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Sample records for open-plan office noise

  1. Effect of noise on comfort in open-plan offices: application of an assessment questionnaire.

    PubMed

    Perrin Jegen, N; Chevret, P

    2017-01-01

    Open-plan offices account for 60% of French office workspaces. The noise levels recorded in this type of environment are much lower than those encountered in industrial workplaces. Nevertheless, surveys show that noise is considered by employees as the main source of discomfort. A first questionnaire dedicated to noise discomfort was produced in 2013 and tested on a panel made up of 217 people working in 7 French companies. Today, it also makes it possible to address the issues of fatigue related to ambient sound, but above all, the survey aims to study the differences in how ambient noise is perceived depending on the type of open-plan office. On the basis of that new version, a second survey has been conducted in 23 open-plan offices, making it possible to collect the responses from 617 employees. Most of the results of the first survey have been confirmed, with an increase in the significance of the statistical analyses. Moreover, French Standard NF S 31-199, which is currently being drafted, establishes a typology of open-plan office spaces according to the types of work done in them. Based on this typology, it appears that when dealing with the impact on noise on workers, a distinction has to be made between the types of open plan offices. Practitioner Summary: Surveys conducted in open-plan offices show that noise is considered by employees as the main source of discomfort even if the noise recorded in this type of environment is not hazardous. This work presents the result of a large survey dedicated to noise discomfort conducted in 23 open-plan offices.

  2. Acoustic evaluation and adjustment of an open-plan office through architectural design and noise control.

    PubMed

    Passero, Carolina Reich Marcon; Zannin, Paulo Henrique Trombetta

    2012-11-01

    Arranging office space into a single open room offers advantages in terms of easy exchange of information and interaction among coworkers, but reduces privacy and acoustic comfort. Thus, the purpose of this work was to evaluate the acoustic quality of a real open-plan office and to propose changes in the room to improve the acoustic conditioning of this office. The computational model of the office under study was calibrated based on RT and STI measurements. Predictions were made of the RT and STI, which generated the radius of distraction r(D), and the rate of spatial decay of sound pressure levels per distance doubling DL(2) in the real conditions of the office and after modifications of the room. The insertion of dividers between work stations and an increase in the ceiling's sound absorption improved the acoustic conditions in the office under study. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  3. Impact of noise on self-rated job satisfaction and health in open-plan offices: a structural equation modelling approach.

    PubMed

    Lee, Pyoung Jik; Lee, Byung Kwon; Jeon, Jin Yong; Zhang, Mei; Kang, Jian

    2016-01-01

    This study uses a structural equation model to examine the effects of noise on self-rated job satisfaction and health in open-plan offices. A total of 334 employees from six open-plan offices in China and Korea completed a questionnaire survey. The questionnaire included questions assessing noise disturbances and speech privacy, as well as job satisfaction and health. The results indicated that noise disturbance affected self-rated health. Contrary to popular expectation, the relationship between noise disturbance and job satisfaction was not significant. Rather, job satisfaction and satisfaction with the environment were negatively correlated with lack of speech privacy. Speech privacy was found to be affected by noise sensitivity, and longer noise exposure led to decreased job satisfaction. There was also evidence that speech privacy was a stronger predictor of satisfaction with environment and job satisfaction for participants with high noise sensitivity. In addition, fit models for employees from China and Korea showed slight differences. This study is motivated by strong evidence that noise is the key source of complaints in open-plan offices. Survey results indicate that self-rated job satisfaction of workers in open-plan offices was negatively affected by lack of speech privacy and duration of disturbing noise.

  4. Parametric analysis of open plan offices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nogueira, Flavia F.; Viveiros, Elvira B.

    2002-11-01

    The workspace has been undergoing many changes. Open plan offices are being favored instead of ones of traditional design. In such offices, workstations are separated by partial height barriers, which allow a certain degree of visual privacy and some sound insulation. The challenge in these offices is to provide acoustic privacy for the workstations. Computer simulation was used as a tool for this investigation. Two simple models were generated and their results compared to experimental data measured in two real offices. After validating the approach, models with increasing complexity were generated. Lastly, an ideal office with 64 workstations was created and a parametric survey performed. Nine design parameters were taken as variables and the results are discussed in terms of sound pressure level, in octave bands, and intelligibility index.

  5. Noise in open plan classrooms in primary schools: a review.

    PubMed

    Shield, Bridget; Greenland, Emma; Dockrell, Julie

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a review of research carried out in the past 40 years into various aspects of noise in open plan classrooms. The emergence of open plan classroom design in response to progressive educational reforms is discussed. A limited amount of evidence of the effects of noise in open plan classrooms is presented. Surveys of both background and intrusive noise levels in open plan classrooms are summarized and compared. Differences between noise levels in open plan and enclosed classrooms are also considered. Recommended noise limits and acoustic design criteria for open plan classrooms are discussed, together with some current international standards. The paper concludes with a discussion of appropriate noise control measures to reduce noise and maximize speech intelligibility and speech privacy in open plan classrooms.

  6. Effects of acoustic environment on work in private office rooms and open-plan offices - longitudinal study during relocation.

    PubMed

    Kaarlela-Tuomaala, A; Helenius, R; Keskinen, E; Hongisto, V

    2009-11-01

    The aim was to determine how the perceived work environment, especially acoustic environment, and its effects differed in private office rooms and in open-plan offices. The subjects consisted of 31 workers who moved from private office rooms to open-plan offices and who answered the questionnaire before and after the relocation. Private office rooms were occupied only by one person while open-plan offices were occupied by more than 20 persons. Room acoustical descriptors showed a significant reduction in speech privacy after relocation. The noise level averaged over the whole work day did not change but the variability of noise level reduced significantly. Negative effects of acoustic environment increased significantly, including increased distraction, reduced privacy, increased concentration difficulties and increased use of coping strategies. Self-rated loss of work performance because of noise doubled. Cognitively demanding work and phone conversations were most distracted by noise. The benefits that are often associated with open-plan offices did not appear: cooperation became less pleasant and direct and information flow did not change. Nowadays, most office workers, independent of job type, are located in open-plan offices without the individual needs of privacy, concentration and interaction being analysed. This intervention study consisted of professional workers. Their work tasks mainly required individual efforts, and interaction between other workers was not of primary concern, although necessary. The results suggest that the open-plan office is not recommended for professional workers. Similar intervention studies should also be made for other job types.

  7. Indoor climate, psychosocial work environment and symptoms in open-plan offices.

    PubMed

    Pejtersen, J; Allermann, L; Kristensen, T S; Poulsen, O M

    2006-10-01

    To study the indoor climate, the psychosocial work environment and occupants' symptoms in offices a cross-sectional questionnaire survey was made in 11 naturally and 11 mechanically ventilated office buildings. Nine of the buildings had mainly cellular offices; five of the buildings had mainly open-plan offices, whereas eight buildings had a mixture of cellular, multi-person and open-plan offices. A total of 2301 occupants, corresponding to a response rate of 72%, completed a retrospective questionnaire. The questionnaire comprised questions concerning environmental perceptions, mucous membrane irritation, skin irritation, central nervous system (CNS) symptoms and psychosocial factors. Occupants in open-plan offices are more likely to perceive thermal discomfort, poor air quality and noise and they more frequently complain about CNS and mucous membrane symptoms than occupants in multi-person and cellular offices. The association between psychosocial factors and office size was weak. Open-plan offices may not be suited for all job types. PRACTICAL IMPLICATION: Open-plan offices may be a risk factor for adverse environmental perceptions and symptoms.

  8. A social survey on the noise impact in open-plan working environments in China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Mei; Kang, Jian; Jiao, Fenglei

    2012-11-01

    The aim of this study is to reveal noise impact in open-plan working environments in China, through a series of questionnaire surveys and acoustic measurements in typical open-plan working environments. It has been found that compared to other physical environmental factors in open-plan working environments, people are much less satisfied with the acoustic environment. The noise impact in the surveyed working environments is rather significant, in terms of sound level inside the office, understanding of colleagues' conversation, and the use of background music such as music players. About 30-50% of the interviewees think that various noise sources inside and outside offices are 'very disturbing' and 'disturbing', and the most annoying sounds include noises from outside, ventilation systems, office equipment, and keyboard typing. Using higher panels to separate work space, or working in enclosed offices, are regarded as effective improvement measures, whereas introducing natural sounds to mask unwanted sounds seems to be not preferable. There are significant correlations between the evaluation of acoustic environment and office symptoms, including hypersensitivity to loud sounds, easily getting tired and depression. There are also significant correlations between evaluation of various acoustics-related factors and certain statements relating to job satisfaction, including sensitivity to noise, as well as whether conversations could be heard by colleagues.

  9. Employee Reactions to an Open-Plan Office: A Naturally Occurring Quasi-Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oldham, Greg R.; Brass, Daniel J.

    1979-01-01

    Examines changes in reactions of employees to work after they moved from a conventional office to an open-plan office. Employee satisfaction and internal motivation decreased significantly after the move to the open office. (Author/IRT)

  10. Ergonomic analysis of the use of open-plan offices in Brazilian public sector offices.

    PubMed

    Costa, Ana Paula Lima; Villarouco, Vilma

    2012-01-01

    The open-plan office is a layout used in government offices in Brazil aimed at saving on space occupied and integrating employees. However, the design of these work-stations must follow the characteristics of tasks and their interrelationships, since adverse physical and organizational conditions may have a negative impact on work productivity. From this perspective, this study sought to identify, from the viewpoint of the ergonomics of the built environment, the adequacy of the open-plan government offices for financial auditing accounts and analyzing documents. Use was made of the Ergonomic Methodology for Evaluating the Built Environment--MEAC (in Portuguese) which systematically analyzes the physical space, by using a mix of physical-spatial assessments and tools for identifying how the environment is perceived. The MEAC was employed in three analytical phases of the physical aspects, namely: an analytical phase of the user's perception; a diagnostic phase; and a final phase of propositions.

  11. Forty-five years of open plan office experience: An unusual case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paoletti, Dennis A.

    2005-09-01

    The open plan office design concept has been around for at least 45 years. Through research, design, and practical experience, the basic concepts and parameters that impact acoustics and speech privacy have been fairly well developed and documented. The psychological aspects of human response and expectation to open plan environments, and the conceptual designs that emerge from the architect and interior designers are frontiers that still allow for ongoing study. A large open plan project completed during the dot-com bubble allowed an opportunity to design and experience an unusual open plan environment that utilized exposed sound masking system loudspeakers and minimal sound absorption.

  12. Tuning the cognitive environment: Sound masking with 'natural' sounds in open-plan offices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeLoach, Alana

    With the gain in popularity of open-plan office design and the engineering efforts to achieve acoustical comfort for building occupants, a majority of workers still report dissatisfaction in their workplace environment. Office acoustics influence organizational effectiveness, efficiency, and satisfaction through meeting appropriate requirements for speech privacy and ambient sound levels. Implementing a sound masking system is one tried-and-true method of achieving privacy goals. Although each sound masking system is tuned for its specific environment, the signal -- random steady state electronic noise, has remained the same for decades. This research work explores how `natural' sounds may be used as an alternative to this standard masking signal employed so ubiquitously in sound masking systems in the contemporary office environment. As an unobtrusive background sound, possessing the appropriate spectral characteristics, this proposed use of `natural' sounds for masking challenges the convention that masking sounds should be as meaningless as possible. Through the pilot study presented in this work, we hypothesize that `natural' sounds as sound maskers will be as effective at masking distracting background noise as the conventional masking sound, will enhance cognitive functioning, and increase participant (worker) satisfaction.

  13. Noise and Sound Control in Open Plan Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schellenberg, Ben

    This annotated bibliography includes summaries of 19 articles and reports dealing with noise control and acoustical design in school buildings. A brief introduction discusses the need for careful attention to acoustics in any school construction or remodeling project, with particular emphasis on the need for special acoustical measures in an open…

  14. Noise Levels and Annoyance in Open Plan Educational Facilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, David P.

    1975-01-01

    This paper investigates the special considerations in defining an acoustical environment acceptable for educational purposes. Reviews various approaches for anticipating the degree of dissatisfaction or annoyance in school spaces, including statistical distributions of class noise, and deals with some design recommendations. (Author/MLF)

  15. Noise Levels and Annoyance in Open Plan Educational Facilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, David P.

    1975-01-01

    This paper investigates the special considerations in defining an acoustical environment acceptable for educational purposes. Reviews various approaches for anticipating the degree of dissatisfaction or annoyance in school spaces, including statistical distributions of class noise, and deals with some design recommendations. (Author/MLF)

  16. Noise disturbance in open-plan study environments: a field study on noise sources, student tasks and room acoustic parameters.

    PubMed

    Braat-Eggen, P Ella; van Heijst, Anne; Hornikx, Maarten; Kohlrausch, Armin

    2017-04-03

    The aim of this study is to gain more insight in the assessment of noise in open-plan study environments and to reveal correlations between noise disturbance experienced by students and the noise sources they perceive, the tasks they perform and the acoustic parameters of the open-plan study environment they work in. Data were collected in five open-plan study environments at universities in the Netherlands. A questionnaire was used to investigate student tasks, perceived sound sources and their perceived disturbance, and sound measurements were performed to determine the room acoustic parameters. This study shows that 38% of the surveyed students are disturbed by background noise in an open-plan study environment. Students are mostly disturbed by speech when performing complex cognitive tasks like studying for an exam, reading and writing. Significant but weak correlations were found between the room acoustic parameters and noise disturbance of students. Practitioner Summary: A field study was conducted to gain more insight in the assessment of noise in open-plan study environments at universities in the Netherlands. More than one third of the students was disturbed by noise. An interaction effect was found for task type, source type and room acoustic parameters.

  17. Perception of Water-Based Masking Sounds—Long-Term Experiment in an Open-Plan Office

    PubMed Central

    Hongisto, Valtteri; Varjo, Johanna; Oliva, David; Haapakangas, Annu; Benway, Evan

    2017-01-01

    A certain level of masking sound is necessary to control the disturbance caused by speech sounds in open-plan offices. The sound is usually provided with evenly distributed loudspeakers. Pseudo-random noise is often used as a source of artificial sound masking (PRMS). A recent laboratory experiment suggested that water-based masking sound (WBMS) could be more favorable than PRMS. The purpose of our study was to determine how the employees perceived different WBMSs compared to PRMS. The experiment was conducted in an open-plan office of 77 employees who had been accustomed to work under PRMS (44 dB LAeq). The experiment consisted of five masking conditions: the original PRMS, four different WBMSs and return to the original PRMS. The exposure time of each condition was 3 weeks. The noise level was nearly equal between the conditions (43–45 dB LAeq) but the spectra and the nature of the sounds were very different. A questionnaire was completed at the end of each condition. Acoustic satisfaction was worse during the WBMSs than during the PRMS. The disturbance caused by three out of four WBMSs was larger than that of PRMS. Several attributes describing the sound quality itself were in favor of PRMS. Colleagues' speech sounds disturbed more during WBMSs. None of the WBMSs produced better subjective ratings than PRMS. Although the first WBMS was equal with the PRMS for several variables, the overall results cannot be seen to support the use of WBMSs in office workplaces. Because the experiment suffered from some methodological weaknesses, conclusions about the adequacy of WBMSs cannot yet be drawn. PMID:28769834

  18. Perception of Water-Based Masking Sounds-Long-Term Experiment in an Open-Plan Office.

    PubMed

    Hongisto, Valtteri; Varjo, Johanna; Oliva, David; Haapakangas, Annu; Benway, Evan

    2017-01-01

    A certain level of masking sound is necessary to control the disturbance caused by speech sounds in open-plan offices. The sound is usually provided with evenly distributed loudspeakers. Pseudo-random noise is often used as a source of artificial sound masking (PRMS). A recent laboratory experiment suggested that water-based masking sound (WBMS) could be more favorable than PRMS. The purpose of our study was to determine how the employees perceived different WBMSs compared to PRMS. The experiment was conducted in an open-plan office of 77 employees who had been accustomed to work under PRMS (44 dB LAeq). The experiment consisted of five masking conditions: the original PRMS, four different WBMSs and return to the original PRMS. The exposure time of each condition was 3 weeks. The noise level was nearly equal between the conditions (43-45 dB LAeq) but the spectra and the nature of the sounds were very different. A questionnaire was completed at the end of each condition. Acoustic satisfaction was worse during the WBMSs than during the PRMS. The disturbance caused by three out of four WBMSs was larger than that of PRMS. Several attributes describing the sound quality itself were in favor of PRMS. Colleagues' speech sounds disturbed more during WBMSs. None of the WBMSs produced better subjective ratings than PRMS. Although the first WBMS was equal with the PRMS for several variables, the overall results cannot be seen to support the use of WBMSs in office workplaces. Because the experiment suffered from some methodological weaknesses, conclusions about the adequacy of WBMSs cannot yet be drawn.

  19. Risk factors for dissatisfaction with the indoor environment in open-plan offices: an analysis of COPE field study data.

    PubMed

    Newsham, G R; Veitch, J A; Charles, K E

    2008-08-01

    We applied binary logistic regression techniques to data collected from 779 participants in a field study of open-plan ('cubicle') offices conducted in nine buildings. Independent variables were physical conditions in the workplace, and dependent variables were derived from occupant satisfaction measures; personal characteristics were included as covariates. There was a significantly higher risk of dissatisfaction with privacy and acoustics (defined as being below the 20th percentile as opposed to being above the 80th percentile) associated with being in a small workstation, or being seated next to a window. A higher risk of dissatisfaction with ventilation was associated with being seated next to a window, temperatures substantially higher than the average neutral temperature, and a carbon dioxide concentration greater than 650 ppm. A higher risk of dissatisfaction with lighting was associated with panel heights greater than 66 inches (1.7 m), high reflected glare on computer screens, desktop illuminances outside 300-500 lux, desktop illuminance uniformity (min/max ratio) less than 0.5, and being in a workstation distant from a window. We have demonstrated statistically significant relationships between indoor environment conditions in office spaces and environmental dissatisfaction risk. Although generally supported by prior research, not all of these risk factors are reflected in existing recommended practice documents for office design. Consideration of these findings in future revisions of such documents may be warranted.

  20. Statistical Analysis and Modeling of Occupancy Patterns in Open-Plan Offices using Measured Lighting-Switch Data

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Wen-Kuei; Hong, Tianzhen

    2013-01-01

    Occupancy profile is one of the driving factors behind discrepancies between the measured and simulated energy consumption of buildings. The frequencies of occupants leaving their offices and the corresponding durations of absences have significant impact on energy use and the operational controls of buildings. This study used statistical methods to analyze the occupancy status, based on measured lighting-switch data in five-minute intervals, for a total of 200 open-plan (cubicle) offices. Five typical occupancy patterns were identified based on the average daily 24-hour profiles of the presence of occupants in their cubicles. These statistical patterns were represented by a one-square curve, a one-valley curve, a two-valley curve, a variable curve, and a flat curve. The key parameters that define the occupancy model are the average occupancy profile together with probability distributions of absence duration, and the number of times an occupant is absent from the cubicle. The statistical results also reveal that the number of absence occurrences decreases as total daily presence hours decrease, and the duration of absence from the cubicle decreases as the frequency of absence increases. The developed occupancy model captures the stochastic nature of occupants moving in and out of cubicles, and can be used to generate a more realistic occupancy schedule. This is crucial for improving the evaluation of the energy saving potential of occupancy based technologies and controls using building simulations. Finally, to demonstrate the use of the occupancy model, weekday occupant schedules were generated and discussed.

  1. Achieving Energy Savings with Highly-Controlled Lighting in an Open-Plan Office

    SciTech Connect

    Rubinstein, Francis; Enscoe, Abby

    2010-04-19

    An installation in a Federal building tested the effectiveness of a highly-controlled, workstation-specific lighting retrofit. The study took place in an open-office area with 86 cubicles and low levels of daylight. Each cubicle was illuminated by a direct/indirectpendant luminaire with three 32 watt lamps, two dimmable DALI ballasts, and an occupancy sensor. A centralized control system programmed all three lamps to turn on and off according to occupancy on a workstation-by-workstation basis. Field measurements taken over the course of several monthsdemonstrated 40% lighting energy savings compared to a baseline without advanced controls that conforms to GSA's current retrofit standard. A photometric analysis found that the installation provided higher desktop light levels than the baseline, while an occupant survey found that occupants in general preferred the lighting system to thebaseline.Simple payback is fairly high; projects that can achieve lower installation costs and/or higher energy savings and those in which greenhouse gas reduction and occupant satisfaction are significant priorities provide the ideal setting for workstation-specific lighting retrofits.

  2. Acoustical study on the impact of sound absorptions, distances of workstations, and height of partitions in open plan offices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Utami, Sentagi Sesotya; Al Rochmadi, Nurwachid; Sarwono, R. Sugeng Joko

    2015-09-01

    Low partitions are commonly found in open-plan offices as the boundaries of workstation islands or groups of workstations. This room layout often cause excessive speech intelligibility, which creates work distraction and reduce the quality of speech privacy. Sound absorption, distance between workstations, and height of partitions are factors that were investigated on their impact to the room acoustics condition, referred to ISO 3382-3:2012. Observed room acoustics conditions were speech intelligibility, speech privacy, and distraction to concentrate in work using parameters of T30, C50, and RASTI. Parameters of T30, C50, and RASTI were used to evaluate the speech intelligibility. The level of speech privacy was indicated by parameter of privacy distance (rP). Distraction to concentrate in work was indicated by distraction distance (rD). The results from 2 experimental setups show that sound absorption, distance between workstations, and partitions influenced the level of speech intelligibility, speech privacy, and distraction to concentration at work. The value of C50 decline, by 76.9% and 77.4%, each for scenario A and B. RASTI decline, by 18.7% and 14.8%. Difference in percentage of speech privacy, by 6% and 11%. Difference in percentage of distraction to concentration at work, by 79% and 70%.

  3. Noise effect on comfort in open-space offices: development of an assessment questionnaire.

    PubMed

    Pierrette, M; Parizet, E; Chevret, P; Chatillon, J

    2015-01-01

    It is currently accepted that noise is one of the most important annoyance factors in open-space offices. However, noise levels measured in open spaces of the tertiary sector rarely exceed 65 dB(A). It, therefore, appears necessary to develop a tool that can be used to assess the noise environment of these offices and identify the parameters to be taken into consideration when assessing the noise annoyance. This article presents a questionnaire to be filled by people working in such environment, and a case study in different open plan offices. The majority of the 237 respondents consider that the ambient noise level in their environment is high and that intelligible conversations between their colleagues represent the main source of noise annoyance. This annoyance was significantly correlated with their evaluation of sound intensity, which could not be represented by A-weighted level measurements.

  4. Dynamic evaluation of airflow rates for a variable air volume system serving an open-plan office.

    PubMed

    Mai, Horace K W; Chan, Daniel W T; Burnett, John

    2003-09-01

    In a typical air-conditioned office, the thermal comfort and indoor air quality are sustained by delivering the amount of supply air with the correct proportion of outdoor air to the breathing zone. However, in a real office, it is not easy to measure these airflow rates supplied to space, especially when the space is served by a variable air volume (VAV) system. The most accurate method depends on what is being measured, the details of the building and types of ventilation system. The constant concentration tracer gas method as a means to determine ventilation system performance, however, this method becomes more complicated when the air, including the tracer gas is allowed to recirculate. An accurate measurement requires significant resource support in terms of instrumentation set up and also professional interpretation. This method deters regular monitoring of the performance of an airside systems by building managers, and hence the indoor environmental quality, in terms of thermal comfort and indoor air quality, may never be satisfactory. This paper proposes a space zone model for the calculation of all the airflow parameters based on tracer gas measurements, including flow rates of outdoor air, VAV supply, return space, return and exfiltration. Sulphur hexafluoride (SF6) and carbon dioxide (CO2) are used as tracer gases. After using both SF6 and CO2, the corresponding results provide a reference to justify the acceptability of using CO2 as the tracer gas. The validity of using CO2 has the significance that metabolic carbon dioxide can be used as a means to evaluate real time airflow rates. This approach provides a practical protocol for building managers to evaluate the performance of airside systems.

  5. The effect of slightly warm temperature on work performance and comfort in open-plan offices - a laboratory study.

    PubMed

    Maula, H; Hongisto, V; Östman, L; Haapakangas, A; Koskela, H; Hyönä, J

    2016-04-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the effect of a temperature of 29°C on performance in tasks involving different cognitive demands and to assess the effect on perceived performance, subjective workload, thermal comfort, perceived working conditions, cognitive fatigue, and somatic symptoms in a laboratory with realistic office environment. A comparison was made with a temperature of 23°C. Performance was measured on the basis of six different tasks that reflect different stages of cognitive performance. Thirty-three students participated in the experiment. The exposure time was 3.5 h in both thermal conditions. Performance was negatively affected by slightly warm temperature in the N-back working memory task. Temperature had no effect on performance in other tasks focusing on psychomotor, working memory, attention, or long-term memory capabilities. Temperature had no effect on perceived performance. However, slightly warm temperature caused concentration difficulties. Throat symptoms were found to increase over time at 29°C, but no temporal change was seen at 23°C. No effect of temperature on other symptoms was found. As expected, the differences in thermal comfort were significant. Women perceived a temperature of 23°C colder than men.

  6. Noise-induced hearing loss in French police officers.

    PubMed

    Lesage, François-Xavier; Jovenin, Nicolas; Deschamps, Frederic; Vincent, Samuel

    2009-10-01

    There is a lack of data about police officers' hearing thresholds and the risk of noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) associated with this occupation. In France, 129,000 national police officers, 96,000 state police force members and 16000 municipal police officers may be affected by occupational noise exposure. To evaluate the association between police employment and NIHL. We undertook a cross-sectional study using review of medical records. Audiometric and otological data and information on potential confounders were extracted from medical records. Global hearing loss and selective 4000 Hz hearing loss were analysed. Of total, 1692 subjects (887 policemen and 805 civil servants) participated in the study. After adjusting for potential cofounders, police officers were 1.4 times more likely to have a selective 4000 Hz hearing loss than civil servants (95% CI 1.1-1.9). This difference was greater between motorcycle police officers and civil servants (OR = 3; 95% CI 1.4-6.3). These data suggest that occupational noise exposure in police work, particularly in motorcycle police officers, may induce hearing loss. Noise sources need to be more accurately defined to confirm high-level noise exposures, to better define significant sources of noise and to identify effective solutions.

  7. Noise analysis in professional office chairs.

    PubMed

    Alves, E J W; Filho, J N; Silva, S J; Câmara, J J D

    2012-01-01

    The noise caused by the movement of users on their chairs in the work environment may indicate structural weaknesses and risk, and still significantly reduce productivity by increasing employees stress level. By understanding the activities to be developed in a work place one may understand what should be necessary to a good development, thereafter a search for improvement of labor activity with the aim of better use of resources in the operation of product use may be done. The analysis of the incremental variation of noise in professional chairs aims to identify its origin and the time the emission of noise starts during the period of use, its development and the major causative agents. Determining the characteristics of the sound of different materials and adjustments mechanisms of the chair can determine how different materials interact with each other. The measurement of these noises in an acoustic isolated room using directional microphones, if recorded and analyzed properly makes it possible to investigate and orientate to suspect elements in order to propose solutions and identify the quality of other similar chairs. Based on the results recommendations can be established for the orientation of users, managers and people responsible for the acquisition of the products, inducing them to review the employment of materials and the choice of the processes of production. These aspects are not covered in the Brazilian ergonomics norms and standards in the use of chairs.

  8. A survey of acoustic conditions in semi-open plan classrooms in the United Kingdom.

    PubMed

    Greenland, Emma E; Shield, Bridget M

    2011-09-01

    This paper reports the results of a large scale, detailed acoustic survey of 42 open plan classrooms of varying design in the UK each of which contained between 2 and 14 teaching areas or classbases. The objective survey procedure, which was designed specifically for use in open plan classrooms, is described. The acoustic measurements relating to speech intelligibility within a classbase, including ambient noise level, intrusive noise level, speech to noise ratio, speech transmission index, and reverberation time, are presented. The effects on speech intelligibility of critical physical design variables, such as the number of classbases within an open plan unit and the selection of acoustic finishes for control of reverberation, are examined. This analysis enables limitations of open plan classrooms to be discussed and acoustic design guidelines to be developed to ensure good listening conditions. The types of teaching activity to provide adequate acoustic conditions, plus the speech intelligibility requirements of younger children, are also discussed.

  9. Open Plan Furniture: An Investigation and Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keiser, Hugh M.

    1974-01-01

    In attempting to select an open plan furniture system for a client, architects compiled data on available systems, then set up a test area where the systems could be used and evaluated by the personnel. (Author)

  10. Effects of prior exposure to office noise and music on aspects of working memory.

    PubMed

    Smith, Andrew; Waters, Beth; Jones, Hywel

    2010-01-01

    Previous research has suggested that prior exposure to noise reduces the effect of subsequent exposure due to habituation. Similarly, a number of studies have shown that exposure to Mozart's music leads to better subsequent spatial reasoning performance. Two studies were conducted to extend these findings. The first one examined whether habituation occurs to office noise (including speech) and, if so, how long it takes to develop. Thirty-six young adults participated in the first study which compared effects of office noise with quiet on the performance of a maths task. The study also examined the effects of prior exposure to the office noise on the subsequent effect of the noise. The results showed that performance was initially impaired by the office noise but that the effects of the noise were removed by 10 minutes of exposure between tasks. The second experiment attempted to replicate the "Mozart effect" which represents an improvement in spatial reasoning following listening to Mozart. The study also examined whether the Mozart effect could be explained by changes in mood. Twenty-four young adults participated in the study. The results replicated the Mozart effect and showed that it was not due to changes in mood. Overall, these results show that prior exposure to noise or music can influence aspects of working memory. Such effects need to be incorporated into models of effects of noise on cognition and attempts have to be made to eliminate alternative explanations rather than just describing changes that occur in specific contexts.

  11. [Summary of ongoing activities on environmental noise and health at the WHO regional office for Europe].

    PubMed

    Héroux, M E; Braubach, M; Dramac, D; Korol, N; Paunovic, E; Zastenskaya, I

    2014-01-01

    The environmental noise is an important public health issue, according to recent assessment of the burden of diseases among environmental health risk factors in order of importance the environmental noise occupies the second place after air pollution. The World Health Organization (WHO) for the first time published its public health recommendations for the environmental noise in 1999 in the "WHO Guidelines for Community Noise (1999)". These recommendations found their development in WHO Night Noise Guidelines for Europe" (2009). From then onward there have been published new important data on the impact of the environmental noise on the health, that stipulated the revision of existing guidelines. Furthermore, both in the European Union (EU) Directive 2002/49/ EC and the Parma Declaration from 2010 there was pointed out the importance of renewal environmental noise recommendations. Responding to appearing interrogation, WHO Regional Office for Europe has recently initiated the process of the elaboration of new guiding principles known as "WHO Environmental Noise Guidelines for the European Region". The Guidelines will include a systematic review of most critical or important health consequences and also concentrate on health benefits of measures for the reducing noise levels. The Guidelines will consider noise coming from various noise sources such as aircraft, railroad, personal electronic devices and wind turbines. The Guidelines will also consider the particularity of such accommodations as residences, hospitals, and educational facilities. The work in the mentioned spheres is ongoing and the revised Guidelines are expected to be published in mid-2015. The Guidelines will provide up-to-date information on the health risks related to the environmental noise and evidence-based recommendations in order to support for WHO Member States in their efforts to prevent of the excessive noise and the struggle with their negative impact.

  12. Design variables for speech privacy in offices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewitz, Joel A.

    2002-11-01

    Open plan office environments have a lower potential for speech privacy and freedom from distraction than conventional enclosed offices. The three areas of concern for the acoustical designer are the source, path and listener environments. Given a source spectrum, level and directivity, design elements, which influence attenuation paths, will be addressed with evaluations of their relative importance. The spectrum, level, uniformity and incoherence of background sound at the listener are critical to establishing adequate signal-to-noise ratio for high privacy criteria. Case studies will be addressed comparing challenges, solutions, and results for various open and closed plan spaces. These will be compared to a computer model, which evaluates the relative contribution to privacy of the most important open plan office design variables. Sound masking was shown to be the most powerful and cost effective design tool for establishing acoustical environments with varying privacy criteria.

  13. The effect of different open plan and enclosed classroom acoustic conditions on speech perception in Kindergarten children.

    PubMed

    Mealings, Kiri T; Demuth, Katherine; Buchholz, Jörg M; Dillon, Harvey

    2015-10-01

    Open plan classrooms, where several classes are in the same room, have recently re-emerged in Australian primary schools. This paper explores how the acoustics of four Kindergarten classrooms [an enclosed classroom (25 children), double classroom (44 children), fully open plan triple classroom (91 children), and a semi-open plan K-6 "21st century learning space" (205 children)] affect speech perception. Twenty-two to 23 5-6-year-old children in each classroom participated in an online four-picture choice speech perception test while adjacent classes engaged in quiet versus noisy activities. The noise levels recorded during the test were higher the larger the classroom, except in the noisy condition for the K-6 classroom, possibly due to acoustic treatments. Linear mixed effects models revealed children's performance accuracy and speed decreased as noise level increased. Additionally, children's speech perception abilities decreased the further away they were seated from the loudspeaker in noise levels above 50 dBA. These results suggest that fully open plan classrooms are not appropriate learning environments for critical listening activities with young children due to their high intrusive noise levels which negatively affect speech perception. If open plan classrooms are desired, they need to be acoustically designed to be appropriate for critical listening activities.

  14. Open Plan Schools in Portugal: Failure or Innovation?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinho, Miguel; Freire da Silva, Jose M. R.

    2008-01-01

    Open plan schools have been largely contested in Portugal; many teachers, administrators and even parents consider this model of schooling inappropriate and therefore a failure. Recently however the Escola da Ponte, one of the open plan schools that has survived, was recognised as one of the country's most innovative educational facilities.…

  15. A Case Study of a New Scottish Open Plan School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, David

    This report, representing a 12-month case study of a new Scottish primary school, draws together educational issues concerning problems and possibilities of open-plan schooling by locating them in the day-to-day work of a particular open-plan school. During 70 days of field work, the researcher spent time observing classes, interviewing parents,…

  16. Signal to Noise Ratio Estimations for a Volcanic ASH Detection Lidar. Case Study: The Met Office

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Georgoussis, George; Adam, Mariana; Avdikos, George

    2016-06-01

    In this paper we calculate the Signal-to-Noise (SNR) ratio of a 3-channel commercial (Raymetics) volcanic ash detection system, (LR111-D300), already operating under Met Office organization. The methodology for the accurate estimation is presented for day and nighttime conditions. The results show that SNR values are higher than 10 for ranges up to 13 km for both nighttime and daytime conditions. This is a quite good result compared with other values presented in bibliography and proves that such system is able to detect volcanic ash over a range of 20 km.

  17. Reducing Indoor Noise Levels Using People's Perception on Greenery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mediastika, Christina E.; Binarti, Floriberta

    2013-12-01

    Employees working in cubicles of open-plan offices in Indonesia were studied in regard to their perception on the ability of indoor greenery to reduce noise levels. Sansevieria trifasciata and Scindapsus sp were used. Each was placed in the cubicle and noise levels were measured without plants, with Sansevieria, and with Scindapsus in place. The meters showed very insignificant difference. However, responses to surveys indicated a perception of lower noise in the presence of greenery. This seemed to be supported by prior knowledge and preconception and may be useful in creating a "quieter" indoor environment.

  18. Equipping the Open-Plan School, Equipping for Open Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lassiter, Frank

    The performance specifications of furniture and equipment for open education and open-plan schools differ from conventional classroom furniture in that it must be easily moved, have a range of dimensions, contain multipurpose interchangeable components, and be designed to accommodate a variety of student/teacher uses. The author suggests some…

  19. Open Plan Education: Sheffield--England. Management Analysis Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Management Training for Educational Change, Oslo (Norway).

    Changing concepts of elementary education led educators in Sheffield, England, to rethink their facility needs. A move to open plan schools was the result. Problems encountered in this move differed according to whether the new facilities were replacements for previously existing structures, remodelled buildings, or brand new schools serving new…

  20. Noise and communication: a three-year update.

    PubMed

    Brammer, Anthony J; Laroche, Chantal

    2012-01-01

    Noise is omnipresent and impacts us all in many aspects of daily living. Noise can interfere with communication not only in industrial workplaces, but also in other work settings (e.g. open-plan offices, construction, and mining) and within buildings (e.g. residences, arenas, and schools). The interference of noise with communication can have significant social consequences, especially for persons with hearing loss, and may compromise safety (e.g. failure to perceive auditory warning signals), influence worker productivity and learning in children, affect health (e.g. vocal pathology, noise-induced hearing loss), compromise speech privacy, and impact social participation by the elderly. For workers, attempts have been made to: 1) Better define the auditory performance needed to function effectively and to directly measure these abilities when assessing Auditory Fitness for Duty, 2) design hearing protection devices that can improve speech understanding while offering adequate protection against loud noises, and 3) improve speech privacy in open-plan offices. As the elderly are particularly vulnerable to the effects of noise, an understanding of the interplay between auditory, cognitive, and social factors and its effect on speech communication and social participation is also critical. Classroom acoustics and speech intelligibility in children have also gained renewed interest because of the importance of effective speech comprehension in noise on learning. Finally, substantial work has been made in developing models aimed at better predicting speech intelligibility. Despite progress in various fields, the design of alarm signals continues to lag behind advancements in knowledge. This summary of the last three years' research highlights some of the most recent issues for the workplace, for older adults, and for children, as well as the effectiveness of warning sounds and models for predicting speech intelligibility. Suggestions for future work are also discussed.

  1. Office noise: Can headphones and masking sound attenuate distraction by background speech?

    PubMed

    Jahncke, Helena; Björkeholm, Patrik; Marsh, John E; Odelius, Johan; Sörqvist, Patrik

    2016-11-22

    Background speech is one of the most disturbing noise sources at shared workplaces in terms of both annoyance and performance-related disruption. Therefore, it is important to identify techniques that can efficiently protect performance against distraction. It is also important that the techniques are perceived as satisfactory and are subjectively evaluated as effective in their capacity to reduce distraction. The aim of the current study was to compare three methods of attenuating distraction from background speech: masking a background voice with nature sound through headphones, masking a background voice with other voices through headphones and merely wearing headphones (without masking) as a way to attenuate the background sound. Quiet was deployed as a baseline condition. Thirty students participated in an experiment employing a repeated measures design. Performance (serial short-term memory) was impaired by background speech (1 voice), but this impairment was attenuated when the speech was masked - and in particular when it was masked by nature sound. Furthermore, perceived workload was lowest in the quiet condition and significantly higher in all other sound conditions. Notably, the headphones tested as a sound-attenuating device (i.e. without masking) did not protect against the effects of background speech on performance and subjective work load. Nature sound was the only masking condition that worked as a protector of performance, at least in the context of the serial recall task. However, despite the attenuation of distraction by nature sound, perceived workload was still high - suggesting that it is difficult to find a masker that is both effective and perceived as satisfactory.

  2. Office design's impact on sick leave rates.

    PubMed

    Bodin Danielsson, Christina; Chungkham, Holendro Singh; Wulff, Cornelia; Westerlund, Hugo

    2014-01-01

    The effect of office type on sickness absence among office employees was studied prospectively in 1852 employees working in (1) cell-offices; (2) shared-room offices; (3) small, (4) medium-sized and (5) large open-plan offices; (6) flex-offices and (7) combi-offices. Sick leaves were self-reported two years later as number of (a) short and (b) long (medically certified) sick leave spells as well as (c) total number of sick leave days. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used, with adjustment for background factors. A significant excess risk for sickness absence was found only in terms of short sick leave spells in the three open-plan offices. In the gender separate analysis, this remained for women, whereas men had a significantly increased risk in flex-offices. For long sick leave spells, a significantly higher risk was found among women in large open-plan offices and for total number of sick days among men in flex-offices. A prospective study of the office environment's effect on employees is motivated by the high rates of sick leaves in the workforce. The results indicate differences between office types, depending on the number of people sharing workspace and the opportunity to exert personal control as influenced by the features that define the office types.

  3. Equipment and Furniture Guidelines for Open-Plan Middle and High Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lassiter, Frank

    The flexibility of open-plan space and the goals of an open education have implications for the development of furniture and equipment lists. A suggested furniture and equipment list that has been developed for one team group in one academic cluster in an academic area is presented. The selections aim at providing a wide variety of working…

  4. Unmasking the effects of masking on performance: The potential of multiple-voice masking in the office environment.

    PubMed

    Keus van de Poll, Marijke; Carlsson, Johannes; Marsh, John E; Ljung, Robert; Odelius, Johan; Schlittmeier, Sabine J; Sundin, Gunilla; Sörqvist, Patrik

    2015-08-01

    Broadband noise is often used as a masking sound to combat the negative consequences of background speech on performance in open-plan offices. As office workers generally dislike broadband noise, it is important to find alternatives that are more appreciated while being at least not less effective. The purpose of experiment 1 was to compare broadband noise with two alternatives-multiple voices and water waves-in the context of a serial short-term memory task. A single voice impaired memory in comparison with silence, but when the single voice was masked with multiple voices, performance was on level with silence. Experiment 2 explored the benefits of multiple-voice masking in more detail (by comparing one voice, three voices, five voices, and seven voices) in the context of word processed writing (arguably a more office-relevant task). Performance (i.e., writing fluency) increased linearly from worst performance in the one-voice condition to best performance in the seven-voice condition. Psychological mechanisms underpinning these effects are discussed.

  5. Putting "Structure within the Space": Spatially Un/Responsive Pedagogic Practices in Open-Plan Learning Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saltmarsh, Sue; Chapman, Amy; Campbell, Matthew; Drew, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    Non-traditional open-plan schools and classrooms are currently enjoying a resurgence in Australia, with proponents arguing for the necessity of educational spaces that more readily accommodate the needs of twenty-first century learners. However, these learning environments can pose considerable pedagogic challenges for teachers who must balance…

  6. Perspectives on Primary School Practice: A Study of Formal, Mixed, and Informal Approaches in Open-Plan and Conventional Rooms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Applebee, Marcia Lynn

    Two studies combining teacher questionnaires, classroom observation, and pupil interviews were conducted to contrast formal and informal teaching practices in open plan and conventional classrooms. Study I sampled 12 teachers of classes including second year junior pupils (8-9 years of age); Study II sampled 30 teachers, including 13 with mixed…

  7. Putting "Structure within the Space": Spatially Un/Responsive Pedagogic Practices in Open-Plan Learning Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saltmarsh, Sue; Chapman, Amy; Campbell, Matthew; Drew, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    Non-traditional open-plan schools and classrooms are currently enjoying a resurgence in Australia, with proponents arguing for the necessity of educational spaces that more readily accommodate the needs of twenty-first century learners. However, these learning environments can pose considerable pedagogic challenges for teachers who must balance…

  8. Office type's association to employees' welfare: Three studies.

    PubMed

    Danielsson, Christina Bodin

    2016-08-12

    The workplace is important for employees' daily life and well-being. This article investigates exploratory the office design's role for employees' welfare from different perspectives. By comparing different studies of the office, type's influence on different factors of employees' welfare the aim is to see if any common patterns exist in office design's impact. The three included studies investigate office type's association with employees' welfare by measuring its influence on: a) perception of leadership, b) sick leave, and c) job satisfaction.The sample consists of office employees from a large, national representative work environment survey that work in one of the seven identified office types in contemporary office design: (1) cell-offices; (2) shared-room offices; (3) small, (4) medium-sized and (5) large open-plan offices; (6) flex-offices and (7) combi-offices. Statistical method used is multivariate logistic and linear regression analysis with adjustment for background factors. Overall results show that shared-room office, traditional open plan offices and flex-office stand out negatively, but to different degree(s) on the different outcomes measured. This explorative comparison of different studies finds a pattern of office types that repeatedly show indications of negative influence on employees' welfare, but further studies are needed to clarify this.

  9. Office Safety (Part II).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swartz, Carl

    Toxic chemicals, noise, inadequate lighting, poor equipment design, smoking, and accidents pose serious health hazards for millions of office workers. Stress and boredom also contribute to the problems of safety. Workers should be on guard in the office for hazards, many of which are recognizable through common sense and patience. Workers must…

  10. Physical and Visual Accessibilities in Intensive Care Units: A Comparative Study of Open-Plan and Racetrack Units.

    PubMed

    Rashid, Mahbub; Khan, Nayma; Jones, Belinda

    2016-01-01

    This study compared physical and visual accessibilities and their associations with staff perception and interaction behaviors in 2 intensive care units (ICUs) with open-plan and racetrack layouts. For the study, physical and visual accessibilities were measured using the spatial analysis techniques of Space Syntax. Data on staff perception were collected from 81 clinicians using a questionnaire survey. The locations of 2233 interactions, and the location and length of another 339 interactions in these units were collected using systematic field observation techniques. According to the study, physical and visual accessibilities were different in the 2 ICUs, and clinicians' primary workspaces were physically and visually more accessible in the open-plan ICU. Physical and visual accessibilities affected how well clinicians' knew their peers and where their peers were located in these units. Physical and visual accessibilities also affected clinicians' perception of interaction and communication and of teamwork and collaboration in these units. Additionally, physical and visual accessibilities showed significant positive associations with interaction behaviors in these units, with the open-plan ICU showing stronger associations. However, physical accessibilities were less important than visual accessibilities in relation to interaction behaviors in these ICUs. The implications of these findings for ICU design are discussed.

  11. Noise Abatement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    SMART, Sound Modification and Regulated Temperature compound, is a liquid plastic mixture with exceptional energy and sound absorbing qualities. It is derived from a very elastic plastic which was an effective noise abatement material in the Apollo Guidance System. Discovered by a NASA employee, it is marketed by Environmental Health Systems, Inc. (EHS). The product has been successfully employed by a diaper company with noisy dryers and a sugar company with noisy blowers. The company also manufactures an audiometric test booth and acoustical office partitions.

  12. Effects of office innovation on office workers' health and performance.

    PubMed

    Meijer, Eline M; Frings-Dresen, Monique H W; Sluiter, Judith K

    2009-09-01

    The implementation of an innovative office concept (e.g. open-plan, flexible workplaces and a paperless office concept) on health and productivity among office workers was evaluated with questionnaires of 138 workers at baseline and 6 and 15 months afterwards. Work-related fatigue, general health, change in health status, upper extremity complaints and perceived productivity were outcomes. No short-term significant differences were found in most outcomes except for quantity of performed work (decrease from 96% to 92%, p = 0.008). In the long-term, no significant differences were found in most outcomes except for an increase in general health (p = 0.011) and a decrease in prevalences of upper extremity complaints (33% to 22%, p = 0.021). Perceived productivity increased significantly 15 months after the implementation. It is concluded that innovative office concepts had no or limited effects on work-related fatigue, health changes and productivity but some positive effects on workers' general health and upper extremity complaints in the long term. Office innovation is being administered often but up to now seldom evaluated on workers' health and productivity.

  13. Effects of aircraft noise and sonic booms on fish and wildlife: results of a survey of u. s. fish and wildlife service endangered species and ecological services field offices, refuges, hatcheries, and research centers

    SciTech Connect

    Gladwin, D.N.; Asherin, D.A.; Manci, K.M.

    1988-06-01

    The National Ecology Research Center (Center), as part of an ongoing research study on the effects of low-altitude aircraft operations on fish and wildlife, conducted a survey in January 1987 of all U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service) regional directors, research center directors, Ecological Services and Endangered Species field offices supervisors, refuge manager, and hatchery manager. The objective of the survey was to determine the nature and extent of aircraft-induced impacts on fish and wildlife species, populations, and habitat utilization. The field-installation managers and biologists were asked to provide background information or data on fish and wildlife reactions to low-altitude aircraft disturbances, including physiological, behavioral, and reproductive/population effects. Specifically, the survey asked for information such as: observations pf amo,a; reaction(s) to aircraft operations, e.g., desert bighorn sheep scare behavior in response to aircraft overflights and hatchery fish seizures and death following intense sonic booms; and instances of areas where aircraft noise is known or believed to be responsible for reduced population size, e.g. areas along heavily used aircraft flight corridors where breeding waterfowl densities are lower than in similar habitat away from the noise area.

  14. Transition from an open-plan to a two-cot neonatal intensive care unit: a participatory action research approach.

    PubMed

    Broom, Margaret; Gardner, Anne; Kecskes, Zsuzsoka; Kildea, Sue

    2017-07-01

    To facilitate staff transition from an open-plan to a two-cot neonatal intensive care unit design. In 2012, an Australian regional neonatal intensive care unit transitioned from an open-plan to a two-cot neonatal intensive care unit design. Research has reported single- and small-room neonatal intensive care unit design may negatively impact on the distances nurses walk, reducing the time they spend providing direct neonatal care. Studies have also reported nurses feel isolated and need additional support and education in such neonatal intensive care units. Staff highlighted their concerns regarding the impact of the new design on workflow and clinical practice. A participatory action research approach. A participatory action group titled the Change and Networking Group collaborated with staff over a four-year period (2009-2013) to facilitate the transition. The Change and Networking Group used a collaborative, cyclical process of planning, gathering data, taking action and reviewing the results to plan the next action. Data sources included meeting and workshop minutes, newsletters, feedback boards, subgroup reports and a staff satisfaction survey. The study findings include a description of (1) how the participatory action research cycles were used by the Change and Networking Group: providing examples of projects and strategies undertaken; and (2) evaluations of participatory action research methodology and Group by neonatal intensive care unit staff and Change and Networking members. This study has described the benefits of using participatory action research to facilitate staff transition from an open-plan to a two-cot neonatal intensive care unit design. Participatory action research methodology enabled the inclusion of staff to find solutions to design and clinical practice questions. Future research is required to assess the long-term effect of neonatal intensive care unit design on staff workload, maintaining and supporting a skilled workforce as well as

  15. Safety in the Automated Office.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graves, Pat R.; Greathouse, Lillian R.

    1990-01-01

    Office automation has introduced new hazards to the workplace: electrical hazards related to computer wiring, musculoskeletal problems resulting from use of computer terminals and design of work stations, and environmental concerns related to ventilation, noise levels, and office machine chemicals. (SK)

  16. Rotorcraft noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huston, R. J. (Compiler)

    1982-01-01

    The establishment of a realistic plan for NASA and the U.S. helicopter industry to develop a design-for-noise methodology, including plans for the identification and development of promising noise reduction technology was discussed. Topics included: noise reduction techniques, scaling laws, empirical noise prediction, psychoacoustics, and methods of developing and validing noise prediction methods.

  17. The School and the Community--A Case Study of an Open-Plan School in Sri Lanka. Educational Building Report 16.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wijegunasekera, D. P.; And Others

    The architectural characteristics and the educational program of a new open plan Sri Lanka school are the subjects of this case study. The school is open both to the pupils as well as to the rest of the community, a departure from the traditional Sri Lanka school building. The study begins with a discussion of scope and objectives followed by a…

  18. Does Personality Have a Different Impact on Self-Rated Distraction, Job Satisfaction, and Job Performance in Different Office Types?

    PubMed Central

    Seddigh, Aram; Berntson, Erik; Platts, Loretta G.; Westerlund, Hugo

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the joint effect of office type (cell, shared room, open-plan, and flex) and personality, measured by the Big Five personality traits, on self-rated measures of distraction, job satisfaction, and job performance (measured by professional efficacy). Regression analyses with interactions between personality and office type were conducted on 1205 participants working in 5 organizations from both the private and public sectors. While few interactions were observed in the cases of professional efficacy and job satisfaction, several were observed between personality traits and office type on the level of distraction reported. Specifically, more emotionally stable participants reported lower distraction, particularly those working in flex offices. Both agreeableness and openness to experience were associated with higher levels of distraction among participants in open-plan compared to cell offices. PMID:27223898

  19. Does Personality Have a Different Impact on Self-Rated Distraction, Job Satisfaction, and Job Performance in Different Office Types?

    PubMed

    Seddigh, Aram; Berntson, Erik; Platts, Loretta G; Westerlund, Hugo

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the joint effect of office type (cell, shared room, open-plan, and flex) and personality, measured by the Big Five personality traits, on self-rated measures of distraction, job satisfaction, and job performance (measured by professional efficacy). Regression analyses with interactions between personality and office type were conducted on 1205 participants working in 5 organizations from both the private and public sectors. While few interactions were observed in the cases of professional efficacy and job satisfaction, several were observed between personality traits and office type on the level of distraction reported. Specifically, more emotionally stable participants reported lower distraction, particularly those working in flex offices. Both agreeableness and openness to experience were associated with higher levels of distraction among participants in open-plan compared to cell offices.

  20. Airport noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pendley, R. E.

    1982-01-01

    The problem of airport noise at several airports and air bases is detailed. Community reactions to the noise, steps taken to reduce jet engine noise, and the effect of airport use restrictions and curfews on air transportation are discussed. The adverse effect of changes in allowable operational noise on airport safety and altenative means for reducing noise pollution are considered. Community-airport relations and public relations are discussed.

  1. Combustion noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strahle, W. C.

    1977-01-01

    A review of the subject of combustion generated noise is presented. Combustion noise is an important noise source in industrial furnaces and process heaters, turbopropulsion and gas turbine systems, flaring operations, Diesel engines, and rocket engines. The state-of-the-art in combustion noise importance, understanding, prediction and scaling is presented for these systems. The fundamentals and available theories of combustion noise are given. Controversies in the field are discussed and recommendations for future research are made.

  2. Community noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bragdon, C. R.

    1982-01-01

    Airport and community land use planning as they relate to airport noise reduction are discussed. Legislation, community relations, and the physiological effect of airport noise are considered. Noise at the Logan, Los Angeles, and Minneapolis/St. Paul airports is discussed.

  3. Often Overlooked Obstacles of Office Landscaping

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenkins, William A.; Shoaf, Lawrence G.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses nine of the most serious limitations of the office landscape concept: status screens, noise level, privacy problem, hazard control, security, unjustifiable changes, thermal environment, storage, and future planning. (Author/MF)

  4. Interior Noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mixson, John S.; Wilby, John F.

    1991-01-01

    The generation and control of flight vehicle interior noise is discussed. Emphasis is placed on the mechanisms of transmission through airborne and structure-borne paths and the control of cabin noise by path modification. Techniques for identifying the relative contributions of the various source-path combinations are also discussed along with methods for the prediction of aircraft interior noise such as those based on the general modal theory and statistical energy analysis.

  5. Noise Protection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Environmental Health Systems puts forth an increasing effort in the U.S. to develop ways of controlling noise, particularly in industrial environments due to Federal and State laws, labor union insistence and new findings relative to noise pollution impact on human health. NASA's Apollo guidance control system aided in the development of a noise protection product, SMART. The basis of all SMART products is SMART compound a liquid plastic mixture with exceptional energy/sound absorbing qualities. The basic compound was later refined for noise protection use.

  6. Office automation.

    PubMed

    Arenson, R L

    1986-03-01

    By now, the term "office automation" should have more meaning for those readers who are not intimately familiar with the subject. Not all of the preceding material pertains to every department or practice, but certainly, word processing and simple telephone management are key items. The size and complexity of the organization will dictate the usefulness of electronic mail and calendar management, and the individual radiologist's personal needs and habits will determine the usefulness of the home computer. Perhaps the most important ingredient for success in the office automation arena relates to the ability to integrate information from various systems in a simple and flexible manner. Unfortunately, this is perhaps the one area that most office automation systems have ignored or handled poorly. In the personal computer world, there has been much emphasis recently on integration of packages such as spreadsheet, database management, word processing, graphics, time management, and communications. This same philosophy of integration has been applied to a few office automation systems, but these are generally vendor-specific and do not allow for a mixture of foreign subsystems. During the next few years, it is likely that a few vendors will emerge as dominant in this integrated office automation field and will stress simplicity and flexibility as major components.

  7. Cognitive task demands, self-control demands and the mental well-being of office workers.

    PubMed

    Bridger, Robert S; Brasher, Kate

    2011-09-01

    The cognitive task demands of office workers and the self-control demands of their work roles were measured in a sample of 196 employees in two different office layouts using a self-report questionnaire, which was circulated electronically. Multiple linear regression analysis revealed that both factors were associated with mental well-being, but not with physical well-being, while controlling for exposure to psychosocial stressors. The interaction between cognitive task demands and self-control demands had the strongest association with mental well-being, suggesting that the deleterious effect of one was greater when the other was present. An exploratory analysis revealed that the association was stronger for employees working in a large open-plan office than for those working in smaller offices with more privacy. Frustration of work goals was the cognitive task demand having the strongest negative impact on mental well-being. Methodological limitations and scale psychometrics (particularly the use of the NASA Task Load Index) are discussed. STATEMENT OF RELEVANCE: Modern office work has high mental demands and low physical demands and there is a need to design offices to prevent adverse psychological reactions. It is shown that cognitive task demands interact with self-control demands to degrade mental well-being. The association was stronger in an open-plan office.

  8. JOIDES Office

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The Office of the Joint Oceanographic Institutions for Deep Earth Sampling (JOIDES), the international group of scientific institutions that gives scientific guidance to the Deep Sea Drilling Project (DSDP), will be located at the University of Miami's Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science from July 1, 1982, to June 30, 1984. The university is one of 15 member institutions of JOIDES; 14 of these are active, and 10 are in the United States.While JOIDES is based at the Rosenstiel School, Alan Berman, new dean of the school, will serve as chairman of the group's executive committee. Jose Honnorez, professor of marine geology at Rosenstiel, is chairman of the JOIDES planning committee. He will direct the office, which is responsible for the coordination of the planning committee and 13 advisory panels and nine working groups.

  9. Noise pollution resources compendium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    A compendium is presented of documents on noise. The articles presented are categorized in the following sections: noise sources, noise detection and measurement, noise abatement and control, physical effects of noise, psychological and physiological effects of noise, noise regulations and standards, patents and contracts, and noise research.

  10. Noise of High Performance Aircraft at Afterburner

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-02-10

    14,  2015   Submitted  to   The  Office  of  Naval  Research     Project  Title:   Noise  of  High-­‐Performance...Until recently, the noise of high performance military aircraft has not been studied in details. During the last two years, noise spectral data from the...any major differences between the dominant noise components of these jets and those of a standard high temperature laboratory supersonic jet. It is

  11. Improving Gabor noise.

    PubMed

    Lagae, Ares; Lefebvre, Sylvain; Dutré, Philip

    2011-08-01

    We have recently proposed a new procedural noise function, Gabor noise, which offers a combination of properties not found in the existing noise functions. In this paper, we present three significant improvements to Gabor noise: 1) an isotropic kernel for Gabor noise, which speeds up isotropic Gabor noise with a factor of roughly two, 2) an error analysis of Gabor noise, which relates the kernel truncation radius to the relative error of the noise, and 3) spatially varying Gabor noise, which enables spatial variation of all noise parameters. These improvements make Gabor noise an even more attractive alternative for the existing noise functions.

  12. Community noise sources and noise control issues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nihart, Gene L.

    1992-01-01

    The topics covered include the following: community noise sources and noise control issues; noise components for turbine bypass turbojet engine (TBE) turbojet; engine cycle selection and noise; nozzle development schedule; NACA nozzle design; NACA nozzle test results; nearly fully mixed (NFM) nozzle design; noise versus aspiration rate; peak noise test results; nozzle test in the Low Speed Aeroacoustic Facility (LSAF); and Schlieren pictures of NACA nozzle.

  13. Control of Environmental Noise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jensen, Paul

    1973-01-01

    Discusses the physical properties, sources, physiological effects, and legislation pertaining to noise, especially noise characteristics in the community. Indicates that noise reduction steps can be taken more intelligently after determination of the true noise sources and paths. (CC)

  14. Noise pollution resources compendium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Abstracts of reports concerning noise pollution are presented. The abstracts are grouped in the following areas of activity: (1) sources of noise, (2) noise detection and measurement, (3) noise abatement and control, (4) physical effects of noise and (5) social effects of noise.

  15. 75 FR 64393 - Approval of Noise Compatibility Program for Chicago Executive Airport, Prospect Heights and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-19

    ..., Environmental Protection Specialist, CHI-603, Federal Aviation Administration, Chicago Airport District Office... also will be available online at: http://www.faa.gov/airports/environmental/airport_noise/part_150... Federal Aviation Administration Approval of Noise Compatibility Program for Chicago Executive...

  16. New computer system for aircraft noise prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raney, J. P.; Zorumski, W. E.

    1974-01-01

    The purpose of the Aircraft Noise Prediction Office (ANOPO) at Langley Research Center is to provide a focal point for NASA's aircraft noise prediction activities and an appropriate interface with other agencies and industry. An interim prediction system is now in operation, which includes a program for source modeling leading to noise prediction for a single event, two complementary multiple event prediction programs which predict NEF contours on the basis of interpolation of noise, thrust, and altitude data, and the FAA data base for the commercial fleet. An integrated multimode aircraft noise prediction program has been designed, and a mechanism for continuously providing current prediction technology to be incorporated in the program has been implemented.

  17. Community Response to Noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fidell, Sandy

    The primary effects of community noise on residential populations are speech interference, sleep disturbance, and annoyance. This chapter focuses on transportation noise in general and on aircraft noise in particular because aircraft noise is one of the most prominent community noise sources, because airport/community controversies are often the most contentious and widespread, and because industrial and other specialized formsofcommunitynoise generally posemorelocalized problems.

  18. Turbomachinery noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Groeneweg, John F.; Sofrin, Thomas G.; Rice, Edward J.; Gliebe, Phillip R.

    1991-08-01

    Summarized here are key advances in experimental techniques and theoretical applications which point the way to a broad understanding and control of turbomachinery noise. On the experimental side, the development of effective inflow control techniques makes it possible to conduct, in ground based facilities, definitive experiments in internally controlled blade row interactions. Results can now be valid indicators of flight behavior and can provide a firm base for comparison with analytical results. Inflow control coupled with detailed diagnostic tools such as blade pressure measurements can be used to uncover the more subtle mechanisms such as rotor strut interaction, which can set tone levels for some engine configurations. Initial mappings of rotor wake-vortex flow fields have provided a data base for a first generation semiempirical flow disturbance model. Laser velocimetry offers a nonintrusive method for validating and improving the model. Digital data systems and signal processing algorithms are bringing mode measurement closer to a working tool that can be frequently applied to a real machine such as a turbofan engine. On the analytical side, models of most of the links in the chain from turbomachine blade source to far field observation point have been formulated. Three dimensional lifting surface theory for blade rows, including source noncompactness and cascade effects, blade row transmission models incorporating mode and frequency scattering, and modal radiation calculations, including hybrid numerical-analytical approaches, are tools which await further application.

  19. Turbomachinery noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Groeneweg, John F.; Sofrin, Thomas G.; Rice, Edward J.; Gliebe, Phillip R.

    1991-01-01

    Summarized here are key advances in experimental techniques and theoretical applications which point the way to a broad understanding and control of turbomachinery noise. On the experimental side, the development of effective inflow control techniques makes it possible to conduct, in ground based facilities, definitive experiments in internally controlled blade row interactions. Results can now be valid indicators of flight behavior and can provide a firm base for comparison with analytical results. Inflow control coupled with detailed diagnostic tools such as blade pressure measurements can be used to uncover the more subtle mechanisms such as rotor strut interaction, which can set tone levels for some engine configurations. Initial mappings of rotor wake-vortex flow fields have provided a data base for a first generation semiempirical flow disturbance model. Laser velocimetry offers a nonintrusive method for validating and improving the model. Digital data systems and signal processing algorithms are bringing mode measurement closer to a working tool that can be frequently applied to a real machine such as a turbofan engine. On the analytical side, models of most of the links in the chain from turbomachine blade source to far field observation point have been formulated. Three dimensional lifting surface theory for blade rows, including source noncompactness and cascade effects, blade row transmission models incorporating mode and frequency scattering, and modal radiation calculations, including hybrid numerical-analytical approaches, are tools which await further application.

  20. Gender differences in public office workers' satisfaction, subjective symptoms and musculoskeletal complaints in workplace and office environments.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sangbok; Park, Myoung Hwan; Jeong, Byung Yong

    2017-01-19

    This study investigates differences between male and female public office workers' satisfaction levels, sick building syndrome (SBS) symptoms and musculoskeletal disorder (MSD) complaints in workplace and office environments. Questionnaire surveys were performed in 30 offices from 15 public institutions. Male and female workers of the same age were coupled and selected from each office, gathering a total of 120 male and 120 female subjects. The results show that differences exist between genders in noise and lighting satisfaction levels, SBS-related symptoms (eye, nose, skin) and MSD complaints of hand/wrist/finger, while there is no difference in overall satisfaction level of office environments. The study also suggests that office design for public office workers should take into account gender differences in preventing MSDs and also SBS. The findings of this study are expected to serve as basic data for designing effective public office environments.

  1. Noise and blast

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hodge, D. C.; Garinther, G. R.

    1973-01-01

    Noise and blast environments are described, providing a definition of units and techniques of noise measurement and giving representative booster-launch and spacecraft noise data. The effects of noise on hearing sensitivity and performance are reviewed, and community response to noise exposure is discussed. Physiological, or nonauditory, effects of noise exposure are also treated, as are design criteria and methods for minimizing the noise effects of hearing sensitivity and communications. The low level sound detection and speech reception are included, along with subjective and behavioral responses to noise.

  2. Noise and blast

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hodge, D. C.; Garinther, G. R.

    1973-01-01

    Noise and blast environments are described, providing a definition of units and techniques of noise measurement and giving representative booster-launch and spacecraft noise data. The effects of noise on hearing sensitivity and performance are reviewed, and community response to noise exposure is discussed. Physiological, or nonauditory, effects of noise exposure are also treated, as are design criteria and methods for minimizing the noise effects of hearing sensitivity and communications. The low level sound detection and speech reception are included, along with subjective and behavioral responses to noise.

  3. Noise, Health, and Architecture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beranek, Leo L.

    There is reasonable agreement that hearing impairment is related to noise exposure. This hearing loss due to noise is considered a serious health injury, but there is still difficulty in delineating the importance of noise related to people's general non-auditory well-being and health. Beside hearing loss, noise inhibits satisfactory speech…

  4. Active Noise Control for Dishwasher noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Nokhaeng; Park, Youngjin

    2016-09-01

    The dishwasher is a useful home appliance and continually used for automatically washing dishes. It's commonly placed in the kitchen with built-in style for practicality and better use of space. In this environment, people are easily exposed to dishwasher noise, so it is an important issue for the consumers, especially for the people living in open and narrow space. Recently, the sound power levels of the noise are about 40 - 50 dBA. It could be achieved by removal of noise sources and passive means of insulating acoustical path. For more reduction, such a quiet mode with the lower speed of cycle has been introduced, but this deteriorates the washing capacity. Under this background, we propose active noise control for dishwasher noise. It is observed that the noise is propagating mainly from the lower part of the front side. Control speakers are placed in the part for the collocation. Observation part of estimating sound field distribution and control part of generating the anti-noise are designed for active noise control. Simulation result shows proposed active noise control scheme could have a potential application for dishwasher noise reduction.

  5. Geographic Information Office

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2004-01-01

    The Geographic Information Office (GIO) is the principal information office for U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), focused on: Information Policy and Services, Information Technology, Science Information, Information Security, and the Federal Geographic Data Committee/Geospatial One Stop.

  6. Office of Child Care

    MedlinePlus

    ... examples related to the health and safety training provisions of the final regulations published by the Office ... specific information and examples related to the subsidy provisions of the final regulations published by the Office ...

  7. FIFRA Project Officers Manual

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The FIFRA Project Officers Manual provides guidance to new as well as experienced project officers in the management of grants and cooperative agreements under the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide and Rodenticide Act.

  8. Interactive Office user's manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Montgomery, Edward E.; Lowers, Benjamin; Nabors, Terri L.

    1990-01-01

    Given here is a user's manual for Interactive Office (IO), an executive office tool for organization and planning, written specifically for Macintosh. IO is a paperless management tool to automate a related group of individuals into one productive system.

  9. LMAL Accounting Office 1936

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1936-01-01

    Accounting Office: The Langley Memorial Aeronautical Laboratory's accounting office, 1936, with photographs of the Wright brothers on the wall. Although the Lab was named after Samuel P. Langley, most of the NACA staff held the Wrights as their heroes.

  10. Office of Child Care

    MedlinePlus

    ... Early Head Start-Child Care Partnerships. Review the profiles. > What is the Office of Child Care (OCC)? The Office of Child Care supports low-income working families through child care financial assistance and ...

  11. Does office space occupation matter? The role of the number of persons per enclosed office space, psychosocial work characteristics, and environmental satisfaction in the physical and mental health of employees.

    PubMed

    Herbig, B; Schneider, A; Nowak, D

    2016-10-01

    The study examined the effects of office space occupation, psychosocial work characteristics, and environmental satisfaction on physical and mental health of office workers in small-sized and open-plan offices as well as possible underlying mechanisms. Office space occupation was characterized as number of persons per one enclosed office space. A total of 207 office employees with similar jobs in offices with different space occupation were surveyed regarding their work situation (psychosocial work characteristics, satisfaction with privacy, acoustics, and control) and health (psychosomatic complaints, irritation, mental well-being, and work ability). Binary logistic and linear regression analyses as well as bootstrapped mediation analyses were used to determine associations and underlying mechanisms. Employee health was significantly associated with all work characteristics. Psychosocial work stressors had the strongest relation to physical and mental health (OR range: 1.66-3.72). The effect of office space occupation on employee health was mediated by stressors and environmental satisfaction, but not by psychosocial work resources. As assumed by sociotechnical approaches, a higher number of persons per enclosed office space was associated with adverse health effects. However, the strongest associations were found with psychosocial work stressors. When revising office design, a holistic approach to work (re)design is needed. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Pediatric office emergencies.

    PubMed

    Fuchs, Susan

    2013-10-01

    Pediatricians regularly see emergencies in the office, or children that require transfer to an emergency department, or hospitalization. An office self-assessment is the first step in determining how to prepare for an emergency. The use of mock codes and skill drills make office personnel feel less anxious about medical emergencies. Emergency information forms provide valuable, quick information about complex patients for emergency medical services and other physicians caring for patients. Furthermore, disaster planning should be part of an office preparedness plan.

  13. Liaison Officer Toolkit

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    pharmacists , epidemiologists, safety officers, logisticians, DSCA Handbook Liaison Officer Toolkit 7-26 UNCLASSIFIED High Demand Task...DSCA Handbook Liaison Officer Toolkit GTA 90-01-021 Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Report Documentation Page...Planning Chapters Chapter 5 provides DSCA planning factors for response to all hazard events. Chapter 6 is a review of safety and operational/composite

  14. Office Computers: Ergonomic Considerations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ganus, Susannah

    1984-01-01

    Each new report of the office automation market indicates technology is overrunning the office. The impacts of this technology are described and some ways to manage and physically "soften" the change to a computer-based office environment are suggested. (Author/MLW)

  15. Impressions of psychotherapists' offices.

    PubMed

    Nasar, Jack L; Devlin, Ann Sloan

    2011-07-01

    For counseling settings, research suggests that softness, personalization, and order might affect the experience and the perceived expertness, trustworthiness, and social attractiveness of the therapist. This article discusses exploratory studies on college students' perception of the counseling office environment and whether the likely client experience was associated with the softness/personalization and order of the office. As stimuli, the studies used 30 color photographs of psychotherapists' offices viewed from the client's perspective. After obtaining ratings of the characteristics of each office, we obtained ratings from different groups of students of the quality of care and comfort expected in each office (Study 1) and how qualified, bold, and friendly the therapist in the office would be (Study 2). Additional studies examined the likelihood of choosing a therapist based on the office, and the first thought or feeling that came to mind about the office, the therapist, and the patient experience. There were strong correlations in response between groups (by whether they had experienced therapy; their level in school; their gender; and their major, location, and school size). The quality of care, comfort, therapist boldness, qualifications of the therapist, and the likelihood that one would choose a therapist based on the office improved with increases in the office's softness/personalization and order. Friendliness improved with increases in softness/personalization. The office choices, open-ended responses, and reported reasons for the ratings confirmed the importance of softness (comfort) and order. Research should test longer term exposure and behavior.

  16. Aviation noise effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newman, J. S.; Beattie, K. R.

    1985-03-01

    This report summarizes the effects of aviation noise in many areas, ranging from human annoyance to impact on real estate values. It also synthesizes the findings of literature on several topics. Included in the literature were many original studies carried out under FAA and other Federal funding over the past two decades. Efforts have been made to present the critical findings and conclusions of pertinent research, providing, when possible, a bottom line conclusion, criterion or perspective. Issues related to aviation noise are highlighted, and current policy is presented. Specific topic addressed include: annoyance; Hearing and hearing loss; noise metrics; human response to noise; speech interference; sleep interference; non-auditory health effects of noise; effects of noise on wild and domesticated animals; low frequency acoustical energy; impulsive noise; time of day weightings; noise contours; land use compatibility; and real estate values. This document is designed for a variety of users, from the individual completely unfamiliar with aviation noise to experts in the field.

  17. [Subjective sensitivity to noise].

    PubMed

    Belojević, G

    1991-01-01

    It is likely that individual variations in subjectively estimated noise sensitivity influence different social and psychophysiological reactions of people exposed to noise. Subjective noise sensitivity might be a relatively stable personal characteristic. A correlation have been found between high sensitiveness to noise and some medical symptoms (sleep disturbance, nervousness, depression), and worse work performance in noisy environments. An introvert person with neurotic symptoms is more frequently found in people highly sensitive to noise. Testing for subjective sensitivity to noise might be helpful in professional selection and orientation for noisy work-places as well as in housing advising.

  18. Department of Navy Jet Noise Reduction Project Overview

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-12-01

    Leadership direction, the Office of Naval Research initiated the Jet Noise Reduction (JNR) Project as part of the Noise-Induced Hearing Loss ( NIHL ) Program...Naval Research initiated the Jet Noise Reduction (JNR) Project as part of the Noise-Induced Hearing Loss ( NIHL ) Program. The JNR Project’s over...ONR Code 342 5 2007: ASN(RD&A) request to address hearing loss prevention 2008: ASN(RD&A), ASN(I&E), CNR approval of FY09-17 NIHL roadmap NIHL /JNR

  19. A study of local electrostatic filtration and main pre-filtration on airborne and surface dust levels in air-conditioned office premises.

    PubMed

    Croxford, B; Tham, K W; Young, A; Oreszczyn, T; Wyon, D

    2000-09-01

    The impact of electrostatic precipitation as a useful form of particulate filtration in the breathing zone is investigated in an intervention study in an air-conditioned commercial office in central London. Surface dust deposition and airborne dust levels are measured in the open plan zones of two floors--a control floor and a floor where the intervention is effected. The intervention consists of a sequence of weekly scenarios where the main pre-filters of the air-handling unit are switched between new and old filters, and where the electrostatic filters, located as uniformly as practicable on the open plan areas, are switched on or off. This 2 x 2 set of interventions is repeated over 4 cycles. It was found that the breathing zone filtration (BZF) by electrostatic precipitators reduces airborne dust significantly and appears to be more efficient in reducing smaller sized particles. No significant effect of BZF filters in reducing surface dust deposition was detected.

  20. 6. Interior, rear offices: operations assistant office looking north toward ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Interior, rear offices: operations assistant office looking north toward security operations officer's office. - Ellsworth Air Force Base, Rushmore Air Force Station, Security Central Control Building, Quesada Drive, Blackhawk, Meade County, SD

  1. 20 CFR 422.5 - District offices and branch offices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false District offices and branch offices. 422.5... and Functions of the Social Security Administration § 422.5 District offices and branch offices. There are over 700 social security district offices and branch offices located in the principal cities...

  2. Propagation of Environmental Noise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyon, R. H.

    1973-01-01

    Solutions for environmental noise pollution lie in systematic study of many basic processes such as reflection, scattering, and spreading. Noise propagation processes should be identified in different situations and assessed for their relative importance. (PS)

  3. Propagation of Environmental Noise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyon, R. H.

    1973-01-01

    Solutions for environmental noise pollution lie in systematic study of many basic processes such as reflection, scattering, and spreading. Noise propagation processes should be identified in different situations and assessed for their relative importance. (PS)

  4. NASA Jet Noise Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henderson, Brenda

    2016-01-01

    The presentation highlights NASA's jet noise research for 2016. Jet-noise modeling efforts, jet-surface interactions results, acoustic characteristics of multi-stream jets, and N+2 Supersonic Aircraft system studies are presented.

  5. Handbook of noise ratings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pearsons, K. S.; Bennett, R. L.

    1975-01-01

    Handbook announced in Tech Brief is compendium of information describing multifarious noise methods now in use. Reference material gives user better access to definitions, application, and calculation procedures of current noise rating methods.

  6. A Comprehensive Approach to Management of Workplace and Environmental Noise at NASA Lewis Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, Beth A.

    1995-01-01

    NASA Lewis Research Center is home to more than 100 experimental research testing facilities and laboratories, including large wind tunnels and engine test cells, which in combination create a varied and complex noise environment. Much of the equipment was manufactured prior to the enactment of legislation limiting product noise emissions or occupational noise exposure. Routine facility maintenance and associated construction also contributes to a noise exposure management responsibility which is equal in magnitude and scope to that of several small industrial companies. The Noise Program, centrally managed within the Office of Environmental Programs at LRC, maintains overall responsibility for hearing conservation, community noise control, and acoustical and noise control engineering. Centralized management of the LRC Noise Program facilitates the timely development and implementation of engineered noise control solutions for problems identified via either the Hearing Conservation of Community Noise Program. The key element of the Lewis Research Center Noise Program, Acoustical and Noise Control Engineering Services, is focused on developing solutions that permanently reduce employee and community noise exposure and maximize research productivity by reducing or eliminating administrative and operational controls and by improving the safety and comfort of the work environment. The Hearing Conservation Program provides noise exposure assessment, medical monitoring, and training for civil servant and contractor employees. The Community Noise Program aims to maintain the support of LRC's neighboring communities while enabling necessary research operations to accomplish their programmatic goals. Noise control engineering capability resides within the Noise Program. The noise control engineering, based on specific exposure limits, is a fundamental consideration throughout the design phase of new test facilities, labs, and office buildings. In summary, the Noise Program

  7. Core-Noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hultgren, Lennart S.

    2010-01-01

    This presentation is a technical progress report and near-term outlook for NASA-internal and NASA-sponsored external work on core (combustor and turbine) noise funded by the Fundamental Aeronautics Program Subsonic Fixed Wing (SFW) Project. Sections of the presentation cover: the SFW system level noise metrics for the 2015, 2020, and 2025 timeframes; the emerging importance of core noise and its relevance to the SFW Reduced-Noise-Aircraft Technical Challenge; the current research activities in the core-noise area, with some additional details given about the development of a high-fidelity combustion-noise prediction capability; the need for a core-noise diagnostic capability to generate benchmark data for validation of both high-fidelity work and improved models, as well as testing of future noise-reduction technologies; relevant existing core-noise tests using real engines and auxiliary power units; and examples of possible scenarios for a future diagnostic facility. The NASA Fundamental Aeronautics Program has the principal objective of overcoming today's national challenges in air transportation. The SFW Reduced-Noise-Aircraft Technical Challenge aims to enable concepts and technologies to dramatically reduce the perceived aircraft noise outside of airport boundaries. This reduction of aircraft noise is critical for enabling the anticipated large increase in future air traffic. Noise generated in the jet engine core, by sources such as the compressor, combustor, and turbine, can be a significant contribution to the overall noise signature at low-power conditions, typical of approach flight. At high engine power during takeoff, jet and fan noise have traditionally dominated over core noise. However, current design trends and expected technological advances in engine-cycle design as well as noise-reduction methods are likely to reduce non-core noise even at engine-power points higher than approach. In addition, future low-emission combustor designs could increase

  8. A study of complaints about noise from domestic premises

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Utley, W. A.; Buller, I. B.

    1988-12-01

    Neighbourhood noise has been found to be the most widespread source of noise disturbance after road traffic. Complaints to Environmental Health Officers about noise from domestic premises have increased by 791% over the 10 years to 1985. Data about these complaints have been used to investigate neighbour noise disturbance. Environmental Health Officers have returned 2128 data sheets dealing with complaints about 2624 noise sources. Two thirds of these sources were either amplified music or barking dogs. The data have been analyzed to determine where the noise sources are situated and the time of day when disturbance occurs. Regional differences as well as type of dwelling and occupancy have also been investigated. The large increase in complaints about domestic noise has been considered in the light of this investigation; this suggests that while the increase may have arisen in part from changing attitudes to noise and an increased awareness of action available to abate nuisance, the major reason for the increase is a growth in the incidence and/or level of noise. Proposals are made for further work aimed at developing methods for reducing disturbance.

  9. Noise Gating Solar Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeForest, Craig; Seaton, Daniel B.; Darnell, John A.

    2017-08-01

    I present and demonstrate a new, general purpose post-processing technique, "3D noise gating", that can reduce image noise by an order of magnitude or more without effective loss of spatial or temporal resolution in typical solar applications.Nearly all scientific images are, ultimately, limited by noise. Noise can be direct Poisson "shot noise" from photon counting effects, or introduced by other means such as detector read noise. Noise is typically represented as a random variable (perhaps with location- or image-dependent characteristics) that is sampled once per pixel or once per resolution element of an image sequence. Noise limits many aspects of image analysis, including photometry, spatiotemporal resolution, feature identification, morphology extraction, and background modeling and separation.Identifying and separating noise from image signal is difficult. The common practice of blurring in space and/or time works because most image "signal" is concentrated in the low Fourier components of an image, while noise is evenly distributed. Blurring in space and/or time attenuates the high spatial and temporal frequencies, reducing noise at the expense of also attenuating image detail. Noise-gating exploits the same property -- "coherence" -- that we use to identify features in images, to separate image features from noise.Processing image sequences through 3-D noise gating results in spectacular (more than 10x) improvements in signal-to-noise ratio, while not blurring bright, resolved features in either space or time. This improves most types of image analysis, including feature identification, time sequence extraction, absolute and relative photometry (including differential emission measure analysis), feature tracking, computer vision, correlation tracking, background modeling, cross-scale analysis, visual display/presentation, and image compression.I will introduce noise gating, describe the method, and show examples from several instruments (including SDO

  10. Noise Reduction Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hallas, Tony

    There are two distinct kinds of noise - structural and color. Each requires a specific method of attack to minimize. The great challenge is to reduce the noise without reducing the faint and delicate detail in the image. My most-used and favorite noise suppression is found in Photoshop CS 5 Camera Raw. If I cannot get the desired results with the first choice, I will use Noise Ninja, which has certain advantages in some situations that we will cover.

  11. Rating helicopter noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leverton, J. W.; Southwood, B. J.; Pike, A. C.

    1978-01-01

    The effectiveness of the EPNL procedure in quantifying helicopter blade slap and tail rotor noise heard on approach some distance from the flyover position is addressed. Alternative methods of rating helicopter noise are reviewed including correction procedures to the EPNL concept which account for blade slap and tail rotor noise. The impact of the use of such corrections is examined.

  12. Characteristics of USB noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibson, J. S.; Searle, N.

    1976-01-01

    An extensive series of noise measurements, for a variety of geometric and operational parameters, was made on models of upper surface blowing (USB) powered lift systems. The data obtained were analyzed and the effects and trends of parametric variation defined. The behavior and nature of USB noise and the design of USB systems with low noise characteristics is examined.

  13. Handbook of noise ratings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pearsons, K. S.; Bennett, R. L.

    1974-01-01

    The handbook was compiled to provide information in a concise form, describing the multitude of noise rating schemes. It is hoped that by describing the noise rating methods in a single volume the user will have better access to the definitions, application and calculation procedures of the current noise rating methods.

  14. Dragline noise survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vipperman, Jeffrey S.; Bauer, Eric R.

    2002-05-01

    It is estimated that 70%-90% of miners have enough noise induced hearing loss (NIHL) to be classified as a disability (NIOSH, Publication No. 76-172, 1976; Franks, NIOSH Internal Report, 1996). In response, NIOSH is conducting a cross-sectional survey of the mining industry in order to determine the sources of mining noise and offer recommendations on how to mitigate high noise levels, and bring mining operations into compliance with the recent mining noise regulation: 30CFR, Part 62. This paper will outline the results from noise surveys of eight draglines which operate in above-ground coal mining operations. The data recorded include noise dosimetry in conjunction with time-at-task studies and 1/3-octave sound level (Leq, Lmin, and Lmax) measurements. The 1/3-octave band readings were used to create noise contour maps which allowed the spatial and frequency information of the noise to be considered. Comparison of Lmin and Lmax levels offer insight into the variability of the noise levels inside the dragline. The potential for administrative controls is limited due to consistently high noise levels throughout the deck. Implementation of engineering controls is also hindered by the size and number of the noise sources and the frequency content of the noise.

  15. Core Noise - Increasing Importance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hultgren, Lennart S.

    2011-01-01

    This presentation is a technical summary of and outlook for NASA-internal and NASA-sponsored external research on core (combustor and turbine) noise funded by the Fundamental Aeronautics Program Subsonic Fixed Wing (SFW) Project. Sections of the presentation cover: the SFW system-level noise metrics for the 2015, 2020, and 2025 timeframes; turbofan design trends and their aeroacoustic implications; the emerging importance of core noise and its relevance to the SFW Reduced-Perceived-Noise Technical Challenge; and the current research activities in the core-noise area, with additional details given about the development of a high-fidelity combustor-noise prediction capability as well as activities supporting the development of improved reduced-order, physics-based models for combustor-noise prediction. The need for benchmark data for validation of high-fidelity and modeling work and the value of a potential future diagnostic facility for testing of core-noise-reduction concepts are indicated. The NASA Fundamental Aeronautics Program has the principal objective of overcoming today's national challenges in air transportation. The SFW Reduced-Perceived-Noise Technical Challenge aims to develop concepts and technologies to dramatically reduce the perceived aircraft noise outside of airport boundaries. This reduction of aircraft noise is critical to enabling the anticipated large increase in future air traffic. Noise generated in the jet engine core, by sources such as the compressor, combustor, and turbine, can be a significant contribution to the overall noise signature at low-power conditions, typical of approach flight. At high engine power during takeoff, jet and fan noise have traditionally dominated over core noise. However, current design trends and expected technological advances in engine-cycle design as well as noise-reduction methods are likely to reduce non-core noise even at engine-power points higher than approach. In addition, future low-emission combustor

  16. Classical noise, quantum noise and secure communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tannous, C.; Langlois, J.

    2016-01-01

    Secure communication based on message encryption might be performed by combining the message with controlled noise (called pseudo-noise) as performed in spread-spectrum communication used presently in Wi-Fi and smartphone telecommunication systems. Quantum communication based on entanglement is another route for securing communications as demonstrated by several important experiments described in this work. The central role played by the photon in unifying the description of classical and quantum noise as major ingredients of secure communication systems is highlighted and described on the basis of the classical and quantum fluctuation dissipation theorems.

  17. [Cardiovascular effects of noise].

    PubMed

    Vacheron, A

    1992-03-01

    The circulatory response to noise is dominated by a peripheral blood vessels vasoconstriction, of greater magnitude when asleep than awake. Noise of lower frequency seems more able to produce this response. With repetition of the noise, adaptation and tolerance to it quickly appears. Meanwhile prolonged high level noise exposition induces an increasing prevalence of arterial hypertension among industrial workers. This increase is also clearly found in residential communities living near airports. Long-term exposure to noise is a dangerous nuisance, that can lead to an increase in arterial blood pressure and favour coronary artery disease development.

  18. Combat aircraft noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sgarbozza, M.; Depitre, A.

    1992-04-01

    A discussion of the characteristics and the noise levels of combat aircraft and of a transport aircraft in taking off and landing are presented. Some methods of noise reduction are discussed, including the following: operational anti-noise procedures; and concepts of future engines (silent post-combustion and variable cycle). Some measurement results concerning the noise generated in flight at great speeds and low altitude will also be examined. Finally, the protection of the environment of French air bases against noise will be described and the possibilities of regulation examined.

  19. Optical Johnson noise thermometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shepard, R. L.; Blalock, T. V.; Maxey, L. C.; Roberts, M. J.; Simpson, M. L.

    1989-01-01

    A concept is being explored that an optical analog of the electrical Johnson noise may be used to measure temperature independently of emissivity. The concept is that a laser beam may be modulated on reflection from a hot surface by interaction of the laser photons with the thermally agitated conduction electrons or the lattice phonons, thereby adding noise to the reflected laser beam. If the reflectance noise can be detected and quantified in a background of other noise in the optical and signal processing systems, the reflectance noise may provide a noncontact measurement of the absolute surface temperature and may be independent of the surface's emissivity.

  20. Interpreting Transistor Noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pospieszalski, M. W.

    2010-10-01

    The simple noise models of field effect and bipolar transistors reviewed in this article are quite useful in engineering practice, as illustrated by measured and modeled results. The exact and approximate expressions for the noise parameters of FETs and bipolar transistors reveal certain common noise properties and some general noise properties of both devices. The usefulness of these expressions in interpreting the dependence of measured noise parameters on frequency, bias, and temperature and, consequently, in checking of consistency of measured data has been demonstrated.

  1. Large eddy simulation of trailing edge noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keller, Jacob; Nitzkorski, Zane; Mahesh, Krishnan

    2015-11-01

    Noise generation is an important engineering constraint to many marine vehicles. A significant portion of the noise comes from propellers and rotors, specifically due to flow interactions at the trailing edge. Large eddy simulation is used to investigate the noise produced by a turbulent 45 degree beveled trailing edge and a NACA 0012 airfoil. A porous surface Ffowcs-Williams and Hawkings acoustic analogy is combined with a dynamic endcapping method to compute the sound. This methodology allows for the impact of incident flow noise versus the total noise to be assessed. LES results for the 45 degree beveled trailing edge are compared to experiment at M = 0 . 1 and Rec = 1 . 9 e 6 . The effect of boundary layer thickness on sound production is investigated by computing using both the experimental boundary layer thickness and a thinner boundary layer. Direct numerical simulation results of the NACA 0012 are compared to available data at M = 0 . 4 and Rec = 5 . 0 e 4 for both the hydrodynamic field and the acoustic field. Sound intensities and directivities are investigated and compared. Finally, some of the physical mechanisms of far-field noise generation, common to the two configurations, are discussed. Supported by Office of Naval research.

  2. Core Noise Reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hultgren, Lennart S.

    2011-01-01

    This presentation is a technical summary of and outlook for NASA-internal and NASA-sponsored external research on core (combustor and turbine) noise funded by the Fundamental Aeronautics Program Subsonic Fixed Wing (SFW) Project. Sections of the presentation cover: the SFW system-level noise metrics for the 2015, 2020, and 2025 timeframes; turbofan design trends and their aeroacoustic implications; the emerging importance of core noise and its relevance to the SFW Reduce-Perceived-Noise Technical Challenge; and the current research activities in the core noise area. Recent work1 on the turbine-transmission loss of combustor noise is briefly described, two2,3 new NRA efforts in the core-noise area are outlined, and an effort to develop CMC-based acoustic liners for broadband noise reduction suitable for turbofan-core application is delineated. The NASA Fundamental Aeronautics Program has the principal objective of overcoming today's national challenges in air transportation. The reduction of aircraft noise is critical to enabling the anticipated large increase in future air traffic. The Subsonic Fixed Wing Project's Reduce-Perceived-Noise Technical Challenge aims to develop concepts and technologies to dramatically reduce the perceived aircraft noise outside of airport boundaries.

  3. Office of Minority Health

    MedlinePlus

    Skip Navigation Office of Minority Health A A A En Español Newsroom Contact Us Search: About OMH What We Do Resource Center Policy and Data ... Funding and Programs History Leadership Regional Staff State Minority Health Contacts Offices of Minority Health at HHS ...

  4. The Chief Diversity Officer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Damon; Wade-Golden, Katrina

    2007-01-01

    Numerous institutions are moving toward the chief diversity officer model of leading and managing diversity in higher education. These officers carry formal administrative titles and ranks that range from vice president for institutional diversity to associate vice chancellor for diversity and climate and dean of diversity and academic engagement.…

  5. The Automated Office.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naclerio, Nick

    1979-01-01

    Clerical personnel may be able to climb career ladders as a result of office automation and expanded job opportunities in the word processing area. Suggests opportunities in an automated office system and lists books and periodicals on word processing for counselors and teachers. (MF)

  6. Planning for Office Automation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherron, Gene T.

    1982-01-01

    The steps taken toward office automation by the University of Maryland are described. Office automation is defined and some types of word processing systems are described. Policies developed in the writing of a campus plan are listed, followed by a section on procedures adopted to implement the plan. (Author/MLW)

  7. Directors' and officers' liability.

    PubMed

    Thompson, H A

    1990-10-01

    Charities or business associations frequently ask physicians--due to their status in the community--to serve as directors or officers. Just as frequently, physicians agree to serve in those positions without fully understanding the responsibilities and possible liabilities they are assuming. This article describes the duties of directors and officers and the liabilities associated with the job.

  8. Core-Noise Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hultgren, Lennart S.

    2012-01-01

    This presentation is a technical summary of and outlook for NASA-internal and NASA-sponsored external research on core noise funded by the Fundamental Aeronautics Program Subsonic Fixed Wing (SFW) Project. Sections of the presentation cover: the SFW system-level noise metrics for the 2015 (N+1), 2020 (N+2), and 2025 (N+3) timeframes; SFW strategic thrusts and technical challenges; SFW advanced subsystems that are broadly applicable to N+3 vehicle concepts, with an indication where further noise research is needed; the components of core noise (compressor, combustor and turbine noise) and a rationale for NASA's current emphasis on the combustor-noise component; the increase in the relative importance of core noise due to turbofan design trends; the need to understand and mitigate core-noise sources for high-efficiency small gas generators; and the current research activities in the core-noise area, with additional details given about forthcoming updates to NASA's Aircraft Noise Prediction Program (ANOPP) core-noise prediction capabilities, two NRA efforts (Honeywell International, Phoenix, AZ and University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, respectively) to improve the understanding of core-noise sources and noise propagation through the engine core, and an effort to develop oxide/oxide ceramic-matrix-composite (CMC) liners for broadband noise attenuation suitable for turbofan-core application. Core noise must be addressed to ensure that the N+3 noise goals are met. Focused, but long-term, core-noise research is carried out to enable the advanced high-efficiency small gas-generator subsystem, common to several N+3 conceptual designs, needed to meet NASA's technical challenges. Intermediate updates to prediction tools are implemented as the understanding of the source structure and engine-internal propagation effects is improved. The NASA Fundamental Aeronautics Program has the principal objective of overcoming today's national challenges in air transportation. The

  9. A noise assessment and prediction system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olsen, Robert O.; Noble, John M.

    1990-01-01

    A system has been designed to provide an assessment of noise levels that result from testing activities at Aberdeen Proving Ground, Md. The system receives meteorological data from surface stations and an upper air sounding system. The data from these systems are sent to a meteorological model, which provides forecasting conditions for up to three hours from the test time. The meteorological data are then used as input into an acoustic ray trace model which projects sound level contours onto a two-dimensional display of the surrounding area. This information is sent to the meteorological office for verification, as well as the range control office, and the environmental office. To evaluate the noise level predictions, a series of microphones are located off the reservation to receive the sound and transmit this information back to the central display unit. The computer models are modular allowing for a variety of models to be utilized and tested to achieve the best agreement with data. This technique of prediction and model validation will be used to improve the noise assessment system.

  10. Jet Noise Research at NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henderson, Brenda

    2008-01-01

    A presentation outlining current jet noise work at NASA was given at the NAVAIR Noise Workshop. Jet noise tasks in the Supersonics project of the Fundamental Aeronautics program were highlighted. The presentation gave an overview of developing jet noise reduction technologies and noise prediction capabilities. Advanced flow and noise diagnostic tools were also presented.

  11. Judgments of aircraft noise in a traffic noise background

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Powell, C. A.; Rice, C. G.

    1975-01-01

    An investigation was conducted to determine subjective response to aircraft noise in different road traffic backgrounds. In addition, two laboratory techniques for presenting the aircraft noise with the background noise were evaluated. For one technique, the background noise was continuous over an entire test session; for the other, the background noise level was changed with each aircraft noise during a session. Subjective response to aircraft noise was found to decrease with increasing background noise level, for a range of typical indoor noise levels. Subjective response was found to be highly correlated with the Noise Pollution Level (NPL) measurement scale.

  12. Hot topics in noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stinson, Michael R.

    2003-10-01

    Our world continues to be a noisy place and the challenge to ``increase and diffuse knowledge of noise propagation, passive and active noise control, and the effects of noise'' remains. In the last several years, noise in the classroom has emerged as one of the hotter topics: Considerable progress has been made in the underpinning research, the formulation of recommendations, and the process of educating society on the social and personal impact of inadequate acoustical conditions in classrooms. The establishment of the ANSI S12.60-2002 standard for classroom acoustics was a milestone event. Noise in cities and the understanding of our soundscapes are subjects of ongoing significance. The development of standards and regulations is a continuing process, with urban community noise regulations, aviation noise, and the preservation of natural quiet in national parks being of current concern. New methods to reduce noise are under development and include passive and active methods of noise control, techniques for modeling the performance of noise barriers, and approaches for designing product sound quality.

  13. Noise Mapping and Annoyance.

    PubMed

    Knauss, D.

    2002-01-01

    The EC has published a Green Paper on noise policy in the EU and has issued a directive on the assessment and reduction of environmental noise. This directive will make noise mapping mandatory for cities with at least 250.000 inhabitants. Due to the development in computer technology it is possible to calculate noise maps for large urban areas using the available data on buildings, ground profile, road and rail traffic. Examples for noise mapping are Birmingham (GB), Linz (A) and various German cities. Based on noise maps and empirical data on the correlation between annoyance and noise levels annoyance maps for different sources (rail, road, aircraft) can be calculated. Under the assumption that the annoyance for the different sources are only weakly correlated, a combined annoyance map can be calculated. In a second step using the distribution of the population the actual number of annoyed people can be evaluated. This analysis can be used, for example, to identify noise hot spots and to assess the impact of major traffic projects - roads, airports- on the noise situation as well as the impact on the population. Furthermore, the combined annoyance maps can be used to investigate on health effects and to check whether or not empirical correlations between annoyance and noise levels are sufficiently correct.

  14. Office-based anesthesia.

    PubMed

    Treasure, Trevor; Bennett, Jeffrey

    2007-02-01

    The practice of office-based oral and maxillofacial surgery is continuously expanding and involves the management of a diverse population in regards to the surgical procedures performed within the office and the age and medical health of the patients treated within the office. Comfort, cooperation, and hemodynamic stability are critical to satisfactorily accomplishing the surgical procedure. Various anesthetic techniques are used, including local anesthesia, anxiolysis, analgesia and sedation, and general anesthesia. The topic is vast and too extensive to be fully discussed in this article. The intent of this article is to provide a discussion of some fundamental concepts that can optimize anesthetic safety and care.

  15. Can personal control over the physical environment ease distractions in office workplaces?

    PubMed

    Lee, So Young; Brand, J L

    2010-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether perception of control over aspects of the physical environment reduces the previously documented negative effects of distraction in office workplaces on perceived job performance. This study analysed 384 questionnaires collected from employees in the corporate offices of three manufacturing companies in Michigan, USA. The role of a sense of personal control over physical environment features as a mediating influence between work attitudes and work outcomes was explored using structural equations modelling. The results showed that workers' sense of control over physical aspects of their work environment mediated the relationship between perceived distractions and perceived job performance. These results suggest that increasing perceptions of personal control over features of the physical work environment may serve to link work attitudes and work outcomes. STATEMENT OF RELEVANCE: Open-plan offices are common throughout the world, making this study relevant for researchers and practitioners alike. These results suggest that if employees can adjust aspects of their office work environment, this may increase their sense of personal control, reducing the effects of distractions, a frequent complaint in open offices.

  16. Optical Dipole Noise.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bacon, Allan Mclain

    1995-01-01

    Optical dipole fluctuations in atoms play an important role in diverse physical phenomena: they limit the signal to background ratio in spectroscopic measurements, and thus limit the accuracy of atomic clocks; they determine the minimum temperature that can be obtained in laser cooling and in optical traps; and, they place a limit on squeezed state experiments. Although there have been many theoretical and experimental studies of noise in radiating atomic systems, the previous work has not provided a complete physical picture of the distinct sources of optical dipole noise. Hence, a detailed study of optical dipole fluctuations in a simple radiating system is of fundamental and pedagogical value. This dissertation presents measurements of optical dipole noise in a particularly simple system consisting of long-lived, coherently driven two-level atoms in an atomic beam. We use atoms with a long radiative lifetime, because the small spontaneous emission rate permits analysis of the noise spectra in terms of a simple fluctuating Bloch vector picture, without decay. The observed noise spectra exhibit manifestly different structure for radiation which is in-phase or out-of-phase with the driving field. The spectra and corresponding analysis afford clear insights into the roles played by three distinct sources of atomic noise: Spontaneous emission, phase-dependent Bloch vector projection noise, and phase-dependent mean dipole Poisson noise. Spontaneous emission and phase-dependent Bloch vector projection noise arise from quantum fluctuations in the optical dipole moment of single atoms. Phase-dependent mean dipole Poisson noise arises from fluctuations in the number of radiating atoms. Two novel experimental techniques permit sensitive measurement of optical dipole noise. First, the signals from two identically prepared experimental regions are subtracted. This method cancels the excess noise in the measured quadrature signal in addition to canceling the excess noise in

  17. Industrial noise level study in a wheat processing factory in ilorin, nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibrahim, I.; Ajao, K. R.; Aremu, S. A.

    2016-05-01

    An industrial process such as wheat processing generates significant noise which can cause adverse effects on workers and the general public. This study assessed the noise level at a wheat processing mill in Ilorin, Nigeria. A portable digital sound level meter HD600 manufactured by Extech Inc., USA was used to determine the noise level around various machines, sections and offices in the factory at pre-determined distances. Subjective assessment was also mode using a World Health Organization (WHO) standard questionnaire to obtain information regarding noise ratings, effect of noise on personnel and noise preventive measures. The result of the study shows that the highest noise of 99.4 dBA was recorded at a pressure blower when compared to other machines. WHO Class-4 hearing protector is recommended for workers on the shop floor and room acoustics should be upgraded to absorb some sounds transmitted to offices.

  18. Propulsion systems noise technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feiler, C. E.

    1978-01-01

    Turbofan engine noise research relevant to conventional aircraft is discussed. In the area of fan noise, static to flight noise differences were discussed and data were presented for two different ways of simulating flight behavior. Experimental results from a swept rotor fan design are presented which show that this concept has potential for reducing the multiple-pure-tone or buzz-saw noise related to the shock waves on a fan operating at supersonic tip speeds. Acoustic suppressor research objectives centered around the effect of the wave system generated by the fan stage that is the input to the treatment. A simplifying and unifying parameter, mode cutoff ratio was described. Results are presented which show that suppressor performance can be improved if the input wave is more precisely described. In jet noise, calculated results showing the potential noise reduction from the use of internal mixer nozzles rather than separate flow nozzles are presented.

  19. Noise and gastric secretion.

    PubMed

    Tomei, F; Papaleo, B; Baccolo, T P; Persechino, B; Spanò, G; Rosati, M V

    1994-09-01

    In view of the increasing incidence of diseases such as gastritis and ulcers in workers exposed to noise, we assessed whether noise does in fact affect gastric secretion. Then, considering the conflicting findings published on the effects of noise on gastric secretion, we also investigated whether the response was related to differences in baseline secretion, and whether it was further modified by a hydroalcoholic meal. We studied 50 dyspeptic subjects engaged in various types of work but not occupationally exposed to noise. They were exposed to a "pink noise" stimulus of 95 dB administered through earphones, lasting 15 minutes. Gastric secretion sometimes remained unchanged, sometimes increased, or sometimes even decreased in relation to the baseline hydrochloric acid secretion. The hydroalcoholic meal did not generally modify the effects of noise. These findings might help explain the differences in previous reports on this question.

  20. Commercial aircraft noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, M. J.

    The history of aircraft noise control development is traced with an eye to forecasting the future. Noise control became imperative with the advent of the first generation of commercial jet aircraft, which were extremely loud. The steady increases in the size of turbofans have nearly matched the progress in noise reduction capabilities in recent years. Only 5 dB of reduction in fleet noise has been achieved since early standards were met. Current engine design is concentrated on increasing fuel efficiency rather than lowering noise emissions. Further difficulties exist because of continued flights with older aircraft. Gains in noise reduction have been made mainly by decreasing exhaust velocities from 600-700 m/sec to 300-400 m/sec. New techniques being explored comprise mixing the core and bypass flows, interaction tone control, reduction of broadband sources, development of acoustic liner technology and alterations in the number of fan blades and stage spacing.

  1. Poultry Plant Noise Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    A demonstration conducted last winter at the Tip Top Poultry Plant intended to show poultry plant managers from all over the U.S. potential solutions to the problem of plant noise. Plastic covers used over sound absorbing materials need to meet cleanability requirements, high- pressure water cleaning and other harsh maintenance procedures peculiar to the poultry processing industry. For the demonstration, Fiber Flex, Inc. manufactured and donated 750 noise panels; Owens-Corning Fiberglas Corporation donated the fiberglas cores; and the cover material was purchased from Howe and Bainbridge. The Engineering Experiment Station (EES) conducted before and after noise surveys and is evaluating the effect of noise reduction on turnover and productivity in the demonstration plant. EES plans to conduct a noise abatement workshop and update a handbook to help poultry processors with noise problems. EES study and demonstration may be applicable to other food processing plants where similar sanitary constraints exist.

  2. Understanding Slat Noise Sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khorrami, Medhi R.

    2003-01-01

    Model-scale aeroacoustic tests of large civil transports point to the leading-edge slat as a dominant high-lift noise source in the low- to mid-frequencies during aircraft approach and landing. Using generic multi-element high-lift models, complementary experimental and numerical tests were carefully planned and executed at NASA in order to isolate slat noise sources and the underlying noise generation mechanisms. In this paper, a brief overview of the supporting computational effort undertaken at NASA Langley Research Center, is provided. Both tonal and broadband aspects of slat noise are discussed. Recent gains in predicting a slat s far-field acoustic noise, current shortcomings of numerical simulations, and other remaining open issues, are presented. Finally, an example of the ever-expanding role of computational simulations in noise reduction studies also is given.

  3. Poultry Plant Noise Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1982-01-01

    A demonstration conducted last winter at the Tip Top Poultry Plant intended to show poultry plant managers from all over the U.S. potential solutions to the problem of plant noise. Plastic covers used over sound absorbing materials need to meet cleanability requirements, high- pressure water cleaning and other harsh maintenance procedures peculiar to the poultry processing industry. For the demonstration, Fiber Flex, Inc. manufactured and donated 750 noise panels; Owens-Corning Fiberglas Corporation donated the fiberglas cores; and the cover material was purchased from Howe and Bainbridge. The Engineering Experiment Station (EES) conducted before and after noise surveys and is evaluating the effect of noise reduction on turnover and productivity in the demonstration plant. EES plans to conduct a noise abatement workshop and update a handbook to help poultry processors with noise problems. EES study and demonstration may be applicable to other food processing plants where similar sanitary constraints exist.

  4. 76 FR 13272 - Branch Offices

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Office of Thrift Supervision Branch Offices AGENCY: Office of Thrift Supervision (OTS), Treasury. ACTION... 1995, 44 U.S.C. 3507. The Office of Thrift Supervision within the Department of the Treasury...

  5. Prediction of airframe noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hardin, J. C.; Fratello, D. J.; Hayden, R. E.; Kadman, Y.; Africk, S.

    1975-01-01

    Methods of predicting airframe noise generated by aircraft in flight under nonpowered conditions are discussed. Approaches to predictions relying on flyover data and component theoretical analyses are developed. A nondimensional airframe noise spectrum of various aircraft is presented. The spectrum was obtained by smoothing all the measured spectra to remove any peculiarities due to airframe protrusions, normalizing each spectra by its overall sound pressure level and a characteristics frequency, and averaging the spectra together. A chart of airframe noise sources is included.

  6. Office of the Chief Financial Officer Annual Report 2009

    SciTech Connect

    Fernandez, Jeffrey

    2009-12-15

    Presented is the 2009 Chief Financial Officer's Annual Report. The data included in this report has been compiled from the Budget Office, the Controller, Procurement and Property Management and the Sponsored Projects Office.

  7. 12. Exterior of main offices, stock room and payroll offices ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. Exterior of main offices, stock room and payroll offices view from yard (middle building formerly mold loft #1). Building at left is stock room desk and offices. - Barbour Boat Works, Tryon Palace Drive, New Bern, Craven County, NC

  8. Office proctology and sigmoidoscopy.

    PubMed

    Fraser, A

    1990-05-01

    Proctoscopy and sigmoidoscopy are readily acquired skills and should be routine office procedures for general practitioners. Correct positioning of the patient is of utmost importance to a successful examination.

  9. Planning for Office Automation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mick, Colin K.

    1983-01-01

    Outlines a practical approach to planning for office automation termed the "Focused Process Approach" (the "what" phase, "how" phase, "doing" phase) which is a synthesis of the problem-solving and participatory planning approaches. Thirteen references are provided. (EJS)

  10. National Vaccine Program Office

    MedlinePlus

    ... Track Your Community Vaccine Safety Scientific Agenda Newsletter Sign Up Subscribe to newsletter updates for the latest information ... National Vaccine Program Office. Email Connect With NVPO Sign Up for NVPO Updates To sign up for updates ...

  11. EPA's Industry Assistance Office.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruggiero, Michael A.

    1979-01-01

    The EPA's Industry Assistance Office, established under the Toxic Substance Control Act to help manufacturers and processors of chemical substances and mixtures to comply with the Act, is described. (BB)

  12. Landing gear noise attenuation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moe, Jeffrey W. (Inventor); Whitmire, Julia (Inventor); Kwan, Hwa-Wan (Inventor); Abeysinghe, Amal (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A landing gear noise attenuator mitigates noise generated by airframe deployable landing gear. The noise attenuator can have a first position when the landing gear is in its deployed or down position, and a second position when the landing gear is in its up or stowed position. The noise attenuator may be an inflatable fairing that does not compromise limited space constraints associated with landing gear retraction and stowage. A truck fairing mounted under a truck beam can have a compliant edge to allow for non-destructive impingement of a deflected fire during certain conditions.

  13. Structureborne noise in aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clevenson, S. A.; Metcalf, V. L.

    1987-01-01

    The amount of noise reaching an aircraft's interior by structureborne paths, when high levels of other noises are present, involves the measurement of transfer functions between vibrating levels on the wing and interior noise. The magnitude of the structureborne noise transfer function is established by exciting the aircraft with an electrodynamic shaker; a second transfer function is measured using the same sensor locations with the aircraft engines operating. Attention is given to the case of a twin-turboprop OV-10A aircraft; the resulting transfer function values at the discrete frequencies corresponding to the propeller blade passage frequency and its first four harmonics are tabulated and illustrated.

  14. Noise in biological circuits

    SciTech Connect

    Simpson, Michael L.; Allen, Michael S.; Cox, Chris D.; Dar, Roy D.; Karig, David K.; McCollum, James M.; Cooke, John F.

    2009-01-13

    Noise biology focuses on the sources, processing, and biological consequences of the inherent stochastic fluctuations in molecular transitions or interactions that control cellular behavior. These fluctuations are especially pronounced in small systems where the magnitudes of the fluctuations approach or exceed the mean value of the molecular population. Noise biology is an essential component of nanomedicine where the communication of information is across a boundary that separates small synthetic and biological systems that are bound by their size to reside in environments of large fluctuations. Here we review the fundamentals of the computational, analytical, and experimental approaches to noise biology. We review results that show that the competition between the benefits of low noise and those of low population has resulted in the evolution of genetic system architectures that produce an uneven distribution of stochasticity across the molecular components of cells and, in some cases, use noise to drive biological function. We review the exact and approximate approaches to gene circuit noise analysis and simulation, and reviewmany of the key experimental results obtained using flow cytometry and time-lapse fluorescent microscopy. In addition, we consider the probative value of noise with a discussion of using measured noise properties to elucidate the structure and function of the underlying gene circuit. Lastly, we conclude with a discussion of the frontiers of and significant future challenges for noise biology.

  15. Reliability, synchrony and noise

    PubMed Central

    Ermentrout, G. Bard; Galán, Roberto F.; Urban, Nathaniel N.

    2008-01-01

    The brain is noisy. Neurons receive tens of thousands of highly fluctuating inputs and generate spike trains that appear highly irregular. Much of this activity is spontaneous—uncoupled to overt stimuli or motor outputs—leading to questions about the functional impact of this noise. Although noise is most often thought of as disrupting patterned activity and interfering with the encoding of stimuli, recent theoretical and experimental work has shown that noise can play a constructive role—leading to increased reliability or regularity of neuronal firing in single neurons and across populations. These results raise fundamental questions about how noise can influence neural function and computation. PMID:18603311

  16. Understanding jet noise.

    PubMed

    Karabasov, S A

    2010-08-13

    Jets are one of the most fascinating topics in fluid mechanics. For aeronautics, turbulent jet-noise modelling is particularly challenging, not only because of the poor understanding of high Reynolds number turbulence, but also because of the extremely low acoustic efficiency of high-speed jets. Turbulent jet-noise models starting from the classical Lighthill acoustic analogy to state-of-the art models were considered. No attempt was made to present any complete overview of jet-noise theories. Instead, the aim was to emphasize the importance of sound generation and mean-flow propagation effects, as well as their interference, for the understanding and prediction of jet noise.

  17. Sounds and Noises. A Position Paper on Noise Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapman, Thomas L.

    This position paper focuses on noise pollution and the problems and solutions associated with this form of pollution. The paper is divided into the following five sections: Noise and the Ear, Noise Measurement, III Effects of Noise, Acoustics and Action, and Programs and Activities. The first section identifies noise and sound, the beginnings of…

  18. Development of a new computer system for aircraft noise prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raney, J. P.

    1975-01-01

    The paper presents an overview of the activities of NASA's Aircraft Noise Prediction Office (ANOPO). The principal goal of ANOPO is to develop a comprehensive, user-oriented, Aircraft Noise Prediction Program (ANOPP). ANOPO's activities in support of ANOPP development are briefly discussed. They include acquisition, implementation, and evaluation of an in-house, interim collection of programs and implementation of a plan for acquiring, in the form of Key Technology Documents, state-of-the-art methodology for aircraft noise prediction. The paper is primarily devoted to a presentation of the general architecture and functional capability planned for ANOPP together with the rationale supporting major design decisions.

  19. Jet noise suppression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gliebe, P. R.; Brausch, J. F.; Majjigi, R. K.; Lee, R.

    1991-08-01

    The objectives of this chapter are to review and summarize the jet noise suppression technology, to provide a physical and theoretical model to explain the measured jet noise suppression characteristics of different concepts, and to provide a set of guidelines for evolving jet noise suppression designs. The underlying principle for all jet noise suppression devices is to enhance rapid mixing (i.e., diffusion) of the jet plume by geometric and aerothermodynamic means. In the case of supersonic jets, the shock-cell broadband noise reduction is effectively accomplished by the elimination or mitigation of the shock-cell structure. So far, the diffusion concepts have predominantly concentrated on jet momentum and energy (kinetic and thermal) diffusion, in that order, and have yielded better noise reduction than the simple conical nozzles. A critical technology issue that needs resolution is the effect of flight on the noise suppression potential of mechanical suppressor nozzles. A more thorough investigation of this mechanism is necessary for the successful development and design of an acceptable noise suppression device for future high-speed civil transports.

  20. Jet Noise Suppression

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gliebe, P. R.; Brausch, J. F.; Majjigi, R. K.; Lee, R.

    1991-01-01

    The objectives of this chapter are to review and summarize the jet noise suppression technology, to provide a physical and theoretical model to explain the measured jet noise suppression characteristics of different concepts, and to provide a set of guidelines for evolving jet noise suppression designs. The underlying principle for all jet noise suppression devices is to enhance rapid mixing (i.e., diffusion) of the jet plume by geometric and aerothermodynamic means. In the case of supersonic jets, the shock-cell broadband noise reduction is effectively accomplished by the elimination or mitigation of the shock-cell structure. So far, the diffusion concepts have predominantly concentrated on jet momentum and energy (kinetic and thermal) diffusion, in that order, and have yielded better noise reduction than the simple conical nozzles. A critical technology issue that needs resolution is the effect of flight on the noise suppression potential of mechanical suppressor nozzles. A more thorough investigation of this mechanism is necessary for the successful development and design of an acceptable noise suppression device for future high-speed civil transports.

  1. Noise Pollution, Teachers' Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Donnell, Patrick A.; Lavaroni, Charles W.

    One of three in a series about pollution, this teacher's guide for a unit on noise pollution is designed for use in junior high school grades. It offers suggestions for extending the information and activities contained in the textual material for students. Chapter 1 discusses the problem of noise pollution and involves students in processes of…

  2. Speech communications in noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    The physical characteristics of speech, the methods of speech masking measurement, and the effects of noise on speech communication are investigated. Topics include the speech signal and intelligibility, the effects of noise on intelligibility, the articulation index, and various devices for evaluating speech systems.

  3. Speech communications in noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1984-07-01

    The physical characteristics of speech, the methods of speech masking measurement, and the effects of noise on speech communication are investigated. Topics include the speech signal and intelligibility, the effects of noise on intelligibility, the articulation index, and various devices for evaluating speech systems.

  4. Sounding Off about Noise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crumpton, Michael A.

    2005-01-01

    Noise in a community college library can be part of the nature of the environment. It can also become a huge distraction for those who see the library as their sanctuary for quiet study and review of resources. This article describes the steps that should be taken by library staff in order to be proactive about noise and the library environment,…

  5. Speech communications in noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    The physical characteristics of speech, the methods of speech masking measurement, and the effects of noise on speech communication are investigated. Topics include the speech signal and intelligibility, the effects of noise on intelligibility, the articulation index, and various devices for evaluating speech systems.

  6. Noise: The Ignored Contaminant

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Maurice H.

    1977-01-01

    Noise is the single most omnipresent noxious contaminant in the American environment, yet little attention has been paid to its dangers and relatively small amounts of money spent to control it. Compares the effects and management of hearing impairment due to noise with those resulting from other causes. (Editor)

  7. 77 FR 4616 - Approval of Noise Compatibility Program for Kona International Airport at Keahole, Keahole, North...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-30

    ... District Office, 300 Ala Moana Boulevard, Room 7-128, Honolulu, Hawaii, telephone number (808) 541-1232... airport noise compatibility program are delineated in FAR Part 150, section 150.5. Approval is not...

  8. Helicopter noise certification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kearsey, P. R.

    The paper describes the noise certification requirements for helicopters adopted by ICAO in 1981 and points out differences between the ICAO standards and the American requirements. Described in detail are the reference procedures for take-off, overflight, and approach; the noise limits; test procedures; the noise unit; the adjustment to test data; computations of noise certification levels; and validation of the noise certification standard. A simplified scheme, agreed upon at the December 1991 meeting of the ICAO Committee on Aviation Environmental Protection, applicable to helicopters with a take-off mass of less than 2730 kg, is described. The scheme uses the sound exposure level (SEL) as the unit of measure, thereby eliminating the need for one third octave analysis and enabling the use of an integrating sound level meter which will give the measured SEL directly.

  9. Noise in coevolving networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diakonova, Marina; Eguíluz, Víctor M.; San Miguel, Maxi

    2015-09-01

    Coupling dynamics of the states of the nodes of a network to the dynamics of the network topology leads to generic absorbing and fragmentation transitions. The coevolving voter model is a typical system that exhibits such transitions at some critical rewiring. We study the robustness of these transitions under two distinct ways of introducing noise. Noise affecting all the nodes destroys the absorbing-fragmentation transition, giving rise in finite-size systems to two regimes: bimodal magnetization and dynamic fragmentation. Noise targeting a fraction of nodes preserves the transitions but introduces shattered fragmentation with its characteristic fraction of isolated nodes and one or two giant components. Both the lack of absorbing state for homogeneous noise and the shift in the absorbing transition to higher rewiring for targeted noise are supported by analytical approximations.

  10. Jet Noise Research at NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henderson, Brenda S.; Huff,Dennis

    2009-01-01

    A presentation outlining current jet noise work at NASA was given to the Naval Research Advisory Committee. Jet noise tasks in the Supersonics project of the Fundamental Aeronautics program were highlighted. The presentation gave an overview of developing jet noise reduction technologies and noise prediction capabilities. Advanced flow and noise diagnostic tools were also presented.

  11. Pediatric office emergencies.

    PubMed

    Klig, Jean E; O'Malley, Patricia J

    2007-10-01

    An emergency in the office setting can be problematic without adequate staff, support, tools, and protocols. Though many emergencies are not immediately life-threatening, one risks the 'worst case scenario' occurring if not adequately prepared. Pediatric patients are prone to respiratory distress and compromise in many emergencies, and can rapidly decompensate without adequate support. A review of the history of emergency medical services for children and the framework for office emergency preparedness offers insight into current challenges for primary care providers. Research has demonstrated that many primary care offices and clinics are ill prepared to handle common pediatric emergencies. Reliance on the Emergency Medical Services system is insufficient to assure optimal outcomes, especially given variations in the equipment, training, and experience of Emergency Medical Services providers in the care of children, and in remote areas where access may be delayed. Preparation and practice for office emergencies through 'mock code' exercises can increase practitioner confidence and reduce anxiety to perform life-saving care. Better outcomes for office emergencies can result from staff training, availability of appropriate equipment and medications, maintenance of skills via formal and informal practice, and pathways for expeditious transfer to a definitive care facility.

  12. Engine Validation of Noise and Emission Reduction Technology Phase I

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weir, Don (Editor)

    2008-01-01

    This final report has been prepared by Honeywell Aerospace, Phoenix, Arizona, a unit of Honeywell International, Inc., documenting work performed during the period December 2004 through August 2007 for the NASA Glenn Research Center, Cleveland, Ohio, under the Revolutionary Aero-Space Engine Research (RASER) Program, Contract No. NAS3-01136, Task Order 8, Engine Validation of Noise and Emission Reduction Technology Phase I. The NASA Task Manager was Dr. Joe Grady of the NASA Glenn Research Center. The NASA Contract Officer was Mr. Albert Spence of the NASA Glenn Research Center. This report is for a test program in which NASA funded engine validations of integrated technologies that reduce aircraft engine noise. These technologies address the reduction of engine fan and jet noise, and noise associated with propulsion/airframe integration. The results of these tests will be used by NASA to identify the engineering tradeoffs associated with the technologies that are needed to enable advanced engine systems to meet stringent goals for the reduction of noise. The objectives of this program are to (1) conduct system engineering and integration efforts to define the engine test-bed configuration; (2) develop selected noise reduction technologies to a technical maturity sufficient to enable engine testing and validation of those technologies in the FY06-07 time frame; (3) conduct engine tests designed to gain insight into the sources, mechanisms and characteristics of noise in the engines; and (4) establish baseline engine noise measurements for subsequent use in the evaluation of noise reduction.

  13. Effects of background noise on total noise annoyance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Willshire, K. F.

    1987-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to assess the effects of combined community noise sources on annoyance. The first experiment baseline relationships between annoyance and noise level for three community noise sources (jet aircraft flyovers, traffic and air conditioners) presented individually. Forty eight subjects evaluated the annoyance of each noise source presented at four different noise levels. Results indicated the slope of the linear relationship between annoyance and noise level for the traffic noise was significantly different from that of aircraft and of air conditioner noise, which had equal slopes. The second experiment investigated annoyance response to combined noise sources, with aircraft noise defined as the major noise source and traffic and air conditioner noise as background noise sources. Effects on annoyance of noise level differences between aircraft and background noise for three total noise levels and for both background noise sources were determined. A total of 216 subjects were required to make either total or source specific annoyance judgements, or a combination of the two, for a wide range of combined noise conditions.

  14. United States Army Officer Professional Development: Black Officers’ Perspectives.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-04-01

    majority contemporaries. These statistics pose interesting questions about black officer professional development and career progress. How has the Army...fared with the professional development of blacks within the officer corps? What is the perception of black officers currently serving within the...institution regarding the Army’s efforts to provide professional development for black officers? Do systemic prejudices toward blacks in the officer corps

  15. [The fetus and noise].

    PubMed

    Brezinka, C; Lechner, T; Stephan, K

    1997-01-01

    From 23 weeks of gestation some and from 28 weeks all healthy fetuses are capable of reacting to sound stimulation. The intrauterine acoustic environment is dominated by maternal sounds--heartbeat, breathing, the mother's voice, borborygmi and sounds caused by body movements. Background noise is never below 28 dB and can rise to 84 dB when the mother is singing. Noises that are meant to reach the fetus must be louder than the background noise and must be of low frequency as high frequency sounds are damped by maternal tissue. Vibroacoustic stimulation tests (VAST) have become popular in pregnancy surveillance over the last 20 years, mostly using an artificial larynx. Advantages and problems of the various VAST protocols in fetal monitoring are discussed in the light of animal experiments and clinical studies. Health legislation laws in most countries forbid pregnant women to work in surroundings with a high noise level (80 dB continuous noise and/or rapid impulse noise changes of 40 dB). Whereas regulations for pregnant women are easy to enforce in industry, pregnant women employed in discos or performing as musicians spend most of their working day exposed to noise impact higher than the recommended limit.

  16. Nature of orchestral noise.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Ian; Wilson, Wayne; Bradley, Andrew

    2008-08-01

    Professional orchestral musicians are at risk of exposure to excessive noise when at work. This is an industry-wide problem that threatens not only the hearing of orchestral musicians but also the way orchestras operate. The research described in this paper recorded noise levels within a professional orchestra over three years in order to provide greater insight to the orchestral noise environment; to guide future research into orchestral noise management and hearing conservation strategies; and to provide a basis for the future education of musicians and their managers. Every rehearsal, performance, and recording from May 2004 to May 2007 was monitored, with the woodwind, brass, and percussion sections monitored in greatest detail. The study recorded dBALEQ and dBC peak data, which are presented in graphical form with accompanying summarized data tables. The findings indicate that the principal trumpet, first and third horns, and principal trombone are at greatest risk of exposure to excessive sustained noise levels and that the percussion and timpani are at greatest risk of exposure to excessive peak noise levels. However, the findings also strongly support the notion that the true nature of orchestral noise is a great deal more complex than this simple statement would imply.

  17. Analyzing nocturnal noise stratification.

    PubMed

    Rey Gozalo, Guillermo; Barrigón Morillas, Juan Miguel; Gómez Escobar, Valentín

    2014-05-01

    Pollution associated to traffic can be considered as one of the most relevant pollution sources in our cities; noise is one of the major components of traffic pollution; thus, efforts are necessary to search adequate noise assessment methods and low pollution city designs. Different methods have been proposed for the evaluation of noise in cities, including the categorization method, which is based on the functionality concept. Until now, this method has only been studied (with encouraging results) for short-term, diurnal measurements, but nocturnal noise presents a behavior clearly different on respect to the diurnal one. In this work 45 continuous measurements of approximately one week each in duration are statistically analyzed to identify differences between the proposed categories. The results show that the five proposed categories highlight the noise stratification of the studied city in each period of the day (day, evening, and night). A comparison of the continuous measurements with previous short-term measurements indicates that the latter can be a good approximation of the former in diurnal period, reducing the resource expenditure for noise evaluation. Annoyance estimated from the measured noise levels was compared with the response of population obtained from a questionnaire with good agreement. The categorization method can yield good information about the distribution of a pollutant associated to traffic in our cities in each period of the day and, therefore, is a powerful tool for town planning and the design of pollution prevention policies.

  18. Noise and Phase Transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zhi; Yu, Clare C.

    2006-03-01

    Noise is present in many physical systems and is often viewed as a nuisance. Yet it can also be a probe of microscopic fluctuations. There have been indications recently that the noise in the resistivity increases in the vicinity of the metal-insulator transition. But what are the characteristics of the noise associated with well-understood first and second order phase transitions? It is well known that critical fluctuations are associated with second order phase transitions, but do these fluctuations lead to enhanced noise? We have addressed these questions using Monte Carlo simulations to study the noise in the 2D Ising model which undergoes a second order phase transition, and in the 5-state Potts model which undergoes a first order phase transition. We monitor these systems as the temperature drops below the critical temperature. At each temperature, after equilibration is established, we obtain the time series of quantities characterizing the properties of the system, i.e., the energy and magnetization per site. We apply different methods, such as the noise power spectrum, the Detrended Fluctuation Analysis (DFA) and the second spectrum of the noise, to analyze the fluctuations in these quantities.

  19. Broadband rotor noise analyses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    George, A. R.; Chou, S. T.

    1984-01-01

    The various mechanisms which generate broadband noise on a range of rotors studied include load fluctuations due to inflow turbulence, due to turbulent boundary layers passing the blades' trailing edges, and due to tip vortex formation. Existing analyses are used and extensions to them are developed to make more accurate predictions of rotor noise spectra and to determine which mechanisms are important in which circumstances. Calculations based on the various prediction methods in existing experiments were compared. The present analyses are adequate to predict the spectra from a wide variety of experiments on fans, full scale and model scale helicopter rotors, wind turbines, and propellers to within about 5 to 10 dB. Better knowledge of the inflow turbulence improves the accuracy of the predictions. Results indicate that inflow turbulence noise depends strongly on ambient conditions and dominates at low frequencies. Trailing edge noise and tip vortex noise are important at higher frequencies if inflow turbulence is weak. Boundary layer trailing edge noise, important, for large sized rotors, increases slowly with angle of attack but not as rapidly as tip vortex noise.

  20. Noise contaminated transmittance

    SciTech Connect

    Zardecki, A.; McVey, B.D.; Nelson, D.H.

    1997-09-01

    The authors compare the efficiency of a classifier based on probabilistic neural networks and the general least squares method. Both methods must accommodate noise due to uncertainty in the measured spectrum at each wavelength. The evaluation of both methods is based on a simulated transmittance spectrum, in which the received signal is supplemented by an additive admixture of noise. To obtain a realistic description of the noise model, they generate several hundred laser pulses for each wavelength under consideration. These pulses have a predetermined correlation matrix for different wavelengths; furthermore, they are composed of three components accounting for the randomness of the observed spectrum. The first component is the correlated 1/f noise; the second component is due to uncorrelated 1/f noise; the third one is the uncorrelated white noise. The probabilistic neural network fails to retrieve the species concentration correctly for large noise levels; on the other hand, its predictions being confined to a fixed number of concentration bins, the network produces relatively small variances. To a large extent, the general least square method avoids the false alarms. It reproduces the average concentrations correctly; however, the concentration variances can be large.

  1. Are biophilic-designed site office buildings linked to health benefits and high performing occupants?

    PubMed

    Gray, Tonia; Birrell, Carol

    2014-11-26

    This paper discusses the first phase of a longitudinal study underway in Australia to ascertain the broad health benefits of specific types of biophilic design for workers in a building site office. A bespoke site design was formulated to include open plan workspace, natural lighting, ventilation, significant plants, prospect and views, recycled materials and use of non-synthetic materials. Initial data in the first three months was gathered from a series of demographic questions and from interviews and observations of site workers. Preliminary data indicates a strong positive effect from incorporating aspects of biophilic design to boost productivity, ameliorate stress, enhance well-being, foster a collaborative work environment and promote workplace satisfaction, thus contributing towards a high performance workspace. The longitudinal study spanning over two years will track human-plant interactions in a biophilic influenced space, whilst also assessing the concomitant cognitive, social, psychological and physical health benefits for workers.

  2. Are Biophilic-Designed Site Office Buildings Linked to Health Benefits and High Performing Occupants?

    PubMed Central

    Gray, Tonia; Birrell, Carol

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses the first phase of a longitudinal study underway in Australia to ascertain the broad health benefits of specific types of biophilic design for workers in a building site office. A bespoke site design was formulated to include open plan workspace, natural lighting, ventilation, significant plants, prospect and views, recycled materials and use of non-synthetic materials. Initial data in the first three months was gathered from a series of demographic questions and from interviews and observations of site workers. Preliminary data indicates a strong positive effect from incorporating aspects of biophilic design to boost productivity, ameliorate stress, enhance well-being, foster a collaborative work environment and promote workplace satisfaction, thus contributing towards a high performance workspace. The longitudinal study spanning over two years will track human-plant interactions in a biophilic influenced space, whilst also assessing the concomitant cognitive, social, psychological and physical health benefits for workers. PMID:25431874

  3. 7 CFR 2.4 - General officers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Civil Rights; the General Counsel; the Inspector General; the Chief Financial Officer; the Chief Information Officer; the Judicial Officer; the Director, Office of Budget and Program Analysis; the...

  4. Fan Noise Test Facility

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1969-01-21

    The Fan Noise Test Facility built at the Lewis Research Center to obtain far-field noise data for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and General Electric Quiet Engine Program. The engine incorporated existing noise reduction methods into an engine of similar power to those that propelled the Boeing 707 or McDonnell-Douglas DC-8 airliner. The new the low-bypass ratio turbofan engines of the 1960s were inherently quieter than their turbojet counterparts, researchers had a better grasp of the noise generation problem, and new acoustic technologies had emerged. Lewis contracted General Electric in 1969 to build and aerodynamically test three experimental engines with 72-inch diameter fans. The engines were then brought to Lewis and tested with an acoustically treated nacelle. This Fan Noise Test Facility was built off of the 10- by 10-Foot Supersonic Wind Tunnel’s Main Compressor and Drive Building. Lewis researchers were able to isolate the fan’s noise during these initial tests by removing the core of the engine. The Lewis test rig drove engines to takeoff tip speeds of 1160 feet per second. The facility was later used to test a series of full-scale model fans and fan noise suppressors to be used with the quiet engine. NASA researchers predicted low-speed single-stage fans without inlet guide vanes and with large spacing between rotors and stators would be quieter. General Electric modified a TF39 turbofan engine by removing the the outer protion of the fan and spacing the blade rows of the inner portion. The tests revealed that the untreated version of the engine generated less noise than was anticipated, and the acoustically treated nacelle substantially reduced engine noise.

  5. School Resources Officers. Briefing Paper

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arkansas Safe Schools Initiative Division, 2001

    2001-01-01

    Most school resource officers (SROs) are employees of municipal or county police agencies who are permanently assigned to one or more schools. Known also as "School Safety Officers," "Community Outreach Officers," and "School Liaison Officers," SROs are not synonymous with school security or school police departments because of their multifaceted…

  6. Fourth Aircraft Interior Noise Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stephens, David G. (Compiler)

    1992-01-01

    The fourth in a series of NASA/SAE Interior Noise Workshops was held on May 19 and 20, 1992. The theme of the workshop was new technology and applications for aircraft noise with emphasis on source noise prediction; cabin noise prediction; cabin noise control, including active and passive methods; and cabin interior noise procedures. This report is a compilation of the presentations made at the meeting which addressed the above issues.

  7. Control of jet noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schreck, Stefan

    1992-01-01

    To investigate the possibility of active control of jet noise, knowledge of the noise generation mechanisms in natural jets is essential. Once these mechanisms are determined, active control can be used to manipulate the noise production processes. We investigated the evolution of the flow fields and the acoustic fields of rectangular and circular jets. A predominant flapping mode was found in the supersonic rectangular jets. We hope to increase the spreading of supersonic jets by active control of the flapping mode found in rectangular supersonic jets.

  8. Blown flap noise prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reddy, N. N.

    1978-01-01

    Theoretical and experimental developments of flow-surface interaction noise with a particular emphasis on blown-flap noise were reviewed. Several blown-flap noise prediction methods were evaluated by comparing predicted acoustic levels, directivity, and spectra with a recently obtained data base. A prediction method was selected and a detailed step-by-step description of this method was provided to develop a computer module to calculate one-third octave band frequency spectra at any given location in the far-field for under-the-wing and upper surface blown configurations as a function of geometric and operational parameters.

  9. Quantum phase slip noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semenov, Andrew G.; Zaikin, Andrei D.

    2016-07-01

    Quantum phase slips (QPSs) generate voltage fluctuations in superconducting nanowires. Employing the Keldysh technique and making use of the phase-charge duality arguments, we develop a theory of QPS-induced voltage noise in such nanowires. We demonstrate that quantum tunneling of the magnetic flux quanta across the wire yields quantum shot noise which obeys Poisson statistics and is characterized by a power-law dependence of its spectrum SΩ on the external bias. In long wires, SΩ decreases with increasing frequency Ω and vanishes beyond a threshold value of Ω at T →0 . The quantum coherent nature of QPS noise yields nonmonotonous dependence of SΩ on T at small Ω .

  10. Propfan noise propagation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    George, Albert R.; Sim, Ben WEL-C.

    1993-01-01

    The unconventional supersonic tip speed of advanced propellers has led to uncertainties about Propfan's noise acceptability and compliance with Federal Aviation Noise Regulation (FAR 36). Overhead flight testing of the Propfan with an SR-7L blade during 1989's Propfan Test Assessment (PTA) Program have shown unexpectedly high far-field sound pressure levels. This study here attempts to provide insights into the acoustics of a single-rotating propeller (SRP) with supersonic tip speed. At the same time, the role of the atmosphere in shaping the far-field noise characteristics is investigated.

  11. Hypermedicalization in White Noise.

    PubMed

    Benson, Josef

    2015-09-01

    The Nazis hijacked Germany's medical establishment and appropriated medical language to hegemonize their ideology. In White Noise, shifting medical information stifles the public into docility. In Nazi Germany the primacy of language and medical authority magnified the importance of academic doctors. The muddling of identities caused complex insecurities and the need for psychological doubles. In White Noise, Professor Gladney is driven by professional insecurities to enact a double in Murray. Through the manipulation of language and medical overreach the U.S., exemplified in the novel White Noise, has become a hypermedicalized society where the spirit of the Hippocratic Oath has eroded.

  12. Occupational Noise Exposure

    MedlinePlus

    ... Disaster Recovery Assistance USA.gov Disability.gov Plain Writing Act Recovery Act No Fear Act U.S. Office ... Disaster Recovery Assistance USA.gov Disability.gov Plain Writing Act Recovery Act No Fear Act U.S. Office ...

  13. Office of Cancer Genomics |

    Cancer.gov

    The mission of the NCI’s Office of Cancer Genomics (OCG) is to enhance the understanding of the molecular mechanisms of cancer, advance and accelerate genomics science and technology development, and efficiently translate the genomics data to improve cancer research, prevention, early detection, diagnosis and treatment.

  14. Officer Computer Utilization Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-03-01

    SIGNIFV11ANT @ YES PREVIOUSLY 0 00" for 0 months.)0 EXRML INFCN DYES BO0TH CURRENTLY AND PREVIOUSLY __________ -5- s- -js ! EC O : PESO A A JO BA K RO N INO...U SECO F: M This section asks questions about issues related to microcomputers, to include office automation and Information management. A

  15. Financing medical office buildings.

    PubMed

    Blake, J W

    1995-01-01

    This article discusses financing medical office buildings. In particular, financing and ownership options from a not-for-profit health care system perspective are reviewed, including use of tax-exempt debt, taxable debt, limited partnerships, sale, and real estate investment trusts (REITs).

  16. Office of the Ombudsman.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Federal Student Aid (ED), Washington, DC.

    This pamphlet describes the Federal Student Aid Ombudsman, an impartial resource to help customers resolve student loan concerns when other approaches fail. The ombudsman helps resolve discrepancies in loan balances and payments, and helps customers understand interest and collection charges. The office helps resolve issues related to income tax…

  17. Impressions of Psychotherapists' Offices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nasar, Jack L.; Devlin, Ann Sloan

    2011-01-01

    For counseling settings, research suggests that softness, personalization, and order might affect the experience and the perceived expertness, trustworthiness, and social attractiveness of the therapist. This article discusses exploratory studies on college students' perception of the counseling office environment and whether the likely client…

  18. The Mindful Development Officer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taft, Deb

    2012-01-01

    Delivering on a commitment to diversity in schools, colleges, and universities is a living, breathing endeavor for many members of the advancement community. While a diversity leadership agenda is set clearly from the top, advancement officers can and must play a critical role in this arena. Effective development and alumni leaders are uniquely…

  19. An Admissions Officer's Credentials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chronicle of Higher Education, 2007

    2007-01-01

    Marilee Jones has resigned as a dean of admissions at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology after admitting that she had misrepresented her academic degrees when first applying to work at the university in 1979. As one of the nation's most prominent admissions officers--and a leader in the movement to make the application process less…

  20. The Mindful Development Officer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taft, Deb

    2012-01-01

    Delivering on a commitment to diversity in schools, colleges, and universities is a living, breathing endeavor for many members of the advancement community. While a diversity leadership agenda is set clearly from the top, advancement officers can and must play a critical role in this arena. Effective development and alumni leaders are uniquely…

  1. Teamwork Improves Office Climate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winck, Susan K.

    1993-01-01

    The Smeal College of Business Administration at the Pennsylvania State University selected its advising center as the pilot unit for a continuous quality improvement project using Total Quality Management principles. It was found that a quality improvement culture evolves when team practices are carried into the everyday office environment.…

  2. Trends in Office Automation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Business Affairs, 1985

    1985-01-01

    Reports the major findings of a national survey of office professionals conducted by Honeywell Incorporated. When asked how they would spend $10,000 to increase their personal productivity, the majority of workers surveyed said they would buy a computer, software, or word processor. (MD)

  3. Office of Cancer Genomics |

    Cancer.gov

    The mission of the NCI’s Office of Cancer Genomics (OCG) is to enhance the understanding of the molecular mechanisms of cancer, advance and accelerate genomics science and technology development, and efficiently translate the genomics data to improve cancer research, prevention, early detection, diagnosis and treatment.

  4. Front Range Branch Officers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The Front Range Branch of AGU has installed officers for 1990: Ray Noble, National Center for Atmospheric Research, chair; Sherry Oaks, U.S. Geological Survey, chair-elect; Howard Garcia, NOAA, treasurer; Catharine Skokan, Colorado School of Mines, secretary. JoAnn Joselyn of NOAA is past chair. Members at large are Wallace Campbell, NOAA; William Neff, USGS; and Stephen Schneider, NCAR.

  5. Troubleshooting in Medical Offices

    PubMed Central

    Gillespie, A. B.

    1977-01-01

    Physicians usually go into practice with little or no instruction in how to manage their business affairs or organize their offices. Many questions, such as where to practice, whether to join a group and whether to incorporate, must be answered. Several sources of help are available, but nothing substitutes for knowledge of the basic principles outlined in this article.

  6. Impressions of Psychotherapists' Offices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nasar, Jack L.; Devlin, Ann Sloan

    2011-01-01

    For counseling settings, research suggests that softness, personalization, and order might affect the experience and the perceived expertness, trustworthiness, and social attractiveness of the therapist. This article discusses exploratory studies on college students' perception of the counseling office environment and whether the likely client…

  7. Reception and office organisation.

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, M D

    1989-05-20

    The reception area is central to efficient administrative procedures and is the embodiment of the style of a practice as regularly seen by every patient. Planning a reception office is not difficult but it should be done carefully to ensure that it is efficient and cost effective. In the second of his articles on practice management, Michael Wilkinson looks at the essentials.

  8. Cooperative Office Education Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clemson Univ., SC. Vocational Education Media Center.

    This manual, intended for inexperienced and experienced coordinators, school administrators, and guidance personnel, is designed to provide practical suggestions for initiating, developing, operating, coordinating, improving, and evaluating cooperative office education programs. Major content is presented primarily in outline form under the…

  9. Reduction of propeller noise by active noise control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bschorr, O.; Kubanke, D.

    1992-04-01

    Active noise control, a method of cancelling noise by means of interference with a secondary anti-noise source, is now in full development. The first commercial application of this technique is in the case of active electronically controlled head sets. The next step will be the active noise cancellation in air ducts and in passenger cabins. The aim of this paper is to assess the possibilities of the anti-noise technique for reducing propeller noise. First, by a mathematical simulation the theoretical noise reduction on the ground was calculated and found to be promising for further investigations. In the case of the periodic engine and propeller noise, for example, with only a single anti-noise source, the noise foot prints of the lower propeller harmonics can be reduced by up to 10 dB. In laboratory tests the theoretical values will be confirmed experimentally. For cancellation of the periodic noise one can use synchronous anti-noise generators. Compared with the engine and propeller noise the reduction of jet noise by the anti-noise technique is much more difficult. Therefore a sensor and controlling unit are necessary because of the stochastic nature of jet noise. Since aircraft noise is a severe problem, all methods are to be considered.

  10. Cochlear implant optimized noise reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mauger, Stefan J.; Arora, Komal; Dawson, Pam W.

    2012-12-01

    Noise-reduction methods have provided significant improvements in speech perception for cochlear implant recipients, where only quality improvements have been found in hearing aid recipients. Recent psychoacoustic studies have suggested changes to noise-reduction techniques specifically for cochlear implants, due to differences between hearing aid recipient and cochlear implant recipient hearing. An optimized noise-reduction method was developed with significantly increased temporal smoothing of the signal-to-noise ratio estimate and a more aggressive gain function compared to current noise-reduction methods. This optimized noise-reduction algorithm was tested with 12 cochlear implant recipients over four test sessions. Speech perception was assessed through speech in noise tests with three noise types; speech-weighted noise, 20-talker babble and 4-talker babble. A significant speech perception improvement using optimized noise reduction over standard processing was found in babble noise and speech-weighted noise and over a current noise-reduction method in speech-weighted noise. Speech perception in quiet was not degraded. Listening quality testing for noise annoyance and overall preference found significant improvements over the standard processing and over a current noise-reduction method in speech-weighted and babble noise types. This optimized method has shown significant speech perception and quality improvements compared to the standard processing and a current noise-reduction method.

  11. Cochlear implant optimized noise reduction.

    PubMed

    Mauger, Stefan J; Arora, Komal; Dawson, Pam W

    2012-12-01

    Noise-reduction methods have provided significant improvements in speech perception for cochlear implant recipients, where only quality improvements have been found in hearing aid recipients. Recent psychoacoustic studies have suggested changes to noise-reduction techniques specifically for cochlear implants, due to differences between hearing aid recipient and cochlear implant recipient hearing. An optimized noise-reduction method was developed with significantly increased temporal smoothing of the signal-to-noise ratio estimate and a more aggressive gain function compared to current noise-reduction methods. This optimized noise-reduction algorithm was tested with 12 cochlear implant recipients over four test sessions. Speech perception was assessed through speech in noise tests with three noise types; speech-weighted noise, 20-talker babble and 4-talker babble. A significant speech perception improvement using optimized noise reduction over standard processing was found in babble noise and speech-weighted noise and over a current noise-reduction method in speech-weighted noise. Speech perception in quiet was not degraded. Listening quality testing for noise annoyance and overall preference found significant improvements over the standard processing and over a current noise-reduction method in speech-weighted and babble noise types. This optimized method has shown significant speech perception and quality improvements compared to the standard processing and a current noise-reduction method.

  12. Airframe noise prediction evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yamamoto, Kingo J.; Donelson, Michael J.; Huang, Shumei C.; Joshi, Mahendra C.

    1995-01-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the accuracy and adequacy of current airframe noise prediction methods using available airframe noise measurements from tests of a narrow body transport (DC-9) and a wide body transport (DC-10) in addition to scale model test data. General features of the airframe noise from these aircraft and models are outlined. The results of the assessment of two airframe prediction methods, Fink's and Munson's methods, against flight test data of these aircraft and scale model wind tunnel test data are presented. These methods were extensively evaluated against measured data from several configurations including clean, slat deployed, landing gear-deployed, flap deployed, and landing configurations of both DC-9 and DC-10. They were also assessed against a limited number of configurations of scale models. The evaluation was conducted in terms of overall sound pressure level (OASPL), tone corrected perceived noise level (PNLT), and one-third-octave band sound pressure level (SPL).

  13. Noise and Hearing Protection

    MedlinePlus

    ... most pharmacies. Will I hear other people and machine problems if I wear hearing protectors? Just as ... hear the noises that signify an improperly functioning machine. However, most workers readily adjust to the quieter ...

  14. Noise Abatement Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    A former NASA employee who discovered a kind of plastic that soaked up energy, dampened vibrations, and was a good noise abatement material, founded a company to market noise deadening adhesives, sheets, panels and enclosures. Known as SMART products, they are 75-80% lighter than ordinary soundproofing material and have demonstrated a high degree of effectiveness. The company, Varian Associates, makes enclosures for high voltage terminals and other electronic system components, and easily transportable audiometric test booths.

  15. JPL noise control program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klascius, A. F.

    1975-01-01

    Exposures of personnel to noise pollution at the Jet Propulsion Laboratories, Pasadena, California, were investigated. As a result of the study several protective measures were taken: (1) employees exposed to noise hazards were required to wear ear-protection devices, (2) mufflers and air diversion devices were installed around the wind tunnels; and (3) all personnel that are required to wear ear protection are given annual audimeter tests.

  16. Nocturnal aircraft noise effects.

    PubMed

    Basner, M; Samel, A

    2004-01-01

    Noise protection associated with the construction and extension of airports in the Federal Republic of Germany has been regulated by the law for protection against aircraft noise since 1971. This legislation is due for revision because of different aspects. One aspect is the growth of air traffic which has led many airports to the limits of their capacity and in search of new ways of adaptation to the increasing demand for flight services. Another aspect is the increasing concern of the population about noise effects which has to be addressed by better protection against the effects of aircraft noise. The framework conditions of policy in terms of society as a whole, its health and economic environment need to be put into effect by political action. Science can contribute to this goal by performing noise effects research and by providing recommendations to the political body. However, it remains controversial, what measures are necessary or adequate to assure effective protection of the population against aircraft noise. This is particularly true for the protection of rest and sleep at night. The problem of finding a common basis for adequate recommendations is associated with (1) the low number of primary studies, which also exhibited highly variable results and assessments, (2) the handling of acoustic or psycho-acoustic dimensions for quantifying psychological or physiological reactions, and (3) the conception of how far preventive measures have to go to prove effective. With this in mind, the DLR Institute for Aerospace Medicine is conducting a large-scale, multi-stage study for investigating the acute effects of nocturnal aircraft noise on human sleep. This enterprise is implemented in the framework of the HGF/DLR project "Quiet Air Traffic" for developing sustainable assessment criteria for human-specific effects of aircraft noise at night.

  17. NASA Jet Noise Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henderson, Brenda

    2012-01-01

    The presentation highlights jet-noise research conducted in the Subsonic Fixed Wing, Supersonics, and Environmentally Responsible Aviation Projects in the Fundamental Aeronautics Program at NASA. The research efforts discussed include NASA's updated Aircraft NOise Prediction Program (ANOPP2), acoustic-analogy-based prediction tools, jet-surface-interaction studies, plasma-actuator investigations, N+2 Supersonics Validation studies, rectangular-jet experiments, twin-jet experiments, and Hybrid Wind Body (HWB) activities.

  18. Combustion Noise Investigation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-02-01

    from aircraft engines arm de- velc. ped and experimentally evaluated by conducting rig experiments and by comparing with data from se’.,_ full scale ...engines. Comparison of predictions with full scale engine data indicate that direct combus- tior noise is the dominant source for the P&WA engines...investigated. The dlirect combustion noise prediction system includes expressions for acoustic pow.,r level, peak frequency and full- scale engine acoustic

  19. Television noise reduction device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gordon, B. L.; Stamps, J. C. (Inventor)

    1975-01-01

    A noise reduction system that divides the color video signal into its luminance and chrominance components is reported. The luminance component of a given frame is summed with the luminance component of at least one preceding frame which was stored on a disc recorder. The summation is carried out so as to achieve a signal amplitude equivalent to that of the original signal. The averaged luminance signal is then recombined with the chrominance signal to achieve a noise-reduced television signal.

  20. 76 FR 5391 - Office of Biotechnology Activities, Office of Science Policy, Office of the Director

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-31

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Office of Biotechnology Activities, Office of Science Policy, Office of the Director Amended Notice of Meeting Notice is hereby given of a change in the...

  1. Noise Measurements of the VAIIPR Fan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mendoza, Jeff; Weir, Don

    2012-01-01

    This final report has been prepared by Honeywell Aerospace, Phoenix, Arizona, a unit of Honeywell International, Inc., documenting work performed during the period September 2004 through November 2005 for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Glenn Research Center, Cleveland, Ohio, under the Revolutionary Aero-Space Engine Research (RASER) Program, Contract No. NAS3- 01136, Task Order 6, Noise Measurements of the VAIIPR Fan. The NASA Task Manager was Dr. Joe Grady, NASA Glenn Research Center, Mail Code 60-6, Cleveland, Ohio 44135. The NASA Contract Officer was Mr. Albert Spence, NASA Glenn Research Center, Mail Code 60-6, Cleveland, Ohio 44135. This report focuses on the evaluation of internal fan noise as generated from various inflow disturbances based on measurements made from a circumferential array of sensors located near the fan and sensors upstream of a serpentine inlet.

  2. Aircraft noise - Different ways to monitor the noise load

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bekebrede, G.

    Measures taken by the Dutch government to reduce aircraft-noise disturbances including the establishment of noise zones in which subsequent building is forbidden, while already existing homes are provided with noise insulation are discussed. To ensure accurate noise monitoring, the following recommendations were made by the NLR: (1) regular noise load calculations, utilizing aircraft noise and performance data, the air traffic mix, and flight route information; (2) flight track monitoring, performed by a computerized Flight Track and Aircraft Noise Monitoring System which identifies all aircraft deviating from the prescribed track (i.e., flying over congested regions); and (3) actual noise monitoring, to guard the noise level at a specific noise-sensitive area in close proximity to the airfield, such as a hospital.

  3. 75 FR 15713 - Office of Biotechnology Activities; Office of Science Policy; Office of the Director; Notice of a...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-30

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Office of Biotechnology Activities; Office of Science..., Advisory Committee Coordinator, Office of Biotechnology Activities, Office of Science Policy, Office of the... of Biotechnology Activities, National Institutes of Health. BILLING CODE 4140-01-P ...

  4. Acoustic Characteristics of Sentences Produced in Noise

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-09-01

    MONITORING OPOANIZATION REPORT NUMIIIIR( S ) AAMRL-TR-89- 036 1 ao.rNAM OF P1 ORM IN G ORGANIZATION 6 .OFFICE SY B L U , NAME OF MNITORIN G 6ORANIZA7IONary...and aerodynamic characteristics of pharyngeal consonants in Iraqi Arabic," Phonetica, 44, 156-172. 4. Cyphers, D . S ., Kassel, R. H., Kaufman, D . Hd...AAMRL-TR-89-036 AD-A235 344UIl IIIIII 11111111 liii III!l ~ l!l ACOUSTIC CHARACTERISTICS OF SENTENCES PRODUCED IN NOISE Z, S . Bond Thomas J. Moore

  5. Environmental issues: noise, rail noise, and high-speed rail

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, F.L.; Welland, J.D.; Bragdon, C.R.; Houtman, J.W.; Immers, B.H.

    1987-01-01

    The six papers in the report deal with the following areas: the effect of noise barriers on the market value of adjacent residential properties; control of airport- and aircraft-related noise in the United States; a traffic-assignment model to reduce noise annoyance in urban networks; a survey of railroad occupational noise sources; a prediction procedure for rail transportation ground-borne noise and vibration; and high-speed rail in California: the dream, the process, and the reality.

  6. Noise Hazard Evaluation Sound Level Data on Noise Sources

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-01-01

    AD-A021 465 NOISE HAZARD EfALUATION SOUND LEVEL DATA ON NOISE SOURCES Jeffrey Goldstein Army Environmental Hygiene Agency Prepared for: Army Health ...A. Noise Hazard Evaluation. B. Engineering Noise Control. C. Health Education. D. Audiometry. E. Hearing Protection. This technical guide concerns the...SOUND LEVEL DATA OF NOISE SOURCES Approved for public release, distribution unlimited. jGI4A C4C SENTINEL HEALTH I 5 US ARMY ENVIROIN.MENTAL HYGIENE

  7. Greening Government Offices

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-05-01

    labeled products are generally 20 percent more water- efficient than similar products  Green Seal Assesses a broad range of environmental impacts ... environmental impacts of paper production and dis posal. The underlying data are updated regularly. v mGo Links » v...Purchasing green office products  Reducing fuel consumption  Saving water and energy  Calculating environmental benefits  Eliciting behavior change

  8. Marine Officer Attrition Model.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-06-01

    DISTRISUTION STATEMEANT (.1 lAg.Rpo) * Approved for public release; Distribution unlimited * I7. DISTRIGUTION STATEMENT (of the abstract @new A 01.0 2 ...Informat y Scitnces 2 ’I.I AISISACT Fredicting officer attrition is a major difficulty in the Elamaing, Programming, and Budgeting Process. The marine...For °. **** A vjl lbiitv Cod*S i S z,.npl/r. .** ~. .~d .’. **~ * * % >.,. >~. . * * ~****** * *** *- **.*%** 21JBLE CP CGITZITS 2 |2157CDOCTIONl

  9. Automated office blood pressure.

    PubMed

    Myers, Martin G; Godwin, Marshall

    2012-05-01

    Manual blood pressure (BP) is gradually disappearing from clinical practice with the mercury sphygmomanometer now considered to be an environmental hazard. Manual BP is also subject to measurement error on the part of the physician/nurse and patient-related anxiety which can result in poor quality BP measurements and office-induced (white coat) hypertension. Automated office (AO) BP with devices such as the BpTRU (BpTRU Medical Devices, Coquitlam, BC) has already replaced conventional manual BP in many primary care practices in Canada and has also attracted interest in other countries where research studies using AOBP have been undertaken. The basic principles of AOBP include multiple readings taken with a fully automated recorder with the patient resting alone in a quiet room. When these principles are followed, office-induced hypertension is eliminated and AOBP exhibits a much stronger correlation with the awake ambulatory BP as compared with routine manual BP measurements. Unlike routine manual BP, AOBP correlates as well with left ventricular mass as does the awake ambulatory BP. AOBP also simplifies the definition of hypertension in that the cut point for a normal AOBP (< 135/85 mm Hg) is the same as for the awake ambulatory BP and home BP. This article summarizes the currently available evidence supporting the use of AOBP in routine clinical practice and proposes an algorithm in which AOBP replaces manual BP for the diagnosis and management of hypertension.

  10. Disturbance caused by aircraft noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Josse, R.

    1980-01-01

    Noise pollution caused by the presence of airfields adjacent to residential areas is studied. Noise effects on the sleep of residents near airports and the degree of the residents noise tolerance are evaluated. What aircraft noises are annoying and to what extent the annoyance varies with sound level are discussed.

  11. Stable low noise voltage source

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lutes, G. F.

    1978-01-01

    Hum and noise on power sources can have a significant effect on system noise. Filtering to achieve low hum and noise is accomplished at low current levels. The diode regulator circuit is described which is ideal for this type of filtering. Hum and noise rejection is achieved with good output voltage stability in a small, low-cost, reliable circuit.

  12. Making noise comfortable for people

    SciTech Connect

    Leventhall, H.G.; Wise, S.S.

    1998-10-01

    Typical HVAC noise may produce an uncomfortable environment, leading to the associated problems of general dissatisfaction and reduced productivity. It is not sufficient to have good thermal, lighting, and air cleanliness conditions if the noise is disturbing. In this paper, noise comfort is considered, with special emphasis on the developing criteria for low-frequency noise.

  13. 40. PRESIDENT, OFFICERS AND DEPARTMENT HEADS MEET IN PRESIDENT'S OFFICE, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    40. PRESIDENT, OFFICERS AND DEPARTMENT HEADS MEET IN PRESIDENT'S OFFICE, PUBLISHED IN A BOOK, 'A SYMBOL OF SAFETY' BY HARRY CHASE BREARLEY, 1923 - Underwriters' Laboratories, 207-231 East Ohio Street, Chicago, Cook County, IL

  14. Office Skills: Realistic Evaluation in Office Education Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shinn, Larry

    1979-01-01

    To evaluate office occupations realistically, evaluation procedure criteria were developed using office simulation techniques. Grading methods given cover quality, quantity, attenance, tardiness, use of time, and cost of extra supplies, with grade penalties for performance deficiencies. (MF)

  15. 20. OFFICE AT NORTH END OF SECOND FLOOR, ADMINISTRATIVE OFFICES ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. OFFICE AT NORTH END OF SECOND FLOOR, ADMINISTRATIVE OFFICES SECTION. VIEW TO SOUTHEAST. - Ford Motor Company Long Beach Assembly Plant, Assembly Building, 700 Henry Ford Avenue, Long Beach, Los Angeles County, CA

  16. VIEW EAST, WEST SIDE OF TWOSTORY OFFICE BUILDING, ONESTORY OFFICE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW EAST, WEST SIDE OF TWO-STORY OFFICE BUILDING, ONE-STORY OFFICE BUILDING, AND HEBERTS 1949 HANGAR, AND VIEW OF SOUTH SIDE OF TWO-STORY OFFICE BUILDING AND NORTH SIDE OF HEBERTS 1949 HANGAR - Capital City Airport, Capital City Aviation, North side of Grand River Avenue, Lansing, Ingham County, MI

  17. Annual Report 2008 -- Office of the Chief Financial Officer (OCFO)

    SciTech Connect

    Fernandez, Jeffrey

    2008-12-22

    It is with great pleasure that I present to you the 2008 Chief Financial Officer's Annual Report. The data included in this report has been compiled from the Budget Office, the Controller, Procurement and Property Management and the Sponsored Projects Office. Also included are some financial comparisons with other DOE Laboratories and a glossary of commonly used acronyms.

  18. Aircraft noise synthesis system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccurdy, David A.; Grandle, Robert E.

    1987-01-01

    A second-generation Aircraft Noise Synthesis System has been developed to provide test stimuli for studies of community annoyance to aircraft flyover noise. The computer-based system generates realistic, time-varying, audio simulations of aircraft flyover noise at a specified observer location on the ground. The synthesis takes into account the time-varying aircraft position relative to the observer; specified reference spectra consisting of broadband, narrowband, and pure-tone components; directivity patterns; Doppler shift; atmospheric effects; and ground effects. These parameters can be specified and controlled in such a way as to generate stimuli in which certain noise characteristics, such as duration or tonal content, are independently varied, while the remaining characteristics, such as broadband content, are held constant. The system can also generate simulations of the predicted noise characteristics of future aircraft. A description of the synthesis system and a discussion of the algorithms and methods used to generate the simulations are provided. An appendix describing the input data and providing user instructions is also included.

  19. Aircraft noise synthesis system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCurdy, David A.; Grandle, Robert E.

    1987-02-01

    A second-generation Aircraft Noise Synthesis System has been developed to provide test stimuli for studies of community annoyance to aircraft flyover noise. The computer-based system generates realistic, time-varying, audio simulations of aircraft flyover noise at a specified observer location on the ground. The synthesis takes into account the time-varying aircraft position relative to the observer; specified reference spectra consisting of broadband, narrowband, and pure-tone components; directivity patterns; Doppler shift; atmospheric effects; and ground effects. These parameters can be specified and controlled in such a way as to generate stimuli in which certain noise characteristics, such as duration or tonal content, are independently varied, while the remaining characteristics, such as broadband content, are held constant. The system can also generate simulations of the predicted noise characteristics of future aircraft. A description of the synthesis system and a discussion of the algorithms and methods used to generate the simulations are provided. An appendix describing the input data and providing user instructions is also included.

  20. Choosing where to work at work - towards a theoretical model of benefits and risks of activity-based flexible offices.

    PubMed

    Wohlers, Christina; Hertel, Guido

    2017-04-01

    Although there is a trend in today's organisations to implement activity-based flexible offices (A-FOs), only a few studies examine consequences of this new office type. Moreover, the underlying mechanisms why A-FOs might lead to different consequences as compared to cellular and open-plan offices are still unclear. This paper introduces a theoretical framework explaining benefits and risks of A-FOs based on theories from work and organisational psychology. After deriving working conditions specific for A-FOs (territoriality, autonomy, privacy, proximity and visibility), differences in working conditions between A-FOs and alternative office types are proposed. Further, we suggest how these differences in working conditions might affect work-related consequences such as well-being, satisfaction, motivation and performance on the individual, the team and the organisational level. Finally, we consider task-related (e.g. task variety), person-related (e.g. personality) and organisational (e.g. leadership) moderators. Based on this model, future research directions as well as practical implications are discussed. Practitioner Summary: Activity-based flexible offices (A-FOs) are popular in today's organisations. This article presents a theoretical model explaining why and when working in an A-FO evokes benefits and risks for individuals, teams and organisations. According to the model, A-FOs are beneficial when management encourages employees to use the environment appropriately and supports teams.

  1. Train noise reduction scenarios for compliance with future noise legislation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leth, S.

    2003-10-01

    The Technical Specification for Interoperability (TSI) for high-speed trains on the European market includes limits on noise emission. These and other future restrictions on exterior noise of high-speed and intercity trains will require that train manufacturers implement noise control measures early in the design phase. A fundamental problem faced by manufacturers during the design process is determining how much noise reduction is required for each of the various noise sources on the train in order to achieve an optimal balance. To illustrate this process, estimates are presented of the contributions from different sources on existing Bombardier trains, based on measured data, numerical calculations and empirical formulae. In addition, methods of achieving the required noise reductions for different sources are briefly discussed along with targets for future exterior noise emission. Measurement results presented demonstrate the importance of track quality in noise emission. Noise restrictions, including future legislation, must give proper recognition to this important parameter.

  2. The School Office: An Overview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hudson, Randy

    2000-01-01

    Presents an overview of the fundamental principles of school office design that remain constant despite changes in building technologies, and technological and spatial flexibility. Principles discussed include the school office and traffic patterns, security, and visitor reception requirements. (GR)

  3. The Mechanization of Office Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giuliano, Vincent E.

    1982-01-01

    Discusses how technology is changing the nature of office work by introducing new information-processing machines, programs for operating them, and communications systems for interconnecting them. Includes diagrams of preindustrial, industrial, and information-age offices. (Author/JN)

  4. NASA Parts Program Office responsibilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kilroy, Patrick L.

    1994-01-01

    The topics are presented in viewgraph form and include the following: NASA Parts Program Office responsibilities; NASA Parts Project Office responsibilities; development priorities; and candidate functions for EPIMS baseline.

  5. The Mechanization of Office Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giuliano, Vincent E.

    1982-01-01

    Discusses how technology is changing the nature of office work by introducing new information-processing machines, programs for operating them, and communications systems for interconnecting them. Includes diagrams of preindustrial, industrial, and information-age offices. (Author/JN)

  6. Aircraft turbofan noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Groeneweg, J. F.; Rice, E. J.

    1983-01-01

    Turbofan noise generation and suppression in aircraft engines are reviewed. The chain of physical processes which connect unsteady flow interactions with fan blades to far field noise is addressed. Mechanism identification and description, duct propagation, radiation and acoustic suppression are discussed. The experimental technique of fan inflow static tests are discussed. Rotor blade surface pressure and wake velocity measurements aid in the determination of the types and strengths of the generation mechanisms. Approaches to predicting or measuring acoustic mode content, optimizing treatment impedance to maximize attenuation, translating impedance into porous wall structure and interpreting far field directivity patterns are illustrated by comparisons of analytical and experimental results. The interdependence of source and acoustic treatment design to minimize far field noise is emphasized. Area requiring further research are discussed and the relevance of aircraft turbofan results to quieting other turbomachinery installations is addressed.

  7. Aircraft turbofan noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Groeneweg, J. F.; Rice, E. J.

    1987-01-01

    Turbofan noise generation and suppression in aircraft engines are reviewed. The chain of physical processes which connect unsteady flow interactions with fan blades to far field noise is addressed. Mechanism identification and description, duct propagation, radiation, and acoustic suppression are discussed. The experimental techniques of fan inflow static tests are discussed. Rotor blade surface pressure and wake velocity measurements aid in the determination of the types and strengths of the generation mechanisms. Approaches to predicting or measuring acoustic mode content, optimizing treatment impedance to maximize attenuation, translating impedance into porous wall structure, and interpreting far field directivity patterns are illustrated by comparisons of analytical and experimental results. The interdependence of source and acoustic treatment design to minimize far field noise is emphasized. Areas requiring further research are discussed, and the relevance of aircraft turbofan results to quieting other turbomachinery installation is addressed.

  8. Road Traffic Noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beckenbauer, Thomas

    Road traffic is the most interfering noise source in developed countries. According to a publication of the European Union (EU) at the end of the twentieth century [1], about 40% of the population in 15 EU member states is exposed to road traffic noise at mean levels exceeding 55 dB(A). Nearly 80 million people, 20% of the population, are exposed to levels exceeding 65 dB(A) during daytime and more than 30% of the population is exposed to levels exceeding 55 dB(A) during night time. Such high noise levels cause health risks and social disorders (aggressiveness, protest, and helplessness), interference of communication and disturbance of sleep; the long- and short-term consequences cause adverse cardiovascular effects, detrimental hormonal responses (stress hormones), and possible disturbance of the human metabolism (nutrition) and the immune system. Even performance at work and school could be impaired.

  9. Video noise reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drewery, J. O.; Storey, R.; Tanton, N. E.

    1984-07-01

    A video noise and film grain reducer is described which is based on a first-order recursive temporal filter. Filtering of moving detail is avoided by inhibiting recursion in response to the amount of motion in a picture. Motion detection is based on the point-by-point power of the picture difference signal coupled with a knowledge of the noise statistics. A control system measures the noise power and adjusts the working point of the motion detector accordingly. A field trial of a manual version of the equipment at Television Center indicated that a worthwhile improvement in the quality of noisy or grainy pictures received by the viewer could be obtained. Subsequent trials of the automated version confirmed that the improvement could be maintained. Commercial equipment based on the design is being manufactured and marketed by Pye T.V.T. under license. It is in regular use on both the BBC1 and BBC2 networks.

  10. Army Officer Development: Historical Context

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-04-01

    its officers. The result was the landmark Review of Education and Training for Officers ( RETO ), a study that set the direction for the school system...and the officer development process for the rest of the Cold War and beyond. 37 The RETO report stressed the importance of officers mastering...the RETO recommendations for the War College’s curriculum with those of the earlier Haines Board brings their differences into stark relief. As noted

  11. Ergonomics in the office environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Courtney, Theodore K.

    1993-01-01

    Perhaps the four most popular 'ergonomic' office culprits are: (1) the computer or visual display terminal (VDT); (2) the office chair; (3) the workstation; and (4) other automated equipment such as the facsimile machine, photocopier, etc. Among the ergonomics issues in the office environment are visual fatigue, musculoskeletal disorders, and radiation/electromagnetic (VLF,ELF) field exposure from VDT's. We address each of these in turn and then review some regulatory considerations regarding such stressors in the office and general industrial environment.

  12. Why Black Officers Still Fail

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-01

    White youth is smaller than it once was. They all pointed to the fact that today’s youth, both white and black, tend to be attracted to rap music and...papers touching on the experiences of black officers as they relate to representation, promotions, influence , and culture. They can best be...they relate to Black officer representation in the Army, Black officer promotion rates, Black officer influence on policy and decision making, black

  13. Ancient noise generators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beristain, Sergio; Menchaca, Rolando; Velazquez, Roberto

    2002-11-01

    There has been found a whole family of similar artifacts which produce singing noises. These noises sometimes resemble those sounds generated by some animals and/or naturally produced by strong winds passing through holes and edges. It means that these sounds have wide frequency spectrums and very often some clear tones are identified. The original purpose of these artifacts is unknown, but some researchers think that some were used in mortuary ceremonies and employed by H-men. The Olmecan whistle previously presented belongs to this family, and now it is compared with a bone or wooden instrument shown in the Florentine codex.

  14. Rocket Noise Prediction Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Margasahayam, Ravi; Caimi, Raoul

    1999-01-01

    A comprehensive, automated, and user-friendly software program was developed to predict the noise and ignition over-pressure environment generated during the launch of a rocket. The software allows for interactive modification of various parameters affecting the generated noise environment. Predictions can be made for different launch scenarios and a variety of vehicle and launch mount configurations. Moreover, predictions can be made for both near-field and far-field locations on the ground and any position on the vehicle. Multiple engine and fuel combinations can be addressed, and duct geometry can be incorporated efficiently. Applications in structural design are addressed.

  15. Community response to noise.

    PubMed

    Yano, Takashi; Gjestland, Truls; Lee, Soogab

    2012-01-01

    Activities from 2008 to 2011 by ICBEN community response to noise team were summarized. That is, individual community-based indexes such as community tolerance Level, Zuricher Fluglarm Index (ZFI) and Frankfurter Fluglarm Index (FFI/FNI) were newly proposed, differences in railway bonus between Europe and Asia were discussed by a Swedish survey, socio-acoustic surveys were reported from developing countries, and annoyance equivalents and dominant source models were proposed as the adequate combined noise model. Furthermore, not only negative, but also positive aspects of sound were discussed as soundscape studies. Finally, seven items were listed as future team activities.

  16. Office Workers Stress Survey Results.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina Occupational Safety and Health Project, Durham.

    A survey of office workers employed by North Carolina telephone companies was conducted to determine the extent and types of health problems experienced by office workers who use video display terminals (VDTs). Data were gathered by questionnaires mailed to 2,478 office workers, with 966 responses. Questions concerning a wide range of health…

  17. Is the Office Hour Obsolete?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Behrens, Susan

    2013-01-01

    A colleague can't make a coffee date at a time the author proposes because it would conflict with his office hour. No student has actually made an appointment with him during the hour, but he is committed to being in his office as promised in case someone drops by. The author's reaction to her colleague's faithfulness to his posted office hour…

  18. Michael Griffin Oath Of Office

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2005-04-14

    NASA Administrator Michael Griffin, left, is administered the oath of office by John H. Marburger, right, Science Adviser to the President and Office of Science and Technology Policy Director, during a private ceremony at the Old Executive Office Building, Thursday, April 14, 2005, in Washington, while his wife Rebecca and daughter Katie look on. Photo Credit: (NASA/Renee Bouchard)

  19. Is the Office Hour Obsolete?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Behrens, Susan

    2013-01-01

    A colleague can't make a coffee date at a time the author proposes because it would conflict with his office hour. No student has actually made an appointment with him during the hour, but he is committed to being in his office as promised in case someone drops by. The author's reaction to her colleague's faithfulness to his posted office hour…

  20. Leasing physician office space.

    PubMed

    Murray, Charles

    2009-01-01

    When leasing office space, physicians should determine the effective lease rate (ELR) for each building they are considering before making a selection. The ELR is based on a number of factors, including building quality, building location, basic form of lease agreement, rent escalators and add-on factors in the lease, tenant improvement allowance, method of square footage measurement, quality of building management, and other variables. The ELR enables prospective physician tenants to accurately compare lease rates being quoted by building owners and to make leasing decisions based on objective criteria.

  1. Aviation Officer Requirements Study.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-08-31

    In the dynamics of the planning process, when potential force level changes are fre- quent, these computations are tedious and subject to error . Since...was tedious and subject to both computational and entry errors . The current ver- sion of the model corrects this deficiency. The Aviation Officer...k.N )) ,iFY(Fr\\) ,NniALT c nTn ,TIVP.W £-430 PROJ3 = POS-:(PRn1 Z=m4m) f-440 PROC, = Pnr3(PrOnf2="-) E.4! - INI T (1-F(20) )TR(PrOFL,. 137> C,460 = TIPO

  2. Noise frequency components and the prevalence of hypertension in workers.

    PubMed

    Chang, Ta-Yuan; Liu, Chiu-Shong; Young, Li-Hao; Wang, Ven-Shing; Jian, Shen-En; Bao, Bo-Ying

    2012-02-01

    Epidemiological studies have demonstrated a relationship between noise exposure and hypertension, but the association between hypertension and noise frequency components remains unclear. This cross-sectional study investigated the association between noise exposure at different frequencies and the prevalence of hypertension in 188 screw-manufacturing workers. Participants were divided into one high-noise-exposure group (≥80 A-weighted decibel, [dBA]; n=68) and two reference groups, including 68 low-noise-exposure workers (75.8±3.2 dBA) and 52 office workers (61.5±0.5dBA). Personal noise exposure and environmental octave-band analyses were performed at work. Multiple logistic regression models were used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) for hypertension between different noise-exposure categories after adjustment for potential confounders. Male workers exposed to noise levels at high frequencies of 2000, 4000 or 8000Hz had a higher but non-significant risk of hypertension. Those exposed to ≥80dBA for 2-4years, 4-6years and more than 6years had a 4.43-fold (95% CI=1.21-16.15), 1.21-fold (95% CI=0.35-4.21) and 0.95-fold (95% CI=0.16-5.60) risk of hypertension, respectively, compared with reference workers. A significant association was only observed in male workers exposed to ≥70dBA at 4000Hz for 2-4years (adjusted OR=4.22; 95% CI=1.15-15.49) and was not found at other frequencies for any periods. These findings suggest that occupational noise exposure above 80dBA for specific periods may be associated with hypertension, and noise frequency at 4000Hz may have the greatest effect on hypertension.

  3. Psychoacoustic study on contribution of fan noise to engine noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Junhong; Liu, Hai; Bi, Fengrong; Ni, Guangjian; Zhang, Guichang; Lin, Jiewei; Yu, Hanzhengnan

    2012-07-01

    There are more researches on engine fan noise control focusing on reducing fan noise level through optimizing fan structure, and a lot of research achievements have been obtained. However, researches on the effect of fan noise to engine noise quality are lacking. The influences of the effects of fan structure optimization on the engine noise quality are unclear. Thus, there will be a decline in fan noise level, but the deterioration of engine noise quality. Aiming at the above problems, in consideration of fan structure design and engine noise quality, an innovative method to analyze the contribution of fan noise to engine noise quality using psychoacoustic theory is proposed. The noises of diesel engine installing different cooling fans are measured by using the acoustic pressure method. The experiment results are regarded as analysis samples. The model of sensory pleasantness is used to analyze the sound quality of a diesel engine with different cooling fans. Results show that after installing 10-blade fan in medium diameter the sensory pleasantness at each test point is increased, and the increase is 13.53% on average, which indicate the improvement of the engine noise quality. In order to verify the psychoacoustical analysis, the subjective assessment is carried out. The test result shows the noise quality of engine installed 10-blade fan in medium diameter is most superior. 1/3 octave frequency spectrum analysis is used to study the reason of the improvement of engine noise quality. It is found that after installing proper cooling fan the sound pressure level below 400 Hz are obviously increased, the frequency assignment and spectral envelope are more reasonable and a proper cooling fan can optimize the spectrum structure of the engine noise. The psychoacoustic study is applied in the contribution of fan noise to engine noise, and the idea of engine sound quality improvement through the structure optimization is proposed.

  4. Helicopter tail rotor noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chou, S.-T.; George, A. R.

    1986-01-01

    A study was made of helicopter tail rotor noise, particularly that due to interactions with the main rotor tip vortices, and with the fuselage separation mean wake. The tail rotor blade-main rotor tip vortex interaction is modelled as an airfoil of infinite span cutting through a moving vortex. The vortex and the geometry information required by the analyses are obtained through a free wake geometry analysis of the main rotor. The acoustic pressure-time histories for the tail rotor blade-vortex interactions are then calculated. These acoustic results are compared to tail rotor loading and thickness noise, and are found to be significant to the overall tail rotor noise generation. Under most helicopter operating conditions, large acoustic pressure fluctuations can be generated due to a series of skewed main rotor tip vortices passing through the tail rotor disk. The noise generation depends strongly upon the helicopter operating conditions and the location of the tail rotor relative to the main rotor.

  5. Community noise monitoring program

    Treesearch

    Arnold G. Konheim

    1977-01-01

    There are numerous questions in regard to methods, instrumentation, and human and agency resources for community noise monitoring. The U. S. Environmental Protection Agency is currently in the process of seeking answers to these questions through research within the agency and by cooperation with other organizations, including the Department of Defense and the National...

  6. Exploring Noise: Sound Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rillo, Thomas J.

    1979-01-01

    Part one of a three-part series about noise pollution and its effects on humans. This section presents the background information for teachers who are preparing a unit on sound. The next issues will offer learning activities for measuring the effects of sound and some references. (SA)

  7. JET Noise Prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldstein, M. E.; Leib, S. J.

    2007-01-01

    Aerodynamic noise prediction has been an important and challenging research area since James Lighthill first introduced his Acoustic Analogy Approach over fifty years ago. This talk attempts to provide a unified framework for the subsequent theoretical developments in this field. It assumes that there is no single approach that is optimal in all situations and uses the framework as a basis for discussing the strengths weaknesses of the various approaches to this topic. But the emphasis here will be on the important problem of predicting the noise from high speed air jets. Specific results will presented for round jets in the 0.5 to 1.4 Mach number range and compared with experimental data taken on the Glenn SHAR rig. It is demonstrated that non-parallel mean flow effects play an important role in predicting the noise at the supersonic Mach numbers. The results explain the failure of previous attempts based on the parallel flow Lilley model (which has served as the foundation for most jet noise analyses during past two decades).

  8. Noise: A Health Problem.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. Office of Noise Abatement and Control.

    This booklet contains nine sections describing ways in which noise may endanger health and well-being. Secions are included on: (1) hearing loss; (2) heart disease; (3) other reactions by the body; (4) effects on the unborn; (5) special effects on children; (6) intrusion at home and work; (7) sleep disruption; (8) mental and social well-being; and…

  9. Noise Assessment Guidelines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schultz, Theodore J.; McMahon, Nancy M.

    The Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD), in its efforts to provide decent housing and a suitable living environment, is concerned with noise as a major source of environmental pollution. To this end, these guidelines are presented to provide site screening techniques. The procedures described have been developed so that people…

  10. Curing the noise epidemic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazer, Susan

    2005-09-01

    The argument is made that design does not stop when the fixed architectural and acoustical components are in place. Spaces live and breathe with the people who reside in them. Research and examples are presented that show that noise, auditory clutter, thrives on itself in hospitals. Application of the Lombard reflex studies fit into the hospital setting, but do not offer solutions as to how one might reduce the impact. In addition, the basis for looking at the noise component as a physical as well cultural dynamic will be addressed. Whether the result of the wrong conversation in the wrong place or the right conversation in an unfortunate place, talk mixed with sounds of technology is shown to cause its own symptoms. From heightened anxiety and stress to medical errors, staff burnout, or HIPAA violations, the case is made that noise is pandemic in hospitals and demands financial and operational investment. An explanation of how to reduce noise by design of the dynamic environment - equipment, technology, staff protocols is also provided.

  11. Jet Engine Noise Reduction

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-04-01

    factors include: – Maceration of the thin skin of the ear canal leading to pain/and or infection. – Ear canal infection (external otitis ...145 – 150 dB) around jet aircraft. The magnitude and impact of noise transmitted via bone and other media such as fluid is largely unknown. The ear

  12. Jet Screech Noise Computation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loh, Ching Y.; Hultgren, Lennart S.

    2003-01-01

    The near-field screech-tone noise of a typical underexpanded circular jet issuing from a sonic nozzle is simulated numerically. The self-sustained feedback loop is automatically established in the simulation. The computed shock-cell structure, acoustic wave length, screech tone frequencies, and sound pressure levels in the near field are in good agreement with existing experimental results.

  13. Noise Control through Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennino, Martha

    1979-01-01

    Discussed are the public education and information programs on noise pollution control currently in operation within the Metropolitan Washington, D.C. area that have been either developed or implemented under the auspices of the Metropolitan Washington Council of Governments. (BT)

  14. Playback Experiments for Noise Exposure.

    PubMed

    Holles, Sophie; Simpson, Stephen D; Lecchini, David; Radford, Andrew N

    2016-01-01

    Playbacks are a useful tool for conducting well-controlled and replicated experiments on the effects of anthropogenic noise, particularly for repeated exposures. However, playbacks are unlikely to fully reproduce original sources of anthropogenic noise. Here we examined the sound pressure and particle acceleration of boat noise playbacks in a field experiment and reveal that although there remain recognized limitations, the signal-to-noise ratios of boat playbacks to ambient noise do not exceed those of a real boat. The experimental setup tested is therefore of value for use in experiments on the effects of repeated exposure of aquatic animals to boat noise.

  15. Microwatt shot-noise measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bacon, A. M.; Zhao, H. Z.; Wang, L. J.; Thomas, J. E.

    1995-08-01

    We report a simple scheme for sensitive measurements of optical-noise spectra. Optical noise is separated from electronic noise when the output of an analog spectrum analyzer is real-time squared and then lock-in detected. This method directly yields the desired mean-square noise voltage, i.e., the power spectrum of the optical noise on a linear scale. To demonstrate this technique, the mean-square shot noise of a laser beam is measured and found to vary linearly with the laser power from several milliwatts down to one microwatt, in excellent quantitative agreement with predictions.

  16. 75 FR 3959 - Noise Exposure Map Notice for Kona International Airport at Keahole, Keahole, North Kona, HI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-25

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration Noise Exposure Map Notice for Kona International Airport at Keahole, Keahole, North Kona, HI AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration, DOT. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Federal...

  17. Tandem Cylinder Noise Predictions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lockhard, David P.; Khorrami, Mehdi R.; CHoudhari, Meelan M.; Hutcheson, Florence V.; Brooks, Thomas F.; Stead, Daniel J.

    2007-01-01

    In an effort to better understand landing-gear noise sources, we have been examining a simplified configuration that still maintains some of the salient features of landing-gear flow fields. In particular, tandem cylinders have been studied because they model a variety of component level interactions. The present effort is directed at the case of two identical cylinders spatially separated in the streamwise direction by 3.7 diameters. Experimental measurements from the Basic Aerodynamic Research Tunnel (BART) and Quiet Flow Facility (QFF) at NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) have provided steady surface pressures, detailed off-surface measurements of the flow field using Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV), hot-wire measurements in the wake of the rear cylinder, unsteady surface pressure data, and the radiated noise. The experiments were conducted at a Reynolds number of 166 105 based on the cylinder diameter. A trip was used on the upstream cylinder to insure a fully turbulent shedding process and simulate the effects of a high Reynolds number flow. The parallel computational effort uses the three-dimensional Navier-Stokes solver CFL3D with a hybrid, zonal turbulence model that turns off the turbulence production term everywhere except in a narrow ring surrounding solid surfaces. The current calculations further explore the influence of the grid resolution and spanwise extent on the flow and associated radiated noise. Extensive comparisons with the experimental data are used to assess the ability of the computations to simulate the details of the flow. The results show that the pressure fluctuations on the upstream cylinder, caused by vortex shedding, are smaller than those generated on the downstream cylinder by wake interaction. Consequently, the downstream cylinder dominates the noise radiation, producing an overall directivity pattern that is similar to that of an isolated cylinder. Only calculations based on the full length of the model span were able to

  18. Reduction of turbomachinery noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waitz, Ian A. (Inventor); Brookfield, John M. (Inventor); Sell, Julian (Inventor); Hayden, Belva J. (Inventor); Ingard, K. Uno (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    In the invention, propagating broad band and tonal acoustic components of noise characteristic of interaction of a turbomachine blade wake, produced by a turbomachine blade as the blade rotates, with a turbomachine component downstream of the rotating blade, are reduced. This is accomplished by injection of fluid into the blade wake through a port in the rotor blade. The mass flow rate of the fluid injected into the blade wake is selected to reduce the momentum deficit of the wake to correspondingly increase the time-mean velocity of the wake and decrease the turbulent velocity fluctuations of the wake. With this fluid injection, reduction of both propagating broad band and tonal acoustic components of noise produced by interaction of the blade wake with a turbomachine component downstream of the rotating blade is achieved. In a further noise reduction technique, boundary layer fluid is suctioned into the turbomachine blade through a suction port on the side of the blade that is characterized as the relatively low-pressure blade side. As with the fluid injection technique, the mass flow rate of the fluid suctioned into the blade is here selected to reduce the momentum deficit of the wake to correspondingly increase the time-mean velocity of the wake and decrease the turbulent velocity fluctuations of the wake; reduction of both propagating broad band and tonal acoustic components of noise produced by interaction of the blade wake with a turbomachine component downstream of the rotating blade is achieved with this suction technique. Blowing and suction techniques are also provided in the invention for reducing noise associated with the wake produced by fluid flow around a stationary blade upstream of a rotating turbomachine.

  19. 23 CFR 772.3 - Noise standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... OF HIGHWAY TRAFFIC NOISE AND CONSTRUCTION NOISE § 772.3 Noise standards. The highway traffic noise prediction requirements, noise analyses, noise abatement criteria, and requirements for informing local... 23 Highways 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Noise standards. 772.3 Section 772.3 Highways FEDERAL...

  20. 23 CFR 772.3 - Noise standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... OF HIGHWAY TRAFFIC NOISE AND CONSTRUCTION NOISE § 772.3 Noise standards. The highway traffic noise prediction requirements, noise analyses, noise abatement criteria, and requirements for informing local... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Noise standards. 772.3 Section 772.3 Highways FEDERAL...

  1. 23 CFR 772.3 - Noise standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Noise standards. 772.3 Section 772.3 Highways FEDERAL... OF HIGHWAY TRAFFIC NOISE AND CONSTRUCTION NOISE § 772.3 Noise standards. The highway traffic noise prediction requirements, noise analyses, noise abatement criteria, and requirements for informing local...

  2. 23 CFR 772.3 - Noise standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Noise standards. 772.3 Section 772.3 Highways FEDERAL... OF HIGHWAY TRAFFIC NOISE AND CONSTRUCTION NOISE § 772.3 Noise standards. The highway traffic noise prediction requirements, noise analyses, noise abatement criteria, and requirements for informing local...

  3. 23 CFR 772.3 - Noise standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Noise standards. 772.3 Section 772.3 Highways FEDERAL... OF HIGHWAY TRAFFIC NOISE AND CONSTRUCTION NOISE § 772.3 Noise standards. The highway traffic noise prediction requirements, noise analyses, noise abatement criteria, and requirements for informing local...

  4. Cross Linked Metal Particles for Low Noise Bolometer Materials

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-12-12

    CLMPs) for Low-noise Bolometer Materials " funded by the US Army Research Office under Contract # W911NF-15-1-0117. We have successfully carried out the...2016 Final Report: Cross-linked Metal Particles for Low-noise Bolometer Materials The views, opinions and/or findings contained in this report are... Materials Report Title This final report summarizes WSU’s progress from 4/2/2015 to 09/30/2016 on the project, "Cross-linked Metal Particles (CLMPs

  5. Personal noise exposure assessment from small firearms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kardous, Chucri A.; Murphy, William J.; Willson, Robert D.

    2003-04-01

    The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health conducted noise exposure evaluations of law-enforcement personnel during firearms training at indoor and outdoor firing ranges. A representative cross section of weapons used by officers was measured. Shooters participated in live-fire exercise at an indoor firing range using three different weapons: a Beretta .400 caliber pistol, a Remington 12-gauge shotgun, and an M4 .223-caliber assault rifle. Indoor and outdoor measurements were obtained for the Smith and Wesson .357 pistol and Colt .450 and 9-mm pistols, the Glock .400 pistol, and the Heckler and Koch and Colt AR15 .223 rifles. Impulses were measured using a Bruel and Kjaer 4136 1/4-in. microphone and TASCAM digital audio tape recorder. Relevant impulse noise metrics were calculated. Peak levels ranged from 155 to 168 dB SPL. A-weighted equivalent levels ranged from 124 to 128 dBA. The contributions of the secondary weapon firings were approximately 1 to 9 dBA. Other parameters such as A/B durations, number and mixture of impulses, spectral content, energy, kurtosis, temporal spacing, and hearing protectors' effectiveness were examined. Comparisons of applicable damage risk criteria are presented. Further studies are needed to establish an occupational impulse noise damage risk criterion.

  6. The Traffic Noise Index: A Method of Controlling Noise Nuisance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langdon, F. J.; Scholes, W. E.

    This building research survey is an analysis of the social nuisance caused by urban motor ways and their noise. The Traffic Noise Index is used to indicate traffic noises and their effects on architectural designs and planning, while suggesting the need for more and better window insulation and acoustical barriers. Overall concern is for--(1)…

  7. Jet engine noise source and noise footprint computer programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunn, D. G.; Peart, N. A.; Miller, D. L.; Crowley, K. C.

    1972-01-01

    Calculation procedures are presented for predicting maximum passby noise levels and contours (footprints) of conventional jet aircraft with or without noise suppression devices. The procedures have been computerized and a user's guide is presented for the computer programs to be used in predicting the noise characteristics during aircraft takeoffs, fly-over, and/or landing operations.

  8. INEL Sample Management Office

    SciTech Connect

    Watkins, C.

    1994-12-31

    The Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) Sample Management Office (SMO) was formed as part of the EG&G Idaho Environmental Restoration Program (ERP) in June, 1990. Since then, the SMO has been recognized and sought out by other prime contractors and programs at the INEL. Since December 1991, the DOE-ID Division Directors for the Environmental Restoration Division and Waste Management Division supported the expansion of the INEL ERP SMO into the INEL site wide SMO. The INEL SMO serves as a point of contact for multiple environmental analytical chemistry and laboratory issues (e.g., capacity, capability). The SMO chemists work with project managers during planning to help develop data quality objectives, select appropriate analytical methods, identify special analytical services needs, identify a source for the services, and ensure that requirements for sampling and analysis (e.g., preservations, sample volumes) are clear and technically accurate. The SMO chemists also prepare work scope statements for the laboratories performing the analyses.

  9. Badge Office Process Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Haurykiewicz, John Paul; Dinehart, Timothy Grant; Parker, Robert Young

    2016-05-12

    The purpose of this process analysis was to analyze the Badge Offices’ current processes from a systems perspective and consider ways of pursuing objectives set forth by SEC-PS, namely increased customer flow (throughput) and reduced customer wait times. Information for the analysis was gathered for the project primarily through Badge Office Subject Matter Experts (SMEs), and in-person observation of prevailing processes. Using the information gathered, a process simulation model was constructed to represent current operations and allow assessment of potential process changes relative to factors mentioned previously. The overall purpose of the analysis was to provide SEC-PS management with information and recommendations to serve as a basis for additional focused study and areas for potential process improvements in the future.

  10. Jet Noise Reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kenny, Patrick

    2004-01-01

    The Acoustics Branch is responsible for reducing noise levels for jet and fan components on aircraft engines. To do this, data must be measured and calibrated accurately to ensure validity of test results. This noise reduction is accomplished by modifications to hardware such as jet nozzles, and by the use of other experimental hardware such as fluidic chevrons, elliptic cores, and fluidic shields. To insure validity of data calibration, a variety of software is used. This software adjusts the sound amplitude and frequency to be consistent with data taken on another day. Both the software and the hardware help make noise reduction possible. work properly. These software programs were designed to make corrections for atmosphere, shear, attenuation, electronic, and background noise. All data can be converted to a one-foot lossless condition, using the proper software corrections, making a reading independent of weather and distance. Also, data can be transformed from model scale to full scale for noise predictions of a real flight. Other programs included calculations of Over All Sound Pressure Level (OASPL), Effective Perceived Noise Level (EPNL). OASPL is the integration of sound with respect to frequency, and EPNL is weighted for a human s response to different sound frequencies and integrated with respect to time. With the proper software correction, data taken in the NATR are useful in determining ways to reduce noise. display any difference between two or more data files. Using this program and graphs of the data, the actual and predicted data can be compared. This software was tested on data collected at the Aero Acoustic Propulsion Laboratory (AAPL) using a variety of window types and overlaps. Similarly, short scripts were written to test each individual program in the software suite for verification. Each graph displays both the original points and the adjusted points connected with lines. During this summer, data points were taken during a live experiment

  11. The chief strategy officer.

    PubMed

    Breene, R Timothy S; Nunes, Paul F; Shill, Walter E

    2007-10-01

    They're nominally and ultimately responsible for strategy, but today's CEOs have less and less time to devote to it. As a result, CEOs are appointing "chief strategy officers"--executives specifically tasked with creating, communicating, executing, and sustaining a company's strategic initiatives. In this article, three authors from Accenture share the results of their research on this emerging organizational role. The typical CSO or top strategy executive is not a pure strategist, conducting long-range planning in relative isolation. Most CSOs consider themselves doers first, with the mandate, credentials, and desire to act as well as advise. They are seasoned executives with a strong strategy orientation who have usually worn many operations hats before taking on the role. Strategy executives are charged with three critical jobs that together form the very definition of strategy execution. First, they must clarify the company's strategy for themselves and for every business unit and function, ensuring that all employees understand the details of the strategic plan and how their work connects to corporate goals. Second, CSOs must drive immediate change. The focus of the job almost always quickly evolves from creating shared alignment around a vision to riding herd on the ensuing change effort. Finally, a CSO must drive decision making that sustains organizational change. He or she must be that person who, in the CEO's stead, can walk into any office and test whether the decisions being made are aligned with the strategy and are creating the desired results. When decisions below the executive suite aren't being made in accordance with strategy, much of the CSO's job involves learning why and quickly determining whether to stay the course or change tack.

  12. Advanced Noise Control Fan (ANCF)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-01-15

    The Advanced Noise Control Fan shown here is located in NASA Glenn’s Aero-Acoustic Propulsion Laboratory. The 4-foot diameter fan is used to evaluate innovate aircraft engine noise reduction concepts less expensively and more quickly.

  13. High noise immunity one shot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaffer, G. L.

    1972-01-01

    Multivibrator circuit, which includes constant current source, isolates line noise from timing circuitry and field effect transistor controls circuit's operational modes. Circuit has high immunity to supply line noise.

  14. Spectral Characteristics of Pitot Noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hornung, H. G.; Parziale, N. J.

    For experimental studies of transition from laminar to turbulent boundary layer flow it is important to know the ambient noise spectrum in the facility. In supersonic wind tunnels this is often assessed by measuring pitot pressure noise.

  15. Noise in the nervous system.

    PubMed

    Faisal, A Aldo; Selen, Luc P J; Wolpert, Daniel M

    2008-04-01

    Noise--random disturbances of signals--poses a fundamental problem for information processing and affects all aspects of nervous-system function. However, the nature, amount and impact of noise in the nervous system have only recently been addressed in a quantitative manner. Experimental and computational methods have shown that multiple noise sources contribute to cellular and behavioural trial-to-trial variability. We review the sources of noise in the nervous system, from the molecular to the behavioural level, and show how noise contributes to trial-to-trial variability. We highlight how noise affects neuronal networks and the principles the nervous system applies to counter detrimental effects of noise, and briefly discuss noise's potential benefits.

  16. Physician offices marketing: assessing patients' views of office visits.

    PubMed

    Emmett, Dennis; Chandra, Ashish

    2010-01-01

    Physician offices often lack the sense of incorporating appropriate strategies to make their facilities as marketer of their services. The patient experience at a physician's office not only incorporates the care they receive from the physician but also the other non-healthcare related aspects, such as the behavior of non-health professionals as well as the appearance of the facility itself. This paper is based on a primary research conducted to assess what patients assess from a physician office visit.

  17. 75 FR 2549 - Office of Biotechnology Activities; Office of Science Policy; Office of the Director; Notice of a...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-15

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Office of Biotechnology Activities; Office of Science... concerning this meeting, contact Ms. Laurie Lewallen, Advisory Committee Coordinator, Office of Biotechnology...: January 11, 2010. Kelly R. Fennington, Special Assistant to the Director, Office of Biotechnology...

  18. 76 FR 77240 - Office of Biotechnology Activities, Office of Science Policy, Office of the Director; Notice of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Office of Biotechnology Activities, Office of Science..., NIH Office of Biotechnology Activities, 6705 Rockledge Drive, Suite 750, Bethesda, Maryland 20892...

  19. Automatic noise limiter-blanker

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burhans, R. W.

    1976-01-01

    A blanker system that may be used with audio noise limiters or automatic noise limiters was described. The system employs a pair of silicon diodes and two RC filters connected across the feedback impedance of an operational amplifier so as to counteract impulse noise interference caused by local spherics activity or 60 Hz harmonics radiated from ac motor control systems. The following information is given: circuit diagram and description, operating details, evaluation, discussion of other noise blanking methods.

  20. Quantum model of spin noise.

    PubMed

    Annabestani, R; Cory, D G; Emerson, J

    2015-03-01

    Any ensemble of quantum particles exhibits statistical fluctuations known as spin noise. Here, we provide a description of spin noise in the language of open quantum systems. The description unifies the signatures of spin noise under both strong and weak measurements. Further, the model accounts for arbitrary spin dynamics from an arbitrary initial state. In all cases we can find both the spin noise and its time correlation function.

  1. Environmental noise-exposed workers: event-related potentials, neuropsychological and mood assessment.

    PubMed

    Chiovenda, Paola; Pasqualetti, Patrizio; Zappasodi, Filippo; Ercolani, Matilde; Milazzo, Daniele; Tomei, Gianfranco; Capozzella, Assuntina; Tomei, Francesco; Rossini, Paolo M; Tecchio, Franca

    2007-09-01

    Prolonged environmental noise exposure can induce pathogenic effects on various physical and psychosocial responses. The first aim of this study was to investigate whether long-term occupational noise exposure could affect neurophysiological, neuropsychological and emotional statuses, with particular respect to attention and working memory. The second aim was to evaluate the effects on the tactile P300 of a specific stressor (background traffic noise) vs a non-specific stress inductor (Stroop test). The comparison between a group of noise-exposed workers (traffic police officers), and a control group (office employees) did not show marked differences in cognitive and emotional profiles. The amplitude of the baseline cognitive potential (P300), recorded during a tactile (electric) discrimination task, resulted higher in noise-exposed workers than in controls, and this enhancement was associated with a lower level of trait anxiety and better mood profiles. Moreover, we found a wider P300 amplitude reduction in traffic police officers than in controls, under noisy conditions due to traffic. The effect of the Stroop test as a stress inductor was negligible and similar in the two groups. The wider amplitude of the non-auditory P300 in traffic police officers in the baseline condition could be a sign of cross-modal cerebral plasticity enhancing attentive processes in the 'stress-free' sensory channel. In addition, noise-exposed workers presented a higher cerebral sensitivity to stress selectively when they were exposed to the habitual environmental stressor.

  2. Reference noise method of removing powerline noise from recorded signals.

    PubMed

    Jiruska, Premysl; Cmejla, Roman; Powell, Andrew D; Chang, Wei-Chih; Vreugdenhil, Martin; Jefferys, John G R

    2009-10-30

    Powerline contamination of recorded signals represents a major source of noise in electrophysiology and impairs the use of recordings for research. In this article we present simple and effective method for cancelling 50 Hz (or 60 Hz) noise using a reference noise signal and average noise cycle subtraction. This method is capable of reliably removing not only the fundamental powerline frequency but also its harmonic frequencies. The efficiency of this method appears to be superior to other commonly used methods such as notch filtering or adaptive filtering. Our experience and results show that this method can be efficiently used with very low signal-to-noise ratios, while preserving original signal waveform.

  3. Practical ranges of loudness levels of various types of environmental noise, including traffic noise, aircraft noise, and industrial noise.

    PubMed

    Salomons, Erik M; Janssen, Sabine A

    2011-06-01

    In environmental noise control one commonly employs the A-weighted sound level as an approximate measure of the effect of noise on people. A measure that is more closely related to direct human perception of noise is the loudness level. At constant A-weighted sound level, the loudness level of a noise signal varies considerably with the shape of the frequency spectrum of the noise signal. In particular the bandwidth of the spectrum has a large effect on the loudness level, due to the effect of critical bands in the human hearing system. The low-frequency content of the spectrum also has an effect on the loudness level. In this note the relation between loudness level and A-weighted sound level is analyzed for various environmental noise spectra, including spectra of traffic noise, aircraft noise, and industrial noise. From loudness levels calculated for these environmental noise spectra, diagrams are constructed that show the relation between loudness level, A-weighted sound level, and shape of the spectrum. The diagrams show that the upper limits of the loudness level for broadband environmental noise spectra are about 20 to 40 phon higher than the lower limits for narrowband spectra, which correspond to the loudness levels of pure tones. The diagrams are useful for assessing limitations and potential improvements of environmental noise control methods and policy based on A-weighted sound levels.

  4. The Signal Importance of Noise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macy, Michael; Tsvetkova, Milena

    2015-01-01

    Noise is widely regarded as a residual category--the unexplained variance in a linear model or the random disturbance of a predictable pattern. Accordingly, formal models often impose the simplifying assumption that the world is noise-free and social dynamics are deterministic. Where noise is assigned causal importance, it is often assumed to be a…

  5. Aircraft Noise Reduction Subproject Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fernandez, Hamilton; Nark, Douglas M.; Van Zante, Dale E.

    2016-01-01

    The material presents highlights of propulsion and airframe noise research being completed for the Advanced Air Transport Technology Project. The basis of noise reduction plans along with representative work for the airframe, propulsion, and propulsion-airframe integration is discussed for the Aircraft Noise reduction Subproject.

  6. Sounds Alive: A Noise Workbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickman, Donna McCord

    Sarah Screech, Danny Decibel, Sweetie Sound and Neil Noisy describe their experiences in the world of sound and noise to elementary students. Presented are their reports, games and charts which address sound measurement, the effects of noise on people, methods of noise control, and related areas. The workbook is intended to stimulate students'…

  7. School Noise and Its Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ikenberrgy, Larry D.

    1974-01-01

    Sources of noises affecting schools and their hindrance of learning are presented. Noise levels for different activities are tabled and possible methods for controlling such noises are suggested. Internal to the school, shop and music levels are the most severe. More care in site selection and design considerations are recommended. (LS)

  8. Practical Ranges of Loudness Levels of Various Types of Environmental Noise, Including Traffic Noise, Aircraft Noise, and Industrial Noise

    PubMed Central

    Salomons, Erik M.; Janssen, Sabine A.

    2011-01-01

    In environmental noise control one commonly employs the A-weighted sound level as an approximate measure of the effect of noise on people. A measure that is more closely related to direct human perception of noise is the loudness level. At constant A-weighted sound level, the loudness level of a noise signal varies considerably with the shape of the frequency spectrum of the noise signal. In particular the bandwidth of the spectrum has a large effect on the loudness level, due to the effect of critical bands in the human hearing system. The low-frequency content of the spectrum also has an effect on the loudness level. In this note the relation between loudness level and A-weighted sound level is analyzed for various environmental noise spectra, including spectra of traffic noise, aircraft noise, and industrial noise. From loudness levels calculated for these environmental noise spectra, diagrams are constructed that show the relation between loudness level, A-weighted sound level, and shape of the spectrum. The diagrams show that the upper limits of the loudness level for broadband environmental noise spectra are about 20 to 40 phon higher than the lower limits for narrowband spectra, which correspond to the loudness levels of pure tones. The diagrams are useful for assessing limitations and potential improvements of environmental noise control methods and policy based on A-weighted sound levels. PMID:21776205

  9. Underwater Flow Noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dowling, A. P.

    Lighthill's theory of aerodynamic sound provides an effective way of investigating underwater flow noise. When combined with a model of the coherent vortical structures in a turbulent boundary layer, it predicts the wave-number frequency pressure spectrum on a rigid surface and, in particular, highlights the rôle of surface viscous stresses as a source of low wave-number pressure fluctuations on a plane surface. The inclusion of surface curvature and flexibility enables the theory to be applied to acoustic streamers (sometimes known as towed arrays). The effect of the interior mechanical structure of the streamers on the flow noise is investigated. Simple algebraic forms are derived for the comparative performance of liquid and visco-elastic-filled streamers. The introduction of porous foam into a liquid streamer is found to be a particularly effective way of attenuating low wave-number disturbances, and theoretical predictions are compared with experiment.

  10. Scaling aircraft noise perception.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ollerhead, J. B.

    1973-01-01

    Following a brief review of the background to the study, an extensive experiment is described which was undertaken to assess the practical differences between numerous alternative methods for calculating the perceived levels of individual aircraft flyover wounds. One hundred and twenty recorded sounds, including jets, turboprops, piston aircraft and helicopters were rated by a panel of subjects in a pair comparison test. The results were analyzed to evaluate a number of noise rating procedures, in terms of their ability to accurately estimate both relative and absolute perceived noise levels over a wider dynamic range (84-115 dB SPL) than had generally been used in previous experiments. Performances of the different scales were examined in detail for different aircraft categories, and the merits of different band level summation procedures, frequency weighting functions, duration and tone corrections were investigated.

  11. Active noise reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geyer, Carolyn R.

    Active noise reduction (ANR) techniques are described with reference to their application to crewmembers during aircraft operation to enhance productivity and safety. ANR concepts and theory are explained, and the development of protective ANR systems for direct implementation are described. Sound attenuation testing was conducted to study the feasibility of aircraft-powered ANR systems, and the positive results spurred their development for compatibility with flight helmets. The Helmets Limited ANR system uses a bypass mode at times of limited available power and complements the use of passive sound attenuation. Subjective testing results show that the device is effective, and a planned program of intensive evaluation is discussed. The aircraft that require an ANR system are listed, and key areas of implementation include battery power and the combination of ANR circuitry and helmet oxygen masks. It is suggested that ANR techniques can positively impact the efficiency and performance of crewmembers in high-noise-level aircraft.

  12. Noise in Biology

    PubMed Central

    Tsimring, Lev S.

    2014-01-01

    Noise permeates biology on all levels, from the most basic molecular, sub-cellular processes to the dynamics of tissues, organs, organisms, and populations. The functional roles of noise in biological processes can vary greatly. Along with standard, entropy-increasing effects of producing random mutations, diversifying phenotypes in isogenic populations, limiting information capacity of signaling relays, it occasionally plays more surprising constructive roles by accelerating the pace of evolution, providing selective advantage in dynamic environments, enhancing intracellular transport of biomolecules and increasing information capacity of signaling pathways. This short review covers the recent progress in understanding mechanisms and effects of fluctuations in biological systems of different scales and the basic approaches to their mathematical modeling. PMID:24444693

  13. Strategies for Railway Noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bovey, E. C.

    1996-05-01

    Strategies are much talked about, but frequently lack any substance. The general concepts of strategic planning are discussed and the need for it to have a focus, i.e., a clear objective, are emphasized. A structural approach to strategic plan development is advocated, with a definition of the relevant issues being a prerequisite for success. Strategies, however, must be flexible and constantly reviewed even though the measures of success are often blurred. Railway noise is clearly amenable to strategic planning, but the issues will vary depending on the objectives of the organization. It is evident that railway noise technology, application and development, while important, needs to be substantially supplemented by other factors such as logistics and management issues to form an effective strategy in this domain.

  14. Fan noise prediction assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bent, Paul H.

    1995-01-01

    This report is an evaluation of two techniques for predicting the fan noise radiation from engine nacelles. The first is a relatively computational intensive finite element technique. The code is named ARC, an abbreviation of Acoustic Radiation Code, and was developed by Eversman. This is actually a suite of software that first generates a grid around the nacelle, then solves for the potential flowfield, and finally solves the acoustic radiation problem. The second approach is an analytical technique requiring minimal computational effort. This is termed the cutoff ratio technique and was developed by Rice. Details of the duct geometry, such as the hub-to-tip ratio and Mach number of the flow in the duct, and modal content of the duct noise are required for proper prediction.

  15. Supersonics--Airport Noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bridges, James

    2007-01-01

    At this, the first year-end meeting of the Fundamental Aeronautics Program, an overview of the Airport Noise discipline of the Supersonics Project leads the presentation of technical plans and achievements in this area of the Project. The overview starts by defining the Technical Challenges targeted by Airport Noise efforts, and the Approaches planned to meet these challenges. These are fleshed out in Elements, namely Prediction, Diagnostics, and Engineering, and broken down into Tasks. The Tasks level is where individual researchers' work is defined and from whence the technical presentations to follow this presentation come. This overview also presents the Milestones accomplished to date and to be completed in the next year. Finally, the NASA Research Announcement cooperative agreement activities are covered and tied to the Tasks and Milestones.

  16. 49 CFR 800.25 - Delegation to the Directors of Office of Aviation Safety, Office of Railroad Safety, Office of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Delegation to the Directors of Office of Aviation... Office of Aviation Safety, Office of Railroad Safety, Office of Highway Safety, Office of Marine Safety... Offices of Aviation, Railroad, Highway, Marine, and Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety, the...

  17. 49 CFR 800.25 - Delegation to the Directors of Office of Aviation Safety, Office of Railroad Safety, Office of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Delegation to the Directors of Office of Aviation... Office of Aviation Safety, Office of Railroad Safety, Office of Highway Safety, Office of Marine Safety... Offices of Aviation, Railroad, Highway, Marine, and Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety, the...

  18. 49 CFR 800.25 - Delegation to the Directors of Office of Aviation Safety, Office of Railroad Safety, Office of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Delegation to the Directors of Office of Aviation... Office of Aviation Safety, Office of Railroad Safety, Office of Highway Safety, Office of Marine Safety... Offices of Aviation, Railroad, Highway, Marine, and Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety, the...

  19. 49 CFR 800.25 - Delegation to the Directors of Office of Aviation Safety, Office of Railroad Safety, Office of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Delegation to the Directors of Office of Aviation... Office of Aviation Safety, Office of Railroad Safety, Office of Highway Safety, Office of Marine Safety... Offices of Aviation, Railroad, Highway, Marine, and Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety, the...

  20. 75 FR 10293 - Office of Biotechnology Activities; Office of Science Policy; Office of the Director; Notice of a...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-05

    ... Biotechnology Activities; Office of Science Policy; Office of the Director; Notice of a Meeting of the NIH Blue..., Office of Biotechnology Activities, Office of Science Policy, Office of the Director, National Institutes... lewallenl@od.nih.gov . Dated: March 1, 2010. Amy P. Patterson, Director, Office of Biotechnology Activities...

  1. Noise Emission Assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hübner, G.; Schorer, E.

    The acoustical efficiency of machines varies in the range of 10-9 to 10-5. This means even high power machines generate sound powers of a few Watts only. Due to the high sensitivity of the human ear however, such low sound powers create close to the machine loudnesses higher than 100 phon (64 sone). Consequently, the assessment of machinery noise emission requires relations to these subjective properties.

  2. Aerodynamic noise sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munin, A. G.; Kuznetsov, V. M.; Leontev, E. A.

    A general theory is developed for aerodynamic sound generation and its propagation in an inhomogeneous medium. Results of theoretical and experimental studies of the acoustic characteristics of jets are discussed, and a solution is presented to the problem concerning the noise from a section, free rotor, and a rotor located inside a channel. Sound propagation in a channel with flow and selection of soundproofing liners for the channel walls are also discussed.

  3. Optical Johnson noise thermometry

    DOEpatents

    Shepard, Robert L.; Blalock, Theron V.; Roberts, Michael J.; Maxey, Lonnie C.

    1992-01-01

    Method and device for direct, non-contact temperature measure of a body. A laser beam is reflected from the surface of the body and detected along with the Planck radiation. The detected signal is analyzed using signal correlation technique to generate an output signal proportional to the Johnson noise introduced into the reflected laser beam as a direct measure of the absolute temperature of the body.

  4. Cabin acoustical noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Homick, J. L.

    1981-12-01

    Using a hand-held sound pressure level meter the crew made one octave band and A-weight sound level measurements at four locations in the Orbiter on Mission Day 1. The data were voice recorded and transmitted to the ground prior to the first inflight sleep period. The data obtained are summarized. From a physiological point of view the noise levels measured on STS-1 were not hazardous to the crewmens' hearing.

  5. Bloch vector projection noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Li-Jun; Bacon, A. M.; Zhao, H.-Z.; Thomas, J. E.

    1994-01-01

    In the optical measurement of the Bloch vector components describing a system of N two-level atoms, the quantum fluctuations in these components are coupled into the measuring optical field. This paper develops the quantum theory of optical measurement of Bloch vector projection noise. The preparation and probing of coherence in an effective two-level system consisting of the two ground states in an atomic three-level lambda-scheme are analyzed.

  6. Aviation Noise Effects,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-03-01

    included , ,.,-,;. 17 e18 . Distribution StatementA rcrafe, aviation, noise, annoyance, This document is available to the public helicopter, sleep, speech...measurement of real-ear protection of hearing protectors and physical attenuation of earmuffs. ANSI/ ASTM E336-77 (1977): Standard test method for...measurement of airborne sound insulation in buildings. ANSI/ ASTM E413-73 (1980): Standard classification for sound transmission class. ANSI/SAE ARP1071

  7. Noise and mental performance: personality attributes and noise sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Belojevic, G; Jakovljevic, B; Slepcevic, V

    2003-01-01

    The contradictory and confusing results in noise research on humans may partly be due to individual differences between the subjects participating in different studies. This review is based on a twelve year research on the role of neuroticism, extroversion and subjective noise sensitivity during mental work in noisy environment. Neurotic persons might show enhanced "arousability" i.e. their arousal level increases more in stress. Additional unfavorable factors for neurotics are worrying and anxiety, which might prevent them coping successfully with noise, or some other stressors during mental performance. In numerous experiments introverts have showed higher sensitivity to noise during mental performance compared to extroverts, while extroverts often cope with a boring task even by requesting short periods of noise during performance. Correlation analyses have regularly revealed a highly significant negative relation between extroversion and noise annoyance during mental processing. Numerous studies have shown that people with high noise sensitivity may be prevented from achieving the same work results as other people in noisy environment, thus leading to psychosomatic, neurotic or other difficulties. Positive relation between noise annoyance and subjective noise sensitivity might be very strong. Our results have shown, after matching with the results of other relevant studies, that more stable personality, with extroversive tendencies and with a relatively lower subjective noise sensitivity measured with standard questionnaires, may be expected to better adapt to noise during mental performance, compared to people with opposite personality traits.

  8. Noise Analysis on Graphene Devices via Scanning Noise Microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Duckhyung; Sung, Moon Gyu; Lee, Hyungwoo; Heo, Kwang; Byun, Kyung-Eun; Kim, Taekyeong; Seo, David H.; Seo, Sunae; Hong, Seunghun

    2013-03-01

    Until now, the studies about low-frequency noises in electronic devices have mostly relied on the scaling behaviour analysis of current noise measured from multiple devices with different resistance values. However, the fabrication of such multiple devices for noise analysis is a labor-intensive and time-consuming work. Herein, we developed the scanning noise microscopy (SNM) method for nanoscale noise analysis of electronic devices, which allowed us to measure the scaling behaviour of electrical current noises in a graphene-strip-based device. In this method, a conductive atomic force microscopy probe made a direct contact on the graphene strip channel in the device to measure the noise spectra through it. The SNM method enabled the investigation of the noise scaling behaviour using only a single device. In addition, the nanoscale noise map was obtained, which allowed us to study the effect of structural defects on the noise characteristics of the graphene strip channel. Our method should be a powerful strategy for nanoscale noise analysis and play a significant role in basic research on nanoscale devices.

  9. Physical Mechanisms of Seismometer Site Noise and Self-Noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bainbridge, G. S.; Parker, T.; Townsend, B.; Upadhyaya, S.

    2016-12-01

    Ideally any seismometer installation should have a noise level corresponding to a predefined specification, to ensure the noise level is below the signals of interest. In practice seismic data may contain unforeseen noise artifacts and may vary widely in quality from one station to another due to particular site conditions, problematic installation methods, or a defective or unsuitable instrument. Also some modes of ground motion can be considered as noise, for example local vibration or tilt motion obscuring teleseismic signals. In this study we present an analysis of the physical phenomena which most commonly cause noise artifacts in broadband seismic data, based on data from controlled laboratory experiments as well as field installations. Each different physical mechanism gives rise to noise with particular distinguishing characteristics which can enable the user to diagnose noise symptoms, trace them to a root cause, take corrective action, and evolve towards best practices for particular environments and use cases.

  10. Aircraft noise prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filippone, Antonio

    2014-07-01

    This contribution addresses the state-of-the-art in the field of aircraft noise prediction, simulation and minimisation. The point of view taken in this context is that of comprehensive models that couple the various aircraft systems with the acoustic sources, the propagation and the flight trajectories. After an exhaustive review of the present predictive technologies in the relevant fields (airframe, propulsion, propagation, aircraft operations, trajectory optimisation), the paper addresses items for further research and development. Examples are shown for several airplanes, including the Airbus A319-100 (CFM engines), the Bombardier Dash8-Q400 (PW150 engines, Dowty R408 propellers) and the Boeing B737-800 (CFM engines). Predictions are done with the flight mechanics code FLIGHT. The transfer function between flight mechanics and the noise prediction is discussed in some details, along with the numerical procedures for validation and verification. Some code-to-code comparisons are shown. It is contended that the field of aircraft noise prediction has not yet reached a sufficient level of maturity. In particular, some parametric effects cannot be investigated, issues of accuracy are not currently addressed, and validation standards are still lacking.

  11. Control of jet noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schreck, Stefan

    1993-01-01

    This reports describes experiments conducted at the High-Speed Jet Facility at the University of Southern California on supersonic jets. The goal of the study was to develop methods for controlling the noise emitted from supersonic jets by passive and/or active means. Work by Seiner et al (1991) indicates that eddy Mach wave radiation is the dominant noise source in a heated high speed jet. Eddy Mach radiation is caused by turbulent eddies traveling at supersonic speed in the shear layer of the jet. The convection velocity of the eddies decays with increasing distance from the nozzle exit due to the mixing of the jet stream with the ambient fluid. Once the convection speed reaches subsonic velocities, eddy Mach wave radiation ceases. To control noise, a rapid decay of the convection velocity is desired. This may be accomplished by enhanced mixing in the jet. In this study, small aspect ratio rectangular jet nozzles were tested. A flapping mode was noticed in the jets. By amplifying screech components of the jets and destabilizing the jet columns with a collar device, the flapping mode was excited. The result was a rapid decay of the jet velocity. A reduction in eddy Mach radiation in rectangular supersonic jets may be achieved with this device.

  12. Prediction of Effective Officer Performance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1959-06-01

    miniature. Sinc" field observation and logical analysis of officer MOB schedules had led to ,the aypothesis that psychological demands differ among...could adequately reflect the differential psychological demands from job to job. The efficiency reports of 10,000 officers were analyzed and the results...showed no evidence of differential psychological demands among combat, technical, and administrative officer assignments or among any other group

  13. Laser phase noise effects on the dynamics of optomechanical resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phelps, Gregory; Meystre, Pierre

    2011-05-01

    We present a theoretical analysis of the effects of laser phase noise on the sideband cooling of opto-mechanical oscillators, demonstrating how it limits the minimum occupation number of the phonon mode being cooled and how it modifies optical cooling rate and mechanical frequency shift of the mechanical element. We also comment on the effects of laser phase noise on coherent oscillations of the mechanical element in the blue detuned regime and on the back-action evasion detection method where an additional drive is used to prevent heating of one quadrature of motion of the oscillator. This work was supported by the US Office of Naval Research, the US National Science Foundation, the US Army Research Office and the DARPA ORCHID program through a grant from AFOSR.

  14. Profiles in garbage: Office paper

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, C.

    1998-04-01

    The primary markets for recycled office paper are tissue mills, printing and writing paper, and paperboard packaging. Other uses include exports and newsprint. As recently as 1990, more than half of recovered office paper was exported, primarily to paper mills in Pacific Rim countries. This decade has seen an increase in the number of mills using deinked market pulp made from office paper. North American capacity to produce deinked market pulp skyrocketed in the first half of this decade. However, oversupply in the end markets for office paper led to financial problems and shutdown for several of these new mills.

  15. Noise tolerant spatiotemporal chaos computing.

    PubMed

    Kia, Behnam; Kia, Sarvenaz; Lindner, John F; Sinha, Sudeshna; Ditto, William L

    2014-12-01

    We introduce and design a noise tolerant chaos computing system based on a coupled map lattice (CML) and the noise reduction capabilities inherent in coupled dynamical systems. The resulting spatiotemporal chaos computing system is more robust to noise than a single map chaos computing system. In this CML based approach to computing, under the coupled dynamics, the local noise from different nodes of the lattice diffuses across the lattice, and it attenuates each other's effects, resulting in a system with less noise content and a more robust chaos computing architecture.

  16. Handbook for industrial noise control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    The basic principles of sound, measuring techniques, and instrumentation associated with general purpose noise control are discussed. Means for identifying and characterizing a noise problem so that subsequent work may provide the most efficient and cost effective solution are outlined. A methodology for choosing appropriate noise control materials and the proper implementation of control procedures is detailed. The most significant NASA sponsored contributions to the state of the art development of optimum noise control technologies are described including cases in which aeroacoustics and related research have shed some light on ways of reducing noise generation at its source.

  17. Emerging Community Noise Reduction Approaches

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Envia, Edmane

    2012-01-01

    An overview of the current NASA research portfolio in the area of aircraft noise reduction is presented. The emphasis of the research described herein is on meeting the aggressive near- and mid-term national goals for reducing aircraft noise emissions, which NASA internal studies have shown to be feasible using noise reduction technologies currently being developed in-house or in partnership with NASA s industry and academic partners. While NASA has an active research effort in airframe noise reduction, this overview focuses on propulsion noise reduction only.

  18. Noise tolerant spatiotemporal chaos computing

    SciTech Connect

    Kia, Behnam; Kia, Sarvenaz; Ditto, William L.; Lindner, John F.; Sinha, Sudeshna

    2014-12-01

    We introduce and design a noise tolerant chaos computing system based on a coupled map lattice (CML) and the noise reduction capabilities inherent in coupled dynamical systems. The resulting spatiotemporal chaos computing system is more robust to noise than a single map chaos computing system. In this CML based approach to computing, under the coupled dynamics, the local noise from different nodes of the lattice diffuses across the lattice, and it attenuates each other's effects, resulting in a system with less noise content and a more robust chaos computing architecture.

  19. Fan Noise Reduction: An Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Envia, Edmane

    2001-01-01

    Fan noise reduction technologies developed as part of the engine noise reduction element of the Advanced Subsonic Technology Program are reviewed. Developments in low-noise fan stage design, swept and leaned outlet guide vanes, active noise control, fan flow management, and scarfed inlet are discussed. In each case, a description of the method is presented and, where available, representative results and general conclusions are discussed. The review concludes with a summary of the accomplishments of the AST-sponsored fan noise reduction research and a few thoughts on future work.

  20. Externally blown flap impingement noise.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Putnam, T. W.; Lasagna, P. L.

    1972-01-01

    An investigation of externally blown flap impingement noise was conducted using a full-scale turbofan engine and aircraft wing. The noise produced with a daisy nozzle installed on the engine exhaust system was greater than that produced by a conical nozzle at the same thrust. The daisy nozzle caused the jet velocity to decay about 35 percent at the flap. The presence of the wing next to the conical nozzle increased the noise, as did increasing the flap deflection. Compared with the conical nozzle, the daisy nozzle produced slightly less noise at a flap deflection of 60 deg but produced more noise at the lower flap deflections tested.

  1. Handbook for industrial noise control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The basic principles of sound, measuring techniques, and instrumentation associated with general purpose noise control are discussed. Means for identifying and characterizing a noise problem so that subsequent work may provide the most efficient and cost effective solution are outlined. A methodology for choosing appropriate noise control materials and the proper implementation of control procedures is detailed. The most significant NASA sponsored contributions to the state of the art development of optimum noise control technologies are described including cases in which aeroacoustics and related research have shed some light on ways of reducing noise generation at its source.

  2. Business Office Clerical/Business Office Services. Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patton, Jan

    This curriculum guide for business office clerical/business office services provides instructional materials for Texas business course instructors. The following sections are included: (1) introduction; (2) keyboarding--skills, proofreading, and word processing; (3) filing--alphabetic, numeric, and electronic; (4) operating office…

  3. Office Space: How Will Technology Affect the Education Office Environment?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Day, C. William

    2009-01-01

    The office environment 10 years from now will be different from the one today. More office personnel will be organized around processes rather than functions. More work activities will be done by teams rather than individuals, and those teams will change over time, as will the nature of the work projects and the people who constitute the team. The…

  4. Office Space: How Will Technology Affect the Education Office Environment?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Day, C. William

    2009-01-01

    The office environment 10 years from now will be different from the one today. More office personnel will be organized around processes rather than functions. More work activities will be done by teams rather than individuals, and those teams will change over time, as will the nature of the work projects and the people who constitute the team. The…

  5. 20 CFR 422.5 - District offices and branch offices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... are over 700 social security district offices and branch offices located in the principal cities and other urban areas or towns of the United States. In addition, there are over 3,300 contact stations, located in population and trading centers, which are visited on a regularly, recurring, preannounced basis...

  6. 41. BOW SPACES (YN OFFICES, AYN OFFICES & DECK SHOP, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    41. BOW SPACES (YN OFFICES, AYN OFFICES & DECK SHOP, LAUNDRY & BOS'N STORES), WITH HATCH TO PAINT LOCKER AT LEFT. - U.S. Coast Guard Cutter WHITE HEATH, USGS Integrated Support Command Boston, 427 Commercial Street, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  7. Leaving Office: Position Changes of Chief Academic Officers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cejda, Brent D.; McKenney, Cynthia B.; Fuller, Catherine W.

    2001-01-01

    Using responses from a national survey of chief academic officers in public community colleges, identifies previous position holders and the positions to which they moved. Presents findings, which indicated that the greatest percentage of former chief academic officers became president (30 percent), whereas the next largest percentage retired (27…

  8. 75 FR 69091 - Office of the Director, Office of Biotechnology Activities; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-10

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Office of the Director, Office of Biotechnology Activities.... Agenda: The Office of Biotechnology Activities (OBA), NIH Recombinant DNA Advisory Committee and the... George, Program Assistant, Office of Science Policy, Office of Biotechnology Activities, National...

  9. Environmental noise issues associated with medical facility HVAC equipment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carnes, Ted N.; Pelton, Howard K.; Saenz, Daniel W.

    2003-10-01

    Medical facilities comprise a variety of types of buildings from research facilities to hospitals to professional office buildings to name but three. Many new hospitals are being located in close proximity to residential housing. Furthermore, as hospitals expand the buildings are closer to residential communities. Thus, the community noise aspects of these facilities are of even more importance than ever. This paper will examine how community noise intrusions can occur without proper planning, and how this can be avoided by knowing the community noise criteria, working closely with the design team to assist them with the proper planning and noise control design. Case histories will be presented that will include a hospital expansion with large rooftop equipment, new cooling towers and how these can be modeled as part of the overall hospital campus model to determine the community noise impact. In addition, a new chiller plant expansion adjacent to the residential areas will be examined, and how this can be modeled to show the various aspects of the community noise impact.

  10. [Radioprotection in dentistry offices].

    PubMed

    de Melo, Maria de Fátima Batista; Melo, Saulo Leonardo Sousa

    2008-12-01

    In 1998, the Brazilian Ministry of Health established the Guidelines for Protection in Medical and Odontological Radiography, aimed at ensuring the quality of radiological procedures provided to the population as well as radiological protection for the health professionals. The purpose of this study was to verify the current situation in the dental offices with regard to the technical specifications and the adopted protective measures, using a questionnaire including questions about equipments, techniques and radiological protection. The investigated universe consisted of the surgeon dentists of the city of Aracaju using radiographic examination as a routine, resulting in a final sample of 103 professionals. The results showed that a high percentage of these professionals ignore the current norms (64.1%) as well as the technical specifications of their equipment (51.5% ignored the peak kilovoltage and 57.3% the milliamperage of their equipment), besides examining the radiographs visually (67%) As positive behaviors, the paralleling technique was preferred by 62.1% and the lead apron was used by 98.1%. We conclude that, despite the limited knowledge about the Guidelines, some measures are being correctly adopted but that the dentists have to be more aware of the necessary protective measures.

  11. Women geoscientists select officers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1984-04-01

    The Association for Women Geoscientists Foundation has selected a board of directors to spearhead the development of educational and community programs geared to the earth sciences. The foundation, established in 1983, plans to provide grants to women studying the geosciences, to support a geology field program in cooperation with the Girl Scouts of America, and to undertake development of career guidance programs targeting junior and senior high school girls.Lois K. Ongley, an independent geologist in Houston, Tex., is president. Gwenn M. Jensen, an exploration geologist for Cities Service Oil & Gas Corp. in Denver, Colo., is vice president. Constance A. Sancetta, associate research scientist at the Lamont-Doherty Geological Observatory, is secretary. Susan J. Mara, resource analyst for the Pacific Gas & Electric Co. in San Francisco, Calif., is treasurer. The board of directors' three advisors are Maria Luisa Crawford, department chairman and professor at the geology department, Bryn Mawr College, Bryn Mawr, Pa.; Judith B. Mooney, project manager in the office of nuclear waste isolation of Battelle Memorial Institute in Columbus, Ohio; and A.F. Spilhaus, Jr., AGU executive director and Eos editor-in-chief.

  12. Integrated Budget Office Toolbox

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rushing, Douglas A.; Blakeley, Chris; Chapman, Gerry; Robertson, Bill; Horton, Allison; Besser, Thomas; McCarthy, Debbie

    2010-01-01

    The Integrated Budget Office Toolbox (IBOT) combines budgeting, resource allocation, organizational funding, and reporting features in an automated, integrated tool that provides data from a single source for Johnson Space Center (JSC) personnel. Using a common interface, concurrent users can utilize the data without compromising its integrity. IBOT tracks planning changes and updates throughout the year using both phasing and POP-related (program-operating-plan-related) budget information for the current year, and up to six years out. Separating lump-sum funds received from HQ (Headquarters) into separate labor, travel, procurement, Center G&A (general & administrative), and servicepool categories, IBOT creates a script that significantly reduces manual input time. IBOT also manages the movement of travel and procurement funds down to the organizational level and, using its integrated funds management feature, helps better track funding at lower levels. Third-party software is used to create integrated reports in IBOT that can be generated for plans, actuals, funds received, and other combinations of data that are currently maintained in the centralized format. Based on Microsoft SQL, IBOT incorporates generic budget processes, is transportable, and is economical to deploy and support.

  13. The Airframe Noise Reduction Challenge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lockard, David P.; Lilley, Geoffrey M.

    2004-01-01

    The NASA goal of reducing external aircraft noise by 10 dB in the near-term presents the acoustics community with an enormous challenge. This report identifies technologies with the greatest potential to reduce airframe noise. Acoustic and aerodynamic effects will be discussed, along with the likelihood of industry accepting and implementing the different technologies. We investigate the lower bound, defined as noise generated by an aircraft modified with a virtual retrofit capable of eliminating all noise associated with the high lift system and landing gear. However, the airframe noise of an aircraft in this 'clean' configuration would only be about 8 dB quieter on approach than current civil transports. To achieve the NASA goal of 10 dB noise reduction will require that additional noise sources be addressed. Research shows that energy in the turbulent boundary layer of a wing is scattered as it crosses trailing edge. Noise generated by scattering is the dominant noise mechanism on an aircraft flying in the clean configuration. Eliminating scattering would require changes to much of the aircraft, and practical reduction devices have yet to receive serious attention. Evidence suggests that to meet NASA goals in civil aviation noise reduction, we need to employ emerging technologies and improve landing procedures; modified landing patterns and zoning restrictions could help alleviate aircraft noise in communities close to airports.

  14. Noise policy: Past and present

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lang, William W.

    2004-05-01

    Leo Beranek and the firm Bolt Beranek and Newman have played a defining role in the formulation of noise policy in America. The firm that he and Richard Bolt founded in 1948 with fewer than a half-dozen others grew to become the world's largest acoustical consulting firm with more than 2000 employees. Two decades later in 1971, Leo Beranek was a key founder of the Institute of Noise Control Engineering of the U.S.A. The Institute, which inaugurated the INTER-NOISE series of annual noise congresses in 1972 under Beranek's direction, played a major role in the enactment by the Congress of the Noise Control Act of 1972. NCA-72 identified the Environmental Protection Agency as the leading Federal agency with oversight responsibilities responsible for implementing the noise policies defined by the Congress. In 1981, funding for EPA's noise program was withdrawn. Since then, leadership at the Federal level for implementing a coordinated national noise policy has been absent, but a dozen Federal agencies remain active in the noise field. With the exception of aircraft, no product emission regulations on major sources of noise are enforced today. To rectify this situation, Leo Beranek has recently been playing a leadership role in a concerted effort to rejuvenate America's national noise policy.

  15. Noise Emission from Laboratory Air Blowers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rossing, Thomas D.; Windham, Betty

    1978-01-01

    Product noise ratings for a number of laboratory air blowers are reported and several recommendations for reducing laboratory noise from air blowers are given. Relevant noise ratings and methods for measuring noise emission of appliances are discussed. (BB)

  16. Noise Emission from Laboratory Air Blowers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rossing, Thomas D.; Windham, Betty

    1978-01-01

    Product noise ratings for a number of laboratory air blowers are reported and several recommendations for reducing laboratory noise from air blowers are given. Relevant noise ratings and methods for measuring noise emission of appliances are discussed. (BB)

  17. Externally blown flap impingement noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lasagna, P. L.; Putnam, T. W.

    1972-01-01

    Tests of the noise produced by the impingement of the jet exhaust on the wing and flap for an externally blown flap system were conducted with a CF700 turbofan engine and an F-111B wing panel. The noise produced with a daisy nozzle installed on the engine was greater than that produced by a conical nozzle at the same thrust. The presence of the wing next to the test nozzles increased the noise, as did increasing the flap deflection angle. Compared with the conical nozzle, the daisy nozzle produced slightly less noise at a flap deflection of 60 deg but produced more noise at the lower flap deflections tested. Tests showed that the single-slotted flap deflected 60 deg, produced less noise than the double-slotted flaps. Also, maintaining the maximum distance between the exit nozzle and flap system resulted in a minor reduction in noise.

  18. Non-propulsive aerodynamic noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willshire, William L., Jr.; Tracy, Maureen B.

    1992-04-01

    In the first part of the paper, the contribution of airframe noise to total aircraft noise on approach is assessed for a large current technology transport and for the same airframe powered with bypass ratio 10 engines with an additional 5 dB noise suppression applied to the fan and turbine noise sources. The airframe noise of the envisioned advanced subsonic transport is 2 EPNdB less than the largest contributor to the total aircraft noise, the fan inlet. The noise impact of the airframe noise, as measured by noise contour area, is 1/4 that of fan noise. Further fan noise reduction efforts should not view airframe noise as an absolute noise floor. In the second part of the paper, the results from one recent cavity noise wind tunnel experiment is reported. A cavity of dimensions 11.25 in. (28.58 cm) long, 2.5 in. (6.35 cm) wide, and variable depth was tested in the Mach number range of .20 through .90. Reynolds number varied from 5 to 100 million per foot (16 to 328 million per meter). The 1/d ratio was varied from 4.4 to 20.0. The model was tested at yaw angles from 0 to 15 degrees. In general, the deeper the cavity, the greater the amplitude of the acoustic tones. Reynolds number appeared to have little effect on acoustic tone amplitudes. Tone amplitude and bandwidth changed with Mach number. The effect of yaw on acoustic tones varied with Reynolds number, Mach number, 1/h, and mode number. At Mach number 0.90, increased yaw shifted the tone frequencies of the higher modal frequencies to lower frequencies. As cavity depth decreased, the effect of yaw decreased.

  19. Technologies for Turbofan Noise Reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huff, Dennis

    2005-01-01

    An overview presentation of NASA's engine noise research since 1992 is given for subsonic commercial aircraft applications. Highlights are included from the Advanced Subsonic Technology (AST) Noise Reduction Program and the Quiet Aircraft Technology (QAT) project with emphasis on engine source noise reduction. Noise reduction goals for 10 EPNdB by 207 and 20 EPNdB by 2022 are reviewed. Fan and jet noise technologies are highlighted from the AST program including higher bypass ratio propulsion, scarf inlets, forward-swept fans, swept/leaned stators, chevron nozzles, noise prediction methods, and active noise control for fans. Source diagnostic tests for fans and jets that have been completed over the past few years are presented showing how new flow measurement methods such as Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) have played a key role in understanding turbulence, the noise generation process, and how to improve noise prediction methods. Tests focused on source decomposition have helped identify which engine components need further noise reduction. The role of Computational AeroAcoustics (CAA) for fan noise prediction is presented. Advanced noise reduction methods such as Hershel-Quincke tubes and trailing edge blowing for fan noise that are currently being pursued n the QAT program are also presented. Highlights are shown form engine validation and flight demonstrations that were done in the late 1990's with Pratt & Whitney on their PW4098 engine and Honeywell on their TFE-731-60 engine. Finally, future propulsion configurations currently being studied that show promise towards meeting NASA's long term goal of 20 dB noise reduction are shown including a Dual Fan Engine concept on a Blended Wing Body aircraft.

  20. Non-propulsive aerodynamic noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Willshire, William L., Jr.; Tracy, Maureen B.

    1992-01-01

    In the first part of the paper, the contribution of airframe noise to total aircraft noise on approach is assessed for a large current technology transport and for the same airframe powered with bypass ratio 10 engines with an additional 5 dB noise suppression applied to the fan and turbine noise sources. The airframe noise of the envisioned advanced subsonic transport is 2 EPNdB less than the largest contributor to the total aircraft noise, the fan inlet. The noise impact of the airframe noise, as measured by noise contour area, is 1/4 that of fan noise. Further fan noise reduction efforts should not view airframe noise as an absolute noise floor. In the second part of the paper, the results from one recent cavity noise wind tunnel experiment is reported. A cavity of dimensions 11.25 in. (28.58 cm) long, 2.5 in. (6.35 cm) wide, and variable depth was tested in the Mach number range of .20 through .90. Reynolds number varied from 5 to 100 million per foot (16 to 328 million per meter). The 1/d ratio was varied from 4.4 to 20.0. The model was tested at yaw angles from 0 to 15 degrees. In general, the deeper the cavity, the greater the amplitude of the acoustic tones. Reynolds number appeared to have little effect on acoustic tone amplitudes. Tone amplitude and bandwidth changed with Mach number. The effect of yaw on acoustic tones varied with Reynolds number, Mach number, 1/h, and mode number. At Mach number 0.90, increased yaw shifted the tone frequencies of the higher modal frequencies to lower frequencies. As cavity depth decreased, the effect of yaw decreased.

  1. Occupational noise in rice mills.

    PubMed

    Prasanna Kumar, G V; Dewangan, K N; Sarkar, Amaresh; Kumari, Amrita; Kar, Banani

    2008-01-01

    A major occupational hazard for the workers in rice mills is the noise during the operation of various machines. A noise survey was conducted in the workrooms of eight renowned rice mills of the north-eastern region of India established during the period between 1980 and 1985. The rice mills were selected on the basis of the outcome of a walk-through noise survey involving several rice mills of the region. A noise survey map of each rice mill was drawn to identify the predominant noise sources and the causes of high noise in the workrooms of the rice mill. The sound-pressure level (SPL) in the workrooms of the rice mill varied from 78 to 92 dBA. The paddy cleaner, rubber roll sheller, compartment separator, rice cleaner, auxiliary sieve shaker and an electric motor without enclosure were found to be the predominant noise sources in the workrooms of the mill. The causes of high noise in the rice mills may be attributed to the use of a long flat belt drive, crank-and-pitman mechanism, absence of an electric motor enclosure, poor machine maintenance and inadequate acoustic design of the workroom of the rice mill. About 26% of the total labourers were found to be exposed to higher levels of noise than 85 dBA. Subjective response indicated that about 26% of the total labourers felt noise interferes in their work and about 49% labourers were of opinion that noise interferes with their conversation. Noise from machines in the rice mills was found to be the major occupational hazard for the rice mill workers. The predominant noise sources need to be identified and the causes of high noise need to be studied to undertake the appropriate measures to reduce the noise level. To identify the predominant noise sources and their distributions in rice mills, to study the causes of high levels of noise in rice mills and to examine the response of the workers towards noise. A noise survey was conducted in eight renowned rice mills of the north-eastern region of India. The mills were

  2. Office Duplication Practices Curriculum Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    East Texas State Univ., Commerce. Occupational Curriculum Lab.

    As one of a series of curriculum guides for office education programs in Texas, this guide contains 24 units of instruction in office duplication practices. Each of the units contains a unit outline that lists unit objective, specific objectives, teacher and student activities, estimated completion time, re-teach activities, and resources; and a…

  3. Career Indications Among Junior Officers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shenk, Faye

    A study of officer input from the principal Air Force commissioning programs was undertaken to determine the predictability of an Air Force officer's career decision and to evaluate relationships between career intent and various demographic, environmental, and attitudinal factors. This report describes the study and provides a preliminary…

  4. Richland Operations Office technology summary

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-05-01

    This document has been prepared by the Department of Energy`s Environmental Management Office of Technology Development to highlight its research, development, demonstration, testing, and evaluation activities funded through the Richland Operations Office. Technologies and processes described have the potential to enhance cleanup and waste management efforts.

  5. Office for Human Research Protections

    MedlinePlus

    ... A A A Print Share Office for Human Research Protections The Office for Human Research Protections (OHRP) provides leadership in the protection of ... welfare, and wellbeing of human subjects involved in research conducted or supported by the U.S. Department of ...

  6. Arkansas' Office Procedures Curriculum Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clayton, Dean

    This curriculum guide provides teachers of office procedures classes with unit lesson plans and information about resource materials that can be examined, selected, and integrated into the instructional program. Contents are mainly established for the following two types of secondary-level programs: cooperative office education and intensive…

  7. The properly negotiated office lease.

    PubMed

    Josselson, B H

    1996-10-01

    The signing of an office lease is not a task any dentist should undertake alone. This article reviews several points that should be addressed by the typical office lease. Failing to incorporate some of these provisions could be the difference between success and failure of a dental practice.

  8. The New Planned Giving Officer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordan, Ronald R.; Quynn, Katelyn L.

    1994-01-01

    A planned giving officer is seen as an asset to college/university development for technical expertise, credibility, and connections. Attorneys, certified public accountants, bank trust officers, financial planners, investment advisers, life insurance agents, and real estate brokers may be qualified but probably also need training. (MSE)

  9. Athena Community Office

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez-Núnez, S.; Barcons, X.; Barret, D.; Bozzo, E.; Carrera, F. J.; Ceballos, M. T.; Gómez, S.; Monterde, M. P.; Rau, A.

    2017-03-01

    The Athena Community Office (ACO) has been established by ESA's Athena Science Study Team (ASST) in order to obtain support in performing its tasks assigned by ESA, and most specially in the ASST role as "focal point for the interests of the broad scientific community". The ACO is led by the Instituto de Física de Cantabria (CSIC-UC), and its activities are funded by CSIC and UC. Further ACO contributors are the University of Geneva, MPE and IRAP. In this poster, we present ACO to the Spanish Astronomical Community, informing about its main responsibilities, which are: assist the ASST in organising and collecting support from the Athena Working Groups and Topical Panels; organise and maintain the documentation generated by the Athena Working Groups and Topical Panels; manage the Working Group and Topical Panel membership lists; assist the ASST in promoting Athena science capabilities in the research world, through conferences and workshops; keep a record of all papers and presentations related to Athena; support the production of ASST documents; produce and distribute regularly an Athena Newsletter, informing the community about all mission and science developments; create and maintain the Athena Community web portal; maintain an active communication activity; promote, organise and support Athena science-related public outreach, in coordination with ESA and other agencies involved when appropriate; and, design, produce materials and provide pointers to available materials produced by other parties. In summary, ACO is meant to become a focal point to facilitate the scientific exchange between the Athena activities and the scientific community at large, and to disseminate the Athena science objectives to the general public.

  10. Imaging with ambient noise

    SciTech Connect

    Snieder, Roel; Wapenaar, Kees

    2010-09-15

    Recent developments in seismology, ultrasonics, and underwater acoustics have led to a radical change in the way scientists think about ambient noise--the diffuse waves generated by pressure fluctuations in the atmosphere, the scattering of water waves in the ocean, and any number of other sources that pervade our world. Because diffuse waves consist of the superposition of waves propagating in all directions, they appear to be chaotic and random. That appearance notwithstanding, diffuse waves carry information about the medium through which they propagate.

  11. Calculated wind noise for an infrasonic wind noise enclosure.

    PubMed

    Abbott, JohnPaul; Raspet, Richard

    2015-07-01

    A simple calculation of the wind noise measured at the center of a large porous wind fence enclosure is developed. The calculation provides a good model of the measured wind noise, with a good agreement within ±5 dB, and is derived by combining the wind noise contributions from (a) the turbulence-turbulence and turbulence-shear interactions inside the enclosure, (b) the turbulence interactions on the surface of the enclosure, and (c) the turbulence-shear interactions outside of the enclosure. Each wind noise contribution is calculated from the appropriate measured turbulence spectra, velocity profiles, correlation lengths, and the mean velocity at the center, surface, and outside of the enclosure. The model is verified by comparisons of the measured wind noise to the calculated estimates of the differing noise contributions and their sum.

  12. Benefits and disadvantages of self-regulation of environmental noise from military training

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luz, George A.

    2002-05-01

    In a 1981 Executive decision, the Administration's Office of Management and Budget (OMB) told the Environmental Protection Agency to end funding of the Office of Noise Abatement and Control (ONAC). This decision, coupled with a specific exemption for military equipment contained in the Noise Control Act of 1972, ensured that the military departments would be self-regulating in regard to noise. This self-regulation for noise stands in contrast to the external regulation of other pollutants, such as air and water emissions. Two possible disadvantages of self-regulation are (1) reduced funding for noise management compared with funding for externally regulated pollutants, and (2) lack of an independent and external set of standards for determining acceptable limits on community noise exposure. Three possible benefits are (1) avoiding the costs of mitigating trivial violations of external standards, (2) maintaining a long-standing policy of preventing noise problems through land use planning, and (3) enabling negotiated solutions between installations and their neighboring communities. The paper ends with an examination of a negotiated solution for a community subjected to noise from the detonation of obsolete ammunition.

  13. Injury risk and noise exposure in firefighter training operations

    PubMed Central

    Neitzel, Richard L.; Long, Rachel; Sun, Kan; Sayler, Stephanie; von Thaden, Terry L.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Firefighters have high rate of injuries and illnesses, as well as exposures to high levels of noise. This study explored the relationship between noise exposure and injury among firefighters. Methods We recruited firefighters undergoing vehicle extrication and structural collapse emergency response training at a highly realistic training facility. Demographics, health status, body mass index, and history of serious injuries (i.e., injuries requiring first aid treatment, treatment in a medical clinic or office, or treatment at a hospital) were assessed at baseline, and daily activities, injury events, and near-misses were assessed daily using surveys. Participants' noise exposures were monitored for one 24-hour period using noise dosimeters. We used a mixed-effects logistic regression model to estimate the odds of injury events and near-misses associated with noise exposure as an independent variable. Results Of 56 subjects, twenty (36%) reported that they had ever suffered a serious injury during firefighting activities, and nine (16%) reported a serious injury within the past year. We estimated rates of 6.6 lifetime serious injuries per 100 FTE 16.1 serious injuries per 100 FTE within the past year. Our models indicated a significant increase in injury events and near misses among those with higher BMI, and as well as a dose-response relationship between near-misses/injuries and increasing noise levels. Noise levels >90 dBA in the 30 min prior to time of injury or near-miss were associated with substantially increased odds ratios for injury or near-miss. Our models further indicated that perceived job demands were significantly associated with increased risk of injury or near-miss. Conclusion Our results suggest that noise exposures may need to be incorporated into injury prevention programs for firefighters to reduce injuries among this high-risk occupational group. PMID:26712895

  14. Occupational noise in printing companies.

    PubMed

    Mihailovic, Aleksandra; Grujic, Selena D; Kiurski, Jelena; Krstic, Jelena; Oros, Ivana; Kovacevic, Ilija

    2011-10-01

    The extent of noise in five printing companies in Novi Sad, Serbia, was determined using TES-1358A Sound Analyzer with RS-232 Interface. The data on equivalent A-level (dBA), as well as, maximum and minimum sound pressure levels were collected. It was found that folders and offset printing units are the predominant noise sources, with the average L (eq) levels of 87.66 and 82.7 dBA, respectively. Forty percent of the machines produced noise levels above the limiting threshold level of 85 dBA, allowed by law. The noise in all printing companies was dominated by higher frequency noise, and the maximum level mostly appeared at 4,000 Hz. For offset printing machines and folders, the means of L (eq) levels exceeded the permissible levels given by NR-80 curve at higher frequencies. There are no published studies of occupational noise and hearing impairment of workers exposed to hazardous noise in printing industry in Serbia. More extensive studies are needed to determine the exact impact of noise on the workers. Technical and organizational measures in order to control noise and prevent noise exposure, and general hearing conservation program to protect workers, should be introduced in printing industry.

  15. Numerical Simulations of Noise Generated by Supersonic Rectangular Jets Part 2: Frequency Band Analysis of Far-field Noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Ryan; Viswanath, Kamal; Kailasanath, Kazhikathra

    2015-11-01

    A method has been developed to analyze the asymmetry of far-field noise generated by rectangular jets by examining the contributions arising from different frequency bands. This method was used to analyze simulations of a supersonic jet issuing from a rectangular nozzle with aspect ratio of 2.0 at four frequency ranges for several over-expanded, cold jet scenarios. Results show that low frequency phenomenon, such as shear layer noise, contribute the most to the asymmetry of rectangular jet noise for these conditions. This method is being extended to examine the differences in asymmetry in comparable circular jets, as well as heated rectangular jets. Supported by Office of Naval Research (ONR) through the Computational Physics Task Area under the NRL 6.1 Base Program.

  16. Prediction of Externally Blown Flap Noise and Turbomachinery Strut Noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fink, M. R.

    1975-01-01

    Methods were developed for predicting externally blown flap (EBF) noise and turbomachinery strut noise. Noise radiated by under-the-wing and upper-surface-blowing EBF configurations is calculated as a sum of lift dipole noise, trailing edge noise, and jet quadrupole noise. Resulting predictions of amplitudes and spectra generally were in good agreement with data from small-scale models. These data cover a range of exhaust velocity, flap deflection, exhaust nozzle position, exhaust nozzle shape, and ratio of exhaust nozzle diameter to wing chord. A semi-empirical method for predicting dipole noise radiation from a strut with incident turbulence was in good agreement with data. Leading-edge regions made of perforated plate backed by a bulk acoustic absorber achieved up to 7 db reduction of strut noise caused by incident turbulence at high frequencies. Radial turbulence in a turbofan exit duct was found to have a relatively high level associated with the mean velocity defect in the rotor blade wakes. Use of these turbulence spectra and a dipole noise radiation equation gave general prediction of measured aft-radiated sound power caused by a splitter ring in a full-scale fan exit duct.

  17. Low-noise SQUID

    DOEpatents

    Dantsker, Eugene; Clarke, John

    2000-01-01

    The present invention comprises a high-transition-temperature superconducting device having low-magnitude low-frequency noise-characteristics in magnetic fields comprising superconducting films wherein the films have a width that is less than or equal to a critical width, w.sub.C, which depends on an ambient magnetic field. For operation in the Earth's magnetic field, the critical width is about 6 micrometers (.mu.m). When made with film widths of about 4 .mu.m an inventive high transition-temperature, superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) excluded magnetic flux vortices up to a threshold ambient magnetic field of about 100 microTesla (.mu.T). SQUIDs were fabricated having several different film strip patterns. When the film strip width was kept at about 4 .mu.m, the SQUIDs exhibited essentially no increase in low-frequency noise, even when cooled in static magnetic fields of magnitude up to 100 .mu.T. Furthermore, the mutual inductance between the inventive devices and a seven-turn spiral coil was at least 85% of that for inductive coupling to a conventional SQUID.

  18. Comparison of Narrow-Band and One-Third Octave Ambient Noise Measurements.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-06-01

    ADDRESS 10. PROGRAM ELEMENT. PROJECT , TASK Naval Postgraduate School AREA & WORK UN IT NUMBERS Monterey, CA 93943-5100PE679 I I. CONTROLLING OFFICE...ambient noise. The tranmission loss model incorporated in DANES is ASTRAL . ASTRAL provides an averaged transmission loss and does not forecast convergence... Project -Buoy System Self-Noise Analysis," NOAI Data Euoy Ofice, NSTL Station, April, 1982. Naval Air Systems Coaxand, "Sonobuoy Instructional Ianual

  19. Fan noise research at NASA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Groeneweg, John F.

    Results of recent NASA research to reduce aircraft turbofan noise are described. As the bypass ratio of a turbofan engine increases from 5 to as much as 20, the dominant source of engine noise is the fan. A primary mechanism of tone noise generation is the rotor blade wakes interacting with downstream stator vanes. Methods of analyzing rotor-stator tone noise generation are described and sample results are given. The role of an acoustic modal description is emphasized. Wind tunnel tests of model fans and nacelles are described including a novel rotating microphone technique for modal measurement. Sample far field results are given showing the effects of inlet length, and modal measurements are shown which point to a new generation mechanism. Concepts for active fan noise control at the source are addressed. Implications of the research which have general relevance to fan noise generation and control are discussed.

  20. Noise exposure of music teachers.

    PubMed

    Behar, Alberto; MacDonald, Ewen; Lee, Jason; Cui, Jie; Kunov, Hans; Wong, Willy

    2004-04-01

    A noise exposure survey was performed to assess the risk of hearing loss to school music teachers during the course of their activities. Noise exposure of 18 teachers from 15 schools was measured using noise dosimeters. The equivalent continuous noise level (L(eq)) of each teacher was recorded during single activities (classes) as well as for the entire day, and a normalized 8-hour exposure, termed the noise exposure level (L(ex)) was also computed. The measured L(eq) exceeded the 85-dBA limit for 78% of the teachers. L(ex) exceeded 85 dBA for 39% of the teachers. Limited recommendations on how to reduce the noise exposures are provided. The need for a hearing conservation program has also been emphasized.

  1. Fan Noise Research at NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Groeneweg, John F.

    1994-01-01

    Results of recent NASA research to reduce aircraft turbofan noise are described. As the bypass ratio of a turbofan engine increases from five to as much as 20, the dominant source of engine noise is the fan. A primary mechanism of tone noise generation is the rotor blade wakes interacting with downstream stator vanes. Methods of analyzing rotor stator tone noise generation are described and sample results are given. The role of an acoustic modal description is emphasized. Wind tunnel tests of model fans and nacelles are described including a novel rotating microphone technique for modal measurement. Sample far field results are given showing the effects of inlet length, and modal measurements are shown which point to a new generation mechanism. Concepts for active fan noise control at the source are addressed. Implications of the research which have general relevance to fan noise generation and control are discussed.

  2. Passive Phase Noise Cancellation Scheme

    PubMed Central

    Kenig, Eyal; Cross, M. C.; Lifshitz, Ron; Karabalin, R. B.; Villanueva, L. G.; Matheny, M. H.; Roukes, M. L.

    2013-01-01

    We introduce a new method for reducing phase noise in oscillators, thereby improving their frequency precision. The noise reduction is realized by a passive device consisting of a pair of coupled nonlinear resonating elements that are driven parametrically by the output of a conventional oscillator at a frequency close to the sum of the linear mode frequencies. Above the threshold for parametric instability, the coupled resonators exhibit self-oscillations which arise as a response to the parametric driving, rather than by application of active feedback. We find operating points of the device for which this periodic signal is immune to frequency noise in the driving oscillator, providing a way to clean its phase noise. We present results for the effect of thermal noise to advance a broader understanding of the overall noise sensitivity and the fundamental operating limits. PMID:23004985

  3. 3 CFR - Designation of Officers of the Office of Personnel Management To Act as Director of the Office of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Management To Act as Director of the Office of Personnel Management Presidential Documents Other Presidential Documents Memorandum of May 21, 2012 Designation of Officers of the Office of Personnel Management To Act as Director of the Office of Personnel Management Memorandum for the Director of the Office of Personnel...

  4. Office of Equal Opportunity Programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chin, Jennifer L.

    2004-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Office of Equal Opportunity Programs works to provide quality service for all programs and/or to assist the Center in becoming a model workplace. During the summer of 2004, I worked with Deborah Cotleur along with other staff members to create and modify customer satisfaction surveys. This office aims to assist in developing a model workplace by providing functions as a change agent to the center by serving as an advisor to management to ensure equity throughout the Center. In addition, the office serves as a mediator for the Center in addressing issues and concerns. Lastly, the office provides assistance to employees to enable attainment of personal and organizational goals. The Office of Equal Opportunities is a staff office which reports and provides advice to the Center Director and Executive Leadership, implements laws, regulations, and presidential executive orders, and provides center wide leadership and assistance to NASA GRC employees. Some of the major responsibilities of the office include working with the discrimination complaints program, special emphasis programs (advisory groups), management support, monitoring and evaluation, contract compliance, and community outreach. During my internship in this office, my main objective was to create four customer satisfaction surveys based on EO retreats, EO observances, EO advisory boards, and EO mediation/counseling. I created these surveys after conducting research on past events and surveys as well as similar survey research created and conducted by other NASA centers, program for EO Advisory group members, leadership training sessions for supervisors, preventing sexual harassment training sessions, and observance events. I also conducted research on the style and format from feedback surveys from the Marshall Equal Opportunity website, the Goddard website, and the main NASA website. Using the material from the Office of Equal Opportunity Programs at Glenn Research Center along with my

  5. Office of Equal Opportunity Programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chin, Jennifer L.

    2004-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Office of Equal Opportunity Programs works to provide quality service for all programs and/or to assist the Center in becoming a model workplace. During the summer of 2004, I worked with Deborah Cotleur along with other staff members to create and modify customer satisfaction surveys. This office aims to assist in developing a model workplace by providing functions as a change agent to the center by serving as an advisor to management to ensure equity throughout the Center. In addition, the office serves as a mediator for the Center in addressing issues and concerns. Lastly, the office provides assistance to employees to enable attainment of personal and organizational goals. The Office of Equal Opportunities is a staff office which reports and provides advice to the Center Director and Executive Leadership, implements laws, regulations, and presidential executive orders, and provides center wide leadership and assistance to NASA GRC employees. Some of the major responsibilities of the office include working with the discrimination complaints program, special emphasis programs (advisory groups), management support, monitoring and evaluation, contract compliance, and community outreach. During my internship in this office, my main objective was to create four customer satisfaction surveys based on EO retreats, EO observances, EO advisory boards, and EO mediation/counseling. I created these surveys after conducting research on past events and surveys as well as similar survey research created and conducted by other NASA centers, program for EO Advisory group members, leadership training sessions for supervisors, preventing sexual harassment training sessions, and observance events. I also conducted research on the style and format from feedback surveys from the Marshall Equal Opportunity website, the Goddard website, and the main NASA website. Using the material from the Office of Equal Opportunity Programs at Glenn Research Center along with my

  6. Noise in Lead Beta Alumina.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-05-01

    single crystal and ceramic samples. The temperature dependance for diffusion noise (I>O,1OHz) is greater than can be accounted for by Equation (1). This...3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 3.7 1000/T IN 1/9 Figure 2. Temperature Dependance of Nyqutst Noise (5kHz) and Diffusion Noise (lOHz) of Single Crystal and

  7. Aircraft community noise impact studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    The objectives of the study are to: (1) conduct a program to determine the community noise impact of advanced technology engines when installed in a supersonic aircraft, (2) determine the potential reduction of community noise by flight operational techniques for the study aircraft, (3) estimate the community noise impact of the study aircraft powered by suppressed turbojet engines and by advanced duct heating turbofan engines, and (4) compare the impact of the two supersonic designs with that of conventional commercial DC-8 aircraft.

  8. Noise of sliding rough contact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Bot, Alain

    2017-01-01

    This article is a discussion about the origin of friction noise produced when rubbing solids having rough surfaces. We show that noise emerges from numerous impacts into the contact between antagonist asperities of surfaces. Prediction of sound sources reduces to a statistical problem of contact mechanics. On the other hand, contact is also responsible of dissipation of vibration. This leads to the paradoxical result that the noise may not be proportional to the number of sources.

  9. Coding for urologic office procedures.

    PubMed

    Dowling, Robert A; Painter, Mark

    2013-11-01

    This article summarizes current best practices for documenting, coding, and billing common office-based urologic procedures. Topics covered include general principles, basic and advanced urologic coding, creation of medical records that support compliant coding practices, bundled codes and unbundling, global periods, modifiers for procedure codes, when to bill for evaluation and management services during the same visit, coding for supplies, and laboratory and radiology procedures pertinent to urology practice. Detailed information is included for the most common urology office procedures, and suggested resources and references are provided. This information is of value to physicians, office managers, and their coding staff.

  10. Self-Report of Transportation Noise Exposure, Annoyance and Noise Sensitivity in Relation to Noise Map Information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    HEINONEN-GUZEJEV, M.; VUORINEN, H. S.; KAPRIO, J.; HEIKKILÄ, K.; MUSSALO-RAUHAMAA, H.; KOSKENVUO, M.

    2000-07-01

    Self-report of noise exposure was compared with the information on noise maps while taking into account measures of self-reported annoyance and noise sensitivity. Self-report data were analyzed for 1495 subjects participating in a case-control study of hypertension from the Finnish Twin Cohort who had replied to a questionnaire in 1988. In addition, noise map information was included in analyses of the 218 study subjects living in the Metropolitan Area of Helsinki. The results show that: (1) In the factor analysis based on all subjects self-report of transportation noise exposure formed an own factor independent of the annoyance variables or noise sensitivity. Annoyance items loaded on to two different factors termed nighttime and daytime annoyance. Noise sensitivity did not load to either of the factors of annoyance. For the subsample with noise map information, the results indicated that: (2) Noise sensitivity was independent of noise map information. (3) Subjects with high noise sensitivity reported more transportation noise exposure than subjects with low noise sensitivity and they reported aircraft, railway and road traffic noise exposure outside the environmental noise map areas almost twice as often as non-sensitive subjects. (4) Noise map information and self-report of noise exposure were consistently associated when aircraft noise was considered. Self-report of noise related items may supplement noise map information in noise protection.

  11. Adjusting Phenotypes by Noise Control

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kyung H.; Sauro, Herbert M.

    2012-01-01

    Genetically identical cells can show phenotypic variability. This is often caused by stochastic events that originate from randomness in biochemical processes involving in gene expression and other extrinsic cellular processes. From an engineering perspective, there have been efforts focused on theory and experiments to control noise levels by perturbing and replacing gene network components. However, systematic methods for noise control are lacking mainly due to the intractable mathematical structure of noise propagation through reaction networks. Here, we provide a numerical analysis method by quantifying the parametric sensitivity of noise characteristics at the level of the linear noise approximation. Our analysis is readily applicable to various types of noise control and to different types of system; for example, we can orthogonally control the mean and noise levels and can control system dynamics such as noisy oscillations. As an illustration we applied our method to HIV and yeast gene expression systems and metabolic networks. The oscillatory signal control was applied to p53 oscillations from DNA damage. Furthermore, we showed that the efficiency of orthogonal control can be enhanced by applying extrinsic noise and feedback. Our noise control analysis can be applied to any stochastic model belonging to continuous time Markovian systems such as biological and chemical reaction systems, and even computer and social networks. We anticipate the proposed analysis to be a useful tool for designing and controlling synthetic gene networks. PMID:22253584

  12. Noise-induced hearing loss

    SciTech Connect

    Catlin, F.I.

    1986-03-01

    Hearing loss affects 30 million people in the United States; of these, 21 million are over the age of 65 years. This disorder may have several causes: heredity, noise, aging, and disease. Hearing loss from noise has been recognized for centuries but was generally ignored until some time after the Industrial Revolution. Hearing loss from occupational exposure to hazardous noise was identified as a compensable disability by the United States courts in 1948 to 1959. Development of noisy jet engines and supersonic aircraft created additional claims for personal and property damage in the 1950s and 1960s. These conditions led to legislation for noise control in the form of the Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970 and the Noise Control Act of 1972. Protection of the noise-exposed employee was also an objective of the Hearing Conservation Act of 1971. Subsequent studies have confirmed the benefits of periodic hearing tests for workers exposed to hazardous noise and of otologic evaluation as part of the hearing conservation process. Research studies in laboratory animals, using scanning electron microscopical techniques, have demonstrated that damage to the inner ear and organ of hearing can occur even though subjective (conditioned) response to sound stimuli remains unaffected. Some investigators have employed an epidemiologic approach to identify risk factors and to develop profiles to susceptibility to noise-induced hearing loss. The need for joint involvement of workers and employers in the reduction and control of occupational noise hazards is evident. 19 references.

  13. Noise-induced hearing loss.

    PubMed

    Catlin, F I

    1986-03-01

    Hearing loss affects 30 million people in the United States; of these, 21 million are over the age of 65 years. This disorder may have several causes: heredity, noise, aging, and disease. Hearing loss from noise has been recognized for centuries but was generally ignored until some time after the Industrial Revolution. Hearing loss from occupational exposure to hazardous noise was identified as a compensable disability by the United States courts in 1948 to 1959. Development of noisy jet engines and supersonic aircraft created additional claims for personal and property damage in the 1950s and 1960s. These conditions led to legislation for noise control in the form of the Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970 and the Noise Control Act of 1972. Protection of the noise-exposed employee was also an objective of the Hearing Conservation Act of 1971. Subsequent studies have confirmed the benefits of periodic hearing tests for workers exposed to hazardous noise and of otologic evaluation as part of the hearing conservation process. Research studies in laboratory animals, using scanning electron microscopical techniques, have demonstrated that damage to the inner ear and organ of hearing can occur even though subjective (conditioned) response to sound stimuli remains unaffected. Some investigators have employed an epidemiologic approach to identify risk factors and to develop profiles to susceptibility to noise-induced hearing loss. The need for joint involvement of workers and employers in the reduction and control of occupational noise hazards is evident.

  14. How anthropogenic noise affects foraging.

    PubMed

    Luo, Jinhong; Siemers, Björn M; Koselj, Klemen

    2015-09-01

    The influence of human activity on the biosphere is increasing. While direct damage (e.g. habitat destruction) is relatively well understood, many activities affect wildlife in less apparent ways. Here, we investigate how anthropogenic noise impairs foraging, which has direct consequences for animal survival and reproductive success. Noise can disturb foraging via several mechanisms that may operate simultaneously, and thus, their effects could not be disentangled hitherto. We developed a diagnostic framework that can be applied to identify the potential mechanisms of disturbance in any species capable of detecting the noise. We tested this framework using Daubenton's bats, which find prey by echolocation. We found that traffic noise reduced foraging efficiency in most bats. Unexpectedly, this effect was present even if the playback noise did not overlap in frequency with the prey echoes. Neither overlapping noise nor nonoverlapping noise influenced the search effort required for a successful prey capture. Hence, noise did not mask prey echoes or reduce the attention of bats. Instead, noise acted as an aversive stimulus that caused avoidance response, thereby reducing foraging efficiency. We conclude that conservation policies may seriously underestimate numbers of species affected and the multilevel effects on animal fitness, if the mechanisms of disturbance are not considered.

  15. The commercial aircraft noise problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, M. J. T.

    1989-01-01

    The history and future developments of commercial aircraft noise are discussed. The use of the turbofan engine to replace the louder turbojet engine is identified as a step forward in reducing noise. The increasing use of two engine planes for medium and even long hauls is seen as a positive trend. An increase in the number of aircraft movements is predicted. An upturn in noise exposure around the end of the century is predicted. The development goals of Rolls Royce in meeting the noise reduction challenges of the next decades are discussed.

  16. Quantum noise in optical interferometers

    SciTech Connect

    Voronov, Volodymyr G.; Weyrauch, Michael

    2010-05-15

    We study the photon counting noise in optical interferometers used for gravitational wave detection. In order to reduce quantum noise, a squeezed vacuum is injected into the usually unused input port. It is investigated under which conditions the gravitational wave signal may be amplified without increasing counting noise concurrently. Such a possibility was suggested as a consequence of the entanglement of the two output ports of a beam splitter. We find that amplification without concurrent increase of noise is not possible for reasonable squeezing parameters. Photon distributions for various beam splitter angles and squeezing parameters are calculated.

  17. Noise exposure and public health.

    PubMed Central

    Passchier-Vermeer, W; Passchier, W F

    2000-01-01

    Exposure to noise constitutes a health risk. There is sufficient scientific evidence that noise exposure can induce hearing impairment, hypertension and ischemic heart disease, annoyance, sleep disturbance, and decreased school performance. For other effects such as changes in the immune system and birth defects, the evidence is limited. Most public health impacts of noise were already identified in the 1960s and noise abatement is less of a scientific but primarily a policy problem. A subject for further research is the elucidation of the mechanisms underlying noise-induced cardiovascular disorders and the relationship of noise with annoyance and nonacoustical factors modifying health outcomes. A high priority study subject is the effects of noise on children, including cognitive effects and their reversibility. Noise exposure is on the increase, especially in the general living environment, both in industrialized nations and in developing world regions. This implies that in the twenty-first century noise exposure will still be a major public health problem. Images Figure 2 PMID:10698728

  18. High level white noise generator

    DOEpatents

    Borkowski, Casimer J.; Blalock, Theron V.

    1979-01-01

    A wide band, stable, random noise source with a high and well-defined output power spectral density is provided which may be used for accurate calibration of Johnson Noise Power Thermometers (JNPT) and other applications requiring a stable, wide band, well-defined noise power spectral density. The noise source is based on the fact that the open-circuit thermal noise voltage of a feedback resistor, connecting the output to the input of a special inverting amplifier, is available at the amplifier output from an equivalent low output impedance caused by the feedback mechanism. The noise power spectral density level at the noise source output is equivalent to the density of the open-circuit thermal noise or a 100 ohm resistor at a temperature of approximately 64,000 Kelvins. The noise source has an output power spectral density that is flat to within 0.1% (0.0043 db) in the frequency range of from 1 KHz to 100 KHz which brackets typical passbands of the signal-processing channels of JNPT's. Two embodiments, one of higher accuracy that is suitable for use as a standards instrument and another that is particularly adapted for ambient temperature operation, are illustrated in this application.

  19. Fan and pump noise control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Misoda, J.; Magliozzi, B.

    1973-01-01

    The development is described of improved, low noise level fan and pump concepts for the space shuttle. In addition, a set of noise design criteria for small fans and pumps was derived. The concepts and criteria were created by obtaining Apollo hardware test data to correlate and modify existing noise estimating procedures. A set of space shuttle selection criteria was used to determine preliminary fan and pump concepts. These concepts were tested and modified to obtain noise sources and characteristics which yield the design criteria and quiet, efficient space shuttle fan and pump concepts.

  20. Noise reduction experience at Hughes Helicopter, Inc.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Janakiram, D. S.

    1982-01-01

    Noise reduction is mostly limited to light helicopters whose noise signature is dominated by their tail rotors. It is primarily hardware oriented. Well known noise reduction techniques such as reduction of rotor speeds with an accompanying increase in solidity to maintain performance, engine noise reduction with the use of exhaust mufflers, and acoustic blanketing of transmission and engine compartment are used. The concept of blade phasing as a means of reducing tail rotor noise is also used. Engine noise (exhaust noise), power train noise and airframe noise becomes important at low rotor tip speeds and means must be found to reduce these noise sources if further noise reductions are desired. The use of a special test rig aids in isolating the various noise sources and arriving at the penalties (performance or payload) involved in quieting them. Significant noise reduction are achieved for the light helicopter with minimum performance or weight penalties because of the dominance of a single noise source (the tail rotor).

  1. Noise reduction experience at Hughes Helicopter, Inc.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Janakiram, D. S.

    1982-01-01

    Noise reduction is mostly limited to light helicopters whose noise signature is dominated by their tail rotors. It is primarily hardware oriented. Well known noise reduction techniques such as reduction of rotor speeds with an accompanying increase in solidity to maintain performance, engine noise reduction with the use of exhaust mufflers, and acoustic blanketing of transmission and engine compartment are used. The concept of blade phasing as a means of reducing tail rotor noise is also used. Engine noise (exhaust noise), power train noise and airframe noise becomes important at low rotor tip speeds and means must be found to reduce these noise sources if further noise reductions are desired. The use of a special test rig aids in isolating the various noise sources and arriving at the penalties (performance or payload) involved in quieting them. Significant noise reduction are achieved for the light helicopter with minimum performance or weight penalties because of the dominance of a single noise source (the tail rotor).

  2. Comparison of the noise attenuation of three audiometric earphones, with additional data on masking near threshold.

    PubMed

    Berger, E H; Killion, M C

    1989-10-01

    The noise-excluding properties of a standard supra-aural audiometric earphone, a widely used circumaural-supra-aural combination, and an insert earphone sealed to the ear with a vinyl foam eartip were measured in a diffuse-field room complying with ANSI S12.6-1984. Data on attenuation were obtained monaurally with the nontest ear plugged and muffed. Results for the supra-aural earphones generally agreed well with previously reported measurements. A broadband masking noise was used to directly test the ANSI S3.1-1977 permissible background noise levels for measuring to audiometric zero using standard audiometric earphones. This "ANSI noise" raised the average thresholds of 15 normal-hearing test subjects by 3 to 5 dB at the octave frequencies from 500 to 4000 Hz. With a noise conforming to the less stringent OSHA-1983 regulation, average thresholds were elevated 9 to 17 dB. An "ENT office noise" with an overall sound level of 54 dBA raised average thresholds even further, by as much as 29 dB at 500 Hz. Use of the circumaural system in the office noise limited the threshold elevation to 11, 5, 2, and 0 dB at the four octave frequencies tested. With the fully ("deeply") inserted foam eartips, the threshold elevation in the simulated office noise was 2 dB or less at all test frequencies. Actual threshold elevations agreed closely with predictions based on a critical ratio calculation utilizing measured sound field noise levels and measured earphone attenuation values.

  3. Noise sampling issues for impact/impulse noise surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prince, Mary M.; Vipperman, Jeffrey S.

    2003-04-01

    Noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) has been recognized as a serious health concern for decades. ISO Standard 1999:1990 provides a means to predict noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) based on LAeq measurements in the working environments of workers. This standard seems to work well for predicting hearing loss in continuous noise fields. However, it is possible that ISO 1999 does not apply well to impact, impulsive, or other transient noise fields. NIOSH and University of Pittsburgh are currently developing noise-sampling strategies to measure impact and impulse noise in a manufacturing environment with the aim of developing new impulsive noise metrics. As part of the study, broadband impact/impulse pressure measurements will be made. Issues such as instrumentation, data quality, repeatability, spatial sampling, equipment portability, and calibration are addressed. Also, the annotation, digitization, and editing of the waveforms will be discussed. As part of the project, an archival database of manufacturing impulse/impact will be created to support the future algorithmic development. The ultimate goal of the project is to develop new metrics to characterize the hazards of impact/impulse noise that will complement ISO 1999 for predicting NIHL.

  4. Measurements of the Low-Frequency Wind-Generated Ambient Noise in the Deep Ocean.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-10-01

    from additional sites throughout the Tasman Sea -Fiji Basin region. Variation in measured level is compared to wind speed, sea state, and propagation...sponsorship of the Undersea Warfare Technology Office, Naval Sea Systems Command under NUSC Project No.t A65005, Ambient Noise Characteristics; NAVSEA...Systems CenterASAAWNUI NJES New London Laboratory A50 New London, CT 06320 I I. CONTUOLLING OFFICE NAME ANO AGONIES I WR S Naval Sea Systems Command

  5. Physiological, Psychological, and Social Effects of Noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kryter, K. D.

    1984-01-01

    The physiological, and behavioral effects of noise on man are investigated. Basic parameters such as definitions of noise, measuring techniques of noise, and the physiology of the ear are presented prior to the development of topics on hearing loss, speech communication in noise, social effects of noise, and the health effects of noise pollution. Recommendations for the assessment and subsequent control of noise is included.

  6. 12 CFR 583.13 - Office.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Office. 583.13 Section 583.13 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY DEFINITIONS FOR REGULATIONS AFFECTING SAVINGS AND LOAN HOLDING COMPANIES § 583.13 Office. The term Office means the Office of Thrift Supervision....

  7. 12 CFR 561.34 - Office.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Office. 561.34 Section 561.34 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY DEFINITIONS FOR REGULATIONS AFFECTING ALL SAVINGS ASSOCIATIONS § 561.34 Office. The term Office means the Office as established in section 3 of...

  8. 49 CFR 1325.3 - Federal office.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Federal office. 1325.3 Section 1325.3... FEDERAL OFFICE OR THEIR REPRESENTATIVES § 1325.3 Federal office. For the purposes of this section, Federal office means the office of President or Vice President of the United States; or of Senator...

  9. 7 CFR 600.6 - Field offices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Field offices. 600.6 Section 600.6 Agriculture... AGRICULTURE GENERAL ORGANIZATION § 600.6 Field offices. Each field office is under the direction and... served by the field office. Usually the geographical area of a field office includes one or...

  10. 7 CFR 600.6 - Field offices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Field offices. 600.6 Section 600.6 Agriculture... AGRICULTURE GENERAL ORGANIZATION § 600.6 Field offices. Each field office is under the direction and... served by the field office. Usually the geographical area of a field office includes one or...

  11. 7 CFR 600.6 - Field offices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Field offices. 600.6 Section 600.6 Agriculture... AGRICULTURE GENERAL ORGANIZATION § 600.6 Field offices. Each field office is under the direction and... served by the field office. Usually the geographical area of a field office includes one or...

  12. 7 CFR 600.6 - Field offices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Field offices. 600.6 Section 600.6 Agriculture... AGRICULTURE GENERAL ORGANIZATION § 600.6 Field offices. Each field office is under the direction and... served by the field office. Usually the geographical area of a field office includes one or...

  13. 7 CFR 600.6 - Field offices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Field offices. 600.6 Section 600.6 Agriculture... AGRICULTURE GENERAL ORGANIZATION § 600.6 Field offices. Each field office is under the direction and... served by the field office. Usually the geographical area of a field office includes one or...

  14. 12 CFR 619.9310 - Senior officer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Senior officer. 619.9310 Section 619.9310 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM DEFINITIONS § 619.9310 Senior officer. The Chief Executive Officer, the Chief Operations Officer, the Chief Financial Officer, the Chief Credit...

  15. 12 CFR 619.9310 - Senior officer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Senior officer. 619.9310 Section 619.9310 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM DEFINITIONS § 619.9310 Senior officer. The Chief Executive Officer, the Chief Operations Officer, the Chief Financial Officer, the Chief Credit...

  16. 12 CFR 619.9310 - Senior officer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Senior officer. 619.9310 Section 619.9310 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM DEFINITIONS § 619.9310 Senior officer. The Chief Executive Officer, the Chief Operations Officer, the Chief Financial Officer, the Chief Credit...

  17. 12 CFR 619.9310 - Senior officer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Senior officer. 619.9310 Section 619.9310 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM DEFINITIONS § 619.9310 Senior officer. The Chief Executive Officer, the Chief Operations Officer, the Chief Financial Officer, the Chief Credit...

  18. 12 CFR 619.9310 - Senior officer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Senior officer. 619.9310 Section 619.9310 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM DEFINITIONS § 619.9310 Senior officer. The Chief Executive Officer, the Chief Operations Officer, the Chief Financial Officer, the Chief...

  19. 29 CFR 401.14 - Officer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Officer. 401.14 Section 401.14 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor OFFICE OF LABOR-MANAGEMENT STANDARDS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR LABOR-MANAGEMENT STANDARDS MEANING OF TERMS USED IN THIS SUBCHAPTER § 401.14 Officer. Officer means any constitutional officer,...

  20. 29 CFR 401.18 - Office.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Office. 401.18 Section 401.18 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor OFFICE OF LABOR-MANAGEMENT STANDARDS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR LABOR-MANAGEMENT STANDARDS MEANING OF TERMS USED IN THIS SUBCHAPTER § 401.18 Office. Office means the Office of Labor-Management...

  1. GRACE star camera noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harvey, Nate

    2016-08-01

    Extending results from previous work by Bandikova et al. (2012) and Inacio et al. (2015), this paper analyzes Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) star camera attitude measurement noise by processing inter-camera quaternions from 2003 to 2015. We describe a correction to star camera data, which will eliminate a several-arcsec twice-per-rev error with daily modulation, currently visible in the auto-covariance function of the inter-camera quaternion, from future GRACE Level-1B product releases. We also present evidence supporting the argument that thermal conditions/settings affect long-term inter-camera attitude biases by at least tens-of-arcsecs, and that several-to-tens-of-arcsecs per-rev star camera errors depend largely on field-of-view.

  2. Experiments on propeller noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grosche, F. R.; Stiewitt, H.

    Propeller sound generation was investigated. Tests were performed at flow velocities up to 58 m/sec on 90 cm dia. four bladed propellers driven by an electric motor enclosed in a streamlined nacelle. Five models with different blade geometries were tested at helical tip Mach numbers up to 0.69. Nearfield blade tip measurements were made at 0.14 dia. by an in-flow microphone. The acoustic far field was measured by four microphones outside the wind tunnel flow 2.7 m from the propeller axis. An acoustic mirror telescope with three microphones was used to investigate sound generation from the upper, central and lower parts of the propeller. The spectrum in the propeller plane is dominated by the tonal components at the blade passing frequency and its harmonics. Tonal component amplitude is greatly reduced downstream. The blades radiate high frequency noise mainly in motion direction.

  3. Noise, Diffusion, and Hyperuniformity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hexner, Daniel; Levine, Dov

    2017-01-01

    We consider driven many-particle models which have a phase transition between an active and an absorbing phase. Like previously studied models, we have particle conservation, but here we introduce an additional symmetry—when two particles interact, we give them stochastic kicks which conserve the center of mass. We find that the density fluctuations in the active phase decay in the fastest manner possible for a disordered isotropic system, and we present arguments that the large scale fluctuations are determined by a competition between a noise term which generates fluctuations, and a deterministic term which reduces them. Our results may be relevant to shear experiments and may further the understanding of hyperuniformity which occurs at the critical point.

  4. Law Enforcement Officers Equity Act

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Rep. Filner, Bob [D-CA-51

    2009-01-26

    05/04/2009 Referred to the Subcommittee on Federal Workforce, Post Office, and the District of Columbia. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  5. Central-Office Real Estate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pardini, Priscilla

    2003-01-01

    Describes how to upgrade a school district's central-office facilities without incurring taxpayer enmity. Includes case studies from Harford County, Maryland; Orange and Broward Counties, Florida; South Milwaukee, Wisconsin; Mt. Baker, Washington; Chicago, Illinois; and Rochester, New Hampshire. (PKP)

  6. Office of Disability Employment Policy

    MedlinePlus

    ... OF LABOR Facebook Twitter RSS Email Office of Disability Employment Policy (ODEP) Menu About ODEP About ODEP ... Youth in Transition Publications for Order and Download Disability Statistics September 2017 Disability Employment Statistics Ages 16 ...

  7. Assessing an office chemistry instrument.

    PubMed

    Baer, D M; Belsey, R E

    1986-12-01

    Selection of appropriate testing systems depends on the characteristics and needs of the office. Clinical practice needs, work flow needs, and the analyst's ability must be balanced against the level of system complexity, automation, quality characteristics, and cost.

  8. Law Enforcement Officers Equity Act

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Rep. Filner, Bob [D-CA-51

    2009-01-26

    House - 05/04/2009 Referred to the Subcommittee on Federal Workforce, Post Office, and the District of Columbia. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  9. Ergonomic Training for Tomorrow's Office.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gross, Clifford M.; Chapnik, Elissa Beth

    1987-01-01

    The authors focus on issues related to the continual use of video display terminals in the office, including safety and health regulations, potential health problems, and the role of training in minimizing work-related health problems. (CH)

  10. Collaborators | Office of Cancer Genomics

    Cancer.gov

    The TARGET initiative is jointly managed within the National Cancer Institute (NCI) by the Office of Cancer Genomics (OCG)Opens in a New Tab and the Cancer Therapy Evaluation Program (CTEP)Opens in a New Tab.

  11. Office Automation Boosts University's Productivity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Business Affairs, 1986

    1986-01-01

    The University of Pittsburgh has a 2-year agreement designating the Xerox Corporation as the primary supplier of word processing and related office automation equipment in order to increase productivity and more efficient use of campus resources. (MLF)

  12. Office Automation at Memphis State.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, R. Eugene; And Others

    1986-01-01

    The development of a university-wide office automation plan, beginning with a short-range pilot project and a five-year plan for the entire organization with the potential for modular implementation, is described. (MSE)

  13. Central-Office Real Estate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pardini, Priscilla

    2003-01-01

    Describes how to upgrade a school district's central-office facilities without incurring taxpayer enmity. Includes case studies from Harford County, Maryland; Orange and Broward Counties, Florida; South Milwaukee, Wisconsin; Mt. Baker, Washington; Chicago, Illinois; and Rochester, New Hampshire. (PKP)

  14. Collaborators | Office of Cancer Genomics

    Cancer.gov

    The TARGET initiative is jointly managed within the National Cancer Institute (NCI) by the Office of Cancer Genomics (OCG)Opens in a New Tab and the Cancer Therapy Evaluation Program (CTEP)Opens in a New Tab.

  15. 75 FR 58410 - Office of Biotechnology Activities, Office of Science Policy, Office of the Director; Notice of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Office of Biotechnology Activities, Office of Science... of Biotechnology Activities, 6705 Rockledge Drive, Suite 750, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, (301) 496...

  16. Computational Study of Shock-Associated Noise Characteristics Using LES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, J.; Corrigan, A.; Kailasanath, K.; Heeb, N.; Munday, D.; Gutmark, E.

    2013-11-01

    Shock-associated noise generation has been investigated by using large-eddy simulations to compute jet flows at an underexpanded jet condition with three jet temperatures. To better understand shock-associated noise generation, shock-free jets with the same fully expanded jet conditions have also been simulated. The predictions agree well with the available experimental data in both the near and far field. It is found that shock cells at this underexpanded jet condition have little impact on the jet core length and the turbulence kinetic energy distribution, whereas the heating effect has a much larger impact by increasing the initial shear-layer spreading and shortening the jet core length. Shock-associated noise dominates in the upstream direction, and the broadband peak frequencies move to higher values in downstream direction. This frequency increase is initially small in the upstream direction, but becomes much larger in the downstream direction. In addition, it is found that the heating effect increases the broadband peak frequency. Overall the heating effect increases the mixing noise and slightly reduces the shock-associated noise. This reduces the difference between the shock-containing jets and the shock-free jets as the temperature increases. This research has been sponsored by the Office of Naval Research (ONR).

  17. Active Noise Control of Radiated Noise from Jets Originating NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doty, Michael J.; Fuller, Christopher R.; Schiller, Noah H.; Turner, Travis L.

    2013-01-01

    The reduction of jet noise using a closed-loop active noise control system with highbandwidth active chevrons was investigated. The high frequency energy introduced by piezoelectrically-driven chevrons was demonstrated to achieve a broadband reduction of jet noise, presumably due to the suppression of large-scale turbulence. For a nozzle with one active chevron, benefits of up to 0.8 dB overall sound pressure level (OASPL) were observed compared to a static chevron nozzle near the maximum noise emission angle, and benefits of up to 1.9 dB OASPL were observed compared to a baseline nozzle with no chevrons. The closed-loop actuation system was able to effectively reduce noise at select frequencies by 1-3 dB. However, integrated OASPL did not indicate further reduction beyond the open-loop benefits, most likely due to the preliminary controller design, which was focused on narrowband performance.

  18. Assessment of Domestic Appliance Noise.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brooks, Jeanette Rosamond

    Available from UMI in association with The British Library. The aims of this study were: (i) to identify the factors involved in eliciting a subjective reaction to domestic appliance noise, (ii) to identify the noise index (or indices) that correlate highly with a subjective reaction to the noise, and (iii) to investigate the contribution of domestic appliance noise to an individual's daily noise dose. Two series of experimental studies were carried out using several examples of each of five types of domestic appliances. One determined the index values of domestic appliance noise--namely L_{WA} (using ISO 3741), L_{pA} , L_{pD}, L _{p}, PNL, L_{Aeq, 30 sec}, L_{Amax} and L_{AX}; the other determined subjective reactions to domestic appliance noise (judgements of noisiness, annoyance, the acceptability of the appliance noise and appraisals of usefulness). The success or failure of the research hypotheses was assessed statistically by analysis of variance, regression analysis, log linear analysis, Hotelling test, bootstrapping, t-test and post-hoc comparisons. Ratings of annoyance, noisiness and the acceptability of the noise of the appliance were found to be interrelated and interdependent, and not influenced by appraisals of usefulness of the appliances. Noisiness ratings were the most consistent of the subjective ratings investigated, and were influenced by the duration of the exposure, and the actual appliance type under investigation. Significant correlations were obtained between noisiness ratings and all the noise indices under investigation. However, statistical analysis demonstrated that L_ {WA} correlated less successfully with noisiness ratings than all other indices. L_ {Amax},L_{Aeq,30 sec }, and L_{AX} indices were the most successful. It is therefore suggested that the labelling of domestic appliance noise consist of L_{WA} and L _{Aeq} as measured in a standardised test environment. The percentage contribution of domestic appliance noise to the total

  19. Rotor blade vortex interaction noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Yung H.

    2000-02-01

    Blade-vortex interaction noise-generated by helicopter main rotor blades is one of the most severe noise problems and is very important both in military applications and community acceptance of rotorcraft. Research over the decades has substantially improved physical understanding of noise-generating mechanisms, and various design concepts have been investigated to control noise radiation using advanced blade planform shapes and active blade control techniques. The important parameters to control rotor blade-vortex interaction noise and vibration have been identified: blade tip vortex structures and its trajectory, blade aeroelastic deformation, and airloads. Several blade tip design concepts have been investigated for diffusing tip vortices and also for reducing noise. However, these tip shapes have not been able to substantially reduce blade-vortex interaction noise without degradation of rotor performance. Meanwhile, blade root control techniques, such as higher-harmonic pitch control (HHC) and individual blade control (IBC) concepts, have been extensively investigated for noise and vibration reduction. The HHC technique has proved the substantial blade-vortex interaction noise reduction, up to 6 dB, while vibration and low-frequency noise have been increased. Tests with IBC techniques have shown the simultaneous reduction of rotor noise and vibratory loads with 2/rev pitch control inputs. Recently, active blade control concepts with smart structures have been investigated with the emphasis on active blade twist and trailing edge flap. Smart structures technologies are very promising, but further advancements are needed to meet all the requirements of rotorcraft applications in frequency, force, and displacement.

  20. Contact | Office of Cancer Genomics

    Cancer.gov

    For more information about the Office of Cancer Genomics, please contact: Office of Cancer Genomics National Cancer Institute 31 Center Drive, 10A07 Bethesda, Maryland 20892-2580 Phone: (240) 781-3280 Fax: (240) 541-4510 Email: ocg@mail.nih.gov *Please note that this site will not function properly in Internet Explorer unless you completely turn off the Compatibility View*

  1. Army junior dental officer retention.

    PubMed

    Mazuji, Nasrin; Chaffin, Jeffrey G; Beer, Ronald R; Mangelsdorff, A David

    2005-01-01

    The objectives of the survey were to quantify the extent of indebtedness of junior dental officers and to determine the impact of a loan repayment program on career decisions. We designed a customized survey instrument because no preexisting, validated, survey instrument was available. A query was performed in the Medical Operations Data System to identify all captains (0-3) currently on active duty in the Army (N = 348). The survey sample included 64 junior officers with a 2000 date of rank to captain (0-3), of whom only 52 were in the Medical Command Outlook address book or the Army Knowledge Online white pages. The questionnaire was sent out to these targeted junior dental officers through their official e-mail accounts. Dentists assigned to Korea and to dental field units do not use the same e-mail system as the rest of the Dental Command; therefore, their addresses were not available. In an attempt to increase response rates, commanders were asked to emphasize the importance of responding to the questionnaire. From the sample population of 52 officers who were queried directly, 34 responses were received, for a response rate of 65%. However, commanders forwarded the survey to all Dental Command captains and 102 responses were received. The respondents represented 30% of the total Army inventory of captains; 92% of respondents reported that they had dental school loans, with 43% reporting loans in excess of dollar 50,000. The average dental school indebtedness was approximately dollar 60,700. More than 60% of all respondents reported that loan repayment could change their minds about remaining on active duty. Officers not included in the original sample rated the impact of loan repayment statistically higher than did officers in the original sample. The findings were that the majority of junior Army dental officers had significant student loans and many of these officers indicated that they would consider remaining on active duty if loan repayment or other

  2. Army Officer Duty Module Manual.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-10-01

    Registry of Officer Job Schedules Inclosure 6 Duty Modules for Tank Platoon Leader, Lieutenant Inclosure 7 Instructions for Participating in Duty...Institutes for Research LEADERSHIP AND MANAGEMENT TECHNICAL AREA It2Dh1Af l U. S. Army Research Institute for the Behavioral and Social Sciences...neceea en ed Identify by block number) Officer Personnel Management Systems (OPMS), Job content description, Duty Modules, Armor Branch 20. A"rlTq ACT m

  3. [Exposure of schoolchildren and teachers to noise at school].

    PubMed

    Koszarny, Z; Goryński, P

    1990-01-01

    The factor of decisive influence on the acoustic climate in rooms is the inner noise, which is dependent in schools on the activity of children, overcrowding of classes and inadequate use of technical protective means. The inappropriate location of schools, although also important from the standpoint of acoustics, is a much lower source of noise than it is generally assumed. Particularly unfavourable acoustic conditions are in elementary schools with over 300 children in one shift. The spaces with the highest noise level include corridors, especially during recesses between lessons. The noise level in them is in the range of an equivalent sound A 60-95 dB, and the most frequent noise level is 80 dB. In a large part of schools the acoustic conditions in the corridors during recesses approach the critical values accepted for hearing protection in industrial plants, in some schools they are even exceeded. The situation is also unfavourable in other rooms such as doctor's office, director's room, reading rooms, rooms for teachers. These rooms are situated usually without taking into consideration of the acoustic conditions. This is particularly true of teachers' rooms which should give the teachers the possibility of resting before the next lesson. During lessons the noise level decreases in all rooms. However, the noisiest among them, corridors, classes situated near the hall for physical exercises and day-room, have still up to about 65 dB noise level. Generally speaking, in about 60% of rooms the acoustic conditions are below the recommended standard. The main cause, apart from overcrowding of schools, is low acoustic absorption ability of school rooms, and poor acoustic insulation ability of the doors in schools.

  4. Assessment of the noise exposure of call centre operators.

    PubMed

    Patel, Jacqueline A; Broughton, Keith

    2002-11-01

    Call centres now play a major role in the daily operations of financial, technology and utility companies, as well as public bodies. It is predicted that 2002 will see 2.3% of the total British workforce employed in call centres. However, local authority enforcement officers, unions, voluntary organizations, employers and employees have all expressed concern that there are hazards to health and safety unique to this new and developing industry. One of the potential hazards reported in the press is hearing damage from using headsets. In a Health & Safety Executive funded project, the noise exposure of 150 call centre operators was evaluated, in call centres which included financial services, home shopping and telecommunications services. The results show that the daily personal noise exposure of these call centre operators is unlikely to exceed the 85 dB(A) action level defined in the Noise at Work Regulations 1989. The risk of hearing damage is therefore extremely low. Exposure to higher noise levels is possible, for example from fax tones, holding tones and high pitched tones from mobile phones. However, the duration of these events is likely to be short and they are therefore unlikely to have a significant effect on the operators' overall noise exposure. A practical method of limiting exposure to unexpected high noises from headsets is to ensure that the headsets incorporate acoustic shock protection that meets the requirements of the Department of Trade and Industry specification 85/013. In the UK, this limiter ensures any noise above 118 dB is not transmitted through the headset. Operators should receive regular training on the headset and telephone equipment they are using. This training should include correct use of the headset and the volume control facilities, and advice on how and when to clean and maintain the headsets.

  5. Consumer oriented product noise testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blomberg, Les

    2005-09-01

    This paper explores the need for product noise measurements and how best to meet that need in the near future. Currently there is only a small market place for quieter consumer products. This is not because of lack of interest. No one really wants to announce to everyone in their house that they just flushed the toilet, few really want the entire neighborhood to know they are mowing their yard, etc. The small market place is primarily due to a lack of regulations on product noise, a lack of information easily available to consumers about which products are quieter, and market consolidation resulting in fewer manufacturers, most of whom are unwilling to emphasize their quieter products at the risk of eroding sales of their noisier ones (that currently have greater market share). In the absence of the EPA fulfilling its statutory requirement to regulate and label product noise under the Noise Control Act of 1972, and with the unwillingness of most industries to voluntarily publish accurate product noise data, there is a significant role for ``Consumer Oriented Product Noise Testing.'' This paper explores the Noise Pollution Clearinghouse's ongoing and planned product noise testing, evaluating its advantages, disadvantages, and limitations.

  6. Noise Reduction by Signal Accumulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kraftmakher, Yaakov

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to show how the noise reduction by signal accumulation can be accomplished with a data acquisition system. This topic can be used for student projects. In many cases, the noise reduction is an unavoidable part of experimentation. Several techniques are known for this purpose, and among them the signal accumulation is the…

  7. Tuning noise in gene expression.

    PubMed

    Tyagi, Sanjay

    2015-05-05

    The relative contribution of promoter architecture and the associated chromatin environment in regulating gene expression noise has remained elusive. In their recent work, Arkin, Schaffer and colleagues (Dey et al, 2015) show that mean expression and noise for a given promoter at different genomic loci are uncorrelated and influenced by the local chromatin environment.

  8. Predicting Noise From Wind Turbines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grosveld, Ferdinand W.

    1990-01-01

    Computer program WINDY predicts broadband noise spectra of horizontal-axis wind-turbine generators. Enables adequate assessment of impact of broadband wind-turbine noise. Effects of turbulence, trailing-edge wakes, and bluntness taken into account. Program has practical application in design and siting of wind-turbine machines acceptable to community. Written in GW-Basic.

  9. Anthropogenic noise affects vocal interactions.

    PubMed

    McMullen, Heather; Schmidt, Rouven; Kunc, Hansjoerg P

    2014-03-01

    Animal communication plays a crucial role in many species, and it involves a sender producing a signal and a receiver responding to that signal. The shape of a signal is determined by selection pressures acting upon it. One factor that exerts selection on acoustic signals is the acoustic environment through which the signal is transmitted. Recent experimental studies clearly show that senders adjust their signals in response to increased levels of anthropogenic noise. However, to understand how noise affects the whole process of communication, it is vital to know how noise affects the receiver's response during vocal interactions. Therefore, we experimentally manipulated ambient noise levels to expose male European robins (Erithacus rubecula) to two playback treatments consisting of the same song: one with noise and another one without noise. We found that males responding to a conspecific in a noise polluted environment increased minimum frequency and decreased song complexity and song duration. Thus, we show that the whole process of communication is affected by noise, not just the behaviour of the sender.

  10. White noise and sleep induction.

    PubMed Central

    Spencer, J A; Moran, D J; Lee, A; Talbert, D

    1990-01-01

    We studied two groups of 20 neonates, between 2 and 7 days old, in a randomised trial. Sixteen (80%) fell asleep within five minutes in response to white noise compared with only five (25%) who fell asleep spontaneously in the control group. White noise may help mothers settle difficult babies. PMID:2405784

  11. Predicting Noise From Wind Turbines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grosveld, Ferdinand W.

    1990-01-01

    Computer program WINDY predicts broadband noise spectra of horizontal-axis wind-turbine generators. Enables adequate assessment of impact of broadband wind-turbine noise. Effects of turbulence, trailing-edge wakes, and bluntness taken into account. Program has practical application in design and siting of wind-turbine machines acceptable to community. Written in GW-Basic.

  12. Technologies for Aircraft Noise Reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huff, Dennis L.

    2006-01-01

    Technologies for aircraft noise reduction have been developed by NASA over the past 15 years through the Advanced Subsonic Technology (AST) Noise Reduction Program and the Quiet Aircraft Technology (QAT) project. This presentation summarizes highlights from these programs and anticipated noise reduction benefits for communities surrounding airports. Historical progress in noise reduction and technologies available for future aircraft/engine development are identified. Technologies address aircraft/engine components including fans, exhaust nozzles, landing gear, and flap systems. New "chevron" nozzles have been developed and implemented on several aircraft in production today that provide significant jet noise reduction. New engines using Ultra-High Bypass (UHB) ratios are projected to provide about 10 EPNdB (Effective Perceived Noise Level in decibels) engine noise reduction relative to the average fleet that was flying in 1997. Audio files are embedded in the presentation that estimate the sound levels for a 35,000 pound thrust engine for takeoff and approach power conditions. The predictions are based on actual model scale data that was obtained by NASA. Finally, conceptual pictures are shown that look toward future aircraft/propulsion systems that might be used to obtain further noise reduction.

  13. Noise Reduction by Signal Accumulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kraftmakher, Yaakov

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to show how the noise reduction by signal accumulation can be accomplished with a data acquisition system. This topic can be used for student projects. In many cases, the noise reduction is an unavoidable part of experimentation. Several techniques are known for this purpose, and among them the signal accumulation is the…

  14. Noise sensitivity: A neurophenomenological perspective.

    PubMed

    Dzhambov, Angel M

    2015-11-01

    This paper addresses the current limitations of noise sensitivity research and the benefit of undertaking a neurophenomenological approach of investigation. It begins by questioning the invariance of noise sensitivity across different studies and contexts and argues that these are issues associated with the psychometric construct rather than the underlying reaction patterns. It suggest that our definition and operationalization of noise sensitivity might have been misspecified and that it needs to be revised on the basis of heuristically derived first-person data about our experiences of noise. It then shows why the basic principles of the neurophenomenological program are applicable to psychoacoustic research. Namely, it argues that phenomenological training leading to reflexive introspection and verbalization of our susceptibility to noise might have three-fold implication - (i) it will generate deeper understanding of noise sensitivity which will then allow us to deduce a hierarchical structure of meaning and concepts to supplement and be fed to quantitative research, (ii) it will provide better interpretation of neuroimaging and electroencephalographic data related to noise reaction and perception, which in turn will allow a process of reciprocal validation, (iii) and, most importantly, it presents a promising technique for emotional regulation of noise processing via modulation of the amygdalar function, when a state of awareness of this processing has been achieved.

  15. Television noise-reduction device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stamps, J. C.; Gordon, B. L.

    1973-01-01

    System greatly improves signal-to-noise ratio with little or no loss in picture resolution. By storage of luminance component, which is summed with chrominance component, system performs mathematical integration of basically-repetitive television signals. Integration of signals over interval of their repetition causes little change in original signals and eliminates random noise.

  16. Transient noise suppression algorithm in speech system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Keyu; Wang, Mingjiang

    2017-08-01

    In this paper, I mainly introduce the algorithm of transient noise suppression in speech system. Firstly, it divides into impulsive noise and other types of transient noise according to the characteristics of transient noise. In the impulse noise suppression algorithm, I mainly use the averaging energy threshold method to detect the impulse noise, and then I use the amplitude threshold method to reduce the impulse noise which was detected. In the other types of transient noise suppression algorithm, I mainly use the Optimally Modified-Log Spectral Amplitude estimation (OM-LSA) algorithm and the Minimum Control Recursive Average (MCRA) algorithm to suppress the transient noise.

  17. 40 CFR 57.806 - Presiding Officer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Technology § 57.806 Presiding Officer. (a) Assignment of Presiding Officer. (1) The Administrator shall, as... that the facts are fully elicited, and avoid delay. The Presiding Officer shall have authority to: (1...

  18. 40 CFR 57.806 - Presiding Officer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Technology § 57.806 Presiding Officer. (a) Assignment of Presiding Officer. (1) The Administrator shall, as... that the facts are fully elicited, and avoid delay. The Presiding Officer shall have authority to: (1...

  19. 40 CFR 57.806 - Presiding Officer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Technology § 57.806 Presiding Officer. (a) Assignment of Presiding Officer. (1) The Administrator shall, as... that the facts are fully elicited, and avoid delay. The Presiding Officer shall have authority to: (1...

  20. 7 CFR 2.4 - General officers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Information Officer; the Judicial Officer; the Director, Office of Budget and Program Analysis; the Chief..., Education, and Economics; the Under Secretary for Marketing and Regulatory Programs; the Assistant Secretary...

  1. 39 CFR 241.1 - Post offices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... July 1 each year, post offices are classified by the Postmaster General based on the allowable postal...) Third Class. Post offices having 36 but less 190 revenue units. (4) Fourth Class. Post offices having...

  2. 76 FR 19149 - Post Office Closing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION Post Office Closing AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This document informs the public that an appeal of the closing of the Wesleyville Post Office in...

  3. 75 FR 77921 - Post Office Closing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION Post Office Closing AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice; correction. SUMMARY: The... an appeal of the closing of the Graves Mill, Virginia post office. The procedural schedule...

  4. 76 FR 11824 - Post Office Closing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-03

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION Post Office Closing AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This document informs the public that an appeal of the closing of the Mitchellville Post Office in...

  5. 77 FR 3806 - Post Office Closing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-25

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION Post Office Closing AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This document... Station post office in Yerington, Nevada. The first petition for review received December 28, 2011,...

  6. An acoustic range for the measurement of the noise signature of aircraft during flyby operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilton, D. A.; Henderson, H. R.

    1978-01-01

    The remotely operated multiple array acoustic range (ROMAAR), which has been developed to give direct measurement and display of aircraft noise in several measurement units during takeoff, landing, and flyby operations, is described. The ROMAAR, which provides information on the ground noise signature of aircraft, represents a unique combination of state-of-the-art digital and analog noise-recording methods, computer-controlled digital communication methods, radar tracking facilities, quick-look weather (profile) capabilities, and sophisticated data handling routines and facilities. The ROMAAR, which is operated by NASA, allows direct data feedback to the NASA Aircraft Noise Prediction Office. As many as 38 simultaneous noise measurements can be made for each aircraft overflight.

  7. Noise exposure in convertible automobiles.

    PubMed

    Mikulec, A A; Lukens, S B; Jackson, L E; Deyoung, M N

    2011-02-01

    To quantify the noise exposure received while driving a convertible automobile with the top open, compared with the top closed. Five different convertible automobiles were driven, with the top both closed and open, and noise levels measured. The cars were tested at speeds of 88.5, 104.6 and 120.7 km/h. When driving with the convertible top open, the mean noise exposure ranged from 85.3 dB at 88.5 km/h to 89.9 dB at 120.7 km/h. At the tested speeds, noise exposure increased by an average of 12.4-14.6 dB after opening the convertible top. Driving convertible automobiles at speeds exceeding 88.5 km/h, with the top open, may result in noise exposure levels exceeding recommended limits, especially when driving with the convertible top open for prolonged periods.

  8. Noise Injury: Etiology and Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Lees, R. E. M.

    1982-01-01

    Exposure to noise might be responsible for a wide and varied spectrum of physical and mental morbidity, although many of the claims of cause and effect relationship are controversial and unproven. The etiological relationship between noise and high frequency hearing loss is, however, well documented. While noise-induced hearing loss is considered to be primarily an occupational problem, current leisure time activities have created the potential for it to become more common in the community at large. Once developed, this hearing loss is permanent and cannot be influenced by therapy. Noise-induced hearing loss is almost completely preventable and the family physician has an important responsibility for primary and secondary prevention, whether the noise source is in the workplace or in some other location. PMID:21286519

  9. Noise reduction for vocal pathologies.

    PubMed

    Matassini, L; Manfredi, C

    2002-01-01

    A noise reduction scheme, particularly suited for the correction of vocal pathologies, is proposed. The filter makes use of concepts originated within the theory of dynamical systems and deterministic chaos. In particular, the idea of embedding scalar data in order to reconstruct a phase space is of fundamental importance here. Furthermore, the concept of an attractor as a result of dynamical constraints is exploited. In order to perform noise reduction one needs redundancy and the human voice provides it even within a phoneme, namely the smallest structural unit of speech. Due to several repetitions of a pattern called pitch inside a phoneme, separation between the pure voice signal and the noise is possible, provided the latter is uncorrelated with the former. With a proper parameter tuning, different kinds of noise can be removed. We describe the idea behind the noise reduction algorithm and present applications to vocal pathologies.

  10. Multiplicative noise enhances spatial reciprocity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Yao; Chen, Shen-Shen

    2014-11-01

    Recent research has identified the heterogeneity as crucial for the evolution of cooperation in spatial population. However, the influence of heterogeneous noise is still lacking. Inspired by this interesting question, in this work, we try to incorporate heterogeneous noise into the evaluation of utility, where only a proportion of population possesses noise, whose range can also be tuned. We find that increasing heterogeneous noise monotonously promotes cooperation and even translates the full defection phase (of the homogeneous version) into the complete cooperation phase. Moreover, the promotion effect of this mechanism can be attributed to the leading role of cooperators who have the heterogeneous noise. These type of cooperators can attract more agents penetrating into the robust cooperator clusters, which is beyond the text of traditional spatial reciprocity. We hope that our work may shed light on the understanding of the cooperative behavior in the society.

  11. Jet shielding of jet noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simonich, J. C.; Amiet, R. K.; Schlinker, R. H.

    1986-01-01

    An experimental and theoretical study was conducted to develop a validated first principle analysis for predicting the jet noise reduction achieved by shielding one jet exhaust flow with a second, closely spaced, identical jet flow. A generalized fuel jet noise analytical model was formulated in which the acoustic radiation from a source jet propagates through the velocity and temperature discontinuity of the adjacent shielding jet. Input variables to the prediction procedure include jet Mach number, spacing, temperature, diameter, and source frequency. Refraction, diffraction, and reflection effects, which control the dual jet directivity pattern, are incorporated in the theory. The analysis calculates the difference in sound pressure level between the dual jet configuration and the radiation field based on superimposing two independent jet noise directivity patterns. Jet shielding was found experimentally to reduce noise levels in the common plane of the dual jet system relative to the noise generated by two independent jets.

  12. Preamplifier Noise in VLF Receivers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burhans, R. W.

    1978-01-01

    Noise specifications for junction field-effect transistors are presented in different ways depending on the particular semiconductor manufacturer. Arithmetic involved in converting these specifications to equivalent RMS noise in microvolts developed at the preamplifier input terminal is reviewed. These methods were useful for estimating the noise performance of high input impedance preamplifiers used with E-field antennas operating in the range of 1 KHz to 10 MHz. Both the JFET MPF-102 transistor and the COS/MOS CA3600 transistor array provided amplification for VLF receivers where the internally generated noise was well below the atmospheric noise level. The CA3600 transistor array provided better performance because of the more symmetrical complementary MOS transistor transfer characteristics than a single N-type biased JFET transistor. The CMOS amplifier resulted in self-compensating gain characteristics over a very wide temperature range from -55 to +125 C.

  13. Airborne concentrations of volatile organic compounds, formaldehyde and ammonia in Finnish office buildings with suspected indoor air problems.

    PubMed

    Salonen, Heidi J; Pasanen, Anna-Liisa; Lappalainen, Sanna K; Riuttala, Henri M; Tuomi, Tapani M; Pasanen, Pertti O; Bäck, Beatrice C; Reijula, Kari E

    2009-03-01

    A database of indoor air concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) (n = 528), formaldehyde (n = 76), and ammonia (n = 47) in office environments was analyzed to suggest interpretation guidelines for chemical measurements in office buildings with suspected indoor air problems. Indoor air samples were collected for VOCs from 176 office buildings, 23 offices for formaldehyde, and 14 office buildings for ammonia in 2001-2006. Although the buildings had reported indoor air complaints, a walk-through inspection by indoor air specialists showed no exceptional sources of indoor air pollutants. The measurements of chemical pollutants did not indicate any clear reason for the complaints. The geometric mean concentration of total volatile organic compounds (TVOC) was 88 microg m(-3) in office rooms and 75 microg m(-3) in the open plan offices. The mechanical supply and exhaust ventilation significantly (p < 0.004) decreased the indoor air concentration of TVOC. The highest mean concentration and frequency distributions were determined for the individual VOCs. The most common VOCs found in > or = 84% of the indoor samples include toluene, xylene (p,m), 1-butanol, nonanal, and benzene. According to concentrations, the most abundant VOCs were 2-(2-ethoxyethoxy)ethanol, acetic acid, 1,2-propanediol, and toluene. The geometric mean concentration of formaldehyde and ammonia in the office buildings was 11 microg m(-3) (3-44 microg m(-3) and 14 microg m(-3) (1-49 microg m(-3), respectively. On the basis of statistical analyses, the guideline value indicating a usual concentration of the pollutant in office buildings is 70 microg m(-3) for TVOC, 7 microg m(-3) for most individual VOCs, 10 microg m(-3) for formaldehyde, and 12 microg m(-3) for ammonia. The guidance value suggested for TVOC is 250 microg m(-3), for formaldehyde 15 microg m(-3), and for ammonia 25 microg m(-3). If the guidance value is exceeded, this may indicate the existence of an exceptional source and the

  14. 23 CFR 772.19 - Construction noise.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Construction noise. 772.19 Section 772.19 Highways... ABATEMENT OF HIGHWAY TRAFFIC NOISE AND CONSTRUCTION NOISE § 772.19 Construction noise. The following general... may be affected by noise from construction of the project. The identification is to be performed...

  15. 23 CFR 772.19 - Construction noise.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Construction noise. 772.19 Section 772.19 Highways... ABATEMENT OF HIGHWAY TRAFFIC NOISE AND CONSTRUCTION NOISE § 772.19 Construction noise. The following general... may be affected by noise from construction of the project. The identification is to be performed...

  16. 23 CFR 772.11 - Noise abatement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... OF HIGHWAY TRAFFIC NOISE AND CONSTRUCTION NOISE § 772.11 Noise abatement. (a) In determining and abating traffic noise impacts, primary consideration is to be given to exterior areas. Abatement will usually be necessary only where frequent human use occurs and a lowered noise level would be of...

  17. A Literature Survey of Noise Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shih, H. H.

    Physically, noise is a complex sound that has little or no periodicity. However, the essential characteristic of noise is its undesirability. Thus, noise can be defined as any annoying or unwanted sound. In recent years, the rapid increase of noise level in our environment has become a national public health hazard. Noise affects man's state of…

  18. A Literature Survey of Noise Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shih, H. H.

    Physically, noise is a complex sound that has little or no periodicity. However, the essential characteristic of noise is its undesirability. Thus, noise can be defined as any annoying or unwanted sound. In recent years, the rapid increase of noise level in our environment has become a national public health hazard. Noise affects man's state of…

  19. 23 CFR 772.19 - Construction noise.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Construction noise. 772.19 Section 772.19 Highways... ABATEMENT OF HIGHWAY TRAFFIC NOISE AND CONSTRUCTION NOISE § 772.19 Construction noise. For all Type I and II projects, a highway agency shall: (a) Identify land uses or activities that may be affected by noise from...

  20. 23 CFR 772.19 - Construction noise.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Construction noise. 772.19 Section 772.19 Highways... ABATEMENT OF HIGHWAY TRAFFIC NOISE AND CONSTRUCTION NOISE § 772.19 Construction noise. For all Type I and II projects, a highway agency shall: (a) Identify land uses or activities that may be affected by noise from...

  1. Recent Advances in Studies of Current Noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanter, Yaroslav M.

    This is a brief review of recent activities in the field of current noise intended for newcomers. We first briefly discuss main properties of shot noise in nanostructures, and then turn to recent developments, concentrating on issues related to experimental progress: non-symmetrized cumulants and quantum noise; counting statistics; super-Poissonian noise; current noise and interferometry

  2. 23 CFR 772.11 - Noise abatement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... OF HIGHWAY TRAFFIC NOISE AND CONSTRUCTION NOISE § 772.11 Noise abatement. (a) In determining and abating traffic noise impacts, primary consideration is to be given to exterior areas. Abatement will usually be necessary only where frequent human use occurs and a lowered noise level would be of...

  3. The Effects of Noise on Pupil Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slater, Barbara Ruth

    Effects of school noise conditions on student written task performance were studied. Three noise levels were examined--(1) irregular interval noise, 75-90 decibels, (2) average or normal noise, and (3) quiet condition, 45-55 decibels. An attempt was made to reproduce noise conditions typical of the school environment. A second controlled…

  4. Fan Noise Prediction with Applications to Aircraft System Noise Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nark, Douglas M.; Envia, Edmane; Burley, Casey L.

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes an assessment of current fan noise prediction tools by comparing measured and predicted sideline acoustic levels from a benchmark fan noise wind tunnel test. Specifically, an empirical method and newly developed coupled computational approach are utilized to predict aft fan noise for a benchmark test configuration. Comparisons with sideline noise measurements are performed to assess the relative merits of the two approaches. The study identifies issues entailed in coupling the source and propagation codes, as well as provides insight into the capabilities of the tools in predicting the fan noise source and subsequent propagation and radiation. In contrast to the empirical method, the new coupled computational approach provides the ability to investigate acoustic near-field effects. The potential benefits/costs of these new methods are also compared with the existing capabilities in a current aircraft noise system prediction tool. The knowledge gained in this work provides a basis for improved fan source specification in overall aircraft system noise studies.

  5. En route noise: NASA propfan test aircraft (calculated source noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rickley, E. J.

    1990-01-01

    The second phase of a joint National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) program to study the high-altitude, low-frequency acoustic noise propagation characteristics of the Advanced Turboprop (propfan) Aircraft was conducted on April 3-13, 1989 at the White Sands Missile Range (WSMR), New Mexico. The first phase was conducted on October 26-31, 1987 in Huntsville, Alabama. NASA (Lewis) measured the source noise of the test aircraft during both phases while NASA (Langley) measured surface noise only during the second phase. FAA/NASA designed a program to obtain noise level data from the propfan test bed aircraft, both in the near field and at ground level, during simulated en route flights (35,000 and 20,000 feet ASL), and to test low frequency atmospheric absorption algorithms and prediction technology to provide insight into the necessity for regulatory measures. The curves of calculated source noise versus emission angle are based on a second order best-fit curve of the peak envelope of the adjusted ground data. Centerline and sideline derived source noise levels are shown to be in good agreement. A comparison of the Alabama chase plane source data and the calculated source noise at centerline for both the Alabama and New Mexico data shows good agreement for the 35,000 and the 20,000 feet (ASL) overflights. With the availability of the New Mexico in-flight data, further in depth comparisons will be made.

  6. Office of the Chief Financial Officer 2012 Annual Report

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Kim

    2013-01-31

    Fiscal Year 2012 was a year of progress and change in the Office of the Chief Financial Officer (OCFO) organization. The notable accomplishments outlined below strengthened the quality of the OCFO’s stewardship and services in support of the scientific mission of Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL). Three strategies were key to this progress: organizational transformation aligned with our goals; process redesign and effective use of technology to improve efficiency, and innovative solutions to meet new challenges. Over the next year we will continue to apply these strategies to further enhance our contributions to the Lab’s scientific mission. What follows is the budget, funding and costs for the office for FY 2012.

  7. General Aviation Interior Noise. Part 3; Noise Control Measure Evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Unruh, James F.; Till, Paul D.; Palumbo, Daniel L. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The work reported herein is an extension to the work accomplished under NASA Grant NAG1-2091 on the development of noise/source/path identification techniques for single engine propeller driven General Aviation aircraft. The previous work developed a Conditioned Response Analysis (CRA) technique to identify potential noise sources that contributed to the dominating tonal responses within the aircraft cabin. The objective of the present effort was to improve and verify the findings of the CRA and develop and demonstrate noise control measures for single engine propeller driven General Aviation aircraft.

  8. 76 FR 69031 - Order of Succession for the Office of the Chief Human Capital Officer

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-07

    ... Succession for the Office of the Chief Human Capital Officer AGENCY: Office of the Chief Human Capital Officer, HUD. ACTION: Notice of order of succession. SUMMARY: In this notice, the Chief Human Capital... Office of the Chief Human Capital Officer. DATES: Effective Date: October 20, 2011. FOR...

  9. 10 CFR 1.39 - Office of the Chief Human Capital Officer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Office of the Chief Human Capital Officer. 1.39 Section 1... Headquarters Staff Offices § 1.39 Office of the Chief Human Capital Officer. The Office of the Chief Human Capital Officer— (a) Plans and implements NRC policies, programs, and services to provide for...

  10. Noise exposure in oil mills

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, G. V. Prasanna; Dewangan, K. N.; Sarkar, Amaresh

    2008-01-01

    Context: Noise of machines in various agro-based industries was found to be the major occupational hazard for the workers of industries. The predominant noise sources need to be identified and the causes of high noise need to be studied to undertake the appropriate measures to reduce the noise level in one of the major agro-based industries, oil mills. Aims: To identify the predominant noise sources in the workrooms of oil mills. To study the causes of noise in oil mills. To measure the extent of noise exposure of oil mill workers. To examine the response of workers towards noise, so that appropriate measures can be undertaken to minimize the noise exposure. Settings and Design: A noise survey was conducted in the three renowned oil mills of north-eastern region of India. Materials and Methods: Information like output capacity, size of power source, maintenance condition of the machines and workroom configurations of the oil mills was collected by personal observations and enquiry with the owner of the mill. Using a Sound Level Meter (SLM) (Model-824, Larson and Davis, USA), equivalent SPL was measured at operator's ear level in the working zone of the workers near each machine of the mills. In order to study the variation of SPL in the workrooms of the oil mill throughout its operation, equivalent SPL was measured at two appropriate locations of working zone of the workers in each mill. For conducting the noise survey, the guidelines of Canadian Centre for Occupational Health and Safety (CCOHS) were followed. Grid points were marked on the floor of the workroom of the oil mill at a spacing of 1 m × 1 m. SPL at grid points were measured at about 1.5 m above the floor. The direction of the SLM was towards the nearby noisy source. To increase accuracy, two replications were taken at each grid point. All the data were recorded for 30 sec. At the end of the experiment, data were downloaded to a personal computer. With the help of utility software of Larson and Davis

  11. Rocket noise - A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McInerny, S. A.

    1990-10-01

    This paper reviews what is known about far-field rocket noise from the controlled studies of the late 1950s and 1960s and from launch data. The peak dimensionless frequency, the dependence of overall sound power on exhaust parameters, and the directivity of the overall sound power of rockets are compared to those of subsonic jets and turbo-jets. The location of the dominant sound source in the rocket exhaust plume and the mean flow velocity in this region are discussed and shown to provide a qualitative explanation for the low peak Strouhal number, fD(e)/V(e), and large angle of maximum directivity. Lastly, two empirical prediction methods are compared with data from launches of a Titan family vehicle (two, solid rocket motors of 5.7 x 10 to the 6th N thrust each) and the Saturn V (five, liquid oxygen/rocket propellant engines of 6.7 x 10 to the 6th N thrust, each). The agreement is favorable. In contrast, these methods appear to overpredict the far-field sound pressure levels generated by the Space Shuttle.

  12. Effects of a traffic noise background on judgements of aircraft noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Powell, C. A.; Rice, C. G.

    1974-01-01

    A study was conducted in which subjects judged aircraft noises in the presence of road traffic background noise. Two different techniques for presenting the background noises were evaluated. For one technique, the background noise was continuous over the whole of a test session. For the other, the background noise was changed with each aircraft noise. A range of aircraft noise levels and traffic noise levels were presented to simulate typical indoor levels.

  13. Signal with Flat Phase Noise Using a Carrier and the Power Spectral Density of White Noise for Phase Noise Standards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watabe, Ken-ichi; Yanagimachi, Shinya; Ikegami, Takeshi; Iida, Hitoshi; Shimada, Yozo

    2012-01-01

    We have realized a phase noise standard of a signal with a -100 dBc/Hz flat phase noise at 10 MHz for Fourier frequencies of 1 Hz to 100 kHz, which ensures traceability to the International System of Units (SI). The flat phase noise signal is produced using a carrier combined with white noise. To ensure traceability, both the flat phase noise signal power and the power spectral density of white noise are determined with a calibrated power meter and the noise standard, respectively. The flatness of the phase noise standard is within ±0.7 dB.

  14. Hydrodynamic noise and surface compliance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vonwinkle, W. A.; Fitzgerald, J.; Carey, W. M.; Bakewell, H. P., Jr.

    1982-09-01

    This document discusses the role of surface compliance on hydrodynamic noise and is based on a review of theoretical and experimental flow-noise investigations. Basic flow-noise theories are discussed in light of compliant surface boundary conditions. A comprehensive review of the experimental results of compliant surface flow-noise experiments is presented. Surface compliance can effect the measured noise; however, the compliance of the surfaces used in previous experiments was not adequately described. Consequently, results varied and showed a marked, but undefined, temperature dependence. The characterization of the complex surface compliance is discussed, including effects of frequency and temperature. A method that characterizes surface compliance is denoted and used to measure the properties of several mammalian tissues. Then a discussion and a comparison of these results to the wavenumber spectra data follows. An experimental investigation of the effect of surface compliance on the hydrodynamic noise is proposed by means of measurement of material properties, measurement of wall pressure fluctuation spectra, holographic representation of the surface displacement, and characterization of the TBL boundary layer to determine the magnitude and role of complex surface compliance of the TBL and its flow noise.

  15. Industrial jet noise: Coanda nozzles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, P.; Halliwell, N. A.

    1985-04-01

    Within the U.K. manufacturing industries noise from industrial jets ranks third as a major contributor to industrial deafness. Noise control is hindered because use is made of the air once it has exuded from the nozzle exit. Important tasks include swarf removal, paint spreading, cooling, etc. Nozzles which employ the Coanda effect appear to offer the possibility of significant noise reduction whilst maintaining high thrust efficiency when compared with the commonly used simple open pipe or ordinary convergent nozzle. In this paper the performance of Coanda-type nozzles is examined in detail and an index rating for nozzle performance is introduced. Results show that far field stagnation pressure distributions are Gaussian and similar in all cases with a dispersion coefficient σ = 0·64. Noise reduction and thrust efficiency are shown to be closely related to the design geometry of the central body of the nozzle. Performance is based on four fundamental characteristics, these being the noise level at 1 m from the exit and at a 90° station to the nozzle axis, and the thrust on a chosen profile, the noise reduction and the thrust efficiency. Physically, performance is attributed to flow near field effects where, although all nozzles are choked, shock cell associated noise is absent.

  16. Pavement noise measurements in Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zofka, Ewa; Zofka, Adam; Mechowski, Tomasz

    2017-09-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the feasibility of the On-Board Sound Intensity (OBSI) system to measure tire-pavement noise in Poland. In general, sources of noise emitted by the modern vehicles are the propulsion noise, aerodynamic resistance and noise generated at the tire-pavement interface. In order to capture tire-pavement noise, the OBSI system uses a noise intensity probe installed in the close proximity of that interface. In this study, OBSI measurements were performed at different types of pavement surfaces such as stone mastic asphalt (SMA), regular asphalt concrete (HMA) as well as Portland cement concrete (PCC). The influence of several necessary OBSI measurement conditions were recognized as: testing speed, air temperature, tire pressure and tire type. The results of this study demonstrate that the OBSI system is a viable and robust tool that can be used for the quality evaluation of newly built asphalt pavements in Poland. It can be also applied to generate reliable input parameters for the noise propagation models that are used to assess the environmental impact of new and existing highway corridors.

  17. Noise in eukaryotic gene expression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blake, William J.; KÆrn, Mads; Cantor, Charles R.; Collins, J. J.

    2003-04-01

    Transcription in eukaryotic cells has been described as quantal, with pulses of messenger RNA produced in a probabilistic manner. This description reflects the inherently stochastic nature of gene expression, known to be a major factor in the heterogeneous response of individual cells within a clonal population to an inducing stimulus. Here we show in Saccharomyces cerevisiae that stochasticity (noise) arising from transcription contributes significantly to the level of heterogeneity within a eukaryotic clonal population, in contrast to observations in prokaryotes, and that such noise can be modulated at the translational level. We use a stochastic model of transcription initiation specific to eukaryotes to show that pulsatile mRNA production, through reinitiation, is crucial for the dependence of noise on transcriptional efficiency, highlighting a key difference between eukaryotic and prokaryotic sources of noise. Furthermore, we explore the propagation of noise in a gene cascade network and demonstrate experimentally that increased noise in the transcription of a regulatory protein leads to increased cell-cell variability in the target gene output, resulting in prolonged bistable expression states. This result has implications for the role of noise in phenotypic variation and cellular differentiation.

  18. Noise in nonlinear nanomechanical resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cleland, Andrew

    2006-03-01

    Noise limits the sensitivity of linear sensors, in a manner that is well understood, but also limits nonlinear systems in a less trivial way. Nonlinear nanomechanical resonators present interesting possibilities for the sensitive detection of forces and masses, but the noise limitations have not been explored much to date. Here we report on noise effects on nonlinear resonators operated in regimes where they have either one or two stable attractors. We have made quantitative measurements of the nonlinear response of a radiofrequency mechanical resonator with very high quality factor, measuring the noise-free transitions between the two attractors, and find good agreement with theory. We measure the transition rate response to controlled levels of white noise, and extract the basin activation energy. This allows us to obtain precise values for the relevant frequencies and the cubic nonlinearity in the Duffing oscillator, with applications to parametric sensing, in particular mass sensing. References: ``Noise-enabled precision measurements of a Duffing nanomechanical resonator,'' J.S. Aldridge and A.N. Cleland, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 156403 (2005). ``Thermomechanical noise limits on parametric sensing with nanomechanical resonators,'' A.N. Cleland, New J. Phys. 7, 235 (2005).

  19. Airframe-Jet Engine Integration Noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tam, Christopher; Antcliff, Richard R. (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    It has been found experimentally that the noise radiated by a jet mounted under the wing of an aircraft exceeds that of the same jet in a stand-alone environment. The increase in noise is referred to as jet engine airframe integration noise. The objectives of the present investigation are, (1) To obtain a better understanding of the physical mechanisms responsible for jet engine airframe integration noise or installation noise. (2) To develop a prediction model for jet engine airframe integration noise. It is known that jet mixing noise consists of two principal components. They are the noise from the large turbulence structures of the jet flow and the noise from the fine scale turbulence. In this investigation, only the effect of jet engine airframe interaction on the fine scale turbulence noise of a jet is studied. The fine scale turbulence noise is the dominant noise component in the sideline direction. Thus we limit out consideration primarily to the sideline.

  20. Noise Pollution--What can be Done?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Edgar A. G.

    1975-01-01

    Discusses the ratio of energy dissipated as sound to the mechanical output of devices. Considers noise levels, ranges vs. peaks, noise indexes, and health hazards. Indicates some problems vs. solutions in the technology of noise control. (GH)