. Cyclodextrin exposure was not associated with clinically relevant changes in AEs or renal biomarkers. Seizure control was maintained as patients transitioned between oral and IV carbamazepine. IV carbamazepine administered as multiple 30- or 15-min infusions every 6 h, and as a single rapid infusion, was well tolerated as a short-term replacement in adults with epilepsy receiving stable dosages of oral carbamazepine. Infusion site reactions, which were generally mild, were the only unique AEs identified; seizure control was generally unchanged when patients were switching between formulations. © 2015 Lundbeck LLC. Epilepsia published by Wiley Periodicals Inc. on

  1. Intramuscular olanzapine versus intramuscular haloperidol plus lorazepam for the treatment of acute schizophrenia with agitation: An open-label, randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Huang, Charles Lung-Cheng; Hwang, Tzung-Jeng; Chen, Yi-Hsing; Huang, Guan-Hua; Hsieh, Ming H; Chen, Hsiu-Hsi; Hwu, Hai-Gwo

    2015-05-01

    To compare the efficacy and safety profile between intramuscular (IM) olanzapine and IM haloperidol plus IM lorazepam in acute schizophrenic patients with moderate to severe agitation. This was a prospective, randomized, open-label study. Acutely agitated patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder (n = 67) were randomized to receive 10 mg IM olanzapine (n = 37) or 5 mg IM haloperidol plus 2 mg IM lorazepam (n = 30). Agitation was measured with Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale Excited Component (PANSS-EC) and Agitation-Calmness Evaluation Scale (ACES) during the first 2 hours and at 24 hours after the first injection. Safety was assessed using the Simpson-Angus Scale and Barnes Akathisia Rating Scale and by recording adverse events at 24 hours following the first injection. The Clinical Global Impression-Severity scale was also rated. The PANSS-EC scores decreased significantly at 2 hours after the first injection in both groups (olanzapine: -10.2, p < 0.001; haloperidol + lorazepam: -9.9, p < 0.001). Haloperidol plus lorazepam was not inferior to olanzapine in reducing agitation at 2 hours. There were no significant differences in PANSS-EC or ACES scores between the two groups within 2 hours following the first injection. The frequencies of adverse events and changes in Clinical Global Impression-Severity, Simpson-Angus Scale, and Barnes Akathisia Rating Scale scores from baseline to 24 hours showed no significant differences between the groups. The findings suggest that IM haloperidol (5 mg) plus lorazepam (2 mg) is not inferior to IM olanzapine (10 mg) in the treatment of acute schizophrenic patients with moderate to severe agitation (ClinialTrials.gov identifier number NCT00797277). Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Luteal phase empirical low molecular weight heparin administration in patients with failed ICSI embryo transfer cycles: a randomized open-labeled pilot trial.

    PubMed

    Urman, B; Ata, B; Yakin, K; Alatas, C; Aksoy, S; Mercan, R; Balaban, B

    2009-07-01

    The pathology underlying recurrent implantation failures (RIF) is not clear and treatment options proposed are generally not evidence based. Although the effect of heparin on trophoblast biology has not been studied extensively, given the available data suggesting a possible beneficial effect of heparin on embryo implantation, we decided to undertake this pilot study. One hundred and fifty women with > or =2 failed assisted reproduction treatment cycles were included in this randomized open-label pilot trial. Participants underwent controlled ovarian stimulation with the long protocol and were randomly allocated to receive 1 mg/kg/day low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) or no treatment in addition to routine luteal phase support (LPS) on the day after oocyte retrieval. LPS and LMWH was continued up to the 12th gestational week in pregnant participants. There were 26 (34.7%) live births in the LMWH group, and 20 (26.7%) in the control group (absolute difference 8.0%, 95% CI -4.2 to 24.9%, P = 0.29). There were 34 (45.3%) and 29 (38.7%) clinical pregnancies in the LMWH and control groups, respectively (absolute difference 6.6%, 95% CI -9.0 to 21.8%, P = 0.41). Implantation rates were 24.5 and 19.8% in the LMWH and control groups, respectively (absolute difference 4.7%, 95% CI -4.7 to 14.1%, P = 0.33). Despite lack of statistical significance, observed relative increase by 30% in live birth rates with LMWH may be regarded as a clinically significant trend necessitating further research on the use of empirical LMWH in women with RIF and possibly in all women undergoing assisted reproduction treatment. Failure to demonstrate statistical significance of the observed treatment difference may be due to limited sample size of this pilot study.

  3. Long-term efficacy and safety of blonanserin in patients with first-episode schizophrenia: a 1-year open-label trial.

    PubMed

    Ninomiya, Yuriko; Miyamoto, Seiya; Tenjin, Tomomi; Ogino, Shin; Miyake, Nobumi; Kaneda, Yasuhiro; Sumiyoshi, Tomiki; Yamaguchi, Noboru

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the long-term effectiveness and safety of blonanserin, a second-generation antipsychotic drug developed in Japan, in patients with first-episode schizophrenia. Twenty-three antipsychotic-naïve patients with first-episode schizophrenia were treated within an open-label, 1-year, prospective trial of blonanserin (2-24 mg/day). Clinical evaluations were conducted at baseline and 2, 6, and 12 months after the start of treatment. The main outcome measures were changes in subjective well-being and subjective quality of life, as assessed by the Subjective Well-being under Neuroleptic treatment scale Short form-Japanese version and the Schizophrenia Quality of Life Scale-Japanese version, respectively. Secondary outcome measures included the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale, the Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia-Japanese version, laboratory tests, bodyweight, and extrapyramidal symptoms. Fourteen patients (60.9%) remained on the study at 1 year. In the intention-to-treat analysis, significant improvements were observed in several subscales on the Subjective Well-being under Neuroleptic treatment scale Short form-Japanese version, the Schizophrenia Quality of Life Scale-Japanese version, and the Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia-Japanese version, and in all factor scores on the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale. Improvement in depressive symptoms with blonanserin treatment was positively correlated with improvements in subjective well-being and subjective quality of life, as well as verbal memory. No significant changes were noted for any safety measure during the 1-year study period. Blonanserin was well tolerated and effective for the treatment of first-episode schizophrenia in terms of subjective wellness, cognition, and a wide range of pathological symptoms. Further large-scale studies are warranted to confirm our findings. © 2014 The Authors. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences © 2014

  4. Pharmacokinetics of intravesical versus oral oxybutynin in healthy adults: results of an open label, randomized, prospective clinical study.

    PubMed

    Krause, Petra; Fuhr, Uwe; Schnitker, Jörg; Albrecht, Uwe; Stein, Raimund; Rubenwolf, Peter

    2013-11-01

    We investigated the pharmacokinetics of intravesical oxybutynin and discuss the clinical implications of the results. We performed an open label, randomized, 3-period crossover clinical study in 20 healthy adults. In periods 1 and 2 subjects received a single dose of 10 mg oxybutynin HCl solution intravesically or a 5 mg tablet orally. Period 3 comprised repeat intravesical applications (7 doses) of 10 mg oxybutynin HCl. Enantioselective concentrations of oxybutynin and N-desethyloxybutynin were quantified by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated by noncompartmental methods, analyzed by descriptive statistics and compared using the average bioequivalence approach. Systemic exposure to racemic oxybutynin after intravesical administration was significantly greater, yielding 294% (90% CI 211-408) of that after oral intake of immediate release preparations, as measured by the dose normalized area under the plasma concentration time curve. In contrast, systemic exposure to racemic N-desethyloxybutynin reached only 21% (90% CI 15-29). The area under the plasma concentration time curve ratio of N-desethyloxybutynin to oxybutynin was 14-fold decreased for intravesical administration. After intravesical multidose administration, the cumulation of oxybutynin (1.3-fold) and N-desethyloxybutynin (1.6-fold) was weak, absorption was prolonged and apparent elimination half-lives were longer. The study medication was well tolerated with a third of participants reporting anticholinergic adverse effects. Our study provides evidence of significantly higher bioavailability of intravesical vs oral administration of oxybutynin due to circumvention of the intestinal first pass metabolism. Given the high efficacy and decreased rate of adverse effects, intravesical oxybutynin should be considered in patients with neurogenic lower urinary tract dysfunction who do not tolerate oral administration or in whom oral preparations fail to improve

  5. Effect of exenatide on the pharmacokinetics of a combination oral contraceptive in healthy women: an open-label, randomised, crossover trial

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Consistent with its effect on gastric emptying, exenatide, an injectable treatment for type 2 diabetes, may slow the absorption rate of concomitantly administered oral drugs resulting in a decrease in maximum concentration (Cmax). This study evaluated the drug interaction potential of exenatide when administered adjunctively with oral contraceptives, given their potential concomitant use. Methods This trial evaluated the effect of exenatide co-administration on single- and multiple-dose pharmacokinetics of a combination oral contraceptive (ethinyl estradiol [EE] 30 μg, levonorgestrel [LV] 150 μg [Microgynon 30®]). Thirty-two healthy female subjects participated in an open-label, randomised, crossover trial with 3 treatment periods (oral contraceptive alone, 1 hour before exenatide, 30 minutes after exenatide). Subjects received a single dose of oral contraceptive on Day 8 of each period and QD doses on Days 10 through 28. During treatment periods of concomitant usage, exenatide was administered subcutaneously prior to morning and evening meals at 5 μg BID from Days 1 through 4 and at 10 μg BID from Days 5 through 22. Single- (Day 8) and multiple-dose (Day 22) pharmacokinetic profiles were assessed for each treatment period. Results Exenatide did not alter the bioavailability nor decrease daily trough concentrations for either oral contraceptive component. No substantive changes in oral contraceptive pharmacokinetics occurred when oral contraceptive was administered 1 hour before exenatide. Single-dose oral contraceptive administration 30 minutes after exenatide resulted in mean (90% CI) Cmax reductions of 46% (42-51%) and 41% (35-47%) for EE and LV, respectively. Repeated daily oral contraceptive administration 30 minutes after exenatide resulted in Cmax reductions of 45% (40-50%) and 27% (21-33%) for EE and LV, respectively. Peak oral contraceptive concentrations were delayed approximately 3 to 4 hours. Mild-to-moderate nausea and vomiting were the

  6. Bevacizumab plus capecitabine versus capecitabine alone in elderly patients with previously untreated metastatic colorectal cancer (AVEX): an open-label, randomised phase 3 trial.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, David; Lang, Istvan; Marcuello, Eugenio; Lorusso, Vito; Ocvirk, Janja; Shin, Dong Bok; Jonker, Derek; Osborne, Stuart; Andre, Niko; Waterkamp, Daniel; Saunders, Mark P

    2013-10-01

    Elderly patients are often under-represented in clinical trials of metastatic colorectal cancer. We aimed to assess the efficacy and safety of bevacizumab plus capecitabine compared with capecitabine alone in elderly patients with metastatic colorectal cancer. For this open-label, randomised phase 3 trial, patients aged 70 years and older with previously untreated, unresectable, metastatic colorectal cancer, who were not deemed to be candidates for oxaliplatin-based or irinotecan-based chemotherapy regimens, were randomly assigned in a 1:1 ratio via an interactive voice-response system, stratified by performance status and geographical region. Treatment consisted of capecitabine (1000 mg/m(2) orally twice a day on days 1-14) alone or with bevacizumab (7·5 mg/kg intravenously on day 1), given every 3 weeks until disease progression, unacceptable toxic effects, or withdrawal of consent. Efficacy analyses were based on the intention-to-treat population. The primary endpoint was progression-free survival. The trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00484939. From July 9, 2007, to Dec 14, 2010, 280 patients with a median age of 76 years (range 70-87) were recruited from 40 sites across ten countries. Patients were randomly assigned to receive either bevacizumab plus capecitabine (n=140) or capecitabine only (n=140). Progression-free survival was significantly longer with bevacizumab and capecitabine than with capecitabine alone (median 9·1 months [95% CI 7·3-11·4] vs 5·1 months [4·2-6·3]; hazard ratio 0·53 [0·41-0·69]; p<0·0001). Treatment-related adverse events of grade 3 or worse occurred in 53 (40%) patients in the combination group and 30 (22%) in the capecitabine group, and treatment-related serious adverse events in 19 (14%) and 11 (8%) patients. The most common grade 3 or worse adverse events of special interest for bevacizumab or chemotherapy were hand-foot syndrome (21 [16%] vs nine [7%]), diarrhoea (nine [7%] vs nine [7%]), and venous

  7. A comparison of intranasal fentanyl spray with oral transmucosal fentanyl citrate for the treatment of breakthrough cancer pain: an open-label, randomised, crossover trial.

    PubMed

    Mercadante, S; Radbruch, L; Davies, A; Poulain, P; Sitte, T; Perkins, P; Colberg, T; Camba, M A

    2009-11-01

    The efficacy of intranasal fentanyl spray (INFS) was compared with that of oral transmucosal fentanyl citrate (OTFC) for the relief of cancer-related breakthrough pain (BTP) in an open-label, crossover trial. Adult cancer patients receiving stable background opioid treatment and experiencing BTP episodes were recruited from 44 study centres in seven European countries (Austria, France, Germany, Italy, Poland, Spain and the United Kingdom); of the 196 patients enrolled, 139 were randomised to receive INFS followed by OTFC, or vice versa. Patients were titrated to an effective dose of one agent (50, 100 or 200 microg INFS; 200, 400, 600, 800, 1200 or 1600 microg OTFC) to treat six BTP episodes, then titration and treatment were repeated with the other agent. The primary outcome was patient-recorded time to onset of 'meaningful' pain relief. Secondary outcomes included pain intensity difference (PID) at 10 and 30 minutes (PID(10), PID(30)), sum of PID at 15 and 60 minutes (SPID(0-15), SPID(0-60)), ease of administration, treatment preference and relationship between background opioid dose and effective INFS dose. Additional outcome measures included proportions of episodes with > or =33% and > or =50% pain intensity (PI) reduction, and PID at additional time points. NCT00496392. Among the intention-to-treat population (n = 139), median time to onset of 'meaningful' pain relief was 11 minutes with INFS versus 16 minutes with OTFC; 65.7% of patients attained faster time to 'meaningful' pain-relief onset with INFS (p < 0.001). PID was statistically significantly greater for INFS than OTFC from 5 minutes post-dosing. Significantly more INFS-treated breakthrough pain episodes achieved clinically important pain relief (> or =33% and > or =50% PI reduction) up to 30 minutes post-dosing. The proportions of episodes treated with INFS and OTFC achieving a PI reduction of > or =33% at 5 minutes were 25.3% versus 6.8% (p < 0.001), and at 10 minutes were 51.0% versus 23.6% (p < 0

  8. Bevacizumab for newly diagnosed pleural mesothelioma in the Mesothelioma Avastin Cisplatin Pemetrexed Study (MAPS): a randomised, controlled, open-label, phase 3 trial.

    PubMed

    Zalcman, Gérard; Mazieres, Julien; Margery, Jacques; Greillier, Laurent; Audigier-Valette, Clarisse; Moro-Sibilot, Denis; Molinier, Olivier; Corre, Romain; Monnet, Isabelle; Gounant, Valérie; Rivière, Frédéric; Janicot, Henri; Gervais, Radj; Locher, Chrystèle; Milleron, Bernard; Tran, Quan; Lebitasy, Marie-Paule; Morin, Franck; Creveuil, Christian; Parienti, Jean-Jacques; Scherpereel, Arnaud

    2016-04-02

    Malignant pleural mesothelioma is an aggressive cancer with poor prognosis, linked to occupational asbestos exposure. Vascular endothelial growth factor is a key mitogen for malignant pleural mesothelioma cells, therefore targeting of vascular endothelial growth factor might prove effective. We aimed to assess the effect on survival of bevacizumab when added to the present standard of care, cisplatin plus pemetrexed, as first-line treatment of advanced malignant pleural mesothelioma. In this randomised, controlled, open-label, phase 3 trial, we recruited patients aged 18-75 years with unresectable malignant pleural mesothelioma who had not received previous chemotherapy, had an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of 0-2, had no substantial cardiovascular comorbidity, were not amenable to curative surgery, had at least one evaluable (pleural effusion) or measurable (pleural tumour solid thickening) lesion with CT, and a life expectancy of >12 weeks from 73 hospitals in France. Exclusion criteria were presence of central nervous system metastases, use of antiaggregant treatments (aspirin ≥325 mg per day, clopidogrel, ticlopidine, or dipyridamole), anti-vitamin K drugs at a curative dose, treatment with low-molecular-weight heparin at a curative dose, and treatment with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. We randomly allocated patients (1:1; minimisation method used [random factor of 0·8]; patients stratified by histology [epithelioid vs sarcomatoid or mixed histology subtypes], performance status score [0-1 vs 2], study centre, or smoking status [never smokers vs smokers]) to receive intravenously 500 mg/m(2) pemetrexed plus 75 mg/m(2) cisplatin with (PCB) or without (PC) 15 mg/kg bevacizumab in 21 day cycles for up to six cycles, until progression or toxic effects. The primary outcome was overall survival (OS) in the intention-to treat population. Treatment was open label. This IFCT-GFPC-0701 trial is registered with ClinicalTrials

  9. Comparison of Doxycycline, Minocycline, Doxycycline plus Albendazole and Albendazole Alone in Their Efficacy against Onchocerciasis in a Randomized, Open-Label, Pilot Trial

    PubMed Central

    Batsa, Linda; Ayisi-Boateng, Nana Kwame; Osei-Mensah, Jubin; Mubarik, Yusif; Konadu, Peter; Ricchiuto, Arcangelo; Fimmers, Rolf; Arriens, Sandra; Dubben, Bettina; Ford, Louise; Taylor, Mark; Hoerauf, Achim

    2017-01-01

    The search for new macrofilaricidal drugs against onchocerciasis that can be administered in shorter regimens than required for doxycycline (DOX, 200mg/d given for 4–6 weeks), identified minocycline (MIN) with superior efficacy to DOX. Further reduction in the treatment regimen may be achieved with co-administration with standard anti-filarial drugs. Therefore a randomized, open-label, pilot trial was carried out in an area in Ghana endemic for onchocerciasis, comprising 5 different regimens: the standard regimen DOX 200mg/d for 4 weeks (DOX 4w, N = 33), the experimental regimens MIN 200mg/d for 3 weeks (MIN 3w; N = 30), DOX 200mg/d for 3 weeks plus albendazole (ALB) 800mg/d for 3 days (DOX 3w + ALB 3d, N = 32), DOX 200mg/d for 3 weeks (DOX 3w, N = 31) and ALB 800mg for 3 days (ALB 3d, N = 30). Out of 158 randomized participants, 116 (74.4%) were present for the follow-up at 6 months of whom 99 participants (63.5%) followed the treatment per protocol and underwent surgery. Histological analysis of the adult worms in the extirpated nodules revealed absence of Wolbachia in 98.8% (DOX 4w), 81.4% (DOX 3w + ALB 3d), 72.7% (MIN 3w), 64.1% (DOX 3w) and 35.2% (ALB 3d) of the female worms. All 4 treatment regimens showed superiority to ALB 3d (p < 0.001, p < 0.001, p = 0.002, p = 0.008, respectively), which was confirmed by real-time PCR. Additionally, DOX 4w showed superiority to all other treatment arms. Furthermore DOX 4w and DOX 3w + ALB 3d showed a higher amount of female worms with degenerated embryogenesis compared to ALB 3d (p = 0.028, p = 0.042, respectively). These results confirm earlier studies that DOX 4w is sufficient for Wolbachia depletion and the desired parasitological effects. The data further suggest that there is an additive effect of ALB (3 days) on top of that of DOX alone, and that MIN shows a trend for stronger potency than DOX. These latter two results are preliminary and need confirmation in a fully randomized controlled phase 2 trial. Trial

  10. Effect of exenatide on the pharmacokinetics of a combination oral contraceptive in healthy women: an open-label, randomised, crossover trial.

    PubMed

    Kothare, Prajakti A; Seger, Mary E; Northrup, Justin; Mace, Kenneth; Mitchell, Malcolm I; Linnebjerg, Helle

    2012-03-19

    Consistent with its effect on gastric emptying, exenatide, an injectable treatment for type 2 diabetes, may slow the absorption rate of concomitantly administered oral drugs resulting in a decrease in maximum concentration (Cmax). This study evaluated the drug interaction potential of exenatide when administered adjunctively with oral contraceptives, given their potential concomitant use. This trial evaluated the effect of exenatide co-administration on single- and multiple-dose pharmacokinetics of a combination oral contraceptive (ethinyl estradiol [EE] 30 μg, levonorgestrel [LV] 150 μg [Microgynon 30®]). Thirty-two healthy female subjects participated in an open-label, randomised, crossover trial with 3 treatment periods (oral contraceptive alone, 1 hour before exenatide, 30 minutes after exenatide). Subjects received a single dose of oral contraceptive on Day 8 of each period and QD doses on Days 10 through 28. During treatment periods of concomitant usage, exenatide was administered subcutaneously prior to morning and evening meals at 5 μg BID from Days 1 through 4 and at 10 μg BID from Days 5 through 22. Single- (Day 8) and multiple-dose (Day 22) pharmacokinetic profiles were assessed for each treatment period. Exenatide did not alter the bioavailability nor decrease daily trough concentrations for either oral contraceptive component. No substantive changes in oral contraceptive pharmacokinetics occurred when oral contraceptive was administered 1 hour before exenatide. Single-dose oral contraceptive administration 30 minutes after exenatide resulted in mean (90% CI) Cmax reductions of 46% (42-51%) and 41% (35-47%) for EE and LV, respectively. Repeated daily oral contraceptive administration 30 minutes after exenatide resulted in Cmax reductions of 45% (40-50%) and 27% (21-33%) for EE and LV, respectively. Peak oral contraceptive concentrations were delayed approximately 3 to 4 hours. Mild-to-moderate nausea and vomiting were the most common adverse events

  11. Effects of postoperative administration of celecoxib on pain management in patients after total knee arthroplasty: study protocol for an open-label randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Mammoto, Takeo; Fujie, Keiko; Mamizuka, Naotaka; Taguchi, Noriko; Hirano, Atsushi; Yamazaki, Masashi; Ueno, Satoshi; Ma, Enbo; Hashimoto, Koichi

    2016-01-23

    Multimodal analgesia is achieved by combining different analgesics and different methods of analgesic administration, synergistically providing superior pain relief when compared with conventional analgesia. Multimodal analgesia can also result in reductions in the side effects and complications of analgesia, thereby improving patient safety. Preventive analgesia, treatment before initiation of the surgical procedure, has a potential to be more effective in reducing pain sensitization than treatment initiated after surgery. Multimodal analgesia that includes prophylactic administration of selective cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitors can improve postoperative pain and reduce opioid analgesic consumption after total knee arthroplasty (TKA). However COX-2 inhibitors are not approved for use as preventive analgesia in Japan. Thus, assessing the effectiveness of COX-2 inhibitors during the early postoperative period is important to establish clinical practice guidelines in Japan. This study was designed to examine the effects of celecoxib administration immediately after surgery, in addition to multimodal analgesia, on postoperative pain management after TKA. This randomized, prospective, open-label controlled study will include 120 patients undergoing unilateral TKA. All patients will routinely receive single injections of femoral and sciatic nerve blocks, along with postoperative patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) with fentanyl. Patients will be randomly assigned to receive or not receive immediate postoperative administration of celecoxib. The primary outcome is a visual analog scale (VAS) pain score the second day after surgery. Secondary outcomes include opioid consumption, VAS pain score for 7 days after surgery, range of knee motion, evaluation of sleep quality, overall evaluations by patients and physicians, rates of postoperative nausea and vomiting, and consumption of rescue analgesics. The objective of this study is to evaluate the effects of celecoxib

  12. A Single-Center, Open-Label, 3-Way Crossover Trial to Determine the Pharmacokinetic and Pharmacodynamic Interaction Between Nebivolol and Valsartan in Healthy Volunteers at Steady State

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chun Lin; Desai-Krieger, Daksha; Ortiz, Stephan; Kerolous, Majid; Wright, Harold M.; Ghahramani, Parviz

    2015-01-01

    Combining different classes of antihypertensives is more effective for reducing blood pressure (BP) than increasing the dose of monotherapies. The aims of this phase I study were to investigate pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic interactions between nebivolol, a vasodilatory β1-selective blocker, and valsartan, an angiotensin II receptor blocker, and to assess safety and tolerability of the combination. This was a single-center, randomized, open-label, multiple-dose, 3-way crossover trial in 30 healthy adults aged 18–45 years. Participants were randomized into 1 of 6 treatment sequences (1:1:1:1:1:1) consisting of three 7-day treatment periods followed by a 7-day washout. Once-daily oral treatments comprised nebivolol (20 mg), valsartan (320 mg), and nebivolol–valsartan combination (20/320 mg). Outcomes included AUC0-τ,ss, Cmax,ss, Tmax,ss, changes in BP, pulse rate, plasma angiotensin II, plasma renin activity, 24-hour urinary aldosterone, and adverse events. Steady-state pharmacokinetic interactions were observed but deemed not clinically significant. Systolic and diastolic BP reduction was significantly greater with nebivolol–valsartan combination than with either monotherapy. The mean pulse rate associated with nebivolol and nebivolol–valsartan treatments was consistently lower than that associated with valsartan monotherapy. A sharp increase in mean day 7 plasma renin activity and plasma angiotensin II that occurred in valsartan-treated participants was significantly attenuated with concomitant nebivolol administration. Mean 24-hour urine aldosterone at day 7 was substantially decreased after combined treatment, as compared with either monotherapy. All treatments were safe and well tolerated. In conclusion, nebivolol and valsartan coadministration led to greater reductions in BP compared with either monotherapy; nebivolol and valsartan lower BP through complementary mechanisms. PMID:25853236

  13. Ibrutinib as initial therapy for elderly patients with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia or small lymphocytic lymphoma: an open-label, multicentre, phase 1b/2 trial.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Susan; Furman, Richard R; Coutre, Steven E; Sharman, Jeff P; Burger, Jan A; Blum, Kristie A; Grant, Barbara; Richards, Donald A; Coleman, Morton; Wierda, William G; Jones, Jeffrey A; Zhao, Weiqiang; Heerema, Nyla A; Johnson, Amy J; Izumi, Raquel; Hamdy, Ahmed; Chang, Betty Y; Graef, Thorsten; Clow, Fong; Buggy, Joseph J; James, Danelle F; Byrd, John C

    2014-01-01

    Chemoimmunotherapy has led to improved numbers of patients achieving disease response, and longer overall survival in young patients with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia; however, its application in elderly patients has been restricted by substantial myelosuppression and infection. We aimed to assess safety and activity of ibrutinib, an orally administered covalent inhibitor of Bruton tyrosine kinase (BTK), in treatment-naive patients aged 65 years and older with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia. In our open-label phase 1b/2 trial, we enrolled previously untreated patients at clinical sites in the USA. Eligible patients were aged at least 65 years, and had symptomatic chronic lymphocytic leukaemia or small lymphocytic lymphoma requiring therapy. Patients received 28 day cycles of once-daily ibrutinib 420 mg or ibrutinib 840 mg. The 840 mg dose was discontinued after enrolment had begun because comparable activity of the doses has been shown. The primary endpoint was the safety of the dose-fixed regimen in terms of frequency and severity of adverse events for all patients who received treatment. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01105247. Between May 20, 2010, and Dec 18, 2012, we enrolled 29 patients with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia and two patients with small lymphocytic lymphoma. Median age was 71 years (range 65-84), and 23 (74%) patients were at least 70 years old. Toxicity was mainly of mild-to-moderate severity (grade 1-2). 21 (68%) patients had diarrhoea (grade 1 in 14 [45%] patients, grade 2 in three [10%] patients, and grade 3 in four [13%] patients). 15 (48%) patients developed nausea (grade 1 in 12 [39%] patients and grade 2 in three [10%] patients). Ten (32%) patients developed fatigue (grade 1 in five [16%] patients, grade 2 in four [13%] patients, and grade 3 in one [3%] patient). Three (10%) patients developed grade 3 infections, although no grade 4 or 5 infections occurred. One patient developed grade 3 neutropenia, and one

  14. Pre-exposure prophylaxis to prevent the acquisition of HIV-1 infection (PROUD): effectiveness results from the pilot phase of a pragmatic open-label randomised trial

    PubMed Central

    McCormack, Sheena; Dunn, David T; Desai, Monica; Dolling, David I; Gafos, Mitzy; Gilson, Richard; Sullivan, Ann K; Clarke, Amanda; Reeves, Iain; Schembri, Gabriel; Mackie, Nicola; Bowman, Christine; Lacey, Charles J; Apea, Vanessa; Brady, Michael; Fox, Julie; Taylor, Stephen; Antonucci, Simone; Khoo, Saye H; Rooney, James; Nardone, Anthony; Fisher, Martin; McOwan, Alan; Phillips, Andrew N; Johnson, Anne M; Gazzard, Brian; Gill, Owen N

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background Randomised placebo-controlled trials have shown that daily oral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) with tenofovir–emtricitabine reduces the risk of HIV infection. However, this benefit could be counteracted by risk compensation in users of PrEP. We did the PROUD study to assess this effect. Methods PROUD is an open-label randomised trial done at 13 sexual health clinics in England. We enrolled HIV-negative gay and other men who have sex with men who had had anal intercourse without a condom in the previous 90 days. Participants were randomly assigned (1:1) to receive daily combined tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (245 mg) and emtricitabine (200 mg) either immediately or after a deferral period of 1 year. Randomisation was done via web-based access to a central computer-generated list with variable block sizes (stratified by clinical site). Follow-up was quarterly. The primary outcomes for the pilot phase were time to accrue 500 participants and retention; secondary outcomes included incident HIV infection during the deferral period, safety, adherence, and risk compensation. The trial is registered with ISRCTN (number ISRCTN94465371) and ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT02065986). Findings We enrolled 544 participants (275 in the immediate group, 269 in the deferred group) between Nov 29, 2012, and April 30, 2014. Based on early evidence of effectiveness, the trial steering committee recommended on Oct 13, 2014, that all deferred participants be offered PrEP. Follow-up for HIV incidence was complete for 243 (94%) of 259 patient-years in the immediate group versus 222 (90%) of 245 patient-years in the deferred group. Three HIV infections occurred in the immediate group (1·2/100 person-years) versus 20 in the deferred group (9·0/100 person-years) despite 174 prescriptions of post-exposure prophylaxis in the deferred group (relative reduction 86%, 90% CI 64–96, p=0·0001; absolute difference 7·8/100 person-years, 90% CI 4·3–11·3). 13 men (90% CI 9–23

  15. Pre-exposure prophylaxis to prevent the acquisition of HIV-1 infection (PROUD): effectiveness results from the pilot phase of a pragmatic open-label randomised trial.

    PubMed

    McCormack, Sheena; Dunn, David T; Desai, Monica; Dolling, David I; Gafos, Mitzy; Gilson, Richard; Sullivan, Ann K; Clarke, Amanda; Reeves, Iain; Schembri, Gabriel; Mackie, Nicola; Bowman, Christine; Lacey, Charles J; Apea, Vanessa; Brady, Michael; Fox, Julie; Taylor, Stephen; Antonucci, Simone; Khoo, Saye H; Rooney, James; Nardone, Anthony; Fisher, Martin; McOwan, Alan; Phillips, Andrew N; Johnson, Anne M; Gazzard, Brian; Gill, Owen N

    2016-01-02

    Randomised placebo-controlled trials have shown that daily oral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) with tenofovir-emtricitabine reduces the risk of HIV infection. However, this benefit could be counteracted by risk compensation in users of PrEP. We did the PROUD study to assess this effect. PROUD is an open-label randomised trial done at 13 sexual health clinics in England. We enrolled HIV-negative gay and other men who have sex with men who had had anal intercourse without a condom in the previous 90 days. Participants were randomly assigned (1:1) to receive daily combined tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (245 mg) and emtricitabine (200 mg) either immediately or after a deferral period of 1 year. Randomisation was done via web-based access to a central computer-generated list with variable block sizes (stratified by clinical site). Follow-up was quarterly. The primary outcomes for the pilot phase were time to accrue 500 participants and retention; secondary outcomes included incident HIV infection during the deferral period, safety, adherence, and risk compensation. The trial is registered with ISRCTN (number ISRCTN94465371) and ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT02065986). We enrolled 544 participants (275 in the immediate group, 269 in the deferred group) between Nov 29, 2012, and April 30, 2014. Based on early evidence of effectiveness, the trial steering committee recommended on Oct 13, 2014, that all deferred participants be offered PrEP. Follow-up for HIV incidence was complete for 243 (94%) of 259 patient-years in the immediate group versus 222 (90%) of 245 patient-years in the deferred group. Three HIV infections occurred in the immediate group (1·2/100 person-years) versus 20 in the deferred group (9·0/100 person-years) despite 174 prescriptions of post-exposure prophylaxis in the deferred group (relative reduction 86%, 90% CI 64-96, p=0·0001; absolute difference 7·8/100 person-years, 90% CI 4·3-11·3). 13 men (90% CI 9-23) in a similar population would need access to

  16. Platelet function monitoring to adjust antiplatelet therapy in elderly patients stented for an acute coronary syndrome (ANTARCTIC): an open-label, blinded-endpoint, randomised controlled superiority trial.

    PubMed

    Cayla, Guillaume; Cuisset, Thomas; Silvain, Johanne; Leclercq, Florence; Manzo-Silberman, Stephane; Saint-Etienne, Christophe; Delarche, Nicolas; Bellemain-Appaix, Anne; Range, Grégoire; El Mahmoud, Rami; Carrié, Didier; Belle, Loic; Souteyrand, Geraud; Aubry, Pierre; Sabouret, Pierre; du Fretay, Xavier Halna; Beygui, Farzin; Bonnet, Jean-Louis; Lattuca, Benoit; Pouillot, Christophe; Varenne, Olivier; Boueri, Ziad; Van Belle, Eric; Henry, Patrick; Motreff, Pascal; Elhadad, Simon; Salem, Joe-Elie; Abtan, Jérémie; Rousseau, Hélène; Collet, Jean-Philippe; Vicaut, Eric; Montalescot, Gilles

    2016-10-22

    Elderly patients are at high risk of ischaemic and bleeding events. Platelet function monitoring offers the possibility to individualise antiplatelet therapy to improve the therapeutic risk-benefit ratio. We aimed to assess the effect of platelet function monitoring with treatment adjustment in elderly patients stented for an acute coronary syndrome. We did this multicentre, open-label, blinded-endpoint, randomised controlled superiority study at 35 centres in France. Patients aged 75 years or older who had undergone coronary stenting for acute coronary syndrome were randomly assigned (1:1), via a central interactive voice-response system based on a computer-generated permuted-block randomisation schedule with randomly selected block sizes, to receive oral prasugrel 5 mg daily with dose or drug adjustment in case of inadequate response (monitoring group) or oral prasugrel 5 mg daily with no monitoring or treatment adjustment (conventional group). Randomisation was stratified by centre. Platelet function testing was done 14 days after randomisation and repeated 14 days after treatment adjustment in patients in the monitoring group. Study investigators and patients were not masked to treatment allocation, but allocation was concealed from an independent clinical events committee responsible for endpoint adjudication. The primary endpoint was a composite of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, stroke, stent thrombosis, urgent revascularisation, and Bleeding Academic Research Consortium-defined bleeding complications (types 2, 3, or 5) at 12 months' follow-up. We did analysis by intention to treat. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01538446. Between March 27, 2012, and May 19, 2015, we randomly assigned 877 patients to the monitoring group (n=442) or the conventional group (n=435). The primary endpoint occurred in 120 (28%) patients in the monitoring group compared with 123 (28%) patients in the conventional group (hazard ratio [HR], 1

  17. Effect of Oral Beta-Hydroxy-Beta-Methylbutyrate (HMB) Supplementation on Physical Performance in Healthy Old Women Over 65 Years: An Open Label Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Berton, Linda; Bano, Giulia; Carraro, Sara; Veronese, Nicola; Pizzato, Simona; Bolzetta, Francesco; De Rui, Marina; Valmorbida, Elena; De Ronch, Irene; Perissinotto, Egle; Coin, Alessandra; Manzato, Enzo; Sergi, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    Although older people are particularly liable to sarcopenia, limited research is available on beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate (HMB) supplementation in this population, particularly in healthy subjects. In this parallel-group, randomized, controlled, open-label trial, we aimed to evaluate whether an oral supplement containing 1.5 g of calcium HMB for 8 weeks could improve physical performance and muscle strength parameters in a group of community-dwelling healthy older women. Eighty healthy women attending a twice-weekly mild fitness program were divided into two equal groups of 40, and 32 of the treated women and 33 control completed the study. We considered a change in the Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB) score as the primary outcome and changes in the peak torque (PT) isometric and isokinetic strength of the lower limbs, 6-minute walking test (6MWT), handgrip strength and endurance as secondary outcomes. Body composition was assessed with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and peripheral quantitative computerized tomography (pQCT). The mean difference between the two groups on pre-post change were finally calculated (delta) for each outcome. After 8 weeks, there were no significant differences between the groups’ SPPB, handgrip strength or DXA parameters. The group treated with HMB scored significantly better than the control group for PT isokinetic flexion (delta = 1.56±1.56 Nm; p = 0.03) and extension (delta = 3.32±2.61 Nm; p = 0.03), PT isometric strength (delta = 9.74±3.90 Nm; p = 0.02), 6MWT (delta = 7.67±8.29 m; p = 0.04), handgrip endurance (delta = 21.41±16.28 s; p = 0.02), and muscle density assessed with pQCT. No serious adverse effects were reported in either group. In conclusion, a nutritional supplement containing 1.5 g of calcium HMB for 8 weeks in healthy elderly women had no significant effects on SPPB, but did significantly improve several muscle strength and physical performance parameters. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials

  18. Platelet transfusion versus standard care after acute stroke due to spontaneous cerebral haemorrhage associated with antiplatelet therapy (PATCH): a randomised, open-label, phase 3 trial.

    PubMed

    Baharoglu, M Irem; Cordonnier, Charlotte; Al-Shahi Salman, Rustam; de Gans, Koen; Koopman, Maria M; Brand, Anneke; Majoie, Charles B; Beenen, Ludo F; Marquering, Henk A; Vermeulen, Marinus; Nederkoorn, Paul J; de Haan, Rob J; Roos, Yvo B

    2016-06-25

    Platelet transfusion after acute spontaneous primary intracerebral haemorrhage in people taking antiplatelet therapy might reduce death or dependence by reducing the extent of the haemorrhage. We aimed to investigate whether platelet transfusion with standard care, compared with standard care alone, reduced death or dependence after intracerebral haemorrhage associated with antiplatelet therapy use. We did this multicentre, open-label, masked-endpoint, randomised trial at 60 hospitals in the Netherlands, UK, and France. We enrolled adults within 6 h of supratentorial intracerebral haemorrhage symptom onset if they had used antiplatelet therapy for at least 7 days beforehand and had a Glasgow Coma Scale score of at least 8. With use of a secure web-based system that concealed allocation and used biased coin randomisation, study collaborators randomly assigned participants (1:1; stratified by hospital and type of antiplatelet therapy) to receive either standard care or standard care with platelet transfusion within 90 min of diagnostic brain imaging. Participants and local investigators giving interventions were not masked to treatment allocation, but allocation was concealed from outcome assessors and investigators analysing data. The primary outcome was shift towards death or dependence rated on the modified Rankin Scale (mRS) at 3 months, and analysed by ordinal logistic regression, adjusted for stratification variables and the Intracerebral Haemorrhage Score. The primary analysis was done in the intention-to-treat population and safety analyses were done in the intention-to-treat and as-treated populations. This trial is registered with the Netherlands Trial Register, number NTR1303, and is now closed. Between Feb 4, 2009, and Oct 8, 2015, 41 sites enrolled 190 participants. 97 participants were randomly assigned to platelet transfusion and 93 to standard care. The odds of death or dependence at 3 months were higher in the platelet transfusion group than in the

  19. Lung cancer diagnosis and staging with endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration compared with conventional approaches: an open-label, pragmatic, randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Navani, Neal; Nankivell, Matthew; Lawrence, David R; Lock, Sara; Makker, Himender; Baldwin, David R; Stephens, Richard J; Parmar, Mahesh K; Spiro, Stephen G; Morris, Stephen; Janes, Sam M

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background The diagnosis and staging of lung cancer is an important process that identifies treatment options and guides disease prognosis. We aimed to assess endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration as an initial investigation technique for patients with suspected lung cancer. Methods In this open-label, multicentre, pragmatic, randomised controlled trial, we recruited patients who had undergone a CT scan and had suspected stage I to IIIA lung cancer, from six UK centres and randomly assigned them to either endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA) or conventional diagnosis and staging (CDS), for further investigation and staging. If a target node could not be accessed by EBUS-TBNA, then endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) was allowed as an alternative procedure. Randomisation was stratified according to the presence of mediastinal lymph nodes measuring 1 cm or more in the short axis and by recruiting centre. We used a telephone randomisation method with permuted blocks of four generated by a computer. Because of the nature of the intervention, masking of participants and consenting investigators was not possible. The primary endpoint was the time-to-treatment decision after completion of the diagnostic and staging investigations and analysis was by intention-to-diagnose. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00652769. Findings Between June 10, 2008, and July 4, 2011, we randomly allocated 133 patients to treatment: 66 to EBUS-TBNA and 67 to CDS (one later withdrew consent). Two patients from the EBUS-TBNA group underwent EUS-FNA. The median time to treatment decision was shorter with EBUS-TBNA (14 days; 95% CI 14–15) than with CDS (29 days; 23–35) resulting in a hazard ratio of 1·98, (1·39–2·82, p<0·0001). One patient in each group had a pneumothorax from a CT-guided biopsy sample; the patient from the CDS group needed intercostal drainage

  20. Comparison of Doxycycline, Minocycline, Doxycycline plus Albendazole and Albendazole Alone in Their Efficacy against Onchocerciasis in a Randomized, Open-Label, Pilot Trial.

    PubMed

    Klarmann-Schulz, Ute; Specht, Sabine; Debrah, Alexander Yaw; Batsa, Linda; Ayisi-Boateng, Nana Kwame; Osei-Mensah, Jubin; Mubarik, Yusif; Konadu, Peter; Ricchiuto, Arcangelo; Fimmers, Rolf; Arriens, Sandra; Dubben, Bettina; Ford, Louise; Taylor, Mark; Hoerauf, Achim

    2017-01-01

    The search for new macrofilaricidal drugs against onchocerciasis that can be administered in shorter regimens than required for doxycycline (DOX, 200mg/d given for 4-6 weeks), identified minocycline (MIN) with superior efficacy to DOX. Further reduction in the treatment regimen may be achieved with co-administration with standard anti-filarial drugs. Therefore a randomized, open-label, pilot trial was carried out in an area in Ghana endemic for onchocerciasis, comprising 5 different regimens: the standard regimen DOX 200mg/d for 4 weeks (DOX 4w, N = 33), the experimental regimens MIN 200mg/d for 3 weeks (MIN 3w; N = 30), DOX 200mg/d for 3 weeks plus albendazole (ALB) 800mg/d for 3 days (DOX 3w + ALB 3d, N = 32), DOX 200mg/d for 3 weeks (DOX 3w, N = 31) and ALB 800mg for 3 days (ALB 3d, N = 30). Out of 158 randomized participants, 116 (74.4%) were present for the follow-up at 6 months of whom 99 participants (63.5%) followed the treatment per protocol and underwent surgery. Histological analysis of the adult worms in the extirpated nodules revealed absence of Wolbachia in 98.8% (DOX 4w), 81.4% (DOX 3w + ALB 3d), 72.7% (MIN 3w), 64.1% (DOX 3w) and 35.2% (ALB 3d) of the female worms. All 4 treatment regimens showed superiority to ALB 3d (p < 0.001, p < 0.001, p = 0.002, p = 0.008, respectively), which was confirmed by real-time PCR. Additionally, DOX 4w showed superiority to all other treatment arms. Furthermore DOX 4w and DOX 3w + ALB 3d showed a higher amount of female worms with degenerated embryogenesis compared to ALB 3d (p = 0.028, p = 0.042, respectively). These results confirm earlier studies that DOX 4w is sufficient for Wolbachia depletion and the desired parasitological effects. The data further suggest that there is an additive effect of ALB (3 days) on top of that of DOX alone, and that MIN shows a trend for stronger potency than DOX. These latter two results are preliminary and need confirmation in a fully randomized controlled phase 2 trial. ClinicalTrials

  1. Percutaneous coronary angioplasty versus coronary artery bypass grafting in treatment of unprotected left main stenosis (NOBLE): a prospective, randomised, open-label, non-inferiority trial.

    PubMed

    Mäkikallio, Timo; Holm, Niels R; Lindsay, Mitchell; Spence, Mark S; Erglis, Andrejs; Menown, Ian B A; Trovik, Thor; Eskola, Markku; Romppanen, Hannu; Kellerth, Thomas; Ravkilde, Jan; Jensen, Lisette O; Kalinauskas, Gintaras; Linder, Rikard B A; Pentikainen, Markku; Hervold, Anders; Banning, Adrian; Zaman, Azfar; Cotton, Jamen; Eriksen, Erlend; Margus, Sulev; Sørensen, Henrik T; Nielsen, Per H; Niemelä, Matti; Kervinen, Kari; Lassen, Jens F; Maeng, Michael; Oldroyd, Keith; Berg, Geoff; Walsh, Simon J; Hanratty, Colm G; Kumsars, Indulis; Stradins, Peteris; Steigen, Terje K; Fröbert, Ole; Graham, Alastair N J; Endresen, Petter C; Corbascio, Matthias; Kajander, Olli; Trivedi, Uday; Hartikainen, Juha; Anttila, Vesa; Hildick-Smith, David; Thuesen, Leif; Christiansen, Evald H

    2016-12-03

    Coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) is the standard treatment for revascularisation in patients with left main coronary artery disease, but use of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) for this indication is increasing. We aimed to compare PCI and CABG for treatment of left main coronary artery disease. In this prospective, randomised, open-label, non-inferiority trial, patients with left main coronary artery disease were enrolled in 36 centres in northern Europe and randomised 1:1 to treatment with PCI or CABG. Eligible patients had stable angina pectoris, unstable angina pectoris, or non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction. Exclusion criteria were ST-elevation myocardial infarction within 24 h, being considered too high risk for CABG or PCI, or expected survival of less than 1 year. The primary endpoint was major adverse cardiac or cerebrovascular events (MACCE), a composite of all-cause mortality, non-procedural myocardial infarction, any repeat coronary revascularisation, and stroke. Non-inferiority of PCI to CABG required the lower end of the 95% CI not to exceed a hazard ratio (HR) of 1·35 after up to 5 years of follow-up. The intention-to-treat principle was used in the analysis if not specified otherwise. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov identifier, number NCT01496651. Between Dec 9, 2008, and Jan 21, 2015, 1201 patients were randomly assigned, 598 to PCI and 603 to CABG, and 592 in each group entered analysis by intention to treat. Kaplan-Meier 5 year estimates of MACCE were 29% for PCI (121 events) and 19% for CABG (81 events), HR 1·48 (95% CI 1·11-1·96), exceeding the limit for non-inferiority, and CABG was significantly better than PCI (p=0·0066). As-treated estimates were 28% versus 19% (1·55, 1·18-2·04, p=0·0015). Comparing PCI with CABG, 5 year estimates were 12% versus 9% (1·07, 0·67-1·72, p=0·77) for all-cause mortality, 7% versus 2% (2·88, 1·40-5·90, p=0·0040) for non-procedural myocardial infarction, 16

  2. Efficacy of immunoglobulin plus prednisolone for prevention of coronary artery abnormalities in severe Kawasaki disease (RAISE study): a randomised, open-label, blinded-endpoints trial.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Tohru; Saji, Tsutomu; Otani, Tetsuya; Takeuchi, Kazuo; Nakamura, Tetsuya; Arakawa, Hirokazu; Kato, Taichi; Hara, Toshiro; Hamaoka, Kenji; Ogawa, Shunichi; Miura, Masaru; Nomura, Yuichi; Fuse, Shigeto; Ichida, Fukiko; Seki, Mitsuru; Fukazawa, Ryuji; Ogawa, Chitose; Furuno, Kenji; Tokunaga, Hirohide; Takatsuki, Shinichi; Hara, Shinya; Morikawa, Akihiro

    2012-04-28

    Evidence indicates that corticosteroid therapy might be beneficial for the primary treatment of severe Kawasaki disease. We assessed whether addition of prednisolone to intravenous immunoglobulin with aspirin would reduce the incidence of coronary artery abnormalities in patients with severe Kawasaki disease. We did a multicentre, prospective, randomised, open-label, blinded-endpoints trial at 74 hospitals in Japan between Sept 29, 2008, and Dec 2, 2010. Patients with severe Kawasaki disease were randomly assigned by a minimisation method to receive either intravenous immunoglobulin (2 g/kg for 24 h and aspirin 30 mg/kg per day) or intravenous immunoglobulin plus prednisolone (the same intravenous immunoglobulin regimen as the intravenous immunoglobulin group plus prednisolone 2 mg/kg per day given over 15 days after concentrations of C-reactive protein normalised). Patients and treating physicians were unmasked to group allocation. The primary endpoint was incidence of coronary artery abnormalities during the study period. Analysis was by intention to treat. This trial is registered with the University Hospital Medical Information Network clinical trials registry, number UMIN000000940. We randomly assigned 125 patients to the intravenous immunoglobulin plus prednisolone group and 123 to the intravenous immunoglobulin group. Incidence of coronary artery abnormalities was significantly lower in the intravenous immunoglobulin plus prednisolone group than in the intravenous immunoglobulin group during the study period (four patients [3%] vs 28 patients [23%]; risk difference 0·20, 95% CI 0·12-0·28, p<0·0001). Serious adverse events were similar between both groups: two patients had high total cholesterol and one neutropenia in the intravenous immunoglobulin plus prednisolone group, and one had high total cholesterol and another non-occlusive thrombus in the intravenous immunoglobulin group. Addition of prednisolone to the standard regimen of intravenous

  3. A phase 1 randomized open-label clinical study to evaluate the safety and tolerability of a novel recombinant hepatitis E vaccine.

    PubMed

    Cao, Yu-Feng; Tao, Hong; Hu, Yue-Mei; Shi, Cheng-Bo; Wu, Xing; Liang, Qi; Chi, Chun-Ping; Li, Li; Liang, Zheng-Lun; Meng, Ji-Hong; Zhu, Feng-Cai; Liu, Zhao-Hui; Wang, Xin-Ping

    2017-09-05

    This study aimed to evaluate the safety and tolerability for variable dosages of a novel hepatitis E vaccine p179. The randomized open-label parallel control phase 1 clinical trial enrolled 120 eligible participants aged 16-65years in Jiangsu Province, China. The experimental groups were randomized to receive different dosages of 20μg, 30μg, and 40μg Hepatitis E Virus (HEV) p179 vaccines, with the 30μgHEV vaccine p239 Hecolin as control, and vaccinated at 0, 1 and 6month intervals. Participants were observed for solicited local and systemic adverse reactions (ARs) occurring within 7days after each vaccination, and any serious adverse events (SAEs) occurring within 6months post-vaccination. Blood samples were collected from participants 3days before and after each injection, to determine the blood routine and serum biochemical indexes. The solicited local ARs incidence in experimental groups were significantly lower than that of the control group (P=0.027). The difference between solicited total and systemic ARs incidence of experimental groups and the control group were not significant (P>0.05). Similar patterns were observed when the analyses were performed on the group having ARs of varying grades and symptoms. All changes in blood biochemical indexes and routine blood tests before and after different vaccinations were mild (grade 1) or moderate (grade 2), and the difference in experimental groups and the control group were not statistically significant. No vaccine related SAEs occurred in any of the subjects during the study. Three different dosages of HEV p179 vaccine were deemed safe and well tolerated. No vaccine-associated SAEs were identified, and the 30μg dosage formulation was selected for further investigation for efficacy. Clinical trials registration number: 2012L01657. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Conversion from dopamine agonists to pramipexole. An open-label trial in 227 patients with advanced Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Linazasoro, G

    2004-03-01

    Pramipexole is a nonergoline dopamine agonist with D2 and preferential D3 dopamine receptor activity. This selective activity may result in clinically different effects. Small clinical trials indicate that overnight switching from one agonist to another can be performed safely. Objective To determine safety and efficacy of overnight switching from dopamine agonists to pramipexole in patients with advanced Parkinson's disease (PD). To determine safety and efficacy of overnight switching from dopamine agonists to pramipexole in patients with advanced Parkinson's disease (PD). Patients with advanced PD and motor complications not optimally controlled by levodopa and a stable dose of bromocriptine, pergolide or ropinirole were converted to pramipexole overnight. Clinical assessments were performed just prior to conversion and after 2, 6 and 12 weeks of treatment, when an optimal dose of pramipexole was achieved. Two hundred and seventeen patients were included in the trial. One hundred and twenty five were converted from pergolide to pramipexole, 58 from bromocriptine and 34 from ropinirole. After 12 weeks, the average dose of pramipexole was 2.8, 2.9 and 3.4 mg/d in patients converted from bromocriptine, pergolide, and ropinirole, respectively. UPDRS II, III and IV scores were reduced by 26-30% in all patients (p<0.0001). Mean levodopa dose was slightly reduced in all groups (p: NS). No serious or unexpected side effects were reported. The dose equivalences calculated from this trial were: bromocriptine:pramipexole 6.9:1, pergolide:pramipexole 0.9:1, ropinirole:pramipexole 1.5:1. Switching from bromocriptine, pergolide or ropinirole to pramipexole in an overnight schedule is safe. The observed clinical improvement may be related to a placebo effect, to the use of low doses of dopamine agonists or to a direct effect of pramipexole.

  5. Early versus deferred antiretroviral therapy for children older than 1 year infected with HIV (PREDICT): a multicentre, randomised, open-label trial

    PubMed Central

    Puthanakit, Thanyawee; Vonthanak, Saphonn; Ananworanich, Jintanat; Kosalaraksa, Pope; Hansudewechakul, Rawiwan; Vibol, Ung; Kerr, Stephen J.; Kanjanavanit, Suparat; Ngampiyaskul, Chaiwat; Wongsawat, Jurai; Luesomboon, Wicharn; Ngo-Giang-Huong, Nicole; Chettra, Kea; Cheunyam, Theshinee; Suwarnlerk, Tulathip; Ubolyam, Sasiwimol; Shearer, William T.; Paul, Robert; Mofenson, Lynne M.; Fox, Lawrence; Law, Matthew G.; Cooper, David A.; Phanuphak, Praphan; Vun, Mean Chhi; Ruxrungtham, Kiat

    2012-01-01

    Summary Background The optimum time to start antiretroviral therapy for children diagnosed with HIV infection after 1 year of age is unknown. We assessed whether antiretroviral therapy could be deferred until CD4 percentages declined to less than 15% without affecting AIDS-free survival. Methods In our multicentre, randomised, open-label trial at nine research sites in Thailand and Cambodia, we enrolled children aged 1–12 years who were infected with HIV and had CD4 percentages of 15–24%. Participants were randomly assigned (1:1) by a minimisation scheme to start antiretroviral therapy at study entry (early treatment group) or antiretroviral therapy to start when CD4 percentages declined to less than 15% (deferred treatment group). The primary endpoint was AIDS-free survival (based on US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention category C events) at week 144, assessed with the Kaplan-Meier analysis and the log-rank approach. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00234091. Findings Between March 28, 2006, and Sept 10, 2008, we enrolled 300 Thai and Cambodian children infected with HIV, with a median age of 6·4 years (IQR 3·9–8·4). 150 children were randomly allocated early antiretroviral therapy (one participant was excluded from analyses after withdrawing before week 0) and 150 children were randomly allocated deferred antiretroviral therapy. Median baseline CD4 percentage was 19% (16–22%). 69 children (46%) in the deferred treatment group started antiretroviral therapy during the study. AIDS-free survival at week 144 in the deferred treatment group was 98·7% (95% CI 94·7–99·7; 148 of 150 patients) compared with 97·9% (93·7–99·3; 146 of 149 patients) in the early treatment group (p=0·6). Interpretation AIDS-free survival in both treatment groups was high. This low event rate meant that our study was underpowered to detect differences between treatment start times and thus additional follow-up of study participants or

  6. Artemisinin-naphthoquine versus artemether-lumefantrine for uncomplicated malaria in Papua New Guinean children: an open-label randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Laman, Moses; Moore, Brioni R; Benjamin, John M; Yadi, Gumul; Bona, Cathy; Warrel, Jonathan; Kattenberg, Johanna H; Koleala, Tamarah; Manning, Laurens; Kasian, Bernadine; Robinson, Leanne J; Sambale, Naomi; Lorry, Lina; Karl, Stephan; Davis, Wendy A; Rosanas-Urgell, Anna; Mueller, Ivo; Siba, Peter M; Betuela, Inoni; Davis, Timothy M E

    2014-12-01

    Artemisinin combination therapies (ACTs) with broad efficacy are needed where multiple Plasmodium species are transmitted, especially in children, who bear the brunt of infection in endemic areas. In Papua New Guinea (PNG), artemether-lumefantrine is the first-line treatment for uncomplicated malaria, but it has limited efficacy against P. vivax. Artemisinin-naphthoquine should have greater activity in vivax malaria because the elimination of naphthoquine is slower than that of lumefantrine. In this study, the efficacy, tolerability, and safety of these ACTs were assessed in PNG children aged 0.5-5 y. An open-label, randomized, parallel-group trial of artemether-lumefantrine (six doses over 3 d) and artemisinin-naphthoquine (three daily doses) was conducted between 28 March 2011 and 22 April 2013. Parasitologic outcomes were assessed without knowledge of treatment allocation. Primary endpoints were the 42-d P. falciparum PCR-corrected adequate clinical and parasitologic response (ACPR) and the P. vivax PCR-uncorrected 42-d ACPR. Non-inferiority and superiority designs were used for falciparum and vivax malaria, respectively. Because the artemisinin-naphthoquine regimen involved three doses rather than the manufacturer-specified single dose, the first 188 children underwent detailed safety monitoring. Of 2,542 febrile children screened, 267 were randomized, and 186 with falciparum and 47 with vivax malaria completed the 42-d follow-up. Both ACTs were safe and well tolerated. P. falciparum ACPRs were 97.8% and 100.0% in artemether-lumefantrine and artemisinin-naphthoquine-treated patients, respectively (difference 2.2% [95% CI -3.0% to 8.4%] versus -5.0% non-inferiority margin, p = 0.24), and P. vivax ACPRs were 30.0% and 100.0%, respectively (difference 70.0% [95% CI 40.9%-87.2%], p<0.001). Limitations included the exclusion of 11% of randomized patients with sub-threshold parasitemias on confirmatory microscopy and direct observation of only morning artemether

  7. Early versus deferred antiretroviral therapy for children older than 1 year infected with HIV (PREDICT): a multicentre, randomised, open-label trial.

    PubMed

    Puthanakit, Thanyawee; Saphonn, Vonthanak; Ananworanich, Jintanat; Kosalaraksa, Pope; Hansudewechakul, Rawiwan; Vibol, Ung; Kerr, Stephen J; Kanjanavanit, Suparat; Ngampiyaskul, Chaiwat; Wongsawat, Jurai; Luesomboon, Wicharn; Ngo-Giang-Huong, Nicole; Chettra, Kea; Cheunyam, Theshinee; Suwarnlerk, Tulathip; Ubolyam, Sasiwimol; Shearer, William T; Paul, Robert; Mofenson, Lynne M; Fox, Lawrence; Law, Matthew G; Cooper, David A; Phanuphak, Praphan; Vun, Mean Chhi; Ruxrungtham, Kiat

    2012-12-01

    The optimum time to start antiretroviral therapy for children diagnosed with HIV infection after 1 year of age is unknown. We assessed whether antiretroviral therapy could be deferred until CD4 percentages declined to less than 15% without affecting AIDS-free survival. In our multicentre, randomised, open-label trial at nine research sites in Thailand and Cambodia, we enrolled children aged 1-12 years who were infected with HIV and had CD4 percentages of 15-24%. Participants were randomly assigned (1:1) by a minimisation scheme to start antiretroviral therapy at study entry (early treatment group) or antiretroviral therapy to start when CD4 percentages declined to less than 15% (deferred treatment group). The primary endpoint was AIDS-free survival (based on US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention category C events) at week 144, assessed with the Kaplan-Meier analysis and the log-rank approach. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00234091. Between March 28, 2006, and Sept 10, 2008, we enrolled 300 Thai and Cambodian children infected with HIV, with a median age of 6·4 years (IQR 3·9-8·4). 150 children were randomly allocated early antiretroviral therapy (one participant was excluded from analyses after withdrawing before week 0) and 150 children were randomly allocated deferred antiretroviral therapy. Median baseline CD4 percentage was 19% (16-22%). 69 children (46%) in the deferred treatment group started antiretroviral therapy during the study. AIDS-free survival at week 144 in the deferred treatment group was 98·7% (95% CI 94·7-99·7; 148 of 150 patients) compared with 97·9% (93·7-99·3; 146 of 149 patients) in the early treatment group (p=0·6). AIDS-free survival in both treatment groups was high. This low event rate meant that our study was underpowered to detect differences between treatment start times and thus additional follow-up of study participants or future studies are needed to answer this clinical question

  8. Empirical tuberculosis therapy versus isoniazid in adult outpatients with advanced HIV initiating antiretroviral therapy (REMEMBER): a multicountry open-label randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Hosseinipour, Mina C; Bisson, Gregory P; Miyahara, Sachiko; Sun, Xin; Moses, Agnes; Riviere, Cynthia; Kirui, Fredrick K; Badal-Faesen, Sharlaa; Lagat, David; Nyirenda, Mulinda; Naidoo, Kogieleum; Hakim, James; Mugyenyi, Peter; Henostroza, German; Leger, Paul D; Lama, Javier R; Mohapi, Lerato; Alave, Jorge; Mave, Vidya; Veloso, Valdilea G; Pillay, Sandy; Kumarasamy, Nagalingeswaran; Bao, Jing; Hogg, Evelyn; Jones, Lynne; Zolopa, Andrew; Kumwenda, Johnstone; Gupta, Amita

    2016-03-19

    Mortality within the first 6 months after initiating antiretroviral therapy is common in resource-limited settings and is often due to tuberculosis in patients with advanced HIV disease. Isoniazid preventive therapy is recommended in HIV-positive adults, but subclinical tuberculosis can be difficult to diagnose. We aimed to assess whether empirical tuberculosis treatment would reduce early mortality compared with isoniazid preventive therapy in high-burden settings. We did a multicountry open-label randomised clinical trial comparing empirical tuberculosis therapy with isoniazid preventive therapy in HIV-positive outpatients initiating antiretroviral therapy with CD4 cell counts of less than 50 cells per μL. Participants were recruited from 18 outpatient research clinics in ten countries (Malawi, South Africa, Haiti, Kenya, Zambia, India, Brazil, Zimbabwe, Peru, and Uganda). Individuals were screened for tuberculosis using a symptom screen, locally available diagnostics, and the GeneXpert MTB/RIF assay when available before inclusion. Study candidates with confirmed or suspected tuberculosis were excluded. Inclusion criteria were liver function tests 2·5 times the upper limit of normal or less, a creatinine clearance of at least 30 mL/min, and a Karnofsky score of at least 30. Participants were randomly assigned (1:1) to either the empirical group (antiretroviral therapy and empirical tuberculosis therapy) or the isoniazid preventive therapy group (antiretroviral therapy and isoniazid preventive therapy). The primary endpoint was survival (death or unknown status) at 24 weeks after randomisation assessed in the intention-to-treat population. Kaplan-Meier estimates of the primary endpoint across groups were compared by the z-test. All participants were included in the safety analysis of antiretroviral therapy and tuberculosis treatment. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01380080. Between Oct 31, 2011, and June 9, 2014, we enrolled 850

  9. Protease inhibitor monotherapy for long-term management of HIV infection: a randomised, controlled, open-label, non-inferiority trial.

    PubMed

    Paton, Nicholas I; Stöhr, Wolfgang; Arenas-Pinto, Alejandro; Fisher, Martin; Williams, Ian; Johnson, Margaret; Orkin, Chloe; Chen, Fabian; Lee, Vincent; Winston, Alan; Gompels, Mark; Fox, Julie; Scott, Karen; Dunn, David T

    2015-10-01

    Standard-of-care antiretroviral therapy (ART) uses a combination of drugs deemed essential to minimise treatment failure and drug resistance. Protease inhibitors are potent, with a high genetic barrier to resistance, and have potential use as monotherapy after viral load suppression is achieved with combination treatment. We aimed to assess clinical risks and benefits of protease inhibitor monotherapy in long-term clinical use: in particular, the effect on drug resistance and future treatment options. In this pragmatic, parallel-group, randomised, controlled, open-label, non-inferiority trial, we enrolled adults (≥18 years of age) positive for HIV attending 43 public sector treatment centres in the UK who had suppressed viral load (<50 copies per mL) for at least 24 weeks on combination ART with no change in the previous 12 weeks and a CD4 count of more than 100 cells per μL. Participants were randomly allocated (1:1) to maintain ongoing triple therapy (OT) or to switch to a strategy of physician-selected ritonavir-boosted protease inhibitor monotherapy (PI-mono); we recommended ritonavir (100 mg)-boosted darunavir (800 mg) once daily or ritonavir (100 mg)-boosted lopinavir (400 mg) twice daily, with prompt return to combination treatment if viral load rebounded. All treatments were oral. Randomisation was with permuted blocks of varying size and stratified by centre and baseline ART; we used a computer-generated, sequentially numbered randomisation list. The primary outcome was loss of future drug options, defined as new intermediate-level or high-level resistance to one or more drugs to which the patient's virus was deemed sensitive at trial entry (assessed at 3 years; non-inferiority margin of 10%). We estimated probability of rebound and resistance with Kaplan-Meier analysis. Analyses were by intention to treat. This trial is registered with the International Standard Randomised Controlled Trial Number registry, number ISRCTN04857074. Between Nov 4, 2008

  10. Protease inhibitor monotherapy for long-term management of HIV infection: a randomised, controlled, open-label, non-inferiority trial

    PubMed Central

    Paton, Nicholas I; Stöhr, Wolfgang; Arenas-Pinto, Alejandro; Fisher, Martin; Williams, Ian; Johnson, Margaret; Orkin, Chloe; Chen, Fabian; Lee, Vincent; Winston, Alan; Gompels, Mark; Fox, Julie; Scott, Karen; Dunn, David T

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background Standard-of-care antiretroviral therapy (ART) uses a combination of drugs deemed essential to minimise treatment failure and drug resistance. Protease inhibitors are potent, with a high genetic barrier to resistance, and have potential use as monotherapy after viral load suppression is achieved with combination treatment. We aimed to assess clinical risks and benefits of protease inhibitor monotherapy in long-term clinical use: in particular, the effect on drug resistance and future treatment options. Methods In this pragmatic, parallel-group, randomised, controlled, open-label, non-inferiority trial, we enrolled adults (≥18 years of age) positive for HIV attending 43 public sector treatment centres in the UK who had suppressed viral load (<50 copies per mL) for at least 24 weeks on combination ART with no change in the previous 12 weeks and a CD4 count of more than 100 cells per μL. Participants were randomly allocated (1:1) to maintain ongoing triple therapy (OT) or to switch to a strategy of physician-selected ritonavir-boosted protease inhibitor monotherapy (PI-mono); we recommended ritonavir (100 mg)-boosted darunavir (800 mg) once daily or ritonavir (100 mg)-boosted lopinavir (400 mg) twice daily, with prompt return to combination treatment if viral load rebounded. All treatments were oral. Randomisation was with permuted blocks of varying size and stratified by centre and baseline ART; we used a computer-generated, sequentially numbered randomisation list. The primary outcome was loss of future drug options, defined as new intermediate-level or high-level resistance to one or more drugs to which the patient's virus was deemed sensitive at trial entry (assessed at 3 years; non-inferiority margin of 10%). We estimated probability of rebound and resistance with Kaplan-Meier analysis. Analyses were by intention to treat. This trial is registered with the International Standard Randomised Controlled Trial Number registry, number ISRCTN

  11. Open-Label Randomized Trial of Titrated Disease Management for Patients with Hypertension: Study Design and Baseline Sample Characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, George L.; Weinberger, Morris; Kirshner, Miriam A.; Stechuchak, Karen M.; Melnyk, Stephanie D.; Bosworth, Hayden B.; Coffman, Cynthia J.; Neelon, Brian; Van Houtven, Courtney; Gentry, Pamela W.; Morris, Isis J.; Rose, Cynthia M.; Taylor, Jennifer P.; May, Carrie L.; Han, Byungjoo; Wainwright, Christi; Alkon, Aviel; Powell, Lesa; Edelman, David

    2016-01-01

    Despite the availability of efficacious treatments, only half of patients with hypertension achieve adequate blood pressure (BP) control. This paper describes the protocol and baseline subject characteristics of a 2-arm, 18-month randomized clinical trial of titrated disease management (TDM) for patients with pharmaceutically-treated hypertension for whom systolic blood pressure (SBP) is not controlled (≥140mmHg for non-diabetic or ≥130mmHg for diabetic patients). The trial is being conducted among patients of four clinic locations associated with a Veterans Affairs Medical Center. An intervention arm has a TDM strategy in which patients' hypertension control at baseline, 6, and 12 months determines the resource intensity of disease management. Intensity levels include: a low-intensity strategy utilizing a licensed practical nurse to provide bi-monthly, non-tailored behavioral support calls to patients whose SBP comes under control; medium-intensity strategy utilizing a registered nurse to provide monthly tailored behavioral support telephone calls plus home BP monitoring; and high-intensity strategy utilizing a pharmacist to provide monthly tailored behavioral support telephone calls, home BP monitoring, and pharmacist-directed medication management. Control arm patients receive the low-intensity strategy regardless of BP control. The primary outcome is SBP. There are 385 randomized (192 intervention; 193 control) veterans that are predominately older (mean age 63.5 years) men (92.5%). 61.8% are African American, and the mean baseline SBP for all subjects is 143.6mmHg. This trial will determine if a disease management program that is titrated by matching the intensity of resources to patients' BP control leads to superior outcomes compared to a low-intensity management strategy. PMID:27417982

  12. Open-label randomized trial of titrated disease management for patients with hypertension: Study design and baseline sample characteristics.

    PubMed

    Jackson, George L; Weinberger, Morris; Kirshner, Miriam A; Stechuchak, Karen M; Melnyk, Stephanie D; Bosworth, Hayden B; Coffman, Cynthia J; Neelon, Brian; Van Houtven, Courtney; Gentry, Pamela W; Morris, Isis J; Rose, Cynthia M; Taylor, Jennifer P; May, Carrie L; Han, Byungjoo; Wainwright, Christi; Alkon, Aviel; Powell, Lesa; Edelman, David

    2016-09-01

    Despite the availability of efficacious treatments, only half of patients with hypertension achieve adequate blood pressure (BP) control. This paper describes the protocol and baseline subject characteristics of a 2-arm, 18-month randomized clinical trial of titrated disease management (TDM) for patients with pharmaceutically-treated hypertension for whom systolic blood pressure (SBP) is not controlled (≥140mmHg for non-diabetic or ≥130mmHg for diabetic patients). The trial is being conducted among patients of four clinic locations associated with a Veterans Affairs Medical Center. An intervention arm has a TDM strategy in which patients' hypertension control at baseline, 6, and 12months determines the resource intensity of disease management. Intensity levels include: a low-intensity strategy utilizing a licensed practical nurse to provide bi-monthly, non-tailored behavioral support calls to patients whose SBP comes under control; medium-intensity strategy utilizing a registered nurse to provide monthly tailored behavioral support telephone calls plus home BP monitoring; and high-intensity strategy utilizing a pharmacist to provide monthly tailored behavioral support telephone calls, home BP monitoring, and pharmacist-directed medication management. Control arm patients receive the low-intensity strategy regardless of BP control. The primary outcome is SBP. There are 385 randomized (192 intervention; 193 control) veterans that are predominately older (mean age 63.5years) men (92.5%). 61.8% are African American, and the mean baseline SBP for all subjects is 143.6mmHg. This trial will determine if a disease management program that is titrated by matching the intensity of resources to patients' BP control leads to superior outcomes compared to a low-intensity management strategy. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Effect of Oral Beta-Hydroxy-Beta-Methylbutyrate (HMB) Supplementation on Physical Performance in Healthy Old Women Over 65 Years: An Open Label Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Berton, Linda; Bano, Giulia; Carraro, Sara; Veronese, Nicola; Pizzato, Simona; Bolzetta, Francesco; De Rui, Marina; Valmorbida, Elena; De Ronch, Irene; Perissinotto, Egle; Coin, Alessandra; Manzato, Enzo; Sergi, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    Although older people are particularly liable to sarcopenia, limited research is available on beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate (HMB) supplementation in this population, particularly in healthy subjects. In this parallel-group, randomized, controlled, open-label trial, we aimed to evaluate whether an oral supplement containing 1.5 g of calcium HMB for 8 weeks could improve physical performance and muscle strength parameters in a group of community-dwelling healthy older women. Eighty healthy women attending a twice-weekly mild fitness program were divided into two equal groups of 40, and 32 of the treated women and 33 control completed the study. We considered a change in the Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB) score as the primary outcome and changes in the peak torque (PT) isometric and isokinetic strength of the lower limbs, 6-minute walking test (6MWT), handgrip strength and endurance as secondary outcomes. Body composition was assessed with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and peripheral quantitative computerized tomography (pQCT). The mean difference between the two groups on pre-post change were finally calculated (delta) for each outcome. After 8 weeks, there were no significant differences between the groups’ SPPB, handgrip strength or DXA parameters. The group treated with HMB scored significantly better than the control group for PT isokinetic flexion (delta = 1.56±1.56 Nm; p = 0.03) and extension (delta = 3.32±2.61 Nm; p = 0.03), PT isometric strength (delta = 9.74±3.90 Nm; p = 0.02), 6MWT (delta = 7.67±8.29 m; p = 0.04), handgrip endurance (delta = 21.41±16.28 s; p = 0.02), and muscle density assessed with pQCT. No serious adverse effects were reported in either group. In conclusion, a nutritional supplement containing 1.5 g of calcium HMB for 8 weeks in healthy elderly women had no significant effects on SPPB, but did significantly improve several muscle strength and physical performance parameters. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02118181.

  14. Effect of mitoxantrone on outcome of children with first relapse of acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL R3): an open-label randomised trial

    PubMed Central

    Parker, Catriona; Waters, Rachel; Leighton, Carly; Hancock, Jeremy; Sutton, Rosemary; Moorman, Anthony V; Ancliff, Philip; Morgan, Mary; Masurekar, Ashish; Goulden, Nicholas; Green, Nina; Révész, Tamas; Darbyshire, Philip; Love, Sharon; Saha, Vaskar

    2010-01-01

    Summary Background Although survival of children with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia has improved greatly in the past two decades, the outcome of those who relapse has remained static. We investigated the outcome of children with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia who relapsed on present therapeutic regimens. Methods This open-label randomised trial was undertaken in 22 centres in the UK and Ireland and nine in Australia and New Zealand. Patients aged 1–18 years with first relapse of acute lymphoblastic leukaemia were stratified into high-risk, intermediate-risk, and standard-risk groups on the basis of duration of first complete remission, site of relapse, and immunophenotype. All patients were allocated to receive either idarubicin or mitoxantrone in induction by stratified concealed randomisation. Neither patients nor those giving interventions were masked. After three blocks of therapy, all high-risk group patients and those from the intermediate group with postinduction high minimal residual disease (≥10−4 cells) received an allogenic stem-cell transplant. Standard-risk and intermediate-risk patients with postinduction low minimal residual disease (<10−4 cells) continued chemotherapy. The primary outcome was progression-free survival and the method of analysis was intention-to-treat. Randomisation was stopped in December, 2007 because of differences in progression-free and overall survival between the two groups. This trial is registered, reference number ISCRTN45724312. Findings Of 239 registered patients, 216 were randomly assigned to either idarubicin (109 analysed) or mitoxantrone (103 analysed). Estimated 3-year progression-free survival was 35·9% (95% CI 25·9–45·9) in the idarubicin group versus 64·6% (54·2–73·2) in the mitoxantrone group (p=0·0004), and 3-year overall survival was 45·2% (34·5–55·3) versus 69·0% (58·5–77·3; p=0·004). Differences in progression-free survival between groups were mainly related to a decrease in

  15. Treatment of lower extremity telangiectasias in women by foam sclerotherapy vs. Nd:YAG laser: a prospective, comparative, randomized, open-label trial.

    PubMed

    Parlar, B; Blazek, C; Cazzaniga, S; Naldi, L; Kloetgen, H W; Borradori, L; Buettiker, U

    2015-03-01

    Telangiectasias of the lower extremities are very common. There are no blinded, randomized, controlled clinical trials comparing laser modalities with the gold standard sclerotherapy, while the few available studies encompass small patients cohorts. This prospective, randomized, open-label trial compares the efficacy of sclerotherapy with polidocanol vs. long-pulsed neodymium-doped yttrium aluminium garnet (Nd:YAG) laser in the treatment of leg telangiectasias. Fifty-six female patients with primary leg telangiectasias and reticular veins (C1A or SEpAS1PN) were included in the study. One leg was randomly assigned to get treatment with the multiple synchronized long-pulsed Nd:YAG laser, while the other received foam sclerotherapy with polidocanol 0.5%. The patients were treated in two sessions at intervals of 6 weeks. The patients were evaluated by the handling physician after 6 weeks and 6 months. Two investigators assessed blindly at the end of the study the photographs for clearing of the vessels using a six-point scale from 1 (no change) to 6 (100% cleared). Patients reported about pain sensation and outcome satisfaction. According to the handling dermatologist, at the last follow-up, there was an improvement of 30-40% with a median of 3 (IQR 2) and a good improvement of 50-70% with a median of 4 (IQR 2) after laser treatment and sclerotherapy respectively. In contrast, according to the blinded investigators, there was a median of 5 (IQR 1) with a very good improvement of >70% after both therapies. Improvement was achieved more quickly by sclerotherapy, although at the last follow-up visit there was no difference in clearance between the two groups as assessed by the blinded experts (P-value 0.84). The degree of patient's satisfaction was very good and similar with both therapeutic approaches. There was a significant difference (P-value 0.003) regarding pain perception between the types of therapy. Laser was felt more painful than sclerotherapy. Telangiectasias

  16. Dovitinib versus sorafenib for third-line targeted treatment of patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma: an open-label, randomised phase 3 trial.

    PubMed

    Motzer, Robert J; Porta, Camillo; Vogelzang, Nicholas J; Sternberg, Cora N; Szczylik, Cezary; Zolnierek, Jakub; Kollmannsberger, Christian; Rha, Sun Young; Bjarnason, Georg A; Melichar, Bohuslav; De Giorgi, Ugo; Grünwald, Viktor; Davis, Ian D; Lee, Jae-Lyun; Esteban, Emilio; Urbanowitz, Gladys; Cai, Can; Squires, Matthew; Marker, Mahtab; Shi, Michael M; Escudier, Bernard

    2014-03-01

    An unmet medical need exists for patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma who have progressed on VEGF-targeted and mTOR-inhibitor therapies. Fibroblast growth factor (FGF) pathway activation has been proposed as a mechanism of escape from VEGF-targeted therapies. Dovitinib is an oral tyrosine-kinase inhibitor that inhibits VEGF and FGF receptors. We therefore compared dovitinib with sorafenib as third-line targeted therapies in patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma. In this multicentre phase 3 study, patients with clear cell metastatic renal cell carcinoma who received one previous VEGF-targeted therapy and one previous mTOR inhibitor were randomly assigned through an interactive voice and web response system to receive open-label dovitinib (500 mg orally according to a 5-days-on and 2-days-off schedule) or sorafenib (400 mg orally twice daily) in a 1:1 ratio. Randomisation was stratified by risk group and region. The primary endpoint was progression-free survival (PFS) assessed by masked central review. Efficacy was assessed in all patients who were randomly assigned and safety was assessed in patients who received at least one dose of study drug. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01223027. 284 patients were randomly assigned to the dovitinib group and 286 to the sorafenib group. Median follow-up was 11·3 months (IQR 7·9-14·6). Median PFS was 3·7 months (95% CI 3·5-3·9) in the dovitinib group and 3·6 months (3·5-3·7) in the sorafenib group (hazard ratio 0·86, 95% CI 0·72-1·04; one-sided p=0·063). 280 patients in the dovitinib group and 284 in the sorafenib group received at least one dose of study drug. Common grade 3 or 4 adverse events included hypertriglyceridaemia (38 [14%]), fatigue (28 [10%]), hypertension (22 [8%]), and diarrhoea (20 [7%]) in the dovitinib group, and hypertension (47 [17%]), fatigue (24 [8%]), dyspnoea (21 [7%]), and palmar-plantar erythrodysaesthesia (18 [6%]) in the sorafenib group. The

  17. The effect of a slower than standard dose escalation scheme for dipyridamole on headaches in secondary prevention therapy of strokes: a randomized, open-label trial (DOSE).

    PubMed

    de Vos-Koppelaar, N C Martine; Kerkhoff, Henk; de Vogel, Ed M; Zock, Elles; Dieleman, Hetty G

    2014-01-01

    Combination therapy with acetylsalicylic acid and dipyridamole is first-line treatment in secondary prevention of strokes. Approximately 40% of patients report headache as a side effect of dipyridamole. Dose escalation of dipyridamole reduces this side effect. In practice, different dose escalation schemes are used. In theory, slower dose escalation than a standard scheme reduces headaches even more. This study aimed to find the best dose escalation scheme for prevention of headaches as a side effect of dipyridamole in the secondary prevention of strokes. In this randomized, open-label, 4-week trial, 114 patients who had an ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack were randomized to receive either a standard or slow dose escalation scheme of dipyridamole. Participants were asked to report the four most common side effects of dipyridamole in a study diary on study days 1, 3, 5, 7, 14, 21 and 28. They were asked to score headache intensity on a visual analog scale (VAS). Participants were unaware that the trial was focused on headaches. Primary end point was to determine if a slow dose escalation scheme reduces the percentage of patients with headaches. Secondary objective was to determine the number of patients who discontinued treatment with dipyridamole because of headaches. Overall 37 patients (38%) of the final population reported headache, 19 (39%) in the standard dose escalation group and 18 (37%) in the slow dose escalation group (p = 1.0). In the standard dose escalation group patients scored headaches (VAS >4) on an average of 3.3 days and patients in the slow dose escalation group on 3.6 days (p = 0.82). Mean VAS scores on study days 1, 3, 5, 7, 14 and 21 ranged from 1.4 to 3.7 in both groups. These scores did not differ significantly. However, on day 28 patients scored a significantly lower mean VAS score in the standard dose escalation group than in the slow dose escalation group (2.5 vs. 4.8; p = 0.05). In the standard dose escalation group 6

  18. Abiraterone acetate for patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer progressing after chemotherapy: final analysis of a multicentre, open-label, early-access protocol trial.

    PubMed

    Sternberg, Cora N; Castellano, Daniel; Daugaard, Gedske; Géczi, Lajos; Hotte, Sebastien J; Mainwaring, Paul N; Saad, Fred; Souza, Ciro; Tay, Miah H; Garrido, José M Tello; Galli, Luca; Londhe, Anil; De Porre, Peter; Goon, Betty; Lee, Emma; McGowan, Tracy; Naini, Vahid; Todd, Mary B; Molina, Arturo; George, Daniel J

    2014-10-01

    In the final analysis of the phase 3 COU-AA-301 study, abiraterone acetate plus prednisone significantly prolonged overall survival compared with prednisone alone in patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer progressing after chemotherapy. Here, we present the final analysis of an early-access protocol trial that was initiated after completion of COU-AA-301 to enable worldwide preapproval access to abiraterone acetate in patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer progressing after chemotherapy. We did a multicentre, open-label, early-access protocol trial in 23 countries. We enrolled patients who had metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer progressing after taxane chemotherapy. Participants received oral doses of abiraterone acetate (1000 mg daily) and prednisone (5 mg twice a day) in 28-day cycles until disease progression, development of sustained side-effects, or abiraterone acetate becoming available in the respective country. The primary outcome was the number of adverse events arising during study treatment and within 30 days of discontinuation. Efficacy measures (time to prostate-specific antigen [PSA] progression and time to clinical progression) were gathered to guide treatment decisions. We included in our analysis all patients who received at least one dose of abiraterone acetate. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01217697. Between Nov 17, 2010, and Sept 30, 2013, 2314 patients were enrolled into the early-access protocol trial. Median follow-up was 5·7 months (IQR 3·5-10·6). 952 (41%) patients had a grade 3 or 4 treatment-related adverse event, and grade 3 or 4 serious adverse events were recorded in 585 (25%) people. The most common grade 3 and 4 adverse events were hepatotoxicity (188 [8%]), hypertension (99 [4%]), cardiac disorders (52 [2%]), osteoporosis (31 [1%]), hypokalaemia (28 [1%]), and fluid retention or oedema (23 [1%]). 172 (7%) patients discontinued the study

  19. Comparison of Prednisolone, Etoricoxib, and Indomethacin in Treatment of Acute Gouty Arthritis: An Open-Label, Randomized, Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Lingling; Liu, Shiqun; Guan, Meiping; Xue, Yaoming

    2016-01-01

    Background At present there are several kinds of medicine for treating acute gout arthritis (AGA). This study compared the efficacy and safety of prednisolone, etoricoxib, and indomethacin in the treatment of AGA. Material/Methods This was an open-label, randomized, active-comparator study in patients with AGA. Patients were randomized to 4 days of prednisolone 35 mg qd, etoricoxib 120 mg qd, or indomethacin 50 mg tid. The primary efficacy endpoint was the reduction of self-assessed pain in the index joint from baseline. Secondary endpoints included changes in physician’s assessment of tenderness, erythema, swelling, and joint activity; patient assessment of response to therapy; and safety. Results We analyzed 113 patients. Baseline demographics were comparable among treatment groups. Oral prednisolone, etoricoxib, and indomethacin were similarly effective in improving pain, tenderness, and joint activity over 4 days. For inflammation, oral prednisolone, etoricoxib, and indomethacin were similarly effective in reducing erythema, but prednisolone might be more effective in reducing swelling than indomethacin. The patient response to therapy was similar in the 3 groups. There were more total adverse events with indomethacin compared with the other 2 drugs. Conclusions Efficacy was comparable among prednisolone, etoricoxib, and indomethacin for the treatment of AGA. Prednisolone might be more effective in reducing inflammation and it had a better safety profile. PMID:26965791

  20. Monovalent type-1 oral poliovirus vaccine given at short intervals in Pakistan: a randomised controlled, four-arm, open-label, non-inferiority trial

    PubMed Central

    Mir, Fatima; Quadri, Farheen; Mach, Ondrej; Ahmed, Imran; Bhatti, Zaid; Khan, Asia; Rehman, Najeeb ur; Durry, Elias; Salama, Maha; Oberste, Steven M; Weldon, William C; Sutter, Roland W; Zaidi, Anita K M

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background Supplementary immunisation activities with oral poliovirus vaccines (OPVs) are usually separated by 4 week intervals; however, shorter intervals have been used in security-compromised areas and for rapid outbreak responses. We assessed the immunogenicity of monovalent type-1 oral poliovirus vaccine (mOPV1) given at shorter than usual intervals in Karachi, Pakistan. Methods This was a multicentre, randomised, controlled, four-arm, open-label, non-inferiority trial done at five primary health-care centres in low-income communities in and around Karachi, Pakistan. Eligible participants were healthy newborn babies with a birthweight of at least 2.5 kg, for whom informed consent was provided by their parent or guardian, and lived less than 30 km from the study clinic. After receiving a birth dose of trivalent OPV, we enrolled and randomly assigned newborn babies (1:1:1:1) to receive two doses of mOPV1 with an interval of 1 week (mOPV1–1 week), 2 weeks (mOPV1–2 weeks), or 4 weeks (mOPV1–4 weeks) between doses, or two doses of bivalent OPV (bOPV) with an interval of 4 weeks between doses (bOPV–4 weeks). We gave the first study dose of OPV at age 6 weeks. We did the randomisation with a centrally generated, computerised allocation sequence with blocks of 16; participants’ families and study physicians could not feasibly be masked to the allocations. Trial participants were excluded from local supplementary immunisation activities during the study period. The primary outcome was non-inferiority (within a 20% margin) between groups in seroconversion to type-1 poliovirus. The primary and safety analyses were done in the per-protocol population of infants who received all three doses of vaccine. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01586572, and is closed to new participants. Findings Between March 1, 2012, and May 31, 2013, we enrolled 1009 newborn babies, and randomly assigned 829 (82%) to treatment. 554 (67%) of the 829

  1. Vismodegib in patients with advanced basal cell carcinoma (STEVIE): a pre-planned interim analysis of an international, open-label trial.

    PubMed

    Basset-Seguin, Nicole; Hauschild, Axel; Grob, Jean-Jacques; Kunstfeld, Rainer; Dréno, Brigitte; Mortier, Laurent; Ascierto, Paolo A; Licitra, Lisa; Dutriaux, Caroline; Thomas, Luc; Jouary, Thomas; Meyer, Nicolas; Guillot, Bernard; Dummer, Reinhard; Fife, Kate; Ernst, D Scott; Williams, Sarah; Fittipaldo, Alberto; Xynos, Ioannis; Hansson, Johan

    2015-06-01

    The Hedgehog pathway inhibitor vismodegib has shown clinical benefit in patients with advanced basal cell carcinoma and is approved for treatment of patients with advanced basal cell carcinoma for whom surgery is inappropriate. STEVIE was designed to assess the safety of vismodegib in a situation similar to routine practice, with a long follow-up. In this multicentre, open-label trial, adult patients with histologically confirmed locally advanced basal cell carcinoma or metastatic basal cell carcinoma were recruited from regional referral centres or specialist clinics. Eligible patients were aged 18 years or older with an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance status of 0-2, and adequate organ function. Patients with locally advanced basal cell carcinoma had to have been deemed ineligible for surgery. All patients received 150 mg oral vismodegib capsules once a day on a continuous basis in 28-day cycles. The primary objective was safety (incidence of adverse events until disease progression or unacceptable toxic effects), with assessments on day 1 of each treatment cycle (28 days) by principal investigator and coinvestigators at the site. Efficacy variables were assessed as secondary endpoints. The safety evaluable population included all patients who received at least one dose of study drug. Patients with histologically confirmed basal cell carcinoma who received at least one dose of study drug were included in the efficacy analysis. An interim analysis was pre-planned after 500 patients achieved 1 year of follow-up. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01367665. The study is still ongoing. Between June 30, 2011, and Nov 6, 2014, we enrolled 1227 patients. At clinical cutoff (Nov 6, 2013), 499 patients (468 with locally advanced basal cell carcinoma and 31 with metastatic basal cell carcinoma) had received study drug and had the potential to be followed up for 12 months or longer. Treatment was discontinued in 400 (80

  2. Study design and rationale of "a multicenter, open-labeled, randomized controlled trial comparing three 2nd-generation drug-eluting stents in real-world practice" (CHOICE trial).

    PubMed

    Youn, Young Jin; Lee, Jun-Won; Ahn, Sung Gyun; Lee, Seung-Hwan; Choi, Hyun Hee; Choi, Hyunmin; Choi, Cheol Ung; Lee, Jin Bae; Cho, Jang Hyun; Kang, Tae Soo; Cho, Byung Ryul; Cha, Kwang Soo; Kim, Moo Hyun; Hyon, Min Su; Cheong, Sang-Sig; Lim, Do-Sun; Han, Kyoo Rok; Jeong, Myung Ho; Park, Keum Soo; Yoon, Junghan

    2013-08-01

    The second-generation drug-eluting stents (DES) have shown superiority in many studies relating to safety and efficacy when compared with the first-generation DES. However, it is unclear whether there are differences in efficacy and safety among the second-generation DES after long-term follow-up. This multicenter, prospective, randomized, open-labeled trial will directly compare the efficacy and safety among the patients treated with either everolimus-eluting stent (EES), zotarolimus-eluting stent with biolinx polymer (ZES-R), or biolimus-eluting stent (BES) with minimal exclusion criteria. The primary end point is a patient-oriented composite consisted of cardiac death, myocardial infarction not clearly attributable to a nontarget vessel and clinically indicated target lesion revascularization at 24-month clinical follow-up post-index procedure. With the hypothesis that "BES is non-inferior to EES" or "BES is non-inferior to ZES-R" in primary end point, approximately 2,600 patients will be assigned to one of the types of stents using a web-based randomization system. The CHOICE trial will directly compare the efficacy and safety of EES, ZES-R, and BES in everyday clinical practice for long-term follow-up. Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Noninvasive diagnosis of hypolactasia with 4-Galactosylxylose (Gaxilose): a multicentre, open-label, phase IIB-III nonrandomized trial.

    PubMed

    Aragón, Juan J; Hermida, Carmen; Martínez-Costa, Oscar H; Sánchez, Valentina; Martín, Igor; Sánchez, José J; Codoceo, Rosa; Cano, José M; Cano, Ana; Crespo, Laura; Torres, Yolanda; García, Francisco J; Fernández-Mayoralas, Alfonso; Solera, Jesús; Martínez, Pilar

    2014-01-01

    Hypolactasia affects over half of the world population. Diagnosis remains problematic as currently available tests, such as the hydrogen breath test, have low reliability and lactose intolerance symptoms are unspecific. We evaluated the diagnostic performance and safety of a new noninvasive diagnostic test based on urine or serum measurement of D-xylose after lactase cleavage of orally administered 4-galactosylxylose (gaxilose). In a multicentre, open-label, nonrandomized, phase IIb-III study, consecutive patients with symptoms suggestive of lactose intolerance sequentially underwent intestinal biopsy for direct measurement of lactase activity (reference standard), hydrogen breath test, and blood glucose test after lactose challenge, 4- and 5-hour urine-based gaxilose test, and blood-based gaxilose test. For the gaxilose tests, 0 to 4 and 4 to 5 hours urine samples were taken after a 0.45 g gaxilose dose, whereas serum samples were taken 90 minutes after a 2.7 g dose for D-xylose determination. Genetic testing of hypolactasia was also assessed. Of the 222 patients enrolled, 203 completed all diagnostic tests; 108 were hypolactasic according to biopsy. The sensitivities and specificities and positive and negative predictive values of the gaxilose tests were all >90% versus 69% to 85% for the hydrogen breath test and the blood glucose test. The area under the ROC curve was significantly higher for the gaxilose tests (>0.9, P≤0.007). These tests also had higher sensitivity than genetic testing for hypolactasia and were well tolerated. The diagnostic performance of the gaxilose tests is excellent and can substantially improve the diagnosis of hypolactasia.

  4. Patient-posture and Ileal-intubation during colonoscopy (PIC): a randomized controlled open-label trial.

    PubMed

    Ahammed, Sk Mahiuddin; Das, Kshaunish; Sarkar, R; Dasgupta, J; Bandopadhyay, S; Dhali, G K

    2014-06-01

    Patient's posture change is commonly employed by a colonoscopist to achieve complete examination. We studied whether patient's posture (left-lateral decubitus vs supine) influenced the success rate of ileal intubation. In this prospective open-label randomized study performed in the Endoscopy Suite of a tertiary-care center, all adult outpatients referred for colonoscopy, in whom cecal intubation was achieved and who satisfied predefined inclusion criteria, were randomized to undergo ileal intubation in either of the above two postures. Colonoscopy (EC-201 WL, Fujinon) was performed after overnight poly-ethylene-glycol preparation, under conscious sedation and continuous pulse-oxymetry monitoring. After confirming cecal intubation, patients were randomized for ileal intubation. Success was defined by visualization of ileal mucosa or villi (confirmed by digital photography) and was attempted until limited by pain and/or time of ≥ 6 min. Of 320 eligible patients, 217 patients (150 males) were randomized, 106 to left-lateral decubitus and 111 to supine posture. At baseline, the two groups were evenly matched. Successful ileal intubation was achieved in 145 (66.8 %) patients overall, significantly higher in the supine posture (74.8 % versus 58.5 %; P = 0.014). On multivariate analysis, supine posture (P = 0.02), average/good right-colon preparation (P < 0.01), non-thin-lipped ileocecal (IC) valve (P < 0.001) and younger age (P = 0.02) were independent predictors of success. Positive ileal findings were recorded in 13 (9 %) patients. Ileoscopy is more successful in supine than in left-lateral decubitus posture. Age, bowel preparation and type of IC valve also determine success.

  5. CT coronary angiography in patients with suspected angina due to coronary heart disease (SCOT-HEART): an open-label, parallel-group, multicentre trial.

    PubMed

    2015-06-13

    The benefit of CT coronary angiography (CTCA) in patients presenting with stable chest pain has not been systematically studied. We aimed to assess the effect of CTCA on the diagnosis, management, and outcome of patients referred to the cardiology clinic with suspected angina due to coronary heart disease. In this prospective open-label, parallel-group, multicentre trial, we recruited patients aged 18-75 years referred for the assessment of suspected angina due to coronary heart disease from 12 cardiology chest pain clinics across Scotland. We randomly assigned (1:1) participants to standard care plus CTCA or standard care alone. Randomisation was done with a web-based service to ensure allocation concealment. The primary endpoint was certainty of the diagnosis of angina secondary to coronary heart disease at 6 weeks. All analyses were intention to treat, and patients were analysed in the group they were allocated to, irrespective of compliance with scanning. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01149590. Between Nov 18, 2010, and Sept 24, 2014, we randomly assigned 4146 (42%) of 9849 patients who had been referred for assessment of suspected angina due to coronary heart disease. 47% of participants had a baseline clinic diagnosis of coronary heart disease and 36% had angina due to coronary heart disease. At 6 weeks, CTCA reclassified the diagnosis of coronary heart disease in 558 (27%) patients and the diagnosis of angina due to coronary heart disease in 481 (23%) patients (standard care 22 [1%] and 23 [1%]; p<0·0001). Although both the certainty (relative risk [RR] 2·56, 95% CI 2·33-2·79; p<0·0001) and frequency of coronary heart disease increased (1·09, 1·02-1·17; p=0·0172), the certainty increased (1·79, 1·62-1·96; p<0·0001) and frequency seemed to decrease (0·93, 0·85-1·02; p=0·1289) for the diagnosis of angina due to coronary heart disease. This changed planned investigations (15% vs 1%; p<0·0001) and treatments (23

  6. Clinically Significant Symptom Reduction in Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Treated with Micronutrients: An Open-Label Reversal Design Study

    PubMed Central

    Gordon, Heather A; Rucklidge, Julia J; Blampied, Neville M; Johnstone, Jeanette M

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate the clinical effect and safety of a broad spectrum, 36 ingredient micronutrient (vitamins and minerals) in treating children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Methods: This open-label, on-off-on-off (reversal design) study followed 14 participants (8–12 years of age) with ADHD, diagnosed using standardized instruments, for 6 months with no dropouts. Following baseline assessment, including hematology and biochemistry screening, participants began an 8 week treatment phase with micronutrients titrated up to maximum dose (15 capsules/day). Treatment was withdrawn for 4 weeks, reinstated for a further 8 weeks, and then withdrawn for 4 weeks. Primary outcomes included the Conners' Parent Rating Scale, the Clinical Global Impressions Scale (CGI), and the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire – Parent version (SDQ). Secondary outcomes were mood and global functioning. Results: Modified Brinley plots revealed a reduction in ADHD symptoms, improved mood, and improved overall functioning during intervention phases, and deterioration in ADHD symptoms, mood, and overall functioning during the withdrawal phases. Reliable change analyses, Cohen's d and percent superiority effect sizes, 95% confidence intervals and t tests confirmed clinically and statistically significant change between the intervention and withdrawal phases, with large effect sizes observed pre- to post-exposure of micronutrients (d = 1.2–2.2) on ADHD symptoms during intervention phases. Seventy-one percent of participants showed at least a 30% decrease in ADHD symptoms by the end of the second treatment phase, and 79% were identified as “much improved” or “very much improved” at the end of the second phase (5 months) based on the clinician-rated CGI when considering functioning generally. The SDQ showed that these benefits occurred across other areas of functioning including emotional symptoms, conduct

  7. Open label, randomized, crossover pilot trial of high-resolution, relational, resonance-based, electroencephalic mirroring to relieve insomnia

    PubMed Central

    Tegeler, Charles H; Kumar, Sandhya R; Conklin, Dave; Lee, Sung W; Gerdes, Lee; Turner, Dana P; Tegeler, Catherine L; C Fidali, Brian; Houle, Tim T

    2012-01-01

    Effective noninvasive interventions for insomnia are needed. High-resolution, relational, resonance-based, electroencephalic mirroring (HIRREM™) is a noninvasive, electroencephalography (EEG)-based method to facilitate greater client-unique, autocalibrated improvements of balance and harmony in cortical neural oscillations. This study explores using HIRREM for insomnia. Twenty subjects, with an Insomnia Severity Index (ISI) score of ≥15 (14 women, mean age 45.4, mean ISI 18.6), were enrolled in this randomized, unblinded, wait-list control, crossover, superiority study. Subjects were randomized to receive 8–12 HIRREM sessions over 3 weeks, plus usual care (HUC), or usual care alone (UC). Pre- and post-HIRREM data collection included ISI (primary outcome), and many secondary, exploratory measures (CES-D, SF-36, HR, BP, neurocognitive testing, and VAS scales). The UC group later crossed over to receive HIRREM. ISI was also repeated 4–6 weeks post-HIRREM. All subjects completed the primary intervention period. Analysis for differential change of ISI in the initial intervention period for HUC versus UC showed a drop of 10.3 points (95% CI: −13.7 to −6.9, P < 0.0001, standardized effect size of 2.68). Key secondary outcomes included statistically identical differential change for the crossed-over UC group, and persistence of the effect on the ISI up to > 4 weeks post-HIRREM. Differential change in the HUC group was also statistically significant for CES-D (−8.8, 95% CI: −17.5 to −0.1, P = 0.047), but other exploratory outcomes were not statistically significant. For all receiving HIRREM (n = 19), decreased high-frequency total power was seen in the bilateral temporal lobes. No adverse events were seen. This pilot clinical trial, the first using HIRREM as an intervention, suggests that HIRREM is feasible and effective for individuals having moderate-to-severe insomnia, with clinically relevant, statistically significant benefits based on differential

  8. Conversion from dopamine agonists to cabergoline: an open-label trial in 128 patients with advanced Parkinson disease.

    PubMed

    Linazasoro, Gurutz

    2008-01-01

    Cabergoline is an ergotic dopamine agonist with D2 receptor activity and a very long half-life. This pharmacological profile may result in clinically different effects. Small clinical trials indicate that overnight switching from 1 agonist to another can be performed safely. To determine safety and efficacy of overnight switching from dopamine agonists to cabergoline in patients with advanced Parkinson disease (PD). Patients with advanced PD and motor complications not optimally controlled by levodopa and a stable dose of bromocriptine, pergolide, pramipexole, and ropinirole were converted to cabergoline overnight. Patients were assessed by using an on-off diary, Unified Parkinson Disease Rating Scale (subscales I-IV), Parkinson's Disease Quality of Life 8 (PDQ-8), an ad hoc sleep questionnaire and an ad hoc off-period severity questionnaire. All rating scales were administered just before conversion and after 2, 6, and 12 weeks of treatment, when patients were on an optimal dose of cabergoline. Adverse effects were assessed at every visit following a check list. One hundred twenty-eight patients were included in the trial. Forty were on pergolide (mean dose, 2.8 mg/d), 38 on pramipexole (mean dose, 2.1 mg/d), and 32 on ropinirole (mean dose, 8.1 mg/d). Patients on bromocriptine (n = 18) were excluded from the analysis because of the small sample size. Three patients reported serious side effects (respiratory arrest, dyskinesias, and face edema and abdominal pain). Twenty-eight patients reported 41 adverse events. Twelve patients were withdrawn due to adverse effects (hallucinations [n = 5], dyspnea [n = 1], dizziness [n = 4], and vascular problems [n = 2]). A significant improvement in assessed parameters was obtained (P < 0.0001). Mean levodopa dose remained unchanged. After 12 weeks, the mean dose of cabergoline was 3.2 mg, and 25% of patients were taking the drug twice a day. Switching from pergolide, ropinirole, and pramipexole to cabergoline in an overnight

  9. Bumetanide for the treatment of seizures in newborn babies with hypoxic ischaemic encephalopathy (NEMO): an open-label, dose finding, and feasibility phase 1/2 trial.

    PubMed

    Pressler, Ronit M; Boylan, Geraldine B; Marlow, Neil; Blennow, Mats; Chiron, Catherine; Cross, J Helen; de Vries, Linda S; Hallberg, Boubou; Hellström-Westas, Lena; Jullien, Vincent; Livingstone, Vicki; Mangum, Barry; Murphy, Brendan; Murray, Deirdre; Pons, Gerard; Rennie, Janet; Swarte, Renate; Toet, Mona C; Vanhatalo, Sampsa; Zohar, Sarah

    2015-05-01

    Preclinical data suggest that the loop-diuretic bumetanide might be an effective treatment for neonatal seizures. We aimed to assess dose and feasibility of intravenous bumetanide as an add-on to phenobarbital for treatment of neonatal seizures. In this open-label, dose finding, and feasibility phase 1/2 trial, we recruited full-term infants younger than 48 h who had hypoxic ischaemic encephalopathy and electrographic seizures not responding to a loading-dose of phenobarbital from eight neonatal intensive care units across Europe. Newborn babies were allocated to receive an additional dose of phenobarbital and one of four bumetanide dose levels by use of a bivariate Bayesian sequential dose-escalation design to assess safety and efficacy. We assessed adverse events, pharmacokinetics, and seizure burden during 48 h continuous electroencephalogram (EEG) monitoring. The primary efficacy endpoint was a reduction in electrographic seizure burden of more than 80% without the need for rescue antiepileptic drugs in more than 50% of infants. The trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01434225. Between Sept 1, 2011, and Sept 28, 2013, we screened 30 infants who had electrographic seizures due to hypoxic ischaemic encephalopathy. 14 of these infants (10 boys) were included in the study (dose allocation: 0·05 mg/kg, n=4; 0·1 mg/kg, n=3; 0·2 mg/kg, n=6; 0·3 mg/kg, n=1). All babies received at least one dose of bumetanide with the second dose of phenobarbital; three were withdrawn for reasons unrelated to bumetanide, and one because of dehydration. All but one infant also received aminoglycosides. Five infants met EEG criteria for seizure reduction (one on 0·05 mg/kg, one on 0·1 mg/kg and three on 0·2 mg/kg), and only two did not need rescue antiepileptic drugs (ie, met rescue criteria; one on 0·05 mg/kg and one on 0·3 mg/kg). We recorded no short-term dose-limiting toxic effects, but three of 11 surviving infants had hearing impairment confirmed on

  10. Safety and efficacy of thrombectomy in acute ischaemic stroke (REVASCAT): 1-year follow-up of a randomised open-label trial.

    PubMed

    Dávalos, Antoni; Cobo, Erik; Molina, Carlos A; Chamorro, Angel; de Miquel, M Angeles; Román, Luis San; Serena, Joaquín; López-Cancio, Elena; Ribó, Marc; Millán, Mónica; Urra, Xabier; Cardona, Pere; Tomasello, Alejandro; Castaño, Carlos; Blasco, Jordi; Aja, Lucía; Rubiera, Marta; Gomis, Meritxell; Renú, Arturo; Lara, Blanca; Martí-Fàbregas, Joan; Jankowitz, Brian; Cerdà, Neus; Jovin, Tudor G

    2017-05-01

    The REVASCAT trial and other studies have shown that the neurovascular thrombectomy improves outcomes at 90 days post stroke. However, whether the observed benefit is sustained in the long term remains unknown. We report the results of the prespecified 12-month analysis of the REVASCAT trial. Patients with acute ischaemic stroke who could be treated within 8 h of symptom onset were randomly assigned to medical therapy (including intravenous alteplase when eligible) and neurovascular thrombectomy with Solitaire FR or medical therapy alone. The main secondary outcome measure at 1 year follow-up was disability, measured using the modified Rankin Scale (mRS), ranging from 0 (no symptoms) to 6 (death) with categories 5 (severe disability) and 6 (death) collapsed into one category (severe disability or death), analysed as the distribution of the mRS. Additional prespecified secondary outcome measures included health-related quality of life measured with the EuroQol five dimensions questionnaire (EQ-5D) utility index (ranging from -0·3 to 1, higher values indicate better quality of life), the rate of functional independence (mRS 0-2), and cognitive function measured with the Trail Making Test (reported elsewhere). Treatment allocation was open label but endpoints at 12 months were assessed by masked investigators. The trial was registered at ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01692379. From Nov 24, 2012, to Dec 12, 2014, 206 patients were randomly assigned to medical therapy plus endovascular treatment (n=103) or medical treatment alone (n=103), at four centres in Catalonia, Spain. At 12 months post randomisation, based on 205 of 206 outcomes available at 12 months, thrombectomy reduced disability over the range of the mRS (common adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 1·80, 95% CI 1·09-2·99), and improved functional independence (mRS=0-2; 45 [44%] of 103 patients vs 31 [30%] of 103 patients; aOR 1·86, 95% CI 1·01-3·44). Health-related quality of life was superior in the

  11. Comparative efficacy trial of cupping and serkangabin versus conventional therapy of migraine headaches: A randomized, open-label, comparative efficacy trial

    PubMed Central

    Firoozabadi, Mohammad Dehghani; Navabzadeh, Maryam; Roudsari, Mohammad Khodashenas; Zahmatkash, Mohsen

    2014-01-01

    Background: Migraine headaches are the most common acute and recurrent headaches. Current treatment of a migraine headache consists of multiple medications for control and prevention of recurrent attacks. Global emergence of alternative medicine led us to examine the efficacy of cupping therapy plus serkangabin syrup in the treatment of migraine headaches. Materials and Methods: This study was a randomized, controlled, open-label, comparative efficacy trial. We randomly assigned patients with migraine into cupping therapy plus serkangabin group (30 patients) and conventional treatment group (30 patients). An investigator assessed the severity of headache, frequency of attacks in a week and duration of attacks per hour in 5 visits (at the end of 2 weeks, 1, 3 and 6 months). Generalized estimating equations approach was used to analyze repeated measures data to compare outcomes in both groups. Results: Average age for cupping therapy group and conventional treatment group were 31.7 (±7.6) and 32.6 (±12.7) years, respectively (P = 0.45). After treatment for 2 weeks; and 1, 3 and 6 months, severity of headache (P = 0.80), frequency of migraine attacks (P = 0.63) and duration of attacks per hours (P = 0.48) were similar in conventional and cupping groups but these symptoms were decreased in each group during the study (P < 0.001). Conclusion: There was no significant difference between cupping plus serkangabin therapy and conventional treatment in the treatment and prophylaxis of migraine. The alternative therapy may be used in cases of drug intolerance, no medication response, and in primary care. PMID:25709653

  12. Binimetinib versus dacarbazine in patients with advanced NRAS-mutant melanoma (NEMO): a multicentre, open-label, randomised, phase 3 trial.

    PubMed

    Dummer, Reinhard; Schadendorf, Dirk; Ascierto, Paolo A; Arance, Ana; Dutriaux, Caroline; Di Giacomo, Anna Maria; Rutkowski, Piotr; Del Vecchio, Michele; Gutzmer, Ralf; Mandala, Mario; Thomas, Luc; Demidov, Lev; Garbe, Claus; Hogg, David; Liszkay, Gabriella; Queirolo, Paola; Wasserman, Ernesto; Ford, James; Weill, Marine; Sirulnik, L Andres; Jehl, Valentine; Bozón, Viviana; Long, Georgina V; Flaherty, Keith

    2017-04-01

    There are no established therapies specific for NRAS-mutant melanoma despite the emergence of immunotherapy. We aimed to assess the efficacy and safety of the MEK inhibitor binimetinib versus that of dacarbazine in patients with advanced NRAS-mutant melanoma. NEMO is an ongoing, randomised, open-label phase 3 study done at 118 hospitals in 26 countries. Patients with advanced, unresectable, American Joint Committee on Cancer stage IIIC or stage IV NRAS-mutant melanoma who were previously untreated or had progressed on or after previous immunotherapy were randomised (2:1) to receive either binimetinib 45 mg orally twice daily or dacarbazine 1000 mg/m(2) intravenously every 3 weeks. Randomisation was stratified by stage, performance status, and previous immunotherapy. The primary endpoint was progression-free survival assessed by blinded central review in the intention-to-treat population. Safety analyses were done in the safety population, consisting of all patients who received at least one study drug dose and one post-baseline safety assessment. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01763164 and with EudraCT, number 2012-003593-51. Between Aug 19, 2013, and April 28, 2015, 402 patients were enrolled and randomly assigned, 269 to binimetinib and 133 to dacarbazine. Median follow-up was 1·7 months (IQR 1·4-4·1). Median progression-free survival was 2·8 months (95% CI 2·8-3·6) in the binimetinib group and 1·5 months (1·5-1·7) in the dacarbazine group (hazard ratio 0·62 [95% CI 0·47-0·80]; one-sided p<0·001). Grade 3-4 adverse events seen in at least 5% of patients the safety population in either group were increased creatine phosphokinase (52 [19%] of 269 patients in the binimetinib group vs none of 114 in the dacarbazine group), hypertension (20 [7%] vs two [2%]), anaemia (five [2%] vs six [5%]), and neutropenia (two [1%] vs ten [9%]). Serious adverse events (all grades) occurred in 91 (34%) patients in the binimetinib group and 25

  13. Long-term health-related quality of life improvements among patients treated with lurasidone: results from the open-label extension of a switch trial in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Awad, George; Ng-Mak, Daisy; Rajagopalan, Krithika; Hsu, Jay; Pikalov, Andrei; Loebel, Antony

    2016-06-01

    Long-term improvement of health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in schizophrenia may improve adherence and reduce relapse and rehospitalization. This analysis examines long-term changes in HRQoL among patients with schizophrenia switched to lurasidone from other antipsychotics. Patients who completed an open-label 6-week switch study continued on lurasidone for an additional 24-weeks. HRQoL was measured using the self-reported Personal Evaluation of Transitions in Treatment (PETiT) scale and Short-Form 12 (SF-12) questionnaire. The PETiT assessed HRQoL via total and domain scores (adherence-related attitude and psychosocial functioning). The SF-12 assessed patients' mental and physical component summary scores (MCS and PCS). Mean changes from the initial baseline were calculated at extension baseline and extension endpoint using analysis of covariance models. Analyses were further stratified by prior antipsychotic medication and responder status; responders were defined as having a ≥20 % improvement in Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale during the first 6-weeks of treatment. The analysis included 144 patients with PETIT or SF-12 data who received ≥1 dose of lurasidone. Mean (standard deviation) PETiT total score improved significantly from 34.9 (9.3) at baseline to 39.5 (8.9) at extension baseline and 39.1 (9.0) at extension endpoint, representing improvements of 4.5 (7.9) and 5.1 (7.2) points, respectively (both p < 0.001). Significant improvements in adherence-related attitude and psychosocial functioning were observed at extension baseline and extension endpoint (all p < 0.001). Improvement in SF-12 MCS score was observed at extension baseline and endpoint, and PCS score at extension endpoint (all p < 0.01). Patients who switched from quetiapine and aripiprazole showed significant improvement of PETiT total score and adherence-related attitude at extension baseline and extension endpoint. In addition, patients who switched from quetiapine

  14. Sunitinib Plus Paclitaxel Versus Bevacizumab Plus Paclitaxel for First-Line Treatment of Patients With Advanced Breast Cancer: A Phase III, Randomized, Open-Label Trial

    PubMed Central

    Robert, Nicholas J.; Saleh, Mansoor N.; Paul, Devchand; Generali, Daniele; Gressot, Laurent; Copur, Mehmet S.; Brufsky, Adam M.; Minton, Susan E.; Giguere, Jeffrey K.; Smith, John W.; Richards, Paul D.; Gernhardt, Diana; Huang, Xin; Liau, Katherine F.; Kern, Kenneth A.; Davis, John

    2015-01-01

    Introduction A multicenter, open-label phase III study was conducted to test whether sunitinib plus paclitaxel prolongs progression-free survival (PFS) compared with bevacizumab plus paclitaxel as first-line treatment for patients with HER2− advanced breast cancer. Patients and Methods Patients with HER2− advanced breast cancer who were disease free for ≥ 12 months after adjuvant taxane treatment were randomized (1:1; planned enrollment 740 patients) to receive intravenous (I.V.) paclitaxel 90 mg/m2 every week for 3 weeks in 4-week cycles plus either sunitinib 25 to 37.5 mg every day or bevacizumab 10 mg/kg I.V. every 2 weeks. Results The trial was terminated early because of futility in reaching the primary endpoint as determined by the independent data monitoring committee during an interim futility analysis. At data cutoff, 242 patients had been randomized to sunitinib-paclitaxel and 243 patients to bevacizumab-paclitaxel. Median PFS was shorter with sunitinib-paclitaxel (7.4 vs. 9.2 months; hazard ratio [HR] 1.63 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.18–2.25]; 1-sided P = .999). At a median follow-up of 8.1 months, with 79% of sunitinib-paclitaxel and 87% of bevacizumab-paclitaxel patients alive, overall survival analysis favored bevacizumab-paclitaxel (HR 1.82 [95% CI, 1.16–2.86]; 1-sided P = .996). The objective response rate was 32% in both arms, but median duration of response was shorter with sunitinib-paclitaxel (6.3 vs. 14.8 months). Bevacizumab-paclitaxel was better tolerated than sunitinib-paclitaxel. This was primarily due to a high frequency of grade 3/4, treatment-related neutropenia with sunitinib-paclitaxel (52%) precluding delivery of the prescribed doses of both drugs. Conclusion The sunitinib-paclitaxel regimen evaluated in this study was clinically inferior to the bevacizumab-paclitaxel regimen and is not a recommended treatment option for patients with advanced breast cancer. PMID:21569994

  15. Sunitinib plus paclitaxel versus bevacizumab plus paclitaxel for first-line treatment of patients with advanced breast cancer: a phase III, randomized, open-label trial.

    PubMed

    Robert, Nicholas J; Saleh, Mansoor N; Paul, Devchand; Generali, Daniele; Gressot, Laurent; Copur, Mehmet S; Brufsky, Adam M; Minton, Susan E; Giguere, Jeffrey K; Smith, John W; Richards, Paul D; Gernhardt, Diana; Huang, Xin; Liau, Katherine F; Kern, Kenneth A; Davis, John

    2011-04-01

    A multicenter, open-label phase III study was conducted to test whether sunitinib plus paclitaxel prolongs progression-free survival (PFS) compared with bevacizumab plus paclitaxel as first-line treatment for patients with HER2(-) advanced breast cancer. Patients with HER2(-) advanced breast cancer who were disease free for ≥ 12 months after adjuvant taxane treatment were randomized (1:1; planned enrollment 740 patients) to receive intravenous (I.V.) paclitaxel 90 mg/m(2) every week for 3 weeks in 4-week cycles plus either sunitinib 25 to 37.5 mg every day or bevacizumab 10 mg/kg I.V. every 2 weeks. [corrected] The trial was terminated early because of futility in reaching the primary endpoint as determined by the independent data monitoring committee during an interim futility analysis. At data cutoff, 242 patients had been randomized to sunitinib-paclitaxel and 243 patients to bevacizumab-paclitaxel. Median PFS was shorter with sunitinib-paclitaxel (7.4 vs. 9.2 months; hazard ratio [HR] 1.63 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.18-2.25]; 1-sided P = .999). At a median follow-up of 8.1 months, with 79% of sunitinib-paclitaxel and 87% of bevacizumab-paclitaxel patients alive, overall survival analysis favored bevacizumab-paclitaxel (HR 1.82 [95% CI, 1.16-2.86]; 1-sided P = .996). The objective response rate was 32% in both arms, but median duration of response was shorter with sunitinib-paclitaxel (6.3 vs. 14.8 months). Bevacizumab-paclitaxel was better tolerated than sunitinib-paclitaxel. This was primarily due to a high frequency of grade 3/4, treatment-related neutropenia with sunitinib-paclitaxel (52%) precluding delivery of the prescribed doses of both drugs. The sunitinib-paclitaxel regimen evaluated in this study was clinically inferior to the bevacizumab-paclitaxel regimen and is not a recommended treatment option for patients with advanced breast cancer. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. A randomised, open label phase III trial with nimotuzumab, an anti-epidermal growth factor receptor monoclonal antibody in the treatment of newly diagnosed adult glioblastoma.

    PubMed

    Westphal, Manfred; Heese, Oliver; Steinbach, Joachim P; Schnell, Oliver; Schackert, Gabriele; Mehdorn, Maximilian; Schulz, Dirk; Simon, Matthias; Schlegel, Uwe; Senft, Christian; Geletneky, Karsten; Braun, Christian; Hartung, Joachim G; Reuter, Dirk; Metz, Monika Warmuth; Bach, Ferdinand; Pietsch, Torsten

    2015-03-01

    A randomised, open label phase III trial was conducted to evaluate efficacy of nimotuzumab, a monoclonal antibody against epidermal growth factor receptor (EGF-R) added to standard therapy for newly diagnosed glioblastoma. 149 glioblastoma patients stratified as with or without residual tumour were randomly assigned to receive either intravenous nimotuzumab 400mg weekly added to standard radiochemotherapy followed by 400mg biweekly after twelve weeks or standard radiochemotherapy. Progression status after 52 weeks (12moPFS) and progression-free survival (PFS) based on Macdonald criteria were co-primary and overall survival (OS), toxicity and quality of life secondary end-points. 142 patients were evaluated for efficacy (per protocol cohort). 12 moPFS was 25.6% in the experimental arm and 20.3% in the control group. In residual tumour patients (n=81) median PFS was 5.6 versus 4.0 months, (hazard ratio (HR), 0.87; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.55-1.37), for patients without residual tumour (n=61) it was 10.6 versus 9.9 months, (HR, 1.01; 95% CI, 0.57-1.77). Median OS in patients with residual tumour was 19.5 versus 16.7 months, (HR, 0.90; 95% CI, 0.52-1.57; P=0.7061), for patients without 23.3 versus 21.0 months (HR, 0.77; 95% CI, 0.41-1.44; P=0.4068). A small cohort of MGMT non-methylated patients with residual tumour showed PFS of 6.2 versus 4.0 months (HR, 0.77; 95% CI, 0.35-1.67; P=0.4997) and OS of 19.0 versus 13.8 months (HR, 0.66; 95% CI, 0.27-1.64; P=0.3648). EGF-R amplification did not correlate with clinical efficacy of nimotuzumab. Nimotuzumab was well tolerated. This study, albeit negative, contains hypothesis generating signals supporting evaluation of correlative, efficacy-predicting tumour parameters for nimotuzumab in the treatment of glioblastoma. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Eribulin versus dacarbazine in previously treated patients with advanced liposarcoma or leiomyosarcoma: a randomised, open-label, multicentre, phase 3 trial.

    PubMed

    Schöffski, Patrick; Chawla, Sant; Maki, Robert G; Italiano, Antoine; Gelderblom, Hans; Choy, Edwin; Grignani, Giovanni; Camargo, Veridiana; Bauer, Sebastian; Rha, Sun Young; Blay, Jean-Yves; Hohenberger, Peter; D'Adamo, David; Guo, Matthew; Chmielowski, Bartosz; Le Cesne, Axel; Demetri, George D; Patel, Shreyaskumar R

    2016-04-16

    A non-randomised, phase 2 study showed activity and tolerability of eribulin in advanced or metastatic soft-tissue sarcoma. In this phase 3 study, we aimed to compare overall survival in patients with advanced or metastatic soft-tissue sarcoma who received eribulin with that in patients who received dacarbazine (an active control). We did this randomised, open-label, phase 3 study across 110 study sites in 22 countries. We enrolled patients aged 18 years or older with intermediate-grade or high-grade advanced liposarcoma or leiomyosarcoma who had received at least two previous systemic regimens for advanced disease (including an anthracycline). Using an interactive voice and web response system, an independent statistician randomly assigned (1:1) patients to receive eribulin mesilate (1·4 mg/m(2) intravenously on days 1 and 8) or dacarbazine (850 mg/m(2), 1000 mg/m(2), or 1200 mg/m(2) [dose dependent on centre and clinician] intravenously on day 1) every 21 days until disease progression. Randomisation was stratified by disease type, geographical region, and number of previous regimens for advanced soft-tissue sarcoma and in blocks of six. Patients and investigators were not masked to treatment assignment. The primary endpoint was overall survival in the intention-to-treat population. The study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01327885, and is closed to recruitment, but treatment and follow-up continue. Between March 10, 2011 and May 22, 2013, we randomly assigned patients to eribulin (n=228) or dacarbazine (n=224). Overall survival was significantly improved in patients assigned to eribulin compared with those assigned to dacarbazine (median 13·5 months [95% CI 10·9-15·6] vs 11·5 months [9·6-13·0]; hazard ratio 0·77 [95% CI 0·62-0·95]; p=0·0169). Treatment-emergent adverse events occurred in 224 (99%) of 226 patients who received eribulin and 218 (97%) of 224 who received dacarbazine. Grade 3 or higher adverse events were more common in

  18. Pharmacokinetics and Tolerability of Inhaled Umeclidinium and Vilanterol Alone and in Combination in Healthy Chinese Subjects: A Randomized, Open-Label, Crossover Trial

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Chaoying; Jia, Jingying; Dong, Kelly; Luo, Linda; Wu, Kai; Mehta, Rashmi; Peng, Jack; Ren, Yan; Gross, Annette; Yu, Hui

    2015-01-01

    Inhaled umeclidinium (UMEC) and the combination of inhaled UMEC with vilanterol (UMEC/VI) are approved maintenance treatments for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in the US and EU. This was a randomized, open-label, three-period crossover, single- and repeat-dose study to assess the pharmacokinetics (PK), safety, and tolerability of inhaled UMEC/VI 62.5/25 μg (delivering 55/22 μg) and UMEC/VI 125/25 μg (delivering 113/22 μg) compared with their monotherapy components (UMEC 62.5 μg, UMEC 125 μg and, VI 25 μg [delivering 55, 113, and 22 μg, respectively]) in healthy Chinese subjects (n=20). UMEC and VI were rapidly absorbed following single and repeat dosing (time to maximum plasma concentration [tmax]: UMEC = 5 min; VI = 5 min). The median tlast was 2–4 h for UMEC and 1–2 h for VI following single doses of UMEC/VI and UMEC monotherapy (both doses). UMEC reached steady-state prior to Day 10; steady-state for VI could not be assessed. UMEC accumulation following repeat dosing was 11–34% based on Cmax and 19–59% based on area under the concentration-time curve from time zero to 2 h (AUC(0-2)). VI accumulation following repeat dosing was 25–66% based on Cmax and 17–43% based on AUC(0-2). The evidence was not sufficient to suggest that systemic exposure was substantially different between UMEC/VI combination therapy and the constituent monotherapies following single or repeat dosing. Following both single- and repeat-dose administration, the inter-subject coefficient of variation for all UMEC PK parameter estimates ranged from 12% to 165% for all treatments, indicating a wide range of variability in inhaled PK parameters. Twelve subjects experienced ≥1 adverse event (AE). Six subjects experienced ≥1 treatment-related AE; the most commonly reported treatment-related AE was chest discomfort (n=3 [15%]). No clinically important changes in vital signs or electrocardiogram parameters were reported. These data suggest that single- and repeat

  19. Safety and Efficacy from an 8 Week Double-Blind Trial and a 26 Week Open-Label Extension of Asenapine in Adolescents with Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Landbloom, Ronald P.; Mackle, Mary; Pallozzi, Wendi; Braat, Sabine; Hundt, Carla; Wamboldt, Marianne Z.; Mathews, Maju

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of asenapine in adolescents with schizophrenia. Methods: In an 8 week, randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled trial, subjects (12–17 years of age) meeting Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th ed., Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR) criteria for schizophrenia were randomized 1:1:1 to placebo, asenapine 2.5 mg b.i.d., or asenapine 5 mg b.i.d. Subjects who completed the 8 week acute study could participate in a 26 week flexible-dose asenapine-only open-label extension (OLE). Results: A similar percentage of subjects completed treatment on day 56 (2.5 mg b.i.d. (n=98): 83%; 5 mg b.i.d. [n=106]: 79%; placebo [n=102]: 79%). In the mixed model for repeated measures analysis of the primary end-point (with Hochberg correction for multiplicity), least squares (LS) mean differences between asenapine and placebo on the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) total score at day 56 were not significant (−4.8 for 2.5 mg b.i.d., p=0.070; −5.6 for 5 mg b.i.d., p=0.064). Significant improvement in the Clinical Global Impressions-Severity score was observed in the 5 mg b.i.d. group versus placebo on day 56 (LS mean −0.3, p=0.024). In the acute phase, ≥7% weight gain and the composite event of somnolence, sedation, and hypersomnia were more common in both asenapine groups than in the placebo group. Akathisia, fasting glucose elevation, and extrapyramidal syndrome were more common in the 5 mg b.i.d. group than in the placebo group. There were no unexpected adverse events in the OLE, and PANSS total scores decreased by −16.1 points in the group previously treated with placebo (n=62) and by −11.2 points in the continuous asenapine group (n=131) from OLE baseline to week 26. Conclusions: Although improvements in PANSS total score at day 56 of the acute phase were numerically greater for both asenapine 2.5 and 5 mg b.i.d. than for placebo and were

  20. Optimum and stepped care standardised antihypertensive treatment with or without renal denervation for resistant hypertension (DENERHTN): a multicentre, open-label, randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Azizi, Michel; Sapoval, Marc; Gosse, Philippe; Monge, Matthieu; Bobrie, Guillaume; Delsart, Pascal; Midulla, Marco; Mounier-Véhier, Claire; Courand, Pierre-Yves; Lantelme, Pierre; Denolle, Thierry; Dourmap-Collas, Caroline; Trillaud, Hervé; Pereira, Helena; Plouin, Pierre-François; Chatellier, Gilles

    2015-05-16

    Conflicting blood pressure-lowering effects of catheter-based renal artery denervation have been reported in patients with resistant hypertension. We compared the ambulatory blood pressure-lowering efficacy and safety of radiofrequency-based renal denervation added to a standardised stepped-care antihypertensive treatment (SSAHT) with the same SSAHT alone in patients with resistant hypertension. The Renal Denervation for Hypertension (DENERHTN) trial was a prospective, open-label randomised controlled trial with blinded endpoint evaluation in patients with resistant hypertension, done in 15 French tertiary care centres specialised in hypertension management. Eligible patients aged 18-75 years received indapamide 1·5 mg, ramipril 10 mg (or irbesartan 300 mg), and amlodipine 10 mg daily for 4 weeks to confirm treatment resistance by ambulatory blood pressure monitoring before randomisation. Patients were then randomly assigned (1:1) to receive either renal denervation plus an SSAHT regimen (renal denervation group) or the same SSAHT alone (control group). The randomisation sequence was generated by computer, and stratified by centres. For SSAHT, after randomisation, spironolactone 25 mg per day, bisoprolol 10 mg per day, prazosin 5 mg per day, and rilmenidine 1 mg per day were sequentially added from months two to five in both groups if home blood pressure was more than or equal to 135/85 mm Hg. The primary endpoint was the mean change in daytime systolic blood pressure from baseline to 6 months as assessed by ambulatory blood pressure monitoring. The primary endpoint was analysed blindly. The safety outcomes were the incidence of acute adverse events of the renal denervation procedure and the change in estimated glomerular filtration rate from baseline to 6 months. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01570777. Between May 22, 2012, and Oct 14, 2013, 1416 patients were screened for eligibility, 106 of those were randomly assigned to treatment

  1. Standard-dose pembrolizumab in combination with reduced-dose ipilimumab for patients with advanced melanoma (KEYNOTE-029): an open-label, phase 1b trial.

    PubMed

    Long, Georgina V; Atkinson, Victoria; Cebon, Jonathan S; Jameson, Michael B; Fitzharris, Bernie M; McNeil, Catriona M; Hill, Andrew G; Ribas, Antoni; Atkins, Michael B; Thompson, John A; Hwu, Wen-Jen; Hodi, F Stephen; Menzies, Alexander M; Guminski, Alexander D; Kefford, Richard; Kong, Benjamin Y; Tamjid, Babak; Srivastava, Archana; Lomax, Anna J; Islam, Mohammed; Shu, Xinxin; Ebbinghaus, Scot; Ibrahim, Nageatte; Carlino, Matteo S

    2017-09-01

    Reduced-dose nivolumab in combination with standard-dose ipilimumab improves objective response and progression-free survival compared with standard-dose ipilimumab alone, but increases toxicity. We assessed the safety and anti-tumour activity of standard-dose pembrolizumab in combination with reduced-dose ipilimumab. In this open-label, phase 1b trial, we recruited patients from 12 medical centres in Australia, New Zealand, and the USA. Eligible patients were aged at least 18 years, had advanced melanoma, had an Eastern Coooperative Oncology Group performance status of 0 or 1, had measurable disease according to the Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST) version 1.1, had adequate organ function, had resolution of toxic effects of the most recent previous chemotherapy to grade 1 or less, had no active autoimmune disease requiring systemic steroids or immunosuppressive agents, had no active non-infectious pneumonitis, had no uncontrolled thyroid dysfunction or diabetes, had no active brain metastases, and had not received previous immune checkpoint inhibitor therapy. Patients received intravenous pembrolizumab 2 mg/kg plus intravenous ipilimumab 1 mg/kg every 3 weeks for four doses, followed by intravenous pembrolizumab 2 mg/kg every 3 weeks for up to 2 years or disease progression, intolerable toxicity, withdrawal of consent, or investigator decision. The primary endpoint was safety and tolerability. The proportion of patients achieving an objective response assessed per RECIST version 1.1 by independent central review and overall survival were secondary endpoints. We also assessed progression-free survival. The primary endpoint was assessed in all patients who received at least one dose of combination therapy. Activity was assessed in all enrolled patients. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT02089685. Enrolment into this cohort is closed, but patients are still being monitored for safety and anti-tumour activity. Between Jan

  2. Nanoliposomal irinotecan with fluorouracil and folinic acid in metastatic pancreatic cancer after previous gemcitabine-based therapy (NAPOLI-1): a global, randomised, open-label, phase 3 trial.

    PubMed

    Wang-Gillam, Andrea; Li, Chung-Pin; Bodoky, György; Dean, Andrew; Shan, Yan-Shen; Jameson, Gayle; Macarulla, Teresa; Lee, Kyung-Hun; Cunningham, David; Blanc, Jean F; Hubner, Richard A; Chiu, Chang-Fang; Schwartsmann, Gilberto; Siveke, Jens T; Braiteh, Fadi; Moyo, Victor; Belanger, Bruce; Dhindsa, Navreet; Bayever, Eliel; Von Hoff, Daniel D; Chen, Li-Tzong

    2016-02-06

    Nanoliposomal irinotecan showed activity in a phase 2 study in patients with metastatic pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma previously treated with gemcitabine-based therapies. We assessed the effect of nanoliposomal irinotecan alone or combined with fluorouracil and folinic acid in a phase 3 trial in this population. We did a global, phase 3, randomised, open-label trial at 76 sites in 14 countries. Eligible patients with metastatic pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma previously treated with gemcitabine-based therapy were randomly assigned (1:1) using an interactive web response system at a central location to receive either nanoliposomal irinotecan monotherapy (120 mg/m(2) every 3 weeks, equivalent to 100 mg/m(2) of irinotecan base) or fluorouracil and folinic acid. A third arm consisting of nanoliposomal irinotecan (80 mg/m(2), equivalent to 70 mg/m(2) of irinotecan base) with fluorouracil and folinic acid every 2 weeks was added later (1:1:1), in a protocol amendment. Randomisation was stratified by baseline albumin, Karnofsky performance status, and ethnic origin. Treatment was continued until disease progression or intolerable toxic effects. The primary endpoint was overall survival, assessed in the intention-to-treat population. The primary analysis was planned after 305 events. Safety was assessed in all patients who had received study drug. This trial is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01494506. Between Jan 11, 2012, and Sept 11, 2013, 417 patients were randomly assigned either nanoliposomal irinotecan plus fluorouracil and folinic acid (n=117), nanoliposomal irinotecan monotherapy (n=151), or fluorouracil and folinic acid (n=149). After 313 events, median overall survival in patients assigned nanoliposomal irinotecan plus fluorouracil and folinic acid was 6.1 months (95% CI 4.8-8.9) vs 4.2 months (3.3-5.3) with fluorouracil and folinic acid (hazard ratio 0.67, 95% CI 0.49-0.92; p=0.012). Median overall survival did not differ between patients

  3. Haloperidol prophylaxis for preventing aggravation of postoperative delirium in elderly patients: a randomized, open-label prospective trial.

    PubMed

    Fukata, Shinji; Kawabata, Yasuji; Fujishiro, Ken; Kitagawa, Yuichi; Kuroiwa, Kojiro; Akiyama, Hirotoshi; Takemura, Marie; Ando, Masahiko; Hattori, Hideyuki

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of the early administration haloperidol in preventing the aggravation of postoperative delirium in elderly patients. A total of 201 patients (age ≥75 years) who underwent elective surgery were enrolled. The patients were divided into two groups: the intervention group (n = 101) received prophylactic haloperidol (5 mg); the control group (n = 100) did not. Haloperidol was administered daily during postoperative days 0-5 to the patients who presented with NEECHAM scores of 20-24 when measured at 18:00. The primary endpoint was the incidence of severe postoperative delirium. The incidence of severe postoperative delirium in all patients was 25.1%. The incidence of severe postoperative delirium in the intervention group (18.2%) was significantly lower than that in the control group (32.0%) (p = 0.02). The difference between the two groups was larger when the analysis was limited to the 70 patients who had NEECHAM scores of 20-24 for at least one day during postoperative days 0-5. No adverse effects of the haloperidol were observed. The prophylactic administration of haloperidol at the early stage of delirium significantly reduced the incidence of severe postoperative delirium in elderly patients. Clinical Trial Registration UMIN000007204.

  4. Ibrutinib as initial therapy for elderly patients with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia or small lymphocytic lymphoma: an open-label, multicentre, phase 1b/2 trial

    PubMed Central

    O’Brien, Susan; Furman, Richard R; Coutre, Steven E; Sharman, Jeff P; Burger, Jan A; Blum, Kristie A; Grant, Barbara; Richards, Donald A; Coleman, Morton; Wierda, William G; Jones, Jeffrey A; Zhao, Weiqiang; Heerema, Nyla A; Johnson, Amy J; Izumi, Raquel; Hamdy, Ahmed; Chang, Betty Y; Graef, Thorsten; Clow, Fong; Buggy, Joseph J; James, Danelle F; Byrd, John C

    2014-01-01

    Summary Background Chemoimmunotherapy has led to improved numbers of patients achieving disease response, and longer overall survival in young patients with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia; however, its application in elderly patients has been restricted by substantial myelosuppression and infection. We aimed to assess safety and activity of ibrutinib, an orally administered covalent inhibitor of Bruton tyrosine kinase (BTK), in treatment-naive patients aged 65 years and older with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia. Methods In our open-label phase 1b/2 trial, we enrolled previously untreated patients at clinical sites in the USA. Eligible patients were aged at least 65 years, and had symptomatic chronic lymphocytic leukaemia or small lymphocytic lymphoma requiring therapy. Patients received 28 day cycles of once-daily ibrutinib 420 mg or ibrutinib 840 mg. The 840 mg dose was discontinued after enrolment had begun because comparable activity of the doses has been shown. The primary endpoint was the safety of the dose-fixed regimen in terms of frequency and severity of adverse events for all patients who received treatment. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01105247. Findings Between May 20, 2010, and Dec 18, 2012, we enrolled 29 patients with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia and two patients with small lymphocytic lymphoma. Median age was 71 years (range 65–84), and 23 (74%) patients were at least 70 years old. Toxicity was mainly of mild-to-moderate severity (grade 1–2). 21 (68%) patients had diarrhoea (grade 1 in 14 [45%] patients, grade 2 in three [10%] patients, and grade 3 in four [13%] patients). 15 (48%) patients developed nausea (grade 1 in 12 [39%] patients and grade 2 in three [10%] patients). Ten (32%) patients developed fatigue (grade 1 in five [16%] patients, grade 2 in four [13%] patients, and grade 3 in one [3%] patient). Three (10%) patients developed grade 3 infections, although no grade 4 or 5 infections occurred. One patient

  5. Intravitreous injection of AAV2-sFLT01 in patients with advanced neovascular age-related macular degeneration: a phase 1, open-label trial.

    PubMed

    Heier, Jeffrey S; Kherani, Saleema; Desai, Shilpa; Dugel, Pravin; Kaushal, Shalesh; Cheng, Seng H; Delacono, Cheryl; Purvis, Annie; Richards, Susan; Le-Halpere, Annaig; Connelly, John; Wadsworth, Samuel C; Varona, Rafael; Buggage, Ronald; Scaria, Abraham; Campochiaro, Peter A

    2017-07-01

    Long-term intraocular injections of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-neutralising proteins can preserve central vision in many patients with neovascular age-related macular degeneration. We tested the safety and tolerability of a single intravitreous injection of an AAV2 vector expressing the VEGF-neutralising protein sFLT01 in patients with advanced neovascular age-related macular degeneration. This was a phase 1, open-label, dose-escalating study done at four outpatient retina clinics in the USA. Patients were assigned to each cohort in order of enrolment, with the first three patients being assigned to and completing the first cohort before filling positions in the following treatment groups. Patients aged 50 years or older with neovascular age-related macular degeneration and a baseline best-corrected visual acuity score of 20/100 or less in the study eye were enrolled in four dose-ranging cohorts (cohort 1, 2 × 10(8) vector genomes (vg); cohort 2, 2 × 10(9) vg; cohort 3, 6 × 10(9) vg; and cohort 4, 2 × 10(10) vg, n=3 per cohort) and one maximum tolerated dose cohort (cohort 5, 2 × 10(10) vg, n=7) and followed up for 52 weeks. The primary objective of the study was to assess the safety and tolerability of a single intravitreous injection of AAV2-sFLT01, through the measurement of eye-related adverse events. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01024998. 19 patients with advanced neovascular age-related macular degeneration were enrolled in the study between May 18, 2010, and July 14, 2014. All patients completed the 52-week trial period. Two patients in cohort 4 (2 × 10(10) vg) experienced adverse events that were possibly study-drug related: pyrexia and intraocular inflammation that resolved with a topical steroid. Five of ten patients who received 2 × 10(10) vg had aqueous humour concentrations of sFLT01 that peaked at 32·7-112·0 ng/mL (mean 73·7 ng/mL, SD 30·5) by week 26 with a slight

  6. Tumour necrosis factor inhibition versus rituximab for patients with rheumatoid arthritis who require biological treatment (ORBIT): an open-label, randomised controlled, non-inferiority, trial.

    PubMed

    Porter, Duncan; van Melckebeke, Jurgen; Dale, James; Messow, C Martina; McConnachie, Alexander; Walker, Andrew; Munro, Robin; McLaren, John; McRorie, Euan; Packham, Jon; Buckley, Christopher D; Harvie, John; Taylor, Peter; Choy, Ernest; Pitzalis, Costantino; McInnes, Iain B

    2016-07-16

    Tumour necrosis factor (TNF) inhibition and B-cell depletion are highly effective treatments for active rheumatoid arthritis, but so far no randomised controlled trials have directly compared their safety, efficacy, and cost-effectiveness. This study was done to test the hypothesis that using rituximab would be clinically non-inferior and cheaper compared with TNF inhibitor treatment in biological-treatment naive patients with rheumatoid arthritis. This open-label, randomised controlled, non-inferiority trial enrolled patients with active, seropositive rheumatoid arthritis and an inadequate response to synthetic disease modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs) from 35 rheumatology departments in the UK. Patients were randomly assigned 1:1 to the rituximab or TNF inhibitor groups with minimisation to account for methotrexate intolerance using a web-based randomisation system. Patients were given intravenous rituximab 1 g on days 1 and 15, and after 26 weeks if they responded to treatment but had persistent disease activity (28 joint count disease activity score [DAS28-ESR] >3.2; rituximab group) or a TNF inhibitor-adalimumab (40 mg subcutaneously every other week) or etanercept (50 mg per week subcutaneously) according to the patient's and rheumatologist's choice (TNF inhibitor group). Patients could switch treatment in the case of drug-related toxic effects or absence or loss of response. The primary outcome measure was the change in DAS28-ESR between 0 and 12 months in the per-protocol population of patients who were assigned to treatment and remained in follow-up to 1 year. We assessed safety in all patients who received at least one dose of study drug. We also assessed the cost-effectiveness of each strategy. The non-inferiority margin was specified as 0.6 DAS28-ESR units. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01021735. Between April 6, 2009, and Nov 11, 2013, 295 patients were randomly assigned and given either rituximab (n=144) or TNF

  7. Chlorambucil plus ofatumumab versus chlorambucil alone in previously untreated patients with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (COMPLEMENT 1): a randomised, multicentre, open-label phase 3 trial.

    PubMed

    Hillmen, Peter; Robak, Tadeusz; Janssens, Ann; Babu, K Govind; Kloczko, Janusz; Grosicki, Sebastian; Doubek, Michael; Panagiotidis, Panagiotis; Kimby, Eva; Schuh, Anna; Pettitt, Andrew R; Boyd, Thomas; Montillo, Marco; Gupta, Ira V; Wright, Oliver; Dixon, Iestyn; Carey, Jodi L; Chang, Chai-Ni; Lisby, Steen; McKeown, Astrid; Offner, Fritz

    2015-05-09

    Treatment for patients with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia who are elderly or who have comorbidities is challenging because fludarabine-based chemoimmunotherapies are mostly not suitable. Chlorambucil remains the standard of care in many countries. We aimed to investigate whether the addition of ofatumumab to chlorambucil could lead to better clinical outcomes than does treatment with chlorambucil alone, while also being tolerable for patients who have few treatment options. We carried out a randomised, open-label, phase 3 trial for treatment-naive patients with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia in 109 centres in 16 countries. We included patients who had active disease needing treatment, but in whom fludarabine-based treatment was not possible. We randomly assigned patients (1:1) to receive oral chlorambucil (10 mg/m(2)) on days 1-7 of a 28 day treatment course or to receive chlorambucil by this schedule plus intravenous ofatumumab (cycle 1: 300 mg on day 1 and 1000 mg on day 8; subsequent cycles: 1000 mg on day 1) for three to 12 cycles. Assignment was done with a randomisation list that was computer generated at GlaxoSmithKline, and was stratified, in a block size of two, by age, disease stage, and performance status. The primary endpoint was progression-free survival in the intention-to-treat population and assessment was done by an independent review committee that was masked to group assignment. The study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00748189. We enrolled 447 patients, median age 69 years (range 35-92). Between Dec 22, 2008, and May 26, 2011, we randomly assigned 221 patients to chlorambucil plus ofatumumab and 226 patients to chlorambucil alone. Median progression-free survival was 22·4 months (95% CI 19·0-25·2) in the group assigned to chlorambucil plus ofatumumab compared with 13·1 months (10·6-13·8) in the group assigned to chlorambucil only (hazard ratio 0·57, 95% CI 0·45-0·72; p<0·0001). Grade 3 or greater adverse events were

  8. A transcatheter intracardiac shunt device for heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (REDUCE LAP-HF): a multicentre, open-label, single-arm, phase 1 trial.

    PubMed

    Hasenfuß, Gerd; Hayward, Chris; Burkhoff, Dan; Silvestry, Frank E; McKenzie, Scott; Gustafsson, Finn; Malek, Filip; Van der Heyden, Jan; Lang, Irene; Petrie, Mark C; Cleland, John G F; Leon, Martin; Kaye, David M

    2016-03-26

    Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFPEF) is a common, globally recognised, form of heart failure for which no treatment has yet been shown to improve symptoms or prognosis. The pathophysiology of HFPEF is complex but characterised by increased left atrial pressure, especially during exertion, which might be a key therapeutic target. The rationale for the present study was that a mechanical approach to reducing left atrial pressure might be effective in HFPEF. The REDUCe Elevated Left Atrial Pressure in Patients with Heart Failure (REDUCE LAP-HF) study was an open-label, single-arm, phase 1 study designed to assess the performance and safety of a transcatheter interatrial shunt device (IASD, Corvia Medical, Tewkesbury, MA, USA) in patients older than 40 years of age with symptoms of HFPEF despite pharmacological therapy, left ventricular ejection fraction higher than 40%, and a raised pulmonary capillary wedge pressure at rest (>15 mm Hg) or during exercise (>25 mm Hg). The study was done at 21 centres (all departments of cardiology in the UK, Netherlands, Belgium, France, Germany, Austria, Denmark, Australia, and New Zealand). The co-primary endpoints were the safety and performance of the IASD at 6 months, together with measures of clinical efficacy, including functional capacity and clinical status, analysed per protocol. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01913613. Between Feb 8, 2014, and June 10, 2015, 68 eligible patients were entered into the study. IASD placement was successful in 64 patients and seemed to be safe and well tolerated; no patient had a peri-procedural or major adverse cardiac or cerebrovascular event or need for cardiac surgical intervention for device-related complications during 6 months of follow-up. At 6 months, 31 (52%) of 60 patients had a reduction in pulmonary capillary wedge pressure at rest, 34 (58%) of 59 had a lower pulmonary capillary wedge pressure during exertion, and 23 (39%) of 59

  9. Dabrafenib plus trametinib in patients with BRAF(V600)-mutant melanoma brain metastases (COMBI-MB): a multicentre, multicohort, open-label, phase 2 trial.

    PubMed

    Davies, Michael A; Saiag, Philippe; Robert, Caroline; Grob, Jean-Jacques; Flaherty, Keith T; Arance, Ana; Chiarion-Sileni, Vanna; Thomas, Luc; Lesimple, Thierry; Mortier, Laurent; Moschos, Stergios J; Hogg, David; Márquez-Rodas, Iván; Del Vecchio, Michele; Lebbé, Céleste; Meyer, Nicolas; Zhang, Ying; Huang, Yingjie; Mookerjee, Bijoyesh; Long, Georgina V

    2017-07-01

    Dabrafenib plus trametinib improves clinical outcomes in BRAF(V600)-mutant metastatic melanoma without brain metastases; however, the activity of dabrafenib plus trametinib has not been studied in active melanoma brain metastases. Here, we report results from the phase 2 COMBI-MB trial. Our aim was to build on the current body of evidence of targeted therapy in melanoma brain metastases through an evaluation of dabrafenib plus trametinib in patients with BRAF(V600)-mutant melanoma brain metastases. This ongoing, multicentre, multicohort, open-label, phase 2 study evaluated oral dabrafenib (150 mg twice per day) plus oral trametinib (2 mg once per day) in four patient cohorts with melanoma brain metastases enrolled from 32 hospitals and institutions in Europe, North America, and Australia: (A) BRAF(V600E)-positive, asymptomatic melanoma brain metastases, with no previous local brain therapy, and an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance status of 0 or 1; (B) BRAF(V600E)-positive, asymptomatic melanoma brain metastases, with previous local brain therapy, and an ECOG performance status of 0 or 1; (C) BRAF(V600D/K/R)-positive, asymptomatic melanoma brain metastases, with or without previous local brain therapy, and an ECOG performance status of 0 or 1; and (D) BRAF(V600D/E/K/R)-positive, symptomatic melanoma brain metastases, with or without previous local brain therapy, and an ECOG performance status of 0, 1, or 2. The primary endpoint was investigator-assessed intracranial response in cohort A in the all-treated-patients population. Secondary endpoints included intracranial response in cohorts B, C, and D. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT02039947. Between Feb 28, 2014, and Aug 5, 2016, 125 patients were enrolled in the study: 76 patients in cohort A; 16 patients in cohort B; 16 patients in cohort C; and 17 patients in cohort D. At the data cutoff (Nov 28, 2016) after a median follow-up of 8·5 months (IQR 5·5-14·0), 44 (58

  10. Open-label, exploratory phase II trial of oral itraconazole for the treatment of basal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Kim, Daniel J; Kim, James; Spaunhurst, Katrina; Montoya, Javier; Khodosh, Rita; Chandra, Kalyani; Fu, Teresa; Gilliam, Anita; Molgo, Monserrat; Beachy, Philip A; Tang, Jean Y

    2014-03-10

    Itraconazole, a US Food and Drug Administration-approved antifungal drug, inhibits the Hedgehog (HH) signaling pathway, a crucial driver of basal cell carcinoma (BCC) tumorigenesis, and reduces BCC growth in mice. We assessed the effect of itraconazole on the HH pathway and on tumor size in human BCC tumors. Patients with ≥ one BCC tumor > 4 mm in diameter were enrolled onto two cohorts to receive oral itraconazole 200 mg twice per day for 1 month (cohort A) or 100 mg twice per day for an average of 2.3 months (cohort B). The primary end point was change in biomarkers: Ki67 tumor proliferation and HH activity (GLI1 mRNA). Secondary end points included change in tumor size in a subset of patients with multiple tumors. A total of 29 patients were enrolled, of whom 19 were treated with itraconazole. Itraconazole treatment was associated with two adverse events (grade 2 fatigue and grade 4 congestive heart failure). Itraconazole reduced cell proliferation by 45% (P = .04), HH pathway activity by 65% (P = .03), and reduced tumor area by 24% (95% CI, 18.2% to 30.0%). Of eight patients with multiple nonbiopsied tumors, four achieved partial response, and four had stable disease. Tumors from untreated control patients and from those previously treated with vismodegib showed no significant changes in proliferation or tumor size. Itraconazole has anti-BCC activity in humans. These results provide the basis for larger trials of longer duration to measure the clinical efficacy of itraconazole, especially relative to other HH pathway inhibitors.

  11. FOLFIRI plus cetuximab versus FOLFIRI plus bevacizumab as first-line treatment for patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (FIRE-3): a randomised, open-label, phase 3 trial.

    PubMed

    Heinemann, Volker; von Weikersthal, Ludwig Fischer; Decker, Thomas; Kiani, Alexander; Vehling-Kaiser, Ursula; Al-Batran, Salah-Eddin; Heintges, Tobias; Lerchenmüller, Christian; Kahl, Christoph; Seipelt, Gernot; Kullmann, Frank; Stauch, Martina; Scheithauer, Werner; Hielscher, Jörg; Scholz, Michael; Müller, Sebastian; Link, Hartmut; Niederle, Norbert; Rost, Andreas; Höffkes, Heinz-Gert; Moehler, Markus; Lindig, Reinhard U; Modest, Dominik P; Rossius, Lisa; Kirchner, Thomas; Jung, Andreas; Stintzing, Sebastian

    2014-09-01

    Cetuximab and bevacizumab have both been shown to improve outcomes in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer when added to chemotherapy regimens; however, their comparative effectiveness when partnered with first-line fluorouracil, folinic acid, and irinotecan (FOLFIRI) is unknown. We aimed to compare these agents in patients with KRAS (exon 2) codon 12/13 wild-type metastatic colorectal cancer. In this open-label, randomised, phase 3 trial, we recruited patients aged 18-75 years with stage IV, histologically confirmed colorectal cancer, an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance status of 0-2, an estimated life expectancy of greater than 3 months, and adequate organ function, from centres in Germany and Austria. Patients were centrally randomised by fax (1:1) to FOLFIRI plus cetuximab or FOLFIRI plus bevacizumab (using permuted blocks of randomly varying size), stratified according to ECOG performance status, number of metastatic sites, white blood cell count, and alkaline phosphatase concentration. The primary endpoint was objective response analysed by intention to treat. The study has completed recruitment, but follow-up of participants is ongoing. The trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00433927. Between Jan 23, 2007, and Sept 19, 2012, 592 patients with KRAS exon 2 wild-type tumours were randomly assigned and received treatment (297 in the FOLFIRI plus cetuximab group and 295 in the FOLFIRI plus bevacizumab group). 184 (62·0%, 95% CI 56·2-67·5) patients in the cetuximab group achieved an objective response compared with 171 (58·0%, 52·1-63·7) in the bevacizumab group (odds ratio 1·18, 95% CI 0·85-1·64; p=0·18). Median progression-free survival was 10·0 months (95% CI 8·8-10·8) in the cetuximab group and 10·3 months (9·8-11·3) in the bevacizumab group (hazard ratio [HR] 1·06, 95% CI 0·88-1·26; p=0·55); however, median overall survival was 28·7 months (95% CI 24·0-36·6) in the cetuximab group compared

  12. Symptom bother and health-related quality of life outcomes following solifenacin treatment for overactive bladder: the VESIcare Open-Label Trial (VOLT).

    PubMed

    Garely, Alan D; Kaufman, Joel M; Sand, Peter K; Smith, Neila; Andoh, Masakazu

    2006-11-01

    Most clinical trials designed to evaluate overactive bladder (OAB) syndrome treatments have focused on measuring micturition variables from bladder diaries. However, although diaries help physicians assess symptoms objectively, they lack information on patients' subjective experience of OAB symptoms and the effects of treatment. The objective of this study was to assess patients' perceptions of improvements in symptom bother and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) with solifenacin succinate 5- and 10-mg treatments in patients with OAB. VOLT (VESIcare Open-Label Trial) was a prospective, flexible-dosing trial performed at 207 centers in the United States. Ambulatory adult (aged > or = 18 years) men and women with an established diagnosis of OAB (urgency, urge urinary incontinence, frequency, and/or nocturia for > or = 3 months) and who provided a sterile urine sample received solifenacin QD for 12 weeks. Initially, all patients received 5 mg/d, with the option of adjustment to 10 mg/d at 4 and 8 weeks. Effectiveness was assessed using the Patient Perception of Bladder Condition (PPBC) scale, a visual analog scale (VAS) for the degree of bother caused by individual OAB symptoms, and the overactive bladder questionnaire (OAB-q). Assessments were performed at study initiation and study end or study termination. Adverse events (AEs) were assessed throughout. Patients (N = 2225) were enrolled between June 2004 and April 2005. Patients with baseline data (n = 2205) had a mean (SD) age of 59.7 (14.4) years; most patients were women (1813 [82.2%]) and white (1761 [79.9%]). Of the total patients enrolled, 1743 (78.3%) completed all 12 weeks of the study. After 12 weeks of solifenacin treatment, improvement was observed in the mean values of patient-reported perception of bladder condition. Significant change was observed on the PPBC scale from the mean baseline value to study end (4.4 vs 2.9; P < 0.001). All subscales of HRQOL significantly improved on the OAB-q score

  13. Artesunate–mefloquine versus chloroquine for treatment of uncomplicated Plasmodium knowlesi malaria in Malaysia (ACT KNOW): an open-label, randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Grigg, Matthew J; William, Timothy; Menon, Jayaram; Dhanaraj, Prabakaran; Barber, Bridget E; Wilkes, Christopher S; von Seidlein, Lorenz; Rajahram, Giri S; Pasay, Cielo; McCarthy, James S; Price, Ric N

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background The zoonotic parasite Plasmodium knowlesi has become the most common cause of human malaria in Malaysia and is present throughout much of southeast Asia. No randomised controlled trials have been done to identify the optimum treatment for this emerging infection. We aimed to compare artesunate–mefloquine with chloroquine to define the optimum treatment for uncomplicated P knowlesi malaria in adults and children. Methods We did this open-label, randomised controlled trial at three district hospitals in Sabah, Malaysia. Patients aged 1 year or older with uncomplicated P knowlesi malaria were randomly assigned, via computer-generated block randomisation (block sizes of 20), to receive oral artesunate–mefloquine (target dose 12 mg/kg artesunate and 25 mg/kg mefloquine) or chloroquine (target dose 25 mg/kg). Research nursing staff were aware of group allocation, but allocation was concealed from the microscopists responsible for determination of the primary endpoint, and study participants were not aware of drug allocation. The primary endpoint was parasite clearance at 24 h. Analysis was by modified intention to treat. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01708876. Findings Between Oct 16, 2012, and Dec 13, 2014, we randomly assigned 252 patients to receive either artesunate–mefloquine (n=127) or chloroquine (n=125); 226 (90%) patients comprised the modified intention-to-treat population. 24 h after treatment, we recorded parasite clearance in 97 (84% [95% CI 76–91]) of 115 patients in the artesunate–mefloquine group versus 61 (55% [45–64]) of 111 patients in the chloroquine group (difference in proportion 29% [95% CI 18·0–40·8]; p<0·0001). Parasite clearance was faster in patients given artesunate–mefloquine than in those given chloroquine (18·0 h [range 6·0–48·0] vs 24·0 h [6·0–60·0]; p<0·0001), with faster clearance of ring stages in the artesunate–mefloquine group (mean time to 50% clearance

  14. Community transmission of type 2 poliovirus after cessation of trivalent oral polio vaccine in Bangladesh: an open-label cluster-randomised trial and modelling study.

    PubMed

    Taniuchi, Mami; Famulare, Michael; Zaman, Khalequ; Uddin, Md Jashim; Upfill-Brown, Alexander M; Ahmed, Tahmina; Saha, Parimalendu; Haque, Rashidul; Bandyopadhyay, Ananda S; Modlin, John F; Platts-Mills, James A; Houpt, Eric R; Yunus, Mohammed; Petri, William A

    2017-07-07

    Trivalent oral polio vaccine (tOPV) was replaced worldwide from April, 2016, by bivalent types 1 and 3 oral polio vaccine (bOPV) and one dose of inactivated polio vaccine (IPV) where available. The risk of transmission of type 2 poliovirus or Sabin 2 virus on re-introduction or resurgence of type 2 poliovirus after this switch is not understood completely. We aimed to assess the risk of Sabin 2 transmission after a polio vaccination campaign with a monovalent type 2 oral polio vaccine (mOPV2). We did an open-label cluster-randomised trial in villages in the Matlab region of Bangladesh. We randomly allocated villages (clusters) to either: tOPV at age 6 weeks, 10 weeks, and 14 weeks; or bOPV at age 6 weeks, 10 weeks, and 14 weeks and either one dose of IPV at age 14 weeks or two doses of IPV at age 14 weeks and 18 weeks. After completion of enrolment, we implemented an mOPV2 vaccination campaign that targeted 40% of children younger than 5 years, regardless of enrolment status. The primary outcome was Sabin 2 incidence in the 10 weeks after the campaign in per-protocol infants who did not receive mOPV2, as assessed by faecal shedding of Sabin 2 by reverse transcriptase quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR). The effect of previous immunity on incidence was also investigated with a dynamical model of poliovirus transmission to observe prevalence and incidence of Sabin 2 virus. This trial is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT02477046. Between April 30, 2015, and Jan 14, 2016, individuals from 67 villages were enrolled to the study. 22 villages (300 infants) were randomly assigned tOPV, 23 villages (310 infants) were allocated bOPV and one dose of IPV, and 22 villages (329 infants) were assigned bOPV and two doses of IPV. Faecal shedding of Sabin 2 in infants who did not receive the mOPV2 challenge did not differ between children immunised with bOPV and one or two doses of IPV and those who received tOPV (15 of 252 [6%] vs six of 122 [4%]; odds ratio [OR] 1·29, 95% CI 0

  15. Antimalarial activity of artefenomel (OZ439), a novel synthetic antimalarial endoperoxide, in patients with Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax malaria: an open-label phase 2 trial.

    PubMed

    Phyo, Aung Pyae; Jittamala, Podjanee; Nosten, François H; Pukrittayakamee, Sasithon; Imwong, Mallika; White, Nicholas J; Duparc, Stephan; Macintyre, Fiona; Baker, Mark; Möhrle, Jörg J

    2016-01-01

    Artefenomel (OZ439) is a novel synthetic trioxolane with improved pharmacokinetic properties compared with other antimalarial drugs with the artemisinin pharmacophore. Artefenomel has been generally well tolerated in volunteers at doses up to 1600 mg and is being developed as a partner drug in an antimalarial combination treatment. We investigated the efficacy, tolerability, and pharmacokinetics of artefenomel at different doses in patients with Plasmodium falciparum or Plasmodium vivax malaria. This phase 2a exploratory, open-label trial was done at the Hospital for Tropical Diseases, Bangkok, and the Shoklo Malaria Research Unit in Thailand. Adult patients with acute, uncomplicated P falciparum or P vivax malaria received artefenomel in a single oral dose (200 mg, 400 mg, 800 mg, or 1200 mg). The first cohort received 800 mg. Testing of a new dose of artefenomel in a patient cohort was decided on after safety and efficacy assessment of the preceding cohort. The primary endpoint was the natural log parasite reduction per 24 h. Definitive oral treatment was given at 36 h. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01213966. Between Oct 24, 2010, and May 25, 2012, 82 patients were enrolled (20 in each of the 200 mg, 400 mg, and 800 mg cohorts, and 21 in the 1200 mg cohort). One patient withdrew consent (before the administration of artefenomel) but there were no further dropouts. The parasite reduction rates per 24 h ranged from 0·90 to 1·88 for P falciparum, and 2·09 to 2·53 for P vivax. All doses were equally effective in both P falciparum and P vivax malaria, with median parasite clearance half-lives of 4·1 h (range 1·3-6·7) to 5·6 h (2·0-8·5) for P falciparum and 2·3 h (1·2-3·9) to 3·2 h (0·9-15·0) for P vivax. Maximum plasma concentrations, dose-proportional to 800 mg, occurred at 4 h (median). The estimated elimination half-life was 46-62 h. No serious drug-related adverse effects were reported; other adverse effects were

  16. Exenatide once weekly versus insulin glargine for type 2 diabetes (DURATION-3): 3-year results of an open-label randomised trial.

    PubMed

    Diamant, Michaela; Van Gaal, Luc; Guerci, Bruno; Stranks, Stephen; Han, Jenny; Malloy, Jaret; Boardman, Marilyn K; Trautmann, Michael E

    2014-06-01

    When patients with type 2 diabetes start their first injectable therapy, clinicians can choose between glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonists and basal insulins. In DURATION-3, exenatide once weekly was compared with insulin glargine (henceforth, glargine) as first injectable therapy. Here, we report the results of the final 3-year follow-up. DURATION-3 was an open-label randomised trial done between May 13, 2008, and Jan 30, 2012. Patients with type 2 diabetes aged 18 years or older were enrolled at 72 sites worldwide. They were eligible when they had suboptimum glycaemic control (HbA1c 7.1-11.0% [54-97 mmol/mol]) despite maximum tolerated doses of metformin alone or with a sulfonylurea for at least 3 months, a stable bodyweight for at least 3 months, and a BMI of 25-45 kg/m(2) (23-45 kg/m(2) in South Korea and Taiwan). Patients were randomly assigned (1:1) by computer-generated random sequence with an interactive voice-response system (block size four, stratified by country and concomitant therapy) to once-weekly exenatide (2 mg subcutaneous injection) or once-daily glargine (titrated to target) to be given in addition to their existing oral glucose-lowering regimens. The primary efficacy measure at 3 years was change in HbA1c from baseline in patients given at least one dose of the assigned drug (ie, analyses by modified intention to treat). Patients, investigators, and data analysts were not masked to treatment assignment. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00641056. 456 patients underwent randomisation and received at least one dose of the assigned drug (233 given exenatide, 223 glargine). At 3 years, least-squares mean HbA1c change was -1.01% (SE 0.07) in the exenatide group versus -0.81% (0.07) in the glargine group (least-squares mean difference -0.20%, SE 0.10, 95% CI -0.39 to -0.02; p=0.03). Transient gastrointestinal adverse events characteristic of GLP-1 receptor agonists were more frequent with exenatide than

  17. Brentuximab vedotin or physician's choice in CD30-positive cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (ALCANZA): an international, open-label, randomised, phase 3, multicentre trial.

    PubMed

    Prince, H Miles; Kim, Youn H; Horwitz, Steven M; Dummer, Reinhard; Scarisbrick, Julia; Quaglino, Pietro; Zinzani, Pier Luigi; Wolter, Pascal; Sanches, Jose A; Ortiz-Romero, Pablo L; Akilov, Oleg E; Geskin, Larisa; Trotman, Judith; Taylor, Kerry; Dalle, Stephane; Weichenthal, Michael; Walewski, Jan; Fisher, David; Dréno, Brigitte; Stadler, Rudolf; Feldman, Tatyana; Kuzel, Timothy M; Wang, Yinghui; Palanca-Wessels, Maria Corinna; Zagadailov, Erin; Trepicchio, William L; Zhang, Wenwen; Lin, Hui-Min; Liu, Yi; Huebner, Dirk; Little, Meredith; Whittaker, Sean; Duvic, Madeleine

    2017-08-05

    Cutaneous T-cell lymphomas are rare, generally incurable, and associated with reduced quality of life. Present systemic therapies rarely provide reliable and durable responses. We aimed to assess efficacy and safety of brentuximab vedotin versus conventional therapy for previously treated patients with CD30-positive cutaneous T-cell lymphomas. In this international, open-label, randomised, phase 3, multicentre trial, we enrolled adult patients with CD30-positive mycosis fungoides or primary cutaneous anaplastic large-cell lymphoma who had been previously treated. Patients were enrolled across 52 centres in 13 countries. Patients were randomly assigned (1:1) centrally by an interactive voice and web response system to receive intravenous brentuximab vedotin 1·8 mg/kg once every 3 weeks, for up to 16 3-week cycles, or physician's choice (oral methotrexate 5-50 mg once per week or oral bexarotene 300 mg/m(2) once per day) for up to 48 weeks. The primary endpoint was the proportion of patients in the intention-to-treat population achieving an objective global response lasting at least 4 months per independent review facility. Safety analyses were done in all patients who received at least one dose of study drug. This trial was registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01578499. Between Aug 13, 2012, and July 31, 2015, 131 patients were enrolled and randomly assigned to a group (66 to brentuximab vedotin and 65 to physician's choice), with 128 analysed in the intention-to-treat population (64 in each group). At a median follow-up of 22·9 months (95% CI 18·4-26·1), the proportion of patients achieving an objective global response lasting at least 4 months was 56·3% (36 of 64 patients) with brentuximab vedotin versus 12·5% (eight of 64) with physician's choice, resulting in a between-group difference of 43·8% (95% CI 29·1-58·4; p<0·0001). Grade 3-4 adverse events were reported in 27 (41%) of 66 patients in the brentuximab vedotin group and 29 (47%) of 62

  18. Artesunate-mefloquine versus chloroquine for treatment of uncomplicated Plasmodium knowlesi malaria in Malaysia (ACT KNOW): an open-label, randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Grigg, Matthew J; William, Timothy; Menon, Jayaram; Dhanaraj, Prabakaran; Barber, Bridget E; Wilkes, Christopher S; von Seidlein, Lorenz; Rajahram, Giri S; Pasay, Cielo; McCarthy, James S; Price, Ric N; Anstey, Nicholas M; Yeo, Tsin W

    2016-02-01

    The zoonotic parasite Plasmodium knowlesi has become the most common cause of human malaria in Malaysia and is present throughout much of southeast Asia. No randomised controlled trials have been done to identify the optimum treatment for this emerging infection. We aimed to compare artesunate-mefloquine with chloroquine to define the optimum treatment for uncomplicated P knowlesi malaria in adults and children. We did this open-label, randomised controlled trial at three district hospitals in Sabah, Malaysia. Patients aged 1 year or older with uncomplicated P knowlesi malaria were randomly assigned, via computer-generated block randomisation (block sizes of 20), to receive oral artesunate-mefloquine (target dose 12 mg/kg artesunate and 25 mg/kg mefloquine) or chloroquine (target dose 25 mg/kg). Research nursing staff were aware of group allocation, but allocation was concealed from the microscopists responsible for determination of the primary endpoint, and study participants were not aware of drug allocation. The primary endpoint was parasite clearance at 24 h. Analysis was by modified intention to treat. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01708876. Between Oct 16, 2012, and Dec 13, 2014, we randomly assigned 252 patients to receive either artesunate-mefloquine (n=127) or chloroquine (n=125); 226 (90%) patients comprised the modified intention-to-treat population. 24 h after treatment, we recorded parasite clearance in 97 (84% [95% CI 76-91]) of 115 patients in the artesunate-mefloquine group versus 61 (55% [45-64]) of 111 patients in the chloroquine group (difference in proportion 29% [95% CI 18·0-40·8]; p<0·0001). Parasite clearance was faster in patients given artesunate-mefloquine than in those given chloroquine (18·0 h [range 6·0-48·0] vs 24·0 h [6·0-60·0]; p<0·0001), with faster clearance of ring stages in the artesunate-mefloquine group (mean time to 50% clearance of baseline parasites 8·6 h [95% CI 7·9-9·4] vs 13·8 h

  19. Switching to nilotinib versus imatinib dose escalation in patients with chronic myeloid leukaemia in chronic phase with suboptimal response to imatinib (LASOR): a randomised, open-label trial.

    PubMed

    Cortes, Jorge E; De Souza, Carmino Antonio; Ayala, Manuel; Lopez, Jose Luis; Bullorsky, Eduardo; Shah, Sandip; Huang, Xiaojun; Babu, K Govind; Abdulkadyrov, Kudrat; de Oliveira, José Salvador Rodrigues; Shen, Zhi-Xiang; Sacha, Tomasz; Bendit, Israel; Liang, Zhizhou; Owugah, Tina; Szczudlo, Tomasz; Khanna, Sadhvi; Fellague-Chebra, Rafik; le Coutre, Philipp D

    2016-12-01

    Optimal management of patients with chronic myeloid leukaemia in chronic phase with suboptimal cytogenetic response remains undetermined. This study aimed to investigate the safety and efficacy of switching to nilotinib vs imatinib dose escalation for patients with suboptimal cytogenetic response on imatinib. We did a phase 3, open-label, randomised trial in patients with chronic myeloid leukaemia in chronic phase with suboptimal cytogenetic response to imatinib according to the 2009 European LeukemiaNet criteria, in Latin America, Europe, and Asia (59 hospitals and care centres in 12 countries). Eligible patients were aged 18 years or older with Philadelphia chromosome-positive chronic myeloid leukaemia in chronic phase and Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of 0-2. Before enrolment, all patients had received 3-18 months of imatinib 400 mg once daily and had a suboptimal cytogenetic response according to 2009 ELN recommendations, established through bone marrow cytogenetics. By use of an interactive response technology using fixed blocks, we randomly assigned patients (1:1) to switch to nilotinib 400 mg twice per day or an escalation of imatinib dose to 600 mg once per day (block size of 4). Investigators and participants were not blinded to study treatment. Crossover was allowed for loss of response or intolerance at any time, or for patients with no complete cytogenetic response at 6 months. The primary endpoint was complete cytogenetic response at 6 months in the intention-to-treat population. Efficacy endpoints were based on the intention-to-treat population, with all patients assessed according to the treatment group to which they were randomised (regardless of crossover); the effect of crossover was assessed in post-hoc analyses, in which responses achieved after crossover were excluded. We present the final results at 24 months' follow-up. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT00802841). Between July 7, 2009, and Aug 29

  20. Single-dose, subcutaneous recombinant phenylalanine ammonia lyase conjugated with polyethylene glycol in adult patients with phenylketonuria: an open-label, multicentre, phase 1 dose-escalation trial.

    PubMed

    Longo, Nicola; Harding, Cary O; Burton, Barbara K; Grange, Dorothy K; Vockley, Jerry; Wasserstein, Melissa; Rice, Gregory M; Dorenbaum, Alejandro; Neuenburg, Jutta K; Musson, Donald G; Gu, Zhonghua; Sile, Saba

    2014-07-05

    Phenylketonuria is an inherited disease caused by impaired activity of phenylalanine hydroxylase, the enzyme that converts phenylalanine to tyrosine, leading to accumulation of phenylalanine and subsequent neurocognitive dysfunction. Phenylalanine ammonia lyase is a prokaryotic enzyme that converts phenylalanine to ammonia and trans-cinnamic acid. We aimed to assess the safety, tolerability, pharmacokinetic characteristics, and efficacy of recombinant Anabaena variabilis phenylalanine ammonia lyase (produced in Escherichia coli) conjugated with polyethylene glycol (rAvPAL-PEG) in reducing phenylalanine concentrations in adult patients with phenylketonuria. In this open-label, phase 1, multicentre trial, single subcutaneous injections of rAvPAL-PEG were given in escalating doses (0·001, 0·003, 0·010, 0·030, and 0·100 mg/kg) to adults with phenylketonuria. Participants aged 18 years or older with blood phenylalanine concentrations of 600 μmol/L or higher were recruited from among patients attending metabolic disease clinics in the USA. The primary endpoints were safety and tolerability of rAvPAL-PEG. Secondary endpoints were the pharmacokinetic characteristics of the drug and its effect on concentrations of phenylalanine. Participants and investigators were not masked to assigned dose group. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00925054. 25 participants were recruited from seven centres between May 6, 2008, and April 15, 2009, with five participants assigned to each escalating dose group. All participants were included in the safety population. The most frequently reported adverse events were injection-site reactions and dizziness, which were self-limited and without sequelae. Two participants had serious adverse reactions to intramuscular medroxyprogesterone acetate, a drug that contains polyethylene glycol as an excipient. Three of five participants given the highest dose of rAvPAL-PEG (0·100 mg/kg) developed a generalised skin rash

  1. Safety and efficacy of diaphragm pacing in patients with respiratory insufficiency due to amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (DiPALS): a multicentre, open-label, randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    McDermott, Christopher J; Bradburn, Mike J; Maguire, Chin; Cooper, Cindy L; Baird, Wendy O; Baxter, Susan K; Bourke, Stephen C; Imam, Ibrahim; Bentley, Andrew; Ealing, John; Elliott, Mark; Hanemann, C Oliver; Hughes, Philip; Orrell, Richard W; Shaw, Pamela J; Talbot, Kevin; Williams, Tim; Ackroyd, Roger; Berrisford, Richard; Galloway, Simon; Karat, Dayalan; Maynard, Nick; Sarela, Abeezar; Simonds, Anita K; Taylor, Lyn; Leek, Roger; Darlison, Roy; Leigh, Nigel; Dewey, Michael; Radunovic, Aleksandar

    2015-09-01

    Non-invasive ventilation is part of the standard of care for treatment of respiratory failure in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). The NeuRx RA/4 Diaphragm Pacing System has received Humanitarian Device Exemption approval from the US Food and Drug Administration for treatment of respiratory failure in patients with ALS. We aimed to establish the safety and efficacy of diaphragm pacing with this system in patients with respiratory muscle weakness due to ALS. We undertook a multicentre, open-label, randomised controlled trial at seven specialist ALS and respiratory centres in the UK. Eligible participants were aged 18 years or older with laboratory supported probable, clinically probable, or clinically definite ALS; stable riluzole treatment for at least 30 days; and respiratory insufficiency. We randomly assigned participants (1:1), via a centralised web-based randomisation system with minimisation that balanced patients for age, sex, forced vital capacity, and bulbar function, to receive either non-invasive ventilation plus pacing with the NeuRx RA/4 Diaphragm Pacing System or non-invasive ventilation alone. Patients, carers, and outcome assessors were not masked to treatment allocation. The primary outcome was overall survival, defined as the time from randomisation to death from any cause. Analysis was by intention to treat. This trial is registered, ISRCTN number 53817913. Between Dec 5, 2011, and Dec 18, 2013, we randomly assigned 74 participants to receive either non-invasive ventilation alone (n=37) or non-invasive ventilation plus diaphragm pacing (n=37). On Dec 18, 2013, the Data Monitoring and Ethics Committee (DMEC) recommended suspension of recruitment on the basis of overall survival figures. Randomly assigned participants continued as per the study protocol until June 23, 2014, when the DMEC advised discontinuation of pacing in all patients. Follow-up assessments continued until the planned end of the study in December, 2014. Survival

  2. Safety and Efficacy from an 8 Week Double-Blind Trial and a 26 Week Open-Label Extension of Asenapine in Adolescents with Schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Findling, Robert L; Landbloom, Ronald P; Mackle, Mary; Pallozzi, Wendi; Braat, Sabine; Hundt, Carla; Wamboldt, Marianne Z; Mathews, Maju

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of asenapine in adolescents with schizophrenia. In an 8 week, randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled trial, subjects (12-17 years of age) meeting Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th ed., Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR) criteria for schizophrenia were randomized 1:1:1 to placebo, asenapine 2.5 mg b.i.d., or asenapine 5 mg b.i.d. Subjects who completed the 8 week acute study could participate in a 26 week flexible-dose asenapine-only open-label extension (OLE). A similar percentage of subjects completed treatment on day 56 (2.5 mg b.i.d. (n=98): 83%; 5 mg b.i.d. [n=106]: 79%; placebo [n=102]: 79%). In the mixed model for repeated measures analysis of the primary end-point (with Hochberg correction for multiplicity), least squares (LS) mean differences between asenapine and placebo on the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) total score at day 56 were not significant (-4.8 for 2.5 mg b.i.d., p=0.070; -5.6 for 5 mg b.i.d., p=0.064). Significant improvement in the Clinical Global Impressions-Severity score was observed in the 5 mg b.i.d. group versus placebo on day 56 (LS mean -0.3, p=0.024). In the acute phase, ≥7% weight gain and the composite event of somnolence, sedation, and hypersomnia were more common in both asenapine groups than in the placebo group. Akathisia, fasting glucose elevation, and extrapyramidal syndrome were more common in the 5 mg b.i.d. group than in the placebo group. There were no unexpected adverse events in the OLE, and PANSS total scores decreased by -16.1 points in the group previously treated with placebo (n=62) and by -11.2 points in the continuous asenapine group (n=131) from OLE baseline to week 26. Although improvements in PANSS total score at day 56 of the acute phase were numerically greater for both asenapine 2.5 and 5 mg b.i.d. than for placebo and were maintained in the OLE, the primary end-point did not achieve

  3. Gemcitabine plus cisplatin versus fluorouracil plus cisplatin in recurrent or metastatic nasopharyngeal carcinoma: a multicentre, randomised, open-label, phase 3 trial.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Li; Huang, Yan; Hong, Shaodong; Yang, Yunpeng; Yu, Gengsheng; Jia, Jun; Peng, Peijian; Wu, Xuan; Lin, Qing; Xi, Xuping; Peng, Jiewen; Xu, Mingjun; Chen, Dongping; Lu, Xiaojun; Wang, Rensheng; Cao, Xiaolong; Chen, Xiaozhong; Lin, Zhixiong; Xiong, Jianping; Lin, Qin; Xie, Conghua; Li, Zhihua; Pan, Jianji; Li, Jingao; Wu, Shixiu; Lian, Yingni; Yang, Quanlie; Zhao, Chong

    2016-10-15

    Outcomes are poor for patients with recurrent or metastatic nasopharyngeal carcinoma and no well established first-line chemotherapy is available for the disease. We compared the efficacy and safety of gemcitabine plus cisplatin versus fluorouracil plus cisplatin in patients with recurrent or metastatic nasopharyngeal carcinoma. In this multicentre, randomised, open-label, phase 3 trial, patients with recurrent or metastatic nasopharyngeal carcinoma were recruited from 22 hospitals in China. Key inclusion criteria were Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of 0 or 1, adequate organ function, and measurable lesions according to Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors version 1.1. Patients were randomly assigned in a 1:1 ratio to receive either gemcitabine (1 g/m(2) intravenously on days 1 and 8) and cisplatin (80 mg/m(2) intravenously on day 1), or fluorouracil (4 g/m(2) in continuous intravenous infusion over 96 h) and cisplatin (80 mg/m(2) on day 1 given intravenously) once every 3 weeks for a maximum of six cycles. The randomisation was done centrally via an interactive phone response system using block randomisation with a size of six. The primary endpoint was progression-free survival assessed by the independent image committee in the intention-to-treat population. Safety analyses were done in patients who received at least one cycle of study drug. This study is ongoing and is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01528618. Between Feb 20, 2012, and Oct 30, 2015, 362 patients were randomly assigned to a group (181 to the gemcitabine [plus cisplatin] group and 181 to the fluorouracil [plus cisplatin] group). Median follow-up time for progression-free survival was 19·4 months (IQR 12·1-35·6). The median progression-free survival was 7·0 months (4·4-10·9) in the gemcitabine group and 5·6 months (3·0-7·0) in the fluorouracil group (hazard ratio [HR] 0·55 [95% CI 0·44-0·68]; p<0·0001). A total of 180 patients in the

  4. Romosozumab (sclerostin monoclonal antibody) versus teriparatide in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis transitioning from oral bisphosphonate therapy: a randomised, open-label, phase 3 trial.

    PubMed

    Langdahl, Bente L; Libanati, Cesar; Crittenden, Daria B; Bolognese, Michael A; Brown, Jacques P; Daizadeh, Nadia S; Dokoupilova, Eva; Engelke, Klaus; Finkelstein, Joel S; Genant, Harry K; Goemaere, Stefan; Hyldstrup, Lars; Jodar-Gimeno, Esteban; Keaveny, Tony M; Kendler, David; Lakatos, Peter; Maddox, Judy; Malouf, Jorge; Massari, Fabio E; Molina, Jose Fernando; Ulla, Maria Rosa; Grauer, Andreas

    2017-07-26

    Previous bisphosphonate treatment attenuates the bone-forming effect of teriparatide. We compared the effects of 12 months of romosozumab (AMG 785), a sclerostin monoclonal antibody, versus teriparatide on bone mineral density (BMD) in women with postmenopausal osteoporosis transitioning from bisphosphonate therapy. This randomised, phase 3, open-label, active-controlled study was done at 46 sites in North America, Latin America, and Europe. We enrolled women (aged ≥55 to ≤90 years) with postmenopausal osteoporosis who had taken an oral bisphosphonate for at least 3 years before screening and alendronate the year before screening; an areal BMD T score of -2·5 or lower at the total hip, femoral neck, or lumbar spine; and a history of fracture. Patients were randomly assigned (1:1) via an interactive voice response system to receive subcutaneous romosozumab (210 mg once monthly) or subcutaneous teriparatide (20 μg once daily). The primary endpoint was percentage change from baseline in areal BMD by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry at the total hip through month 12 (mean of months 6 and 12), which used a linear mixed effects model for repeated measures and represented the mean treatment effect at months 6 and 12. All randomised patients with a baseline measurement and at least one post-baseline measurement were included in the efficacy analysis. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01796301. Between Jan 31, 2013, and April 29, 2014, 436 patients were randomly assigned to romosozumab (n=218) or teriparatide (n=218). 206 patients in the romosozumab group and 209 in the teriparatide group were included in the primary efficacy analysis. Through 12 months, the mean percentage change from baseline in total hip areal BMD was 2·6% (95% CI 2·2 to 3·0) in the romosozumab group and -0·6% (-1·0 to -0·2) in the teriparatide group; difference 3·2% (95% CI 2·7 to 3·8; p<0·0001). The frequency of adverse events was generally balanced between

  5. Effect of zoledronic acid on disseminated tumour cells in women with locally advanced breast cancer: an open label, randomised, phase 2 trial

    PubMed Central

    Aft, Rebecca; Naughton, Michael; Trinkaus, Kathryn; Watson, Mark; Ylagan, Lourdes; Chavez-MacGregor, Mariana; Zhai, Jing; Kuo, Sacha; Shannon, William; Diemer, Kathryn; Herrmann, Virginia; Dietz, Jill; Ali, Amjad; Ellis, Matthew; Weiss, Peter; Eberlein, Timothy; Ma, Cynthia; Fracasso, Paula M; Zoberi, Imran; Taylor, Marie; Gillanders, William; Pluard, Timothy; Mortimer, Joanne; Weilbaecher, Katherine

    2013-01-01

    Summary Background Treatment with bisphosphonates decreases bone loss and can increase disease-free survival in patients with breast cancer. The aim of our study was to assess the effect of zoledronic acid on clearance of disseminated tumour cells (DTCs) from the bone marrow in women undergoing neoadjuvant chemotherapy for breast cancer. Methods Patients were recruited for this open-label, phase 2 randomised trial between March 17, 2003, and May 19, 2006, at a single centre. Eligible patients had clinical stage II–III (≥T2 and/or ≥N1) newly diagnosed breast cancer, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of 0 or 1, and normal cardiac, renal, and liver function. 120 women were randomly assigned, using allocation concealment, to receive 4 mg zoledronic acid intravenously every 3 weeks (n=60), or no zoledronic acid (n=60), for 1 year concomitant with four cycles of neoadjuvant epirubicin (75 mg/m²) plus docetaxel (75 mg/m²) and two cycles of adjuvant epirubicin plus docetaxel. The primary endpoint was the number of patients with detectable DTCs at 3 months. Final analysis was done 1 year after the last patient was enrolled. Analyses were done for all patients with available data at 3 months. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00242203. Findings Of the 120 patients initially enrolled, one withdrew after signing consent and one patient’s baseline bone marrow was not available. Both of these patients were in the control group. At 3 months, 109 bone-marrow samples were available for analysis. In the zoledronic acid group, bone marrow was not collected from one patient because of disease progression, one patient was taken off study because of severe diarrhoea, and two patients had not consented at the time of surgery. In the control group, bone marrow was not collected from two patients because of disease progression, one patient withdrew consent, and three patients were not consented at the time of surgery. At baseline

  6. Adjunctive lacosamide for focal epilepsy: an open-label trial evaluating the impact of flexible titration and dosing on safety and seizure outcomes.

    PubMed

    Baulac, Michel; Coulbaut, Safia; Doty, Pamela; McShea, Cindy; De Backer, Marc; Bartolomei, Fabrice; Vlaicu, Mihaela

    2017-06-01

    To evaluate the safety and effectiveness of lacosamide in a real-life setting with the use of a flexible dose titration schedule and individualised maintenance doses up to the maximum approved dose of 400 mg/day. Adults with a diagnosis of focal seizures, with or without secondary generalization, were enrolled in this open-label Phase IV trial (NCT01235403). Lacosamide was initiated at 100 mg/day (50 mg bid) and uptitrated over a 12-week period to 200, 300 or 400 mg/day, based on safety and seizure control. Although dose increases were to be in increments of 100 mg/day, intermediate doses were permitted at each escalation step for one week for patients known to be particularly sensitive to starting new AEDs. After receiving a stable, effective dose for three weeks, patients entered the 12-week maintenance period. Primary outcomes were incidence of treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs) and withdrawal due to TEAEs. Seizure outcomes, all secondary, were median focal seizure frequency, ≥50% reduction in focal seizure frequency, and seizure freedom. One hundred patients with a mean age of 44 years were enrolled and 74 completed the trial. The incidence of TEAEs was 64.0% (n=100), with the most frequently reported (≥5% of patients) being dizziness, headache, and asthenia. Fourteen patients withdrew due to TEAEs, most frequently due to dizziness (six patients; 6.0%), vomiting (two patients; 2%), and tremor (two patients; 2%). Among patients with baseline and maintenance phase seizure data (n=75), median reduction in focal seizure frequency from baseline was 69.7% and the ≥50% responder rate was 69.3%. Among 74 patients who completed the maintenance phase, 21 (28.4%) were seizure-free. Flexible lacosamide dosing in this open-label trial was associated with a favourable tolerability and safety profile; the nature of the TEAEs was consistent with that observed in previous pivotal trials. Treatment with lacosamide was also associated with effective seizure

  7. Ibrutinib for patients with rituximab-refractory Waldenström's macroglobulinaemia (iNNOVATE): an open-label substudy of an international, multicentre, phase 3 trial.

    PubMed

    Dimopoulos, Meletios A; Trotman, Judith; Tedeschi, Alessandra; Matous, Jeffrey V; Macdonald, David; Tam, Constantine; Tournilhac, Olivier; Ma, Shuo; Oriol, Albert; Heffner, Leonard T; Shustik, Chaim; García-Sanz, Ramón; Cornell, Robert F; de Larrea, Carlos Fernández; Castillo, Jorge J; Granell, Miquel; Kyrtsonis, Marie-Christine; Leblond, Veronique; Symeonidis, Argiris; Kastritis, Efstathios; Singh, Priyanka; Li, Jianling; Graef, Thorsten; Bilotti, Elizabeth; Treon, Steven; Buske, Christian

    2017-02-01

    In the era of widespread rituximab use for Waldenström's macroglobulinaemia, new treatment options for patients with rituximab-refractory disease are an important clinical need. Ibrutinib has induced durable responses in previously treated patients with Waldenström's macroglobulinaemia. We assessed the efficacy and safety of ibrutinib in a population with rituximab-refractory disease. This multicentre, open-label substudy was done at 19 sites in seven countries in adults aged 18 years and older with confirmed Waldenström's macroglobulinaemia, refractory to rituximab and requiring treatment. Disease refractory to the last rituximab-containing therapy was defined as either relapse less than 12 months since last dose of rituximab or failure to achieve at least a minor response. Key exclusion criteria included: CNS involvement, a stroke or intracranial haemorrhage less than 12 months before enrolment, clinically significant cardiovascular disease, hepatitis B or hepatitis C viral infection, and a known bleeding disorder. Patients received oral ibrutinib 420 mg once daily until progression or unacceptable toxicity. The substudy was not prospectively powered for statistical comparisons, and as such, all the analyses are descriptive in nature. This study objectives were the proportion of patients with an overall response, progression-free survival, overall survival, haematological improvement measured by haemoglobin, time to next treatment, and patient-reported outcomes according to the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Anemia (FACT-An) and the Euro Qol 5 Dimension Questionnaire (EQ-5D-5L). All analyses were per protocol. The study is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT02165397, and follow-up is ongoing but enrolment is complete. Between Aug 18, 2014, and Feb 18, 2015, 31 patients were enrolled. Median age was 67 years (IQR 58-74); 13 (42%) of 31 patients had high-risk disease per the International Prognostic Scoring System Waldenstr

  8. Effect of tight control of inflammation in early psoriatic arthritis (TICOPA): a UK multicentre, open-label, randomised, controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Coates, Laura C; Moverley, Anna R; McParland, Lucy; Brown, Sarah; Navarro-Coy, Nuria; O’Dwyer, John L; Meads, David M; Emery, Paul; Conaghan, Philip G; Helliwell, Philip S

    2016-01-01

    with no unexpected SAEs observed. Funding This study was funded by Arthritis Research UK and Pfizer. The research team acknowledges the support of the National Institute for Health Research and the Comprehensive Clinical Research Network in supporting this research. Trial Registration ISCRCTN30147736 and NCT01106079 PMID:26433318

  9. Clinical Trials

    MedlinePlus

    ... Sponsors Why Are They Important How Do They Work Who Can Participate What To Expect During Benefits and Risks How They Protect Participants Finding Clinical Trials Links Children & Clinical Studies NHLBI Trials Clinical Trial Websites What Are Clinical ...

  10. Nivolumab in patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (CheckMate 040): an open-label, non-comparative, phase 1/2 dose escalation and expansion trial.

    PubMed

    El-Khoueiry, Anthony B; Sangro, Bruno; Yau, Thomas; Crocenzi, Todd S; Kudo, Masatoshi; Hsu, Chiun; Kim, Tae-You; Choo, Su-Pin; Trojan, Jörg; Welling, Theodore H; Meyer, Tim; Kang, Yoon-Koo; Yeo, Winnie; Chopra, Akhil; Anderson, Jeffrey; Dela Cruz, Christine; Lang, Lixin; Neely, Jaclyn; Tang, Hao; Dastani, Homa B; Melero, Ignacio

    2017-06-24

    For patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma, sorafenib is the only approved drug worldwide, and outcomes remain poor. We aimed to assess the safety and efficacy of nivolumab, a programmed cell death protein-1 (PD-1) immune checkpoint inhibitor, in patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma with or without chronic viral hepatitis. We did a phase 1/2, open-label, non-comparative, dose escalation and expansion trial (CheckMate 040) of nivolumab in adults (≥18 years) with histologically confirmed advanced hepatocellular carcinoma with or without hepatitis C or B (HCV or HBV) infection. Previous sorafenib treatment was allowed. A dose-escalation phase was conducted at seven hospitals or academic centres in four countries or territories (USA, Spain, Hong Kong, and Singapore) and a dose-expansion phase was conducted at an additional 39 sites in 11 countries (Canada, UK, Germany, Italy, Japan, South Korea, Taiwan). At screening, eligible patients had Child-Pugh scores of 7 or less (Child-Pugh A or B7) for the dose-escalation phase and 6 or less (Child-Pugh A) for the dose-expansion phase, and an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of 1 or less. Patients with HBV infection had to be receiving effective antiviral therapy (viral load <100 IU/mL); antiviral therapy was not required for patients with HCV infection. We excluded patients previously treated with an agent targeting T-cell costimulation or checkpoint pathways. Patients received intravenous nivolumab 0·1-10 mg/kg every 2 weeks in the dose-escalation phase (3+3 design). Nivolumab 3 mg/kg was given every 2 weeks in the dose-expansion phase to patients in four cohorts: sorafenib untreated or intolerant without viral hepatitis, sorafenib progressor without viral hepatitis, HCV infected, and HBV infected. Primary endpoints were safety and tolerability for the escalation phase and objective response rate (Response Evaluation Criteria In Solid Tumors version 1.1) for the expansion phase

  11. Capecitabine and cisplatin with or without cetuximab for patients with previously untreated advanced gastric cancer (EXPAND): a randomised, open-label phase 3 trial.

    PubMed

    Lordick, Florian; Kang, Yoon-Koo; Chung, Hyun-Cheol; Salman, Pamela; Oh, Sang Cheul; Bodoky, György; Kurteva, Galina; Volovat, Constantin; Moiseyenko, Vladimir M; Gorbunova, Vera; Park, Joon Oh; Sawaki, Akira; Celik, Ilhan; Götte, Heiko; Melezínková, Helena; Moehler, Markus

    2013-05-01

    Patients with advanced gastric cancer have a poor prognosis and few efficacious treatment options. We aimed to assess the addition of cetuximab to capecitabine-cisplatin chemotherapy in patients with advanced gastric or gastro-oesophageal junction cancer. In our open-label, randomised phase 3 trial (EXPAND), we enrolled adults aged 18 years or older with histologically confirmed locally advanced unresectable (M0) or metastatic (M1) adenocarcinoma of the stomach or gastro-oesophageal junction. We enrolled patients at 164 sites (teaching hospitals and clinics) in 25 countries, and randomly assigned eligible participants (1:1) to receive first-line chemotherapy with or without cetuximab. Randomisation was done with a permuted block randomisation procedure (variable block size), stratified by disease stage (M0 vs M1), previous oesophagectomy or gastrectomy (yes vs no), and previous (neo)adjuvant (radio)chemotherapy (yes vs no). Treatment consisted of 3-week cycles of twice-daily capecitabine 1000 mg/m(2) (on days 1-14) and intravenous cisplatin 80 mg/m(2) (on day 1), with or without weekly cetuximab (400 mg/m(2) initial infusion on day 1 followed by 250 mg/m(2) per week thereafter). The primary endpoint was progression-free survival (PFS), assessed by a masked independent review committee in the intention-to-treat population. We assessed safety in all patients who received at least one dose of study drug. This study is registered at EudraCT, number 2007-004219-75. Between June 30, 2008, and Dec 15, 2010, we enrolled 904 patients. Median PFS for 455 patients allocated capecitabine-cisplatin plus cetuximab was 4.4 months (95% CI 4.2-5.5) compared with 5.6 months (5.1-5.7) for 449 patients who were allocated to receive capecitabine-cisplatin alone (hazard ratio 1.09, 95% CI 0.92-1.29; p=0.32). 369 (83%) of 446 patients in the chemotherapy plus cetuximab group and 337 (77%) of 436 patients in the chemotherapy group had grade 3-4 adverse events, including grade 3

  12. Trastuzumab emtansine versus treatment of physician's choice for pretreated HER2-positive advanced breast cancer (TH3RESA): a randomised, open-label, phase 3 trial.

    PubMed

    Krop, Ian E; Kim, Sung-Bae; González-Martín, Antonio; LoRusso, Patricia M; Ferrero, Jean-Marc; Smitt, Melanie; Yu, Ron; Leung, Abraham C F; Wildiers, Hans

    2014-06-01

    Patients with progressive disease after two or more HER2-directed regimens for recurrent or metastatic breast cancer have few effective therapeutic options. We aimed to compare trastuzumab emtansine, an antibody-drug conjugate comprising the cytotoxic agent DM1 linked to trastuzumab, with treatment of physician's choice in this population of patients. This randomised, open-label, phase 3 trial took place in medical centres in 22 countries across Europe, North America, South America, and Asia-Pacific. Eligible patients (≥18 years, left ventricular ejection fraction ≥50%, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status 0-2) with progressive HER2-positive advanced breast cancer who had received two or more HER2-directed regimens in the advanced setting, including trastuzumab and lapatinib, and previous taxane therapy in any setting, were randomly assigned (in a 2:1 ratio) to trastuzumab emtansine (3·6 mg/kg intravenously every 21 days) or physician's choice using a permuted block randomisation scheme by an interactive voice and web response system. Patients were stratified according to world region (USA vs western Europe vs other), number of previous regimens (excluding single-agent hormonal therapy) for the treatment of advanced disease (two to three vs more than three), and presence of visceral disease (any vs none). Coprimary endpoints were investigator-assessed progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival in the intention-to-treat population. We report the final PFS analysis and the first interim overall survival analysis. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01419197. From Sept 14, 2011, to Nov 19, 2012, 602 patients were randomly assigned (404 to trastuzumab emtansine and 198 to physician's choice). At data cutoff (Feb 11, 2013), 44 patients assigned to physician's choice had crossed over to trastuzumab emtansine. After a median follow-up of 7·2 months (IQR 5·0-10·1 months) in the trastuzumab emtansine group and 6·5

  13. Lenvatinib, everolimus, and the combination in patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma: a randomised, phase 2, open-label, multicentre trial.

    PubMed

    Motzer, Robert J; Hutson, Thomas E; Glen, Hilary; Michaelson, M Dror; Molina, Ana; Eisen, Timothy; Jassem, Jacek; Zolnierek, Jakub; Maroto, Jose Pablo; Mellado, Begoña; Melichar, Bohuslav; Tomasek, Jiri; Kremer, Alton; Kim, Han-Joo; Wood, Karen; Dutcus, Corina; Larkin, James

    2015-11-01

    Currently, metastatic renal cell carcinoma is treated with sequential single agents targeting VEGF or mTOR. Here, we aimed to assess lenvatinib, everolimus, or their combination as second-line treatment in patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma. We did a randomised, phase 2, open-label, multicentre trial at 37 centres in five countries and enrolled patients with advanced or metastatic, clear-cell, renal cell carcinoma. We included patients who had received treatment with a VEGF-targeted therapy and progressed on or within 9 months of stopping that agent. Patients were randomised via an interactive voice response system in a 1:1:1 ratio to either lenvatinib (24 mg/day), everolimus (10 mg/day), or lenvatinib plus everolimus (18 mg/day and 5 mg/day, respectively) administered orally in continuous 28-day cycles until disease progression or unacceptable toxic effects. The randomisation procedure dynamically minimised imbalances between treatment groups for the stratification factors haemoglobin and corrected serum calcium. The primary objective was progression-free survival in the intention-to-treat population. This study is closed to enrolment but patients' treatment and follow-up is ongoing. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01136733. Between March 16, 2012, and June 19, 2013, 153 patients were randomly allocated to receive either the combination of lenvatinib plus everolimus (n=51), single-agent lenvatinib (n=52), or single-agent everolimus (n=50). Lenvatinib plus everolimus significantly prolonged progression-free survival compared with everolimus alone (median 14·6 months [95% CI 5·9-20·1] vs 5·5 months [3·5-7·1]; hazard ratio [HR] 0·40, 95% CI 0·24-0·68; p=0·0005), but not compared with lenvatinib alone (7·4 months [95% CI 5·6-10·2]; HR 0·66, 95% CI 0·30-1·10; p=0·12). Single-agent lenvatinib significantly prolonged progression-free survival compared with everolimus alone (HR 0·61, 95% CI 0·38-0·98; p=0·048

  14. Clinical trial: evaluation of gastric acid suppression with three doses of immediate-release esomeprazole in the fixed-dose combination of PN 400 (naproxen/esomeprazole magnesium) compared with naproxen 500 mg and enteric-coated esomeprazole 20 mg: a randomized, open-label, Phase I study in healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Miner, P; Plachetka, J; Orlemans, E; Fort, J G; Sostek, M

    2010-08-01

    PN 400 is a fixed-dose combination formulated to provide sequential delivery of immediate-release (IR) esomeprazole and enteric-coated (EC) naproxen. To evaluate gastric acid suppression with three doses of esomeprazole in PN 400 compared with EC esomeprazole 20 mg. In this Phase I, randomized, open-label study, 28 healthy adults received PN 400 b.d. (naproxen 500 mg plus esomeprazole 10, 20 and 30 mg) and non-EC naproxen 500 mg b.d. plus EC esomeprazole 20 mg o.d., each for 9 days in a crossover fashion. The primary endpoint was percentage of time on day 9 that intragastric pH was >4.0; secondary endpoints included pharmacokinetics and safety. Day 9 percentage of time where intragastric pH was >4.0 was 76.5%, 71.4%, 40.9% and 56.9% [corrected] for PN 400 containing 30, 20 and 10 mg esomeprazole, and naproxen plus esomeprazole 20 mg respectively. This was significantly greater for PN 400 containing 30 and 20 mg esomeprazole vs. naproxen plus esomeprazole 20 mg (95% CI: 13.0-26.0 and 7.8-20.7 respectively). The pharmacokinetics of PN 400 were consistent with its formulation. No serious adverse events occurred. PN 400 containing 20 mg esomeprazole was the lowest dose to achieve gastric acid suppression comparable to EC esomeprazole 20 mg and was selected for further evaluation.

  15. A Multicenter, Open-Label Trial to Evaluate the Quality of Life in Adults with ADHD Treated with Long-Acting Methylphenidate (OROS MPH): Concerta Quality of Life (CONQoL) Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mattos, Paulo; Rodrigues Louza, Mario; Fernandes Palmini, Andre Luis; de Oliveira, Irismar Reis; Lopes Rocha, Fabio

    2013-01-01

    The available literature provides few studies on the effectiveness of methylphenidate in improving quality of life in individuals with ADHD. Objective: To assess the effectiveness of Methyphenidate OROS formulation (OROS MPH) through QoL in adults with ADHD. Method: A 12-week, multicenter, open-label trial involving 60 patients was used. The…

  16. A Multicenter, Open-Label Trial to Evaluate the Quality of Life in Adults with ADHD Treated with Long-Acting Methylphenidate (OROS MPH): Concerta Quality of Life (CONQoL) Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mattos, Paulo; Rodrigues Louza, Mario; Fernandes Palmini, Andre Luis; de Oliveira, Irismar Reis; Lopes Rocha, Fabio

    2013-01-01

    The available literature provides few studies on the effectiveness of methylphenidate in improving quality of life in individuals with ADHD. Objective: To assess the effectiveness of Methyphenidate OROS formulation (OROS MPH) through QoL in adults with ADHD. Method: A 12-week, multicenter, open-label trial involving 60 patients was used. The…

  17. Noninterventional Open-Label Trial Investigating the Efficacy and Safety of Ectoine Containing Nasal Spray in Comparison with Beclomethasone Nasal Spray in Patients with Allergic Rhinitis

    PubMed Central

    Sonnemann, Uwe; Möller, Marcus

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. The current study aimed to compare the efficacy and safety of a classical anti-inflammatory beclomethasone nasal spray in comparison to a physic-chemical stabilizing ectoine containing nasal spray in the treatment of allergic rhinitis. Design and Methods. This was a noninterventional, open-label, observational trial investigating the effects of beclomethasone or ectoine nasal spray on nasal symptoms and quality of life. Over a period of 14 days, patients were asked to daily document their symptoms. Efficacy and tolerability were assessed by both physicians and patients. Results. Both treatments resulted in a significant decrease of TNSS values. An equivalence test could not confirm the noninferiority of ectoine treatment in comparison with beclomethasone treatment. Although clear symptom reduction was achieved with the ectoine products, the efficacy judgment showed possible advantages for the beclomethasone group. Importantly, tolerability results were comparably good in both groups, and a very low number of adverse events supported this observation. Both treatments resulted in a clear improvement in the quality of life as assessed by a questionnaire answered at the beginning and at the end of the trial. Conclusion. Taken together, it was shown that allergic rhinitis can be safely and successfully treated with beclomethasone and also efficacy and safety were shown for ectoine nasal spray. PMID:24976831

  18. Noninterventional open-label trial investigating the efficacy and safety of ectoine containing nasal spray in comparison with beclomethasone nasal spray in patients with allergic rhinitis.

    PubMed

    Sonnemann, Uwe; Möller, Marcus; Bilstein, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. The current study aimed to compare the efficacy and safety of a classical anti-inflammatory beclomethasone nasal spray in comparison to a physic-chemical stabilizing ectoine containing nasal spray in the treatment of allergic rhinitis. Design and Methods. This was a noninterventional, open-label, observational trial investigating the effects of beclomethasone or ectoine nasal spray on nasal symptoms and quality of life. Over a period of 14 days, patients were asked to daily document their symptoms. Efficacy and tolerability were assessed by both physicians and patients. Results. Both treatments resulted in a significant decrease of TNSS values. An equivalence test could not confirm the noninferiority of ectoine treatment in comparison with beclomethasone treatment. Although clear symptom reduction was achieved with the ectoine products, the efficacy judgment showed possible advantages for the beclomethasone group. Importantly, tolerability results were comparably good in both groups, and a very low number of adverse events supported this observation. Both treatments resulted in a clear improvement in the quality of life as assessed by a questionnaire answered at the beginning and at the end of the trial. Conclusion. Taken together, it was shown that allergic rhinitis can be safely and successfully treated with beclomethasone and also efficacy and safety were shown for ectoine nasal spray.

  19. The MANDELA study: A multicenter, randomized, open-label, parallel group trial to refine the use of everolimus after heart transplantation.

    PubMed

    Deuse, Tobias; Bara, Christoph; Barten, Markus J; Hirt, Stephan W; Doesch, Andreas O; Knosalla, Christoph; Grinninger, Carola; Stypmann, Jörg; Garbade, Jens; Wimmer, Peter; May, Christoph; Porstner, Martina; Schulz, Uwe

    2015-11-01

    In recent years a series of trials has sought to define the optimal protocol for everolimus-based immunosuppression in heart transplantation, with the goal of minimizing exposure to calcineurin inhibitors (CNIs) and harnessing the non-immunosuppressive benefits of everolimus. Randomized studies have demonstrated that immunosuppressive potency can be maintained in heart transplant patients receiving everolimus despite marked CNI reduction, although very early CNI withdrawal may be inadvisable. A potential renal advantage has been shown for everolimus, but the optimal time for conversion and the adequate reduction in CNI exposure remain to be defined. Other reasons for use of everolimus include a substantial reduction in the risk of cytomegalovirus infection, and evidence for inhibition of cardiac allograft vasculopathy, a major cause of graft loss. The ongoing MANDELA study is a 12-month multicenter, randomized, open-label, parallel-group study in which efficacy, renal function and safety are compared in approximately 200 heart transplant patients. Patients receive CNI therapy, steroids and everolimus or mycophenolic acid during months 3 to 6 post-transplant, and are then randomized at month 6 post-transplant (i) to convert to CNI-free immunosuppression with everolimus and mycophenolic acid or (ii) to continue reduced-exposure CNI, with concomitant everolimus. Patients are then followed to month 18 post-transplant The rationale and expectations for the trial and its methodology are described herein.

  20. Open-Label Comparative Clinical Study of Chlorproguanil−Dapsone Fixed Dose Combination (Lapdap™) Alone or with Three Different Doses of Artesunate for Uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum Malaria

    PubMed Central

    Wootton, Daniel G.; Opara, Hyginus; Biagini, Giancarlo A.; Kanjala, Maxwell K.; Duparc, Stephan; Kirby, Paula L.; Woessner, Mary; Neate, Colin; Nyirenda, Maggie; Blencowe, Hannah; Dube-Mbeye, Queen; Kanyok, Thomas; Ward, Stephen; Molyneux, Malcolm; Dunyo, Sam; Winstanley, Peter A.

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the appropriate dose of artesunate for use in a fixed dose combination therapy with chlorproguanil−dapsone (CPG−DDS) for the treatment of uncomplicated falciparum malaria. Methods Open-label clinical trial comparing CPG−DDS alone or with artesunate 4, 2, or 1 mg/kg at medical centers in Blantyre, Malawi and Farafenni, The Gambia. The trial was conducted between June 2002 and February 2005, including 116 adults (median age 27 years) and 107 children (median age 38 months) with acute uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Subjects were randomized into 4 groups to receive CPG–DDS alone or plus 4, 2 or 1 mg/kg of artesunate once daily for 3 days. Assessments took place on Days 0−3 in hospital and follow-up on Days 7 and 14 as out-patients. Efficacy was evaluated in the Day 3 per-protocol (PP) population using mean time to reduce baseline parasitemia by 90% (PC90). A number of secondary outcomes were also included. Appropriate artesunate dose was determined using a pre-defined decision matrix based on primary and secondary outcomes. Treatment emergent adverse events were recorded from clinical assessments and blood parameters. Safety was evaluated in the intent to treat (ITT) population. Results In the Day 3 PP population for the adult group (N = 85), mean time to PC90 was 19.1 h in the CPG−DDS group, significantly longer than for the +artesunate 1 mg/kg (12.5 h; treatment difference −6.6 h [95%CI −11.8, −1.5]), 2 mg/kg (10.7 h; −8.4 h [95%CI −13.6, −3.2]) and 4 mg/kg (10.3 h; −8.7 h [95%CI −14.1, −3.2]) groups. For children in the Day 3 PP population (N = 92), mean time to PC90 was 21.1 h in the CPG−DDS group, similar to the +artesunate 1 mg/kg group (17.7 h; −3.3 h [95%CI −8.6, 2.0]), though the +artesunate 2 mg/kg and 4 mg/kg groups had significantly shorter mean times to PC90 versus CPG−DDS; 14.4 h (treatment difference −6.4 h [95%CI −11.7, −1.0]) and 12.8 h (−7

  1. Carfilzomib or bortezomib in relapsed or refractory multiple myeloma (ENDEAVOR): an interim overall survival analysis of an open-label, randomised, phase 3 trial.

    PubMed

    Dimopoulos, Meletios A; Goldschmidt, Hartmut; Niesvizky, Ruben; Joshua, Douglas; Chng, Wee-Joo; Oriol, Albert; Orlowski, Robert Z; Ludwig, Heinz; Facon, Thierry; Hajek, Roman; Weisel, Katja; Hungria, Vania; Minuk, Leonard; Feng, Shibao; Zahlten-Kumeli, Anita; Kimball, Amy S; Moreau, Philippe

    2017-08-23

    The phase 3 ENDEAVOR trial was a head-to-head comparison of two proteasome inhibitors in patients with relapsed or refractory multiple myeloma. Progression-free survival was previously reported to be significantly longer with carfilzomib administered in combination with dexamethasone than with bortezomib and dexamethasone in an interim analysis. The aim of this second interim analysis was to compare overall survival between the two treatment groups. ENDEAVOR was a phase 3, open-label, randomised controlled trial in patients with relapsed or refractory multiple myeloma. Patients were recruited from 198 hospitals and outpatient clinics in 27 countries in Europe, North America, South America, and the Asia-Pacific region. Patients were aged 18 years or older, had relapsed or refractory multiple myeloma, and had received between one and three previous lines of therapy. Patients were randomly assigned (1:1) to receive carfilzomib and dexamethasone (carfilzomib group) or bortezomib and dexamethasone (bortezomib group) through a blocked randomisation scheme (block size of four), stratified by International Staging System stage, previous lines of treatment, previous proteasome inhibitor therapy, and planned route of bortezomib delivery if assigned to the bortezomib group. Carfilzomib (20 mg/m(2) on days 1 and 2 of cycle 1; 56 mg/m(2) thereafter) was given as a 30-min intravenous infusion on days 1, 2, 8, 9, 15, and 16 of 28-day cycles; bortezomib (1·3 mg/m(2)) was given as an intravenous bolus or subcutaneous injection on days 1, 4, 8, and 11 of 21-day cycles. Dexamethasone (20 mg oral or intravenous infusion) was given on days 1, 2, 8, 9, 15, 16, 22, and 23 in the carfilzomib group and on days 1, 2, 4, 5, 8, 9, 11, and 12 in the bortezomib group. The primary endpoint of ENDEAVOR, progression-free survival, has been previously reported. A stratified log-rank test was used to compare overall survival between treatment groups for this prospectively planned second interim

  2. Microsurgical Spermatic Cord Denervation as a Treatment for Chronic Scrotal Content Pain: A Multicenter Open Label Trial.

    PubMed

    Marconi, Marcelo; Palma, Cristian; Troncoso, Pablo; Dell Oro, Arturo; Diemer, Thorsten; Weidner, Wolfgang

    2015-11-01

    We prospectively evaluated the results of microsurgical spermatic cord denervation in a series of patients with chronic scrotal content pain in a multicenter study, including 1 center in Germany and 3 centers in Chile. A total of 50 patients with chronic scrotal content pain more than 3 months in duration were prospectively selected for standardized operative microsurgical spermatic cord denervation as pain treatment. In all patients preoperative management included a positive response to a spermatic cord block test with local anesthesia. Pain severity was assessed using an analog visual pain scale (range 0 to 10) for 30 consecutive days. A total of 52 testicular units were operated on using a subinguinal approach. In all cases a surgical microscope was used to identify the arteria testicularis. No intraoperative complications were observed and no testicular units were lost. Two reoperations were performed, including 1 for hematocele and 1 for hydrocele. Six months after surgery 40 patients (80%) were completely pain-free. In 6 patients (12%) intermittent testicular discomfort persisted, which could be managed by acetaminophen on demand. Four patients (8%) had no change in pain severity after surgery. After proper selection of patients microsurgical spermatic cord denervation seems to be a safe and efficient procedure to treat chronic scrotal content pain. Considering the limitations of the study, a randomized, controlled trial with longer followup is highly warranted. Copyright © 2015 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Zoledronate in combination with chemotherapy and surgery to treat osteosarcoma (OS2006): a randomised, multicentre, open-label, phase 3 trial.

    PubMed

    Piperno-Neumann, Sophie; Le Deley, Marie-Cécile; Rédini, Françoise; Pacquement, Hélène; Marec-Bérard, Perrine; Petit, Philippe; Brisse, Hervé; Lervat, Cyril; Gentet, Jean-Claude; Entz-Werlé, Natacha; Italiano, Antoine; Corradini, Nadège; Bompas, Emmanuelle; Penel, Nicolas; Tabone, Marie-Dominique; Gomez-Brouchet, Anne; Guinebretière, Jean-Marc; Mascard, Eric; Gouin, François; Chevance, Aurélie; Bonnet, Naïma; Blay, Jean-Yves; Brugières, Laurence

    2016-08-01

    Based on preclinical data for the antitumour effect of zoledronate in osteosarcoma, we assessed whether zoledronate combined with chemotherapy and surgery improved event-free survival in children and adults with osteosarcoma. In this randomised, multicentre, open-label, phase 3 trial (OS2006), patients aged between 5 years and 50 years with newly diagnosed high-grade osteosarcoma were randomly assigned to receive standard chemotherapy with or without ten zoledronate intravenous infusions (four preoperative and six postoperative). Adults older than 25 years received 4 mg zoledronate per infusion, patients aged 18-25 years received 0·05 mg/kg for the first two infusions and 4 mg for the remaining eight infusions, and younger patients received 0·05 mg/kg per infusion. Chemotherapy comprised high-dose methotrexate based chemotherapy in patients younger than 18 years, and doxorubicin, ifosfamide, and cisplatin in adults older than 25 years; patients aged 18-25 years were treated with either regime at the discretion of the treating centre. Balanced randomisation between the two groups was done centrally with online randomisation software, based on a minimisation algorithm taking into account centre, age, combined with chemotherapy regimen, and risk group (resectable primary and no metastasis vs other). Patients and investigators were not masked to treatment assignment, but the endpoint adjudication committee members who reviewed suspected early progressions were masked to group allocation. The primary endpoint was event-free survival, estimated from the randomisation to the time of first failure (local or distant relapse, progression, death) or to the last follow-up visit for the patients in first complete remission, analysed on a modified intention-to-treat population, which excluded patients found not to have a malignant tumour after central review. Three interim analyses were planned. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00470223. Between

  4. Regulatory T Cell Responses in Participants with Type 1 Diabetes after a Single Dose of Interleukin-2: A Non-Randomised, Open Label, Adaptive Dose-Finding Trial

    PubMed Central

    Todd, John A.; Porter, Linsey; Smyth, Deborah J.; Rainbow, Daniel B.; Ferreira, Ricardo C.; Yang, Jennie H.; Bell, Charles J. M.; Schuilenburg, Helen; Challis, Ben; Clarke, Pamela; Coleman, Gillian; Dawson, Sarah; Goymer, Donna; Kennet, Jane; Brown, Judy; Greatorex, Jane; Goodfellow, Ian; Evans, Mark; Mander, Adrian P.; Bond, Simon; Wicker, Linda S.

    2016-01-01

    Background Interleukin-2 (IL-2) has an essential role in the expansion and function of CD4+ regulatory T cells (Tregs). Tregs reduce tissue damage by limiting the immune response following infection and regulate autoreactive CD4+ effector T cells (Teffs) to prevent autoimmune diseases, such as type 1 diabetes (T1D). Genetic susceptibility to T1D causes alterations in the IL-2 pathway, a finding that supports Tregs as a cellular therapeutic target. Aldesleukin (Proleukin; recombinant human IL-2), which is administered at high doses to activate the immune system in cancer immunotherapy, is now being repositioned to treat inflammatory and autoimmune disorders at lower doses by targeting Tregs. Methods and Findings To define the aldesleukin dose response for Tregs and to find doses that increase Tregs physiologically for treatment of T1D, a statistical and systematic approach was taken by analysing the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of single doses of subcutaneous aldesleukin in the Adaptive Study of IL-2 Dose on Regulatory T Cells in Type 1 Diabetes (DILT1D), a single centre, non-randomised, open label, adaptive dose-finding trial with 40 adult participants with recently diagnosed T1D. The primary endpoint was the maximum percentage increase in Tregs (defined as CD3+CD4+CD25highCD127low) from the baseline frequency in each participant measured over the 7 d following treatment. There was an initial learning phase with five pairs of participants, each pair receiving one of five pre-assigned single doses from 0.04 × 106 to 1.5 × 106 IU/m2, in order to model the dose-response curve. Results from each participant were then incorporated into interim statistical modelling to target the two doses most likely to induce 10% and 20% increases in Treg frequencies. Primary analysis of the evaluable population (n = 39) found that the optimal doses of aldesleukin to induce 10% and 20% increases in Tregs were 0.101 × 106 IU/m2 (standard error [SE] = 0.078, 95% CI = −0

  5. Radium-223 and concomitant therapies in patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer: an international, early access, open-label, single-arm phase 3b trial.

    PubMed

    Saad, Fred; Carles, Joan; Gillessen, Silke; Heidenreich, Axel; Heinrich, Daniel; Gratt, Jeremy; Lévy, Jérémy; Miller, Kurt; Nilsson, Sten; Petrenciuc, Oana; Tucci, Marcello; Wirth, Manfred; Federhofer, Judith; O'Sullivan, Joe M

    2016-09-01

    In the previously reported ALSYMPCA trial in patients with castration-resistant prostate cancer and symptomatic bone metastases, overall survival was significantly longer in patients treated with radium-223 dichloride (radium-223) than in patients treated with placebo. In this study, we investigated safety and overall survival in radium-223 treated patients in an early access programme done after the ALSYMPCA study and before regulatory approval of radium-223. We did an international, prospective, interventional, open-label, single-arm, phase 3b study. Enrolled patients were aged 18 years or older with histologically or cytologically confirmed progressive bone-predominant metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer with two or more skeletal metastases on imaging (with no restriction as to whether they were symptomatic or asymptomatic; without visceral disease but lymph node metastases were allowed). Patients received intravenous injections of radium-223, 50 kBq/kg (current recommendation 55 kBq/kg after implementation of National Institute of Standards and Technology update on April 18, 2016) every 4 weeks for up to six injections. Other concomitant anticancer therapies were allowed. Primary endpoints were safety and overall survival. The safety and efficacy analyses were done on all patients who received at least one dose of the study drug. The study has been completed, and we report the final analysis here. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01618370, and the European Union Clinical Trials Register, EudraCT number 2012-000075-16. Between July 22, 2012, and Dec 19, 2013, 839 patients were enrolled from 113 sites in 14 countries. 696 patients received one or more doses of radium-223; 403 (58%) of these patients had all six planned injections. Any-grade treatment-emergent adverse events occurred in 523 (75%) of 696 patients; any-grade treatment-emergent adverse events deemed to be related to treatment were reported in 281 (40%) patients

  6. Robot-assisted Versus Laparoscopic Surgery for Rectal Cancer: A Phase II Open Label Prospective Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Kim, Min Jung; Park, Sung Chan; Park, Ji Won; Chang, Hee Jin; Kim, Dae Yong; Nam, Byung-Ho; Sohn, Dae Kyung; Oh, Jae Hwan

    2017-05-25

    The phase II randomized controlled trial aimed to compare the outcomes of robot-assisted surgery with those of laparoscopic surgery in the patients with rectal cancer. The feasibility of robot-assisted surgery over laparoscopic surgery for rectal cancer has not been established yet. Between February 21, 2012 and March 11, 2015, patients with rectal cancer (cT1-3NxM0) were enrolled. Patients were randomized 1:1 to either robot-assisted or laparoscopic surgery, and stratified per sex and administration of preoperative chemoradiotherapy. The primary outcome was the quality of total mesorectal excision (TME) specimen. Secondary outcomes were the circumferential and distal resection margins, the number of harvested lymph nodes, morbidity, bowel function recovery, and quality of life. A total of 163 patients were randomly assigned to the robot-assisted (n = 81) and laparoscopic (n = 82) surgery groups, and 139 patients were eligible for the analyses (73 vs 66, respectively). One patient (1.2%) in the robot-assisted group was converted to open surgery. The TME quality did not differ between the robot-assisted and laparoscopic groups (80.3% vs 78.1% complete TME, respectively; 18.2% vs 21.9% nearly complete TME, respectively; P = 0.599). The resection margins, number of harvested lymph nodes, morbidity, and bowel function recovery also were not significantly different. On analyzing quality of life, scores of the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life (EORTC QLQ C30) and EORTC QLQ CR38 were similar in the 2 groups, but in the EORTC QLQ CR 38 questionnaire, sexual function 12 months postoperatively was better in the robot-assisted group than in the laparoscopic group (P = 0.03). Robot-assisted surgery in rectal cancer showed TME quality comparable with that of laparoscopic surgery, and it demonstrated similar postoperative morbidity, bowel function recovery, and quality of life.

  7. Bevacizumab combined with chemotherapy for platinum-resistant recurrent ovarian cancer: The AURELIA open-label randomized phase III trial.

    PubMed

    Pujade-Lauraine, Eric; Hilpert, Felix; Weber, Béatrice; Reuss, Alexander; Poveda, Andres; Kristensen, Gunnar; Sorio, Roberto; Vergote, Ignace; Witteveen, Petronella; Bamias, Aristotelis; Pereira, Deolinda; Wimberger, Pauline; Oaknin, Ana; Mirza, Mansoor Raza; Follana, Philippe; Bollag, David; Ray-Coquard, Isabelle

    2014-05-01

    In platinum-resistant ovarian cancer (OC), single-agent chemotherapy is standard. Bevacizumab is active alone and in combination. AURELIA is the first randomized phase III trial to our knowledge combining bevacizumab with chemotherapy in platinum-resistant OC. Eligible patients had measurable/assessable OC that had progressed < 6 months after completing platinum-based therapy. Patients with refractory disease, history of bowel obstruction, or > two prior anticancer regimens were ineligible. After investigators selected chemotherapy (pegylated liposomal doxorubicin, weekly paclitaxel, or topotecan), patients were randomly assigned to single-agent chemotherapy alone or with bevacizumab (10 mg/kg every 2 weeks or 15 mg/kg every 3 weeks) until progression, unacceptable toxicity, or consent withdrawal. Crossover to single-agent bevacizumab was permitted after progression with chemotherapy alone. The primary end point was progression-free survival (PFS) by RECIST. Secondary end points included objective response rate (ORR), overall survival (OS), safety, and patient-reported outcomes. The PFS hazard ratio (HR) after PFS events in 301 of 361 patients was 0.48 (95% CI, 0.38 to 0.60; unstratified log-rank P < .001). Median PFS was 3.4 months with chemotherapy alone versus 6.7 months with bevacizumab-containing therapy. RECIST ORR was 11.8% versus 27.3%, respectively (P = .001). The OS HR was 0.85 (95% CI, 0.66 to 1.08; P < .174; median OS, 13.3 v 16.6 months, respectively). Grade ≥ 2 hypertension and proteinuria were more common with bevacizumab. GI perforation occurred in 2.2% of bevacizumab-treated patients. Adding bevacizumab to chemotherapy statistically significantly improved PFS and ORR; the OS trend was not significant. No new safety signals were observed.

  8. A randomised, open-label phase II trial of afatinib versus cetuximab in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Hickish, Tamas; Cassidy, Jim; Propper, David; Chau, Ian; Falk, Stephen; Ford, Hugo; Iveson, Tim; Braun, Michael; Potter, Vanessa; Macpherson, Iain R; Finnigan, Helen; Lee, Chooi; Jones, Hilary; Harrison, Mark

    2014-12-01

    This randomised phase II trial aimed to compare efficacy of the irreversible ErbB family blocker, afatinib, with cetuximab in patients with KRAS wild-type metastatic colorectal adenocarcinoma (mCRC) with progression following oxaliplatin- and irinotecan-based regimens. Efficacy in patients with KRAS mutations was also evaluated. Patients with KRAS wild-type tumours were randomised 2:1 to afatinib (40 mg/day, increasing to 50 mg/day if minimal toxicity) or cetuximab weekly (400 mg/m2 loading dose, then 250 mg/m2/week) according to number of previous chemotherapy lines. All patients with KRAS-mutated tumours received afatinib. Primary end-points were objective response (OR) for the wild-type group and disease control for the KRAS-mutated group. Secondary end-points were progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS). Patients with KRAS wild-type tumours (n=50) received afatinib (n=36) or cetuximab (n=14). Unconfirmed and confirmed ORs were 3% and 0% for afatinib versus 20% and 13% for cetuximab (odds ratio: 0.122 [P=0.0735] and <0.001, respectively). Median PFS was 46.0 and 144.5 days for afatinib and cetuximab, respectively. Median OS was 355 days with afatinib but not reached for cetuximab. In the KRAS-mutated group (n=41), five (12%) patients achieved confirmed disease control (stable disease; P=0.6394 [comparison versus 10%]); no ORs were reported. Median PFS and OS were 41.0 and 173days, respectively. Most frequent treatment-related adverse events were diarrhoea and rash across groups. The efficacy of afatinib was inferior to cetuximab in patients with KRAS wild-type mCRC. In patients with KRAS-mutated tumours, disease control was modest with afatinib. Afatinib had a manageable safety profile. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Comparison of Ipragliflozin and Pioglitazone Effects on Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes: A Randomized, 24-Week, Open-Label, Active-Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Ito, Daisuke; Shimizu, Satoshi; Inoue, Kazuyuki; Saito, Daigo; Yanagisawa, Morifumi; Inukai, Kouichi; Akiyama, Yuji; Morimoto, Yoshihiro; Noda, Mitsuhiko; Shimada, Akira

    2017-10-01

    To compare the efficacy of ipragliflozin versus pioglitazone in patients with type 2 diabetes complicated by nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). In this open-label, randomized, active-controlled trial, we randomly assigned 66 patients with type 2 diabetes and NAFLD to receive ipragliflozin 50 mg (n = 32) or pioglitazone 15-30 mg (n = 34) orally once daily. The primary outcome was a change from baseline in the liver-to-spleen attenuation ratio (L/S ratio) on computed tomography at week 24. At week 24, the mean ± SD L/S ratio had increased by 0.22 (from 0.80 ± 0.24 to 1.00 ± 0.18) in the ipragliflozin group and 0.21 (from 0.78 ± 0.26 to 0.98 ± 0.16) in the pioglitazone group (P = 0.90). Serum aspartate and alanine aminotransferase levels, HbA1c, and fasting plasma glucose were similarly reduced in the two treatment groups. Nevertheless, body weight and visceral fat area showed significant reductions only in the ipragliflozin group compared with the pioglitazone group (P < 0.0001 and P = 0.0013, respectively). There were no serious adverse events in either group. Compared with pioglitazone, ipragliflozin exerts equally beneficial effects on NAFLD and glycemic control during the treatment of patients with type 2 diabetes complicated by NAFLD. Furthermore, ipragliflozin significantly reduced body weight and abdominal fat area. © 2017 by the American Diabetes Association.

  10. Digital palpation of endotracheal tube tip as a method of confirming endotracheal tube position in neonates: an open-label, three-armed randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Saboo, Ashwin R; Dutta, Sourabh; Sodhi, Kushaljit Singh

    2013-10-01

    To compare the malposition rates of endotracheal tubes (ETTs) when the insertional length (IL) is determined by a weight-based nomogram versus when IL is determined by palpation of the ETT tip. Open-label, randomized controlled trial (RCT). Level III neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). All newborn babies admitted in NICU requiring intubation. Subjects were randomly allocated to one of three groups, wherein IL was determined by (i) weight-based nomogram alone, (ii) weight-based nomogram combined with suprasternal palpation of ETT tip performed by specially trained neonatology fellows, or (iii) combination of weight-based and suprasternal methods by personnel not specially trained. Rate of malposition of ETT as judged on chest X-ray (CXR). Fifty seven babies were randomized into group 1(n = 15), group 2 (n = 20), and group 3 (n = 22). The proportion of correct ETT placement was highest in group 2, being 66.7%, 83.3%, and 66.7% in groups 1 through 3, respectively (P value = 0.58). No complication was attributable to palpation technique. Suprasternal palpation shows promise as a simple, safe, and teachable method of confirming ETT position in neonates. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Comparison of Low-Dose Rosuvastatin with Atorvastatin in Lipid-Lowering Efficacy and Safety in a High-Risk Pakistani Cohort: An Open-Label Randomized Trial

    PubMed Central

    Arshad, Abdul Rehman

    2014-01-01

    Background. Treatment of hyperlipidemia is helpful in both primary and secondary prevention of coronary heart disease and stroke. Aim. To compare lipid-lowering efficacy of rosuvastatin with atorvastatin. Methodology. This open-label randomized controlled trial was carried out at 1 Mountain Medical Battalion from September 2012 to August 2013 on patients with type 2 diabetes, hypertension, myocardial infarction, or stroke, meriting treatment with a statin. Those with secondary causes of dyslipidemia were excluded. Blood samples for estimation of serum total cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL-C, and LDL-C were collected after a 12-hour fast. Patients were randomly allocated to receive either atorvastatin 10 mg HS or rosuvastatin 5 mg HS daily. Lipid levels were rechecked after six weeks. Results. Atorvastatin was used in 63 patients and rosuvastatin in 66. There was a greater absolute and percent reduction in serum LDL-C levels with rosuvastatin as compared to atorvastatin (0.96 versus 0.54 mg/dL; P = 0.011 and 24.34 versus 13.66%; P = 0.045), whereas reduction in all other fractions was equal. Myalgias were seen in 5 (7.94%) patients treated with atorvastatin and 8 (12.12%) patients treated with rosuvastatin (P: 0.432). Conclusion. Rosuvastatin produces a greater reduction in serum LDL-C levels and should therefore be preferred over atorvastatin. PMID:24800084

  12. Efficacy and Tolerability of Paliperidone Extended-release in the Treatment of First-episode Psychosis: An Eight-week, Open-label, Multicenter Trial

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Nam-In; Koo, Bon-Hoon; Kim, Sung-Wan; Kim, Jong-Hoon; Nam, Beomwoo; Lee, Bong-Ju; Lee, Sang-Hyuk; Lee, Seung Jae; Lee, Seung-Hwan; Jung, Myung Hun; Hahn, Sang Woo; Chung, Young-Chul

    2016-01-01

    Objective We investigated the efficacy and tolerability of paliperidone extended-release (ER) tablets in patients with first-episode psychosis (n=75). Methods This was an 8-week, open-label, multicenter trial. The primary outcome variable was scores on the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS); secondary measures included the Scale for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms (SANS), the Cognitive Assessment Interview (CAI), and the Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF). To assess safety, we measured drug-related adverse events, weight, lipid-related variables, and prolactin and administered the Simpson–Angus Rating Scale (SARS), the Abnormal Involuntary Movement Scale (AIMS), the Barnes Akathisia Scale (BAS), the Arizona Sexual Experiences Scale (ASEX), and the Udvalg for Kliniske Undersogelser side effect rating scale (UKU). Results The administration of paliperidone ER resulted in significant improvement in the PANSS, SANS, CAI, and GAF scores (p<0.001) over time. This improvement was evident as early as 1 week. The most frequent adverse events were akathisia, somnolence, anxiety, and sedation, which were well tolerated. Modest increases in weight and lipid profiles were also noted. Prolactin levels were substantially increased at the endpoint in both male and female patients. Conclusion These results indicate that paliperidone ER is effective and is characterized by good tolerability in the treatment of positive and negative symptoms and cognitive functioning in first-episode psychosis. PMID:27489380

  13. Activation of heat shock response to treat obese subjects with type 2 diabetes: a prospective, frequency-escalating, randomized, open-label, triple-arm trial

    PubMed Central

    Kondo, Tatsuya; Goto, Rieko; Ono, Kaoru; Kitano, Sayaka; Suico, Mary Ann; Sato, Miki; Igata, Motoyuki; Kawashima, Junji; Motoshima, Hiroyuki; Matsumura, Takeshi; Kai, Hirofumi; Araki, Eiichi

    2016-01-01

    Activation of heat shock response (HSR) improves accumulated visceral adiposity and metabolic abnormalities in type 2 diabetes. To identify the optimal intervention strategy of the activation of the HSR provided by mild electrical stimulation (MES) with heat shock (HS) in type 2 diabetes. This study was a prospective, frequency-escalating, randomized, open-label, triple-arm trial in Japan. A total of 60 obese type 2 diabetes patients were randomized into three groups receiving two, four, or seven treatments per week for 12 weeks. No adverse events were identified. MES + HS treatment (when all three groups were combined), significantly improved visceral adiposity, glycemic control, insulin resistance, systemic inflammation, renal function, hepatic steatosis and lipid profile compared to baseline. The reduction in HbA1c was significantly greater among those treated four times per week (−0.36%) or seven times per week (−0.65%) than among those treated two times per week (−0.10%). The relative HbA1c levels in seven times per week group was significantly decreased when adjusted by two times per week group (−0.55%. p = 0.001). This research provides the positive impact of MES + HS to treat obese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. PMID:27759092

  14. Efficacy of ketamine in refractory convulsive status epilepticus in children: a protocol for a sequential design, multicentre, randomised, controlled, open-label, non-profit trial (KETASER01)

    PubMed Central

    Rosati, Anna; Ilvento, Lucrezia; L'Erario, Manuela; De Masi, Salvatore; Biggeri, Annibale; Fabbro, Giancarlo; Bianchi, Roberto; Stoppa, Francesca; Fusco, Lucia; Pulitanò, Silvia; Battaglia, Domenica; Pettenazzo, Andrea; Sartori, Stefano; Biban, Paolo; Fontana, Elena; Cesaroni, Elisabetta; Mora, Donatella; Costa, Paola; Meleleo, Rosanna; Vittorini, Roberta; Conio, Alessandra; Wolfler, Andrea; Mastrangelo, Massimo; Mondardini, Maria Cristina; Franzoni, Emilio; McGreevy, Kathleen S; Di Simone, Lorena; Pugi, Alessandra; Mirabile, Lorenzo; Vigevano, Federico; Guerrini, Renzo

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Status epilepticus (SE) is a life-threatening neurological emergency. SE lasting longer than 120 min and not responding to first-line and second-line antiepileptic drugs is defined as ‘refractory’ (RCSE) and requires intensive care unit treatment. There is currently neither evidence nor consensus to guide either the optimal choice of therapy or treatment goals for RCSE, which is generally treated with coma induction using conventional anaesthetics (high dose midazolam, thiopental and/or propofol). Increasing evidence indicates that ketamine (KE), a strong N-methyl-d-aspartate glutamate receptor antagonist, may be effective in treating RCSE. We hypothesised that intravenous KE is more efficacious and safer than conventional anaesthetics in treating RCSE. Methods and analysis A multicentre, randomised, controlled, open-label, non-profit, sequentially designed study will be conducted to assess the efficacy of KE compared with conventional anaesthetics in the treatment of RCSE in children. 10 Italian centres/hospitals are involved in enrolling 57 patients aged 1 month to 18 years with RCSE. Primary outcome is the resolution of SE up to 24 hours after withdrawal of therapy and is updated for each patient treated according to the sequential method. Ethics and dissemination The study received ethical approval from the Tuscan Paediatric Ethics Committee (12/2015). The results of this study will be published in peer-reviewed journals and presented at international conferences. Trial registration number NCT02431663; Pre-results. PMID:27311915

  15. Immunogenicity and safety of an inactivated quadrivalent influenza vaccine in healthy adults: a phase II, open-label, uncontrolled trial in Japan.

    PubMed

    Tsurudome, Yukari; Kimachi, Kazuhiko; Okada, Yusuke; Matsuura, Kenta; Ooyama, Yusuke; Ibaragi, Kayo; Kino, Yoichiro; Ueda, Kohji

    2015-10-01

    Two antigenically distinct B strain lineages of influenza virus have co-circulated since the mid-1980s; however, inactivated trivalent influenza vaccines contain only one B lineage. The mismatch between the circulating and vaccine lineages has been a worldwide issue. In this study, an inactivated quadrivalent influenza vaccine (QIV) candidate containing two B lineages was manufactured and its immunogenicity and safety evaluated in an open-label, uncontrolled trial. In this phase II trial, 50 subjects aged 20-64 years received two doses of QIV s.c. 1 to 4 weeks apart. Sera were collected pre- and post-vaccination and safety assessed from the first vaccination to 21 ± 7 days after the second vaccination. After the first vaccination, hemagglutination inhibition titers against each strain increased markedly; the seroconversion rate, geometric mean titer ratio and seroprotection rate being 94.0%, 24.93, and 100.0%, respectively, for the A/H1N1pdm09 strain; 94.0%, 12.47, and 98.0%, respectively, for the A/H3N2 strain; 54.0%, 4.99, and 66.0%, respectively, for B/Yamagata strain, and 72.0%, 6.23 and 80.0%, respectively, for the B/Victoria strain, thus fulfilling the criteria of the European Medical Agency's Committee for Medicinal Products for Human Use. Also, the QIV induced sufficient single radial hemolysis and neutralizing antibodies against all four vaccine strains. No noteworthy adverse events were noted. The results of this trial demonstrate that QIV is well tolerated and immunogenic for each strain, suggesting that QIV potentially improves protection against influenza B by resolving the issue of B lineage mismatch.

  16. Botulinum toxin in severe upper extremity spasticity among patients with traumatic brain injury: an open-labeled trial.

    PubMed

    Yablon, S A; Agana, B T; Ivanhoe, C B; Boake, C

    1996-10-01

    We studied the effect of botulinum toxin A (BTXA) among patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI) and severe spasticity unresponsive to conservative management. Twenty-one consecutive adult patients with severe spasticity involving the wrist and finger flexor musculature were treated with BTXA injection (20 to 40 units per muscle) under EMG guidance. After injection, patients received passive range of motion (ROM) exercise, with modalities and casting as clinically indicated. Outcome measures, including wrist ROM and the modified Ashworth Scale (MAS), were assessed 2 to 4 weeks after injection. Among the respective acute and chronic groups, mean ROM improved 42.9 (p = 0.001) and 36.2 degrees (p < 0.001). Mean MAS rating improved 1.5 (p = 0.01) and 1.47 (p = 0.002) points. There were no significant adverse effects. BTXA, in conjunction with conventional modalities, significantly improves spasticity and ROM in the distal upper extremity musculature of patients with TBI.

  17. Nivolumab alone and nivolumab plus ipilimumab in recurrent small-cell lung cancer (CheckMate 032): a multicentre, open-label, phase 1/2 trial.

    PubMed

    Antonia, Scott J; López-Martin, José A; Bendell, Johanna; Ott, Patrick A; Taylor, Matthew; Eder, Joseph Paul; Jäger, Dirk; Pietanza, M Catherine; Le, Dung T; de Braud, Filippo; Morse, Michael A; Ascierto, Paolo A; Horn, Leora; Amin, Asim; Pillai, Rathi N; Evans, Jeffry; Chau, Ian; Bono, Petri; Atmaca, Akin; Sharma, Padmanee; Harbison, Christopher T; Lin, Chen-Sheng; Christensen, Olaf; Calvo, Emiliano

    2016-07-01

    Treatments for small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) after failure of platinum-based chemotherapy are limited. We assessed safety and activity of nivolumab and nivolumab plus ipilimumab in patients with SCLC who progressed after one or more previous regimens. The SCLC cohort of this phase 1/2 multicentre, multi-arm, open-label trial was conducted at 23 sites (academic centres and hospitals) in six countries. Eligible patients were 18 years of age or older, had limited-stage or extensive-stage SCLC, and had disease progression after at least one previous platinum-containing regimen. Patients received nivolumab (3 mg/kg bodyweight intravenously) every 2 weeks (given until disease progression or unacceptable toxicity), or nivolumab plus ipilimumab (1 mg/kg plus 1 mg/kg, 1 mg/kg plus 3 mg/kg, or 3 mg/kg plus 1 mg/kg, intravenously) every 3 weeks for four cycles, followed by nivolumab 3 mg/kg every 2 weeks. Patients were either assigned to nivolumab monotherapy or assessed in a dose-escalating safety phase for the nivolumab/ipilimumab combination beginning at nivolumab 1 mg/kg plus ipilimumab 1 mg/kg. Depending on tolerability, patients were then assigned to nivolumab 1 mg/kg plus ipilimumab 3 mg/kg or nivolumab 3 mg/kg plus ipilimumab 1 mg/kg. The primary endpoint was objective response by investigator assessment. All analyses included patients who were enrolled at least 90 days before database lock. This trial is ongoing; here, we report an interim analysis of the SCLC cohort. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01928394. Between Nov 18, 2013, and July 28, 2015, 216 patients were enrolled and treated (98 with nivolumab 3 mg/kg, three with nivolumab 1 mg/kg plus ipilimumab 1 mg/kg, 61 with nivolumab 1 mg/kg plus ipilimumab 3 mg/kg, and 54 with nivolumab 3 mg/kg plus ipilimumab 1 mg/kg). At database lock on Nov 6, 2015, median follow-up for patients continuing in the study (including those who had died or discontinued treatment) was 198·5 days (IQR 163

  18. Bone health nutraceuticals alter microarray mRNA gene expression: A randomized, parallel, open-label clinical study.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yumei; Kazlova, Valentina; Ramakrishnan, Shyam; Murray, Mary A; Fast, David; Chandra, Amitabh; Gellenbeck, Kevin W

    2016-01-15

    Dietary intake of fruits and vegetables has been suggested to have a role in promoting bone health. More specifically, the polyphenols they contain have been linked to physiological effects related to bone mineral density and bone metabolism. In this research, we use standard microarray analyses of peripheral whole blood from post-menopausal women treated with two fixed combinations of plant extracts standardized to polyphenol content to identify differentially expressed genes relevant to bone health. In this 28-day open-label study, healthy post-menopausal women were randomized into three groups, each receiving one of three investigational fixed combinations of plant extracts: an anti-resorptive (AR) combination of pomegranate fruit (Punica granatum L.) and grape seed (Vitis vinifera L.) extracts; a bone formation (BF) combination of quercetin (Dimorphandra mollis Benth) and licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra L.) extracts; and a fixed combination of all four plant extracts (AR plus BF). Standard microarray analysis was performed on peripheral whole blood samples taken before and after each treatment. Annotated genes were analyzed for their association to bone health by comparison to a gene library. The AR combination down-regulated a number of genes involved in reduction of bone resorption including cathepsin G (CTSG) and tachykinin receptor 1 (TACR1). The AR combination also up-regulated genes associated with formation of extracellular matrix including heparan sulfate proteoglycan 2 (HSPG2) and hyaluronoglucosaminidase 1 (HYAL1). In contrast, treatment with the BF combination resulted in up-regulation of bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2) and COL1A1 (collagen type I α1) genes which are linked to bone and collagen formation while down-regulating genes linked to osteoclastogenesis. Treatment with a combination of all four plant extracts had a distinctly different effect on gene expression than the results of the AR and BF combinations individually. These results could

  19. Durability of clinical benefit with transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) in the treatment of pharmacoresistant major depression: assessment of relapse during a 6-month, multisite, open-label study.

    PubMed

    Janicak, Philip G; Nahas, Ziad; Lisanby, Sarah H; Solvason, H Brent; Sampson, Shirlene M; McDonald, William M; Marangell, Lauren B; Rosenquist, Peter; McCall, W Vaughn; Kimball, James; O'Reardon, John P; Loo, Colleen; Husain, Mustafa H; Krystal, Andrew; Gilmer, William; Dowd, Sheila M; Demitrack, Mark A; Schatzberg, Alan F

    2010-10-01

    Although transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) can be an effective acute antidepressant treatment, few studies systematically examine persistence of benefit. We assessed the durability of antidepressant effect after acute response to TMS in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) using protocol-specified maintenance antidepressant monotherapy. Three hundred one patients were randomly assigned to active or sham TMS in a 6-week, controlled trial. Nonresponders could enroll in a second, 6-week, open-label study. Patients who met criteria for partial response (i.e., >25% decrease from the baseline HAMD 17) during either the sham-controlled or open-label study (n = 142) were tapered off TMS over 3 weeks, while simultaneously starting maintenance antidepressant monotherapy. Patients were then followed for 24 weeks in a naturalistic follow-up study examining the long-term durability of TMS. During this durability study, TMS was readministered if patients met prespecified criteria for symptom worsening (i.e., a change of at least one point on the CGI-S scale for 2 consecutive weeks). Relapse was the primary outcome measure. Ten of 99 (10%; Kaplan-Meier survival estimate = 12.9%) patients relapsed. Thirty-eight (38.4%) patients met criteria for symptom worsening and 32/38 (84.2%) reachieved symptomatic benefit with adjunctive TMS. Safety and tolerability were similar to acute TMS monotherapy. These initial data suggest that the therapeutic effects of TMS are durable and that TMS may be successfully used as an intermittent rescue strategy to preclude impending relapse. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. A randomized, multicenter, open-label, blinded end point trial comparing the effects of spironolactone to chlorthalidone on left ventricular mass in patients with early-stage chronic kidney disease: Rationale and design of the SPIRO-CKD trial.

    PubMed

    Hayer, Manvir K; Edwards, Nicola C; Slinn, Gemma; Moody, William E; Steeds, Rick P; Ferro, Charles J; Price, Anna M; Andujar, Cecilio; Dutton, Mary; Webster, Rachel; Webb, David J; Semple, Scott; MacIntyre, Iain; Melville, Vanessa; Wilkinson, Ian B; Hiemstra, Thomas F; Wheeler, David C; Herrey, Anna; Grant, Margaret; Mehta, Samir; Ives, Natalie; Townend, Jonathan N

    2017-09-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is associated with increased left ventricular (LV) mass and arterial stiffness. In a previous trial, spironolactone improved these end points compared with placebo in subjects with early-stage CKD, but it is not known whether these effects were specific to the drug or secondary to blood pressure lowering. The aim was to investigate the hypothesis that spironolactone is superior to chlorthalidone in the reduction of LV mass while exerting similar effects on blood pressure. This is a multicenter, prospective, randomized, open-label, blinded end point clinical trial initially designed to compare the effects of 40weeks of treatment with spironolactone 25mg once daily to chlorthalidone 25mg once daily on the co-primary end points of change in pulse wave velocity and change in LV mass in 350 patients with stages 2 and 3 CKD on established treatment with an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor or an angiotensin receptor blocker. Because of slow recruitment rates, it became apparent that it would not be possible to recruit this sample size within the funded time period. The study design was therefore changed to one with a single primary end point of LV mass requiring 150 patients. Recruitment was completed on 31 December 2016, at which time 154 patients had been recruited. Investigations included cardiac magnetic resonance imaging, applanation tonometry, 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring, and laboratory tests. Subjects are assessed before and after 40weeks of randomly allocated drug therapy and at 46weeks after discontinuation of the study drug. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Randomized Comparison of Subcuticular Sutures Versus Staples for Skin Closure After Open Abdominal Surgery: a Multicenter Open-Label Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Imamura, Kazuhiro; Adachi, Kensuke; Sasaki, Ritsuko; Monma, Satoko; Shioiri, Sadaaki; Seyama, Yasuji; Miura, Masaru; Morikawa, Yoshihiko; Kaneko, Tetsuji

    2016-12-01

    The incisional surgical site infection (SSI) is an extremely common complication following open abdominal surgery and imposes a considerable treatment and cost burden. We conducted a multicenter open-label randomized controlled trial at three Tokyo Metropolitan medical institutions. We enrolled adult patients who underwent either an elective or an emergency open laparotomy. Eligible patients were allocated preoperatively to undergo wound closure with either subcuticular sutures or staples. A central Web-based randomization tool was used to assign participants randomly by a permuted block sequence with a 1:1 allocation ratio and a block size of 4 before mass closure to each group. The primary endpoint was the occurrence of a superficial SSI within 30 days after surgery in accordance with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention criteria. This trial was registered with UMIN-CTR as UMIN 000004836 ( http://www.umin.ac.jp/ctr ). Between September 1, 2010 and August 31, 2015, 401 patients were enrolled and randomly assigned to either group. One hundred and ninety-nine patients were allocated to the subcuticular suture and 202 patients to the staple groups (hereafter the "suture" and "staple" group, respectively). Three hundred and ninety-nine were eligible for the primary endpoint. Superficial SSIs occurred in 25 of 198 suture patients and in 27 of 201 staple patients. Overall, the rate of superficial SSIs did not differ significantly between the suture and staple groups. Subcuticular sutures did not increase the occurrence of superficial SSIs following open laparotomies mainly consisting of clean-contaminated surgical procedures. The applicability of the wound closure material and method is likely to depend on individual circumstances of the patient and surgical procedure.

  2. Tophus burden reduction with pegloticase: results from phase 3 randomized trials and open-label extension in patients with chronic gout refractory to conventional therapy.

    PubMed

    Baraf, Herbert S B; Becker, Michael A; Gutierrez-Urena, Sergio R; Treadwell, Edward L; Vazquez-Mellado, Janitzia; Rehrig, Claudia D; Ottery, Faith D; Sundy, John S; Yood, Robert A

    2013-09-26

    Two replicate randomized, placebo-controlled six-month trials (RCTs) and an open-label treatment extension (OLE) comprised the pegloticase development program in patients with gout refractory to conventional therapy. In the RCTs, approximately 40% of patients treated with the approved dose saw complete response (CR) of at least one tophus. Here we describe the temporal course of tophus resolution, total tophus burden in patients with multiple tophi, tophus size at baseline, and the relationship between tophus response and urate-lowering efficacy. Baseline subcutaneous tophi were analyzed quantitatively using computer-assisted digital images in patients receiving pegloticase (8 mg biweekly or monthly) or placebo in the RCTs, and pegloticase in the OLE. Tophus response, a secondary endpoint in the trials, was evaluated two ways. Overall tophus CR was the proportion of patients achieving a best response of CR (without any new/enlarging tophi) and target tophus complete response (TT-CR) was the proportion of all tophi with CR. Among 212 patients randomized in the RCTs, 155 (73%) had ≥ 1 tophus and 547 visible tophi were recorded at baseline. Overall tophus CR was recorded in 45% of patients in the biweekly group (P = 0.002 versus placebo), 26% in the monthly group, and 8% in the placebo group after six months of RCT therapy. TT-CR rates at six months were 28%, 19%, and 2% of tophi, respectively. Patients meeting the primary endpoint of sustained urate-lowering response to therapy (responders) were more likely than nonresponders to have an overall tophus CR at six months (54% vs 20%, respectively and 8% with placebo). Pegloticase reduced tophus burden in patients with refractory tophaceous gout, especially those achieving sustained urate-lowering. Complete resolution of tophi occurred in some patients by 13 weeks and in others with longer-term therapy. NCT00325195, NCT01356498.

  3. Fluoxetine versus sertraline in the treatment of patients with undifferentiated somatoform disorder: a randomized, open-label, 12-week, parallel-group trial.

    PubMed

    Han, Changsu; Pae, Chi-Un; Lee, Bun Hee; Ko, Young-Hoon; Masand, Prakash S; Patkar, Ashwin A; Jung, In-Kwa

    2008-02-15

    The present study was conducted to compare the effectiveness and tolerability of fluoxetine and sertraline in the treatment of undifferentiated somatoform disorder (USD), using the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-15), which was specifically designed for assessing the severity of somatic symptoms. A randomized, 12-week, open-label trial of fluoxetine (10-60 mg/d) and sertraline (25-350 mg/d) in patients with USD was conducted. Six visits, at baseline and weeks 1, 2, 4, 8, and 12, were scheduled. Assessments for effectiveness and tolerability were conducted at each visit. The primary effectiveness measure was the mean change in PHQ-15 total score, from baseline to the end of treatment. Secondary effectiveness measures were the mean changes in total scores on the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and the 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12), from baseline to the end of treatment. A total of 45 subjects were enrolled; of them, 28 were randomly assigned to receive fluoxetine and 17 to receive sertraline. The total score on the PHQ-15 from baseline to the end of treatment significantly decreased in the fluoxetine (-10.7, p<0.0001) and sertraline (-10.3, p<0.0001) treatment groups, with no between-group difference (F=0.0701, p=0.7924). Overall, both treatments were well tolerated and no serious adverse event was reported. This study suggests that both agents may have a potential role in the treatment of USD. A double-blind, placebo-controlled trial and/or head-to-head comparison study with larger samples are required to draw more definite conclusions.

  4. Effects of Prophylactic and Therapeutic Paracetamol Treatment during Vaccination on Hepatitis B Antibody Levels in Adults: Two Open-Label, Randomized Controlled Trials

    PubMed Central

    Doedée, Anne M. C. M.; Boland, Greet J.; Pennings, Jeroen L. A.; de Klerk, Arja; Berbers, Guy A. M.; van der Klis, Fiona R. M.; de Melker, Hester E.; van Loveren, Henk; Janssen, Riny

    2014-01-01

    Worldwide, paracetamol is administered as a remedy for complaints that occur after vaccination. Recently published results indicate that paracetamol inhibits the vaccination response in infants when given prior to vaccination. The goal of this study was to establish whether paracetamol exerts similar effects in young adults. In addition, the effect of timing of paracetamol intake was investigated. In two randomized, controlled, open-label studies 496 healthy young adults were randomly assigned to three groups. The study groups received paracetamol for 24 hours starting at the time of (prophylactic use) - or 6 hours after (therapeutic use) the primary (0 month) and first booster (1 month) hepatitis B vaccination. The control group received no paracetamol. None of the participants used paracetamol around the second booster (6 months) vaccination. Anti-HBs levels were measured prior to and one month after the second booster vaccination on ADVIA Centaur XP. One month after the second booster vaccination, the anti-HBs level in the prophylactic paracetamol group was significantly lower (p = 0.048) than the level in the control group (4257 mIU/mL vs. 5768 mIU/mL). The anti-HBs level in the therapeutic paracetamol group (4958 mIU/mL) was not different (p = 0.34) from the level in the control group. Only prophylactic paracetamol treatment, and not therapeutic treatment, during vaccination has a negative influence on the antibody concentration after hepatitis B vaccination in adults. These findings prompt to consider therapeutic instead of prophylactic treatment to ensure m