VERSATILE TWO-AXIS OPEN-LOOP SOLAR TRACKER CONTROLLER*
Ward, Christina D; Maxey, L Curt; Evans III, Boyd Mccutchen; Lapsa, Melissa Voss
2008-01-01
A versatile single-board controller for two-axis solar tracking applications has been developed and tested on operating solar tracking systems with over two years of field experience. The operating experience gained from the two systems and associated modifications are discussed as representative examples of the practical issues associated with implementing a new two-axis solar tracker design. In this research, open and closed loop control methods were evaluated; however, only the open loop method met the 0.125 tracking accuracy requirement and the requirement to maintain pointing accuracy in hazy and scattered cloudy skies. The open loop algorithm was finally implemented in a microcontroller-based tracking system. Methods of applying this controller hardware to different tracker geometries and hardware are discussed along with the experience gained to date.
Modeling and open-loop control of IPMC actuators under changing ambient temperature
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dong, Roy; Tan, Xiaobo
2012-06-01
Because of the cost and complexity associated with sensory feedback, open-loop control of ionic polymer-metal composite (IPMC) actuators is of interest in many biomedical and robotic applications. However, the performance of an open-loop controller is sensitive to the change in IPMC dynamics, which is influenced heavily by ambient environmental conditions including the temperature. In this paper we propose a novel approach to the modeling and open-loop control of temperature-dependent IPMC actuation dynamics. An IPMC actuator is modeled empirically with a transfer function, the zeros and poles of which are functions of the temperature. With auxiliary temperature measurement, open-loop control is realized by inverting the model at the current ambient temperature. We use a stable but noncausal algorithm to deal with non-minimum-phase zeros in the system that would prevent directly inverting the dynamics. Experimental results are presented to show the effectiveness of the proposed approach in open-loop tracking control of IPMC actuators.
A sliding mode control proposal for open-loop unstable processes.
Rojas, Rubén; Camacho, Oscar; González, Luis
2004-04-01
This papers presents a sliding mode controller based on a first-order-plus-dead-time model of the process for controlling open-loop unstable systems. The proposed controller has a simple and fixed structure with a set of tuning equations as a function of the desired performance. Both linear and nonlinear models were used to study the controller performance by computer simulations.
The 12-Meter Truss Active Control Experiment Design, Analysis and Open-Loop Testing
1992-04-01
AD-A251 935 WL-TR-92-3012 THE 12-METER TRUSS ACTIVE CONTROL EXPERIMENT DESIGN, ANALYSIS & OPEN-LOOP TESTING DTIC S ELECTE MI ROBERT W. GORDON $L...REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED APRIL 1992 FINAL JUN R - DC 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE S . FUNDING NUMBERS THE 12-METER TRUSS ACTIVE CONTROL EXPERIMENT...DESIGN, PE 62201F ANALYSIS AND OPEN-LOOP TESTING PR2401 fTA R01O432 6. AUTHOR( S ) ROBERT W. GORDON (513) 255-5236 EXT 402 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME
Open-loop versus closed-loop control of MEMS devices: choices and issues
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Borovic, B.; Liu, A. Q.; Popa, D.; Cai, H.; Lewis, F. L.
2005-10-01
From a controls point of view, micro electromechanical systems (MEMS) can be driven in an open-loop and closed-loop fashion. Commonly, these devices are driven open-loop by applying simple input signals. If these input signals become more complex by being derived from the system dynamics, we call such control techniques pre-shaped open-loop driving. The ultimate step for improving precision and speed of response is the introduction of feedback, e.g. closed-loop control. Unlike macro mechanical systems, where the implementation of the feedback is relatively simple, in the MEMS case the feedback design is quite problematic, due to the limited availability of sensor data, the presence of sensor dynamics and noise, and the typically fast actuator dynamics. Furthermore, a performance comparison between open-loop and closed-loop control strategies has not been properly explored for MEMS devices. The purpose of this paper is to present experimental results obtained using both open- and closed-loop strategies and to address the comparative issues of driving and control for MEMS devices. An optical MEMS switching device is used for this study. Based on these experimental results, as well as computer simulations, we point out advantages and disadvantages of the different control strategies, address the problems that distinguish MEMS driving systems from their macro counterparts, and discuss criteria to choose a suitable control driving strategy.
Open-loop quantum control as a resource for secure communications
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pastorello, Davide
2016-05-01
Properties of unitary time evolution of quantum systems can be applied to define quantum cryptographic protocols. Dynamics of a qubit can be exploited as a data encryption/decryption procedure by means of timed measurements, implementation of an open-loop control scheme over a qubit increases robustness of a protocol employing this principle.
Increasing Mission Reliability Using Open-Loop Control
1993-08-01
Jersey, 1986. 2. J. J. DiStefano, A. R. Stubberud, and I. J. Williams , Feedback and Control Systems - Schaum’s Outline, McGraw-Hill, New York, 1967. 3. Z...ATTN: SMCRI-ENM THE PENTAGON ROCK ISLAND, IL 61299-5000 WASHINGTON. D.C. 20310-0103 MIAC/ CINDAS ADMINISTRATOR PURDUE UNIVERSITY DEFENSE TECHNICAL INFO
Open-Loop Control of Oxidative Phosphorylation in Skeletal and Cardiac Muscle Mitochondria by Ca2+
Vinnakota, Kalyan C.; Singhal, Abhishek; Van den Bergh, Françoise; Bagher-Oskouei, Masoumeh; Wiseman, Robert W.; Beard, Daniel A.
2016-01-01
In cardiac muscle, mitochondrial ATP synthesis is driven by demand for ATP through feedback from the products of ATP hydrolysis. However, in skeletal muscle at higher workloads there is an apparent contribution of open-loop stimulation of ATP synthesis. Open-loop control is defined as modulation of flux through a biochemical pathway by a moiety, which is not a reactant or a product of the biochemical reactions in the pathway. The role of calcium, which is known to stimulate the activity of mitochondrial dehydrogenases, as an open-loop controller, was investigated in isolated cardiac and skeletal muscle mitochondria. The kinetics of NADH synthesis and respiration, feedback from ATP hydrolysis products, and stimulation by calcium were characterized in isolated mitochondria to test the hypothesis that calcium has a stimulatory role in skeletal muscle mitochondria not apparent in cardiac mitochondria. A range of respiratory states were obtained in cardiac and skeletal muscle mitochondria utilizing physiologically relevant concentrations of pyruvate and malate, and flux of respiration, NAD(P)H fluorescence, and rhodamine 123 fluorescence were measured over a range of extra mitochondrial calcium concentrations. We found that under these conditions calcium stimulates NADH synthesis in skeletal muscle mitochondria but not in cardiac mitochondria. PMID:26910432
Multiple Model-Informed Open-Loop Control of Uncertain Intracellular Signaling Dynamics
Perley, Jeffrey P.; Mikolajczak, Judith; Harrison, Marietta L.; Buzzard, Gregery T.; Rundell, Ann E.
2014-01-01
Computational approaches to tune the activation of intracellular signal transduction pathways both predictably and selectively will enable researchers to explore and interrogate cell biology with unprecedented precision. Techniques to control complex nonlinear systems typically involve the application of control theory to a descriptive mathematical model. For cellular processes, however, measurement assays tend to be too time consuming for real-time feedback control and models offer rough approximations of the biological reality, thus limiting their utility when considered in isolation. We overcome these problems by combining nonlinear model predictive control with a novel adaptive weighting algorithm that blends predictions from multiple models to derive a compromise open-loop control sequence. The proposed strategy uses weight maps to inform the controller of the tendency for models to differ in their ability to accurately reproduce the system dynamics under different experimental perturbations (i.e. control inputs). These maps, which characterize the changing model likelihoods over the admissible control input space, are constructed using preexisting experimental data and used to produce a model-based open-loop control framework. In effect, the proposed method designs a sequence of control inputs that force the signaling dynamics along a predefined temporal response without measurement feedback while mitigating the effects of model uncertainty. We demonstrate this technique on the well-known Erk/MAPK signaling pathway in T cells. In silico assessment demonstrates that this approach successfully reduces target tracking error by 52% or better when compared with single model-based controllers and non-adaptive multiple model-based controllers. In vitro implementation of the proposed approach in Jurkat cells confirms a 63% reduction in tracking error when compared with the best of the single-model controllers. This study provides an experimentally
Multiple model-informed open-loop control of uncertain intracellular signaling dynamics.
Perley, Jeffrey P; Mikolajczak, Judith; Harrison, Marietta L; Buzzard, Gregery T; Rundell, Ann E
2014-04-01
Computational approaches to tune the activation of intracellular signal transduction pathways both predictably and selectively will enable researchers to explore and interrogate cell biology with unprecedented precision. Techniques to control complex nonlinear systems typically involve the application of control theory to a descriptive mathematical model. For cellular processes, however, measurement assays tend to be too time consuming for real-time feedback control and models offer rough approximations of the biological reality, thus limiting their utility when considered in isolation. We overcome these problems by combining nonlinear model predictive control with a novel adaptive weighting algorithm that blends predictions from multiple models to derive a compromise open-loop control sequence. The proposed strategy uses weight maps to inform the controller of the tendency for models to differ in their ability to accurately reproduce the system dynamics under different experimental perturbations (i.e. control inputs). These maps, which characterize the changing model likelihoods over the admissible control input space, are constructed using preexisting experimental data and used to produce a model-based open-loop control framework. In effect, the proposed method designs a sequence of control inputs that force the signaling dynamics along a predefined temporal response without measurement feedback while mitigating the effects of model uncertainty. We demonstrate this technique on the well-known Erk/MAPK signaling pathway in T cells. In silico assessment demonstrates that this approach successfully reduces target tracking error by 52% or better when compared with single model-based controllers and non-adaptive multiple model-based controllers. In vitro implementation of the proposed approach in Jurkat cells confirms a 63% reduction in tracking error when compared with the best of the single-model controllers. This study provides an experimentally
Robustness study of the pseudo open-loop controller for multiconjugate adaptive optics.
Piatrou, Piotr; Gilles, Luc
2005-02-20
Robustness of the recently proposed "pseudo open-loop control" algorithm against various system errors has been investigated for the representative example of the Gemini-South 8-m telescope multiconjugate adaptive-optics system. The existing model to represent the adaptive-optics system with pseudo open-loop control has been modified to account for misalignments, noise and calibration errors in deformable mirrors, and wave-front sensors. Comparison with the conventional least-squares control model has been done. We show with the aid of both transfer-function pole-placement analysis and Monte Carlo simulations that POLC remains remarkably stable and robust against very large levels of system errors and outperforms in this respect least-squares control. Approximate stability margins as well as performance metrics such as Strehl ratios and rms wave-front residuals averaged over a 1-arc min field of view have been computed for different types and levels of system errors to quantify the expected performance degradation.
Open Loop Active Control of Combustion Dynamics on a Gas Turbine Engine
Richards, G.A.; Thornton, J.D.; Robey, E.H.; Arellano, Leonel
2007-01-01
Combustion dynamics is a prominent problem in the design and operation of low-emission gas turbine engines. Even modest changes in fuel composition or operating conditions can lead to damaging vibrations in a combustor that was otherwise stable. For this reason, active control has been sought to stabilize combustors that must accommodate fuel variability, new operating conditions, etc. Active control of combustion dynamics has been demonstrated in a number of laboratories, single-nozzle test combustors, and even on a fielded engine. In most of these tests, active control was implemented with closed-loop feedback between the observed pressure signal and the phase and gain of imposed fuel perturbations. In contrast, a number of recent papers have shown that open-loop fuel perturbations can disrupt the feedback between acoustics and heat release that drives the oscillation. Compared to the closed-loop case, this approach has some advantages because it may not require high-fidelity fuel actuators, and could be easier to implement. This paper reports experimental tests of open-loop fuel perturbations to control combustion dynamics in a complete gas turbine engine. Results demonstrate the technique was very successful on the test engine and had minimal effect on pollutant emissions.
On Sequence Learning Models: Open-loop Control Not Strictly Guided by Hick's Law.
Pavão, Rodrigo; Savietto, Joice P; Sato, João R; Xavier, Gilberto F; Helene, André F
2016-03-15
According to the Hick's law, reaction times increase linearly with the uncertainty of target stimuli. We tested the generality of this law by measuring reaction times in a human sequence learning protocol involving serial target locations which differed in transition probability and global entropy. Our results showed that sigmoid functions better describe the relationship between reaction times and uncertainty when compared to linear functions. Sequence predictability was estimated by distinct statistical predictors: conditional probability, conditional entropy, joint probability and joint entropy measures. Conditional predictors relate to closed-loop control models describing that performance is guided by on-line access to past sequence structure to predict next location. Differently, joint predictors relate to open-loop control models assuming global access of sequence structure, requiring no constant monitoring. We tested which of these predictors better describe performance on the sequence learning protocol. Results suggest that joint predictors are more accurate than conditional predictors to track performance. In conclusion, sequence learning is better described as an open-loop process which is not precisely predicted by Hick's law.
General Transfer-Function Approach to Noise Filtering in Open-Loop Quantum Control
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Paz-Silva, Gerardo A.; Viola, Lorenza
2014-12-01
We present a general transfer-function approach to noise filtering in open-loop Hamiltonian engineering protocols for open quantum systems. We show how to identify a computationally tractable set of fundamental filter functions, out of which arbitrary transfer filter functions may be assembled up to arbitrary high order in principle. Besides avoiding the infinite recursive hierarchy of filter functions that arises in general control scenarios, this fundamental filter-function set suffices to characterize the error suppression capabilities of the control protocol in both the time and the frequency domain. We prove that the resulting notion of filtering order reveals conceptually distinct, albeit complementary, features of the controlled dynamics as compared to the order of error cancellation, traditionally defined in the Magnus sense. Examples and implications are discussed.
Open-Loop HIRF Experiments Performed on a Fault Tolerant Flight Control Computer
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Koppen, Daniel M.
1997-01-01
During the third quarter of 1996, the Closed-Loop Systems Laboratory was established at the NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) to study the effects of High Intensity Radiated Fields on complex avionic systems and control system components. This new facility provided a link and expanded upon the existing capabilities of the High Intensity Radiated Fields Laboratory at LaRC that were constructed and certified during 1995-96. The scope of the Closed-Loop Systems Laboratory is to place highly integrated avionics instrumentation into a high intensity radiated field environment, interface the avionics to a real-time flight simulation that incorporates aircraft dynamics, engines, sensors, actuators and atmospheric turbulence, and collect, analyze, and model aircraft performance. This paper describes the layout and functionality of the Closed-Loop Systems Laboratory, and the open-loop calibration experiments that led up to the commencement of closed-loop real-time flight experiments.
A general transfer-function approach to noise filtering in open-loop quantum control
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Viola, Lorenza
2015-03-01
Hamiltonian engineering via unitary open-loop quantum control provides a versatile and experimentally validated framework for manipulating a broad class of non-Markovian open quantum systems of interest, with applications ranging from dynamical decoupling and dynamically corrected quantum gates, to noise spectroscopy and quantum simulation. In this context, transfer-function techniques directly motivated by control engineering have proved invaluable for obtaining a transparent picture of the controlled dynamics in the frequency domain and for quantitatively analyzing performance. In this talk, I will show how to identify a computationally tractable set of ``fundamental filter functions,'' out of which arbitrary filter functions may be assembled up to arbitrary high order in principle. Besides avoiding the infinite recursive hierarchy of filter functions that arises in general control scenarios, this fundamental set suffices to characterize the error suppression capabilities of the control protocol in both the time and frequency domain. I will show, in particular, how the resulting notion of ``filtering order'' reveals conceptually distinct, albeit complementary, features of the controlled dynamics as compared to the ``cancellation order,'' traditionally defined in the Magnus sense. Implications for current quantum control experiments will be discussed. Work supported by the U.S. Army Research Office under Contract No. W911NF-14-1-0682.
Experimental evaluation of open-loop UpLink Power Control using ACTS
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dissanayake, Asoka
1995-01-01
The present investigation deals with the implementation of open-loop up-link power control using a beacon signal in the down-link frequency band as the control parameter. A power control system was developed and tested using the ACTS satellite. ACTS carries beacon signals in both up- and down-link bands with which the relationship between the up- and down-link fading can be established. A power controlled carrier was transmitted to the ACTS satellite from a NASA operated ground station and the transponded signal was received at COMSAT Laboratories using a terminal that was routinely used to monitor the two ACTS beacon signals. The experiment ran for a period of approximately six months and the collected data were used to evaluate the performance of the power control system. A brief review of propagation factors involved in estimating the up-link fade using a beacon signal in the down-link band are presented. The power controller design and the experiment configuration are discussed. Results of the experiment are discussed.
On the modeling, and open loop control of a rotating thin flexible beam
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Choura, Slim; Jayasuriya, Suhada; Medick, Matthew A.
1989-12-01
A set of governing differential equations is derived for the inplane motion of a rotating thin flexible beam. The beam is assumed to be linearly elastic and is connected to a rigid hub driven by a torque motor. Both flexural and extensional effects are included in the derivation. This coupling due to flexure and extension is usually neglected in studies dealing with the control of such a system. Models for typical control studies are often derived by utilizing an assumed mode approach where the mode shapes are obtained by solving the Euler-Bernoulli beam equation for flexural vibrations, with clamped-free or pinned-free boundary conditions. The coupled equations developed in this paper are used to demonstrate that typical models in control studies give satisfactory results up to a critical rotational speed. For the case where these coupled equations are specialized to simple flexure only, valid for low angular speeds, a unique feedforward control strategy can be derived. This is an open loop control strategy that enables total elimination of an a priori specified vibratory mode from the gross motion in a finite critical time.
Turbidity management during flushing-flows: A model for open-loop control
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fovet, Ophelie; Litrico, Xavier; Belaud, Gilles
2012-04-01
Fixed algae developments induce strong constraints for the management of open-channel networks. They cause clogging issues on hydraulic devices and can sometimes lead to water quality alteration. An original strategy to limit the algal biomass is to carry out regular flushes. A flush is performed by increasing the hydraulic shear conditions using the hydraulic structures of the canal. Consequently to the shear stress increase, a part of the fixed algae is detached, then re-suspended into the water column, and finally transported into the canal network. This leads to a peak of turbidity that needs to be controlled. The present paper proposes a quasi-linear model of the turbidity response to a discharge increase, that can be used for automatic controller design. The model parameters are identified on a real network. The calibration is based on continuous monitoring of water turbidity. Flushes are simulated on the whole branch and on an intermediate reach in order to test the ability of the model to simulate the propagation of a turbidity peak. Then, the model is used to develop an open-loop controller of turbidity for flush design. The efficiency of a flush will depend on its amplitude and duration. The design objective consists in maximizing the algae detachment without exceeding a maximal turbidity level, and using as little water as possible. The designed flush is finally tested on a nonlinear model.
High Performance Open Loop Control of Scanning with a Small Cylindrical Cantilever Beam.
Kundrat, Matthew J; Reinhall, Per G; Lee, Cameron M; Seibel, Eric J
2011-04-11
The steady state response motion of a base excited cantilever beam with circular cross-section excited by a unidirectional displacement will fall along a straight line. However, achieving straight-line motion with a real cantilever beam of circular cross-section is difficult to accomplish. This is due to the fact that nonlinear effects, small deviations from circularity, asymmetric boundary conditions, and actuator cross coupling can induce whirling. The vast majority of previous work on cantilever beam whirling has focused on the effects of system nonlinearities. We show that whirling is a much broader problem in the design of resonant beam scanners in that the onset of whirling does not depend on large amplitude of motion. Rather, whirling is the norm in real systems due to small system asymmetries and actuator cross coupling. It is therefore necessary to control the growth of the whirling motion when a unidirectional beam motion is desired. We have developed a novel technique to identify the two eigen directions of the beam. Base excitation generated by virtual electrodes along these orthogonal eigen axes of the cantilever beam system generates tip vibration without whirl. This leads to accurate open loop control of the motion of the beam through the combined actuation of two pairs of orthogonally placed actuator electrodes.
Open-loop control of combustion instabilities in a model gas turbine combustor*
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stone, Christopher; Menon, Suresh
2003-05-01
The effect of premixer-induced inlet swirl on the stability of a model swirl-stabilized, lean-premixed gas turbine combustor has been numerically investigated using the large-eddy simulation methodology. The unsteady vortex-flame and acoustic-flame interactions are captured in this study using a thin-flame model that includes an ability to account for the variation in inlet equivalence ratio. Comparisons are made, based on fluid particle trajectories, between the structure of the recirculation regions. It is shown that only for high swirl does a region of flow recirculation, often called vortex breakdown(VB), occur in the centreline region of the dump combustor. This VB region helps to stabilize the flame and results in significant attenuation of the fluctuating pressure amplitudes, p'. The reduced p' amplitudes are accompanied by reduced longitudinal flame-front oscillations and reduced coherence in the shed vortices. A methodology for open-loop control based on the modulation of incoming fuel-air equivalence ratio is investigated. It is demonstrated that combustor pressure fluctuations respond much more rapidly to these changes compared to earlier studies of inlet swirl number modulation. The impact of these changes on flame stability and overall dynamics is analysed and discussed. Finally, the impact of imperfect mixedness in the incoming fuel-air mixture is also analysed and it is shown that the pressure oscillation amplitude is actually reduced under these conditions.
Open-loop control of noise amplification in a separated boundary layer flow
Boujo, E. Gallaire, F.; Ehrenstein, U.
2013-12-15
Linear optimal gains are computed for the subcritical two-dimensional separated boundary-layer flow past a bump. Very large optimal gain values are found, making it possible for small-amplitude noise to be strongly amplified and to destabilize the flow. The optimal forcing is located close to the summit of the bump, while the optimal response is the largest in the shear layer. The largest amplification occurs at frequencies corresponding to eigenvalues which first become unstable at higher Reynolds number. Nonlinear direct numerical simulations show that a low level of noise is indeed sufficient to trigger random flow unsteadiness, characterized here by large-scale vortex shedding. Next, a variational technique is used to compute efficiently the sensitivity of optimal gains to steady control (through source of momentum in the flow, or blowing/suction at the wall). A systematic analysis at several frequencies identifies the bump summit as the most sensitive region for control with wall actuation. Based on these results, a simple open-loop control strategy is designed, with steady wall suction at the bump summit. Linear calculations on controlled base flows confirm that optimal gains can be drastically reduced at all frequencies. Nonlinear direct numerical simulations also show that this control allows the flow to withstand a higher level of stochastic noise without becoming nonlinearly unstable, thereby postponing bypass transition. In the supercritical regime, sensitivity analysis of eigenvalues supports the choice of this control design. Full restabilization of the flow is obtained, as evidenced by direct numerical simulations and linear stability analysis.
Open-loop control of noise amplification in a separated boundary layer flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Boujo, E.; Ehrenstein, U.; Gallaire, F.
2013-12-01
Linear optimal gains are computed for the subcritical two-dimensional separated boundary-layer flow past a bump. Very large optimal gain values are found, making it possible for small-amplitude noise to be strongly amplified and to destabilize the flow. The optimal forcing is located close to the summit of the bump, while the optimal response is the largest in the shear layer. The largest amplification occurs at frequencies corresponding to eigenvalues which first become unstable at higher Reynolds number. Nonlinear direct numerical simulations show that a low level of noise is indeed sufficient to trigger random flow unsteadiness, characterized here by large-scale vortex shedding. Next, a variational technique is used to compute efficiently the sensitivity of optimal gains to steady control (through source of momentum in the flow, or blowing/suction at the wall). A systematic analysis at several frequencies identifies the bump summit as the most sensitive region for control with wall actuation. Based on these results, a simple open-loop control strategy is designed, with steady wall suction at the bump summit. Linear calculations on controlled base flows confirm that optimal gains can be drastically reduced at all frequencies. Nonlinear direct numerical simulations also show that this control allows the flow to withstand a higher level of stochastic noise without becoming nonlinearly unstable, thereby postponing bypass transition. In the supercritical regime, sensitivity analysis of eigenvalues supports the choice of this control design. Full restabilization of the flow is obtained, as evidenced by direct numerical simulations and linear stability analysis.
A new driving method for piezo deformable mirrors: open loop control and MOAO made easy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ouattara, Issa; Gach, Jean-Luc; Amram, Philippe
2016-07-01
This paper presents the design and the realisation of a technique to attenuate the hysteresis nonlinear phenomenon of piezoelectric actuators. Piezoelectric actuator are widely utilised for deformable mirrors used for MOAO and power laser beam shaping techniques. The nonlinearities of piezo are usually iteratively compensa- ted using closed-loop set-ups. In open-loop control, the hysteresis and the creep of the piezo cannot be corrected, thus this nonlinearities must be removed or at least minimised. The concept has been demonstrated on high displacement Amplified Piezoelectric Actuators (APA) mounted in a Fabry-Perot interferometer. The hysteresis attenuation technique aims to assist the Fabry-Perots nano-positioning control system to attain its main scientific specification. In such system, each APA has a maximum stroke of 270 μm within a 170 V (-20 V to +150 V) range and is used to position a high reflective mirror plate. The Fabry-Perots nano-positioning control system is specified to limit the APAs positioning steady-state noise to 3nm rms, but the hysteresis limits the positioning accuracy. In order to attenuate hysteresis, a hybrid amplifier circuit built with a high power operational amplifier has been designed and applied for each APA. The experiments results show that the hysteresis effect has almost been eliminated, and consequently the positioning steady-state noise can significantly been reduced. Because of the excellent results of this hybrid amplifier, a patent application has been introduced in June 12, 2015 under number No.1555381 and is being reviewed now.
An open-loop controlled active lung simulator for preterm infants.
Cecchini, Stefano; Schena, Emiliano; Silvestri, Sergio
2011-01-01
We describe the underlying theory, design and experimental evaluation of an electromechanical analogue infant lung to simulate spontaneous breathing patterns of preterm infants. The aim of this work is to test the possibility to obtain breathing patterns of preterm infants by taking into consideration the air compressibility. Respiratory volume function represents the actuation pattern, and pulmonary pressure and flow-rate waveforms are mathematically obtained through the application of the perfect gas and adiabatic laws. The mathematical model reduces the simulation interval into a step shorter than 1 ms, allowing to consider an entire respiratory act as composed of a large number of almost instantaneous adiabatic transformations. The device consists of a spherical chamber where the air is compressed by four cylinder-pistons, moved by stepper motors, and flows through a fluid-dynamic resistance, which also works as flow-rate sensor. Specifically designed software generates the actuators motion, based on the desired ventilation parameters, without controlling the gas pneumatic parameters with a closed-loop. The system is able to simulate tidal volumes from 3 to 8 ml, breathing frequencies from 60 to 120 bpm and functional residual capacities from 25 to 80 ml. The simulated waveforms appear very close to the measured ones. Percentage differences on the tidal volume waveform vary from 7% for the tidal volume of 3 ml, down to 2.2-3.5% for tidal volumes in the range of 4-7 ml, and 1.3% for the tidal volume equal to 8 ml in the whole breathing frequency and functional residual capacity ranges. The open-loop electromechanical simulator shows that gas compressibility can be theoretically assessed in the typical pneumatic variable range of preterm infant respiratory mechanics.
Influences of frailty syndrome on open-loop and closed-loop postural control strategy.
Toosizadeh, Nima; Mohler, Jane; Wendel, Christopher; Najafi, Bijan
2015-01-01
As the population of older adults quickly increases, the incidence of frailty syndrome, a reduction in physiological reserve across multiple physiological systems, likewise increases. To date, impaired balance has been associated with frailty; however, the underlying frailty-related postural balance mechanisms remain unclear. The aim of the current study was to use open-loop (OL; postural muscles) and closed-loop (CL; postural muscles plus sensory feedback) mechanisms to explore differences in postural balance mechanisms between nonfrail (n = 44), prefrail (n = 59) and frail individuals (n = 19). One hundred and twenty-two older adults (age ≥65 years) without major mobility disorders were recruited, and frailty was measured using Fried's criteria. Each participant performed two 15-second trials of Romberg balance assessment, once with their eyes open and once with their eyes closed. Body-worn sensors were used to estimate center of gravity (COG) plots. Body-sway (traditional stabilogram analysis) and OLCL (stabilogram diffusion analysis) parameters were derived using COG plots and compared between groups using ANOVA. Frailty and prefrailty were estimated using a multiple variable logistic regression while controlling for age, body mass index, body-sway and OLCL parameters. Between-group differences in the parameters of interest were more pronounced during the eyes-closed condition, for which OL duration was approximately 33 and 22% shorter, respectively, in the frail and prefrail groups when compared to nonfrail controls (mean = 1.9 ± 1.1 s, p = 0.01). The average rate of sway during the OL was 164 and 66% higher, respectively, in frail and prefrail when compared to nonfrail subjects (0.03 ± 0.02 cm(2)/s, p < 0.001). RESULTS also suggest that OLCL parameters can predict frail and prefrail categories when compared to nonfrail controls. Using this method, frailty was identified with a sensitivity and specificity of 97 and 88% (as compared to nonfrail), and
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sheridan, T. B.
1973-01-01
A technique is presented for modeling the performance of open-loop mechanisms or systems, where performance is measured by success or failure as a function of the selected target for movement along a constrained trajectory and without corrective feedback. A modification of signal detection theory is used, which normalizes dissimilar data and indicates two independent parameters of performance: (1) discriminability and (2) optimality of the distribution of selected moves. An illustrative application is made to experimental data.
A model of open-loop control of equilibrium position and stiffness of the human elbow joint.
Kistemaker, Dinant A; Van Soest, Arthur J; Bobbert, Maarten F
2007-03-01
According to the equilibrium point theory, the control of posture and movement involves the setting of equilibrium joint positions (EP) and the independent modulation of stiffness. One model of EP control, the alpha-model, posits that stable EPs and stiffness are set open-loop, i.e. without the aid of feedback. The purpose of the present study was to explore for the elbow joint the range over which stable EPs can be set open-loop and to investigate the effect of co-contraction on intrinsic low-frequency elbow joint stiffness (K (ilf)). For this purpose, a model of the upper and lower arm was constructed, equipped with Hill-type muscles. At a constant neural input, the isometric force of the contractile element of the muscles depended on both the myofilamentary overlap and the effect of sarcomere length on the sensitivity of myofilaments to [Ca2+] (LDCS). The musculoskeletal model, for which the parameters were chosen carefully on the basis of physiological literature, captured the salient isometric properties of the muscles spanning the elbow joint. It was found that stable open-loop EPs could be achieved over the whole range of motion of the elbow joint and that K (ilf), which ranged from 18 to 42 N m.rad(-1), could be independently controlled. In the model, LDCS contributed substantially to K (ilf) (up to 25 N m.rad(-1)) and caused K (ilf) to peak at a sub-maximal level of co-contraction.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kottapalli, Sesi; Leyland, Jane
1991-01-01
The effects of open loop higher harmonic control (HHC) on rotor hub loads, performance, and push rod loads of a Sikorsky S-76 helicopter rotor at high airspeeds (up to 200 knots) and moderate lift (10,000 lbs) were studied analytically. The analysis was performed as part of a wind tunnel pre-test prediction and preparation procedure, as well as to provide analytical results for post-test correlation efforts. The test associated with this study is to be concluded in the 40- by 80-Foot Wind Tunnel of the National Full-Scale Aerodynamics Complex (NFAC) at the NASA Ames Research Center. The results from this analytical study show that benefits from HHC can be achieved at high airspeeds. These results clear the way for conducting (with the requirement of safe pushrod loads) an open loop HHC test a high airspeeds in the 40- by 80-Foot Wind Tunnel using an S-76 rotor as the test article.
Pradhan, Ranjan K; Feigl, Eric O; Gorman, Mark W; Brengelmann, George L; Beard, Daniel A
2016-06-01
A control system model was developed to analyze data on in vivo coronary blood flow regulation and to probe how different mechanisms work together to control coronary flow from rest to exercise, and under a variety of experimental conditions, including cardiac pacing and with changes in coronary arterial pressure (autoregulation). In the model coronary flow is determined by the combined action of a feedback pathway signal that is determined by the level of plasma ATP in coronary venous blood, an adrenergic open-loop (feed-forward) signal that increases with exercise, and a contribution of pressure-mediated myogenic control. The model was identified based on data from exercise experiments where myocardial oxygen extraction, coronary flow, cardiac interstitial norepinephrine concentration, and arterial and coronary venous plasma ATP concentrations were measured during control and during adrenergic and purinergic receptor blockade conditions. The identified model was used to quantify the relative contributions of open-loop and feedback pathways and to illustrate the degree of redundancy in the control of coronary flow. The results indicate that the adrenergic open-loop control component is responsible for most of the increase in coronary blood flow that occurs during high levels of exercise. However, the adenine nucleotide-mediated metabolic feedback control component is essential. The model was evaluated by predicting coronary flow in cardiac pacing and autoregulation experiments with reasonable fits to the data. The analysis shows that a model in which coronary venous plasma adenine nucleotides are a signal in local metabolic feedback control of coronary flow is consistent with the available data.
Pradhan, Ranjan K.; Feigl, Eric O.; Gorman, Mark W.; Brengelmann, George L.
2016-01-01
A control system model was developed to analyze data on in vivo coronary blood flow regulation and to probe how different mechanisms work together to control coronary flow from rest to exercise, and under a variety of experimental conditions, including cardiac pacing and with changes in coronary arterial pressure (autoregulation). In the model coronary flow is determined by the combined action of a feedback pathway signal that is determined by the level of plasma ATP in coronary venous blood, an adrenergic open-loop (feed-forward) signal that increases with exercise, and a contribution of pressure-mediated myogenic control. The model was identified based on data from exercise experiments where myocardial oxygen extraction, coronary flow, cardiac interstitial norepinephrine concentration, and arterial and coronary venous plasma ATP concentrations were measured during control and during adrenergic and purinergic receptor blockade conditions. The identified model was used to quantify the relative contributions of open-loop and feedback pathways and to illustrate the degree of redundancy in the control of coronary flow. The results indicate that the adrenergic open-loop control component is responsible for most of the increase in coronary blood flow that occurs during high levels of exercise. However, the adenine nucleotide-mediated metabolic feedback control component is essential. The model was evaluated by predicting coronary flow in cardiac pacing and autoregulation experiments with reasonable fits to the data. The analysis shows that a model in which coronary venous plasma adenine nucleotides are a signal in local metabolic feedback control of coronary flow is consistent with the available data. PMID:27037372
Wolf, Derek N; Schearer, Eric M
2017-07-01
Functional electrical stimulation (FES) is a promising solution for restoring functional motion to individuals with paralysis, but the potential for achieving full-arm reaching motions with FES for various desired tasks has not been realized. We present an open-loop controller capable of calculating and applying the necessary muscle stimulations to hold the wrist of an individual with high tetraplegia at any desired position. We used the controller to hold the wrist at a series of static positions. The controller was capable of discriminating between different wrist positions. The average distance to the target wrist position, or accuracy, was 7.7 cm. The average radius of the 95% confidence ellipsoid for a set of trials with the same muscle stimulations, or precision, was 6.7 cm. Adding feedback or online model updates will likely improve the accuracy for tasks requiring finer control. The controller is a good first step to controlling full-arm motions with FES.
A Bulk Control Circuit for Open-Loop Front-Ends for X-Ray Pixel Detectors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Grande, A.; Fiorini, C.; Fischer, P.; Porro, M.
2017-06-01
In this paper, we present a bulk control circuit to correct the chip-to-chip process variations of an open-loop nonlinear front-end (FE) for X-ray pixel detectors. Our study was carried out in the framework of the Depfet sensor with signal compression detector development for the European X-ray free electron laser. The presented circuit is capable to stabilize the FE response in presence of threshold voltage variations, acting on the bulk voltages of the FE's transistors and exploiting the body effect. The control circuit does not affect the noise performances of the FE. The working principle of the proposed control circuit and the first experimental results obtained with a first prototype realized in the 130-nm IBM technology are presented in this work.
Open loop pneumatic control of a Lysholm engine or turbine exhaust pressure
Plonski, B.A.
1981-07-17
A Lysholm engine, or helical screw expander, is currently being evaluated at the University of California, Berkeley for staging with a conventional turbine in geothermal energy conversion. A pneumatic closed loop, proportional-integral control system was implemented to control the Lysholm engine's exhaust pressure for performance testing of the engine at constant inlet/outlet pressure ratios. The control system will also be used to control the exhaust pressure of the conventional turbine during future testing of the staged Lysholm-turbine system. Analytical modeling of the control system was performed and successful tuning was achieved by applying Ziegler-Nichol's tuning method. Stable control and quick response, of approximately 1 minute, was demonstrated for load and set point changes in desired exhaust pressures.
Interleaved DC-DC Converter with Discrete Duty Cycle and Open Loop Control
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kroics, K.; Sokolovs, A.
2016-08-01
The authors present the control principle of the multiphase interleaved DC-DC converter that can be used to vastly reduce output current ripple of the converter. The control algorithm can be easily implemented by using microcontroller without current loop in each phase. The converter works in discontinuous conduction mode (DCM) but close to boundary conduction mode (BCM). The DC-DC converter with such a control algorithm is useful in applications that do not require precise current adjustment. The prototype of the converter has been built. The experimental results of the current ripple are presented in the paper.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Collins, J. J.; De Luca, C. J.; Pavlik, A. E.; Roy, S. H.; Emley, M. S.; Young, L. R. (Principal Investigator)
1995-01-01
Stabilogram-diffusion analysis was used to examine how prolonged periods in microgravity affect the open-loop and closed-loop postural control mechanisms. It was hypothesized that following spaceflight: (1) the effective stochastic activity of the open-loop postural control schemes in astronauts is increased; (2) the effective stochastic activity and uncorrelated behavior, respectively, of the closed-loop postural control mechanisms in astronauts are increased; and (3) astronauts utilized open-loop postural controls schemes for shorter time intervals and smaller displacements. Four crew members and two alternates from the 14-day Spacelab Life Sciences 2 Mission were included in the study. Each subject was tested under eyes-open, quiet-standing conditions on multiple preflight and postflight days. The subjects' center-of-pressure trajectories were measured with a force platform and analyzed according to stabilogram-diffusion analysis. It was found that the effective stochastic activity of the open-loop postural control schemes in three of the four crew members was increased following spaceflight. This result is interpreted as an indication that there may be in-flight adaptations to higher-level descending postural control pathways, e.g., a postflight increase in the tonic activation of postural muscles. This change may also be the consequence of a compensatory (e.g., "stiffening") postural control strategy that is adopted by astronauts to account for general feeling of postflight unsteadiness. The crew members, as a group, did not exhibit any consistent preflight/postflight differences in the steady-state behavior of their closed-loop postural control mechanisms or in the functional interaction of their open-loop and closed-loop postural control mechanisms. These results are interpreted as indications that although there may be in-flight adaptations to the vestibular system and/or proprioceptive system, input from the visual system can compensate for such changes
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Collins, J. J.; De Luca, C. J.; Pavlik, A. E.; Roy, S. H.; Emley, M. S.; Young, L. R. (Principal Investigator)
1995-01-01
Stabilogram-diffusion analysis was used to examine how prolonged periods in microgravity affect the open-loop and closed-loop postural control mechanisms. It was hypothesized that following spaceflight: (1) the effective stochastic activity of the open-loop postural control schemes in astronauts is increased; (2) the effective stochastic activity and uncorrelated behavior, respectively, of the closed-loop postural control mechanisms in astronauts are increased; and (3) astronauts utilized open-loop postural controls schemes for shorter time intervals and smaller displacements. Four crew members and two alternates from the 14-day Spacelab Life Sciences 2 Mission were included in the study. Each subject was tested under eyes-open, quiet-standing conditions on multiple preflight and postflight days. The subjects' center-of-pressure trajectories were measured with a force platform and analyzed according to stabilogram-diffusion analysis. It was found that the effective stochastic activity of the open-loop postural control schemes in three of the four crew members was increased following spaceflight. This result is interpreted as an indication that there may be in-flight adaptations to higher-level descending postural control pathways, e.g., a postflight increase in the tonic activation of postural muscles. This change may also be the consequence of a compensatory (e.g., "stiffening") postural control strategy that is adopted by astronauts to account for general feeling of postflight unsteadiness. The crew members, as a group, did not exhibit any consistent preflight/postflight differences in the steady-state behavior of their closed-loop postural control mechanisms or in the functional interaction of their open-loop and closed-loop postural control mechanisms. These results are interpreted as indications that although there may be in-flight adaptations to the vestibular system and/or proprioceptive system, input from the visual system can compensate for such changes
Collins, J J; De Luca, C J; Pavlik, A E; Roy, S H; Emley, M S
1995-01-01
Stabilogram-diffusion analysis was used to examine how prolonged periods in microgravity affect the open-loop and closed-loop postural control mechanisms. It was hypothesized that following spaceflight: (1) the effective stochastic activity of the open-loop postural control schemes in astronauts is increased; (2) the effective stochastic activity and uncorrelated behavior, respectively, of the closed-loop postural control mechanisms in astronauts are increased; and (3) astronauts utilized open-loop postural controls schemes for shorter time intervals and smaller displacements. Four crew members and two alternates from the 14-day Spacelab Life Sciences 2 Mission were included in the study. Each subject was tested under eyes-open, quiet-standing conditions on multiple preflight and postflight days. The subjects' center-of-pressure trajectories were measured with a force platform and analyzed according to stabilogram-diffusion analysis. It was found that the effective stochastic activity of the open-loop postural control schemes in three of the four crew members was increased following spaceflight. This result is interpreted as an indication that there may be in-flight adaptations to higher-level descending postural control pathways, e.g., a postflight increase in the tonic activation of postural muscles. This change may also be the consequence of a compensatory (e.g., "stiffening") postural control strategy that is adopted by astronauts to account for general feeling of postflight unsteadiness. The crew members, as a group, did not exhibit any consistent preflight/postflight differences in the steady-state behavior of their closed-loop postural control mechanisms or in the functional interaction of their open-loop and closed-loop postural control mechanisms. These results are interpreted as indications that although there may be in-flight adaptations to the vestibular system and/or proprioceptive system, input from the visual system can compensate for such changes
Coupled rotor-flexible fuselage vibration reduction using open loop higher harmonic control
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Papavassiliou, I.; Friedmann, P. P.; Venkatesan, C.
1991-01-01
A fundamental study of vibration prediction and vibration reduction in helicopters using active controls was performed. The nonlinear equations of motion for a coupled rotor/flexible fuselage system have been derived using computer algebra on a special purpose symbolic computer facility. The trim state and vibratory response of the helicopter are obtained in a single pass by applying the harmonic balance technique and simultaneously satisfying the trim and the vibratory response of the helicopter for all rotor and fuselage degrees of freedom. The influence of the fuselage flexibility on the vibratory response is studied. It is shown that the conventional single frequency higher harmonic control is capable of reducing either the hub loads or only the fuselage vibrations but not both simultaneously. It is demonstrated that for simultaneous reduction of hub shears and fuselae vibrations a new scheme called multiple higher harmonic control is required.
Coupled rotor-flexible fuselage vibration reduction using open loop higher harmonic control
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Papavassiliou, I.; Friedmann, P. P.; Venkatesan, C.
1991-01-01
A fundamental study of vibration prediction and vibration reduction in helicopters using active controls was performed. The nonlinear equations of motion for a coupled rotor/flexible fuselage system have been derived using computer algebra on a special purpose symbolic computer facility. The trim state and vibratory response of the helicopter are obtained in a single pass by applying the harmonic balance technique and simultaneously satisfying the trim and the vibratory response of the helicopter for all rotor and fuselage degrees of freedom. The influence of the fuselage flexibility on the vibratory response is studied. It is shown that the conventional single frequency higher harmonic control is capable of reducing either the hub loads or only the fuselage vibrations but not both simultaneously. It is demonstrated that for simultaneous reduction of hub shears and fuselae vibrations a new scheme called multiple higher harmonic control is required.
Learning dynamic models for open loop predictive control of soft robotic manipulators.
Thuruthel, Thomas George; Falotico, Egidio; Renda, Federico; Laschi, Cecilia
2017-08-02
The soft capabilities of biological appendages like the arms of Octopus Vulgaris and Elephant trunk have inspired roboticists to develop their robotic equivalents. Although there have been considerable efforts to replicate their morphology and behaviour patterns, we are still lagging behind in replicating the dexterity and efficiency of these biological systems. This is mostly due to the lack of development and application of dynamic controllers on these robots which could exploit the morphological properties that a soft bodied manipulator possesses. The complexity of these high dimensional nonlinear systems has deterred the application of traditional model-based approaches. This paper provides a machine learning based approach for development of dynamic models for a soft robotic manipulator and a trajectory optimization method for predictive control of the manipulator in task space. To the best of our knowledge this is the first demonstration of a learned dynamic model and a derived task space controller for a soft robotic manipulator. The validation of the controller is carried out on an octopus inspired soft manipulator simulation derived from a piecewise constant strain approximation and then experimentally on a pneumatically actuated soft manipulator. The results indicate that such an approach is promising for developing fast and accurate dynamic models for soft robotic manipulators while being applicable on a wide range of soft manipulators. © 2017 IOP Publishing Ltd.
Open-loop control of compressible afterbody flows using adjoint methods
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Meliga, Philippe; Sipp, Denis; Chomaz, Jean-Marc
2010-05-01
The flow past an axisymmetric body is generically unstable to a steady and a time-periodic global instability, the latter being thought to lead the low-frequency unsteadiness of the wake even at larger Reynolds numbers. The present paper examines how the growth rate of the oscillatory unstable mode developing in the wake of bullet-shaped objects can be reduced by a steady forcing, whose effect is to modify the base flow. The use of the compressible Navier-Stokes equations allows to consider control through steady mass, momentum, and heat forcing applied in the bulk and at the wall. To do so, we extend to compressible flows and axisymmetric geometries the method first proposed by Hill (NASA Technical Report No. 103858, 1992) to analyze the control of the two-dimensional mode of the incompressible cylinder wake. This method aims at evaluating the sensitivity of one particular eigenvalue to forcing by resolution of adjoint equations. Considering control at the wall, it allows to compute directly the eigenvalue gradient with respect to the wall variables. We show that the oscillating mode can be stabilized by a steady blowing at the wall (the so-called base-bleed control). Expressing the gradient as a sum of production, streamwise advection, and cross-stream advection terms, we show that this stabilizing effect is due to cross-stream advection, in contradiction with the up to now accepted interpretation based on the local absolute and convective instability analysis of parallel profiles. The same technique allows to compute the gradient of the oscillatory eigenvalue to bulk mass, momentum, and heat sources. Momentum control can be achieved by placing a small ring in the lee of the afterbody. Similar to the two-dimensional case studied by Hill, the effect of such a ring is twofold, as it induces a steady drag force which modifies the base flow and a fluctuating drag force proportional to the perturbation momentum at the ring location. We show that the efficiency of the
Inverse open-loop control of a nano-positioner based on piezo-electric actuators
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Qiang, Shu; Rao, Xuejun; Shi, Ningping
2012-10-01
Piezo-electric actuators with advantage of fast responsiveness, large force output, low power consumption, negligible friction and no backlash are widely used in precision positioning, adaptive optics and vibration conduction. However its inherent hysteresis brings difficulty to high precision positioning. To describe the hysteresis, a mathematical model based on experimental data is used. And the inverse of the model is connected to the piezo-electric actuator as a controller to compensating the hysteresis. In this paper KP operator is used to model the hysteresis of piezo-electric actuators and a numerical algorithm is proposed to compute the inverse. Experiments data of major hysteresis loop and minor loop collected on a nano-positioning stage are used to identify the model Γ based on which the inverse model Γ-1 is developed. Experiments show that given a voltage series the model Γ can give displacement prediction which has an error of 6% relative to experimental results and Γ-1 can give voltage prediction with the error of 5% relative to the experimental data.
Liu, Yu; Li, Min; Yang, Dong; Zhang, Xuena; Wu, Anshi; Yao, Shanglong; Xue, Zhanggang; Yue, Yun
2015-01-01
The CONCERT-CL closed-loop infusion system designed by VERYARK Technology Co., Ltd. (Guangxi, China) is an innovation using TCI combined with closed-loop controlled intravenous anesthesia under the guide of BIS. In this study we performed a randomized, controlled, multicenter study to compare closed-loop control and open-loop control of propofol by using the CONCERT-CL closed-loop infusion system. 180 surgical patients from three medical centers undergone TCI intravenous anesthesia with propofol and remifentanil were randomly assigned to propofol closed-loop group and propofol opened-loop groups. Primary outcome was global score (GS, GS = (MDAPE+Wobble)/% of time of bispectral index (BIS) 40-60). Secondary outcomes were doses of the anesthetics and emergence time from anesthesia, such as, time to tracheal extubation. There were 89 and 86 patients in the closed-loop and opened-loop groups, respectively. GS in the closed-loop groups (22.21±8.50) were lower than that in the opened-loop group (27.19±15.26) (p=0.009). The higher proportion of time of BIS between 40 and 60 was also observed in the closed-loop group (84.11±9.50%), while that was 79.92±13.17% in the opened-loop group, (p=0.016). No significant differences in propofol dose and time of tracheal extubation were observed. The frequency of propofol regulation in the closed-loop group (31.55±9.46 times/hr) was obverse higher than that in the opened-loop group (6.84±6.21 times/hr) (p=0.000). The CONCERT-CL closed-loop infusion system can automatically regulate the TCI of propofol, maintain the BIS value in an adequate range and reduce the workload of anesthesiologists better than open-loop system. ChiCTR ChiCTR-OOR-14005551.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Thomas, Tamera L.
1995-01-01
My project is designing a flight control program utilizing 'C' language. It consists of paths made up of fixed radius arcs and straight lines. Arcs will be defined by a center, a radius and turn angle. Straight lines will be defined by an end way point and an inbound course. Way points will be pre-defined such that the location of the end of each leg accurately matches the beginning of the next leg. The simulation paths will closely match paths normally flown by the Transport System Research Vehicle (TSRV), but will necessarily be defined identically in terms of type and number of way points.
Wei, Kunlin; Sternad, Dagmar
2012-01-01
According to explicit monitoring theories, the phenomenon of choking under pressure is due to actors focusing their attention on the execution of the skill. This step-by-step perceptually guided control may then interfere with automatic execution. In order to examine the changes in control at the sensorimotor level, we examined the rhythmic task of ball bouncing which affords detailed quantification of indicators of control based on previous research. The hypothesis was that under psychological pressure perceptually guided control should lead to decreased performance due to over-emphasis on closed-loop control and decreased compensatory control. In two experiments of different difficulty psychological stress was induced via setting up a fake competition. Results showed that, contrary to the hypothesis, performance accuracy and consistency improved together with an increase in compensatory control. Indicators for open- and closed-loop processes did not change. Only under more challenging conditions in Experiment 2, enhanced performance under pressure was accompanied by more active, closed-loop and less passive control. The results are discussed in light of task demands and the continuous rhythmic nature of the task: in more challenging tasks, control appears to be more prone to disturbance due to psychological stress. The different control demands in continuous rhythmic tasks may be less prone to interference due to psychological stress than in discrete tasks. PMID:19943039
Perez-Peña, Fernando; Morgado-Estevez, Arturo; Linares-Barranco, Alejandro; Jimenez-Fernandez, Angel; Gomez-Rodriguez, Francisco; Jimenez-Moreno, Gabriel; Lopez-Coronado, Juan
2013-11-20
In this paper we present a complete spike-based architecture: from a Dynamic Vision Sensor (retina) to a stereo head robotic platform. The aim of this research is to reproduce intended movements performed by humans taking into account as many features as possible from the biological point of view. This paper fills the gap between current spike silicon sensors and robotic actuators by applying a spike processing strategy to the data flows in real time. The architecture is divided into layers: the retina, visual information processing, the trajectory generator layer which uses a neuroinspired algorithm (SVITE) that can be replicated into as many times as DoF the robot has; and finally the actuation layer to supply the spikes to the robot (using PFM). All the layers do their tasks in a spike-processing mode, and they communicate each other through the neuro-inspired AER protocol. The open-loop controller is implemented on FPGA using AER interfaces developed by RTC Lab. Experimental results reveal the viability of this spike-based controller. Two main advantages are: low hardware resources (2% of a Xilinx Spartan 6) and power requirements (3.4 W) to control a robot with a high number of DoF (up to 100 for a Xilinx Spartan 6). It also evidences the suitable use of AER as a communication protocol between processing and actuation.
Perez-Peña, Fernando; Morgado-Estevez, Arturo; Linares-Barranco, Alejandro; Jimenez-Fernandez, Angel; Gomez-Rodriguez, Francisco; Jimenez-Moreno, Gabriel; Lopez-Coronado, Juan
2013-01-01
In this paper we present a complete spike-based architecture: from a Dynamic Vision Sensor (retina) to a stereo head robotic platform. The aim of this research is to reproduce intended movements performed by humans taking into account as many features as possible from the biological point of view. This paper fills the gap between current spike silicon sensors and robotic actuators by applying a spike processing strategy to the data flows in real time. The architecture is divided into layers: the retina, visual information processing, the trajectory generator layer which uses a neuroinspired algorithm (SVITE) that can be replicated into as many times as DoF the robot has; and finally the actuation layer to supply the spikes to the robot (using PFM). All the layers do their tasks in a spike-processing mode, and they communicate each other through the neuro-inspired AER protocol. The open-loop controller is implemented on FPGA using AER interfaces developed by RTC Lab. Experimental results reveal the viability of this spike-based controller. Two main advantages are: low hardware resources (2% of a Xilinx Spartan 6) and power requirements (3.4 W) to control a robot with a high number of DoF (up to 100 for a Xilinx Spartan 6). It also evidences the suitable use of AER as a communication protocol between processing and actuation. PMID:24264330
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mettot, Clément; Renac, Florent; Sipp, Denis
2014-07-01
A fully discrete formalism is introduced to perform stability analysis of a turbulent compressible flow whose dynamics is modeled with the Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations. The discrete equations are linearized using finite differences and the Jacobian is computed using repeated evaluation of the residuals. Stability of the flow is assessed solving an eigenvalue problem. The sensitivity gradients which indicate regions of the flow where a passive control device could stabilize the unstable eigenvalues are defined within this fully discrete framework. The second order finite differences are applied to the discrete residual to compute the gradients. In particular, the sensitivity gradients are shown to be linked to the Hessian of the RANS equations. The introduced formalism and linearization method are generic: the code used to evaluate the residual of the RANS equations can be used in a black box manner, and the complex linearization of the Hessian is avoided. The method is tested on a two dimensional deep cavity case, the flow is turbulent with a Reynolds number equal to 860 000 and compressible with a Mach number of 0.8. Several turbulence models and numerical schemes are used to validate the method. Physical features of the flow are recovered, such as the fundamental frequency of the natural flow as well as acoustic mechanisms, suggesting the validity of the method. The sensitivity gradients are then computed and validated, the error in predicting the eigenvalue variation being found less than 3%. Control maps using a small steady control device are finally obtained, indicating that the control area should be chosen in the vicinity of the leading edge of the cavity.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
He, Jiayuan; Zhang, Dingguo; Jiang, Ning; Sheng, Xinjun; Farina, Dario; Zhu, Xiangyang
2015-08-01
Objective. Recent studies have reported that the classification performance of electromyographic (EMG) signals degrades over time without proper classification retraining. This problem is relevant for the applications of EMG pattern recognition in the control of active prostheses. Approach. In this study we investigated the changes in EMG classification performance over 11 consecutive days in eight able-bodied subjects and two amputees. Main results. It was observed that, when the classifier was trained on data from one day and tested on data from the following day, the classification error decreased exponentially but plateaued after four days for able-bodied subjects and six to nine days for amputees. The between-day performance became gradually closer to the corresponding within-day performance. Significance. These results indicate that the relative changes in EMG signal features over time become progressively smaller when the number of days during which the subjects perform the pre-defined motions are increased. The performance of the motor tasks is thus more consistent over time, resulting in more repeatable EMG patterns, even if the subjects do not have any external feedback on their performance. The learning curves for both able-bodied subjects and subjects with limb deficiencies could be modeled as an exponential function. These results provide important insights into the user adaptation characteristics during practical long-term myoelectric control applications, with implications for the design of an adaptive pattern recognition system.
Open loop distribution system design
Glamocanin, V. ); Filipovic, V. . Elektrotechnicki fakulet)
1993-10-01
The ability to supply consumers of an urban area, with minimum interruption during a feeder segment or substation transformer outage, is assured by a uniform cable size of the feeder segments along the entire loop. Based on the criterion of the uniform cable size, a loop configuration is obtained first by minimizing the installation costs, and then an open loop solution is found by minimizing the power losses. Heuristic rules are proposed and used to obtain an initial solution, as well as to improve current solutions.
Wang, Yuan-Jay
2014-03-01
This paper proposes a novel alternative method to graphically compute all feasible gain and phase margin specifications-oriented robust PID controllers for open-loop unstable plus time delay (OLUPTD) processes. This method is applicable to general OLUPTD processes without constraint on system order. To retain robustness for OLUPTD processes subject to positive or negative gain variations, the downward gain margin (GM(down)), upward gain margin (GM(up)), and phase margin (PM) are considered. A virtual gain-phase margin tester compensator is incorporated to guarantee the concerned system satisfies certain robust safety margins. In addition, the stability equation method and the parameter plane method are exploited to portray the stability boundary and the constant gain margin (GM) boundary as well as the constant PM boundary. The overlapping region of these boundaries is graphically determined and denotes the GM and PM specifications-oriented region (GPMSOR). Alternatively, the GPMSOR characterizes all feasible robust PID controllers which achieve the pre-specified safety margins. In particular, to achieve optimal gain tuning, the controller gains are searched within the GPMSOR to minimize the integral of the absolute error (IAE) or the integral of the squared error (ISE) performance criterion. Thus, an optimal PID controller gain set is successfully found within the GPMSOR and guarantees the OLUPTD processes with a pre-specified GM and PM as well as a minimum IAE or ISE. Consequently, both robustness and performance can be simultaneously assured. Further, the design procedures are summarized as an algorithm to help rapidly locate the GPMSOR and search an optimal PID gain set. Finally, three highly cited examples are provided to illustrate the design process and to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.
Open-loop feedback increases physical activity of youth.
Roemmich, James N; Gurgol, Cathy M; Epstein, Leonard H
2004-04-01
The number of youth that meet activity guidelines is decreasing and easy access to reinforcing sedentary behaviors competes with increasing physical activity. In the laboratory, open-loop feedback that used pedometer activity counts to gain access to sedentary alternatives doubled physical activity. This study evaluated the influence of open-loop feedback and reinforcement on physical activity and television (TV) time in a small clinical trial. Children (8-12 yr old) were randomized to an open-loop feedback plus reinforcement intervention (N = 11) or no feedback, no reinforcement control (N = 7). Subjects wore an accelerometer for 6 wk and attended meetings to download the accelerometer. Accumulating physical activity counts gave subjects in the open-loop group access to TV time, controlled by a TV Allowance device, with 400 counts = 1 h of TV. The control group had no feedback for activity and free access to TV. The open-loop group had a 24% increase in physical activity, which was greater (P = 0.02) than the control group. TV time of the open-loop group was reduced by 18% or 20 min x d(-1) whereas the control group increased by 13 min x d(-1), but these were not significant changes. The change in time spent watching television was directly related to the change in BMI z-score (r = 0.69, P = 0.002). Open-loop feedback increases physical activity in children, thus helping children to achieve physical activity recommendations. Reductions in TV watching may reduce or minimize gains in body weight.
Human-like Running Can Be Open-Loop Stable
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mombaur, Katja
This paper addresses the question if running motions of a human-like robot can be stable without feedback. Exploitation of self-stability is considered to be a crucial factor for biological running and might be the key for success to make bipedal and humanoid robots run in the future, We investigate a two-dimensional simulation model of running with 9 bodies (trunk, thighs, shanks, feet, and arms) powered by torques at all internal joints. Using efficient optimal control techniques and stability optimization, we were able to determine torque inputs and spring-damper parameters that lead to fully open-loop stable running motions.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
D, Meena; Francis, Fredy; T, Sarath K.; E, Dipin; Srinivas, T.; K, Jayasree V.
2014-10-01
Wavelength Division Multiplexing (WDM) techniques overfibrelinks helps to exploit the high bandwidth capacity of single mode fibres. A typical WDM link consisting of laser source, multiplexer/demultiplexer, amplifier and detectoris considered for obtaining the open loop gain model of the link. The methodology used here is to obtain individual component models using mathematical and different curve fitting techniques. These individual models are then combined to obtain the WDM link model. The objective is to deduce a single variable model for the WDM link in terms of input current to system. Thus it provides a black box solution for a link. The Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) associated with each of the approximated models is given for comparison. This will help the designer to select the suitable WDM link model during a complex link design.
TeGrotenhuis, Ward Evan
2013-11-05
A drying apparatus is disclosed that includes a drum and an open-loop airflow pathway originating at an ambient air inlet, passing through the drum, and terminating at an exhaust outlet. A passive heat exchanger is included for passively transferring heat from air flowing from the drum toward the exhaust outlet to air flowing from the ambient air inlet toward the drum. A heat pump is also included for actively transferring heat from air flowing from the passive heat exchanger toward the exhaust outlet to air flowing from the passive heat exchanger toward the drum. A heating element is also included for further heating air flowing from the heat pump toward the drum.
RPC gas recovery by open loop method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Joshi, Avinash; Kalmani, S. D.; Mondal, N. K.; Satyanarayana, B.
2009-05-01
RPC detectors require to be flushed with small but continuous flow of gas mixture. Dealing with large number of detectors, gas consumption to very large volumes. Gas flow is a running expense and constituent gases are too expensive to be treated as consumables. Exhaust gas mixture from detectors is a potential environmental hazard if discharged directly into the atmosphere. Storage of gases on a large scale also leads to inventory- and safety-related problems. A solution to these problems is the recovery and reuse of exhaust gas mixture from RPC detectors. Close loop method employs recirculation of exhausted gas mixture after purification, analysis and addition of top-up quantities. In open loop method, under consideration here, individual component gases are separated from gas mixture and reused as source. During open loop process, gases liquefiable at low pressures are separated from ones liquefiable at high pressure. The gas phase components within each group are successively separated by either fractional condensation or gravity separation. Gas mixture coming from RPC exhaust is first desiccated by passage through molecular sieve adsorbent type (3A+4A). Subsequent scrubbing over basic activated alumina removes toxic and acidic contaminants such as S 2F 10 produced during corona (arcing) discharge. In the first stage of separation isobutane and freon are concentrated by diffusion and liquefied by fractional condensation by cooling upto -30 °C. Liquefied gases are returned to source tanks. In the second stage of separation, argon and sulphur hexafluoride, the residual gases, are concentrated by settling due to density difference. SF 6 is stored for recovery by condensation at high pressure while argon is further purified by thermal cracking of crossover impurities at 1000 °C followed by wet scrubbing.
Open-loop correction of horizontal turbulence: system design and result.
Mu, Quanquan; Cao, Zhaoliang; Li, Dayu; Hu, Lifa; Xuan, Li
2008-08-10
Adaptive optics systems often work in a closed-loop configuration due to the hysteretic and nonlinearity properties of conventional deformable mirrors. Because of the high-precision wavefront generation and nonhysteretic properties of liquid-crystal devices, the open-loop control becomes possible. Open-loop control is a requirement for advanced adaptive optics concepts. We designed an open-loop adaptive optics system with a liquid-crystal-on-silicon wavefront corrector. This system is simple, fast, and can save much more light compared to conventional liquid-crystal-based closed-loop systems. The detailed principle, construction, and operation are discussed. The 500 m horizontal turbulence correction experiment was done using a 250 mm telescope in the laboratory. The whole system can reach a 60 Hz correction frequency. Evaluation of the correction precision was done at closed-loop configuration, which is 0.2 lambda (lambda=0.633 microm) in peak to valley. The dynamic image under open-loop correction got the same resolution compared to closed-loop correction. The whole system reached 0.68 arc sec resolution capability at open-loop correction, which is slightly larger than the system's diffraction-limited resolution of 0.65 arc sec.
Programmable open-loop micropump insulin delivery system.
Clemens, A H
1980-01-01
The application of "closed-loop" glucose-controlled insulin infusion in metabolic research and in the management of diabetic patients in acute emergency situations has stimulated the development of portable insulin infusion devices intended for the long-term stabilization of glucose levels. Since in vivo glucose sensors with long-term accuracy and reliability are not yet available, the currently projected portable insulin infusion systems are the "open-loop" type. Such systems should be reliable, safe, programmable, lightweight, and small in size. In addition, the power requirements should be as low as possible to avoid the need for heavy batteries and/or periodic recharging. In turn, these requirements govern the design criteria for the most essential component of such an instrument, the insulin delivery pump. A micropump has been developed in an attempt to meet all desirable design features. Evaluation data are presented.
Alpha-canonical form representation of the open loop dynamics of the Space Shuttle main engine
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Duyar, Almet; Eldem, Vasfi; Merrill, Walter C.; Guo, Ten-Huei
1991-01-01
A parameter and structure estimation technique for multivariable systems is used to obtain a state space representation of open loop dynamics of the space shuttle main engine in alpha-canonical form. The parameterization being used is both minimal and unique. The simplified linear model may be used for fault detection studies and control system design and development.
Open-Loop Pitch Table Optimization for the Maximum Dynamic Pressure Orion Abort Flight Test
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Stillwater, Ryan A.
2009-01-01
NASA has scheduled the retirement of the space shuttle orbiter fleet at the end of 2010. The Constellation program was created to develop the next generation of human spaceflight vehicles and launch vehicles, known as Orion and Ares respectively. The Orion vehicle is a return to the capsule configuration that was used in the Mercury, Gemini, and Apollo programs. This configuration allows for the inclusion of an abort system that safely removes the capsule from the booster in the event of a failure on launch. The Flight Test Office at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center has been tasked with the flight testing of the abort system to ensure proper functionality and safety. The abort system will be tested in various scenarios to approximate the conditions encountered during an actual Orion launch. Every abort will have a closed-loop controller with an open-loop backup that will direct the vehicle during the abort. In order to provide the best fit for the desired total angle of attack profile with the open-loop pitch table, the table is tuned using simulated abort trajectories. A pitch table optimization program was created to tune the trajectories in an automated fashion. The program development was divided into three phases. Phase 1 used only the simulated nominal run to tune the open-loop pitch table. Phase 2 used the simulated nominal and three simulated off nominal runs to tune the open-loop pitch table. Phase 3 used the simulated nominal and sixteen simulated off nominal runs to tune the open-loop pitch table. The optimization program allowed for a quicker and more accurate fit to the desired profile as well as allowing for expanded resolution of the pitch table.
Deformable mirrors for open-loop adaptive optics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kellerer, A.; Vidal, F.; Gendron, E.; Hubert, Z.; Perret, D.; Rousset, G.
2012-07-01
We characterize the performance of deformable mirrors for use in open-loop regimes. This is especially relevant for Multi Object Adaptive Optics (MOAO), or for closed-loop schemes that require improved accuracies. Deformable mirrors are usually characterized by standard parameters, such as influence functions, linearity, hysteresis, etc. We show that these parameters are insufficient for characterizing open-loop performance and that a deeper analysis of the mirror's behavior is then required. The measurements on the deformable mirrors were performed in 2007 on the AO test bench of the Meudon observatory, SESAME.
Maneuver reconstruction techniques for open-loop spin-stabilized spacecraft
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Frauenholz, R. B.
1980-01-01
The Pioneer missions were supported by spin-stabilized spacecraft designs using open-loop control and blow-down propulsion subsystems. Reliable estimates of the ever-changing performance inherent to these subsystems were needed to effectively design and reconstruct trajectory correction maneuver (TCM) strategies. These performance updates were obtained by adjusting model parameters to match independent telemetric and radiometric observations to define the simultaneous changes in attitude, velocity, and spin rate during a maneuver sequence.
Real-time open-loop frequency response analysis of flight test data
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bosworth, J. T.; West, J. C.
1986-01-01
A technique has been developed to compare the open-loop frequency response of a flight test aircraft real time with linear analysis predictions. The result is direct feedback to the flight control systems engineer on the validity of predictions and adds confidence for proceeding with envelope expansion. Further, gain and phase margins can be tracked for trends in a manner similar to the techniques used by structural dynamics engineers in tracking structural modal damping.
Sufficient and Necessary Open-Loop Stackelberg Strategy for Two-Player Game With Time Delay.
Xu, Juanjuan; Zhang, Huanshui
2016-02-01
This paper is concerned with both difference and differential leader-follower games with time delay. The problem remains challenging although the leader-follower game for delay-free system has been well studied in the past decades. The main obstacle encountered is the noncausality of strategy design caused by the delay. The key technique developed to overcome the difficulty is the introduction of the new co-states which capture the future information of the control and the new state which contains the past effects. The novel contributions of this paper are as follows. First, the sufficient and necessary solvability condition is given to ensure the existence of a unique open-loop Stackelberg strategy for the difference game. Second, the open-loop strategy is explicitly obtained in terms of decoupled and symmetric Riccati equations. Last but not least, a unique strategy for continuous time systems is also given by applying the techniques developed in this paper.
Deformable mirror models for open-loop adaptive optics using non-parametric estimation techniques
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guzmán, Dani; De Cos Juez, Francisco Javier; Myers, Richard; Sánchez Lasheras, Fernando; Young, Laura K.; Guesalaga, Andrés
2010-07-01
Open-loop adaptive optics is a technique in which the turbulent wavefront is measured before it hits the deformable mirror for correction; therefore the correct control of the mirror in open-loop is key in achieving the expected level of correction. In this paper, we present non-parametric estimation techniques to model deformable mirrors working in open-loop. We have results with mirrors characterized by non-linear behavior: a Xinetics electrostrictive mirror and a Boston Micromachines MEMS mirror. The inputs for these models are the wavefront corrections to apply to the mirror and the outputs are the set of voltages to shape the mirror. We have performed experiments on both mirrors, achieving Go-To errors relative to peak-to-peak wavefront excursion in the order of 1 % RMS for the Xinetics mirror and 3 % RMS for the Boston mirror . These techniques are trained with interferometric data from the mirror under control; therefore they do not depend on the physical parameters of the device.
Improved Speech Coding Based on Open-Loop Parameter Estimation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Juang, Jer-Nan; Chen, Ya-Chin; Longman, Richard W.
2000-01-01
A nonlinear optimization algorithm for linear predictive speech coding was developed early that not only optimizes the linear model coefficients for the open loop predictor, but does the optimization including the effects of quantization of the transmitted residual. It also simultaneously optimizes the quantization levels used for each speech segment. In this paper, we present an improved method for initialization of this nonlinear algorithm, and demonstrate substantial improvements in performance. In addition, the new procedure produces monotonically improving speech quality with increasing numbers of bits used in the transmitted error residual. Examples of speech encoding and decoding are given for 8 speech segments and signal to noise levels as high as 47 dB are produced. As in typical linear predictive coding, the optimization is done on the open loop speech analysis model. Here we demonstrate that minimizing the error of the closed loop speech reconstruction, instead of the simpler open loop optimization, is likely to produce negligible improvement in speech quality. The examples suggest that the algorithm here is close to giving the best performance obtainable from a linear model, for the chosen order with the chosen number of bits for the codebook.
Environmental impacts of open loop geothermal system on groundwater
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kwon, Koo-Sang; Park, Youngyun; Yun, Sang Woong; Lee, Jin-Yong
2013-04-01
Application of renewable energies such as sunlight, wind, rain, tides, waves and geothermal heat has gradually increased to reduce emission of CO2 which is supplied from combustion of fossil fuel. The geothermal energy of various renewable energies has benefit to be used to cooling and heating systems and has good energy efficiency compared with other renewable energies. However, open loop system of geothermal heat pump system has possibility that various environmental problems are induced because the system directly uses groundwater to exchange heat. This study was performed to collect data from many documents such as papers and reports and to summarize environmental impacts for application of open loop system. The environmental impacts are classified into change of hydrogeological factors such as water temperature, redox condition, EC, change of microbial species, well contamination and depletion of groundwater. The change of hydrogeological factors can induce new geological processes such as dissolution and precipitation of some minerals. For examples, increase of water temperature can change pH and Eh. These variations can change saturation index of some minerals. Therefore, dissolution and precipitation of some minerals such as quartz and carbonate species and compounds including Fe and Mn can induce a collapse and a clogging of well. The well contamination and depletion of groundwater can reduce available groundwater resources. These environmental impacts will be different in each region because hydrogeological properties and scale, operation period and kind of the system. Therefore, appropriate responses will be considered for each environmental impact. Also, sufficient study will be conducted to reduce the environmental impacts and to improve geothermal energy efficiency during the period that a open loop system is operated. This work was supported by the Energy Efficiency and Resources of the Korea Institute of Energy Technology Evaluation and Planning
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Groom, Nelson J.; Britcher, Colin P.
1992-01-01
The open-loop characteristics of a Large-Gap Magnetic Suspension System (LGMSS) were studied and numerical results are presented. The LGMSS considered provides five-degree-of-freedom control. The suspended element is a cylinder that contains a core composed of permanent magnet material. The magnetic actuators are air core electromagnets mounted in a planar array. Configurations utilizing five, six, seven, and eight electromagnets were investigated and all configurations were found to be controllable from coil currents and observable from suspended element positions. Results indicate that increasing the number of coils has an insignificant effect on mode shapes and frequencies.
Dassau, Eyal; Brown, Sue A.; Basu, Ananda; Pinsker, Jordan E.; Kudva, Yogish C.; Gondhalekar, Ravi; Patek, Steve; Lv, Dayu; Schiavon, Michele; Lee, Joon Bok; Dalla Man, Chiara; Hinshaw, Ling; Castorino, Kristin; Mallad, Ashwini; Dadlani, Vikash; McCrady-Spitzer, Shelly K.; McElwee-Malloy, Molly; Wakeman, Christian A.; Bevier, Wendy C.; Bradley, Paige K.; Kovatchev, Boris; Cobelli, Claudio; Zisser, Howard C.
2015-01-01
Context: Closed-loop control (CLC) relies on an individual's open-loop insulin pump settings to initialize the system. Optimizing open-loop settings before using CLC usually requires significant time and effort. Objective: The objective was to investigate the effects of a one-time algorithmic adjustment of basal rate and insulin to carbohydrate ratio open-loop settings on the performance of CLC. Design: This study reports a multicenter, outpatient, randomized, crossover clinical trial. Patients: Thirty-seven adults with type 1 diabetes were enrolled at three clinical sites. Interventions: Each subject's insulin pump settings were subject to a one-time algorithmic adjustment based on 1 week of open-loop (i.e., home care) data collection. Subjects then underwent two 27-hour periods of CLC in random order with either unchanged (control) or algorithmic adjusted basal rate and carbohydrate ratio settings (adjusted) used to initialize the zone-model predictive control artificial pancreas controller. Subject's followed their usual meal-plan and had an unannounced exercise session. Main Outcomes and Measures: Time in the glucose range was 80–140 mg/dL, compared between both arms. Results: Thirty-two subjects completed the protocol. Median time in CLC was 25.3 hours. The median time in the 80–140 mg/dl range was similar in both groups (39.7% control, 44.2% adjusted). Subjects in both arms of CLC showed minimal time spent less than 70 mg/dl (median 1.34% and 1.37%, respectively). There were no significant differences more than 140 mg/dL. Conclusions: A one-time algorithmic adjustment of open-loop settings did not alter glucose control in a relatively short duration outpatient closed-loop study. The CLC system proved very robust and adaptable, with minimal (<2%) time spent in the hypoglycemic range in either arm. PMID:26204135
Use of an open-loop system to increase physical activity.
Roemmich, James N; Lobarinas, Christina L; Barkley, Jacob E; White, Tressa M; Paluch, Rocco; Epstein, Leonard H
2012-08-01
This study evaluated the effectiveness of an open-loop system that reinforces physical activity with TV watching to increase children's physical activity. Nonoverweight, sedentary boys and girls (8-12 y) were randomized to a group that received feedback of activity counts + reinforcement for physical activity by providing access to television (F+R, n = 20); or to feedback, no reinforcement (Feedback, n = 20) or no feedback, no reinforcement control (Control, n = 21) groups. Children wore an accelerometer with a count display for 4-months with a 1-year follow-up. F+R reduced TV by 68 min/day and TV time was lower than the Feedback (p < .005) and Control (p < .002) groups. TV time of F+R remained 31 min lower (p < .02) than baseline at 1-year. F+R had a 44% increase in physical activity, which was greater than the feedback (p < .04) and control (p < .01) groups. An open-loop system decreases TV viewing and increases physical activity of children for 4-months. TV of the F+R group remained lower at 12 months, suggesting a reduction in screen-time habits.
Laser Safety Method For Duplex Open Loop Parallel Optical Link
Baumgartner, Steven John; Hedin, Daniel Scott; Paschal, Matthew James
2003-12-02
A method and apparatus are provided to ensure that laser optical power does not exceed a "safe" level in an open loop parallel optical link in the event that a fiber optic ribbon cable is broken or otherwise severed. A duplex parallel optical link includes a transmitter and receiver pair and a fiber optic ribbon that includes a designated number of channels that cannot be split. The duplex transceiver includes a corresponding transmitter and receiver that are physically attached to each other and cannot be detached therefrom, so as to ensure safe, laser optical power in the event that the fiber optic ribbon cable is broken or severed. Safe optical power is ensured by redundant current and voltage safety checks.
Study of the Open Loop and Closed Loop Oscillator Techniques
Imel, George R.; Baker, Benjamin; Riley, Tony; Langbehn, Adam; Aryal, Harishchandra; Benzerga, M. Lamine
2015-04-11
This report presents the progress and completion of a five-year study undertaken at Idaho State University of the measurement of very small worth reactivity samples comparing open and closed loop oscillator techniques.The study conclusively demonstrated the equivalency of the two techniques with regard to uncertainties in reactivity values, i.e., limited by reactor noise. As those results are thoroughly documented in recent publications, in this report we will concentrate on the support work that was necessary. For example, we describe in some detail the construction and calibration of a pilot rod for the closed loop system. We discuss the campaign to measure the required reactor parameters necessary for inverse-kinetics. Finally, we briefly discuss the transfer of the open loop technique to other reactor systems.
Study of the open loop and closed loop oscillator techniques
Baker, Benjamin; Riley, Tony; Langbehn, Adam; Imel, George R.; Benzerga, M. Lamine; Aryal, Harishchandra
2015-07-01
This paper presents some aspects of a five year study undertaken at Idaho State University of the measurement of very small worth reactivity samples comparing open and closed loop oscillator techniques. The study conclusively demonstrated the equivalency of the two techniques with regard to uncertainties in reactivity values, i.e., limited by reactor noise. As those results are thoroughly documented in recent publications, in this paper we will concentrate on the support work that was necessary. For example, we describe in some detail the construction and calibration of a pilot rod for the closed loop system. We discuss the campaign to measure the required reactor parameters necessary for inverse-kinetics. Finally, we briefly discuss the transfer of the open loop technique to other reactor systems. (authors)
Open loop, auto reversing liquid nitrogen circulation thermal system for thermo vacuum chamber
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Naidu, M. C. A.; Nolakha, Dinesh; Saharkar, B. S.; Kavani, K. M.; Patel, D. R.
2012-11-01
In a thermo vacuum chamber, attaining and controlling low and high temperatures (-100 Deg. C to +120 Deg. C) is a very important task. This paper describes the development of "Open loop, auto reversing liquid nitrogen based thermal system". System specifications, features, open loop auto reversing system, liquid nitrogen flow paths etc. are discussed in this paper. This thermal system consists of solenoid operated cryogenic valves, double embossed thermal plate (shroud), heating elements, temperature sensors and PLC. Bulky items like blowers, heating chambers, liquid nitrogen injection chambers, huge pipe lines and valves were not used. This entire thermal system is very simple to operate and PLC based, fully auto system with auto tuned to given set temperatures. This system requires a very nominal amount of liquid nitrogen (approx. 80 liters / hour) while conducting thermo vacuum tests. This system was integrated to 1.2m dia thermo vacuum chamber, as a part of its augmentation, to conduct extreme temperature cycling tests on passive antenna reflectors of satellites.
Optimization of the open-loop liquid crystal adaptive optics retinal imaging system
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kong, Ningning; Li, Chao; Xia, Mingliang; Li, Dayu; Qi, Yue; Xuan, Li
2012-02-01
An open-loop adaptive optics (AO) system for retinal imaging was constructed using a liquid crystal spatial light modulator (LC-SLM) as the wavefront compensator. Due to the dispersion of the LC-SLM, there was only one illumination source for both aberration detection and retinal imaging in this system. To increase the field of view (FOV) for retinal imaging, a modified mechanical shutter was integrated into the illumination channel to control the size of the illumination spot on the fundus. The AO loop was operated in a pulsing mode, and the fundus was illuminated twice by two laser impulses in a single AO correction loop. As a result, the FOV for retinal imaging was increased to 1.7-deg without compromising the aberration detection accuracy. The correction precision of the open-loop AO system was evaluated in a closed-loop configuration; the residual error is approximately 0.0909λ (root-mean-square, RMS), and the Strehl ratio ranges to 0.7217. Two subjects with differing rates of myopia (-3D and -5D) were tested. High-resolution images of capillaries and photoreceptors were obtained.
Optimization of the open-loop liquid crystal adaptive optics retinal imaging system.
Kong, Ningning; Li, Chao; Xia, Mingliang; Li, Dayu; Qi, Yue; Xuan, Li
2012-02-01
An open-loop adaptive optics (AO) system for retinal imaging was constructed using a liquid crystal spatial light modulator (LC-SLM) as the wavefront compensator. Due to the dispersion of the LC-SLM, there was only one illumination source for both aberration detection and retinal imaging in this system. To increase the field of view (FOV) for retinal imaging, a modified mechanical shutter was integrated into the illumination channel to control the size of the illumination spot on the fundus. The AO loop was operated in a pulsing mode, and the fundus was illuminated twice by two laser impulses in a single AO correction loop. As a result, the FOV for retinal imaging was increased to 1.7-deg without compromising the aberration detection accuracy. The correction precision of the open-loop AO system was evaluated in a closed-loop configuration; the residual error is approximately 0.0909λ (root-mean-square, RMS), and the Strehl ratio ranges to 0.7217. Two subjects with differing rates of myopia (-3D and -5D) were tested. High-resolution images of capillaries and photoreceptors were obtained.
Microwave Transversal Equalizer. Open Loop Adaptive Computer Control Techniques.
1981-07-01
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Weigenand, Arne; Mölle, Matthias; Werner, Friederike; Martinetz, Thomas; Marshall, Lisa
2016-09-01
The application of auditory clicks during non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep phase-locked to the up state of the slow oscillation (closed-loop stimulation) has previously been shown to enhance the consolidation of declarative memories. We designed and applied sequences of three clicks during deep NREM sleep to achieve a quasi-phase-dependent open-loop stimulation. This stimulation was successful in eliciting slow oscillation power in the stimulation period. Although fast and slow spindle power were markedly decreased during the stimulation period, memory consolidation did not differ from control. During putative up states fast spindle power remained, however, at control levels. We conclude that concurrence of slow oscillations and fast spindles suffices to maintain memory consolidation at control levels despite an overall decreased spindle activity.
Open loop fascial sling for severe congenital blepharoptosis.
Arajy, Zakaria Yahya
2012-02-01
Severe congenital eyelid ptosis present as a functional and aesthetic problem. The choices of procedures depend mainly on providing an additional elevator force to the upper lid to elevate it, and maintain a reasonable eye opening and vision. We describe a simple open loop fascia lata suspension sling to the frontalis muscle to treat patients with severe eyelid ptosis and poor levator function. Sixty nine lids in 51 patients, were enrolled in this study, all had severe eyelid ptosis and had autogenous fascial sling used for the correction of the ptosis. The final lid level and contour was evaluated after the follow-up period and showed that the results were satisfactory in 77% of the patients. The unsatisfactory results were due to under correction in 10%, poor lid crease in 6%, lid notch in 4%, and entropion in 3% of the operated lids. The accurate evaluation and implementation of this technique can correct the problem of ptosis provided that the patients exercises the frontalis muscle in order to accomplish the desired lid level. Copyright © 2011 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Koh, E. H.; Park, B. H.; Park, J.; Lee, K. K.; Lee, S. Y.
2016-12-01
Open-loop ground source heat pump (GSHP) utilizes groundwater in the subsurface, which maintains constant temperature regardless of seasonal changes, to be circulated through a heat pump system coupled with pumping and injection wells. During operation of the open-loop GSHP facilities, the hydrogeochemical properties of the subsurface aquifer can be altered by contacting with atmospheric air, changing temperature and pressure. Such changes in the water quality can impede energy efficiency of the open-loop GSHP. Therefore, it is important to monitor the groundwater components regularly before and after the operation of GSHP. In the riverside area of the Yangpyeong, South Korea, an open-loop GSHP has been installed for a test research, which has objectives to improve energy efficiency of the open-loop GSHP facilities and to evaluate environmental changes caused by the GSHP operation. Because the study area is located near the Han River, it is necessary to assess hydrochemical changes of groundwater resulted by the open-loop GSHP operation in consideration of interaction between the river water and groundwater. Periodic monitoring of groundwater and river water quality had been conducted from Jan., 2014 to Apr., 2016 including the operation periods of the open-loop GSHP after Apr., 2015. As the result of the open-loop GSHP operation, there were no abrupt changes in groundwater quality parameters except an increase in Cl- concentration and decrease in DO concentration over the study area. The enriched Cl- concentration was observed in both river water and groundwater based on estimation of effects by eutrophication in the river. Lowering DO concentration throughout the study area was affected by re-injection of the pumped groundwater with depleted DO during the GSHP operation with an increase of Fe2+ concentration. Such changes in the water chemistry were evaluated not to give a harmful influence on the long-term operation of the GSHP system in the study area.
Open-Loop Flight Testing of COBALT GN&C Technologies for Precise Soft Landing
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Carson, John M., III; Amzajerdian, Farzin; Seubert, Carl R.; Restrepo, Carolina I.
2017-01-01
A terrestrial, open-loop (OL) flight test campaign of the NASA COBALT (CoOperative Blending of Autonomous Landing Technologies) platform was conducted onboard the Masten Xodiac suborbital rocket testbed, with support through the NASA Advanced Exploration Systems (AES), Game Changing Development (GCD), and Flight Opportunities (FO) Programs. The COBALT platform integrates NASA Guidance, Navigation and Control (GN&C) sensing technologies for autonomous, precise soft landing, including the Navigation Doppler Lidar (NDL) velocity and range sensor and the Lander Vision System (LVS) Terrain Relative Navigation (TRN) system. A specialized navigation filter running onboard COBALT fuzes the NDL and LVS data in real time to produce a precise navigation solution that is independent of the Global Positioning System (GPS) and suitable for future, autonomous planetary landing systems. The OL campaign tested COBALT as a passive payload, with COBALT data collection and filter execution, but with the Xodiac vehicle Guidance and Control (G&C) loops closed on a Masten GPS-based navigation solution. The OL test was performed as a risk reduction activity in preparation for an upcoming 2017 closed-loop (CL) flight campaign in which Xodiac G&C will act on the COBALT navigation solution and the GPS-based navigation will serve only as a backup monitor.
High-sensitivity open-loop electronics for gravimetric acoustic-wave-based sensors.
Rabus, David; Friedt, Jean-Michel; Ballandras, Sylvain; Martin, Gilles; Carry, Emile; Blondeau-Patissier, Virginie
2013-06-01
Detecting chemical species in gas phase has recently received an increasing interest mainly for security control, trying to implement new systems allowing for extended dynamics and reactivity. In this work, an open-loop interrogation strategy is proposed to use radio-frequency acoustic transducers as micro-balances for that purpose. The resulting system is dedicated to the monitoring of chemical compounds in gaseous or liquid-phase state. A 16 Hz standard deviation is demonstrated at 125 MHz, with a working frequency band in the 60 to 133 MHz range, answering the requirements for using Rayleigh- and Love-wave-based delay lines operating with 40-μm acoustic wavelength transducers. Moreover, this electronic setup was used to interrogate a high-overtone bulk acoustic wave resonator (HBAR) microbalance, a new sensor class allowing for multi-mode interrogation for gravimetric measurement improvement. The noise source still limiting the system performance is due to the analog-to-digital converter of the microcontroller, thus leaving open degrees-of-freedom for improving the obtained results by optimizing the voltage reference and board layout. The operation of the system is illustrated using a calibrated galvanic deposition at the surface of Love-wave delay lines to assess theoretical predictions of their gravimetric sensitivity and to compare them with HBAR-based sensor sensitivity.
Analysis of open-loop conical scan pointing error and variance estimators
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Alvarez, L. S.
1993-01-01
General pointing error and variance estimators for an open-loop conical scan (conscan) system are derived and analyzed. The conscan algorithm is modeled as a weighted least-squares estimator whose inputs are samples of receiver carrier power and its associated measurement uncertainty. When the assumptions of constant measurement noise and zero pointing error estimation are applied, the variance equation is then strictly a function of the carrier power to uncertainty ratio and the operator selectable radius and period input to the algorithm. The performance equation is applied to a 34-m mirror-based beam-waveguide conscan system interfaced with the Block V Receiver Subsystem tracking a Ka-band (32-GHz) downlink. It is shown that for a carrier-to-noise power ratio greater than or equal to 30 dB-Hz, the conscan period for Ka-band operation may be chosen well below the current DSN minimum of 32 sec. The analysis presented forms the basis of future conscan work in both research and development as well as for the upcoming DSN antenna controller upgrade for the new DSS-24 34-m beam-waveguide antenna.
Micromechanical torsional digital-to-analog converter for open-loop angular positioning applications
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhou, Guangya; Tay, Francis E. H.; Chau, Fook Siong; Zhao, Yi; Logeeswaran, VJ
2004-05-01
This paper reports a novel micromechanical torsional digital-to-analog converter (MTDAC), operated in open-loop with digitally controlled precise multi-level tilt angles. The MTDAC mechanism presented is analogous to that of an electrical binary-weighted-input digital-to-analog converter (DAC). It consists of a rigid tunable platform, an array of torsional microactuators, each operating in a two-state (on/off) mode, and a set of connection beams with binary-weighted torsional stiffnesses that connect the actuators to the platform. The feasibility of the proposed MTDAC mechanism was verified numerically by finite element simulations and experimentally with a commercial optical phase-shifting interferometric system. A prototype 2-bit MTDAC was implemented using the poly-MUMPS process achieving a full-scale output tilt angle of 1.92° with a rotation step of 0.64°. This mechanism can be configured for many promising applications, particularly in beam steering-based OXC switches.
Unscented Kalman filter with open-loop compensation for high dynamic GNSS carrier tracking
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Wen-Jing; Chen, Xi; Han, Shuai; Meng, Wei-Xiao; Zhang, Yi
2009-12-01
Because of the limit of the loop-band, traditional carrier tracking loop of GNSS receiver can't work in high dynamic conditions with large Doppler frequency, for which an open-loop carrier tracking method based on UKF is proposed. Upon this new tracking loop, the four-dimensionality UKF phase estimator and a compensator is designed to modify the estimative values. By simulating the high dynamic trace of the plat of GNSS receiver, this new method is compared to the closed loop mainly in the aspects of tracking errors, compensation effects and unlocking probability. Simulations show that (1) the proposed open-loop compensation method can give attention to the precision and the dynamics better, with high stability, (2) compared with the closed loop, the open-loop carrier tracking method can improve the tracking precision, with 50% decrease of the tracking errors; and (3) the convergence of this new method is much better, leading to lower unlocking probability.
Efficiency Evaluation of Open-Loop GHPS Operation Under Various Hydrogeological Conditions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lee, S.; Kim, S.; Bae, G.; Lee, K.
2008-12-01
Geothermal heat pump system (GHPS) can be cost-effective renewable energy sources. In order to develop the GHPS which has certain hydrogeological characteristics, understanding the thermohydraulic process of an aquifer is necessary for effective usage of open-loop GHPS. Experimental and numerical tests are performed for two concepts of open-loop GHPS: simple open-loop and energy storage concept. In simple open-loop sets, tests were performed fixing the locations of pumping and injection wells. In contrast, tests in energy storage sets were conducted by changing the locations of wells in a seasonal cycle. Experimental test using sand tank was performed only for the simple open-loop concept, while numerical tests were performed for the both concepts. Numerical modeling results using FEFLOW were compatible with the experimental results. In the simple open-loop sets, the temporal temperature change in a pumping well was measured. Effective operation conditions are obtained with high hydraulic conductivity (3X10-3 m/s) and long distance (60 cm) between wells on hydraulic gradient 0.025 because the effect of injected water temperature must be minimized. In the energy storage sets, thermal recovery factors (R) under various conditions were calculated to evaluate the efficiency. Low hydraulic conductivity (3X10-5 m/s), hydraulic gradient 0.0 and long well distance (more than 20 m) are the best conditions for operation efficiency (R=37.92) because faster groundwater flow lead to advection or down-gradient `drift' of stored energy beyond potential recovery regions. In the case of two-layered aquifer, the porosity and groundwater flow characteristics of each layer sensitively affected the migration of thermal plume. Two-layered aquifer with the top-layer of low hydraulic conductivity (3X10-5 m/s) and porosity (0.2) is profitable for the effective open-loop GHPS operation under hydraulic gradient 0.0 and well distance (20 m). The results from experimental and numerical tests
Comparison of open loop and closed loop reactivity measurement techniques on the ISU-AGN-201 reactor
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Baker, Benjamin Allen
For some time now at Idaho State University, a project to compare techniques that are capable of obtaining reactivity values with uncertainties limited by the inherent reactor noise has been under study. This dissertation compares open loop techniques (pile oscillator method analyzed with harmonic analysis and inverse kinetics) with a closed loop technique (reactivity oscillator method). Open and closed loop techniques are defined in the classic control sense -- closed loop utilizes feedback while open loop has no imposed feedback. In order to analyze the data appropriately, a set of optimized reactor parameters were determined experimentally for the AGN-201 reactor by the use of a perturbation technique followed by a non-linear regression of the data to fit the zero power transfer function model. After an optimized set of parameters were obtained, the reactivity value for a sample of cadmium was obtained using both open and closed loop techniques at various frequencies to show the differences in the results and application of the two techniques. In the last portion of the dissertation, experiments were performed to determine the reactivity worth of a small sample on the order of 0.05 cents. All techniques were shown to produce results that were limited only by reactor noise.
A novel open-loop tracking strategy for photovoltaic systems.
Alexandru, Cătălin
2013-01-01
This paper approaches a dual-axis equatorial tracking system that is used to increase the photovoltaic efficiency by maximizing the degree of use of the solar radiation. The innovative aspect in the solar tracker design consists in considering the tracking mechanism as a perturbation for the DC motors. The goal is to control the DC motors, which are perturbed with the motor torques whose computation is based on the dynamic model of the mechanical structure on which external forces act. The daily and elevation angles of the PV module represent the input parameters in the mechanical device, while the outputs transmitted to the controller are the motor torques. The controller tuning is approached by a parametric optimization process, using design of experiments and response surface methodology techniques, in a multiple regression. The simulation and experimental results demonstrate the operational performance of the tracking system.
A Novel Open-Loop Tracking Strategy for Photovoltaic Systems
Alexandru, Cătălin
2013-01-01
This paper approaches a dual-axis equatorial tracking system that is used to increase the photovoltaic efficiency by maximizing the degree of use of the solar radiation. The innovative aspect in the solar tracker design consists in considering the tracking mechanism as a perturbation for the DC motors. The goal is to control the DC motors, which are perturbed with the motor torques whose computation is based on the dynamic model of the mechanical structure on which external forces act. The daily and elevation angles of the PV module represent the input parameters in the mechanical device, while the outputs transmitted to the controller are the motor torques. The controller tuning is approached by a parametric optimization process, using design of experiments and response surface methodology techniques, in a multiple regression. The simulation and experimental results demonstrate the operational performance of the tracking system. PMID:24327803
Use of an open-loop system to increase physical activity
USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database
This study evaluated the effectiveness of an open-loop system that reinforces physical activity with TV watching to increase children’s physical activity. Non-overweight, sedentary boys and girls (8-12 y) were randomized to a group that received feedback of activity counts + reinforcement for physic...
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Darestani Farahani, N.; Abbasi Davani, F.
2016-02-01
The formulation of a multi-input single-output closed-loop subspace method for system identification has been employed for the purpose of obtaining control-relevant model of the open loop response for plasma vertical movement in the Damavand tokamak. Such a model is particularly well suited for the robust controller design. The method described in this paper is a kind of worst-case identification technique, aiming to minimize the error between the identified model and the true plant. The accuracy of the estimation of the plant dynamics has been tested by different experiments. The fitness of the identified model around the defined operating point has been more than 90%, and compared to the physical-based model, it has better root mean squared error (RMSE) measure of the goodness of fitting.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lo Russo, S.; Taddia, G.; Gnavi, L.
2012-04-01
KEY WORDS: Open-loop ground water heat pump; Feflow; Low-enthalpy; Thermal Affected Zone; Turin; Italy The increasing diffusion of low-enthalpy geothermal open-loop Groundwater Heat Pumps (GWHP) providing buildings air conditioning requires a careful assessment of the overall effects on groundwater system, especially in the urban areas where several plants can be close together and interfere. One of the fundamental aspects in the realization of an open loop low-enthalpy geothermal system is therefore the capacity to forecast the effects of thermal alteration produced in the ground, induced by the geothermal system itself. The impact on the groundwater temperature in the surrounding area of the re-injection well (Thermal Affected Zone - TAZ) is directly linked to the aquifer properties. The transient dynamic of groundwater discharge and temperature variations should be also considered to assess the subsurface environmental effects of the plant. The experimental groundwater heat pump system used in this study is installed at the "Politecnico di Torino" (NW Italy, Piedmont Region). This plant provides summer cooling needs for the university buildings. This system is composed by a pumping well, a downgradient injection well and a control piezometer. The system is constantly monitored by multiparameter probes measuring the dynamic of groundwater temperature. A finite element subsurface flow and transport simulator (FEFLOW) was used to investigate the thermal aquifer alteration. Simulations were continuously performed during May-October 2010 (cooling period). The numerical simulation of the heat transport in the aquifer was solved with transient conditions. The simulation was performed by considering only the heat transfer within the saturated aquifer, without any heat dispersion above or below the saturated zone due to the lack of detailed information regarding the unsaturated zone. Model results were compared with experimental temperature data derived from groundwater
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Keymeulen, Didier; Ferguson, Michael I.; Fink, Wolfgang; Oks, Boris; Peay, Chris; Terrile, Richard; Cheng, Yen; Kim, Dennis; MacDonald, Eric; Foor, David
2005-01-01
We propose a tuning method for MEMS gyroscopes based on evolutionary computation to efficiently increase the sensitivity of MEMS gyroscopes through tuning. The tuning method was tested for the second generation JPL/Boeing Post-resonator MEMS gyroscope using the measurement of the frequency response of the MEMS device in open-loop operation. We also report on the development of a hardware platform for integrated tuning and closed loop operation of MEMS gyroscopes. The control of this device is implemented through a digital design on a Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA). The hardware platform easily transitions to an embedded solution that allows for the miniaturization of the system to a single chip.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Keymeulen, Didier; Ferguson, Michael I.; Fink, Wolfgang; Oks, Boris; Peay, Chris; Terrile, Richard; Cheng, Yen; Kim, Dennis; MacDonald, Eric; Foor, David
2005-01-01
We propose a tuning method for MEMS gyroscopes based on evolutionary computation to efficiently increase the sensitivity of MEMS gyroscopes through tuning. The tuning method was tested for the second generation JPL/Boeing Post-resonator MEMS gyroscope using the measurement of the frequency response of the MEMS device in open-loop operation. We also report on the development of a hardware platform for integrated tuning and closed loop operation of MEMS gyroscopes. The control of this device is implemented through a digital design on a Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA). The hardware platform easily transitions to an embedded solution that allows for the miniaturization of the system to a single chip.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Militaru, Nicolae
2016-12-01
The paper presents a study of the electromagnetic couplings between planar open-loop triangular-shaped resonators. Based on the proposed single-mode resonator, various couplings schemes are considered: between a single microstrip resonator and its 50Ω feeding line, between two identical triangular-shaped resonators designed in microstrip technology, and between pairs of synchronously-tuned resonators located on different metallization layers, in a multilayer configuration. In this last case, properly located slots, cut out in the common ground plane, ensure and control the coupling between resonators. The results shown in the paper can be used in the design of different miniature planar band-pass filters, including filters with cross-coupled resonators, in microstrip and in multilayer technologies.
High-resolution retinal imaging through open-loop adaptive optics.
Li, Chao; Xia, Mingliang; Li, Dayu; Mu, Quanquan; Xuan, Li
2010-01-01
Using the liquid crystal spatial light modulator (LC-SLM) as the wavefront corrector, an open-loop adaptive optics (AO) system for fundus imaging in vivo is constructed. Compared with the LC-SLM closed-loop AO system, the light energy efficiency is increased by a factor of 2, which is helpful for the safety of fundus illumination in vivo. In our experiment, the subjective accommodation method is used to precorrect the defocus aberration, and three subjects with different myopia 0, -3, and -5 D are tested. Although the residual wavefront error after correction cannot to detected, the fundus images adequately demonstrate that the imaging system reaches the resolution of a single photoreceptor cell through the open-loop correction. Without dilating and cyclopleging the eye, the continuous imaging for 8 s is recorded for one of the subjects.
High-resolution retinal imaging through open-loop adaptive optics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Chao; Xia, Mingliang; Li, Dayu; Mu, Quanquan; Xuan, Li
2010-07-01
Using the liquid crystal spatial light modulator (LC-SLM) as the wavefront corrector, an open-loop adaptive optics (AO) system for fundus imaging in vivo is constructed. Compared with the LC-SLM closed-loop AO system, the light energy efficiency is increased by a factor of 2, which is helpful for the safety of fundus illumination in vivo. In our experiment, the subjective accommodation method is used to precorrect the defocus aberration, and three subjects with different myopia 0, -3, and -5 D are tested. Although the residual wavefront error after correction cannot to detected, the fundus images adequately demonstrate that the imaging system reaches the resolution of a single photoreceptor cell through the open-loop correction. Without dilating and cyclopleging the eye, the continuous imaging for 8 s is recorded for one of the subjects.
Cotter, James D; Taylor, Nigel AS
2005-01-01
The distribution of cutaneous thermosensitivity has not been determined in humans for the control of autonomic or behavioural thermoregulation under open-loop conditions. We therefore examined local cutaneous warm and cool sensitivities for sweating and whole-body thermal discomfort (as a measure of alliesthesia). Thirteen males rested supine during warming (+4°C), and mild (−4°C) and moderate (−11°C) cooling of ten skin sites (274 cm2), whilst the core and remaining skin temperatures were clamped above the sweat threshold using a water-perfusion suit and climate chamber. Local thermosensitivities were calculated from changes in sweat rates (pooled from sweat capsules on all limbs) and thermal discomfort, relative to the changes in local skin temperature. Thermosensitivities were examined across local sites and body segments (e.g. torso, limbs). The face displayed stronger cold (−11°C) sensitivity than the forearm, thigh, leg and foot (P= 0.01), and was 2–5 times more thermosensitive than any other segment for both sudomotor and discomfort responses (P= 0.01). The face also showed greater warmth sensitivity than the limbs for sudomotor control and discomfort (P= 0.01). The limb extremities ranked as the least thermosensitive segment for both responses during warming, and for discomfort responses during moderate cooling (−11°C). Approximately 70% of the local variance in sudomotor sensitivity was common to the alliesthesial sensitivity. We believe these open-loop methods have provided the first clear evidence for a greater facial thermosensitivity for sweating and whole-body thermal discomfort. PMID:15760945
Tuning of MEMS Devices using Evolutionary Computation and Open-loop Frequency Response
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Keymeulen, Didier; Fink, Wolfgang; Ferguson, Michael I.; Peay, Chris; Oks, Boris; Terrile, Richard; Yee, Karl
2005-01-01
We propose a tuning method for MEMS gyroscopes based on evolutionary computation that has the capacity to efficiently increase the sensitivity of MEMS gyroscopes through tuning and, furthermore, to find the optimally tuned configuration for this state of increased sensitivity. The tuning method was tested for the second generation JPL/Boeing Post-resonator MEMS gyroscope using the measurement of the frequency response of the MEMS device in open-loop operation.
A Nonlinear Study of Open Loop Dynamic Stability of Submersible Vehicles in the Dive Plane
1994-03-01
Submsersible Vehicles in the Dive Plane by Harilaos I. Papadimitriou March, 1994 Thesis Advisor: Fotis A. Papoulias Approved for public release...Engineers Thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE * A NONLINEAR STUDY OF OPEN LOOP 5. FUNDING NUMBERS DYNAMIC STABILITY OF SUBMERSIBLE VEHICLES IN THE DIVE PLANE...SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES The views expressed in this thesis are those of the author and do not reflect the official policy or position of the Department of
Tuning of MEMS Devices using Evolutionary Computation and Open-loop Frequency Response
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Keymeulen, Didier; Fink, Wolfgang; Ferguson, Michael I.; Peay, Chris; Oks, Boris; Terrile, Richard; Yee, Karl
2005-01-01
We propose a tuning method for MEMS gyroscopes based on evolutionary computation that has the capacity to efficiently increase the sensitivity of MEMS gyroscopes through tuning and, furthermore, to find the optimally tuned configuration for this state of increased sensitivity. The tuning method was tested for the second generation JPL/Boeing Post-resonator MEMS gyroscope using the measurement of the frequency response of the MEMS device in open-loop operation.
Economics of spray-dryer FGD system: the two-stage open-loop processes
Burnett, T.A.; O'Brien, W.E.
1981-06-01
Preliminary economics of the Rockwell International Corporation - Wheelabrator Frye, Inc., (RI/WF) two-stage open-loop flue gas desulfurization (FGD) process were determined for both lime and soda ash absorbents. This two-stage open-loop process is a throwaway system in which the alkali raw material (as a solution or slurry) is sprayed into the flue gas stream, dried by the latent heat in the hot flue gas, and collected as dry particulate matter in a baghouse. The fly ash is also collected in the baghouse as an inherent part of the process. An economic evaluation of a limestone slurry FGD process with an electrostatic precipitator (ESP) for particulate matter removal was included for comparison. The basis was a 500-MW power plant burning 3.5% sulfur, 16% ash coal with 90% SO/sub 2/ removal and 0.1 lb/MBtu particulate matter emission. The economic evaluations were made using both TVA and Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) economic premises. Cost differences between the two-stage open-loop lime and soda ash versions are largely the result of different waste disposal and raw material costs. Both RI/WF versions are more economical than limestone in most process elements except raw material costs. Cost differences between the TVA- and EPRI-based estimates are the result of different methods of estimating indirect costs, levelizing operating costs, and different raw material costs.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Larsen, T.; Doll, J. C.; Loizeau, F.; Hosseini, N.; Peng, A. W.; Fantner, G. E.; Ricci, A. J.; Pruitt, B. L.
2017-04-01
Electrothermal actuators have many advantages compared to other actuators used in micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS). They are simple to design, easy to fabricate and provide large displacements at low voltages. Low voltages enable less stringent passivation requirements for operation in liquid. Despite these advantages, thermal actuation is typically limited to a few kHz bandwidth when using step inputs due to its intrinsic thermal time constant. However, the use of pre-shaped input signals offers a route for reducing the rise time of these actuators by orders of magnitude. We started with an electrothermally actuated cantilever having an initial 10-90% rise time of 85 μs in air and 234 μs in water for a standard open-loop step input. We experimentally characterized the linearity and frequency response of the cantilever when operated in air and water, allowing us to obtain transfer functions for the two cases. We used these transfer functions, along with functions describing desired reduced rise-time system responses, to numerically simulate the required input signals. Using these pre-shaped input signals, we improved the open-loop 10-90% rise time from 85 μs to 3 μs in air and from 234 μs to 5 μs in water, an improvement by a factor of 28 and 47, respectively. Using this simple control strategy for MEMS electrothermal actuators makes them an attractive alternative to other high speed micromechanical actuators such as piezoelectric stacks or electrostatic comb structures which are more complex to design, fabricate, or operate.
Tiwari, Abhinav; Igoshin, Oleg A.
2012-01-01
Biochemical regulatory networks governing diverse cellular processes such as stress-response, differentiation and cell cycle often contain coupled feedback loops. We aim to understand how features of feedback architecture, such as the number of loops, the sign of the loops and the type of their coupling, affect network dynamical performance. Specifically, we investigate how bistability range, maximum open-loop gain and switching times of a network with transcriptional positive feedback are affected by additive or multiplicative coupling with another positive or negative feedback loop. We show that a network’s bistability range is positively correlated with its maximum open-loop gain and that both the quantities depend on the sign of the feedback loops and the type of feedback coupling. Moreover, we find that the addition of positive feedback could decrease the bistability range if we control the basal level in the signal-response curves of the two systems. Furthermore, the addition of negative feedback has the capacity to increase the bistability range if its dissociation constant is much lower than that of the positive feedback. We also find that addition of a positive feedback to a bistable network increases robustness of its bistability range, whereas addition of a negative feedback decreases it. Finally, we show that the switching time for a transition from a high to a low steady state increases with the effective fold change in gene regulation. In summary, we show that the effect of coupled feedback loops on the bistability range and switching times depends on the underlying mechanistic details. PMID:23011599
Optimal energy-splitting method for an open-loop liquid crystal adaptive optics system.
Cao, Zhaoliang; Mu, Quanquan; Hu, Lifa; Liu, Yonggang; Peng, Zenghui; Yang, Qingyun; Meng, Haoran; Yao, Lishuang; Xuan, Li
2012-08-13
A waveband-splitting method is proposed for open-loop liquid crystal adaptive optics systems (LC AOSs). The proposed method extends the working waveband, splits energy flexibly, and improves detection capability. Simulated analysis is performed for a waveband in the range of 350 nm to 950 nm. The results show that the optimal energy split is 7:3 for the wavefront sensor (WFS) and for the imaging camera with the waveband split into 350 nm to 700 nm and 700 nm to 950 nm, respectively. A validation experiment is conducted by measuring the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the WFS and the imaging camera. The results indicate that for the waveband-splitting method, the SNR of WFS is approximately equal to that of the imaging camera with a variation in the intensity. On the other hand, the SNR of the WFS is significantly different from that of the imaging camera for the polarized beam splitter energy splitting scheme. Therefore, the waveband-splitting method is more suitable for an open-loop LC AOS. An adaptive correction experiment is also performed on a 1.2-meter telescope. A star with a visual magnitude of 4.45 is observed and corrected and an angular resolution ability of 0.31″ is achieved. A double star with a combined visual magnitude of 4.3 is observed as well, and its two components are resolved after correction. The results indicate that the proposed method can significantly improve the detection capability of an open-loop LC AOS.
Hellenthal, Chris; Sotthewes, Kai; Siekman, Martin H; Kooij, E Stefan; Zandvliet, Harold J W
2015-01-01
We demonstrate the validity of using closed-loop z(V) conductance scanning tunneling spectroscopy (STS) measurements for the determination of the effective tunneling barrier by comparing them to more conventional open-loop I(z) measurements. Through the development of a numerical model, the individual contributions to the effective tunneling barrier present in these experiments, such as the work function and the presence of an image charge, are determined quantitatively. This opens up the possibility of determining tunneling barriers of both vacuum and molecular systems in an alternative and more detailed manner.
The Life Cycle Evaluation Model of External Diseconomy of Open-loop Supply Chain
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Qian; Hu, Tianjun
2017-08-01
In recent years, with the continuous deterioration of pollution, resource space is gradually narrowed, the number of waste items increased, people began to use the method of recycling on waste products to ease the pressure on the environment. This paper adopted the external diseconomy of open-loop supply chain as the research object and constructed the model by the life cycle evaluation method, comparative analysis through the case. This paper also concludes that the key to solving the problem is to realize the closed-loop supply chain and building reverse logistics system is of great significance.
Pires, Flávio Oliveira; Hammond, John
2012-01-01
To verify the effects of exercise intensity deception by the Borg scale on the ratings of perceived exertion (RPE), heart rate (HR) and performance responses during a constant power output open-loop exercise. Eight healthy men underwent a maximal incremental test on a cycle ergometer to identify the peak power output (PPO) and heart rate deflection point (HRDP). Subsequently, they performed a constant power output trial to exhaustion set at the HRDP intensity, in deception (DEC) and informed (INF) conditions: DEC--subjects were told that they would be cycling at an intensity corresponding to two categories below the RPE quantified at the HRDP; INF--subjects were told that they would cycle at the exact intensity corresponding to the RPE quantified at the HRDP. The PPO and power output at the HRDP obtained in maximal incremental tests were 247.5 ± 32.1 W and 208.1 ± 27.1 W, respectively. No significant difference in the time to exhaustion was found between DEC (525 ± 244 s) or INF (499 ± 224 s) trials. The slope and the first and second measurements of the RPE and HR parameters showed no significant difference between trials. Psychophysiological variables such as RPE and HR as well as performance were not affected when exercise intensity was deceptively manipulated via RPE scores. This may suggest that unaltered RPE during exercise is a regulator of performance in this open-loop exercise.
Open-Loop Flight Testing of COBALT Navigation and Sensor Technologies for Precise Soft Landing
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Carson, John M., III; Restrepo, Caroline I.; Seubert, Carl R.; Amzajerdian, Farzin; Pierrottet, Diego F.; Collins, Steven M.; O'Neal, Travis V.; Stelling, Richard
2017-01-01
An open-loop flight test campaign of the NASA COBALT (CoOperative Blending of Autonomous Landing Technologies) payload was conducted onboard the Masten Xodiac suborbital rocket testbed. The payload integrates two complementary sensor technologies that together provide a spacecraft with knowledge during planetary descent and landing to precisely navigate and softly touchdown in close proximity to targeted surface locations. The two technologies are the Navigation Doppler Lidar (NDL), for high-precision velocity and range measurements, and the Lander Vision System (LVS) for map-relative state esti- mates. A specialized navigation filter running onboard COBALT fuses the NDL and LVS data in real time to produce a very precise Terrain Relative Navigation (TRN) solution that is suitable for future, autonomous planetary landing systems that require precise and soft landing capabilities. During the open-loop flight campaign, the COBALT payload acquired measurements and generated a precise navigation solution, but the Xodiac vehicle planned and executed its maneuvers based on an independent, GPS-based navigation solution. This minimized the risk to the vehicle during the integration and testing of the new navigation sensing technologies within the COBALT payload.
Ruan, Hang; Li, Jian; Zhang, Lei; Long, Teng
2015-08-28
For vehicle positioning with Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) in urban areas, open-loop tracking shows better performance because of its high sensitivity and superior robustness against multipath. However, no previous study has focused on the effects of the code search grid size on the code phase measurement accuracy of open-loop tracking. Traditional open-loop tracking methods are performed by the batch correlators with fixed correlation space. The code search grid size, which is the correlation space, is a constant empirical value and the code phase measuring accuracy will be largely degraded due to the improper grid size, especially when the signal carrier-to-noise density ratio (C/N₀) varies. In this study, the Adaptive Correlation Space Adjusted Open-Loop Tracking Approach (ACSA-OLTA) is proposed to improve the code phase measurement dependent pseudo range accuracy. In ACSA-OLTA, the correlation space is adjusted according to the signal C/N₀. The novel Equivalent Weighted Pseudo Range Error (EWPRE) is raised to obtain the optimal code search grid sizes for different C/N₀. The code phase measuring errors of different measurement calculation methods are analyzed for the first time. The measurement calculation strategy of ACSA-OLTA is derived from the analysis to further improve the accuracy but reduce the correlator consumption. Performance simulation and real tests confirm that the pseudo range and positioning accuracy of ASCA-OLTA are better than the traditional open-loop tracking methods in the usual scenarios of urban area.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Purdy, K. R.; Ventrice, M. B.; Fang, J.
1972-01-01
Analytical and experimental studies were initiated to determine if the response of a constant temperature hot wire anemometer to acoustic oscillations could serve as an analog to the response of the drop vaporization burning rate process to acoustic oscillations, and, perhaps, also as an analog to any Reynolds number dependent process. The motivation behind this study was a recent analytical study which showed that distorted acoustic oscillations could amplify the open-loop response of vaporization limited combustion. This type of amplification may be the cause of unstable combustion in liquid propellant rocket engines. The analytical results obtained for the constant temperature anemometer are similar in nature to those previously obtained for vaporization limited combustion and indicate that the response is dependent on the amount and type of distortion as well as other factors, such as sound pressure level, Mach number and hot wire temperature. Preliminary results indicate qualitative agreement between theory and experiment.
A digital open-loop Doppler processing prototype for deep-space navigation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jian, Nianchuan; Shang, Kun; Zhang, Sujun; Wang, Mingyuan; Shi, Xian; Ping, Jingsong; Yan, Jianguo; Tang, Geshi; Liu, Junze; Qiu, Shi; Fung, Lai-Wo; Zhang, Hua; Wang, Zhen; Gou, Wei
2009-12-01
A prototype based on digital radio technology with associated open-loop Doppler signal processing techniques has been developed to measure a spacecraft’s line-of-sight velocity. The prototype was tested in China’s Chang’E-1 lunar mission relying on S-band telemetry signals transmitted by the satellite, with results showing that the residuals had a RMS value of ˜3 mm/s (1 σ) using 1-sec integration, which is consistent with the Chinese conventional USB (Unified S-Band) tracking system. Such precision is mainly limited by the short-term stability of the atomic (e.g. rubidium) clock at the uplink ground station. It can also be improved with proper calibration to remove some effects of the transmission media (such as solar plasma, troposphere and ionosphere), and a longer integration time (e.g. down to 0.56 mm/s at 34 seconds) allowed by the spacecraft dynamics. The tracking accuracy can also be increased with differential methods that may effectively remove most of the long-term drifts and some of the short-term uncertainties of the uplink atomic clock, thereby further reducing the residuals to the 1 mm/s level. Our experimental tracking data have been used in orbit determination for Chang’E-1, while other applications (such as the upcoming YH-1 Mars orbiter) based on open-loop Doppler tracking will be initiated in the future. Successful application of the prototype to the Chang’E-1 mission in 2008 is believed to have great significance for China’s future deep space exploration.
All-digital signal-processing open-loop fiber-optic gyroscope with enlarged dynamic range.
Wang, Qin; Yang, Chuanchuan; Wang, Xinyue; Wang, Ziyu
2013-12-15
We propose and realize a new open-loop fiber-optic gyroscope (FOG) with an all-digital signal-processing (DSP) system where an all-digital phase-locked loop is employed for digital demodulation to eliminate the variation of the source intensity and suppress the bias drift. A Sagnac phase-shift tracking method is proposed to enlarge the dynamic range, and, with its aid, a new open-loop FOG, which can achieve a large dynamic range and high sensitivity at the same time, is realized. The experimental results show that compared with the conventional open-loop FOG with the same fiber coil and optical devices, the proposed FOG reduces the bias instability from 0.259 to 0.018 deg/h, and the angle random walk from 0.031 to 0.006 deg/h(1/2), moreover, enlarges the dynamic range to ±360 deg/s, exceeding the maximum dynamic range ±63 deg/s of the conventional open-loop FOG.
Ruan, Hang; Li, Jian; Zhang, Lei; Long, Teng
2015-01-01
For vehicle positioning with Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) in urban areas, open-loop tracking shows better performance because of its high sensitivity and superior robustness against multipath. However, no previous study has focused on the effects of the code search grid size on the code phase measurement accuracy of open-loop tracking. Traditional open-loop tracking methods are performed by the batch correlators with fixed correlation space. The code search grid size, which is the correlation space, is a constant empirical value and the code phase measuring accuracy will be largely degraded due to the improper grid size, especially when the signal carrier-to-noise density ratio (C/N0) varies. In this study, the Adaptive Correlation Space Adjusted Open-Loop Tracking Approach (ACSA-OLTA) is proposed to improve the code phase measurement dependent pseudo range accuracy. In ACSA-OLTA, the correlation space is adjusted according to the signal C/N0. The novel Equivalent Weighted Pseudo Range Error (EWPRE) is raised to obtain the optimal code search grid sizes for different C/N0. The code phase measuring errors of different measurement calculation methods are analyzed for the first time. The measurement calculation strategy of ACSA-OLTA is derived from the analysis to further improve the accuracy but reduce the correlator consumption. Performance simulation and real tests confirm that the pseudo range and positioning accuracy of ASCA-OLTA are better than the traditional open-loop tracking methods in the usual scenarios of urban area. PMID:26343683
Perception can influence the vergence responses associated with open-loop gaze shifts in 3D
Sheliga, B. M.; Miles, F. A.
2006-01-01
We sought to determine if perceived depth can elicit vergence eye movements independent of binocular disparity. A flat surface in the frontal plane appears slanted about a vertical axis when the image in one eye is vertically compressed relative to the image in the other eye: the induced size effect (Ogle, 1938). We show that vergence eye movements accompany horizontal gaze shifts across such surfaces, consistent with the direction of the perceived slant, despite the absence of a horizontal disparity gradient. All images were extinguished during the gaze shifts so that eye movements were executed open-loop. We also used vertical compression of one eye’s image to null the perceived slant resulting from prior horizontal compression of that image, and show that this reduces the vergence accompanying horizontal gaze shifts across the surface, even though the horizontal disparity is unchanged. When this last experiment was repeated using vertical expansions in place of the vertical compressions, the perceived slant was increased and so too was the vergence accompanying horizontal gaze shifts, although the horizontal disparity again remained unchanged. We estimate that the perceived depth accounted, on average, for 15–41% of the vergence in our experiments depending on the conditions. PMID:14765951
Open Loop Heat Pipe Radiator Having a Free-Piston for Wiping Condensed Working Fluid
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Weinstein, Leonard M. (Inventor)
2015-01-01
An open loop heat pipe radiator comprises a radiator tube and a free-piston. The radiator tube has a first end, a second end, and a tube wall, and the tube wall has an inner surface and an outer surface. The free-piston is enclosed within the radiator tube and is capable of movement within the radiator tube between the first and second ends. The free-piston defines a first space between the free-piston, the first end, and the tube wall, and further defines a second space between the free-piston, the second end, and the tube wall. A gaseous-state working fluid, which was evaporated to remove waste heat, alternately enters the first and second spaces, and the free-piston wipes condensed working fluid from the inner surface of the tube wall as the free-piston alternately moves between the first and second ends. The condensed working fluid is then pumped back to the heat source.
An open-loop RFOG based on harmonic division technique to suppress LD's intensity modulation noise
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ying, Diqing; Wang, Zeyu; Mao, Jianmin; Jin, Zhonghe
2016-11-01
A harmonic division technique is proposed for an open-loop resonator fiber optic gyro (RFOG) to suppress semiconductor laser diode's (LD's) intensity modulation noise. The theoretical study indicates the RFOG with this technique is immune to the intensity noise. The simulation and experimental results show this technique would lead to a diminished linear region, which still could be acceptable for an RFOG applied to low rotation rate detection. The tests for the gyro output signal are carried out with/without noise suppressing methods, including the harmonic division technique and previously proposed signal compensation technique. With the harmonic division technique at the rotation rate of 10 deg/s, the stability of gyro output signal is improved from 1.07 deg/s to 0.0361 deg/s, whose noise suppressing ratio is more than 3 times as that of the signal compensation technique. And especially, a 3.12 deg/s signal jump is significantly removed with the harmonic division technique; in contrast, a residual 0.36 deg/s signal jump still exists with the signal compensation technique. It is concluded the harmonic division technique does work in intensity noise suppressing under dynamic condition, and it is superior to the signal compensation technique.
Performance enhancement of open loop gas recovery process by centrifugal separation of gases
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kalmani, S. D.; Joshi, A. V.; Bhattacharya, S.; Hunagund, P. V.
2016-11-01
The proposed INO-ICAL detector [1] is going to be instrumented with 28800 RPCs (Resistive Plate Chamber). These RPCs (2 × 2 m2 size) will consist of two glass electrodes separated by 2 mm and will use a gas mixture of Freon R134a, isobutane and sulphur hexafluoride (in the ratio of 95.3:4.5:0.2). An Open Ended System (OES), in which the gas mixture is vented to the atmosphere after a single passage through the detector, is most commonly used for small detector setups. However, OES cannot be used with the INO-ICAL detector due to reasons of cost and pollution. It is necessary, therefore, to recirculate the gas mixture in a closed loop. In a Closed Loop gas System (CLS) [2] the gas mixture is purified and recirculated after flowing through the RPC. The impurities which get accumulated in the gas mixture due to leaks or formation of radicals are removed by suitable filters. The Open Loop System (OLS) [3] is based on the separation and recovery of major gas components after passage of the gas mixture through the RPCs. and has the advantage that it does not need filters for removal of impurities. However a CLS is found to be more efficient than OLS in the recovery of gases in the mixture. In this paper we discuss centrifugal separation [4] as a technique to extract major gas constituents and use this technique to improve the efficiency of OLS. Results from preliminary trial runs are reported.
Open-loop correction for an eddy current dominated beam-switching magnet.
Koseki, K; Nakayama, H; Tawada, M
2014-04-01
A beam-switching magnet and the pulsed power supply it requires have been developed for the Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex. To switch bunched proton beams, the dipole magnetic field must reach its maximum value within 40 ms. In addition, the field flatness should be less than 5 × 10(-4) to guide each bunched beam to the designed orbit. From a magnetic field measurement by using a long search coil, it was found that an eddy current in the thick endplates and laminated core disturbs the rise of the magnetic field. The eddy current also deteriorates the field flatness over the required flat-top period. The measured field flatness was 5 × 10(-3). By using a double-exponential equation to approximate the measured magnetic field, a compensation pattern for the eddy current was calculated. The integrated magnetic field was measured while using the newly developed open-loop compensation system. A field flatness of less than 5 × 10(-4), which is an acceptable value, was achieved.
Open-loop correction for an eddy current dominated beam-switching magnet
Koseki, K. Nakayama, H.; Tawada, M.
2014-04-15
A beam-switching magnet and the pulsed power supply it requires have been developed for the Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex. To switch bunched proton beams, the dipole magnetic field must reach its maximum value within 40 ms. In addition, the field flatness should be less than 5 × 10{sup −4} to guide each bunched beam to the designed orbit. From a magnetic field measurement by using a long search coil, it was found that an eddy current in the thick endplates and laminated core disturbs the rise of the magnetic field. The eddy current also deteriorates the field flatness over the required flat-top period. The measured field flatness was 5 × 10{sup −3}. By using a double-exponential equation to approximate the measured magnetic field, a compensation pattern for the eddy current was calculated. The integrated magnetic field was measured while using the newly developed open-loop compensation system. A field flatness of less than 5 × 10{sup −4}, which is an acceptable value, was achieved.
Albumin dialysis in artificial liver support systems: open-loop or closed-loop dialysis mode?
Pei, Yingying; Sun, Yize; Sun, Sijie; Gao, Dayong; Ding, Weiping
2015-01-01
In artificial liver support systems, the open-loop albumin dialysis mode (OLM) is usually used to remove protein-bound toxins from the blood of patients with liver failure. However, there is still interest in the closed-loop albumin dialysis mode (CLM) because this mode may enable not only the regeneration and reuse of albumin but also the miniaturization of artificial liver systems. In this article, we compared the two modes under a fixed amount of albumin in dialysate experimentally and theoretically. The results show that according to the detoxification efficiency in the 3 hour dialysis for removing albumin-bound bilirubin, CLM is better than OLM. The usage efficiency of albumin in CLM is also higher. Moreover, the advantage of CLM is more significant when the concentration of bilirubin in blood is lower. Under a given amount of albumin in dialysate, if the concentration of bilirubin in blood is high, one may further increase the performance of CLM by means of increasing the flow rate of the albumin dialysate or using the highly concentrated albumin dialysate.
2017-01-01
Collaborative beamforming (CBF) with a finite number of collaborating nodes (CNs) produces sidelobes that are highly dependent on the collaborating nodes’ locations. The sidelobes cause interference and affect the communication rate of unintended receivers located within the transmission range. Nulling is not possible in an open-loop CBF since the collaborating nodes are unable to receive feedback from the receivers. Hence, the overall sidelobe reduction is required to avoid interference in the directions of the unintended receivers. However, the impact of sidelobe reduction on the capacity improvement at the unintended receiver has never been reported in previous works. In this paper, the effect of peak sidelobe (PSL) reduction in CBF on the capacity of an unintended receiver is analyzed. Three meta-heuristic optimization methods are applied to perform PSL minimization, namely genetic algorithm (GA), particle swarm algorithm (PSO) and a simplified version of the PSO called the weightless swarm algorithm (WSA). An average reduction of 20 dB in PSL alongside 162% capacity improvement is achieved in the worst case scenario with the WSA optimization. It is discovered that the PSL minimization in the CBF provides capacity improvement at an unintended receiver only if the CBF cluster is small and dense. PMID:28464000
The Impact of an Open Loop Geothermal System with Multiple Wells on Groundwater Temperature
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Susanto, S.
2015-12-01
As the demand of groundwater as a source of energy has increased in recent years, the Upper Carbonate Aquifer beneath the City of Winnipeg is heavily utilized for cooling and heating. Majority open loop systems discharge thermal wastewater into the aquifer and increase the groundwater temperature. A numerical model was developed to study the impact of a geothermal system with multiple wells located in the Tuxedo area on groundwater temperature. Analysis was performed using SEAWAT with GUI Visual MODFLOW. Surface elevation, model boundary and wells locations were developed using ArcGIS. The model was run in steady state flow for static water level calibration and in transient mode for calibration using data of a pumping test. Preliminary investigation with three years simulation predicts a 600 m by 660 m area of temperature increase. Groundwater temperature in production wells will increase 0.5°C within 2 years and 1°C within 3 years. Factors that influence the temperature changes and its distribution in the groundwater are production flow rate, recharge flow rate, groundwater flow, return water distribution into recharge wells, distance between production wells and recharge wells, spacing between recharge wells, and layout of geothermal pumping wells. The simulated and observed temperature increase is mainly caused by higher production rate for cooling than for heating. The result from this study will strongly contribute knowledge in the development of a 3D numerical model of the Upper Carbonate Aquifer beneath the City of Winnipeg to investigate the impact of geothermal systems to the groundwater temperature.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Park, D. K.; Bae, G. O.; Lee, K. K.
2014-12-01
The open-loop geothermal system directly uses a relatively stable temperature of groundwater for cooling and heating in buildings and thus has been known as an eco-friendly, energy-saving, and cost-efficient technique. The facility for this system was installed at a site located near Paldang-dam in Han-river, Korea. Because of the well-developed alluvium, the site might be appropriate to application of this system requiring extraction and injection of a large amount of groundwater. A simple numerical experiment assuming various hydrogeologic conditions demonstrated that regional groundwater flow direction was the most important factor for efficient operation of facility in this site having a highly permeable layer. However, a comparison of river stage data and groundwater level measurements showed that the daily and seasonal controls of water level at Paldang-dam have had a critical influence on the regional groundwater flow in the site. Moreover, nitrate concentrations measured in the monitoring wells gave indication of the effect of agricultural activities around the facility on the groundwater quality. The facility operation, such as extraction and injection of groundwater, will obviously affect transport of the agricultural contaminant and, maybe, it will even cause serious problems in the normal operation. Particularly, the high-permeable layer in this aquifer must be a preferential path for quick spreadings of thermal and contaminant plumes. The objective of this study was to find an efficient, safe and stable operation plan of the open-loop geothermal system installed in this site having the complicated conditions of highly permeable layer, variable regional groundwater flow, and agricultural contamination. Numerical simulations for groundwater flow, heat and solute transport were carried out to analyze all the changes in groundwater level and flow, temperature, and quality according to the operation, respectively. Results showed that an operation plan for
Open-loop frequency acquisition for suppressed-carrier biphase signals using one-pole arm filters
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Shah, B.; Holmes, J. K.
1991-01-01
Open loop frequency acquisition performance is discussed for suppressed carrier binary phase shift keyed signals in terms of the probability of detecting the carrier frequency offset when the arms of the Costas loop detector have one pole filters. The approach, which does not require symbol timing, uses fast Fourier transforms (FFTs) to detect the carrier frequency offset. The detection probability, which depends on both the 3 dB arm filter bandwidth and the received symbol signal to noise ratio, is derived and is shown to be independent of symbol timing. It is shown that the performance of this technique is slightly better that other open loop acquisition techniques which use integrators in the arms and whose detection performance varies with symbol timing.
Flow characteristics of continuous-flow left ventricular assist devices in a novel open-loop system.
Stanfield, J Ryan; Selzman, Craig H; Pardyjak, Eric R; Bamberg, Stacy
2012-01-01
Fluid-pumping technology is a mature engineering subject area with a well-documented knowledge base. However, the pump design optimization techniques accepted in industry are geared toward steady-state constant-flow conditions. In contrast, the implantation of a continuous-flow pump to aid the output of the human left ventricle subjects the device to perpetual variation. This study measures pressure-flow performance characteristics for both axial- and centrifugal continuous-flow rotary blood pumps across a wide range of pressure differential values under uniform conditions by means of a novel open-loop flow system. The axial-flow devices show lower hydraulic efficiency. All pumps yield best efficiency point at a head to flow coefficient ratio of approximately 1.7. The open-loop flow system accounts for the dynamic changes associated with human heart physiology and allows for more precise characterization of existing heart pumps and those in development.
Salam, M Tariqus; Perez Velazquez, Jose Luis; Genov, Roman
2016-06-01
We assess and compare the effects of both closed-loop and open-loop neurostimulation of the rat hippocampus by means of a custom low-power programmable therapeutic neurostimulation device on the suppression of spontaneous seizures in a rodent model of epilepsy. Chronic seizures were induced by intraperitoneal kainic acid injection. Two bipolar electrodes were implanted into the CA1 regions of both hippocampi. The electrodes were connected to the custom-built programmable therapeutic neurostimulation device that can trigger an electrical stimulation either in a periodic manner or upon detection of the intracerebral electroencephalographic (icEEE) seizure onset. This device includes a microchip consisting of a 256-channel icEEG recording system and a 64-channel stimulator, and a programmable seizure detector implemented in a field-programmable gate array (FPGA). The neurostimulator was used to evaluate seizure suppression efficacy in ten epileptic rats for a total of 240 subject-days (5760 subject-hours). For this purpose, all rats were randomly divided into two groups: the no-stimulation group and the stimulation group. The no-stimulation group did not receive stimulation. The stimulation group received, first, closed-loop stimulation and, next, open-loop stimulation. The no-stimulation and stimulation groups had a similar seizure frequency baseline, averaging five seizures per day. Closed-loop stimulation reduced seizure frequency by 90% and open-loop stimulation reduced seizure frequency by 17%, both in the stimulation group as compared to the no-stimulation group.
MaTrace: tracing the fate of materials over time and across products in open-loop recycling.
Nakamura, Shinichiro; Kondo, Yasushi; Kagawa, Shigemi; Matsubae, Kazuyo; Nakajima, Kenichi; Nagasaka, Tetsuya
2014-07-01
Even for metals, open-loop recycling is more common than closed-loop recycling due, among other factors, to the degradation of quality in the end-of-life (EoL) phase. Open-loop recycling is subject to loss of functionality of original materials, dissipation in forms that are difficult to recover, and recovered metals might need dilution with primary metals to meet quality requirements. Sustainable management of metal resources calls for the minimization of these losses. Imperative to this is quantitative tracking of the fate of materials across different stages, products, and losses. A new input-output analysis (IO) based model of dynamic material flow analysis (MFA) is presented that can trace the fate of materials over time and across products in open-loop recycling taking explicit consideration of losses and the quality of scrap into account. Application to car steel recovered from EoL vehicles (ELV) showed that after 50 years around 80% of the steel is used in products, mostly buildings and civil engineering (infrastructure), with the rest mostly resided in unrecovered obsolete infrastructure and refinery losses. Sensitivity analysis was conducted to evaluate the effects of changes in product lifespan, and the quality of scrap.
Compact and robust open-loop fiber-optic gyroscope for applications in harsh environments
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Moslehi, Behzad M.; Yahalom, Ram; Faridian, Ferey; Black, Richard J.; Taylor, Edward W.; Ooi, Teng; Corder, Aaron
2010-09-01
Next generation navigation systems demand performance enhancements to support new applications with longer range capabilities, provide robust operation in severe thermal and vibration environments while simultaneously reducing weight, size and power dissipation. Compact, inexpensive, advanced guidance components are essential for such applications. In particular, Inertial Reference Units (IRUs) that can provide high-resolution stabilization and accurate inertial pointing knowledge are needed. For space applications, an added requirement is radiation hardening up to 300 krad over 5 to 15 years. Manufacturing specifications for the radiation-induced losses are not readily available and empirical test data is required for all components in order to optimize the system performance. Interferometric Fiber-Optic Gyroscopes (IFOGs) have proven to be a leading technology for tactical and navigational systems. The sensors have no moving parts. This ensures high reliability and a long life compared to the mechanical gyroscopes and dithered ring laser gyroscopes. However, the available architectures limit the potential size and cost of the IFOG. The work reported here describes an innovative approach for the design, fabrication, and testing of the IFOG and enables the production of a small, robust and low cost gyro with excellent noise and bandwidth characteristics with high radiation tolerance. The development is aimed at achieving a sensor volume < 5 cubic inches. The new IFOS gyro uses an open loop configuration, utilizes extremely small diameter radiation-hard fiber with customized all-digital signal processing. The optics is packaged using a combination of highly-integrated optical component assemblies with an allfiber approach that leads to a more flexible yet lower cost optical design. The IFOS gyro prototypes are implemented using a distributed architecture, where the light source, electronics and receiver are integrated in an external package, while the sensor head is
Open-loop GPS signal tracking at low elevation angles from a ground-based observation site
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Beyerle, Georg; Zus, Florian
2017-01-01
A 1-year data set of ground-based GPS signal observations aiming at geometric elevation angles below +2° is analysed. Within the "GLESER" measurement campaign about 2600 validated setting events were recorded by the "OpenGPS" open-loop tracking receiver at an observation site located at 52.3808° N, 13.0642° E between January and December 2014. The measurements confirm the feasibility of open-loop signal tracking down to geometric elevation angles of -1 to -1.5° extending the corresponding closed-loop tracking range by up to 1°. The study is based on the premise that observations of low-elevation events by a ground-based receiver may serve as test cases for space-based radio occultation measurements, even if the latter proceed at a significantly faster temporal scale. The results support the conclusion that the open-loop Doppler model has negligible influence on the derived carrier frequency profile for strong signal-to-noise density ratios above about 30 dB Hz. At lower signal levels, however, the OpenGPS receiver's dual-channel design, which tracks the same signal using two Doppler models differing by 10 Hz, uncovers a notable bias. The repeat patterns of the GPS orbit traces in terms of azimuth angle reveal characteristic signatures in both signal amplitude and Doppler frequency with respect to the topography close to the observation site. Mean vertical refractivity gradients, extracted from ECMWF meteorological fields, correlate weakly to moderately with observed signal amplitude fluctuations at geometric elevation angles between +1 and +2°. Results from multiple phase screen simulations support the interpretation that these fluctuations are at least partly produced by atmospheric multipath; at negative elevation angles diffraction at the ground surface seems to contribute.
Akimoto, Toshinari; Sugawara, Jun; Ichikawa, Daisuke; Terada, Nobuyuki; Fadel, Paul J; Ogoh, Shigehiko
2011-11-01
The neural interaction between the cardiopulmonary and arterial baroreflex may be critical for the regulation of blood pressure during orthostatic stress. However, studies have reported conflicting results: some indicate increases and others decreases in cardiac baroreflex sensitivity (i.e., gain) with cardiopulmonary unloading. Thus the effect of orthostatic stress-induced central hypovolemia on regulation of heart rate via the arterial baroreflex remains unclear. We sought to comprehensively assess baroreflex function during orthostatic stress by identifying and comparing open- and closed-loop dynamic cardiac baroreflex gains at supine rest and during 60° head-up tilt (HUT) in 10 healthy men. Closed-loop dynamic "spontaneous" cardiac baroreflex sensitivities were calculated by the sequence technique and transfer function and compared with two open-loop carotid-cardiac baroreflex measures using the neck chamber system: 1) a binary white-noise method and 2) a rapid-pulse neck pressure-neck suction technique. The gain from the sequence technique was decreased from -1.19 ± 0.14 beats·min(-1)·mmHg(-1) at rest to -0.78 ± 0.10 beats·min(-1)·mmHg(-1) during HUT (P = 0.005). Similarly, closed-loop low-frequency baroreflex transfer function gain was reduced during HUT (P = 0.033). In contrast, open-loop low-frequency transfer function gain between estimated carotid sinus pressure and heart rate during white-noise stimulation was augmented during HUT (P = 0.01). This result was consistent with the maximal gain of the carotid-cardiac baroreflex stimulus-response curve (from 0.47 ± 0.15 beats·min(-1)·mmHg(-1) at rest to 0.60 ± 0.20 beats·min(-1)·mmHg(-1) at HUT, P = 0.037). These findings suggest that open-loop cardiac baroreflex gain was enhanced during HUT. Moreover, under closed-loop conditions, spontaneous baroreflex analyses without external stimulation may not represent open-loop cardiac baroreflex characteristics during orthostatic stress.
Barnard, K D; Wysocki, T; Thabit, H; Evans, M L; Amiel, S; Heller, S; Young, A; Hovorka, R
2015-05-01
To explore the psychosocial experiences of closed-loop technology and to compare ratings of closed- and open-loop technology for adults with Type 1 diabetes taking part in a randomized crossover study. Adults (aged > 18 years) on insulin pump therapy were recruited to receive a first phase of either real-time continuous glucose monitoring with overnight closed-loop or real-time continuous glucose monitoring alone (open-loop) followed by a second phase of the alternative treatment in random order, at home for 4 weeks, unsupervised. Participants were invited to share their views in semi-structured interviews. The impact of the closed-loop technology, positive and negative aspects of living with the device overnight, along with the hopes and anxieties of the participants, were explored. The participants in the trial were 24 adults with a mean (sd) age of 43 (12) years, of whom 54% were men. The mean (range) interview duration was 26 (12-46) min. Content and thematic analysis showed the following key positive themes: improved blood glucose control (n = 16); reassurance/reduced worry (n = 16); improved overnight control leading to improved daily functioning and diabetes control (n = 16); and improved sleep (n = 8). The key negative themes were: technical difficulties (n = 24); intrusiveness of alarms (n = 13); and size of equipment (n = 7). Of the 24 participant, 20 would recommend the closed-loop technology. Closed-loop therapy has positive effects when it works in freeing participants from the demands of self-management. The downside was technical difficulties, particularly concerning the pump and 'connectivity', which it is hoped will improve. Future research should continue to explore the acceptability of the closed-loop system as a realistic therapy option, taking account of user concerns as new systems are designed. Failure to do this may reduce the eventual utility of new systems. © 2015 The Authors. Diabetic Medicine © 2015 Diabetes UK.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ventrice, M. B.; Purdy, K. R.
1974-01-01
The response of a constant-temperature hot-wire anemometer to sinusoidal and distorted sinusoidal acoustic oscillations is examined. The output of the anemometer is dependent upon the Reynolds number of the flow over the wire. The response is a measure of the interaction between the anemometer output and the acoustic pressure in the neighborhood of the wire. It is an open-loop prediction of the characteristics of actual closed-loop operation of a system. If the open-loop response is large enough, unstable closed-loop operation is predicted. The study was motivated by a need to investigate the stability limits of liquid-propellant rockets when perturbed by pressure oscillations. The sinusoidal and distorted sinusoidal acoustic oscillations used for this study are the same as those characteristic of unstable rocket combustion. Qualitatively, the results are similar--the response of the system to pure sinusoidal acoustic vibration of the fluid surrounding the wire is small, even when the magnitude of the acoustic pressure is quite large; but the response can be increased by as much as an order of magnitude with respect to the sinusoidal case by the addition of distortion. The amplitude and phase of the distortion component, relative to the fundamental component, are the dominant factors in the increase in the response.
A LabVIEW model incorporating an open-loop arterial impedance and a closed-loop circulatory system.
Cole, R T; Lucas, C L; Cascio, W E; Johnson, T A
2005-11-01
While numerous computer models exist for the circulatory system, many are limited in scope, contain unwanted features or incorporate complex components specific to unique experimental situations. Our purpose was to develop a basic, yet multifaceted, computer model of the left heart and systemic circulation in LabVIEW having universal appeal without sacrificing crucial physiologic features. The program we developed employs Windkessel-type impedance models in several open-loop configurations and a closed-loop model coupling a lumped impedance and ventricular pressure source. The open-loop impedance models demonstrate afterload effects on arbitrary aortic pressure/flow inputs. The closed-loop model catalogs the major circulatory waveforms with changes in afterload, preload, and left heart properties. Our model provides an avenue for expanding the use of the ventricular equations through closed-loop coupling that includes a basic coronary circuit. Tested values used for the afterload components and the effects of afterload parameter changes on various waveforms are consistent with published data. We conclude that this model offers the ability to alter several circulatory factors and digitally catalog the most salient features of the pressure/flow waveforms employing a user-friendly platform. These features make the model a useful instructional tool for students as well as a simple experimental tool for cardiovascular research.
Open-loop GPS signal tracking at low elevation angles from a ground-based observation site
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Beyerle, Georg; Zus, Florian
2016-04-01
For more than a decade space-based global navigation satellite system (GNSS) radio occultation (RO) observations are used by meteorological services world-wide for their numerical weather prediction models. In addition, climate studies increasingly rely on validated GNSS-RO data sets of atmospheric parameters. GNSS-RO profiles typically cover an altitude range from the boundary layer up to the upper stratosphere; their highest accuracy and precision, however, are attained at the tropopause level. In the lower troposphere, multipath ray propagation tend to induce signal amplitude and frequency fluctuations which lead to the development and implementation of open-loop signal tracking methods in GNSS-RO receiver firmwares. In open-loop mode the feed-back values for the carrier tracking loop are derived not from measured data, but from a Doppler frequency model which usually is extracted from an atmospheric climatology. In order to ensure that this receiver-internal parameter set, does not bias the carrier phase path observables, dual-channel open-loop GNSS-RO signal tracking was suggested. Following this proposal the ground-based "GLESER" (GPS low-elevation setting event recorder) campaign was established. Its objective was to disproof the existence of model-induced frequency biases using ground-based GPS observations at very low elevation angles. Between January and December 2014 about 2600 validated setting events, starting at geometric elevation angles of +2° and extending to -1°… - 1.5°, were recorded by the single frequency "OpenGPS" GPS receiver at a measurement site located close to Potsdam, Germany (52.3808°N, 13.0642°E). The study is based on the assumption that these ground-based observations may be used as proxies for space-based RO measurements, even if the latter occur on a one order of magnitude faster temporal scale. The "GLESER" data analysis shows that the open-loop Doppler model has negligible influence on the derived frequency profile
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
de La Bernardie, Jérôme; de Dreuzy, Jean-Raynald; Bour, Olivier; Thierion, Charlotte; Ausseur, Jean-Yves; Lesuer, Hervé; Le Borgne, Tanguy
2016-04-01
Geothermal energy is a renewable energy source particularly attractive due to associated low greenhouse gas emission rates. Crystalline rocks are in general considered of poor interest for geothermal applications at shallow depths (< 100m), because of the low permeability of the medium. In some cases, fractures may enhance permeability, but thermal energy storage at these shallow depths is still remaining very challenging because of the complexity of fractured media. The purpose of this study is to test the possibility of efficient thermal energy storage in shallow fractured rocks with a single well semi open loop heat exchanger (standing column well). For doing so, a simplified numerical model of fractured media is considered with few fractures. Here we present the different steps for building the model and for achieving the sensitivity analysis. First, an analytical and dimensional study on the equations has been achieved to highlight the main parameters that control the optimization of the system. In a second step, multiphysics software COMSOL was used to achieve numerical simulations in a very simplified model of fractured media. The objective was to test the efficiency of such a system to store and recover thermal energy depending on i) the few parameters controlling fracture network geometry (size and number of fractures) and ii) the frequency of cycles used to store and recover thermal energy. The results have then been compared to reference shallow geothermal systems already set up for porous media. Through this study, relationships between structure, heat exchanges and storage may be highlighted.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Choi, Junil; Love, David J.; Bidigare, Patrick
2014-10-01
The concept of deploying a large number of antennas at the base station, often called massive multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO), has drawn considerable interest because of its potential ability to revolutionize current wireless communication systems. Most literature on massive MIMO systems assumes time division duplexing (TDD), although frequency division duplexing (FDD) dominates current cellular systems. Due to the large number of transmit antennas at the base station, currently standardized approaches would require a large percentage of the precious downlink and uplink resources in FDD massive MIMO be used for training signal transmissions and channel state information (CSI) feedback. To reduce the overhead of the downlink training phase, we propose practical open-loop and closed-loop training frameworks in this paper. We assume the base station and the user share a common set of training signals in advance. In open-loop training, the base station transmits training signals in a round-robin manner, and the user successively estimates the current channel using long-term channel statistics such as temporal and spatial correlations and previous channel estimates. In closed-loop training, the user feeds back the best training signal to be sent in the future based on channel prediction and the previously received training signals. With a small amount of feedback from the user to the base station, closed-loop training offers better performance in the data communication phase, especially when the signal-to-noise ratio is low, the number of transmit antennas is large, or prior channel estimates are not accurate at the beginning of the communication setup, all of which would be mostly beneficial for massive MIMO systems.
New numerical methods for open-loop and feedback solutions to dynamic optimization problems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ghosh, Pradipto
The topic of the first part of this research is trajectory optimization of dynamical systems via computational swarm intelligence. Particle swarm optimization is a nature-inspired heuristic search method that relies on a group of potential solutions to explore the fitness landscape. Conceptually, each particle in the swarm uses its own memory as well as the knowledge accumulated by the entire swarm to iteratively converge on an optimal or near-optimal solution. It is relatively straightforward to implement and unlike gradient-based solvers, does not require an initial guess or continuity in the problem definition. Although particle swarm optimization has been successfully employed in solving static optimization problems, its application in dynamic optimization, as posed in optimal control theory, is still relatively new. In the first half of this thesis particle swarm optimization is used to generate near-optimal solutions to several nontrivial trajectory optimization problems including thrust programming for minimum fuel, multi-burn spacecraft orbit transfer, and computing minimum-time rest-to-rest trajectories for a robotic manipulator. A distinct feature of the particle swarm optimization implementation in this work is the runtime selection of the optimal solution structure. Optimal trajectories are generated by solving instances of constrained nonlinear mixed-integer programming problems with the swarming technique. For each solved optimal programming problem, the particle swarm optimization result is compared with a nearly exact solution found via a direct method using nonlinear programming. Numerical experiments indicate that swarm search can locate solutions to very great accuracy. The second half of this research develops a new extremal-field approach for synthesizing nearly optimal feedback controllers for optimal control and two-player pursuit-evasion games described by general nonlinear differential equations. A notable revelation from this development
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fossoul, F.; Orban, P.; Dassargues, A.; Hydrogeology; Environmental Geology
2011-12-01
Innovative and efficient strategies for energy use become a priority, especially in civil engineering. Geothermal open-loop systems (geothermal wells) are not so developed in Belgium contrary to close-loop systems. This is generally due to the lack of relevant dimensioning and impact study that must be foreseen during the planning phases of the building. However, as shallow groundwater is widely available, geothermal wells potential is significant. Using both experimental and numerical tools, our aim is to develop a rigorous methodology to design heating and cooling shallow geothermal wells (pumping/reinjection), with a detailed hydrogeological characterization coupled to feasibility, environmental impact assessment, dimensioning, and system sustainability. Concerning numerical modeling, Groundwater flow and heat transfer is computed using different codes (HydroGeoSphere, MT3DMS and SHEMAT) for a comparative sensitivity analysis on a typical case. Coupling and temperature non linearities of hydro-thermal parameters values are checked accurately. As shown previously, small temperature variations (temperatures ranging from 12 to 25 °C) allow to use conventional solute transport codes for modeling heat transfer in groundwater taking benefits of the similarities between solute transport and heat transfer equations. When numerical codes are used as dimensioning tools for long-term simulations, reliable values for hydro-thermal properties of the aquifer are essential. As very few experimental values are available in the literature, field experiments are needed to determine more accurately the local values in different geological/hydrogeological conditions. Apart from thermal response tests (TRT) usually performed for designing a close-loop system within a borehole considered in static groundwater conditions, there is no standard procedure for geothermal wells systems. In an open-loop system, groundwater movement induced by the pumping is responsible for a major heat
Quasi-open loop hydraulic ram incremental actuator with power conserving properties
Raymond, E.T.; Robinson, C.W.
1982-12-14
An electric stepping motor, operated by command signals from a computer or a microprocessor, rotates a rotary control member of a distributor valve, for sequencing hydraulic pressure and hence flow to the cylinders of an axial piston hydraulic machine. A group of the cylinders are subjected to pressure and flow and the remaining cylinders are vented to a return line. Rotation of the rotary control valve member sequences pressurization by progressively adding a cylinder to the forward edge to the pressurized group and removing a cylinder from the trailing edge of the pressurized group. The double ended pistons of each new pressurized group function to drive a wobble plate into a new position of equilibrium and then hold it in such position until another change in the makeup of the pressurized group. These pistons also displace hydraulic fluid from the opposite cylinder head which serves as the output of a pumping element. An increment of displacement of the wobble plate occurs in direct response to each command pulse that is received by the stepping motor. Wobble plate displacement drives the rotary valve of the hydraulic power transfer unit, causing it to transfer hydraulic fluid from a first expansible chamber on one side of a piston in a hydraulic ram to a second expansible chamber on the opposite side of the piston. Reverse drive of the hydraulic power transfer unit reverses the direction of transfer of hydraulic fluid between the two expansible chambers.
A microfluidic device for open loop stripping of volatile organic compounds.
Cvetković, Benjamin Z; Dittrich, Petra S
2013-03-01
The detection of volatile organic compounds is of great importance for assessing the quality of water. In this contribution, we describe a miniaturized stripping device that allows fast online detection of organic solvents in water. The core component is a glass microfluidic chip that facilitates the creation of an annular-flowing stream of water and nitrogen gas. Volatile compounds are transferred efficiently from the water into the gas phase along the microfluidic pathway at room temperature within less than 5 s. Before exiting the microchip, the liquid phase is separated from the enriched gas phase by incorporating side capillaries through which the hydrophilic water phase is withdrawn. The gas phase is conveniently collected at the outlet reservoir by tubing. Finally, a semiconductor gas sensor analyzes the concentration of (volatile) organic compounds in the nitrogen gas. The operation and use of the stripping device is demonstrated for the organic solvents THF, 1-propanol, toluene, ethylbenzene, benzaldehyde, and methanol. The mobile, inexpensive, and continuously operating system with liquid flow rates in the low range of microliters per minute can be connected to other detectors or implemented in chemical production line for process control.
Advanced Hybrid Spacesuit Concept Featuring Integrated Open Loop and Closed Loop Ventilation Systems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Daniel, Brian A.; Fitzpatrick, Garret R.; Gohmert, Dustin M.; Ybarra, Rick M.; Dub, Mark O.
2013-01-01
A document discusses the design and prototype of an advanced spacesuit concept that integrates the capability to function seamlessly with multiple ventilation system approaches. Traditionally, spacesuits are designed to operate both dependently and independently of a host vehicle environment control and life support system (ECLSS). Spacesuits that operate independent of vehicle-provided ECLSS services must do so with equipment selfcontained within or on the spacesuit. Suits that are dependent on vehicle-provided consumables must remain physically connected to and integrated with the vehicle to operate properly. This innovation is the design and prototype of a hybrid spacesuit approach that configures the spacesuit to seamlessly interface and integrate with either type of vehicular systems, while still maintaining the ability to function completely independent of the vehicle. An existing Advanced Crew Escape Suit (ACES) was utilized as the platform from which to develop the innovation. The ACES was retrofitted with selected components and one-off items to achieve the objective. The ventilation system concept was developed and prototyped/retrofitted to an existing ACES. Components were selected to provide suit connectors, hoses/umbilicals, internal breathing system ducting/ conduits, etc. The concept utilizes a lowpressure- drop, high-flow ventilation system that serves as a conduit from the vehicle supply into the suit, up through a neck seal, into the breathing helmet cavity, back down through the neck seal, out of the suit, and returned to the vehicle. The concept also utilizes a modified demand-based breathing system configured to function seamlessly with the low-pressure-drop closed-loop ventilation system.
Evaluation of Moisture Retrievals Based on Open-Loop Radio Occultation Data from COSMIC and SAC-C
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ao, C. O.; Hajj, G. A.; Iijima, B. A.; Mannucci, A. J.; Meehan, T. K.
2006-12-01
The launch of COSMIC/Formosat-3 constellation represents a tremendous step forward in the remote sensing of the atmosphere with the GPS radio occultation technique. Not only does it dramatically increase the spatiotemporal coverage over the existing pseudo-constellation of CHAMP, SAC-C, and GRACE, but it is also designed to acquire the occulting GPS signal through the open-loop (OL) tracking mode from the very start. Previous studies have shown that over moist regions, the presence of fine vertical-scale water vapor structures could lead to strong signal dynamics and periods of low signal-to-noise ratio. Data acquired using the traditional closed-loop (CL) tracking mode are therefore prone to introduce errors in the lower troposphere. This has a profound consequence on the water vapor retrievals, especially in the tropics. In this study, we will present results from the analysis of recent OL data from COSMIC and SAC-C. We will discuss the improvement of water vapor retrievals from OL data over CL data from CHAMP and GRACE. An assessment of accuracy in the lower troposphere and the planetary boundary layer will be given, taking into account the possible dry bias due to ducting.
Kobayashi, Naritaka; Asakawa, Hitoshi; Fukuma, Takeshi
2012-03-01
Recent development of open-loop electric potential microscopy (OL-EPM) has enabled to measure local potential distribution at a solid/liquid interface. However, the operating environment of OL-EPM has been limited to a weak electrolyte solution (<1 mM). This has significantly limited its application range in biology and chemistry. To overcome this limitation, we have developed dual frequency (DF) mode OL-EPM. In the method, an ac bias voltage consisting of two frequency components at f(1) and f(2) is applied between a tip and sample. The local potential is calculated from the amplitudes of the f(1) and |f(1) - f(2)| components of the electrostatic force. In contrast to the conventional single frequency (SF) mode OL-EPM, the detection of the 2f(1) component is not required in DF mode. Thus, the maximum bias modulation frequency in DF mode is twice as high as that in SF mode. The high bias modulation frequency used in DF mode prevents the generation of electrochemical reactions and redistribution of ions and water, which enables to operate OL-EPM even in a strong electrolyte solution. In this study, we have performed potential measurements of nanoparticles on a graphite surface in 1 and 10 mM NaCl solution. The results demonstrate that DF mode OL-EPM allows measurements of local potential distribution in 10 mM electrolyte solution.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ying, Diqing; Mao, Jianmin; Li, Qiang; Jin, Zhonghe
2016-01-01
A miniaturized compact open-loop resonator fiber optic gyro (RFOG) prototype with main body size of about 10.4 cm×10.4 cm×5.2 cm is reported, and a demodulation signal compensation technique is proposed, aiming to suppress the drift arising from accompanying intensity modulation induced by semiconductor laser diode (LD). The scheme of how to establish this miniaturized RFOG prototype is specifically stated. The linear relationship between the first-harmonic and second-harmonic demodulated signals respectively for the two counter propagating beams in the resonator is verified by theory and experiment, and based on this relationship, the demodulation signal compensation technique by monitoring the second-harmonic demodulated signal is described in detail. With this compensation technique, the gyro output stability under 1°/s rotation rate is effectively improved from 0.12°/s to 0.03°/s, and especially, an about 0.36°/s peak-to-peak fluctuation due to tuning current reset is significantly suppressed. A long term bias stability of about 4.5°/h in 1 h for such a small-sized RFOG prototype is demonstrated, which is of the same magnitude as that of currently reported large-sized RFOG systems utilizing LD as the laser source as well.
A new open-loop fiber optic gyro error compensation method based on angular velocity error modeling.
Zhang, Yanshun; Guo, Yajing; Li, Chunyu; Wang, Yixin; Wang, Zhanqing
2015-02-27
With the open-loop fiber optic gyro (OFOG) model, output voltage and angular velocity can effectively compensate OFOG errors. However, the model cannot reflect the characteristics of OFOG errors well when it comes to pretty large dynamic angular velocities. This paper puts forward a modeling scheme with OFOG output voltage u and temperature T as the input variables and angular velocity error Δω as the output variable. Firstly, the angular velocity error Δω is extracted from OFOG output signals, and then the output voltage u, temperature T and angular velocity error Δω are used as the learning samples to train a Radial-Basis-Function (RBF) neural network model. Then the nonlinear mapping model over T, u and Δω is established and thus Δω can be calculated automatically to compensate OFOG errors according to T and u. The results of the experiments show that the established model can be used to compensate the nonlinear OFOG errors. The maximum, the minimum and the mean square error of OFOG angular velocity are decreased by 97.0%, 97.1% and 96.5% relative to their initial values, respectively. Compared with the direct modeling of gyro angular velocity, which we researched before, the experimental results of the compensating method proposed in this paper are further reduced by 1.6%, 1.4% and 1.42%, respectively, so the performance of this method is better than that of the direct modeling for gyro angular velocity.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bassi, Sandro; Decina, Maurizio; Giacomazzi, Paolo; Pattavina, Achille
1994-10-01
A new class of switching architectures for broadband packet networks, called Shuffleout, is described and analyzed in this paper. Shuffleout is basically an output-queued architecture with a multistage interconnection network built out of unbuffered b x 2b switching elements. Its structure is such that the number of cells that can be concurrently switched from the inlets to each output queue equals the number of stages in the interconnection network. The switching element operates the cell self-routing adopting a shortest path algorithm which, in case of conflict for interstage links, is coupled with deflection routing. This paper presents the basic Shuffleout architecture, called Open-Loop Shuffleout, in which the cells that cross the whole interconnection network without entering the addressed output queues are lost. A different version of this architecture, called Closed-Loop Shuffleout, in which cells are allowed to cross the interconnection network several times before entering the appropriate output queue, is described in a companion paper. The key target of the proposed architecture is coupling the implementation feasibility of a self-routing switch with the desirable traffic performance typical of output queueing.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
You, Seung-Han; Cho, Young Man; Hahn, Jin-Oh
2013-04-01
This study presents a component-level failure detection and identification (FDI) algorithm for a cascade mechanical system subsuming a plant driven by an actuator unit. The novelty of the FDI algorithm presented in this study is that it is able to discriminate failure occurring in the actuator unit, the sensor measuring the output of the actuator unit, and the plant driven by the actuator unit. The proposed FDI algorithm exploits the measurement of the actuator unit output together with its estimates generated by open-loop (OL) and closed-loop (CL) estimators to enable FDI at the component's level. In this study, the OL estimator is designed based on the system identification of the actuator unit. The CL estimator, which is guaranteed to be stable against variations in the plant, is synthesized based on the dynamics of the entire cascade system. The viability of the proposed algorithm is demonstrated using a hardware-in-the-loop simulation (HILS), which shows that it can detect and identify target failures reliably in the presence of plant uncertainties.
Sarri, Margarita; Greenwood, Richard; Kalra, Lalit; Papps, Ben; Husain, Masud; Driver, Jon
2008-03-07
Prism adaptation to rightward optical shifts during visually guided pointing is considered a promising intervention in right-hemisphere stroke patients with left spatial neglect. Conventionally, prism adaptation is assessed via aftereffects, on subjective straight ahead (SSA) pointing with eyes closed; or by visual open-loop pointing (VOL), i.e. pointing to a visual target without seeing the hand. Previous data suggest indirectly that prism aftereffects in neglect patients may be larger (pathologically so) when assessed by SSA than by VOL. But these measures have never been directly compared within the same patients after identical prism exposure. Accordingly we implemented both measures here within the same group of 13 neglect patients and 13 controls. Prism aftereffects were much larger for SSA than VOL in neglect patients, falling outside the normative range only for SSA. This may arise because the SSA task can itself involve aspects of neglect that may be ameliorated by the prism intervention, hence showing abnormal changes after prisms. The extent of SSA change after prisms varied between patients, and correlated with improvements on a standard cancellation measure for neglect. The lesions of patients who did versus did not show neglect improvement immediately after prisms provide an initial indication that lack of improvement may potentially relate to cortical damage in right intraparietal sulcus and white matter damage in inferior parietal lobe and middle frontal gyrus. Future studies of possible rehabilitative impact from prisms upon neglect may need to consider carefully how to measure prism adaptation per se, separately from any impact of such adaptation upon manifestations of neglect.
Viallet, F; Trouche, E; Beaubaton, D; Legallet, E
1987-01-01
In order to elucidate the compensatory role of visual feedback during movement, two experiments were designed to compare the motor performances of Papio papio baboons depending on whether the animals were able to visually control the limb trajectory (visual closed-loop condition) or not (visual open-loop condition). The visuomotor task used consisted of making trained pointing movements towards a stationary target. In experiment A, the baboons were successively presented with these two experimental conditions. The abolition of visual control was found to cause no change in either reaction time (RT) or movement time (MT), but brought about extensive pointing errors. It was also associated with a conspicuous increase in the mean velocity and the mean length of the trajectories. In experiment B, two groups of baboons were used. The monkeys in the first group were required to perform under closed loop conditions. The second group performed the pointing movement under open loop conditions. Once criterion was reached by each animal, a unilateral electrolytic lesion of the substantia nigra (SN) was performed. A comparison between the post operative performances of the animals in the two groups showed that suppression of visual cues resulted in a lengthening of the RT and a slowing of the movement speed. Moreover when visual feedback was lacking, the amplitude of the movement decreased and the finger fell short of the target. During the last post operative period, suppression of visual feedback brought about a more rapid return of RTs to their preoperative level and a more durable slowing of movement speed than with normal vision. The discussion deals with the role of visual feed-back in the control of movement preparation and execution, and with the change in mode of motor control caused by lesion of the SN. Partial exclusion of the SN might bring about a shift from the feedforward to a feedback mode relying more heavily on visual cues.
A New Open-Loop Fiber Optic Gyro Error Compensation Method Based on Angular Velocity Error Modeling
Zhang, Yanshun; Guo, Yajing; Li, Chunyu; Wang, Yixin; Wang, Zhanqing
2015-01-01
With the open-loop fiber optic gyro (OFOG) model, output voltage and angular velocity can effectively compensate OFOG errors. However, the model cannot reflect the characteristics of OFOG errors well when it comes to pretty large dynamic angular velocities. This paper puts forward a modeling scheme with OFOG output voltage u and temperature T as the input variables and angular velocity error Δω as the output variable. Firstly, the angular velocity error Δω is extracted from OFOG output signals, and then the output voltage u, temperature T and angular velocity error Δω are used as the learning samples to train a Radial-Basis-Function (RBF) neural network model. Then the nonlinear mapping model over T, u and Δω is established and thus Δω can be calculated automatically to compensate OFOG errors according to T and u. The results of the experiments show that the established model can be used to compensate the nonlinear OFOG errors. The maximum, the minimum and the mean square error of OFOG angular velocity are decreased by 97.0%, 97.1% and 96.5% relative to their initial values, respectively. Compared with the direct modeling of gyro angular velocity, which we researched before, the experimental results of the compensating method proposed in this paper are further reduced by 1.6%, 1.4% and 1.2%, respectively, so the performance of this method is better than that of the direct modeling for gyro angular velocity. PMID:25734642
Zhu, Zhaoyi; Mu, Quanquan; Li, Dayu; Yang, Chengliang; Cao, Zhaoliang; Hu, Lifa; Xuan, Li
2016-10-17
The centroid-based Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor (SHWFS) treats the sampled wavefronts in the sub-apertures as planes, and the slopes of the sub-wavefronts are used to reconstruct the whole pupil wavefront. The problem is that the centroid method may fail to sense the high-order modes for strong turbulences, decreasing the precision of the whole pupil wavefront reconstruction. To solve this problem, we propose a sub-wavefront estimation method for SHWFS based on the focal plane sensing technique, by which more Zernike modes than the two slopes can be sensed in each sub-aperture. In this paper, the effects on the sub-wavefront estimation method of the related parameters, such as the spot size, the phase offset with its set amplitude and the pixels number in each sub-aperture, are analyzed and these parameters are optimized to achieve high efficiency. After the optimization, open-loop measurement is realized. For the sub-wavefront sensing, we achieve a large linearity range of 3.0 rad RMS for Zernike modes Z2 and Z3, and 2.0 rad RMS for Zernike modes Z4 to Z6 when the pixel number does not exceed 8 × 8 in each sub-aperture. The whole pupil wavefront reconstruction with the modified SHWFS is realized to analyze the improvements brought by the optimized sub-wavefront estimation method. Sixty-five Zernike modes can be reconstructed with a modified SHWFS containing only 7 × 7 sub-apertures, which could reconstruct only 35 modes by the centroid method, and the mean RMS errors of the residual phases are less than 0.2 rad^{2}, which is lower than the 0.35 rad^{2} by the centroid method.
Sahoo, Deepti; Andersson, Jonatan; Mattiasson, Bo
2009-06-01
Open-loop simulated moving bed (SMB) has been used for immobilized metal affinity chromatographic (IMAC) purification of his-tagged beta-glucosidase expressed in E. coli. A simplified approach based on an optimized single column protocol is used to design the open-loop SMB. A set of columns in the SMB represent one step in the chromatographic cycle i.e. there will be one set each of columns for load, wash, elution etc within the SMB. Only the wash and elution are operated with columns in sequence. The beta-glucosidase was purified to almost single band purity with a purification factor of 15 and a recovery of 91%. SMB-performance showed reduced buffer consumption, higher purification fold, a better yield and higher productivity.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Callier, F. M.; Desoer, C. A.
1974-01-01
The loop transformation technique (Sandberg, 1965; Zames, 1966, Willems, 1971), and the fixed point theorem (Schwartz, 1970) are used to derive the L(superscript-p) stability for a class of multivariable nonlinear time-varying feedback systems which are open-loop unstable. The application of the fixed point theorem in L(superscript-p) shows that the nonlinear feedback system has one and only one solution for any pair of inputs in L(superscript-p), that the solutions are continuously dependent on the inputs, and that the closed loop system is L(superscript-p)-stable for any p ranging from 1 to infinity.
Closed-Loop Control of Vortex Formation in Separated Flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Colonius, Tim; Joe, Won Tae; MacMynowski, Doug; Rowley, Clancy; Taira, Sam; Ahuja, Sunil
2010-01-01
In order to phase lock the flow at the desired shedding cycle, particularly at Phi,best, We designed a feedback compensator. (Even though the open-loop forcing at Wf below Wn can lead to phase-locked limit cycles with a high average lift,) This feedback controller resulted in the phase-locked limit cycles that the open-loop control could not achieve for alpha=30 and 40 Particularly for alpha=40, the feedback was able to stabilize the limit cycle that was not stable with any of the open-loop periodic forcing. This results in stable phase-locked limit cycles for a larger range of forcing frequencies than the open-loop control. Also, it was shown that the feedback achieved the high-lift unsteady flow states that open-loop control could not sustain even after the states have been achieved for a long period of time.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Haase, J. S.; Murphy, B.; Wang, K. N.; Garrison, J. L.; Adhikari, L.; Xie, F.
2015-12-01
The development of hurricane Karl in 2010 was investigated with dropsonde and airborne radio occultation (ARO) measurements from the stage of tropical disturbance within an easterly wave through to genesis of the tropical storm. Infrared imagery showed deep convection with extensive cold cloud tops on 11 September however the storm failed to develop until 3 days later. One possible explanation is the horizontal offset of the mid and lower level circulation centers. We illustrate with airborne radio occultation measurements additional information on the moisture distribution during this stage of development that indicates that average mid-level moisture was lower the following day and then increased again over the next two days prior to development. High sample rate RF data recorded by the GNSS instrument system for multistatic and occultation sensing (GISMOS) was analyzed with a version of the Purdue Software Receiver that has open-loop tracking implemented. Open loop tracking eliminates the feedback loop of conventional receivers that fails in the complex signal propagation environment typical of atmosphere with sharp moisture gradients. The open-loop excess phase profiles routinely sample below 4 km, with half of the profiles extending below 2 km. We retrieve slanted vertical profiles of atmospheric refractivity that can be considered a proxy for moisture in this tropical environment. We illustrate that in the mid to upper troposphere, ARO refractivity profiles sampling different areas within the tropical wave showed characteristics that were consistent with (~150 to 200 km scale) horizontal moisture gradients present in the NWP model representation of the developing tropical storm. Variation in refractivity preceding the development of the pre-Karl system is consistent with increasing moisture near the storm center. The ARO observations almost double the amount of thermodynamic data over that provided by the dropsondes. They provide interesting complementary
Chong, Kok-Keong; Wong, Chee-Woon; Siaw, Fei-Lu; Yew, Tiong-Keat; Ng, See-Seng; Liang, Meng-Suan; Lim, Yun-Seng; Lau, Sing-Liong
2009-01-01
A novel on-axis general sun-tracking formula has been integrated in the algorithm of an open-loop sun-tracking system in order to track the sun accurately and cost effectively. Sun-tracking errors due to installation defects of the 25 m2 prototype solar concentrator have been analyzed from recorded solar images with the use of a CCD camera. With the recorded data, misaligned angles from ideal azimuth-elevation axes have been determined and corrected by a straightforward changing of the parameters' values in the general formula of the tracking algorithm to improve the tracking accuracy to 2.99 mrad, which falls below the encoder resolution limit of 4.13 mrad. PMID:22408483
Dynamic optimization of open-loop input signals for ramp-up current profiles in tokamak plasmas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ren, Zhigang; Xu, Chao; Lin, Qun; Loxton, Ryan; Teo, Kok Lay
2016-03-01
Establishing a good current spatial profile in tokamak fusion reactors is crucial to effective steady-state operation. The evolution of the current spatial profile is related to the evolution of the poloidal magnetic flux, which can be modeled in the normalized cylindrical coordinates using a parabolic partial differential equation (PDE) called the magnetic diffusion equation. In this paper, we consider the dynamic optimization problem of attaining the best possible current spatial profile during the ramp-up phase of the tokamak. We first use the Galerkin method to obtain a finite-dimensional ordinary differential equation (ODE) model based on the original magnetic diffusion PDE. Then, we combine the control parameterization method with a novel time-scaling transformation to obtain an approximate optimal parameter selection problem, which can be solved using gradient-based optimization techniques such as sequential quadratic programming (SQP). This control parameterization approach involves approximating the tokamak input signals by piecewise-linear functions whose slopes and break-points are decision variables to be optimized. We show that the gradient of the objective function with respect to the decision variables can be computed by solving an auxiliary dynamic system governing the state sensitivity matrix. Finally, we conclude the paper with simulation results for an example problem based on experimental data from the DIII-D tokamak in San Diego, California.
Masson, G. S.; Yang, D. -S.; Miles, F. A.
2008-01-01
We examined the velocity dependence of the vergence and version eye movements elicited by motion stimuli that were symmetric or asymmetric at the two eyes. Movements of both eyes were recorded with the scleral search coil technique. Vergence was computed as the difference in the positions of the two eyes (left − right) and version was computed as the average position of the two eyes ((left + right)/2). Subjects faced a large tangent screen onto which two identical random-dot patterns were back-projected. Each pattern was viewed by one eye only using crossed-polarizers and its position was controlled by X/Y mirror galvanometers. Viewing was always binocular and horizontal velocity steps (range, 5 to 240°/s) were applied to one (asymmetric stimulus) or both (symmetric stimulus) patterns ~50ms after a centering saccade. With the symmetric stimulus, the motion at the two eyes could be either in the opposite direction (eliciting vergence responses) or in the same direction (eliciting version responses). The asymmetric stimuli elicited both vergence and version. In all cases, minimum response latencies were very short (<90 ms). Velocity tuning curves (based on the changes in vergence and version over the time period, 90–140 ms) were all sigmoidal and peaked when the monocular (i.e., retinal) image velocities were 30–60°/s. The vergence (version) responses to symmetric stimuli were linearly related to the vergence (version) responses to asymmetric stimuli when expressed in terms of the monocular rather than the binocular image velocities. We conclude that the dynamical limits for both vergence and version are imposed in the monocular visual pathways, before the inputs from the two eyes are combined. PMID:12450510
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rahman, Md. Lutfor; Afrose, Tonima; Tahmina, Halima Khatun; Rinky, Rumana Parvin; Ali, Mohammad
2016-07-01
Pulsating heat pipe (PHP) is a new innovation in the modern era of miniaturizes thermal management system for its higher heating and cooling capacity. The objective of this experiment is to observe the performance of open loop pulsating heat pipe using two fluids at different filling ratios. This OLPHP is a copper capillary tube of 2.5mm outer diameter and 2mm inner diameter. It consists of 8 loops where the evaporative section is 50mm, adiabatic section is 120mm and condensation section is 80mm. The experiment is conducted with distilled water and acetone at 40%, 50%, 60%, and 70% filling ratios where 0° (vertical) is considered as definite angle of inclination. Distilled water and acetone are selected as working fluids considering their different latent heat of vaporization and surface tension. It is found that acetone shows lower thermal resistance than water at all heat inputs. Best performance of acetone is attained at 70% filling ratio. Water displays better heat transfer capability at 50% filling ratio.
Origin and control of instability in SCR/triac three-phase motor controllers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dearth, J. J.
1982-01-01
The energy savings and reactive power reduction functions initiated by the power factor controller (PFC) are discussed. A three-phase PFC with soft start is examined analytically and experimentally to determine how well it controls the open loop instability and other possible modes of instability. The detailed mechanism of the open loop instability is determined and shown to impose design constraints on the closed loop system. The design is shown to meet those constraints.
Freedman, Vicky L.; Mackley, Rob D.; Waichler, Scott R.; Horner, Jacob A.
2013-09-26
In an open-loop groundwater heat pump (GHP) system, groundwater is extracted, run through a heat exchanger, and injected back into the ground, resulting in no mass balance changes to the flow system. Although the groundwater use is non-consumptive, the withdrawal and injection of groundwater may cause negative hydraulic and thermal impacts to the flow system. Because GHP is a relatively new technology and regulatory guidelines for determining environmental impacts for GHPs may not exist, consumptive use metrics may need to be used for permit applications. For consumptive use permits, a radius of influence is often used, which is defined as the radius beyond which hydraulic impacts to the system are considered negligible. In this paper, the hydraulic radius of influence concept was examined using analytical and numerical methods for a non-consumptive GHP system in southeastern Washington State. At this location, the primary hydraulic concerns were impacts to nearby contaminant plumes and a water supply well field. The results of this study showed that the analytical techniques with idealized radial flow were generally unsuited because they over predicted the influence of the well system. The numerical techniques yielded more reasonable results because they could account for aquifer heterogeneities and flow boundaries. In particular, the use of a capture zone analysis was identified as the best method for determining potential changes in current contaminant plume trajectories. The capture zone analysis is a more quantitative and reliable tool for determining the radius of influence with a greater accuracy and better insight for a non-consumptive GHP assessment.
Application of narrow band control to reduce vibrations in magnetic bearing systems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gaffney, Monique S.; Johnson, Bruce G.
1992-01-01
The benefits of narrowband control theory for simple, open-loop stable systems are illustrated, and how the approach changes for magnetic bearing systems, which are open-loop unstable, is discussed. Magnetic bearing systems are good applications for narrowband control theory. Two sources of synchronous forces, the measurement error and the magnetic unbalance, are discussed. Both the measurement error and the magnetic unbalance manifest themselves as synchronous disturbances. It is shown that narrowband control theory for simple, open-loop stable systems provides excellent performance and good stability robustness. Because magnetic bearing systems are open-loop stable, the narrowband control approach becomes more complex. Disturbance accommodating control (DAC) theory is introduced as an effective approach to reduce vibrations in magnetic bearing systems. It is used to develop a control/estimation scheme that enables the rotor to spin about its center of mass in the presence of the measurement error disturbances.
An optimal open/closed-loop control method with application to a pre-stressed thin duralumin plate
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nadimpalli, Sruthi Raju
The excessive vibrations of a pre-stressed duralumin plate, suppressed by a combination of open-loop and closed-loop controls, also known as open/closed-loop control, is studied in this thesis. The two primary steps involved in this process are: Step (I) with an assumption that the closed-loop control law is proportional, obtain the optimal open-loop control by direct minimization of the performance measure consisting of energy at terminal time and a penalty on open-loop control force via calculus of variations. If the performance measure also involves a penalty on closed-loop control effort then a Fourier based method is utilized. Step (II) the energy at terminal time is minimized numerically to obtain optimal values of feedback gains. The optimal closed-loop control gains obtained are used to describe the displacement and the velocity of open-loop, closed-loop and open/closed-loop controlled duralumin plate.
2011-03-01
ix List of Figures Figure 1: Series hybrid configuration [12... Electromotive Force (V) Um Electric Motor Open Circuit Voltage (V) u Clutch Displacement Angle (rad) Vbat Battery Voltage (V) Vd Cylinder Displacement...of three areas: series hybrid, parallel hybrid, and the power-split hybrid. A great number of these designs incorporate the gasoline internal
Iterative LQG Controller Design Through Closed-Loop Identification
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hsiao, Min-Hung; Huang, Jen-Kuang; Cox, David E.
1996-01-01
This paper presents an iterative Linear Quadratic Gaussian (LQG) controller design approach for a linear stochastic system with an uncertain open-loop model and unknown noise statistics. This approach consists of closed-loop identification and controller redesign cycles. In each cycle, the closed-loop identification method is used to identify an open-loop model and a steady-state Kalman filter gain from closed-loop input/output test data obtained by using a feedback LQG controller designed from the previous cycle. Then the identified open-loop model is used to redesign the state feedback. The state feedback and the identified Kalman filter gain are used to form an updated LQC controller for the next cycle. This iterative process continues until the updated controller converges. The proposed controller design is demonstrated by numerical simulations and experiments on a highly unstable large-gap magnetic suspension system.
Multivariable Control System Design for a Submarine,
1984-05-01
Open Loop Singular Values for the 5 and 1S Knot Linear Modelo *~~* b % % V’ , * % ~ .%~ C 9 ~ V. --.- V. V.-.--.--46..- S. 77’ Model S20R5 20- 10- -0...Control, Addison-Wesley, 1976, pp 65-86. 14. Kevin Boettcher, Analysis of Multivariable Control Systems with Structured Uncertainty, Area Examination
Hybrid force-velocity sliding mode control of a prosthetic hand.
Engeberg, Erik D; Meek, Sanford G; Minor, Mark A
2008-05-01
Four different methods of hand prosthesis control are developed and examined experimentally. Open-loop control is shown to offer the least sensitivity when manipulating objects. Force feedback substantially improves upon open-loop control. However, it is shown that the inclusion of velocity and/or position feedback in a hybrid force-velocity control scheme can further improve the functionality of hand prostheses. Experimental results indicate that the sliding mode controller with force, position, and velocity feedback is less prone to unwanted force overshoot when initially grasping objects than the other controllers.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Clementina Caputo, Maria; Masciale, Rita; Masciopinto, Costantino; De Carlo, Lorenzo
2016-04-01
The high cost and scarcity of fossil fuels have promoted the increased use of natural heat for a number of direct applications. Just as for fossil fuels, the exploitation of geothermal energy should consider its environmental impact and sustainability. Particular attention deserves the so-called open loop geothermal groundwater heat pump (GWHP) system, which uses groundwater as geothermal fluid. From an economic point of view, the implementation of this kind of geothermal system is particularly attractive in coastal areas, which have generally shallow aquifers. Anyway the potential problem of seawater intrusion has led to laws that restrict the use of groundwater. The scarcity of freshwater could be a major impediment for the utilization of geothermal resources. In this study a new methodology has been proposed. It was based on an experimental approach to characterize a coastal area in order to exploit the low-enthalpy geothermal resource. The coastal karst and fractured aquifer near Bari, in Southern Italy, was selected for this purpose. For the purpose of investigating the influence of an open-loop GWHP system on the seawater intrusion, a long-term pumping test was performed. The test simulated the effects of a prolonged withdrawal on the chemical-physical groundwater characteristics of the studied aquifer portion. The duration of the test was programmed in 16 days, and it was performed with a constant pumping flowrate of 50 m3/h. The extracted water was outflowed into an adjacent artificial channel, by means of a piping system. Water depth, temperature and electrical conductivity of the pumped water were monitored for 37 days, including also some days before and after the pumping duration. The monitored parameters, collected in the pumping and in five observation wells placed 160 m down-gradient with respect to the groundwater flow direction, have been used to estimate different scenarios of the impact of the GWHP system on the seawater intrusion by mean of a
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bundick, W. Thomas; Middleton, David B.; Poole, William L.
1990-01-01
An experimental magnetic leader cable (MLC) system designed to measure aircraft lateral displacement from centerline and heading relative to centerline during rollout, turnoff, and taxi was tested at NASA's Wallops Flight Facility using NASA's Transport System Research Vehicle (TSRV), a modified B-737. The MLC system consisted of ground equipment that produced a magnetic field about a wire along runway centerline and airborne equipment that detected the strength and direction of this field and computed displacement and heading. Results of these tests indicate that estimates of aircraft displacement from centerline produced by the magnetic leader cable system using either of the two algorithms appear to be adequate for use by an automatic control system during rollout, turnoff, and taxi. Estimates of heading, however, are not sufficiently accurate for use, probably because of distortion of the magnetic field by the metal aircraft.
Robust Controller for Turbulent and Convective Boundary Layers
2006-08-01
about 1.5 billion barrels a year. A flow control scheme that reduces drag by 20% could save $15 billion per year (at $50 per barrel ). Reduced drag can...reported a conceptual feedback controller using Lorentz body forces to achieve sub-laminar skin-friction drag [13], our open-loop control drives the
Adaptation of a modern medium helicopter (Sikorsky S-76) to higher harmonic control
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Oleary, J. J.; Kottapalli, S. B. R.; Davis, M. W.
1985-01-01
Sikorsky Aircraft has performed analytical studies, design analyses, and risk reduction tests have been performed for Higher Harmonic Control (HHC) on the S-76. The S-76 is an 8 to 10,000 lb helicopter which cruises at 145 kts. Flight test hardware has been assembled, main servo frequency response tested and upgraded, aircraft control system shake tested and verified, open loop controllers designed and fabricated, closed loop controllers defined and evaluated, and rotors turning ground and flight tests planned for the near future. Open loop analysis shows that about 2 deg of higher harmonic feathering at the blade 75% radius will be required to eliminate 4P vibration in the cockpit.
Feedback control of waiting times
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brandes, Tobias; Emary, Clive
2016-04-01
Feedback loops are known as a versatile tool for controlling transport in small systems, which usually have large intrinsic fluctuations. Here we investigate the control of a temporal correlation function, the waiting-time distribution, under active and passive feedback conditions. We develop a general formalism and then specify to the simple unidirectional transport model, where we compare costs of open-loop and feedback control and use methods from optimal control theory to optimize waiting-time distributions.
Open-loop digital frequency multiplier
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Moore, R. C.
1977-01-01
Monostable multivibrator is implemented by using digital integrated circuits where multiplier constant is too large for conventional phase-locked-loop integrated circuit. A 400 Hz clock is generated by divide-by-N counter from 1 Hz timing reference.
INTEGRATED ROBOT-HUMAN CONTROL IN MINING OPERATIONS
George Danko
2006-04-01
This report describes the results of the 2nd year of a research project on the implementation of a novel human-robot control system for hydraulic machinery. Sensor and valve re-calibration experiments were conducted to improve open loop machine control. A Cartesian control example was tested both in simulation and on the machine; the results are discussed in detail. The machine tests included open-loop as well as closed-loop motion control. Both methods worked reasonably well, due to the high-quality electro-hydraulic valves used on the experimental machine. Experiments on 3-D analysis of the bucket trajectory using marker tracking software are also presented with the results obtained. Open-loop control is robustly stable and free of short-term dynamic problems, but it allows for drifting away from the desired motion kinematics of the machine. A novel, closed-loop control adjustment provides a remedy, while retaining much of the advantages of the open-loop control based on kinematics transformation. Additional analysis of previously recorded, three-dimensional working trajectories of the bucket of large mine shovels was completed. The motion patterns, when transformed into a family of curves, serve as the basis for software-controlled machine kinematics transformation in the new human-robot control system.
Multivariable PID control by decoupling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Garrido, Juan; Vázquez, Francisco; Morilla, Fernando
2016-04-01
This paper presents a new methodology to design multivariable proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controllers based on decoupling control. The method is presented for general n × n processes. In the design procedure, an ideal decoupling control with integral action is designed to minimise interactions. It depends on the desired open-loop processes that are specified according to realisability conditions and desired closed-loop performance specifications. These realisability conditions are stated and three common cases to define the open-loop processes are studied and proposed. Then, controller elements are approximated to PID structure. From a practical point of view, the wind-up problem is also considered and a new anti-wind-up scheme for multivariable PID controller is proposed. Comparisons with other works demonstrate the effectiveness of the methodology through the use of several simulation examples and an experimental lab process.
Active Control of Open Cavities
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
UKeiley, Lawrence
2010-01-01
Open loop edge blowing was demonstrated as an effective method for reducing the broad band and tonal components of the fluctuating surface pressure in open cavities. Closed loop has been successfully applied to low Mach number open cavities. Need to push actuators that are viable for closed loop control in bandwidth and output. Need a better understanding of the effects of control on the flow through detailed measurements so better actuation strategies can be developed.
PID Controller Settings Based on a Transient Response Experiment
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Silva, Carlos M.; Lito, Patricia F.; Neves, Patricia S.; Da Silva, Francisco A.
2008-01-01
An experimental work on controller tuning for chemical engineering undergraduate students is proposed using a small heat exchange unit. Based upon process reaction curves in open-loop configuration, system gain and time constant are determined for first order model with time delay with excellent accuracy. Afterwards students calculate PID…
Floating-point system quantization errors in digital control systems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Phillips, C. L.; Vallely, D. P.
1978-01-01
This paper considers digital controllers (filters) operating in floating-point arithmetic in either open-loop or closed-loop systems. A quantization error analysis technique is developed, and is implemented by a digital computer program that is based on a digital simulation of the system. The program can be integrated into existing digital simulations of a system.
PID Controller Settings Based on a Transient Response Experiment
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Silva, Carlos M.; Lito, Patricia F.; Neves, Patricia S.; Da Silva, Francisco A.
2008-01-01
An experimental work on controller tuning for chemical engineering undergraduate students is proposed using a small heat exchange unit. Based upon process reaction curves in open-loop configuration, system gain and time constant are determined for first order model with time delay with excellent accuracy. Afterwards students calculate PID…
Space Shuttle flight control system
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Klinar, W. J.; Kubiak, E. T.; Peters, W. H.; Saldana, R. L.; Smith, E. E., Jr.; Stegall, H. W.
1975-01-01
The Space Shuttle is a control stabilized vehicle with control provided by an all digital, fly-by-wire flight control system. This paper gives a description of the several modes of flight control which correspond to the Shuttle mission phases. These modes are ascent flight control (including open loop first stage steering, the use of four computers operating in parallel and inertial guidance sensors), on-orbit flight control (with a discussion of reaction control, phase plane switching logic, jet selection logic, state estimator logic and OMS thrust vector control), entry flight control and TAEM (terminal area energy management to landing). Also discussed are redundancy management and backup flight control.
Two-Step Design Method of Engine Control System Based on Generalized Predictive Control
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hashimoto, Seiji; Okuda, Hiroyuki; Okada, Yasushi; Adachi, Shuichi; Niwa, Shinji; Kajitani, Mitsunobu
Conservation of the environment has become critical to the automotive industry. Recently, requirements for on-board diagnostic and engine control systems have been strictly enforced. In the present paper, in order to meet the requirements for a low-emissions vehicle, a novel construction method of the air-fuel ratio (A/F) control system is proposed. The construction method of the system is divided into two steps. The first step is to design the A/F control system for the engine based on an open loop design. The second step is to design the A/F control system for the catalyst system. The design method is based on the generalized predictive control in order to satisfy the robustness to open loop control as well as model uncertainty. The effectiveness of the proposed A/F control system is verified through experiments using full-scale products.
Optimal control concepts in design sensitivity analysis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Belegundu, Ashok D.
1987-01-01
A close link is established between open loop optimal control theory and optimal design by noting certain similarities in the gradient calculations. The resulting benefits include a unified approach, together with physical insights in design sensitivity analysis, and an efficient approach for simultaneous optimal control and design. Both matrix displacement and matrix force methods are considered, and results are presented for dynamic systems, structures, and elasticity problems.
Feedback control of bimodal wake dynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Ruiying; Barros, Diogo; Borée, Jacques; Cadot, Olivier; Noack, Bernd R.; Cordier, Laurent
2016-10-01
Feedback control is applied to symmetrize the bimodal dynamics of a turbulent blunt body wake. The flow is actuated with two lateral slit jets and monitored with pressure sensors at the rear surface. The physics-based controller is inferred from preliminary open-loop tests and is capable of symmetrizing the wake. A slight pressure recovery is achieved due to the net balance between the favourable effect of wake symmetrization and adverse effect of shear-layer mixing and vortex shedding amplification.
Gust alleviation - Criteria and control laws
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rynaski, E. G.
1979-01-01
The relationships between criteria specified for aircraft gust alleviation and the form of the control laws that result from the criteria are considered. Open-loop gust alleviation based on the linearized, small perturbation equations of aircraft motion is discussed, and an approximate solution of the open-loop control law is presented for the case in which the number of degrees of freedom of the aircraft exceeds the rank of the control effectiveness matrix. Excessive actuator lag is compensated for by taking into account actuator dynamics in the equations of motion, resulting in the specification of a general load network. Criteria for gust alleviation when output motions are gust alleviated and the closed-loop control law derived from them are examined and linear optimal control law is derived. Comparisons of the control laws reveal that the effectiveness of an open-loop control law is greatest at low aircraft frequencies but deteriorates as the natural frequency of the actuators is approached, while closed-loop methods are found to be more effective at higher frequencies.
Action Control: Independent Effects of Memory and Monocular Viewing on Reaching Accuracy
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Westwood, D.A.; Robertson, C.; Heath, M.
2005-01-01
Evidence suggests that perceptual networks in the ventral visual pathway are necessary for action control when targets are viewed with only one eye, or when the target must be stored in memory. We tested whether memory-linked (i.e., open-loop versus memory-guided actions) and monocular-linked effects (i.e., binocular versus monocular actions) on…
Action Control: Independent Effects of Memory and Monocular Viewing on Reaching Accuracy
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Westwood, D.A.; Robertson, C.; Heath, M.
2005-01-01
Evidence suggests that perceptual networks in the ventral visual pathway are necessary for action control when targets are viewed with only one eye, or when the target must be stored in memory. We tested whether memory-linked (i.e., open-loop versus memory-guided actions) and monocular-linked effects (i.e., binocular versus monocular actions) on…
Turbulent boundary layer under the control of different schemes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Qiao, Z. X.; Zhou, Y.; Wu, Z.
2017-06-01
This work explores experimentally the control of a turbulent boundary layer over a flat plate based on wall perturbation generated by piezo-ceramic actuators. Different schemes are investigated, including the feed-forward, the feedback, and the combined feed-forward and feedback strategies, with a view to suppressing the near-wall high-speed events and hence reducing skin friction drag. While the strategies may achieve a local maximum drag reduction slightly less than their counterpart of the open-loop control, the corresponding duty cycles are substantially reduced when compared with that of the open-loop control. The results suggest a good potential to cut down the input energy under these control strategies. The fluctuating velocity, spectra, Taylor microscale and mean energy dissipation are measured across the boundary layer with and without control and, based on the measurements, the flow mechanism behind the control is proposed.
Proportional liquid-nitrogen valve and control system
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Christman, S. B.
1990-09-01
A proportional magnetic valve has been developed that permits continuous flow of cryogenic fluids and gases. The proportional valve (PV) may be electrically controlled in the manual mode (open loop current drive) or in the automatic mode (closed loop current drive). A complete control system for liquid-nitrogen (LN) flow control applications is described. The system includes alarm and automatic supply tank switching features.
Aeroassisted orbital maneuvering using Lyapunov optimal feedback control
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Grantham, Walter J.; Lee, Byoung-Soo
1987-01-01
A Liapunov optimal feedback controller incorporating a preferred direction of motion at each state of the system which is opposite to the gradient of a specified descent function is developed for aeroassisted orbital transfer from high-earth orbit to LEO. The performances of the Liapunov controller and a calculus-of-variations open-loop minimum-fuel controller, both of which are based on the 1962 U.S. Standard Atmosphere, are simulated using both the 1962 U.S. Standard Atmosphere and an atmosphere corresponding to the STS-6 Space Shuttle flight. In the STS-6 atmosphere, the calculus-of-variations open-loop controller fails to exit the atmosphere, while the Liapunov controller achieves the optimal minimum-fuel conditions, despite the + or - 40 percent fluctuations in the STS-6 atmosphere.
Improvements and applications of entrainment control for nonlinear dynamical systems.
Liu, Fang; Song, Qiang; Cao, Jinde
2008-12-01
This paper improves the existing entrainment control approaches and develops unified schemes to chaos control and generalized (lag, anticipated, and complete) synchronization of nonlinear dynamical systems. By introducing impulsive effects to the open-loop control method, we completely remove its restrictions on goal dynamics and initial conditions, and derive a sufficient condition to estimate the upper bound of impulsive intervals to ensure the global asymptotic stability. We then propose two effective ways to implement the entrainment strategy which combine open-loop and closed-loop control, and we prove that the feedback gains can be chosen according to a lower bound or be tuned with an adaptive control law. Numerical examples are given to verify the theoretical results and to illustrate their applications.
Advances in Guidance and Control Systems.
1983-01-01
open-loop gain, 1q. of the aug- mentor , the smaller the pitching velocity error needed to saturate the control. The pilot command input can be...bandwidth which is characteristically greater Dely than that present with a damping only aug- Titn’ - mentor . Because of this, the augmentation Rise Tie...processing resources . The MIL-STD-1553B data bus has been selected as the most cost effective tool for integration but raises problems connected with ensuring
Power semiconductor controlled drives
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dubey, Gopal K.
This book presents power semiconductor controlled drives employing dc motors, induction motors, and synchronous motors. The dynamics of motor and load systems are covered. Open-loop and closed-loop drives are considered, and thyristor, power transistor, and GTO converters are discussed. In-depth coverage is given to ac drives, particularly those fed by voltage and current source inverters and cycloconverters. Full coverage is given to brushless and commutatorless dc drives, including load-commuted synchronous motor drives. Rectifier-controlled dc drives are presented in detail.
Development of a hybrid margin angle controller for HVDC continuous operation
Sato, M.; Yamaji, K.; Sekita, M.; Amano, M.; Nishimura, M.; Konishi, H.; Oomori, T.
1996-11-01
The objective of this paper is to present a new hybrid margin angle control method for HVDC continuous operation under AC system fault conditions. For stable continuous operation of HVDC systems, the margin angle controller must be designed to maintain the necessary margin angle to avoid commutation failures. The proposed method uses the open loop margin angle controller (MAC) as the basic controller, and adds output from the closed loop MAC to correct the control angle. A fast voltage detection algorithm is used for open loop control, and margin angle reference correction using harmonics detection for closed loop control are also developed. The combination of open and closed loop control provides quick responses when faults occur with stable and speedy recovery after fault clearance. The effectiveness of the developed controller is confirmed through EMTP digital simulations and also with the experiments using an analogue simulator.
Multi-mode ultrasonic welding control and optimization
Tang, Jason C.H.; Cai, Wayne W
2013-05-28
A system and method for providing multi-mode control of an ultrasonic welding system. In one embodiment, the control modes include the energy of the weld, the time of the welding process and the compression displacement of the parts being welded during the welding process. The method includes providing thresholds for each of the modes, and terminating the welding process after the threshold for each mode has been reached, the threshold for more than one mode has been reached or the threshold for one of the modes has been reached. The welding control can be either open-loop or closed-loop, where the open-loop process provides the mode thresholds and once one or more of those thresholds is reached the welding process is terminated. The closed-loop control provides feedback of the weld energy and/or the compression displacement so that the weld power and/or weld pressure can be increased or decreased accordingly.
Generalized Momentum Control of the Spin-Stabilized Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) Formation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Benegalrao, Suyog; Queen, Steven; Shah, Neerav; Blackman, Kathleen
2015-01-01
Angular momentum control maneuvers required to keep spin-axis in science box. Traditional approach uses de-coupled modes for pointing, spin, nutation Impractical for MMS Frequency and Number of maneuvers (Orbit Control, Pointing, Nutation, Spin, four observatories, every 2-4 weeks). Difficult to implement de-coupled open-loop control with flexible wire booms. Desire a unified angular momentum controller. Comprehensively control pointing, spin, and nutation.
Kovatchev, Boris; Cobelli, Claudio; Renard, Eric; Anderson, Stacey; Breton, Marc; Patek, Stephen; Clarke, William; Bruttomesso, Daniela; Maran, Alberto; Costa, Silvana; Avogaro, Angelo; Dalla Man, Chiara; Facchinetti, Andrea; Magni, Lalo; De Nicolao, Giuseppe; Place, Jerome; Farret, Anne
2010-11-01
In 2008-2009, the first multinational study was completed comparing closed-loop control (artificial pancreas) to state-of-the-art open-loop therapy in adults with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). The design of the control algorithm was done entirely in silico, i.e., using computer simulation experiments with N=300 synthetic "subjects" with T1DM instead of traditional animal trials. The clinical experiments recruited 20 adults with T1DM at the Universities of Virginia (11); Padova, Italy (6); and Montpellier, France (3). Open-loop and closed-loop admission was scheduled 3-4 weeks apart, continued for 22 h (14.5 h of which were in closed loop), and used a continuous glucose monitor and an insulin pump. The only difference between the two sessions was that insulin dosing was performed by the patient under a physician's supervision during open loop, whereas insulin dosing was performed by a control algorithm during closed loop. In silico design resulted in rapid (less than 6 months compared to years of animal trials) and cost-effective system development, testing, and regulatory approvals in the United States, Italy, and France. In the clinic, compared to open-loop, closed-loop control reduced nocturnal hypoglycemia (blood glucose below 3.9 mmol/liter) from 23 to 5 episodes (p<.01) and increased the amount of time spent overnight within the target range (3.9 to 7.8 mmol/liter) from 64% to 78% (p=.03). In silico experiments can be used as viable alternatives to animal trials for the preclinical testing of insulin treatment strategies. Compared to open-loop treatment under identical conditions, closed-loop control improves the overnight regulation of diabetes. © 2010 Diabetes Technology Society.
Robustified time-optimal control of uncertain structural dynamic systems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Liu, Qiang; Wie, Bong
1991-01-01
A new approach for computing open-loop time-optimal control inputs for uncertain linear dynamical systems is developed. In particular, the single-axis, rest-to-rest maneuvering problem of flexible spacecraft in the presence of uncertainty in model parameters is considered. Robustified time-optimal control inputs are obtained by solving a parameter optimization problem subject to robustness constraints. A simple dynamical system with a rigid-body mode and one flexible mode is used to illustrate the concept.
Simmons, Roger W.; Nguyen, Tanya T.; Thomas, Jennifer D.; Riley, Edward P.
2015-01-01
Background Many daily functional activities involve goal-directed responses based on open-loop and closed-loop motor control, yet little is known about how children with heavy prenatal alcohol-exposure organize and regulate these two types of control systems when completing a goal-directed force response. Methods Children with (n = 19) or without (n = 23) heavy prenatal alcohol exposure were required to match a target force (25% and 50% of maximum voluntary force) in a specified target time (200 ms, 800 ms, and 2000 ms). Target force and produced force were visually displayed on a computer monitor. The analog force-time record was parsed into two segments: the period beginning from force initiation to the first reversal in force was designated the open-loop phase, and the remainder of the response was the closed-loop phase. Results Compared to controls, alcohol-exposed children produced a significantly shorter duration of open-loop control, a higher open-loop phase rate of force development, a shorter time to reach maximum force during the closed-loop phase and greater absolute target force error. Increasing target force magnitude did not differentially alter the performance of the clinical group. Conclusions The results indicate that alcohol-exposed children experience deficits in completing goal-directed force responses that likely stem from an alcohol related insult to the CNS. Therapeutic exercises should be designed to re-calibrate internal timing systems and improve visuomotor integration. PMID:26248225
Simmons, Roger W; Nguyen, Tanya T; Thomas, Jennifer D; Riley, Edward P
2015-09-01
Many daily functional activities involve goal-directed responses based on open-loop and closed-loop motor control, yet little is known about how children with heavy prenatal alcohol exposure organize and regulate these 2 types of control systems when completing a goal-directed force response. Children with (n = 19) or without (n = 23) heavy prenatal alcohol exposure were required to match a target force (25 and 50% of maximum voluntary force) in a specified target time (200, 800, and 2,000 ms). Target force and produced force were visually displayed on a computer monitor. The analog force-time record was parsed into 2 segments: the period beginning from force initiation to the first reversal in force was designated the open-loop phase, and the remainder of the response was the closed-loop phase. Compared to controls, alcohol-exposed children produced a significantly shorter duration of open-loop control, a higher open-loop phase rate of force development, a shorter time to reach maximum force during the closed-loop phase, and greater absolute target force error. Increasing target force magnitude did not differentially alter the performance of the clinical group. The results indicate that alcohol-exposed children experience deficits in completing goal-directed force responses that likely stem from an alcohol-related insult to the central nervous system. Therapeutic exercises should be designed to recalibrate internal timing systems and improve visuomotor integration. Copyright © 2015 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.
Attitude-Control Algorithm for Minimizing Maneuver Execution Errors
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Acikmese, Behcet
2008-01-01
A G-RAC attitude-control algorithm is used to minimize maneuver execution error in a spacecraft with a flexible appendage when said spacecraft must induce translational momentum by firing (in open loop) large thrusters along a desired direction for a given period of time. The controller is dynamic with two integrators and requires measurement of only the angular position and velocity of the spacecraft. The global stability of the closed-loop system is guaranteed without having access to the states describing the dynamics of the appendage and with severe saturation in the available torque. Spacecraft apply open-loop thruster firings to induce a desired translational momentum with an extended appendage. This control algorithm will assist this maneuver by stabilizing the attitude dynamics around a desired orientation, and consequently minimize the maneuver execution errors.
Neuromuscular control: introduction and overview.
van Leeuwen, J L
1999-05-29
This paper introduces some basic concepts of the interdisciplinary field of neuromuscular control, without the intention to be complete. The complexity and multifaceted nature of neuromuscular control systems is briefly addressed. Principles of stability and planning of motion trajectories are discussed. Closed-loop and open-loop control are considered, together with the inherent stability properties of muscles and the geometrical design of animal bodies. Various modelling approaches, as used by several authors in the Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, Series B, May 1999 issue, such as inverse and forward dynamics are outlined. An introductory overview is presented of the other contributions in that issue.
Neuromuscular control: introduction and overview.
van Leeuwen, J L
1999-01-01
This paper introduces some basic concepts of the interdisciplinary field of neuromuscular control, without the intention to be complete. The complexity and multifaceted nature of neuromuscular control systems is briefly addressed. Principles of stability and planning of motion trajectories are discussed. Closed-loop and open-loop control are considered, together with the inherent stability properties of muscles and the geometrical design of animal bodies. Various modelling approaches, as used by several authors in the Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, Series B, May 1999 issue, such as inverse and forward dynamics are outlined. An introductory overview is presented of the other contributions in that issue. PMID:10382220
Computational alternatives to obtain time optimal jet engine control. M.S. Thesis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Basso, R. J.; Leake, R. J.
1976-01-01
Two computational methods to determine an open loop time optimal control sequence for a simple single spool turbojet engine are described by a set of nonlinear differential equations. Both methods are modifications of widely accepted algorithms which can solve fixed time unconstrained optimal control problems with a free right end. Constrained problems to be considered have fixed right ends and free time. Dynamic programming is defined on a standard problem and it yields a successive approximation solution to the time optimal problem of interest. A feedback control law is obtained and it is then used to determine the corresponding open loop control sequence. The Fletcher-Reeves conjugate gradient method has been selected for adaptation to solve a nonlinear optimal control problem with state variable and control constraints.
Oscillatory neural networks for robotic yo-yo control.
Jin, Hui-Liang; Zacksenhouse, M
2003-01-01
Different networks of coupled oscillators were developed for open-loop control of periodic motion. However, some tasks, like yo-yo playing, are open-loop unstable and require proper phase locking to stabilize. Given the phase-locking property of coupled oscillators, we investigate their application to closed-loop control of open-loop unstable systems, concentrating on the challenging task of yo-yo control. In particular, we focus on pulse-coupling, where the yo-yo sends a feedback upon reaching the bottom of the string and the onset of the oscillatory cycle is used to trigger the movement. Four networks involving either a stand-alone or a circuit level oscillator with either excitatory or inhibitory couplings are considered. Working curve analysis indicates that three of the networks cannot stabilize the yo-yo. The fourth network, which is based on a circuit-level oscillator, is analyzed using the return map and the region of stability is determined and verified by simulations. The resulting pulse-coupled oscillatory control provides a model-free control strategy that operates with an easy-to-measure low-rate feedback.
Modeling and simulation of control system for 3-phase variable-reluctance stepper motor
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Lihua; Li, Hong
2010-12-01
In this paper, firstly, we establish the mode of the VR stepper motor on open-loop system of the stepper motor. Secondly, we control the exciting model, realize simulation of the circuit of unipolar driver and chop constant current control. Finally, we analyze the simulation results. And the results shows that these control methods can be applied to the actual motion of the system, which can improve the characteristics of the motion system of the stepper motor.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chopra, I.; Ballard, J. D.
1980-01-01
Recent state-of-the-art techniques in rotor systems include the use of active feedback to augment the dynamic control characteristics of an aircraft system. A recent test of a stoppable rotor with blade circulation blowing was conducted in the Ames Research Center's 40by 80-ft wind tunnel. A major part of the test schedule was dedicated to the acquisition of data to determine the stability of a closed-loop hub-moment feedback control system. Therefore, the open-loop control response was measured at several flight conditions to ascertain the stability of the system prior to the final closed-loop feedback control test. Measurements were made during both the stopped and rotating rotor modes, and open-loop Bode plots were obtained for the control loops associated with the moments about the longitudinal and lateral axis.
Attitude control of spacecraft using neural networks
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Vadali, Srinivas R.; Krishnan, S.; Singh, T.
1993-01-01
This paper investigates the use of radial basis function neural networks for adaptive attitude control and momentum management of spacecraft. In the first part of the paper, neural networks are trained to learn from a family of open-loop optimal controls parameterized by the initial states and times-to-go. The trained is then used for closed-loop control. In the second part of the paper, neural networks are used for direct adaptive control in the presence of unmodeled effects and parameter uncertainty. The control and learning laws are derived using the method of Lyapunov.
An optimal PID controller via LQR for standard second order plus time delay systems.
Srivastava, Saurabh; Misra, Anuraag; Thakur, S K; Pandit, V S
2016-01-01
An improved tuning methodology of PID controller for standard second order plus time delay systems (SOPTD) is developed using the approach of Linear Quadratic Regulator (LQR) and pole placement technique to obtain the desired performance measures. The pole placement method together with LQR is ingeniously used for SOPTD systems where the time delay part is handled in the controller output equation instead of characteristic equation. The effectiveness of the proposed methodology has been demonstrated via simulation of stable open loop oscillatory, over damped, critical damped and unstable open loop systems. Results show improved closed loop time response over the existing LQR based PI/PID tuning methods with less control effort. The effect of non-dominant pole on the stability and robustness of the controller has also been discussed. Copyright © 2015 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Application of orthogonal eigenstructure control to flight control design
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rastgaar Aagaah, M. A.; Ahmadian, M.; Southward, S. C.
2008-03-01
Orthogonal eigenstructure control is used for designing a control law that decouples the dynamic modes of a flying vehicle. Orthogonal eigenstructure control is a feedback control method for linear time invariant multi-input multi-output systems. This method has been recently developed by authors. The advantage of this control method over eigenstructure assignment methods is that there is no need for defining the closed-loop poles or shaping the closed-loop eigenvectors. This method eliminates the error due to the difference between achievable and desirable eigenvectors, by finding vectors orthogonal to the open-loop eigenvectors within the achievable eigenvectors set and replacing the open-loop eigenvectors with them. This method is also applicable to the systems with non-collocated actuators and sensors. Application of this method for designing a flight control law for the lateral directional dynamics of an F-18 HARV is presented, and compared to the results of an eigenstructure assignment method. In this case study, the actuators and sensors are not collocated. It is shown that the application of the orthogonal eigenstructure control results in a more significant dynamic modes decoupling in comparison to the application of the eigenstructure assignment technique.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Balas, Valentina E.; Balas, Marius M.
2009-04-01
The paper is discussing the measures able to reject the instability that may unexpectedly appear in particular conditions, in switching controllers applications. The switching controllers' effect is explained by the combined effects of the unsuitable choice of the switching moments (in the first or third quadrants of the phase trajectory of the switching error) and of the temporal aliasing that can distort the digital control systems when the sampling rate is close to the frequency of the oscillations that are produced by the commutation. The correct switching moments are located into the second and fourth quadrants of the phase trajectory of the switching error, but an active preparation of the commutation may be simply achieved by using a tracking controller, that is driving the output of open loop controller to follow the output of the close loop controller, permanently minimizing the switching error. Simulations issued from a dc driver speed controller and from an aircraft are provided.
2009-02-27
exchanged by means of line-of-sight sensors that experience periodic communication dropouts due to agent motion. Variation in network topology in...respiratory, and cardiovascular function by man- ual control based on the clinician’s experience and intuition. Open-loop control by clinical personnel can be...to ap- pear. [29] W. M. Haddad and J. M. Bailey, "Closed-Loop Control for Intensive Care Unit Seda- tion," Best Prac. Res. Clinical Anaesthesiology
Dauber, Andrew; Corcia, Liat; Safer, Jason; Agus, Michael S D; Einis, Sara; Steil, Garry M
2013-02-01
To assess the possibility of improving nocturnal glycemic control as well as meal glycemic response using closed-loop therapy in children aged <7 years. This was a randomized controlled crossover trial comparing closed-loop with standard open-loop insulin pump therapy performed in an inpatient clinical research center. Ten subjects aged <7 years with type 1 diabetes for >6 months treated with insulin pump therapy were studied. Closed-loop therapy and standard open-loop therapy were compared from 10:00 p.m. to 12:00 p.m. on 2 consecutive days. The primary outcome was plasma glucose time in range (110-200 mg/dL) during the night (10:00 p.m.-8:00 a.m.). Secondary outcomes included peak postprandial glucose levels, incidence of hypoglycemia, degree of hyperglycemia, and prelunch glucose levels. A trend toward a higher mean nocturnal time within target range was noted for closed- versus open-loop therapy, although not reaching statistical significance (5.3 vs. 3.2 h, P = 0.12). There was no difference in peak postprandial glucose or number of episodes of hypoglycemia. There was significant improvement in time spent >300 mg/dL overnight with closed-loop therapy (0.18 vs. 1.3 h, P = 0.035) and the total area under the curve of glucose >200 mg/dL (P = 0.049). Closed-loop therapy returned prelunch blood glucose closer to target (189 vs. 273 mg/dL on open loop, P = 0.009). Closed-loop insulin delivery decreases the severity of overnight hyperglycemia without increasing the incidence of hypoglycemia. The therapy is better able to reestablish target glucose levels in advance of a subsequent meal. Younger children with type 1 diabetes may reap significant benefits from closed-loop therapy.
Adaptive control of stochastic linear systems with unknown parameters. M.S. Thesis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ku, R. T.
1972-01-01
The problem of optimal control of linear discrete-time stochastic dynamical system with unknown and, possibly, stochastically varying parameters is considered on the basis of noisy measurements. It is desired to minimize the expected value of a quadratic cost functional. Since the simultaneous estimation of the state and plant parameters is a nonlinear filtering problem, the extended Kalman filter algorithm is used. Several qualitative and asymptotic properties of the open loop feedback optimal control and the enforced separation scheme are discussed. Simulation results via Monte Carlo method show that, in terms of the performance measure, for stable systems the open loop feedback optimal control system is slightly better than the enforced separation scheme, while for unstable systems the latter scheme is far better.
Lessons Learned and Flight Results from the F15 Intelligent Flight Control System Project
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bosworth, John
2006-01-01
A viewgraph presentation on the lessons learned and flight results from the F15 Intelligent Flight Control System (IFCS) project is shown. The topics include: 1) F-15 IFCS Project Goals; 2) Motivation; 3) IFCS Approach; 4) NASA F-15 #837 Aircraft Description; 5) Flight Envelope; 6) Limited Authority System; 7) NN Floating Limiter; 8) Flight Experiment; 9) Adaptation Goals; 10) Handling Qualities Performance Metric; 11) Project Phases; 12) Indirect Adaptive Control Architecture; 13) Indirect Adaptive Experience and Lessons Learned; 14) Gen II Direct Adaptive Control Architecture; 15) Current Status; 16) Effect of Canard Multiplier; 17) Simulated Canard Failure Stab Open Loop; 18) Canard Multiplier Effect Closed Loop Freq. Resp.; 19) Simulated Canard Failure Stab Open Loop with Adaptation; 20) Canard Multiplier Effect Closed Loop with Adaptation; 21) Gen 2 NN Wts from Simulation; 22) Direct Adaptive Experience and Lessons Learned; and 23) Conclusions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Saha, Suman; Das, Saptarshi; Das, Shantanu; Gupta, Amitava
2012-09-01
A novel conformal mapping based fractional order (FO) methodology is developed in this paper for tuning existing classical (Integer Order) Proportional Integral Derivative (PID) controllers especially for sluggish and oscillatory second order systems. The conventional pole placement tuning via Linear Quadratic Regulator (LQR) method is extended for open loop oscillatory systems as well. The locations of the open loop zeros of a fractional order PID (FOPID or PIλDμ) controller have been approximated in this paper vis-à-vis a LQR tuned conventional integer order PID controller, to achieve equivalent integer order PID control system. This approach eases the implementation of analog/digital realization of a FOPID controller with its integer order counterpart along with the advantages of fractional order controller preserved. It is shown here in the paper that decrease in the integro-differential operators of the FOPID/PIλDμ controller pushes the open loop zeros of the equivalent PID controller towards greater damping regions which gives a trajectory of the controller zeros and dominant closed loop poles. This trajectory is termed as "M-curve". This phenomena is used to design a two-stage tuning algorithm which reduces the existing PID controller's effort in a significant manner compared to that with a single stage LQR based pole placement method at a desired closed loop damping and frequency.
Delayed state feedback and chaos control for time-periodic systems via a symbolic approach
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ma, Haitao; Deshmukh, Venkatesh; Butcher, Eric; Averina, Victoria
2005-08-01
This paper presents a symbolic method for a delayed state feedback controller (DSFC) design for linear time-periodic delay (LTPD) systems that are open loop unstable and its extension to incorporate regulation and tracking of nonlinear time-periodic delay (NTPD) systems exhibiting chaos. By using shifted Chebyshev polynomials, the closed loop monodromy matrix of the LTPD system (or the linearized error dynamics of the NTPD system) is obtained symbolically in terms of controller parameters. The symbolic closed loop monodromy matrix, which is a finite dimensional approximation of an infinite dimensional operator, is used in conjunction with the Routh-Hurwitz criterion to design a DSFC to asymptotically stabilize the unstable dynamic system. Two controllers designs are presented. The first design is a constant gain DSFC and the second one is a periodic gain DSFC. The periodic gain DSFC has a larger region of stability in the parameter space than the constant gain DSFC. The asymptotic stability of the LTPD system obtained by the proposed method is illustrated by asymptotically stabilizing an open loop unstable delayed Mathieu equation. Control of a chaotic nonlinear system to any desired periodic orbit is achieved by rendering asymptotic stability to the error dynamics system. To accommodate large initial conditions, an open loop controller is also designed. This open loop controller is used first to control the error trajectories close to zero states and then the DSFC is switched on to achieve asymptotic stability of error states and consequently tracking of the original system states. The methodology is illustrated by two examples.
Motion planning and actuator specialization in the control of active-flexible link robots
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Reis, João C. P.; Sá da Costa, José
2012-07-01
Trajectory planning is a well-known open-loop control strategy to minimize residual vibrations in point-to-point tasks of systems featuring mechanical flexibility. However, the major drawback of open-loop control is its limitation in coping with modeling uncertainty. In this paper a novel approach to trajectory planning based on LQR theory is proposed and applied to a single flexible link robot. To improve performance under parameter uncertainty the strategy is combined with collocated vibration control through piezoelectric actuation of the link. This combination raises the issue of the roles and the contribution of each actuator type to the overall performance of the maneuver. An actuator specialization is proposed where the joint controller is responsible for the gross vibrationless motion of the link, while the link actuators are expected to deal only with residual vibrations that may arise from modeling errors. Simulation and experimental results validate the trajectory planning methodology and the combination of the open-loop strategy with collocated vibration control.
The dynamics and control of large flexible space structures, 8
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bainum, P. M.; Reddy, A. S. S. R.; Diarra, C. M.; Ananthakrishnan, S.
1985-01-01
A development of the in plane open loop rotational equations of motion for the proposed Spacecraft Control Laboratory Experiment (SCOLE) in orbit configuration is presented based on an Eulerian formulation. The mast is considered to be a flexible beam connected to the (rigid) shuttle and the reflector. Frequencies and mode shapes are obtained for the mast vibrational appendage modes (assumed to be decoupled) for different boundary conditions based on continuum approaches and also preliminary results are obtained using a finite element representation of the mast reflector system. The linearized rotational in plane equation is characterized by periodic coefficients and open loop system stability can be examined with an application of the Floquet theorem. Numerical results are presented to illustrate the potential instability associated with actuator time delays even for delays which represent only a small fraction of the natural period of oscillation of the modes contained in the open loop model of the system. When plant and measurement noise effects are added to the previously designed deterministic model of the hoop column system, it is seen that both the system transient and steady state performance are degraded. Mission requirements can be satisfied by appropriate assignment of cost function weighting elements and changes in the ratio of plant noise to measurement noise.
Clarke, William L; Anderson, Stacey; Breton, Marc; Patek, Stephen; Kashmer, Laurissa; Kovatchev, Boris
2009-09-01
Recent progress in the development of clinically accurate continuous glucose monitors (CGMs), automated continuous insulin infusion pumps, and control algorithms for calculating insulin doses from CGM data have enabled the development of prototypes of subcutaneous closed-loop systems for controlling blood glucose (BG) levels in type 1 diabetes. The use of a new personalized model predictive control (MPC) algorithm to determine insulin doses to achieve and maintain BG levels between 70 and 140 mg/dl overnight and to control postprandial BG levels is presented. Eight adults with type 1 diabetes were studied twice, once using their personal open-loop systems to control BG overnight and for 4 h following a standardized meal and once using a closed-loop system that utilizes the MPC algorithm to control BG overnight and for 4 h following a standardized meal. Average BG levels, percentage of time within BG target of 70-140 mg/dl, number of hypoglycemia episodes, and postprandial BG excursions during both study periods were compared. With closed-loop control, once BG levels achieved the target range (70-140 mg/dl), they remained within that range throughout the night in seven of the eight subjects. One subject developed a BG level of 65 mg/dl, which was signaled by the CGM trend analysis, and the MPC algorithm directed the discontinuance of the insulin infusion. The number of overnight hypoglycemic events was significantly reduced (p = .011) with closed-loop control. Postprandial BG excursions were similar during closed-loop and open-loop control. Model predictive closed-loop control of BG levels can be achieved overnight and following a standardized breakfast meal. This "artificial pancreas" controls BG levels as effectively as patient-directed open-loop control following a morning meal but is significantly superior to open-loop control in preventing overnight hypoglycemia. 2009 Diabetes Technology Society.
Clarke, William L.; Anderson, Stacey; Breton, Marc; Patek, Stephen; Kashmer, Laurissa; Kovatchev, Boris
2009-01-01
Background Recent progress in the development of clinically accurate continuous glucose monitors (CGMs), automated continuous insulin infusion pumps, and control algorithms for calculating insulin doses from CGM data have enabled the development of prototypes of subcutaneous closed-loop systems for controlling blood glucose (BG) levels in type 1 diabetes. The use of a new personalized model predictive control (MPC) algorithm to determine insulin doses to achieve and maintain BG levels between 70 and 140 mg/dl overnight and to control postprandial BG levels is presented. Methods Eight adults with type 1 diabetes were studied twice, once using their personal open-loop systems to control BG overnight and for 4 h following a standardized meal and once using a closed-loop system that utilizes the MPC algorithm to control BG overnight and for 4 h following a standardized meal. Average BG levels, percentage of time within BG target of 70–140 mg/dl, number of hypoglycemia episodes, and postprandial BG excursions during both study periods were compared. Results With closed-loop control, once BG levels achieved the target range (70–140 mg/dl), they remained within that range throughout the night in seven of the eight subjects. One subject developed a BG level of 65 mg/dl, which was signaled by the CGM trend analysis, and the MPC algorithm directed the discontinuance of the insulin infusion. The number of overnight hypoglycemic events was significantly reduced (p = .011) with closed-loop control. Postprandial BG excursions were similar during closed-loop and open-loop control Conclusion Model predictive closed-loop control of BG levels can be achieved overnight and following a standardized breakfast meal. This “artificial pancreas” controls BG levels as effectively as patient-directed open-loop control following a morning meal but is significantly superior to open-loop control in preventing overnight hypoglycemia. PMID:20144416
Brochard, F.; Bonhomme, G.; Gravier, E.; Oldenbuerger, S.; Philipp, M.
2006-05-15
An open-loop spatiotemporal synchronization method is applied to flute modes in a cylindrical magnetized plasma. It is demonstrated that synchronization can be achieved only if the exciter signal rotates in the same direction as the propagating mode. Moreover, the efficiency of the synchronization is shown to depend on the radial properties of the instability under consideration. It is also demonstrated that the control disposition can alternatively be used to produce strongly developed turbulence of drift waves or flute instabilities.
A platform for dynamic simulation and control of movement based on OpenSim and MATLAB
Mansouri, Misagh; Reinbolt, Jeffrey A.
2013-01-01
Numerical simulations play an important role in solving complex engineering problems and have the potential to revolutionize medical decision making and treatment strategies. In this paper, we combine the rapid model-based design, control systems and powerful numerical method strengths of MATLAB/Simulink with the simulation and human movement dynamics strengths of OpenSim by developing a new interface between the two software tools. OpenSim is integrated with Simulink using the MATLAB S-function mechanism, and the interface is demonstrated using both open-loop and closed-loop control systems. While the open-loop system uses MATLAB/Simulink to separately reproduce the OpenSim Forward Dynamics Tool, the closed-loop system adds the unique feature of feedback control to OpenSim, which is necessary for most human movement simulations. An arm model example was successfully used in both open-loop and closed-loop cases. For the open-loop case, the simulation reproduced results from the OpenSim Forward Dynamics Tool with root mean square (RMS) differences of 0.03° for the shoulder elevation angle and 0.06° for the elbow flexion angle. MATLAB’s variable step-size integrator reduced the time required to generate the forward dynamic simulation from 7.1 s (OpenSim) to 2.9 s (MATLAB). For the closed-loop case, a proportional–integral–derivative controller was used to successfully balance a pole on model’s hand despite random force disturbances on the pole. The new interface presented here not only integrates the OpenSim and MATLAB/Simulink software tools, but also will allow neuroscientists, physiologists, biomechanists, and physical therapists to adapt and generate new solutions as treatments for musculoskeletal conditions. PMID:22464351
Robust fuel- and time-optimal control of uncertain flexible space structures
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wie, Bong; Sinha, Ravi; Sunkel, John; Cox, Ken
1993-01-01
The problem of computing open-loop, fuel- and time-optimal control inputs for flexible space structures in the face of modeling uncertainty is investigated. Robustified, fuel- and time-optimal pulse sequences are obtained by solving a constrained optimization problem subject to robustness constraints. It is shown that 'bang-off-bang' pulse sequences with a finite number of switchings provide a practical tradeoff among the maneuvering time, fuel consumption, and performance robustness of uncertain flexible space structures.
Robust fuel- and time-optimal control of uncertain flexible space structures
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wie, Bong; Sinha, Ravi; Sunkel, John; Cox, Ken
1993-01-01
The problem of computing open-loop, fuel- and time-optimal control inputs for flexible space structures in the face of modeling uncertainty is investigated. Robustified, fuel- and time-optimal pulse sequences are obtained by solving a constrained optimization problem subject to robustness constraints. It is shown that 'bang-off-bang' pulse sequences with a finite number of switchings provide a practical tradeoff among the maneuvering time, fuel consumption, and performance robustness of uncertain flexible space structures.
A platform for dynamic simulation and control of movement based on OpenSim and MATLAB.
Mansouri, Misagh; Reinbolt, Jeffrey A
2012-05-11
Numerical simulations play an important role in solving complex engineering problems and have the potential to revolutionize medical decision making and treatment strategies. In this paper, we combine the rapid model-based design, control systems and powerful numerical method strengths of MATLAB/Simulink with the simulation and human movement dynamics strengths of OpenSim by developing a new interface between the two software tools. OpenSim is integrated with Simulink using the MATLAB S-function mechanism, and the interface is demonstrated using both open-loop and closed-loop control systems. While the open-loop system uses MATLAB/Simulink to separately reproduce the OpenSim Forward Dynamics Tool, the closed-loop system adds the unique feature of feedback control to OpenSim, which is necessary for most human movement simulations. An arm model example was successfully used in both open-loop and closed-loop cases. For the open-loop case, the simulation reproduced results from the OpenSim Forward Dynamics Tool with root mean square (RMS) differences of 0.03° for the shoulder elevation angle and 0.06° for the elbow flexion angle. MATLAB's variable step-size integrator reduced the time required to generate the forward dynamic simulation from 7.1s (OpenSim) to 2.9s (MATLAB). For the closed-loop case, a proportional-integral-derivative controller was used to successfully balance a pole on model's hand despite random force disturbances on the pole. The new interface presented here not only integrates the OpenSim and MATLAB/Simulink software tools, but also will allow neuroscientists, physiologists, biomechanists, and physical therapists to adapt and generate new solutions as treatments for musculoskeletal conditions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Modal Filtering for Control of Flexible Aircraft
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Suh, Peter M.; Mavris, Dimitri N.
2013-01-01
Modal regulators and deformation trackers are designed for an open-loop fluttering wing model. The regulators are designed with modal coordinate and accelerometer inputs respectively. The modal coordinates are estimated with simulated fiber optics. The robust stability of the closed-loop systems is compared in a structured singular-value vector analysis. Performance is evaluated and compared in a gust alleviation and flutter suppression simulation. For the same wing and flight condition two wing-shape-tracking control architectures are presented, which achieve deformation control at any point on the wing.
Dynamic verification of a digital flight control system.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nabers, J. P., Jr.; Bowman, J. D.
1972-01-01
Development of a digital control system dynamic variation technique which accounts for the limitation of available frequency response analyzers. Digital control system theory is briefly reviewed, and generation of the necessary theoretical frequency responses is discussed. Results of the dynamic verification of a digital control system for a Saturn V launch vehicle are presented, and attention is given to the limitations of this technique along with its applicability to other types of digital control systems. A technique for performing open-loop frequency response analyses of a flight program implemented in a 'flight-type' digital computer and interface hardware with vehicle dynamics simulated on an analog computer is described.
Experimental investigation of an actively controlled three-dimensional turret wake
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shea, Patrick R.
Hemispherical turrets are bluff bodies commonly used to house optical systems on airborne platforms. These bluff bodies develop complex, three-dimensional flow fields that introduce high mean and fluctuating loads to the turret as well as the airframe support structure which reduce the performance of both the optical systems and the aircraft. An experimental investigation of the wake of a three-dimensional, non-conformal turret was performed in a low-speed wind tunnel at Syracuse University to develop a better understanding of the fundamental flow physics associated with the turret wake. The flow field was studied at a diameter based Reynolds number of 550,000 using stereoscopic particle image velocimetry and dynamic pressure measurements both with and without active flow control. Pressure measurements were simultaneously sampled with the PIV measurements and taken on the surrounding boundary layer plate and at several locations on the turret geometry. Active flow control of the turret wake was performed around the leading edge of the turret aperture using dynamic suction in steady open-loop, unsteady open-loop, and simple closed-loop configurations. Analysis of the uncontrolled wake provided insight into the complex three-dimensional wake when evaluated spatially using PIV measurements and temporally using spectral analysis of the pressure measurements. Steady open-loop suction was found to significantly alter the spatial and temporal nature of the turret wake despite the control being applied locally to the aperture region of the turret. Unsteady open-loop and simple closed-loop control were found to provide similar levels of control to the steady open-loop forcing with a 45% reduction in the control input as calculated using the jet momentum coefficient. The data set collected provides unique information regarding the development of the baseline three-dimensional wake and the wake with three different active flow control configurations. These data can be used to
Modelling and Control of an Annular Momentum Control Device
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Downer, James R.; Johnson, Bruce G.
1988-01-01
The results of a modelling and control study for an advanced momentum storage device supported on magnetic bearings are documented. The control challenge posed by this device lies in its dynamics being such a strong function of flywheel rotational speed. At high rotational speed, this can lead to open loop instabilities, resulting in requirements for minimum and maximum control bandwidths and gains for the stabilizing controllers. Using recently developed analysis tools for systems described by complex coefficient differential equations, the closed properties of the controllers were analyzed and stability properties established. Various feedback controllers are investigated and discussed. Both translational and angular dynamics compensators are developed, and measures of system stability and robustness to plant and operational speed variations are presented.
Optimization of an Aeroservoelastic Wing with Distributed Multiple Control Surfaces
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Stanford, Bret K.
2015-01-01
This paper considers the aeroelastic optimization of a subsonic transport wingbox under a variety of static and dynamic aeroelastic constraints. Three types of design variables are utilized: structural variables (skin thickness, stiffener details), the quasi-steady deflection scheduling of a series of control surfaces distributed along the trailing edge for maneuver load alleviation and trim attainment, and the design details of an LQR controller, which commands oscillatory hinge moments into those same control surfaces. Optimization problems are solved where a closed loop flutter constraint is forced to satisfy the required flight margin, and mass reduction benefits are realized by relaxing the open loop flutter requirements.
Adaptive optics control system for segmented MEMS deformable mirrors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kempf, Carl J.; Helmbrecht, Michael A.; Besse, Marc
2010-02-01
Iris AO has developed a full closed-loop control system for control of segmented MEMS deformable mirrors. It is based on a combination of matched wavefront sensing, modal wavefront estimation, and well-calibrated open-loop characteristics. This assures closed-loop operation free of problems related to co-phasing segments or undetectable waffle patterns. This controller strategy results in relatively simple on-line computations which are suitable for implementation on low cost digital signal processors. It has been successfully implemented on Iris AO's 111 actuator (37 segment) deformable mirrors used in test-beds and research systems.
On-sky demonstration of optimal control for adaptive optics at Palomar Observatory.
Tesch, Jonathan; Truong, Tuan; Burruss, Rick; Gibson, Steve
2015-04-01
High-order adaptive optics systems often suffer from significant computational latency, which ultimately limits the temporal error rejection bandwidth when classical controllers are employed. This Letter presents results from an on-sky, real-time implementation of an optimal controller on the PALM-3000 adaptive optics system at Palomar Observatory. The optimal controller is computed directly from open-loop wavefront measurements using a multichannel subspace system identification algorithm, and mitigates latency by explicitly predicting incident turbulence. Experimental results show a significant reduction in the residual wavefront error over the controlled spatial modes, illustrating the superior performance of the optimal control approach versus the nominal integral control architecture.
Fuzzy control of a fluidized bed dryer
Taprantzis, A.V.; Siettos, C.I.; Bafas, G.V.
1997-05-01
Fluidized bed dryers are utilized in almost every area of drying applications and therefore improved control strategies are always of great interest. The nonlinear character of the process, exhibited in the mathematical model and the open loop analysis, implies that a fuzzy logic controller is appropriate because, in contrast with conventional control schemes, fuzzy control inherently compensates for process nonlinearities and exhibits more robust behavior. In this study, a fuzzy logic controller is proposed; its design is based on a heuristic approach and its performance is compared against a conventional PI controller for a variety of responses. It is shown that the fuzzy controller exhibits a remarkable dynamic behavior, equivalent if not better than the PI controller, for a wide range of disturbances. In addition, the proposed fuzzy controller seems to be less sensitive to the nonlinearities of the process, achieves energy savings and enables MIMO control.
Active control of smart structures with optimal actuator and sensor locations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Pengxiang; Rao, Vittal S.; Derriso, Mark M.
2002-07-01
Sensors and actuators used in active control of smart structures have to be located appropriately in order to ensure maximum control and measurement effectiveness. Many placement techniques are based on the structure itself and overlook the effects of the applied control law. The optimal locations determined from open-loop system can not guarantee the best performance of the closed-loop system because the performance is closely related with the design requirements and applied controller. In this paper, we presented a method of obtaining the optimal locations of actuators/sensors by combining the open-loop and closed-loop optimal criterions. First, for open-loop system, location indices of the controlled modes are calculated on the basis of modal controllability and observability. The controlled modes are weighted based on the controller design requirements. To reduce the spill-over effect of uncontrolled modes, the location index values of uncontrolled modes are added as penalty terms. Locations with high index values are chosen as candidate locations of actuator/sensor for the next determining step on the closed-loop system. Three control techniques, optimal H2, H(infinity ) norms and optimal pole-placement, are utilized for two different control objectives, disturbance rejection and damping property enhancement. Linear matrix inequality (LMI) techniques are utilized to formulate the control problems and synthesize the controllers. For each candidate location of actuator/sensor, a controller is designed and the obtained performance is taken as location index. By solving the location problem in two steps, we reduced the computational burden and ensured good control performance of the closed-loop system. The proposed method is tested on a clamped plate with piezoelectric actuators and sensors.
Transform methods for precision continuum and control models of flexible space structures
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lupi, Victor D.; Turner, James D.; Chun, Hon M.
1991-01-01
An open loop optimal control algorithm is developed for general flexible structures, based on Laplace transform methods. A distributed parameter model of the structure is first presented, followed by a derivation of the optimal control algorithm. The control inputs are expressed in terms of their Fourier series expansions, so that a numerical solution can be easily obtained. The algorithm deals directly with the transcendental transfer functions from control inputs to outputs of interest, and structural deformation penalties, as well as penalties on control effort, are included in the formulation. The algorithm is applied to several structures of increasing complexity to show its generality.
Diagonal dominance using function minimization algorithms. [multivariable control system design
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Leininger, G. G.
1977-01-01
A new approach to the design of multivariable control systems using the inverse Nyquist array method is proposed. The technique utilizes a conjugate direction function minimization algorithm to achieve dominance over a specified frequency range by minimizing the ratio of the moduli of the off-diagonal terms to the moduli of the diagonal term of the inverse open loop transfer function matrix. The technique is easily implemented in either a batch or interactive computer mode and will yield diagonalization when previously suggested methods fail. The proposed method has been successfully applied to design a control system for a sixteenth order state model of the F-100 turbofan engine with three inputs.
Optimization-based design of control systems for flexible structures
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Polak, E.; Baker, T. E.; Wuu, T-L.; Harn, Y-P.
1988-01-01
The purpose of this presentation is to show that it is possible to use nonsmooth optimization algorithms to design both closed-loop finite dimensional compensators and open-loop optimal controls for flexible structures modeled by partial differential equations. An important feature of our approach is that it does not require modal decomposition and hence is immune to instabilities caused by spillover effects. Furthermore, it can be used to design control systems for structures that are modeled by mixed systems of coupled ordinary and partial differential equations.
Game Theoretic Approach to Post-Docked Satellite Control
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hiramatsu, Takashi; Fitz-Coy, Norman G.
2007-01-01
This paper studies the interaction between two satellites after docking. In order to maintain the docked state with uncertainty in the motion of the target vehicle, a game theoretic controller with Stackelberg strategy to minimize the interaction between the satellites is considered. The small perturbation approximation leads to LQ differential game scheme, which is validated to address the docking interactions between a service vehicle and a target vehicle. The open-loop solution are compared with Nash strategy, and it is shown that less control efforts are obtained with Stackelberg strategy.
Techniques for assessment of flexible space structure control performance
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rowell, Lawrence F.
1988-01-01
Several multivariable concepts are presently applied to both the open-loop and closed-loop analysis of a wrap-rib antenna space structure. After evaluating the alternative placements of sensors and actuators by means of controllability, observability, and transmission-zero concepts, the linear quadratic gaussian/loop transfer recovery method is used to synthesize a control law for suppression of the transient vibrations that are typically encountered during maneuvers. The integration of these techniques and associated computer programs into a larger spacecraft design system is also discussed.
Low Bandwidth Robust Controllers for Flight
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Biezad, Daniel J.; Chou, Hwei-Lan
1993-01-01
Through throttle manipulations, engine thrust can be used for emergency flight control for multi-engine aircraft. Previous study by NASA Dryden has shown the use of throttles for emergency flight control to be very difficult. In general, manual fly-by-throttle is extremely difficult - with landing almost impossible, but control augmentation makes runway landings feasible. Flight path control using throttles-only to achieve safe emergency landing for a large jet transport airplane, Boeing 720, was investigated using Quantitative Feedback Theory (QFT). Results were compared to an augmented control developed in a previous simulation study. The control augmentation corrected the unsatisfactory open-loop characteristics by increasing system bandwidth and damping, but increasing the control bandwidth substantially proved very difficult. The augmented pitch control is robust under no or moderate turbulence. The augmented roll control is sensitive to configuration changes.
Robust control for large space antennas
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Barrett, M. F.
1987-01-01
A brief description of program objectives and the space based radar application is given. General characteristics of the 100 m diameter reflector spacecraft are described along with the intended mission and associated requirements, and dynamic characteristics relevant to that mission. Preliminary control analyses are carried out for the critical rapid slew and settle maneuver to establish feedback control requirements and fundamental limitations in meeting those requirements with control hardware for a baseline reaction control system (RCS) jet placement assumed for the open loop bang-bang slew limitations. Control moment gyros (CMGs), angular position sensors, and linear translation sensors are placed for feedback control. Control laws are designed for the improved sensor and actuator placement and evaluated for performance and robustness to unstructured model uncertainty. The robustness of the control design is assessed with respect to modal parameter uncertainty. Results of the control designs analyses are summarized, conclusions are drawn, and recommendations made for future studies.
Low bandwidth robust controllers for flight
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Biezad, Daniel J.; Chou, Hwei-Lan
1993-01-01
Through throttle manipulations, engine thrust can be used for emergency flight control for multi-engine aircraft. Previous study by NASA Dryden has shown the use of throttles for emergency flight control to be very difficult. In general, manual fly-by-throttle is extremely difficult - with landing almost impossible, but control augmentation makes runway landings feasible. Flight path control using throttles-only to achieve safe emergency landing for a large jet transport airplane, Boeing 720, was investigated using Quantitative Feedback Theory (QFT). Results were compared to an augmented control developed in a previous simulation study. The control augmentation corrected the unsatisfactory open-loop characteristics by increasing system bandwidth and damping, but increasing the control bandwidth substantially proved very difficult. The augmented pitch control is robust under no or moderate turbulence. The augmented roll control is sensitive to configuration changes.
Load limiting parachute inflation control
Redmond, J.; Hinnerichs, T.; Parker, G.
1994-01-01
Excessive deceleration forces experienced during high speed deployment of parachute systems can cause damage to the payload and the canopy fabric. Conventional reefing lines offer limited relief by temporarily restricting canopy inflation and limiting the peak deceleration load. However, the open-loop control provided by existing reefing devices restrict their use to a specific set of deployment conditions. In this paper, the sensing, processing, and actuation that are characteristic of adaptive structures form the basis of three concepts for active control of parachute inflation. These active control concepts are incorporated into a computer simulation of parachute inflation. Initial investigations indicate that these concepts promise enhanced performance as compared to conventional techniques for a nominal release. Furthermore, the ability of each controller to adapt to off-nominal release conditions is examined.
Characterization of an Actively Controlled Three-Dimensional Turret Wake
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shea, Patrick; Glauser, Mark
2012-11-01
Three-dimensional turrets are commonly used for housing optical systems on airborne platforms. As bluff bodies, these geometries generate highly turbulent wakes that decrease the performance of the optical systems and the aircraft. The current experimental study looked to use dynamic suction in both open and closed-loop control configurations to actively control the turret wake. The flow field was characterized using dynamic pressure and stereoscopic PIV measurements in the wake of the turret. Results showed that the suction system was able to manipulate the wake region of the turret and could alter not only the spatial structure of the wake, but also the temporal behavior of the wake flow field. Closed-loop, feedback control techniques were used to determine a more optimal control input for the flow control. Similar control effects were seen for both the steady open-loop control case and the closed-loop feedback control configuration with a 45% reduction in the suction levels when comparing the closed-loop to the open-loop case. These results provide unique information regarding the development of the baseline three-dimensional wake and the wake with three different active flow control configurations.
Optimal magnetic attitude control of small spacecraft
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liang, Jinsong
Spacecraft attitude control, using only magnetic coils, suffers from being unable to apply a torque about the axis defined by the magnetic field of the earth. This lack of controllability results in marginal stability, slow slew maneuvering and convergence to equilibrium positions. Currently available control schemes typically require one or more orbits to finish a large angle attitude maneuver, which severely restricts the application of magnetic control in projects requiring fast attitude maneuvers. In this dissertation, the open-loop time-optimal magnetic control is first presented to show the potential performance increase of the magnetic attitude control method. Nonlinear time-varying models with constrained inputs are considered instead of the linearized model generally used. The results show that time-optimal magnetic attitude control can be considerably faster, than the current available control schemes. The inherent weakness of the open-loop method is its lack of robustness; specifically, its response is sensitive to small changes in the system. Two methods, model predictive control and continuous optimization approach, are presented as closed-loop control strategies to increase the robustness of the time-optimal approach. Simulation results show that these two feedback control schemes effectively improve the robustness of the control system. Finally, magnetic attitude regulation after the time-optimal magnetic control is discussed. The main contribution of this work shows that magnetic attitude control is not necessarily slow, as commonly believed, as long as an appropriate control algorithm is applied. The different time-optimal controllers presented show considerable convergence time reduction for large angle attitude maneuvers; which enables magnetic attitude control to be applied to more time-critical applications.
Optimal control of circular cylinder wakes using long control horizons
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Flinois, Thibault L. B.; Colonius, Tim
2015-08-01
The classical problem of suppressing vortex shedding in the wake of a circular cylinder by using body rotation is revisited in an adjoint-based optimal control framework. The cylinder's unsteady and fully unconstrained rotation rate is optimized at Reynolds numbers between 75 and 200 and over horizons that are longer than in previous studies, where they are typically of the order of a vortex shedding period or shorter. In the best configuration, the drag is reduced by 19%, the vortex shedding is effectively suppressed, and this low drag state is maintained with minimal cylinder rotation after transients. Unlike open-loop control, the optimal control is shown to maintain a specific phase relationship between the actuation and the shedding in order to stabilize the wake. A comparison is also given between the performance of optimizations for different Reynolds numbers, cost functions, and horizon lengths. It is shown that the long horizons used are necessary in order to stabilize the vortex shedding efficiently.
A time domain inverse dynamic method for the end point tracking control of a flexible manipulator
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kwon, Dong-Soo; Book, Wayne J.
1991-01-01
The inverse dynamic equation of a flexible manipulator was solved in the time domain. By dividing the inverse system equation into the causal part and the anticausal part, we calculated the torque and the trajectories of all state variables for a given end point trajectory. The interpretation of this method in the frequency domain was explained in detail using the two-sided Laplace transform and the convolution integral. The open loop control of the inverse dynamic method shows an excellent result in simulation. For real applications, a practical control strategy is proposed by adding a feedback tracking control loop to the inverse dynamic feedforward control, and its good experimental performance is presented.
Feed forward and feedback control for over-ground locomotion in anaesthetized cats.
Mazurek, K A; Holinski, B J; Everaert, D G; Stein, R B; Etienne-Cummings, R; Mushahwar, V K
2012-04-01
The biological central pattern generator (CPG) integrates open and closed loop control to produce over-ground walking. The goal of this study was to develop a physiologically based algorithm capable of mimicking the biological system to control multiple joints in the lower extremities for producing over-ground walking. The algorithm used state-based models of the step cycle each of which produced different stimulation patterns. Two configurations were implemented to restore over-ground walking in five adult anaesthetized cats using intramuscular stimulation (IMS) of the main hip, knee and ankle flexor and extensor muscles in the hind limbs. An open loop controller relied only on intrinsic timing while a hybrid-CPG controller added sensory feedback from force plates (representing limb loading), and accelerometers and gyroscopes (representing limb position). Stimulation applied to hind limb muscles caused extension or flexion in the hips, knees and ankles. A total of 113 walking trials were obtained across all experiments. Of these, 74 were successful in which the cats traversed 75% of the 3.5 m over-ground walkway. In these trials, the average peak step length decreased from 24.9 ± 8.4 to 21.8 ± 7.5 (normalized units) and the median number of steps per trial increased from 7 (Q1 = 6, Q3 = 9) to 9 (8, 11) with the hybrid-CPG controller. Moreover, within these trials, the hybrid-CPG controller produced more successful steps (step length ≤ 20 cm; ground reaction force ≥ 12.5% body weight) than the open loop controller: 372 of 544 steps (68%) versus 65 of 134 steps (49%), respectively. This supports our previous preliminary findings, and affirms that physiologically based hybrid-CPG approaches produce more successful stepping than open loop controllers. The algorithm provides the foundation for a neural prosthetic controller and a framework to implement more detailed control of locomotion in the future.
Feed forward and feedback control for over-ground locomotion in anaesthetized cats
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mazurek, K. A.; Holinski, B. J.; Everaert, D. G.; Stein, R. B.; Etienne-Cummings, R.; Mushahwar, V. K.
2012-04-01
The biological central pattern generator (CPG) integrates open and closed loop control to produce over-ground walking. The goal of this study was to develop a physiologically based algorithm capable of mimicking the biological system to control multiple joints in the lower extremities for producing over-ground walking. The algorithm used state-based models of the step cycle each of which produced different stimulation patterns. Two configurations were implemented to restore over-ground walking in five adult anaesthetized cats using intramuscular stimulation (IMS) of the main hip, knee and ankle flexor and extensor muscles in the hind limbs. An open loop controller relied only on intrinsic timing while a hybrid-CPG controller added sensory feedback from force plates (representing limb loading), and accelerometers and gyroscopes (representing limb position). Stimulation applied to hind limb muscles caused extension or flexion in the hips, knees and ankles. A total of 113 walking trials were obtained across all experiments. Of these, 74 were successful in which the cats traversed 75% of the 3.5 m over-ground walkway. In these trials, the average peak step length decreased from 24.9 ± 8.4 to 21.8 ± 7.5 (normalized units) and the median number of steps per trial increased from 7 (Q1 = 6, Q3 = 9) to 9 (8, 11) with the hybrid-CPG controller. Moreover, within these trials, the hybrid-CPG controller produced more successful steps (step length ≤ 20 cm ground reaction force ≥ 12.5% body weight) than the open loop controller: 372 of 544 steps (68%) versus 65 of 134 steps (49%), respectively. This supports our previous preliminary findings, and affirms that physiologically based hybrid-CPG approaches produce more successful stepping than open loop controllers. The algorithm provides the foundation for a neural prosthetic controller and a framework to implement more detailed control of locomotion in the future.
Space Digital Controller for Improved Motor Control
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Alves-Nunes, Samuel; Daras, Gaetan; Dehez, Bruno; Maillard, Christophe; Bekemans, Marc; Michel, Raymond
2014-08-01
Performing digital motor control into space equipment is a new challenge. The new DPC (Digital Programmable Controller) is the first chip that we can use as a micro-controller, allowing us to drive motors with digital control schemes. In this paper, the digital control of hybrid stepper motors is considered. This kind of motor is used for solar array rotation and antenna actuation. New digital control technology brings a lot of advantages, allowing an important reduction of thermal losses inside the motor, and a reduction of thermal constraints on power drive electronic components. The opportunity to drive motors with a digital controller also brings many new functionalities like post-failure torque analysis, micro- vibrations and cogging torque reduction, or electro- mechanical damping of solar array oscillations. To evaluate the performance of the system, Field-Oriented Control (FOC) is implemented on a hybrid stepper motor. A test-bench, made of an active load, has been made to emulate the mechanical behaviour of the solar array, by the use of a torsionally-compliant model. The experimental results show that we can drastically reduce electrical power consumption, compared with the currently used open-loop control scheme.
A study of simplified methods for longitudinal control decoupling
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Joslin, R.; Ohmiya, H.; Ellis, D. R.
1977-01-01
Using an inflight simulator, a simple longitudinal decoupling concept was compared with conventional airplane characteristics for the approach and landing tasks. The decoupling system allowed the pilot to command flight path angle changes with the stick with little or no accompanying speed change; likewise, speed changes with only small accompanying flight path changes could be made with throttle only. The unique feature of the concept is that it is an open loop (that is, nonfeedback) control system. Results indicate that in calm air and up to moderate levels of turbulence the decoupling system provides a substantial reduction in pilot workload.
A study of simplified methods for longitudinal control decoupling
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Joslin, R.; Ohmiya, H.; Ellis, D. R.
1977-01-01
Using an inflight simulator, a simple longitudinal decoupling concept was compared with conventional airplane characteristics for the approach and landing tasks. The decoupling system allowed the pilot to command flight path angle changes with the stick with little or no accompanying speed change; likewise, speed changes with only small accompanying flight path changes could be made with throttle only. The unique feature of the concept is that it is an open loop (that is, nonfeedback) control system. Results indicate that in calm air and up to moderate levels of turbulence the decoupling system provides a substantial reduction in pilot workload.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Brown, T. J.; Mccloud, J. L., III
1980-01-01
Weighted multiple linear regression is used to establish a transfer function matrix relationship between higher harmonic control inputs and transducer vibration outputs for a controllable twist rotor. Data used in the regression were taken from the test of a KAMAN controllable twist rotor conducted in the Ames Research Center's 40- by 80-Foot Wind Tunnel in June 1977. Optimal controls to minimize fixed system vibrational levels are calculated using linear quadratic regulatory theory with a control deflection penalty included in the performance criteria. Control sensitivity to changes in control travel, forward speed, and lift and propulsive forces is examined. It is found that the linear transfer matrix is a strong function of forward speed and a weak function of lift and propulsive force. An open-loop strategy is proposed for systems with limited control travel.
Spacecraft attitude control using neuro-fuzzy approximation of the optimal controllers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kim, Sung-Woo; Park, Sang-Young; Park, Chandeok
2016-01-01
In this study, a neuro-fuzzy controller (NFC) was developed for spacecraft attitude control to mitigate large computational load of the state-dependent Riccati equation (SDRE) controller. The NFC was developed by training a neuro-fuzzy network to approximate the SDRE controller. The stability of the NFC was numerically verified using a Lyapunov-based method, and the performance of the controller was analyzed in terms of approximation ability, steady-state error, cost, and execution time. The simulations and test results indicate that the developed NFC efficiently approximates the SDRE controller, with asymptotic stability in a bounded region of angular velocity encompassing the operational range of rapid-attitude maneuvers. In addition, it was shown that an approximated optimal feedback controller can be designed successfully through neuro-fuzzy approximation of the optimal open-loop controller.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Brown, T. J.; Mccloud, J. L., III
1980-01-01
Weighted multiple linear regression is used to establish a transfer function matrix relationship between higher harmonic control inputs and transducer vibration outputs for a controllable twist rotor. Data used in the regression were taken from the test of a KAMAN controllable twist rotor conducted in the Ames Research Center's 40- by 80-Foot Wind Tunnel in June 1977. Optimal controls to minimize fixed system vibrational levels are calculated using linear quadratic regulatory theory with a control deflection penalty included in the performance criteria. Control sensitivity to changes in control travel, forward speed, and lift and propulsive forces is examined. It is found that the linear transfer matrix is a strong function of forward speed and a weak function of lift and propulsive force. An open-loop strategy is proposed for systems with limited control travel.
Flutter suppression digital control law design and testing for the AFW wind tunnel model
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mukhopadhyay, Vivek
1994-01-01
The design of a control law for simultaneously suppressing the symmetric and antisymmetric flutter modes of a sting mounted fixed-in-roll aeroelastic wind-tunnel model is described. The flutter suppression control law was designed using linear quadratic Gaussian theory, and it also involved control law order reduction, a gain root-locus study, and use of previous experimental results. A 23 percent increase in the open-loop flutter dynamic pressure was demonstrated during the wind-tunnel test. Rapid roll maneuvers at 11 percent above the symmetric flutter boundary were also performed when the model was in a free-to-roll configuration.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Balas, M. J.; Kaufman, H.; Wen, J.
1985-01-01
A command generator tracker approach to model following contol of linear distributed parameter systems (DPS) whose dynamics are described on infinite dimensional Hilbert spaces is presented. This method generates finite dimensional controllers capable of exponentially stable tracking of the reference trajectories when certain ideal trajectories are known to exist for the open loop DPS; we present conditions for the existence of these ideal trajectories. An adaptive version of this type of controller is also presented and shown to achieve (in some cases, asymptotically) stable finite dimensional control of the infinite dimensional DPS.
Flutter suppression digital control law design and testing for the AFW wind-tunnel model
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mukhopadhyay, Vivek
1992-01-01
Design of a control law for simultaneously suppressing the symmetric and antisymmetric flutter modes of a string mounted fixed-in-roll aeroelastic wind tunnel model is described. The flutter suppression control law was designed using linear quadratic Gaussian theory and involved control law order reduction, a gain root-locus study, and the use of previous experimental results. A 23 percent increase in open-loop flutter dynamic pressure was demonstrated during the wind tunnel test. Rapid roll maneuvers at 11 percent above the symmetric flutter boundary were also performed when the model was in a free-to-roll configuration.
Flutter suppression digital control law design and testing for the AFW wind tunnel model
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mukhopadhyay, Vivek
1992-01-01
Design of a control law for simultaneously suppressing the symmetric and antisymmetric flutter modes of a sting mounted fixed-in-roll aeroelastic wind tunnel model is described. The flutter suppression control law was designed using linear quadratic Gaussian theory, and involved control law order reduction, a gain root-locus study and use of previous experimental results. A 23 percent increase in the open-loop flutter dynamic pressure was demonstrated during the wind tunnel test. Rapid roll maneuvers at 11 percent above the symmetric flutter boundary were also performed when the model was in a free-to-roll configuration.
Vreck, D; Gernaey, K V; Rosen, C; Jeppsson, U
2006-01-01
In this paper, implementation of the Benchmark Simulation Model No 2 (BSM2) within Matlab-Simulink is presented. The BSM2 is developed for plant-wide WWTP control strategy evaluation on a long-term basis. It consists of a pre-treatment process, an activated sludge process and sludge treatment processes. Extended evaluation criteria are proposed for plant-wide control strategy assessment. Default open-loop and closed-loop strategies are also proposed to be used as references with which to compare other control strategies. Simulations indicate that the BM2 is an appropriate tool for plant-wide control strategy evaluation.
Control of neural synchrony using channelrhodopsin-2: a computational study.
Talathi, Sachin S; Carney, Paul R; Khargonekar, Pramod P
2011-08-01
In this paper, we present an optical stimulation based approach to induce 1:1 in-phase synchrony in a network of coupled interneurons wherein each interneuron expresses the light sensitive protein channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2). We begin with a transition rate model for the channel kinetics of ChR2 in response to light stimulation. We then define "functional optical time response curve (fOTRC)" as a measure of the response of a periodically firing interneuron (transfected with ChR2 ion channel) to a periodic light pulse stimulation. We specifically consider the case of unidirectionally coupled (UCI) network and propose an open loop control architecture that uses light as an actuation signal to induce 1:1 in-phase synchrony in the UCI network. Using general properties of the spike time response curves (STRCs) for Type-1 neuron model (Ermentrout, Neural Comput 8:979-1001, 1996) and fOTRC, we estimate the (open loop) optimal actuation signal parameters required to induce 1:1 in-phase synchrony. We then propose a closed loop controller architecture and a controller algorithm to robustly sustain stable 1:1 in-phase synchrony in the presence of unknown deviations in the network parameters. Finally, we test the performance of this closed-loop controller in a network of mutually coupled (MCI) interneurons.
Automatic control of bioprocesses.
Stanke, Marc; Hitzmann, Bernd
2013-01-01
In this chapter, different approaches for open-loop and closed-loop control applied in bioprocess automation are discussed. Although in recent years many contributions dealing with closed-loop control have been published, only a minority were actually applied in real bioprocesses, the majority being simulations. As a result of the diversity of bioprocess requirements, a single control algorithm cannot be applied in all cases; rather, different approaches are necessary. Most publications combine different closed-loop control techniques to construct hybrid systems. These systems are supposed to combine the advantages of each approach into a well-performing control strategy. The majority of applications are soft sensors in combination with a proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller. The fact that soft sensors have become this importance for control purposes demonstrates the lack of direct measurements or their large additional expense for robust and reliable online measurement systems. The importance of model predictive control is increasing; however, reliable and robust process models are required, as well as very powerful computers to address the computational needs. The lack of theoretical bioprocess models is compensated by hybrid systems combining theoretical models, fuzzy logic, and/or artificial neural network methodology. Although many authors suggest a possible transfer of their presented control application to other bioprocesses, the algorithms are mostly specialized to certain organisms or certain cultivation conditions as well as to a specific measurement system.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kuczynski, W. A.; Sissingh, G. J.
1972-01-01
Wind tunnel tests to determine the dynamic characteristics of hingeless rotors with hub moment feedback controls and to acquire experimental hingeless rotor transfer functions are discussed. Rotor transfer functions were calculated from data acquired during open loop frequency response tests. The transfer functions are linear and present the rotor longitudinal and lateral frequency responses to collective pitch, longitudinal cyclic pitch, and lateral cyclic pitch. The theoretical analysis was based on the rigid blade flapping model coupled with appropriate control system and cyclic pitch actuator equations of motion.
Backstepping and sliding mode control hybridized for a prosthetic hand.
Engeberg, Erik D; Meek, Sanford G
2009-02-01
Open loop and force controllers are compared experimentally with three robust parallel force-velocity controllers that are developed for a prosthetic hand. Robust sliding mode, backstepping, and hybrid sliding mode-backstepping (HSMBS) parallel force-velocity controllers are tested by ten able-bodied subjects. Results obtained with a myoelectrically controlled prosthesis indicate that all three robust controllers offer a statistically significant improvement over linear hand prosthesis control schemes. The robust controllers enable the human operators to more easily manipulate a delicate object. Bench top experiments combined with quantitative and qualitative evaluations from ten test subjects reveal the HSMBS controller to be the best choice to improve control of powered prosthetic hands.
Control and structural optimization for maneuvering large spacecraft
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chun, H. M.; Turner, J. D.; Yu, C. C.
1990-01-01
Presented here are the results of an advanced control design as well as a discussion of the requirements for automating both the structures and control design efforts for maneuvering a large spacecraft. The advanced control application addresses a general three dimensional slewing problem, and is applied to a large geostationary platform. The platform consists of two flexible antennas attached to the ends of a flexible truss. The control strategy involves an open-loop rigid body control profile which is derived from a nonlinear optimal control problem and provides the main control effort. A perturbation feedback control reduces the response due to the flexibility of the structure. Results are shown which demonstrate the usefulness of the approach. Software issues are considered for developing an integrated structures and control design environment.
Structural Damage Detection Using Virtual Passive Controllers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lew, Jiann-Shiun; Juang, Jer-Nan
2001-01-01
This paper presents novel approaches for structural damage detection which uses the virtual passive controllers attached to structures, where passive controllers are energy dissipative devices and thus guarantee the closed-loop stability. The use of the identified parameters of various closed-loop systems can solve the problem that reliable identified parameters, such as natural frequencies of the open-loop system may not provide enough information for damage detection. Only a small number of sensors are required for the proposed approaches. The identified natural frequencies, which are generally much less sensitive to noise and more reliable than the identified natural frequencies, are used for damage detection. Two damage detection techniques are presented. One technique is based on the structures with direct output feedback controllers while the other technique uses the second-order dynamic feedback controllers. A least-squares technique, which is based on the sensitivity of natural frequencies to damage variables, is used for accurately identifying the damage variables.
Design of feedforward controllers for multivariable plants
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Seraji, H.
1987-01-01
Simple methods for the design of feedforward controllers to achieve steady-state disturbance rejection and command tracking in stable multivariable plants are developed in this paper. The controllers are represented by simple and low-order transfer functions and are not based on reconstruction of the states of the commands and disturbances. For unstable plants, it is shown that the present method can be applied directly when an additional feedback controller is employed to stabilize the plant. The feedback and feedforward controllers do not affect each other and can be designed independently based on the open-loop plant to achieve stability, disturbance rejection and command tracking, respectivley. Numerical examples are given for illustration.
Load-limiting parachute inflation control
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Redmond, James M.; Hinnerichs, Terry D.; Parker, Gordon G.
1994-05-01
Excessive deceleration forces experienced during high speed deployment of parachute systems can cause damage to the payload and the canopy fabric. Conventional reefing lines offer limited relief by temporarily restricting canopy inflation and limiting the peak deceleration load. However, the open-loop control provided by existing reefing devices restrict their use to a specific set of deployment conditions. In this paper, the sensing, processing, and actuation that are characteristic of adaptive structures form the basis of three concepts for active control of parachute inflation. These active control concepts are incorporated into a computer simulation of parachute inflation. Initial investigations indicate that these concepts promise enhanced performance as compared to conventional techniques for a nominal release. Furthermore, the ability of each controller to adapt to off-nominal release conditions is examined.
Closed Loop Fire Control System
1976-11-01
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Cooperative controls with intermittent communication
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shen, Dan; Chen, Genshe; Cruz, Jose B., Jr.; Pham, Khanh; Blasch, Erik; Lynch, Robert
2010-04-01
In this paper, we propose a solution to the cooperative path planning with limited communication problem in two phases. In the first (offline) phase, a Pareto-optimal path problem is formulated to find a reference path and the graph cuts minimization method is used to speedily calculate the optimal solution. In the second (online) phase, a foraging algorithm is used to dynamically refine the reference path to meet the dynamic constraints of unmanned aerial vehicle (UAVs), during which an open-loop feedback optimal (OLFO) controller is used to estimate the states which may be unavailable due to infrequent battlefield information updates. Furthermore, an adaptive Markov decision process is proposed to deal with intermittent asynchronous information flow. The method is demonstrated in a simulation for a swarm of Unmanned Air Vehicle (UAV) teams with various communication ranges.
Shoemaker, Adam; Grange, Robert W.; Abaid, Nicole; Leonessa, Alexander
2017-01-01
Functional Electrical Stimulation is a promising approach to treat patients by stimulating the peripheral nerves and their corresponding motor neurons using electrical current. This technique helps maintain muscle mass and promote blood flow in the absence of a functioning nervous system. The goal of this work is to control muscle contractions from FES via three different algorithms and assess the most appropriate controller providing effective stimulation of the muscle. An open-loop system and a closed-loop system with three types of model-free feedback controllers were assessed for tracking control of skeletal muscle contractions: a Proportional-Integral (PI) controller, a Model Reference Adaptive Control algorithm, and an Adaptive Augmented PI system. Furthermore, a mathematical model of a muscle-mass-spring system was implemented in simulation to test the open-loop case and closed-loop controllers. These simulations were carried out and then validated through experiments ex vivo. The experiments included muscle contractions following four distinct trajectories: a step, sine, ramp, and square wave. Overall, the closed-loop controllers followed the stimulation trajectories set for all the simulated and tested muscles. When comparing the experimental outcomes of each controller, we concluded that the Adaptive Augmented PI algorithm provided the best closed-loop performance for speed of convergence and disturbance rejection. PMID:28273101
Optimal actuator location of minimum norm controls for heat equation with general controlled domain
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guo, Bao-Zhu; Xu, Yashan; Yang, Dong-Hui
2016-09-01
In this paper, we study optimal actuator location of the minimum norm controls for a multi-dimensional heat equation with control defined in the space L2 (Ω × (0 , T)). The actuator domain is time-varying in the sense that it is only required to have a prescribed Lebesgue measure for any moment. We select an optimal actuator location so that the optimal control takes its minimal norm over all possible actuator domains. We build a framework of finding the Nash equilibrium so that we can develop a sufficient and necessary condition to characterize the optimal relaxed solutions for both actuator location and corresponding optimal control of the open-loop system. The existence and uniqueness of the optimal classical solutions are therefore concluded. As a result, we synthesize both optimal actuator location and corresponding optimal control into a time-varying feedbacks.
Input shaped control of 3-dimensional maneuvers of flexible spacecraft
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Singh, T.; Vadali, S. R.
1992-01-01
This paper deals with the control of three dimensional rotational maneuvers of flexible spacecraft. A spacecraft with a spherical hub and six symmetric appendages is considered here as a model. The appendages are long and flexible leading to low frequency vibration under any control action. To provide a comprehensive treatment of input shaped controllers, both open loop and closed loop controllers are considered. The minimum-time bang-bang and the near-minimum-time controller, used in conjunction with the shaped input technique are studied. In addition, a combination of a Liapunov controller with the shaped input control technique is proposed to take advantage of the simple feedback control strategy and augment it with a technique that can eliminate the vibratory motion of the flexible appendages more efficiently.
Optimal spacecraft attitude control using collocation and nonlinear programming
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Herman, A. L.; Conway, B. A.
1992-10-01
Direct collocation with nonlinear programming (DCNLP) is employed to find the optimal open-loop control histories for detumbling a disabled satellite. The controls are torques and forces applied to the docking arm and joint and torques applied about the body axes of the OMV. Solutions are obtained for cases in which various constraints are placed on the controls and in which the number of controls is reduced or increased from that considered in Conway and Widhalm (1986). DCLNP works well when applied to the optimal control problem of satellite attitude control. The formulation is straightforward and produces good results in a relatively small amount of time on a Cray X/MP with no a priori information about the optimal solution. The addition of joint acceleration to the controls significantly reduces the control magnitudes and optimal cost. In all cases, the torques and acclerations are modest and the optimal cost is very modest.
Stochastic optimal control of single neuron spike trains.
Iolov, Alexandre; Ditlevsen, Susanne; Longtin, André
2014-08-01
External control of spike times in single neurons can reveal important information about a neuron's sub-threshold dynamics that lead to spiking, and has the potential to improve brain-machine interfaces and neural prostheses. The goal of this paper is the design of optimal electrical stimulation of a neuron to achieve a target spike train under the physiological constraint to not damage tissue. We pose a stochastic optimal control problem to precisely specify the spike times in a leaky integrate-and-fire (LIF) model of a neuron with noise assumed to be of intrinsic or synaptic origin. In particular, we allow for the noise to be of arbitrary intensity. The optimal control problem is solved using dynamic programming when the controller has access to the voltage (closed-loop control), and using a maximum principle for the transition density when the controller only has access to the spike times (open-loop control). We have developed a stochastic optimal control algorithm to obtain precise spike times. It is applicable in both the supra-threshold and sub-threshold regimes, under open-loop and closed-loop conditions and with an arbitrary noise intensity; the accuracy of control degrades with increasing intensity of the noise. Simulations show that our algorithms produce the desired results for the LIF model, but also for the case where the neuron dynamics are given by more complex models than the LIF model. This is illustrated explicitly using the Morris-Lecar spiking neuron model, for which an LIF approximation is first obtained from a spike sequence using a previously published method. We further show that a related control strategy based on the assumption that there is no noise performs poorly in comparison to our noise-based strategies. The algorithms are numerically intensive and may require efficiency refinements to achieve real-time control; in particular, the open-loop context is more numerically demanding than the closed-loop one. Our main contribution is the
Stochastic optimal control of single neuron spike trains
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Iolov, Alexandre; Ditlevsen, Susanne; Longtin, André
2014-08-01
Objective. External control of spike times in single neurons can reveal important information about a neuron's sub-threshold dynamics that lead to spiking, and has the potential to improve brain-machine interfaces and neural prostheses. The goal of this paper is the design of optimal electrical stimulation of a neuron to achieve a target spike train under the physiological constraint to not damage tissue. Approach. We pose a stochastic optimal control problem to precisely specify the spike times in a leaky integrate-and-fire (LIF) model of a neuron with noise assumed to be of intrinsic or synaptic origin. In particular, we allow for the noise to be of arbitrary intensity. The optimal control problem is solved using dynamic programming when the controller has access to the voltage (closed-loop control), and using a maximum principle for the transition density when the controller only has access to the spike times (open-loop control). Main results. We have developed a stochastic optimal control algorithm to obtain precise spike times. It is applicable in both the supra-threshold and sub-threshold regimes, under open-loop and closed-loop conditions and with an arbitrary noise intensity; the accuracy of control degrades with increasing intensity of the noise. Simulations show that our algorithms produce the desired results for the LIF model, but also for the case where the neuron dynamics are given by more complex models than the LIF model. This is illustrated explicitly using the Morris-Lecar spiking neuron model, for which an LIF approximation is first obtained from a spike sequence using a previously published method. We further show that a related control strategy based on the assumption that there is no noise performs poorly in comparison to our noise-based strategies. The algorithms are numerically intensive and may require efficiency refinements to achieve real-time control; in particular, the open-loop context is more numerically demanding than the closed
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Callier, F. M.; Desoer, C. A.
1973-01-01
A class of multivariable, nonlinear time-varying feedback systems with an unstable convolution subsystem as feedforward and a time-varying nonlinear gain as feedback was considered. The impulse response of the convolution subsystem is the sum of a finite number of increasing exponentials multiplied by nonnegative powers of the time t, a term that is absolutely integrable and an infinite series of delayed impulses. The main result is a theorem. It essentially states that if the unstable convolution subsystem can be stabilized by a constant feedback gain F and if incremental gain of the difference between the nonlinear gain function and F is sufficiently small, then the nonlinear system is L(p)-stable for any p between one and infinity. Furthermore, the solutions of the nonlinear system depend continuously on the inputs in any L(p)-norm. The fixed point theorem is crucial in deriving the above theorem.
Step-control of electromechanical systems
Lewis, Robert N.
1979-01-01
The response of an automatic control system to a general input signal is improved by applying a test input signal, observing the response to the test input signal and determining correctional constants necessary to provide a modified input signal to be added to the input to the system. A method is disclosed for determining correctional constants. The modified input signal, when applied in conjunction with an operating signal, provides a total system output exhibiting an improved response. This method is applicable to open-loop or closed-loop control systems. The method is also applicable to unstable systems, thus allowing controlled shut-down before dangerous or destructive response is achieved and to systems whose characteristics vary with time, thus resulting in improved adaptive systems.
Maneuvering and control of flexible space robots
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Meirovitch, Leonard; Lim, Seungchul
1994-01-01
This paper is concerned with a flexible space robot capable of maneuvering payloads. The robot is assumed to consist of two hinge-connected flexible arms and a rigid end-effector holding a payload; the robot is mounted on a rigid platform floating in space. The equations of motion are nonlinear and of high order. Based on the assumption that the maneuvering motions are one order of magnitude larger than the elastic vibrations, a perturbation approach permits design of controls for the two types of motion separately. The rigid-body maneuvering is carried out open loop, but the elastic motions are controlled closed loop, by means of discrete-time linear quadratic regulator theory with prescribed degree of stability. A numerical example demonstrates the approach. In the example, the controls derived by the perturbation approach are applied to the original nonlinear system and errors are found to be relatively small.
System/observer/controller identification toolbox
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Juang, Jer-Nan; Horta, Lucas G.; Phan, Minh
1992-01-01
System Identification is the process of constructing a mathematical model from input and output data for a system under testing, and characterizing the system uncertainties and measurement noises. The mathematical model structure can take various forms depending upon the intended use. The SYSTEM/OBSERVER/CONTROLLER IDENTIFICATION TOOLBOX (SOCIT) is a collection of functions, written in MATLAB language and expressed in M-files, that implements a variety of modern system identification techniques. For an open loop system, the central features of the SOCIT are functions for identification of a system model and its corresponding forward and backward observers directly from input and output data. The system and observers are represented by a discrete model. The identified model and observers may be used for controller design of linear systems as well as identification of modal parameters such as dampings, frequencies, and mode shapes. For a closed-loop system, an observer and its corresponding controller gain directly from input and output data.
Detecting air traffic controller interventions in recorded air transportation system data
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kwon, Yul
In this study, I propose a systematic method of detecting aircraft deviation due to air traffic controller (ATC) intervention. The aircraft deviations associated with ATC interventions are detected using a heuristic algorithm developed from analyzing the actual positions of an aircraft to its filed flight plan when the aircraft trajectories were identified as having an encounter in a loss-of-separation incident. An actual (closed-loop) flight trajectory of the Cleveland Air Route Traffic Control Center (ZOB ARTCC) was collected from the FlightAware database. This was compared with the corresponding planned (open-loop) trajectory dataset generated by the Microsoft(c) Flight Simulator X (FSX). I implemented a conflict-detection algorithm in Matlab to identify open-loop flight trajectories that encounters in loss-of-separation. I analyzed the differences between the closed-loop and open-loop flight trajectories of aircrafts that were identified to have encounters in loss of separation. The analysis identified operationally significant deviations in the closed-loop trajectory data with respect to the horizontal paths of the aircrafts. I then developed and validated a heuristic algorithm, the ATC intervention detection algorithm, based on the findings from the analysis. When used with a test dataset to validate the algorithm, it achieved an 85.7% detection rate in detecting horizontal deviations made by the ATC in resolving identified conflicts, and a false-alarm rate of 68%. In addition to the ATC intervention detection algorithm, I present in this paper an analysis of deviated flight trajectories in an effort to display how the presented methodology can be utilized to provide insight into air traffic controller resolution strategies.
A multidisciplinary approach to optimization of controlled space structures
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Woodard, Stanley E.; Padula, Sharon L.; Graves, Philip C.; James, Benjamin B.
1990-01-01
A fundamental problem facing controls-structures analysts is a means of determining the trade-offs between structural design parameters and control design parameters in meeting some particular performance criteria. Developing a general optimization-based design methodology integrating the disciplines of structural dynamics and controls is a logical approach. The objective of this study is to develop such a method. Classical design methodology involves three phases. The first is structural optimization, wherein structural member sizes are varied to minimize structural mass, subject to open-loop frequency constraints. The next phase integrates control and structure design with control gains as additional design variables. The final phase is analysis of the 'optimal' integrated design phase considering 'real' actuators and 'standard' member sizes. The control gains could be further optimized for fixed structure, and actuator saturation constraints could be imposed. However, such an approach does not take full advantage of opportunities to tailor the structure and control system design as one system.
Motion and force control for multiple cooperative manipulators
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wen, John T.; Kreutz, Kenneth
1989-01-01
The motion and force control of multiple robot arms manipulating a commonly held object is addressed. A general control paradigm that decouples the motion and force control problems is introduced. For motion control, there are three natural choices: (1) joint torques, (2) arm-tip force vectors, and (3) the acceleration of a generalized coordinate. Choice (1) allows a class of relatively model-independent control laws by exploiting the Hamiltonian structure of the open-loop system; (2) and (3) require the full model information but produce simpler problems. To resolve the nonuniqueness of the joint torques, two methods are introduced. If the arm and object models are available, the allocation of the desired end-effector control force to the joint actuators can be optimized; otherwise the internal force can be controlled about some set point. It is shown that effective force regulation can be achieved even if little model information is available.
Motion and force control for multiple cooperative manipulators
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wen, John T.; Kreutz, Kenneth
1989-01-01
The motion and force control of multiple robot arms manipulating a commonly held object is addressed. A general control paradigm that decouples the motion and force control problems is introduced. For motion control, there are three natural choices: (1) joint torques, (2) arm-tip force vectors, and (3) the acceleration of a generalized coordinate. Choice (1) allows a class of relatively model-independent control laws by exploiting the Hamiltonian structure of the open-loop system; (2) and (3) require the full model information but produce simpler problems. To resolve the nonuniqueness of the joint torques, two methods are introduced. If the arm and object models are available, the allocation of the desired end-effector control force to the joint actuators can be optimized; otherwise the internal force can be controlled about some set point. It is shown that effective force regulation can be achieved even if little model information is available.
Adaptive Control Using Residual Mode Filters Applied to Wind Turbines
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Frost, Susan A.; Balas, Mark J.
2011-01-01
Many dynamic systems containing a large number of modes can benefit from adaptive control techniques, which are well suited to applications that have unknown parameters and poorly known operating conditions. In this paper, we focus on a model reference direct adaptive control approach that has been extended to handle adaptive rejection of persistent disturbances. We extend this adaptive control theory to accommodate problematic modal subsystems of a plant that inhibit the adaptive controller by causing the open-loop plant to be non-minimum phase. We will augment the adaptive controller using a Residual Mode Filter (RMF) to compensate for problematic modal subsystems, thereby allowing the system to satisfy the requirements for the adaptive controller to have guaranteed convergence and bounded gains. We apply these theoretical results to design an adaptive collective pitch controller for a high-fidelity simulation of a utility-scale, variable-speed wind turbine that has minimum phase zeros.
Behavioural system identification of visual flight speed control in Drosophila melanogaster
Rohrseitz, Nicola; Fry, Steven N.
2011-01-01
Behavioural control in many animals involves complex mechanisms with intricate sensory-motor feedback loops. Modelling allows functional aspects to be captured without relying on a description of the underlying complex, and often unknown, mechanisms. A wide range of engineering techniques are available for modelling, but their ability to describe time-continuous processes is rarely exploited to describe sensory-motor control mechanisms in biological systems. We performed a system identification of visual flight speed control in the fruitfly Drosophila, based on an extensive dataset of open-loop responses previously measured under free flight conditions. We identified a second-order under-damped control model with just six free parameters that well describes both the transient and steady-state characteristics of the open-loop data. We then used the identified control model to predict flight speed responses after a visual perturbation under closed-loop conditions and validated the model with behavioural measurements performed in free-flying flies under the same closed-loop conditions. Our system identification of the fruitfly's flight speed response uncovers the high-level control strategy of a fundamental flight control reflex without depending on assumptions about the underlying physiological mechanisms. The results are relevant for future investigations of the underlying neuromotor processing mechanisms, as well as for the design of biomimetic robots, such as micro-air vehicles. PMID:20525744
Optimizing Structural Active Control Force Using the Exterior Penalty Function Method
Tavassoli, Mohammad Reza; Amini, Fereidoun
2008-07-08
A new method for optimizing the control force in a closed-open loop control system has been developed. In this method which applies the complete feedback, structural responses including displacement, velocity, acceleration and also the excitation forces are used to determine the required control forces. In a closed-open loop control system, applying control force is equivalent to making changes in the mass, damping and stiffness matrices of the structure and the external force vector. Assuming these changes are linear and proportional to their initial values, the minimization of control force depends on the optimal values of the proportion coefficients. This idea leads to a constrained optimization problem of n-variable, which has been solved by using the exterior penalty function method and the Powell's search algorithm. The peak control force is the objective function of this optimization problem and the proportion coefficients are the design variables. The supposed limitation of the structural responses comprises the constraints of the problem. The effectiveness of the proposed method is demonstrated by some numerical examples.
Behavioural system identification of visual flight speed control in Drosophila melanogaster.
Rohrseitz, Nicola; Fry, Steven N
2011-02-06
Behavioural control in many animals involves complex mechanisms with intricate sensory-motor feedback loops. Modelling allows functional aspects to be captured without relying on a description of the underlying complex, and often unknown, mechanisms. A wide range of engineering techniques are available for modelling, but their ability to describe time-continuous processes is rarely exploited to describe sensory-motor control mechanisms in biological systems. We performed a system identification of visual flight speed control in the fruitfly Drosophila, based on an extensive dataset of open-loop responses previously measured under free flight conditions. We identified a second-order under-damped control model with just six free parameters that well describes both the transient and steady-state characteristics of the open-loop data. We then used the identified control model to predict flight speed responses after a visual perturbation under closed-loop conditions and validated the model with behavioural measurements performed in free-flying flies under the same closed-loop conditions. Our system identification of the fruitfly's flight speed response uncovers the high-level control strategy of a fundamental flight control reflex without depending on assumptions about the underlying physiological mechanisms. The results are relevant for future investigations of the underlying neuromotor processing mechanisms, as well as for the design of biomimetic robots, such as micro-air vehicles.
Machine learning control (MLC)---a novel method for optimal control of complex nonlinear systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Noack, Bernd R.; Cordier, Laurent; Parezanovic, Vladimir; von Krbek, Kai; Segond, Marc; Abel, Markus W.; Brunton, Steven; Duriez, Thomas
2014-11-01
We propose a model-free closed-loop control strategy for complex nonlinear systems with a finite number of sensors and actuators (MIMO). This strategy yields a feedback law which optimizes a cost functional with machine learning methods. Thus, no dynamical model of the plant is required in contrast to model-based approaches, In addition, no working open-loop control is necessary in contrast to adaptive approaches. The approach is illustrated for strongly nonlinear dynamical systems which are not accessible to linear control design. Control studies of several shear-turbulence experiments will be presented in the talks of T. Duriez and V. Parezanović. Funding of the ANR Chair of Excellence TUCOROM, of the ANR Grant SepaCoDe, of the EC's Marie-Curie ITN program and of Ambrosys GmbH is acknowledged.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wie, Bong; Liu, Qiang
1992-01-01
Both feedback and feedforward control approaches for uncertain dynamical systems (in particular, with uncertainty in structural mode frequency) are investigated. The control objective is to achieve a fast settling time (high performance) and robustness (insensitivity) to plant uncertainty. Preshaping of an ideal, time optimal control input using a tapped-delay filter is shown to provide a fast settling time with robust performance. A robust, non-minimum-phase feedback controller is synthesized with particular emphasis on its proper implementation for a non-zero set-point control problem. It is shown that a properly designed, feedback controller performs well, as compared with a time optimal open loop controller with special preshaping for performance robustness. Also included are two separate papers by the same authors on this subject.
Control of Magnetic Bearings for Rotor Unbalance With Plug-In Time-Varying Resonators.
Kang, Christopher; Tsao, Tsu-Chin
2016-01-01
Rotor unbalance, common phenomenon of rotational systems, manifests itself as a periodic disturbance synchronized with the rotor's angular velocity. In active magnetic bearing (AMB) systems, feedback control is required to stabilize the open-loop unstable electromagnetic levitation. Further, feedback action can be added to suppress the repeatable runout but maintain closed-loop stability. In this paper, a plug-in time-varying resonator is designed by inverting cascaded notch filters. This formulation allows flexibility in designing the internal model for appropriate disturbance rejection. The plug-in structure ensures that stability can be maintained for varying rotor speeds. Experimental results of an AMB-rotor system are presented.
Sensorless Control of Permanent Magnet Machine for NASA Flywheel Technology Development
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kenny, Barbara H.; Kascak, Peter E.
2002-01-01
This paper describes the position sensorless algorithms presently used in the motor control for the NASA "in-house" development work of the flywheel energy storage system. At zero and low speeds a signal injection technique, the self-sensing method, is used to determine rotor position. At higher speeds, an open loop estimate of the back EMF of the machine is made to determine the rotor position. At start up, the rotor is set to a known position by commanding dc into one of the phase windings. Experimental results up to 52,000 rpm are presented.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mcruer, D. T.; Myers, T. T.; Thompson, P. M.
1986-01-01
It is proposed that frequency-domain multivariable robustness techniques, when combined with classical multivariable procedures, can offer an additional means of evaluating FCS designs. A lateral-directional FCS for an advanced fighter is used as an example. Robustness to unstructured aircraft-input uncertainties is assessed using purely numerical singular-value procedures. Literal approximations for the singular values of the open-loop plant and controller and for the inverse return difference are shown to provide a means of decomposing and diagnosing robustness problems that are insoluble via purely numerical methods.
Environmental control and life support system selection for the first Lunar outpost habitat
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Adams, Alan
1993-01-01
The planning for and feasibility study of an early human return mission to the lunar surface has been undertaken. The First Lunar Outpost (FLO) Mission philosophy is to use existing or near-term technology to achieve a human landing on the lunar surface in the year 2000. To support the crew the lunar habitat for the FLO mission incorporates an environmental control/life support system (ECLSS) design which meets the mission requirements and balances fixed mass and consumable mass. This tradeoff becomes one of regenerable life support systems versus open-loop systems.
Control of Magnetic Bearings for Rotor Unbalance With Plug-In Time-Varying Resonators
Kang, Christopher; Tsao, Tsu-Chin
2016-01-01
Rotor unbalance, common phenomenon of rotational systems, manifests itself as a periodic disturbance synchronized with the rotor's angular velocity. In active magnetic bearing (AMB) systems, feedback control is required to stabilize the open-loop unstable electromagnetic levitation. Further, feedback action can be added to suppress the repeatable runout but maintain closed-loop stability. In this paper, a plug-in time-varying resonator is designed by inverting cascaded notch filters. This formulation allows flexibility in designing the internal model for appropriate disturbance rejection. The plug-in structure ensures that stability can be maintained for varying rotor speeds. Experimental results of an AMB–rotor system are presented. PMID:27222600
Durability investigation on torque control of a magneto-rheological brake: experimental work
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kim, Wan Ho; Park, Jhin Ha; Kim, Gi-Woo; Shin, Cheol Soo; Choi, Seung-Bok
2017-03-01
This study experimentally investigates the torque control durability of a disc brake featuring a magneto-rheological (MR) fluid. An appropriate size of MR disc brake is designed based on a mathematical model, and a prototype is manufactured. A small-scale laboratory-scale test bed is then developed using a DC motor, in-line torque sensor, and the MR brake. S45C and S20C steels are inserted into a tapered hole on the surface of the brake disc. After 105 cycles of operation in shear mode, the wear properties of the MR brake are characterized by average surface roughness measurements, scanning electron microscope images, and energy dispersive x-ray spectra. The torque control performances before and after the operation cycles are examined using open-loop control and closed-loop proportional-integral-derivative control. As expected, the control performance degraded after 105 cycles of operation in the open-loop case, but not in the closed-loop case. This aspect is demonstrated by the sinusoidal torque-tacking control performance before and after the operation cycles.
Guerrero, Javier; Guisasola, Albert; Baeza, Juan A
2014-01-01
This work shows the development and the in silico evaluation of a novel control strategy aiming at successful biological phosphorus removal in a wastewater treatment plant operating in an A(2)/O configuration with carbon-limited influent. The principle of this novel approach is that the phosphorus in the effluent can be controlled with the nitrate setpoint in the anoxic reactor as manipulated variable. The theoretical background behind this control strategy is that reducing nitrate entrance to the anoxic reactor would result in more organic matter available for biological phosphorus removal. Thus, phosphorus removal would be enhanced at the expense of increasing nitrate in the effluent (but always below legal limits). The work shows the control development, tuning and performance in comparison to open-loop conditions and to two other conventional control strategies for phosphorus removal based on organic matter and metal addition. It is shown that the novel proposed strategy achieves positive nutrient removal results with similar operational costs to the other control strategies and open-loop operation.
First use of model predictive control in outpatient wearable artificial pancreas.
Del Favero, Simone; Bruttomesso, Daniela; Di Palma, Federico; Lanzola, Giordano; Visentin, Roberto; Filippi, Alessio; Scotton, Rachele; Toffanin, Chiara; Messori, Mirko; Scarpellini, Stefania; Keith-Hynes, Patrick; Kovatchev, Boris P; Devries, J Hans; Renard, Eric; Magni, Lalo; Avogaro, Angelo; Cobelli, Claudio
2014-01-01
Inpatient studies suggest that model predictive control (MPC) is one of the most promising algorithms for artificial pancreas (AP). So far, outpatient trials have used hypo/hyperglycemia-mitigation or medical-expert systems. In this study, we report the first wearable AP outpatient study based on MPC and investigate specifically its ability to control postprandial glucose, one of the major challenges in glucose control. A new modular MPC algorithm has been designed focusing on meal control. Six type 1 diabetes mellitus patients underwent 42-h experiments: sensor-augmented pump therapy in the first 14 h (open-loop) and closed-loop in the remaining 28 h. MPC showed satisfactory dinner control versus open-loop: time-in-target (70-180 mg/dL) 94.83 vs. 68.2% and time-in-hypo 1.25 vs. 11.9%. Overnight control was also satisfactory: time-in-target 89.4 vs. 85.0% and time-in-hypo: 0.00 vs. 8.19%. This outpatient study confirms inpatient evidence of suitability of MPC-based strategies for AP. These encouraging results pave the way to randomized crossover outpatient studies.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dwyer Cianciolo, Alicia; Powell, Richard W.
2017-01-01
Precision landing on Mars is a challenge. All Mars lander missions prior to the 2012 Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) had landing location uncertainty ellipses on the order of hundreds of kilometers. Sending humans to the surface of Mars will likely require multiple landers delivered in close proximity, which will in turn require orders of magnitude improvement in landing accuracy. MSL was the first Mars mission to use an Apollo-derived bank angle guidance to reduce the size of the landing ellipse. It utilized commanded bank angle magnitude to control total range and bank angle reversals to control cross range. A shortcoming of this bank angle guidance is that the open loop phase of flight created by use of bank reversals increases targeting errors. This paper presents a comparison of entry, descent and landing performance for a vehicle with a low lift-to-drag ratio using both bank angle control and an alternative guidance called Direct Force Control (DFC). DFC eliminates the open loop flight errors by directly controlling two forces independently, lift and side force. This permits independent control of down range and cross range. Performance results, evaluated using the Program to Optimize Simulated Trajectories (POST2), including propellant use and landing accuracy, are presented.
On-Orbit Model Refinement for Controller Redesign
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Whorton, Mark S.; Calise, Anthony J.
1998-01-01
High performance control design for a flexible space structure is challenging since high fidelity plant models are difficult to obtain a priori. Uncertainty in the control design models typically require a very robust, low performance control design which must be tuned on-orbit to achieve the required performance. A new procedure for refining a multivariable open loop plant model based on closed-loop response data is presented. Using a minimal representation of the state space dynamics, a least squares prediction error method is employed to estimate the plant parameters. This control-relevant system identification procedure stresses the joint nature of the system identification and control design problem by seeking to obtain a model that minimizes the difference between the predicted and actual closed-loop performance. This paper presents an algorithm for iterative closed-loop system identification and controller redesign along with illustrative examples.
Miyamoto, Tadayoshi; Nakahara, Hidehiro; Ueda, Shinya; Manabe, Kou; Kawai, Eriko; Inagaki, Masashi; Kawada, Toru; Sugimachi, Masaru
2015-01-01
OBJECTIVE The respiratory operating point is determined by the interplay between the controller and plant subsystem elements within the respiratory chemoreflex feedback system. This study aimed to establish the methodological basis for quantitative analysis of the open-loop dynamic properties of the human respiratory control system and to apply the results to explore detailed mechanisms of the regulation of respiration and the possible mechanism of periodic breathing in chronic heart failure. METHODS AND RESULTS In healthy volunteers, we measured arterial CO2 partial pressure (PaCO2) and minute ventilation (V˙E) to estimate the dynamic properties of the controller ( PaCO2→V˙E relation) and plant ( V˙E→PaCO2 relation). The dynamic properties of the controller and plant approximated first- and second-order exponential models, respectively, and were described using parameters including gain, time constant, and lag time. We then used the open-loop transfer functions to simulate the closed-loop respiratory response to an exogenous disturbance, while manipulating the parameter values to deviate from normal values but within physiological ranges. By increasing both the product of gains of the two subsystem elements (total loop gain) and the lag time, the condition of system oscillation (onset of periodic breathing) was satisfied. CONCLUSION When abnormality occurs in a part of the respiratory chemoreflex system, instability of the control system is amplified and may result in the manifestation of respiratory abnormalities such as periodic breathing. PMID:26561001
Active load control during rolling maneuvers. [performed in the Langley Transonic Dynamics Tunnel
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Woods-Vedeler, Jessica A.; Pototzky, Anthony S.; Hoadley, Sherwood T.
1994-01-01
A rolling maneuver load alleviation (RMLA) system has been demonstrated on the active flexible wing (AFW) wind tunnel model in the Langley Transonic Dynamics Tunnel (TDT). The objective was to develop a systematic approach for designing active control laws to alleviate wing loads during rolling maneuvers. Two RMLA control laws were developed that utilized outboard control-surface pairs (leading and trailing edge) to counteract the loads and that used inboard trailing-edge control-surface pairs to maintain roll performance. Rolling maneuver load tests were performed in the TDT at several dynamic pressures that included two below and one 11 percent above open-loop flutter dynamic pressure. The RMLA system was operated simultaneously with an active flutter suppression system above open-loop flutter dynamic pressure. At all dynamic pressures for which baseline results were obtained, torsion-moment loads were reduced for both RMLA control laws. Results for bending-moment load reductions were mixed; however, design equations developed in this study provided conservative estimates of load reduction in all cases.
Feedback Control of the Wake of a Three-Dimensional Blunt Bluff Body
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Flinois, Thibault; Morgans, Aimee
2013-11-01
When cars or trucks drive on motorways, more than two thirds of their fuel consumption is due to aerodynamic drag, a significant part of which is caused by the large scale separation that takes place near their trailing edge. We tackle this problem using Large Eddy Simulations and use feedback control of synthetic jets to reduce the losses associated with large-scale structures in the wake. The geometry is a long surface mounted block, whose leading edge is not modelled for computational efficiency and the structure of the unforced flow field around this body is similar to the flow over a surface mounted block or hump. Considering this flow field as a control system, the base pressure force was used as the system output and the input is a slot jet actuator located near the trailing edge. Using open-loop forcing, a form drag reduction of about 7.5% was obtained. Open-loop system identification also allowed a transfer function that models the system's response to actuation to be found. Finally, a set of feedback controllers were applied to the plant and their performance was analysed. These controllers successfully reduce the fluctuations in the near wake, with only a small control effort. However, more significant mean drag reductions are expected at higher Reynolds numbers. PhD Student, Imperial College London.
Miyamoto, Tadayoshi; Nakahara, Hidehiro; Ueda, Shinya; Manabe, Kou; Kawai, Eriko; Inagaki, Masashi; Kawada, Toru; Sugimachi, Masaru
2015-01-01
The respiratory operating point is determined by the interplay between the controller and plant subsystem elements within the respiratory chemoreflex feedback system. This study aimed to establish the methodological basis for quantitative analysis of the open-loop dynamic properties of the human respiratory control system and to apply the results to explore detailed mechanisms of the regulation of respiration and the possible mechanism of periodic breathing in chronic heart failure. In healthy volunteers, we measured arterial CO2 partial pressure (PaCO2) and minute ventilation [Formula: see text] to estimate the dynamic properties of the controller ( [Formula: see text] relation) and plant ( [Formula: see text] relation). The dynamic properties of the controller and plant approximated first- and second-order exponential models, respectively, and were described using parameters including gain, time constant, and lag time. We then used the open-loop transfer functions to simulate the closed-loop respiratory response to an exogenous disturbance, while manipulating the parameter values to deviate from normal values but within physiological ranges. By increasing both the product of gains of the two subsystem elements (total loop gain) and the lag time, the condition of system oscillation (onset of periodic breathing) was satisfied. When abnormality occurs in a part of the respiratory chemoreflex system, instability of the control system is amplified and may result in the manifestation of respiratory abnormalities such as periodic breathing.
Metrics of Balance Control for Use in Screening Tests of Vestibular Function
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Fiedler, Matthew; Cohen, Helen; Mulavara, Ajitkumar; Peters, Brian; Miller, Chris; Bloomberg, Jacob
2011-01-01
Decrements in balance control have been documented in astronauts after space flight. Reliable measures of balance control are needed for use in postflight field tests at remote landing sites. Diffusion analysis (DA) is a statistical mechanical tool that shows the average difference of the dependent variable on varying time scales. These techniques have been shown to measure differences in open-loop and closed-loop postural control in astronauts and elderly subjects. The goal of this study was to investigate the reliability of these measures of balance control. Eleven subjects were tested using the Clinical Test of Sensory Interaction on Balance: the subject stood with feet together and arms crossed on a stable or compliant surface, with eyes open or closed and with or without head movements in the pitch or yaw plane. Subjects were instrumented with inertial motion sensors attached to their trunk segment. The DA curves for linear acceleration measures were characterized by linear fits measuring open- (Ds) and closed-loop (Dl) control, and their intersection point (X-int, Y-int). Ds and Y-int showed significant differences between the test conditions. Additionally, Ds was correlated with the root mean square (RMS) of the signal, indicating that RMS was dominated by open-loop events (< 0.5 seconds). The Y-int was found to be correlated with the average linear velocity of trunk movements. Thus DA measures could be applied to derive reliable metrics of balance stability during field tests.
Distributed control for COFS 1
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Montgomery, R. C.; Sulla, Jeff; Lindner, D. K.
1986-01-01
An overview is given of the work being done at NASA LaRC on developing the Control of Flexible Structures (COFS) 1 Flight Experiment Baseline Control Law. This control law currently evolving to a generic control system software package designed to supply many, but not all, guest investigators. A system simulator is also described. It is currently being developed for COFS-1 and will be used to develop the Baseline Control Law and to evaluate guest investigator control schemes. It will be available for use whether or not control schemes fall into the category of the Baseline Control Law. First, the hardware configuration for control experiments is described. This is followed by a description of the simulation software. Open-loop sinusoid excitation time histories are next presented both with and without a local controller for the Linear DC Motor (LDCM) actuators currently planned for the flight. The generic control law follows and algorithm processing requirements are cited for a nominal case of interest. Finally, a closed-loop simulation study is presented, and the state of the work is summarized in the concluding remarks.
Bruttomesso, Daniela; Farret, Anne; Costa, Silvana; Marescotti, Maria Cristina; Vettore, Monica; Avogaro, Angelo; Tiengo, Antonio; Dalla Man, Chiara; Place, Jerome; Facchinetti, Andrea; Guerra, Stefania; Magni, Lalo; De Nicolao, Giuseppe; Cobelli, Claudio; Renard, Eric; Maran, Alberto
2009-09-01
New effort has been made to develop closed-loop glucose control, using subcutaneous (SC) glucose sensing and continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) from a pump, and a control algorithm. An approach based on a model predictive control (MPC) algorithm has been utilized during closed-loop control in type 1 diabetes patients. Here we describe the preliminary clinical experience with this approach. Six type 1 diabetes patients (three in each of two clinical investigation centers in Padova and Montpellier), using CSII, aged 36 +/- 8 and 48 +/- 6 years, duration of diabetes 12 +/- 8 and 29 +/- 4 years, hemoglobin A1c 7.4% +/- 0.1% and 7.3% +/- 0.3%, body mass index 23.2 +/- 0.3 and 28.4 +/- 2.2 kg/m(2), respectively, were studied on two occasions during 22 h overnight hospital admissions 2-4 weeks apart. A Freestyle Navigator(R) continuous glucose monitor and an OmniPod insulin pump were applied in each trial. Admission 1 used open-loop control, while admission 2 employed closed-loop control using our MPC algorithm. In Padova, two out of three subjects showed better performance with the closed-loop system compared to open loop. Altogether, mean overnight plasma glucose (PG) levels were 134 versus 111 mg/dl during open loop versus closed loop, respectively. The percentage of time spent at PG > 140 mg/dl was 45% versus 12%, while postbreakfast mean PG was 165 versus 156 mg/dl during open loop versus closed loop, respectively. Also, in Montpellier, two patients out of three showed a better glucose control during closed-loop trials. Avoidance of nocturnal hypoglycemic excursions was a clear benefit during algorithm-guided insulin delivery in all cases. This preliminary set of studies demonstrates that closed-loop control based entirely on SC glucose sensing and insulin delivery is feasible and can be applied to improve glucose control in patients with type 1 diabetes, although the algorithm needs to be further improved to achieve better glycemic control. 2009
Bruttomesso, Daniela; Farret, Anne; Costa, Silvana; Marescotti, Maria Cristina; Vettore, Monica; Avogaro, Angelo; Tiengo, Antonio; Man, Chiara Dalla; Place, Jerome; Facchinetti, Andrea; Guerra, Stefania; Magni, Lalo; De Nicolao, Giuseppe; Cobelli, Claudio; Renard, Eric; Maran, Alberto
2009-01-01
New effort has been made to develop closed-loop glucose control, using subcutaneous (SC) glucose sensing and continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) from a pump, and a control algorithm. An approach based on a model predictive control (MPC) algorithm has been utilized during closed-loop control in type 1 diabetes patients. Here we describe the preliminary clinical experience with this approach. Six type 1 diabetes patients (three in each of two clinical investigation centers in Padova and Montpellier), using CSII, aged 36 ± 8 and 48 ± 6 years, duration of diabetes 12 ± 8 and 29 ± 4 years, hemoglobin A1c 7.4% ± 0.1% and 7.3% ± 0.3%, body mass index 23.2 ± 0.3 and 28.4 ± 2.2 kg/m2, respectively, were studied on two occasions during 22 h overnight hospital admissions 2–4 weeks apart. A Freestyle Navigator® continuous glucose monitor and an OmniPod® insulin pump were applied in each trial. Admission 1 used open-loop control, while admission 2 employed closed-loop control using our MPC algorithm. In Padova, two out of three subjects showed better performance with the closed-loop system compared to open loop. Altogether, mean overnight plasma glucose (PG) levels were 134 versus 111 mg/dl during open loop versus closed loop, respectively. The percentage of time spent at PG > 140 mg/dl was 45% versus 12%, while postbreakfast mean PG was 165 versus 156 mg/dl during open loop versus closed loop, respectively. Also, in Montpellier, two patients out of three showed a better glucose control during closed-loop trials. Avoidance of nocturnal hypoglycemic excursions was a clear benefit during algorithm-guided insulin delivery in all cases. This preliminary set of studies demonstrates that closed-loop control based entirely on SC glucose sensing and insulin delivery is feasible and can be applied to improve glucose control in patients with type 1 diabetes, although the algorithm needs to be further improved to achieve better glycemic control. PMID:20144414
Vibration control of a manipulator tip on a flexible body
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Xu, J.; Bainum, P. M.; Li, F.
1992-01-01
Vibration control of a rigid manipulator tip on a main flexible uniform beam is examined. It is proposed to add a compensator between the manipulator and the beam to rotate and extend/retrieve the manipulator during the control period. The 2D station-keeping maneuvers within the linear range without gravity and damping are considered. The compensatory open-loop control law, which depends on the amplitudes of the beam's flexible deformations at the connection joint, is synthesized using linear quadratic regulator techniques. After introducing the compensatory control into the system, system control is still stable, and the tip coordinates of the manipulator can be made to closely follow the rigid beam motion, which is assumed to be a desired motion.
REAL-TIME MODEL-BASED ELECTRICAL POWERED WHEELCHAIR CONTROL
Wang, Hongwu; Salatin, Benjamin; Grindle, Garrett G.; Ding, Dan; Cooper, Rory A.
2009-01-01
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of three different control methods on driving speed variation and wheel-slip of an electric-powered wheelchair (EPW). A kinematic model as well as 3-D dynamic model was developed to control the velocity and traction of the wheelchair. A smart wheelchair platform was designed and built with a computerized controller and encoders to record wheel speeds and to detect the slip. A model based, a proportional-integral-derivative (PID) and an open-loop controller were applied with the EPW driving on four different surfaces at three specified speeds. The speed errors, variation, rise time, settling time and slip coefficient were calculated and compared for a speed step-response input. Experimental results showed that model based control performed best on all surfaces across the speeds. PMID:19733494
Circadian Phase Resetting via Single and Multiple Control Targets
Bagheri, Neda; Stelling, Jörg; Doyle, Francis J.
2008-01-01
Circadian entrainment is necessary for rhythmic physiological functions to be appropriately timed over the 24-hour day. Disruption of circadian rhythms has been associated with sleep and neuro-behavioral impairments as well as cancer. To date, light is widely accepted to be the most powerful circadian synchronizer, motivating its use as a key control input for phase resetting. Through sensitivity analysis, we identify additional control targets whose individual and simultaneous manipulation (via a model predictive control algorithm) out-perform the open-loop light-based phase recovery dynamics by nearly 3-fold. We further demonstrate the robustness of phase resetting by synchronizing short- and long-period mutant phenotypes to the 24-hour environment; the control algorithm is robust in the presence of model mismatch. These studies prove the efficacy and immediate application of model predictive control in experimental studies and medicine. In particular, maintaining proper circadian regulation may significantly decrease the chance of acquiring chronic illness. PMID:18795146
Method for spinning up a three-axis controlled spacecraft
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Vorlicek, Preston L. (Inventor)
1988-01-01
A three-axis controlled spacecraft (1), typically a satellite, is spun up about its roll axis (20) prior to firing a motor (2), i.e., a perigee kick motor, to achieve the requisite degree of angular momentum stiffness. Thrusters (21) for imparting rotation about the roll axis (20) are activated in open-loop fashion, typically at less than full duty cycle. Cross-axis torques induced by this rotational motion are compensated for by means of closed control loops for each of the pitch and yaw axes (30, 40, respectively). Each closed control loop combines a prebias torque (72) with torques (75, 74) representative of position and rate feedback information, respectively. A deadband (52) within each closed control loop can be widened during the spinup, to conserve fuel. Position feedback information (75) in each of the control loops is disabled upon saturation of the gyroscope associated with the roll axis (20).
Variable structure control of nonlinear systems through simplified uncertain models
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sira-Ramirez, Hebertt
1986-01-01
A variable structure control approach is presented for the robust stabilization of feedback equivalent nonlinear systems whose proposed model lies in the same structural orbit of a linear system in Brunovsky's canonical form. An attempt to linearize exactly the nonlinear plant on the basis of the feedback control law derived for the available model results in a nonlinearly perturbed canonical system for the expanded class of possible equivalent control functions. Conservatism tends to grow as modeling errors become larger. In order to preserve the internal controllability structure of the plant, it is proposed that model simplification be carried out on the open-loop-transformed system. As an example, a controller is developed for a single link manipulator with an elastic joint.
Method and System for Active Noise Control of Tiltrotor Aircraft
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Betzina, Mark D. (Inventor); Nguyen, Khanh Q. (Inventor)
2003-01-01
Methods and systems for reducing noise generated by rotating blades of a tiltrotor aircraft. A rotor-blade pitch angle associated with the tiltrotor aircraft can be controlled utilizing a swashplate connected to rotating blades of the tiltrotor aircraft. One or more Higher Harmonic Control (HHC) signals can be transmitted and input to a swashplate control actuator associated with the swashplate. A particular blade pitch oscillation (e.g., four cycles per revolution) is there-after produced in a rotating frame of reference associated with the rotating blades in response to input of an HHC signal to the swashplate control actuator associated with the swashplate to thereby reduce noise associated with the rotating blades of the tiltrotor aircraft. The HHC signal can be transmitted and input to the swashplate control actuator to reduce noise of the tiltrotor aircraft in response to a user input utilizing an open-loop configuration.
Real-time model based electrical powered wheelchair control.
Wang, Hongwu; Salatin, Benjamin; Grindle, Garrett G; Ding, Dan; Cooper, Rory A
2009-12-01
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of three different control methods on driving speed variation and wheel slip of an electric-powered wheelchair (EPW). A kinematic model as well as 3D dynamic model was developed to control the velocity and traction of the wheelchair. A smart wheelchair platform was designed and built with a computerized controller and encoders to record wheel speeds and to detect the slip. A model based, a proportional-integral-derivative (PID) and an open-loop controller were applied with the EPW driving on four different surfaces at three specified speeds. The speed errors, variation, rise time, settling time and slip coefficient were calculated and compared for a speed step-response input. Experimental results showed that model based control performed best on all surfaces across the speeds.
Distributed Parameter Control of Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) for Diesel-Powered Vehicles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pakravesh, Hallas
The main scope of this work is to design a distributed parameter control for SCR, which is modelled by using coupled hyperbolic and parabolic partial differential equations (PDEs). This is a boundary control problem where the control objectives are to reduce the amount of NOx emissions and ammonia slip as far as possible. Two strategies are used to control SCR. The first strategy includes using the direct transcription (DT) as the open-loop control technique. The second strategy includes the design of a closed-loop control technique that uses a new numerical method developed in this work, which combines the method of characteristics and spectral decomposition, and the characteristic-based nonlinear model predictive control (CBNMPC) as the control algorithm. The results show that the designed advanced controllers are able to achieve very high control performance in terms of NOx and ammonia slip reduction.
Luijf, Yoeri M.; Koebrugge, Rob; Koops, Robin; Hoekstra, Joost B.L.; DeVries, J. Hans
2014-01-01
Abstract Background: This study assessed the feasibility of a portable bihormonal closed-loop system at home. Subjects and Methods: Sixteen pump-treated patients with type 1 diabetes received 48 h of closed-loop therapy with a telemonitored insulin- and glucagon-delivering closed-loop system and 48 h of patient-managed open-loop therapy. Results: Owing to technical problems in five cases, only 11 patients could be analyzed. Whereas median (interquartile range) glucose levels were not significantly different during Day 1 of open-loop control (OL1) from closed-loop control (CL1) (8.27 [0.83] mmol/L vs. 8.84 [1.47] mmol/L; P=0.206), they were significantly lower during Day 2 of closed-loop control (CL2) versus open-loop control (OL2) (7.70 [2.29] mmol/L vs. 8.84 [0.87] mmol/L; P=0.027). Time spent in euglycemia (3.9–10 mmol/L) was comparable with 67.2% (38.5%) in OL1 versus 79.2% (16.9%) in CL1 (P=0.189) and 66.0% (29.8%) in OL2 versus 76.5% (23.9%) in CL2 (P=0.162). Time spent in hypoglycemia (<3.9 mmol/L) was comparable on Day 1 of control (OL1, 0.68% [8.68%]; CL1, 2.08% [7.61%]; P=0.593) but significantly higher during Day 2 of control (OL2, 0.00% [11.07%]; CL2, 2.8% [9.8%]; P=0.0172) (P=0.017). Conclusions: Bihormonal closed-loop control is feasible at home, with comparable time in euglycemia to open-loop control and significantly lower median glucose levels on Day 2 of control at the expense of more time in hypoglycemia, albeit still at a very low percentage of time. PMID:24224750
van Bon, Arianne C; Luijf, Yoeri M; Koebrugge, Rob; Koops, Robin; Hoekstra, Joost B L; DeVries, J Hans
2014-03-01
This study assessed the feasibility of a portable bihormonal closed-loop system at home. Sixteen pump-treated patients with type 1 diabetes received 48 h of closed-loop therapy with a telemonitored insulin- and glucagon-delivering closed-loop system and 48 h of patient-managed open-loop therapy. Owing to technical problems in five cases, only 11 patients could be analyzed. Whereas median (interquartile range) glucose levels were not significantly different during Day 1 of open-loop control (OL1) from closed-loop control (CL1) (8.27 [0.83] mmol/L vs. 8.84 [1.47] mmol/L; P=0.206), they were significantly lower during Day 2 of closed-loop control (CL2) versus open-loop control (OL2) (7.70 [2.29] mmol/L vs. 8.84 [0.87] mmol/L; P=0.027). Time spent in euglycemia (3.9-10 mmol/L) was comparable with 67.2% (38.5%) in OL1 versus 79.2% (16.9%) in CL1 (P=0.189) and 66.0% (29.8%) in OL2 versus 76.5% (23.9%) in CL2 (P=0.162). Time spent in hypoglycemia (<3.9 mmol/L) was comparable on Day 1 of control (OL1, 0.68% [8.68%]; CL1, 2.08% [7.61%]; P=0.593) but significantly higher during Day 2 of control (OL2, 0.00% [11.07%]; CL2, 2.8% [9.8%]; P=0.0172) (P=0.017). Bihormonal closed-loop control is feasible at home, with comparable time in euglycemia to open-loop control and significantly lower median glucose levels on Day 2 of control at the expense of more time in hypoglycemia, albeit still at a very low percentage of time.
Macuga, Kristen L.; Frey, Scott H.
2016-01-01
Damage to the superior and/or inferior parietal lobules (SPL, IPL) (Sirigu et al., 1996) or cerebellum (Grealy and Lee, 2011) can selectively disrupt motor imagery, motivating the hypothesis that these regions participate in predictive (i.e., feedforward) control. If so, then the SPL, IPL, and cerebellum should show greater activity as the demands on feedforward control increase from visually-guided execution (closed-loop) to execution without visual feedback (open-loop) to motor imagery. Using fMRI and a Fitts’ reciprocal aiming task with tools directed at targets in far space, we found that the SPL and cerebellum exhibited greater activity during closed-loop control. Conversely, open-loop and imagery conditions were associated with increased activity within the IPL and prefrontal areas. These results are consistent with a superior-to-inferior gradient in the representation of feedback-to-feedforward control within the posterior parietal cortex. Additionally, the anterior SPL displayed greater activity when aiming movements were performed with a stick vs. laser pointer. This may suggest that it is involved in the remapping of far into near (reachable) space (Maravita and Iriki, 2004), or in distalization of the end-effector from hand to stick (Arbib et al., 2009). PMID:24473100
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Morelli, Eugene A.
1995-01-01
Flight test maneuvers are specified for the F-18 High Alpha Research Vehicle (HARV). The maneuvers were designed for open loop parameter identification purposes, specifically for optimal input design validation at 5 degrees angle of attack, identification of individual strake effectiveness at 40 and 50 degrees angle of attack, and study of lateral dynamics and lateral control effectiveness at 40 and 50 degrees angle of attack. Each maneuver is to be realized by applying square wave inputs to specific control effectors using the On-Board Excitation System (OBES). Maneuver descriptions and complete specifications of the time/amplitude points define each input are included, along with plots of the input time histories.
Periodic-disturbance accommodating control of the space station for asymptotic momentum management
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Warren, Wayne; Wie, Bong
1989-01-01
Periodic maneuvering control is developed for asymptotic momentum management of control gyros used as primary actuating devices for the Space Station. The proposed controller utilizes the concepts of quaternion feedback control and periodic-disturbance accommodation to achieve oscillations about the constant torque equilibrium attitude, while minimizing the control effort required. Three-axis coupled equations of motion, written in terms of quaternions, are derived for roll/yaw controller design and stability analysis. It is shown that the quaternion feedback controller is very robust for a wide range of pitch angles. It is also shown that the proposed controller tunes the open-loop unstable vehicle to a stable oscillatory motion which minimizes the control effort needed for steady-state operations.
Periodic-disturbance accommodating control of the space station for asymptotic momentum management
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Warren, Wayne; Wie, Bong; Geller, David
1989-01-01
Periodic-disturbance accommodating control is investigated for asymptotic momentum management of control moment gyros used as primary actuating devices for the Space Station. The proposed controller utilizes the concepts of quaternion feedback control and periodic-disturbance accommodation to achieve oscillations about the constant torque equilibrium attitude, while minimizing the control effort required. Three-axis coupled equations of motion, written in terms of quaternions, are derived for roll/yaw controller design and stability analysis. The quaternion feedback controller designed using the linear-quadratic regulator synthesis technique is shown to be robust for a wide range of pitch angles. It is also shown that the proposed controller tunes the open-loop unstable vehicle to a stable oscillatory motion which minimizes the control effort needed for steady-state operations.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Stewart, E. C.; Brown, P. W.
1985-01-01
An automatic trim system for reducing the control forces after an engine failure on a light twin has been investigated on the Langley General Aviation Simulator. The system schedules open-loop trim tab deflections as a function of differential propeller slipstream dynamic pressure and freestream dynamic pressure. The system is described and the airplane-system static and dynamic characteristics are documented. Three NASA research pilots evaluated the effectiveness of the system for takeoff and landing maneuvers. A variety of off-nominal system characteristics were studied. The system was judged to be generally beneficial, providing a 2 to 3 point improvement in pilot rating for the tasks used in the evaluations.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Stewart, E. C.; Brown, P. W.
1985-01-01
An automatic trim system for reducing the control forces after an engine failure on a light twin has been investigated on the Langley General Aviation Simulator. The system schedules open-loop trim tab deflections as a function of differential propeller slipstream dynamic pressure and freestream dynamic pressure. The system is described and the airplane-system static and dynamic characteristics are documented. Three NASA research pilots evaluated the effectiveness of the system for takeoff and landing maneuvers. A variety of off-nominal system characteristics were studied. The system was judged to be generally beneficial, providing a 2 to 3 point improvement in pilot rating for the tasks used in the evaluations.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rohlfing, J.; Gardonio, P.; Thompson, D. J.
2011-02-01
Theoretical and experimental work is presented to compare the effect of decentralised velocity feedback control on thin homogeneous and sandwich panels. The decentralised control system consists of five control units, which are composed of a proof-mass electrodynamic actuator with an accelerometer underneath its footprint and an analogue controller. The stability of the feedback loops is analysed by considering the sensor-actuator open-loop frequency response function of each control unit and the eigenvalues of the fully populated matrix of open-loop frequency response functions between the five sensors and five actuators. The control performance is then analysed in terms of the time-averaged total kinetic energy and total sound power radiated by the two panels. The results show that for a stiff sandwich panel higher stable feedback gains can be implemented than on a thin homogeneous panel of comparable weight per unit area. Moreover the implementation of decentralised velocity feedback can offset some of the undesirable sound transmission properties of lightweight sandwich structures by efficiently reducing structural vibration and sound power radiation in the mid audio frequency range.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yu, Yicheng; Sun, Hongling; Cao, Yin; An, Fengyan; Yang, Jun
2015-04-01
Virtual absorbed energy of the piezoelectric patch actuator is a cost function for the optimal feedback gain which has been proved theoretically. Previously, simulations have shown that maximizing the virtual absorbed energy and minimizing the kinetic energy of the plate can obtain almost the same feedback gain. In this work, the performance of virtual absorbed energy is validated by experiments on the reduction of the vibration of a smart panel with decentralized control loops. Each control unit consists of a collocated piezoelectric patch actuator and accelerometer sensor with a single channel digital controller. The open loop sensor/actuator frequency response function with different physical parameters (such as dimensions of plate and actuator), has been analyzed numerically and experimentally, to enhance the stability of the control system. Since the system is not unconditionally stable, a digital phase lag compensator is designed to guarantee the stability for larger feedback gains. The stability of the multi-channel decentralized feedback control system has been assessed by the eigenvalue locus of the open loop transfer function matrix. The control effectiveness of the reduction of the panel kinetic energy has been assessed by error sensors.
Controller strategy for a 6 DOF piezoelectric translation stage
Buice, E S; Yang, H; Smith, S T; Hocken, R J; Trumper, D L; Otten, D; Seugling, R M
2006-03-22
A controller for the third generation, 6 degree-of-freedom (DOF) piezoelectric translation stage shown in Figure 1 is presented. This was tested by monitoring all six coordinate motions using an orthogonal array of six, high-resolution capacitance gages. The full 6 DOF matrix transformations and controller block diagrams for this system have been measured and the system operated under closed loop control. Results of early experiments to determine the 21 open loop response functions as well as preliminary results showing the closed loop response for the 3 linear translations are presented in this abstract. The ultimate goal of this project is to incorporate this 6 DOF stage within a long range X-Y scanning system for nanometer pick-and-place capability over an area of 50 x 50 mm. The control strategy and early results from this system will be presented.
Controller design via structural reduced modeling by FETM
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Yousuff, Ajmal
1987-01-01
The Finite Element-Transfer Matrix (FETM) method has been developed to reduce the computations involved in analysis of structures. This widely accepted method, however, has certain limitations, and does not address the issues of control design. To overcome these, a modification of the FETM method has been developed. The new method easily produces reduced models tailored toward subsequent control design. Other features of this method are its ability to: (1) extract open loop frequencies and mode shapes with less computations, (2) overcome limitations of the original FETM method, and (3) simplify the design procedures for output feedback, constrained compensation, and decentralized control. This report presents the development of the new method, generation of reduced models by this method, their properties, and the role of these reduced models in control design. Examples are included to illustrate the methodology.
Diagonalizing controller for a superconducting six-axis accelerometer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bachrach, B.; Canavan, E. R.; Levine, W. S.
A relatively simple MIMO (multiple input, multiple output) controller which converts an instrument with a nondiagonally dominant transfer function matrix into a strongly diagonally dominant device is developed. The instrument, which uses inductance bridges to sense the position of a magnetically levitated superconducting mass, has very lightly damped resonances and fairly strong cross coupling. By taking advantage of the particular structure of the instrument's transfer function matrix, it is possible to develop a relatively simple controller which achieves the desired decoupling. This controller consists of two parts. The first part cancels the nondiagonal terms of the open-loop transfer function matrix, while the second part is simply a set of SISO (single input, single output) controllers. The stability of the closed-loop system is studied using Rosenbrock's INA (inverse Nyguist array) technique, which produces a simple set of conditions guaranteeing stability. Simulation of the closed-loop system indicates that it should easily achieve its performance goals.
Direct digital control of air washer cooling system
Elben, T.; Roseblock, R.; Lawler, R.; McCord, J.
1990-01-01
The purpose of this project was to make a practical evaluation of using new technology to extend the life of obsolete HVAC mechanical equipment. The specific exercises in this project involved the application of software driven control algorithms to operate and manage open loop air washer cooling systems in the air handling units located in the Municipal Auditorium in Kansas City, Missouri. The specific opportunity evaluated in this project involved eight air handling units at the Municipal Auditorium. The air handling systems utilize outdated air washer cooling systems that provide air conditioning and dehumidification to the areas they serve. We utilized direct digital control to assume total control of the operation of the air handling units. We also found it necessary to upgrade some components of the air handling units in order to allow the new control applications to execute their functions. This report describes the plan used to execute the project and the results. 20 tabs.
Controller design via structural reduced modeling by FETM
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Yousuff, A.
1986-01-01
The Finite Element - Transfer Matrix (FETM) method has been developed to reduce the computations involved in analysis of structures. This widely accepted method, however, has certain limitations, and does not directly produce reduced models for control design. To overcome these shortcomings, a modification of FETM method has been developed. The modified FETM method easily produces reduced models that are tailored toward subsequent control design. Other features of this method are its ability to: (1) extract open loop frequencies and mode shapes with less computations, (2) overcome limitations of the original FETM method, and (3) simplify the procedures for output feedback, constrained compensation, and decentralized control. This semi annual report presents the development of the modified FETM, and through an example, illustrates its applicability to an output feedback and a decentralized control design.
Magnetic suspension system for an Annular Momentum Control Device (AMCD)
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1979-01-01
A technique to control a rim suspended in a magnetic field was developed. A complete system was developed, incorporating a support structure, magnetic actuators, a rim drive mechanism, an emergency fail-safe system, servo control system, and control electronics. Open loop and closed loop response of the system at zero speed and at 500 revolutions per minute (r/min) of the rim was obtained and analyzed. The rim was then dynamically balanced and a rim speed of 725 r/min was achieved. An analog simulation of the hardware was developed and tested with the actual control electronics connected to the analog computer. The system under development is stable at rim speeds below 700 r/min. Test results indicate that the rim under test is not rigid. The rim has a warp and a number of binding modes which prevented achievement of higher speeds. Further development efforts are required to achieve higher rim speeds.
Myoelectric hand prosthesis force control through servo motor current feedback.
Sono, Tálita Saemi Payossim; Menegaldo, Luciano Luporini
2009-10-01
This paper presents the prehension force closed-loop control design of a mechanical finger commanded by electromyographic signal (EMG) from a patient's arm. The control scheme was implemented and tested in a mechanical finger prototype with three degrees of freedom and one actuator, driven by arm muscles EMG of normal volunteers. Real-time indirect estimation of prehension force was assessed by measuring the DC servo motor actuator current. A model of the plant comprising finger, motor, and grasped object was proposed. Model parameters were identified experimentally and a classical feedback phase-lead compensator was designed. The controlled mechanical finger was able to provide a more accurate prehension force modulation of a compliant object when compared to open-loop control.
Real-time Adaptive Control Using Neural Generalized Predictive Control
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Haley, Pam; Soloway, Don; Gold, Brian
1999-01-01
The objective of this paper is to demonstrate the feasibility of a Nonlinear Generalized Predictive Control algorithm by showing real-time adaptive control on a plant with relatively fast time-constants. Generalized Predictive Control has classically been used in process control where linear control laws were formulated for plants with relatively slow time-constants. The plant of interest for this paper is a magnetic levitation device that is nonlinear and open-loop unstable. In this application, the reference model of the plant is a neural network that has an embedded nominal linear model in the network weights. The control based on the linear model provides initial stability at the beginning of network training. In using a neural network the control laws are nonlinear and online adaptation of the model is possible to capture unmodeled or time-varying dynamics. Newton-Raphson is the minimization algorithm. Newton-Raphson requires the calculation of the Hessian, but even with this computational expense the low iteration rate make this a viable algorithm for real-time control.
Coherent optimal control of photosynthetic molecules
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Caruso, F.; Montangero, S.; Calarco, T.; Huelga, S. F.; Plenio, M. B.
2012-04-01
We demonstrate theoretically that open-loop quantum optimal control techniques can provide efficient tools for the verification of various quantum coherent transport mechanisms in natural and artificial light-harvesting complexes under realistic experimental conditions. To assess the feasibility of possible biocontrol experiments, we introduce the main settings and derive optimally shaped and robust laser pulses that allow for the faithful preparation of specified initial states (such as localized excitation or coherent superposition, i.e., propagating and nonpropagating states) of the photosystem and probe efficiently the subsequent dynamics. With these tools, different transport pathways can be discriminated, which should facilitate the elucidation of genuine quantum dynamical features of photosystems and therefore enhance our understanding of the role that coherent processes may play in actual biological complexes.
Shape and vibration control of active laminated plates for RF and optical applications
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Punhani, Amitesh; Washington, Gregory N.
2006-03-01
Active shape and vibration control of large structures have long been desired for many practical applications. PVDF being one of the most suitable materials for these applications due to its strong piezoelectric properties and availability in thin sheets has been the focal point of most researchers in this area. Most of the research has been done to find an open loop solution, which would be able to shape the structure as per the desired requirements in an ideal atmosphere. Unmodeled dynamics and external disturbances prevent the open loop (no feedback) solution from achieving the desired shape. This research develops a dynamic model of a laminated plate consisting of two layers of PVDF film joined with a layer of epoxy. The orthotropic properties of PVDF have been modeled and the epoxy layer is considered to be isotropic. A general control model is developed, which would work for most boundary conditions and developed for a simply supported beam with patch actuators. The methodology is then extended for a simply supported laminated plate. This model could be used for real time dynamic disturbance rejection and shape and vibration control of the structure.
A Piloted Evaluation of Damage Accommodating Flight Control Using a Remotely Piloted Vehicle
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cunningham, Kevin; Cox, David E.; Murri, Daniel G.; Riddick, Stephen E.
2011-01-01
Toward the goal of reducing the fatal accident rate of large transport airplanes due to loss of control, the NASA Aviation Safety Program has conducted research into flight control technologies that can provide resilient control of airplanes under adverse flight conditions, including damage and failure. As part of the safety program s Integrated Resilient Aircraft Control Project, the NASA Airborne Subscale Transport Aircraft Research system was designed to address the challenges associated with the safe and efficient subscale flight testing of research control laws under adverse flight conditions. This paper presents the results of a series of pilot evaluations of several flight control algorithms used during an offset-to-landing task conducted at altitude. The purpose of this investigation was to assess the ability of various flight control technologies to prevent loss of control as stability and control characteristics were degraded. During the course of 8 research flights, data were recorded while one task was repeatedly executed by a single evaluation pilot. Two generic failures, which degraded stability and control characteristics, were simulated inflight for each of the 9 different flight control laws that were tested. The flight control laws included three different adaptive control methodologies, several linear multivariable designs, a linear robust design, a linear stability augmentation system, and a direct open-loop control mode. Based on pilot Cooper-Harper Ratings obtained for this test, the adaptive flight control laws provided the greatest overall benefit for the stability and control degradation scenarios that were considered. Also, all controllers tested provided a significant improvement in handling qualities over the direct open-loop control mode.
Postural control model interpretation of stabilogram diffusion analysis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Peterka, R. J.
2000-01-01
Collins and De Luca [Collins JJ. De Luca CJ (1993) Exp Brain Res 95: 308-318] introduced a new method known as stabilogram diffusion analysis that provides a quantitative statistical measure of the apparently random variations of center-of-pressure (COP) trajectories recorded during quiet upright stance in humans. This analysis generates a stabilogram diffusion function (SDF) that summarizes the mean square COP displacement as a function of the time interval between COP comparisons. SDFs have a characteristic two-part form that suggests the presence of two different control regimes: a short-term open-loop control behavior and a longer-term closed-loop behavior. This paper demonstrates that a very simple closed-loop control model of upright stance can generate realistic SDFs. The model consists of an inverted pendulum body with torque applied at the ankle joint. This torque includes a random disturbance torque and a control torque. The control torque is a function of the deviation (error signal) between the desired upright body position and the actual body position, and is generated in proportion to the error signal, the derivative of the error signal, and the integral of the error signal [i.e. a proportional, integral and derivative (PID) neural controller]. The control torque is applied with a time delay representing conduction, processing, and muscle activation delays. Variations in the PID parameters and the time delay generate variations in SDFs that mimic real experimental SDFs. This model analysis allows one to interpret experimentally observed changes in SDFs in terms of variations in neural controller and time delay parameters rather than in terms of open-loop versus closed-loop behavior.
Postural control model interpretation of stabilogram diffusion analysis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Peterka, R. J.
2000-01-01
Collins and De Luca [Collins JJ. De Luca CJ (1993) Exp Brain Res 95: 308-318] introduced a new method known as stabilogram diffusion analysis that provides a quantitative statistical measure of the apparently random variations of center-of-pressure (COP) trajectories recorded during quiet upright stance in humans. This analysis generates a stabilogram diffusion function (SDF) that summarizes the mean square COP displacement as a function of the time interval between COP comparisons. SDFs have a characteristic two-part form that suggests the presence of two different control regimes: a short-term open-loop control behavior and a longer-term closed-loop behavior. This paper demonstrates that a very simple closed-loop control model of upright stance can generate realistic SDFs. The model consists of an inverted pendulum body with torque applied at the ankle joint. This torque includes a random disturbance torque and a control torque. The control torque is a function of the deviation (error signal) between the desired upright body position and the actual body position, and is generated in proportion to the error signal, the derivative of the error signal, and the integral of the error signal [i.e. a proportional, integral and derivative (PID) neural controller]. The control torque is applied with a time delay representing conduction, processing, and muscle activation delays. Variations in the PID parameters and the time delay generate variations in SDFs that mimic real experimental SDFs. This model analysis allows one to interpret experimentally observed changes in SDFs in terms of variations in neural controller and time delay parameters rather than in terms of open-loop versus closed-loop behavior.
Coherent feedback control of a single qubit in diamond
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hirose, Masashi; Cappellaro, Paola
2016-04-01
Engineering desired operations on qubits subjected to the deleterious effects of their environment is a critical task in quantum information processing, quantum simulation and sensing. The most common approach relies on open-loop quantum control techniques, including optimal-control algorithms based on analytical or numerical solutions, Lyapunov design and Hamiltonian engineering. An alternative strategy, inspired by the success of classical control, is feedback control. Because of the complications introduced by quantum measurement, closed-loop control is less pervasive in the quantum setting and, with exceptions, its experimental implementations have been mainly limited to quantum optics experiments. Here we implement a feedback-control algorithm using a solid-state spin qubit system associated with the nitrogen vacancy centre in diamond, using coherent feedback to overcome the limitations of measurement-based feedback, and show that it can protect the qubit against intrinsic dephasing noise for milliseconds. In coherent feedback, the quantum system is connected to an auxiliary quantum controller (ancilla) that acquires information about the output state of the system (by an entangling operation) and performs an appropriate feedback action (by a conditional gate). In contrast to open-loop dynamical decoupling techniques, feedback control can protect the qubit even against Markovian noise and for an arbitrary period of time (limited only by the coherence time of the ancilla), while allowing gate operations. It is thus more closely related to quantum error-correction schemes, although these require larger and increasing qubit overheads. Increasing the number of fresh ancillas enables protection beyond their coherence time. We further evaluate the robustness of the feedback protocol, which could be applied to quantum computation and sensing, by exploring a trade-off between information gain and decoherence protection, as measurement of the ancilla-qubit correlation
Design of feedback control systems for unstable plants with saturating actuators
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kapasouris, Petros; Athans, Michael; Stein, Gunter
1988-01-01
A new control design methodology is introduced for multi-input/multi-output systems with unstable open loop plants and saturating actuators. A control system is designed using well known linear control theory techniques and then a reference prefilter is introduced so that when the references are sufficiently small, the control system operates linearly as designated. For signals large enough to cause saturations, the control law is modified in such a way to ensure stability and to preserve, to the extent possible, the behavior of the linear control design. Key benefits of this methodology are: the modified feedback system never produces saturating control signals, integrators and/or slow dynamics in the compensator never windup, the directionaL properties of the controls are maintained, and the closed loop system has certain guaranteed stability properties. The advantages of the new design methodology are illustrated in the simulation of an approximation of the AFTI-16 (Advanced Fighter Technology Integration) aircraft multivariable longitudinal dynamics.
On the relationship between wave based control, absolute vibration suppression and input shaping
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Peled, I.; O'Connor, W. J.; Halevi, Y.
2013-08-01
The modeling and control of continuous flexible structures is one of the most challenging problems in control theory. This topic gains more interest with the development of slender space structures, light weight aeronautical components or even traditional gears and drive shafts with flexible properties. Several control schemes are based on the traveling wave approach, rather than the more common modal methods. In this work we investigate the relationships between two of these methods. The Absolute Vibration Suppression (AVS) controller, which was developed for infinite dimension systems, is compared to Wave Based Control (WBC) which was designed primarily for lumped systems. The WBC was first adjusted to continuous systems and then the two controllers, whose algorithms seem different, are compared. The investigation shows that for the flexible shaft these two control laws are actually the same. Furthermore, when converted into an equivalent open loop controller they appear as an extension to continuous systems of the Input Shaping (IS) methodology.
Effect of a fluid layer on the sound radiation of a plate and its active control
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sun, Yao; Pan, Jie; Yang, Tiejun
2015-11-01
In this paper, a baffled plate facing a layer of fluid is used to investigate the effects of the radiating environment on the plate's sound radiation and its active control. By varying the thickness of the fluid layer, different radiation environments are presented to the plate, resulting in a variation in the efficiencies and shapes of the radiation modes of the plate. As the design of feed-forward control of the radiated sound power and of feedback control of the vibration velocity or volume velocity is limited by the properties of the secondary control path (an open-loop frequency response function), the performance of the control system may be deteriorated if a controller optimally designed for one radiation environment is used for a different environment. The effects of radiation environment on the properties of the secondary control path and performance of active control are investigated.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brackston, Rowan D.; Wynn, Andrew; Morrison, Jonathan F.
2016-10-01
Feedback control of fluid flows presents a challenging problem due to nonlinear dynamics and unknown optimal operating conditions. Extremum seeking control presents a suitable method for many flow control situations but involves its own challenges. In this paper, we provide a brief analysis of the extremum seeking method, with attention to modifications that we find to be advantageous. In particular, we present an adaptation for optimisation of the frequency of a harmonic input signal, a common scenario for open-loop flow control systems. We then present results from the experimental implementation of our modified method to the open-loop control system of Oxlade et al. (J Fluid Mech 770:305-318, 2015), an axisymmetric bluff-body wake, forced by a pulsed jet. We find that the system is able to achieve optimal operating conditions in both the amplitude and frequency of the harmonic input signal, and is able to largely reject the disturbances arising from measurements of a highly turbulent flow. We finally show the ability of the extremum seeking system to adapt to changing conditions.
Active control of aerothermoelastic effects for a conceptual hypersonic aircraft
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Heeg, Jennifer; Gilbert, Michael G.; Pototzky, Anthony S.
1990-01-01
Procedures for and results of aeroservothermoelastic studies are described. The objectives of these studies were to develop the necessary procedures for performing an aeroelastic analysis of an aerodynamically heated vehicle and to analyze a configuration in the classical cold state and in a hot state. Major tasks include the development of the structural and aerodynamic models, open loop analyses, design of active control laws for improving dynamic responses and analyses of the closed loop vehicles. The analyses performed focused on flutter speed calculations, short period eigenvalue trends and statistical analyses of the vehicle response to controls and turbulence. Improving the ride quality of the vehicle and raising the flutter boundary of the aerodynamically-heated vehicle up to that of the cold vehicle were the objectives of the control law design investigations.
Control apparatus of an intake air amount in an internal combustion engine
Takao, M.; Kimura, T.
1986-04-08
A control apparatus is described of an intake air amount in an internal combustion engine comprising: a bypass air passageway which is arranged in parallel to an intake pipe to lead the intake air into the internal combustion engine, the bypass air passageway being formed to bypass a throttle valve portion of the intake pipe; an air control valve having an actuator to control the amount of air flowing through the air passageway and an exciting coil to drive and control the actuator in accordance with an amount of an exciting current; drive means for generating a pulse-like drive current which is controlled due to its duty ratio and supplying the drive current to the exciting coil of the air control valve; temperature detecting means for detecting temperature information corresponding to a temperature of the exciting coil of the air control valve; calculation storage means for calculating and storing a correction value of an amount of feedback control to allow the present rotating speed of the internal combustion engine in its idle state to approach an idle objective rotating speed in the states whereby a feedback control condition was set and whereby a value of the temperature information detected by the temperature detecting means lies within a specified temperature range, the stored correction value being used for calculation of a control amount upon open loop control; and control means for setting the duty ratio of the pulse-like drive current which is generated by the drive means in accordance with the control amount for the feedback control and open loop control, thereby controlling the amount of the air which flows through the bypass air passageway.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Smith, G. A.; Meyer, G.
1980-01-01
The results of a simulation study of an alternative design concept for an automatic landing control system are presented. The alternative design concept for an automatic landing control system is described. The design concept is the total aircraft flight control system (TAFCOS). TAFCOS is an open loop, feed forward system that commands the proper instantaneous thrust, angle of attack, and roll angle to achieve the forces required to follow the desired trajector. These dynamic trim conditions are determined by an inversion of the aircraft nonlinear force characteristics. The concept was applied to an A-7E aircraft approaching an aircraft carrier. The implementation details with an airborne digital computer are discussed. The automatic carrier landing situation is described. The simulation results are presented for a carrier approach with atmospheric disturbances, an approach with no disturbances, and for tailwind and headwind gusts.
Modeling and Control of a Double-effect Absorption Refrigerating Machine
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hihara, Eiji; Yamamoto, Yuuji; Saito, Takamoto; Nagaoka, Yoshikazu; Nishiyama, Noriyuki
Because the heat capacity of absorption refrigerating machines is large compared with vapor compression refrigerating machines, the dynamic characteristics at the change in cooling load conditions are problems to be improved. The control method of energy input and of weak solution flow rate following cooling load variations was investigated. As the changes in cooling load and cooling capacity are moderate, the optimal operation conditions corresponding to the cooling load can be estimated with steady state characteristics. If the relation between the cooling load and the optimal operation conditions is well known, a feed forward control can be employed. In this report a new control algorithm, which is called MOL (Multi-variable Open Loop) control, is proposed. Comparing the MOL control with the conventional chilled water outlet temperature proportional control, the MOL control enables the smooth changes in cooling capacity and the reduction in fuel consumption.
Control system estimation and design for aerospace vehicles with time delay
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Allgaier, G. R.; Williams, T. L.
1972-01-01
The problems of estimation and control of discrete, linear, time-varying systems are considered. Previous solutions to these problems involved either approximate techniques, open-loop control solutions, or results which required excessive computation. The estimation problem is solved by two different methods, both of which yield the identical algorithm for determining the optimal filter. The partitioned results achieve a substantial reduction in computation time and storage requirements over the expanded solution, however. The results reduce to the Kalman filter when no delays are present in the system. The control problem is also solved by two different methods, both of which yield identical algorithms for determining the optimal control gains. The stochastic control is shown to be identical to the deterministic control, thus extending the separation principle to time delay systems. The results obtained reduce to the familiar optimal control solution when no time delays are present in the system.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sandford, M. C.; Abel, I.; Gray, D. L.
1975-01-01
The application of active control technology to suppress flutter was demonstrated successfully in the transonic dynamics tunnel with a delta-wing model. The model was a simplified version of a proposed supersonic transport wing design. An active flutter suppression method based on an aerodynamic energy criterion was verified by using three different control laws. The first two control laws utilized both leading-edge and trailing-edge active control surfaces, whereas the third control law required only a single trailing-edge active control surface. At a Mach number of 0.9 the experimental results demonstrated increases in the flutter dynamic pressure from 12.5 percent to 30 percent with active controls. Analytical methods were developed to predict both open-loop and closed-loop stability, and the results agreed reasonably well with the experimental results.
A Nonlinear Physics-Based Optimal Control Method for Magnetostrictive Actuators
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Smith, Ralph C.
1998-01-01
This paper addresses the development of a nonlinear optimal control methodology for magnetostrictive actuators. At moderate to high drive levels, the output from these actuators is highly nonlinear and contains significant magnetic and magnetomechanical hysteresis. These dynamics must be accommodated by models and control laws to utilize the full capabilities of the actuators. A characterization based upon ferromagnetic mean field theory provides a model which accurately quantifies both transient and steady state actuator dynamics under a variety of operating conditions. The control method consists of a linear perturbation feedback law used in combination with an optimal open loop nonlinear control. The nonlinear control incorporates the hysteresis and nonlinearities inherent to the transducer and can be computed offline. The feedback control is constructed through linearization of the perturbed system about the optimal system and is efficient for online implementation. As demonstrated through numerical examples, the combined hybrid control is robust and can be readily implemented in linear PDE-based structural models.
A nonlinear post impact path controller based on optimised brake sequences
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, Derong; Gordon, Timothy J.; Jacobson, Bengt; Jonasson, Mats
2012-01-01
This paper investigates brake-based path control of a passenger vehicle, aimed at reducing secondary collision risk following an initial impact in a traffic accident. Previous results from numerical optimisation showed that, at varying severity levels of post-impact states, there exist three identifiable components within the optimal control strategy so as to reduce the lateral deviation. The paper presents a path controller, based on nonlinear optimal control theory, that incorporates the three components. It is shown that friction adaptation may be implemented in a very efficient manner; the controller deals with different levels of road friction by scaling the dynamic variables from a fixed reference level. The approach provides an algorithm for adapting switching thresholds between the different components of the controller. In this study it is verified that the controller can deal with a wide range of kinematic conditions, and compares favorably with previous results of open-loop trajectory optimisation.
A distributed finite-element modeling and control approach for large flexible structures
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Young, K. D.
1989-01-01
An unconventional framework is described for the design of decentralized controllers for large flexible structures. In contrast to conventional control system design practice which begins with a model of the open loop plant, the controlled plant is assembled from controlled components in which the modeling phase and the control design phase are integrated at the component level. The developed framework is called controlled component synthesis (CCS) to reflect that it is motivated by the well developed Component Mode Synthesis (CMS) methods which were demonstrated to be effective for solving large complex structural analysis problems for almost three decades. The design philosophy behind CCS is also closely related to that of the subsystem decomposition approach in decentralized control.
2008-01-23
0 1 0] (1.1.5) The entire system in first order linear form can be written as: A L-H - B - cIl y[" - ] 0 I(] pt poo _n12 D Or SCx (1.1.7 The LTI state...open loop. Therefore, it is seen all of the interaction of the ROM controller and Ao has been removed by the RMF, by adding a column of zeroes above the...orthogonal matrix and satisfies the following inner product: (Vx, Vy) = (x,y). Consequently, a unitary matrix preserves the norm. Moreover, the columns of V
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Carson, John M., III; Ackmese, A. Behcet
2005-01-01
The guidance and control (G&C) algorithms for enabling small-body proximity operations are developed by using a model predictive control approach along with a convexification of the governing dynamics, control constraints, and trajectory/state constraints. The open-loop guidance is solved ahead of time or in a resolvable, real-time manner through the use of PWG (Pseudo Way-point Generation), a technique developed in this research. The PWG scheme ensures required thruster silent times during trajectory maneuvers. The feedback control is implemented to track the PWG trajectories in a manner that guarantees the resolvability for the open-loop problem, enabling the ability to update the G&C in a model-predictive manner. The schemes incorporate gravity models and thruster ring times into discrete dynamics that are solved as a optimal control problem to minimize fuel consumption or thruster energy expenditure. The optimal control problem is cast as an LMI (Linear Matrix Inequality) and then solved through Semi-Definite Programming techniques in a computationally efficient manner that provides convergence and constraint guarantees.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Carson, John M., III; Ackmese, A. Behcet
2005-01-01
The guidance and control (G&C) algorithms for enabling small-body proximity operations are developed by using a model predictive control approach along with a convexification of the governing dynamics, control constraints, and trajectory/state constraints. The open-loop guidance is solved ahead of time or in a resolvable, real-time manner through the use of PWG (Pseudo Way-point Generation), a technique developed in this research. The PWG scheme ensures required thruster silent times during trajectory maneuvers. The feedback control is implemented to track the PWG trajectories in a manner that guarantees the resolvability for the open-loop problem, enabling the ability to update the G&C in a model-predictive manner. The schemes incorporate gravity models and thruster ring times into discrete dynamics that are solved as a optimal control problem to minimize fuel consumption or thruster energy expenditure. The optimal control problem is cast as an LMI (Linear Matrix Inequality) and then solved through Semi-Definite Programming techniques in a computationally efficient manner that provides convergence and constraint guarantees.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schroedter, Richard; Schwarzenberg, Markus; Dreyhaupt, André; Barth, Robert; Sandner, Thilo; Janschek, Klaus
2017-02-01
In this paper we present a 2D raster scanning quasi-static/resonant micro mirror being controlled in both axes in closed-loop with on-chip piezo-resistive sensor feedback. While the resonant axis oscillates with a given frequency, the quasi-static axis allows static as well as dynamic deflection up to its eigenfrequency because of its staggered vertical comb (SVC) drive arrangement. Due to the high quality factor of the very low damped spring-masssystem, an adapted trajectory planning using jerk limitation is applied for the quasi-static axis [1]. Nevertheless, inaccuracies of the applied nonlinear micro mirror model and external disturbances lead to undesired residual oscillation in open-loop control mode. To achieve high precise and fast beam positioning, we implement a flatness-based control algorithm with feedback to on-chip piezo-resistive deflection sensors. In comparison to previous work [2, 3], we developed a micro controller setup for driving the microscanner, that is equipped with an analog Bessel filter increasing the sensor signal quality significantly. In this study we demonstrate a small size and low power micro mirror driver including high-voltage generation and a microcontroller for real-time control as well as a head circuit board for high resolution sensing. We discuss experimental results of open-loop and closed-loop control for 2D raster scanning operation. Finally, the outlook is given to the intrinsic capability to compensate temperature drifts influencing the piezo-resistive sensor signal.
Optimal Control of Distributed Energy Resources using Model Predictive Control
Mayhorn, Ebony T.; Kalsi, Karanjit; Elizondo, Marcelo A.; Zhang, Wei; Lu, Shuai; Samaan, Nader A.; Butler-Purry, Karen
2012-07-22
In an isolated power system (rural microgrid), Distributed Energy Resources (DERs) such as renewable energy resources (wind, solar), energy storage and demand response can be used to complement fossil fueled generators. The uncertainty and variability due to high penetration of wind makes reliable system operations and controls challenging. In this paper, an optimal control strategy is proposed to coordinate energy storage and diesel generators to maximize wind penetration while maintaining system economics and normal operation. The problem is formulated as a multi-objective optimization problem with the goals of minimizing fuel costs and changes in power output of diesel generators, minimizing costs associated with low battery life of energy storage and maintaining system frequency at the nominal operating value. Two control modes are considered for controlling the energy storage to compensate either net load variability or wind variability. Model predictive control (MPC) is used to solve the aforementioned problem and the performance is compared to an open-loop look-ahead dispatch problem. Simulation studies using high and low wind profiles, as well as, different MPC prediction horizons demonstrate the efficacy of the closed-loop MPC in compensating for uncertainties in wind and demand.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Torghabeh, A. A.; Tousi, A. M.
2007-08-01
This paper presents Fuzzy Logic and Neural Networks approach to Gas Turbine Fuel schedules. Modeling of non-linear system using feed forward artificial Neural Networks using data generated by a simulated gas turbine program is introduced. Two artificial Neural Networks are used , depicting the non-linear relationship between gas generator speed and fuel flow, and turbine inlet temperature and fuel flow respectively . Off-line fast simulations are used for engine controller design for turbojet engine based on repeated simulation. The Mamdani and Sugeno models are used to expression the Fuzzy system . The linguistic Fuzzy rules and membership functions are presents and a Fuzzy controller will be proposed to provide an Open-Loop control for the gas turbine engine during acceleration and deceleration . MATLAB Simulink was used to apply the Fuzzy Logic and Neural Networks analysis. Both systems were able to approximate functions characterizing the acceleration and deceleration schedules . Surge and Flame-out avoidance during acceleration and deceleration phases are then checked . Turbine Inlet Temperature also checked and controls by Neural Networks controller. This Fuzzy Logic and Neural Network Controllers output results are validated and evaluated by GSP software . The validation results are used to evaluate the generalization ability of these artificial Neural Networks and Fuzzy Logic controllers.
Modeling and Simulation of Resistive Wall Mode Control In DIII-D
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Walker, M. L.; Humphreys, D. A.; Jensen, T. H.; Leuer, J. A.; Nerem, A.; Strait, E. J.; Garofalo, A. M.
2001-10-01
Detailed dynamic response models have been developed for all relevant subsystems comprising the DIII-D resistive wall mode (RWM) closed loop control system. These include the switching power amplifiers (SPA), digital plasma control system (PCS), acquisition and control circuitry, and a fully toroidal model of plasma/vessel dynamics based on specification of the marginal wall position from stability codes such as GATO and DCON. These models have been validated with experimental data, including open-loop excitation of the SPA, PCS, and vacuum vessel dynamic responses, and measurement of the growth rate and mode structure of the unstable plasma. These models are incorporated into a closed-loop control simulation to investigate the control limitations which are due to realistic power supply responses. Consequences of and approaches to the intrinsically multivariable RWM control problem are also investigated.
Automatic control systems for submerged membrane bioreactors: a state-of-the-art review.
Ferrero, Giuliana; Rodríguez-Roda, Ignasi; Comas, Joaquim
2012-07-01
Membrane bioreactor (MBR) technology has become relatively widespread as an advanced treatment for both industrial and municipal wastewater, especially in areas prone to water scarcity. Although operational cost is a key issue in MBRs, currently only a few crucial papers and inventions aimed to optimise and enhance MBR efficiency have been published. The present review summarises the available solutions in the area of automatic control systems and widely explores the advances in automation and control for MBRs. In this review of state of the art, different control systems are evaluated comparatively, distinguishing between control systems used for the filtration process and those used for the biological process of MBRs and describing the challenge faced by integrated control systems. The existing knowledge is classified according to the manipulated variables, the operational mode (open-loop or closed-loop) and the controlled variables used. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Design of PID controllers in double feedback loops for SISO systems with set-point filters.
Vijayan, V; Panda, Rames C
2012-07-01
A PID controller is widely used to control industrial processes that are mostly open loop stable or unstable. Selection of proper feedback structure and controller tuning helps to improve the performance of the loop. In this paper a double-feedback loop/method is used to achieve stability and better performance of the process. The internal feedback is used for stabilizing the process and the outer loop is used for good setpoint tracking. An internal model controller (IMC) based PID method is used for tuning the outer loop controller. Autotuning based on relay feedback or the Ziegler-Nichols method can be used for tuning an inner loop controller. A tuning parameter (λ) that is used to tune IMC-PID is used as a time constant of a setpoint filter that is used for reducing the peak overshoot. The method has been tested successfully on many low order processes.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lin, Yiing-Yuh; Lin, Gern-Liang
1992-08-01
In this research, the dynamics and control of a rigid spacecraft with flexible structures were studied for the case of optimal simultaneous multiaxis reorientation. A model spacecraft consisting of a rigid hub in the middle and two solid bodies symmetrically connected to either side of the hub through uniformly distributed flexible beams is considered for the dynamic analysis and control simulation. To optimally reorienting the spacecraft, an optimal nominal control trajectory is found first through an iterative procedure. Linear flexural deformations are assumed for the beam structures and the assumed modes method is applied to find the vibration control law of the beams. The system overall optimal attitude control is achieved by following the open loop optimal reference control trajectory with an stabilizing guidance law.
Simulation of a Controlled Airfoil with Jets
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Allan, Brian G.; Holt, Maurice; Packard, Andrew
1997-01-01
Numerical simulations of a two-dimensional airfoil, controlled by an applied moment in pitch and an airfoil controlled by jets, were investigated. These simulations couple the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations and Euler's equations of rigid body motion, with an active control system. Controllers for both systems were designed to track altitude commands and were evaluated by simulating a closed-loop altitude step response using the coupled system. The airfoil controlled by a pitching moment used an optimal state feedback controller. A closed-loop simulation, of the airfoil with an applied moment, showed that the trajectories compared very well with quasi-steady aerodynamic theory, providing a measure of validation. The airfoil with jets used a controller designed by robust control methods. A linear plant model for this system was identified using open-loop data generated by the nonlinear coupled system. A closed-loop simulation of the airfoil with jets, showed good tracking of an altitude command. This simulation also showed oscillations in the control input as a result of dynamics not accounted for in the control design. This research work demonstrates how computational fluid dynamics, coupled with rigid body dynamics, and a control law can be used to prototype control systems in problematic nonlinear flight regimes.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1985-01-01
The primary objective of the Test Active Control Technology (ACT) System laboratory tests was to verify and validate the system concept, hardware, and software. The initial lab tests were open loop hardware tests of the Test ACT System as designed and built. During the course of the testing, minor problems were uncovered and corrected. Major software tests were run. The initial software testing was also open loop. These tests examined pitch control laws, wing load alleviation, signal selection/fault detection (SSFD), and output management. The Test ACT System was modified to interface with the direct drive valve (DDV) modules. The initial testing identified problem areas with DDV nonlinearities, valve friction induced limit cycling, DDV control loop instability, and channel command mismatch. The other DDV issue investigated was the ability to detect and isolate failures. Some simple schemes for failure detection were tested but were not completely satisfactory. The Test ACT System architecture continues to appear promising for ACT/FBW applications in systems that must be immune to worst case generic digital faults, and be able to tolerate two sequential nongeneric faults with no reduction in performance. The challenge in such an implementation would be to keep the analog element sufficiently simple to achieve the necessary reliability.
Active Noise Control of Radiated Noise from Jets Originating NASA
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Doty, Michael J.; Fuller, Christopher R.; Schiller, Noah H.; Turner, Travis L.
2013-01-01
The reduction of jet noise using a closed-loop active noise control system with highbandwidth active chevrons was investigated. The high frequency energy introduced by piezoelectrically-driven chevrons was demonstrated to achieve a broadband reduction of jet noise, presumably due to the suppression of large-scale turbulence. For a nozzle with one active chevron, benefits of up to 0.8 dB overall sound pressure level (OASPL) were observed compared to a static chevron nozzle near the maximum noise emission angle, and benefits of up to 1.9 dB OASPL were observed compared to a baseline nozzle with no chevrons. The closed-loop actuation system was able to effectively reduce noise at select frequencies by 1-3 dB. However, integrated OASPL did not indicate further reduction beyond the open-loop benefits, most likely due to the preliminary controller design, which was focused on narrowband performance.
Floating-point system quantization errors in digital control systems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Phillips, C. L.
1973-01-01
The results are reported of research into the effects on system operation of signal quantization in a digital control system. The investigation considered digital controllers (filters) operating in floating-point arithmetic in either open-loop or closed-loop systems. An error analysis technique is developed, and is implemented by a digital computer program that is based on a digital simulation of the system. As an output the program gives the programing form required for minimum system quantization errors (either maximum of rms errors), and the maximum and rms errors that appear in the system output for a given bit configuration. The program can be integrated into existing digital simulations of a system.
Block-decoupling vibration control using eigenstructure assignment
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wei, Xiaojun; Mottershead, John E.
2016-06-01
A theoretical study is presented on the feasibility of applying active control for the purpose of vibration isolation in lightweight structures by block diagonalisation of the system matrices and at the same time assigning eigenvalues (natural frequencies and damping) to the chosen substructures separately. The methodology, based on eigenstructure assignment using the method of receptances, is found to work successfully when the eigenvalues of the open-loop system are controllable and the open- and closed-loop eigenvalues are distinct. In the first part of the paper results are obtained under the restriction that the mass matrix is diagonal (lumped). This is certainly applicable in the case of numerous engineering systems consisting of discrete masses with flexible interconnections of negligible mass. Later in the paper this restriction is lifted to allow bandedness of the mass matrix. Several numerical examples are used to illustrate the working of the proposed algorithm.
Sampling or Intermittency in Hand Control System Dynamics
Navas, Fernando; Stark, Lawrence
1968-01-01
A hand control model is proposed. Investigation of the hand's intermittency synchronization shows it corresponds to an input-synchronized sampler rather than the clock-synchronized sampler more typical of engineering systems. A velocity control mechanism, similar to that in an eye tracking system is shown to be absent in the hand. A quantitative transfer function for predictable inputs serves further to define the hand's input adaptive characteristics. Stability margin adjustments of a linear reduced model enabled us to match the available quantitative data. The most exciting result of this study is the evidence for intermittency: a refractory period shown in the short pulse experiment, peaks in the frequency response experiments, and a saccadic sequence of steps in response to an open loop step input and to a closed loop ramp input. ImagesFigure 1Figure 11Figure 12Figure 16Figure 17Figure 20Figure 21Figure 23Figure 24Figure 25 PMID:5639937
Active vibration control based on piezoelectric smart composite
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gao, Le; Lu, Qingqing; Fei, Fan; Liu, Liwu; Liu, Yanju; Leng, Jinsong
2013-12-01
An aircraft’s vertical fin may experience dramatic buffet loads in high angle of attack flight conditions, and these buffet loads would cause huge vibration and dynamic stress on the vertical fin structure. To reduce the dynamic vibration of the vertical fin structure, macro fiber composite (MFC) actuators were used in this paper. The drive moment equations and sensing voltage equations of the MFC actuators were developed. Finite element analysis models based on three kinds of models of simplified vertical fin structures with surface-bonded MFC actuators were established in ABAQUS. The equivalent damping ratio of the structure was employed in finite element analysis, in order to measure the effectiveness of vibration control. Further, an open-loop test for the active vibration control system of the vertical fin with MFC actuators was designed and developed. The experimental results validated the effectiveness of the MFC actuators as well as the developed methodology.
A comparison of motor submodels in the optimal control model
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lancraft, R. E.; Kleinman, D. L.
1978-01-01
Properties of several structural variations in the neuromotor interface portion of the optimal control model (OCM) are investigated. For example, it is known that commanding control-rate introduces an open-loop pole at S=O and will generate low frequency phase and magnitude characteristics similar to experimental data. However, this gives rise to unusually high sensitivities with respect to motor and sensor noise-ratios, thereby reducing the models' predictive capabilities. Relationships for different motor submodels are discussed to show sources of these sensitivities. The models investigated include both pseudo motor-noise and actual (system driving) motor-noise characterizations. The effects of explicit proprioceptive feedback in the OCM is also examined. To show graphically the effects of each submodel on system outputs, sensitivity studies are included, and compared to data obtained from other tests.
A control theoretic model of driver steering behavior
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Donges, E.
1977-01-01
A quantitative description of driver steering behavior such as a mathematical model is presented. The steering task is divided into two levels: (1) the guidance level involving the perception of the instantaneous and future course of the forcing function provided by the forward view of the road, and the response to it in an anticipatory open-loop control mode; (2) the stabilization level whereby any occuring deviations from the forcing function are compensated for in a closed-loop control mode. This concept of the duality of the driver's steering activity led to a newly developed two-level model of driver steering behavior. Its parameters are identified on the basis of data measured in driving simulator experiments. The parameter estimates of both levels of the model show significant dependence on the experimental situation which can be characterized by variables such as vehicle speed and desired path curvature.
Compensated control loops for a 30-cm ion thruster
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Robson, R. R.
1976-01-01
The vaporizer dynamic control characteristics of a 30-cm diameter mercury ion thruster were determined by operating the thruster in an open loop steady state mode and then introducing a small sinusoidal signal on the main, cathode, or neutralizer vaporizer current and observing the response of the beam current, discharge voltage, and neutralizer keeper voltage, respectively. This was done over a range of frequencies and operating conditions. From these data, Bode plots for gain and phase were made and mathematical models were obtained. The Bode plots and mathematical models were analyzed for stability and appropriate compensation networks determined. The compensated control loops were incorporated into a power processor and operated with a thruster. The time responses of the compensated loops to changes in set points and recovery from arc conditions are presented.
On reliable control system designs. Ph.D. Thesis; [actuators
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Birdwell, J. D.
1978-01-01
A mathematical model for use in the design of reliable multivariable control systems is discussed with special emphasis on actuator failures and necessary actuator redundancy levels. The model consists of a linear time invariant discrete time dynamical system. Configuration changes in the system dynamics are governed by a Markov chain that includes transition probabilities from one configuration state to another. The performance index is a standard quadratic cost functional, over an infinite time interval. The actual system configuration can be deduced with a one step delay. The calculation of the optimal control law requires the solution of a set of highly coupled Riccati-like matrix difference equations. Results can be used for off-line studies relating the open loop dynamics, required performance, actuator mean time to failure, and functional or identical actuator redundancy, with and without feedback gain reconfiguration strategies.
Application of infinite model predictive control methodology to other advanced controllers.
Abu-Ayyad, M; Dubay, R; Hernandez, J M
2009-01-01
This paper presents an application of most recent developed predictive control algorithm an infinite model predictive control (IMPC) to other advanced control schemes. The IMPC strategy was derived for systems with different degrees of nonlinearity on the process gain and time constant. Also, it was shown that IMPC structure uses nonlinear open-loop modeling which is conducted while closed-loop control is executed every sampling instant. The main objective of this work is to demonstrate that the methodology of IMPC can be applied to other advanced control strategies making the methodology generic. The IMPC strategy was implemented on several advanced controllers such as PI controller using Smith-Predictor, Dahlin controller, simplified predictive control (SPC), dynamic matrix control (DMC), and shifted dynamic matrix (m-DMC). Experimental work using these approaches combined with IMPC was conducted on both single-input-single-output (SISO) and multi-input-multi-output (MIMO) systems and compared with the original forms of these advanced controllers. Computer simulations were performed on nonlinear plants demonstrating that the IMPC strategy can be readily implemented on other advanced control schemes providing improved control performance. Practical work included real-time control applications on a DC motor, plastic injection molding machine and a MIMO three zone thermal system.
Comparison of Five System Identification Algorithms for Rotorcraft Higher Harmonic Control
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Jacklin, Stephen A.
1998-01-01
This report presents an analysis and performance comparison of five system identification algorithms. The methods are presented in the context of identifying a frequency-domain transfer matrix for the higher harmonic control (HHC) of helicopter vibration. The five system identification algorithms include three previously proposed methods: (1) the weighted-least- squares-error approach (in moving-block format), (2) the Kalman filter method, and (3) the least-mean-squares (LMS) filter method. In addition there are two new ones: (4) a generalized Kalman filter method and (5) a generalized LMS filter method. The generalized Kalman filter method and the generalized LMS filter method were derived as extensions of the classic methods to permit identification by using more than one measurement per identification cycle. Simulation results are presented for conditions ranging from the ideal case of a stationary transfer matrix and no measurement noise to the more complex cases involving both measurement noise and transfer-matrix variation. Both open-loop identification and closed- loop identification were simulated. Closed-loop mode identification was more challenging than open-loop identification because of the decreasing signal-to-noise ratio as the vibration became reduced. The closed-loop simulation considered both local-model identification, with measured vibration feedback and global-model identification with feedback of the identified uncontrolled vibration. The algorithms were evaluated in terms of their accuracy, stability, convergence properties, computation speeds, and relative ease of implementation.
Combined input shaping and feedback control for double-pendulum systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mar, Robert; Goyal, Anurag; Nguyen, Vinh; Yang, Tianle; Singhose, William
2017-02-01
A control system combining input shaping and feedback is developed for double-pendulum systems subjected to external disturbances. The proposed control method achieves fast point-to-point response similar to open-loop input-shaping control. It also minimizes transient deflections during the motion of the system, and disturbance-induced residual swing using the feedback control. Effects of parameter variations such as the mass ratio of the double pendulum, the suspension length ratio, and the move distance were studied via numerical simulation. The most important results were also verified with experiments on a small-scale crane. The controller effectively suppresses the disturbances and is robust to modelling uncertainties and task variations.
A Signal Transmission Technique for Stability Analysis of Multivariable Non-Linear Control Systems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Jackson, Mark; Zimpfer, Doug; Adams, Neil; Lindsey, K. L. (Technical Monitor)
2000-01-01
Among the difficulties associated with multivariable, non-linear control systems is the problem of assessing closed-loop stability. Of particular interest is the class of non-linear systems controlled with on/off actuators, such as spacecraft thrusters or electrical relays. With such systems, standard describing function techniques are typically too conservative, and time-domain simulation analysis is prohibitively extensive, This paper presents an open-loop analysis technique for this class of non-linear systems. The technique is centered around an innovative use of multivariable signal transmission theory to quantify the plant response to worst case control commands. The technique has been applied to assess stability of thruster controlled flexible space structures. Examples are provided for Space Shuttle attitude control with attached flexible payloads.
Application of modern control design methodology to oblique wing research aircraft
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Vincent, James H.
1991-01-01
A Linear Quadratic Regulator synthesis technique was used to design an explicit model following control system for the Oblique Wing Research Aircraft (OWRA). The forward path model (Maneuver Command Generator) was designed to incorporate the desired flying qualities and response decoupling. The LQR synthesis was based on the use of generalized controls, and it was structured to provide a proportional/integral error regulator with feedforward compensation. An unexpected consequence of this design approach was the ability to decouple the control synthesis into separate longitudinal and lateral directional designs. Longitudinal and lateral directional control laws were generated for each of the nine design flight conditions, and gain scheduling requirements were addressed. A fully coupled 6 degree of freedom open loop model of the OWRA along with the longitudinal and lateral directional control laws was used to assess the closed loop performance of the design. Evaluations were performed for each of the nine design flight conditions.
Luan, Xiaoli; Chen, Qiang; Liu, Fei
2014-09-01
This article presents a new scheme to design full matrix controller for high dimensional multivariable processes based on equivalent transfer function (ETF). Differing from existing ETF method, the proposed ETF is derived directly by exploiting the relationship between the equivalent closed-loop transfer function and the inverse of open-loop transfer function. Based on the obtained ETF, the full matrix controller is designed utilizing the existing PI tuning rules. The new proposed ETF model can more accurately represent the original processes. Furthermore, the full matrix centralized controller design method proposed in this paper is applicable to high dimensional multivariable systems with satisfactory performance. Comparison with other multivariable controllers shows that the designed ETF based controller is superior with respect to design-complexity and obtained performance.
A Review of Control Strategies in Closed-Loop Neuroprosthetic Systems
Wright, James; Macefield, Vaughan G.; van Schaik, André; Tapson, Jonathan C.
2016-01-01
It has been widely recognized that closed-loop neuroprosthetic systems achieve more favorable outcomes for users then equivalent open-loop devices. Improved performance of tasks, better usability, and greater embodiment have all been reported in systems utilizing some form of feedback. However, the interdisciplinary work on neuroprosthetic systems can lead to miscommunication due to similarities in well-established nomenclature in different fields. Here we present a review of control strategies in existing experimental, investigational and clinical neuroprosthetic systems in order to establish a baseline and promote a common understanding of different feedback modes and closed-loop controllers. The first section provides a brief discussion of feedback control and control theory. The second section reviews the control strategies of recent Brain Machine Interfaces, neuromodulatory implants, neuroprosthetic systems, and assistive neurorobotic devices. The final section examines the different approaches to feedback in current neuroprosthetic and neurorobotic systems. PMID:27462202
Effects of displacement and rate saturation on the control of statically unstable aircraft
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hanson, G. D.; Stengel, R. F.
1981-01-01
Methodologies are presented for the analysis and design of stability augmentation control laws for aircraft in which 'hard' displacement and rate limiting are significant. Candidate control laws are derived using the linear-quadratic (LQ) regulator. Analytical and computational estimates of the stability limits imposed by control saturation are presented using state trajectories with control limiting, as well as describing functions and eigenvalue computation. Analysis also includes an investigation of the interaction of the state-space saturation and stability boundaries for various choices of LQ weighting matrices. For minimum-energy control, the saturation and stability boundaries are shown to be parallel. In this case, there is a direct relation between the solution to the matrix Riccati equation and the aircraft's open-loop dynamics.
Scharfetter, H; Bachhiesl, P; Köpke, K; Kappel, F; Hutten, H
1996-01-01
Individual optimization of the dialysis process requires the (open-loop or closed-loop) control of many different variables, e.g. plasma ion concentrations, acid base state, volemic state and hemodynamic quantities. For this purpose a general concept for multiple-input-multiple-output (MIMO) control of the dialysis process is presented. The controlled variables have been differentiated into variables which can be modeled mechanistically (primary controlled variables, PCVs) and (hemodynamic) variables for which no mechanistic model has been developed up to now (secondary controlled variables, SCVs). Accordingly the controller is decomposed into two stages. Stage 1 contains an expert system which links the PCVs to the SCVs and provides the generation of optimal profiles for the PCVs with respect to maximum hemodynamic stability of the patient. Stage 2 is a tracking controller for the PCVs. An algorithm for the multidimensional tracking problem at stage 2 has been developed. It can be used for open-loop and future closed-loop control. The algorithm has been tested for 4 controlled (plasma Na+, plasma K+, plasma volume and ratio between intra- and extracellular volume) and 3 control variables (dialysate Na+, dialysate K+, ultrafiltration rate) up to now. It renders possible the exact tracking of the prescribed trajectories as long as all points are reachable under consideration of all physical and physiological boundary conditions. If they are not, appropriate weighting of the conflicting optimization goals must be applied. An extension towards more than 4 controlled variables is possible on principle. Main advantages of the method are its mathematical simplicity and the applicability of standard optimization subroutines.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhou, Bin; Hou, Ming-Zhe; Duan, Guang-Ren
2013-04-01
This article is concerned with L ∞ and L 2 semi-global stabilisation of continuous-time periodic linear systems with bounded controls. Two problems, namely L ∞ semi-global stabilisation with controls having bounded magnitude and L 2 semi-global stabilisation with controls having bounded energy, are solved based on solutions to a class of periodic Lyapunov differential equations (PLDEs) resulting from the problem of minimal energy control with guaranteed convergence rate. Under the assumption that the open-loop system is (asymptotically) null controllable with constrained controls, periodic feedback are established to solve the concerned problems. The proposed PLDE-based approaches possess the advantage that the resulting controllers are easy to implement since the designers need only to solve a linear differential equation. A numerical example is worked out to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach.
Randomized controlled trial of anterior-chamber intraocular lenses in Nepal: long-term follow-up.
Evans, J. R.; Henning, A.; Pradhan, D.; Foster, A.; Lagnado, R.; Poulson, A.; Johnson, G. J.; Wormald, R. P.
2000-01-01
Most of the estimated 20 million people who are blind with cataracts live in rural areas of developing countries, where expert surgical resources are scarce. We have studied the use of multiflex open-loop anterior-chamber intraocular lenses (ACIOL) in high-volume low-cost surgery. Between 1992 and 1995, a total of 2000 people attending Lahan Eye Hospital, Nepal, with bilateral cataracts reducing vision to < or = 6/36 were randomly allocated to receive intracapsular extraction (ICCE) with aphakic spectacles, or ICCE with an ACIOL. We re-examined the cohort (1305/2000, 65%) between November 1996 and April 1997 and report the findings in this article. There were 13 new cases of poor visual outcome (best corrected vision < 6/60) arising after one year: 9 in the ACIOL group and 4 in the control group; odds ratio 2.1 (95% confidence interval, 0.59-9.55). The causes of poor outcome were as follows: ACIOL group--retinal detachment (4 cases), cystoid macular oedema (2), epiretinal membrane (1), age-related macular degeneration (1), and late endophthalmitis (1); control group--retinal detachment (2 cases), late endophthalmitis (1), and primary open-angle glaucoma with age-related macular degeneration (1). In rural areas of developing countries, well-manufactured multiflex open-loop ACIOLs can be implanted safely by experienced ophthalmologists after routine ICCE, avoiding the disadvantages of aphakic spectacle correction. PMID:10812737
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Grose, D. L.
1979-01-01
The development of the DAST I (drones for aerodynamic and structural testing) remotely piloted research vehicle is described. The DAST I is a highly modified BQM-34E/F Firebee II Supersonic Aerial Target incorporating a swept supercritical wing designed to flutter within the vehicle's flight envelope. The predicted flutter and rigid body characteristics are presented. A description of the analysis and design of an active flutter suppression control system (FSS) designed to increase the flutter boundary of the DAST wing (ARW-1) by a factor of 20% is given. The design and development of the digital remotely augmented primary flight control system and on-board analog backup control system is presented. An evaluation of the near real-time flight flutter testing methods is made by comparing results of five flutter testing techniques on simulated DAST I flutter data. The development of the DAST ARW-1 state variable model used to generate time histories of simulated accelerometer responses is presented. This model uses control surface commands and a Dryden model gust as inputs. The feasibility of the concept of extracting open loop flutter characteristics from closed loop FSS responses was examined. It was shown that open loop characteristics can be determined very well from closed loop subcritical responses.
Gilles, Luc
2005-02-20
Recent progress has been made to compute efficiently the open-loop minimum-variance reconstructor (MVR) for multiconjugate adaptive optics systems by a combination of sparse matrix and iterative techniques. Using spectral analysis, I show that a closed-loop laser guide star multiconjugate adaptive optics control algorithm consisting of MVR cascaded with an integrator control law is unstable. Tosolve this problem, a computationally efficient pseudo-open-loop control (POLC) method was recently proposed. I give a theoretical proof of the stability of this method and demonstrate its superior performance and robustness against misregistration errors compared with conventional least-squares control. This can be accounted for by the fact that POLC incorporates turbulence statistics through its regularization term that can be interpreted as spatial filtering, yielding increased robustness to misregistration. For the Gemini-South 8-m telescope multiconjugate system and for median Cerro Pachon seeing, the performance of POLC in terms of rms wave-front error averaged over a 1-arc min field of view is approximately three times superior to that of a least-squares reconstructor. Performance degradation due to 30% translational misregistration on all three mirrors is approximately a 30% increased rms wave-front error, whereas a least-squares reconstructor is unstable at such a misregistration level.
Feasibility of Outpatient Fully Integrated Closed-Loop Control
Kovatchev, Boris P.; Renard, Eric; Cobelli, Claudio; Zisser, Howard C.; Keith-Hynes, Patrick; Anderson, Stacey M.; Brown, Sue A.; Chernavvsky, Daniel R.; Breton, Marc D.; Farret, Anne; Pelletier, Marie-Josée; Place, Jérôme; Bruttomesso, Daniela; Del Favero, Simone; Visentin, Roberto; Filippi, Alessio; Scotton, Rachele; Avogaro, Angelo; Doyle, Francis J.
2013-01-01
OBJECTIVE To evaluate the feasibility of a wearable artificial pancreas system, the Diabetes Assistant (DiAs), which uses a smart phone as a closed-loop control platform. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Twenty patients with type 1 diabetes were enrolled at the Universities of Padova, Montpellier, and Virginia and at Sansum Diabetes Research Institute. Each trial continued for 42 h. The United States studies were conducted entirely in outpatient setting (e.g., hotel or guest house); studies in Italy and France were hybrid hospital–hotel admissions. A continuous glucose monitoring/pump system (Dexcom Seven Plus/Omnipod) was placed on the subject and was connected to DiAs. The patient operated the system via the DiAs user interface in open-loop mode (first 14 h of study), switching to closed-loop for the remaining 28 h. Study personnel monitored remotely via 3G or WiFi connection to DiAs and were available on site for assistance. RESULTS The total duration of proper system communication functioning was 807.5 h (274 h in open-loop and 533.5 h in closed-loop), which represented 97.7% of the total possible time from admission to discharge. This exceeded the predetermined primary end point of 80% system functionality. CONCLUSIONS This study demonstrated that a contemporary smart phone is capable of running outpatient closed-loop control and introduced a prototype system (DiAs) for further investigation. Following this proof of concept, future steps should include equipping insulin pumps and sensors with wireless capabilities, as well as studies focusing on control efficacy and patient-oriented clinical outcomes. PMID:23801798
Current Profile Control in DIII-D
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schuster, E. M.; Barton, J. E.; Boyer, M. D.; Wehner, W. P.; Ferron, J. R.; Humphreys, D. A.; Hyatt, A. W.; Jackson, G. L.; Luce, T. C.; Walker, M. L.
2014-10-01
Experimental results successfully demonstrate the potential of physics-model-based control for systematic attainment of desired q profiles, with the subsequent benefit of enabling exploration and reproducibility. The control scheme is constructed by embedding a nonlinear, control-oriented, physics-based model of the plasma dynamics into the control design process. This modeling approach combines first-principles laws with empirical correlations obtained from physical observations, which leads to PDE models capturing the high-dimensionality and nonlinearity of the plasma response. Model-based control design includes not only the synthesis of feedback controllers for robust regulation or tracking, but also the determination of optimal feedforward actuator trajectories for a systematic approach to scenario planning. Feedforward+feedback (closed loop) control experiments in DIII-D consistently demonstrate improved current-profile control performance relative to feedforward (open loop) control alone. Supported by the US Department of Energy under DE-SC0001334, DE-SC0010661 and DE-FC02-04ER54698.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Chenglei; Tang, Hui; Yu, Simon C. M.; Duan, Fei
2016-05-01
This paper studies the control of two-dimensional vortex-induced vibrations (VIVs) of a single circular cylinder at a Reynolds number of 100 using a novel windward-suction-leeward-blowing (WSLB) concept. A lattice Boltzmann method based numerical framework is adopted for this study. Both open-loop and closed-loop controls are implemented. In the open-loop control, three types of actuation arrangements, including the pure suction on the windward side of the cylinder, the pure blowing on the leeward side, and the general WSLB on both sides, are implemented and compared. It is found that the general WSLB is the most effective, whereas the pure suction is the least effective. In the closed-loop control, the proportional (P), integral (I), and proportional-integral (PI) control schemes are applied to adjust the WSLB velocities according to the flow information obtained from a sensor. The effects of four key control parameters including the proportional gain constant, the integral gain constant, the length of data history used for the feedback, and the location of the sensor are investigated. It is found that the use of only P control fails to completely suppress the VIV, the use of only I control can achieve the complete suppression, and the PI control performs the best in terms of both the control effectiveness and efficiency. In the PI control, there exists an optimal length of data history for the feedback, at which the VIV control is the most efficient. There also exist the minimum required WSLB velocities for the VIV suppression, independent of the control schemes. Moreover, it is found that the VIV control is independent of the sensor location.
Mina, Petros; Tsaneva-Atanasova, Krasimira; Bernardo, Mario di
2016-07-15
We extend a spatially explicit agent based model (ABM) developed previously to investigate entrainment and control of the emergent behavior of a population of synchronized oscillating cells in a microfluidic chamber. Unlike most of the work in models of control of cellular systems which focus on temporal changes, we model individual cells with spatial dependencies which may contribute to certain behavioral responses. We use the model to investigate the response of both open loop and closed loop strategies, such as proportional control (P-control), proportional-integral control (PI-control) and proportional-integral-derivative control (PID-control), to heterogeinities and growth in the cell population, variations of the control parameters and spatial effects such as diffusion in the spatially explicit setting of a microfluidic chamber setup. We show that, as expected from the theory of phase locking in dynamical systems, open loop control can only entrain the cell population in a subset of forcing periods, with a wide variety of dynamical behaviors obtained outside these regions of entrainment. Closed-loop control is shown instead to guarantee entrainment in a much wider region of control parameter space although presenting limitations when the population size increases over a certain threshold. In silico tracking experiments are also performed to validate the ability of classical control approaches to achieve other reference behaviors such as a desired constant output or a linearly varying one. All simulations are carried out in BSim, an advanced agent-based simulator of microbial population which is here extended ad hoc to include the effects of control strategies acting onto the population.
Active absorption of acoustic wave using state-space control approach
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wu, Zhen; Varadan, Vijay K.; Varadan, Vasundara V.; Lee, Kwang Y.
1994-05-01
This paper presents a computer modeling and simulation of an active sound absorbing system with an optimal state-feedback controller. First, a state-space model is developed to describe one-dimensional sound reflection and transmission in the time domain. In the model derivation, the difficulty of discretizing the wave equation in an unbounded region is overcome by combining the finite-difference and analytical solutions. Numerical simulation of the open- loop model response is performed, which shows a good agreement with the well known frequency domain solutions. Second, a state-feedback controller including a linear quadratic regulator and a Kalman filter type state-estimator is designed using the optimal control theory. Numerical simulation of the closed-loop model response of an active sound control system containing two sensors and one actuator is presented. It is shown that a broadband attenuation of more than 30 dB over 2 octaves has been reached.
Shaped Gaussian Dictionaries for Quantized Networked Control Systems With Correlated Dropouts
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Peters, Edwin G. W.; Quevedo, Daniel E.; Ostergaard, Jan
2016-01-01
This paper studies fixed rate vector quantisation for noisy networked control systems (NCSs) with correlated packet dropouts. In particular, a discrete-time linear time invariant system is to be controlled over an error-prone digital channel. The controller uses (quantized) packetized predictive control to reduce the impact of packet losses. The proposed vector quantizer is based on sparse regression codes (SPARC), which have recently been shown to be efficient in open-loop systems when coding white Gaussian sources. The dictionaries in existing design of SPARCs consist of independent and identically distributed (i.i.d.) Gaussian entries. However, we show that a significant gain can be achieved by using Gaussian dictionaries that are shaped according to the second-order statistics of the NCS in question. Furthermore, to avoid training of the dictionaries, we provide closed-form expressions for the required second-order statistics in the absence of quantization.
Active vibration control using a modal-domain fiber optic sensor
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cox, David E.
1992-01-01
A closed-loop control experiment is described in which vibrations of a cantilevered beam are suppressed using measurements from a modal-domain fiber optic sensor. Modal-domain sensors are interference between the modes of a few-mode optical waveguide to detect strain. The fiber is bonded along the length of the beam and provides a measurement related to the strain distribution on the surface of the beam. A model for the fiber optic sensor is derived, and this model is integrated with the dynamic model of the beam. A piezoelectric actuator is also bonded to the beam and used to provide control forces. Control forces are obtained through dynamic compensation of the signal from the fiber optic sensor. The compensator is implemented with a real-time digital controller. Analytical models are verified by comparing simulations to experimental results for both open-loop and closed-loop configurations.
A modified Finite Element-Transfer Matrix for control design of space structures
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tan, T.-M.; Yousuff, A.; Bahar, L. Y.; Konstandinidis, M.
1990-01-01
The Finite Element-Transfer Matrix (FETM) method was developed for reducing the computational efforts involved in structural analysis. While being widely used by structural analysts, this method does, however, have certain limitations, particularly when used for the control design of large flexible structures. In this paper, a new formulation based on the FETM method is presented. The new method effectively overcomes the limitations in the original FETM method, and also allows an easy construction of reduced models that are tailored for the control design. Other advantages of this new method include the ability to extract open loop frequencies and mode shapes with less computation, and simplification of the design procedures for output feedback, constrained compensation, and decentralized control. The development of this new method and the procedures for generating reduced models using this method are described in detail and the role of the reduced models in control design is discussed through an illustrative example.
Neuro-estimator based GMC control of a batch reactive distillation.
Prakash, K J Jithin; Patle, Dipesh S; Jana, Amiya K
2011-07-01
In this paper, an artificial neural network (ANN)-based nonlinear control algorithm is proposed for a simulated batch reactive distillation (RD) column. In the homogeneously catalyzed reactive process, an esterification reaction takes place for the production of ethyl acetate. The fundamental model has been derived incorporating the reaction term in the model structure of the nonreactive distillation process. The process operation is simulated at the startup phase under total reflux conditions. The open-loop process dynamics is also addressed running the batch process at the production phase under partial reflux conditions. In this study, a neuro-estimator based generic model controller (GMC), which consists of an ANN-based state predictor and the GMC law, has been synthesized. Finally, this proposed control law has been tested on the representative batch reactive distillation comparing with a gain-scheduled proportional integral (GSPI) controller and with its ideal performance (ideal GMC).
A novel approach for optimal control of a pressurized water reactor
Saif, M.
1989-02-01
A novel approach for optimal control of the H.B. Robinson nuclear power plant is presented. Optimal linear quadratic regulator (LQR) theory is used for the control purpose. The appealing feature of the LQR design used here over the previous applications of this technique to nuclear reactors is that the proposed controller design algorithm for the reactor is capable of selecting appropriate weighting matrices in the cost functional, so that all or a selected number of the open-loop system poles are placed at desired locations while the performance index is minimized. Another advantage of the approach is that since aggregation is used in designing such a controller, second- or fourth-order matrix computations are performed almost throughout the design procedure.
Bernoulli substitution in the Ramsey model: Optimal trajectories under control constraints
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Krasovskii, A. A.; Lebedev, P. D.; Tarasyev, A. M.
2017-05-01
We consider a neoclassical (economic) growth model. A nonlinear Ramsey equation, modeling capital dynamics, in the case of Cobb-Douglas production function is reduced to the linear differential equation via a Bernoulli substitution. This considerably facilitates the search for a solution to the optimal growth problem with logarithmic preferences. The study deals with solving the corresponding infinite horizon optimal control problem. We consider a vector field of the Hamiltonian system in the Pontryagin maximum principle, taking into account control constraints. We prove the existence of two alternative steady states, depending on the constraints. A proposed algorithm for constructing growth trajectories combines methods of open-loop control and closed-loop regulatory control. For some levels of constraints and initial conditions, a closed-form solution is obtained. We also demonstrate the impact of technological change on the economic equilibrium dynamics. Results are supported by computer calculations.
Fractional order phase shaper design with Bode's integral for iso-damped control system.
Saha, Suman; Das, Saptarshi; Ghosh, Ratna; Goswami, Bhaswati; Balasubramanian, R; Chandra, A K; Das, Shantanu; Gupta, Amitava
2010-04-01
The phase curve of an open loop system is flat in nature if the derivative of its phase with respect to frequency is zero. With a flat-phase curve, the corresponding closed loop system exhibits an iso-damped property i.e. maintains constant overshoot with the change of gain. This implies enhanced parametric robustness e.g. to variation in system gain. In the recent past, fractional order (FO) phase shapers have been proposed by contemporary researchers to achieve enhanced parametric robustness. In this paper, a simple methodology is proposed to design an appropriate FO phase shaper to achieve phase flattening in a control loop, comprising a plant controlled by a classical Proportional Integral Derivative (PID) controller. The methodology is demonstrated with MATLAB simulation of representative plants and accompanying PID controllers.
Application handbook for a Standardized Control Module (SCM) for DC-DC converters, volume 1
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lee, F. C.; Mahmoud, M. F.; Yu, Y.
1980-01-01
The standardized control module (SCM) was developed for application in the buck, boost and buck/boost DC-DC converters. The SCM used multiple feedback loops to provide improved input line and output load regulation, stable feedback control system, good dynamic transient response and adaptive compensation of the control loop for changes in open loop gain and output filter time constraints. The necessary modeling and analysis tools to aid the design engineer in the application of the SCM to DC-DC Converters were developed. The SCM functional block diagram and the different analysis techniques were examined. The average time domain analysis technique was chosen as the basic analytical tool. The power stage transfer functions were developed for the buck, boost and buck/boost converters. The analog signal and digital signal processor transfer functions were developed for the three DC-DC Converter types using the constant on time, constant off time and constant frequency control laws.
Aerodynamic flow control of a high lift system with dual synthetic jet arrays
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Alstrom, Robert Bruce
Implementing flow control systems will mitigate the vibration and aeroacoustic issues associated with weapons bays; enhance the performance of the latest generation aircraft by reducing their fuel consumption and improving their high angle-of-attack handling qualities; facilitate steep climb out profiles for military transport aircraft. Experimental research is performed on a NACA 0015 airfoil with a simple flap at angle of attack of 16o in both clean and high lift configurations. The results of the active control phase of the project will be discussed. Three different experiments were conducted; they are Amplitude Modulated Dual Location Open Loop Control, Adaptive Control with Amplitude Modulation using Direct Sensor Feedback and Adaptive Control with Amplitude Modulation using Extremum Seeking Control. All the closed loop experiments are dual location. The analysis presented uses the spatial variation of the root mean square pressure fluctuations, power spectral density estimates, Fast Fourier Transforms (FFTs), and time frequency analysis which consists of the application of the Morlet and Mexican Hat wavelets. Additionally, during the course of high speed testing in the wind tunnel, some aeroacoustic phenomena were uncovered; those results will also be presented. A cross section of the results shows that the shape of the RMS pressure distributions is sensitive to forcing frequency. The application of broadband excitation in the case adaptive control causes the flow to select a frequency to lock in to. Additionally, open loop control results in global synchronization via switching between two stable states and closed loop control inhibits the switching phenomena, but rather synchronizes the flow about multiple stable shedding frequencies.
Interactive Medical Image Segmentation using PDE Control of Active Contours
Karasev, Peter; Kolesov, Ivan; Fritscher, Karl; Vela, Patricio; Mitchell, Phillip; Tannenbaum, Allen
2014-01-01
Segmentation of injured or unusual anatomic structures in medical imagery is a problem that has continued to elude fully automated solutions. In this paper, the goal of easy-to-use and consistent interactive segmentation is transformed into a control synthesis problem. A nominal level set PDE is assumed to be given; this open-loop system achieves correct segmentation under ideal conditions, but does not agree with a human expert's ideal boundary for real image data. Perturbing the state and dynamics of a level set PDE via the accumulated user input and an observer-like system leads to desirable closed-loop behavior. The input structure is designed such that a user can stabilize the boundary in some desired state without needing to understand any mathematical parameters. Effectiveness of the technique is illustrated with applications to the challenging segmentations of a patellar tendon in MR and a shattered femur in CT. PMID:23893712
Operator in-the-loop control of rotary cranes
Parker, G.G.; Robinett, R.D.; Driessen, B.J.; Dohrmann, C.R.
1996-03-01
An open-loop control method is presented for reducing the oscillatory motion of rotary crane payloads during operator commanded maneuvers. A typical rotary crane consists of a multiple degree-of-freedom platform for positioning a spherical pendulum with an attached payload. The crane operator positions the Payload by issuing a combination of translational and rotational commands to the platform as well as load-line length changes. Frequently, these pendulum modes are time-varying and exhibit low natural frequencies. Maneuvers are therefore performed at rates sufficiently slow so as not to excite oscillation. The strategy presented here generates crane commands which suppress vibration of the payload without a priori knowledge of the desired maneuver. Results are presented for operator in-the-loop positioning using a real-time dynamics simulation of a three-axis rotary crane where the residual sway magnitude is reduced in excess of 4OdB.
Toward rational design of electrical stimulation strategies for epilepsy control
Sunderam, Sridhar; Gluckman, Bruce; Reato, Davide; Bikson, Marom
2009-01-01
Electrical stimulation is emerging as a viable alternative for epilepsy patients whose seizures are not alleviated by drugs or surgery. Its attractions are temporal and spatial specificity of action, flexibility of waveform parameters and timing, and the perception that its effects are reversible unlike resective surgery. However, despite significant advances in our understanding of mechanisms of neural electrical stimulation, clinical electrotherapy for seizures relies heavily on empirical tuning of parameters and protocols. We highlight concurrent treatment goals with potentially conflicting design constraints that must be resolved when formulating rational strategies for epilepsy electrotherapy: namely seizure reduction versus cognitive impairment, stimulation efficacy versus tissue safety, and mechanistic insight versus clinical pragmatism. First, treatment markers, objectives, and metrics relevant to electrical stimulation for epilepsy are discussed from a clinical perspective. Then the experimental perspective is presented, with the biophysical mechanisms and modalities of open-loop electrical stimulation, and the potential benefits of closed-loop control for epilepsy. PMID:19926525
Design study for LANDSAT-D attitude control system
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Iwens, R. P.; Bernier, G. E.; Hofstadter, R. F.; Mayo, R. A.; Nakano, H.
1977-01-01
The gimballed Ku-band antenna system for communication with TDRS was studied. By means of an error analysis it was demonstrated that the antenna cannot be open loop pointed to TDRS by an onboard programmer, but that an autotrack system was required. After some tradeoffs, a two-axis, azimuth-elevation type gimbal configuration was recommended for the antenna. It is shown that gimbal lock only occurs when LANDSAT-D is over water where a temporary loss of the communication link to TDRS is of no consequence. A preliminary gimbal control system design is also presented. A digital computer program was written that computes antenna gimbal angle profiles, assesses percent antenna beam interference with the solar array, and determines whether the spacecraft is over land or water, a lighted earth or a dark earth, and whether the spacecraft is in eclipse.
High-Resolution Synthesizable Digitally-Controlled Delay Lines
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Giordano, R.; Ameli, F.; Bifulco, P.; Bocci, V.; Cadeddu, S.; Izzo, V.; Lai, A.; Mastroianni, S.; Aloisio, A.
2015-12-01
Digitally-controlled delay lines (DCDLs) play a key role in timing distribution for trigger and data acquisition systems (TDAQ) of high energy Physics (HEP), where it is often necessary to add an open-loop fine-grained programmable phase delay to distributed clocks and/or data lines. In this work, we present the performance of DCDLs implemented according to an all-digital novel architecture. The architecture is completely technology-independent, it is described by means of a hardware description language and it can be placed and routed with automatic tools. Our solution is aimed at being used as a synthesizable block in FPGAs, as a proof-of-concept we implemented a prototype in a Xilinx Kintex-7 FPGA. We discuss the measured performance of the implemented delay line in terms of delay range, resolution and linearity. The logic utilization of the delay lines is also presented in the view of a scalable implementation.
CONTROL SYSTEM ANALYSIS FOR THE PERTURBED LINEAR ACCELERATOR RF SYSTEM
SUNG-IL KWON; AMY H. REGAN
2002-04-10
This paper addresses the modeling problem of the linear accelerator RF system in SNS. Klystrons are modeled as linear parameter varying systems. The effect of the high voltage power supply ripple on the klystron output voltage and the output phase is modeled as an additive disturbance. The cavity is modeled as a linear system and the beam current is modeled as the exogenous disturbance. The output uncertainty of the low level RF system which results from the uncertainties in the RF components and cabling is modeled as multiplicative uncertainty. Also, the feedback loop uncertainty and digital signal processing signal conditioning subsystem uncertainties are lumped together and are modeled as multiplicative uncertainty. Finally, the time delays in the loop are modeled as a lumped time delay. For the perturbed open loop system, the closed loop system performance, and stability are analyzed with the PI feedback controller.
Interactive medical image segmentation using PDE control of active contours.
Karasev, Peter; Kolesov, Ivan; Fritscher, Karl; Vela, Patricio; Mitchell, Phillip; Tannenbaum, Allen
2013-11-01
Segmentation of injured or unusual anatomic structures in medical imagery is a problem that has continued to elude fully automated solutions. In this paper, the goal of easy-to-use and consistent interactive segmentation is transformed into a control synthesis problem. A nominal level set partial differential equation (PDE) is assumed to be given; this open-loop system achieves correct segmentation under ideal conditions, but does not agree with a human expert's ideal boundary for real image data. Perturbing the state and dynamics of a level set PDE via the accumulated user input and an observer-like system leads to desirable closed-loop behavior. The input structure is designed such that a user can stabilize the boundary in some desired state without needing to understand any mathematical parameters. Effectiveness of the technique is illustrated with applications to the challenging segmentations of a patellar tendon in magnetic resonance and a shattered femur in computed tomography.
Feedback-controlled laser fabrication of micromirror substrates.
Petrak, Benjamin; Konthasinghe, Kumarasiri; Perez, Sonia; Muller, Andreas
2011-12-01
Short (40-200 μs) single focused CO(2) laser pulses of energy ≳100 μJ were used to fabricate high quality concave micromirror templates on silica and fluoride glass. The ablated features have diameters of ≈20-100 μm and average root-mean-square (RMS) surface microroughness near their center of less than 0.2 nm. Temporally monitoring the fabrication process revealed that it proceeds on a time scale shorter than the laser pulse duration. We implement a fast feedback control loop (≈20 kHz bandwidth) based on the light emitted by the sample that ensures an RMS size dispersion of less than 5% in arrays on chips or in individually fabricated features on an optical fiber tip, a significant improvement over previous approaches using longer pulses and open loop operation.
A Robust Design Methodology for Optimal Microscale Secondary Flow Control in Compact Inlet Diffusers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Anderson, Bernhard H.; Keller, Dennis J.
2001-01-01
It is the purpose of this study to develop an economical Robust design methodology for microscale secondary flow control in compact inlet diffusers. To illustrate the potential of economical Robust Design methodology, two different mission strategies were considered for the subject inlet, namely Maximum Performance and Maximum HCF Life Expectancy. The Maximum Performance mission maximized total pressure recovery while the Maximum HCF Life Expectancy mission minimized the mean of the first five Fourier harmonic amplitudes, i.e., 'collectively' reduced all the harmonic 1/2 amplitudes of engine face distortion. Each of the mission strategies was subject to a low engine face distortion constraint, i.e., DC60<0.10, which is a level acceptable for commercial engines. For each of these missions strategies, an 'Optimal Robust' (open loop control) and an 'Optimal Adaptive' (closed loop control) installation was designed over a twenty degree angle-of-incidence range. The Optimal Robust installation used economical Robust Design methodology to arrive at a single design which operated over the entire angle-of-incident range (open loop control). The Optimal Adaptive installation optimized all the design parameters at each angle-of-incidence. Thus, the Optimal Adaptive installation would require a closed loop control system to sense a proper signal for each effector and modify that effector device, whether mechanical or fluidic, for optimal inlet performance. In general, the performance differences between the Optimal Adaptive and Optimal Robust installation designs were found to be marginal. This suggests, however, that Optimal Robust open loop installation designs can be very competitive with Optimal Adaptive close loop designs. Secondary flow control in inlets is inherently robust, provided it is optimally designed. Therefore, the new methodology presented in this paper, combined array 'Lower Order' approach to Robust DOE, offers the aerodynamicist a very viable and
Type-2 fuzzy model based controller design for neutralization processes.
Kumbasar, Tufan; Eksin, Ibrahim; Guzelkaya, Mujde; Yesil, Engin
2012-03-01
In this study, an inverse controller based on a type-2 fuzzy model control design strategy is introduced and this main controller is embedded within an internal model control structure. Then, the overall proposed control structure is implemented in a pH neutralization experimental setup. The inverse fuzzy control signal generation is handled as an optimization problem and solved at each sampling time in an online manner. Although, inverse fuzzy model controllers may produce perfect control in perfect model match case and/or non-existence of disturbances, this open loop control would not be sufficient in the case of modeling mismatches or disturbances. Therefore, an internal model control structure is proposed to compensate these errors in order to overcome this deficiency where the basic controller is an inverse type-2 fuzzy model. This feature improves the closed-loop performance to disturbance rejection as shown through the real-time control of the pH neutralization process. Experimental results demonstrate the superiority of the inverse type-2 fuzzy model controller structure compared to the inverse type-1 fuzzy model controller and conventional control structures. Copyright © 2011 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Modular control of fusion power heating applications
Demers, D. R.
2012-08-24
This work is motivated by the growing demand for auxiliary heating on small and large machines worldwide. Numerous present and planned RF experiments (EBW, Lower Hybrid, ICRF, and ECH) are increasingly complex systems. The operational challenges are indicative of a need for components of real-time control that can be implemented with a moderate amount of effort in a time- and cost-effective fashion. Such a system will improve experimental efficiency, enhance experimental quality, and expedite technological advancements. The modular architecture of this control-suite serves multiple purposes. It facilitates construction on various scales from single to multiple controller systems. It enables expandability of control from basic to complex via the addition of modules with varying functionalities. It simplifies the control implementation process by reducing layers of software and electronic development. While conceived with fusion applications in mind, this suite has the potential to serve a broad range of scientific and industrial applications. During the Phase-I research effort we established the overall feasibility of this modular control-suite concept. We developed the fundamental modules needed to implement open-loop active-control and demonstrated their use on a microwave power deposition experiment.
Reduced-order modeling for hyperthermia control.
Potocki, J K; Tharp, H S
1992-12-01
This paper analyzes the feasibility of using reduced-order modeling techniques in the design of multiple-input, multiple-output (MIMO) hyperthermia temperature controllers. State space thermal models are created based upon a finite difference expansion of the bioheat transfer equation model of a scanned focused ultrasound system (SFUS). These thermal state space models are reduced using the balanced realization technique, and an order reduction criterion is tabulated. Results show that a drastic reduction in model dimension can be achieved using the balanced realization. The reduced-order model is then used to design a reduced-order optimal servomechanism controller for a two-scan input, two thermocouple output tissue model. In addition, a full-order optimal servomechanism controller is designed for comparison and validation purposes. These two controllers are applied to a variety of perturbed tissue thermal models to test the robust nature of the reduced-order controller. A comparison of the two controllers validates the use of open-loop balanced reduced-order models in the design of MIMO hyperthermia controllers.
Rolling maneuver load alleviation using active controls
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Woods-Vedeler, Jessica A.; Pototzky, Anthony S.
1992-01-01
Rolling Maneuver Load Alleviation (RMLA) was demonstrated on the Active Flexible Wing (AFW) wind tunnel model in the LaRC Transonic Dynamics Tunnel. The design objective was to develop a systematic approach for developing active control laws to alleviate wing incremental loads during roll maneuvers. Using linear load models for the AFW wind-tunnel model which were based on experimental measurements, two RMLA control laws were developed based on a single-degree-of-freedom roll model. The RMLA control laws utilized actuation of outboard control surface pairs to counteract incremental loads generated during rolling maneuvers and roll performance. To evaluate the RMLA control laws, roll maneuvers were performed in the wind tunnel at dynamic pressures of 150, 200, and 250 psf and Mach numbers of .33, .38, and .44, respectively. Loads obtained during these maneuvers were compared to baseline maneuver loads. For both RMLA controllers, the incremental torsion moments were reduced by up to 60 percent at all dynamic pressures and performance times. Results for bending moment load reductions during roll maneuvers varied. In addition, in a multiple function test, RMLA and flutter suppression system control laws were operated simultaneously during roll maneuvers at dynamic pressures 11 percent above the open-loop flutter dynamic pressure.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ballard, J. D.; Mccloud, J. L., III; Forsyth, T. J.
1980-01-01
A stoppable helicopter rotor with circulation control was investigated in the Ames 40 by 80 foot wind tunnel. The model was tested as a rotating wing, a fixed wing, and during transition start/stop sequences. The capability of the model's control system to maintain pitch and roll moment balance during the start/stop sequence, the ability of the blades to withstand the start/stop loads, the adequacy of the control system to maintain balance in the helicopter mode, and the control system capabilities in the fixed-wind mode were assessed. Time-history data of several start/stop sequences of the X-wing rotor, and the steady-state data relating to the model as both a rotor and as a fixed-wing aircraft are presented. In addition, stability data are presented which were acquired during open-loop and closed-loop tests of the hub moment feedback control system.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Hui; Chen, Albert; Jie Sun, Wei; Sun, Zhen Dong; Yeow, John TW
2016-01-01
This article presents the development and implementation of a robust nonlinear control scheme for a 2-D micromirror-based laser scanning microscope system. The presented control scheme, built around sliding mode control approach and augmented an adaptive algorithm, is proposed to improve the tracking accuracy in presence of cross-axis effect. The closed-loop controlled imaging system is developed through integrating a 2-D micromirror with sidewall electrodes (SW), a laser source, NI field-programmable gate array (FPGA) hardware, the optics, position sensing detector (PSD) and photo detector (PD). The experimental results demonstrated that the proposed scheme is able to achieve accurate tracking of a reference triangular signal. Compared with open-loop control, the scanning performance is significantly improved, and a better 2-D image is obtained using the micromirror with the proposed scheme.
Jin, Q B; Liu, Q; Huang, B
2016-03-01
This paper considers the problem of determining all the robust PID (proportional-integral-derivative) controllers in terms of the gain and phase margins (GPM) for open-loop unstable first order plus time delay (UFOPTD) processes. It is the first time that the feasible ranges of the GPM specifications provided by a PID controller are given for UFOPTD processes. A gain and phase margin tester is used to modify the original model, and the ranges of the margin specifications are derived such that the modified model can be stabilized by a stabilizing PID controller based on Hermite-Biehlers Theorem. Furthermore, we obtain all the controllers satisfying a given margin specification. Simulation studies show how to use the results to design a robust PID controller.
Das, Saptarshi; Pan, Indranil; Das, Shantanu
2015-09-01
An optimal trade-off design for fractional order (FO)-PID controller is proposed with a Linear Quadratic Regulator (LQR) based technique using two conflicting time domain objectives. A class of delayed FO systems with single non-integer order element, exhibiting both sluggish and oscillatory open loop responses, have been controlled here. The FO time delay processes are handled within a multi-objective optimization (MOO) formalism of LQR based FOPID design. A comparison is made between two contemporary approaches of stabilizing time-delay systems withinLQR. The MOO control design methodology yields the Pareto optimal trade-off solutions between the tracking performance and total variation (TV) of the control signal. Tuning rules are formed for the optimal LQR-FOPID controller parameters, using median of the non-dominated Pareto solutions to handle delayed FO processes.
A open loop guidance architecture for navigationally robust on-orbit docking
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chern, Hung-Sheng
1995-01-01
The development of an open-hop guidance architecture is outlined for autonomous rendezvous and docking (AR&D) missions to determine whether the Global Positioning System (GPS) can be used in place of optical sensors for relative initial position determination of the chase vehicle. Feasible command trajectories for one, two, and three impulse AR&D maneuvers are determined using constrained trajectory optimization. Early AR&D command trajectory results suggest that docking accuracies are most sensitive to vertical position errors at the initial conduction of the chase vehicle. Thus, a feasible command trajectory is based on maximizing the size of the locus of initial vertical positions for which a fixed sequence of impulses will translate the chase vehicle into the target while satisfying docking accuracy requirements. Documented accuracies are used to determine whether relative GPS can achieve the vertical position error requirements of the impulsive command trajectories. Preliminary development of a thruster management system for the Cargo Transfer Vehicle (CTV) based on optimal throttle settings is presented to complete the guidance architecture. Results show that a guidance architecture based on a two impulse maneuvers generated the best performance in terms of initial position error and total velocity change for the chase vehicle.
Open loop increase in trunk temperature produced by face cooling in working humans.
Cabanac, M; Caputa, M
1979-04-01
1. Five human subjects pedalled on a bicyle ergometer for at least two 74 min periods at 10 degrees C ambient temperature. During the first period the subjects cycled for 42 min with face fanning, followed by 32 min with the head thermally insulated. In the second period, this procedure was reversed. Oesophageal (tes), tympanic (Tty), forehead and hand skin temperatures were recorded. In addition, heart rate (H.R.) was counted throughout the experiments, and the technique of perceptual rating of cool and warm stimuli was used in order to appreciate whether the subjects were hypo-, normo-, or hyperthermic. 2. Face fanning resulted in decreased Tty, decreased H.R., mild skin vasoconstriction but increased Tes. 3. Head covering resulted in increased Tty and H.R., while Tes decreased slightly, due to peripheral vasodilatation. 4. When their faces were being fanned so that Tty was low and Tes was high, the subjects gave slightly hypothermic ratings. Ratings were clearly hyperthermic when their heads were covered and Tty was high and Tes was low. 5. The close correlation between vasomotor response and H.R. on the one hand and Tty on the other confirms that this variable is a better approximation of regulated core temperature than Tes. 6. Increase in Tes during face fanning and decrease in Tes during face insulation is new evidence for the possibility of the human brian being cooled during exercise by cool blood returning from the face. 7. We suggest that this selective brain cooling determines the apparent upper resetting of core temperature during exercise while brain temperature remains precisely regulated and constant.
Yamamoto, Hiromi; Kawada, Toru; Shimizu, Shuji; Kamiya, Atsunori; Turner, Michael J; Miyazaki, Shunichi; Sugimachi, Masaru
2015-04-01
To assess the acute effects of intravenous azelnidipine, a third-generation L-type calcium channel blocker, on sympathetic outflow from the central nervous system and to compare the effects of intravenous azelnidipine with those of intravenous nifedipine. In anesthetized Wistar Kyoto rats, carotid sinus baroreceptor regions were isolated. Changes in sympathetic nerve activity (SNA) and arterial pressure (AP) in response to a stepwise baroreceptor pressure input were examined before and during intravenous nifedipine or azelnidipine (for each: 100 μg/kg bolus followed by 300 μg/kg/h infusion, n = 6). Nifedipine significantly reduced the range of the AP response from 76.8 ± 7.4 to 45.4 ± 7.0 mmHg (P < 0.01) but did not affect the range of the SNA response (from 84.4 ± 5.1 to 85.9 ± 10.2%) or the SNA maximum gain (from 2.26 ± 0.28 to 2.35 ± 0.55%/mmHg). Similarly, azelnidipine significantly reduced the range of the AP response from 62.4 ± 3.9 to 31.4 ± 4.1 mmHg (P<0.01) but did not affect the range of the SNA response (from 71.2 ± 5.5 to 74.9 ± 7.2%) or the SNA maximum gain (from 1.64 ± 0.17 to 2.08 ± 0.26%/mmHg). A depressor dose of nifedipine or azelnidipine does not have an acute sympathoinhibitory effect in normotensive Wistar Kyoto rats even when the level of SNA was varied over the entire operating range of the carotid sinus baroreflex. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Investigation of open-loop beam motion at low frequencies at the APS
Kim, S.H.; Decker, G.; Doose, C.; Mangra, D.; Merl, R.
1997-08-01
Sources of transverse beam motion in the APS storage ring have been investigated for ground-motion- and water-system-induced vibrations of the magnet and vacuum systems, and for power supply ripple. The displacement of magnets in a bandwidth of 4-30 Hz have been reduced significantly by inserting viscoelastic damping pads between the girder supports and pedestals, and by welding the magnet cooling headers to the ceiling of the storage ring tunnel. Current ripple on magnet power supplies was identified as a source of horizontal beam motion. Beam motion was measured without the closed-orbit feedback system activated. At {beta}{sub x} = 15.4 m and {beta}{sub y} = 10.4 m the rms beam motion in the 0.02-30 Hz band was 22.7 {mu}m and 6.3 {mu}m in the horizontal and verticle planes, respectively. A few narrow-band structures of the horizontal beam motion spectrum in the 1-4 Hz band have to be investigated further to identify the sources.
Pulse Compression Degradation Due to Open Loop Adaptive Cancellation. Part 3.
1991-08-23
An exact expression for the perturbed range sidelobe level of a compressed pulse that has been preprocessed through an adaptive canceller is derived...good approximate expression is also obtained for evaluating the perturbed range sidelobe level. This report derives the number of independent samples per...channel (main and auxiliaries) necessary so that the average adaptive range sidelobe level is within 3 dB of the quiescent range sidelobe level
Pulse compression degradation due to open loop adaptive cancellation, part 3
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gerlach, Karl
1991-08-01
An exact expression for the perturbed range sidelobe level of a compressed pulse that has been preprocessed through an adaptive canceller is derived. This result is a generalization of past research (parts 1 and 2, NRL Reports 9107 and 9309) where the signal was assumed to be completely contained within the canceller's processing batch. In this report, we allow the signal to extend over an arbitrary number of canceller processing batches. A good approximate expression is also obtained for evaluating the perturbed range sidelobe level. This report derives the number of independent samples per channel (main and auxiliaries) necessary so that the average adaptive range sidelobe level is within 3 dB of the quiescent range sidelobe level. Furthermore, the same analysis is used to predict the canceller noise power level that is induced by the desired signal's presence in the canceller weight calculation. Placement of the pulse compressor before or after the canceller is also considered. It Is shown that if the desired waveform's code length L is less than or equal to the canceller's processing batch width K, it is desirable to place the pulse compression after the adaptive canceller. If L greater than K, then the issue is not so clear-cut, and a trade-off study is necessary.
Pulse Compression Degradation Due to Open Loop Adaptive Cancellation. Part 2.
1991-08-23
compreosed sidelobe level after adaptive cancellation -of the Ith range sidelobe (sidelobes are numbered :h1, I = 1, 2, ... , these can be related...sidelobe level at a specific range sidelobe 1 is at most 3 1,1#0 dB above the maximum quiescent sidelobe level). It is straightforward to-show that K...SL, (K,N) T Ilsc(1)lI2 (43) ’Jmin, and 6 = max ((). 44) One normally desires 6 :5 1, otherwise the desired signal generates more range sidelobe power
Spatial awareness in immersive virtual environments revealed in open-loop walking
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Turano, Kathleen A.; Chaudhury, Sidhartha
2005-03-01
People are able to walk without vision to previously viewed targets in the real world. This ability to update one"s position in space has been attributed to a path integration system that uses internally generated self-motion signals together with the perceived object-to-self distance of the target. In a previous study using an immersive virtual environment (VE), we found that many subjects were unable to walk without vision to a previously viewed target located 4 m away. Their walking paths were influenced by the room structure that varied trial to trial. In this study we investigated whether the phenomenon is specific to a VE by testing subjects in a real world and a VE. The real world was viewed with field restricting goggles and via cameras using the same head-mounted display as in the VE. The results showed that only in the VE were walking paths influenced by the room structure. Women were more affected than men, and the effect decreased over trials and after subjects performed the task in the real world. The results also showed that a brief (<0.5 s) exposure to the visual scene during self-motion was sufficient to reduce the influence of the room structure on walking paths. The results are consistent with the idea that without visual experience within the VE, the path integration system is unable to effectively update one"s spatial position. As a result, people rely on other cues to define their position in space. Women, unlike men, choose to use visual cues about environmental structure to reorient.
Audu, Musa L; Odle, Brooke M; Triolo, Ronald J
2017-07-24
This study systematically explored the potential of applying feedback control of functional neuromuscular stimulation (FNS) for stabilizing various erect and leaning standing postures after spinal cord injury (SCI). Perturbations ranging from 2 to 6% body weight were applied to two subjects with motor complete thoracic level SCI who were proficient at standing with implanted multichannel neural stimulators to activate the ankle, knee, hip and trunk muscles. The subjects stood with four different postures: erect, forward, forward-right and forward-left. Repeatable and controlled perturbations were applied in the forward, backward, rightward and leftward directions by linear actuators pulling on ropes attached to the subjects via a belt worn just above the waist. Upper extremity (UE) forces exerted on a stationary walker were measured with load cells attached to the handles. A feedback controller based on center of pressure (CoP) varied the stimulation levels to the otherwise paralyzed muscles so as to resist the effects of the perturbations. The effect of the feedback controller was compared to the case where only open-loop baseline stimulation was applied. This was done in terms of: (a) maximum resultant UE force exerted by the subjects on the walker, (b) maximum resultant CoP overshoot and (c) CoP root-mean-square deviation (RMSD). Feedback control resulted in significant reductions in the mean values of the majority of outcome values compared to baseline open-loop stimulation. Maximum resultant UE force was reduced by as much as 50% in one of the postures for one of the subjects. RMSD and maximum CoPs were reduced by as much as 75 and 70%, respectively, with feedback control. These results indicate that feedback control can be used to reject destabilizing disturbances in individuals with SCI using FNS not only for erect postures but also for leaning postures typically adopted during reaching while attempting various activities of daily living.
Dynamics and control of spacecraft hovering using the geomagnetic Lorentz force
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huang, Xu; Yan, Ye; Zhou, Yang
2014-02-01
To achieve hovering, a spacecraft thrusts continuously to induce an equilibrium state at a desired position. Due to the constraints on the quantity of propellant onboard, long-time hovering around low-Earth orbits (LEO) is hardly achievable using traditional chemical propulsion. The Lorentz force, acting on an electrostatically charged spacecraft as it moves through a planetary magnetic field, provides a new propellantless method for orbital maneuvers. This paper investigates the feasibility of using the induced Lorentz force as an auxiliary means of propulsion for spacecraft hovering. Assuming that the Earth's magnetic field is a dipole that rotates with the Earth, a dynamical model that characterizes the relative motion of Lorentz spacecraft is derived to analyze the required open-loop control acceleration for hovering. Based on this dynamical model, we first present the hovering configurations that could achieve propellantless hovering and the corresponding required specific charge of a Lorentz spacecraft. For other configurations, optimal open-loop control laws that minimize the control energy consumption are designed. Likewise, the optimal trajectories of required specific charge and control acceleration are both presented. The effect of orbital inclination on the expenditure of control energy is also analyzed. Further, we also develop a closed-loop control approach for propellantless hovering. Numerical results prove the validity of proposed control methods for hovering and show that hovering around low-Earth orbits would be achievable if the required specific charge of a Lorentz spacecraft becomes feasible in the future. Typically, hovering radially several kilometers above a target in LEO requires specific charges on the order of 0.1 C/kg.
Khandekar, A A; Malwatkar, G M; Patre, B M
2013-01-01
In this paper, a discrete time sliding mode controller (DSMC) is proposed for higher order plus delay time (HOPDT) processes. A sliding mode surface is selected as a function of system states and error and the tuning parameters of sliding mode controller are determined using dominant pole placement strategy. The condition for the existence of stable sliding mode is obtained by using Lyapunov function. The proposed method is applicable to HOPDT processes with oscillatory and integrating behavior, open loop instability or non-minimum phase characteristics and works satisfactory under the effect of parametric uncertainty. The method does not require reduced order model and provides simple way to design the controllers. The simulation and experimentation results show that the proposed method ensures desired tracking dynamics.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hou, Gene; Koganti, Gopichand
1993-01-01
Controls-structure integrated design is a complicated multidisciplinary design optimization problem which involves the state equations pertaining to open-loop eigenvalues and control laws. In order to alleviate the intensity of the computation, this study uses the adjoint variable method to derive sensitivity equations for the eigenvalue, Liapunov, and Riccati equations. These individual sensitivity equations are then combined together to form the multidisciplinary sensitivity equations for the control structure integrated design problems. A set of linear sensitivity equations, proportional in number to the number of performance functions involved in the optimization process, are solved. This proposed approach may provide a great saving in computer resources. The validity of the newly developed sensitivity equations is verified by numerical examples.
A unified perspective on robot control - The energy Lyapunov function approach
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wen, John T.
1990-01-01
A unified framework for the stability analysis of robot tracking control is presented. By using an energy-motivated Lyapunov function candidate, the closed-loop stability is shown for a large family of control laws sharing a common structure of proportional and derivative feedback and a model-based feedforward. The feedforward can be zero, partial or complete linearized dynamics, partial or complete nonlinear dynamics, or linearized or nonlinear dynamics with parameter adaptation. As result, the dichotomous approaches to the robot control problem based on the open-loop linearization and nonlinear Lyapunov analysis are both included in this treatment. Furthermore, quantitative estimates of the trade-offs between different schemes in terms of the tracking performance, steady state error, domain of convergence, realtime computation load and required a prior model information are derived.
Recovery of Dynamics and Function in Spiking Neural Networks with Closed-Loop Control
Vlachos, Ioannis; Deniz, Taşkin; Aertsen, Ad; Kumar, Arvind
2016-01-01
There is a growing interest in developing novel brain stimulation methods to control disease-related aberrant neural activity and to address basic neuroscience questions. Conventional methods for manipulating brain activity rely on open-loop approaches that usually lead to excessive stimulation and, crucially, do not restore the original computations performed by the network. Thus, they are often accompanied by undesired side-effects. Here, we introduce delayed feedback control (DFC), a conceptually simple but effective method, to control pathological oscillations in spiking neural networks (SNNs). Using mathematical analysis and numerical simulations we show that DFC can restore a wide range of aberrant network dynamics either by suppressing or enhancing synchronous irregular activity. Importantly, DFC, besides steering the system back to a healthy state, also recovers the computations performed by the underlying network. Finally, using our theory we identify the role of single neuron and synapse properties in determining the stability of the closed-loop system. PMID:26829673
Recovery of Dynamics and Function in Spiking Neural Networks with Closed-Loop Control.
Vlachos, Ioannis; Deniz, Taşkin; Aertsen, Ad; Kumar, Arvind
2016-02-01
There is a growing interest in developing novel brain stimulation methods to control disease-related aberrant neural activity and to address basic neuroscience questions. Conventional methods for manipulating brain activity rely on open-loop approaches that usually lead to excessive stimulation and, crucially, do not restore the original computations performed by the network. Thus, they are often accompanied by undesired side-effects. Here, we introduce delayed feedback control (DFC), a conceptually simple but effective method, to control pathological oscillations in spiking neural networks (SNNs). Using mathematical analysis and numerical simulations we show that DFC can restore a wide range of aberrant network dynamics either by suppressing or enhancing synchronous irregular activity. Importantly, DFC, besides steering the system back to a healthy state, also recovers the computations performed by the underlying network. Finally, using our theory we identify the role of single neuron and synapse properties in determining the stability of the closed-loop system.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Jacklin, Stephen A.
1988-01-01
This paper presents the results of a computer simulation comparing the performance of five system identification techniques currently proposed for use with helicopter, frequency domain, higher harmonic vibration control algorithms. The system identification techniques studied were: (1) the weighted least squares method in moving block format, (2) the classical Kalman filter, (3) a generalized Kalman filter, (4) the classical least mean square (LMS) filter, and (5) a generalized LMS filter. The generalized Kalman and LMS filters were derived by allowing for multistep operation, rather than the single-step update approach used by their classical versions. Both open-loop and closed-loop (vibration control mode) identification results are presented in the paper. The algorithms are evaluated in terms of their accuracy, stability, convergence properties, computation speeds, and the relative ease with which these techniques may be directly applied to the helicopter vibration control problem.
Design and simulation of a sensor for heliostat field closed loop control
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Collins, Mike; Potter, Daniel; Burton, Alex
2017-06-01
Significant research has been completed in pursuit of capital cost reductions for heliostats [1],[2]. The camera array closed loop control concept has potential to radically alter the way heliostats are controlled and installed by replacing high quality open loop targeting systems with low quality targeting devices that rely on measurement of image position to remove tracking errors during operation. Although the system could be used for any heliostat size, the system significantly benefits small heliostats by reducing actuation costs, enabling large numbers of heliostats to be calibrated simultaneously, and enabling calibration of heliostats that produce low irradiance (similar or less than ambient light images) on Lambertian calibration targets, such as small heliostats that are far from the tower. A simulation method for the camera array has been designed and verified experimentally. The simulation tool demonstrates that closed loop calibration or control is possible using this device.
Model Predictive Control-based Optimal Coordination of Distributed Energy Resources
Mayhorn, Ebony T.; Kalsi, Karanjit; Lian, Jianming; Elizondo, Marcelo A.
2013-01-07
Distributed energy resources, such as renewable energy resources (wind, solar), energy storage and demand response, can be used to complement conventional generators. The uncertainty and variability due to high penetration of wind makes reliable system operations and controls challenging, especially in isolated systems. In this paper, an optimal control strategy is proposed to coordinate energy storage and diesel generators to maximize wind penetration while maintaining system economics and normal operation performance. The goals of the optimization problem are to minimize fuel costs and maximize the utilization of wind while considering equipment life of generators and energy storage. Model predictive control (MPC) is used to solve a look-ahead dispatch optimization problem and the performance is compared to an open loop look-ahead dispatch problem. Simulation studies are performed to demonstrate the efficacy of the closed loop MPC in compensating for uncertainties and variability caused in the system.
Model Predictive Control-based Optimal Coordination of Distributed Energy Resources
Mayhorn, Ebony T.; Kalsi, Karanjit; Lian, Jianming; Elizondo, Marcelo A.
2013-04-03
Distributed energy resources, such as renewable energy resources (wind, solar), energy storage and demand response, can be used to complement conventional generators. The uncertainty and variability due to high penetration of wind makes reliable system operations and controls challenging, especially in isolated systems. In this paper, an optimal control strategy is proposed to coordinate energy storage and diesel generators to maximize wind penetration while maintaining system economics and normal operation performance. The goals of the optimization problem are to minimize fuel costs and maximize the utilization of wind while considering equipment life of generators and energy storage. Model predictive control (MPC) is used to solve a look-ahead dispatch optimization problem and the performance is compared to an open loop look-ahead dispatch problem. Simulation studies are performed to demonstrate the efficacy of the closed loop MPC in compensating for uncertainties and variability caused in the system.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Frew, A. M.; Eisenhut, D. F.; Farrenkopf, R. L.; Gates, R. F.; Iwens, R. P.; Kirby, D. K.; Mann, R. J.; Spencer, D. J.; Tsou, H. S.; Zaremba, J. G.
1972-01-01
The precision pointing control system (PPCS) is an integrated system for precision attitude determination and orientation of gimbaled experiment platforms. The PPCS concept configures the system to perform orientation of up to six independent gimbaled experiment platforms to design goal accuracy of 0.001 degrees, and to operate in conjunction with a three-axis stabilized earth-oriented spacecraft in orbits ranging from low altitude (200-2500 n.m., sun synchronous) to 24 hour geosynchronous, with a design goal life of 3 to 5 years. The system comprises two complementary functions: (1) attitude determination where the attitude of a defined set of body-fixed reference axes is determined relative to a known set of reference axes fixed in inertial space; and (2) pointing control where gimbal orientation is controlled, open-loop (without use of payload error/feedback) with respect to a defined set of body-fixed reference axes to produce pointing to a desired target.
Cyclic modulation of semi-active controllable dampers for tonal vibration isolation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Anusonti-Inthra, P.; Gandhi, F.
2004-08-01
The present study examines the potential of using a semi-active controllable damper, whose damping coefficient can be modulated in real time, for tonal vibration isolation applications. A frequency-domain control algorithm is developed for determining the damping coefficient variation (at twice the disturbance frequency) that minimizes the force transmitted to the support at the disturbance frequency. The effectiveness of open-loop, closed-loop, and adaptive controllers in rejecting the transmitted disturbances are evaluated. The results of the study indicate that when limits in damping coefficient variation are considered, the support force could be reduced by about an additional 30%, beyond the levels due to the passive isolation characteristics (no cyclic damping modulation). When the disturbance phase changes during operation, the effectiveness of the open-loop controller is rapidly degraded. While the closed-loop controller (with inputs based on current levels of force transmitted to the support) performed better, there was still some degradation in performance, and transmitted support forces were not reduced to levels prior to the change in disturbance phase. The results show that for the semi-active system to retain its effectiveness in rejecting disturbances, a closed-loop, adaptive controller (with on-line system identification) is required; even when there is only a change in disturbance, and no change in basic system properties. An explanation for this phenomenon, related to the bi-linear nature of the semi-active system, is provided. Cyclic modulations in the damping coefficient were more effective in reducing the transmitted forces at the disturbance frequency than simply reducing the baseline damping coefficient (to improve the passive isolation characteristics).
Wilinska, Malgorzata E; Budiman, Erwin S; Taub, Marc B; Elleri, Daniela; Allen, Janet M; Acerini, Carlo L; Dunger, David B; Hovorka, Roman
2009-09-01
Hypoglycemia and hyperglycemia during closed-loop insulin delivery based on subcutaneous (SC) glucose sensing may arise due to (1) overdosing and underdosing of insulin by control algorithm and (2) difference between plasma glucose (PG) and sensor glucose, which may be transient (kinetics origin and sensor artifacts) or persistent (calibration error [CE]). Using in silico testing, we assessed hypoglycemia and hyperglycemia incidence during over-night closed loop. Additionally, a comparison was made against incidence observed experimentally during open-loop single-night in-clinic studies in young people with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) treated by continuous SC insulin infusion. Simulation environment comprising 18 virtual subjects with T1DM was used to simulate overnight closed-loop study with a model predictive control (MPC) algorithm. A 15 h experiment started at 17:00 and ended at 08:00 the next day. Closed loop commenced at 21:00 and continued for 11 h. At 18:00, protocol included meal (50 g carbohydrates) accompanied by prandial insulin. The MPC algorithm advised on insulin infusion every 15 min. Sensor glucose was obtained by combining model-calculated noise-free interstitial glucose with experimentally derived transient and persistent sensor artifacts associated with FreeStyle Navigator (FSN). Transient artifacts were obtained from FSN sensor pairs worn by 58 subjects with T1DM over 194 nighttime periods. Persistent difference due to FSN CE was quantified from 585 FSN sensor insertions, yielding 1421 calibration sessions from 248 subjects with diabetes. Episodes of severe (PG < or = 36 mg/dl) and significant (PG < or = 45 mg/dl) hypoglycemia and significant hyperglycemia (PG > or = 300 mg/dl) were extracted from 18,000 simulated closed-loop nights. Severe hypoglycemia was not observed when FSN CE was less than 45%. Hypoglycemia and hyperglycemia incidence during open loop was assessed from 21 overnight studies in 17 young subjects with T1DM (8 males; 13
Wilinska, Malgorzata E.; Budiman, Erwin S.; Taub, Marc B.; Elleri, Daniela; Allen, Janet M.; Acerini, Carlo L.; Dunger, David B.; Hovorka, Roman
2009-01-01
Background Hypoglycemia and hyperglycemia during closed-loop insulin delivery based on subcutaneous (SC) glucose sensing may arise due to (1) overdosing and underdosing of insulin by control algorithm and (2) difference between plasma glucose (PG) and sensor glucose, which may be transient (kinetics origin and sensor artifacts) or persistent (calibration error [CE]). Using in silico testing, we assessed hypoglycemia and hyperglycemia incidence during over-night closed loop. Additionally, a comparison was made against incidence observed experimentally during open-loop single-night in-clinic studies in young people with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) treated by continuous SC insulin infusion. Methods Simulation environment comprising 18 virtual subjects with T1DM was used to simulate overnight closed-loop study with a model predictive control (MPC) algorithm. A 15 h experiment started at 17:00 and ended at 08:00 the next day. Closed loop commenced at 21:00 and continued for 11 h. At 18:00, protocol included meal (50 g carbo-hydrates) accompanied by prandial insulin. The MPC algorithm advised on insulin infusion every 15 min. Sensor glucose was obtained by combining model-calculated noise-free interstitial glucose with experimentally derived tran-sient and persistent sensor artifacts associated with FreeStyle Navigator® (FSN). Transient artifacts were obtained from FSN sensor pairs worn by 58 subjects with T1DM over 194 nighttime periods. Persistent difference due to FSN CE was quantified from 585 FSN sensor insertions, yielding 1421 calibration sessions from 248 subjects with diabetes. Results Episodes of severe (PG ≤ 36 mg/dl) and significant (PG ≤ 45 mg/dl) hypoglycemia and significant hy-perglycemia (PG ≥ 300 mg/dl) were extracted from 18,000 simulated closed-loop nights. Severe hypoglycemia was not observed when FSN CE was less than 45%. Hypoglycemia and hyperglycemia incidence during open loop was assessed from 21 overnight studies in 17 young subjects
O'Grady, Michael J.; Retterath, Adam J.; Keenan, D. Barry; Kurtz, Natalie; Cantwell, Martin; Spital, Glenn; Kremliovsky, Michael N.; Roy, Anirban; Davis, Elizabeth A.; Jones, Timothy W.; Ly, Trang T.
2012-01-01
OBJECTIVE A key milestone in progress towards providing an efficacious and safe closed-loop artificial pancreas system for outpatient use is the development of fully automated, portable devices with fault detection capabilities to ensure patient safety. The ability to remotely monitor the operation of the closed-loop system would facilitate future physician-supervised home studies. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS This study was designed to investigate the efficacy and safety of a fully automated, portable, closed-loop system. The Medtronic Portable Glucose Control System (PGCS) consists of two subcutaneous glucose sensors, a control algorithm based on proportional-integral-derivative with insulin feedback operating from a BlackBerry Storm smartphone platform, Bluetooth radiofrequency translator, and an off-the-shelf Medtronic Paradigm Veo insulin pump. Participants with type 1 diabetes using insulin pump therapy underwent two consecutive nights of in-clinic, overnight, closed-loop control after a baseline open-loop assessment. RESULTS Eight participants attended for 16 overnight studies. The PGCS maintained mean overnight plasma glucose levels of 6.4 ± 1.7 mmol/L (115 ± 31 mg/dL). The proportion of time with venous plasma glucose <3.9, between 3.9 and 8 (70 and 144 mg/dL), and >8 mmol/L was 7, 78, and 15%, respectively. The proportion of time the sensor glucose values were maintained between 3.9 and 8 mmol/L was greater for closed-loop than open-loop (84.5 vs. 46.7%; P < 0.0001), and time spent <3.3 mmol/L was also reduced (0.9 vs. 3%; P < 0.0001). CONCLUSIONS These results suggest that the PGCS, an automated closed-loop device, is safe and effective in achieving overnight glucose control in patients with type 1 diabetes. PMID:22875230
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vanavil, B.; Krishna Chaitanya, K.; Seshagiri Rao, A.
2015-06-01
In this paper, a proportional-integral-derivative controller in series with a lead-lag filter is designed for control of the open-loop unstable processes with time delay based on direct synthesis method. Study of the performance of the designed controllers has been carried out on various unstable processes. Set-point weighting is considered to reduce the undesirable overshoot. The proposed scheme consists of only one tuning parameter, and systematic guidelines are provided for selection of the tuning parameter based on the peak value of the sensitivity function (Ms). Robustness analysis has been carried out based on sensitivity and complementary sensitivity functions. Nominal and robust control performances are achieved with the proposed method and improved closed-loop performances are obtained when compared to the recently reported methods in the literature.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stefanski, Frederik; Minorowicz, Bartosz; Persson, Johan; Plummer, Andrew; Bowen, Chris
2017-01-01
The potential to actuate proportional flow control valves using piezoelectric ceramics or other smart materials has been investigated for a number of years. Although performance advantages compared to electromagnetic actuation have been demonstrated, a major obstacle has proven to be ferroelectric hysteresis, which is typically 20% for a piezoelectric actuator. In this paper, a detailed study of valve control methods incorporating hysteresis compensation is made for the first time. Experimental results are obtained from a novel spool valve actuated by a multi-layer piezoelectric ring bender. A generalised Prandtl-Ishlinskii model, fitted to experimental training data from the prototype valve, is used to model hysteresis empirically. This form of model is analytically invertible and is used to compensate for hysteresis in the prototype valve both open loop, and in several configurations of closed loop real time control system. The closed loop control configurations use PID (Proportional Integral Derivative) control with either the inverse hysteresis model in the forward path or in a command feedforward path. Performance is compared to both open and closed loop control without hysteresis compensation via step and frequency response results. Results show a significant improvement in accuracy and dynamic performance using hysteresis compensation in open loop, but where valve position feedback is available for closed loop control the improvements are smaller, and so conventional PID control may well be sufficient. It is concluded that the ability to combine state-of-the-art multi-layer piezoelectric bending actuators with either sophisticated hysteresis compensation or closed loop control provides a route for the creation of a new generation of high performance piezoelectric valves.
A minimum attention control law for ball catching.
Jang, Cheongjae; Lee, Jee-eun; Lee, Sohee; Park, F C
2015-10-06
Digital implementations of control laws typically involve discretization with respect to both time and space, and a control law that can achieve a task at coarser levels of discretization can be said to require less control attention, and also reduced implementation costs. One means of quantitatively capturing the attention of a control law is to measure the rate of change of the control with respect to changes in state and time. In this paper we present an attention-minimizing control law for ball catching and other target tracking tasks based on Brockett's attention criterion. We first highlight the connections between this attention criterion and some well-known principles from human motor control. Under the assumption that the optimal control law is the sum of a linear time-varying feedback term and a time-varying feedforward term, we derive an LQR-based minimum attention tracking control law that is stable, and obtained efficiently via a finite-dimensional optimization over the symmetric positive-definite matrices. Taking ball catching as our primary task, we perform numerical experiments comparing the performance of the various control strategies examined in the paper. Consistent with prevailing theories about human ball catching, our results exhibit several familiar features, e.g., the transition from open-loop to closed-loop control during the catching movement, and improved robustness to spatiotemporal discretization. The presented control laws are applicable to more general tracking problems that are subject to limited communication resources.
Motion and force control of multiple robotic manipulators
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wen, John T.; Kreutz-Delgado, Kenneth
1992-01-01
This paper addresses the motion and force control problem of multiple robot arms manipulating a cooperatively held object. A general control paradigm is introduced which decouples the motion and force control problems. For motion control, different control strategies are constructed based on the variables used as the control input in the controller design. There are three natural choices; acceleration of a generalized coordinate, arm tip force vectors, and the joint torques. The first two choices require full model information but produce simple models for the control design problem. The last choice results in a class of relatively model independent control laws by exploiting the Hamiltonian structure of the open loop system. The motion control only determines the joint torque to within a manifold, due to the multiple-arm kinematic constraint. To resolve the nonuniqueness of the joint torques, two methods are introduced. If the arm and object models are available, an optimization can be performed to best allocate the desired and effector control force to the joint actuators. The other possibility is to control the internal force about some set point. It is shown that effective force regulation can be achieved even if little model information is available.
Motion and force control of multiple robotic manipulators
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wen, John T.; Kreutz-Delgado, Kenneth
1992-01-01
This paper addresses the motion and force control problem of multiple robot arms manipulating a cooperatively held object. A general control paradigm is introduced which decouples the motion and force control problems. For motion control, different control strategies are constructed based on the variables used as the control input in the controller design. There are three natural choices; acceleration of a generalized coordinate, arm tip force vectors, and the joint torques. The first two choices require full model information but produce simple models for the control design problem. The last choice results in a class of relatively model independent control laws by exploiting the Hamiltonian structure of the open loop system. The motion control only determines the joint torque to within a manifold, due to the multiple-arm kinematic constraint. To resolve the nonuniqueness of the joint torques, two methods are introduced. If the arm and object models are available, an optimization can be performed to best allocate the desired and effector control force to the joint actuators. The other possibility is to control the internal force about some set point. It is shown that effective force regulation can be achieved even if little model information is available.
Guidance and Control strategies for aerospace vehicles
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hibey, J. L.; Naidu, D. S.; Charalambous, C. D.
1989-01-01
A neighboring optimal guidance scheme was devised for a nonlinear dynamic system with stochastic inputs and perfect measurements as applicable to fuel optimal control of an aeroassisted orbital transfer vehicle. For the deterministic nonlinear dynamic system describing the atmospheric maneuver, a nominal trajectory was determined. Then, a neighboring, optimal guidance scheme was obtained for open loop and closed loop control configurations. Taking modelling uncertainties into account, a linear, stochastic, neighboring optimal guidance scheme was devised. Finally, the optimal trajectory was approximated as the sum of the deterministic nominal trajectory and the stochastic neighboring optimal solution. Numerical results are presented for a typical vehicle. A fuel-optimal control problem in aeroassisted noncoplanar orbital transfer is also addressed. The equations of motion for the atmospheric maneuver are nonlinear and the optimal (nominal) trajectory and control are obtained. In order to follow the nominal trajectory under actual conditions, a neighboring optimum guidance scheme is designed using linear quadratic regulator theory for onboard real-time implementation. One of the state variables is used as the independent variable in reference to the time. The weighting matrices in the performance index are chosen by a combination of a heuristic method and an optimal modal approach. The necessary feedback control law is obtained in order to minimize the deviations from the nominal conditions.
Multi motor controller MMC32: User manual
Feng-Berman, S.K.; Siddons, D.P.
1993-02-01
The MMC32 is a versatile stepping motor controller for systems with many motors. The system as currently configured can control up to 32 motors, with all motors capable of full speed operation concurrently in different pulse modes. Each individual motor's position can be monitored in an open loop, a closed loop, or an encoded loop, even when the motor is moving. There are 2 limit switch inputs for each motor, and a further input to accept a reference position marker. The motors can be controlled via a front panel keyboard with display, or by a host computer over an IEEE-488 interface. Both methods can be used together if required. The details for manual operation are in Chapter 4, and for remote computer control are in Chapter 5. The manual operation is controlled by the front panel keypad with interactive menu display. There is an emergency stop'' key on the front panel keypad to abort the motion of all motors without losing track of the motors' position.
Multi motor controller MMC32: User manual
Feng-Berman, S.K.; Siddons, D.P.
1993-02-01
The MMC32 is a versatile stepping motor controller for systems with many motors. The system as currently configured can control up to 32 motors, with all motors capable of full speed operation concurrently in different pulse modes. Each individual motor`s position can be monitored in an open loop, a closed loop, or an encoded loop, even when the motor is moving. There are 2 limit switch inputs for each motor, and a further input to accept a reference position marker. The motors can be controlled via a front panel keyboard with display, or by a host computer over an IEEE-488 interface. Both methods can be used together if required. The details for manual operation are in Chapter 4, and for remote computer control are in Chapter 5. The manual operation is controlled by the front panel keypad with interactive menu display. There is an ``emergency stop`` key on the front panel keypad to abort the motion of all motors without losing track of the motors` position.
Interactive aircraft flight control and aeroelastic stabilization
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Weisshaar, T. A.
1984-01-01
An analytical model has been used to study the problem of integrated control system/structural dynamic design. This model utilizes the traditional typical section lifting surface with a control surface attached in 2-D unsteady incompressible flow. The studies have as their purpose the examination of the use of the location of the elastic axis of the airfoil as a design variable in the search for an actively controlled configuration that has a specified flutter margin. Items of interest include the determination of flutter speed and divergence speed as functions of a nondimensional parameter, a sub c, that measures the location (in semi-chords) of the elastic axis with respect to the airfoil midchord. All other parameters are fixed. The behavior of velocity root locus curves with changes in a sub c is illustrated. Also shown is an example of the use of sensitivity derivatives to reposition poles of the open loop system. The behavior of the actively controlled or closed loop system is also discussed. A set of examples are presented to indicate how the shear center parameter, a sub c, affects the design of the controlled system.
O the Use of Modern Control Theory for Active Structural Acoustic Control.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Saunders, William Richard
A modern control theory formulation of Active Structural Acoustic Control (ASAC) of simple structures radiating acoustic energy into light or heavy fluid mediums is discussed in this dissertation. ASAC of a baffled, simply-supported plate subject to mechanical disturbances is investigated. For the case of light fluid loading, a finite element modelling approach is used to extend previous ASAC design methods. Vibration and acoustic controllers are designed for the plate. Comparison of the controller performance shows distinct advantages of the ASAC method for minimizing radiated acoustic power. A novel approach to the modelling of the heavy fluid-loaded plate is developed here. Augmenting structural and acoustic dynamics using state vector formalism allows the design of both vibration and ASAC controllers for the fluid-loaded plate. This modern control approach to active structural acoustic control is unique in its ability to suppress both persistent and transient disturbances on a plate in a heavy fluid. Numerical simulations of the open-loop and closed-loop plate response are provided to support the theoretical developments.
Closed-loop control of gimbal-less MEMS mirrors for increased bandwidth in LiDAR applications
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Milanović, Veljko; Kasturi, Abhishek; Yang, James; Hu, Frank
2017-05-01
In 2016, we presented a low SWaP wirelessly controlled MEMS mirror-based LiDAR prototype which utilized an OEM laser rangefinder for distance measurement [1]. The MEMS mirror was run in open loop based on its exceptionally fast design and high repeatability performance. However, to further extend the bandwidth and incorporate necessary eyesafety features, we recently focused on providing mirror position feedback and running the system in closed loop control. Multiple configurations of optical position sensors, mounted on both the front- and the back-side of the MEMS mirror, have been developed and will be presented. In all cases, they include a light source (LED or laser) and a 2D photosensor. The most compact version is mounted on the backside of the MEMS mirror ceramic package and can "view" the mirror's backside through openings in the mirror's PCB and its ceramic carrier. This version increases the overall size of the MEMS mirror submodule from 12mm x 12mm x 4mm to 15mm x 15mm x 7mm. The sensors also include optical and electronic filtering to reduce effects of any interference from the application laser illumination. With relatively simple FPGA-based PID control running at the sample rate of 100 kHz, we could configure the overall response of the system to fully utilize the MEMS mirror's native bandwidth which extends well beyond its first resonance. When compared to the simple open loop method of suppressing overshoot and ringing which significantly limits bandwidth utilization, running the mirrors in closed loop control increased the bandwidth to nearly 3.7 times. A 2.0mm diameter integrated MEMS mirror with a resonant frequency of 1300 Hz was limited to 500Hz bandwidth in open loop driving but was increased to 3kHz bandwidth with the closed loop controller. With that bandwidth it is capable of very sharply defined uniform-velocity scans (sawtooth or triangle waveforms) which are highly desired in scanned mirror LiDAR systems. A 2.4mm diameter mirror with
A cerebellar neural network model for adaptative control of saccades implemented with MATLAB.
Rodriguez Campos, Francisco A; Enderle, John
2003-01-01
This paper describes the implementation of a neural network for the adaptative control of the saccadic system. The model shows the cerebellum plays an important role in the adaptive control of the saccadic gain. Using only eye position input through the granule cells, the cerebellum projects this signal to the other cerebellar structures and then to motor neurons responsible for the saccade. The generation of an adjustment signal occurs in the inferior olive as a result of the error sensory signal created by the open loop saccade system from propioceptive position inputs from the last eye movement generated by the network until the movement towards the target is completed. In addition, a memory component has been defined in the error system to achieve the adaptation. This neural network involves only the horizontal saccade component modeled with Matrix Laboratory language (MATLAB), in conjunction with the Simulink tool.
On the Origins and Control of Community Types in the Human Microbiome
Cao, Hong-Tai; Weiss, Scott T.; Liu, Yang-Yu
2016-01-01
Microbiome-based stratification of healthy individuals into compositional categories, referred to as “enterotypes” or “community types”, holds promise for drastically improving personalized medicine. Despite this potential, the existence of community types and the degree of their distinctness have been highly debated. Here we adopted a dynamic systems approach and found that heterogeneity in the interspecific interactions or the presence of strongly interacting species is sufficient to explain community types, independent of the topology of the underlying ecological network. By controlling the presence or absence of these strongly interacting species we can steer the microbial ecosystem to any desired community type. This open-loop control strategy still holds even when the community types are not distinct but appear as dense regions within a continuous gradient. This finding can be used to develop viable therapeutic strategies for shifting the microbial composition to a healthy configuration. PMID:26866806
Investigation of Active Feedback Control of Turbulent Transport in a Magnetized Laboratory Plasma
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xie, Shuangwei; Gilmore, Mark; Watts, Christopher; Yan, Lincan; Lynn, Alan; Ware, Andrew; Abdallah, Chaouki T.
2006-10-01
Toroidal fusion devices now generate transport barriers where heat and particle transport are reduced below Bohm diffusion levels. However, minimal particle transport may lead to such negative effects as core impurity accumulation or alpha particle buildup in a reactor. To reduce this kind of effect, active feedback control over cross-field transport is investigated in the new HELCAT (HELicon-CAThode) linear device at UNM. Sheared ExB flows, generated via biased concentric rings, are utilized to modify the transport. Fluctuations and flux are monitored with probe arrays. Open loop experiments have demonstrated that drift fluctuations can be fully suppressed by simple biasing, though the physical mechanism remains unclear, since no azimuthal flow shear appears to be present. Additionally, a 1D transport code is being used to model the system and investigate possible control methods numerically. Initial experimental and modeling results will be presented.
Development of Plasma Equilibrium Response Model for Optimized Plasma Control of KSTAR tokamak
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jeon, Youngmu; Park, Jong-Kyu; Park, Young-Seok; Hwang, Y. S.
2004-11-01
Plasma equilibrium response models for an optimized control system design are developed with KSTAR tokamak configurations. In a simple filament model, plasma column is assumed as a single ring filament with rigid displacements, and constitutes circuits with external conductors (coils, passive plate, and vacuum vessel segments). Perturbed equilibrium response model, based on CREATE-L deformable plasma response model [1], assumes that the plasma evolves through a sequence of MHD equilibria. Prediction characteristics of both models are described in terms of open loop characteristics of vertical motion of plasma, and validated by comparison with TSC (Tokamak Simulation Code) simulations. Additionally, applications of the plasma equilibrium response models to design of optimal plasma controllers are described. [1] R. Albanese, and F. Villone, Nucl. Fusion 38 723 (1998)
The Design of the Plasma Control System in KTX
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Yong; Xiao, Bingjia; Yuan, Qiping; Zhang, Ruirui; Yang, Fei; Li, Shi; Li, Hong; Liu, Ahdi; Liu, Wandong
2015-04-01
KTX (Keda Torus for eXperiment) is a new reversed field pinch device. The KTX plasma control system (PCS) can provide real-time, stable, flexible plasma control which is designed by ASIPP (Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences), based on the Linux cluster system and EPICS (Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System) framework, and developed from DIII-D (Doublet III-D) PCS. The control of the equilibrium field in KTX uses a PID (Proportional-Integral-Derivative) feedback controller. The control of the gas injection is an open loop control. The plasma control simulation system is one part of the plasma control system, which is used to test the plasma control algorithm if it is revised and updated. The KTX PCS has been successfully tested using HT-7 (Hefei Torus 7) experiment data in simulation mode. In the next phase, an error field feedback control and KTX simulator will be added to the KTX PCS, and the KTX PCS will be applied in experiments in the future. supported by the External Cooperation Program of BIC, Chinese Academy of Sciences (No. GJHZ201303), the National Magnetic Confinement Fusion Research Program of China (Nos. 2014GB10300, 2012GB105000 and 2011GB10600), National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 11205200), the Anhui Provincial Science Foundation for Outstanding Young Talent of China (No. 2012SQRL265)
Towards autonomous neuroprosthetic control using Hebbian reinforcement learning
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mahmoudi, Babak; Pohlmeyer, Eric A.; Prins, Noeline W.; Geng, Shijia; Sanchez, Justin C.
2013-12-01
Objective. Our goal was to design an adaptive neuroprosthetic controller that could learn the mapping from neural states to prosthetic actions and automatically adjust adaptation using only a binary evaluative feedback as a measure of desirability/undesirability of performance. Approach. Hebbian reinforcement learning (HRL) in a connectionist network was used for the design of the adaptive controller. The method combines the efficiency of supervised learning with the generality of reinforcement learning. The convergence properties of this approach were studied using both closed-loop control simulations and open-loop simulations that used primate neural data from robot-assisted reaching tasks. Main results. The HRL controller was able to perform classification and regression tasks using its episodic and sequential learning modes, respectively. In our experiments, the HRL controller quickly achieved convergence to an effective control policy, followed by robust performance. The controller also automatically stopped adapting the parameters after converging to a satisfactory control policy. Additionally, when the input neural vector was reorganized, the controller resumed adaptation to maintain performance. Significance. By estimating an evaluative feedback directly from the user, the HRL control algorithm may provide an efficient method for autonomous adaptation of neuroprosthetic systems. This method may enable the user to teach the controller the desired behavior using only a simple feedback signal.
Towards autonomous neuroprosthetic control using Hebbian reinforcement learning.
Mahmoudi, Babak; Pohlmeyer, Eric A; Prins, Noeline W; Geng, Shijia; Sanchez, Justin C
2013-12-01
Our goal was to design an adaptive neuroprosthetic controller that could learn the mapping from neural states to prosthetic actions and automatically adjust adaptation using only a binary evaluative feedback as a measure of desirability/undesirability of performance. Hebbian reinforcement learning (HRL) in a connectionist network was used for the design of the adaptive controller. The method combines the efficiency of supervised learning with the generality of reinforcement learning. The convergence properties of this approach were studied using both closed-loop control simulations and open-loop simulations that used primate neural data from robot-assisted reaching tasks. The HRL controller was able to perform classification and regression tasks using its episodic and sequential learning modes, respectively. In our experiments, the HRL controller quickly achieved convergence to an effective control policy, followed by robust performance. The controller also automatically stopped adapting the parameters after converging to a satisfactory control policy. Additionally, when the input neural vector was reorganized, the controller resumed adaptation to maintain performance. By estimating an evaluative feedback directly from the user, the HRL control algorithm may provide an efficient method for autonomous adaptation of neuroprosthetic systems. This method may enable the user to teach the controller the desired behavior using only a simple feedback signal.
Features of control systems analysis with discrete control devices using mathematical packages
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yakovleva, E. M.; Faerman, V. A.
2017-02-01
The article contains presentation of basic provisions of the theory of automatic pulse control systems as well as methods of analysis of such systems using the mathematical software widespread in the academic environment. The pulse systems under research are considered as analogues systems interacting among themselves, including sensors, amplifiers, controlled objects, and discrete parts. To describe such systems, one uses a mathematical apparatus of difference equations as well as discrete transfer functions. To obtain a transfer function of the open-loop system, being important from the point of view of the analysis of control systems, one uses mathematical packages Mathcad and Matlab. Despite identity of the obtained result, the way of its achievement from the point of view of user’s action is various for the specified means. In particular, Matlab uses a structural model of the control system while Mathcad allows only execution of a chain of operator transforms. It is worth noting that distinctions taking place allow considering transformation of signals during interaction of the linear and continuous parts of the control system from different sides. The latter can be used in an educational process for the best assimilation of the course of the control system theory by students.
Real-Time Feedback Control of Flow-Induced Cavity Tones. Part 2; Adaptive Control
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kegerise, M. A.; Cabell, R. H.; Cattafesta, L. N., III
2006-01-01
An adaptive generalized predictive control (GPC) algorithm was formulated and applied to the cavity flow-tone problem. The algorithm employs gradient descent to update the GPC coefficients at each time step. Past input-output data and an estimate of the open-loop pulse response sequence are all that is needed to implement the algorithm for application at fixed Mach numbers. Transient measurements made during controller adaptation revealed that the controller coefficients converged to a steady state in the mean, and this implies that adaptation can be turned off at some point with no degradation in control performance. When converged, the control algorithm demonstrated multiple Rossiter mode suppression at fixed Mach numbers ranging from 0.275 to 0.38. However, as in the case of fixed-gain GPC, the adaptive GPC performance was limited by spillover in sidebands around the suppressed Rossiter modes. The algorithm was also able to maintain suppression of multiple cavity tones as the freestream Mach number was varied over a modest range (0.275 to 0.29). Beyond this range, stable operation of the control algorithm was not possible due to the fixed plant model in the algorithm.
Bio-Inspired Controller on an FPGA Applied to Closed-Loop Diaphragmatic Stimulation
Zbrzeski, Adeline; Bornat, Yannick; Hillen, Brian; Siu, Ricardo; Abbas, James; Jung, Ranu; Renaud, Sylvie
2016-01-01
Cervical spinal cord injury can disrupt connections between the brain respiratory network and the respiratory muscles which can lead to partial or complete loss of ventilatory control and require ventilatory assistance. Unlike current open-loop technology, a closed-loop diaphragmatic pacing system could overcome the drawbacks of manual titration as well as respond to changing ventilation requirements. We present an original bio-inspired assistive technology for real-time ventilation assistance, implemented in a digital configurable Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA). The bio-inspired controller, which is a spiking neural network (SNN) inspired by the medullary respiratory network, is as robust as a classic controller while having a flexible, low-power and low-cost hardware design. The system was simulated in MATLAB with FPGA-specific constraints and tested with a computational model of rat breathing; the model reproduced experimentally collected respiratory data in eupneic animals. The open-loop version of the bio-inspired controller was implemented on the FPGA. Electrical test bench characterizations confirmed the system functionality. Open and closed-loop paradigm simulations were simulated to test the FPGA system real-time behavior using the rat computational model. The closed-loop system monitors breathing and changes in respiratory demands to drive diaphragmatic stimulation. The simulated results inform future acute animal experiments and constitute the first step toward the development of a neuromorphic, adaptive, compact, low-power, implantable device. The bio-inspired hardware design optimizes the FPGA resource and time costs while harnessing the computational power of spike-based neuromorphic hardware. Its real-time feature makes it suitable for in vivo applications. PMID:27378844
Bio-Inspired Controller on an FPGA Applied to Closed-Loop Diaphragmatic Stimulation.
Zbrzeski, Adeline; Bornat, Yannick; Hillen, Brian; Siu, Ricardo; Abbas, James; Jung, Ranu; Renaud, Sylvie
2016-01-01
Cervical spinal cord injury can disrupt connections between the brain respiratory network and the respiratory muscles which can lead to partial or complete loss of ventilatory control and require ventilatory assistance. Unlike current open-loop technology, a closed-loop diaphragmatic pacing system could overcome the drawbacks of manual titration as well as respond to changing ventilation requirements. We present an original bio-inspired assistive technology for real-time ventilation assistance, implemented in a digital configurable Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA). The bio-inspired controller, which is a spiking neural network (SNN) inspired by the medullary respiratory network, is as robust as a classic controller while having a flexible, low-power and low-cost hardware design. The system was simulated in MATLAB with FPGA-specific constraints and tested with a computational model of rat breathing; the model reproduced experimentally collected respiratory data in eupneic animals. The open-loop version of the bio-inspired controller was implemented on the FPGA. Electrical test bench characterizations confirmed the system functionality. Open and closed-loop paradigm simulations were simulated to test the FPGA system real-time behavior using the rat computational model. The closed-loop system monitors breathing and changes in respiratory demands to drive diaphragmatic stimulation. The simulated results inform future acute animal experiments and constitute the first step toward the development of a neuromorphic, adaptive, compact, low-power, implantable device. The bio-inspired hardware design optimizes the FPGA resource and time costs while harnessing the computational power of spike-based neuromorphic hardware. Its real-time feature makes it suitable for in vivo applications.
An integrated multivariable artificial pancreas control system.
Turksoy, Kamuran; Quinn, Lauretta T; Littlejohn, Elizabeth; Cinar, Ali
2014-05-01
The objective was to develop a closed-loop (CL) artificial pancreas (AP) control system that uses continuous measurements of glucose concentration and physiological variables, integrated with a hypoglycemia early alarm module to regulate glucose concentration and prevent hypoglycemia. Eleven open-loop (OL) and 9 CL experiments were performed. A multivariable adaptive artificial pancreas (MAAP) system was used for the first 6 CL experiments. An integrated multivariable adaptive artificial pancreas (IMAAP) system consisting of MAAP augmented with a hypoglycemia early alarm system was used during the last 3 CL experiments. Glucose values and physical activity information were measured and transferred to the controller every 10 minutes and insulin suggestions were entered to the pump manually. All experiments were designed to be close to real-life conditions. Severe hypoglycemic episodes were seen several times during the OL experiments. With the MAAP system, the occurrence of severe hypoglycemia was decreased significantly (P < .01). No hypoglycemia was seen with the IMAAP system. There was also a significant difference (P < .01) between OL and CL experiments with regard to percentage of glucose concentration (54% vs 58%) that remained within target range (70-180 mg/dl). Integration of an adaptive control and hypoglycemia early alarm system was able to keep glucose concentration values in target range in patients with type 1 diabetes. Postprandial hypoglycemia and exercise-induced hypoglycemia did not occur when this system was used. Physical activity information improved estimation of the blood glucose concentration and effectiveness of the control system.
Zheng, Xuezhe; Chang, Eric; Amberg, Philip; Shubin, Ivan; Lexau, Jon; Liu, Frankie; Thacker, Hiren; Djordjevic, Stevan S; Lin, Shiyun; Luo, Ying; Yao, Jin; Lee, Jin-Hyoung; Raj, Kannan; Ho, Ron; Cunningham, John E; Krishnamoorthy, Ashok V
2014-05-19
We report the first complete 10G silicon photonic ring modulator with integrated ultra-efficient CMOS driver and closed-loop wavelength control. A selective substrate removal technique was used to improve the ring tuning efficiency. Limited by the thermal tuner driver output power, a maximum open-loop tuning range of about 4.5nm was measured with about 14mW of total tuning power including the heater driver circuit power consumption. Stable wavelength locking was achieved with a low-power mixed-signal closed-loop wavelength controller. An active wavelength tracking range of > 500GHz was demonstrated with controller energy cost of only 20fJ/bit.
Dual scheduling and quantised control for networked control systems with communication constraints
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lu, Hui; Zhou, Chuan
2016-07-01
A novel integrated design scheme of average dwell time scheduling strategy, dynamic bandwidth allocation policy and quantised control for a collection of networked control systems (NCSs) with time delay and communication constraints is proposed in this paper. A scheduling policy is presented to accommodate the limitation of communication capacity which depends on the convergence rate of closed-loop system and divergence rate of open-loop plant. Linear programming technique is adopted to dynamically allocate bit rate for each node and the strategy is used to make trade-offs between the network utilisation and the control performance which provides an effective way of optimising the quality of control (QoC) and the quality of service (QoS) for NCSs. Mid-tread uniform quantisers update the quantisation rules according to the assignment of the bit rate and convert the quantised state into a kind of input saturation with bounded disturbances. Taking into account the effect of dual scheduling strategy and quantisation, the NCSs are modelled as discrete-time switched systems with bounded disturbances. Furthermore, a scheduling and quantised feedback control co-design procedure is proposed for the simultaneous stabilisation of the collection of networked subsystems. Finally, a simulation example is given to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.
Load-following control of an IGCC plant with CO2 capture
Bhattacharyya, D.; Turton, R.; Zitney, S.
2011-01-01
In this paper, a decentralized control strategy is considered for load-following control of an integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) plant with CO2 capture without flaring the syngas. The control strategy considered is gas turbine (GT) lead with gasifier follow. In this strategy, the GT controls the power load by manipulating its firing rate while the slurry feed flow to the gasifier is manipulated to control the syngas pressure at the GT inlet. However, the syngas pressure control is an integrating process with significant timedelay. In this work, a modified proportional-integral-derivative (PID) control is considered for syngas pressure control given that conventional PID controllers show poor control performance for integrating processes with large time delays. The conventional PID control is augmented with an internal feedback loop. The P-controller used in this internal loop converts the integrating process to an open-loop stable process. The resulting secondorder plus time delay model uses a PID controller where the tuning parameters are found by minimizing the integral time-weighted absolute error (ITAE) for disturbance rejection. A plant model with single integrator and time delay is identified by a P-control method. When a ramp change is introduced in the set-point of the load controller, the performance of both the load and pressure controllers with the modified PID control strategy is found to be superior to that using a traditional PID controller. Key
Closed-loop response properties of a visual interneuron involved in fly optomotor control.
Ejaz, Naveed; Krapp, Holger G; Tanaka, Reiko J
2013-01-01
Due to methodological limitations neural function is mostly studied under open-loop conditions. Normally, however, nervous systems operate in closed-loop where sensory input is processed to generate behavioral outputs, which again change the sensory input. Here, we investigate the closed-loop responses of an identified visual interneuron, the blowfly H1-cell, that is part of a neural circuit involved in optomotor flight and gaze control. Those behaviors may be triggered by attitude changes during flight in turbulent air. The fly analyses the resulting retinal image shifts and performs compensatory body and head rotations to regain its default attitude. We developed a fly robot interface to study H1-cell responses in a 1 degree-of-freedom image stabilization task. Image shifts, induced by externally forced rotations, modulate the cell's spike rate that controls counter rotations of a mobile robot to minimize relative motion between the robot and its visual surroundings. A feedback controller closed the loop between neural activity and the rotation of the robot. Under these conditions we found the following H1-cell response properties: (i) the peak spike rate decreases when the mean image velocity is increased, (ii) the relationship between spike rate and image velocity depends on the standard deviation of the image velocities suggesting adaptive scaling of the cell's signaling range, and (iii) the cell's gain decreases linearly with increasing image accelerations. Our results reveal a remarkable qualitative similarity between the response dynamics of the H1-cell under closed-loop conditions with those obtained in previous open-loop experiments. Finally, we show that the adaptive scaling of the H1-cell's responses, while maximizing information on image velocity, decreases the cell's sensitivity to image accelerations. Understanding such trade-offs in biological vision systems may advance the design of smart vision sensors for autonomous robots.
Kovatchev, Boris P; Renard, Eric; Cobelli, Claudio; Zisser, Howard C; Keith-Hynes, Patrick; Anderson, Stacey M; Brown, Sue A; Chernavvsky, Daniel R; Breton, Marc D; Farret, Anne; Pelletier, Marie-Josée; Place, Jérôme; Bruttomesso, Daniela; Del Favero, Simone; Visentin, Roberto; Filippi, Alessio; Scotton, Rachele; Avogaro, Angelo; Doyle, Francis J
2013-07-01
To evaluate the feasibility of a wearable artificial pancreas system, the Diabetes Assistant (DiAs), which uses a smart phone as a closed-loop control platform. Twenty patients with type 1 diabetes were enrolled at the Universities of Padova, Montpellier, and Virginia and at Sansum Diabetes Research Institute. Each trial continued for 42 h. The United States studies were conducted entirely in outpatient setting (e.g., hotel or guest house); studies in Italy and France were hybrid hospital-hotel admissions. A continuous glucose monitoring/pump system (Dexcom Seven Plus/Omnipod) was placed on the subject and was connected to DiAs. The patient operated the system via the DiAs user interface in open-loop mode (first 14 h of study), switching to closed-loop for the remaining 28 h. Study personnel monitored remotely via 3G or WiFi connection to DiAs and were available on site for assistance. The total duration of proper system communication functioning was 807.5 h (274 h in open-loop and 533.5 h in closed-loop), which represented 97.7% of the total possible time from admission to discharge. This exceeded the predetermined primary end point of 80% system functionality. This study demonstrated that a contemporary smart phone is capable of running outpatient closed-loop control and introduced a prototype system (DiAs) for further investigation. Following this proof of concept, future steps should include equipping insulin pumps and sensors with wireless capabilities, as well as studies focusing on control efficacy and patient-oriented clinical outcomes.
Closed-loop response properties of a visual interneuron involved in fly optomotor control
Ejaz, Naveed; Krapp, Holger G.; Tanaka, Reiko J.
2013-01-01
Due to methodological limitations neural function is mostly studied under open-loop conditions. Normally, however, nervous systems operate in closed-loop where sensory input is processed to generate behavioral outputs, which again change the sensory input. Here, we investigate the closed-loop responses of an identified visual interneuron, the blowfly H1-cell, that is part of a neural circuit involved in optomotor flight and gaze control. Those behaviors may be triggered by attitude changes during flight in turbulent air. The fly analyses the resulting retinal image shifts and performs compensatory body and head rotations to regain its default attitude. We developed a fly robot interface to study H1-cell responses in a 1 degree-of-freedom image stabilization task. Image shifts, induced by externally forced rotations, modulate the cell’s spike rate that controls counter rotations of a mobile robot to minimize relative motion between the robot and its visual surroundings. A feedback controller closed the loop between neural activity and the rotation of the robot. Under these conditions we found the following H1-cell response properties: (i) the peak spike rate decreases when the mean image velocity is increased, (ii) the relationship between spike rate and image velocity depends on the standard deviation of the image velocities suggesting adaptive scaling of the cell’s signaling range, and (iii) the cell’s gain decreases linearly with increasing image accelerations. Our results reveal a remarkable qualitative similarity between the response dynamics of the H1-cell under closed-loop conditions with those obtained in previous open-loop experiments. Finally, we show that the adaptive scaling of the H1-cell’s responses, while maximizing information on image velocity, decreases the cell’s sensitivity to image accelerations. Understanding such trade-offs in biological vision systems may advance the design of smart vision sensors for autonomous robots. PMID
Robust on-off pulse control of flexible space vehicles
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wie, Bong; Sinha, Ravi
1993-01-01
The on-off reaction jet control system is often used for attitude and orbital maneuvering of various spacecraft. Future space vehicles such as the orbital transfer vehicles, orbital maneuvering vehicles, and space station will extensively use reaction jets for orbital maneuvering and attitude stabilization. The proposed robust fuel- and time-optimal control algorithm is used for a three-mass spacing model of flexible spacecraft. A fuel-efficient on-off control logic is developed for robust rest-to-rest maneuver of a flexible vehicle with minimum excitation of structural modes. The first part of this report is concerned with the problem of selecting a proper pair of jets for practical trade-offs among the maneuvering time, fuel consumption, structural mode excitation, and performance robustness. A time-optimal control problem subject to parameter robustness constraints is formulated and solved. The second part of this report deals with obtaining parameter insensitive fuel- and time- optimal control inputs by solving a constrained optimization problem subject to robustness constraints. It is shown that sensitivity to modeling errors can be significantly reduced by the proposed, robustified open-loop control approach. The final part of this report deals with sliding mode control design for uncertain flexible structures. The benchmark problem of a flexible structure is used as an example for the feedback sliding mode controller design with bounded control inputs and robustness to parameter variations is investigated.
Scalar control on speed drive for ac motor
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Barsoum, Nader
2012-11-01
This paper aims to investigate the performance of ABB ACS800 variable speed drive operating under Scalar Control mode, and eventually develop a set of experimental procedures for undergraduate laboratory purposes. Scalar Control is the most widespread form of ac drive, for its low cost and simplicity especially implemented in the open loop mode. Scalar control is achieved by controlling the stator voltage and frequency, thus maintaining the motor's air-gap flux at a constant value. To illustrate the control method, the ac drive is configured according to the wiring diagram in the firmware manual that the drive control location can be both local and external. The drive is selected to operate under Factory application macro, whereby either ordinary speed control applications or constant speeds applications may be used. Under ordinary speed control, frequency reference signals are provided to the drive through the analogue input AI1. The drive will operate at the given frequency reference value throughout the operation regardless of any changes in the load. The torque speed curve moves along the speed axis with no changes to the shape as the supply frequencies changes. On the other hand, the drive allows three preset constant speed through digital inputs DI5 and DI6. The drive operate at a constant speed value over a time period, and only switch from one constant speed to another constant speed by triggering the two input switches. Scalar control is most suitable for applications not required high precision, such as blowers, fans and pumps.
Multiple-Probe Excitation and Control of Low-Frequency Fluctuations in a Laboratory Magnetosphere
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Battey, Alexander; Abler, Melissa C.; Mauel, Michael; Collisionless Terella Experiment Team
2015-11-01
Plasma confined by a magnetic dipole have both astrophysical and laboratory applications and exhibit complex flute-like low-frequency turbulence. In this poster, we present new experiments, conducted with the Collisionless Terella Experiment (CTX), where both single and dual electrodes are used to inject currents and drive electrostatic potentials. These probes are driven either open-loop, to excite waves, or closed-loop, to implement multiple-point feedback control of the plasma's interchange turbulence. Our measurements of interchange turbulence show that two probes with a 90 degree spatial separation are able to manipulate the interchange modes differently than a system using only one probe. Supported by NSF-DOE Partnership for Plasma Science Grants DOE-DE-FG02-00ER54585 and NSF-PHY-1201896.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sen, Osman Taha; Dreyer, Jason T.; Singh, Rajendra
2014-12-01
In this article, a feasibility study of controlling the low frequency torque response of a disc brake system with modulated actuation pressure (in the open loop mode) is conducted. First, a quasi-linear model of the torsional system is introduced, and analytical solutions are proposed to incorporate the modulation effect. Tractable expressions for three different modulation schemes are obtained, and conditions that would lead to a reduction in the oscillatory amplitudes are identified. Second, these conditions are evaluated with a numerical model of the torsional system with clearance nonlinearity, and analytical solutions are verified in terms of the trends observed. Finally, a laboratory experiment with a solenoid valve is built to modulate actuation pressure with a constant duty cycle, and time-frequency domain data are acquired. Measurements are utilized to assess analytical observations, and all methods show that the speed-dependent brake torque amplitudes can be altered with an appropriate modulation of actuation pressure.
EDITORIAL: Special issue on quantum control
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mancini, Stefano; Man'ko, Vladimir I.; Wiseman, Howard M.
2005-10-01
Controlling the dynamics or measurement of quantum systems via the manipulation of external parameters is a most important phenomenon that lies at the heart of several fields including atomic and optical physics, molecular chemistry and quantum information. As quantum technologies have matured, a host of practical applications of quantum control have been realized in quantum optics, cavity QED, atomic spin ensembles, ion trapping, and Bose--Einstein condensation. As a result, quantum control theory is a rapidly growing research field. The aim of this special issue is to give an idea of the present status of research in quantum control, and to stimulate further activity. The papers chosen cover a great variety of ideas in this field. To aid the reader, we have divided the papers into four broad sections: quantum filtering and feedback control; open-loop control; quantum information applications; optical and related applications. Of course there are many papers that cross the boundaries between the categories we have identified, so we encourage readers to peruse the whole issue. While some may quibble with our classification scheme, we think it will be useful, especially to those who are new to the area. In each section the papers are ordered by date of submission. The first section is on quantum filtering and feedback control. Quantum filtering means determining estimates for some (or all) observables of the system from classical measurement results obtained gradually over time from the output of the quantum system. The conditioned quantum state is one way to generate such estimates. This filtering of the measurement results is useful for feedback control (also known as closed-loop control), because those estimates can be used as the basis for varying the external control parameters. This section begins with a review article (the one exception to the ordering of papers by submission date). The second section is on open-loop control in the broad sense. This is
Keville, Bernard Gaman, Cezar; Turner, Miles M.; Zhang, Yang; Daniels, Stephen; Holohan, Anthony M.
2014-07-01
Present practice in plasma-assisted semiconductor manufacturing specifies recipes in terms of inputs such as gas flow rates, power and pressure. However, ostensibly identical chambers running identical recipes may produce very different results. Extensive chamber matching, i.e., initial iterative, empirical tuning of the process recipe, which entails time-consuming, ex situ statistical analysis of process metrics such as etch depth, uniformity, anisotropy and selectivity, is required to ensure acceptable results. Once matched, chambers are run open loop and are thus sensitive to disturbances such as actuator drift, wall seasoning and substrate loading, which may impact negatively on process reproducibility. An alternative approach, which may obviate the need for chamber matching and reduce the sensitivity of process metrics to exogenous disturbances, would be to specify a recipe in terms of quantities such as active species densities, and to regulate these in real time by adjusting the inputs with a suitable control algorithm. In this work, real time control of an electron cyclotron resonance O{sub 2}/Ar plasma used for photoresist ashing has been implemented. The design of elementary, model-based algorithms for the control of the argon 750 and oxygen 844 line intensities measured by optical emission spectroscopy is described. Fluorination of the chamber walls by means of an SF{sub 6} plasma prior to ashing inhibits wall recombination of oxygen radicals resulting in an approximately 20% increase in ash rate in the open loop case. However, closed loop control almost completely attenuates the effect of fluorination, thus demonstrating the efficacy of the control algorithms in ensuring a reproducible ash rate in the face of a wall disturbance.
Process control of large-scale finite element simulation software
Spence, P.A.; Weingarten, L.I.; Schroder, K.; Tung, D.M.; Sheaffer, D.A.
1996-02-01
We have developed a methodology for coupling large-scale numerical codes with process control algorithms. Closed-loop simulations were demonstrated using the Sandia-developed finite element thermal code TACO and the commercially available finite element thermal-mechanical code ABAQUS. This new capability enables us to use computational simulations for designing and prototyping advanced process-control systems. By testing control algorithms on simulators before building and testing hardware, enormous time and cost savings can be realized. The need for a closed-loop simulation capability was demonstrated in a detailed design study of a rapid-thermal-processing reactor under development by CVC Products Inc. Using a thermal model of the RTP system as a surrogate for the actual hardware, we were able to generate response data needed for controller design. We then evaluated the performance of both the controller design and the hardware design by using the controller to drive the finite element model. The controlled simulations provided data on wafer temperature uniformity as a function of ramp rate, temperature sensor locations, and controller gain. This information, which is critical to reactor design, cannot be obtained from typical open-loop simulations.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Anderson, Bernhard H.; Keller, Dennis J.
2002-01-01
The purpose of this study on micro-scale secondary flow control (MSFC) is to study the aerodynamic behavior of micro-vane effectors through their factor (i.e., the design variable) interactions and to demonstrate how these statistical interactions, when brought together in an optimal manner, determine design robustness. The term micro-scale indicates the vane effectors are small in comparison to the local boundary layer height. Robustness in this situation means that it is possible to design fixed MSFC robust installation (i.e.. open loop) which operates well over the range of mission variables and is only marginally different from adaptive (i.e., closed loop) installation design, which would require a control system. The inherent robustness of MSFC micro-vane effector installation designs comes about because of their natural aerodynamic characteristics and the manner in which these characteristics are brought together in an optimal manner through a structured Response Surface Methodology design process.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Siettos, C. I.; Gear, C. W.; Kevrekidis, I. G.
2012-08-01
We show how the equation-free approach can be exploited to enable agent-based simulators to perform system-level computations such as bifurcation, stability analysis and controller design. We illustrate these tasks through an event-driven agent-based model describing the dynamic behaviour of many interacting investors in the presence of mimesis. Using short bursts of appropriately initialized runs of the detailed, agent-based simulator, we construct the coarse-grained bifurcation diagram of the (expected) density of agents and investigate the stability of its multiple solution branches. When the mimetic coupling between agents becomes strong enough, the stable stationary state loses its stability at a coarse turning point bifurcation. We also demonstrate how the framework can be used to design a wash-out dynamic controller that stabilizes open-loop unstable stationary states even under model uncertainty.
Panetsos, Fivos; Sanchez-Jimenez, Abel; Torets, Carlos; Largo, Carla; Micera, Silvestro
2011-08-01
In this work we address the use of realtime cortical recordings for the generation of coherent, reliable and robust motor activity in spinal-lesioned animals through selective intraspinal microstimulation (ISMS). The spinal cord of adult rats was hemisectioned and groups of multielectrodes were implanted in both the central nervous system (CNS) and the spinal cord below the lesion level to establish a neural system interface (NSI). To test the reliability of this new NSI connection, highly repeatable neural responses recorded from the CNS were used as a pattern generator of an open-loop control strategy for selective ISMS of the spinal motoneurons. Our experimental procedure avoided the spontaneous non-controlled and non-repeatable neural activity that could have generated spurious ISMS and the consequent undesired muscle contractions. Combinations of complex CNS patterns generated precisely coordinated, reliable and robust motor actions.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Panetsos, Fivos; Sanchez-Jimenez, Abel; Torets, Carlos; Largo, Carla; Micera, Silvestro
2011-08-01
In this work we address the use of realtime cortical recordings for the generation of coherent, reliable and robust motor activity in spinal-lesioned animals through selective intraspinal microstimulation (ISMS). The spinal cord of adult rats was hemisectioned and groups of multielectrodes were implanted in both the central nervous system (CNS) and the spinal cord below the lesion level to establish a neural system interface (NSI). To test the reliability of this new NSI connection, highly repeatable neural responses recorded from the CNS were used as a pattern generator of an open-loop control strategy for selective ISMS of the spinal motoneurons. Our experimental procedure avoided the spontaneous non-controlled and non-repeatable neural activity that could have generated spurious ISMS and the consequent undesired muscle contractions. Combinations of complex CNS patterns generated precisely coordinated, reliable and robust motor actions.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ostroff, Aaron J.
1998-01-01
This paper contains a study of two methods for use in a generic nonlinear simulation tool that could be used to determine achievable control dynamics and control power requirements while performing perfect tracking maneuvers over the entire flight envelope. The two methods are NDI (nonlinear dynamic inversion) and the SOFFT(Stochastic Optimal Feedforward and Feedback Technology) feedforward control structure. Equivalent discrete and continuous SOFFT feedforward controllers have been developed. These equivalent forms clearly show that the closed-loop plant model loop is a plant inversion and is the same as the NDI formulation. The main difference is that the NDI formulation has a closed-loop controller structure whereas SOFFT uses an open-loop command model. Continuous, discrete, and hybrid controller structures have been developed and integrated into the formulation. Linear simulation results show that seven different configurations all give essentially the same response, with the NDI hybrid being slightly different. The SOFFT controller gave better tracking performance compared to the NDI controller when a nonlinear saturation element was added. Future plans include evaluation using a nonlinear simulation.
An Investigation of Nonlinear Controller for Propulsion Controlled Aircraft
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lu, Ping
1997-01-01
Aircraft control systems are usually very reliable because of redundancy and multiple control surfaces. However, there are rare occasions when potentially disastrous flight control system failures do occur. At such times, the use of appropriate modulation of engine thrust to stabilize the aircraft may be the only chance of survival for the people aboard. In several cases where complete loss of control systems has occurred in multi-engine aircraft, pilots used the propulsion system to regain limited control of the aircraft with various degrees of success. In order to evaluate the feasibility of using only engine thrust modulation for emergency backup flight control, the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center has been conducting a series of analytical studies and flight tests on several different types of aircraft in a propulsion controlled aircraft (PCA) program. Simulation studies have included B-720, B-727, MD-11, C-402, C-17, F-18, and F-15, and flight tests have included B-747, B-777, MD-11, T-39, Lear 24, F-18, F-15, T-38, and PA-30. One objective was to determine the degree of control available with manual manipulation (open-loop) of the engine throttles. Flight tests and simulations soon showed that a closed loop controller could improve the chances of making a safe runway landing. The major work to date has concentrated on three aircraft (F-15, F-18, and the MD-11). Successful landings using PCA controllers were performed on the F-15 and MD-11 without the use of control surfaces. During the course of the research, some unique challenges have been identified. Compared to the conventional flight control surfaces, the engines are slow and have limited control effectiveness. Hence the ability of the system to promptly respond to aerodynamic changes is limited. Consequently, many nonlinear effects, which are easily accommodated by a conventional flight control system, become significant issues in the design of an effective controller when the engines are used as the
Towards Quantum Cybernetics:. Optimal Feedback Control in Quantum Bio Informatics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Belavkin, V. P.
2009-02-01
A brief account of the quantum information dynamics and dynamical programming methods for the purpose of optimal control in quantum cybernetics with convex constraints and cońcave cost and bequest functions of the quantum state is given. Consideration is given to both open loop and feedback control schemes corresponding respectively to deterministic and stochastic semi-Markov dynamics of stable or unstable systems. For the quantum feedback control scheme with continuous observations we exploit the separation theorem of filtering and control aspects for quantum stochastic micro-dynamics of the total system. This allows to start with the Belavkin quantum filtering equation and derive the generalized Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman equation using standard arguments of classical control theory. This is equivalent to a Hamilton-Jacobi equation with an extra linear dissipative term if the control is restricted to only Hamiltonian terms in the filtering equation. A controlled qubit is considered as an example throughout the development of the formalism. Finally, we discuss optimum observation strategies to obtain a pure quantum qubit state from a mixed one.
Development of perioperative glycemic control using an artificial endocrine pancreas.
Hanazaki, Kazuhiro; Namikawa, Tsutomu
2013-01-01
It is well known that tight glycemic control (TGC) in patients with diabetes mellitus is the most important to reduce complications, such as nephropathy, neuropathy, and retinopathy. Also, surgical stress induced hyperglycemia leading to glucose toxicity is the main cause of infectious complications after surgery. Recently perioperative TGC has been proven an effective method to reduce postoperative infectious complications and accelerate enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS), with the main purpose of short staying hospital. However, conventional TGC with open-loop glycemic control system is likely to induce not only occurrence of hypoglycemia but also unstable glycemic control. To solve these problems, we have involved introduction of novel glycemic control using an artificial pancreas (AP) with closed-loop glycemic control system since 2006. To date, this novel perioperative glycemic control was performed in more than 400 surgical patients. As a result, we established stable and safe TGC using an AP to improve surgical outcomes without hypoglycemia. In this paper, we report current scientific evidence focusing on perioperative glycemic control using an AP.
Optimization of control laws for damage detection in smart structures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ray, Laura R.; Marini, Solomon
2000-06-01
A prevalent method of damage detection is based on identifying changes in modal characteristics due to damage induced variations in stiffness or mass along a structure. It is known that modal frequencies can be insensitive to damage, and the open-loop sensitivity itself depends on modal properties and damage location. Here, we develop methods of designing control laws that enhance the sensitivity of modal characteristics to damage. Sensitivity enhancing control exploits the relationship between control gains and closed-loop dynamics in order to increase the observability of damage. The design methods are based on optimization of cost functions that involve the dependence of classic measures of sensitivity on design variables, which include placement of sensors and actuators and state feedback control gains. Due to the size of the design space and the unknown nature of the cost surface, genetic algorithms are used to find control laws that maximize sensitivity to specific damage types subject to control effort and stability constraints. Optimized control laws designed for sensitivity enhancement of stiffness damage in a cantilevered beam are demonstrated by numerical simulation.
Quantum demolition filtering and optimal control of unstable systems.
Belavkin, V P
2012-11-28
A brief account of the quantum information dynamics and dynamical programming methods for optimal control of quantum unstable systems is given to both open loop and feedback control schemes corresponding respectively to deterministic and stochastic semi-Markov dynamics of stable or unstable systems. For the quantum feedback control scheme, we exploit the separation theorem of filtering and control aspects as in the usual case of quantum stable systems with non-demolition observation. This allows us to start with the Belavkin quantum filtering equation generalized to demolition observations and derive the generalized Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman equation using standard arguments of classical control theory. This is equivalent to a Hamilton-Jacobi equation with an extra linear dissipative term if the control is restricted to Hamiltonian terms in the filtering equation. An unstable controlled qubit is considered as an example throughout the development of the formalism. Finally, we discuss optimum observation strategies to obtain a pure quantum qubit state from a mixed one.
Optimal Control of Airfoil Flow Separation using Fluidic Excitation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shahrabi, Arireza F.
as well as F+ were evaluated and discussed. The computational model predictions showed good agreement with the experimental data. It was observed that different angles of attack and flap angles have different requirements for the minimum value of the momentum coefficient, Cμ, in order for the SJA to be effective for control of separation. It was also found that the variation of F + noticeably affects the lift and drag forces acting on the airfoil. The optimum values of parameters during open loop control simulations have been applied in order to introduce the optimal open loop control outcome. An innovative approach has been implemented to formulate optimal frequencies and momentum ratios of vortex shedding which depends on angle of attack and static pressure of the separation zone in the upper chord. Optimal open loop results have been compared with the optimal closed loop results. Cumulative case studies in the matter of angle of attacks, flap angles, Re, Cμ and F+ provide a convincing collection of evidence to the following conclusion. An improvement of a direct closed loop control was demonstrated, and an analytical formula describing the properties of a separated flow and vortex shedding was proposed. Best AFC solutions are offered by providing optimal frequencies and momentum ratios at a variety of flow conditions.
LISA satellite formation control
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bik, J. J. C. M.; Visser, P. N. A. M.; Jennrich, O.
The joint ESA-NASA Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) mission consists of a triangular formation of three satellites aiming at detecting gravitational waves. In linear approximation the LISA satellites describe a circle around a reference point, maintaining a fixed position with respect to each other. The reference point, the center of the triangle, orbits the Sun in a circular orbit, trailing the Earth at twenty degrees. In reality the distance between the satellites will vary by about one to two percent and the angle between the arms of the antenna will vary by about 0.5° over the course of one year for the nominal LISA satellite configuration. For measurement accuracy it is desirable that the pointing offset of the telescopes be kept small. This makes it necessary to actuate the telescopes or to control the formation. It was assumed that the LISA satellites are equipped with six μN engines that would allow to keep the two cubical proof masses within each satellite in almost perfect free fall. It was found that control forces up to about 700 μN are required for maintaining the absolute triangular LISA formation, leading to unacceptable excursions of the proof masses from free fall. However, these forces compensate predominantly very low frequency variations of the arm lengths and angles of the triangle, which are then to be compensated by the telescope actuators. The variations are outside the aimed LISA measurement bandwidth (10 -4-0.1 Hz). In addition, the effect of thruster noise, orbit determination errors and orbit injection errors was examined. The effect of these error sources on the arm lengths and orientation angles between the LISA satellites was assessed both in open loop and in closed loop, where the closed loop was based on a proportional-derivative (PD) controller. It was found that orbit determination errors of the order of a few km in position and a few mm/s in velocity lead to negligible closed loop control forces. In addition, orbit
The Benchmark Active Controls Technology Model Aerodynamic Data
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Scott, Robert C.; Hoadley, Sherwood T.; Wieseman, Carol D.; Durham, Michael H.
1997-01-01
The Benchmark Active Controls Technology (BACT) model is a part of the Benchmark Models Program (BMP). The BMP is a NASA Langley Research Center program that includes a series of models which were used to study different aeroelastic phenomena and to validate computational fluid dynamics codes. The primary objective of BACT testing was to obtain steady and unsteady loads, accelerations, and aerodynamic pressures due to control surface activity in order to calibrate unsteady CFD codes and active control design tools. Three wind-tunnel tests in the Transonic Dynamics Tunnel (TDT) have been completed. The first and parts of the second and third tests focused on collecting open-loop data to define the model's aeroservoelastic characteristics, including the flutter boundary across the Mach range. It is this data that is being presented in this paper. An extensive database of over 3000 data sets was obtained. This database includes steady and unsteady control surface effectiveness data, including pressure distributions, control surface hinge moments, and overall model loads due to deflections of a trailing edge control surface and upper and lower surface
Tollmien-Schlichting wave cancellation by feedback control
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vemuri, Hari; Morrison, Jonathan; Kerrigan, Eric
2015-11-01
Tollmien-Schlichting (TS) waves are primary instabilities in the boundary layer and, by actively interfering with their growth, the transition process can be delayed. In this study the experimental results of both open-loop and real-time feedback control will be shown for 3D TS waves excited within a flat-plate boundary layer. They are excited at a 0.75mm pin-hole source driven by a speaker. A 0.75 mm thin, dual slot geometry is used for actuation by another speaker and a wall hot-wire sensor manufactured in-house is used as the sensor for feedback control. The spatial transfer function models between the source and sensor (Gs) and the actuator and sensor (Ga) obtained by classic frequency sweep techniques are used to synthesize various types of robust, stabilizing controllers (K). The transfer function Gs determines the unstable range of frequencies whereas Ga together with K determines the stability of the closed-loop. A second traversing hot-wire is used to record the performance of the controller downstream. It is shown that the experimental transfer functions agree remarkably well with numerical calculations as do the predicted results from feedback control. Preliminary experimental feedback control results for various other actuator configurations will also be presented. This work is supported by EADS (support agreement number IW203591) and LFC-UK.
A nonlinear regression model-based predictive control algorithm.
Dubay, R; Abu-Ayyad, M; Hernandez, J M
2009-04-01
This paper presents a unique approach for designing a nonlinear regression model-based predictive controller (NRPC) for single-input-single-output (SISO) and multi-input-multi-output (MIMO) processes that are common in industrial applications. The innovation of this strategy is that the controller structure allows nonlinear open-loop modeling to be conducted while closed-loop control is executed every sampling instant. Consequently, the system matrix is regenerated every sampling instant using a continuous function providing a more accurate prediction of the plant. Computer simulations are carried out on nonlinear plants, demonstrating that the new approach is easily implemented and provides tight control. Also, the proposed algorithm is implemented on two real time SISO applications; a DC motor, a plastic injection molding machine and a nonlinear MIMO thermal system comprising three temperature zones to be controlled with interacting effects. The experimental closed-loop responses of the proposed algorithm were compared to a multi-model dynamic matrix controller (MPC) with improved results for various set point trajectories. Good disturbance rejection was attained, resulting in improved tracking of multi-set point profiles in comparison to multi-model MPC.
Multivariable shape control development on the DIII-D tokamak
Walker, M.L.; Humphreys, D.A.; Ferron, J.R.
1997-11-01
In this paper, the authors describe recent work on plasma shape and position control at DIII-D. This control consists of two equally challenging problems--the problem of identifying what the plasma actually looks like in real time, i.e. measuring the parameters to be controlled, and the task of determining the feedback algorithm which best controls these plasma parameters in a multiple input-output system. Recent implementation of the EFIT plasma equilibrium reconstruction algorithm in real time code which produces a new equilibrium estimate every 1.5 ms seems to solve the longstanding problem of obtaining sufficiently accurate plasma shape and position estimation. Stabilization of the open-loop unstable vertical motion is also viewed as a solved problem. The primary remaining problem appears to be how best to command the power supplies to achieve a desired shaping control response. They will describe the effort to understand and apply linearized models of plasma evolution to development and implementation of multivariable plasma controllers.
A Method for Precision Closed-Loop Irrigation Using a Modified PID Control Algorithm
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Goodchild, Martin; Kühn, Karl; Jenkins, Malcolm; Burek, Kazimierz; Dutton, Andrew
2016-04-01
The benefits of closed-loop irrigation control have been demonstrated in grower trials which show the potential for improved crop yields and resource usage. Managing water use by controlling irrigation in response to soil moisture changes to meet crop water demands is a popular approach but requires knowledge of closed-loop control practice. In theory, to obtain precise closed-loop control of a system it is necessary to characterise every component in the control loop to derive the appropriate controller parameters, i.e. proportional, integral & derivative (PID) parameters in a classic PID controller. In practice this is often difficult to achieve. Empirical methods are employed to estimate the PID parameters by observing how the system performs under open-loop conditions. In this paper we present a modified PID controller, with a constrained integral function, that delivers excellent regulation of soil moisture by supplying the appropriate amount of water to meet the needs of the plant during the diurnal cycle. Furthermore, the modified PID controller responds quickly to changes in environmental conditions, including rainfall events which can result in: controller windup, under-watering and plant stress conditions. The experimental work successfully demonstrates the functionality of a constrained integral PID controller that delivers robust and precise irrigation control. Coir substrate strawberry growing trial data is also presented illustrating soil moisture control and the ability to match water deliver to solar radiation.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yingping, Chen; Zhiqian, Li
2015-05-01
A 5.0-V 2.0-A flyback power supply controller providing constant-voltage (CV) and constant-current (CC) output regulation without the use of an optical coupler is presented. Dual-close-loop control is proposed here due to its better regulation performance of tolerance over process and temperature compared with open loop control used in common. At the same time, the two modes, CC and CV, could switch to each other automatically and smoothly according to the output voltage level not sacrificing the regulation accuracy at the switching phase, which overcomes the drawback of the digital control scheme depending on a hysteresis comparator to change the mode. On-chip compensation using active capacitor multiplier technique is applied to stabilize the voltage loop, eliminate an additional package pin, and save on the die area. The system consumes as little as 100 mW at no-load condition without degrading the transient response performance by utilizing the adaptive switching frequency control mode. The proposed controller has been implemented in a commercial 0.35-μm 40-V BCD process, and the active chip area is 1.5 × 1.0 mm2. The total error of the output voltage due to line and load variations is less than ±1.7%.
Flight control design using a blend of modern nonlinear adaptive and robust techniques
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, Xiaolong
In this dissertation, the modern control techniques of feedback linearization, mu synthesis, and neural network based adaptation are used to design novel control laws for two specific applications: F/A-18 flight control and reusable launch vehicle (an X-33 derivative) entry guidance. For both applications, the performance of the controllers is assessed. As a part of a NASA Dryden program to develop and flight test experimental controllers for an F/A-18 aircraft, a novel method of combining mu synthesis and feedback linearization is developed to design longitudinal and lateral-directional controllers. First of all, the open-loop and closed-loop dynamics of F/A-18 are investigated. The production F/A-18 controller as well as the control distribution mechanism are studied. The open-loop and closed-loop handling qualities of the F/A-18 are evaluated using low order transfer functions. Based on this information, a blend of robust mu synthesis and feedback linearization is used to design controllers for a low dynamic pressure envelope of flight conditions. For both the longitudinal and the lateral-directional axes, a robust linear controller is designed for a trim point in the center of the envelope. Then by including terms to cancel kinematic nonlinearities and variations in the aerodynamic forces and moments over the flight envelope, a complete nonlinear controller is developed. In addition, to compensate for the model uncertainty, linearization error and variations between operating points, neural network based adaptation is added to the designed longitudinal controller. The nonlinear simulations, robustness and handling qualities analysis indicate that the performance is similar to or better than that for the production F/A-18 controllers. When the dynamic pressure is very low, the performance of both the experimental and the production flight controllers is degraded, but Level I handling qualities are still achieved. A new generation of Reusable Launch Vehicles
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Baumbick, R. J.; Batterton, P. G.; Daniele, C. J.
1974-01-01
Results of an experimental program conducted on a mixed-compression inlet coupled to a turbofan engine are presented. Open-loop frequency response data are presented that show the response of shock position (as measured by an average inlet static pressure) to sinusoidal airflow disturbances produced at the compressor face station. Also presented are results showing the effect of different passive terminations (a choke plate or a long duct) on the characteristics of the inlet. Transfer functions obtained by using experimental data are presented and compared to the experimental data. Closed-loop frequency response of shock position (with a proportional-plus-integral controller) is presented. In addition, transient data are presented that show the unstart-restart characteristics of the inlet.