Science.gov

Sample records for opera precision trackers

  1. The precision tracker of the OPERA detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimmermann, R.; Ebert, J.; Hagner, C.; Koppitz, B.; Saveliev, V.; Schmidt-Parzefall, W.; Sewing, J.; Zaitsev, Y.

    2005-12-01

    The Precision Tracker of the muon spectrometer of the OPERA detector consists of ˜10000 aluminum drift tubes of 8 m length. They have an outer diameter of 38 mm and a wall thickness of 0.85 mm. The challenge of the detector design originates from the 8 m length of the drift tubes, a detector length, which has not been used before. Tight mechanical tolerances for positioning and alignment of the signal wires are required in order to make a significant measurement of the sign of the muon charge. The detector is manufactured in modules, which are 50 cm wide, each consisting of four adjacent drift tube planes. This guarantees high efficiency and complete rejection of the left-right ambiguity. The details of the novel mechanical design are described in this paper. For safety reasons, the drift tubes are operated with an Argon/CO2 gas mixture. The gas volume of the drift tubes is entirely sealed with O-rings, in order to avoid ageing problems. The total gas volume amounts to about 80 m3. The front end electronics of the drift tubes consist of a bootstrap amplifier followed by a commercial ultrafast comparator. Thus only digital LVDS signals are transmitted over large distances. We report on the development and performance of the first two prototype modules of the precision tracker including test measurements of the resolution and efficiency obtained.

  2. The OPERA RPC system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paoloni, Alessandro

    2014-10-01

    The OPERA experiment was designed to detect νμ→ντ oscillations through τ appearance in the CERN Neutrinos to Gran Sasso (CNGS) beam. The detector consists of two identical supermodules, each made by a target section followed by a muon spectrometer. The target sections are made of nuclear emulsion layers alternated to lead plates; a scintillator target tracker is used to locate the neutrino interactions. The muon spectrometers are composed of a dipole iron magnet, precision drift tubes and resistive plate chambers, used as trigger and as tracker. The experiment took data with the neutrino beam from 2006 to 2012, with limited statistics during the first two years. The RPC data taking ended in December 2012. Results about the RPC performance and the aging of the system are briefly presented. The use of the RPC data in the OPERA analysis is also addressed. During the 2012 run, the OPERA RPC system was used to check the measurement of the neutrino velocity with a dedicated set-up in parallel to the standard DAQ of OPERA, to check the preliminary results of 2011 and to improve the precision. For this measurement, the absolute response time of the detector was measured. Finally, RPC data were also used to determine the charge of the third observed τ candidate.

  3. Adaptive Neural Star Tracker Calibration for Precision Spacecraft Pointing and Tracking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bayard, David S.

    1996-01-01

    The Star Tracker is an essential sensor for precision pointing and tracking in most 3-axis stabilized spacecraft. In the interest (of) improving pointing performance by taking advantage of dramatic increases in flight computer power and memory anticipated over the next decade, this paper investigates the use of a neural net for adaptive in-flight calibration of the Star Tracker.

  4. Precision Attitude Determination System (PADS) design and analysis. Two-axis gimbal star tracker

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Development of the Precision Attitude Determination System (PADS) focused chiefly on the two-axis gimballed star tracker and electronics design improved from that of Precision Pointing Control System (PPCS), and application of the improved tracker for PADS at geosynchronous altitude. System design, system analysis, software design, and hardware design activities are reported. The system design encompasses the PADS configuration, system performance characteristics, component design summaries, and interface considerations. The PADS design and performance analysis includes error analysis, performance analysis via attitude determination simulation, and star tracker servo design analysis. The design of the star tracker and electronics are discussed. Sensor electronics schematics are included. A detailed characterization of the application software algorithms and computer requirements is provided.

  5. Automatic laser welding of metal bellows with precision seam tracker

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, D.U.

    1996-12-31

    Metal bellows were laser edge-welded satisfactorily with the aid of a precision seam tracking system. The welding speed was five to ten times faster than conventional arc welding. The weld quality was excellent and the cost savings are expected to be substantial.

  6. XpertTrack: Precision Autonomous Measuring Device Developed for Real Time Shipments Tracker.

    PubMed

    Viman, Liviu; Daraban, Mihai; Fizesan, Raul; Iuonas, Mircea

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes a software and hardware solution for real time condition monitoring applications. The proposed device, called XpertTrack, exchanges data through the GPRS protocol over a GSM network and monitories temperature and vibrations of critical merchandise during commercial shipments anywhere on the globe. Another feature of this real time tracker is to provide GPS and GSM positioning with a precision of 10 m or less. In order to interpret the condition of the merchandise, the data acquisition, analysis and visualization are done with 0.1 °C accuracy for the temperature sensor, and 10 levels of shock sensitivity for the acceleration sensor. In addition to this, the architecture allows increasing the number and the types of sensors, so that companies can use this flexible solution to monitor a large percentage of their fleet. PMID:26978360

  7. XpertTrack: Precision Autonomous Measuring Device Developed for Real Time Shipments Tracker

    PubMed Central

    Viman, Liviu; Daraban, Mihai; Fizesan, Raul; Iuonas, Mircea

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes a software and hardware solution for real time condition monitoring applications. The proposed device, called XpertTrack, exchanges data through the GPRS protocol over a GSM network and monitories temperature and vibrations of critical merchandise during commercial shipments anywhere on the globe. Another feature of this real time tracker is to provide GPS and GSM positioning with a precision of 10 m or less. In order to interpret the condition of the merchandise, the data acquisition, analysis and visualization are done with 0.1 °C accuracy for the temperature sensor, and 10 levels of shock sensitivity for the acceleration sensor. In addition to this, the architecture allows increasing the number and the types of sensors, so that companies can use this flexible solution to monitor a large percentage of their fleet. PMID:26978360

  8. Precision Attitude Determination System (PADS) system design and analysis: Single-axis gimbal star tracker

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    The feasibility is evaluated of an evolutionary development for use of a single-axis gimbal star tracker from prior two-axis gimbal star tracker based system applications. Detailed evaluation of the star tracker gimbal encoder is considered. A brief system description is given including the aspects of tracker evolution and encoder evaluation. System analysis includes evaluation of star availability and mounting constraints for the geosynchronous orbit application, and a covariance simulation analysis to evaluate performance potential. Star availability and covariance analysis digital computer programs are included.

  9. OPERA Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Osamu

    2014-08-01

    The aim of OPERA is to prove the existence of the νμ →ντ neutrino oscillation by detecting the τ lepton emitted in the ντ CC interactions. Thanks to the sub-micron resolution of the emulsion technique, the τ decay topology is clearly identified. The accumulated number of neutrino events in the OPERA target until mid-September 2012 is about 16000. Among the sample of 4190 events analysed so-far, two candidate ντ CC interactions have been identified. The first one was published in May 2010 and the second one was recently reported at the NEUTRINO 2012 conference in June 2012.

  10. Eye tracker.

    PubMed

    Pruehsner, W; Enderle, J D

    1999-01-01

    A device that records saccadic eye movements, the Eye Tracker, is presented in this paper. The Eye Tracker utilizes infra-red technology mounted on fully adjustable goggles to follow eye movements targeted by either a goggles mounted HUD type display or a wall mounted light bank. Output from the goggles is remotely sent to a PC type computer, which leads to device portability. The goggles can also maintain output data in an internal memory for latter download. The user interface is Windows based with the output from the goggles represented as a trace map or plotted points. This output can also be saved or printed for future reference. The user interface can be used on any PC type computer. The device is designed with reference to standard ISO design methodology. Safety in design and final product usage has also been addressed with reference to standard ISO type procedures. Device accuracy is maintained by precise construction of the IR units in the goggles and tight control of cross talk between each IR device plus filtering of ambient light signals. Also, a reset feature is included to maintain equal baseline control. An automatic switching device is included in the goggles to allow the Eye Tracker to "warm up," assuring that equal IR power is delivered for each subject tested. The IR units in the goggles are also modular in case replacement is required. PMID:11143354

  11. Opera and neuroscience.

    PubMed

    Lorusso, Lorenzo; Franchini, Antonia Francesca; Porro, Alessandro

    2015-01-01

    Opera is the most complete form of theatrical representation, characterized by musical accompaniment, both instrumental and vocal. It has played an important role in sociocultural spheres, affecting the various social strata and reflecting customs and ideas in different centuries. Composers have created pieces that have also shown the development of medicine. Since the birth of opera in seventeenth century in Italy, neuroscience has played an important role in influencing the representation of madness and neurological aspects. From the Folly of the Renaissance, a path toward a representation of madness was developed, initially linked to the myths of classical antiquity. In the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, madness was represented as comical or funny, of a loving nature and influenced by the spread of the Commedia dell'Arte (Comedy of Art). In the nineteenth century, with the rise of the first scientific theories of the mind, insanity took more precise connotations and was separated from other psychiatric and neurological diseases. The operas of the twentieth century depicted psychiatric and neurological diseases, taking into account newer medical and scientific discoveries.

  12. Opera and neuroscience.

    PubMed

    Lorusso, Lorenzo; Franchini, Antonia Francesca; Porro, Alessandro

    2015-01-01

    Opera is the most complete form of theatrical representation, characterized by musical accompaniment, both instrumental and vocal. It has played an important role in sociocultural spheres, affecting the various social strata and reflecting customs and ideas in different centuries. Composers have created pieces that have also shown the development of medicine. Since the birth of opera in seventeenth century in Italy, neuroscience has played an important role in influencing the representation of madness and neurological aspects. From the Folly of the Renaissance, a path toward a representation of madness was developed, initially linked to the myths of classical antiquity. In the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, madness was represented as comical or funny, of a loving nature and influenced by the spread of the Commedia dell'Arte (Comedy of Art). In the nineteenth century, with the rise of the first scientific theories of the mind, insanity took more precise connotations and was separated from other psychiatric and neurological diseases. The operas of the twentieth century depicted psychiatric and neurological diseases, taking into account newer medical and scientific discoveries. PMID:25684301

  13. Opera as Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pratt, Scott L.

    2009-01-01

    There is a long history of debate over what opera is. Since it's more or less formal beginning in the sixteenth century as a reconstruction of ancient drama, opera as an art form has been controversial. The received understanding--emphasized by the genre's founders and in periodic efforts at reforming the standards of composition and…

  14. Tracker Toolkit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, Steven J.; Palacios, David M.

    2013-01-01

    This software can track multiple moving objects within a video stream simultaneously, use visual features to aid in the tracking, and initiate tracks based on object detection in a subregion. A simple programmatic interface allows plugging into larger image chain modeling suites. It extracts unique visual features for aid in tracking and later analysis, and includes sub-functionality for extracting visual features about an object identified within an image frame. Tracker Toolkit utilizes a feature extraction algorithm to tag each object with metadata features about its size, shape, color, and movement. Its functionality is independent of the scale of objects within a scene. The only assumption made on the tracked objects is that they move. There are no constraints on size within the scene, shape, or type of movement. The Tracker Toolkit is also capable of following an arbitrary number of objects in the same scene, identifying and propagating the track of each object from frame to frame. Target objects may be specified for tracking beforehand, or may be dynamically discovered within a tripwire region. Initialization of the Tracker Toolkit algorithm includes two steps: Initializing the data structures for tracked target objects, including targets preselected for tracking; and initializing the tripwire region. If no tripwire region is desired, this step is skipped. The tripwire region is an area within the frames that is always checked for new objects, and all new objects discovered within the region will be tracked until lost (by leaving the frame, stopping, or blending in to the background).

  15. The Magical Place Called Opera.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raplenovich, Kay

    1996-01-01

    "Create Your Own," month-long "Artist in Education" residencies sponsored by the Ohio Arts Council, are used to guide students and teachers through the process of taking the vision of an original opera conceived by students and turning it into a reality. A local opera company is actually created. "Create Your Own" shows children that opera can be…

  16. Seeing medicine through opera glasses.

    PubMed Central

    Mason, R B

    1996-01-01

    Few opera buffs stop to consider how the illnesses suffered by opera's great heroes and heroines mirrored the medical treatments and public attitudes of their time. A Toronto physician and his wife, an English professor and literary critic, have written a book exploring how opera presents illnesses such as tuberculosis and syphilis. Images p922-a PMID:8634975

  17. Search for charmed hadrons in the OPERA experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pastore, A.

    2015-05-01

    The OPERA experiment was designed to study muon neutrino to tau neutrino oscillations in appearance mode, using the CERN to Gran Sasso (CNGS) high energy neutrino beam 730 km far from the source. From 2008 to 2012, CNGS neutrinos interactions were recorded in the OPERA detector, which includes target units made of lead plates alternated with emulsion films and electronic tracker planes. The on-going analysis is aimed at the detection of short-lived particle decays occurring over distances of the order of 1 mm from the neutrino interaction point. It has allowed identifying charmed hadrons together with the tau lepton decay candidates that have established vμ → vτ oscillations with a significance of 4.2 σ. The procedure applied in OPERA to detect short-lived particle decays and its application to the search for charmed hadrons will be discussed here in detail.

  18. Modelling and precision of the localization of the robotic mobile platforms for constructions with laser tracker and SmartTrack sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dima, M.; Francu, C.

    2016-08-01

    This paper presents a way to expand the field of use of the laser tracker and SmartTrack sensor localization device used in lately for the localisation of the end effector of the industrial robots to the localization of the mobile construction robots. The research paper presents the equipment along with its characteristics, determines the relationships for the localization coordinates by comparison to the forward kinematics of the industrial robot's spherical arm (positioning mechanism in spherical coordinates) and the orientation mechanism with three revolute axes. In the end of the paper the accuracy of the mobile robot's localization is analysed.

  19. Construction and Operation of a High-Speed, High-Precision Eye Tracker for Tight Stimulus Synchronization and Real-Time Gaze Monitoring in Human and Animal Subjects.

    PubMed

    Farivar, Reza; Michaud-Landry, Danny

    2016-01-01

    Measurements of the fast and precise movements of the eye-critical to many vision, oculomotor, and animal behavior studies-can be made non-invasively by video oculography. The protocol here describes the construction and operation of a research-grade video oculography system with ~0.1° precision over the full typical viewing range at over 450 Hz with tight synchronization with stimulus onset. The protocol consists of three stages: (1) system assembly, (2) calibration for both cooperative, and for minimally cooperative subjects (e.g., animals or infants), and (3) gaze monitoring and recording. PMID:27683545

  20. Construction and Operation of a High-Speed, High-Precision Eye Tracker for Tight Stimulus Synchronization and Real-Time Gaze Monitoring in Human and Animal Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Farivar, Reza; Michaud-Landry, Danny

    2016-01-01

    Measurements of the fast and precise movements of the eye—critical to many vision, oculomotor, and animal behavior studies—can be made non-invasively by video oculography. The protocol here describes the construction and operation of a research-grade video oculography system with ~0.1° precision over the full typical viewing range at over 450 Hz with tight synchronization with stimulus onset. The protocol consists of three stages: (1) system assembly, (2) calibration for both cooperative, and for minimally cooperative subjects (e.g., animals or infants), and (3) gaze monitoring and recording. PMID:27683545

  1. Construction and Operation of a High-Speed, High-Precision Eye Tracker for Tight Stimulus Synchronization and Real-Time Gaze Monitoring in Human and Animal Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Farivar, Reza; Michaud-Landry, Danny

    2016-01-01

    Measurements of the fast and precise movements of the eye—critical to many vision, oculomotor, and animal behavior studies—can be made non-invasively by video oculography. The protocol here describes the construction and operation of a research-grade video oculography system with ~0.1° precision over the full typical viewing range at over 450 Hz with tight synchronization with stimulus onset. The protocol consists of three stages: (1) system assembly, (2) calibration for both cooperative, and for minimally cooperative subjects (e.g., animals or infants), and (3) gaze monitoring and recording.

  2. The Magical Place Called Opera.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raplenovich, Kay

    1996-01-01

    Create Your Own is a month-long artist residency that introduces children to opera as a method of spinning a tale rather than as elitist, high-brow art. Students create their own opera company and are involved in every stage of the process from writing the story and music to building the set and making the costumes. (TD)

  3. Opera: Not for Adults Only

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    La Valley, Josanne

    1977-01-01

    In 1975, under the auspices of the Manhattan School of Music, an opera for children project was initiated at Public School 75 in New York City. Its aim was to acquaint the public school's faculty, parents, and students with the technical and performance aspects of opera production. (Author)

  4. Design Your Own Opera!... Online!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nardo, Rachel

    2010-01-01

    This article discusses how to design an opera on the internet and introduces a site that offers the educational keys to the musical kingdom when it comes to unlocking a child's interest in opera. The combination of attractive, animated artwork, fun interactivity, and sound musical learning make this site very useful in a general music classroom.…

  5. Interacting Multiview Tracker.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Ju Hong; Yang, Ming-Hsuan; Yoon, Kuk-Jin

    2016-05-01

    A robust algorithm is proposed for tracking a target object in dynamic conditions including motion blurs, illumination changes, pose variations, and occlusions. To cope with these challenging factors, multiple trackers based on different feature representations are integrated within a probabilistic framework. Each view of the proposed multiview (multi-channel) feature learning algorithm is concerned with one particular feature representation of a target object from which a tracker is developed with different levels of reliability. With the multiple trackers, the proposed algorithm exploits tracker interaction and selection for robust tracking performance. In the tracker interaction, a transition probability matrix is used to estimate dependencies between trackers. Multiple trackers communicate with each other by sharing information of sample distributions. The tracker selection process determines the most reliable tracker with the highest probability. To account for object appearance changes, the transition probability matrix and tracker probability are updated in a recursive Bayesian framework by reflecting the tracker reliability measured by a robust tracker likelihood function that learns to account for both transient and stable appearance changes. Experimental results on benchmark datasets demonstrate that the proposed interacting multiview algorithm performs robustly and favorably against state-of-the-art methods in terms of several quantitative metrics. PMID:26336117

  6. The OPERA muon spectrometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garfagnini, A.; Bergnoli, A.; Brugnera, R.; Carrara, E.; Ciesielski, R.; Dal Corso, F.; Dusini, S.; Fanin, C.; Longhin, A.; Stanco, L.; Cazes, A.; Cecchetti, A.; Di Troia, C.; Dulach, B.; Felici, G.; Mengucci, A.; Orecchini, D.; Paoloni, A.; Spinetti, M.; Terranova, F.; Ventura, M.; Votano, L.; Candela, A.; D'Incecco, M.; Gustavino, C.; Lindozzi, M.

    2007-03-01

    The OPERA experiment will study νμ to ντ oscillations through τ appearance on the 732 km long CERN to Gran Sasso baseline. The magnet yokes of the two muon spectrometers are instrumented with 48 planes of high resistivity bakelite Resistive Plate Chambers (RPC) operated in streamer mode. Each plane covers about 70 m2. A general introduction to the system installation and commissioning will be given. Four RPC planes were instrumented and the first tests were performed confirming a good behavior of the installed RPCs in terms of intrinsic noise and operating currents. The measured noise maps agree with those obtained in the extensive quality test performed at surface. Counting rates are below 20 Hz/m2. Single and multiple cosmic muon tracks were also reconstructed. The estimated efficiency is close to the geometrical limit and the very first measurements of the absolute and differential muon flux are in agreement with the expectations. Finally, a description of the readout electronics and of the slow control system is given.

  7. The LHCb silicon tracker: running experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saornil Gamarra, S.

    2013-02-01

    The LHCb Silicon Tracker is part of the main tracking system of the LHCb detector at the LHC. It measures very precisely the particle trajectories coming from the interaction point in the region of high occupancies around the beam axis. It covers the full acceptance angle in front of the dipole magnet in the Tracker Turicensis station and the innermost part around the beam axis in the three Inner Tracker stations downstream of the magnet. The Silicon Tracker covers a sensitive area of 12 m2 using silicon micro-strip sensors with very long readout strips. We report on running experience for the experiment. Focussing on electronic and hardware issues we describe some of the lessons learned and pitfalls encountered after three years of successful operation.

  8. Star Tracker Performance Estimate with IMU

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aretskin-Hariton, Eliot D.; Swank, Aaron J.

    2015-01-01

    A software tool for estimating cross-boresight error of a star tracker combined with an inertial measurement unit (IMU) was developed to support trade studies for the Integrated Radio and Optical Communication project (iROC) at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Glenn Research Center. Typical laser communication systems, such as the Lunar Laser Communication Demonstration (LLCD) and the Laser Communication Relay Demonstration (LCRD), use a beacon to locate ground stations. iROC is investigating the use of beaconless precision laser pointing to enable laser communication at Mars orbits and beyond. Precision attitude knowledge is essential to the iROC mission to enable high-speed steering of the optical link. The preliminary concept to achieve this precision attitude knowledge is to use star trackers combined with an IMU. The Star Tracker Accuracy (STAcc) software was developed to rapidly assess the capabilities of star tracker and IMU configurations. STAcc determines the overall cross-boresight error of a star tracker with an IMU given the characteristic parameters: quantum efficiency, aperture, apparent star magnitude, exposure time, field of view, photon spread, detector pixels, spacecraft slew rate, maximum stars used for quaternion estimation, and IMU angular random walk. This paper discusses the supporting theory used to construct STAcc, verification of the program and sample results.

  9. Sex on the Soap Operas: Afternoon Delight.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenberg, Bradley S.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Examines the portrayal of intimate sexual behavior on soap operas and concludes that soap operas have more sexual content than do prime-time programs, but the types of intimacies differ. Notes that soap operas are potentially a major force in the transmission of values and sexual information to youthful viewers. (PD)

  10. ORNL SunTracker

    SciTech Connect

    Wysor, Robert Wesley

    2005-09-14

    The ORNL Sun Tracker software is the user interface that operates on a Personal Computer and serially communicates with the controller board. This software allows the user to manually operate the Hybrid Solar Lighting (HSL) unit. It displays the current location of the HSL unit, its parameters and it provides real-time monitoring. The ORNL Sun Tracker software is also the main component used in setting up and calibrating the tracker. It contains a setup screen that requires latitude, longitude, and a few other key values to accurately locate the sun's position. The software also will provide the user access to calibrate the tracking location in relation to the sun's actual position.

  11. Development of a digital mobile solar tracker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baidar, Sunil; Kille, Natalie; Ortega, Ivan; Sinreich, Roman; Thomson, David; Hannigan, James; Volkamer, Rainer

    2016-03-01

    We have constructed and deployed a fast digital solar tracker aboard a moving ground-based platform. The tracker consists of two rotating mirrors, a lens, an imaging camera, and a motion compensation system that provides the Euler angles of the mobile platform in real time. The tracker can be simultaneously coupled to UV-Vis and Fourier transform infrared spectrometers, making it a versatile tool to measure the absorption of trace gases using solar incoming radiation. The integrated system allows the tracker to operate autonomously while the mobile laboratory is in motion. Mobile direct sun differential optical absorption spectroscopy (mobile DS-DOAS) observations using this tracker were conducted during summer 2014 as part of the Front Range Air Pollution and Photochemistry Experiment (FRAPPE) in Colorado, USA. We demonstrate an angular precision of 0.052° (about 1/10 of the solar disk diameter) during research drives and verify this tracking precision from measurements of the center to limb darkening (CLD, the changing appearance of Fraunhofer lines) in the mobile DS-DOAS spectra. The high photon flux from direct sun observation enables measurements of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) slant columns with high temporal resolution and reveals spatial detail in the variations of NO2 vertical column densities (VCDs). The NO2 VCD from DS-DOAS is compared with a co-located MAX-DOAS instrument. Overall good agreement is observed amid a highly heterogeneous air mass.

  12. Development of a digital mobile solar tracker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baidar, S.; Kille, N.; Ortega, I.; Sinreich, R.; Thomson, D.; Hannigan, J.; Volkamer, R.

    2015-11-01

    We have constructed and deployed a fast digital solar tracker aboard a moving ground-based platform. The tracker consists of two rotating mirrors, a lens, an imaging camera, and a motion compensation system that provides the Euler angles of the mobile platform in real time. The tracker can be simultaneously coupled to UV-Vis and FTIR spectrometers making it a versatile tool to measure the absorption of trace gases using solar incoming radiation. The integrated system allows the tracker to operate autonomously while the mobile laboratory is in motion. Mobile direct sun Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (mobile DS-DOAS) observations using this tracker were conducted during summer 2014 as part of the Front Range Photochemistry and Pollution Experiment (FRAPPE) in Colorado, USA. We demonstrate an angular precision of 0.052° (about 1/10 of the solar disk diameter) during research drives, and verify this tracking precision from measurements of the center to limb darkening (CLD, the changing appearance of Fraunhofer lines) in the mobile DS-DOAS spectra. The high photon flux from direct sun observation enables measurements of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) slant columns with high temporal resolution, and reveals spatial detail in the variations of NO2 vertical column densities (VCDs). The NO2 VCD from DS-DOAS is compared with a co-located MAX-DOAS instrument. Overall good agreement is observed amid a highly heterogeneous air mass.

  13. Optimization Method for Solution Model of Laser Tracker Multilateration Measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Hongfang; Tan, Zhi; Shi, Zhaoyao; Song, Huixu; Yan, Hao

    2016-08-01

    Multilateration measurement using laser trackers suffers from a cumbersome solution method for high-precision measurements. Errors are induced by the self-calibration routines of the laser tracker software. This paper describes an optimization solution model for laser tracker multilateration measurement, which effectively inhibits the negative effect of this self-calibration, and further, analyzes the accuracy of the singular value decomposition for the described solution model. Experimental verification for the solution model based on laser tracker and coordinate measuring machine (CMM) was performed. The experiment results show that the described optimization model for laser tracker multilateration measurement has good accuracy control, and has potentially broad application in the field of laser tracker spatial localization.

  14. Health: the soap opera version.

    PubMed

    Harris, C

    1993-01-01

    Watching soap opera is a favorite pastime of millions of Egyptians. Since the spring of 1992, the soap opera "The Family House" has reached audiences with messages on AIDS, drugs, child spacing, home accidents, and hygiene. The shows are the brainchild of the Director of the Center for Development Communication (CDC) in Egypt, Dr. El Kamel; the shows capture the novel and unique concept of both the communication of information and entertainment. Between 1983 and 1990, the CDC has been creating 130 short soap opera episodes on subjects such as the prevention of dehydration from diarrhea and the use of oral rehydration salt (ORS) packets to save children's lives. The ORS episodes were 15 minutes in length and showed the dramatic tension between a baby suffering from diarrhea and the mother's helping to overcome the difficulty. Surveys conducted in 1983 and 1986 on knowledge, attitudes, and practices found that in 1986 98% knew about ORS and 70% had used it compared with 3% knowledge and 50% practice in 1983. "The Family House" will be similar but expand on the number of issues considered and will pretest audience knowledge, attitudes, and practice before and after airing on specific issues. This soap opera also will be the first to be a daily series with an unending story. "The main character is Amina, who is an artisan in her late 40s who raised 4 children by herself." The series of 45-minute long shows will depict urban and rural settings and everyday Egyptian culture: language, clothing, life styles, and moral standards. Distribution is anticipated for other Arabic countries in Africa and the Middle East, which already air many Egyptian television series.

  15. Health: the soap opera version.

    PubMed

    Harris, C

    1993-01-01

    Watching soap opera is a favorite pastime of millions of Egyptians. Since the spring of 1992, the soap opera "The Family House" has reached audiences with messages on AIDS, drugs, child spacing, home accidents, and hygiene. The shows are the brainchild of the Director of the Center for Development Communication (CDC) in Egypt, Dr. El Kamel; the shows capture the novel and unique concept of both the communication of information and entertainment. Between 1983 and 1990, the CDC has been creating 130 short soap opera episodes on subjects such as the prevention of dehydration from diarrhea and the use of oral rehydration salt (ORS) packets to save children's lives. The ORS episodes were 15 minutes in length and showed the dramatic tension between a baby suffering from diarrhea and the mother's helping to overcome the difficulty. Surveys conducted in 1983 and 1986 on knowledge, attitudes, and practices found that in 1986 98% knew about ORS and 70% had used it compared with 3% knowledge and 50% practice in 1983. "The Family House" will be similar but expand on the number of issues considered and will pretest audience knowledge, attitudes, and practice before and after airing on specific issues. This soap opera also will be the first to be a daily series with an unending story. "The main character is Amina, who is an artisan in her late 40s who raised 4 children by herself." The series of 45-minute long shows will depict urban and rural settings and everyday Egyptian culture: language, clothing, life styles, and moral standards. Distribution is anticipated for other Arabic countries in Africa and the Middle East, which already air many Egyptian television series. PMID:12318007

  16. Miniature Laser Tracker

    DOEpatents

    Vann, Charles S.

    2003-09-09

    This small, inexpensive, non-contact laser sensor can detect the location of a retroreflective target in a relatively large volume and up to six degrees of position. The tracker's laser beam is formed into a plane of light which is swept across the space of interest. When the beam illuminates the retroreflector, some of the light returns to the tracker. The intensity, angle, and time of the return beam is measured to calculate the three dimensional location of the target. With three retroreflectors on the target, the locations of three points on the target are measured, enabling the calculation of all six degrees of target position. Until now, devices for three-dimensional tracking of objects in a large volume have been heavy, large, and very expensive. Because of the simplicity and unique characteristics of this tracker, it is capable of three-dimensional tracking of one to several objects in a large volume, yet it is compact, light-weight, and relatively inexpensive. Alternatively, a tracker produces a diverging laser beam which is directed towards a fixed position, and senses when a retroreflective target enters the fixed field of view. An optically bar coded target can be read by the tracker to provide information about the target. The target can be formed of a ball lens with a bar code on one end. As the target moves through the field, the ball lens causes the laser beam to scan across the bar code.

  17. ORNL SunTracker

    2005-09-14

    The ORNL Sun Tracker software is the user interface that operates on a Personal Computer and serially communicates with the controller board. This software allows the user to manually operate the Hybrid Solar Lighting (HSL) unit. It displays the current location of the HSL unit, its parameters and it provides real-time monitoring. The ORNL Sun Tracker software is also the main component used in setting up and calibrating the tracker. It contains a setup screenmore » that requires latitude, longitude, and a few other key values to accurately locate the sun's position. The software also will provide the user access to calibrate the tracking location in relation to the sun's actual position.« less

  18. LHCb Silicon Tracker infrastructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ermoline, Yuri

    2004-02-01

    The LHCb Silicon Tracker is a vital part of the experiment. It consists of four planar stations: one trigger and three inner tracking stations. The operation of the Silicon Tracker detectors and electronics is provided by its infrastructure: cooling system, high- and low-voltage power supply systems, temperature and radiation monitoring systems. Several components of these systems are located in the experimental hall and subjected to radiation. This paper mainly concentrates on the recent development: requirements definition, evaluation of possible implementation scenarios, component choice and component radiation tests.

  19. Teaching optical phenomena with Tracker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodrigues, M.; Simeão Carvalho, P.

    2014-11-01

    Since the invention and dissemination of domestic laser pointers, observing optical phenomena is a relatively easy task. Any student can buy a laser and experience at home, in a qualitative way, the reflection, refraction and even diffraction phenomena of light. However, quantitative experiments need instruments of high precision that have a relatively complex setup. Fortunately, nowadays it is possible to analyse optical phenomena in a simple and quantitative way using the freeware video analysis software ‘Tracker’. In this paper, we show the advantages of video-based experimental activities for teaching concepts in optics. We intend to show: (a) how easy the study of such phenomena can be, even at home, because only simple materials are needed, and Tracker provides the necessary measuring instruments; and (b) how we can use Tracker to improve students’ understanding of some optical concepts. We give examples using video modelling to study the laws of reflection, Snell’s laws, focal distances in lenses and mirrors, and diffraction phenomena, which we hope will motivate teachers to implement it in their own classes and schools.

  20. Line-focus sun trackers

    SciTech Connect

    Gee, R.

    1980-05-01

    Sun trackers have been a troublesome component for line-focus concentrating collector systems. The problems have included poor accuracy, component failures, false locks on clouds, and restricted tracker operating ranges. In response to these tracking difficulties, a variety of improved sun trackers have been developed. A testing program is underway at SERI to determine the tracking accuracy of this new generation of sun trackers. The three major types of trackers are defined, some recent sun tracker developments are described, and the testing that is underway is outlined.

  1. Teaching Astronomy Using Tracker

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belloni, Mario; Christian, Wolfgang; Brown, Douglas

    2013-01-01

    A recent paper in this journal presented a set of innovative uses of video analysis for introductory physics using Tracker. In addition, numerous other papers have described how video analysis can be a meaningful part of introductory courses. Yet despite this, there are few resources for using video analysis in introductory astronomy classes. In…

  2. Rotational Dynamics with Tracker

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eadkhong, T.; Rajsadorn, R.; Jannual, P.; Danworaphong, S.

    2012-01-01

    We propose the use of Tracker, freeware for video analysis, to analyse the moment of inertia ("I") of a cylindrical plate. Three experiments are performed to validate the proposed method. The first experiment is dedicated to find the linear coefficient of rotational friction ("b") for our system. By omitting the effect of such friction, we derive…

  3. MediaTracker system

    SciTech Connect

    Sandoval, D. M.; Strittmatter, R. B.; Abeyta, J. D.; Brown, J.; Marks, T. , Jr.; Martinez, B. J.; Jones, D. B.; Hsue, W.

    2004-01-01

    The initial objectives of this effort were to provide a hardware and software platform that can address the requirements for the accountability of classified removable electronic media and vault access logging. The Media Tracker system software assists classified media custodian in managing vault access logging and Media Tracking to prevent the inadvertent violation of rules or policies for the access to a restricted area and the movement and use of tracked items. The MediaTracker system includes the software tools to track and account for high consequence security assets and high value items. The overall benefits include: (1) real-time access to the disposition of all Classified Removable Electronic Media (CREM), (2) streamlined security procedures and requirements, (3) removal of ambiguity and managerial inconsistencies, (4) prevention of incidents that can and should be prevented, (5) alignment with the DOE's initiative to achieve improvements in security and facility operations through technology deployment, and (6) enhanced individual responsibility by providing a consistent method of dealing with daily responsibilities. In response to initiatives to enhance the control of classified removable electronic media (CREM), the Media Tracker software suite was developed, piloted and implemented at the Los Alamos National Laboratory beginning in July 2000. The Media Tracker software suite assists in the accountability and tracking of CREM and other high-value assets. One component of the MediaTracker software suite provides a Laboratory-approved media tracking system. Using commercial touch screen and bar code technology, the MediaTracker (MT) component of the MediaTracker software suite provides an efficient and effective means to meet current Laboratory requirements and provides new-engineered controls to help assure compliance with those requirements. It also establishes a computer infrastructure at vault entrances for vault access logging, and can accommodate

  4. "CHEM"opera for Chemistry Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chung, Yong Hee

    2013-01-01

    "CHEM"opera is an opera blended with demonstrations of chemical reactions. It has been produced and performed twice by chemistry undergraduate students at Hallym University in South Korea. It aims to demonstrate interesting chemical reactions to chemistry students, children and the public and to facilitate their understanding of the role…

  5. Opera subculture and suicide for honor.

    PubMed

    Stack, Steven

    2002-06-01

    The influence of music-based subcultures on suicidality has been the subject of much debate but little scholarly research. While previous work has documented that suicide is a remarkably frequent cause of death in opera, it has not explored the related consequences on opera's audience. In particular, the possible influence of the opera subculture on suicide acceptability has been largely unexplored. Suicide in the case of life without honor, the "Madame Butterfly Effect," is a theme in opera. Persons who are drawn into and/or influenced by the opera subculture of honor are hypothesized to be more accepting of suicide in the case of dishonor to one's family. Data are from the national general social surveys (N = 845). A multivariate logistic regression analysis finds that opera fans are 2.37 times more accepting of suicide because of dishonor than nonfans. Only two variables, religiosity and education, are more closely related to suicide acceptability than opera fanship. These are the first empirical results on the subject of opera and suicide acceptability.

  6. The Tevatron Chromaticity tracker

    SciTech Connect

    Tan, Cheng-Yang; /Fermilab

    2008-12-01

    The Tevatron chromaticity tracker (CT) has been successfully commissioned and is now operational. The basic idea behind the CT is that when the phase of the Tevatron RF is slowly modulated, the beam momentum is also modulated. This momentum modulation is coupled transversely via chromaticity to manifest as a phase modulation on the betatron tune. Thus by phase demodulating the betatron tune, the chromaticity can be recovered. However, for the phase demodulation to be successful, it is critical that the betatron tune be a coherent signal that can be easily picked up by a phase detector. This is easily done because the Tevatron has a phase locked loop (PLL) based tune tracker which coherently excites the beam at the betatron tune.

  7. Laser tracker error determination using a network measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hughes, Ben; Forbes, Alistair; Lewis, Andrew; Sun, Wenjuan; Veal, Dan; Nasr, Karim

    2011-04-01

    We report on a fast, easily implemented method to determine all the geometrical alignment errors of a laser tracker, to high precision. The technique requires no specialist equipment and can be performed in less than an hour. The technique is based on the determination of parameters of a geometric model of the laser tracker, using measurements of a set of fixed target locations, from multiple locations of the tracker. After fitting of the model parameters to the observed data, the model can be used to perform error correction of the raw laser tracker data or to derive correction parameters in the format of the tracker manufacturer's internal error map. In addition to determination of the model parameters, the method also determines the uncertainties and correlations associated with the parameters. We have tested the technique on a commercial laser tracker in the following way. We disabled the tracker's internal error compensation, and used a five-position, fifteen-target network to estimate all the geometric errors of the instrument. Using the error map generated from this network test, the tracker was able to pass a full performance validation test, conducted according to a recognized specification standard (ASME B89.4.19-2006). We conclude that the error correction determined from the network test is as effective as the manufacturer's own error correction methodologies.

  8. Status of the OPERA experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Russo, A.

    2011-11-23

    The OPERA experiment in the underground Gran Sasso Laboratory (LNGS) has been designed to perform the first detection of neutrino oscillations in direct appearance mode in the muon to tau neutrino channel. The detector is hybrid, being made of an emulsion/lead target and of electronic detectors. It is placed in the CNGS neutrino beam 733 km away from the neutrino source. Runs with CNGS neutrinos were successfully carried out from 2008 and the following years. The analysis of a sample of events corresponding to 1.89x10{sup 19} p.o.t. in the CERN CNGS {nu}{sub {mu}} beam yielded the observation of a first candidate {nu}{sub {tau}} CC interaction. The topology and kinematics of this candidate event is described in detail. The background sources are explained and the significance of the observation of the first {nu}{sub {tau}} event candidate is assessed.

  9. Surface metrology using laser trackers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enriquez, Rogerio; Sampieri, Cesar E.

    2005-02-01

    During the process of manufacture or measuring large components, position and orientation are needed thus; a method based in surveying the surface can be used to describe them. This method requires an ensemble of measurements of fixed points whose coordinates are unknown. Afterwards resulting observations are manipulated to determinate objects position in order to apply surface metrology. In this work, a methodology to reduce uncertainties in surface measuring is presented. When measuring large surfaces, numerical methods can reduce uncertainties in the measures, and this can be done with instruments as such as the Laser Tracker (LT). Calculations use range and angles measures, in order to determinate the coordinates of tridimensional unknown positions from differents surveying points. The purpose of this work, is to solve problems of surface metrology with given tolerances; with advantages in resources and results, instead of making time sacrifices. Here, a hybrid methodology is developed, combining Laser Tracker with GPS theories and analysis. Such a measuring position system can be used in applications where the use of others systems are unpractical, mainly because this kind of measuring instruments are portables and capable to track and report results in real-time, it can be used in virtually anyplace. Simulations to measure panels for the Large Millimetric Telescope (LMT/GTM) in Mexico were done. A first benefit from using this method is that instrument is not isolated from its measuring environment. Instead, the system is thought as a whole with operator, measuring environment and targets. This solution provides an effective way, and a more precise measurement, because it does optimize the use of the instrument and uses additional information to strength the solution.

  10. Tracker 300 Software

    SciTech Connect

    Wysor, R. Wes

    2006-01-12

    The Tracker300 software is downloaded to an off-the-shelf product called RCM3400/RCM3410 made by Rabbit Semiconductor. The software is a closed loop control which computes the sun's position and provides stability compensation. Using the RCM3400/RCM3410 module, the software stores and retrieves parameters from the onboard flash. The software also allows for communication with a host. It will allow the parameters to be downloaded or uploaded, it will show the status of the controller, it will provide real-time feedback, and it will send command acknowledgements. The software will capture the GPS response and ensure the internal clock is set correctly.

  11. CMS tracker visualization tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mennea, M. S.; Osborne, I.; Regano, A.; Zito, G.

    2005-08-01

    This document will review the design considerations, implementations and performance of the CMS Tracker Visualization tools. In view of the great complexity of this sub-detector (more than 50 millions channels organized in 16540 modules each one of these being a complete detector), the standard CMS visualization tools (IGUANA and IGUANACMS) that provide basic 3D capabilities and integration within CMS framework, respectively, have been complemented with additional 2D graphics objects. Based on the experience acquired using this software to debug and understand both hardware and software during the construction phase, we propose possible future improvements to cope with online monitoring and event analysis during data taking.

  12. Opera: reconstructing optimal genomic scaffolds with high-throughput paired-end sequences.

    PubMed

    Gao, Song; Sung, Wing-Kin; Nagarajan, Niranjan

    2011-11-01

    Scaffolding, the problem of ordering and orienting contigs, typically using paired-end reads, is a crucial step in the assembly of high-quality draft genomes. Even as sequencing technologies and mate-pair protocols have improved significantly, scaffolding programs still rely on heuristics, with no guarantees on the quality of the solution. In this work, we explored the feasibility of an exact solution for scaffolding and present a first tractable solution for this problem (Opera). We also describe a graph contraction procedure that allows the solution to scale to large scaffolding problems and demonstrate this by scaffolding several large real and synthetic datasets. In comparisons with existing scaffolders, Opera simultaneously produced longer and more accurate scaffolds demonstrating the utility of an exact approach. Opera also incorporates an exact quadratic programming formulation to precisely compute gap sizes (Availability: http://sourceforge.net/projects/operasf/ ).

  13. Opera: Reconstructing Optimal Genomic Scaffolds with High-Throughput Paired-End Sequences

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Song; Sung, Wing-Kin

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Scaffolding, the problem of ordering and orienting contigs, typically using paired-end reads, is a crucial step in the assembly of high-quality draft genomes. Even as sequencing technologies and mate-pair protocols have improved significantly, scaffolding programs still rely on heuristics, with no guarantees on the quality of the solution. In this work, we explored the feasibility of an exact solution for scaffolding and present a first tractable solution for this problem (Opera). We also describe a graph contraction procedure that allows the solution to scale to large scaffolding problems and demonstrate this by scaffolding several large real and synthetic datasets. In comparisons with existing scaffolders, Opera simultaneously produced longer and more accurate scaffolds demonstrating the utility of an exact approach. Opera also incorporates an exact quadratic programming formulation to precisely compute gap sizes (Availability: http://sourceforge.net/projects/operasf/). PMID:21929371

  14. Using Opera in the Social Studies Classroom: The Child in Opera.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reel, J. V., Jr.

    This paper discusses how to use opera in secondary and college courses to illustrate and clarify historical developments. For example, opera can be used in social history courses to help students understand changing social attitudes toward the child in the 19th and 20th centuries. Students are first required to read a basic work on the history of…

  15. Soap Operas and Telenovelas: An Intercultural Critique of Soap Operas as Feminine Discourse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lozano, Elizabeth

    This paper questions some of the assumptions that permeate the current literature about soap operas and television, examining particularly the model according to which soap operas are the expression of an "essential" and universal feminine nature. The paper suggests the pertinence of a crosscultural approach to the study of melodrama as well as…

  16. Silicon tracker data acquisition

    SciTech Connect

    Haynes, W.J.

    1997-12-31

    Large particle physics experiments are making increasing technological demands on the design and implementation of real-time data acquisition systems. The LHC will have bunch crossing intervals of 25 nanoseconds and detectors, such as CMS, will contain over 10 million electronic channels. Readout systems will need to cope with 100 kHz rates of 1 MByte-sized events. Over 70% of this voluminous flow will stem from silicon tracker and MSGC devices. This paper describes the techniques currently being harnessed from ASIC devices through to modular microprocessor-based architectures around standards such as VMEbus and PCI. In particular, the experiences gained at the HERA H1 experiment are highlighted where many of the key technological concepts have already been im implemented.

  17. Tracker 300 Software

    2006-01-12

    The Tracker300 software is downloaded to an off-the-shelf product called RCM3400/RCM3410 made by Rabbit Semiconductor. The software is a closed loop control which computes the sun's position and provides stability compensation. Using the RCM3400/RCM3410 module, the software stores and retrieves parameters from the onboard flash. The software also allows for communication with a host. It will allow the parameters to be downloaded or uploaded, it will show the status of the controller, it will providemore » real-time feedback, and it will send command acknowledgements. The software will capture the GPS response and ensure the internal clock is set correctly.« less

  18. The LHCb Silicon Tracker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tobin, Mark

    2016-09-01

    The LHCb experiment is dedicated to the study of heavy flavour physics at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The primary goal of the experiment is to search for indirect evidence of new physics via measurements of CP violation and rare decays of beauty and charm hadrons. The LHCb detector has a large-area silicon micro-strip detector located upstream of a dipole magnet, and three tracking stations with silicon micro-strip detectors in the innermost region downstream of the magnet. These two sub-detectors form the LHCb Silicon Tracker (ST). This paper gives an overview of the performance and operation of the ST during LHC Run 1. Measurements of the observed radiation damage are shown and compared to the expectation from simulation.

  19. The Reconstruction Software for the Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment Trackers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobbs, A.; Long, K.; Santos, E.; Adey, D.; Hanlet, P.; Heidt, C.

    2014-06-01

    The international Muon Ionisation Cooling Experiment (MICE) is designed to demonstrate the principle of muon ionization cooling, for application to a future Neutrino Factory or Muon Collider. In order to measure the change in emittance, MICE is equipped with a pair of high precision scintillating fibre trackers. The trackers are required to measure a 10% change in emittance to 1% accuracy (giving an overall precision of 0.1%). This paper describes the tracker reconstruction software, as a part of the overall MICE software framework, MAUS. Channel clustering is described, proceeding to the formation of space-points, which are then associated with particle tracks using pattern recognition algorithms. Finally a full custom Kalman track fit is performed, to account for energy loss and multiple scattering. Exemplar results are shown for Monte Carlo data.

  20. The Reconstruction Software for the Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment Trackers

    SciTech Connect

    Dobbs, A.; Long, K.; Santos, E.; Adey, D.; Hanlet, P.; Heidt, C.

    2014-01-01

    The international Muon Ionisation Cooling Experiment (MICE) is designed to demonstrate the principle of muon ionization cooling, for application to a future Neutrino Factory or Muon Collider. In order to measure the change in emittance, MICE is equipped with a pair of high precision scintillating fibre trackers. The trackers are required to measure a 10% change in emittance to 1% accuracy (giving an overall precision of 0.1%). This paper describes the tracker reconstruction software, as a part of the overall MICE software framework, MAUS. Channel clustering is described, proceeding to the formation of space-points, which are then associated with particle tracks using pattern recognition algorithms. Finally a full custom Kalman track fit is performed, to account for energy loss and multiple scattering. Exemplar results are shown for Monte Carlo data.

  1. Recent Results from the OPERA Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duchesneau, D.

    The OPERA experiment has been designed to perform the first detection of neutrino oscillations in the νμ → ντ channel in direct appearance mode, through the event by event detection of the tau lepton produced in ντ charged current interactions. OPERA is a hybrid detector, made of emulsion/lead target elements and of electronic detectors, placed in the CNGS muon neutrino beam from CERN to Gran Sasso, 730 km away from the source. Neutrino interactions from the CNGS neutrino runs were recorded from 2008 until the end of 2012. We report on the data sample analysed so far and give the latest OPERA results on νμ → ντ and νμ → νe oscillation searches.

  2. OPERA neutrino oscillation search: Status and perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gornushkin, Yu.

    2016-07-01

    OPERA is a long-baseline neutrino experiment at the Gran Sasso laboratory (LNGS) designed to search for ν_{{μ}}^{} → ν_{{τ}}^{} oscillations in a direct appearance mode on an event by event basis. OPERA took data in 2008-2012 with the CNGS neutrino beam from CERN. The data analysis is ongoing, with the goal of establishing ν_{{τ}}^{} appearance with a high significance. Complementary studies of the ν_{{μ}}^{} → ν_{{e}}^{} oscillations and atmospheric muons fluxes were performed as well. Current results of the experiment are presented and perspectives discussed.

  3. WFOV star tracker camera

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, I.T. ); Ledebuhr, A.G.; Axelrod, T.S.; Kordas, J.F.; Hills, R.F. )

    1991-04-01

    A prototype wide-field-of-view (WFOV) star tracker camera has been fabricated and tested for use in spacecraft navigation. The most unique feature of this device is its 28{degrees} {times} 44{degrees} FOV, which views a large enough sector of the sky to ensure the existence of at least 5 stars of m{sub v} = 4.5 or brighter in all viewing directions. The WFOV requirement and the need to maximize both collection aperture (F/1.28) and spectral input band (0.4 to 1.1 {mu}m) to meet the light gathering needs for the dimmest star have dictated the use of a novel concentric optical design, which employs a fiber optic faceplate field flattener. The main advantage of the WFOV configuration is the smaller star map required for position processing, which results in less processing power and faster matching. Additionally, a size and mass benefit is seen with a larger FOV/smaller effective focal length (efl) sensor. Prototype hardware versions have included both image intensified and un-intensified CCD cameras. Integration times of {le} 50 msec have been demonstrated with both the intensified and un-intensified versions. 3 refs., 16 figs.

  4. WGM Temperature Tracker

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strekalov, Dmitry V.

    2012-01-01

    This software implements digital control of a WGM (whispering-gallerymode) resonator temperature based on the dual-mode approach. It comprises one acquisition (dual-channel) and three control modules. The interaction of the proportional-integral loops is designed in the original way, preventing the loops from fighting. The data processing is organized in parallel with the acquisition, which allows the computational overhead time to be suppressed or often completely avoided. WGM resonators potentially provide excellent optical references for metrology, clocks, spectroscopy, and other applications. However, extremely accurate (below micro-Kelvin) temperature stabilization is required. This software allows one specifically advantageous method of such stabilization to be implemented, which is immune to a variety of effects that mask the temperature variation. WGM Temperature Tracker 2.3 (see figure) is a LabVIEW code developed for dual-mode temperature stabilization of WGM resonators. It has allowed for the temperature stabilization at the level of 200 nK with one-second integration time, and 6 nK with 10,000-second integration time, with the above room-temperature set point. This software, in conjunction with the appropriate hardware, can be used as a noncryogenic temperature sensor/ controller with sub-micro-Kelvin sensitivity, which at the time of this reporting considerably outperforms the state of the art.

  5. STAR heavy flavor tracker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Hao

    2014-11-01

    Hadrons containing heavy quarks are a clean probe of the early dynamic evolution of the dense and hot medium created in high-energy nuclear collisions. To explore heavy quark production at RHIC, the Heavy Flavor Tracker (HFT) for the STAR experiment was built and installed in time for RHIC Run 14. The HFT consists of four layers of silicon detectors. The two outermost layers are silicon strip detectors and the two innermost layers are made from state-of-the-art ultra-thin CMOS Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors (MAPS). This is the first application of a CMOS MAPS detector in a collider experiment. The use of thin pixel sensors plus the use of carbon fiber supporting material limits the material budget to be only 0.4% radiation length per pixel detector layer, enabling the reconstruction of low pT heavy flavor hadrons. The status and performance of the HFT in the RHIC 200 GeV Au + Au run in 2014 are reported. Very good detector efficiency, hit residuals and track resolution (DCAs) were observed in the cosmic ray data and in the Au + Au data.

  6. Creating Original Opera at Lake Agassiz Elementary School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherwood, Connie; And Others

    1994-01-01

    In 1993 Lake Agassiz School in North Dakota received a Knight Foundation grant so teachers and students could participate in a program to learn how to create an opera. The program instructed teachers on how students could maximize their understanding about producing an opera. The school formed a partnership with the Metropolitan Opera Guild of New…

  7. Head tracker evaluation utilizing the dynamic tracker test fixture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    La Moure Shattuck, Judson, III; Parisi, Vincent M., II; Smerdon, Arryn J.

    2007-04-01

    In military aviation, head tracker technologies have become increasingly important to track the pilot's head position and orientation, allowing the user to quickly interact with the operational environment. This technology allows the pilot to quickly acquire items of interest and see Fighter Data Link type information. Acquiring the target on a helmet-mounted tracker/display which can automatically slew a weapon's seeker is far more efficient than having to point at the target with the nose of the aircraft as previously required for the heads-up display (HUD) type of target acquisition. The United States Air Force (USAF) has used and evaluated a variety of helmet-mounted trackers for incorporation into their high performance aircrafts. The Dynamic Tracker Test Fixture (DTTF) was designed by the Helmet-Mounted Sensory Technology (HMST) laboratory to accurately measure rotation in one plane both static and dynamic conditions for the purpose of evaluating the accuracy of head trackers, including magnetic, inertial, and optical trackers. This paper describes the design, construction, capabilities, limitations, and performance of the DTTF.

  8. Opera and madness: Britten's Peter Grimes--a case study.

    PubMed

    Durà-Vilà, G; Bentley, D

    2009-12-01

    In this paper, Britten's opera Peter Grimes (1945) is used as an illustrative case study through which to examine the depiction of psychiatric disorders in opera. It is argued that Peter Grimes is a powerful example of how opera, in the hands of a great composer, can become an invaluable tool for examining subjective human experience. After a brief discussion of opera as a vehicle to express emotions, various operas are drawn upon to provide a historical perspective and to demonstrate the long interconnection existing between opera and madness. An in-depth analysis of Peter Grimes, its background and central character, is then provided, in order to demonstrate how opera can elicit empathy for individuals affected by mental health problems.

  9. Why would Musical Training Benefit the Neural Encoding of Speech? The OPERA Hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Patel, Aniruddh D

    2011-01-01

    Mounting evidence suggests that musical training benefits the neural encoding of speech. This paper offers a hypothesis specifying why such benefits occur. The "OPERA" hypothesis proposes that such benefits are driven by adaptive plasticity in speech-processing networks, and that this plasticity occurs when five conditions are met. These are: (1) Overlap: there is anatomical overlap in the brain networks that process an acoustic feature used in both music and speech (e.g., waveform periodicity, amplitude envelope), (2) Precision: music places higher demands on these shared networks than does speech, in terms of the precision of processing, (3) Emotion: the musical activities that engage this network elicit strong positive emotion, (4) Repetition: the musical activities that engage this network are frequently repeated, and (5) Attention: the musical activities that engage this network are associated with focused attention. According to the OPERA hypothesis, when these conditions are met neural plasticity drives the networks in question to function with higher precision than needed for ordinary speech communication. Yet since speech shares these networks with music, speech processing benefits. The OPERA hypothesis is used to account for the observed superior subcortical encoding of speech in musically trained individuals, and to suggest mechanisms by which musical training might improve linguistic reading abilities.

  10. Space Shuttle Star Tracker Challenges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herrera, Linda M.

    2010-01-01

    The space shuttle fleet of avionics was originally designed in the 1970's. Many of the subsystems have been upgraded and replaced, however some original hardware continues to fly. Not only fly, but has proven to be the best design available to perform its designated task. The shuttle star tracker system is currently flying as a mixture of old and new designs, each with a unique purpose to fill for the mission. Orbiter missions have tackled many varied missions in space over the years. As the orbiters began flying to the International Space Station (ISS), new challenges were discovered and overcome as new trusses and modules were added. For the star tracker subsystem, the growing ISS posed an unusual problem, bright light. With two star trackers on board, the 1970's vintage image dissector tube (IDT) star trackers track the ISS, while the new solid state design is used for dim star tracking. This presentation focuses on the challenges and solutions used to ensure star trackers can complete the shuttle missions successfully. Topics include KSC team and industry partner methods used to correct pressurized case failures and track system performance.

  11. A Heavy Flavor Tracker for STAR

    SciTech Connect

    Chasman, C.; Beavis, D.; Debbe, R.; Lee, J.H.; Levine, M.J.; Videbaek, F.; Xu, Z.; Kleinfelder, S.; Li, S.; Cendejas, R.; Huang, H.; Sakai, S.; Whitten, C.; Joseph, J.; Keane, D.; Margetis, S.; Rykov, V.; Zhang, W.M.; Bystersky, M.; Kapitan, J.; Kushpil, V.; Sumbera, M.; Baudot, J.; Hu-Guo, C.; Shabetai, A.; Szelezniak, M.; Winter, M.; Kelsey, J.; Milner, R.; Plesko, M.; Redwine, R.; Simon, F.; Surrow, B.; Van Nieuwenhuizen, G.; Anderssen, E.; Dong, X.; Greiner, L.; Matis, H.S.; Morgan, S.; Ritter, H.G.; Rose, A.; Sichtermann, E.; Singh, R.P.; Stezelberger, T.; Sun, X.; Thomas, J.H.; Tram, V.; Vu, C.; Wieman, H.H.; Xu, N.; Hirsch, A.; Srivastava, B.; Wang, F.; Xie, W.; Bichsel, H.

    2008-02-25

    The STAR Collaboration proposes to construct a state-of-the-art microvertex detector,the Heavy Flavor Tracker (HFT), utilizing active pixel sensors and silicon strip technology. The HFT will significantly extend the physics reach of the STAR experiment for precision measurement of the yields and spectra of particles containing heavy quarks. This will be accomplished through topological identification of D mesons by reconstruction of their displaced decay vertices with a precision of approximately 50 mu m in p+p, d+A, and A+A collisions. The HFT consists of 4 layers of silicon detectors grouped into two sub-systems with different technologies, guaranteeing increasing resolution when tracking from the TPC and the Silicon Strip Detector (SSD) towards the vertex of the collision. The Intermediate Silicon Tracker (IST), consisting of two layers of single-sided strips, is located inside the SSD. Two layers of Silicon Pixel Detector (PIXEL) are inside the IST. The PIXEL detectors have the resolution necessary for a precision measurement of the displaced vertex. The PIXEL detector will use CMOS Active Pixel Sensors (APS), an innovative technology never used before in a collider experiment. The APSsensors are only 50 mu m thick and at a distance of only 2.5 cm from the interaction point. This opens up a new realm of possibilities for physics measurements. In particular, a thin detector (0.28percent radiation length per layer) in STAR makes it possible to do the direct topological reconstruction of open charm hadrons down to very low pT by the identification of the charged daughters of the hadronic decay.

  12. OPERA: Objective Prism Enhanced Reduction Algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Universidad Complutense de Madrid Astrophysics Research Group

    2015-09-01

    OPERA (Objective Prism Enhanced Reduction Algorithms) automatically analyzes astronomical images using the objective-prism (OP) technique to register thousands of low resolution spectra in large areas. It detects objects in an image, extracts one-dimensional spectra, and identifies the emission line feature. The main advantages of this method are: 1) to avoid subjectivity inherent to visual inspection used in past studies; and 2) the ability to obtain physical parameters without follow-up spectroscopy.

  13. Acoustics of Italian Historical Opera Houses.

    PubMed

    Prodi, Nicola; Pompoli, Roberto; Martellotta, Francesco; Sato, Shin-ichi

    2015-08-01

    Opera houses represent a large group of performance spaces characterized by great complexity and, at the same time, versatility with respect to different usage (from opera to symphonic music and ballet). This kind of building originated in Italy during the 17th century and later spread across the country and then Europe and the rest of the world, slowly evolving into modern theatre shapes. As a consequence of the changes undergone by the interior space, the original acoustic features, which likely influenced many composers, experienced important variations. Thanks to acoustic measurement campaigns inside Italian Historical Opera Houses, promoted by National and Regional Projects, the distinctive features of these spaces were investigated in comparison to modern spaces. In this work, the newly acquired data are merged with data in the literature in order to present and discuss some of the distinctive acoustic features of historical spaces as regards their original function. Moreover, specific issues such as listening in stalls and boxes and the criteria governing the preference judgment of listeners are considered. The concept and the crucial role of the balance between stage and pit sources are also discussed by means of previous literature studies.

  14. TacNet Tracker Software

    SciTech Connect

    WISEMAN, JAMES; & STEVENS, JAMES

    2008-08-04

    The TacNet Tracker will be used for the monitoring and real-time tracking of personnel and assets in an unlimited number of specific applications. The TacNet Tracker software is a VxWorks Operating System based programming package that controls the functionality for the wearable Tracker. One main use of the TacNet Tracker is in Blue Force Tracking, the ability to track the good guys in an adversarial situation or in a force-on-force or real battle conditions. The purpose of blue force tracking is to provide situational awareness to the battlefield commanders and personnel. There are practical military applications with the TacNet Tracker.The mesh network is a wireless IP communications network that moves data packets from source IP addresses to specific destination IP addresses. Addresses on the TacNet infrastructure utilize an 8-bit network mask (255.0.0.0). In other words, valid TacNet addresses range from 10.0.0.1 to 10.254.254.254. The TacNet software design uses uni-cast transmission techniques because earlier mesh network software releases did not provide for the ability to utilize multi-cast data movement. The TacNet design employs a list of addresses to move information within the TacNet infrastructure. For example, a convoy text file containing the IP addresses of all valid receivers of TacNet information could be used for transmitting the information and for limiting transmission to addresses on the list.

  15. TacNet Tracker Software

    2008-08-04

    The TacNet Tracker will be used for the monitoring and real-time tracking of personnel and assets in an unlimited number of specific applications. The TacNet Tracker software is a VxWorks Operating System based programming package that controls the functionality for the wearable Tracker. One main use of the TacNet Tracker is in Blue Force Tracking, the ability to track the good guys in an adversarial situation or in a force-on-force or real battle conditions. Themore » purpose of blue force tracking is to provide situational awareness to the battlefield commanders and personnel. There are practical military applications with the TacNet Tracker.The mesh network is a wireless IP communications network that moves data packets from source IP addresses to specific destination IP addresses. Addresses on the TacNet infrastructure utilize an 8-bit network mask (255.0.0.0). In other words, valid TacNet addresses range from 10.0.0.1 to 10.254.254.254. The TacNet software design uses uni-cast transmission techniques because earlier mesh network software releases did not provide for the ability to utilize multi-cast data movement. The TacNet design employs a list of addresses to move information within the TacNet infrastructure. For example, a convoy text file containing the IP addresses of all valid receivers of TacNet information could be used for transmitting the information and for limiting transmission to addresses on the list.« less

  16. Alignment of the CMS silicon strip tracker during stand-alone commissioning

    SciTech Connect

    Adam, W.; et al.

    2009-07-01

    The results of the CMS tracker alignment analysis are presented using the data from cosmic tracks, optical survey information, and the laser alignment system at the Tracker Integration Facility at CERN. During several months of operation in the spring and summer of 2007, about five million cosmic track events were collected with a partially active CMS Tracker. This allowed us to perform first alignment of the active silicon modules with the cosmic tracks using three different statistical approaches; validate the survey and laser alignment system performance; and test the stability of Tracker structures under various stresses and temperatures ranging from +15C to -15C. Comparison with simulation shows that the achieved alignment precision in the barrel part of the tracker leads to residual distributions similar to those obtained with a random misalignment of 50 (80) microns in the outer (inner) part of the barrel.

  17. A smart car for the surface shape measurement of large antenna based on laser tracker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Yonggang; Hu, Jing; Jin, Yi; Zhai, Chao

    2012-09-01

    The geometric accuracy of the surface shape of large antenna is an important indicator of antenna’s quality. Currently, high-precision measurement of large antenna surface shape can be performed in two ways: photogrammetry and laser tracker. Photogrammetry is a rapid method, but its accuracy is not enough good. Laser tracker can achieve high precision, but it is very inconvenient to move the reflector (target mirror) on the surface of the antenna by hand during the measurement. So, a smart car is designed to carry the reflector in this paper. The car, controlled by wireless, has a small weight and a strong ability for climbing, and there is a holding bracket gripping the reflector and controlling reflector rise up and drop down on the car. During the measurement of laser tracker, the laser beam between laser tracker and the reflector must not be interrupted, so two high-precision three-dimensional miniature electronic compasses, which can real-time monitor the relative angle between the holding bracket and the laser tracker’s head, are both equipped on the car and the head of laser tracker to achieve automatic alignment between reflector and laser beam. With the aid of the smart car, the measurement of laser tracker has the advantages of high precision and rapidity.

  18. Improving the measurement quality of small satellite star trackers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dzamba, Tom

    Recent demand from the small satellite community has led to the development of a new series of star trackers that are specifically designed for small satellites. These units represent substantial improvements in mass, power consumption and cost over traditional star trackers, but suffer slightly in terms of accuracy and availability performance. The primary factors inhibiting their performance are the use of significantly smaller optics, and commercial off the shelf components (COTS). This thesis presents a series of strategies for improving the performance of small satellite star trackers (SSSTs). These goals are realized through the development of offline calibration procedures, flight software, validation tests, and optical trade studies to guide future development. This thesis begins with the development of a target-based focusing procedure that enables precision control over the focus of the sensor optics. This improves the detection performance for dim stars, and ultimately increases the availability of the attitude solution. Flight software is developed to compensate for the effects of electronic rolling shutters, which reside on most COTS image detectors. Combined with a developed camera calibration procedure, these tools reduce the uncertainty with which a star tracker can measure the direction vectors to stars in view, ultimately increasing sensor accuracy. Integrated tests are performed to validate detection performance in dynamic conditions. These tests specifically examine the effect of slew rate on star tracker detection, and availability performance. Lastly, this thesis presents a series of optical trades studies that seek to identify design requirements for high performance SSSTs. The trends in availability and accuracy performance are examined as a function of different lens/detector configurations as well dual/triple-head sensor configurations. Together, these strategies represent tools that aim to improve small satellite star tracker performance

  19. ASTROS - A sub-arcsec CCD star tracker

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stanton, R. H.; Alexander, J. W.; Dennison, E. W.; Glavich, T. A.; Salomon, P. M.

    1984-01-01

    The design and application of ASTROS (Advanced Star and Target Reference Optical Sensor) are described, with emphasis on performance test results acquired with a prototype system. The ASTROS tracker provides extremely precise measurements of star image coordinates as inputs to the Image Motion Compensation (IMC) system used to stabilize the science instrument focal planes. Performance levels achieved are dramatic improvements over the levels achieved with image dissector designs with comparable fields of view.

  20. LHCb Upgrade: Scintillating Fibre Tracker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tobin, Mark

    2016-07-01

    The LHCb detector will be upgraded during the Long Shutdown 2 (LS2) of the LHC in order to cope with higher instantaneous luminosities and to read out the data at 40 MHz using a trigger-less read-out system. All front-end electronics will be replaced and several sub-detectors must be redesigned to cope with higher occupancy. The current tracking detectors downstream of the LHCb dipole magnet will be replaced by the Scintillating Fibre (SciFi) Tracker. The SciFi Tracker will use scintillating fibres read out by Silicon Photomultipliers (SiPMs). State-of-the-art multi-channel SiPM arrays are being developed to read out the fibres and a custom ASIC will be used to digitise the signals from the SiPMs. The evolution of the design since the Technical Design Report in 2014 and the latest R & D results are presented.

  1. Introduction to Mini Muon Tracker

    SciTech Connect

    Borozdin, Konstantin N.

    2012-08-13

    Using a mini muon tracker developed at the Los Alamos National Laboratory we performed experiments of simple landscapes of various materials, including TNT, 9501, lead, tungsten, aluminium, and water. Most common scenes are four two inches thick step wedges of different dimensions: 12-inch x 12-inch, 12-inch x 9-inch, 12-inch x 6-inch, and 12-inch x 3-inch; and a one three inches thick hemisphere of lead with spherical hollow, and a similar full lead sphere.

  2. Performance verification testing for HET wide-field upgrade tracker in the laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Good, John; Hayes, Richard; Beno, Joseph; Booth, John; Cornell, Mark E.; Hill, Gary J.; Lee, Hanshin; Mock, Jason; Rafal, Marc; Savage, Richard; Soukup, Ian

    2010-07-01

    To enable the Hobby-Eberly Telescope Dark Energy Experiment (HETDEX), the McDonald Observatory (MDO) and the Center for Electro-mechanics (CEM) at the University of Texas at Austin are developing a new HET tracker in support of the Wide-Field Upgrade (WFU) and the Visible Integral-Field Replicable Unit Spectrograph (VIRUS). The precision tracker is required to maintain the position of a 3,100 kg payload within ten microns of its desired position relative to the telescope's primary mirror. The hardware system to accomplish this has ten precision controlled actuators. Prior to installation on the telescope, full performance verification is required of the completed tracker in CEM's lab, without a primary mirror or the telescope's final instrument package. This requires the development of a laboratory test stand capable of supporting the completed tracker over its full range of motion, as well as means of measurement and methodology that can verify the accuracy of the tracker motion over full travel (4m diameter circle, 400 mm deep, with 9 degrees of tip and tilt) at a cost and schedule in keeping with the HET WFU requirements. Several techniques have been evaluated to complete this series of tests including: photogrammetry, laser tracker, autocollimator, and a distance measuring interferometer, with the laser tracker ultimately being identified as the most viable method. The design of the proposed system and its implementation in the lab is presented along with the test processes, predicted accuracy, and the basis for using the chosen method*.

  3. Activity trackers: a critical review.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jeon; Finkelstein, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    The wearable consumer health devices can be mainly divided into activity trackers, sleep trackers, and stress management devices. These devices are widely advertised to provide positive effects on the user's daily behaviours and overall heath. However, objective evidence supporting these claims appears to be missing. The goal of this study was to review available evidence pertaining to performance of activity trackers. A comprehensive review of available information has been conducted for seven representative devices and the validity of marketing claims was assessed. The device assessment was based on availability of verified output metrics, theoretical frameworks, systematic evaluation, and FDA clearance. The review identified critical absence of supporting evidence of advertised functions and benefits for the majority of the devices. Six out of seven devices did not provide any information on sensor accuracy and output validity at all. Possible underestimation or overestimation of specific health indicators reported to consumers was not clearly disclosed to the public. Furthermore, significant limitations of these devices which can be categorized into user restrictions, user responsibilities and company disclaimers could not be easily found or comprehended by unsophisticated users and may represent a serious health hazard.

  4. Operation and performance of the ATLAS silicon micro-strip tracker

    SciTech Connect

    Pylypchenko, Y.

    2011-07-01

    The Semiconductor Tracker (SCT) is the key precision tracking device in ATLAS, made from silicon micro-strip detectors processed in the planar p-in-n technology. The completed SCT has been installed inside the ATLAS experimental hall since 2007 and has been operational since then. In this paper the current status of the Semiconductor Tracker is reviewed, including results from the data-taking periods in 2009 and 2010, and from the detector alignment. The emphasis is given to the performance of the Semiconductor Tracker with the LHC in collision mode and to the performance of individual electronic components. (authors)

  5. Looking Back at Orpheus: Opera and Cultural Integration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simpson, Patricia Anne

    2013-01-01

    The myth of Orpheus is intricately implicated in the origin of song. For centuries, myth and music have cooperated in a variety of genres, foremost among them in opera. The myth, open to reinterpretation across linguistic, national, and temporal boundaries, served as a starting point for an extracurricular opera project in the metropolitan region…

  6. Introduction to Opera: A Guide for the Instructor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herrold, Rebecca

    A guide for teaching the essential musical elements of opera to undergraduate students is provided. The course centers around "The Marriage of Figaro" by Mozart. It is presented in four sections. In section I, students investigate type casting of opera singers in terms of the ranges of their voices. Students learn to differentiate coloratura,…

  7. Opera in the Elementary School? Immersing Children in Music.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamb, Annette

    1991-01-01

    Describes a hypermedia/compact disk program designed to provide beginning and advanced music listeners with a tool for learning about an opera, i.e., "The Magic Flute." Hardware and software requirements for accessing the multimedia program are described, and it is suggested that the program can be used to study the opera's music, composer,…

  8. Opera and Art in the French Foreign Language Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hekmatpanah, Lyra

    1993-01-01

    It has previously been shown that an opera can successfully be integrated into a high school or college language class. It is suggested that an entire semester could be devoted to just French operas and French art, using corresponding literary texts for comparative purposes. Grammar points are included as needed; conversation about the stories…

  9. Acoustical study of classical Peking Opera singing.

    PubMed

    Sundberg, Johan; Gu, Lide; Huang, Qiang; Huang, Ping

    2012-03-01

    Acoustic characteristics of classical opera singing differ considerably between the Western and the Chinese cultures. Singers in the classical Peking opera tradition specialize on one out of a limited number of standard roles. Audio and electroglottograph signals were recorded for four performers of the Old Man role and three performers of the Colorful Face role. Recordings were made of the singers' speech and when they sang recitatives and songs from their roles. Sound pressure level, fundamental frequency, and spectrum characteristics were analyzed. Histograms showing the distribution of fundamental frequency showed marked peaks for the songs, suggesting a scale tone structure. Some of the intervals between these peaks were similar to those used in Western music. Vibrato rate was about 3.5Hz, that is, considerably slower than in Western classical singing. Spectra of vibrato-free tones contained unbroken series of harmonic partials sometimes reaching up to 17 000Hz. Long-term-average spectrum (LTAS) curves showed no trace of a singer's formant cluster. However, the Colorful Face role singers' LTAS showed a marked peak near 3300Hz, somewhat similar to that found in Western pop music singers. The mean LTAS spectrum slope between 700 and 6000Hz decreased by about 0.2dB/octave per dB of equivalent sound level. PMID:21621380

  10. Loudness and pitch of Kunqu opera.

    PubMed

    Dong, Li; Sundberg, Johan; Kong, Jiangping

    2014-01-01

    Equivalent sound level (Leq), sound pressure level (SPL), and fundamental frequency (F0) are analyzed in each of five Kunqu Opera roles, Young girl and Young woman, Young man, Old man, and Colorful face. Their pitch ranges are similar to those of some western opera singers (alto, alto, tenor, baritone, and baritone, respectively). Differences among tasks, conditions (stage speech, singing, and reading lyrics), singers, and roles are examined. For all singers, Leq of stage speech and singing were considerably higher than that of conversational speech. Interrole differences of Leq among tasks and singers were larger than the intrarole differences. For most roles, time domain variation of SPL differed between roles both in singing and stage speech. In singing, as compared with stage speech, SPL distribution was more concentrated and variation of SPL with time was smaller. With regard to gender and age, male roles had higher mean Leq and lower average F0, MF0, as compared with female roles. Female singers showed a wider F0 distribution for singing than for stage speech, whereas the opposite was true for male singers. The Leq of stage speech was higher than in singing for young personages. Younger female personages showed higher Leq, whereas older male personages had higher Leq. The roles performed with higher Leq tended to be sung at a lower MF0.

  11. Acoustical study of classical Peking Opera singing.

    PubMed

    Sundberg, Johan; Gu, Lide; Huang, Qiang; Huang, Ping

    2012-03-01

    Acoustic characteristics of classical opera singing differ considerably between the Western and the Chinese cultures. Singers in the classical Peking opera tradition specialize on one out of a limited number of standard roles. Audio and electroglottograph signals were recorded for four performers of the Old Man role and three performers of the Colorful Face role. Recordings were made of the singers' speech and when they sang recitatives and songs from their roles. Sound pressure level, fundamental frequency, and spectrum characteristics were analyzed. Histograms showing the distribution of fundamental frequency showed marked peaks for the songs, suggesting a scale tone structure. Some of the intervals between these peaks were similar to those used in Western music. Vibrato rate was about 3.5Hz, that is, considerably slower than in Western classical singing. Spectra of vibrato-free tones contained unbroken series of harmonic partials sometimes reaching up to 17 000Hz. Long-term-average spectrum (LTAS) curves showed no trace of a singer's formant cluster. However, the Colorful Face role singers' LTAS showed a marked peak near 3300Hz, somewhat similar to that found in Western pop music singers. The mean LTAS spectrum slope between 700 and 6000Hz decreased by about 0.2dB/octave per dB of equivalent sound level.

  12. Optical System Error Analysis and Calibration Method of High-Accuracy Star Trackers

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Ting; Xing, Fei; You, Zheng

    2013-01-01

    The star tracker is a high-accuracy attitude measurement device widely used in spacecraft. Its performance depends largely on the precision of the optical system parameters. Therefore, the analysis of the optical system parameter errors and a precise calibration model are crucial to the accuracy of the star tracker. Research in this field is relatively lacking a systematic and universal analysis up to now. This paper proposes in detail an approach for the synthetic error analysis of the star tracker, without the complicated theoretical derivation. This approach can determine the error propagation relationship of the star tracker, and can build intuitively and systematically an error model. The analysis results can be used as a foundation and a guide for the optical design, calibration, and compensation of the star tracker. A calibration experiment is designed and conducted. Excellent calibration results are achieved based on the calibration model. To summarize, the error analysis approach and the calibration method are proved to be adequate and precise, and could provide an important guarantee for the design, manufacture, and measurement of high-accuracy star trackers. PMID:23567527

  13. The CDF silicon vertex tracker

    SciTech Connect

    A. Cerri et al.

    2000-10-10

    Real time pattern recognition is becoming a key issue in many position sensitive detector applications. The CDF collaboration is building SVT: a specialized electronic device designed to perform real time track reconstruction using the silicon vertex detector (SVX II). This will strongly improve the CDF capability of triggering on events containing b quarks, usually characterized by the presence of a secondary vertex. SVT is designed to reconstruct in real time charged particles trajectories using data coming from the Silicon Vertex detector and the Central Outer Tracker drift chamber. The SVT architecture and algorithm have been specially tuned to minimize processing time without degrading parameter resolution.

  14. Optical filtering for star trackers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, R. E.

    1973-01-01

    The optimization of optical filtering was investigated for tracking faint stars, down to the fifth magnitude. The effective wavelength and bandwidth for tracking pre-selected guide stars are discussed along with the results of an all-electronic tracker with a star tracking photomultiplier, which was tested with a simulated second magnitude star. Tables which give the sum of zodiacal light and galactic background light over the entire sky for intervals of five degrees in declination, and twenty minutes in right ascension are included.

  15. Progress on the MICE Tracker Solenoid

    SciTech Connect

    Green, Michael A.; Virostek, Steve P.; Lau, W.; Yang, Stephanie Q.

    2006-06-10

    This report describes the 400 mm warm bore tracker solenoid for the Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE). The 2.923 m long tracker solenoid module includes the radiation shutter between the end absorber focus coil modules and the tracker as well as the 2.735 m long magnet cryostat vacuum vessel. The 2.554 m long tracker solenoid cold mass consists of two sections, a three-coil spectrometer magnet and a two-coil matching section that matches the uniform field 4 T spectrometer solenoid into the MICE cooling channel. The two tracker magnets are used to provide a uniform magnetic field for the fiber detectors that are used to measure the muon beam emittance at the two ends of the cooling channel. This paper describes the design for the tracker magnet coils and the 4.2 K cryogenic coolers that are used to cool the superconducting magnet. Interfaces between the magnet and the detectors are discussed.

  16. Recent results from the OPERA experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Meregaglia, Anselmo

    2009-04-17

    OPERA is a long-baseline neutrino oscillation experiment whose main goal is to detect for the first time neutrino oscillations in an appearance mode. Using an almost pure v{sub {mu}} beam we search for a v{sub {mu}}{r_reversible}v{sub {tau}}, transition detecting in a direct way the {tau} lepton. The detector is located on the high-energy, long-baseline CERN to LNGS beam (CNGS) at a baseline of 730 km. The apparatus consists of a target made of lead/emulsion-films bricks and of electronic detectors which are used to tag the neutrino interaction. Experiment description and results from the short but fruitful 2007 CNGS run are reported in details.

  17. Recent results of the OPERA experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pupilli, F.

    2016-06-01

    The OPERA experiment at the Gran Sasso underground laboratory has been designed to study the νµ → ντ oscillation in appearance mode in the CNGS neutrino beam. Five ντ candidate events have been confirmed so far, using a sub-sample of data from the 2008-2012 runs. Given the low background level, the discovery of νµ → ντ oscillations has been established with a significance of 5.1 σ. In this paper the data analysis is discussed, with emphasis on the background constraints obtained by using dedicated data-driven control samples. The analysis of the τ neutrino and electron neutrino data in the framework of the 3+1 sterile neutrino model are presented. The measurement of the muon charge ratio in the collected cosmic ray sample is also reported.

  18. Star tracker for the Apollo telescope mount

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, C. E.

    1971-01-01

    The star tracker for the Apollo Telescope Mount (ATM) has been designed specifically to meet the requirements of the Skylab vehicle and mission. The functions of the star tracker are presented, as well as descriptions of the optical-mechanical assembly (OMA) and the star tracker electronics (STE). Also included are the electronic and mechanical specifications, interface and operational requirements, support equipment and test requirements, and occultation information. Laboratory functional tests, environmental qualification tests, and life tests have provided a high confidence factor in the performance of the star tracker in the laboratory and on the Skylab mission.

  19. Silicon photomultipliers for scintillating trackers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabaioli, S.; Berra, A.; Bolognini, D.; Bonvicini, V.; Bosisio, L.; Ciano, S.; Iugovaz, D.; Lietti, D.; Penzo, A.; Prest, M.; Rashevskaya, I.; Reia, S.; Stoppani, L.; Vallazza, E.

    2012-12-01

    In recent years, silicon photomultipliers (SiPMs) have been proposed as a new kind of readout device for scintillating detectors in many experiments. A SiPM consists of a matrix of parallel-connected pixels, which are independent photon counters working in Geiger mode with very high gain (∼106). This contribution presents the use of an array of eight SiPMs (manufactured by FBK-irst) for the readout of a scintillating bar tracker (a small size prototype of the Electron Muon Ranger detector for the MICE experiment). The performances of the SiPMs in terms of signal to noise ratio, efficiency and time resolution will be compared to the ones of a multi-anode photomultiplier tube (MAPMT) connected to the same bars. Both the SiPMs and the MAPMT are interfaced to a VME system through a 64 channel MAROC ASIC.

  20. Ruby on Rails Issue Tracker

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodriguez, Juan Jared

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to detail the tasks accomplished as a NASA NIFS intern for the summer 2014 session. This internship opportunity is to develop an issue tracker Ruby on Rails web application to improve the communication of developmental anomalies between the Support Software Computer Software Configuration Item (CSCI) teams, System Build and Information Architecture. As many may know software development is an arduous, time consuming, collaborative effort. It involves nearly as much work designing, planning, collaborating, discussing, and resolving issues as effort expended in actual development. This internship opportunity was put in place to help alleviate the amount of time spent discussing issues such as bugs, missing tests, new requirements, and usability concerns that arise during development and throughout the life cycle of software applications once in production.

  1. HETDEX tracker control system design and implementation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beno, Joseph H.; Hayes, Richard; Leck, Ron; Penney, Charles; Soukup, Ian

    2012-09-01

    To enable the Hobby-Eberly Telescope Dark Energy Experiment, The University of Texas at Austin Center for Electromechanics and McDonald Observatory developed a precision tracker and control system - an 18,000 kg robot to position a 3,100 kg payload within 10 microns of a desired dynamic track. Performance requirements to meet science needs and safety requirements that emerged from detailed Failure Modes and Effects Analysis resulted in a system of 13 precision controlled actuators and 100 additional analog and digital devices (primarily sensors and safety limit switches). Due to this complexity, demanding accuracy requirements, and stringent safety requirements, two independent control systems were developed. First, a versatile and easily configurable centralized control system that links with modeling and simulation tools during the hardware and software design process was deemed essential for normal operation including motion control. A second, parallel, control system, the Hardware Fault Controller (HFC) provides independent monitoring and fault control through a dedicated microcontroller to force a safe, controlled shutdown of the entire system in the event a fault is detected. Motion controls were developed in a Matlab-Simulink simulation environment, and coupled with dSPACE controller hardware. The dSPACE real-time operating system collects sensor information; motor commands are transmitted over a PROFIBUS network to servo amplifiers and drive motor status is received over the same network. To interface the dSPACE controller directly to absolute Heidenhain sensors with EnDat 2.2 protocol, a custom communication board was developed. This paper covers details of operational control software, the HFC, algorithms, tuning, debugging, testing, and lessons learned.

  2. The Chesapeake Laser Tracker in Industrial Metrology

    SciTech Connect

    Ruland, Robert E.; /SLAC

    2005-08-16

    In the summer of 1992, the survey and alignment team at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center acquired a CMS3000 laser tracker manufactured by Chesapeake Laser Systems in Lanham, Maryland. This paper gives a description of the principles of operation and calibration of the tracker. Several applications are explained and the results shared.

  3. A Rollercoaster Viewed through Motion Tracker Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pendrill, Ann-Marie; Rodjegard, Henrik

    2005-01-01

    A motion tracker measures acceleration and rotation in three dimensions, sufficient for a complete determination of the motion. In this article, a rollercoaster ride is analysed with reference to motion tracker data. The use of this type of data in education is discussed as a way to deepen students' understanding of concepts related to force and…

  4. Combined Feature Based and Shape Based Visual Tracker for Robot Navigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deans, J.; Kunz, C.; Sargent, R.; Park, E.; Pedersen, L.

    2005-01-01

    We have developed a combined feature based and shape based visual tracking system designed to enable a planetary rover to visually track and servo to specific points chosen by a user with centimeter precision. The feature based tracker uses invariant feature detection and matching across a stereo pair, as well as matching pairs before and after robot movement in order to compute an incremental 6-DOF motion at each tracker update. This tracking method is subject to drift over time, which can be compensated by the shape based method. The shape based tracking method consists of 3D model registration, which recovers 6-DOF motion given sufficient shape and proper initialization. By integrating complementary algorithms, the combined tracker leverages the efficiency and robustness of feature based methods with the precision and accuracy of model registration. In this paper, we present the algorithms and their integration into a combined visual tracking system.

  5. A heuristic multiple target tracker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beaupre, J. C. F.; Farooq, M.; Roy, J. M. J.

    1992-04-01

    The potential of applying recent developments in expert systems to multiple target tracking (MTT) is investigated. Standard MTT algorithms can generate relatively unreliable target state estimates. The multiple hypotheses tracker (MHT) is a very powerful algorithm, and demanding in computer resources, which can handle difficult situations by differing the formulation of hard decisions and which forms hypothetical tracks with associated probability values. It is proposed that heuristics can be formulated to improve MHT performance. These rules act on the tracks, hypotheses, and corresponding probability values to decide which hypotheses are most representative of reality. In effect, the MHT algorithm is modified to accept and process knowledge of the context or environment in which it operates and on its own strengths and weaknesses. To evaluate the performance of this concept, a prototype has been built which simulates the environment of a small military flight training school as viewed through the returns of a modified area surveillance radar. In a scenario involving nine targets behaving within regulated directives, the tracking prototype successfully displays timely, accurate, and dependable information.

  6. Personal Activity Trackers and the Quantified Self.

    PubMed

    Hoy, Matthew B

    2016-01-01

    Personal activity trackers are an inexpensive and easy way for people to record their physical activity and simple biometric data. As these devices have increased in availability and sophistication, their use in daily life and in medicine has grown. This column will briefly explore what these devices are, what types of data they can track, and how that data can be used. It will also discuss potential problems with trackers and how librarians can help patients and physicians manage and protect activity data. A brief list of currently available activity trackers is also included.

  7. Large Gas Electron Multiplier Trackers for Super Bigbite Spectrometer at Jefferson lab Hall A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saenboonruang, K.; Gnanvo, K.; Liyanage, N.; Nelyubin, V.; Sacher, S.; Cisbani, E.; Musico, P.; Wojtsekhowski, B.

    2013-04-01

    The 12 GeV upgrade at Jefferson Lab (JLAB) makes many exciting nuclear experiments possible. These experiments also require new high performance instrumentation. The Super Bigbite Spectrometer (SBS) was proposed to perform a series of high precision nucleon form factor experiments at large momentum transfer. The SBS will be capable of operating at a very high luminosity and provide a large solid angle acceptance of 76 msr. SBS will be equipped with a double focal plane polarimeter. Thus, SBS will have three large trackers made of Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) chambers. The first, second, and third trackers will consist of six, four, and four tracking layers respectively. When completed in 2017, the SBS GEM trackers will form one of the largest sets of GEM chambers in the world. The GEM trackers allow the SBS to operate under high background rates over 500 kHz/cm^2, while providing an excellent spatial resolution of 70 μm. The first tracker will be constructed at the Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare in Italy, while the second and third trackers will be built at the University of Virginia. In 2012, the first UVa SBS GEM chamber prototype was successfully constructed and tested. The GEM chamber construction details and test results will be presented in this talk.

  8. My Game Plan: Food and Activity Tracker

    MedlinePlus

    ... MY GAME PLAN THIS WEEK… FOR CUTTING FAT GRAMS: FOR CUTTING CALORIES: FOR GETTING MORE PHYSICAL ACTIVITY: ... FOOD AND DRINK TRACKER AMOUNT /NAME /DESCRIPTION FAT GRAMS CALORIES 1/2 cup oatmeal 1 73 1 ...

  9. Power distribution studies for CMS forward tracker

    SciTech Connect

    Todri, A.; Turqueti, M.; Rivera, R.; Kwan, S.; /Fermilab

    2009-01-01

    The Electronic Systems Engineering Department of the Computing Division at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory is carrying out R&D investigations for the upgrade of the power distribution system of the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) Pixel Tracker at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). Among the goals of this effort is that of analyzing the feasibility of alternative powering schemes for the forward tracker, including DC to DC voltage conversion techniques using commercially available and custom switching regulator circuits. Tests of these approaches are performed using the PSI46 pixel readout chip currently in use at the CMS Tracker. Performance measures of the detector electronics will include pixel noise and threshold dispersion results. Issues related to susceptibility to switching noise will be studied and presented. In this paper, we describe the current power distribution network of the CMS Tracker, study the implications of the proposed upgrade with DC-DC converters powering scheme and perform noise susceptibility analysis.

  10. Power Studies for the CMS Pixel Tracker

    SciTech Connect

    Todri, A.; Turqueti, M.; Rivera, R.; Kwan, S.; /Fermilab

    2009-01-01

    The Electronic Systems Engineering Department of the Computing Division at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory is carrying out R&D investigations for the upgrade of the power distribution system of the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) Pixel Tracker at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). Among the goals of this effort is that of analyzing the feasibility of alternative powering schemes for the forward tracker, including DC to DC voltage conversion techniques using commercially available and custom switching regulator circuits. Tests of these approaches are performed using the PSI46 pixel readout chip currently in use at the CMS Tracker. Performance measures of the detector electronics will include pixel noise and threshold dispersion results. Issues related to susceptibility to switching noise will be studied and presented. In this paper, we describe the current power distribution network of the CMS Tracker, study the implications of the proposed upgrade with DC-DC converters powering scheme and perform noise susceptibility analysis.

  11. Silicon Tracker Design for the ILC

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, T.; /SLAC

    2005-07-27

    The task of tracking charged particles in energy frontier collider experiments has been largely taken over by solid-state detectors. While silicon microstrip trackers offer many advantages in this environment, large silicon trackers are generally much more massive than their gaseous counterparts. Because of the properties of the machine itself, much of the material that comprises a typical silicon microstrip tracker can be eliminated from a design for the ILC. This realization is the inspiration for a tracker design using lightweight, short, mass-producible modules to tile closed, nested cylinders with silicon microstrips. This design relies upon a few key technologies to provide excellent performance with low cost and complexity. The details of this concept are discussed, along with the performance and status of the design effort.

  12. Teaching Optical Phenomena with Tracker

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodrigues, M.; Carvalho, P. Simeão

    2014-01-01

    Since the invention and dissemination of domestic laser pointers, observing optical phenomena is a relatively easy task. Any student can buy a laser and experience at home, in a qualitative way, the reflection, refraction and even diffraction phenomena of light. However, quantitative experiments need instruments of high precision that have a…

  13. Research and development of the laser tracker measurement system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Z. L.; Zhou, W. H.; Lao, D. B.; Yuan, J.; Dong, D. F. F.; Ji, R. Y. Y.

    2013-01-01

    The working principle and system design of the laser tracker measurement system are introduced, as well as the key technologies and solutions in the implementation of the system. The design and implementation of the hardware and configuration of the software are mainly researched. The components of the hardware include distance measuring unit, angle measuring unit, tracking and servo control unit and electronic control unit. The distance measuring devices include the relative distance measuring device (IFM) and the absolute distance measuring device (ADM). The main component of the angle measuring device, the precision rotating stage, is mainly comprised of the precision axis and the encoders which are both set in the tracking head. The data processing unit, tracking and control unit and power supply unit are all set in the control box. The software module is comprised of the communication module, calibration and error compensation module, data analysis module, database management module, 3D display module and the man-machine interface module. The prototype of the laser tracker system has been accomplished and experiments have been carried out to verify the proposed strategies of the hardware and software modules. The experiments showed that the IFM distance measuring error is within 0.15mm, the ADM distance measuring error is within 3.5mm and the angle measuring error is within 3〞which demonstrates that the preliminary prototype can realize fundamental measurement tasks.

  14. Technology transfer: Imaging tracker to robotic controller

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Otaguro, M. S.; Kesler, L. O.; Land, Ken; Erwin, Harry; Rhoades, Don

    1988-01-01

    The transformation of an imaging tracker to a robotic controller is described. A multimode tracker was developed for fire and forget missile systems. The tracker locks on to target images within an acquisition window using multiple image tracking algorithms to provide guidance commands to missile control systems. This basic tracker technology is used with the addition of a ranging algorithm based on sizing a cooperative target to perform autonomous guidance and control of a platform for an Advanced Development Project on automation and robotics. A ranging tracker is required to provide the positioning necessary for robotic control. A simple functional demonstration of the feasibility of this approach was performed and described. More realistic demonstrations are under way at NASA-JSC. In particular, this modified tracker, or robotic controller, will be used to autonomously guide the Man Maneuvering Unit (MMU) to targets such as disabled astronauts or tools as part of the EVA Retriever efforts. It will also be used to control the orbiter's Remote Manipulator Systems (RMS) in autonomous approach and positioning demonstrations. These efforts will also be discussed.

  15. Constraints and tests of the OPERA superluminal neutrinos.

    PubMed

    Bi, Xiao-Jun; Yin, Peng-Fei; Yu, Zhao-Huan; Yuan, Qiang

    2011-12-01

    The superluminal neutrinos detected by OPERA indicate Lorentz invariance violation (LIV) of the neutrino sector at the order of 10(-5). We study the implications of the result in this work. We find that such a large LIV implied by OPERA data will make the neutrino production process π → μ + ν(μ) kinematically forbidden for a neutrino energy greater than about 5 GeV. The OPERA detection of neutrinos at 40 GeV can constrain the LIV parameter to be smaller than 3×10(-7). Furthermore, the neutrino decay in the LIV framework will modify the neutrino spectrum greatly. The atmospheric neutrino spectrum measured by the IceCube Collaboration can constrain the LIV parameter to the level of 10(-12). The future detection of astrophysical neutrinos of galactic sources is expected to be able to give an even stronger constraint on the LIV parameter of neutrinos.

  16. Social uses of commercial soap operas: a conversation with Miguel Sabido.

    PubMed

    Singhal, A; Obregon, R

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents an interview with Miguel Sabido, a writer-producer-director of theater and soap operas in Mexico concerning the social uses of commercial soap operas. According to Sabido, television soap operas can play multiple roles in educating the public: 1) melodramatic soap operas represent a mediation between good and bad; 2) soap operas allow people to gossip on different characters, their dilemmas, and create a climate for social change, especially if it centers on key social issues; and 3) soap operas provide role models to emulate. Sabido stressed the importance of a theory-based method for producing drama and mentioned how theoreticians Bentley, Bandura, Maclean, and Jung influenced his writing and production of soap operas. According to Sabido, the social uses of commercial television are possible with socially responsible soap operas.

  17. Testing the OPERA Superluminal Neutrino Anomaly at the LHC

    SciTech Connect

    Davoudiasl, Hooman; Rizzo, Thomas G.; /SLAC

    2012-03-15

    The OPERA collaboration has reported the observation of superluminal muon neutrinos, whose speed v{sub {nu}} exceeds that of light c, with (v{sub {nu}}-c)/c {approx_equal} 2.5 x 10{sup -5}. In a recent work, Cohen and Glashow (CG) have refuted this claim by noting that such neutrinos will lose energy, by pair-emission of particles, at unacceptable rates. Following the CG arguments, we point out that pair-emissions consistent with the OPERA anomaly can lead to detectable signals for neutrinos originating from decays of highly boosted top quarks at the LHC, allowing an independent test of the superluminal neutrino hypothesis.

  18. Superluminal neutrinos at OPERA confront pion decay kinematics.

    PubMed

    Cowsik, Ramanath; Nussinov, Shmuel; Sarkar, Utpal

    2011-12-16

    Violation of Lorentz invariance (VLI) has been suggested as an explanation of the superluminal velocities of muon neutrinos reported by OPERA. In this Letter, we show that the amount of VLI required to explain this result poses severe difficulties with the kinematics of the pion decay, extending its lifetime and reducing the momentum carried away by the neutrinos. We show that the OPERA experiment limits α=(ν(ν)-c)/c<4×10(-6). We then take recourse to cosmic-ray data on the spectrum of muons and neutrinos generated in Earth's atmosphere to provide a stronger bound on VLI: (ν-c)/c<10(-12).

  19. Viewing Scenes of the History of Chemistry through the Opera Glass

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andre´, Joa~o Paulo

    2015-01-01

    Artistic creation has always reflected the spirit of the moment, and opera has not been an exception. There are several examples of operas that appeared at key moments of the development of science, portraying them. Additionally, there are also operas that emerged after scientific events or the lifetime of the scientists by whom they were…

  20. Use Primary Sources to Develop a Soap Opera: As the Civil War Turns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Ronald V.

    2002-01-01

    In this article, the author describes a social studies class activity that uses primary sources to develop a soap opera based on the American Civil War. In the soap opera activity, students can watch historical characters as they grow, develop, and change. Not only do people in the soap opera develop over a long period, but their accumulated…

  1. Precision CW laser automatic tracking system investigated

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lang, K. T.; Lucy, R. F.; Mcgann, E. J.; Peters, C. J.

    1966-01-01

    Precision laser tracker capable of tracking a low acceleration target to an accuracy of about 20 microradians rms is being constructed and tested. This laser tracking has the advantage of discriminating against other optical sources and the capability of simultaneously measuring range.

  2. BRAVA! Why You Should Use Opera in Your Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faust, Carl

    2010-01-01

    Opera is music, art, theater, and storytelling. It resembles many musical, visual, theatrical, and literary forms children have already experienced whether they realize it or not. It is an art form that can reach virtually every child on some level because of its emotional power. It can speak to all types of learners because there are many…

  3. Overexcitability: A Psychological Comparison between Dancers, Opera Singers, and Athletes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomson, Paula; Jaque, S. Victoria

    2016-01-01

    Overexcitability is a component in Dabrowski's theory of positive disintegration. This cross-sectional study investigated the psychological profile, including the five overexcitability dimensions (psychomotor, sensual, imaginational, intellectual, emotional), of three talented groups of dancers (n = 84), opera singers (n = 62), and athletes…

  4. Soap Operas and Captioning in the EFL Class.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huffman, Donald T.

    A teacher describes the use of closed-caption decoding of television melodramas to teach English as a second language (ESL). The approach uses evening soap operas that afford a range of English usage and accents, realistic dialogue, entertainment, and coverage of current social issues and are closed-captioned for the hearing-impaired. The programs…

  5. SimTracker, Version 5.0

    2004-08-27

    SimTracker is a product of the Metadata Tools subproject under the ASC Scientific Data Management effort. SimTracker is an extensible web-based application that provides the capability to view and organize large volumes of simulation data. SimTracker automatically generates metadata summaries that provide a quick overview and index to the archived results of simulations. The summaries provide access to the data sets and associated data analysis tools. They include graphical snapshots, pointers to associated simulation inputmore » and output files, and assorted annotations. The ability to add personal annotations to simulation data sets is supported. All metadata is stored in XML files suitable for searching by the generator of the data or other scientists.« less

  6. An accuracy measurement method for star trackers based on direct astronomic observation.

    PubMed

    Sun, Ting; Xing, Fei; Wang, Xiaochu; You, Zheng; Chu, Daping

    2016-03-07

    Star tracker is one of the most promising optical attitude measurement devices and it is widely used in spacecraft for its high accuracy. However, how to realize and verify such an accuracy remains a crucial but unsolved issue until now. The authenticity of the accuracy measurement method of a star tracker will eventually determine the satellite performance. A new and robust accuracy measurement method for a star tracker based on the direct astronomical observation is proposed here. In comparison with the conventional method with simulated stars, this method utilizes real navigation stars as observation targets which makes the measurement results more authoritative and authentic. Transformations between different coordinate systems are conducted on the account of the precision movements of the Earth, and the error curves of directional vectors are obtained along the three axes. Based on error analysis and accuracy definitions, a three-axis accuracy evaluation criterion has been proposed in this paper, which could determine pointing and rolling accuracy of a star tracker directly. Experimental measurements confirm that this method is effective and convenient to implement. Such a measurement environment is close to the in-orbit conditions and it can satisfy the stringent requirement for high-accuracy star trackers.

  7. An accuracy measurement method for star trackers based on direct astronomic observation

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Ting; Xing, Fei; Wang, Xiaochu; You, Zheng; Chu, Daping

    2016-01-01

    Star tracker is one of the most promising optical attitude measurement devices and it is widely used in spacecraft for its high accuracy. However, how to realize and verify such an accuracy remains a crucial but unsolved issue until now. The authenticity of the accuracy measurement method of a star tracker will eventually determine the satellite performance. A new and robust accuracy measurement method for a star tracker based on the direct astronomical observation is proposed here. In comparison with the conventional method with simulated stars, this method utilizes real navigation stars as observation targets which makes the measurement results more authoritative and authentic. Transformations between different coordinate systems are conducted on the account of the precision movements of the Earth, and the error curves of directional vectors are obtained along the three axes. Based on error analysis and accuracy definitions, a three-axis accuracy evaluation criterion has been proposed in this paper, which could determine pointing and rolling accuracy of a star tracker directly. Experimental measurements confirm that this method is effective and convenient to implement. Such a measurement environment is close to the in-orbit conditions and it can satisfy the stringent requirement for high-accuracy star trackers. PMID:26948412

  8. An accuracy measurement method for star trackers based on direct astronomic observation.

    PubMed

    Sun, Ting; Xing, Fei; Wang, Xiaochu; You, Zheng; Chu, Daping

    2016-01-01

    Star tracker is one of the most promising optical attitude measurement devices and it is widely used in spacecraft for its high accuracy. However, how to realize and verify such an accuracy remains a crucial but unsolved issue until now. The authenticity of the accuracy measurement method of a star tracker will eventually determine the satellite performance. A new and robust accuracy measurement method for a star tracker based on the direct astronomical observation is proposed here. In comparison with the conventional method with simulated stars, this method utilizes real navigation stars as observation targets which makes the measurement results more authoritative and authentic. Transformations between different coordinate systems are conducted on the account of the precision movements of the Earth, and the error curves of directional vectors are obtained along the three axes. Based on error analysis and accuracy definitions, a three-axis accuracy evaluation criterion has been proposed in this paper, which could determine pointing and rolling accuracy of a star tracker directly. Experimental measurements confirm that this method is effective and convenient to implement. Such a measurement environment is close to the in-orbit conditions and it can satisfy the stringent requirement for high-accuracy star trackers. PMID:26948412

  9. Quintessence reconstructed: New constraints and tracker viability

    SciTech Connect

    Sahlen, Martin; Liddle, Andrew R.; Parkinson, David

    2007-01-15

    We update and extend our previous work reconstructing the potential of a quintessence field from current observational data. We extend the cosmological data set to include new supernova data, plus information from the cosmic microwave background and from baryon acoustic oscillations. We extend the modeling by considering Pade approximant expansions as well as Taylor series, and by using observations to assess the viability of the tracker hypothesis. We find that parameter constraints have improved by a factor of 2, with a strengthening of the preference of the cosmological constant over evolving quintessence models. Present data show some signs, though inconclusive, of favoring tracker models over nontracker models under our assumptions.

  10. Optical contacting for gravity probe star tracker

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, J. J.; Zissa, D. E.

    1984-01-01

    A star-tracker telescope, constructed entirely of fused silica elements optically contacted together, has been proposed to provide submilliarc-second pointing accuracy for Gravity Probe. A bibliography and discussion on optical contacting (the bonding of very flat, highly polished surfaces without the use of adhesives) are presented. Then results from preliminary experiments on the strength of optical contacts including a tensile strength test in liquid helium are discussed. Suggestions are made for further study to verify an optical contacting method for the Gravity Probe star-tracker telescope.

  11. A microprocessor-controlled CCD star tracker

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salomon, P. M.; Goss, W. C.

    1976-01-01

    The STELLAR (Star Tracker for Economical Long Life Attitude Reference) utilizes an image sensing Charge-Coupled Device (CCD) operating under microprocessor control. This approach results in a new type of high-accuracy star tracker which can be adapted to a wide variety of different space flight applications through software changes only. The STELLAR determines two-axis star positions by computing the element and the interelement interpolated centroid positions of the star images. As many as 10 stars may be tracked simultaneously, providing significantly increased stability and accuracy. A detailed description of the STELLAR is presented along with measurements of system performance obtained from an operating breadboard model.

  12. Results from the MSGC tracker at SMC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballintijn, M. K.; van den Berg, F. D.; van Dantzig, R.; Gracia, G.; de Groot, N.; Hartjes, F. G.; Horisberger, R.; Kaandorp, D.; Ketel, T. J.; Litmaath, M. F.; Niessink, J. J.; Ogawa, A.; Sichtermann, E. P.; Udo, F.; de Winter, A. R.

    1995-11-01

    A tracker consisting of 16 MSGCs has been installed in the high intensity muon beam of the SMC experiment[1] at CERN. Each MSGC has an active surface of 10 × 10 cm 2, covered by 496 anode strips. As a front-end amplifier the APC 64 is used. Results are presented about the efficiency, both at a high rate and at a low rate, and the position resolution. Using the data of the MSGC tracker the definition of the beam tracks in SMC significantly improved.

  13. Data correction for seven activity trackers based on regression models.

    PubMed

    Andalibi, Vafa; Honko, Harri; Christophe, Francois; Viik, Jari

    2015-08-01

    Using an activity tracker for measuring activity-related parameters, e.g. steps and energy expenditure (EE), can be very helpful in assisting a person's fitness improvement. Unlike the measuring of number of steps, an accurate EE estimation requires additional personal information as well as accurate velocity of movement, which is hard to achieve due to inaccuracy of sensors. In this paper, we have evaluated regression-based models to improve the precision for both steps and EE estimation. For this purpose, data of seven activity trackers and two reference devices was collected from 20 young adult volunteers wearing all devices at once in three different tests, namely 60-minute office work, 6-hour overall activity and 60-minute walking. Reference data is used to create regression models for each device and relative percentage errors of adjusted values are then statistically compared to that of original values. The effectiveness of regression models are determined based on the result of a statistical test. During a walking period, EE measurement was improved in all devices. The step measurement was also improved in five of them. The results show that improvement of EE estimation is possible only with low-cost implementation of fitting model over the collected data e.g. in the app or in corresponding service back-end. PMID:26736578

  14. On-Orbit Performance of Autonomous Star Trackers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Airapetian, V.; Sedlak, J.; Hashmall, J.

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a performance study of the autonomous star trackers (ASTs) on the IMAGE and the EO-1 spacecraft. IMAGE is a spinning spacecraft without gyros or redundant precision attitude sensors, so the statistical properties of the AST are estimated simply by comparing the output observed quaternions with a rigid rotator model with constant angular momentum. The initial conditions are determined by a least-squares fit to minimize the AST residuals. An additional fit is used to remove the remaining systematic error and to obtain the inherent sensor noise. Gyro rate data are available for the EO-1 mission, so the AST noise statistics are obtained from the residuals after solving for an epoch attitude and gyro bias also using a least-squares method.

  15. Articulated Arm Coordinate Measuring Machine Calibration by Laser Tracker Multilateration

    PubMed Central

    Majarena, Ana C.; Brau, Agustín; Velázquez, Jesús

    2014-01-01

    A new procedure for the calibration of an articulated arm coordinate measuring machine (AACMM) is presented in this paper. First, a self-calibration algorithm of four laser trackers (LTs) is developed. The spatial localization of a retroreflector target, placed in different positions within the workspace, is determined by means of a geometric multilateration system constructed from the four LTs. Next, a nonlinear optimization algorithm for the identification procedure of the AACMM is explained. An objective function based on Euclidean distances and standard deviations is developed. This function is obtained from the captured nominal data (given by the LTs used as a gauge instrument) and the data obtained by the AACMM and compares the measured and calculated coordinates of the target to obtain the identified model parameters that minimize this difference. Finally, results show that the procedure presented, using the measurements of the LTs as a gauge instrument, is very effective by improving the AACMM precision. PMID:24688418

  16. Progress with the MICE scintillating fiber trackers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Overton, Edward

    2013-12-01

    The International Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE) is a proof of principle demonstration of ionization cooling, for application in a future neutrino factory or muon collider. MICE is under construction at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (UK), where a dedicated beam line has been commissioned to transport particles produced inside the ISIS accelerator facility. The beam emittance will be measured using two scintillating fiber trackers on each side of the cooling channel, which will be mounted inside a 4 T solenoid. As particles pass through the tracker, their position will be measured at 5 stations, each of which provides a position resolution of less than 0.5 mm. The fiber trackers have been validated using cosmic ray tests, which have allowed the light yield to be found. In addition, a spare tracking station was exposed to the MICE beam, which has enabled the tracker readout to be integrated with the MICE DAQ for the first time. This test required the integration gate on the D0 AFE-IIt readout boards to be synchronized with particle arrival by using diagnostic signals from the ISIS accelerator.

  17. Sun Tracker Operates a Year Between Calibrations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berdahl, C. M.

    1984-01-01

    Low-cost modification of Sun tracker automatically compensates equation of time and seasonal variations in declination of Sun. Output of Scotch Yoke drive mechanism adjusted through proper sizing of crank, yoke and other components and through choice of gear ratios to approximate seasonal northand south motion of Sun. Used for industrial solar-energy monitoring and in remote meteorological stations.

  18. jTracker and Monte Carlo Comparison

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selensky, Lauren; SeaQuest/E906 Collaboration

    2015-10-01

    SeaQuest is designed to observe the characteristics and behavior of `sea-quarks' in a proton by reconstructing them from the subatomic particles produced in a collision. The 120 GeV beam from the main injector collides with a fixed target and then passes through a series of detectors which records information about the particles produced in the collision. However, this data becomes meaningful only after it has been processed, stored, analyzed, and interpreted. Several programs are involved in this process. jTracker (sqerp) reads wire or hodoscope hits and reconstructs the tracks of potential dimuon pairs from a run, and Geant4 Monte Carlo simulates dimuon production and background noise from the beam. During track reconstruction, an event must meet the criteria set by the tracker to be considered a viable dimuon pair; this ensures that relevant data is retained. As a check, a comparison between a new version of jTracker and Monte Carlo was made in order to see how accurately jTracker could reconstruct the events created by Monte Carlo. In this presentation, the results of the inquest and their potential effects on the programming will be shown. This work is supported by U.S. DOE MENP Grant DE-FG02-03ER41243.

  19. A Heavy Flavor Tracker for STAR

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Z.; Chen, Y.; Kleinfelder, S.; Koohi, A.; Li, S.; Huang, H.; Tai, A.; Kushpil, V.; Sumbera, M.; Colledani, C.; Dulinski, W.; Himmi,A.; Hu, C.; Shabetai, A.; Szelezniak, M.; Valin, I.; Winter, M.; Surrow,B.; Van Nieuwenhuizen, G.; Bieser, F.; Gareus, R.; Greiner, L.; Lesser,F.; Matis, H.S.; Oldenburg, M.; Ritter, H.G.; Pierpoint, L.; Retiere, F.; Rose, A.; Schweda, K.; Sichtermann, E.; Thomas, J.H.; Wieman, H.; Yamamoto, E.; Kotov, I.

    2005-03-14

    We propose to construct a Heavy Flavor Tracker (HFT) for the STAR experiment at RHIC. The HFT will bring new physics capabilities to STAR and it will significantly enhance the physics capabilities of the STAR detector at central rapidities. The HFT will ensure that STAR will be able to take heavy flavor data at all luminosities attainable throughout the proposed RHIC II era.

  20. A Heavy Flavor Tracker for STAR

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Z.; Chen, Y.; Kleinfelder, S.; Koohi, A.; Li, S.; Huang, H.; Tai, A.; Kushpil, V.; Sumbera, M.; Colledani, C.; Dulinski, W.; Himmi,A.; Hu, C.; Shabetai, A.; Szelezniak, M.; Valin, I.; Winter, M.; Miller,M.; Surrow, B.; Van Nieuwenhuizen G.; Bieser, F.; Gareus, R.; Greiner,L.; Lesser, F.; Matis, H.S.; Oldenburg, M.; Ritter, H.G.; Pierpoint, L.; Retiere, F.; Rose, A.; Schweda, K.; Sichtermann, E.; Thomas, J.H.; Wieman, H.; Yamamoto, E.; Kotov, I.

    2005-03-14

    We propose to construct a Heavy Flavor Tracker (HFT) for theSTAR experiment at RHIC. The HFT will bring new physics capabilities toSTAR and it will significantly enhance the physics capabilities of theSTAR detector at central rapidities. The HFT will ensure that STAR willbe able to take heavy flavor data at all luminosities attainablethroughout the proposed RHIC II era.

  1. Laser Tracker Calibration - Testing the Angle Measurement System -

    SciTech Connect

    Gassner, Georg; Ruland, Robert; /SLAC

    2008-12-05

    Physics experiments at the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory (SLAC) usually require high accuracy positioning, e. g. 100 {micro}m over a distance of 150 m or 25 {micro}m in a 10 x 10 x 3 meter volume. Laser tracker measurement systems have become one of the most important tools for achieving these accuracies when mapping components. The accuracy of these measurements is related to the manufacturing tolerances of various individual components, the resolutions of measurement systems, the overall precision of the assembly, and how well imperfections can be modeled. As with theodolites and total stations, one can remove the effects of most assembly and calibration errors by measuring targets in both direct and reverse positions and computing the mean to obtain the result. However, this approach does not compensate for errors originating from the encoder system. In order to improve and gain a better understanding of laser tracker angle measurement tolerances we extended our laboratory's capabilities with the addition of a horizontal angle calibration test stand. This setup is based on the use of a high precision rotary table providing an angular accuracy of better than 0.2 arcsec. Presently, our setup permits only tests of the horizontal angle measurement system. A test stand for vertical angle calibration is under construction. Distance measurements (LECOCQ & FUSS, 2000) are compared to an interferometer bench for distances of up to 32 m. Together both tests provide a better understanding of the instrument and how it should be operated. The observations also provide a reasonable estimate of covariance information of the measurements according to their actual performance for network adjustments.

  2. Projecting the voice: observations of audience behaviours in ICT-mediated contemporary opera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Yu-Wei; Williams, Alan E.

    2014-07-01

    This paper examines how audiences experience live opera performance and the behaviours they exhibit during live-streaming of the performance. It aims to contribute to our understanding of how audiences, who increasingly inhabit an environment saturated with digital media, respond to contemporary opera performance. Based on a comparative study of audience experiences and behaviours during a live opera performance and the streamed opera screening, we investigate whether digital mediation affects audience appreciation, and whether streaming live opera means the same thing to an audience as the unmediated performance. We firstly outline the conception, design and performance of a contemporary opera and its simultaneous streaming to nearby digital screens. Then, we report the evaluation of the project as measured by a mix of qualitative and quantitative methods during the rehearsals, the live performance and the screening. As one of the few social studies of contemporary classical music in Britain, our study of opera audience behaviours sheds light on the challenges and opportunities afforded by digital technologies for opera companies. Understanding how audiences appreciate digital operas offers practical advice on how theatres and opera companies could respond to new forms of digital activities.

  3. OPERA: Open-source Pipeline for Espadons Reduction and Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teeple, Douglas

    2014-11-01

    OPERA (Open-source Pipeline for Espadons Reduction and Analysis) is an open-source collaborative software reduction pipeline for ESPaDOnS data. ESPaDOnS is a bench-mounted high-resolution echelle spectrograph and spectro-polarimeter designed to obtain a complete optical spectrum (from 370 to 1,050 nm) in a single exposure with a mode-dependent resolving power between 68,000 and 81,000. OPERA is fully automated, calibrates on two-dimensional images and reduces data to produce one-dimensional intensity and polarimetric spectra. Spectra are extracted using an optimal extraction algorithm. Though designed for CFHT ESPaDOnS data, the pipeline is extensible to other echelle spectrographs.

  4. Experimental predictions drawn from a computational model of sign-trackers and goal-trackers.

    PubMed

    Lesaint, Florian; Sigaud, Olivier; Clark, Jeremy J; Flagel, Shelly B; Khamassi, Mehdi

    2015-01-01

    Gaining a better understanding of the biological mechanisms underlying the individual variation observed in response to rewards and reward cues could help to identify and treat individuals more prone to disorders of impulsive control, such as addiction. Variation in response to reward cues is captured in rats undergoing autoshaping experiments where the appearance of a lever precedes food delivery. Although no response is required for food to be delivered, some rats (goal-trackers) learn to approach and avidly engage the magazine until food delivery, whereas other rats (sign-trackers) come to approach and engage avidly the lever. The impulsive and often maladaptive characteristics of the latter response are reminiscent of addictive behaviour in humans. In a previous article, we developed a computational model accounting for a set of experimental data regarding sign-trackers and goal-trackers. Here we show new simulations of the model to draw experimental predictions that could help further validate or refute the model. In particular, we apply the model to new experimental protocols such as injecting flupentixol locally into the core of the nucleus accumbens rather than systemically, and lesioning of the core of the nucleus accumbens before or after conditioning. In addition, we discuss the possibility of removing the food magazine during the inter-trial interval. The predictions from this revised model will help us better understand the role of different brain regions in the behaviours expressed by sign-trackers and goal-trackers. PMID:24954026

  5. Experimental predictions drawn from a computational model of sign-trackers and goal-trackers.

    PubMed

    Lesaint, Florian; Sigaud, Olivier; Clark, Jeremy J; Flagel, Shelly B; Khamassi, Mehdi

    2015-01-01

    Gaining a better understanding of the biological mechanisms underlying the individual variation observed in response to rewards and reward cues could help to identify and treat individuals more prone to disorders of impulsive control, such as addiction. Variation in response to reward cues is captured in rats undergoing autoshaping experiments where the appearance of a lever precedes food delivery. Although no response is required for food to be delivered, some rats (goal-trackers) learn to approach and avidly engage the magazine until food delivery, whereas other rats (sign-trackers) come to approach and engage avidly the lever. The impulsive and often maladaptive characteristics of the latter response are reminiscent of addictive behaviour in humans. In a previous article, we developed a computational model accounting for a set of experimental data regarding sign-trackers and goal-trackers. Here we show new simulations of the model to draw experimental predictions that could help further validate or refute the model. In particular, we apply the model to new experimental protocols such as injecting flupentixol locally into the core of the nucleus accumbens rather than systemically, and lesioning of the core of the nucleus accumbens before or after conditioning. In addition, we discuss the possibility of removing the food magazine during the inter-trial interval. The predictions from this revised model will help us better understand the role of different brain regions in the behaviours expressed by sign-trackers and goal-trackers.

  6. Experimental predictions drawn from a computational model of sign-trackers and goal-trackers

    PubMed Central

    Lesaint, Florian; Sigaud, Olivier; Clark, Jeremy J.; Flagel, Shelly B.; Khamassi, Mehdi

    2014-01-01

    Gaining a better understanding of the biological mechanisms underlying the individual variation observed in response to rewards and reward cues could help to identify and treat individuals more prone to disorders of impulsive control, such as addiction. Variation in response to reward cues is captured in rats undergoing autoshaping experiments where the appearance of a lever precedes food delivery. Although no response is required for food to be delivered, some rats (goal-trackers) learn to approach and avidly engage the magazine until food delivery, whereas other rats (sign-trackers) come to approach and engage avidly the lever. The impulsive and often maladaptive characteristics of the latter response are reminiscent of addictive behaviour in humans. In a previous article, we developed a computational model accounting for a set of experimental data regarding sign-trackers and goal-trackers. Here we show new simulations of the model to draw experimental predictions that could help further validate or refute the model. In particular, we apply the model to new experimental protocols such as injecting flupentixol locally into the core of the nucleus accumbens rather than systemically, and lesioning of the core of the nucleus accumbens before or after conditioning. In addition, we discuss the possibility of removing the food magazine during the inter-trial interval. The predictions from this revised model will help us better understand the role of different brain regions in the behaviours expressed by sign-trackers and goal-trackers. PMID:24954026

  7. Performance of the LHCb Outer Tracker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2014-01-01

    The LHCb Outer Tracker is a gaseous detector covering an area of 5 × 6 m2 with 12 double layers of straw tubes. The detector with its services are described together with the commissioning and calibration procedures. Based on data of the first LHC running period from 2010 to 2012, the performance of the readout electronics and the single hit resolution and efficiency are presented. The efficiency to detect a hit in the central half of the straw is estimated to be 99.2%, and the position resolution is determined to be approximately 200 μm. The Outer Tracker received a dose in the hottest region corresponding to 0.12 C/cm, and no signs of gain deterioration or other ageing effects are observed.

  8. Muon trackers for imaging a nuclear reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kume, N.; Miyadera, H.; Morris, C. L.; Bacon, J.; Borozdin, K. N.; Durham, J. M.; Fuzita, K.; Guardincerri, E.; Izumi, M.; Nakayama, K.; Saltus, M.; Sugita, T.; Takakura, K.; Yoshioka, K.

    2016-09-01

    A detector system for assessing damage to the cores of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear reactors by using cosmic-ray muon tomography was developed. The system consists of a pair of drift-tube tracking detectors of 7.2× 7.2-m2 area. Each muon tracker consists of 6 x-layer and 6 y-layer drift-tube detectors. Each tracker is capable of measuring muon tracks with 12 mrad angular resolutions, and is capable of operating under 50-μ Sv/h radiation environment by removing gamma induced background with a novel time-coincidence logic. An estimated resolution to observe nuclear fuel debris at Fukushima Daiichi is 0.3 m when the core is imaged from outside the reactor building.

  9. Equation of state of tracker fields

    SciTech Connect

    Chiba, Takeshi

    2010-01-15

    We derive the equation of state of tracker fields, which are typical examples of freezing quintessence (quintessence with the equation of state approaching toward -1), taking into account of the late-time departure from the tracker solution due to the nonzero density parameter of dark energy {Omega}{sub {phi}.} We calculate the equation of state as a function of {Omega}{sub {phi}}for constant {Gamma}=VV{sup ''}/(V{sup '}){sup 2} (during matter era) models. The derived equation of state contains a single parameter, w{sub (0)}, which parametrizes the equation of state during the matter-dominated epoch. We derive observational constraints on w{sub (0)} and find that observational data are consistent with the cosmological constant: -1.11

  10. Optical model and calibration of a sun tracker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volkov, Sergei N.; Samokhvalov, Ignatii V.; Cheong, Hai Du; Kim, Dukhyeon

    2016-09-01

    Sun trackers are widely used to investigate scattering and absorption of solar radiation in the Earth's atmosphere. We present a method for optimization of the optical altazimuth sun tracker model with output radiation direction aligned with the axis of a stationary spectrometer. The method solves the problem of stability loss in tracker pointing at the Sun near the zenith. An optimal method for tracker calibration at the measurement site is proposed in the present work. A method of moving calibration is suggested for mobile applications in the presence of large temperature differences and errors in the alignment of the optical system of the tracker.

  11. Upgrade of the Upstream Tracker at LHCb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrews, Jason; LHCb Collaboration

    2015-04-01

    The LHCb detector will be upgraded to allow it operate at higher collider luminosity without the need for a hardware trigger stage. Flavor enriched events will be selected in a software based, high level trigger, using fully reconstructed events. This presentation will describe the design, optimization and the expected performance of the Upstream Tracker (UT), which has a critical role in high level trigger scheme.

  12. ILC Vertex Tracker R&D

    SciTech Connect

    Battaglia, Marco; Bussat, Jean-Marie; Contarato, Devis; Denes,Peter; Glesener, Lindsay; Greiner, Leo; Hooberman, Benjamin; Shuman,Derek; Tompkins, Lauren; Vu, Chinh; Bisello, Dario; Giubilato, Piero; Pantano, Devis; Costa, Marco; La Rosa, Alessandro; Bolla, Gino; Bortoletto, Daniela; Children, Isaac

    2007-10-01

    This document summarizes past achievements, current activities and future goals of the R&D program aimed at the design, prototyping and characterization of a full detector module, equipped with monolithic pixel sensors, matching the requirements for the Vertex Tracker at the ILC. We provide a plan of activities to obtain a demonstrator multi-layered vertex tracker equipped with sensors matching the ILC requirements and realistic lightweight ladders in FY11, under the assumption that ILC detector proto-collaborations will be choosing technologies and designs for the Vertex Tracker by that time. The R&D program discussed here started at LBNL in 2004, supported by a Laboratory Directed R&D (LDRD) grant and by funding allocated from the core budget of the LBNL Physics Division and from the Department of Physics at UC Berkeley. Subsequently additional funding has been awarded under the NSF-DOE LCRD program and also personnel have become available through collaborative research with other groups. The aim of the R&D program carried out by our collaboration is to provide a well-integrated, inclusive research effort starting from physics requirements for the ILC Vertex Tracker and addressing Si sensor design and characterization, engineered ladder design, module system issues, tracking and vertex performances and beam test validation. The broad scope of this program is made possible by important synergies with existing know-how and concurrent programs both at LBNL and at the other collaborating institutions. In particular, significant overlaps with LHC detector design, SLHC R&D as well as prototyping for the STAR upgrade have been exploited to optimize the cost per deliverable of our program. This activity is carried out as a collaborative effort together with Accelerator and Fusion Research, the Engineering and the Nuclear Science Divisions at LBNL, INFN and the Department of Physics in Padova, Italy, INFN and the Department of Physics in Torino, Italy and the Department

  13. The CMS Tracker Detector Control System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yousaf Shah, S.; Tsirou, Andromachi; Verdini, Piero Giorgio; Hartmann, Frank; Masetti, Lorenzo; Dirkes, Guido H.; Stringer, Robert; Fahrer, Manuel

    2009-06-01

    The Compact Muon Solenoid DCS (CMS) Silicon Strip Tracker is by far the largest detector ever built in micro-strip technology. It has an active surface area of 198 m 2 consisting of 15,148 silicon modules with 9,316,352 readout channels read via 75,376 Analog Pipeline Voltage (APV) front-end chips and a total of 24,244 sensors. The Detector Control System (DCS) for the Tracker is a distributed control system that operates ˜2000 power supplies for the silicon modules and also monitors its environmental sensors. The DCS receives information from about 10 3 environmental probes (temperature and humidity sensors) located inside the detector's volume and values from these probes are driven through the Programmable Logic Controllers (PLC) of the Detector Safety System (DSS). A total of 10 5 parameters are read out from the dedicated chips in the front-end electronics of the detector via the data acquisition system, and a total of 10 5 parameters are read from the power supply modules. All these parameters are monitored, evaluated and correlated with the detector layout; actions are taken under specific conditions. The hardware for DCS consists of 10 PCs and 10 PLC systems that are continuously running the necessary control and safety routines. The DCS is a fundamental tool for the Tracker operation and its safety.

  14. Autonomous star tracker based on active pixel sensors (APS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, U.

    2004-06-01

    Star trackers are opto-electronic sensors used onboard of satellites for the autonomous inertial attitude determination. During the last years, star trackers became more and more important in the field of the attitude and orbit control system (AOCS) sensors. High performance star trackers are based up today on charge coupled device (CCD) optical camera heads. The Jena-Optronik GmbH is active in the field of opto-electronic sensors like star trackers since the early 80-ties. Today, with the product family ASTRO5, ASTRO10 and ASTRO15, all marked segments like earth observation, scientific applications and geo-telecom are supplied to European and Overseas customers. A new generation of star trackers can be designed based on the APS detector technical features. The measurement performance of the current CCD based star trackers can be maintained, the star tracker functionality, reliability and robustness can be increased while the unit costs are saved.

  15. The Silicon Inner Tracker of CMS: Construction, Organization and Future Upgrade

    SciTech Connect

    Krammer, Manfred

    2008-04-21

    The silicon Inner Tracker is the innermost detector part of the CMS experiment at CERN. This detector contains about 200 m{sup 2} of precision silicon sensors, fast and radiation hard electronics, an optical readout and many more highly sophisticated components. The total number of sensor elements amounts to 9.3 million strips and 66 millions pixels. The strip detector is completely assembled and has been commissioned at the operating temperature of about--15 deg. C. A collaboration consisting of about 500 members coming from 51 institutes worldwide has designed and constructed this detector in a period of more than 12 years. The different components for the tracker were developed in cooperation with industrial partners. The Inner Tracker was installed in the CMS experiment at the end of 2007. A discussion on the upgrade of CMS and the Inner Tracker has already started in view of an increase in performance of the LHC collider. To cope with the even more demanding requirements expected for the next generation apparatus an extensive R and D period is about to start with many opportunities opening up for new collaboration members to join the effort.

  16. Gaussian Analytic Centroiding method of star image of star tracker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Haiyong; Xu, Ershuai; Li, Zhifeng; Li, Jingjin; Qin, Tianmu

    2015-11-01

    The energy distribution of an actual star image coincides with the Gaussian law statistically in most cases, so the optimized processing algorithm about star image centroiding should be constructed also by following Gaussian law. For a star image spot covering a certain number of pixels, the marginal distribution of the gray accumulation on rows and columns are shown and analyzed, based on which the formulas of Gaussian Analytic Centroiding method (GAC) are deduced, and the robustness is also promoted due to the inherited filtering effect of gray accumulation. Ideal reference star images are simulated by the PSF (point spread function) with integral form. Precision and speed tests for the Gaussian Analytic formulas are conducted under three scenarios of Gaussian radius (0.5, 0.671, 0.8 pixel), The simulation results show that the precision of GAC method is better than that of the other given algorithms when the Gaussian radius is not bigger than 5 × 5 pixel window, a widely used parameter. Above all, the algorithm which consumes the least time is still the novel GAC method. GAC method helps to promote the comprehensive performance in the attitude determination of a star tracker.

  17. Iterative alignment of reflector segments using a laser tracker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabrera Cuevas, Lizeth; Lucero Alvarez, Maribel; Leon-Huerta, Andrea; Hernandez Rios, Emilio; Hernandez Lázaro, Josefina; Tzile Torres, Carlos; Castro Santos, David; Gale, David M.; Wilson, Grant; Narayanan, Gopal; Smith, David R.

    2013-04-01

    The Large Millimeter Telescope (LMT) is a 50m diameter millimetre-wave radio telescope situated on the summit of Sierra Negra, Puebla, at an altitude of 4600 meters. The reflector surface of the LMT currently employs84 segments arranged in three annular rings. Each segment is comprised of 8 precision composite subpanels located on five threaded adjusters. During the current primary surface refurbishment, individual segments are aligned in the telescope basement using a laser tracker. This allows increased spatial resolution in shorter timescales, resulting in the opportunity for improved logistics and increased alignment precision. To perform segment alignment an iterative process is carried out whereby the surface is measured and subpanel deformations are corrected with the goal of 40 microns RMS. In practice we have been able to achieve RMS errors of almost 20 microns, with 35 microns typical. The number of iterations varies from around ten to over 20, depending mainly on the behaviour of the mechanical adjusters that support the individual subpanels. Cross marks scribed on the reflector surface are used as fiducials, because their positions on the paraboloid are well known. Measurement data is processed using a robust curve fitting algorithm which provides a map of the surface showing the subpanel deviations. From this map the required subpanel adjuster movements are calculated allowing surface improvement in a stepwise manner.

  18. Sound exposure among the Finnish National Opera personnel.

    PubMed

    Laitinen, Heli M; Toppila, Esko M; Olkinuora, Pekka S; Kuisma, Kaarina

    2003-03-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine how and when the personnel of the Finnish National Opera are exposed to noise and whether exposure depends on musical selection of repertoire. Additionally, an evaluation of sound exposure level due to individual rehearsals was included. The measurements were done using individual noise dosimeters and fixed-point measurements. From the measurements, annual noise exposure in the Opera was evaluated. The conductors, dancers, and double bass players were exposed to levels below 85 decibels, A-weighted, dB(A), which is the national action level. The choir members were exposed to sound levels of 92 and 94 dB(A). Within the orchestra, the highest sound exposure levels were found among percussionists, 95 dB(A); flute/piccolo players, 95 dB(A); and brass players, 92-94 dB(A). Other sound exposure levels among orchestra members varied from 83 to 89 dB(A). Soloists and rehearsal pianists are likely to be exposed to sound levels exceeding the national action level. From an exposure perspective, the individual rehearsals, 79-100 dB(A), proved to be as important as performances and group rehearsals, 82-99 dB(A), among orchestra musicians and choir singers. The ambient sound level for the lighting crew was 76 +/- 4 dB(A). However, the measured sound levels at the ear varied from 77 to 92 dB(A) due to the communication via headphones that had individual volume control. For the majority of personnel of the Finnish National Opera, sound exposure level exceeded the national action level value of 85 dB(A). Artists exceeded the action level during both individual and group rehearsals, as well as during performances. Hearing protection has been designed for musicians. Education/reinforcement is required to ensure it is worn.

  19. Robust visual tracking with dual spatio-temporal context trackers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Shiyan; Zhang, Hong; Yuan, Ding

    2015-12-01

    Visual tracking is a challenging problem in computer vision. Recent years, significant numbers of trackers have been proposed. Among these trackers, tracking with dense spatio-temporal context has been proved to be an efficient and accurate method. Other than trackers with online trained classifier that struggle to meet the requirement of real-time tracking task, a tracker with spatio-temporal context can run at hundreds of frames per second with Fast Fourier Transform (FFT). Nevertheless, the performance of the tracker with Spatio-temporal context relies heavily on the learning rate of the context, which restricts the robustness of the tracker. In this paper, we proposed a tracking method with dual spatio-temporal context trackers that hold different learning rate during tracking. The tracker with high learning rate could track the target smoothly when the appearance of target changes, while the tracker with low learning rate could percepts the occlusion occurring and continues to track when the target starts to emerge again. To find the target among the candidates from these two trackers, we adopt Normalized Correlation Coefficient (NCC) to evaluate the confidence of each sample. Experimental results show that the proposed algorithm performs robustly against several state-of-the-art tracking methods.

  20. Room Acoustic Conditions of Performers in AN Old Opera House

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    IANNACE, GINO; IANNIELLO, CARMINE; MAFFEI, LUIGI; ROMANO, ROSARIO

    2000-04-01

    Proposed objective criteria related to the acoustic conditions for instrumentalists and singers have not received a sufficiently wide consent yet. In spite of this situation, it is the opinion of the authors that the measurement of existing criteria is useful for analysis and comparison. This paper reports the results of various acoustic measurements carried out in the Teatro di San Carlo, Naples-Italy, with the aim of obtaining objective information about its acoustics for performers. A first set of measurements was carried out when the theater was fitted for a symphonic concert and a second one when it was fitted for an opera performance.

  1. OPERA: An Atmospheric Correction for Land and Water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sterckx, Sindy; Knaeps, Els; Adriaensen, Stefan; Reusen, Ils; De Keukelaere, Liesbeth; Hunter, Peter; Giardino, Claudia; Odermatt, Daniel

    2015-12-01

    Atmospheric correction is one of the most important part of the pre-processing of satellite remotely sensed data used to retrieve bio-geophysical paramters. In this paper we present the scene and sensor generic atmospheric correction scheme ‘OPERA’ allowing to correct both land and water areas in the remote sensing image. OPERA can now be used to correct for atmospheric effects in scenes acquired by MERIS, Landsat-8, hyperspectral sensors and will be applicable to Sentinel-3 and Sentinel-2.

  2. Results from the OPERA experiment in the CNGS beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Marco, N.; OPERA Collaboration

    2016-05-01

    The OPERA experiment at the Gran Sasso underground laboratory was designed to study ν μ → ν τ oscillations in appearance mode in the CNGS neutrino beam. In this paper we report the detection of the 5 th ν τ candidate event found in the analysis of an enlarged data sample. Given the number of analysed events and the low background, ν μ → ν τ oscillations have been established with a significance of 5.1σ. The analysis of the present electron neutrino sample in the framework of the 3 + 1 sterile model is also presented. Finally the analysis of the muon charge ratio in the cosmic ray sample is discussed.

  3. The upstream tracker for the LHCb upgrade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinkamp, Olaf

    2016-09-01

    The LHCb collaboration is planning a comprehensive upgrade of the experiment for the long shutdown of the LHC in 2019/20. As part of this upgrade, the tracking station in front of the LHCb dipole magnet will be replaced by a new planar four-layer silicon micro-strip detector with 40 MHz readout and silicon sensors with finer granularity and improved radiation hardness. Key design aspects of this new Upstream Tracker are described and a brief overview of the status of the project is given.

  4. Singing the Lives of the Buddha: Lao Folk Opera as an Educational Medium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernard-Johnston, Jean

    This dissertation explores the role of Lao folk opera as a medium for constructively addressing problems of cultural conflict and acculturative stress that have risen among lowland Lao refugees and their children in urban America. The central focus of the inquiry is on the ways Lao folk opera currently functions as a learning medium in the…

  5. A Telepresence Learning Environment for Opera Singing: Distance Lessons Implementations over Internet2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alpiste Penalba, Francisco; Rojas-Rajs, Teresa; Lorente, Pedro; Iglesias, Francisco; Fernández, Joaquín; Monguet, Josep

    2013-01-01

    The Opera eLearning project developed a solution for opera singing distance lessons at the graduate level, using high bandwidth to deliver a quality audio and video experience that has been evaluated by singing teachers, chorus and orchestra directors, singers and other professional musicians. Prior to finding a technological model that suits the…

  6. The Role of Arts-Based Curricula in Bullying Prevention: Elijah's Kite--A Children's Opera

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haner, Dilys; Pepler, Debra; Cummings, Joanne; Rubin-Vaughan, Alice

    2010-01-01

    This article describes a children's opera about bullying that was presented to five classrooms in three schools and evaluated with a pre-post design. Data were available for 104 Grade 4 and 5 students who completed a bullying prevalence survey and bullying knowledge quiz before and 6 weeks after the opera. Bullying knowledge increased…

  7. A Factor Analysis of Peking Opera: Its Functions in Mass Communications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Philip H.

    The study reported in this paper examined the structure and function of Chinese opera (also known as Peking opera) as an effective communication medium of social control and change in China, a land populated by 800 million people and nourished by a 5,000-year-old civilization. The study followed structural-functional analysis, content analysis,…

  8. Into the deep: Evaluation of SourceTracker for assessment of faecal contamination of coastal waters.

    PubMed

    Henry, Rebekah; Schang, Christelle; Coutts, Scott; Kolotelo, Peter; Prosser, Toby; Crosbie, Nick; Grant, Trish; Cottam, Darren; O'Brien, Peter; Deletic, Ana; McCarthy, David

    2016-04-15

    Faecal contamination of recreational waters is an increasing global health concern. Tracing the source of the contaminant is a vital step towards mitigation and disease prevention. Total 16S rRNA amplicon data for a specific environment (faeces, water, soil) and computational tools such as the Markov-Chain Monte Carlo based SourceTracker can be applied to microbial source tracking (MST) and attribution studies. The current study applied artificial and in-laboratory derived bacterial communities to define the potential and limitations associated with the use of SourceTracker, prior to its application for faecal source tracking at three recreational beaches near Port Phillip Bay (Victoria, Australia). The results demonstrated that at minimum multiple model runs of the SourceTracker modelling tool (i.e. technical replicates) were required to identify potential false positive predictions. The calculation of relative standard deviations (RSDs) for each attributed source improved overall predictive confidence in the results. In general, default parameter settings provided high sensitivity, specificity, accuracy and precision. Application of SourceTracker to recreational beach samples identified treated effluent as major source of human-derived faecal contamination, present in 69% of samples. Site-specific sources, such as raw sewage, stormwater and bacterial populations associated with the Yarra River estuary were also identified. Rainfall and associated sand resuspension at each location correlated with observed human faecal indicators. The results of the optimised SourceTracker analysis suggests that local sources of contamination have the greatest effect on recreational coastal water quality. PMID:26921850

  9. In-flight star tracker SED 12 performances on-board the SIGMA experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jouret, M.; Sebbag, I.; Vandermarcq, M. Q.; Krebs, J. P.; Le Goff, R.; Vilaire, D.; Tulet, M. M.

    The multimission SED 12 star tracker using a CCD matrix array has been designed by SODERN in cooperation with Matra-Marconi Space (F), respectively in charge of the optical head and software development for one and processing electronics and associated interfaces for the other. It has been selected for the French SIGMA experiment on board the Soviet GRANAT spacecraft which was launched on December 2, 1989. SIGMA is a French hard X-ray/medium energy gamma ray (30 keV-2 MeV) experiment aimed at imaging selected regions of the sky with a resolution of about one arc minute and has been developed and manufactured under the overall management of CNES (the French National Space Agency). The experiment package demands a pointing stability of a few arc-seconds over periods of several hours corresponding to the long exposure times required to build up images of the target gamma sources. As the GRANAT satellite is not able to maintain such high precision attitude stability, incorporated into the gamma telescope are two SED 12 sensors aligned together with the telescope. The development of this star tracker was started in 1985 under a CNES contract, the qualification was successfully performed in 1987 and the delivery of 2 flight models was completed in 1988. The expected life time of the experiment was 1.5 year and since the launch date the mission is still operating without any significant performance degradation of the star tracker. The purpose of this paper is, on the one hand to present the multimission tracker design trade-offs and the SED 12 device: description, main features, operating modes and performances, and on the other hand, to analyze the on ground and in-flight star tracker data. This analysis has been mainly led according to the following criteria: performance results in angular position and magnitude measurement, dark current evolution versus time and radiation dose, correlation between visual and instrumental magnitudes.

  10. Integrated Conservation of the Cantonese Opera Art Museum and Intangible Cultural Heritage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Q.; Li, X.

    2015-08-01

    Cantonese Opera, as the sole cultural heritage of Guangdong Province of China so far, which was included in the World Intangible Cultural Heritage List by the UNESCO, bears the cultural memory of the Lingnan region and as well as the overseas Chinese worldwide. Located in the core historic urban area - Enning Road of Guangzhou, the Cantonese Opera Art Museum is designed in Lingnan traditional garden manner, through going deep into the Cantonese opera culture, Lingnan traditional garden culture and Lingnan cultural spirit. The design highlights the integrated conservation of tangible and intangible cultural heritage, to protect living history and build the historical environment and place spirit for the intangible cultural heritage. The Cantonese Opera Art Museum is not only a tangible space for exhibition, study, education and display of the Cantonese Opera art, but also a cultural space with the Lingnan cultural memory, gathering the Lingnan intangible heritage and closely linked with current life of successors and ordinary people.

  11. On the Testing of Renovations Inside Historical Opera Houses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fausti, P.; Prodi, N.

    2002-11-01

    Due to the large number of historical opera houses in Italy, many theatres have been renovated in the past, but still more will undergo major restoration in the near future. Unfortunately in this context, the quality and protection of acoustics is rarely considered as an issue of its own. As a consequence, the renovations are hardly ever accompanied by proper scientific and technical support. In this paper, the acoustical impact of works inside the Teatro Municipale "R.Valli" in Reggio Emilia, including the restoration of the main hall and the construction of a new acoustic shell, will be dealt with. Surveys were held in the theatre before renovation and were repeated with identical procedure and instruments after its completion. By means of a comparative analysis of the architectural project and of acoustical data, the impact of major changes in the theatre can be predicted. It is shown that this approach can help in drafting an operational scheme for safeguarding the acoustics of historical opera houses.

  12. Boxes and Sound Quality in AN Italian Opera House

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    COCCHI, A.; GARAI, M.; TAVERNELLI, C.

    2000-04-01

    The “Teatro Comunale” (City Theatre) in Bologna is an Italian opera house of the 18th century, designed by the famous architect Antonio Galli Bibiena. Largely built in masonry, it has been only partially restored and altered several times, but never destroyed and rebuilt. The study of its acoustics, while interesting for itself, offers the opportunity to investigate the role of the boxes, which constitute the most evident characteristic of Italian opera houses. The study was carried on at first by measurements, acquiring binaural impulse responses in the stalls and in the boxes, and then by computer simulation, modelling also some changes which cannot be done in the real hall. The measurements revealed clear differences between the listening quality in the boxes and in the stalls, especially regarding ITDG, clarity and IACC. Computer simulations show how the sound field in the historical theatre could be if the sound absorption of the boxes were changed, adding some velvet curtains, as was done in ancient times, and clarify the effects of the cavities which constitutes the boxes.

  13. Ocean Topography Experiment (TOPEX) star tracker performance data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flynn, David J.

    1992-08-01

    Two major technological developments have benefited stars sensors in recent years: the charge-coupled device (CCD) detector and the microprocessor. The ASTRA-1 star tracker developed by Hughes Danbury Optical Systems, Inc. (HDOS) is a CCD, microprocessor-based replacement for the NASA Standard Fixed Head Star Tracker. This paper will provide an overview of the measured performance of the ASTRA-1 star trackers delivered to Fairchild Space Company for use on the TOPEX/POSEIDON mission scheduled for July 1992.

  14. A multi-hypothesis tracker for clicking whales.

    PubMed

    Baggenstoss, Paul M

    2015-05-01

    This paper describes a tracker specially designed to track clicking beaked whales using widely spaced bottom-mounted hydrophones, although it can be adapted to different species and sensors. The input to the tracker is a sequence of static localization solutions obtained using time difference of arrival information at widely spaced hydrophones. To effectively handle input localizations with high ambiguity, the tracker is based on multi-hypothesis tracker concepts, so it considers all potential association hypotheses and keeps a large number of potential tracks in memory. The method is demonstrated on actual data and shown to successfully track multiple beaked whales at depth.

  15. Precision translator

    DOEpatents

    Reedy, R.P.; Crawford, D.W.

    1982-03-09

    A precision translator for focusing a beam of light on the end of a glass fiber which includes two turning fork-like members rigidly connected to each other. These members have two prongs each with its separation adjusted by a screw, thereby adjusting the orthogonal positioning of a glass fiber attached to one of the members. This translator is made of simple parts with capability to keep adjustment even in condition of rough handling.

  16. Precision translator

    DOEpatents

    Reedy, Robert P.; Crawford, Daniel W.

    1984-01-01

    A precision translator for focusing a beam of light on the end of a glass fiber which includes two turning fork-like members rigidly connected to each other. These members have two prongs each with its separation adjusted by a screw, thereby adjusting the orthogonal positioning of a glass fiber attached to one of the members. This translator is made of simple parts with capability to keep adjustment even in condition of rough handling.

  17. Precision laser automatic tracking system.

    PubMed

    Lucy, R F; Peters, C J; McGann, E J; Lang, K T

    1966-04-01

    A precision laser tracker has been constructed and tested that is capable of tracking a low-acceleration target to an accuracy of about 25 microrad root mean square. In tracking high-acceleration targets, the error is directly proportional to the angular acceleration. For an angular acceleration of 0.6 rad/sec(2), the measured tracking error was about 0.1 mrad. The basic components in this tracker, similar in configuration to a heliostat, are a laser and an image dissector, which are mounted on a stationary frame, and a servocontrolled tracking mirror. The daytime sensitivity of this system is approximately 3 x 10(-10) W/m(2); the ultimate nighttime sensitivity is approximately 3 x 10(-14) W/m(2). Experimental tests were performed to evaluate both dynamic characteristics of this system and the system sensitivity. Dynamic performance of the system was obtained, using a small rocket covered with retroreflective material launched at an acceleration of about 13 g at a point 204 m from the tracker. The daytime sensitivity of the system was checked, using an efficient retroreflector mounted on a light aircraft. This aircraft was tracked out to a maximum range of 15 km, which checked the daytime sensitivity of the system measured by other means. The system also has been used to track passively stars and the Echo I satellite. Also, the system tracked passively a +7.5 magnitude star, and the signal-to-noise ratio in this experiment indicates that it should be possible to track a + 12.5 magnitude star.

  18. Geometric error detection and calibration in laser trackers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zili; Lao, Dabao; Dong, Dengfeng; Zhou, Weihu

    2015-08-01

    Geometric errors in laser trackers such as light offset and transit tilt have essential influence on the system measurement errors. Thus error detection and calibration are very important for producers and customers to execute error compensation. Different methods are developed to detect and calibrate errors. However, the commonly used methods such as length measurement and two-face measurement are sensitive to several misalignments which cannot calibrate errors directly and separately. In this paper a series of methods for detecting and calibrating geometric errors such as mirror tilt, beam tilt and transit tilt were presented which can calibrate geometric errors individually and precisely. The mirror tilt could be detected with the help of two autocollimators and one polygon. Then the beam tilt and offset errors were calibrated using a CCD camera and condenser lenses. Finally the transit tilt error was calibrated using a gradient and a vertical plane. Experiments and error assessment were executed to show that the accuracy of the calibration methods can meet the user's demand.

  19. A hardware fast tracker for the ATLAS trigger

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asbah, Nedaa

    2016-09-01

    The trigger system of the ATLAS experiment is designed to reduce the event rate from the LHC nominal bunch crossing at 40 MHz to about 1 kHz, at the design luminosity of 1034 cm-2 s-1. After a successful period of data taking from 2010 to early 2013, the LHC already started with much higher instantaneous luminosity. This will increase the load on High Level Trigger system, the second stage of the selection based on software algorithms. More sophisticated algorithms will be needed to achieve higher background rejection while maintaining good efficiency for interesting physics signals. The Fast TracKer (FTK) is part of the ATLAS trigger upgrade project. It is a hardware processor that will provide, at every Level-1 accepted event (100 kHz) and within 100 microseconds, full tracking information for tracks with momentum as low as 1 GeV. Providing fast, extensive access to tracking information, with resolution comparable to the offline reconstruction, FTK will help in precise detection of the primary and secondary vertices to ensure robust selections and improve the trigger performance. FTK exploits hardware technologies with massive parallelism, combining Associative Memory ASICs, FPGAs and high-speed communication links.

  20. Mechatronic Prototype of Parabolic Solar Tracker

    PubMed Central

    Morón, Carlos; Díaz, Jorge Pablo; Ferrández, Daniel; Ramos, Mari Paz

    2016-01-01

    In the last 30 years numerous attempts have been made to improve the efficiency of the parabolic collectors in the electric power production, although most of the studies have focused on the industrial production of thermoelectric power. This research focuses on the application of this concentrating solar thermal power in the unexplored field of building construction. To that end, a mechatronic prototype of a hybrid paraboloidal and cylindrical-parabolic tracker based on the Arduido technology has been designed. The prototype is able to measure meteorological data autonomously in order to quantify the energy potential of any location. In this way, it is possible to reliably model real commercial equipment behavior before its deployment in buildings and single family houses. PMID:27314359

  1. Mechatronic Prototype of Parabolic Solar Tracker.

    PubMed

    Morón, Carlos; Díaz, Jorge Pablo; Ferrández, Daniel; Ramos, Mari Paz

    2016-06-15

    In the last 30 years numerous attempts have been made to improve the efficiency of the parabolic collectors in the electric power production, although most of the studies have focused on the industrial production of thermoelectric power. This research focuses on the application of this concentrating solar thermal power in the unexplored field of building construction. To that end, a mechatronic prototype of a hybrid paraboloidal and cylindrical-parabolic tracker based on the Arduido technology has been designed. The prototype is able to measure meteorological data autonomously in order to quantify the energy potential of any location. In this way, it is possible to reliably model real commercial equipment behavior before its deployment in buildings and single family houses.

  2. 3D technology for intelligent trackers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lipton, Ronald

    2010-10-01

    At Super-LHC luminosity it is expected that the standard suite of level 1 triggers for CMS will saturate. Information from the tracker will be needed to reduce trigger rates to satisfy the level 1 bandwidth. Tracking trigger modules which correlate information from closely-spaced sensor layers to form an on-detector momentum filter are being developed by several groups. We report on a trigger module design which utilizes three dimensional integrated circuit technology incorporating chips which are connected both to the top and bottom sensor, providing the ability to filter information locally. A demonstration chip, the VICTR, has been submitted to the Chartered/Tezzaron two-tier 3D run coordinated by Fermilab. We report on the 3D design concept, the status of the VICTR chip and associated sensor integration utilizing oxide bonding.

  3. 3D Technology for intelligent trackers

    SciTech Connect

    Lipton, Ronald; /Fermilab

    2010-09-01

    At Super-LHC luminosity it is expected that the standard suite of level 1 triggers for CMS will saturate. Information from the tracker will be needed to reduce trigger rates to satisfy the level 1 bandwidth. Tracking trigger modules which correlate information from closely-spaced sensor layers to form an on-detector momentum filter are being developed by several groups. We report on a trigger module design which utilizes three dimensional integrated circuit technology incorporating chips which are connected both to the top and bottom sensor, providing the ability to filter information locally. A demonstration chip, the VICTR, has been submitted to the Chartered/Tezzaron two-tier 3D run coordinated by Fermilab. We report on the 3D design concept, the status of the VICTR chip and associated sensor integration utilizing oxide bonding.

  4. Infrared tracker for a portable missile launcher

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, J.J.

    1993-07-13

    An infrared beam tracker is described for arrangement to a housing that is unitary with a portable missile launcher, comprising: a rotating beam splitter positioned to intercept the infrared beam passing a first portion of the beam through the beam splitter along a first direction and reflecting the remaining portion along a different direction; a first infrared detector for receiving the beam reflected portion from the beam splitter and produce electric signals responsive thereto; a second infrared detector for receiving the beam portion that passes through the beam splitter and providing electric signals responsive thereto; and means interconnected to the first and second infrared detectors and responsive to the electric signals generated by said detectors for determining errors in missile flight direction and communicating course correction information to the missile.

  5. Generic evaluation tracker database for OTH radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flanders, Lorraine E.; Hartnett, Michael P.; Vannicola, Vincent C.

    1999-10-01

    This paper provides a real world target and clutter model for evaluation of radar signal processing algorithms. The procedure is given for target and clutter data collection which is then followed by the equalization and superposition method. We show how the model allows one to vary the target signal to clutter noise ratio so that system performance may be assessed over a wide range of target amplitudes, i.e. detection probability versus target signal to noise ratio. Three candidate pre-track algorithms are evaluated and compared using this model as input in conjunction with an advanced tracker algorithm as a post processor. Data used for the model represents airborne traffic operating over the body of water bounded by North, Central, and South America. The processors relate to the deployment of Over the Horizon Radar for drug interdiction. All the components of this work, model as well as the processors, are in software.

  6. Mechatronic Prototype of Parabolic Solar Tracker.

    PubMed

    Morón, Carlos; Díaz, Jorge Pablo; Ferrández, Daniel; Ramos, Mari Paz

    2016-01-01

    In the last 30 years numerous attempts have been made to improve the efficiency of the parabolic collectors in the electric power production, although most of the studies have focused on the industrial production of thermoelectric power. This research focuses on the application of this concentrating solar thermal power in the unexplored field of building construction. To that end, a mechatronic prototype of a hybrid paraboloidal and cylindrical-parabolic tracker based on the Arduido technology has been designed. The prototype is able to measure meteorological data autonomously in order to quantify the energy potential of any location. In this way, it is possible to reliably model real commercial equipment behavior before its deployment in buildings and single family houses. PMID:27314359

  7. Status and Updated Results of the Opera Experimental Search for νμ → ντ Oscillations.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dmitrievsky, Sergey

    2015-03-01

    The OPERA detector in the underground Gran Sasso Laboratory (LNGS) has been designed to detect muon-neutrino to tau-neutrino oscillations in direct appearance mode. The hybrid apparatus consists of an emulsion/lead target and of electronic detectors. Data taking using the CNGS muon-neutrino beam from CERN took place from 2008 to 2012. The various steps of the analysis are described, from the localization of the target element where a neutrino interaction occurred up to the identification in the emulsion films of the decay vertex of a short lived particle. The detailed simulation of the different steps allows a precise evaluation of the signal efficiency and of the associated backgrounds. The significance of the latest tau-neutrino appearance results is discussed.

  8. Calibration Test Set for a Phase-Comparison Digital Tracker

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boas, Amy; Li, Samuel; McMaster, Robert

    2007-01-01

    An apparatus that generates four signals at a frequency of 7.1 GHz having precisely controlled relative phases and equal amplitudes has been designed and built. This apparatus is intended mainly for use in computer-controlled automated calibration and testing of a phase-comparison digital tracker (PCDT) that measures the relative phases of replicas of the same X-band signal received by four antenna elements in an array. (The relative direction of incidence of the signal on the array is then computed from the relative phases.) The present apparatus can also be used to generate precisely phased signals for steering a beam transmitted from a phased antenna array. The apparatus (see figure) includes a 7.1-GHz signal generator, the output of which is fed to a four-way splitter. Each of the four splitter outputs is attenuated by 10 dB and fed as input to a vector modulator, wherein DC bias voltages are used to control the in-phase (I) and quadrature (Q) signal components. The bias voltages are generated by digital-to-analog- converter circuits on a control board that receives its digital control input from a computer running a LabVIEW program. The outputs of the vector modulators are further attenuated by 10 dB, then presented at high-grade radio-frequency connectors. The attenuation reduces the effects of changing mismatch and reflections. The apparatus was calibrated in a process in which the bias voltages were first stepped through all possible IQ settings. Then in a reverse interpolation performed by use of MATLAB software, a lookup table containing 3,600 IQ settings, representing equal amplitude and phase increments of 0.1 , was created for each vector modulator. During operation of the apparatus, these lookup tables are used in calibrating the PCDT.

  9. Optical alignment of the Global Precipitation Measurements (GPM) star trackers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hetherington, Samuel; Osgood, Dean; McMann, Joe; Roberts, Viki; Gill, James; McLean, Kyle

    2013-09-01

    The optical alignment of the star trackers on the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) core spacecraft at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) was challenging due to the layout and structural design of the GPM Lower Bus Structure (LBS) in which the star trackers are mounted as well as the presence of the star tracker shades that blocked line-of-sight to the primary star tracker optical references. The initial solution was to negotiate minor changes in the original LBS design to allow for the installation of a removable item of ground support equipment (GSE) that could be installed whenever measurements of the star tracker optical references were needed. However, this GSE could only be used to measure secondary optical reference cube faces not used by the star tracker vendor to obtain the relationship information and matrix transformations necessary to determine star tracker alignment. Unfortunately, due to unexpectedly large orthogonality errors between the measured secondary adjacent cube faces and the lack of cube calibration data, we required a method that could be used to measure the same reference cube faces as originally measured by the vendor. We describe an alternative technique to theodolite autocollimation for measurement of an optical reference mirror pointing direction when normal incidence measurements are not possible. This technique was used to successfully align the GPM star trackers and has been used on a number of other NASA flight projects. We also discuss alignment theory as well as a GSFC-developed theodolite data analysis package used to analyze angular metrology data.

  10. Visible-spectrum remote eye tracker for gaze communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imabuchi, Takashi; Prima, Oky Dicky A.; Kikuchi, Hikaru; Horie, Yusuke; Ito, Hisayoshi

    2015-03-01

    Many approaches have been proposed to create an eye tracker based on visible-spectrum. These efforts provide a possibility to create inexpensive eye tracker capable to operate outdoor. Although the resulted tracking accuracy is acceptable for a visible-spectrum head-mounted eye tracker, there are many limitations of these approaches to create a remote eye tracker. In this study, we propose a high-accuracy remote eye tracker that uses visible-spectrum imaging and several gaze communication interfaces suited to the tracker. The gaze communication interfaces are designed to assist people with motor disability. Our results show that the proposed eye tracker achieved an average accuracy of 0.77° and a frame rate of 28 fps with a personal computer. With a tablet device, the proposed eye tracker achieved an average accuracy of 0.82° and a frame rate of 25 fps. The proposed gaze communication interfaces enable users to type a complete sentence containing eleven Japanese characters in about a minute.

  11. My Life in Nuclear Physics, Photography, and Opera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hintz, Norton M.

    2012-06-01

    I sketch my life as an experimental nuclear physicist, beginning as a graduate student at Harvard University from 1948 to 1951, then as a postdoctoral fellow at the Cavendish Laboratory from 1951 to 1952, and finally as a faculty member at the University of Minnesota from 1952 until my retirement in 1991. I also carried out research at the Niels Bohr Institute in Copenhagen, Indiana University, and Los Alamos National Laboratory, and I participated in a number of summer schools and international conferences on nuclear physics. I also have worked in photography and opera. Over the years, I met and collaborated with many people in many walks of life who became friends for life.

  12. Results from the OPERA experiment at the CNGS beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Longhin, A.; OPERA Collaboration

    2015-07-01

    The OPERA experiment at the Gran Sasso underground laboratory is searching for νμ → ντ oscillations in appearance mode in the CNGS neutrino beam. Four ντ candidate events have been found so far, using a sub-sample of data from the 2008-2012 runs. Given the number of analysed events and the low background, νμ → ντ oscillations are established with a significance of 4.2 σ. In this paper the data analysis is discussed, with emphasis on the background constraints obtained using dedicated data-driven control samples. We present also the analysis of the τ neutrino and electron neutrino data in the framework of the 3+1 sterile neutrino model. The measurement of the muon charge ratio in the collected cosmic ray sample is also reported.

  13. Performance of the Microwave Anisotropy Probe AST-201 Star Trackers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ward, David K.; vanBezooijen, Roelof; Bauer, Frank H. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The Microwave Anisotropy Probe (MAP) was launched to create a full-sky map of the cosmic microwave background. MAP incorporates two modified Lockheed Martin AST-201 (Autonomous Star Tracker) star trackers. The AST-201 employs an eight element radiation hardened lens assembly which is used to focus an image on a charge coupled device (CCD). The CCD image is then processed by a star identification algorithm which outputs a three-axis attitude. A CCD-shift algorithm called Time Delayed Integration (TDI) was also included in each star tracker. In order to provide some radiation effect filtering during MAP's three to five phasing loop passes through the Van Allen radiation belts, a simple pixel filtering scheme was implemented, rather than using a more complex, but more robust windowing algorithm. The trackers also include a fiber optic data interface. This paper details the ground testing that was accomplished on the MAP trackers.

  14. Flight performance of TOPEX/POSEIDON star trackers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flynn, David J.; Fowski, Walter J.; Kia, Tooraj

    1993-09-01

    The TOPEX/POSEIDON spacecraft was launched on August 10, 1992. This paper presents data on the measured performance of the ASTRA Star Trackers supplied by Hughes Danbury Optical Systems (HDOS) for this satellite. The HDOS ASTRA Star Tracker is a charge coupled device (CCD), microprocessor based replacement for the NASA Standard Fixed Head Star Tracker. The position and magnitude accuracy of the star trackers computed from measured flight data are compared with ground measurements and system models. The performance of novel transient rejection algorithms implemented in the ASTRA Star Tracker which allows uninterrupted operation in the South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA) where the sensor is subjected to high proton flux levels, also are presented.

  15. The Design Parameters for the MICE Tracker Solenoid

    SciTech Connect

    Green, Michael A.; Chen, C.Y.; Juang, Tiki; Lau, Wing W.; Taylor,Clyde; Virostek, Steve P.; Wahrer, Robert; Wang, S.T.; Witte, Holger; Yang, Stephanie Q.

    2006-08-20

    The first superconducting magnets to be installed in the muon ionization cooling experiment (MICE) will be the tracker solenoids. The tracker solenoid module is a five coil superconducting solenoid with a 400 mm diameter warm bore that is used to provide a 4 T magnetic field for the experiment tracker module. Three of the coils are used to produce a uniform field (up to 4 T with better than 1 percent uniformity) in a region that is 300 mm in diameter and 1000 mm long. The other two coils are used to match the muon beam into the MICE cooling channel. Two 2.94-meter long superconducting tracker solenoid modules have been ordered for MICE. The tracker solenoid will be cooled using two-coolers that produce 1.5 W each at 4.2 K. The magnet system is described. The decisions that drive the magnet design will be discussed in this report.

  16. The influence of proscenium boxes on acoustic response in historical opera halls.

    PubMed

    Šumarac Pavlović, Dragana; Mijić, Miomir; Mašović, Draško

    2015-09-01

    In some historical opera halls there are boxes located around the proscenium, commonly called proscenium or "director" boxes. These boxes have a certain influence on the initial part of the impulse response of an opera hall on the singer-auditorium, singer-singer, and singer-orchestra pit paths. During the reconstruction of the Ljubljana opera hall, measurement of a scaled model was performed to quantify the influence of proscenium boxes on the hall's impulse response. Some variation in box configuration on the acoustic response was also tested. This paper describes the results of this research.

  17. ac magnetic trackers for biomedical application: now and in the near future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murry, Herschell F.

    1996-04-01

    A number of ac magnetic trackers have been, and are now being, used in the medical community for varied applications from describing electronically the exact shape of a subject to tracking movement of objects. A good reason for using this technology is that the magnetic fields pass through the body without occlusions and without ionizing radiation. This paper commences with descriptions of several such tools readily available, including our 3D input stylus and 3DRAW tablet defining object dimensions to 0.01' accuracy and our close-in Short Ranger transmitter operating precisely between 2' - 12' over the subject. For the future, R&D and military electronics sponsored topics such as a metal distortion insensitive magnetic source, a high performance 240 Hz (or up to eight sensors each operating at 30 Hz) tracker with the processing power to virtually eliminate metal distortion effects and an approach for building a biologically insertible tracker are discussed to indicate the potential for new tracking tools. Discussion of needs from the medical community is encouraged in order to better guide efforts in applying our specialty technology to biomedical applications where ewe are neophytes.

  18. The ASACUSA Micromegas Tracker: A cylindrical, bulk Micromegas detector for antimatter research.

    PubMed

    Radics, B; Nagata, Y; Yamazaki, Y; Ishikawa, S; Kuroda, N; Matsuda, Y; Anfreville, M; Aune, S; Boyer, M; Chateau, F; Combet, M; Granelli, R; Legou, P; Mandjavidze, I; Procureur, S; Riallot, M; Vallage, B; Vandenbroucke, M

    2015-08-01

    The ASACUSA Micromegas Tracker (AMT; ASACUSA: Atomic Spectroscopy and Collisions Using Slow Antiprotons) was designed to be able to reconstruct antiproton-nucleon annihilation vertices in three dimensions. The goal of this device is to study antihydrogen formation processes in the ASACUSA cusp trap, which was designed to synthesise a spin-polarised antihydrogen beam for precise tests of Charge, Parity, and Time (CPT) symmetry invariance. This paper discusses the structure and technical details of an AMT detector built into such an environment, its data acquisition system and the first performance with cosmic rays. PMID:26329178

  19. The ASACUSA Micromegas Tracker: A cylindrical, bulk Micromegas detector for antimatter research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radics, B.; Nagata, Y.; Yamazaki, Y.; Ishikawa, S.; Kuroda, N.; Matsuda, Y.; Anfreville, M.; Aune, S.; Boyer, M.; Chateau, F.; Combet, M.; Granelli, R.; Legou, P.; Mandjavidze, I.; Procureur, S.; Riallot, M.; Vallage, B.; Vandenbroucke, M.

    2015-08-01

    The ASACUSA Micromegas Tracker (AMT; ASACUSA: Atomic Spectroscopy and Collisions Using Slow Antiprotons) was designed to be able to reconstruct antiproton-nucleon annihilation vertices in three dimensions. The goal of this device is to study antihydrogen formation processes in the ASACUSA cusp trap, which was designed to synthesise a spin-polarised antihydrogen beam for precise tests of Charge, Parity, and Time (CPT) symmetry invariance. This paper discusses the structure and technical details of an AMT detector built into such an environment, its data acquisition system and the first performance with cosmic rays.

  20. The ASACUSA Micromegas Tracker: A cylindrical, bulk Micromegas detector for antimatter research

    SciTech Connect

    Radics, B. Nagata, Y.; Yamazaki, Y.; Ishikawa, S.; Kuroda, N.; Matsuda, Y.; Anfreville, M.; Aune, S.; Boyer, M.; Chateau, F.; Combet, M.; Granelli, R.; Legou, P.; Mandjavidze, I.; Procureur, S.; Riallot, M.; Vallage, B.; Vandenbroucke, M.

    2015-08-15

    The ASACUSA Micromegas Tracker (AMT; ASACUSA: Atomic Spectroscopy and Collisions Using Slow Antiprotons) was designed to be able to reconstruct antiproton-nucleon annihilation vertices in three dimensions. The goal of this device is to study antihydrogen formation processes in the ASACUSA cusp trap, which was designed to synthesise a spin-polarised antihydrogen beam for precise tests of Charge, Parity, and Time (CPT) symmetry invariance. This paper discusses the structure and technical details of an AMT detector built into such an environment, its data acquisition system and the first performance with cosmic rays.

  1. The ASACUSA Micromegas Tracker: A cylindrical, bulk Micromegas detector for antimatter research.

    PubMed

    Radics, B; Nagata, Y; Yamazaki, Y; Ishikawa, S; Kuroda, N; Matsuda, Y; Anfreville, M; Aune, S; Boyer, M; Chateau, F; Combet, M; Granelli, R; Legou, P; Mandjavidze, I; Procureur, S; Riallot, M; Vallage, B; Vandenbroucke, M

    2015-08-01

    The ASACUSA Micromegas Tracker (AMT; ASACUSA: Atomic Spectroscopy and Collisions Using Slow Antiprotons) was designed to be able to reconstruct antiproton-nucleon annihilation vertices in three dimensions. The goal of this device is to study antihydrogen formation processes in the ASACUSA cusp trap, which was designed to synthesise a spin-polarised antihydrogen beam for precise tests of Charge, Parity, and Time (CPT) symmetry invariance. This paper discusses the structure and technical details of an AMT detector built into such an environment, its data acquisition system and the first performance with cosmic rays.

  2. Laser Tracker III: Sandia National Laboratories` third generation laser tracking system

    SciTech Connect

    Patrick, D.L.

    1995-03-01

    At Sandia Labs` Coyote Canyon Test Complex, it became necessary to develop a precision single station solution to provide time space position information (tspi) when tracking airborne test vehicles. Sandia`s first laser tracker came on line in 1968, replacing the fixed camera technique for producing trajectory data. This system shortened data reduction time from weeks to minutes. Laser Tracker 11 began operations in 1982, replacing the original tracker. It incorporated improved optics and electronics, with the addition of a microprocessor-based real-time control (rtc) system within the main servo loop. The rtc added trajectory prediction with the loss of adequate tracking signal and automatic control of laser beam divergence according to target range. Laser Tracker III, an even more advanced version of the systems, came on line in 1990. Unlike LTII, which is mounted in a trailer and must by moved by a tractor, LTIII is mounted on its own four-wheel drive carrier. This allows the system to be used at even the most remote locations. It also incorporated improved optics and electronics with the addition of absolute ranging, acquisition on the fly, and automatic transition from manual Joystick tracking to laser tracking for aircraft tests. LTIII provides a unique state of the art tracking capability for missile, rocket sled, aircraft, submunition, and parachute testing. Used in conjunction with LTII, the systems together can provide either simultaneous or extended range tracking. Mobility, accuracy, reliability, and cost effectiveness enable these systems to support a variety of testing at Department of Energy and Department of Defense ranges.

  3. Laboratory assessment of a miniature electromagnetic tracker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hummel, Johann; Birkfellner, Wolfgang; Figl, Michael; Haider, C.; Hanel, Rudolf A.; Bergmann, Helmar

    2002-05-01

    With the invention of miniaturized electromagnetic digitizers comes a variety of potential clinical applications for computer aided interventions using flexible instruments; it has become possible to track endoscopes or catheters within the body. To evaluate the reliability of a new commercial tracking system, we measured the systematic distortions induced by various materials such as closed metallic loops, wire guides, catheters and ultrasound scan heads. The system under evaluation was the electromagnetic tracking system Aurora (Mednetix/CH, NDI/Can); data were acquired using the serial port of a PC running SuSE Linux 7.1 (SuSE, Gmbh, Nuernberg). The objects suspected to cause distortions were brought into the digitizer volume. Beside this, we evaluated the influence of a C-arm fluoroscopy unit. To quantify the reliability of the system, the miniaturized sensor was mounted on a nonmetallic measurement rack while the transmitter was fixed at three different distances within the digitizer range. The tracker is more sensitive to distortions caused by materials close to the emitter (average value 13.6 mm +/- 16.6mm) for wire loops positioned at a distance between 100 mm and 200 mm from the emitter). Distortions caused by materials near the sensor (distances smaller than 100 mm) are small (typical error: 2.2 mm +/- 1.9 mm) in comparison to the errors of other electromagnetic systems published in an earlier study of our group where we found an average error of 3.4 mm. Considerable distortions are caused by the C-arm fluoroscopy unit and limits the reliability of the tracker (error: 18.6 mm +/- 24.9 mm). The US scan head was found to cause significant distortions only at a distance between the emitter and the scan head less than 100 mm from the emitter in contrast to the average error of 3.8 mm +/- 6.3 mm at distances greater than 100 mm. Taking into account that significant distortions only occur in the presence of metallic objects close to the emitter, these results

  4. (abstract) Realization of a Faster, Cheaper, Better Mission and Its New Paradigm Star Tracker, the Advanced Stellar Compass

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eisenman, Allan Read; Liebe, Carl Christian; Joergensen, John Lief; Jensen, Gunnar Bent

    1997-01-01

    The first Danish satellite, rsted, will be launched in August of 1997. The scientific objective of sted is to perform a precision mapping of the Earth's magnetic field. Attitude data for the payload and the satellite are provided by the Advanced Stellar Compass (ASC) star tracker. The ASC consists of a CCD star camera and a capable microprocessor which operates by comparing the star image frames taken by the camera to its internal star catalogs.

  5. Locating the neutrino interaction vertex with the help of electronic detectors in the OPERA experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gornushkin, Yu. A.; Dmitrievsky, S. G.; Chukanov, A. V.

    2015-01-01

    The OPERA experiment is designed for the direct observation of the appearance of ντ from νμ → ντ oscillation in a νμ beam. A description of the procedure of neutrino interaction vertex localization (Brick Finding) by electronic detectors of a hybrid OPERA setup is presented. The procedure includes muon track and hadronic shower axis reconstruction and a determination of the target bricks with the highest probability to contain the vertex.

  6. SDC conceptual design: Scintillating fiber outer tracker

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, D.; Baumbaugh, A.; Bird, F.; SDC Collaboration

    1992-01-22

    The authors propose an all-scintillating fiber detector for the purpose of outer tracking for the SDC. The objectives of this tracking system are to: (1) provide a first level trigger for {vert_bar}{eta}{vert_bar} < 2.3 with sharp p{sub T} threshold with the ability to resolve individual beam crossings; (2) provide pattern recognition capability and momentum resolution which complements and extends the capabilities of the inner silicon tracking system; (3) provide three dimensional linkage with outer detection systems including the shower maximum detector, muon detectors, and calorimetry; (4) provide robust tracking and track-triggering at the highest luminosities expected at the SSC. The many attractive features of a fiber tracker include good position resolution, low occupancy, low mass in the active volume, and excellent resistance to radiation damage. An additional important feature, especially at the SSC, is the intrinsically prompt response time of a scintillating fiber. This property is exploited in the construction of a level 1 trigger sensitive to individual beam crossings.

  7. Advanced electro-optical tracker/ranger

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennett, R. A.; Defoe, D. N.

    1980-06-01

    The preliminary engineering design study of an Advanced Electro-Optical Tracker/Ranger (AEOTR) to provide passive target tracking and rangefinding for air to air gun fire control is described. Area correlation processing is used in the comparison of stereo image pairs for stereometric ranging and in the comparison of successive images for tracking. The application of these techniques to the AEOTR, the limitations imposed by packaging, environmental and state-of-the-art sensor and processing hardware constraints, and the projected performance are evaluated. Principal emphasis is given to the use of AEOTR in the gun director engagement mode in which target track and range data is provided to a gun fire control computer. The feasibility of use of the AEOTR to provide target video as an aid to visual target identification, and to provide automatic airborne target detection, is also evaluated. The necessary functions and subsystems are defined and integrated into a preliminary design, whose performance is estimated and compared with the program goals. In addition, a preliminary mounting location study for the F-15, F-16 and F-18 advanced fighters is included. CAI-built hardware was used to successfully demonstrate the feasibility of the ranging and tracking concepts employed in the AEOTR.

  8. The DAMPE silicon-tungsten tracker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azzarello, P.; Ambrosi, G.; Asfandiyarov, R.; Bernardini, P.; Bertucci, B.; Bolognini, A.; Cadoux, F.; Caprai, M.; De Mitri, I.; Domenjoz, M.; Dong, Y.; Duranti, M.; Fan, R.; Fusco, P.; Gallo, V.; Gargano, F.; Gong, K.; Guo, D.; Husi, C.; Ionica, M.; La Marra, D.; Loparco, F.; Marsella, G.; Mazziotta, M. N.; Mesa, J.; Nardinocchi, A.; Nicola, L.; Pelleriti, G.; Peng, W.; Pohl, M.; Postolache, V.; Qiao, R.; Surdo, A.; Tykhonov, A.; Vitillo, S.; Wang, H.; Weber, M.; Wu, D.; Wu, X.; Zhang, F.

    2016-09-01

    The DArk Matter Particle Explorer (DAMPE) is a spaceborne astroparticle physics experiment, launched on 17 December 2015. DAMPE will identify possible dark matter signatures by detecting electrons and photons in the 5 GeV-10 TeV energy range. It will also measure the flux of nuclei up to 100 TeV, for the study of the high energy cosmic ray origin and propagation mechanisms. DAMPE is composed of four sub-detectors: a plastic strip scintillator, a silicon-tungsten tracker-converter (STK), a BGO imaging calorimeter and a neutron detector. The STK is composed of six tracking planes of 2 orthogonal layers of single-sided micro-strip detectors, for a total detector surface of ca. 7 m2. The STK has been extensively tested for space qualification. Also, numerous beam tests at CERN have been done to study particle detection at silicon module level, and at full detector level. After description of the DAMPE payload and its scientific mission, we will describe the STK characteristics and assembly. We will then focus on some results of single ladder performance tests done with particle beams at CERN.

  9. High Energy Astronomy Observatory star tracker search program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weiler, W. J.

    1972-01-01

    The development of a control system to accommodate the scientific payload of the High Energy Astronomy Observatory (HEAO) is discussed. One of the critical elements of the system is the star tracker subsystem, which defines an accurate three-axis attitude reference. A digital computer program has been developed to evaluate the ability of a particular star tracker configuration to meet the requirements for attitude reference at various vehicle orientations. Used in conjuction with an adequate star catalog, the computer program provides information on availability of stars for each tracker and on the ability of the system to maintain three-axis attitude reference throughout a representative sequence of vehicle orientations.

  10. Content and temporal structure of autobiographical knowledge: remembering twenty-five seasons at the Metropolitan Opera.

    PubMed

    Sehulster, J R

    1989-09-01

    Three experiments were designed to explore the structure and content of a well-defined subset of very long-term autobiographical memory. In Experiment 1, the author free-recalled in a single session details about the dates and casting of 284 opera performances seen at the Metropolitan Opera over a period of 25 seasons. Recall accuracy was measured by comparing the recall with the programs for each performance. Primacy and recency effects were prominent in recall of both temporal and casting details. Also, recall of performances was superior if the performances were included in the sequential structures of seasons in memory. Experiments 2 and 3 were designed to examine the effect of an opera performance's relative importance (or intensity) and opportunities for rehearsal of an opera performance on the author's free recall of the performance. In Experiment 2, importance/rehearsal opportunity was estimated from nine sources, including recordings, telecasts, tapes, and photograph books. In Experiment 3, the set of opera performances was rated and ranked by four opera experts on the dimension of intensity or importance of each performance. In both experiments, importance/rehearsal opportunity was related to superior recall of casting but not to recall of temporal details. Results suggest that detailed temporal structure in autobiographical memory is lost over time, whereas contents may be updated through various forms of rehearsal.

  11. A scale value for the balance between stage and pit and inside an historical opera house

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prodi, Nicola; Velecka, Sylvia

    2001-05-01

    Despite its recognized importance, the balance between the singer and the orchestra inside an opera house has received minor attention in the past. In fact, after the fundamental work of Meyer [J. Meyer, ``Some problems of opera house acoustics,'' Proceedings of 12th I.C.A., Vancouver, 1986, pp. 13-18], who explained why the solo singing voice can compete with the orchestra, only partial results were reported on this perceived attribute. In this work a reference scale to assess the balance inside an historical opera house is achieved by means of listening tests inside a controlled room. Two scaling experiments were performed based on the acoustical data measured inside an historical opera house, the Teatro Comunale di Ferrara, Italy. By doing so all of the relevant acoustical characteristics of a typical Italian-style opera house could be exactly reproduced. Acceptable values do not differ much in the stalls and in the boxes and are within 2 dB(A) to +2.3 dB(A). The transfer of the findings to other types of opera houses is discussed, too.

  12. Self-to-other ratios measured in an opera chorus in performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ternström, Sten; Cabrera, Densil; Davis, Pamela

    2005-12-01

    Four volunteer members of the chorus of Opera Australia, representing four different voice categories, wore binaural pairs of wireless microphones during a penultimate dress rehearsal on the Opera Theater stage of the Sydney Opera House. From the recordings, data were obtained on sound levels and on the self-to-other ratios (SORs). The sound levels were comparable to those found in loud music in chamber choir performance. The average SOR ranged from +10 to +15 dB. Compared to chamber choirs in other types of room, the SOR values were high. On a separate occasion, the stage support parameters ST1 (early reflections) and ST2 (late reflections) were measured over the whole stage area. ST1 was about -16 dB, which is typical for opera stages, and -20 dB for ST2, which is unusually low. It is concluded that the SOR in the opera chorus depends mostly on choir formation, which is highly variable, and that an opera chorus artist generally can hear his or her own voice very well, but little of the others and of the orchestra. This was confirmed by informal listening to the recordings.

  13. Self-to-other ratios measured in an opera chorus in performance.

    PubMed

    Ternström, Sten; Cabrera, Densil; Davis, Pamela

    2005-12-01

    Four volunteer members of the chorus of Opera Australia, representing four different voice categories, wore binaural pairs of wireless microphones during a penultimate dress rehearsal on the Opera Theater stage of the Sydney Opera House. From the recordings, data were obtained on sound levels and on the self-to-other ratios (SORs). The sound levels were comparable to those found in loud music in chamber choir performance. The average SOR ranged from +10 to +15 dB. Compared to chamber choirs in other types of room, the SOR values were high. On a separate occasion, the stage support parameters ST1 (early reflections) and ST2 (late reflections) were measured over the whole stage area. ST1 was about -16 dB, which is typical for opera stages, and -20 dB for ST2, which is unusually low. It is concluded that the SOR in the opera chorus depends mostly on choir formation, which is highly variable, and that an opera chorus artist generally can hear his or her own voice very well, but little of the others and of the orchestra. This was confirmed by informal listening to the recordings. PMID:16419832

  14. Ke Wang, a Chinese television soap opera with a message.

    PubMed

    Wang, M; Singhal, A

    1992-01-01

    The Chinese soap opera, Ke Wang, was created by Li Xiaoming between August 1989 and June 1990 and produced at a cost of US$4650 per episode. The characters were drawn from everyday ordinary Chinese life: a traditional and open-minded and caring woman, a typical mother who works hard and loves her children, a highly educated upwardly mobile man who divorces his wife, a professor criticized during the Cultural Revolution, a doctor prejudiced against ordinary people, a kind honest man who marries the divorcee, a friend of the divorcee, a man who is optimistic in spite of bad experiences during the Cultural Revolution, and an excellent medical doctor who also resolves conflicts. The program was very popular, even among Communists, because of its value-based content, the real-life nature of the show, the change from highly restricted programming, the elaborate and supportive media coverage, and dialogue which closely matches audience preferences. The show has been aired by over 100 stations to date and has reached a total estimated audience of 550 million. The sale of television sets has increased since the show's appearance. The script reflects the conflicts between traditional and modern Chinese values. Pro-social values and behaviors are learned from the role models depicted; examples are given of immediate social impact. Ke Wang was a by-product of the Beijing Television Arts Center's interest in designing television programs that are relevant to the lives of ordinary people. The 60-minute scripts dealt with issues such as the status of women, social morality, family harmony, class conflict, responsible parenthood, maintenance of traditional culture, volunteerism, child development, and coping with physical disability. The Chinese government hailed Ke Wang as model television and awarded US$20,000 in prize money to the producers. The Chinese government is planning to produce other entertainment-education soap operas, which raises the problem of blatant, political

  15. Ke Wang, a Chinese television soap opera with a message.

    PubMed

    Wang, M; Singhal, A

    1992-01-01

    The Chinese soap opera, Ke Wang, was created by Li Xiaoming between August 1989 and June 1990 and produced at a cost of US$4650 per episode. The characters were drawn from everyday ordinary Chinese life: a traditional and open-minded and caring woman, a typical mother who works hard and loves her children, a highly educated upwardly mobile man who divorces his wife, a professor criticized during the Cultural Revolution, a doctor prejudiced against ordinary people, a kind honest man who marries the divorcee, a friend of the divorcee, a man who is optimistic in spite of bad experiences during the Cultural Revolution, and an excellent medical doctor who also resolves conflicts. The program was very popular, even among Communists, because of its value-based content, the real-life nature of the show, the change from highly restricted programming, the elaborate and supportive media coverage, and dialogue which closely matches audience preferences. The show has been aired by over 100 stations to date and has reached a total estimated audience of 550 million. The sale of television sets has increased since the show's appearance. The script reflects the conflicts between traditional and modern Chinese values. Pro-social values and behaviors are learned from the role models depicted; examples are given of immediate social impact. Ke Wang was a by-product of the Beijing Television Arts Center's interest in designing television programs that are relevant to the lives of ordinary people. The 60-minute scripts dealt with issues such as the status of women, social morality, family harmony, class conflict, responsible parenthood, maintenance of traditional culture, volunteerism, child development, and coping with physical disability. The Chinese government hailed Ke Wang as model television and awarded US$20,000 in prize money to the producers. The Chinese government is planning to produce other entertainment-education soap operas, which raises the problem of blatant, political

  16. Tracker-on-C for cone-beam CT-guided surgery: evaluation of geometric accuracy and clinical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reaungamornrat, S.; Otake, Y.; Uneri, A.; Schafer, S.; Mirota, D. J.; Nithiananthan, S.; Stayman, J. W.; Khanna, A. J.; Reh, D. D.; Gallia, G. L.; Taylor, R. H.; Siewerdsen, J. H.

    2012-02-01

    Conventional surgical tracking configurations carry a variety of limitations in line-of-sight, geometric accuracy, and mismatch with the surgeon's perspective (for video augmentation). With increasing utilization of mobile C-arms, particularly those allowing cone-beam CT (CBCT), there is opportunity to better integrate surgical trackers at bedside to address such limitations. This paper describes a tracker configuration in which the tracker is mounted directly on the Carm. To maintain registration within a dynamic coordinate system, a reference marker visible across the full C-arm rotation is implemented, and the "Tracker-on-C" configuration is shown to provide improved target registration error (TRE) over a conventional in-room setup - (0.9+/-0.4) mm vs (1.9+/-0.7) mm, respectively. The system also can generate digitally reconstructed radiographs (DRRs) from the perspective of a tracked tool ("x-ray flashlight"), the tracker, or the C-arm ("virtual fluoroscopy"), with geometric accuracy in virtual fluoroscopy of (0.4+/-0.2) mm. Using a video-based tracker, planning data and DRRs can be superimposed on the video scene from a natural perspective over the surgical field, with geometric accuracy (0.8+/-0.3) pixels for planning data overlay and (0.6+/-0.4) pixels for DRR overlay across all C-arm angles. The field-of-view of fluoroscopy or CBCT can also be overlaid on real-time video ("Virtual Field Light") to assist C-arm positioning. The fixed transformation between the x-ray image and tracker facilitated quick, accurate intraoperative registration. The workflow and precision associated with a variety of realistic surgical tasks were significantly improved using the Tracker-on-C - for example, nearly a factor of 2 reduction in time required for C-arm positioning, reduction or elimination of dose in "hunting" for a specific fluoroscopic view, and confident placement of the x-ray FOV on the surgical target. The proposed configuration streamlines the integration of C

  17. A low-cost, CCD solid state star tracker

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chmielowski, M.; Wynne, D.

    1992-01-01

    Applied Research Corporation (ARC) has developed an engineering model of a multi-star CCD-based tracker for space applications requiring radiation hardness, high reliability and low power consumption. The engineering unit compared favorably in functional performance tests to the standard NASA single-star tracker. Characteristics of the ARC star tracker are: field of view = 10 deg x 7.5 deg, sensitivity range of -1 to +5 star magnitude, NEA = 3 in x 3 in, linearity = 5 in x 5 in, and power consumption of 1-3 W (operating mode dependent). The software is upgradable through a remote link. The hardware-limited acquisition rate is 1-5 Hz for stars of +2 to +5 magnitude and 10-30 Hz for -1 to +2 magnitude stars. Mechanical and electrical interfaces are identical to the standard NASA star tracker.

  18. D0 layer 0 innermost layer of silicon microstrip tracker

    SciTech Connect

    Hanagaki, K.; /Fermilab

    2006-01-01

    A new inner layer silicon strip detector has been built and will be installed in the existing silicon microstrip tracker in D0. They report on the motivation, design, and performance of this new detector.

  19. Performance studies of the CMS Strip Tracker before installation

    SciTech Connect

    Adam, W.; et al.

    2009-06-01

    In March 2007 the assembly of the Silicon Strip Tracker was completed at the Tracker Integration Facility at CERN. Nearly 15% of the detector was instrumented using cables, fiber optics, power supplies, and electronics intended for the operation at the LHC. A local chiller was used to circulate the coolant for low temperature operation. In order to understand the efficiency and alignment of the strip tracker modules, a cosmic ray trigger was implemented. From March through July 4.5 million triggers were recorded. This period, referred to as the Sector Test, provided practical experience with the operation of the Tracker, especially safety, data acquisition, power, and cooling systems. This paper describes the performance of the strip system during the Sector Test, which consisted of five distinct periods defined by the coolant temperature. Significant emphasis is placed on comparisons between the data and results from Monte Carlo studies.

  20. Soap operas and social marketing: the PCI strategy.

    PubMed

    Fox, I

    This article presents the impact of soap operas and social marketing efforts, developed by Population Communications International (PCI), on changing the attitude and behavior of individuals toward family planning, health, women empowerment, and pro-social issues. The objective of the program is to motivate individuals and communities to make reproductive health and development choices which will contribute significantly in slowing population growth. In addition, these were designed to complement the efforts of those providing health services in several countries. PCI is responsible in training creative talent, research in determining the issues and arrangements necessary for a program to be aired. After following the methods promoted by the PCI, reports on the Tanzania and Kenya programs further confirm that the mass media education programs for changing behavior are effective. During the two conferences organized by PCI, three American production organizations initiated new storylines based on the issues discussed. Moreover, several countries expressed their desire to develop similar conferences in their countries. To end, PCI is designing additional soaps in other countries; wherein, the problem lies not on contraceptive availability, but on deeply held fears, superstitions, and culture equating having children with man's virility and dominance. PMID:12349572

  1. [The physiological changes in the larynx of the opera singers].

    PubMed

    Chernobel'sky, S I

    2015-01-01

    A total of 30 opera soloists (15 men and 15 women) at the age from 27 to 35 years were examined to elucidate the influence of vocal loading on the vocal fold colour. Two types of the vocal load were used (20 and 60 minutes in duration). In the former case, the participants were examined prior to singing and 15 min after it. In the latter case, the examination was repeated in triplicate, viz. in the morning before singing, thereafter 15 min and 12 hours after singing. Mirror laryngosopy, laryngostroboscopy, and the acoustic test were employed for the examination. It was shown that 20 minute singing did not cause an appreciable vocal fold hyperemia. It developed after singing during 60 minutes and persisted for at least the next 12 minutes in 12 men and 13 women. However, simultaneous stroboscopy and the acoustic test failed to reveal any abnormalities in these singers. It is concluded that the majority of the singers develop physiological hyperemia of the vocal folds after singing during 60 minutes that exerts neither subjectively nor objectively noticeable influence on the voice quality even though it lasts at least 12 hours.

  2. Simultaneous Recordings of Human Microsaccades and Drifts with a Contemporary Video Eye Tracker and the Search Coil Technique

    PubMed Central

    McCamy, Michael B.; Otero-Millan, Jorge; Leigh, R. John; King, Susan A.; Schneider, Rosalyn M.; Macknik, Stephen L.; Martinez-Conde, Susana

    2015-01-01

    Human eyes move continuously, even during visual fixation. These “fixational eye movements” (FEMs) include microsaccades, intersaccadic drift and oculomotor tremor. Research in human FEMs has grown considerably in the last decade, facilitated by the manufacture of noninvasive, high-resolution/speed video-oculography eye trackers. Due to the small magnitude of FEMs, obtaining reliable data can be challenging, however, and depends critically on the sensitivity and precision of the eye tracking system. Yet, no study has conducted an in-depth comparison of human FEM recordings obtained with the search coil (considered the gold standard for measuring microsaccades and drift) and with contemporary, state-of-the art video trackers. Here we measured human microsaccades and drift simultaneously with the search coil and a popular state-of-the-art video tracker. We found that 95% of microsaccades detected with the search coil were also detected with the video tracker, and 95% of microsaccades detected with video tracking were also detected with the search coil, indicating substantial agreement between the two systems. Peak/mean velocities and main sequence slopes of microsaccades detected with video tracking were significantly higher than those of the same microsaccades detected with the search coil, however. Ocular drift was significantly correlated between the two systems, but drift speeds were higher with video tracking than with the search coil. Overall, our combined results suggest that contemporary video tracking now approaches the search coil for measuring FEMs. PMID:26035820

  3. Breadboard stellar tracker system test report, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Complete data from a test program designed to evaluate the performance of a star tracker, a breadboard tracker system, is presented in tabular form. All data presented was normalized to the pixel dimension of 20 micrometers. Data from determination of maximum spatial noise as it applies to the coarse and fine acquisition modes is presented. Pointing accuracy test data, raw pixel data for the track cycle, and data from equipment related tests is also presented.

  4. Optical Alignment of the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Star Trackers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hetherington, Samuel; Osgood, Dean; McMann, Joe; Roberts, Viki; Gill, James; Mclean, Kyle

    2013-01-01

    The optical alignment of the star trackers on the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) core spacecraft at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) was challenging due to the layout and structural design of the GPM Lower Bus Structure (LBS) in which the star trackers are mounted as well as the presence of the star tracker shades that blocked line-of-sight to the primary star tracker optical references. The initial solution was to negotiate minor changes in the original LBS design to allow for the installation of a removable item of ground support equipment (GSE) that could be installed whenever measurements of the star tracker optical references were needed. However, this GSE could only be used to measure secondary optical reference cube faces not used by the star tracker vendor to obtain the relationship information and matrix transformations necessary to determine star tracker alignment. Unfortunately, due to unexpectedly large orthogonality errors between the measured secondary adjacent cube faces and the lack of cube calibration data, we required a method that could be used to measure the same reference cube faces as originally measured by the vendor. We describe an alternative technique to theodolite auto-collimation for measurement of an optical reference mirror pointing direction when normal incidence measurements are not possible. This technique was used to successfully align the GPM star trackers and has been used on a number of other NASA flight projects. We also discuss alignment theory as well as a GSFC-developed theodolite data analysis package used to analyze angular metrology data.

  5. Breadboard stellar tracker system test report, volume 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kollodge, J. C.; Hubbard, M. W.; Jain, S.; Schons, C. A.

    1981-08-01

    The performance of a star tracker equipped with a focal plane detector was evaluated. The CID board is an array of 256 x 256 pixels which are 20 x 20 micrometers in dimension. The tracker used for test was a breadboard tracker system developed by BASD. Unique acquisition and tracking algorithms are employed to enhance performance. A pattern recognition process is used to test for proper image spread function and to avoid false acquisition on noise. A very linear, high gain, interpixel transfer function is derived for interpolating star position. The lens used in the tracker has an EFL of 100 mm. The tracker has an FOV of 2.93 degrees resulting in a pixel angular subtense of 41.253 arc sec in each axis. The test procedure used for the program presented a star to the tracker in a circular pattern of positions; the pattern was formed by projecting a simulated star through a rotatable deviation wedge. Further tests determined readout noise, Noise Equivalent Displacement during track, and spatial noise during acquisition by taking related data and reducing it.

  6. Breadboard stellar tracker system test report, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kollodge, J. C.; Hubbard, M. W.; Jain, S.; Schons, C. A.

    1981-01-01

    The performance of a star tracker equipped with a focal plane detector was evaluated. The CID board is an array of 256 x 256 pixels which are 20 x 20 micrometers in dimension. The tracker used for test was a breadboard tracker system developed by BASD. Unique acquisition and tracking algorithms are employed to enhance performance. A pattern recognition process is used to test for proper image spread function and to avoid false acquisition on noise. A very linear, high gain, interpixel transfer function is derived for interpolating star position. The lens used in the tracker has an EFL of 100 mm. The tracker has an FOV of 2.93 degrees resulting in a pixel angular subtense of 41.253 arc sec in each axis. The test procedure used for the program presented a star to the tracker in a circular pattern of positions; the pattern was formed by projecting a simulated star through a rotatable deviation wedge. Further tests determined readout noise, Noise Equivalent Displacement during track, and spatial noise during acquisition by taking related data and reducing it.

  7. Multi-expert tracking algorithm based on improved compressive tracker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Yachun; Zhang, Hong; Yuan, Ding

    2015-12-01

    Object tracking is a challenging task in computer vision. Most state-of-the-art methods maintain an object model and update the object model by using new examples obtained incoming frames in order to deal with the variation in the appearance. It will inevitably introduce the model drift problem into the object model updating frame-by-frame without any censorship mechanism. In this paper, we adopt a multi-expert tracking framework, which is able to correct the effect of bad updates after they happened such as the bad updates caused by the severe occlusion. Hence, the proposed framework exactly has the ability which a robust tracking method should process. The expert ensemble is constructed of a base tracker and its formal snapshot. The tracking result is produced by the current tracker that is selected by means of a simple loss function. We adopt an improved compressive tracker as the base tracker in our work and modify it to fit the multi-expert framework. The proposed multi-expert tracking algorithm significantly improves the robustness of the base tracker, especially in the scenes with frequent occlusions and illumination variations. Experiments on challenging video sequences with comparisons to several state-of-the-art trackers demonstrate the effectiveness of our method and our tracking algorithm can run at real-time.

  8. EMC Diagnosis and Corrective Actions for Silicon Strip Tracker Detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Arteche, F.; Rivetta, C.; /SLAC

    2006-06-06

    The tracker sub-system is one of the five sub-detectors of the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment under construction at CERN for the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) accelerator. The tracker subdetector is designed to reconstruct tracks of charged sub-atomic particles generated after collisions. The tracker system processes analogue signals from 10 million channels distributed across 14000 silicon micro-strip detectors. It is designed to process signals of a few nA and digitize them at 40 MHz. The overall sub-detector is embedded in a high particle radiation environment and a magnetic field of 4 Tesla. The evaluation of the electromagnetic immunity of the system is very important to optimize the performance of the tracker sub-detector and the whole CMS experiment. This paper presents the EMC diagnosis of the CMS silicon tracker sub-detector. Immunity tests were performed using the final prototype of the Silicon Tracker End-Caps (TEC) system to estimate the sensitivity of the system to conducted noise, evaluate the weakest areas of the system and take corrective actions before the integration of the overall detector. This paper shows the results of one of those tests, that is the measurement and analysis of the immunity to CM external conducted noise perturbations.

  9. MONDO: A neutron tracker for particle therapy secondary emission fluxes measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marafini, M.; Patera, V.; Pinci, D.; Sarti, A.; Sciubba, A.; Spiriti, E.

    2016-07-01

    Cancer treatment is performed, in Particle Therapy, using accelerated charged particles whose high irradiation precision and conformity allows the tumor destruction while sparing the surrounding healthy tissues. Dose release monitoring devices using photons and charged particles produced by the beam interaction with the patient body have already been proposed, but no attempt based on the detection of the abundant secondary radiation neutron component has been made yet. The reduced attenuation length of neutrons yields a secondary particle sample that is larger in number when compared to photons and charged particles. Furthermore, neutrons allow for a backtracking of the emission point that is not affected by multiple scattering. Since neutrons can release a significant dose far away from the tumor region, a precise measurement of their flux, production energy and angle distributions is eagerly needed in order to improve the Treatment Planning Systems (TPS) software, so to predict not only the normal tissue toxicity in the target region but also the risk of late complications in the whole body. All the aforementioned issues underline the importance for an experimental effort devoted to the precise characterization of the neutron production gaining experimental access both to the emission point and production energy. The technical challenges posed by a neutron detector aiming for a high detection efficiency and good backtracking precision will be addressed within the MONDO (MOnitor for Neutron Dose in hadrOntherapy) project. The MONDO's main goal is to develop a tracking detector targeting fast and ultrafast secondary neutrons. The tracker is composed by a scintillating fiber matrix (4 × 4 × 8cm3). The full reconstruction of protons, produced in elastic interactions, will be used to measure energy and direction of the impinging neutron. The neutron tracker will measure the neutron production yields, as a function of production angle and energy, using different

  10. Performing Lieder: Expert Perspectives and Comparison of Vibrato and Singer's Formant With Opera Singers.

    PubMed

    Johnson-Read, Lynette; Chmiel, Anthony; Schubert, Emery; Wolfe, Joe

    2015-09-01

    This article reports three studies about performance of lieder, and in particular in comparison with opera performance. In study 1, 21 participants with experience in music performance and teaching completed a survey concerning various characteristics of lieder performance. The results showed that there was consensus between the literature and the assessment of an expert panel-that a "natural" and "unoperatic" vibrato was favored, and that diction, text, and variation of tone are all important aspects of lieder performance. Two acoustic analyses were conducted to investigate genre-specific differences of the singer's formant and vibrato parameters. The first analysis (study 2) used 18 single quasi-unaccompanied notes from commercial recordings of two lieder, and, for comparison, 20 single unaccompanied notes from an opera. Vibrato rate was statistically identical between the two genres at ~6.4 Hz; however, lieder featured a longer delay in vibrato onset. Vibrato extent was smaller for lieder (~112 cents) compared with opera (~138 cents). The singer's formant, which is generally associated with opera, was at times observed in the lieder recordings; however, this was at an overall significantly weaker intensity than in the opera recordings. The results were replicated in study 3, where recordings using only singers who performed in both lied and opera were analyzed. This direct comparison used 45 lieder notes and 55 opera notes and also investigated three different methods of analyzing the singer's formant. A number of consistencies and inconsistencies were identified between acoustic parameters reported in studies 2 and 3, and the beliefs of singing teachers and scholars in the literature and study 1.

  11. Performing Lieder: Expert Perspectives and Comparison of Vibrato and Singer's Formant With Opera Singers.

    PubMed

    Johnson-Read, Lynette; Chmiel, Anthony; Schubert, Emery; Wolfe, Joe

    2015-09-01

    This article reports three studies about performance of lieder, and in particular in comparison with opera performance. In study 1, 21 participants with experience in music performance and teaching completed a survey concerning various characteristics of lieder performance. The results showed that there was consensus between the literature and the assessment of an expert panel-that a "natural" and "unoperatic" vibrato was favored, and that diction, text, and variation of tone are all important aspects of lieder performance. Two acoustic analyses were conducted to investigate genre-specific differences of the singer's formant and vibrato parameters. The first analysis (study 2) used 18 single quasi-unaccompanied notes from commercial recordings of two lieder, and, for comparison, 20 single unaccompanied notes from an opera. Vibrato rate was statistically identical between the two genres at ~6.4 Hz; however, lieder featured a longer delay in vibrato onset. Vibrato extent was smaller for lieder (~112 cents) compared with opera (~138 cents). The singer's formant, which is generally associated with opera, was at times observed in the lieder recordings; however, this was at an overall significantly weaker intensity than in the opera recordings. The results were replicated in study 3, where recordings using only singers who performed in both lied and opera were analyzed. This direct comparison used 45 lieder notes and 55 opera notes and also investigated three different methods of analyzing the singer's formant. A number of consistencies and inconsistencies were identified between acoustic parameters reported in studies 2 and 3, and the beliefs of singing teachers and scholars in the literature and study 1. PMID:25873544

  12. Automatic Workpiece Surface Tracker For Laser Cutter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mottier, F. M.

    1980-05-01

    Precise guidance of high energy laser beams is important in industrial laser machining to optimize the use of the available power and to assure high quality work. A crossed beam depth gauge has been designed that measures the distance to the workpiece surface with an accuracy of one part in two thousand over a range of 10 cm. The television camera based system is described along with an analysis of its performance.

  13. Human factor requirements of helmet trackers for HMDs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinsen, Gary L.; Havig, Paul R.; Post, David L.; Reis, George A.; Simpson, Matthew A.

    2003-09-01

    A helmet tracker is a critical element in the path that delivers targeting and other sensor data to the user of a helmet-mounted display (HMD) in a military aircraft. The original purpose of an HMD was to serve as a helmet-mounted sight and provide a means to fully utilize the capabilities of off-boresight munitions. Recently, the role of the HMD has evolved from being strictly a targeting tool to providing detailed flight path and situation awareness information. These changes, however, have placed even greater value on the visual information that is transferred through the helmet tracker to the HMD. Specifically, the timeliness and accuracy of the information, which is of critical importance when the HMD is used as a targeting aid, is of even greater importance when the HMD is used to display flight reference information. This is especially relevant since it has been proposed to build new military aircraft without a physical head-up display (HUD) and display HUD information virtually with an HMD. In this paper, we review the current state of helmet tracker technology with respect to use in military aviation. We also identify the parameters of helmet trackers that offer the greatest risk when using an HMD to provide information beyond targeting data to the user. Finally, we discuss the human factors limitations of helmet tracker systems for delivering both targeting and flight reference information to a military pilot.

  14. Construction and commissioning of the SuperNEMO detector tracker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cascella, Michele

    2016-07-01

    The SuperNEMO detector will search for neutrinoless double beta decay at the Modane Underground Laboratory; the detector design allows complete topological reconstruction of the decay event enabling excellent levels of background rejection and, in the event of a discovery, the ability to determine the nature of the lepton number violating process. In order to demonstrate the feasibility of the full experiment, we are building a Demonstrator Module containing 7 kg of 82Se, with an expected sensitivity of |mββ | < 0.2 - 0.4 eV after 2.5 yr. The demonstrator tracker is currently being assembled in the UK; the main challenge in the tracker design is the high radiopurity required to limit the background. For this reason the cell wiring is automated and every step of the tracker assembly happens in a clean environment. All components are carefully screened for radiopurity and each section of the tracker, once assembled, is sealed and checked for Radon emanation. We present the detector design, the current status of the construction and present the first results from the surface commissioning of one section of the Demonstrator Module tracker.

  15. Exposure time optimization for highly dynamic star trackers.

    PubMed

    Wei, Xinguo; Tan, Wei; Li, Jian; Zhang, Guangjun

    2014-03-11

    Under highly dynamic conditions, the star-spots on the image sensor of a star tracker move across many pixels during the exposure time, which will reduce star detection sensitivity and increase star location errors. However, this kind of effect can be compensated well by setting an appropriate exposure time. This paper focuses on how exposure time affects the star tracker under highly dynamic conditions and how to determine the most appropriate exposure time for this case. Firstly, the effect of exposure time on star detection sensitivity is analyzed by establishing the dynamic star-spot imaging model. Then the star location error is deduced based on the error analysis of the sub-pixel centroiding algorithm. Combining these analyses, the effect of exposure time on attitude accuracy is finally determined. Some simulations are carried out to validate these effects, and the results show that there are different optimal exposure times for different angular velocities of a star tracker with a given configuration. In addition, the results of night sky experiments using a real star tracker agree with the simulation results. The summarized regularities in this paper should prove helpful in the system design and dynamic performance evaluation of the highly dynamic star trackers.

  16. Pointing knowledge accuracy of the star tracker based ATP system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Shinhak; Ortiz, Gerardo G.; Alexander, James W.

    2005-04-01

    The pointing knowledge for the deep space optical communications should be accurate and the estimate update rate needs to be sufficiently higher to compensate the spacecraft vibration. Our objective is to meet these two requirements, high accuracy and update rate, using the combinations of star trackers and inertial sensors. Star trackers are very accurate and provide absolute pointing knowledge with low update rate depending on the star magnitude. On the other hand, inertial sensors provide relative pointing knowledge with high update rates. In this paper, we describe how the star tracker and inertial sensor measurements are combined to reduce the pointing knowledge jitter. This method is based on the 'iterative averaging' of the star tracker and gyro measurements. Angle sensor measurements are to fill in between the two gyro measurements for higher update rate and the total RMS error (or jitter) increases in RSS (Root-Sum-Squared) sense. The estimated pointing jitter is on the order of 150 nrad which is well below the typical requirements of the deep space optical communications. This 150 nrad jitter can be achieved with 8 cm diameter of telescope aperture. Additional expectations include 1/25 pixel accuracy per star, SIRTF class gyros (ARW = 0.0001 deg/root-hr), 5 Hz star trackers with ~5.0 degree FOV, detector of 1000 by 1000 pixels, and stars of roughly 9 to 9.5 magnitudes.

  17. Alignment of the ATLAS silicon tracker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morley, Anthony

    2008-10-01

    ATLAS is one of the four experiments currently under preparation at Large Hadron Collider. Charged particle track reconstruction in the ATLAS Inner Detector is performed both with silicon and drift-tube-based detectors. The alignment of the ATLAS tracking system is one of the challenges that the experiment must overcome in order to achieve its physics goals. This requires the determination of almost 35 000 degrees of freedom. The precision required for the most sensitive coordinate of the silicon devices is of the order of few microns. This precision will be attained with a combination of two techniques: a hardware system with Frequency Scan Interferometers, and track-based alignment. The latter requires the application of complex alignment algorithms that can be both CPU and memory intensive due to the possible requirement of large matrix inversion or many iterations. The alignment algorithms have been already exercised on several challenges such as a Combined Test Beam, cosmic ray runs and large scale computing simulation of physics samples. This note reports on the methods, their computing requirements and preliminary results.

  18. Tracking gaze while walking on a treadmill: spatial accuracy and limits of use of a stationary remote eye-tracker.

    PubMed

    Serchi, V; Peruzzi, A; Cereatti, A; Della Croce, U

    2014-01-01

    Inaccurate visual sampling and foot placement may lead to unsafe walking. Virtual environments, challenging obstacle negotiation, may be used to investigate the relationship between the point of gaze and stepping accuracy. A measurement of the point of gaze during walking can be obtained using a remote eye-tracker. The assessment of its performance and limits of applicability is essential to define the areas of interest in a virtual environment and to collect information for the analysis of the visual strategy. The current study aims at characterizing a gaze eye-tracker in static and dynamic conditions. Three different conditions were analyzed: a) looking at a single stimulus during selected head movements b) looking at multiple stimuli distributed on the screen from different distances, c) looking at multiple stimuli distributed on the screen while walking. The eye-tracker was able to measure the point of gaze during the head motion along medio-lateral and vertical directions consistently with the device specifications, while the tracking during the head motion along the anterior-posterior direction resulted to be lower than the device specifications. During head rotation around the vertical direction, the error of the point of gaze was lower than 23 mm. The best accuracy (10 mm) was achieved, consistently to the device specifications, in the static condition performed at 650 mm from the eye-tracker, while point of gaze data were lost while getting closer to the eye-tracker. In general, the accuracy and precision of the point of gaze did not show to be related to the stimulus position. During fast walking (1.1 m/s), the eye-tracker did not lose any data, since the head range of motion was always within the ranges of trackability. The values of accuracy and precision during walking were similar to those resulting from static conditions. These values will be considered in the definition of the size and shape of the areas of interest in the virtual environment. PMID

  19. Using a laser tracker for active alignment on the Large Binocular Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rakich, A.

    2012-09-01

    The Large Binocular Telescope (LBT) currently achieves collimation using a combination of collimation models and closed-loop active correction schemes. Shack Hartmann wavefront sensors with off-axis guide stars are used for Gregorian modes, and a closed-loop correction scheme is used for the prime-focus cameras. While in general this combination serves to produce alignment residuals well below a good seeing limit within a few minutes of obtaining a given target field, the uniquely asymmetrical structure of the LBT is prone to producing large deflections of the telescope optics when the ambient temperature is changing unusually rapidly. These deflections are difficult to model satisfactorily, and are an ongoing source of inefficiency in telescope operations. Furthermore, none of the current approaches to telescope collimation are particularly "piston aware"; a situation that needs to be improved on now that the LBT is commencing operations with the first of its beam combining instruments, LBTI. The laser tracker is a metrology instrument capable of automatically measuring optical element positions with better than 100 micron precision within a spherical volume of 30 m radius centered on the tracker head. With the ability to directly measure optics into position to this accuracy built into the Telescope Control System (TCS), the LBT would always be starting observations from a point of near-collimation, the component telescopes would be co-pointed, and the OPD would be well within the capture range of the beam combining instrument's internal phasing systems. This paper describes first results from engineering investigations into using the laser tracker to automatically align the optics on the LBT.

  20. Acoustics in the Competition for the Construction of the Opera House “LA FENICE”: 1789-1790

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    BIGGI, M. I.; POMPOLI, R.

    2000-04-01

    From the analysis of the projects presented for the competition held in Venice (1789-1790) and from the judgements of the commission, this paper attempts to synthesize the knowledge of opera house acoustics at the end of the 18th century, so important for the history of music and opera houses.

  1. Teachers' Transformation as Learning: Teaching Cantonese Opera in Hong Kong Schools with a Teacher-Artist Partnership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leung, Bo Wah

    2014-01-01

    The Hong Kong Government has advocated teaching Cantonese opera in the school music curriculum to promote Chinese culture education. This longitudinal study aims to examine how and why teachers transform within 3 years in learning and teaching Cantonese opera with a teacher-artist partnership approach in schools. Five primary and two secondary…

  2. Precision Attitude Determination for an Infrared Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benford, Dominic J.

    2008-01-01

    We have developed performance simulations for a precision attitude determination system using a focal plane star tracker on an infrared space telescope. The telescope is being designed for the Destiny mission to measure cosmologically distant supernovae as one of the candidate implementations for the Joint Dark Energy Mission. Repeat observations of the supernovae require attitude control at the level of 0.010 arcseconds (0.05 microradians) during integrations and at repeat intervals up to and over a year. While absolute accuracy is not required, the repoint precision is challenging. We have simulated the performance of a focal plane star tracker in a multidimensional parameter space, including pixel size, read noise, and readout rate. Systematic errors such as proper motion, velocity aberration, and parallax can be measured and compensated out. Our prediction is that a relative attitude determination accuracy of 0.001 to 0.002 arcseconds (0.005 to 0.010 microradians) will be achievable.

  3. The tracker systems for the muon ionization cooling experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heidt, C.

    2013-08-01

    The Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE) will be the first experiment to demonstrate muon ionization cooling in the momentum range of 140-240 MeV/c. The experiment is a single-particle experiment where the input and output beam emittances are constructed from an ensemble of selected single-muon candidates. The fiber trackers are placed in a solenoidal field of 4 T (one before and one after the cooling channel) to measure the muon 4-momentum and provide the basic information for determining the emittances. This paper gives a brief overview of MICE and then describes the details of the fiber tracker assemblies, the unique construction technique used (which for the first time used 350 μm diameter scintillating fiber), the readout electronics and performance with respect to light yield, hit resolution and tracking efficiency as measured in a recent cosmic-ray test of the two final tracker systems.

  4. Laser Tracker Test Facility at SLAC - Progress Report

    SciTech Connect

    Gassner, G.L.; Ruland, R.E.; /SLAC

    2008-02-22

    Physics experiments at SLAC require high accuracy positioning, e. g. 100 {micro}m over a distance of 150 m or 25 {micro}m in a 10 x 10 x 3 meter volume. Laser Tracker measurement systems have become one of the most important tools for achieving these accuracies when mapping components. In order to improve and get a better understanding of laser tracker measurement tolerances we extended our laboratory with a rotary calibration table (Kugler GmbH) providing an accuracy of better than 0.2 arcsec. This paper gives an overview of the calibration table and its evaluation. Results of tests on two of our Laser Trackers utilizing the new rotary table as well as the SLAC interferometer bench are presented.

  5. Combinations of 148 navigation stars and the star tracker

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duncan, R.

    1980-01-01

    The angular separation of all star combinations for 148 nav star on the onboard software for space transportation system-3 flight and following missions is presented as well as the separation of each pair that satisfies the viewing constraints of using both star trackers simultaneously. Tables show (1) shuttle star catalog 1980 star position in M 1950 coordinates; (2) two star combination of 148 nav stars; and (3) summary of two star-combinations of the star tracker 5 deg filter. These 148 stars present 10,875 combinations. For the star tracker filters of plus or minus 5 deg, there are 875 combinations. Formalhaut (nav star 26) has the best number of combinations, which is 33.

  6. Observation of νµ → ντ oscillations by the OPERA experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dusini, S.

    2015-07-01

    The OPERA experiment is searching for the νµ → ντ oscillations via the direct detection of decays of τ leptons produced in ντ Charged Current interactions. In a sub-sample of the data recorded in the years 2008-2012, OPERA observes 4 ντ candidate events with a total expected background of 0.233 ± 0.041 events, excluding the non-oscillation hypothesis at 32 the 4.2σ level. This result is used to measure for the first time the Δ m322 oscillation parameter in appearance mode.

  7. Search for νμ → νe Oscillations with the Opera Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zemskova, S. G.

    2015-06-01

    The main goal of the OPERA experiment is the direct observation of νμ → ντ oscillations in appearance mode in the quasi pure νμ CNGS beam. Profiting of the tracking capabilities of the OPERA active target it is possible to detect and reconstruct νe interactions and therefore to study the subdominant νμ → νe oscillation channel. Current results on this channel in the three-flavour mixing model are presented. The same data allow to constrain the non-standard oscillation parameters indicated by the LSND and MiniBooNE experiments.

  8. Pro-development soap operas: a novel approach to development communication.

    PubMed

    Brown, W J; Singhal, A; Rogers, E M

    1989-01-01

    Soap operas have their roots in 18th century English romance novels. These evolved into serialized radio dramas. In their current form, they were developed primarily to attract large audiences in order to sell consumer products. Hence the name soap which refers to the soap manufacturers who commonly advertise on such programs. In the world of soap operas there are 2 kinds. Those that function primarily to entertain and sell consumer products, and those that primarily entertain, but infuse positive social messages. The former are found everywhere, but are the only kind in America. The latter are found exclusively in developing countries. American soap operas have conveyed pro-social messages in the past, but they differ fundamentally from pro-development soap operas in their theoretical foundations. American soap operas are created by people who want to sell consumer goods. Development soap operas are created by people who want to convey pro-social messages that will aid their country's development. Both must be popular in order to be successful, but the former lack moral coherency, are unrealistic, erode values, and are created through a process of a theoretical development; while the latter have moral coherency, are realistic, promote values, and are created through a process of theoretical development. The 1st pro-development soap opera was Ven Conmigo (Come With Me) and was produced in Mexico between 1975-76. Its primary purpose was to increase adult literacy. During the year it ran, applicants at adult literacy centers rose by 600,000 or 63% compared to 7% the year before, and 2% the year after. The 2nd pro-development soap opera was Acompaname (Accompany Me) and it primary purpose was to promote family planning. It ran from 1977-78 and during that time the number of family planning adopters rose by 560,000 and contraceptive sale sin Mexico rose sharply. The question of what are pro-social messages and who should control them must be answered by each country in

  9. Simulation of the GEM silicon central tracker using GEANT

    SciTech Connect

    Brooks, M.L.; Kinnison, W.W.

    1994-01-01

    The silicon central tracker of the GEM detector has been simulated using the high energy physics simulations code GEANT. This paper will describe the level of detail of the geometry of the tracker that is in the code, including the silicon detectors themselves as well as all non-sensitive volumes such as support structures; the digitization, or detector response to particles, of the silicon detectors; the coordinate reconstruction from the digitizations, and some of the results of the simulations regarding the detector performance.

  10. Application analysis of enhanced video tracker in space optical communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhai, Xuhua; Zhang, Hongtao; Zhao, Haishan; Zhang, Zhiping

    2011-06-01

    Relay mirror is used to track ground-based beacon accurately in space optical communication. It is unreliable to track the beam by the ordinary quadrant. DBA video tracker applies avalanche photo diode quadrant to enhance, which can improve the performance of the relay mirror tracking system. However, the sight line disturbance followed is unacceptable. By the continuous designs we present the scheme of enhanced video tracker with high-passed high bandwidth quadrant, and it is proved that it is successful for the relay mirror experiment.

  11. Environmental testing results over a tracker drive train

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez, María; Calvo-Parra, Gustavo; Gil, Eduardo; de la Rubia, Oscar; Hillebrand, Mario; Rubio, Francisca; Aipperspach, Wolfgang; Gombert, Andreas

    2014-09-01

    Environmental testing following the draft of the IEC62817 standard has been carried out at ISFOC using a Soitec Solar tracker drive. The objective of this work is twofold; first to assure that the tracker design can perform under varying conditions and survive under extreme conditions and secondly to test the viability and usefulness of the tests described in the standard. After some changes in the device under test (specifically, gear-box oil) the drive system produced satisfactory results, assuring its performance under operational temperatures. Therefore, this work has demonstrated that the tests described in the standard are useful for detecting early failures.

  12. Detector production for the R3B Si-tracker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borri, M.; Lemmon, R.; Thornhill, J.; Bate, R.; Chartier, M.; Clague, N.; Herzberg, R.-D.; Labiche, M.; Lindsay, S.; Nolan, P.; Pearce, F.; Powell, W.; Wells, D.

    2016-11-01

    R3B is a fixed target experiment which will study reactions with relativistic radioactive beams at FAIR. Its Si-tracker will surround the target volume and it will detect light charged-particles like protons. The detector technology in use consists of double-sided silicon strip sensors wire bonded to the custom made R3B-ASIC. The tracker allows for a maximum of two outer layers and one inner layer. This paper reports on the production of detectors necessary to build the minimum tracking configuration: one inner layer and one outer layer.

  13. Environmental Tests of the Flight GLAST LAT Tracker Towers

    SciTech Connect

    Bagagli, R.; Baldini, L.; Bellazzini, R.; Barbiellini, G.; Belli, F.; Borden, T.; Brez, A.; Brigida, M.; Caliandro, G.A.; Cecchi, C.; Cohen-Tanugi, J.; Angelis, A.De; Drell, P.; Favuzzi, C.; Fusco, P.; Gargano, F.; Germani, S.; Giglietto, N.; Giordano, F.; Goodman, J.; Himel, T.

    2008-03-12

    The Gamma-ray Large Area Space telescope (GLAST) is a gamma-ray satellite scheduled for launch in 2008. Before the assembly of the Tracker subsystem of the Large Area Telescope (LAT) science instrument of GLAST, every component (tray) and module (tower) has been subjected to extensive ground testing required to ensure successful launch and on-orbit operation. This paper describes the sequence and results of the environmental tests performed on an engineering model and all the flight hardware of the GLAST LAT Tracker. Environmental tests include vibration testing, thermal cycles and thermal-vacuum cycles of every tray and tower as well as the verification of their electrical performance.

  14. Characterization of the Ecosole HCPV tracker and single module inverter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carpanelli, Maurizio; Borelli, Gianni; Verdilio, Daniele; De Nardis, Davide; Migali, Fabrizio; Cancro, Carmine; Graditi, Giorgio

    2015-09-01

    BECAR, the Beghelli group's R&D company, is leading ECOSOLE (Elevated COncentration SOlar Energy), one of the largest European Demonstration projects in solar photovoltaic. ECOSOLE, started in 2012, is focused on the study, design, and realization of new HCPV generator made of high efficiency PV modules equipped with SoG (Silicone on Glass) fresnel lenses and III-V solar cells, and a low cost matched solar tracker with distributed inverters approach. The project also regards the study and demonstration of new high throughput methods for the industrial large scale productions, at very low manufacturing costs. This work reports the description of the characterization of the tracker and single module.

  15. Simulations of silicon vertex tracker for star experiment at RHIC

    SciTech Connect

    Odyniec, G.; Cebra, D.; Christie, W.; Naudet, C.; Schroeder, L.; Wilson, W.; Liko, D.; Cramer, J.; Prindle, D.; Trainor, T.; Braithwaite, W.

    1991-12-31

    The first computer simulations to optimize the Silicon Vertex Tracker (SVT) designed for the STAR experiment at RHIC are presented. The physics goals and the expected complexity of the events at RHIC dictate the design of a tracking system for the STAR experiment. The proposed tracking system will consist of a silicon vertex tracker (SVT) to locate the primary interaction and secondary decay vertices and to improve the momentum resolution, and a time projection chamber (TPC), positioned inside a solenoidal magnet, for continuous tracking.

  16. Retroreflector field tracker. [noncontact optical position sensor for space application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wargocki, F. E.; Ray, A. J.; Hall, G. E.

    1984-01-01

    An electrooptical position-measuring instrument, the Retroreflector Field Tracker or RFT, is described. It is part of the Dynamic Augmentation Experiment - a part of the payload of Space Shuttle flight 41-D in Summer 1984. The tracker measures and outputs the position of 23 reflective targets placed on a 32-m solar array to provide data for determination of the dynamics of the lightweight structure. The sensor uses a 256 x 256 pixel CID detector; the processor electronics include three Z-80 microprocessors. A pulsed laser diode illuminator is used.

  17. Performance evaluation of the Scattered particle Fiber Tracker for J-PARC E10 experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakada, Yoshiyuki; Sakaguchi, Atsushi; Hayakawa, Shuhei H.; Nakagawa, Manami; Oue, Kenichiro; Hayakawa, Tomonari; Miwa, Koji; Honda, Ryotaro; Akazawa, Yuya; Sugimura, Hitoshi; Hasegawa, Shoichi

    2014-09-01

    J-PARC E10 experiment was proposed to produce the neutron-rich Λ-hypernucleus Λ6H by using the 6 Li (π- ,K+) reaction at 1 . 2 GeV / c and to study its structure. The experiment was performed at the K1.8 beam line of J-PARC Hadron Experimental Facility. The Scattered particle Fiber Tracker (SFT) is a scintillating fiber tracker which was newly installed just downstream the target. In this experiment we required high intensity π- beams of typically 1 . 4 ×107 π /spill . So, we replace a tracking wire chamber with SFT to obtain more precise timing information and higher rate tolerance. SFT has x , u , v -planes constructed by scintillating fibers. The light signals from the scintillating fibers are read out by Multi Pixel Photon Counters (MPPCs). The Extended Analogue SiPM ReadOut Chip (EASIROC) system was used as readout electronics. The multi-hit TDC program has introduced in FPGA of the EASIROC system. We analyzed the time information of SFT and studied the influence of high counting rate upon the performance of SFT using the data of the E10 experiment. We report the results of the analysis.

  18. Construction and commissioning of the cylindrical-GEM inner tracker of KLOE-2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domenici, D.

    2014-09-01

    The KLOE-2 experiment aims to continue the successful program of KLOE, that collected 2.5 fb-1 of integrated luminosity between 2001 and 2006 at DAΦNE, the phi-factory at the Frascati National Laboratories of INFN, fulfilling a vast set of precision kaon and hadron physics measurements. One of the major upgrades of the apparatus is the extension of the tracking system with the insertion of a central Inner Tracker (IT) inside the Drift Chamber. The IT is realized as four concentric cylindrical triple-GEM detectors, directly fixed onto the DAΦNE beam pipe, at a distance from the interaction point going from 13 cm to 20.5 cm. The conception, design and realization of the cylindrical-GEM have been taken on in Frascati since 2007, with the goal of minimizing dead-spaces, support frames and material budget. The final result is a very light detector with an overall thickness corresponding to only 2% of a radiation length. Moreover the detector exploits the outstanding rate capability typical of the micro-pattern gas detectors, useful to cope with the unavoidable background of a high-luminosity e+e- collider. The tracker provides space points with resolutions of 200 μm in rphi and 500 μm in Z. The two coordinates are obtained by an XV strips patterned readout coupled to the GASTONE front-end, a 64 channels ASIC with digital output expressly developed for this experiment.

  19. System and method for calibrating inter-star-tracker misalignments in a stellar inertial attitude determination system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Rongsheng (Inventor); Wu, Yeong-Wei Andy (Inventor); Hein, Douglas H. (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    A method and apparatus for determining star tracker misalignments is disclosed. The method comprises the steps of defining a defining a reference frame for the star tracker assembly according to a boresight of the primary star tracker and a boresight of a second star tracker wherein the boresight of the primary star tracker and a plane spanned by the boresight of the primary star tracker and the boresight of the second star tracker at least partially define a datum for the reference frame for the star tracker assembly; and determining the misalignment of the at least one star tracker as a rotation of the defined reference frame.

  20. Precision powder feeder

    DOEpatents

    Schlienger, M. Eric; Schmale, David T.; Oliver, Michael S.

    2001-07-10

    A new class of precision powder feeders is disclosed. These feeders provide a precision flow of a wide range of powdered materials, while remaining robust against jamming or damage. These feeders can be precisely controlled by feedback mechanisms.

  1. A ground-based memory state tracker for satellite on-board computer memory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quan, Alan; Angelino, Robert; Hill, Michael; Schwuttke, Ursula; Hervias, Felipe

    1993-01-01

    The TOPEX/POSEIDON satellite, currently in Earth orbit, will use radar altimetry to measure sea surface height over 90 percent of the world's ice-free oceans. In combination with a precise determination of the spacecraft orbit, the altimetry data will provide maps of ocean topography, which will be used to calculate the speed and direction of ocean currents worldwide. NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) has primary responsibility for mission operations for TOPEX/POSEIDON. Software applications have been developed to automate mission operations tasks. This paper describes one of these applications, the Memory State Tracker, which allows the ground analyst to examine and track the contents of satellite on-board computer memory quickly and efficiently, in a human-readable format, without having to receive the data directly from the spacecraft. This process is accomplished by maintaining a groundbased mirror-image of spacecraft On-board Computer memory.

  2. Assembly procedure for the silicon pixel ladder for PHENIX silicon vertex tracker.

    SciTech Connect

    Onuki, Y.; PHENIX Collaboration, et al.

    2009-05-08

    The silicon vertex tracker (VTX) will be installed in the summer of 2010 to enhance the physics capabilities of the Pioneering High Energy Nuclear Interaction eXperiment (PHENIX) experiment at Brookhaven National Laboratory. The VTX consists of two types of silicon detectors: a pixel detector and a strip detector. The pixel detector consists of 30 pixel ladders placed on the two inner cylindrical layers of the VTX. The ladders are required to be assembled with high precision, however, they should be assembled in both cost and time efficient manner. We have developed an assembly bench for the ladder with several assembly fixtures and a quality assurance (Q/A) system using a 3D measurement machine. We have also developed an assembly procedure for the ladder, including a method for dispensing adhesive uniformly and encapsulation of bonding wires. The developed procedures were adopted in the assembly of the first pixel ladder and satisfy the requirements.

  3. CMS tracker performance and readiness for LHC Run II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viliani, L.

    2016-07-01

    The CMS tracker performance during LHC Run I is reviewed. The latest results of both pixel and strip detectors following the first LHC Long Shutdown (LS1) are then presented. Results from detector calibration and commissioning, together with a description of operations and repairs done during LS1, will be shown.

  4. Star tracker operation in a high density proton field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miklus, Kenneth J.; Kissh, Frank; Flynn, David J.

    1993-02-01

    Algorithms that reject transient signals due to proton effects on charge coupled device (CCD) sensors have been implemented in the HDOS ASTRA-l Star Trackers to be flown on the TOPEX mission scheduled for launch in July 1992. A unique technique for simulating a proton-rich environment to test trackers is described, as well as the test results obtained. Solar flares or an orbit that passes through the South Atlantic Anomaly can subject the vehicle to very high proton flux levels. There are three ways in which spurious proton generated signals can impact tracker performance: the many false signals can prevent or extend the time to acquire a star; a proton-generated signal can compromise the accuracy of the star's reported magnitude and position; and the tracked star can be lost, requiring reacquisition. Tests simulating a proton-rich environment were performed on two ASTRA-1 Star Trackers utilizing these new algorithms. There were no false acquisitions, no lost stars, and a significant reduction in reported position errors due to these improvements.

  5. Star tracker operation in a high density proton field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miklus, Kenneth J.; Kissh, Frank; Flynn, David J.

    1993-01-01

    Algorithms that reject transient signals due to proton effects on charge coupled device (CCD) sensors have been implemented in the HDOS ASTRA-l Star Trackers to be flown on the TOPEX mission scheduled for launch in July 1992. A unique technique for simulating a proton-rich environment to test trackers is described, as well as the test results obtained. Solar flares or an orbit that passes through the South Atlantic Anomaly can subject the vehicle to very high proton flux levels. There are three ways in which spurious proton generated signals can impact tracker performance: the many false signals can prevent or extend the time to acquire a star; a proton-generated signal can compromise the accuracy of the star's reported magnitude and position; and the tracked star can be lost, requiring reacquisition. Tests simulating a proton-rich environment were performed on two ASTRA-1 Star Trackers utilizing these new algorithms. There were no false acquisitions, no lost stars, and a significant reduction in reported position errors due to these improvements.

  6. The CDF II eXtremely fast tracker upgrade

    SciTech Connect

    Abulencia, A.; Azzurri, P.; Cochran, E.; Dittmann, J.; Donati, S.; Efron, J.; Erbacher, R.; Errede, D.; Fedorko, I.; Flanagan, G.; Forrest, R.; /Illinois U., Urbana /INFN, Pisa /Pisa U. /Ohio State U. /Baylor U. /UC, Davis /Athens Natl. Capodistrian U. /Purdue U. /Fermilab

    2006-09-01

    The CDF II Extremely Fast Tracker is the trigger track processor which reconstructs charged particle tracks in the transverse plane of the CDF II central outer tracking chamber. The system is now being upgraded to perform a three dimensional track reconstruction. A review of the upgrade is presented here.

  7. Using "Tracker" to Prove the Simple Harmonic Motion Equation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kinchin, John

    2016-01-01

    Simple harmonic motion (SHM) is a common topic for many students to study. Using the free, though versatile, motion tracking software; "Tracker", we can extend the students experience and show that the general equation for SHM does lead to the correct period of a simple pendulum.

  8. Using Tracker to prove the simple harmonic motion equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinchin, John

    2016-09-01

    Simple harmonic motion (SHM) is a common topic for many students to study. Using the free, though versatile, motion tracking software; Tracker, we can extend the students experience and show that the general equation for SHM does lead to the correct period of a simple pendulum.

  9. Neutrino Induced Coherent ρ Production in a Fine Grained Tracker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Libo; Kullenberg, Christpher; Tian, Xinchun; Mishra, Sanjib; LBNE Collaboration

    2015-04-01

    We present simulation of neutrino induced coherent ρ-meson production in charged and neutral current interactions. Sensitivity studies of this process is presented in a fine grain tracker, a near detector option for LBNE. Measurements of coherent ρ0 and ρ+ production in NOMAD are reported.

  10. Somnambulism in Verdi's Macbeth and Bellini's La Sonnambula: opera, sleepwalking, and medicine.

    PubMed

    Finger, Stanley; Sironi, Vittorio Alessandro; Riva, Michele Augusto

    2015-01-01

    The arts can provide unique ways for determining how people not directly involved in medicine were viewing and informing others about physical and mental disorders. With operas, one need only think about how various perturbations of madness have been portrayed. Somnambulism has long been a particularly perplexing disorder, both to physicians and the laity, and it features in a number of operas. Two mid-nineteenth-century masterpieces are examined in detail in this contribution: Verdi's Macbeth and Bellini's La Sonnambula. In the former, the sleepwalking scene is faithful to what Shakespeare's had written early in the seventeenth century, a time of witchcraft, superstition, and the belief that nocturnal wanderings might be caused by guilt. In Bellini's opera, in contrast, the victim is an innocent girl who suffers from a quirk of nature, hence eliciting sympathy and compassion. By examining the early literature on somnambulism and comparing this disorder in these operas, we can see how thinking about this condition has changed and, more generally, how music was helping to generate new ways of thinking about specific diseases and medicine. PMID:25684300

  11. Effects of a Prosocial Television Soap Opera in Promoting Women's Status.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, William J.; Cody, Michael J.

    1991-01-01

    Investigates the effects of India's first long-running television soap opera that was designed to promote women's status in Indian society. Finds that exposure to the program was positively associated with viewers' involvement with the characters in the program and with viewer's television dependency, but did not make viewers more aware of women's…

  12. Drama and Simulation: A Soap Opera Game That Illustrates Dramaturgical Perspectives in Communications Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saunders, Daniel Mark

    1986-01-01

    Describes the Taffs Pit simulation game, which sets up a meeting between acting and production staff within an invented soap opera program with students role playing and critically observing, and then links to general themes of communication analysis. The simulation's design, role playing, and criticisms of the game are discussed. (MBR)

  13. The Benefits of Exploring Opera for the Social and Emotional Development of High-Ability Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berman, Kristin B.

    2003-01-01

    This article discusses how the exploration of opera with high-ability students can contribute to positive social and emotional development, particularly the development of humane intelligence, by stimulating ethical and moral awareness, making connections with age-old truths of humanity, and providing a powerful genre for self-expression. Teaching…

  14. Playing God: the rock opera that endeavors to become a bioethics education tool.

    PubMed

    Takala, Tuija; Häyry, Matti; Laing, Laurence

    2014-04-01

    This article describes and introduces a new innovative tool for bioethics education: a rock opera on the ethics of genetics written by two academics and a drummer legend. The origin of the idea, the characters and their development, and the themes and approaches as well as initial responses to the music and the show are described, and the various educational usages are explored.

  15. Cartoons and Soap Operas: Popular Education in a Nova Scotia Fish Plant.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bishop, Anne

    1988-01-01

    In a Nova Scotia fish plant, a group primarily made up of women used cartoons and soap operas to educate plant workers on union issues, domestic violence, and health issues, demonstrating the effectiveness of using people's own culture as a vehicle for their education. (SK)

  16. Opera and Poison: A Secret and Enjoyable Approach to Teaching and Learning Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andre, Joao Paulo

    2013-01-01

    The storyline of operas, with historical or fictional characters, often include potions and poisons. This has prompted a study of the chemistry behind some operatic plots. The results were originally presented as a lecture given at the University of Minho in Portugal, within the context of the International Year of Chemistry. The same lecture was…

  17. Graduate student voice use and vocal efficiency in an opera rehearsal week: a case study.

    PubMed

    Schloneger, Matthew J

    2011-11-01

    The purpose of this case study was to document graduate voice students' (N=2) voice use before, during, and after an intense week of opera rehearsals through (1) acquired Ambulatory Phonation Monitor (APM) data, (2) daily surveys, (3) participant activity logs, (4) three administrations of the Singing Voice Handicap Index (SVHI), and (5) pre- and post-stroboscopic laryngeal examinations. Two female graduate students, both of whom were cast in a university production of Stravinsky's The Rake's Progress (stage names Anne and Baba) and both of whom served as graduate teaching assistants in voice, wore APMs during waking hours for 9 days, including two pretest baseline days, a 5-day intensive rehearsal week just before the opera production week, and 2 baseline days after opera performances were completed. Mean phonation time dose percentages (Dt) and daily distance dose averages (Dd) were similar between the pre- and posttest periods and the intensive week. Disaggregation of acquired data by four types of activities (opera rehearsals, personal practice time, voice teaching time, and nonrehearsal or teaching time) indicated that the highest mean Dts and Dds were acquired during personal practice time and voice teaching time. Daily surveys and SVHI data as well as the pre- and post-stroboscopies indicated no notable changes occurring in vocal health. Results indicated that these singers were conscious about their voice use during periods of extensive performance demands. However, high vocal doses during voice teaching times suggest that these individuals might benefit from teacher voice care education.

  18. Somnambulism in Verdi's Macbeth and Bellini's La Sonnambula: opera, sleepwalking, and medicine.

    PubMed

    Finger, Stanley; Sironi, Vittorio Alessandro; Riva, Michele Augusto

    2015-01-01

    The arts can provide unique ways for determining how people not directly involved in medicine were viewing and informing others about physical and mental disorders. With operas, one need only think about how various perturbations of madness have been portrayed. Somnambulism has long been a particularly perplexing disorder, both to physicians and the laity, and it features in a number of operas. Two mid-nineteenth-century masterpieces are examined in detail in this contribution: Verdi's Macbeth and Bellini's La Sonnambula. In the former, the sleepwalking scene is faithful to what Shakespeare's had written early in the seventeenth century, a time of witchcraft, superstition, and the belief that nocturnal wanderings might be caused by guilt. In Bellini's opera, in contrast, the victim is an innocent girl who suffers from a quirk of nature, hence eliciting sympathy and compassion. By examining the early literature on somnambulism and comparing this disorder in these operas, we can see how thinking about this condition has changed and, more generally, how music was helping to generate new ways of thinking about specific diseases and medicine.

  19. Entertainment Education and Social Change: Evaluating a Children's Soap Opera in Kenya

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Block, Liesbeth

    2012-01-01

    This article discusses audience responses to a children's soap opera produced and broadcast in Kenya. It examines the evaluation process in relation to qualitative audience research within Cultural Studies. It challenges an Entertainment-Education model of media as vehicles for messages and links strongly with Communication for Social Change…

  20. Authentic ESL Spoken Materials: Soap Opera and Sitcom versus Natural Conversation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Surmi, Mansoor Ali

    2012-01-01

    TV shows, especially soap operas and sitcoms, are usually considered by ESL practitioners as a source of authentic spoken conversational materials presumably because they reflect the linguistic features of natural conversation. However, practitioners might be faced with the dilemma of how to evaluate whether such conversational materials reflect…

  1. Keeping Up with the Joneses. A Soap Opera for Adult ESL Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Chiquita

    A series of high-interest, low English-language-learning-level stories developed for adult students of English as a second language are combined as a soap opera for classroom use. An introductory section outlines techniques for presentation of the texts on tape and in written form and for exercises in listening, making inferences, reading, and…

  2. Opportunity Science Using the Juno Magnetometer Investigation Star Trackers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joergensen, J. L.; Connerney, J. E.; Bang, A. M.; Denver, T.; Oliversen, R. J.; Benn, M.; Lawton, P.

    2013-12-01

    The magnetometer experiment onboard Juno is equipped with four non-magnetic star tracker camera heads, two of which reside on each of the magnetometer sensor optical benches. These are located 10 and 12 m from the spacecraft body at the end of one of the three solar panel wings. The star tracker, collectively referred to as the Advanced Stellar Compass (ASC), provides high accuracy attitude information for the magnetometer sensors throughout science operations. The star tracker camera heads are pointed +/- 13 deg off the spin vector, in the anti-sun direction, imaging a 13 x 20 deg field of view every ¼ second as Juno rotates at 1 or 2 rpm. The ASC is a fully autonomous star tracker, producing a time series of attitude quaternions for each camera head, utilizing a suite of internal support functions. These include imaging capabilities, autonomous object tracking, automatic dark-sky monitoring, and related capabilities; these internal functions may be accessed via telecommand. During Juno's cruise phase, this capability can be tapped to provide unique science and engineering data available along the Juno trajectory. We present a few examples of the JUNO ASC opportunity science here. As the Juno spacecraft approached the Earth-Moon system for the close encounter with the Earth on October 9, 2013, one of the ASC camera heads obtained imagery of the Earth-Moon system while the other three remained in full science (attitude determination) operation. This enabled the first movie of the Earth and Moon obtained by a spacecraft flying past the Earth in gravity assist. We also use the many artificial satellites in orbit about the Earth as calibration targets for the autonomous asteroid detection system inherent to the ASC autonomous star tracker. We shall also profile the zodiacal dust disk, using the interstellar image data, and present the outlook for small asteroid body detection and distribution being performed during Juno's passage from Earth flyby to Jovian orbit

  3. Comparing historical and contemporary opera singers with historical and contemporary Jewish cantors.

    PubMed

    Rothman, H B; Diaz, J A; Vincent, K E

    2000-06-01

    This study is an attempt to ascertain if singers from different traditions and milieus follow similar aesthetic trends regardless of training and/or background. Cantors who sang the Jewish synagogue liturgy during the Golden Age of cantorial singing prior to World War II came from Eastern and Central Europe. For the most part, they were not trained in the classical Western opera tradition. They received training from choir leaders and other cantors and the training was primarily in the modes of synagogue chant. Cantors today receive the same kinds of training that opera singers receive, often from the same teachers. Four groups of singers, consisting of four singers in each group, were utilized in this study. The four groups are: historical opera singers, contemporary opera singers, historical cantors, and contemporary cantors. The historical opera singer recordings date from as early as 1909 to as late as 1939. It was not possible to determine the dates of the historical cantor recordings. However, the four cantors chosen for this group were active only to the 1940s. Contemporary samples were taken from CDs and/or live recordings and all the singers from the contemporary groups are either still active or were active in the 1960s through the 1980s and all of them are considered to be premier-level singers in their respective areas. The variables analyzed were: vibrato pulse rate, frequency variation of the vibrato pulse above and below the mean sustained sung frequency in percent, the mean amplitude variation of the amplitude vibrato pulse above and below the mean sustained amplitude in percent and the fast Fourier transform (FFT) power spectrum of the sustained samples. Results indicate that most of the significant differences were found between eras and not between groups within a time period. PMID:10875572

  4. Are Currently Available Wearable Devices for Activity Tracking and Heart Rate Monitoring Accurate, Precise, and Medically Beneficial?

    PubMed Central

    El-Amrawy, Fatema

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The new wave of wireless technologies, fitness trackers, and body sensor devices can have great impact on healthcare systems and the quality of life. However, there have not been enough studies to prove the accuracy and precision of these trackers. The objective of this study was to evaluate the accuracy, precision, and overall performance of seventeen wearable devices currently available compared with direct observation of step counts and heart rate monitoring. Methods Each participant in this study used three accelerometers at a time, running the three corresponding applications of each tracker on an Android or iOS device simultaneously. Each participant was instructed to walk 200, 500, and 1,000 steps. Each set was repeated 40 times. Data was recorded after each trial, and the mean step count, standard deviation, accuracy, and precision were estimated for each tracker. Heart rate was measured by all trackers (if applicable), which support heart rate monitoring, and compared to a positive control, the Onyx Vantage 9590 professional clinical pulse oximeter. Results The accuracy of the tested products ranged between 79.8% and 99.1%, while the coefficient of variation (precision) ranged between 4% and 17.5%. MisFit Shine showed the highest accuracy and precision (along with Qualcomm Toq), while Samsung Gear 2 showed the lowest accuracy, and Jawbone UP showed the lowest precision. However, Xiaomi Mi band showed the best package compared to its price. Conclusions The accuracy and precision of the selected fitness trackers are reasonable and can indicate the average level of activity and thus average energy expenditure. PMID:26618039

  5. The Cambridge Face Tracker: Accurate, Low Cost Measurement of Head Posture Using Computer Vision and Face Recognition Software

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Peter B. M.; Baltrušaitis, Tadas; Robinson, Peter; Vivian, Anthony J.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose We validate a video-based method of head posture measurement. Methods The Cambridge Face Tracker uses neural networks (constrained local neural fields) to recognize facial features in video. The relative position of these facial features is used to calculate head posture. First, we assess the accuracy of this approach against videos in three research databases where each frame is tagged with a precisely measured head posture. Second, we compare our method to a commercially available mechanical device, the Cervical Range of Motion device: four subjects each adopted 43 distinct head postures that were measured using both methods. Results The Cambridge Face Tracker achieved confident facial recognition in 92% of the approximately 38,000 frames of video from the three databases. The respective mean error in absolute head posture was 3.34°, 3.86°, and 2.81°, with a median error of 1.97°, 2.16°, and 1.96°. The accuracy decreased with more extreme head posture. Comparing The Cambridge Face Tracker to the Cervical Range of Motion Device gave correlation coefficients of 0.99 (P < 0.0001), 0.96 (P < 0.0001), and 0.99 (P < 0.0001) for yaw, pitch, and roll, respectively. Conclusions The Cambridge Face Tracker performs well under real-world conditions and within the range of normally-encountered head posture. It allows useful quantification of head posture in real time or from precaptured video. Its performance is similar to that of a clinically validated mechanical device. It has significant advantages over other approaches in that subjects do not need to wear any apparatus, and it requires only low cost, easy-to-setup consumer electronics. Translational Relevance Noncontact assessment of head posture allows more complete clinical assessment of patients, and could benefit surgical planning in future. PMID:27730008

  6. The cross-gender performances of Yam Kim-Fei, or the queer factor in postwar Hong Kong Cantonese opera/opera films.

    PubMed

    Tan, S K

    2000-01-01

    This essay is designed as a brief historical examination of the Cantonese female cross-dressing star Yam Kim-Fei, whose hundreds of films and opera performances in the '50s and '60s have made her one of the century's most celebrated transvestite artists. While her craft has often been relegated to studies of gender alone, I assert that the traditions of Chinese operatic transvestism she employs are not merely a relativist historical-artistic mode without political relevance but can be justifiably reclaimed for the purposes of queer interpretation and spectatorship-for indeed their original intent coincides very well with what we call "queer" today.

  7. The cross-gender performances of Yam Kim-Fei, or the queer factor in postwar Hong Kong Cantonese opera/opera films.

    PubMed

    Tan, S K

    2000-01-01

    This essay is designed as a brief historical examination of the Cantonese female cross-dressing star Yam Kim-Fei, whose hundreds of films and opera performances in the '50s and '60s have made her one of the century's most celebrated transvestite artists. While her craft has often been relegated to studies of gender alone, I assert that the traditions of Chinese operatic transvestism she employs are not merely a relativist historical-artistic mode without political relevance but can be justifiably reclaimed for the purposes of queer interpretation and spectatorship-for indeed their original intent coincides very well with what we call "queer" today. PMID:11133132

  8. Tracker: Image-Processing and Object-Tracking System Developed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klimek, Robert B.; Wright, Theodore W.

    1999-01-01

    Tracker is an object-tracking and image-processing program designed and developed at the NASA Lewis Research Center to help with the analysis of images generated by microgravity combustion and fluid physics experiments. Experiments are often recorded on film or videotape for analysis later. Tracker automates the process of examining each frame of the recorded experiment, performing image-processing operations to bring out the desired detail, and recording the positions of the objects of interest. It can load sequences of images from disk files or acquire images (via a frame grabber) from film transports, videotape, laser disks, or a live camera. Tracker controls the image source to automatically advance to the next frame. It can employ a large array of image-processing operations to enhance the detail of the acquired images and can analyze an arbitrarily large number of objects simultaneously. Several different tracking algorithms are available, including conventional threshold and correlation-based techniques, and more esoteric procedures such as "snake" tracking and automated recognition of character data in the image. The Tracker software was written to be operated by researchers, thus every attempt was made to make the software as user friendly and self-explanatory as possible. Tracker is used by most of the microgravity combustion and fluid physics experiments performed by Lewis, and by visiting researchers. This includes experiments performed on the space shuttles, Mir, sounding rockets, zero-g research airplanes, drop towers, and ground-based laboratories. This software automates the analysis of the flame or liquid s physical parameters such as position, velocity, acceleration, size, shape, intensity characteristics, color, and centroid, as well as a number of other measurements. It can perform these operations on multiple objects simultaneously. Another key feature of Tracker is that it performs optical character recognition (OCR). This feature is useful in

  9. Detailed performance of the Outer Tracker at LHCb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuning, N.

    2014-01-01

    The LHCb Outer Tracker is a gaseous detector covering an area of 5 × 6 m2 with 12 double layers of straw tubes. Based on data of the first LHC running period from 2010 to 2012, the performance in terms of the single hit resolution and efficiency are presented. Details on the ionization length and subtle effects regarding signal reflections and the subsequent time-walk correction are given. The efficiency to detect a hit in the central half of the straw is estimated to be 99.2%, and the position resolution is determined to be approximately 200 μm, depending on the detailed implementation of the internal alignment of individual detector modules. The Outer Tracker received a dose in the hottest region corresponding to 0.12 C/cm, and no signs of gain deterioration or other ageing effects are observed.

  10. The silicon microstrip sensors of the ATLAS semiconductor tracker

    SciTech Connect

    ATLAS SCT Collaboration; Spieler, Helmuth G.

    2007-04-13

    This paper describes the AC-coupled, single-sided, p-in-n silicon microstrip sensors used in the Semiconductor Tracker (SCT) of the ATLAS experiment at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The sensor requirements, specifications and designs are discussed, together with the qualification and quality assurance procedures adopted for their production. The measured sensor performance is presented, both initially and after irradiation to the fluence anticipated after 10 years of LHC operation. The sensors are now successfully assembled within the detecting modules of the SCT, and the SCT tracker is completed and integrated within the ATLAS Inner Detector. Hamamatsu Photonics Ltd. supplied 92.2percent of the 15,392 installed sensors, with the remainder supplied by CiS.

  11. TMT tertiary mirror axis calibration with laser tracker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    An, Qi-chang; Zhang, Jing-xu; Yang, Fei; Sun, Jing-wei

    2015-03-01

    To calibrate the tracing performance of the thirty meter telescope (TMT) tertiary mirror, for the special requirement of the TMT, the laser tracker is used to verify the motion. Firstly, the deviation is divided into two parts, namely, the repeatable error and the unrepeatable part. Then, based on the laser tracker, the mearturement and evalutation methods of the rigid body motion for the mirror are established, and the Monte Carol method is used to determine the accuracy of the mothod. Lastly, the mothod is applied to the turn table of a classical telescope and the residual error is about 4 arc second. The work of this paper will guide the next desgin and construction work of the thirty meter telescope tertiary mirror.

  12. Measurement uncertainty analysis on laser tracker combined with articulated CMM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Hui-ning; Yu, Lian-dong; Du, Yun; Zhang, Hai-yan

    2013-10-01

    The combined measurement technology plays an increasingly important role in the digitalized assembly. This paper introduces a combined measurement system consists of a Laser tracker and a FACMM,with the applications in the inspection of the position of the inner parts in a large-scale device. When these measurement instruments are combined, the resulting coordinate data set contains uncertainties that are a function of the base data sets and complex interactions between the measurement sets. Combined with the characteristics of Laser Tracker and Flexible Articulated Coordinate Measuring Machine (FACMM),Monte-Claro simulation mothed is employed in the uncertainty evaluation of combined measurement systems. A case study is given to demonstrate the practical applications of this research.

  13. Clementine Star Tracker Stellar Compass: Final report part 1

    SciTech Connect

    Priest, R.E.; Kordas, J.F.; Lewis, I.T.

    1995-07-01

    The Clementine mission provided the first ever complete, systematic surface mapping of the moon from the ultra-violet to the near-infrared regions. More than 1.7 million images of the moon, earth and space were returned from this mission. Two star stracker stellar compasses (star tracker camera + stellar compass software) were included on the spacecraft, serving a primary function of providing angle updates to the guidance and navigation system. These cameras served a secondary function by providing a wide field of view imaging capability for lunar horizon glow and other dark-side imaging data. This 290 g camera using a 576 x 384 focal plane array and a 17 mm entrance pupil, detected and centroided stars as dim and dimmer than 4.5 m{sub v}, providing rms pointing accuracy of better than 100 {mu}rad pitch and yaw and 450 {mu}rad roll. A description of this light-weight, low power star tracker camera along with a summary of lessons learned is presented. Design goals and preliminary on-orbit performance estimates are addressed in terms of meeting the mission`s primary objective for flight qualifying the sensors for future Department of Defense flights. Documentation generated during the design, analysis, build, test and characterization of the star tracker cameras are presented. Collectively, this documentation represents a small library of information for this camera, and may be used as a framework for producing copy units by commercial enterprises, and therefore satisfies a Department of Defense and Department of Energy goal to transfer technology to industry. However, the considerable knowledge gained from the experience of the individuals involved in the system trades, design, analysis, production, testing and characterization of the star tracker stellar compass is not contained in this documentation.

  14. Resonance interaction in LBNE fine-grained-tracker near detector

    SciTech Connect

    Duyang, Hongyue; Tian, Xinchun; Mishra, Sanjib R.

    2015-10-15

    This talk is devoted to resonance interaction (RES) in the proposed fine-grained tracker detector (FGT) for LBNE experiment. We use fast MC to study the sensitivity of FGT to RES, and use this measurement as a handle to constrain nuclear effects. Similar analysis is performed on NOMAD data for validation and better understanding. Preliminary RES measurement result using NOMAD data will be reported.

  15. Resonance interaction in LBNE fine-grained-tracker near detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duyang, Hongyue; Tian, Xinchun; Mishra, Sanjib R.

    2015-10-01

    This talk is devoted to resonance interaction (RES) in the proposed fine-grained tracker detector (FGT) for LBNE experiment. We use fast MC to study the sensitivity of FGT to RES, and use this measurement as a handle to constrain nuclear effects. Similar analysis is performed on NOMAD data for validation and better understanding. Preliminary RES measurement result using NOMAD data will be reported.

  16. The D0 silicon micro-strip tracker

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, Michael S.; /Fermilab

    2006-01-01

    The D0 silicon micro-strip tracker (SMT) is part of the D0 upgrade for the Tevatron RunII at Fermilab. The detector has been running successfully since the start of the RunII physics data taking. The tracking and vertexing performance match the expectation from Monte-Carlo studies. An additional inner layer (Layer0) of silicon sensors at R = 1.6cm will be installed in 2005.

  17. A new silicon tracker for proton imaging and dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, J. T.; Waltham, C.; Price, T.; Allinson, N. M.; Allport, P. P.; Casse, G. L.; Kacperek, A.; Manger, S.; Smith, N. A.; Tsurin, I.

    2016-09-01

    For many years, silicon micro-strip detectors have been successfully used as tracking detectors for particle and nuclear physics experiments. A new application of this technology is to the field of particle therapy where radiotherapy is carried out by use of charged particles such as protons or carbon ions. Such a treatment has been shown to have advantages over standard x-ray radiotherapy and as a result of this, many new centres offering particle therapy are currently under construction around the world today. The Proton Radiotherapy, Verification and Dosimetry Applications (PRaVDA) consortium are developing instrumentation for particle therapy based upon technology from high-energy physics. The characteristics of a new silicon micro-strip tracker for particle therapy will be presented. The array uses specifically designed, large area sensors with technology choices that follow closely those taken for the ATLAS experiment at the HL-LHC. These detectors will be arranged into four units each with three layers in an x-u-v configuration to be suitable for fast proton tracking with minimal ambiguities. The sensors will form a tracker capable of tracing the path of ~200 MeV protons entering and exiting a patient allowing a new mode of imaging known as proton computed tomography (pCT). This will aid the accurate delivery of treatment doses and in addition, the tracker will also be used to monitor the beam profile and total dose delivered during the high fluences used for treatment. We present here details of the design, construction and assembly of one of the four units that will make up the complete tracker along with its characterisation using radiation tests carried out using a 90Sr source in the laboratory and a 60 MeV proton beam at the Clatterbridge Cancer Centre.

  18. Star tracker stellar compass for the Clementine mission

    SciTech Connect

    Kordas, J.F.; Lewis, I.T.; Wilson, B.A.

    1995-04-01

    The Clementine mission provided the first ever complete, systematic surface mapping of the moon from the ultra-violet to the near-infrared regions. More than 1.7 million images of the moon, earth and space were returned from this mission. Two star tracker stellar compasses (star tracker camera + stellar compass software) were included on the spacecraft, serving a primary function of providing angle updates to the guidance and navigation system. These cameras served a secondary function by providing a wide field of view imaging capability for lunar horizon glow and other dark-side imaging data. This 290 g camera using a 576 x 384 FPA and a 17 mm entrance pupil, detected and centroided stars as dim and dimmer than 4.5 m{sub v}, providing rms pointing accuracy of better than 100 {micro}rad pitch and yaw and 450 {micro}rad roll. A description of this light-weight, low power star tracker camera along with a summary of lessons learned is presented. Design goals and preliminary on-orbit performance estimates are addressed in terms of meeting the mission`s primary objective for flight qualifying the sensors for future Department of Defense flights.

  19. Star tracker stellar compass for the Clementine mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kordas, Joseph F.; Lewis, Isabella T.; Wilson, Bruce A.; Nielsen, Darron P.; Park, Hye-Sook; Priest, Robert E.; Hills, Robert F.; Shannon, Michael J.; Ledebuhr, Arno G.; Pleasance, Lyn D.

    1995-06-01

    The Clementine mission provided the first ever complete, systematic surface mapping of the moon from the ultra-violet to the near-infrared region. More than 1.7 million images of the moon, earth and space were returned from this mission. Two star tracker stellar compasses (star tracker camera + stellar compass software) were included on the spacecraft, serving a primary function of providing angle updates to the guidance and navigation system. These cameras served as a secondary function by providing a wide field of view imaging capability for lunar horizon glow and other dark-side imaging data. This 290 g camera using a 576 X 384 FPA and a 17 mm entrance pupil, detected and centroided stars as dim and dimmer than 4.5 mv, providing rms pointing accuracy of better than 100 (mu) rad pitch and yaw and 450 (mu) rad roll. A description of this light-weight, low power star tracker camera along with a summary of lessons learned is presented. Design goals and preliminary on-orbit performance estimates are addressed in terms of meeting the mission's primary objective for flight qualifying the sensors for future Department of Defense flights.

  20. Sun-Relative Pointing for Dual-Axis Solar Trackers Employing Azimuth and Elevation Rotations

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Riley, Daniel; Hansen, Clifford W.

    2014-12-30

    Dual axis trackers employing azimuth and elevation rotations are common in the field of photovoltaic (PV) energy generation. Accurate sun-tracking algorithms are widely available. However, a steering algorithm has not been available to accurately point the tracker away from the sun such that a vector projection of the sun beam onto the tracker face falls along a desired path relative to the tracker face. We have developed an algorithm which produces the appropriate azimuth and elevation angles for a dual axis tracker when given the sun position, desired angle of incidence, and the desired projection of the sun beam ontomore » the tracker face. Development of this algorithm was inspired by the need to accurately steer a tracker to desired sun-relative positions in order to better characterize the electro-optical properties of PV and CPV modules.« less

  1. Sun-Relative Pointing for Dual-Axis Solar Trackers Employing Azimuth and Elevation Rotations

    SciTech Connect

    Riley, Daniel; Hansen, Clifford W.

    2014-12-30

    Dual axis trackers employing azimuth and elevation rotations are common in the field of photovoltaic (PV) energy generation. Accurate sun-tracking algorithms are widely available. However, a steering algorithm has not been available to accurately point the tracker away from the sun such that a vector projection of the sun beam onto the tracker face falls along a desired path relative to the tracker face. We have developed an algorithm which produces the appropriate azimuth and elevation angles for a dual axis tracker when given the sun position, desired angle of incidence, and the desired projection of the sun beam onto the tracker face. Development of this algorithm was inspired by the need to accurately steer a tracker to desired sun-relative positions in order to better characterize the electro-optical properties of PV and CPV modules.

  2. 'Little Hans': from his phobic episode to becoming an opera director.

    PubMed

    Vives, Jean-Michel

    2012-08-01

    'Little Hans' is one of the most highly commented cases in the psychoanalytic literature. His work as an opera director from 1925 in Europe and then in the United States of America is much less well known. This may seem especially surprising given that Freud very soon detects Hans's emerging interest in this subject. Yet Freud does not mention it either in 1909 when he reports the case, or when Hans visits him in 1922, even though Hans had already decided to become an opera director at this point. The author of this article endeavours to show how this artistic choice could be understood as a way of accommodating, in a double transference relationship with Freud and with his father, the unanalysed residue of the 'Krawall' (a term invented by Hans) and 'the black thing', both of which appeared during the phobic period.

  3. The acoustic characteristics of professional opera singers performing in chorus versus solo mode.

    PubMed

    Reid, Katherine L P; Davis, Pamela; Oates, Jennifer; Cabrera, Densil; Ternström, Sten; Black, Michael; Chapman, Janice

    2007-01-01

    In this study, members of a professional opera chorus were recorded using close microphones, while singing in both choral and solo modes. The analysis included computation of long-term average spectra (LTAS) for the two song sections performed and calculation of singing power ratio (SPR) and energy ratio (ER), which provide an indication of the relative energy in the singer's formant region. Vibrato rate and extent were determined from two matched vowels, and SPR and ER were calculated for these vowels. Subjects sung with equal or more power in the singer's formant region in choral versus solo mode in the context of the piece as a whole and in individual vowels. There was no difference in vibrato rate and extent between the two modes. Singing in choral mode, therefore, required the ability to use a similar vocal timbre to that required for solo opera singing. PMID:16427767

  4. Long-term-average spectrum characteristics of Kunqu Opera singers' speaking, singing and stage speech.

    PubMed

    Dong, Li; Kong, Jiangping; Sundberg, Johan

    2014-07-01

    Long-term-average spectrum (LTAS) characteristics were analyzed for ten Kunqu Opera singers, two in each of five roles. Each singer performed singing, stage speech, and conversational speech. Differences between the roles and between their performances of these three conditions are examined. After compensating for Leq difference LTAS characteristics still differ between the roles but are similar for the three conditions, especially for Colorful face (CF) and Old man roles, and especially between reading and singing. The curves show no evidence of a singer's formant cluster peak, but the CF role demonstrates a speaker's formant peak near 3 kHz. The LTAS characteristics deviate markedly from non-singers' standard conversational speech as well as from those of Western opera singing.

  5. A Real-Time Interactive System for Facial Makeup of Peking Opera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Feilong; Yu, Jinhui

    In this paper we present a real-time interactive system for making facial makeup of Peking Opera. First, we analyze the process of drawing facial makeup and characteristics of the patterns used in it, and then construct a SVG pattern bank based on local features like eye, nose, mouth, etc. Next, we pick up some SVG patterns from the pattern bank and composed them to make a new facial makeup. We offer a vector-based free form deformation (FFD) tool to edit patterns and, based on editing, our system creates automatically texture maps for a template head model. Finally, the facial makeup is rendered on the 3D head model in real time. Our system offers flexibility in designing and synthesizing various 3D facial makeup. Potential applications of the system include decoration design, digital museum exhibition and education of Peking Opera.

  6. Opera-Reassessing Data on the Energy Dependence of the Speed of Neutrinos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amelino-Camelia, Giovanni; Gubitosi, Giulia; Loret, Niccoló; Mercati, Flavio; Rosati, Giacomo; Lipari, Paolo

    We offer a preliminary exploration of the two sides of the challenge provided by the recent OPERA data on superluminal neutrinos. On one side we stress that some aspects of this result are puzzling even from the perspective of the wild quantum-gravity literature, where arguments in favor of the possibility of superluminal propagation have been presented, but not considering the possibility of such a sizeable effect for neutrinos of such low energies. We feel this must encourage particularly severe scrutiny of the OPERA result. On the other side, we notice that the OPERA result is reasonably consistent with μ-neutrino-speed data previously obtained at FERMILAB, reported in papers of 2007 and 1979. And it is intriguing that these FERMILAB79 and FERMILAB07 results, when combined with the new OPERA result, in principle provide a window on μ-neutrino speeds at different energies broad enough to compare alternative phenomenological models. We test the discriminating power of such an approach by using as illustrative examples the case of special-relativistic tachyons, the case of momentum-independent violations of the special-relativistic speed law, and the cases of linear and quadratic energy dependence of the speed of ultrarelativistic muon neutrinos. Even just using μ-neutrino data in the range from ~3 GeVs to ~200 GeVs the special-relativistic tachyon and the quadratic-dependence case are clearly disfavoured. The linear-dependence case gives a marginally consistent picture and the momentum-independent scenario fits robustly the data. We also comment on Supernova 1987a and its relevance for consideration of other neutrino species, also in relation with some scenarios that appeared in the large-extra-dimension literature.

  7. Effects of a prosocial television soap opera in promoting women's status.

    PubMed

    Brown, W J; Cody, M J

    1991-09-01

    The effects of exposure to "Hum Log," India's first long-running television soap opera, on viewers' beliefs about women's status, freedom of choice, and family planning were assessed in a survey of 1170 respondents from three geographic areas. The soap opera is intended to promote prosocial beliefs about the role of women in India. A structural equation model was developed to measure the impact of awareness, involvement, and television dependency on personal beliefs. Viewers who were most exposed to "Hum Log" were more involved with its characters and more dependent on Indian television for education and entertainment, but were no more aware than their less exposed counterparts of the prosocial beliefs promoted by the soap opera. There was no significant association between viewers' involvement with the characters and their beliefs about women's equality, freedom of choice, or family planning. Moreover, viewers who were more dependent on television did not exhibit significantly stronger beliefs about these issues. There was a significant association between awareness of the prosocial messages promoted in "Hum Log" and viewer beliefs in freedom of choice and family planning. Overall, it appears that, while "Hum Log" enjoys a large and dedicated audience, its messages regarding women's equality are not being assimilated on a large scale. An analysis of the female characters in the soap opera reveals that, in many cases, the self-sufficient, career-oriented women experienced negative social consequences, while characters who pursued more traditional female roles were rewarded. Thus, while there is no evidence that "Hum Log" is making a significant contribution toward changing the way women are viewed in India, its popularity paves the way for future prosocial programming

  8. The demands of professional opera singing on cranio-cervical posture.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Gillian; Skinner, Margot

    2009-04-01

    Difficulty with singing is a rare but important complication following cervical spine surgery but there is little objective information regarding the cervical and head postural changes taking place during singing. The aim of this study was to identify postural changes in the cranio-cervical region associated with the demands of voice production in professional opera singing. The two Roentgen-cephalograms, one of which are taken whilst performing a specified singing task were taken from 18 professional opera students, 12 females (mean age 20.86 +/- 3.07 years) and six males (18.66 +/- 1.36 years). A paired t test compared mean cranio-cervical postural and pharyngeal/hyoid variables between the two registrations (P = 0.05). The association between the cranio-cervical postural variables and the pharyngeal/hyoid region in each registration position was examined using Spearman's rank correlation coefficient. In singing, the position of the atlas with respect to the true vertical (P < 0.001), the axis (P < 0.001) and the C4 vertebra both with respect to the horizontal (P < 0.001), and the axis with respect to the cranium (P < 0.001), were all significantly different to those at rest. Of the cranio-cervical postural variables in the singing registration, the angles measuring positional change of the atlas and C4 relative to the true horizontal were shown be significantly related to an increased pharyngeal airway space at the C3 level (P < 0.01). An appreciation of the requirement for the cervical spine to undergo postural change during professional opera singing has relevance to the potential impact on voice quality in professional opera singers should they undergo cervical spine surgery.

  9. OPERA, MINOS Experimental Result Prove Special and General Relativity Theories; the Principle of Lorentz Invariance Invalid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pressler, David E.

    2012-03-01

    A great discrepancy exists - the speed of light and the neutrino speed must be identical; as indicated by supernova1987A; yet, OPERA predicts faster-than-light neutrinos. Einstein's theories are based on the invariance of the speed of light, and no privileged Galilean frame of reference exists. Both of these hypotheses are in error and must be reconciled in order to solve the dilemma. The Michelson-Morley Experiment was misinterpreted - my Neoclassical Theory postulates that BOTH mirrors of the interferometer physically and absolutely move towards its center. The result is a three-directional-Contraction, (x, y, z axis), an actual distortion of space itself; a C-Space condition. ``PRESSLER'S LAW OF C-SPACE: The speed of light, c, will always be measured the same speed in all three directions (˜300,000 km/sec), in ones own inertial reference system, and will always be measured as having a different speed in all other inertial frames which are at a different kinetic energy level or at a location with a different strength gravity field'' Thus, the faster you go, motion, or the stronger the gravity field the smaller you get in all three directions. OPERA results are explained; at the surface of Earth, the strength of gravity field is at maximum -- below the earth's surface, time and space is less distorted; therefore, time is absolutely faster accordingly. Reference OPERA's preprint: Neutrino's faster time-effect due to altitude difference; (10-13ns) x c (299792458m) = 2.9 x 10-5 m/ns x distance (730085m) + 21.8m.) This is consistent with the OPERA result.

  10. Can nonlinguistic musical training change the way the brain processes speech? The expanded OPERA hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Patel, Aniruddh D

    2014-02-01

    A growing body of research suggests that musical training has a beneficial impact on speech processing (e.g., hearing of speech in noise and prosody perception). As this research moves forward two key questions need to be addressed: 1) Can purely instrumental musical training have such effects? 2) If so, how and why would such effects occur? The current paper offers a conceptual framework for understanding such effects based on mechanisms of neural plasticity. The expanded OPERA hypothesis proposes that when music and speech share sensory or cognitive processing mechanisms in the brain, and music places higher demands on these mechanisms than speech does, this sets the stage for musical training to enhance speech processing. When these higher demands are combined with the emotional rewards of music, the frequent repetition that musical training engenders, and the focused attention that it requires, neural plasticity is activated and makes lasting changes in brain structure and function which impact speech processing. Initial data from a new study motivated by the OPERA hypothesis is presented, focusing on the impact of musical training on speech perception in cochlear-implant users. Suggestions for the development of animal models to test OPERA are also presented, to help motivate neurophysiological studies of how auditory training using non-biological sounds can impact the brain's perceptual processing of species-specific vocalizations. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled . PMID:24055761

  11. Can nonlinguistic musical training change the way the brain processes speech? The expanded OPERA hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Patel, Aniruddh D

    2014-02-01

    A growing body of research suggests that musical training has a beneficial impact on speech processing (e.g., hearing of speech in noise and prosody perception). As this research moves forward two key questions need to be addressed: 1) Can purely instrumental musical training have such effects? 2) If so, how and why would such effects occur? The current paper offers a conceptual framework for understanding such effects based on mechanisms of neural plasticity. The expanded OPERA hypothesis proposes that when music and speech share sensory or cognitive processing mechanisms in the brain, and music places higher demands on these mechanisms than speech does, this sets the stage for musical training to enhance speech processing. When these higher demands are combined with the emotional rewards of music, the frequent repetition that musical training engenders, and the focused attention that it requires, neural plasticity is activated and makes lasting changes in brain structure and function which impact speech processing. Initial data from a new study motivated by the OPERA hypothesis is presented, focusing on the impact of musical training on speech perception in cochlear-implant users. Suggestions for the development of animal models to test OPERA are also presented, to help motivate neurophysiological studies of how auditory training using non-biological sounds can impact the brain's perceptual processing of species-specific vocalizations. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled .

  12. Measurement of the TeV atmospheric muon charge ratio with the complete OPERA data set

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agafonova, N.; Aleksandrov, A.; Anokhina, A.; Aoki, S.; Ariga, A.; Ariga, T.; Bender, D.; Bertolin, A.; Bozza, C.; Brugnera, R.; Buonaura, A.; Buontempo, S.; Büttner, B.; Chernyavsky, M.; Chukanov, A.; Consiglio, L.; D'Ambrosio, N.; De Lellis, G.; De Serio, M.; Del Amo Sanchez, P.; Di Crescenzo, A.; Di Ferdinando, D.; Di Marco, N.; Dmitrievski, S.; Dracos, M.; Duchesneau, D.; Dusini, S.; Dzhatdoev, T.; Ebert, J.; Ereditato, A.; Fini, R. A.; Fukuda, T.; Galati, G.; Garfagnini, A.; Giacomelli, G.; Göllnitz, C.; Goldberg, J.; Gornushkin, Y.; Grella, G.; Guler, M.; Gustavino, C.; Hagner, C.; Hara, T.; Hollnagel, A.; Hosseini, B.; Ishida, H.; Ishiguro, K.; Jakovcic, K.; Jollet, C.; Kamiscioglu, C.; Kamiscioglu, M.; Kawada, J.; Kim, J. H.; Kim, S. H.; Kitagawa, N.; Klicek, B.; Kodama, K.; Komatsu, M.; Kose, U.; Kreslo, I.; Lauria, A.; Lenkeit, J.; Ljubicic, A.; Longhin, A.; Loverre, P.; Malgin, A.; Malenica, M.; Mandrioli, G.; Matsuo, T.; Matveev, V.; Mauri, N.; Medinaceli, E.; Meregaglia, A.; Mikado, S.; Monacelli, P.; Montesi, M. C.; Morishima, K.; Muciaccia, M. T.; Naganawa, N.; Naka, T.; Nakamura, M.; Nakano, T.; Nakatsuka, Y.; Niwa, K.; Ogawa, S.; Okateva, N.; Olshevsky, A.; Omura, T.; Ozaki, K.; Paoloni, A.; Park, B. D.; Park, I. G.; Pasqualini, L.; Pastore, A.; Patrizii, L.; Pessard, H.; Pistillo, C.; Podgrudkov, D.; Polukhina, N.; Pozzato, M.; Pupilli, F.; Roda, M.; Rokujo, H.; Roganova, T.; Rosa, G.; Ryazhskaya, O.; Sato, O.; Schembri, A.; Shakiryanova, I.; Shchedrina, T.; Sheshukov, A.; Shibuya, H.; Shiraishi, T.; Shoziyoev, G.; Simone, S.; Sioli, M.; Sirignano, C.; Sirri, G.; Spinetti, M.; Stanco, L.; Starkov, N.; Stellacci, S. M.; Stipcevic, M.; Strolin, P.; Takahashi, S.; Tenti, M.; Terranova, F.; Tioukov, V.; Tufanli, S.; Vilain, P.; Vladimirov, M.; Votano, L.; Vuilleumier, J. L.; Wilquet, G.; Wonsak, B.; Yoon, C. S.; Zemskova, S.; Zghiche, A.

    2014-07-01

    The OPERA detector, designed to search for oscillations in the CNGS beam, is located in the underground Gran Sasso laboratory, a privileged location to study TeV-scale cosmic rays. For the analysis here presented, the detector was used to measure the atmospheric muon charge ratio in the TeV region. OPERA collected charge-separated cosmic ray data between 2008 and 2012. More than 3 million atmospheric muon events were detected and reconstructed, among which about 110000 multiple muon bundles. The charge ratio was measured separately for single and for multiple muon events. The analysis exploited the inversion of the magnet polarity which was performed on purpose during the 2012 Run. The combination of the two data sets with opposite magnet polarities allowed minimizing systematic uncertainties and reaching an accurate determination of the muon charge ratio. Data were fitted to obtain relevant parameters on the composition of primary cosmic rays and the associated kaon production in the forward fragmentation region. In the surface energy range 1-20 TeV investigated by OPERA, is well described by a parametric model including only pion and kaon contributions to the muon flux, showing no significant contribution of the prompt component. The energy independence supports the validity of Feynman scaling in the fragmentation region up to TeV/nucleon primary energy.

  13. Thermal/Optical analysis of optical system of star tracker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Si-yu; Huang, Yi-fan

    2011-08-01

    Spacecraft would be expected to encounter diverse extreme environmental (EE) conditions throughout their mission phases. These EE conditions are often coupled. Star tracker is a high accurate 3-axis attitude measuring instrument used in various spacecrafts. In this paper, an effective scheme to the thermal/optical analysis in optical system of star sensor was described and the concept of thermal optical analysis of star tracker optical system was introduced in detail. Using finite element analysis (FEA) and ray tracing, we can study the relationship of optical properties of optical systems and optical system's temperature distribution . A lens system configuration having six uncemented elements was discussed. The lens system was a 56mm EFL, which was different from common lens used in imaging system that this lens system was required to have a high resolving power in design thoughts. It was designed to determine the attitude of space platform by detecting and mapping the geometric pattern of stars. Based on this system, the FEA models of the optical system were established for temperature distribution calculation and for thermal-elastic structural deformation analysis respectively. Using the models, the steady-state temperature distributions of the tracker were simulated. The rigid body displacements of the optical components under homogeneous temperature changes and certain temperature distributions were derived out. It is convenient to use Zernike polynomials as the data transmission between optical and structural analysis programs. Here, Zernike polynomials and their fitting method are used as an example to determine the thermal induced optical degradations of the optical system.

  14. Inverse sparse tracker with a locally weighted distance metric.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dong; Lu, Huchuan; Xiao, Ziyang; Yang, Ming-Hsuan

    2015-09-01

    Sparse representation has been recently extensively studied for visual tracking and generally facilitates more accurate tracking results than classic methods. In this paper, we propose a sparsity-based tracking algorithm that is featured with two components: 1) an inverse sparse representation formulation and 2) a locally weighted distance metric. In the inverse sparse representation formulation, the target template is reconstructed with particles, which enables the tracker to compute the weights of all particles by solving only one l1 optimization problem and thereby provides a quite efficient model. This is in direct contrast to most previous sparse trackers that entail solving one optimization problem for each particle. However, we notice that this formulation with normal Euclidean distance metric is sensitive to partial noise like occlusion and illumination changes. To this end, we design a locally weighted distance metric to replace the Euclidean one. Similar ideas of using local features appear in other works, but only being supported by popular assumptions like local models could handle partial noise better than holistic models, without any solid theoretical analysis. In this paper, we attempt to explicitly explain it from a mathematical view. On that basis, we further propose a method to assign local weights by exploiting the temporal and spatial continuity. In the proposed method, appearance changes caused by partial occlusion and shape deformation are carefully considered, thereby facilitating accurate similarity measurement and model update. The experimental validation is conducted from two aspects: 1) self validation on key components and 2) comparison with other state-of-the-art algorithms. Results over 15 challenging sequences show that the proposed tracking algorithm performs favorably against the existing sparsity-based trackers and the other state-of-the-art methods. PMID:25935033

  15. Monitoring with Trackers Based on Semi-Quantitative Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuipers, Benjamin

    1997-01-01

    In three years of NASA-sponsored research preceding this project, we successfully developed a technology for: (1) building qualitative and semi-quantitative models from libraries of model-fragments, (2) simulating these models to predict future behaviors with the guarantee that all possible behaviors are covered, (3) assimilating observations into behaviors, shrinking uncertainty so that incorrect models are eventually refuted and correct models make stronger predictions for the future. In our object-oriented framework, a tracker is an object which embodies the hypothesis that the available observation stream is consistent with a particular behavior of a particular model. The tracker maintains its own status (consistent, superceded, or refuted), and answers questions about its explanation for past observations and its predictions for the future. In the MIMIC approach to monitoring of continuous systems, a number of trackers are active in parallel, representing alternate hypotheses about the behavior of a system. This approach is motivated by the need to avoid 'system accidents' [Perrow, 1985] due to operator fixation on a single hypothesis, as for example at Three Mile Island. As we began to address these issues, we focused on three major research directions that we planned to pursue over a three-year project: (1) tractable qualitative simulation, (2) semiquantitative inference, and (3) tracking set management. Unfortunately, funding limitations made it impossible to continue past year one. Nonetheless, we made major progress in the first two of these areas. Progress in the third area as slower because the graduate student working on that aspect of the project decided to leave school and take a job in industry. I enclosed a set of abstract of selected papers on the work describe below. Several papers that draw on the research supported during this period appeared in print after the grant period ended.

  16. Precision performance lamp technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, Dean A.; Kiesa, James E.; Dean, Raymond A.

    1997-09-01

    A principal function of a lamp is to produce light output with designated spectra, intensity, and/or geometric radiation patterns. The function of a precision performance lamp is to go beyond these parameters and into the precision repeatability of performance. All lamps are not equal. There are a variety of incandescent lamps, from the vacuum incandescent indictor lamp to the precision lamp of a blood analyzer. In the past the definition of a precision lamp was described in terms of wattage, light center length (LCL), filament position, and/or spot alignment. This paper presents a new view of precision lamps through the discussion of a new segment of lamp design, which we term precision performance lamps. The definition of precision performance lamps will include (must include) the factors of a precision lamp. But what makes a precision lamp a precision performance lamp is the manner in which the design factors of amperage, mscp (mean spherical candlepower), efficacy (lumens/watt), life, not considered individually but rather considered collectively. There is a statistical bias in a precision performance lamp for each of these factors; taken individually and as a whole. When properly considered the results can be dramatic to the system design engineer, system production manage and the system end-user. It can be shown that for the lamp user, the use of precision performance lamps can translate to: (1) ease of system design, (2) simplification of electronics, (3) superior signal to noise ratios, (4) higher manufacturing yields, (5) lower system costs, (6) better product performance. The factors mentioned above are described along with their interdependent relationships. It is statistically shown how the benefits listed above are achievable. Examples are provided to illustrate how proper attention to precision performance lamp characteristics actually aid in system product design and manufacturing to build and market more, market acceptable product products in the

  17. Microprocessor-controlled laser tracker for atmospheric sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, R. A.; Webster, C. R.; Menzies, R. T.

    1985-01-01

    An optical tracking system comprising a visible HeNe laser, an imaging detector, and a microprocessor-controlled mirror, has been designed to track a moving retroreflector located up to 500 m away from an atmospheric instrument and simultaneously direct spectrally tunable infrared laser radiation to the retroreflector for double-ended, long-path absorption measurements of atmospheric species. The tracker has been tested during the recent flight of a balloon-borne tunable diode laser absorption spectrometer which monitors the concentrations of stratospheric species within a volume defined by a 0.14-m-diameter retroreflector lowered 500 m below the instrument gondola.

  18. CO2 cooling for the CMS tracker at SLHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feld, L.; Karpinski, W.; Merz, J.; Wlochal, M.

    2011-01-01

    For a new CMS tracker at SLHC cooling of the silicon sensors and their electronics is a crucial issue. Currently under investigation is an evaporative CO2 cooling system, being able to provide more cooling power at a lower mass than a mono-phase liquid system. Furthermore carbon dioxide could allow for lower operating temperatures, which are beneficial for the sensor performance and lifetime. The CO2 cooling test system at RWTH Aachen University is being presented. First measurements and results are shown, demonstrating the functionality of the system.

  19. Physics sensitivity studies of Fine-Grained Tracker

    SciTech Connect

    Tian, Xinchun; Mishra, Sanjib R.; Petti, Roberto; Hongyue, Duyang

    2015-10-15

    The reference design of the near detector for the LBNE experiment is a high-resolution Fine-Grained Tracker (FGT). We performed sensitivity studies – critical to constraining the systematics in oscillation searches – of measurements of (1) the absolute neutrino flux, (2) neutrino-nucleon quasi-elastic (QE) and (3) resonance (Res) interactions. In QE and Res emphasis is laid in identifying in situ measurables that help constrain nuclear effects such as initial state pair wise correlations and final state interactions.

  20. A joint data assimilation system (Tan-Tracker) to simultaneously estimate surface CO2 fluxes and 3-D atmospheric CO2 concentrations from observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, X.; Xie, Z.; Liu, Y.; Cai, Z.; Fu, Y.; Zhang, H.; Feng, L.

    2013-09-01

    To quantitatively estimate CO2 surface fluxes (CFs) from atmospheric observations, a joint data assimilation system ("Tan-Tracker") is developed by incorporating a joint data assimilation framework into the GEOS-Chem atmospheric transport model. In Tan-Tracker, we choose an identity operator as the CF dynamical model to describe the CFs' evolution, which constitutes an augmented dynamical model together with the GEOS-Chem atmospheric transport model. In this case, the large-scale vector made up of CFs and CO2 concentrations is taken as the prognostic variable for the augmented dynamical model. And thus both CO2 concentrations and CFs are jointly assimilated by using the atmospheric observations (e.g., the in-situ observations or satellite measurements). In contrast, in the traditional joint data assimilation frameworks, CFs are usually treated as the model parameters and form a state-parameter augmented vector jointly with CO2 concentrations. The absence of a CF dynamical model will certainly result in a large waste of observed information since any useful information for CFs' improvement achieved by the current data assimilation procedure could not be used in the next assimilation cycle. Observing system simulation experiments (OSSEs) are carefully designed to evaluate the Tan-Tracker system in comparison to its simplified version (referred to as TT-S) with only CFs taken as the prognostic variables. It is found that our Tan-Tracker system is capable of outperforming TT-S with higher assimilation precision for both CO2 concentrations and CO2 fluxes, mainly due to the simultaneous assimilation of CO2 concentrations and CFs in our Tan-Tracker data assimilation system.

  1. Advanced application flight experiments precision attitude determination system. Volume 2: System tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The performance capability of each of two precision attitude determination systems (PADS), one using a strapdown star tracker, and the other using a single-axis gimbal star tracker was measured in the laboratory under simulated orbit conditions. The primary focus of the evaluation was on the contribution to the total system accuracy by the star trackers, and the effectiveness of the software algorithms in functioning with actual sensor signals. A brief description of PADS, the laboratory test configuration and the test facility, is given along with a discussion of the data handling and display, laboratory computer programs, PADS performance evaluation programs, and the strapdown and gimbal system tests. Results are presented and discussed.

  2. ASTRA1 solid state star trackers for Martin Marietta's modular attitude control system module

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gullapalli, Sarma N.; Flynn, David J.; Kissh, Frank J.; Gauthier, Albert G.; Kenney, Thomas M.

    1993-09-01

    The HD-1002 (also known as MACS) solid state star trackers being built by Hughes Danbury Optical Systems, Inc. (HDOS) for Martin Marietta Astro Space Division for use in their Modular Attitude Control Systems (MACS) Module are improved and modified versions of the ASTRA1 star trackers now in use on board the TOPEX/POSEIDON satellite. The ASTRA1 design was based on the pioneering work accomplished at HDOS over the past decade. Along with the set of trackers being built by HDOS for Space Station Freedom, these trackers answer a variety of application requirements for spacecraft attitude control systems. This paper addresses the main features of the MACS trackers, their role in the MACS Module, and summarizes the excellent preliminary performance results of the tracker, as supported by measured test data.

  3. Precision volume measuring system

    SciTech Connect

    Klevgard, P.A.

    1984-11-01

    An engineering study was undertaken to calibrate and certify a precision volume measurement system that uses the ideal gas law and precise pressure measurements (of low-pressure helium) to ratio a known to an unknown volume. The constant-temperature, computer-controlled system was tested for thermodynamic instabilities, for precision (0.01%), and for bias (0.01%). Ratio scaling was used to optimize the quartz crystal pressure transducer calibration.

  4. Precision positioning device

    DOEpatents

    McInroy, John E.

    2005-01-18

    A precision positioning device is provided. The precision positioning device comprises a precision measuring/vibration isolation mechanism. A first plate is provided with the precision measuring mean secured to the first plate. A second plate is secured to the first plate. A third plate is secured to the second plate with the first plate being positioned between the second plate and the third plate. A fourth plate is secured to the third plate with the second plate being positioned between the third plate and the fourth plate. An adjusting mechanism for adjusting the position of the first plate, the second plate, the third plate, and the fourth plate relative to each other.

  5. Solar kinetics` photovoltaic concentrator module and tracker development

    SciTech Connect

    White, D.L.; Howell, B.

    1995-11-01

    Solar Kinetics, Inc., has been developing a point-focus concentrating photovoltaic module and tracker system under contract to Sandia National Laboratories. The primary focus of the contract was to achieve a module design that was manufacturable and passed Sandia`s environmental testing. Nine modules of two variations were assembled, tested, and characterized in Phase 1, and results of these tests were promising, with module efficiency approaching the theoretical limit achievable with the components used. The module efficiency was 11.9% at a solar irradiance of 850 W/m{sup 2} and an extrapolated cell temperature of 25{degrees}C. Improvements in module performance are anticipated as cell efficiencies meet their expectations. A 2-kW tracker and controller accommodating 20 modules was designed, built, installed, and operated at Solar Kinetics` test site. The drive used many commercially available components in an innovative arrangement to reduce cost and increase reliability. Backlash and bearing play were controlled by use of preloaded, low slip-stick, synthetic slide bearings. The controller design used a standard industrial programmable logic controller to perform ephemeris calculations, operate the actuators, and monitor encoders.

  6. An adaptive tracker for ShipIR/NTCS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramaswamy, Srinivasan; Vaitekunas, David A.

    2015-05-01

    A key component in any image-based tracking system is the adaptive tracking algorithm used to segment the image into potential targets, rank-and-select the best candidate target, and the gating of the selected target to further improve tracker performance. This paper will describe a new adaptive tracker algorithm added to the naval threat countermeasure simulator (NTCS) of the NATO-standard ship signature model (ShipIR). The new adaptive tracking algorithm is an optional feature used with any of the existing internal NTCS or user-defined seeker algorithms (e.g., binary centroid, intensity centroid, and threshold intensity centroid). The algorithm segments the detected pixels into clusters, and the smallest set of clusters that meet the detection criterion is obtained by using a knapsack algorithm to identify the set of clusters that should not be used. The rectangular area containing the chosen clusters defines an inner boundary, from which a weighted centroid is calculated as the aim-point. A track-gate is then positioned around the clusters, taking into account the rate of change of the bounding area and compensating for any gimbal displacement. A sequence of scenarios is used to test the new tracking algorithm on a generic unclassified DDG ShipIR model, with and without flares, and demonstrate how some of the key seeker signals are impacted by both the ship and flare intrinsic signatures.

  7. The AMS-02 Silicon Tracker:. Status and Performances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Urso, D.

    2012-08-01

    The Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS-02) is a space based high energy physics experiment operating on the International Space Station (ISS) since May. AMS-02 will measure the different cosmic radiation components allowing the search of primordial antimatter and dark matter annihilation products. Exploiting a large acceptance and a data taking of at least 10 years, AMS-02 will detect more than 1010 charged particles in the GV-TV rigidity range. The tracking device is composed by 2 planes at the ends of the apparatus and 7 layers of silicon sensors in the permanent magnet (0.15T) bore. The measurement of the curvature radius of the charged particles bent trajectories allows the estimation of particle rigidity and charge sign. The tracker is composed by 2264 double-sided silicon sensors (72×41 mm2, 300 μm thick) assembled in 192 read-out units, for a total of ≈ 200.000 read-out channels. The status of the AMS-02 tracker, after these first months of data taking in space, its performances and potentialities will be presented.

  8. Low-background tracker development for SuperNEMO

    SciTech Connect

    Mott, James; Collaboration: SuperNEMO Collaboration; and others

    2013-08-08

    The SuperNEMO experiment will search for neutrinoless double beta decay (0νββ) with a target sensitivity of T{sub 1/2}(0ν) > 10{sup 26} years, corresponding to an effective neutrino mass of 50-100 meV. At its heart there is a low-background gaseous tracking detector which allows for extremely efficient background rejection and, if 0νββ is observed, may provide important insights into the mechanism via which it may be mediated. Radon inside the tracker, which can mimic rare ββ events, is one of the most dangerous backgrounds for SuperNEMO. To reach the target sensitivity the radon concentration inside the tracking volume must be < 0.15 mBq/m{sup 3}. To reach this challengingly-low level of radon, a considerable program of R and D has been undertaken. This includes automation of the tracker-wiring process, development of a dedicated setup to measure radon diffusion and a 'radon concentration line' which will be able to measure levels of radon in the μBq/m{sup 3} range.

  9. Dynamic imaging model and parameter optimization for a star tracker.

    PubMed

    Yan, Jinyun; Jiang, Jie; Zhang, Guangjun

    2016-03-21

    Under dynamic conditions, star spots move across the image plane of a star tracker and form a smeared star image. This smearing effect increases errors in star position estimation and degrades attitude accuracy. First, an analytical energy distribution model of a smeared star spot is established based on a line segment spread function because the dynamic imaging process of a star tracker is equivalent to the static imaging process of linear light sources. The proposed model, which has a clear physical meaning, explicitly reflects the key parameters of the imaging process, including incident flux, exposure time, velocity of a star spot in an image plane, and Gaussian radius. Furthermore, an analytical expression of the centroiding error of the smeared star spot is derived using the proposed model. An accurate and comprehensive evaluation of centroiding accuracy is obtained based on the expression. Moreover, analytical solutions of the optimal parameters are derived to achieve the best performance in centroid estimation. Finally, we perform numerical simulations and a night sky experiment to validate the correctness of the dynamic imaging model, the centroiding error expression, and the optimal parameters.

  10. Precision Teaching: An Introduction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West, Richard P.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Precision teaching is introduced as a method of helping students develop fluency or automaticity in the performance of academic skills. Precision teaching involves being aware of the relationship between teaching and learning, measuring student performance regularly and frequently, and analyzing the measurements to develop instructional and…

  11. Precision Optics Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reid, Robert L.; And Others

    This guide outlines the competency-based, two-year precision optics curriculum that the American Precision Optics Manufacturers Association has proposed to fill the void that it suggests will soon exist as many of the master opticians currently employed retire. The model, which closely resembles the old European apprenticeship model, calls for 300…

  12. The OPERA experiment in the CERN to Gran Sasso neutrino beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acquafredda, R.; Adam, T.; Agafonova, N.; Alvarez Sanchez, P.; Ambrosio, M.; Anokhina, A.; Aoki, S.; Ariga, A.; Ariga, T.; Arrabito, L.; Aufranc, C.; Autiero, D.; Badertscher, A.; Bagulya, A.; Baussan, E.; Bergnoli, A.; Bersani Greggio, F.; Bertolin, A.; Besnier, M.; Biaré, D.; Bick, D.; Blin, S.; Borer, K.; Boucrot, J.; Boutigny, D.; Boyarkin, V.; Bozza, C.; Brugière, T.; Brugnera, R.; Brunetti, G.; Buontempo, S.; Campagne, J. E.; Carlus, B.; Carrara, E.; Cazes, A.; Chaussard, L.; Chernyavsky, M.; Chiarella, V.; Chon-Sen, N.; Chukanov, A.; Ciesielski, R.; Consiglio, L.; Cozzi, M.; D'Amato, G.; Dal Corso, F.; D'Ambrosio, N.; Damet, J.; de La Taille, C.; DeLellis, G.; Déclais, Y.; Descombes, T.; DeSerio, M.; Di Capua, F.; Di Ferdinando, D.; Di Giovanni, A.; Di Marco, N.; Di Troia, C.; Dick, N.; Dmitrievski, S.; Dominjon, A.; Dracos, M.; Duchesneau, D.; Dulach, B.; Dusini, S.; Ebert, J.; Efthymiopoulos, I.; Egorov, O.; Elsener, K.; Enikeev, R.; Ereditato, A.; Esposito, L. S.; Fanin, C.; Favier, J.; Felici, G.; Ferber, T.; Fini, R.; Fournier, L.; Franceschi, A.; Frekers, D.; Fukuda, T.; Fukushima, C.; Galkin, V. I.; Galkin, V. A.; Gallet, R.; Gardien, S.; Garfagnini, A.; Gaudiot, G.; Giacomelli, G.; Giorgini, M.; Girerd, C.; Goellnitz, C.; Goeltzenlichter, T.; Goldberg, J.; Golubkov, D.; Gornushkin, Y.; Grapton, J.-N.; Grella, G.; Grianti, F.; Gschwendtner, E.; Guerin, C.; Guler, M.; Gustavino, C.; Guyonnet, J.-L.; Hagner, C.; Hamane, T.; Hara, T.; Hauger, M.; Hess, M.; Hierholzer, M.; Hoshino, K.; Ieva, M.; Incurvati, M.; Jakovcic, K.; Janicsko Csathy, J.; Janutta, B.; Jollet, C.; Juget, F.; Kazuyama, M.; Kim, S. H.; Khovansky, N.; Kimura, M.; Klicek, B.; Knuesel, J.; Kodama, K.; Kolev, D.; Komatsu, M.; Kose, U.; Krasnoperov, A.; Kreslo, I.; Krumstein, Z.; Kutsenov, V. V.; Kuznetsov, V. A.; Laktineh, I.; Lavy, M.; Lazzaro, C.; Le, T. D.; LeFlour, T.; Lenkeit, J.; Lewis, J.; Lieunard, S.; Ljubicic, A.; Longhin, A.; Lutter, G.; Malgin, A.; Manai, K.; Mandrioli, G.; Marotta, A.; Marteau, J.; Martin-Chassard, G.; Matveev, V.; Mauri, N.; Meddahi, M.; Meisel, F.; Meregaglia, A.; Meschini, A.; Messina, M.; Migliozzi, P.; Monacelli, P.; Monteiro, I.; Moreau, F.; Morishima, K.; Moser, U.; Muciaccia, M. T.; Mugnier, P.; Naganawa, N.; Nakamura, M.; Nakano, T.; Napolitano, T.; Nikitina, V.; Niwa, K.; Nonoyama, Y.; Nozdrin, A.; Ogawa, S.; Olchevski, A.; Orlandi, D.; Orlova, G.; Osedlo, V.; Ossetski, D.; Paniccia, M.; Paoloni, A.; Park, B. D.; Park, I. G.; Pastore, A.; Patrizii, L.; Pellegrino, L.; Pennacchio, E.; Pessard, H.; Pilipenko, V.; Pistillo, C.; Polukhina, N.; Pozzato, M.; Pretzl, K.; Publichenko, P.; Pupilli, F.; Raux, L.; Repellin, J. P.; Rescigno, R.; Rizhikov, D.; Roganova, T.; Romano, G.; Rosa, G.; Rostovtseva, I.; Rubbia, A.; Russo, A.; Ryasny, V.; Ryazhskaya, O.; Sadovski, A.; Sanelli, C.; Sato, O.; Sato, Y.; Saveliev, V.; Sazhina, G.; Schembri, A.; Schmidt Parzefall, W.; Schroeder, H.; Schütz, H. U.; Schuler, J.; Scotto Lavina, L.; Serrano, J.; Shibuya, H.; Simone, S.; Sioli, M.; Sirignano, C.; Sirri, G.; Song, J. S.; Spinetti, M.; Stanco, L.; Starkov, N.; Stipcevic, M.; Strauss, T.; Strolin, P.; Sugonyaev, V.; Takahashi, S.; Talochkin, V.; Tenti, M.; Tereschenko, V.; Terranova, F.; Tezuka, I.; Tioukov, V.; Tolun, P.; Tsarev, V.; Tsenov, R.; Tufanli, S.; Ugolino, U.; Ushida, N.; Van Beek, G.; Verguilov, V.; Viant, T.; Vilain, P.; Vladimirov, M.; Votano, L.; Vuilleumier, J. L.; Waelchli, T.; Weber, M.; Wilquet, G.; Wonsak, B.; Wurtz, J.; Yakushev, V.; Yoon, C. S.; Zaitsev, Y.; Zghiche, A.; Zimmermann, R.

    2009-04-01

    The OPERA neutrino oscillation experiment has been designed to prove the appearance of ντ in a nearly pure νμ beam (CNGS) produced at CERN and detected in the underground Hall C of the Gran Sasso Laboratory, 730 km away from the source. In OPERA, τ leptons resulting from the interaction of ντ are produced in target units called bricks made of nuclear emulsion films interleaved with lead plates. The OPERA target contains 150000 of such bricks, for a total mass of 1.25 kton, arranged into walls interleaved with plastic scintillator strips. The detector is split into two identical supermodules, each supermodule containing a target section followed by a magnetic spectrometer for momentum and charge measurement of penetrating particles. Real time information from the scintillators and the spectrometers provide the identification of the bricks where the neutrino interactions occurred. The candidate bricks are extracted from the walls and, after X-ray marking and an exposure to cosmic rays for alignment, their emulsion films are developed and sent to the emulsion scanning laboratories to perform the accurate scan of the event. In this paper, we review the design and construction of the detector and of its related infrastructures, and report on some technical performances of the various components. The construction of the detector started in 2003 and it was completed in Summer 2008. The experiment is presently in the data taking phase. The whole sequence of operations has proven to be successful, from triggering to brick selection, development, scanning and event analysis.

  13. PRECISION POINTING OF IBEX-Lo OBSERVATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Hlond, M.; Bzowski, M.; Moebius, E.; Kucharek, H.; Heirtzler, D.; Schwadron, N. A.; Neill, M. E. O'; Clark, G.; Crew, G. B.; Fuselier, S.; McComas, D. J. E-mail: eberhard.moebius@unh.edu E-mail: stephen.a.fuselier@linco.com E-mail: DMcComas@swri.edu

    2012-02-01

    Post-launch boresight of the IBEX-Lo instrument on board the Interstellar Boundary Explorer (IBEX) is determined based on IBEX-Lo Star Sensor observations. Accurate information on the boresight of the neutral gas camera is essential for precise determination of interstellar gas flow parameters. Utilizing spin-phase information from the spacecraft attitude control system (ACS), positions of stars observed by the Star Sensor during two years of IBEX measurements were analyzed and compared with positions obtained from a star catalog. No statistically significant differences were observed beyond those expected from the pre-launch uncertainty in the Star Sensor mounting. Based on the star observations and their positions in the spacecraft reference system, pointing of the IBEX satellite spin axis was determined and compared with the pointing obtained from the ACS. Again, no statistically significant deviations were observed. We conclude that no systematic correction for boresight geometry is needed in the analysis of IBEX-Lo observations to determine neutral interstellar gas flow properties. A stack-up of uncertainties in attitude knowledge shows that the instantaneous IBEX-Lo pointing is determined to within {approx}0.{sup 0}1 in both spin angle and elevation using either the Star Sensor or the ACS. Further, the Star Sensor can be used to independently determine the spacecraft spin axis. Thus, Star Sensor data can be used reliably to correct the spin phase when the Star Tracker (used by the ACS) is disabled by bright objects in its field of view. The Star Sensor can also determine the spin axis during most orbits and thus provides redundancy for the Star Tracker.

  14. Are opera-house artistes afflicted with contact allergy to colophony and cosmetics?

    PubMed

    Färm, G; Karlberg, A T; Lidén, C

    1995-05-01

    The frequencies of cosmetics intolerance and contact allergy to colophony were investigated among 116 singers and dancers and 16 make-up artists. Participants were interviewed, examined and patch tested with a standard series and materials from the opera house. Common skin lesions were found in 1/3 of participants and more than 50% had a history of intolerance to cosmetics. Colophony gave positive patch test reactions in only 3 subjects. The prevalence of positive patch test reactions to fragrance mix and balsam of Peru was about the same as among dermatitis patients generally. Contact allergy to colophony did not seem to be a problem regarding cosmetics.

  15. Recent Results of Opera: Search for νμ → ντ Oscillations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Omura, T.

    2015-06-01

    The OPERA experiment aims at providing a direct proof of the νμ → ντ oscillations by observing ντ CC interactions in an high purity νμ accelerator beam, the CNGS (CERN Neutrinos to Gran Sasso). The beam exposure started in 2008 and ended in 2012. Events recorded in the Emulsion Cloud Chamber detectors, made of lead plates and nuclear emulsions, are being analysed since 2008. In the last period, a large amount of data has been extracted additionally, leading to the validation of the 4th ντ candidate event. This new result brings the observation of the oscillation with a significance exceeding 4 sigma.

  16. Conceptual design and algorithm evaluation for a very accurate imaging star tracker for deep- space optical communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maurer, Donald E.; Boone, Bradley G.

    2002-12-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration is planning high data rate optical communications for future deep space missions. The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory (JHU/APL) is responding by developing concepts for implementing optical communications terminals that are more compact and lightweight than heretofore. An essential requirement for these long-range optical links is a high-precision pointing and tracking system. Focal plane array (FPA)-based star trackers that enable open-loop pointing and tracking are necessary. Spacecraft attitude instabilities, emphemeris errors, tracking sensor noise, clock errors, and mechanical misalignments are among the error sources that must be minimized and compensated for. To achieve this JHU/APL has developed an imaging star tracker concept using redundant multi-aperture FPA's symmetrically disposed about the laser downlink. Centroid estimation and pattern matching techniques account for aberration and motion errors. Robustness, sensitivity to detection thresholds, field-of-view sizing, number of stars per frame, missed detections, false alarms, and position biases, as well as stellar catalog size and star selection, will be described. Finally the conceptual design of a frame-to-frame integration method and sensor fusion algorithm (such as a Kalman filter) will be considered. The goal is to achieve a system pointing and tracking error significantly less than 1 μrad.

  17. Design and Initial Tests of the Tracker-Converter ofthe Gamma-ray Large Area Space Telescope

    SciTech Connect

    Atwood, W.B.; Bagagli, R.; Baldini, L.; Bellazzini, R.; Barbiellini, G.; Belli, F.; Borden, T.; Brez, A.; Brigida, M.; Caliandro, G.A.; Cecchi, C.; Cohen-Tanugi, J.; De Angelis, A.; Drell, P.; Favuzzi, C.; Fukazawa, Y.; Fusco, P.; Gargano, F.; Germani, S.; Giannitrapani, R.; Giglietto, N.; /UC, Santa Cruz /INFN, Pisa /Pisa U. /INFN, Trieste /INFN, Rome /Rome U.,Tor Vergata /SLAC /INFN, Bari /Bari U. /INFN, Perugia /Perugia U. /Udine U. /Hiroshima U. /NASA, Goddard /Maryland U. /Tokyo Inst. Tech. /INFN, Padua /Padua U. /Pisa, Scuola Normale Superiore

    2007-04-16

    The Tracker subsystem of the Large Area Telescope (LAT) science instrument of the Gamma-ray Large Area Space Telescope (GLAST) mission has been completed and tested. It is the central detector subsystem of the LAT and serves both to convert an incident gamma-ray into an electron-positron pair and to track the pair in order to measure the gamma-ray direction. It also provides the principal trigger for the LAT. The Tracker uses silicon strip detectors, read out by custom electronics, to detect charged particles. The detectors and electronics are packaged, along with tungsten converter foils, in 16 modular, high-precision carbon-composite structures. It is the largest silicon-strip detector system ever built for launch into space, and its aggressive design emphasizes very low power consumption, passive cooling, low noise, high efficiency, minimal dead area, and a structure that is highly transparent to charged particles. The test program has demonstrated that the system meets or surpasses all of its performance specifications as well as environmental requirements. It is now installed in the completed LAT, which is being prepared for launch in early 2008.

  18. 2D/3D Visual Tracker for Rover Mast

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bajracharya, Max; Madison, Richard W.; Nesnas, Issa A.; Bandari, Esfandiar; Kunz, Clayton; Deans, Matt; Bualat, Maria

    2006-01-01

    A visual-tracker computer program controls an articulated mast on a Mars rover to keep a designated feature (a target) in view while the rover drives toward the target, avoiding obstacles. Several prior visual-tracker programs have been tested on rover platforms; most require very small and well-estimated motion between consecutive image frames a requirement that is not realistic for a rover on rough terrain. The present visual-tracker program is designed to handle large image motions that lead to significant changes in feature geometry and photometry between frames. When a point is selected in one of the images acquired from stereoscopic cameras on the mast, a stereo triangulation algorithm computes a three-dimensional (3D) location for the target. As the rover moves, its body-mounted cameras feed images to a visual-odometry algorithm, which tracks two-dimensional (2D) corner features and computes their old and new 3D locations. The algorithm rejects points, the 3D motions of which are inconsistent with a rigid-world constraint, and then computes the apparent change in the rover pose (i.e., translation and rotation). The mast pan and tilt angles needed to keep the target centered in the field-of-view of the cameras (thereby minimizing the area over which the 2D-tracking algorithm must operate) are computed from the estimated change in the rover pose, the 3D position of the target feature, and a model of kinematics of the mast. If the motion between the consecutive frames is still large (i.e., 3D tracking was unsuccessful), an adaptive view-based matching technique is applied to the new image. This technique uses correlation-based template matching, in which a feature template is scaled by the ratio between the depth in the original template and the depth of pixels in the new image. This is repeated over the entire search window and the best correlation results indicate the appropriate match. The program could be a core for building application programs for systems

  19. Status and Physics Opportunities of the STAR Heavy Flavor Tracker and the Muon Telescope Detector Upgrades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hao, Qiu; Star Collaboration

    2014-05-01

    The STAR Collaboration will complete the Heavy Flavor Tracker (HFT) and the Muon Telescope Detector (MTD) upgrades by 2014. HFT utilizes the state-of-art active pixel detector technology, which will greatly enhance the STAR physics capabilities by measuring heavy quark yield, collectivity and correlations via the topological reconstruction of charmed hadrons over a wide momentum range. The MTD is based on the long Multi-Gap Resistive Plate Chamber detector technology designed to measure muons penetrating the bulk of other detectors and the magnet yoke. It will enable STAR to study di-muon and electron-muon correlations and enhance heavy quarkonium studies. With the addition of these upgrades, STAR is well suited to perform precise measurements of production as well as correlations of rare probes (heavy flavors, dileptons) to systematically investigate the quark-gluon plasma properties at RHIC. For Run 13 63% of the MTD has been installed and data have been taken. Prototype PXL sectors (30% coverage) have also been installed and commissioned. Anticipated physics results and current status of these upgrades is reported.

  20. Detector control system for the ATLAS Transition Radiation Tracker: architecture and development techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banaś, ElŻbieta; Hajduk, Zbigniew; Olszowska, Jolanta

    2012-05-01

    The ATLAS Transition Radiation Tracker (TRT) is the outermost of the three sub-systems of the ATLAS Inner Detector at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN. With ~300000 drift tube proportional counters (straws) filled with stable gas mixture and high voltage biased it provides precise quasi-continuous tracking and particles identification. Safe, coherent and efficient operation of the TRT is fulfilled with the help of the Detector Control System (DCS) running on 11 computers as PVSS (industrial SCADA) projects. Standard industrial and custom developed server applications and protocols are used for reading hardware parameters. Higher level control system layers based on the CERN JCOP framework allow for automatic control procedures, efficient error recognition and handling and provide a synchronization mechanism with the ATLAS data acquisition system. Different data bases are used to store the detector online parameters, the configuration parameters and replicate a subset of them used to flag data quality for physics reconstruction. The TRT DCS is fully integrated with the ATLAS Detector Control System.

  1. PROPOSAL FOR A SILICON VERTEX TRACKER (VTX) FOR THE PHENIX EXPERIMENT

    SciTech Connect

    AKIBA,Y.

    2004-10-01

    We propose the construction of a Silicon Vertex Tracker (VTX) for the PHENIX experiment at RHIC. The VTX will substantially enhance the physics capabilities of the PHENIX central arm spectrometers. Our prime motivation is to provide precision measurements of heavy-quark production (charm and beauty) in A+A, p(d)+A, and polarized p+p collisions. These are key measurements for the future RHIC program, both for the heavy ion program as it moves from the discovery phase towards detailed investigation of the properties of the dense nuclear medium created in heavy ion collisions, and for the exploration of the nucleon spin-structure functions. In addition, the VTX will also considerably improve other measurements with PHENIX. The main physics topics addressed by the VTX are: (1) Hot and dense strongly interacting matter--(a) Potential enhancement of charm production, (b) Open beauty production, (c) Flavor dependence of jet quenching and QCD energy loss, (d) Accurate charm reference for quarkonium, (e) Thermal dilepton radiation, (f) High p{sub T} phenomena with light flavors above 10-15 GeV/c in p{sub T}, and (g) Upsilon spectroscopy in the e{sup +}e{sup -} decay channel. (2) Gluon spin structure of the nucleon--(a) {Delta}G/G with charm, (b) {Delta}G/G with beauty, and (c) x dependence of {Delta}G/G with {gamma}-jet correlations. (3) Nucleon structure in nuclei--Gluon shadowing over broad x-range.

  2. Long-range active retroreflector to measure the rotational orientation in conjunction with a laser tracker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofherr, O.; Wachten, Christian; Müller, C.; Reinecke, H.

    2014-11-01

    High precision optical non-contact position measurement is a key technology in modern engineering. Laser trackers (LT) accurately determine x-y-z coordinates of passive retroreflectors. Next-generation systems answer the need to measure an object`s rotational orientation (pitch, yaw, roll). So far, these devices are based either on photogrammetry or on enhanced retroreflectors. Here we present a new method to measure all six degrees of freedom in conjunction with a LT. The basic principle is to analyze the orientation to the LT's beam path by coupling-out laser radiation. The optical design is inspired by a cat's eye retroreflector equipped with an integrated beam splitter layer. The optical spherical aberration is compensated, which reduces the divergence angle for the reflected beam by one order of magnitude compared to an uncompensated standard system of the same size. The wave front distortion is reduced to less than 0.1 λ @ 633 nm for beam diameters up to 8 mm. Our active retroreflector is suitable for long-range measurements for a distance > 10 m.

  3. Prospects for heavy-flavour measurements with the ALICE inner and forward tracker upgrade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fionda, F.

    2016-01-01

    During the second long shutdown (LS2) of the LHC the ALICE detector will be improved with the installation of an upgraded Inner Tracking System (ITS) and a new Muon Forward Tracker (MFT). These detectors will crucially contribute to the precise characterization of the high-temperature, strongly-interacting medium created in ultra-relativistic Pb-Pb collisions at √sNN = 5.5 TeV. In the central barrel, the upgraded ITS will consist of seven cylindrical layers of silicon pixel detectors, starting at a radial distance of 22.4 mm from the beam axis. At forward rapidity, the MFT will be composed of five silicon pixel planes added in the acceptance of the existing Muon Spectrometer (-4 < ƞ < -2.5), upstream to the hadron absorber. Detailed results on the expected performances for heavy-flavour (HF) measurements down to low transverse momentum, with the upgraded ITS and MFT, will be given for central Pb-Pb collisions for various benchmark analyses, assuming an integrated luminosity of 10 nb-1, as foreseen for the ALICE upgrade programme.

  4. Star Tracker Based ATP System Conceptual Design and Pointing Accuracy Estimation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orfiz, Gerardo G.; Lee, Shinhak

    2006-01-01

    A star tracker based beaconless (a.k.a. non-cooperative beacon) acquisition, tracking and pointing concept for precisely pointing an optical communication beam is presented as an innovative approach to extend the range of high bandwidth (> 100 Mbps) deep space optical communication links throughout the solar system and to remove the need for a ground based high power laser as a beacon source. The basic approach for executing the ATP functions involves the use of stars as the reference sources from which the attitude knowledge is obtained and combined with high bandwidth gyroscopes for propagating the pointing knowledge to the beam pointing mechanism. Details of the conceptual design are presented including selection of an orthogonal telescope configuration and the introduction of an optical metering scheme to reduce misalignment error. Also, estimates are presented that demonstrate that aiming of the communications beam to the Earth based receive terminal can be achieved with a total system pointing accuracy of better than 850 nanoradians (3 sigma) from anywhere in the solar system.

  5. Opera and the French Revolution. Syllabus for a Series of Graduate Seminars in the MAT In-service Program at Webster University, St. Louis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Clifford J.

    Created for the Master of Arts in Teaching (MAT) in-service program at Webster University (St. Louis, Missouri), this series of seminars, presented over a 9-day period, focuses on a comparative study of four operas set in the time period of the French Revolution. The operas examined are: (1) Mozart's "Marriage of Figaro" (1786); (2) Beethoven's…

  6. Precision volume measurement system.

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, Erin E.; Shugard, Andrew D.

    2004-11-01

    A new precision volume measurement system based on a Kansas City Plant (KCP) design was built to support the volume measurement needs of the Gas Transfer Systems (GTS) department at Sandia National Labs (SNL) in California. An engineering study was undertaken to verify or refute KCP's claims of 0.5% accuracy. The study assesses the accuracy and precision of the system. The system uses the ideal gas law and precise pressure measurements (of low-pressure helium) in a temperature and computer controlled environment to ratio a known volume to an unknown volume.

  7. Circumnutation Tracker: novel software for investigation of circumnutation

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background An endogenous, helical plant organ movement named circumnutation is ubiquitous in the plant kingdom. Plant shoots, stems, tendrils, leaves, and roots commonly circumnutate but their appearance is still poorly described. To support such investigations, novel software Circumnutation Tracker (CT) for spatial-temporal analysis of circumnutation has been developed. Results CT works on time-lapse video and collected circumnutation parameters: period, length, rate, shape, angle, and clockwise- and counterclockwise directions. The CT combines a filtering algorithm with a graph-based method to describe the parameters of circumnutation. The parameters of circumnutation of Helianthus annuus hypocotyls and the relationship between cotyledon arrangement and circumnutation geometry are presented here to demonstrate the CT options. Conclusions We have established that CT facilitates and accelerates analysis of circumnutation. In combination with the physiological, molecular, and genetic methods, this software may be a powerful tool also for investigations of gravitropism, biological clock, and membrane transport, i.e. processes involved in the mechanism of circumnutation.

  8. Standard metrics for a plug-and-play tracker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antonisse, Jim; Young, Darrell

    2012-06-01

    The Motion Imagery Standards Board (MISB) has previously established a metadata "micro-architecture" for standards-based tracking. The intent of this work is to facilitate both the collaborative development of competent tracking systems, and the potentially distributed and dispersed execution of tracker system components in real-world execution environments. The approach standardizes a set of five quasi-sequential modules in image-based tracking. However, in order to make the plug-and-play architecture truly useful we need metrics associated with each module (so that, for instance, a researcher who "plugs in" a new component can ascertain whether he/she did better or worse with the component). This paper proposes the choice of a new, unifying set of metrics based on an informationtheoretic approach to tracking, which the MISB is nominating as DoD/IC/NATO standards.

  9. LoyalTracker: Visualizing Loyalty Dynamics in Search Engines.

    PubMed

    Shi, Conglei; Wu, Yingcai; Liu, Shixia; Zhou, Hong; Qu, Huamin

    2014-12-01

    The huge amount of user log data collected by search engine providers creates new opportunities to understand user loyalty and defection behavior at an unprecedented scale. However, this also poses a great challenge to analyze the behavior and glean insights into the complex, large data. In this paper, we introduce LoyalTracker, a visual analytics system to track user loyalty and switching behavior towards multiple search engines from the vast amount of user log data. We propose a new interactive visualization technique (flow view) based on a flow metaphor, which conveys a proper visual summary of the dynamics of user loyalty of thousands of users over time. Two other visualization techniques, a density map and a word cloud, are integrated to enable analysts to gain further insights into the patterns identified by the flow view. Case studies and the interview with domain experts are conducted to demonstrate the usefulness of our technique in understanding user loyalty and switching behavior in search engines.

  10. The Tevatron tune tracker pll - theory, implementation and measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Tan, Cheng-Yang; /Fermilab

    2004-12-01

    The Tevatron tune tracker is based on the idea that the transverse phase response of the beam can be measured quickly and accurately enough to allow us to track the betatron tune with a phase locked loop (PLL). The goal of this paper is to show the progress of the PLL project at Fermilab. We will divide this paper into three parts: theory, implementation and measurements. In the theory section, we will use a simple linear model to show that our design will track the betatron tune under conditions that occur in the Tevatron. In the implementation section we will break down and examine each part of the PLL and in some cases calculate the actual PLL parameters used in our system from beam measurements. And finally in the measurements section we will show the results of the PLL performance.

  11. Two-axis tracker for solar panels and the like

    SciTech Connect

    Liao, Henry H.

    2013-04-16

    A tracker including an outer post having elongated bore and a lower end mounted on a sub-structure, an inner pole rotatably received in the elongated bore, a lower bearing in the bore adjacent a lower end of the outer post and attached thereto to be constrained from lateral movement and mounted on the sub-structure such that a lower end of the inner pole rests on and is supported by the lower bearing, an upper bearing near an upper end of the outer post, a circumferential drive supported on the outer post for rotating the inner pole relative to the outer post, such that substantially a full weight of a load on the inner pole is directly transmitted to the sub-structure and lateral force and torque leverage are placed on a full length of the outer post by way of the upper and lower bearing.

  12. How do we see art: an eye-tracker study.

    PubMed

    Quiroga, Rodrigo Quian; Pedreira, Carlos

    2011-01-01

    We describe the pattern of fixations of subjects looking at figurative and abstract paintings from different artists (Molina, Mondrian, Rembrandt, della Francesca) and at modified versions in which different aspects of these art pieces were altered with simple digital manipulations. We show that the fixations of the subjects followed some general common principles (e.g., being attracted to saliency regions) but with a large variability for the figurative paintings, according to the subject's personal appreciation and knowledge. In particular, we found different gazing patterns depending on whether the subject saw the original or the modified version of the painting first. We conclude that the study of gazing patterns obtained by using the eye-tracker technology gives a useful approach to quantify how subjects observe art.

  13. Performance of the CLAS12 Silicon Vertex Tracker modules

    SciTech Connect

    Antonioli, Mary Ann; Boiarinov, Serguie; Bonneau, Peter R.; Elouadrhiri, Latifa; Eng, Brian J.; Gotra, Yuri N.; Kurbatov, Evgeny O.; Leffel, Mindy A.; Mandal, Saptarshi; McMullen, Marc E.; Merkin, Mikhail M.; Raydo, Benjamin J.; Teachey, Robert W,; Tucker, Ross J.; Ungaro, Maurizio; Yegneswaran, Amrit S.; Ziegler, Veronique

    2013-12-01

    For the 12 GeV upgrade, the CLAS12 experiment has designed a Silicon Vertex Tracker (SVT) using single sided microstrip sensors fabricated by Hamamatsu. The sensors have graded angle design to minimize dead areas and a readout pitch of 156{micro}m, with intermediate strip. Double sided SVT module hosts three daisy-chained sensors on each side with a full strip length of 33 cm. There are 512 channels per module read out by four Fermilab Silicon Strip Readout (FSSR2) chips featuring data driven architecture, mounted on a rigid-flex hybrid. Modules are assembled on the barrel using unique cantilevered geometry to minimize the amount of material in the tracking volume. Design and performance of the SVT modules are presented, focusing on results of electrical measurements.

  14. Design and Performance of the Keck Angle Tracker

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crawford, Samuel L.; Ragland, S.; Booth, A.; Colavita, M. M.; Hovland, E.

    2006-01-01

    The Keck Angle Tracker (KAT) is a key subsystem in the NASA-funded Keck Interferometer at the Keck Observatory on the summit of Mauna Kea in Hawaii. KAT, which has been in operation since the achievement of first fringes in March 2001, senses the tilt of the stellar wavefront for each of the beams from the interferometer telescopes and provides tilt error signals to fast tip/tilt mirrors for high-bandwidth, wavefront tilt correction. In addition, KAT passes low-bandwidth, desaturation offsets to the adaptive optics system of the Keck telescopes to correct for slow pointing drifts. We present an overview of the instrument design and recent performance of KAT in support of the V2 science and nulling observing modes of the Keck Interferometer.

  15. Higher throughput high resolution multi-worm tracker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Javer, Avelino; Li, Kezhi; Gyenes, Bertalan; Brown, Andre; Behavioural Genomics Team

    2015-03-01

    We have developed a high throughput imaging system for tracking multiple nematode worms at high resolution. The tracker consists of 6 cameras mounted on a motorized gantry so that up to 48 plates (each with approximately 30 worms) can be imaged without user intervention. To deal with the high data rate of the cameras we use real time processing to find worms and only save the immediately surrounding pixels. The system is also equipped with automatic oxygen and carbon dioxide control for observing stimulus response behaviour. We will describe the design and performance of the new system, some of the challenges of truly high throughput behaviour recording, and report preliminary results on inter-individual variation in behaviour as well as a quantitative analysis of C. elegans response to hypoxia, oxygen reperfusion, and carbon dioxide. Funding provided by the Medical Research Council.

  16. DAMPE silicon tracker on-board data compression algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Yi-Fan; Zhang, Fei; Qiao, Rui; Peng, Wen-Xi; Fan, Rui-Rui; Gong, Ke; Wu, Di; Wang, Huan-Yu

    2015-11-01

    The Dark Matter Particle Explorer (DAMPE) is an upcoming scientific satellite mission for high energy gamma-ray, electron and cosmic ray detection. The silicon tracker (STK) is a subdetector of the DAMPE payload. It has excellent position resolution (readout pitch of 242 μm), and measures the incident direction of particles as well as charge. The STK consists of 12 layers of Silicon Micro-strip Detector (SMD), equivalent to a total silicon area of 6.5 m2. The total number of readout channels of the STK is 73728, which leads to a huge amount of raw data to be processed. In this paper, we focus on the on-board data compression algorithm and procedure in the STK, and show the results of initial verification by cosmic-ray measurements. Supported by Strategic Priority Research Program on Space Science of Chinese Academy of Sciences (XDA040402) and National Natural Science Foundation of China (1111403027)

  17. Echo tracker/range finder for radars and sonars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Constantinides, N. J. (Inventor)

    1982-01-01

    An echo tracker/range finder or altimeter is described. The pulse repetition frequency (PFR) of a predetermined plurality of transmitted pulses is adjusted so that echo pulses received from a reflecting object are positioned between transmitted pulses and divided their interpulse time interval into two time intervals having a predetermined ratio with respect to each other. The invention described provides a means whereby the arrival time of a plurality of echo pulses is defined as the time at which a composite echo pulse formed of a sum of the individual echo pulses has the highest amplitude. The invention is applicable to radar systems, sonar systems, or any other kind of system in which pulses are transmitted and echoes received therefrom.

  18. Performance of the CLAS12 Silicon Vertex Tracker modules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antonioli, M. A.; Boiarinov, S.; Bonneau, P.; Elouadrhiri, L.; Eng, B.; Gotra, Y.; Kurbatov, E.; Leffel, M.; Mandal, S.; McMullen, M.; Merkin, M.; Raydo, B.; Teachey, W.; Tucker, R.; Ungaro, M.; Yegneswaran, A.; Ziegler, V.

    2013-12-01

    For the 12 GeV upgrade, the CLAS12 experiment has designed a Silicon Vertex Tracker (SVT) using single sided microstrip sensors fabricated by Hamamatsu. The sensors have graded angle design to minimize dead areas and a readout pitch of 156 μm, with intermediate strip. Double sided SVT module hosts three daisy-chained sensors on each side with a full strip length of 33 cm. There are 512 channels per module read out by four Fermilab Silicon Strip Readout (FSSR2) chips featuring data driven architecture, mounted on a rigid-flex hybrid. Modules are assembled on the barrel using unique cantilevered geometry to minimize the amount of material in the tracking volume. Design and performance of the SVT modules are presented, focusing on results of electrical measurements.

  19. Tracker controls development and control architecture for the Hobby-Eberly Telescope Wide Field Upgrade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mock, Jason R.; Beno, Joe; Rafferty, Tom H.; Cornell, Mark E.

    2010-07-01

    To enable the Hobby-Eberly Telescope Wide Field Upgrade, the University of Texas Center for Electromechanics and McDonald Observatory are developing a precision tracker system - a 15,000 kg robot to position a 3,100 kg payload within 10 microns of a desired dynamic track. Performance requirements to meet science needs and safety requirements that emerged from detailed Failure Modes and Effects Analysis resulted in a system of 14 precision controlled actuators and 100 additional analog and digital devices (primarily sensors and safety limit switches). This level of system complexity and emphasis on fail-safe operation is typical of large modern telescopes and numerous industrial applications. Due to this complexity, demanding accuracy requirements, and stringent safety requirements, a highly versatile and easily configurable centralized control system that easily links with modeling and simulation tools during the hardware and software design process was deemed essential. The Matlab/Simulink simulation environment, coupled with dSPACE controller hardware, was selected for controls development and realization. The dSPACE real-time operating system collects sensor information; motor commands are transmitted over a PROFIBUS network to servo amplifiers and drive motor status is received over the same network. Custom designed position feedback loops, supplemented by feed forward force commands for enhanced performance, and algorithms to accommodate self-locking gearboxes (for safety), reside in dSPACE. To interface the dSPACE controller directly to absolute Heidenhain sensors with EnDat 2.2 protocol, a custom communication board was developed. This paper covers details of software and hardware, design choices and analysis, and supporting simulations (primarily Simulink).

  20. The alcohol tracker application: an initial evaluation of user preferences

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Melvyn W B; Ward, John; Ying, John J B; Pan, Fang; Ho, Roger C M

    2016-01-01

    Background The prevalence of at-risk drinking and alcohol use disorders is increasing. Advances in technology have resulted in numerous smartphone applications for this disorder. However, there are still concerns about the evidence base of previously developed alcohol applications. Objective The following study aims to illustrate how the authors have made use of innovative methodologies to overcome the issues relating to the accuracy of tracking the amount of alcohol one has consumed; it also aims to determine user perceptions about the innovative tracker and various other features of an alcohol self-management application among a group of individuals from the general population of a developed country (Canada). Methodology A native alcohol self-management application was developed. In order to determine user perspectives towards this new innovative application, the authors took advantage and made use of crowdsourcing to acquire user perspectives. Results Our results showed that smartphone ownership is highest among the age group of 35–44 years (91%) and lowest for those aged between 55 and 64 (58%). Our analysis also showed that 25–34-year-olds and 35–44-year-olds drink more frequently than the other groups. Results suggest that notification and information were the two most useful functions, with psychotherapy expected to be the least useful. Females indicated that notification service was the most useful function, while males preferred the information component. Conclusions This study has demonstrated how the authors have made use of innovative technologies to overcome the existing concerns pertaining to the utilisation of the blood alcohol concentration levels as a tracker. In addition, the authors have managed to highlight user preferences with regard to an alcohol application. PMID:27019744

  1. Lightweight dual-axis tracker designs for dish-based HCPV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angel, Roger; Cuerden, Brian; Whiteside, Andy

    2014-09-01

    Dish-based HCPV holds the promise of solar electricity at lower cost than for flat panel PV, provided that the dual-axis tracker cost can be minimized. Here we outline first and second generation lightweight tracker designs that include supports for a rectangular array of square dish mirrors and receivers located at their foci.

  2. Design of an upgraded D0 silicon microstrip tracker for Run IIb at the Tevatron

    SciTech Connect

    Hanagaki, K.; /Fermilab

    2004-01-01

    The D0 collaboration planned to upgrade the Silicon Tracker to withstand the radiation dose corresponding to above 2 fb{sup -1} of data. This new detector was designed to be functional up to at least 15 fb{sup -1}. The authors report on the design of the new Silicon Tracker with details of the innermost layer.

  3. Dramatic Expression in Opera, and Its Implications for Conversational Agents. Chapter 7

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, W. Lewis

    2007-01-01

    This article has discussed principles, techniques, and methods of dramatic portrayal in opera, and their application to the development of embodied conversational agents. Investigations such as this complement studies of natural human behavior, and offer insights as to how to make such behavior understandable and interesting when adapted for use by embodied conversational agents. However, one should use caution in applying such lessons. The unique characteristics of computer-based media are still being identified and explored. In any case, one must always be careful about applying principles blindly to any artistic form. Such principles are post-hoc analysis of the intuitive skill of great artists; this was as true in Aristotle's day as it is today. We should not let structural principles stand in the way of injecting creativity into the design of ECAs. Opera at its best possesses an element of magic that is difficult to describe, much less analytically reconstruct. We can only hope to achieve a similar result with conversational agents.

  4. The effects of stage absorption on reverberation times in opera house seating areas.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Jin Yong; Kim, Jae Ho; Ryu, Jong Kwan

    2015-03-01

    The effects of stage absorption on reverberation times in opera houses were investigated using computer simulations and scale model measurements. The reverberation time (RT) was measured in stalls seating with and without variable stage elements (e.g., fly curtains, side curtains, cycloramas, and stage sets). The absorption coefficients of the walls and ceiling of the stage houses were varied accordingly. It was found that variable stage elements have a significant influence on reverberation times in seating areas, particularly for a reverberant stage house, due to the low absorption of the walls and ceiling in the stage house. It was also found that the absorption coefficients of the walls and ceiling should be over 0.5 to avoid RT decreases of over 10% due to the absorption of the variable stage elements. In addition, coupled room effects were investigated both with and without variable stage elements and the results show that double slope was not found in the opera houses investigated in this study.

  5. The brain of opera singers: experience-dependent changes in functional activation.

    PubMed

    Kleber, B; Veit, R; Birbaumer, N; Gruzelier, J; Lotze, M

    2010-05-01

    Several studies have shown that motor-skill training over extended time periods results in reorganization of neural networks and changes in brain morphology. Yet, little is known about training-induced adaptive changes in the vocal system, which is largely subserved by intrinsic reflex mechanisms. We investigated highly accomplished opera singers, conservatory level vocal students, and laymen during overt singing of an Italian aria in a neuroimaging experiment. We provide the first evidence that the training of vocal skills is accompanied by increased functional activation of bilateral primary somatosensory cortex representing articulators and larynx. Opera singers showed additional activation in right primary sensorimotor cortex. Further training-related activation comprised the inferior parietal lobe and bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. At the subcortical level, expert singers showed increased activation in the basal ganglia, the thalamus, and the cerebellum. A regression analysis of functional activation with accumulated singing practice confirmed that vocal skills training correlates with increased activity of a cortical network for enhanced kinesthetic motor control and sensorimotor guidance together with increased involvement of implicit motor memory areas at the subcortical and cerebellar level. Our findings may have ramifications for both voice rehabilitation and deliberate practice of other implicit motor skills that require interoception.

  6. The effects of stage absorption on reverberation times in opera house seating areas.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Jin Yong; Kim, Jae Ho; Ryu, Jong Kwan

    2015-03-01

    The effects of stage absorption on reverberation times in opera houses were investigated using computer simulations and scale model measurements. The reverberation time (RT) was measured in stalls seating with and without variable stage elements (e.g., fly curtains, side curtains, cycloramas, and stage sets). The absorption coefficients of the walls and ceiling of the stage houses were varied accordingly. It was found that variable stage elements have a significant influence on reverberation times in seating areas, particularly for a reverberant stage house, due to the low absorption of the walls and ceiling in the stage house. It was also found that the absorption coefficients of the walls and ceiling should be over 0.5 to avoid RT decreases of over 10% due to the absorption of the variable stage elements. In addition, coupled room effects were investigated both with and without variable stage elements and the results show that double slope was not found in the opera houses investigated in this study. PMID:25786925

  7. Precision liquid level sensor

    DOEpatents

    Field, M.E.; Sullivan, W.H.

    A precision liquid level sensor utilizes a balanced bridge, each arm including an air dielectric line. Changes in liquid level along one air dielectric line imbalance the bridge and create a voltage which is directly measurable across the bridge.

  8. Precision Measurement in Biology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quake, Stephen

    Is biology a quantitative science like physics? I will discuss the role of precision measurement in both physics and biology, and argue that in fact both fields can be tied together by the use and consequences of precision measurement. The elementary quanta of biology are twofold: the macromolecule and the cell. Cells are the fundamental unit of life, and macromolecules are the fundamental elements of the cell. I will describe how precision measurements have been used to explore the basic properties of these quanta, and more generally how the quest for higher precision almost inevitably leads to the development of new technologies, which in turn catalyze further scientific discovery. In the 21st century, there are no remaining experimental barriers to biology becoming a truly quantitative and mathematical science.

  9. Precision displacement reference system

    DOEpatents

    Bieg, Lothar F.; Dubois, Robert R.; Strother, Jerry D.

    2000-02-22

    A precision displacement reference system is described, which enables real time accountability over the applied displacement feedback system to precision machine tools, positioning mechanisms, motion devices, and related operations. As independent measurements of tool location is taken by a displacement feedback system, a rotating reference disk compares feedback counts with performed motion. These measurements are compared to characterize and analyze real time mechanical and control performance during operation.

  10. Silicon photomultiplier choice for the scintillating fibre tracker in second generation proton computed tomography scanner

    SciTech Connect

    Gearhart, A.; Johnson, E.; Medvedev, V.; Ronzhin, A.; Rykalin, V.; Rubinov, P.; Sleptcov, V.; /Unlisted, RU

    2012-03-01

    Scintillating fibers are capable of charged particle tracking with high position resolution, as demonstrated by the central fiber tracker of the D0 experiment. The charged particles will deposit less energy in the polystyrene scintillating fibers as opposed to a typical silicon tracker of the same thickness, while SiPM's are highly efficient at detecting photons created by the passage of the charged particle through the fibers. The current prototype of the Proton Computed Tomography (pCT) tracker uses groups of three 0.5 mm green polystyrene based scintillating fibers connected to a single SiPM, while first generation prototype tracker used Silicon strip detectors. The results of R&D for the Scintillating Fiber Tracker (SFT) as part of the pCT detector are outlined, and the premise for the selection of SiPM is discussed.

  11. A joint data assimilation system (Tan-Tracker) to simultaneously estimate surface CO2 fluxes and 3-D atmospheric CO2 concentrations from observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, X.; Xie, Z.; Liu, Y.; Cai, Z.; Fu, Y.; Zhang, H.; Feng, L.

    2014-12-01

    precision for both CO2 concentrations and CO2 fluxes, mainly due to the simultaneous estimation of CO2 concentrations and CFs in our Tan-Tracker data assimilation system. A experiment for assimilating the real dry-air column CO2 retrievals (XCO2) from the Japanese Greenhouse Gases Observation Satellite (GOSAT) further demonstrates its potential wide applications.

  12. Estimating sparse precision matrices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Padmanabhan, Nikhil; White, Martin; Zhou, Harrison H.; O'Connell, Ross

    2016-08-01

    We apply a method recently introduced to the statistical literature to directly estimate the precision matrix from an ensemble of samples drawn from a corresponding Gaussian distribution. Motivated by the observation that cosmological precision matrices are often approximately sparse, the method allows one to exploit this sparsity of the precision matrix to more quickly converge to an asymptotic 1/sqrt{N_sim} rate while simultaneously providing an error model for all of the terms. Such an estimate can be used as the starting point for further regularization efforts which can improve upon the 1/sqrt{N_sim} limit above, and incorporating such additional steps is straightforward within this framework. We demonstrate the technique with toy models and with an example motivated by large-scale structure two-point analysis, showing significant improvements in the rate of convergence. For the large-scale structure example, we find errors on the precision matrix which are factors of 5 smaller than for the sample precision matrix for thousands of simulations or, alternatively, convergence to the same error level with more than an order of magnitude fewer simulations.

  13. Women in Radio Soap Operas: A Historical Perspective of the Image of Women's "Sphere" in the "Golden Age."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    St John, Jacqueline

    Radio's "Golden Age," the 1930s and 1940s produced numerous successful and profitable daytime serials, called "soap operas" because they were most often sponsored by firms selling laundry products. Among the most popular of these series were those produced by the team of Anne and Frank Hummert. Working through the Blackett-Sample-Hummert…

  14. Annual Report of the School Programs of Ballet West, the Hansen Planetarium, the Utah Opera Company, and the Utah Symphony.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glenn, Avery L.; And Others

    The document evaluates the impact of four special fine arts programs in Utah elementary schools, including presentations by the Utah Symphony, Ballet West, the Utah Opera Company, and the Hansen Planetarium. It is divided into two parts. Part I provides an introduction, brief descriptions of the method of the evaluation and basic statistical…

  15. Transmission of Cantonese Opera in the Conservatory Tradition: Two Case Studies in South China and Hong Kong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leung, Bo-Wah

    2015-01-01

    The Cantonese opera was traditionally transmitted by an apprenticeship approach, which has faded out in the mid-twentieth century. Instead, the conservatory approach adapted from the West has replaced the major mode of nurturing professional artists in China and Hong Kong. This study aims to investigate and examine the current practice of the…

  16. O.P.E.R.A.: A First Letter Mnemonic and Rubric for Conceptualising and Implementing Service Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welch, Marshall

    2010-01-01

    This article presents a rubric to help instructors conceptualize, implement, and assess service-learning courses. Using a first-letter mnemonic of O.P.E.R.A., the rubric incorporates principles of best practice to provide a framework for enumerating objectives (O), exploring community partnerships (P), identifying the type of service learning…

  17. Precision gap particle separator

    DOEpatents

    Benett, William J.; Miles, Robin; Jones, II., Leslie M.; Stockton, Cheryl

    2004-06-08

    A system for separating particles entrained in a fluid includes a base with a first channel and a second channel. A precision gap connects the first channel and the second channel. The precision gap is of a size that allows small particles to pass from the first channel into the second channel and prevents large particles from the first channel into the second channel. A cover is positioned over the base unit, the first channel, the precision gap, and the second channel. An port directs the fluid containing the entrained particles into the first channel. An output port directs the large particles out of the first channel. A port connected to the second channel directs the small particles out of the second channel.

  18. How Physics Got Precise

    SciTech Connect

    Kleppner, Daniel

    2005-01-19

    Although the ancients knew the length of the year to about ten parts per million, it was not until the end of the 19th century that precision measurements came to play a defining role in physics. Eventually such measurements made it possible to replace human-made artifacts for the standards of length and time with natural standards. For a new generation of atomic clocks, time keeping could be so precise that the effects of the local gravitational potentials on the clock rates would be important. This would force us to re-introduce an artifact into the definition of the second - the location of the primary clock. I will describe some of the events in the history of precision measurements that have led us to this pleasing conundrum, and some of the unexpected uses of atomic clocks today.

  19. Precision Muonium Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jungmann, Klaus P.

    2016-09-01

    The muonium atom is the purely leptonic bound state of a positive muon and an electron. It has a lifetime of 2.2 µs. The absence of any known internal structure provides for precision experiments to test fundamental physics theories and to determine accurate values of fundamental constants. In particular ground state hyperfine structure transitions can be measured by microwave spectroscopy to deliver the muon magnetic moment. The frequency of the 1s-2s transition in the hydrogen-like atom can be determined with laser spectroscopy to obtain the muon mass. With such measurements fundamental physical interactions, in particular quantum electrodynamics, can also be tested at highest precision. The results are important input parameters for experiments on the muon magnetic anomaly. The simplicity of the atom enables further precise experiments, such as a search for muonium-antimuonium conversion for testing charged lepton number conservation and searches for possible antigravity of muons and dark matter.

  20. The ATLAS semiconductor tracker end-cap module

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdesselam, A.; Adkin, P. J.; Allport, P. P.; Alonso, J.; Andricek, L.; Anghinolfi, F.; Antonov, A. A.; Apsimon, R. J.; Atkinson, T.; Batchelor, L. E.; Bates, R. L.; Beck, G.; Becker, H.; Bell, P.; Bell, W.; Beneš, P.; Bernabeu, J.; Bethke, S.; Bizzell, J. P.; Blocki, J.; Broklová, Z.; Brož, J.; Bohm, J.; Booker, P.; Bright, G.; Brodbeck, T. J.; Bruckman, P.; Buttar, C. M.; Butterworth, J. M.; Campabadal, F.; Campbell, D.; Carpentieri, C.; Carroll, J. L.; Carter, A. A.; Carter, J. R.; Casse, G. L.; Čermák, P.; Chamizo, M.; Charlton, D. G.; Cheplakov, A.; Chesi, E.; Chilingarov, A.; Chouridou, S.; Chren, D.; Christinet, A.; Chu, M. L.; Cindro, V.; Ciocio, A.; Civera, J. V.; Clark, A.; Colijn, A. P.; Cooke, P. A.; Costa, M. J.; Costanzo, D.; Dabrowski, W.; Danielsen, K. M.; Davies, V. R.; Dawson, I.; de Jong, P.; Dervan, P.; Doherty, F.; Doležal, Z.; Donega, M.; D'Onofrio, M.; Dorholt, O.; Drásal, Z.; Dowell, J. D.; Duerdoth, I. P.; Duxfield, R.; Dwuznik, M.; Easton, J. M.; Eckert, S.; Eklund, L.; Escobar, C.; Fadeyev, V.; Fasching, D.; Feld, L.; Ferguson, D. P. S.; Ferrari, P.; Ferrere, D.; Fleta, C.; Fortin, R.; Foster, J. M.; Fowler, C.; Fox, H.; Freestone, J.; French, R. S.; Fuster, J.; Gadomski, S.; Gallop, B. J.; García, C.; García-Navarro, J. E.; Gibson, S.; Gilchriese, M. G. D.; Gonzalez, F.; Gonzalez-Sevilla, S.; Goodrick, M. J.; Gorisek, A.; Gornicki, E.; Greenall, A.; Greenfield, D.; Gregory, S.; Grigorieva, I. G.; Grillo, A. A.; Grosse-Knetter, J.; Gryska, C.; Guipet, A.; Haber, C.; Hara, K.; Hartjes, F. G.; Hauff, D.; Haywood, S. J.; Hegeman, S. J.; Heinzinger, K.; Hessey, N. P.; Heusch, C.; Hicheur, A.; Hill, J. C.; Hodgkinson, M.; Hodgson, P.; Horažďovský, T.; Hollins, T. I.; Hou, L. S.; Hou, S.; Hughes, G.; Huse, T.; Ibbotson, M.; Iglesias, M.; Ikegami, Y.; Ilyashenko, I.; Issever, C.; Jackson, J. N.; Jakobs, K.; Jared, R. C.; Jarron, P.; Johansson, P.; Jones, R. W. L.; Jones, T. J.; Joos, D.; Joseph, J.; Jovanovic, P.; Jusko, O.; Jusko, V.; Kaplon, J.; Kazi, S.; Ketterer, Ch.; Kholodenko, A. G.; King, B. T.; Kodyš, P.; Koffeman, E.; Kohout, Z.; Kohriki, T.; Kondo, T.; Koperny, S.; Koukol, H.; Král, V.; Kramberger, G.; Kubík, P.; Kudlaty, J.; Lacasta, C.; Lagouri, T.; Lee, S. C.; Leney, K.; Lenz, S.; Lester, C. G.; Liebicher, K.; Limper, M.; Lindsay, S.; Linhart, V.; LLosá, G.; Loebinger, F. K.; Lozano, M.; Ludwig, I.; Ludwig, J.; Lutz, G.; Lys, J.; Maassen, M.; Macina, D.; Macpherson, A.; MacWaters, C.; Magrath, C. A.; Malecki, P.; Mandić, I.; Mangin-Brinet, M.; Martí-García, S.; Matheson, J. P.; Matson, R. M.; McMahon, S. J.; McMahon, T. J.; Meinhardt, J.; Mellado, B.; Melone, J. J.; Mercer, I. J.; Messmer, I.; Mikulec, B.; Mikuž, M.; Miñano, M.; Mitsou, V. A.; Modesto, P.; Moed, S.; Mohn, B.; Moncrieff, S.; Moorhead, G.; Morris, F. S.; Morris, J.; Morrissey, M.; Moser, H. G.; Moszczynski, A.; Muijs, A. J. M.; Murray, W. J.; Muskett, D.; Nacher, J.; Nagai, K.; Nakano, I.; Nickerson, R. B.; Nisius, R.; Oye, O. K.; O'Shea, V.; Paganis, E.; Parker, M. A.; Parzefall, U.; Pater, J. R.; Peeters, S. J. M.; Pellegrini, G.; Pelleriti, G.; Pernegger, H.; Perrin, E.; Phillips, P. W.; Pilavova, L. V.; Poltorak, K.; Pospíšil, S.; Postranecky, M.; Pritchard, T.; Prokofiev, K.; Rafí, J. M.; Raine, C.; Ratoff, P. N.; Řezníček, P.; Riadovikov, V. N.; Richter, R. H.; Robichaud-Véronneau, A.; Robinson, D.; Rodriguez-Oliete, R.; Roe, S.; Rudge, A.; Runge, K.; Saavedra, A.; Sadrozinski, H. F. W.; Sanchez, F. J.; Sandaker, H.; Saxon, D. H.; Scheirich, D.; Schieck, J.; Seiden, A.; Sfyrla, A.; Slavíček, T.; Smith, K. M.; Smith, N. A.; Snow, S. W.; Solar, M.; Sopko, B.; Sopko, V.; Sospedra, L.; Spencer, E.; Stanecka, E.; Stapnes, S.; Stastny, J.; Strachko, V.; Stradling, A.; Stugu, B.; Su, D. S.; Sutcliffe, P.; Szczygiel, R.; Tanaka, R.; Taylor, G.; Teng, P. K.; Terada, S.; Thompson, R. J.; Titov, M.; Toczek, B.; Tovey, D. R.; Tratzl, G.; Troitsky, V. L.; Tseng, J.; Turala, M.; Turner, P. R.; Tyndel, M.; Ullán, M.; Unno, Y.; Vickey, T.; Van der Kraaij, E.; Viehhauser, G.; Villani, E. G.; Vitek, T.; Vu Anh, T.; Vorobiev, A. P.; Vossebeld, J. H.; Wachler, M.; Wallny, R.; Ward, C. P.; Warren, M. R. M.; Webel, M.; Weber, M.; Weber, M.; Weidberg, A. R.; Weilhammer, P.; Wells, P. S.; Wetzel, P.; Whitley, M.; Wiesmann, M.; Wilhelm, I.; Willenbrock, M.; Wilmut, I.; Wilson, J. A.; Winton, J.; Wolter, M.; Wormald, M. P.; Wu, S. L.; Wu, X.; Zhu, H.; Bingefors, N.; Brenner, R.; Ekelof, T.

    2007-06-01

    The challenges for the tracking detector systems at the LHC are unprecedented in terms of the number of channels, the required read-out speed and the expected radiation levels. The ATLAS Semiconductor Tracker (SCT) end-caps have a total of about 3 million electronics channels each reading out every 25 ns into its own on-chip 3.3 μs buffer. The highest anticipated dose after 10 years operation is 1.4×1014 cm-2 in units of 1 MeV neutron equivalent (assuming the damage factors scale with the non-ionising energy loss). The forward tracker has 1976 double-sided modules, mostly of area ˜70 cm2, each having 2×768 strips read out by six ASICs per side. The requirement to achieve an average perpendicular radiation length of 1.5% X0, while coping with up to 7 W dissipation per module (after irradiation), leads to stringent constraints on the thermal design. The additional requirement of 1500e- equivalent noise charge (ENC) rising to only 1800e- ENC after irradiation, provides stringent design constraints on both the high-density Cu/Polyimide flex read-out circuit and the ABCD3TA read-out ASICs. Finally, the accuracy of module assembly must not compromise the 16 μm (rφ) resolution perpendicular to the strip directions or 580 μm radial resolution coming from the 40 mrad front-back stereo angle. A total of 2210 modules were built to the tight tolerances and specifications required for the SCT. This was 234 more than the 1976 required and represents a yield of 93%. The component flow was at times tight, but the module production rate of 40-50 per week was maintained despite this. The distributed production was not found to be a major logistical problem and it allowed additional flexibility to take advantage of where the effort was available, including any spare capacity, for building the end-cap modules. The collaboration that produced the ATLAS SCT end-cap modules kept in close contact at all times so that the effects of shortages or stoppages at different sites could be

  1. Precision Heating Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    A heat sealing process was developed by SEBRA based on technology that originated in work with NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. The project involved connecting and transferring blood and fluids between sterile plastic containers while maintaining a closed system. SEBRA markets the PIRF Process to manufacturers of medical catheters. It is a precisely controlled method of heating thermoplastic materials in a mold to form or weld catheters and other products. The process offers advantages in fast, precise welding or shape forming of catheters as well as applications in a variety of other industries.

  2. Precision manometer gauge

    DOEpatents

    McPherson, Malcolm J.; Bellman, Robert A.

    1984-01-01

    A precision manometer gauge which locates a zero height and a measured height of liquid using an open tube in communication with a reservoir adapted to receive the pressure to be measured. The open tube has a reference section carried on a positioning plate which is moved vertically with machine tool precision. Double scales are provided to read the height of the positioning plate accurately, the reference section being inclined for accurate meniscus adjustment, and means being provided to accurately locate a zero or reference position.

  3. Precision manometer gauge

    DOEpatents

    McPherson, M.J.; Bellman, R.A.

    1982-09-27

    A precision manometer gauge which locates a zero height and a measured height of liquid using an open tube in communication with a reservoir adapted to receive the pressure to be measured. The open tube has a reference section carried on a positioning plate which is moved vertically with machine tool precision. Double scales are provided to read the height of the positioning plate accurately, the reference section being inclined for accurate meniscus adjustment, and means being provided to accurately locate a zero or reference position.

  4. Precision electron polarimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Chudakov, Eugene A.

    2013-11-01

    A new generation of precise Parity-Violating experiments will require a sub-percent accuracy of electron beam polarimetry. Compton polarimetry can provide such accuracy at high energies, but at a few hundred MeV the small analyzing power limits the sensitivity. M{\\o}ller polarimetry provides a high analyzing power independent on the beam energy, but is limited by the properties of the polarized targets commonly used. Options for precision polarimetry at ~300 MeV will be discussed, in particular a proposal to use ultra-cold atomic hydrogen traps to provide a 100\\%-polarized electron target for M{\\o}ller polarimetry.

  5. Precision Nova operations

    SciTech Connect

    Ehrlich, R.B.; Miller, J.L.; Saunders, R.L.; Thompson, C.E.; Weiland, T.L.; Laumann, C.W.

    1995-09-01

    To improve the symmetry of x-ray drive on indirectly driven ICF capsules, we have increased the accuracy of operating procedures and diagnostics on the Nova laser. Precision Nova operations includes routine precision power balance to within 10% rms in the ``foot`` and 5% nns in the peak of shaped pulses, beam synchronization to within 10 ps rms, and pointing of the beams onto targets to within 35 {mu}m rms. We have also added a ``fail-safe chirp`` system to avoid Stimulated Brillouin Scattering (SBS) in optical components during high energy shots.

  6. Precision electron polarimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chudakov, E.

    2013-11-01

    A new generation of precise Parity-Violating experiments will require a sub-percent accuracy of electron beam polarimetry. Compton polarimetry can provide such accuracy at high energies, but at a few hundred MeV the small analyzing power limits the sensitivity. Mo/ller polarimetry provides a high analyzing power independent on the beam energy, but is limited by the properties of the polarized targets commonly used. Options for precision polarimetry at 300 MeV will be discussed, in particular a proposal to use ultra-cold atomic hydrogen traps to provide a 100%-polarized electron target for Mo/ller polarimetry.

  7. Volumetric verification of multiaxis machine tool using laser tracker.

    PubMed

    Aguado, Sergio; Samper, David; Santolaria, Jorge; Aguilar, Juan José

    2014-01-01

    This paper aims to present a method of volumetric verification in machine tools with linear and rotary axes using a laser tracker. Beyond a method for a particular machine, it presents a methodology that can be used in any machine type. Along this paper, the schema and kinematic model of a machine with three axes of movement, two linear and one rotational axes, including the measurement system and the nominal rotation matrix of the rotational axis are presented. Using this, the machine tool volumetric error is obtained and nonlinear optimization techniques are employed to improve the accuracy of the machine tool. The verification provides a mathematical, not physical, compensation, in less time than other methods of verification by means of the indirect measurement of geometric errors of the machine from the linear and rotary axes. This paper presents an extensive study about the appropriateness and drawbacks of the regression function employed depending on the types of movement of the axes of any machine. In the same way, strengths and weaknesses of measurement methods and optimization techniques depending on the space available to place the measurement system are presented. These studies provide the most appropriate strategies to verify each machine tool taking into consideration its configuration and its available work space.

  8. Future silicon sensors for the CMS Tracker Upgrade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernard-Schwarz, Maria; CMS Tracker Collaboration

    2013-01-01

    For the high-luminosity phase of LHC (Large Hadron Collider) at CERN a campaign was started in the CMS (Compact Muon Solenoid) experiment to investigate different radiation hard silicon detectors. Therefore 6 in. silicon wafers were ordered to answer various questions regarding for example the radiation tolerance and the annealing behavior of different sensor material. The testing variety includes sensor versions n-in-p and p-in-n in thicknesses from 50 μm to 300 μm. In terms of sensor material the difference between floating zone, magnetic Czochralski and epitaxial grown silicon is investigated. For the n-in-p sensors, the different isolation technologies, p-stop and p-spray, are tested. The design of the wafer contains test structures, diodes, mini-sensors, long and very short strip sensors, real pixel sensors and double metal routing variants. The irradiation is done with mixed fluences of protons and neutrons which represent the rates of integrated hadrons that are expected in the CMS tracker after the LHC upgrade. This paper presents an overview of results from measurements of non-irradiated test structures with different technologies and also the results after irradiation.

  9. An expert system for shuttle and satellite radar tracker scheduling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, Paul

    1988-01-01

    This expert system automates and optimizes radar tracker selection for shuttle missions. The expert system is written in the FORTRAN and C languages on an HP9000. It is portable to any UNIX machine having both ANSI-77 FORTRAN and C language compilers. It is a rule based expert system that selects tracking stations from the S-band and C-band radar stations and the TDRSS east and TDRSS west satellites under a variety of conditions. The expert system was prototyped on the Symbolics in the Automated Reasoning Tool (ART) and ZetaLisp. After the prototype demonstrated an acceptable automation of the process of selecting tracking stations to support the orbit determination requirements of Shuttle missions, the basic ART rules of the prototype were ported to the HP9000 computer using the CLIPS language. CLIPS is a forward-chaining rule-based expert system language written in C. Prior to the development of this expert system the selection process was a tedious manual process and expensive in terms of human resources. Manual tracking station selection required from 1 to 2 man weeks per mission; whereas the expert system can complete the selection process in about 2 hours.

  10. Planar waveguide concentrator used with a seasonal tracker.

    PubMed

    Bouchard, Sébastien; Thibault, Simon

    2012-10-01

    Solar concentrators offer good promise for reducing the cost of solar power. Planar waveguides equipped with a microlens slab have already been proposed as an excellent approach to produce medium to high concentration levels. Instead, we suggest the use of a cylindrical microlens array to get useful concentration without tracking during the day. To use only a seasonal tracking system and get the highest possible concentration, cylindrical microlenses are placed in the east-west orientation. Our new design has an acceptance angle in the north-south direction of ±9° and ±54° in the east-west axis. Simulation of our optimized system achieves a 4.6× average concentration level from 8:30 to 16:30 with a maximum of 8.1× and 80% optical efficiency. The low-cost advantage of waveguide-based solar concentrators could support their use in roof-mounted solar panels and eliminate the need for an expensive and heavy active tracker.

  11. The optimization of an optical missile guidance tracker.

    PubMed

    Spiro, I J

    1969-07-01

    An antitank missile guidance system is described, which employs a tracker using two parallel optical paths and a pyrotechnic flare. Both optical channels are spectrally filtered; one rejects the target and views only the flare image; the other rejects the flare and views only the target. In performing the guidance tracking task, the operator superimposes the flare image on the target, thus providing steering signals to the missile. This paper describes an optimum flare as one with maximum luminous spectral emittance, minimum bandwidth, and minimum noise. Then with the selected flare as a basis, the optical components are matched individually and as an assembly to obtain maximum flare-filter system output. Calculated improvements of 100 to 250% were obtained in the performance of critical components which were reflected in the system operation and were subsequently verified by system field tests. The transmission ratios, visibility coefficients, improvement factors, and other bases for improvement are stated and discussed. Finally, the experiments performed and improvements achieved are described.

  12. Kinematics investigations of cylinders rolling down a ramp using tracker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prima, Eka Cahya; Mawaddah, Menurseto; Winarno, Nanang; Sriwulan, Wiwin

    2016-02-01

    Nowadays, students' exploration as well as students' interaction in the application stage of learning cycle can be improved by directly model real-world objects based on Newton's Law using Open Source Physics (OSP) computer-modeling tools. In a case of studying an object rolling down a ramp, a traditional experiment method commonly uses a ticker tape sliding through a ticker timer. However, some kinematics parameters such as the instantaneous acceleration and the instantaneous speed of object cannot be investigated directly. By using the Tracker video analysis method, all kinematics parameters of cylinders rolling down a ramp can be investigated by direct visual inspection. The result shows that (1) there are no relations of cylinders' mass as well as cylinders' radius towards their kinetics parameters. (2) Excluding acceleration data, the speed and position as function of time follow the theory. (3) The acceleration data are in the random order, but their trend-lines closely fit the theory with 0.15% error. (4) The decrease of acceleration implicitly occurs due to the air friction acting on the cylinder during rolling down. (5) The cylinder's inertial moment constant has been obtained experimentally with 3.00% error. (6) The ramp angle linearly influences the cylinders' acceleration with 2.36% error. This research implied that the program can be further applied to physics educational purposes.

  13. Commodity Tracker: Mobile Application for Food Security Monitoring in Haiti

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiu, M. T.; Huang, X.; Baird, J.; Gourley, J. R.; Morelli, R.; de Lanerolle, T. R.; Haiti Food Security Monitoring Mobile App Team

    2011-12-01

    Megan Chiu, Jason Baird, Xu Huang, Trishan de Lanerolle, Ralph Morelli, Jonathan Gourley Trinity College, Computer Science Department and Environmental Science Program, 300 Summit Street, Hartford, CT 06106 megan.chiu@trincoll.edu, Jason.baird@trincoll.edu, xu.huang@trincoll.edu, trishan.delanerolle@trincoll.edu, ralph.morelli@trincoll.edu, jonathan.gourley@trincoll.edu Price data for Haiti commodities such as rice and potatoes have been traditionally recorded by hand on paper forms for many years. The information is then entered onto computer manually, thus making the process a long and arduous one. With the development of the Haiti Commodity Tracker mobile app, we are able to make this commodity price data recording process more efficient. Officials may use this information for making inferences about the difference in commodity prices and for food distribution during critical time after natural disasters. This information can also be utilized by governments and aid agencies on their food assistance programs. Agronomists record the item prices from several sample sites in a marketplace and compare those results from other markets across the region. Due to limited connectivity in rural areas, data is first saved to the phone's database and then retransmitted to a central server via SMS messaging. The mobile app is currently being field tested by an international NGO providing agricultural aid and support in rural Haiti.

  14. Operational Experience with Autonomous Star Trackers on ESA Interplanetary Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lauer, Mathias; Jauregui, Libe; Kielbassa, Sabine

    2007-01-01

    Mars Express (MEX), Rosetta and Venus Express (VEX) are ESA interplanetary spacecrafts (S/C) launched in June 2003, March 2004 and November 2005, respectively. Mars Express was injected into Mars orbit end of 2003 with routine operations starting in spring 2004. Rosetta is since launch on its way to rendezvous comet Churyumov-Gerasimenko in 2014. It has completed several test and commissioning activities and is performing several planetary swingbys (Earth in spring 2005, Mars in spring 2007, Earth in autumn 2007 and again two years later). Venus Express has also started routine operations since the completion of the Venus orbit insertion maneuver sequence beginning of May 2006. All three S/C are three axes stabilized with a similar attitude and orbit control system (AOCS). The attitude is estimated on board using star and rate sensors and controlled using four reaction wheels. A bipropellant reaction control system with 10N thrusters serves for wheel off loadings and attitude control in safe mode. Mars Express and Venus Express have an additional 400N engine for the planetary orbit insertion. Nominal Earth communication is accomplished through a high gain antenna. All three S/C are equipped with a redundant set of autonomous star trackers (STR) which are based on almost the same hardware. The STR software is especially adapted for the respective mission. This paper addresses several topics related to the experience gained with the STR operations on board the three S/C so far.

  15. Planar waveguide concentrator used with a seasonal tracker.

    PubMed

    Bouchard, Sébastien; Thibault, Simon

    2012-10-01

    Solar concentrators offer good promise for reducing the cost of solar power. Planar waveguides equipped with a microlens slab have already been proposed as an excellent approach to produce medium to high concentration levels. Instead, we suggest the use of a cylindrical microlens array to get useful concentration without tracking during the day. To use only a seasonal tracking system and get the highest possible concentration, cylindrical microlenses are placed in the east-west orientation. Our new design has an acceptance angle in the north-south direction of ±9° and ±54° in the east-west axis. Simulation of our optimized system achieves a 4.6× average concentration level from 8:30 to 16:30 with a maximum of 8.1× and 80% optical efficiency. The low-cost advantage of waveguide-based solar concentrators could support their use in roof-mounted solar panels and eliminate the need for an expensive and heavy active tracker. PMID:23033102

  16. Volumetric Verification of Multiaxis Machine Tool Using Laser Tracker

    PubMed Central

    Aguilar, Juan José

    2014-01-01

    This paper aims to present a method of volumetric verification in machine tools with linear and rotary axes using a laser tracker. Beyond a method for a particular machine, it presents a methodology that can be used in any machine type. Along this paper, the schema and kinematic model of a machine with three axes of movement, two linear and one rotational axes, including the measurement system and the nominal rotation matrix of the rotational axis are presented. Using this, the machine tool volumetric error is obtained and nonlinear optimization techniques are employed to improve the accuracy of the machine tool. The verification provides a mathematical, not physical, compensation, in less time than other methods of verification by means of the indirect measurement of geometric errors of the machine from the linear and rotary axes. This paper presents an extensive study about the appropriateness and drawbacks of the regression function employed depending on the types of movement of the axes of any machine. In the same way, strengths and weaknesses of measurement methods and optimization techniques depending on the space available to place the measurement system are presented. These studies provide the most appropriate strategies to verify each machine tool taking into consideration its configuration and its available work space. PMID:25202744

  17. Research of measuring accuracy of laser tracker system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ouyang, Jianfei; Liang, Zhiyong; Zhang, Haixin; Yan, Yonggang

    2006-11-01

    This paper presents the achievement of a China NSFC project. The Laser Tracker System (LTS) is a portable 3D large size measuring system. The measuring conditions such as time and temperature can greatly affect the measuring accuracy of LTS. This paper pays a great attention to study how the time and temperature affect the measuring accuracy of LTS. Coordinate Measuring Machine (CMM) is employed as a high-level measuring instrument to validate LTS. The experiments have been done to find how the time and temperature affect the measuring accuracy of LTS. The experiments show the LTS can work well with the highest measuring accuracy just after three-hour warm-up. However, the LTS becomes unstable and the measuring accuracy decreases after 10 hours. The LTS needs calibration and compensation every 10 hours. The experiments show that the measuring error can be up to 29.6μm when the measuring temperature is 30.5°C even if the measuring error is less than 5.9μm while the temperature is between 20°C and 23.8°C. The research provides a very useful guidance for application of LTS.

  18. Conceptual design report for the Solenoidal Tracker at RHIC

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-06-15

    The Solenoidal Tracker At RHIC (STAR) will search for signatures of quark-gluon plasma (QGP) formation and investigate the behavior of strongly interacting matter at high energy density. The emphasis win be the correlation of many observables on an event-by-event basis. In the absence of definitive signatures for the QGP, it is imperative that such correlations be used to identify special events and possible signatures. This requires a flexible detection system that can simultaneously measure many experimental observables. The physics goals dictate the design of star and it's experiment. To meet the design criteria, tracking, momentum analysis, and particle identification of most of the charged particles at midrapidity are necessary. The tracking must operate in conditions at higher than the expected maximum charged particle multiplicities for central Au + Au collisions. Particle identification of pions/kaons for p < 0.7 GeV/c and kaons/protons for p < 1 GeV/c, as well as measurement of decay particles and reconstruction of secondary vertices will be possible. A two-track resolution of 2 cm at 2 m radial distance from, the interaction is expected. Momentum resolution of {Delta}p/p {approximately} 0.02 at p = 0.1 GeV/c is required to accomplish the physics, and,{Delta}p/p of several percent at p = 10 GeV/c is sufficient to accurately measure the rapidly failing spectra at high Pt and particles from mini-jets and jets.

  19. Conceptual design report for the Solenoidal Tracker at RHIC

    SciTech Connect

    The STAR Collaboration

    1992-06-15

    The Solenoidal Tracker At RHIC (STAR) will search for signatures of quark-gluon plasma (QGP) formation and investigate the behavior of strongly interacting matter at high energy density. The emphasis win be the correlation of many observables on an event-by-event basis. In the absence of definitive signatures for the QGP, it is imperative that such correlations be used to identify special events and possible signatures. This requires a flexible detection system that can simultaneously measure many experimental observables. The physics goals dictate the design of star and it`s experiment. To meet the design criteria, tracking, momentum analysis, and particle identification of most of the charged particles at midrapidity are necessary. The tracking must operate in conditions at higher than the expected maximum charged particle multiplicities for central Au + Au collisions. Particle identification of pions/kaons for p < 0.7 GeV/c and kaons/protons for p < 1 GeV/c, as well as measurement of decay particles and reconstruction of secondary vertices will be possible. A two-track resolution of 2 cm at 2 m radial distance from, the interaction is expected. Momentum resolution of {Delta}p/p {approximately} 0.02 at p = 0.1 GeV/c is required to accomplish the physics, and,{Delta}p/p of several percent at p = 10 GeV/c is sufficient to accurately measure the rapidly failing spectra at high Pt and particles from mini-jets and jets.

  20. eXtremely Fast Tracker trigger upgrade at CDF

    SciTech Connect

    Abulencia, A.; Azzurri, P.; Cochran, E.; Cox, C.; Cox, D.; Dittmann, J.; Donati, S.; Efron, J.; Erbacher, R.; Errede, D.; Fedorko, I.; /INFN, Pisa /Pisa U. /Pisa, Scuola Normale Superiore /Purdue U.

    2009-01-01

    The CDF II eXtremely Fast Tracker (XFT) is a trigger processor which reconstructs charged particle tracks in the transverse plane of the central tracking chamber. The XFT tracks are also extrapolated to the electromagnetic calorimeter and muon chambers to generate trigger electron and muon candidates. The XFT is crucial for the entire CDF II physics program: it detects high P{sub t} lepton from W/Z and heavy flavors decay and, in conjunction with the level 2 processor, it identifies secondary vertices from beauty decay. The XFT has thus been crucial for the recent measurement of the B{sub s}{sup 0} oscillation and {Sigma}{sub b}. The increase of the Tevatron instantaneous luminosity demanded an upgrade of the system to cope with the higher occupancy of the chamber. In the upgraded XFT, three-dimensional tracking reduces the level of fake tracks and measures the longitudinal track parameters, which strongly reinforce the trigger selection. This allows to maintain the trigger perfectly efficient at the record luminosities 2-3 x 10{sup 32} cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} and to maintain intact the CDF II high luminosity physics program, which includes the Higgs search. In this paper we review the architecture, the used technology, the performance and the impact of the upgraded XFT on the entire CDF II trigger strategy.

  1. Features of design and development of the optical head of star tracker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moldabekov, M.; Akhmedov, D.; Yelubayev, S.; Ten, V.; Albazarov, B.; Shamro, Alexander; Alipbayev, Kuanysh; Bopeyev, Timur; Sukhenko, A.

    2014-10-01

    The paper presents an approach to the design and development of the optical head of the star tracker and its hood for satellites. The main stages of the optical system design including development of requirements, selection of the optical system by analyzing with help of CAD, hood design with help of simulation, as well as the main stages of its components(lenses) manufacturing and control of quality of manufacturing the optical system are described. Engineering model of the optical head of star tracker which can be used as the basis for the development of the star tracker prototype for use in Kazakhstan's satellites was developed in accordance with the requirements.

  2. Optimal Spacing of Dual-axis Trackers for Concentrating Photovoltaic Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Yong Sin; Winston, Roland

    2011-12-01

    The levelized cost of energy (LCOE) is widely used to compare the cost of energy generation across technologies. In a utility-scale concentrating photovoltaic (CPV) system, the spacing of dual-axis trackers must be balanced with total energy harvested from modules to minimize LCOE. In this paper, a spacing method of dual-axis trackers in a CPV system is presented. Based on the definition of LCOE, a cost function is defined and optimized in terms of spacing related parameters. Various methods to estimate hourly direct normal irradiance (DNI) are investigated and m-by-n tracker array configurations to minimize the cost function are discussed.

  3. Compensation for Time-Dependent Star Tracker Thermal Deformation on the Aqua Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hashmall, Joseph A.; Natanson, Gregory; Glickman, Jonathan; Sedlak, Joseph

    2004-01-01

    Analysis of attitude sensor data from the Aqua mission showed small but systematic differences between batch least-squares and extended Kalman filter attitudes. These differences were also found to be correlated with star tracker residuals, gyro bias estimates, and star tracker baseplate temperatures. This paper describes the analysis that shows that these correlations are all consistent with a single cause: time-dependent thermal deformation of star tracker alignments. These varying alignments can be separated into relative and common components. The relative misalignments can be determined and compensated for. The common misalignments can only be determined in special cases.

  4. Determination of the muon charge sign with the dipolar spectrometers of the OPERA experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agafonova, N.; Aleksandrov, A.; Anokhina, A.; Aoki, S.; Ariga, A.; Ariga, T.; Bender, D.; Bertolin, A.; Bozza, C.; Brugnera, R.; Buonaura, A.; Buontempo, S.; Büttner, B.; Chernyavsky, M.; Chukanov, A.; Consiglio, L.; D'Ambrosio, N.; De Lellis, G.; De Serio, M.; Del Amo Sanchez, P.; Di Crescenzo, A.; Di Ferdinando, D.; Di Marco, N.; Dmitrievski, S.; Dracos, M.; Duchesneau, D.; Dusini, S.; Dzhatdoev, T.; Ebert, J.; Ereditato, A.; Fini, R. A.; Fukuda, T.; Galati, G.; Garfagnini, A.; Giacomelli, G.; Göllnitz, C.; Goldberg, J.; Goloubkov, D.; Gornushkin, Y.; Grella, G.; Guler, M.; Gustavino, C.; Hagner, C.; Hara, T.; Hollnagel, A.; Hosseini, B.; Ishida, H.; Ishiguro, K.; Jakovcic, K.; Jollet, C.; Kamiscioglu, C.; Kamiscioglu, M.; Kawada, J.; Kim, J. H.; Kim, S. H.; Kitagawa, N.; Klicek, B.; Kodama, K.; Komatsu, M.; Kose, U.; Kreslo, I.; Lauria, A.; Lenkeit, J.; Ljubicic, A.; Longhin, A.; Loverre, P.; Malgin, A.; Malenica, M.; Mandrioli, G.; Matsuo, T.; Matveev, V.; Mauri, N.; Medinaceli, E.; Meregaglia, A.; Meyer, M.; Mikado, S.; Monacelli, P.; Montesi, M. C.; Morishima, K.; Muciaccia, M. T.; Naganawa, N.; Naka, T.; Nakamura, M.; Nakano, T.; Nakatsuka, Y.; Niwa, K.; Ogawa, S.; Okateva, N.; Olshevsky, A.; Omura, T.; Ozaki, K.; Paoloni, A.; Park, B. D.; Park, I. G.; Pasqualini, L.; Pastore, A.; Patrizii, L.; Pessard, H.; Pistillo, C.; Podgrudkov, D.; Polukhina, N.; Pozzato, M.; Pupilli, F.; Roda, M.; Rokujo, H.; Roganova, T.; Rosa, G.; Rostovtseva, I.; Ryazhskaya, O.; Sato, O.; Sato, Y.; Schembri, A.; Shakiryanova, I.; Shchedrina, T.; Sheshukov, A.; Shibuya, H.; Shiraishi, T.; Shoziyoev, G.; Simone, S.; Sioli, M.; Sirignano, C.; Sirri, G.; Spinetti, M.; Stanco, L.; Starkov, N.; Stellacci, S. M.; Stipcevic, M.; Strolin, P.; Takahashi, S.; Tenti, M.; Terranova, F.; Tioukov, V.; Tufanli, S.; Vilain, P.; Vladimirov, M.; Votano, L.; Vuilleumier, J. L.; Wilquet, G.; Wonsak, B.; Yoon, C. S.; Zaitsev, Y.; Zemskova, S.; Zghiche, A.

    2016-07-01

    The OPERA long-baseline neutrino-oscillation experiment has observed the direct appearance of ντ in the CNGS νμ beam. Two large muon magnetic spectrometers are used to identify muons produced in the τ leptonic decay and in νμ CC interactions by measuring their charge and momentum. Besides the kinematic analysis of the τ decays, background resulting from the decay of charmed particles produced in νμ CC interactions is reduced by efficiently identifying the muon track. A new method for the charge sign determination has been applied, via a weighted angular matching of the straight track-segments reconstructed in the different parts of the dipole magnets. Results obtained for Monte Carlo and real data are presented. Comparison with a method where no matching is used shows a significant reduction of up to 40% of the fraction of wrongly determined charges.

  5. Discovery of τ Neutrino Appearance in the CNGS Neutrino Beam with the OPERA Experiment.

    PubMed

    Agafonova, N; Aleksandrov, A; Anokhina, A; Aoki, S; Ariga, A; Ariga, T; Bender, D; Bertolin, A; Bodnarchuk, I; Bozza, C; Brugnera, R; Buonaura, A; Buontempo, S; Büttner, B; Chernyavsky, M; Chukanov, A; Consiglio, L; D'Ambrosio, N; De Lellis, G; De Serio, M; Del Amo Sanchez, P; Di Crescenzo, A; Di Ferdinando, D; Di Marco, N; Dmitrievski, S; Dracos, M; Duchesneau, D; Dusini, S; Dzhatdoev, T; Ebert, J; Ereditato, A; Fini, R A; Fornari, F; Fukuda, T; Galati, G; Garfagnini, A; Goldberg, J; Gornushkin, Y; Grella, G; Guler, A M; Gustavino, C; Hagner, C; Hara, T; Hayakawa, H; Hollnagel, A; Hosseini, B; Ishiguro, K; Jakovcic, K; Jollet, C; Kamiscioglu, C; Kamiscioglu, M; Kim, J H; Kim, S H; Kitagawa, N; Klicek, B; Kodama, K; Komatsu, M; Kose, U; Kreslo, I; Laudisio, F; Lauria, A; Ljubicic, A; Longhin, A; Loverre, P F; Malgin, A; Malenica, M; Mandrioli, G; Matsuo, T; Matsushita, T; Matveev, V; Mauri, N; Medinaceli, E; Meregaglia, A; Mikado, S; Miyanishi, M; Mizutani, F; Monacelli, P; Montesi, M C; Morishima, K; Muciaccia, M T; Naganawa, N; Naka, T; Nakamura, M; Nakano, T; Nakatsuka, Y; Niwa, K; Ogawa, S; Olchevsky, A; Omura, T; Ozaki, K; Paoloni, A; Paparella, L; Park, B D; Park, I G; Pasqualini, L; Pastore, A; Patrizii, L; Pessard, H; Pistillo, C; Podgrudkov, D; Polukhina, N; Pozzato, M; Pupilli, F; Roda, M; Roganova, T; Rokujo, H; Rosa, G; Ryazhskaya, O; Sato, O; Schembri, A; Schmidt-Parzefall, W; Shakirianova, I; Shchedrina, T; Sheshukov, A; Shibuya, H; Shiraishi, T; Shoziyoev, G; Simone, S; Sioli, M; Sirignano, C; Sirri, G; Sotnikov, A; Spinetti, M; Stanco, L; Starkov, N; Stellacci, S M; Stipcevic, M; Strolin, P; Takahashi, S; Tenti, M; Terranova, F; Tioukov, V; Tufanli, S; Vilain, P; Vladymyrov, M; Votano, L; Vuilleumier, J L; Wilquet, G; Wonsak, B; Yoon, C S; Zemskova, S

    2015-09-18

    The OPERA experiment was designed to search for ν_{μ}→ν_{τ} oscillations in appearance mode, i.e., by detecting the τ leptons produced in charged current ν_{τ} interactions. The experiment took data from 2008 to 2012 in the CERN Neutrinos to Gran Sasso beam. The observation of the ν_{μ}→ν_{τ} appearance, achieved with four candidate events in a subsample of the data, was previously reported. In this Letter, a fifth ν_{τ} candidate event, found in an enlarged data sample, is described. Together with a further reduction of the expected background, the candidate events detected so far allow us to assess the discovery of ν_{μ}→ν_{τ} oscillations in appearance mode with a significance larger than 5σ. PMID:26430986

  6. Discovery of τ Neutrino Appearance in the CNGS Neutrino Beam with the OPERA Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agafonova, N.; Aleksandrov, A.; Anokhina, A.; Aoki, S.; Ariga, A.; Ariga, T.; Bender, D.; Bertolin, A.; Bodnarchuk, I.; Bozza, C.; Brugnera, R.; Buonaura, A.; Buontempo, S.; Büttner, B.; Chernyavsky, M.; Chukanov, A.; Consiglio, L.; D'Ambrosio, N.; de Lellis, G.; de Serio, M.; Del Amo Sanchez, P.; di Crescenzo, A.; di Ferdinando, D.; di Marco, N.; Dmitrievski, S.; Dracos, M.; Duchesneau, D.; Dusini, S.; Dzhatdoev, T.; Ebert, J.; Ereditato, A.; Fini, R. A.; Fornari, F.; Fukuda, T.; Galati, G.; Garfagnini, A.; Goldberg, J.; Gornushkin, Y.; Grella, G.; Guler, A. M.; Gustavino, C.; Hagner, C.; Hara, T.; Hayakawa, H.; Hollnagel, A.; Hosseini, B.; Ishiguro, K.; Jakovcic, K.; Jollet, C.; Kamiscioglu, C.; Kamiscioglu, M.; Kim, J. H.; Kim, S. H.; Kitagawa, N.; Klicek, B.; Kodama, K.; Komatsu, M.; Kose, U.; Kreslo, I.; Laudisio, F.; Lauria, A.; Ljubicic, A.; Longhin, A.; Loverre, P. F.; Malgin, A.; Malenica, M.; Mandrioli, G.; Matsuo, T.; Matsushita, T.; Matveev, V.; Mauri, N.; Medinaceli, E.; Meregaglia, A.; Mikado, S.; Miyanishi, M.; Mizutani, F.; Monacelli, P.; Montesi, M. C.; Morishima, K.; Muciaccia, M. T.; Naganawa, N.; Naka, T.; Nakamura, M.; Nakano, T.; Nakatsuka, Y.; Niwa, K.; Ogawa, S.; Olchevsky, A.; Omura, T.; Ozaki, K.; Paoloni, A.; Paparella, L.; Park, B. D.; Park, I. G.; Pasqualini, L.; Pastore, A.; Patrizii, L.; Pessard, H.; Pistillo, C.; Podgrudkov, D.; Polukhina, N.; Pozzato, M.; Pupilli, F.; Roda, M.; Roganova, T.; Rokujo, H.; Rosa, G.; Ryazhskaya, O.; Sato, O.; Schembri, A.; Schmidt-Parzefall, W.; Shakirianova, I.; Shchedrina, T.; Sheshukov, A.; Shibuya, H.; Shiraishi, T.; Shoziyoev, G.; Simone, S.; Sioli, M.; Sirignano, C.; Sirri, G.; Sotnikov, A.; Spinetti, M.; Stanco, L.; Starkov, N.; Stellacci, S. M.; Stipcevic, M.; Strolin, P.; Takahashi, S.; Tenti, M.; Terranova, F.; Tioukov, V.; Tufanli, S.; Vilain, P.; Vladymyrov, M.; Votano, L.; Vuilleumier, J. L.; Wilquet, G.; Wonsak, B.; Yoon, C. S.; Zemskova, S.; Opera Collaboration

    2015-09-01

    The OPERA experiment was designed to search for νμ→ντ oscillations in appearance mode, i.e., by detecting the τ leptons produced in charged current ντ interactions. The experiment took data from 2008 to 2012 in the CERN Neutrinos to Gran Sasso beam. The observation of the νμ→ντ appearance, achieved with four candidate events in a subsample of the data, was previously reported. In this Letter, a fifth ντ candidate event, found in an enlarged data sample, is described. Together with a further reduction of the expected background, the candidate events detected so far allow us to assess the discovery of νμ→ντ oscillations in appearance mode with a significance larger than 5 σ .

  7. Observation of tau neutrino appearance in the CNGS beam with the OPERA experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Opera Collaboration; Agafonova, N.; Aleksandrov, A.; Anokhina, A.; Aoki, S.; Ariga, A.; Ariga, T.; Asada, T.; Bender, D.; Bertolin, A.; Bozza, C.; Brugnera, R.; Buonaura, A.; Buontempo, S.; Büttner, B.; Chernyavsky, M.; Chukanov, A.; Consiglio, L.; D'Ambrosio, N.; de Lellis, G.; de Serio, M.; Del Amo Sanchez, P.; di Crescenzo, A.; di Ferdinando, D.; di Marco, N.; Dmitrievski, S.; Dracos, M.; Duchesneau, D.; Dusini, S.; Dzhatdoev, T.; Ebert, J.; Ereditato, A.; Fini, R. A.; Fukuda, T.; Galati, G.; Garfagnini, A.; Giacomelli, G.; Goellnitz, C.; Goldberg, J.; Gornushkin, Y.; Grella, G.; Guler, M.; Gustavino, C.; Hagner, C.; Hara, T.; Hayakawa, T.; Hollnagel, A.; Hosseini, B.; Ishida, H.; Ishiguro, K.; Jakovcic, K.; Jollet, C.; Kamiscioglu, C.; Kamiscioglu, M.; Katsuragawa, T.; Kawada, J.; Kawahara, H.; Kim, J. H.; Kim, S. H.; Kitagawa, N.; Klicek, B.; Kodama, K.; Komatsu, M.; Kose, U.; Kreslo, I.; Lauria, A.; Lenkeit, J.; Ljubicic, A.; Longhin, A.; Loverre, P.; Malenica, M.; Malgin, A.; Mandrioli, G.; Matsuo, T.; Matveev, V.; Mauri, N.; Medinaceli, E.; Meregaglia, A.; Meyer, M.; Mikado, S.; Miyanishi, M.; Monacelli, P.; Montesi, M. C.; Morishima, K.; Muciaccia, M. T.; Naganawa, N.; Naka, T.; Nakamura, M.; Nakano, T.; Nakatsuka, Y.; Niwa, K.; Ogawa, S.; Okateva, N.; Olshevsky, A.; Omura, T.; Ozaki, K.; Paoloni, A.; Park, B. D.; Park, I. G.; Pasqualini, L.; Pastore, A.; Patrizii, L.; Pessard, H.; Pistillo, C.; Podgrudkov, D.; Polukhina, N.; Pozzato, M.; Pupilli, F.; Roda, M.; Roganova, T.; Rokujo, H.; Rosa, G.; Ryazhskaya, O.; Sato, O.; Schembri, A.; Shakiryanova, I.; Shchedrina, T.; Sheshukov, A.; Shibuya, H.; Shiraishi, T.; Shoziyoev, G.; Simone, S.; Sioli, M.; Sirignano, C.; Sirri, G.; Spinetti, M.; Stanco, L.; Starkov, N.; Stellacci, S. M.; Stipcevic, M.; Strolin, P.; Takahashi, S.; Tenti, M.; Terranova, F.; Tioukov, V.; Tufanli, S.; Umemoto, A.; Vilain, P.; Vladimirov, M.; Votano, L.; Vuilleumier, J. L.; Wilquet, G.; Wonsak, B.; Yoon, C. S.; Yaguchi, I.; Yoshimoto, M.; Zemskova, S.; Zghiche, A.

    2014-10-01

    The OPERA experiment is searching for ν _μ rArr ν _tau oscillations in appearance mode, i.e., via the direct detection of tau leptons in ν _tau charged-current interactions. The evidence of ν _μ rArr ν _tau appearance has been previously reported with three ν _tau candidate events using a sub-sample of data from the 2008-2012 runs. We report here a fourth ν _tau candidate event, with the tau decaying into a hadron, found after adding the 2012 run events without any muon in the final state to the data sample. Given the number of analyzed events and the low background, ν _μ rArr ν _tau oscillations are established with a significance of 4.2σ.

  8. Discovery of τ Neutrino Appearance in the CNGS Neutrino Beam with the OPERA Experiment.

    PubMed

    Agafonova, N; Aleksandrov, A; Anokhina, A; Aoki, S; Ariga, A; Ariga, T; Bender, D; Bertolin, A; Bodnarchuk, I; Bozza, C; Brugnera, R; Buonaura, A; Buontempo, S; Büttner, B; Chernyavsky, M; Chukanov, A; Consiglio, L; D'Ambrosio, N; De Lellis, G; De Serio, M; Del Amo Sanchez, P; Di Crescenzo, A; Di Ferdinando, D; Di Marco, N; Dmitrievski, S; Dracos, M; Duchesneau, D; Dusini, S; Dzhatdoev, T; Ebert, J; Ereditato, A; Fini, R A; Fornari, F; Fukuda, T; Galati, G; Garfagnini, A; Goldberg, J; Gornushkin, Y; Grella, G; Guler, A M; Gustavino, C; Hagner, C; Hara, T; Hayakawa, H; Hollnagel, A; Hosseini, B; Ishiguro, K; Jakovcic, K; Jollet, C; Kamiscioglu, C; Kamiscioglu, M; Kim, J H; Kim, S H; Kitagawa, N; Klicek, B; Kodama, K; Komatsu, M; Kose, U; Kreslo, I; Laudisio, F; Lauria, A; Ljubicic, A; Longhin, A; Loverre, P F; Malgin, A; Malenica, M; Mandrioli, G; Matsuo, T; Matsushita, T; Matveev, V; Mauri, N; Medinaceli, E; Meregaglia, A; Mikado, S; Miyanishi, M; Mizutani, F; Monacelli, P; Montesi, M C; Morishima, K; Muciaccia, M T; Naganawa, N; Naka, T; Nakamura, M; Nakano, T; Nakatsuka, Y; Niwa, K; Ogawa, S; Olchevsky, A; Omura, T; Ozaki, K; Paoloni, A; Paparella, L; Park, B D; Park, I G; Pasqualini, L; Pastore, A; Patrizii, L; Pessard, H; Pistillo, C; Podgrudkov, D; Polukhina, N; Pozzato, M; Pupilli, F; Roda, M; Roganova, T; Rokujo, H; Rosa, G; Ryazhskaya, O; Sato, O; Schembri, A; Schmidt-Parzefall, W; Shakirianova, I; Shchedrina, T; Sheshukov, A; Shibuya, H; Shiraishi, T; Shoziyoev, G; Simone, S; Sioli, M; Sirignano, C; Sirri, G; Sotnikov, A; Spinetti, M; Stanco, L; Starkov, N; Stellacci, S M; Stipcevic, M; Strolin, P; Takahashi, S; Tenti, M; Terranova, F; Tioukov, V; Tufanli, S; Vilain, P; Vladymyrov, M; Votano, L; Vuilleumier, J L; Wilquet, G; Wonsak, B; Yoon, C S; Zemskova, S

    2015-09-18

    The OPERA experiment was designed to search for ν_{μ}→ν_{τ} oscillations in appearance mode, i.e., by detecting the τ leptons produced in charged current ν_{τ} interactions. The experiment took data from 2008 to 2012 in the CERN Neutrinos to Gran Sasso beam. The observation of the ν_{μ}→ν_{τ} appearance, achieved with four candidate events in a subsample of the data, was previously reported. In this Letter, a fifth ν_{τ} candidate event, found in an enlarged data sample, is described. Together with a further reduction of the expected background, the candidate events detected so far allow us to assess the discovery of ν_{μ}→ν_{τ} oscillations in appearance mode with a significance larger than 5σ.

  9. Measured Early Lateral Energy Fractions in Concert Halls and Opera Houses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    BARRON, M.

    2000-04-01

    In the 30 years since early lateral reflections were first suggested as important for concert halls, spatial impression and source broadening have become almost universally accepted as essential characteristics of halls with good acoustics. Two objective measures of source broadening have been proposed. Measured values of the best defined of these measures, the early lateral energy fraction (LF), are considered here. Results from two independent measurement surveys are discussed. Comparisons of LF values by hall show a significant link between hall mean LF and hall width. There is however considerable overlap between measured LF values in different halls so the relevance of describing halls by their mean early lateral energy fraction values is questionable. The behaviour of LF values within auditoria is discussed for different concert hall plan forms and within opera houses. A measure of source broadening including sound level is proposed and results considered in the context of auditorium design.

  10. Theory of acoustic design of opera house and a design proposal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ando, Yoichi

    2001-05-01

    First of all, the theory of subjective preference for sound fields based on the model of auditory-brain system is briefly mentioned. It consists of the temporal factors and spatial factors associated with the left and right cerebral hemispheres, respectively. The temporal criteria are the initial time delay gap between the direct sound and the first Reflection (Dt1) and the subsequent reverberation time (Tsub). These preferred conditions are related to the minimum value of effective duration of the running autocorrelation function of source signals (te)min. The spatial criteria are binaural listening level (LL) and the IACC, which may be extracted from the interaural crosscorrelation function. In the opera house, there are two different kind of sound sources, i.e., the vocal source of relatively short values of (te)min in the stage and the orchestra music of long values of (te)min in the pit. For these sources, a proposal is made here.

  11. Precision bolometer bridge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, D. R.

    1968-01-01

    Prototype precision bolometer calibration bridge is manually balanced device for indicating dc bias and balance with either dc or ac power. An external galvanometer is used with the bridge for null indication, and the circuitry monitors voltage and current simultaneously without adapters in testing 100 and 200 ohm thin film bolometers.

  12. Precision liquid level sensor

    DOEpatents

    Field, M.E.; Sullivan, W.H.

    1985-01-29

    A precision liquid level sensor utilizes a balanced R. F. bridge, each arm including an air dielectric line. Changes in liquid level along one air dielectric line imbalance the bridge and create a voltage which is directly measurable across the bridge. 2 figs.

  13. Precision physics at LHC

    SciTech Connect

    Hinchliffe, I.

    1997-05-01

    In this talk the author gives a brief survey of some physics topics that will be addressed by the Large Hadron Collider currently under construction at CERN. Instead of discussing the reach of this machine for new physics, the author gives examples of the types of precision measurements that might be made if new physics is discovered.

  14. Precision in Stereochemical Terminology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wade, Leroy G., Jr.

    2006-01-01

    An analysis of relatively new terminology that has given multiple definitions often resulting in students learning principles that are actually false is presented with an example of the new term stereogenic atom introduced by Mislow and Siegel. The Mislow terminology would be useful in some cases if it were used precisely and correctly, but it is…

  15. High Precision Astrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riess, Adam

    2012-10-01

    This |*|program |*|uses |*|the |*|enhanced |*|astrometric |*|precision |*|enabled |*|by |*|spatial |*|scanning |*|to |*|calibrate |*|remaining |*|obstacles |*|toreaching |*|<<40 |*|microarc|*|second |*|astrometry |*|{<1 |*|millipixel} |*|with |*|WFC3/UVIS |*|by |*|1} |*|improving |*|geometric |*|distor-on |*|2} |*|calibratingthe |*|e|*|ect |*|of |*|breathing |*|on |*|astrometry|*|3} |*|calibrating |*|the |*|e|*|ect |*|of |*|CTE |*|on |*|astrometry, |*|4} |*|characterizing |*|the |*|boundaries |*|andorientations |*|of |*|the |*|WFC3 |*|lithograph |*|cells.

  16. Precision liquid level sensor

    DOEpatents

    Field, Michael E.; Sullivan, William H.

    1985-01-01

    A precision liquid level sensor utilizes a balanced R. F. bridge, each arm including an air dielectric line. Changes in liquid level along one air dielectric line imbalance the bridge and create a voltage which is directly measurable across the bridge.

  17. A scale value for the balance inside a historical opera house.

    PubMed

    Prodi, Nicola; Velecka, Sylvia

    2005-02-01

    In the framework of opera house acoustics, the term "balance" refers to the acoustical competition between the singer on the stage and the orchestra in the pit. The mechanism allowing the operatic singers to be heard over the orchestra has to do with their skill in enhancing the vocal emission by a peculiar use of the formant frequencies. This vital factor is sensed by the listeners and, apart from the obvious sound power ratio of the stage and the pit sources, is the main cue that helps to formulate a subjective impression of the balance. To achieve its objective qualification, two calibrated sound sources can be placed on the stage and in the pit, respectively, and their sound level difference is measured at the listeners' seats. The scope of this work is to investigate the relationship between the subjective impression and the objective indicator of the balance and to develop a scale value for the parameter in the case of a historical opera house. For this scope a set of acoustical data from the Teatro Comunale in Ferrara will be used to create synthetic sound fields with controlled conditions of the balance between the stage and the pit. This methodology employs an anechoic piece for soprano (with piano accompaniment) and is implemented in a dead room equipped with an acoustical rendering system. The sound fields are used to investigate the appropriate balance values by means of listening tests. The results of the scaling exercise show that a suitable range of values can be extracted and that the sound from the stage and the pit is perceived as balanced when the loudness difference between the two is comprised within -2.0 dBA and +2.3 dBA. PMID:15759697

  18. A scale value for the balance inside a historical opera house

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prodi, Nicola; Velecka, Sylvia

    2005-02-01

    In the framework of opera house acoustics, the term ``balance'' refers to the acoustical competition between the singer on the stage and the orchestra in the pit. The mechanism allowing the operatic singers to be heard over the orchestra has to do with their skill in enhancing the vocal emission by a peculiar use of the formant frequencies. This vital factor is sensed by the listeners and, apart from the obvious sound power ratio of the stage and the pit sources, is the main cue that helps to formulate a subjective impression of the balance. To achieve its objective qualification, two calibrated sound sources can be placed on the stage and in the pit, respectively, and their sound level difference is measured at the listeners' seats. The scope of this work is to investigate the relationship between the subjective impression and the objective indicator of the balance and to develop a scale value for the parameter in the case of a historical opera house. For this scope a set of acoustical data from the Teatro Comunale in Ferrara will be used to create synthetic sound fields with controlled conditions of the balance between the stage and the pit. This methodology employs an anechoic piece for soprano (with piano accompaniment) and is implemented in a dead room equipped with an acoustical rendering system. The sound fields are used to investigate the appropriate balance values by means of listening tests. The results of the scaling exercise show that a suitable range of values can be extracted and that the sound from the stage and the pit is perceived as balanced when the loudness difference between the two is comprised within -2.0 dBA and +2.3 dBA. .

  19. Acoustic Measurements in Opera Houses: Comparison Between Different Techniques and Equipment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    FAUSTI, P.; FARINA, A.

    2000-04-01

    In room acoustics, many objective parameters to quantify subjective impressions have been introduced. These quantities can be measured by using a wide variety of powerful tools and equipment. The results can be influenced by the measurement techniques and instruments used. Furthermore, the results also depend on the measurement positions and on the condition of the hall (full, empty, etc.). The aim of this work is to define a tightly standardized measurement procedure for the collection of a complete objective description of an opera house's acoustics. In this paper some of the results obtained by the authors after measurements made in three different halls are presented. Comparisons were made both between different hardware and software tools (real-time analyzer, DAT, PC-board, source, microphones, post-processing software) and between different measurement methods (interrupted stationary noise, true-impulse, pseudo-random white noise with impulse-response doconvolution, sine sweep) as well as between different positions in the halls, with and without the presence of musicians and audience. The results have shown that the differences obtained when using different measurement techniques and equipment are not of significant importance. The only effective differences were found regarding the recording techniques, as the monaural measurements give appreciably different results from the average of left and right channel of binaural measurements. Slightly different results were alsofound between true impulsive sources (pistol shots, balloons) and omni-directional (dodecahedral) loudspeakers. Attention must be paid to the signal-to-noise ratio, as this can influence the correct calculation of some acoustical parameters. Some differences, not as great as expected, were found in the results with and without the musicians in the orchestra shell and with and without the audience in the hall. This is probably due to the high sound absorption that is typical in Italian opera

  20. AIDS soap opera generates massive interest. Eye witness: Cote d'Ivoire.

    PubMed

    Dodd, R

    1995-12-01

    SIDA Dans La Cite (AIDS in the City) is a popular weekly soap opera first broadcast in Cote d'Ivoire in 1991 with 11 15-minute episodes. The series is part of a campaign by Population Services International (PSI) to raise awareness about AIDS among Ivorian youth. Actors worked for a nominal fee, editing studios were provided at substantial discounts, and filming equipment was borrowed for next to nothing. Production director realized how important the soap opera had become after the fourth episode. A study of 700 households in Abidjan found that of the 75% who had access to a television, two-thirds had seen at least one episode. Cote d'Ivoire may be one of the most religiously conservative countries in Africa. 10% of the adult population, however, is infected with HIV. All sectors of society therefore understand the need to openly understand and discuss sexual issues in the context of such high HIV prevalence. Studies indicate that virtually everyone in Cote d'Ivoire has heard of AIDS and knows that it is a sexually transmitted disease, but persuading people to change their behavior is difficult. PSI sells approximately 750,000 of its subsidized Prudence condoms. Prudence has the same brand recognition in the country as Nescafe and Toyota. A recent survey of sexually active teens found that 30% of girls and 45% of boys used condoms. A weekly radio show is broadcast live from one of the poorest ghettos of Abidjan. Guests include popular singers, comedians, and television personalities. The actors are often from SIDA Dans La Cite. PMID:12319960

  1. The analysis of interface emulsion detector for the OPERA experiment in JAPAN Scanning facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukuda, T.; Kodama, K.; Komatsu, M.; Miyamoto, S.; Morishima, K.; Nakano, T.; Omura, T.; Sakatani, Y.; Sato, O.

    2010-04-01

    The OPERA experiment, designed to search for neutrino oscillations, started its physics run in July 2008. It is the most recent emulsion-counter hybrid experiment. In this experiment two different types of emulsion detectors are used. One is called Emulsion Cloud Chamber (ECC), and is used as a target. The other is called Changeable Sheet (CS), which is attached to the downstream side of each ECC to identify the ECC in which a tagged neutrino interaction occurred. The CS interfaces rough tracking information obtained in the electronic detectors to the ECC and therefore is a key element of the emulsion-counter hybrid experiment. As a first step, a CS selected by electronic detectors is scanned and analyzed to decide if the ECC is to be developed and analyzed in detail; a few CS are usually to be analyzed to identify an ECC for each tagged event due to the inaccuracy of the electronic detectors. The CS has a large scanning area and therefore Japan and Europe (Gran Sasso) are sharing in the CS analysis load to handle the scanning job. In this paper, the CS analysis method developed for the Japan scanning facility is described in detail. 100 million tracks are read out on each CS by an automatic emulsion read-out system ( S-UTS ), most of them are so-called fake tracks mainly due to low momentum Compton electrons or random noise and a few real tracks from a tagged neutrino interaction have to be picked up among a huge background. A dedicated method to reject this background without losing real tracks has been developed on the basis of analyzing track data obtained by S-UTS and combining these data with a final selection using additional information on multiple Coulomb scattering of candidate tracks obtained by human eye check to eliminate a remaining background. Performance of this method is shown to be sufficient for the OPERA experiment.

  2. Silicon Vertex Tracker for PHENIX Upgrade at RICH: Capabilities and Detector Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nouicer, R.

    From the wealth of data obtained from the first three years of RHIC operation, the four RHIC experiments, BRAHMS, PHENIX, PHOBOS and STAR, have concluded that a high density partonic matter is formed at central Au+Au collisions at sNN = 200 GeV. The research focus now shifts from initial discovery to a detailed exploration of partonic matter. Particles carrying heavy flavor, i.e. charm or beauty quarks, are powerful tool for study the properties of the hot and dense medium created in high-energy nuclear collisions at RHIC. At the relatively low transverse momentum region, the collective motion of the heavy flavor will be a sensitive signal for the thermalization of light flavors. They also allow to probe the spin structure of the proton in a new and precise way. An upgrade of RHIC (RHIC-II) is intended for the second half of the decade, with a luminosity increase to about 20-40 times the design value of 8 × 10^26 cm-2 s-1 for Au+Au, and 2 × 10^32 cm-2 s-1 for polarized proton beams. The PHENIX collaboration plans to upgrade its experiment to exploit with an enhanced detector new physics then in reach. For this purpose, we are constructing the Silicon Vertex Tracker (VTX). The VTX detector will provide us the tool to measure new physics observables that are not accessible at the present RHIC or available only with very limited accuracy. These include a precise determination of the charm production cross section, transverse momentum spectra at high-pT region for particles carrying beauty quarks as well the detection of recoil jets in direct photon production. The VTX detector consists of four layers of barrel detectors located in the region of pseudorapidity |η| < 1.2 and covers almost 2π azimuthal angle. The pseudorapidity, η, is defined as η = -ln[tan(θ/2)], where θ is the emission angle relative to the beam axis. The inner two silicon barrels consists of silicon pixel sensors and their technology is the ALICE1LHCb sensor-readout hybrid, which was developed

  3. The Front-End Electronics of the straw tube tracker for the LHCb experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pellegrino, Antonio

    2010-11-01

    The LHCb experiment is a single-arm spectrometer, designed to study CP violation in B-decays at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). It is crucial to accurately and efficiently track the charged decay products, in the high-density particle environment of the LHC. For this, the Outer Tracker has been constructed, consisting of ˜55,000 straw tubes, distributed over a sensitive area of 12 double layers of 6×5 m 2 each. The detector is foreseen to operate up to 100 kHz/cm per straw in the region closest to the beam. The task of the Front-End Electronics is to provide the precise (0.5 ns) drift-time measurement, at an average occupancy of 5% and at a 1 MHz trigger rate. The tracking procedure requires high-efficiency (low thresholds), while at the same time putting stringent limits on the noise level. The modular detector structure reflects on the FE electronics: 128 channels are read out by one FE "Box". The mass production and installation of 450 FE-Boxes is completed. Quality checks have been performed in several stages, at the level of individual boards and at the global level with dedicated test systems mimicking the real detector and capable of simulating all the readout functionalities. At the time of the conference, all FE electronics has been commissioned in situ with test-pulses, cosmic rays and the with first beam events from LHC. No dead channels and very few noisy channels have been found. An upgrade is currently under study, aiming at digitizing and reading out events at each beam-crossing.

  4. Spacecraft attitude control systems with dynamic methods and structures for processing star tracker signals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Yong (Inventor); Wu, Yeong-Wei Andy (Inventor); Li, Rongsheng (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    Methods are provided for dynamically processing successively-generated star tracker data frames and associated valid flags to generate processed star tracker signals that have reduced noise and a probability greater than a selected probability P.sub.slctd of being valid. These methods maintain accurate spacecraft attitude control in the presence of spurious inputs (e.g., impinging protons) that corrupt collected charges in spacecraft star trackers. The methods of the invention enhance the probability of generating valid star tracker signals because they respond to a current frame probability P.sub.frm by dynamically selecting the largest valid frame combination whose combination probability P.sub.cmb satisfies a selected probability P.sub.slctd. Noise is thus reduced while the probability of finding a valid frame combination is enhanced. Spacecraft structures are also provided for practicing the methods of the invention.

  5. Preliminary results from a study of the impact of digital activity trackers on health risk status.

    PubMed

    Rowe-Roberts, Dinah; Cercos, Robert; Mueller, Florian 'Floyd'

    2014-01-01

    Digital activity trackers are becoming increasingly more widespread and affordable, providing new opportunities to support participatory e-health programs in which participants take an active role. However, there is limited knowledge of how to deploy these activity trackers within these programs. In response, we conducted a 7-month study with 212 employees using a wireless activity tracker to log step count. Our results suggest that these devices can support improving physical activity levels and consequently reduce diabetes risk factors. Furthermore, the intervention seems more effective for people with higher risk factors. With our work we aim to contribute to a better understanding of the issues and challenges involved in the design of participatory e-health programs that include activity trackers. PMID:25087541

  6. A novel method for measuring transit tilt error in laser trackers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zili; Zhou, Weihu; Zhu, Han; Lin, Xinlong

    2015-02-01

    A novel method was proposed to measure the tilt error between the transit axis and standing axis of the laser tracker. A gradienter was first used to make the standing axis of the laser tracker perpendicular to the horizontal plane. The laser beam of the tracker was then projected onto a vertical plane set at a certain distance from the tracker with equal horizontal angles and diverse vertical angles in two-face mode. The contrail of the laser beam was recorded while the simulation was manipulated to estimate the beam trail under the same circumstance. The tilt error was thus obtained according to the comparison of the actual result against the simulated one. Experimental results showed that the accuracy of the tilt measuring method could meet the user's demand.

  7. The electromagnetic calorimeter for the solenoidal tracker at RHIC. A Conceptual Design Report

    SciTech Connect

    Beddo, M.E.; Bielick, E.; Dawson, J.W.; The STAR EMC Collaboration

    1993-09-22

    This report discusses the following on the electromagnetic calorimeter for the solenoidal tracker at RHIC: conceptual design; the physics of electromagnetic calorimetry in STAR; trigger capability; integration into STAR; and cost, schedule, manpower, and funding.

  8. A passion for precision

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    For more than three decades, the quest for ever higher precision in laser spectroscopy of the simple hydrogen atom has inspired many advances in laser, optical, and spectroscopic techniques, culminating in femtosecond laser optical frequency combs  as perhaps the most precise measuring tools known to man. Applications range from optical atomic clocks and tests of QED and relativity to searches for time variations of fundamental constants. Recent experiments are extending frequency comb techniques into the extreme ultraviolet. Laser frequency combs can also control the electric field of ultrashort light pulses, creating powerful new tools for the emerging field of attosecond science.Organiser(s): L. Alvarez-Gaume / PH-THNote: * Tea & coffee will be served at 16:00.

  9. Precision synchrotron radiation detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Levi, M.; Rouse, F.; Butler, J.; Jung, C.K.; Lateur, M.; Nash, J.; Tinsman, J.; Wormser, G.; Gomez, J.J.; Kent, J.

    1989-03-01

    Precision detectors to measure synchrotron radiation beam positions have been designed and installed as part of beam energy spectrometers at the Stanford Linear Collider (SLC). The distance between pairs of synchrotron radiation beams is measured absolutely to better than 28 /mu/m on a pulse-to-pulse basis. This contributes less than 5 MeV to the error in the measurement of SLC beam energies (approximately 50 GeV). A system of high-resolution video cameras viewing precisely-aligned fiducial wire arrays overlaying phosphorescent screens has achieved this accuracy. Also, detectors of synchrotron radiation using the charge developed by the ejection of Compton-recoil electrons from an array of fine wires are being developed. 4 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  10. A passion for precision

    SciTech Connect

    2010-05-19

    For more than three decades, the quest for ever higher precision in laser spectroscopy of the simple hydrogen atom has inspired many advances in laser, optical, and spectroscopic techniques, culminating in femtosecond laser optical frequency combs  as perhaps the most precise measuring tools known to man. Applications range from optical atomic clocks and tests of QED and relativity to searches for time variations of fundamental constants. Recent experiments are extending frequency comb techniques into the extreme ultraviolet. Laser frequency combs can also control the electric field of ultrashort light pulses, creating powerful new tools for the emerging field of attosecond science.Organiser(s): L. Alvarez-Gaume / PH-THNote: * Tea & coffee will be served at 16:00.

  11. Towards precision medicine.

    PubMed

    Ashley, Euan A

    2016-08-16

    There is great potential for genome sequencing to enhance patient care through improved diagnostic sensitivity and more precise therapeutic targeting. To maximize this potential, genomics strategies that have been developed for genetic discovery - including DNA-sequencing technologies and analysis algorithms - need to be adapted to fit clinical needs. This will require the optimization of alignment algorithms, attention to quality-coverage metrics, tailored solutions for paralogous or low-complexity areas of the genome, and the adoption of consensus standards for variant calling and interpretation. Global sharing of this more accurate genotypic and phenotypic data will accelerate the determination of causality for novel genes or variants. Thus, a deeper understanding of disease will be realized that will allow its targeting with much greater therapeutic precision. PMID:27528417

  12. Ultra precision machining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Debra, Daniel B.; Hesselink, Lambertus; Binford, Thomas

    1990-05-01

    There are a number of fields that require or can use to advantage very high precision in machining. For example, further development of high energy lasers and x ray astronomy depend critically on the manufacture of light weight reflecting metal optical components. To fabricate these optical components with machine tools they will be made of metal with mirror quality surface finish. By mirror quality surface finish, it is meant that the dimensions tolerances on the order of 0.02 microns and surface roughness of 0.07. These accuracy targets fall in the category of ultra precision machining. They cannot be achieved by a simple extension of conventional machining processes and techniques. They require single crystal diamond tools, special attention to vibration isolation, special isolation of machine metrology, and on line correction of imperfection in the motion of the machine carriages on their way.

  13. Ultra-Precision Optics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Under a Joint Sponsored Research Agreement with Goddard Space Flight Center, SEMATECH, Inc., the Silicon Valley Group, Inc. and Tinsley Laboratories, known as SVG-Tinsley, developed an Ultra-Precision Optics Manufacturing System for space and microlithographic applications. Continuing improvements in optics manufacture will be able to meet unique NASA requirements and the production needs of the lithography industry for many years to come.

  14. Radiation-tolerant optical links for the ATLAS semiconductor tracker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matheson, John; Charlton, David G.; Chu, Ming-lee; Dowell, John D.; Galagedera, Senerath; Homer, Roger J.; Hou, Li-Shing; Jovanovic, Predrag; Kundu, Nikhil N.; Lee, Shih-chang; McMahon, Thomas J.; Macwaters, Craig; Mahout, Gilles; Morrissey, Martin; Rudge, Alan; Skubic, Bjorn J.; Teng, Ping-kun; Wastie, Roy; Weidberg, Anthony R.; Wilson, John A.

    2002-09-01

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC), currently under construction at CERN, Geneva, will collide proton beams of energy 7 TeV. The high luminosity of the machine will lead to a severe radiation environment for detectors such as ATLAS. The ATLAS Semiconductor Tracker (SCT) must be able to tolerate a radiation field equivalent to an ionising dose of 10 Mrad (Si) and a neutron fluence of 2x1014cm-2 (1MeV,Si) over the 10 year lifetime of the experiment. The SCT is instrumented by silicon microstrip detectors and their front-end chips (ABCDs). Data is transferred from, and control signals to, the ABCDs using multimode optical links carrying light at 840 nm. The incoming timing, trigger and control (TTC) link uses biphase mark encoding to send 40 Mbit/s control signals along with a 40 MHz clock down a single fibre. Optical signals are received by a p-i-n diode and decoded by DORIC chips. Data in electrical form from the ABCDs is used to moderate two VCSELs by means of a VCSEL driver chip (VDC). Each detector module carries 12 ABCDs and is served by two optical fibres for data readout and one for TTC signals. There are 4088 such modules within the SCT. The system performance specifications and architecture are described, followed by test results on individual components and complete links. The optical fibre, active optical components, chips, packaging and interconnects have all been qualified to the necessary radiation levels. This has involved studies of total dose effects, single event upset and ageing at elevated temperatures and details of these studies are presented.

  15. DCPT: A dual-continua random walk particle tracker fortransport

    SciTech Connect

    Pan, L.; Liu, H.H.; Cushey, M.; Bodvarsson, G.S.

    2000-04-11

    Accurate and efficient simulation of chemical transport processes in the unsaturated zone of Yucca Mountain is important to evaluate the performance of the potential repository. The scale of the unsaturated zone model domain for Yucca Mountain (50 km{sup 2} area with a 600 meter depth to the water table) requires a large gridblock approach to efficiently analyze complex flow & transport processes. The conventional schemes based on finite element or finite difference methods perform well for dispersion-dominated transport, but are subject to considerable numerical dilution/dispersion for advection-dominated transport, especially when a large gridblock size is used. Numerical dispersion is an artificial, grid-dependent chemical spreading, especially for otherwise steep concentration fronts. One effective scheme to deal with numerical dispersion is the random walk particle method (RWPM). While significant progress has been made in developing RWPM algorithms and codes for single continuum systems, a random walk particle tracker, which can handle chemical transport in dual-continua (fractured porous media) associated with irregular grid systems, is still absent (to our knowledge) in the public domain. This is largely due to the lacking of rigorous schemes to deal with particle transfer between the continua, and efficient schemes to track particles in irregular grid systems. The main objectives of this study are (1) to develop approaches to extend RWPM from a single continuum to a dual-continua system; (2) to develop an efficient algorithm for tracking particles in 3D irregular grids; and (3) to integrate these approaches into an efficient and user-friendly software, DCPT, for simulating chemical transport in fractured porous media.

  16. The design, construction and performance of the MICE scintillating fibre trackers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellis, M.; Hobson, P. R.; Kyberd, P.; Nebrensky, J. J.; Bross, A.; Fagan, J.; Fitzpatrick, T.; Flores, R.; Kubinski, R.; Krider, J.; Rucinski, R.; Rubinov, P.; Tolian, C.; Hart, T. L.; Kaplan, D. M.; Luebke, W.; Freemire, B.; Wojcik, M.; Barber, G.; Clark, D.; Clark, I.; Dornan, P. J.; Fish, A.; Greenwood, S.; Hare, R.; Jamdagni, A.; Kasey, V.; Khaleeq, M.; Leaver, J.; Long, K. R.; McKigney, E.; Matsushita, T.; Rogers, C.; Sashalmi, T.; Savage, P.; Takahashi, M.; Tapper, A.; Yoshimura, K.; Cooke, P.; Gamet, R.; Sakamoto, H.; Kuno, Y.; Sato, A.; Yano, T.; Yoshida, M.; MacWaters, C.; Coney, L.; Hanson, G.; Klier, A.; Cline, D.; Yang, X.; Adey, D.

    2011-12-01

    Charged-particle tracking in the international Muon Ionisation Cooling Experiment (MICE) will be performed using two solenoidal spectrometers, each instrumented with a tracking detector based on 350 μm diameter scintillating fibres. The design and construction of the trackers is described along with the quality-assurance procedures, photon-detection system, readout electronics, reconstruction and simulation software and the data-acquisition system. Finally, the performance of the MICE tracker, determined using cosmic rays, is presented.

  17. Intelligent error correction method applied on an active pixel sensor based star tracker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Uwe

    2005-10-01

    Star trackers are opto-electronic sensors used on-board of satellites for the autonomous inertial attitude determination. During the last years star trackers became more and more important in the field of the attitude and orbit control system (AOCS) sensors. High performance star trackers are based up today on charge coupled device (CCD) optical camera heads. The active pixel sensor (APS) technology, introduced in the early 90-ties, allows now the beneficial replacement of CCD detectors by APS detectors with respect to performance, reliability, power, mass and cost. The company's heritage in star tracker design started in the early 80-ties with the launch of the worldwide first fully autonomous star tracker system ASTRO1 to the Russian MIR space station. Jena-Optronik recently developed an active pixel sensor based autonomous star tracker "ASTRO APS" as successor of the CCD based star tracker product series ASTRO1, ASTRO5, ASTRO10 and ASTRO15. Key features of the APS detector technology are, a true xy-address random access, the multiple windowing read out and the on-chip signal processing including the analogue to digital conversion. These features can be used for robust star tracking at high slew rates and under worse conditions like stray light and solar flare induced single event upsets. A special algorithm have been developed to manage the typical APS detector error contributors like fixed pattern noise (FPN), dark signal non-uniformity (DSNU) and white spots. The algorithm works fully autonomous and adapts to e.g. increasing DSNU and up-coming white spots automatically without ground maintenance or re-calibration. In contrast to conventional correction methods the described algorithm does not need calibration data memory like full image sized calibration data sets. The application of the presented algorithm managing the typical APS detector error contributors is a key element for the design of star trackers for long term satellite applications like

  18. Precise clock synchronization protocol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luit, E. J.; Martin, J. M. M.

    1993-12-01

    A distributed clock synchronization protocol is presented which achieves a very high precision without the need for very frequent resynchronizations. The protocol tolerates failures of the clocks: clocks may be too slow or too fast, exhibit omission failures and report inconsistent values. Synchronization takes place in synchronization rounds as in many other synchronization protocols. At the end of each round, clock times are exchanged between the clocks. Each clock applies a convergence function (CF) to the values obtained. This function estimates the difference between its clock and an average clock and corrects its clock accordingly. Clocks are corrected for drift relative to this average clock during the next synchronization round. The protocol is based on the assumption that clock reading errors are small with respect to the required precision of synchronization. It is shown that the CF resynchronizes the clocks with high precision even when relatively large clock drifts are possible. It is also shown that the drift-corrected clocks remain synchronized until the end of the next synchronization round. The stability of the protocol is proven.

  19. Precision Experiments at LEP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Boer, W.

    2015-07-01

    The Large Electron-Positron Collider (LEP) established the Standard Model (SM) of particle physics with unprecedented precision, including all its radiative corrections. These led to predictions for the masses of the top quark and Higgs boson, which were beautifully confirmed later on. After these precision measurements the Nobel Prize in Physics was awarded in 1999 jointly to 't Hooft and Veltman "for elucidating the quantum structure of electroweak interactions in physics". Another hallmark of the LEP results were the precise measurements of the gauge coupling constants, which excluded unification of the forces within the SM, but allowed unification within the supersymmetric extension of the SM. This increased the interest in Supersymmetry (SUSY) and Grand Unified Theories, especially since the SM has no candidate for the elusive dark matter, while SUSY provides an excellent candidate for dark matter. In addition, SUSY removes the quadratic divergencies of the SM and predicts the Higgs mechanism from radiative electroweak symmetry breaking with a SM-like Higgs boson having a mass below 130 GeV in agreement with the Higgs boson discovery at the LHC. However, the predicted SUSY particles have not been found either because they are too heavy for the present LHC energy and luminosity or Nature has found alternative ways to circumvent the shortcomings of the SM.

  20. Precision Experiments at LEP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Boer, W.

    2015-09-01

    The Large Electron Positron Collider (LEP) established the Standard Model (SM) of particle physics with unprecedented precision, including all its radiative corrections. These led to predictions for the masses of the top quark and Higgs boson, which were beautifully confirmed later on. After these precision measurements the Nobel Prize in Physics was awarded in 1999 jointly to 't Hooft and Veltman "for elucidating the quantum structure of electroweak interactions in physics". Another hallmark of the LEP results were the precise measurements of the gauge coupling constants, which excluded unification of the forces within the SM, but allowed unification within the supersymmetric extension of the SM. This increased the interest in Supersymmetry (SUSY) and Grand Unified Theories, especially since the SM has no candidate for the elusive dark matter, while Supersymmetry provides an excellent candidate for dark matter. In addition, Supersymmetry removes the quadratic divergencies of the SM and {\\it predicts} the Higgs mechanism from radiative electroweak symmetry breaking with a SM-like Higgs boson having a mass below 130 GeV in agreement with the Higgs boson discovery at the LHC. However, the predicted SUSY particles have not been found either because they are too heavy for the present LHC energy and luminosity or Nature has found alternative ways to circumvent the shortcomings of the SM.

  1. Collaborative engineering and design management for the Hobby-Eberly Telescope tracker upgrade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mollison, Nicholas T.; Hayes, Richard J.; Good, John M.; Booth, John A.; Savage, Richard D.; Jackson, John R.; Rafal, Marc D.; Beno, Joseph H.

    2010-07-01

    The engineering and design of systems as complex as the Hobby-Eberly Telescope's* new tracker require that multiple tasks be executed in parallel and overlapping efforts. When the design of individual subsystems is distributed among multiple organizations, teams, and individuals, challenges can arise with respect to managing design productivity and coordinating successful collaborative exchanges. This paper focuses on design management issues and current practices for the tracker design portion of the Hobby-Eberly Telescope Wide Field Upgrade project. The scope of the tracker upgrade requires engineering contributions and input from numerous fields including optics, instrumentation, electromechanics, software controls engineering, and site-operations. Successful system-level integration of tracker subsystems and interfaces is critical to the telescope's ultimate performance in astronomical observation. Software and process controls for design information and workflow management have been implemented to assist the collaborative transfer of tracker design data. The tracker system architecture and selection of subsystem interfaces has also proven to be a determining factor in design task formulation and team communication needs. Interface controls and requirements change controls will be discussed, and critical team interactions are recounted (a group-participation Failure Modes and Effects Analysis [FMEA] is one of special interest). This paper will be of interest to engineers, designers, and managers engaging in multi-disciplinary and parallel engineering projects that require coordination among multiple individuals, teams, and organizations.

  2. Limits on muon-neutrino to tau-neutrino oscillations induced by a sterile neutrino state obtained by OPERA at the CNGS beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agafonova, N.; Aleksandrov, A.; Anokhina, A.; Aoki, S.; Ariga, A.; Ariga, T.; Bender, D.; Bertolin, A.; Bodnarchuk, I.; Bozza, C.; Brugnera, R.; Buonaura, A.; Buontempo, S.; Büttner, B.; Chernyavsky, M.; Chukanov, A.; Consiglio, L.; D'Ambrosio, N.; De Lellis, G.; De Serio, M.; Del Amo Sanchez, P.; Di Crescenzo, A.; Di Ferdinando, D.; Di Marco, N.; Dmitrievski, S.; Dracos, M.; Duchesneau, D.; Dusini, S.; Dzhatdoev, T.; Ebert, J.; Ereditato, A.; Fini, R. A.; Fukuda, T.; Galati, G.; Garfagnini, A.; Goldberg, J.; Gornushkin, Y.; Grella, G.; Guler, A. M.; Gustavino, C.; Hagner, C.; Hara, T.; Hollnagel, A.; Hosseini, B.; Ishiguro, K.; Jakovcic, K.; Jollet, C.; Kamiscioglu, C.; Kamiscioglu, M.; Kim, J. H.; Kim, S. H.; Kitagawa, N.; Klicek, B.; Kodama, K.; Komatsu, M.; Kose, U.; Kreslo, I.; Lauria, A.; Ljubicic, A.; Longhin, A.; Malgin, A.; Malenica, M.; Mandrioli, G.; Matsuo, T.; Matveev, V.; Mauri, N.; Medinaceli, E.; Meregaglia, A.; Mikado, S.; Monacelli, P.; Montesi, M. C.; Morishima, K.; Muciaccia, M. T.; Naganawa, N.; Naka, T.; Nakamura, M.; Nakano, T.; Nakatsuka, Y.; Niwa, K.; Ogawa, S.; Omura, T.; Ozaki, K.; Paoloni, A.; Paparella, L.; Park, B. D.; Park, I. G.; Pasqualini, L.; Pastore, A.; Patrizii, L.; Pessard, H.; Podgrudkov, D.; Polukhina, N.; Pozzato, M.; Pupilli, F.; Roda, M.; Roganova, T.; Rokujo, H.; Rosa, G.; Ryazhskaya, O.; Sato, O.; Schembri, A.; Shakirianova, I.; Shchedrina, T.; Sheshukov, A.; Shibuya, H.; Shiraishi, T.; Shoziyoev, G.; Simone, S.; Sioli, M.; Sirignano, C.; Sirri, G.; Spinetti, M.; Stanco, L.; Starkov, N.; Stellacci, S. M.; Stipcevic, M.; Strolin, P.; Takahashi, S.; Tenti, M.; Terranova, F.; Tioukov, V.; Tufanli, S.; Vilain, P.; Vladymyrov, M.; Votano, L.; Vuilleumier, J. L.; Wilquet, G.; Wonsak, B.; Yoon, C. S.; Zemskova, S.

    2015-06-01

    The OPERA experiment, exposed to the CERN to Gran Sasso ν μ beam, collected data from 2008 to 2012. Four oscillated ν τ Charged Current interaction candidates have been detected in appearance mode, which are consistent with ν μ → ν τ oscillations at the atmospheric Δ m 2 within the "standard" three-neutrino framework. In this paper, the OPERA ν τ appearance results are used to derive limits on the mixing parameters of a massive sterile neutrino.

  3. Stereo optical tracker for standoff monitoring of position and orientation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sherman, W. D.; Houk, T. L.; Saint Clair, J. M.; Sjoholm, P. F.; Voth, M. D.

    2009-01-01

    A Precision Optical Measurement System (POMS) has been designed, constructed and tested for tracking the position (x, y, z) and orientation (roll, pitch, yaw) of models in Boeing's 9-77 Compact Radar Range. A stereo triangulation technique is implemented using two remote sensor units separated by a known baseline. Each unit measures pointing angles (azimuth and elevation) to optical targets on a model. Four different reference systems are used for calibration and alignment of the system's components and two platforms. Pointing angle data and calibration corrections are processed at high rates to give near real-time feedback to the mechanical positioning system of the model. The positional accuracy of the system is +/- .010 inches at a distance of 85 feet while using low RCS reflective tape targets. The precision measurement capabilities and applications of the system are discussed.

  4. Search for sterile neutrino mixing in the muon neutrino to tau neutrino appearance channel with the OPERA detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Crescenzo, A.; OPERA Collaboration

    2016-05-01

    The OPERA experiment observed ν μ → ν τ oscillations in the atmospheric sector. To this purpose the hybrid OPERA detector was exposed to the CERN Neutrinos to Gran Sasso beam from 2008 to 2012, at a distance of 730 km from the neutrino source. Charged-current interactions of ν τ were searched for through the identification of τ lepton decay topologies. The five observed ν τ interactions are consistent with the expected number of events in the standard three neutrino framework. Based on this result, new limits on the mixing parameters of a massive sterile neutrino may be set. Preliminary results of the analysis performed in the 3+1 neutrino framework are here presented.

  5. Analysis Status and Recent Results on νμ → νe Oscillations of the Opera Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitagawa, Nobuko

    2015-03-01

    The OPERA experiment is designed to demonstrate the transition from νμ to ντ in neutrino oscillations by detecting the ντ appearance. During its 5 years run, from 2008 to 2012, 17.97×1019 protons on target were used to produce the νμ beam. In OPERA, νμ → νe oscillations are also searched for. The results presented in this article use the 2008 and 2009 data. Upper limits of 0.44 for sin2(2θ13) in the three flavour oscillation scheme and of 7.2×10-3 for sin2(2θnew) in a non standard oscillation scheme were set at 90% C.L.

  6. Procedure for short-lived particle detection in the OPERA experiment and its application to charm decays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agafonova, N.; Aleksandrov, A.; Anokhina, A.; Aoki, S.; Ariga, A.; Ariga, T.; Bender, D.; Bertolin, A.; Bozza, C.; Brugnera, R.; Buonaura, A.; Buontempo, S.; Büttner, B.; Chernyavsky, M.; Chukanov, A.; Consiglio, L.; D'Ambrosio, N.; De Lellis, G.; De Serio, M.; Del Amo Sanchez, P.; Di Crescenzo, A.; Di Ferdinando, D.; Di Marco, N.; Dmitrievski, S.; Dracos, M.; Duchesneau, D.; Dusini, S.; Dzhatdoev, T.; Ebert, J.; Ereditato, A.; Fini, R. A.; Fukuda, T.; Galati, G.; Garfagnini, A.; Giacomelli, G.; Göllnitz, C.; Goldberg, J.; Gornushkin, Y.; Grella, G.; Guler, M.; Gustavino, C.; Hagner, C.; Hara, T.; Hollnagel, A.; Hosseini, B.; Ishida, H.; Ishiguro, K.; Jakovcic, K.; Jollet, C.; Kamiscioglu, C.; Kamiscioglu, M.; Kawada, J.; Kim, J. H.; Kim, S. H.; Kitagawa, N.; Klicek, B.; Kodama, K.; Komatsu, M.; Kose, U.; Kreslo, I.; Lauria, A.; Lenkeit, J.; Ljubicic, A.; Longhin, A.; Loverre, P.; Malgin, A.; Malenica, M.; Mandrioli, G.; Matsuo, T.; Matveev, V.; Mauri, N.; Medinaceli, E.; Meregaglia, A.; Mikado, S.; Monacelli, P.; Montesi, M. C.; Morishima, K.; Muciaccia, M. T.; Naganawa, N.; Naka, T.; Nakamura, M.; Nakano, T.; Nakatsuka, Y.; Niwa, K.; Ogawa, S.; Okateva, N.; Olshevsky, A.; Omura, T.; Ozaki, K.; Paoloni, A.; Park, B. D.; Park, I. G.; Pasqualini, L.; Pastore, A.; Patrizii, L.; Pessard, H.; Pistillo, C.; Podgrudkov, D.; Polukhina, N.; Pozzato, M.; Pupilli, F.; Roda, M.; Rokujo, H.; Roganova, T.; Rosa, G.; Ryazhskaya, O.; Sato, O.; Schembri, A.; Shakiryanova, I.; Shchedrina, T.; Sheshukov, A.; Shibuya, H.; Shiraishi, T.; Shoziyoev, G.; Simone, S.; Sioli, M.; Sirignano, C.; Sirri, G.; Spinetti, M.; Stanco, L.; Starkov, N.; Stellacci, S. M.; Stipcevic, M.; Strauss, T.; Strolin, P.; Takahashi, S.; Tenti, M.; Terranova, F.; Tioukov, V.; Tufanli, S.; Vilain, P.; Vladimirov, M.; Votano, L.; Vuilleumier, J. L.; Wilquet, G.; Wonsak, B.; Yoon, C. S.; Zemskova, S.; Zghiche, A.

    2014-08-01

    The OPERA experiment, designed to perform the first observation of oscillations in appearance mode through the detection of the leptons produced in charged current interactions, has collected data from 2008 to 2012. In the present paper, the procedure developed to detect particle decays, occurring over distances of the order of from the neutrino interaction point, is described in detail and applied to the search for charmed hadrons, showing similar decay topologies as the lepton. In the analysed sample, 50 charm decay candidate events are observed while are expected, proving that the detector performance and the analysis chain applied to neutrino events are well reproduced by the OPERA simulation and thus validating the methods for appearance detection.

  7. OPERA-LG: efficient and exact scaffolding of large, repeat-rich eukaryotic genomes with performance guarantees.

    PubMed

    Gao, Song; Bertrand, Denis; Chia, Burton K H; Nagarajan, Niranjan

    2016-05-11

    The assembly of large, repeat-rich eukaryotic genomes represents a significant challenge in genomics. While long-read technologies have made the high-quality assembly of small, microbial genomes increasingly feasible, data generation can be expensive for larger genomes. OPERA-LG is a scalable, exact algorithm for the scaffold assembly of large, repeat-rich genomes, out-performing state-of-the-art programs for scaffold correctness and contiguity. It provides a rigorous framework for scaffolding of repetitive sequences and a systematic approach for combining data from different second-generation and third-generation sequencing technologies. OPERA-LG provides an avenue for systematic augmentation and improvement of thousands of existing draft eukaryotic genome assemblies.

  8. Precision electroweak measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Demarteau, M.

    1996-11-01

    Recent electroweak precision measurements fro {ital e}{sup +}{ital e}{sup -} and {ital p{anti p}} colliders are presented. Some emphasis is placed on the recent developments in the heavy flavor sector. The measurements are compared to predictions from the Standard Model of electroweak interactions. All results are found to be consistent with the Standard Model. The indirect constraint on the top quark mass from all measurements is in excellent agreement with the direct {ital m{sub t}} measurements. Using the world`s electroweak data in conjunction with the current measurement of the top quark mass, the constraints on the Higgs` mass are discussed.

  9. Precision Robotic Assembly Machine

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    The world's largest laser system is the National Ignition Facility (NIF), located at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. NIF's 192 laser beams are amplified to extremely high energy, and then focused onto a tiny target about the size of a BB, containing frozen hydrogen gas. The target must be perfectly machined to incredibly demanding specifications. The Laboratory's scientists and engineers have developed a device called the "Precision Robotic Assembly Machine" for this purpose. Its unique design won a prestigious R&D-100 award from R&D Magazine.

  10. Instrument Attitude Precision Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Juang, Jer-Nan

    2004-01-01

    A novel approach is presented in this paper to analyze attitude precision and control for an instrument gimbaled to a spacecraft subject to an internal disturbance caused by a moving component inside the instrument. Nonlinear differential equations of motion for some sample cases are derived and solved analytically to gain insight into the influence of the disturbance on the attitude pointing error. A simple control law is developed to eliminate the instrument pointing error caused by the internal disturbance. Several cases are presented to demonstrate and verify the concept presented in this paper.

  11. Precision Robotic Assembly Machine

    SciTech Connect

    2009-08-14

    The world's largest laser system is the National Ignition Facility (NIF), located at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. NIF's 192 laser beams are amplified to extremely high energy, and then focused onto a tiny target about the size of a BB, containing frozen hydrogen gas. The target must be perfectly machined to incredibly demanding specifications. The Laboratory's scientists and engineers have developed a device called the "Precision Robotic Assembly Machine" for this purpose. Its unique design won a prestigious R&D-100 award from R&D Magazine.

  12. Precision Pointing System Development

    SciTech Connect

    BUGOS, ROBERT M.

    2003-03-01

    The development of precision pointing systems has been underway in Sandia's Electronic Systems Center for over thirty years. Important areas of emphasis are synthetic aperture radars and optical reconnaissance systems. Most applications are in the aerospace arena, with host vehicles including rockets, satellites, and manned and unmanned aircraft. Systems have been used on defense-related missions throughout the world. Presently in development are pointing systems with accuracy goals in the nanoradian regime. Future activity will include efforts to dramatically reduce system size and weight through measures such as the incorporation of advanced materials and MEMS inertial sensors.

  13. Precision mass measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gläser, M.; Borys, M.

    2009-12-01

    Mass as a physical quantity and its measurement are described. After some historical remarks, a short summary of the concept of mass in classical and modern physics is given. Principles and methods of mass measurements, for example as energy measurement or as measurement of weight forces and forces caused by acceleration, are discussed. Precision mass measurement by comparing mass standards using balances is described in detail. Measurement of atomic masses related to 12C is briefly reviewed as well as experiments and recent discussions for a future new definition of the kilogram, the SI unit of mass.

  14. Precision flyer initiator

    DOEpatents

    Frank, Alan M.; Lee, Ronald S.

    1998-01-01

    A precision flyer initiator forms a substantially spherical detonation wave in a high explosive (HE) pellet. An explosive driver, such as a detonating cord, a wire bridge circuit or a small explosive, is detonated. A flyer material is sandwiched between the explosive driver and an end of a barrel that contains an inner channel. A projectile or "flyer" is sheared from the flyer material by the force of the explosive driver and projected through the inner channel. The flyer than strikes the HE pellet, which is supported above a second end of the barrel by a spacer ring. A gap or shock decoupling material delays the shock wave in the barrel from predetonating the HE pellet before the flyer. A spherical detonation wave is formed in the HE pellet. Thus, a shock wave traveling through the barrel fails to reach the HE pellet before the flyer strikes the HE pellet. The precision flyer initiator can be used in mining devices, well-drilling devices and anti-tank devices.

  15. Precision flyer initiator

    DOEpatents

    Frank, A.M.; Lee, R.S.

    1998-05-26

    A precision flyer initiator forms a substantially spherical detonation wave in a high explosive (HE) pellet. An explosive driver, such as a detonating cord, a wire bridge circuit or a small explosive, is detonated. A flyer material is sandwiched between the explosive driver and an end of a barrel that contains an inner channel. A projectile or ``flyer`` is sheared from the flyer material by the force of the explosive driver and projected through the inner channel. The flyer than strikes the HE pellet, which is supported above a second end of the barrel by a spacer ring. A gap or shock decoupling material delays the shock wave in the barrel from predetonating the HE pellet before the flyer. A spherical detonation wave is formed in the HE pellet. Thus, a shock wave traveling through the barrel fails to reach the HE pellet before the flyer strikes the HE pellet. The precision flyer initiator can be used in mining devices, well-drilling devices and anti-tank devices. 10 figs.

  16. Precision Joining Center

    SciTech Connect

    Powell, J.W.; Westphal, D.A.

    1991-08-01

    A workshop to obtain input from industry on the establishment of the Precision Joining Center (PJC) was held on July 10--12, 1991. The PJC is a center for training Joining Technologists in advanced joining techniques and concepts in order to promote the competitiveness of US industry. The center will be established as part of the DOE Defense Programs Technology Commercialization Initiative, and operated by EG G Rocky Flats in cooperation with the American Welding Society and the Colorado School of Mines Center for Welding and Joining Research. The overall objectives of the workshop were to validate the need for a Joining Technologists to fill the gap between the welding operator and the welding engineer, and to assure that the PJC will train individuals to satisfy that need. The consensus of the workshop participants was that the Joining Technologist is a necessary position in industry, and is currently used, with some variation, by many companies. It was agreed that the PJC core curriculum, as presented, would produce a Joining Technologist of value to industries that use precision joining techniques. The advantage of the PJC would be to train the Joining Technologist much more quickly and more completely. The proposed emphasis of the PJC curriculum on equipment intensive and hands-on training was judged to be essential.

  17. Precision measurements in supersymmetry

    SciTech Connect

    Feng, J.L.

    1995-05-01

    Supersymmetry is a promising framework in which to explore extensions of the standard model. If candidates for supersymmetric particles are found, precision measurements of their properties will then be of paramount importance. The prospects for such measurements and their implications are the subject of this thesis. If charginos are produced at the LEP II collider, they are likely to be one of the few available supersymmetric signals for many years. The author considers the possibility of determining fundamental supersymmetry parameters in such a scenario. The study is complicated by the dependence of observables on a large number of these parameters. He proposes a straightforward procedure for disentangling these dependences and demonstrate its effectiveness by presenting a number of case studies at representative points in parameter space. In addition to determining the properties of supersymmetric particles, precision measurements may also be used to establish that newly-discovered particles are, in fact, supersymmetric. Supersymmetry predicts quantitative relations among the couplings and masses of superparticles. The author discusses tests of such relations at a future e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} linear collider, using measurements that exploit the availability of polarizable beams. Stringent tests of supersymmetry from chargino production are demonstrated in two representative cases, and fermion and neutralino processes are also discussed.

  18. Calibration of the Heavy Flavor Tracker (HFT) detector in star experiment at RHIC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alanazi, Norah

    This project is in the area of Relativistic Nuclear collisions and the commissioning of a new silicon vertex detector, the Heavy Flavor Tracker (HFT) in the STAR experiment at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). BNL hosts RHIC, the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider, the world's most advanced dedicated heavy ion and polarized proton accelerator facility. Heavy Ion collisions at RHIC provide a unique probe into the understanding of several aspects of the behavior of nuclear, i.e. strongly inter- acting, matter. Among the many insights that can be provided is the description of parton interaction inside the hot and dense medium produced in the early stages of a collision. It also allows us to search for evidence for a phase transition in nuclear matter, a phase where partons [quarks and gluons] can move freely over an extended volume. Production of heavy quarks in high-energy nuclear collisions at RHIC occurs mainly during the initial collisions where energetic gluon and quark interactions can create heavy quarks. Thus, heavy flavor provides an ideal probe in studying the hot and dense medium created in the early phases of high-energy nuclear collisions. A detailed study of heavy flavor is essential to better understand the parton dynamics and select among competing theoretical approaches, however, precise measurements of heavy flavor are difficult to obtain due to relatively low production rates and short lifetimes of heavy flavor hadrons. The combinatorial background in nuclear collisions makes the measurement of heavy flavor a challenging task. One approach to dramatically reduce the combinatorial background by several orders of magnitude is to separate the heavy-flavor hadron's decay vertex from the background. This is done with the help of high resolution vertex detectors. The Heavy Flavor Tracker upgrade for the STAR experiment, which made its debut during the year 2014 RHIC run (Run14), greatly improved the experiment's track pointing capabilities making STAR

  19. Sleepwalking in Italian operas: a window on popular and scientific knowledge on sleep disorders in the 19th century.

    PubMed

    Riva, Michele Augusto; Sironi, Vittorio Alessandro; Tremolizzo, Lucio; Lombardi, Carolina; De Vito, Giovanni; Ferrarese, Carlo; Cesana, Giancarlo

    2010-01-01

    There is little knowledge on sleepwalking in ancient times even though it is a very common condition. The aim of this report is to describe the backgrounds of medical knowledge on somnambulism in the 19th century, a key period in the development of neurosciences, by analysing its representation in two famous Italian operas: La Sonnambula by Vincenzo Bellini and Macbeth by Giuseppe Verdi. The 19th-century operas may be considered as a crossing point between the popular and intellectual world because they mirror popular answers to phenomena that were still awaiting scientific explanations. Shakespeare's play Macbeth was also considered. In Shakespeare's play and in Verdi's Macbeth, sleepwalking is looked upon as a neuropsychiatric disorder, a manifestation of internal anxiety. In La Sonnambula by Bellini, this condition is considered as common disorder that anticipates scientific theories. The analysed Italian operas provide two different views on sleepwalking, probably because they are based on texts belonging to different periods. Their examination allows one to understand the gradual evolution of theories on sleepwalking, from demoniac possession to mental disorder and sleep disease. At the same time, this analysis throws some light on the history of psychological illnesses. PMID:20110713

  20. Sleepwalking in Italian operas: a window on popular and scientific knowledge on sleep disorders in the 19th century.

    PubMed

    Riva, Michele Augusto; Sironi, Vittorio Alessandro; Tremolizzo, Lucio; Lombardi, Carolina; De Vito, Giovanni; Ferrarese, Carlo; Cesana, Giancarlo

    2010-01-01

    There is little knowledge on sleepwalking in ancient times even though it is a very common condition. The aim of this report is to describe the backgrounds of medical knowledge on somnambulism in the 19th century, a key period in the development of neurosciences, by analysing its representation in two famous Italian operas: La Sonnambula by Vincenzo Bellini and Macbeth by Giuseppe Verdi. The 19th-century operas may be considered as a crossing point between the popular and intellectual world because they mirror popular answers to phenomena that were still awaiting scientific explanations. Shakespeare's play Macbeth was also considered. In Shakespeare's play and in Verdi's Macbeth, sleepwalking is looked upon as a neuropsychiatric disorder, a manifestation of internal anxiety. In La Sonnambula by Bellini, this condition is considered as common disorder that anticipates scientific theories. The analysed Italian operas provide two different views on sleepwalking, probably because they are based on texts belonging to different periods. Their examination allows one to understand the gradual evolution of theories on sleepwalking, from demoniac possession to mental disorder and sleep disease. At the same time, this analysis throws some light on the history of psychological illnesses.

  1. Cross modality registration of video and magnetic tracker data for 3D appearance and structure modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sargent, Dusty; Chen, Chao-I.; Wang, Yuan-Fang

    2010-02-01

    The paper reports a fully-automated, cross-modality sensor data registration scheme between video and magnetic tracker data. This registration scheme is intended for use in computerized imaging systems to model the appearance, structure, and dimension of human anatomy in three dimensions (3D) from endoscopic videos, particularly colonoscopic videos, for cancer research and clinical practices. The proposed cross-modality calibration procedure operates this way: Before a colonoscopic procedure, the surgeon inserts a magnetic tracker into the working channel of the endoscope or otherwise fixes the tracker's position on the scope. The surgeon then maneuvers the scope-tracker assembly to view a checkerboard calibration pattern from a few different viewpoints for a few seconds. The calibration procedure is then completed, and the relative pose (translation and rotation) between the reference frames of the magnetic tracker and the scope is determined. During the colonoscopic procedure, the readings from the magnetic tracker are used to automatically deduce the pose (both position and orientation) of the scope's reference frame over time, without complicated image analysis. Knowing the scope movement over time then allows us to infer the 3D appearance and structure of the organs and tissues in the scene. While there are other well-established mechanisms for inferring the movement of the camera (scope) from images, they are often sensitive to mistakes in image analysis, error accumulation, and structure deformation. The proposed method using a magnetic tracker to establish the camera motion parameters thus provides a robust and efficient alternative for 3D model construction. Furthermore, the calibration procedure does not require special training nor use expensive calibration equipment (except for a camera calibration pattern-a checkerboard pattern-that can be printed on any laser or inkjet printer).

  2. Behavior Change Techniques Present in Wearable Activity Trackers: A Critical Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Mercer, Kathryn; Li, Melissa; Giangregorio, Lora; Burns, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    Background Wearable activity trackers are promising as interventions that offer guidance and support for increasing physical activity and health-focused tracking. Most adults do not meet their recommended daily activity guidelines, and wearable fitness trackers are increasingly cited as having great potential to improve the physical activity levels of adults. Objective The objective of this study was to use the Coventry, Aberdeen, and London-Refined (CALO-RE) taxonomy to examine if the design of wearable activity trackers incorporates behavior change techniques (BCTs). A secondary objective was to critically analyze whether the BCTs present relate to known drivers of behavior change, such as self-efficacy, with the intention of extending applicability to older adults in addition to the overall population. Methods Wearing each device for a period of 1 week, two independent raters used CALO-RE taxonomy to code the BCTs of the seven wearable activity trackers available in Canada as of March 2014. These included Fitbit Flex, Misfit Shine, Withings Pulse, Jawbone UP24, Spark Activity Tracker by SparkPeople, Nike+ FuelBand SE, and Polar Loop. We calculated interrater reliability using Cohen's kappa. Results The average number of BCTs identified was 16.3/40. Withings Pulse had the highest number of BCTs and Misfit Shine had the lowest. Most techniques centered around self-monitoring and self-regulation, all of which have been associated with improved physical activity in older adults. Techniques related to planning and providing instructions were scarce. Conclusions Overall, wearable activity trackers contain several BCTs that have been shown to increase physical activity in older adults. Although more research and development must be done to fully understand the potential of wearables as health interventions, the current wearable trackers offer significant potential with regard to BCTs relevant to uptake by all populations, including older adults. PMID:27122452

  3. The aftermath of Angie's overdose: is soap (opera) damaging to your health?

    PubMed Central

    Platt, S

    1987-01-01

    In a study designed to evaluate the behavioural impact of a fictional parasuicide--namely, Angie's overdose on the popular television soap opera EastEnders--information about cases of deliberate overdose treated in accident and emergency departments in 63 hospitals throughout Britain was obtained for the week after the televised overdose (experimental period) and the week before the overdose (control period). After adjusting for trends in the equivalent weeks in a control year (1985) the increase in the cases of parasuicide treated by hospitals during the experimental week was not found to be significant. A significant increase (31%) was found among people aged greater than or less than 45, but this is not thought to be reliable. The increase among women alone (21%) was significant with a one tailed test. Contrary to expectations there was a positive association between trends in overdose and distance from London--that is, the further the distance of the region from London the greater the increase in cases of overdose during the experimental period--and a negative association between trends in overdose and viewing figures--that is, the higher the viewing figure the less the impact on the incidence of overdoses. These findings do not lend support to the claim that there was a strong imitation effect after this televised parasuicide. PMID:3107671

  4. Launch processing system operations with a future look to operations analyst (OPERA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heard, Astrid E.

    The launch processing system at Kennedy Space Center is used to process a Shuttle vehicle from its initial arrival in an Orbiter processing facility to a launch pad. This paper describes the launch processing system architecture and the ground support operations required to provide Shuttle system engineers with the capability to safely process and launch an Orbiter. The described ground operations are the culmination of 11 years of experience and redesign. In this paper, I examine some of the "lessons learned" and discuss problem areas which ground support operations have identified over the years as the Shuttle and launch processing systems continue to grow in complexity. As we strive to maintain the efficient level of support currently provided, some benefits have been gained through standard information management and automation techniques. However, problems requiring complex correlational analyses of information have defied resolution until artificial intelligence research developed expert system applications technology. The operational analyst for distributed systems (OPERA), a proposed set of expert systems for launch processing system operational assistance, is discussed along with its extensions to prospective future configurations and components for the launch processing system.

  5. Precision Joining Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Powell, John W.

    1991-01-01

    The establishment of a Precision Joining Center (PJC) is proposed. The PJC will be a cooperatively operated center with participation from U.S. private industry, the Colorado School of Mines, and various government agencies, including the Department of Energy's Nuclear Weapons Complex (NWC). The PJC's primary mission will be as a training center for advanced joining technologies. This will accomplish the following objectives: (1) it will provide an effective mechanism to transfer joining technology from the NWC to private industry; (2) it will provide a center for testing new joining processes for the NWC and private industry; and (3) it will provide highly trained personnel to support advance joining processes for the NWC and private industry.

  6. Precision spectroscopy of Helium

    SciTech Connect

    Cancio, P.; Giusfredi, G.; Mazzotti, D.; De Natale, P.; De Mauro, C.; Krachmalnicoff, V.; Inguscio, M.

    2005-05-05

    Accurate Quantum-Electrodynamics (QED) tests of the simplest bound three body atomic system are performed by precise laser spectroscopic measurements in atomic Helium. In this paper, we present a review of measurements between triplet states at 1083 nm (23S-23P) and at 389 nm (23S-33P). In 4He, such data have been used to measure the fine structure of the triplet P levels and, then, to determine the fine structure constant when compared with equally accurate theoretical calculations. Moreover, the absolute frequencies of the optical transitions have been used for Lamb-shift determinations of the levels involved with unprecedented accuracy. Finally, determination of the He isotopes nuclear structure and, in particular, a measurement of the nuclear charge radius, are performed by using hyperfine structure and isotope-shift measurements.

  7. Precision laser cutting

    SciTech Connect

    Kautz, D.D.; Anglin, C.D.; Ramos, T.J.

    1990-01-19

    Many materials that are otherwise difficult to fabricate can be cut precisely with lasers. This presentation discusses the advantages and limitations of laser cutting for refractory metals, ceramics, and composites. Cutting in these materials was performed with a 400-W, pulsed Nd:YAG laser. Important cutting parameters such as beam power, pulse waveforms, cutting gases, travel speed, and laser coupling are outlined. The effects of process parameters on cut quality are evaluated. Three variables are used to determine the cut quality: kerf width, slag adherence, and metallurgical characteristics of recast layers and heat-affected zones around the cuts. Results indicate that ductile materials with good coupling characteristics (such as stainless steel alloys and tantalum) cut well. Materials lacking one or both of these properties (such as tungsten and ceramics) are difficult to cut without proper part design, stress relief, or coupling aids. 3 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Precision Spectroscopy of Tellurium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coker, J.; Furneaux, J. E.

    2013-06-01

    Tellurium (Te_2) is widely used as a frequency reference, largely due to the fact that it has an optical transition roughly every 2-3 GHz throughout a large portion of the visible spectrum. Although a standard atlas encompassing over 5200 cm^{-1} already exists [1], Doppler broadening present in that work buries a significant portion of the features [2]. More recent studies of Te_2 exist which do not exhibit Doppler broadening, such as Refs. [3-5], and each covers different parts of the spectrum. This work adds to that knowledge a few hundred transitions in the vicinity of 444 nm, measured with high precision in order to improve measurement of the spectroscopic constants of Te_2's excited states. Using a Fabry Perot cavity in a shock-absorbing, temperature and pressure regulated chamber, locked to a Zeeman stabilized HeNe laser, we measure changes in frequency of our diode laser to ˜1 MHz precision. This diode laser is scanned over 1000 GHz for use in a saturated-absorption spectroscopy cell filled with Te_2 vapor. Details of the cavity and its short and long-term stability are discussed, as well as spectroscopic properties of Te_2. References: J. Cariou, and P. Luc, Atlas du spectre d'absorption de la molecule de tellure, Laboratoire Aime-Cotton (1980). J. Coker et al., J. Opt. Soc. Am. B {28}, 2934 (2011). J. Verges et al., Physica Scripta {25}, 338 (1982). Ph. Courteille et al., Appl. Phys. B {59}, 187 (1994) T.J. Scholl et al., J. Opt. Soc. Am. B {22}, 1128 (2005).

  9. A Brightness-Referenced Star Identification Algorithm for APS Star Trackers

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Peng; Zhao, Qile; Liu, Jingnan; Liu, Ning

    2014-01-01

    Star trackers are currently the most accurate spacecraft attitude sensors. As a result, they are widely used in remote sensing satellites. Since traditional charge-coupled device (CCD)-based star trackers have a limited sensitivity range and dynamic range, the matching process for a star tracker is typically not very sensitive to star brightness. For active pixel sensor (APS) star trackers, the intensity of an imaged star is valuable information that can be used in star identification process. In this paper an improved brightness referenced star identification algorithm is presented. This algorithm utilizes the k-vector search theory and adds imaged stars' intensities to narrow the search scope and therefore increase the efficiency of the matching process. Based on different imaging conditions (slew, bright bodies, etc.) the developed matching algorithm operates in one of two identification modes: a three-star mode, and a four-star mode. If the reference bright stars (the stars brighter than three magnitude) show up, the algorithm runs the three-star mode and efficiency is further improved. The proposed method was compared with other two distinctive methods the pyramid and geometric voting methods. All three methods were tested with simulation data and actual in orbit data from the APS star tracker of ZY-3. Using a catalog composed of 1500 stars, the results show that without false stars the efficiency of this new method is 4∼5 times that of the pyramid method and 35∼37 times that of the geometric method. PMID:25299950

  10. The AGILE silicon tracker: Pre-launch and in-flight configuration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bulgarelli, A.; Argan, A.; Barbiellini, G.; Basset, M.; Chen, A.; Di Cocco, G.; Foggetta, L.; Gianotti, F.; Giuliani, A.; Longo, F.; Mereghetti, S.; Monzani, F.; Nicolini, L.; Pavesi, R.; Pellizzoni, A.; Pontoni, C.; Prest, M.; Pucella, G.; Tavani, M.; Trifoglio, M.; Trois, A.; Vallazza, E.; Vercellone, S.

    2010-03-01

    AGILE is an ASI (Italian Space Agency) Small Scientific Mission dedicated to high-energy astrophysics which was successfully launched on April 23, 2007. The AGILE instrument is composed of three main detectors: a Tungsten-Silicon Tracker designed to detect and image photons in the 30 MeV-50 GeV energy band, an X-ray imager called Super-AGILE operating in the 18-60 keV energy band, and a Mini-Calorimeter that detects gamma-rays and charged particles energy deposits between 300 keV and 100 MeV. The instrument is surrounded by an anti-coincidence (AC) system. In this paper, we present the noise characterization and the front-end configuration of the Silicon Tracker. Two crucial (and unique, among gamma-ray astrophysics missions) characteristic of the AGILE Silicon Tracker are the analog signal acquisition (aimed at obtaining an optimal angular resolution for gamma-ray imaging) and the very small dimension of the instrument (the total height including the active elements is ˜21 cm and therefore the Silicon Tracker is the lightest and most compact γ- ray imager sent in orbit). The results presented in this paper were obtained during the AIV (Assembly, Integration and Verification) pre-launch testing phase and during the post-launch commissioning phase. The AGILE Silicon Tracker has been optimally configured with a very good response of the frontend system and of the data acquisition units.

  11. Tracker: A three-dimensional raytracing program for ionospheric radio propagation

    SciTech Connect

    Argo, P.E.; DeLapp, D.; Sutherland, C.D.; Farrer, R.G.

    1994-12-01

    TRACKER is an extension of a three-dimensional Hamiltonian raytrace code developed some thirty years ago by R. Michael Jones. Subsequent modifications to this code, which is commonly called the {open_quotes}Jones Code,{close_quotes} were documented by Jones and Stephensen (1975). TRACKER incorporates an interactive user`s interface, modern differential equation integrators, graphical outputs, homing algorithms, and the Ionospheric Conductivity and Electron Density (ICED) ionosphere. TRACKER predicts the three-dimensional paths of radio waves through model ionospheres by numerically integrating Hamilton`s equations, which are a differential expression of Fermat`s principle of least time. By using continuous models, the Hamiltonian method avoids false caustics and discontinuous raypath properties often encountered in other raytracing methods. In addition to computing the raypath, TRACKER also calculates the group path (or pulse travel time), the phase path, the geometrical (or {open_quotes}real{close_quotes}) pathlength, and the Doppler shift (if the time variation of the ionosphere is explicitly included). Computational speed can be traded for accuracy by specifying the maximum allowable integration error per step in the integration. Only geometrical optics are included in the main raytrace code; no partial reflections or diffraction effects are taken into account. In addition, TRACKER does not lend itself to statistical descriptions of propagation -- it requires a deterministic model of the ionosphere.

  12. Effects of attachment position and shoulder orientation during calibration on the accuracy of the acromial tracker.

    PubMed

    Shaheen, A F; Alexander, C M; Bull, A M J

    2011-04-29

    The acromial tracker is used to measure scapular rotations during dynamic movements. The method has low accuracy in high elevations and is sensitive to its attachment location on the acromion. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of the attachment position and shoulder orientation during calibration on the tracker accuracy. The tracker was attached to one of three positions: near the anterior edge of the acromion process, just above the acromial angle and the meeting point between the acromion and the scapular spine. The scapula locator was used to track the scapula during bilateral abduction simultaneously. The locator was used to calibrate the tracker at: no abduction, 30°, 60°, 90° and 120° humerothoracic abduction. ANOVA tests compared RMS errors for different attachment positions and calibration angles. The results showed that attaching the device at the meeting point between the acromion and the scapular spine gave the smallest errors and it was best to calibrate the device at 60° for elevations ≤90°, at 120° for elevations >90° and at 90°or 120° for the full range of abduction. The accuracy of the tracker is significantly improved if attached appropriately and calibrated for the range of movement being measured.

  13. A brightness-referenced star identification algorithm for APS star trackers.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Peng; Zhao, Qile; Liu, Jingnan; Liu, Ning

    2014-10-08

    Star trackers are currently the most accurate spacecraft attitude sensors. As a result, they are widely used in remote sensing satellites. Since traditional charge-coupled device (CCD)-based star trackers have a limited sensitivity range and dynamic range, the matching process for a star tracker is typically not very sensitive to star brightness. For active pixel sensor (APS) star trackers, the intensity of an imaged star is valuable information that can be used in star identification process. In this paper an improved brightness referenced star identification algorithm is presented. This algorithm utilizes the k-vector search theory and adds imaged stars' intensities to narrow the search scope and therefore increase the efficiency of the matching process. Based on different imaging conditions (slew, bright bodies, etc.) the developed matching algorithm operates in one of two identification modes: a three-star mode, and a four-star mode. If the reference bright stars (the stars brighter than three magnitude) show up, the algorithm runs the three-star mode and efficiency is further improved. The proposed method was compared with other two distinctive methods the pyramid and geometric voting methods. All three methods were tested with simulation data and actual in orbit data from the APS star tracker of ZY-3. Using a catalog composed of 1500 stars, the results show that without false stars the efficiency of this new method is 4~5 times that of the pyramid method and 35~37 times that of the geometric method.

  14. Precision cosmological parameter estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fendt, William Ashton, Jr.

    2009-09-01

    Experimental efforts of the last few decades have brought. a golden age to mankind's endeavor to understand tine physical properties of the Universe throughout its history. Recent measurements of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) provide strong confirmation of the standard big bang paradigm, as well as introducing new mysteries, to unexplained by current physical models. In the following decades. even more ambitious scientific endeavours will begin to shed light on the new physics by looking at the detailed structure of the Universe both at very early and recent times. Modern data has allowed us to begins to test inflationary models of the early Universe, and the near future will bring higher precision data and much stronger tests. Cracking the codes hidden in these cosmological observables is a difficult and computationally intensive problem. The challenges will continue to increase as future experiments bring larger and more precise data sets. Because of the complexity of the problem, we are forced to use approximate techniques and make simplifying assumptions to ease the computational workload. While this has been reasonably sufficient until now, hints of the limitations of our techniques have begun to come to light. For example, the likelihood approximation used for analysis of CMB data from the Wilkinson Microwave Anistropy Probe (WMAP) satellite was shown to have short falls, leading to pre-emptive conclusions drawn about current cosmological theories. Also it can he shown that an approximate method used by all current analysis codes to describe the recombination history of the Universe will not be sufficiently accurate for future experiments. With a new CMB satellite scheduled for launch in the coming months, it is vital that we develop techniques to improve the analysis of cosmological data. This work develops a novel technique of both avoiding the use of approximate computational codes as well as allowing the application of new, more precise analysis

  15. Performance of the Integrated Tracker Towers of the GLAST Large Area Telescope

    SciTech Connect

    Brigida, M.; Caliandro, A.; Favuzzi, C.; Fusco, P.; Gargano, F.; Giglietto, N.; Giordano, F.; Loparco, F.; Marangelli, B.; Mazziotta, M.N.; Mirizzi, N.; Raino, S.; Spinelli, P.; /Bari U. /INFN, Bari

    2007-02-15

    The GLAST Large Area Telescope (LAT) is a high energy gamma ray observatory, mounted on a satellite that will be own in 2007. The LAT tracker consists of an array of tower modules, equipped with planes of silicon strip detectors (SSDs) interleaved with tungsten converter layers. Photon detection is based on the pair conversion process; silicon strip detectors will reconstruct tracks of electrons and positrons. The instrument is actually being assembled. The first towers have been already tested and integrated at Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC). An overview of the integration stages of the main components of the tracker and a description of the pre-launch tests will be given. Experimental results on the performance of the tracker towers will be also discussed.

  16. Environmental Test Activity on the Flight Modules of the GLAST LAT Tracker

    SciTech Connect

    Brigida, M.; Caliandro, A.; Favuzzi, C.; Fusco, P.; Gargano, F.; Giglietto, N.; Giordano, F.; Loparco, F.; Marangelli, B.; Mazziotta, M.N.; Mirizzi, N.; Raino, S.; Spinelli, P.; /Bari U. /INFN, Bari

    2007-02-15

    The GLAST Large Area Telescope (LAT) is a gamma-ray telescope consisting of a silicon micro-strip detector tracker followed by a segmented CsI calorimeter and covered by a segmented scintillator anticoincidence system that will search for {gamma}-rays in the 20 MeV-300 GeV energy range. The results of the environmental tests performed on the flight modules (towers) of the Tracker are presented. The aim of the environmental tests is to verify the performance of the silicon detectors in the expected mission environment. The tower modules are subjected to dynamic tests that simulate the launch environment and thermal vacuum test that reproduce the thermal gradients expected on orbit. The tower performance is continuously monitored during the whole test sequence. The environmental test activity, the results of the tests and the silicon tracker performance are presented.

  17. The MROI fringe tracker: closing the loop on ICoNN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCracken, T. M.; Jurgenson, C. A.; Santoro, F.; Shtromberg, A. V.; Alvidrez, V.; Torres, N.; Dahl, C.; Farris, A.; Buscher, D. F.; Haniff, C. A.; Young, J. S.; Seneta, E. B.; Creech-Eakman, M. J.

    2012-07-01

    The characterization of ICoNN, the Magdalena Ridge Observatory Interferometer's fringe tracker, through labor­ tory simulations is presented. The performance limits of an interferometer are set by its ability to keep the optical path difference between combination partners minimized. This is the job of the fringe tracker. Understanding the behavior and limits of the fringe tracker in a controlled environment is key to maximize the science output. This is being done with laboratory simulations of on-sky fringe tracking, termed the closed-loop fringe experi­ ment. The closed-loop fringe experiment includes synthesizing a white light source and atmospheric piston with estimation of the tracking error being fed back to mock delay lines in real-time. We report here on the progress of the closed-loop fringe experiment detailing its design, layout, controls and software.

  18. DC-DC converters with reduced mass for trackers at the HL-LHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Affolder, A.; Allongue, B.; Blanchot, G.; Faccio, F.; Fuentes, C.; Greenall, A.; Michelis, S.

    2011-11-01

    The development at CERN of low noise DC-DC converters for the powering of front-end systems enables the implementation of efficient powering schemes for the physics experiments at the HL-LHC. Recent tests made on the ATLAS short strip tracker modules confirm the full electromagnetic compatibility of the DC-DC converter prototypes with front-end detectors. The integration of the converters in the trackers front-ends needs to address also the material budget constraints. The impact of the DC-DC converters onto the material budget of the ATLAS tracker modules is discussed and mass reduction techniques are explored, leading to a compromise between electromagnetic compatibility and mass. Low mass shield implementations and Aluminum core inductors are proposed. Also, the impact on emitted noise due to a size reduction of critical components is discussed. Finally, material reduction techniques are discussed at the board layout and manufacturing levels.

  19. CMS Tracker upgrade for HL-LHC: R&D plans, present status and perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ravera, F.

    2016-07-01

    During the high luminosity phase of the LHC (HL-LHC), the machine is expected to deliver an instantaneous luminosity of 5 ×1034cm-2s-1. A total of 3000 fb-1 of data is foreseen to be delivered, with the opening of new physics potential for the LHC experiments, but also new challenges from the point of view of both detector and electronics capabilities and radiation hardness. In order to maintain its physics reach, CMS will build a new Tracker, including a completely new Pixel Detector and Outer Tracker. The ongoing R&D activities on both pixel and strip sensors will be presented. The present status of the Inner and Outer Tracker projects will be illustrated, and the possible perspectives will be discussed.

  20. Arrival Metering Precision Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prevot, Thomas; Mercer, Joey; Homola, Jeffrey; Hunt, Sarah; Gomez, Ashley; Bienert, Nancy; Omar, Faisal; Kraut, Joshua; Brasil, Connie; Wu, Minghong, G.

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the background, method and results of the Arrival Metering Precision Study (AMPS) conducted in the Airspace Operations Laboratory at NASA Ames Research Center in May 2014. The simulation study measured delivery accuracy, flight efficiency, controller workload, and acceptability of time-based metering operations to a meter fix at the terminal area boundary for different resolution levels of metering delay times displayed to the air traffic controllers and different levels of airspeed information made available to the Time-Based Flow Management (TBFM) system computing the delay. The results show that the resolution of the delay countdown timer (DCT) on the controllers display has a significant impact on the delivery accuracy at the meter fix. Using the 10 seconds rounded and 1 minute rounded DCT resolutions resulted in more accurate delivery than 1 minute truncated and were preferred by the controllers. Using the speeds the controllers entered into the fourth line of the data tag to update the delay computation in TBFM in high and low altitude sectors increased air traffic control efficiency and reduced fuel burn for arriving aircraft during time based metering.

  1. Prompt and Precise Prototyping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    For Sanders Design International, Inc., of Wilton, New Hampshire, every passing second between the concept and realization of a product is essential to succeed in the rapid prototyping industry where amongst heavy competition, faster time-to-market means more business. To separate itself from its rivals, Sanders Design aligned with NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center to develop what it considers to be the most accurate rapid prototyping machine for fabrication of extremely precise tooling prototypes. The company's Rapid ToolMaker System has revolutionized production of high quality, small-to-medium sized prototype patterns and tooling molds with an exactness that surpasses that of computer numerically-controlled (CNC) machining devices. Created with funding and support from Marshall under a Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contract, the Rapid ToolMaker is a dual-use technology with applications in both commercial and military aerospace fields. The advanced technology provides cost savings in the design and manufacturing of automotive, electronic, and medical parts, as well as in other areas of consumer interest, such as jewelry and toys. For aerospace applications, the Rapid ToolMaker enables fabrication of high-quality turbine and compressor blades for jet engines on unmanned air vehicles, aircraft, and missiles.

  2. Environment Assisted Precision Magnetometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cappellaro, P.; Goldstein, G.; Maze, J. R.; Jiang, L.; Hodges, J. S.; Sorensen, A. S.; Lukin, M. D.

    2010-03-01

    We describe a method to enhance the sensitivity of magnetometry and achieve nearly Heisenberg-limited precision measurement using a novel class of entangled states. An individual qubit is used to sense the dynamics of surrounding ancillary qubits, which are in turn affected by the external field to be measured. The resulting sensitivity enhancement is determined by the number of ancillas strongly coupled to the sensor qubit, it does not depend on the exact values of the couplings (allowing to use disordered systems), and is resilient to decoherence. As a specific example we consider electronic spins in the solid-state, where the ancillary system is associated with the surrounding spin bath. The conventional approach has been to consider these spins only as a source of decoherence and to adopt decoupling scheme to mitigate their effects. Here we describe novel control techniques that transform the environment spins into a resource used to amplify the sensor spin response to weak external perturbations, while maintaining the beneficial effects of dynamical decoupling sequences. We discuss specific applications to improve magnetic sensing with diamond nano-crystals, using one Nitrogen-Vacancy center spin coupled to Nitrogen electronic spins.

  3. Tracking parameter simulation for the Turkish accelerator center particle factory tracker system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tapan, I.; Pilicer, E.; Pilicer, F. B.

    2016-09-01

    The silicon tracker part of the Turkish Accelerator Center super charm particle factory detector was designed for effectively tracking charged particles with momentum values up to 2.0 GeV/c. In this work, the FLUKA simulation code has been used to estimate the track parameters and their resolutions in the designed tracker system. These results have been compared with those obtained by the tkLayout software package. The simulated track parameter resolutions are compatible with the physics goals of the tracking detector.

  4. Comparison analysis of self-shading loss in pedestal and carousel tracker systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ijiro, Toshikazu; Yamada, Noboru

    2013-09-01

    This paper describes the results of a self-shading loss analysis of a high concentration photovoltaic (HCPV) plant based on pedestal and carousel solar tacking systems. To determine the best possible tracker array configuration to minimize self-shading loss, a multiobjective genetic algorithm (MOGA) was used with a theoretical shadow model and cloudless solar spectrum model. As a result of MOGA optimization, the trade-off between land-use efficiency and the capacity factor in the optimized tracker arrays was characterized and compared.

  5. Electrical production testing of the D0 Silicon microstrip tracker detector modules

    SciTech Connect

    D0, SMT Production Testing Group; /Fermilab

    2006-03-01

    The D0 Silicon Microstrip Tracker (SMT) is the innermost system of the D0 detector in Run 2. It consists of 912 detector units, corresponding to 5 different types of assemblies, which add up to a system with 792,576 readout channels. The task entrusted to the Production Testing group was to thoroughly debug, test and grade each detector module before its installation in the tracker. This note describes the production testing sequence and the procedures by which the detector modules were electrically tested and characterized at the various stages of their assembly.

  6. A decision support system for emission reduction assessment: the OPERA LIFE+ project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carnevale, Claudio; Bianchessi, Nicola; Finzi, Giovanna; Pederzoli, Anna; Pisoni, Enrico; Volta, Marialuisa; Deserti, Marco; De Munari, Eriberto; Stortini, Michele; Veronesi, Paolo; Gianfreda, Roberta; Maffeis, Giuseppe; Blond, Nadege; Mark-Hummel, Lioba; Clappier, Alain; Perron, Gilles

    2013-04-01

    In last decades, air pollution modelling assumed a key role for the definition and evaluation of suitable emission control strategies, supporting Regional Decision Makers in the design of long-term plans for air quality improvement. This is a complex task, due to the non-linear chemical reactions and physical processes that bring to secondary pollution formation and accumulation, involving precursor emissions, namely VOC, NOx, NH3, primary PM and SO2. The problem is even more complex when constraining policy to a fixed budget. This paper presents the first results of the OPERA (Operational Procedure for Emission Reduction Assessment) LIFE+ project (2010-2013, www.operatool.eu) aiming to design and to implement an enhanced approach to identify efficient regional policies (1) complying with National and EU air quality standards, (2) with local emission and meteorological features, financial, technological and social constraints and (3) considering potential synergies with actions to reduce GHG emissions. The proposed methodology is based on a multi-objective (air quality, internal and external costs) optimization problem. The decision variables are the technical and non-technical emission abatement measures. Artificial neural networks, identified processing long-term 3D deterministic multi-phase modelling system simulation outputs, describe the nonlinear relations between the control variables (precursor emissions reduction) and the air quality indexes (AQIs), defining the air quality objective. The internal costs are due to emission reduction measures implementation, while the external costs assess the damage due to population pollution exposure. The methodology has been implemented in a software tool (RIAT+) and tested on two regional applications, Emilia Romagna (IT) and Alsace (FR).

  7. Precision medicine in myasthenia graves: begin from the data precision

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Yu; Xie, Yanchen; Hao, Hong-Jun; Sun, Ren-Cheng

    2016-01-01

    Myasthenia gravis (MG) is a prototypic autoimmune disease with overt clinical and immunological heterogeneity. The data of MG is far from individually precise now, partially due to the rarity and heterogeneity of this disease. In this review, we provide the basic insights of MG data precision, including onset age, presenting symptoms, generalization, thymus status, pathogenic autoantibodies, muscle involvement, severity and response to treatment based on references and our previous studies. Subgroups and quantitative traits of MG are discussed in the sense of data precision. The role of disease registries and scientific bases of precise analysis are also discussed to ensure better collection and analysis of MG data. PMID:27127759

  8. Precise Truss Assembly using Commodity Parts and Low Precision Welding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Komendera, Erik; Reishus, Dustin; Dorsey, John T.; Doggett, William R.; Correll, Nikolaus

    2013-01-01

    We describe an Intelligent Precision Jigging Robot (IPJR), which allows high precision assembly of commodity parts with low-precision bonding. We present preliminary experiments in 2D that are motivated by the problem of assembling a space telescope optical bench on orbit using inexpensive, stock hardware and low-precision welding. An IPJR is a robot that acts as the precise "jigging", holding parts of a local assembly site in place while an external low precision assembly agent cuts and welds members. The prototype presented in this paper allows an assembly agent (in this case, a human using only low precision tools), to assemble a 2D truss made of wooden dowels to a precision on the order of millimeters over a span on the order of meters. We report the challenges of designing the IPJR hardware and software, analyze the error in assembly, document the test results over several experiments including a large-scale ring structure, and describe future work to implement the IPJR in 3D and with micron precision.

  9. Precise Truss Assembly Using Commodity Parts and Low Precision Welding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Komendera, Erik; Reishus, Dustin; Dorsey, John T.; Doggett, W. R.; Correll, Nikolaus

    2014-01-01

    Hardware and software design and system integration for an intelligent precision jigging robot (IPJR), which allows high precision assembly using commodity parts and low-precision bonding, is described. Preliminary 2D experiments that are motivated by the problem of assembling space telescope optical benches and very large manipulators on orbit using inexpensive, stock hardware and low-precision welding are also described. An IPJR is a robot that acts as the precise "jigging", holding parts of a local structure assembly site in place, while an external low precision assembly agent cuts and welds members. The prototype presented in this paper allows an assembly agent (for this prototype, a human using only low precision tools), to assemble a 2D truss made of wooden dowels to a precision on the order of millimeters over a span on the order of meters. The analysis of the assembly error and the results of building a square structure and a ring structure are discussed. Options for future work, to extend the IPJR paradigm to building in 3D structures at micron precision are also summarized.

  10. Auditory stimulation of opera music induced prolongation of murine cardiac allograft survival and maintained generation of regulatory CD4+CD25+ cells

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Interactions between the immune response and brain functions such as olfactory, auditory, and visual sensations are likely. This study investigated the effect of sounds on alloimmune responses in a murine model of cardiac allograft transplantation. Methods Naïve CBA mice (H2k) underwent transplantation of a C57BL/6 (B6, H2b) heart and were exposed to one of three types of music--opera (La Traviata), classical (Mozart), and New Age (Enya)--or one of six different single sound frequencies, for 7 days. Additionally, we prepared two groups of CBA recipients with tympanic membrane perforation exposed to opera for 7 days and CBA recipients exposed to opera for 7 days before transplantation (pre-treatment). An adoptive transfer study was performed to determine whether regulatory cells were generated in allograft recipients. Immunohistochemical, cell-proliferation, cytokine, and flow cytometry assessments were also performed. Results CBA recipients of a B6 cardiac graft that were exposed to opera music and Mozart had significantly prolonged allograft survival (median survival times [MSTs], 26.5 and 20 days, respectively), whereas those exposed to a single sound frequency (100, 500, 1000, 5000, 10,000, or 20,000 Hz) or Enya did not (MSTs, 7.5, 8, 9, 8, 7.5, 8.5 and 11 days, respectively). Untreated, CBA mice with tympanic membrane perforations and CBA recipients exposed to opera for 7 days before transplantation (pre-treatment) rejected B6 cardiac grafts acutely (MSTs, 7, 8 and 8 days, respectively). Adoptive transfer of whole splenocytes, CD4+ cells, or CD4+CD25+ cells from opera-exposed primary allograft recipients resulted in significantly prolonged allograft survival in naive secondary recipients (MSTs, 36, 68, and > 100 days, respectively). Proliferation of splenocytes, interleukin (IL)-2 and interferon (IFN)-γ production was suppressed in opera-exposed mice, and production of IL-4 and IL-10 from opera-exposed transplant recipients increased compared to

  11. Active retroreflector with in situ beam analysis to measure the rotational orientation in conjunction with a laser tracker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofherr, O.; Wachten, C.; Müller, C.; Reinecke, H.

    2013-04-01

    High precision optical non-contact position measurement is a key technology in modern engineering. Laser trackers (LT) can determine accurately x-y-z coordinates of passive retroreflectors. Next-generation systems answer the additional need to measure an object`s rotational orientation (pitch, yaw, roll). These devices are based either on photogrammetry or on enhanced retroreflectors. However, photogrammetry relies on costly camera systems and time-consuming image processing. Enhanced retroreflectors analyze the LT`s beam but are restricted in roll angle measurements. In the past we have presented a new method [1][2] to measure all six degrees of freedom in conjunction with a LT. Now we dramatically optimized the method and designed a new prototype, e.g. taking into consideration optical alignment, reduced power loss, highly optimized measuring signals and higher resolution. A method is described that allows compensating the influence of the LT's beam offset during tracking the active retroreflector. We prove the functionality of the active retroreflector with the LT and, furthermore, demonstrate the capability of the system to characterize the tracking behavior of a LT. The measurement range for the incident laser beam is +/-12° with a resolution of 0.6".

  12. Observation of a first ντ candidate event in the OPERA experiment in the CNGS beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, O.; Opera Collaboration

    2012-08-01

    The OPERA experiment is aimed to prove the existence of νμ→ντ oscillation through the observation of the tau decay topology in ντ CC interactions. The physics run started in 2008 and, since then, the lead-emulsion target has been exposed to the CNGS neutrino beam every year, from spring to autum. Untill now, 1921 neutrino interaction vertices have been located and the decay search analysis has been completed for 1088 of them. One tau neutrino candidate has been found. Here, the event location and decay search procedures will be described and the tau neutrino candidate is presented.

  13. Ground Testing Strategies for Verifying the Slew Rate Tolerance of Star Trackers

    PubMed Central

    Dzamba, Tom; Enright, John

    2014-01-01

    The performance of a star tracker is largely based on the availability of its attitude solution. Several methods exist to assess star tracker availability under both static and dynamic imaging conditions. However, these methods typically make various idealizations that can limit the accuracy of these results. This study aims to increase the fidelity of star tracker availability modeling by accounting for the effects of detection logic and pixel saturation on star detection. We achieve this by developing an analytical model for the focal plane intensity distribution of a star in the presence of sensor slew. Using the developed model, we examine the effects of slew rate on star detection using simulations and lab tests. The developed approach allows us to determine the maximum slew rate for which a star of a given stellar magnitude can still be detected. This information can then be used to describe the availability of a star tracker attitude solution as a function of slew rate, both spatially, across the entire celestial sphere, or locally, along a specified orientation track. PMID:24577522

  14. Interrogation of Patient Smartphone Activity Tracker to Assist Arrhythmia Management.

    PubMed

    Rudner, Joshua; McDougall, Carol; Sailam, Vivek; Smith, Monika; Sacchetti, Alfred

    2016-09-01

    A 42-year-old man presented to the emergency department (ED) with newly diagnosed atrial fibrillation of unknown duration. Interrogation of the patient's wrist-worn activity tracker and smartphone application identified the onset of the arrhythmia as within the previous 3 hours, permitting electrocardioversion and discharge of the patient from the ED.

  15. Increasing Physical Activity in Preschool: A Pilot Study to Evaluate Animal Trackers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Christine L.; Carter, Betty Jean; Kibbe, Debra L.; Dennison, David

    2009-01-01

    Objective: This report describes a pilot study to evaluate Animal Trackers (AT), a preschool program designed to (1) increase structured physical activity (PA) during the preschool day; (2) increase practice of gross motor skills; (3) provide teachers with an easy-to-use PA program regardless of teacher experience; and (4) implement a teacher…

  16. The ATLAS Transition Radiation Tracker (TRT) proportional drift tube: design and performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    ATLAS TRT Collaboration; Abat, E.; Addy, T. N.; Åkesson, T. P. A.; Alison, J.; Anghinolfi, F.; Arik, E.; Arik, M.; Atoian, G.; Auerbach, B.; Baker, O. K.; Banas, E.; Baron, S.; Bault, C.; Becerici, N.; Beddall, A.; Beddall, A. J.; Bendotti, J.; Benjamin, D. P.; Bertelsen, H.; Bingul, A.; Blampey, H.; Bocci, A.; Bochenek, M.; Bondarenko, V. G.; Bychkov, V.; Callahan, J.; Capeáns Garrido, M.; Cardiel Sas, L.; Catinaccio, A.; Cetin, S. A.; Chandler, T.; Chritin, R.; Cwetanski, P.; Dam, M.; Danielsson, H.; Danilevich, E.; David, E.; Degenhardt, J.; Di Girolamo, B.; Dittus, F.; Dixon, N.; Dogan, O. B.; Dolgoshein, B. A.; Dressnandt, N.; Driouchi, C.; Ebenstein, W. L.; Eerola, P.; Egede, U.; Egorov, K.; Evans, H.; Farthouat, P.; Fedin, O. L.; Fowler, A. J.; Fratina, S.; Froidevaux, D.; Fry, A.; Gagnon, P.; Gavrilenko, I. L.; Gay, C.; Ghodbane, N.; Godlewski, J.; Goulette, M.; Gousakov, I.; Grigalashvili, N.; Grishkevich, Y.; Grognuz, J.; Hajduk, Z.; Hance, M.; Hansen, F.; Hansen, J. B.; Hansen, P. H.; Hare, G. A.; Harvey, A., Jr.; Hauviller, C.; High, A.; Hulsbergen, W.; Huta, W.; Issakov, V.; Istin, S.; Jain, V.; Jarlskog, G.; Jeanty, L.; Kantserov, V. A.; Kaplan, B.; Kapliy, A. S.; Katounine, S.; Kayumov, F.; Keener, P. T.; Kekelidze, G. D.; Khabarova, E.; Khristachev, A.; Kisielewski, B.; Kittelmann, T. H.; Kline, C.; Klinkby, E. B.; Klopov, N. V.; Ko, B. R.; Koffas, T.; Kondratieva, N. V.; Konovalov, S. P.; Koperny, S.; Korsmo, H.; Kovalenko, S.; Kowalski, T. Z.; Krüger, K.; Kramarenko, V.; Kudin, L. G.; LeBihan, A.-C.; LeGeyt, B. C.; Levterov, K.; Lichard, P.; Lindahl, A.; Lisan, V.; Lobastov, S.; Loginov, A.; Loh, C. W.; Lokwitz, S.; Long, M. C.; Lucas, S.; Lucotte, A.; Luehring, F.; Lundberg, B.; Mackeprang, R.; Maleev, V. P.; Manara, A.; Mandl, M.; Martin, A. J.; Martin, F. F.; Mashinistov, R.; Mayers, G. M.; McFarlane, K. W.; Mialkovski, V.; Mills, B. M.; Mindur, B.; Mitsou, V. A.; Mjörnmark, J. U.; Morozov, S. V.; Morris, E.; Mouraviev, S. V.; Muir, A. M.; Munar, A.; Nadtochi, A. V.; Nesterov, S. Y.; Newcomer, F. M.; Nikitin, N.; Novgorodova, O.; Novodvorski, E. G.; Ogren, H.; Oh, S. H.; Oleshko, S. B.; Olivito, D.; Olszowska, J.; Ostrowicz, W.; Passmore, M. S.; Patrichev, S.; Penwell, J.; Perez-Gomez, F.; Peshekhonov, V. D.; Petersen, T. C.; Petti, R.; Placci, A.; Poblaguev, A.; Pons, X.; Price, M. J.; hne, O. Rø; Reece, R. D.; Reilly, M. B.; Rembser, C.; Romaniouk, A.; Rousseau, D.; Rust, D.; Ryabov, Y. F.; Ryjov, V.; Söderberg, M.; Savenkov, A.; Saxon, J.; Scandurra, M.; Schegelsky, V. A.; Scherzer, M. I.; Schmidt, M. P.; Schmitt, C.; Sedykh, E.; Seliverstov, D. M.; Shin, T.; Shmeleva, A.; Sivoklokov, S.; Smirnov, S. Yu; Smirnova, L.; Smirnova, O.; Smith, P.; Sosnovtsev, V. V.; Sprachmann, G.; Subramania, S.; Suchkov, S. I.; Sulin, V. V.; Szczygiel, R. R.; Tartarelli, G.; Thomson, E.; Tikhomirov, V. O.; Tipton, P.; Valls Ferrer, J. A.; Van Berg, R.; Vassilakopoulos, V. I.; Vassilieva, L.; Wagner, P.; Wall, R.; Wang, C.; Whittington, D.; Williams, H. H.; Zhelezko, A.; Zhukov, K.

    2008-02-01

    A straw proportional counter is the basic element of the ATLAS Transition Radiation Tracker (TRT). Its detailed properties as well as the main properties of a few TRT operating gas mixtures are described. Particular attention is paid to straw tube performance in high radiation conditions and to its operational stability.

  17. Bittracker-a bitmap tracker for visual tracking under very general conditions.

    PubMed

    Leichter, Ido; Lindenbaum, Michael; Rivlin, Ehud

    2008-09-01

    This paper addresses the problem of visual tracking under very general conditions: a possibly non-rigid target whose appearance may drastically change over time; general camera motion; a 3D scene; and no a priori information except initialization. This is in contrast to the vast majority of trackers which rely on some limited model in which, for example, the target's appearance is known a priori or restricted, the scene is planar, or a pan tilt zoom camera is used. Their goal is to achieve speed and robustness, but their limited context may cause them to fail in the more general case. The proposed tracker works by approximating, in each frame, a PDF (probability distribution function) of the target's bitmap and then estimating the maximum a posteriori bitmap. The PDF is marginalized over all possible motions per pixel, thus avoiding the stage in which optical flow is determined. This is an advantage over other general-context trackers that do not use the motion cue at all or rely on the error-prone calculation of optical flow. Using a Gibbs distribution with respect to the first-order neighborhood system yields a bitmap PDF whose maximization may be transformed into that of a quadratic pseudo-Boolean function, the maximum of which is approximated via a reduction to a maximum-flow problem. Many experiments were conducted to demonstrate that the tracker is able to track under the aforementioned general context. PMID:18617716

  18. Investigating the Magnetic Interaction with Geomag and Tracker Video Analysis: Static Equilibrium and Anharmonic Dynamics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Onorato, P.; Mascheretti, P.; DeAmbrosis, A.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we describe how simple experiments realizable by using easily found and low-cost materials allow students to explore quantitatively the magnetic interaction thanks to the help of an Open Source Physics tool, the Tracker Video Analysis software. The static equilibrium of a "column" of permanents magnets is carefully investigated by…

  19. EyeTribe Tracker Data Accuracy Evaluation and Its Interconnection with Hypothesis Software for Cartographic Purposes

    PubMed Central

    Stachoň, Zdeněk; Šašinka, Čeněk; Doležalová, Jitka

    2016-01-01

    The mixed research design is a progressive methodological discourse that combines the advantages of quantitative and qualitative methods. Its possibilities of application are, however, dependent on the efficiency with which the particular research techniques are used and combined. The aim of the paper is to introduce the possible combination of Hypothesis with EyeTribe tracker. The Hypothesis is intended for quantitative data acquisition and the EyeTribe is intended for qualitative (eye-tracking) data recording. In the first part of the paper, Hypothesis software is described. The Hypothesis platform provides an environment for web-based computerized experiment design and mass data collection. Then, evaluation of the accuracy of data recorded by EyeTribe tracker was performed with the use of concurrent recording together with the SMI RED 250 eye-tracker. Both qualitative and quantitative results showed that data accuracy is sufficient for cartographic research. In the third part of the paper, a system for connecting EyeTribe tracker and Hypothesis software is presented. The interconnection was performed with the help of developed web application HypOgama. The created system uses open-source software OGAMA for recording the eye-movements of participants together with quantitative data from Hypothesis. The final part of the paper describes the integrated research system combining Hypothesis and EyeTribe. PMID:27087805

  20. Correcting Students' Misconceptions about Automobile Braking Distances and Video Analysis Using Interactive Program Tracker

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hockicko, Peter; Trpišová, Beáta; Ondruš, Ján

    2014-01-01

    The present paper informs about an analysis of students' conceptions about car braking distances and also presents one of the novel methods of learning: an interactive computer program Tracker that we used to analyse the process of braking of a car. The analysis of the students' conceptions about car braking distances consisted in…