Science.gov

Sample records for operating experience transportation

  1. Transport Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Timothy M.; Wuebbles, Donald J.; Boering, Kristie A.; Eckman, Richard S.; Lerner, Jean; Plumb, R. Alan; Rind, David H.; Rinsland, Curtis P.; Waugh, Darryn W.; Wei, Chu-Feng

    1999-01-01

    MM II defined a series of experiments to better understand and characterize model transport and to assess the realism of this transport by comparison to observations. Measurements from aircraft, balloon, and satellite, not yet available at the time of MM I [Prather and Remsberg, 1993], provide new and stringent constraints on model transport, and address the limits of our transport modeling abilities. Simulations of the idealized tracers the age spectrum, and propagating boundary conditions, and conserved HSCT-like emissions probe the relative roles of different model transport mechanisms, while simulations of SF6 and C02 make the connection to observations. Some of the tracers are related, and transport diagnostics such as the mean age can be derived from more than one of the experiments for comparison to observations. The goals of the transport experiments are: (1) To isolate the effects of transport in models from other processes; (2) To assess model transport for realistic tracers (such as SF6 and C02) for comparison to observations; (3) To use certain idealized tracers to isolate model mechanisms and relationships to atmospheric chemical perturbations; (4) To identify strengths and weaknesses of the treatment of transport processes in the models; (5) To relate evaluated shortcomings to aspects of model formulation. The following section are included:Executive Summary, Introduction, Age Spectrum, Observation, Tropical Transport in Models, Global Mean Age in Models, Source-Transport Covariance, HSCT "ANOY" Tracer Distributions, and Summary and Conclusions.

  2. Transport Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Timothy M.; Wuebbles, Donald J.; Boering, Kristie A.; Eckman, Richard S.; Lerner, Jean; Plumb, R. Alan; Rind, David H.; Rinsland, Curtis P.; Waugh, Darryn W.; Wei, Chu-Feng

    1999-01-01

    MM II defined a series of experiments to better understand and characterize model transport and to assess the realism of this transport by comparison to observations. Measurements from aircraft, balloon, and satellite, not yet available at the time of MM I [Prather and Remsberg, 1993], provide new and stringent constraints on model transport, and address the limits of our transport modeling abilities. Simulations of the idealized tracers the age spectrum, and propagating boundary conditions, and conserved HSCT-like emissions probe the relative roles of different model transport mechanisms, while simulations of SF6 and C02 make the connection to observations. Some of the tracers are related, and transport diagnostics such as the mean age can be derived from more than one of the experiments for comparison to observations. The goals of the transport experiments are: (1) To isolate the effects of transport in models from other processes; (2) To assess model transport for realistic tracers (such as SF6 and C02) for comparison to observations; (3) To use certain idealized tracers to isolate model mechanisms and relationships to atmospheric chemical perturbations; (4) To identify strengths and weaknesses of the treatment of transport processes in the models; (5) To relate evaluated shortcomings to aspects of model formulation. The following section are included:Executive Summary, Introduction, Age Spectrum, Observation, Tropical Transport in Models, Global Mean Age in Models, Source-Transport Covariance, HSCT "ANOY" Tracer Distributions, and Summary and Conclusions.

  3. The Small Aircraft Transportation System Higher Volume Operations (SATS HVO) Flight Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Daniel M.; Murdoch, Jennifer L.; Adams, Catherine H.

    2005-01-01

    This paper provides a summary of conclusions from the Small Aircraft Transportation System (SATS) Higher Volume Operations (HVO) Flight Experiment which NASA conducted to determine pilot acceptability of the HVO concept for normal conditions. The SATS HVO concept improves efficiency at non-towered, non-radar airports in Instrument Meteorological Conditions (IMC) while achieving a level of safety equal to today s system. Reported are results from flight experiment data that indicate that the SATS HVO concept is viable. The success of the SATS HVO concept is based on acceptable pilot workload, performance, and subjective criteria when compared to the procedural control operations in use today at non-towered, non-radar controlled airfields in IMC. The HVO Flight Experiment, flown on NASA's Cirrus SR22, used a subset of the HVO Simulation Experiment scenarios and evaluation pilots in order to validate the simulation experiment results. HVO and Baseline (today s system) scenarios flown included: single aircraft arriving for a GPS non-precision approach; aircraft arriving for the approach with multiple traffic aircraft; and aircraft arriving for the approach with multiple traffic aircraft and then conducting a missed approach. Results reveal that all twelve low-time instrument-rated pilots preferred SATS HVO when compared to current procedural separation operations. These pilots also flew the HVO procedures safely and proficiently without additional workload in comparison to today s system (Baseline). Detailed results of pilot flight technical error, and their subjective assessments of workload and situation awareness are presented in this paper.

  4. Transportability, distributability and rehosting experience with a kernel operating system interface set

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blumberg, F. C.; Reedy, A.; Yodis, E.

    1986-01-01

    For the past two years, PRC has been transporting and installing a software engineering environment framework, the Automated Product control Environment (APCE), at a number of PRC and government sites on a variety of different hardware. The APCE was designed using a layered architecture which is based on a standardized set of interfaces to host system services. This interface set called the APCE Interface Set (AIS), was designed to support many of the same goals as the Common Ada Programming Support Environment (APSE) Interface Set (CAIS). The APCE was developed to provide support for the full software lifecycle. Specific requirements of the APCE design included: automation of labor intensive administrative and logistical tasks: freedom for project team members to use existing tools: maximum transportability for APCE programs, interoperability of APCE database data, and distributability of both processes and data: and maximum performance on a wide variety of operating systems. A brief description is given of the APCE and AIS, a comparison of the AIS and CAIS both in terms of functionality and of philosophy and approach and a presentation of PRC's experience in rehosting AIS and transporting APCE programs and project data. Conclusions are drawn from this experience with respect to both the CAIS efforts and Space Station plans.

  5. Crew Transportation Operations Standards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mango, Edward J.; Pearson, Don J. (Compiler)

    2013-01-01

    The Crew Transportation Operations Standards contains descriptions of ground and flight operations processes and specifications and the criteria which will be used to evaluate the acceptability of Commercial Providers' proposed processes and specifications.

  6. Operational considerations for lunar transportation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petro, Andrew J.

    1992-01-01

    Transportation of people and cargo between low Earth orbit and the surface of the Moon will be one of the most important elements in a lunar base program. This paper identifies some of the important lessons from the space shuttle program and discusses their application in future lunar vehicle operations. Also, some unique challenges in flight planning, training, vehicle servicing, payload integration, and flight control for lunar transportation are outlined. This paper relies heavily on recent studies of space shuttle development and operations with the goal of applying shuttle experience in the design of a practical and efficient lunar transportation system.

  7. Transportable Vitrification System: Operational experience gained during vitrification of simulated mixed waste

    SciTech Connect

    Whitehouse, J.C.; Burket, P.R.; Crowley, D.A.; Hansen, E.K.; Jantzen, C.M.; Smith, M.E.; Singer, R.P.; Young, S.R.; Zamecnik, J.R.; Overcamp, T.J.; Pence, I.W. Jr.

    1996-11-21

    The Transportable Vitrification System (TVS) is a large-scale, fully-integrated, transportable, vitrification system for the treatment of low-level nuclear and mixed wastes in the form of sludges, soils, incinerator ash, and similar waste streams. The TVS was built to demonstrate the vitrification of actual mixed waste at U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) sites. Currently, Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC) is working with Lockheed Martin Energy Systems (LMES) to apply field scale vitrification to actual mixed waste at Oak Ridge Reservation`s (ORR) K-25 Site. Prior to the application of the TVS to actual mixed waste it was tested on simulated K-25 B and C Pond waste at Clemson University. This paper describes the results of that testing and preparations for the demonstration on actual mixed waste.

  8. Advanced Transport Operating Systems Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, John J.

    1990-01-01

    NASA-Langley's Advanced Transport Operating Systems Program employs a heavily instrumented, B 737-100 as its Transport Systems Research Vehicle (TRSV). The TRSV has been used during the demonstration trials of the Time Reference Scanning Beam Microwave Landing System (TRSB MLS), the '4D flight-management' concept, ATC data links, and airborne windshear sensors. The credibility obtainable from successful flight test experiments is often a critical factor in the granting of substantial commitments for commercial implementation by the FAA and industry. In the case of the TRSB MLS, flight test demonstrations were decisive to its selection as the standard landing system by the ICAO.

  9. Advanced Transport Operating Systems Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, John J.

    1990-01-01

    NASA-Langley's Advanced Transport Operating Systems Program employs a heavily instrumented, B 737-100 as its Transport Systems Research Vehicle (TRSV). The TRSV has been used during the demonstration trials of the Time Reference Scanning Beam Microwave Landing System (TRSB MLS), the '4D flight-management' concept, ATC data links, and airborne windshear sensors. The credibility obtainable from successful flight test experiments is often a critical factor in the granting of substantial commitments for commercial implementation by the FAA and industry. In the case of the TRSB MLS, flight test demonstrations were decisive to its selection as the standard landing system by the ICAO.

  10. Light rail transit: Planning, design, and operating experience. Transportation research record

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    Partial Contents: Part 1--Overview--Status of North American LRT Systems: 1992 Update; Rail Transit Performance; Part 2--Planning and Finance--Key Issues in Light Rail Transit Station Planning and Design; Planning and Design of On-Street Light Rail Transit Stations; Coordination of Intermodal Transfers at LRT Stations; Part 3--Management and Staffing--Recent Developments in LRT Staffing and Productivity; Preparation and Training for First-Time Light Rail Operations and Maintenance; Part 4--Design and Engineering--Creating a Light Rail Transitway Within Existing Arterial Street Right-of-Way; New Standards for Control of At-Grade Light Rail Transit Crossings; Light Rail Transit Bridge Design Issues; Part 5--Operations and Maintenance--Multiple-Phase Start-up: Headache or Opportunity; Dwell Time Relationships for Light Rail Systems; Part 6--Vintage Trolley Operations--Vintage Trolleys: A National Overview.

  11. The Consolidated Planning and Scheduling System for Space Transportation and Space Station operations - Successful development experience

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hornstein, Rhoda S.; Willoughby, John K.; Gardner, Jo A.; Shinkle, Gerald L.

    1993-01-01

    In 1992, NASA made the decision to evolve a Consolidated Planning System (CPS) by adding the Space Transportation System (STS) requirements to the Space Station Freedom (SSF) planning software. This paper describes this evolutionary process, which began with a series of six-month design-build-test cycles, using a domain-independent architecture and a set of developmental tools known as the Advanced Scheduling Environment. It is shown that, during these tests, the CPS could be used at multiple organizational levels of planning and for integrating schedules from geographically distributed (including international) planning environments. The potential for using the CPS for other planning and scheduling tasks in the SSF program is being currently examined.

  12. MIT January Operational Internship Experience

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bosanac, Natasha; DeVivero, Charlie; James, Jillian; Perez-Martinez, Carla; Pino, Wendy; Wang, Andrew; Willett, Ezekiel; Williams, Kwami

    2010-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation describes the MIT January Operational Internship Experience (JOIE) program. The topics include: 1) Landing and Recovery; 2) Transportation; 3) Shuttle Processing; 4) Constellation Processing; 5) External Tank; 6) Launch Pad; 7) Ground Operations; 8) Hypergolic Propellants; 9) Environmental; 10) Logistics; 11) Six Sigma; 12) Systems Engineering; and 13) Human Factors.

  13. Transportation System Concept of Operations

    SciTech Connect

    N. Slater-Thompson

    2006-08-16

    The Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 (NWPA), as amended, authorized the DOE to develop and manage a Federal system for the disposal of SNF and HLW. OCRWM was created to manage acceptance and disposal of SNF and HLW in a manner that protects public health, safety, and the environment; enhances national and energy security; and merits public confidence. This responsibility includes managing the transportation of SNF and HLW from origin sites to the Repository for disposal. The Transportation System Concept of Operations is the core high-level OCRWM document written to describe the Transportation System integrated design and present the vision, mission, and goals for Transportation System operations. By defining the functions, processes, and critical interfaces of this system early in the system development phase, programmatic risks are minimized, system costs are contained, and system operations are better managed, safer, and more secure. This document also facilitates discussions and understanding among parties responsible for the design, development, and operation of the Transportation System. Such understanding is important for the timely development of system requirements and identification of system interfaces. Information provided in the Transportation System Concept of Operations includes: the functions and key components of the Transportation System; system component interactions; flows of information within the system; the general operating sequences; and the internal and external factors affecting transportation operations. The Transportation System Concept of Operations reflects OCRWM's overall waste management system policies and mission objectives, and as such provides a description of the preferred state of system operation. The description of general Transportation System operating functions in the Transportation System Concept of Operations is the first step in the OCRWM systems engineering process, establishing the starting point for the lower level

  14. Stirling machine operating experience

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, Brad; Dudenhoefer, James E.

    1991-01-01

    Numerous Stirling machines have been built and operated, but the operating experience of these machines is not well known. It is important to examine this operating experience in detail, because it largely substantiates the claim that Stirling machines are capable of reliable and lengthy lives. The amount of data that exists is impressive, considering that many of the machines that have been built are developmental machines intended to show proof of concept, and were not expected to operate for any lengthy period of time. Some Stirling machines (typically free-piston machines) achieve long life through non-contact bearings, while other Stirling machines (typically kinematic) have achieved long operating lives through regular seal and bearing replacements. In addition to engine and system testing, life testing of critical components is also considered.

  15. Performance Benchmarking Student Transportation Operations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forsyth, Andy

    2001-01-01

    Student transportation complexities make evaluating a program's cost and quality very difficult. The first step in measuring performance is defining an operation's functional components: level of service delivery, units of service, and cost of services. Other considerations include routing, logistics, and fleet maintenance and support operations.…

  16. Commercial Experiment Transporter: COMET

    SciTech Connect

    Wessling, F.C.; Robinson, M.; Martinez, R.S.; Gallimore, T.; Combs, N.

    1994-09-01

    A launch system consisting of ground-support equipment, a four-stage rocket, a service module, a recovery system and a recovery site, and an orbital operations center is being assembled. The system is designed to launch 818 kg (1800 lb) to a 552-km (300-n.mi.) low earth orbit at a 40-deg inclination. Experiment space exists in both the service module and the recovery system. The service module provides space for 68 kg (150 lb) of experiments plus telemetry services, attitude control, and power and uses no consumables to maintain attitude. Consequently, the service module can maintain orbit attitude for years. Power of 400 W is supplied by solar cells and batteries for both experiment operation and housekeeping. The recovery system houses an experiment carrier for 136 kg (300 lb) of experiments, a retro rocket, a heat shield, and a parachute. An orbital operations control center provides tracking, telemetry, and commanding for the satellite. The payloads are also briefly described. The first launch was scheduled for 1995.

  17. Stirling machine operating experience

    SciTech Connect

    Ross, B.; Dudenhoefer, J.E.

    1994-09-01

    Numerous Stirling machines have been built and operated, but the operating experience of these machines is not well known. It is important to examine this operating experience in detail, because it largely substantiates the claim that stirling machines are capable of reliable and lengthy operating lives. The amount of data that exists is impressive, considering that many of the machines that have been built are developmental machines intended to show proof of concept, and are not expected to operate for lengthy periods of time. Some Stirling machines (typically free-piston machines) achieve long life through non-contact bearings, while other Stirling machines (typically kinematic) have achieved long operating lives through regular seal and bearing replacements. In addition to engine and system testing, life testing of critical components is also considered. The record in this paper is not complete, due to the reluctance of some organizations to release operational data and because several organizations were not contacted. The authors intend to repeat this assessment in three years, hoping for even greater participation.

  18. White Cliffs: Operating Experience

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaneff, S.

    1984-01-01

    The fourteen dish white cliffs solar power station area is remote and subject to extreme environmental conditions, solution of the associated problems required careful and thoughtful attention and the application of resources. Notwithstanding the wide range and harshness of conditions, the difficulties caused by remoteness and the lack of a technological base and the need for relatively rapid demonstration of success, the project has had a very positive outcome. Qualitative and quantitative information and lessons are now available to enable considerable simplifications to be made for a new system, reducing both hardware and operation and maintenance costs. Experience and lessons are presented, particularly in relation to: system performance in various environmental conditions; design philosophies for collectors, the array, control systems, engine and plant; operation and maintenance strategies and cost reducing possibilities. Experience so far gives encouragement for the future of such paraboloidal dish systems in appropriate areas.

  19. Operational experience at ELBE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michel, P.; Lehnert, U.; Seidel, W.

    2015-05-01

    The ELBE center for high power radiation sources is the largest user facility in the Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden- Rossendorf. The facility is based on a 36 MeV superconducting RF Linac which can be operated up to 1.6 mA in cw mode. The electron beam is used to generate secondary radiation, such as infrared light (Free Electron Lasers), coherent THz radiation, MeV-Bremsstrahlung, fast neutrons and positrons for a wide range of basic research like semiconductor physics, nuclear astrophysics and radio biological investigations. Two high power laser systems (500 TW Ti:Sa laser, 2 PW diode pumped laser) are under construction for laser acceleration experiments and X-ray generation by Thomson scattering. The FELs are in operation since 2004 (mid-IR FEL, 4-22μm) and 2006 (far-IF FEL, 20-250μm). The fundamental features of the ELBE IR FELs, the FEL instrumentation and advanced beam diagnostics for the photon beam are described. During ten years of user operation experiences and statistical data were collected.

  20. Space transportation system biomedical operations support study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, S. C.

    1983-01-01

    The shift of the Space Transportation System (STS) flight tests of the orbiter vehicle to the preparation and flight of the payloads is discussed. Part of this change is the transition of the medical and life sciences aspects of the STS flight operations to reflect the new state. The medical operations, the life sciences flight experiments support requirements and the intramural research program expected to be at KSC during the operational flight period of the STS and a future space station are analyzed. The adequacy of available facilities, plans, and resources against these future needs are compared; revisions and/or alternatives where appropriate are proposed.

  1. SHEBA operating experience

    SciTech Connect

    Cappiello, C.C.; Butterfield, K.B.

    1997-05-01

    The Solution High Energy Burst Assembly (SHEBA) is a critical assembly fueled with a solution of 5% enriched Uranyl Fluoride, U(5%)O{sub 2}F{sub 2}. The fuel is stored in critically safe storage containers and then pumped into the ``Critical Assembly Vessel`` where the solution becomes critical. The system was designed to achieve criticality in a cylindrically symmetric configuration. The SHEBA facility also incorporates a shielding pit into which the entire assembly can be lowered to provide shielding for elevated power runs. The major goals of the SHEBA assembly project are to study the behavior of nuclear excursions in a low-enrichment solution, to evaluate accidental criticality alarm detectors for fuel-processing facilities, to provide radiation spectra and dose measurements to benchmark calculations on a low-enrichment solution system, and to provide radiation fields to calibrate personnel dosimetry. SHEBA is also being used to provide a neutron flux test bed to benchmark calculations. Rather than providing the details of these particular projects, this paper summarizes the free-run operating experience obtained as a result of the projects.

  2. Droplet Combustion Experiment Operates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Fuel ignites and burns in the Droplet Combustion Experiment (DCE) on STS-94 on July 12, 1997, MET:11/07:00 (approximate). DCE used various fuels -- in drops ranging from 1 mm (0.04 inches) to 5 mm (0.2 inches) -- and mixtures of oxidizers and inert gases to learn more about the physics of combustion in the simplest burning configuration, a sphere. The DCE was designed to investigate the fundamental combustion aspects of single, isolated droplets under different pressures and ambient oxygen concentrations for a range of droplet sizes varying between 2 and 5 mm. The experiment elapsed time is shown at the bottom of the composite image. The DCE principal investigator was Forman Williams, University of California, San Diego. The experiment was part of the space research investigations conducted during the Microgravity Science Laboratory-1R mission (STS-94, July 1-17 1997). Advanced combustion experiments will be a part of investigations plarned for the International Space Station. (119KB JPEG, 658 x 982 pixels; downlinked video, higher quality not available) The MPG from which this composite was made is available at http://mix.msfc.nasa.gov/ABSTRACTS/MSFC-0300171.html.

  3. BP Reg Experiment Operations

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-04-07

    ISS043E091740 (04/07/2015) --- Expedition 43 Commander Terry Virts is seen here working inside of the Columbus laboratory on the Blood Pressure Regulation (BP Reg) experiment. Astronauts returning from long-duration space flights risk experiencing dizziness or fainting when they stand immediately after returning to Earth. This has an important health risk as it reduces the potential for astronauts to safely escape from an emergency situation. BP Reg will help researchers develop appropriate countermeasures so that astronauts returning from long-duration space flights will have very low risk of experiencing dizziness or fainting when they return to Earth.

  4. BP Reg Experiment Operations

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-04-07

    ISS043E091755 (04/07/2015) --- Expedition 43 Commander Terry Virts is seen here working inside of the Columbus laboratory on the Blood Pressure Regulation (BP Reg) experiment. Astronauts returning from long-duration space flights risk experiencing dizziness or fainting when they stand immediately after returning to Earth. This has an important health risk as it reduces the potential for astronauts to safely escape from an emergency situation. BP Reg will help researchers develop appropriate countermeasures so that astronauts returning from long-duration space flights will have very low risk of experiencing dizziness or fainting when they return to Earth.

  5. Co-operative transport by molecular motors.

    PubMed

    Berger, Florian; Keller, Corina; Müller, Melanie J I; Klumpp, Stefan; Lipowsky, Reinhard

    2011-10-01

    Intracellular transport is often driven co-operatively by several molecular motors, which may belong to one or several motor species. Understanding how these motors interact and what co-ordinates and regulates their movements is a central problem in studies of intracellular transport. A general theoretical framework for the analysis of such transport processes is described, which enables us to explain the behaviour of intracellular cargos by the transport properties of individual motors and their interactions. We review recent advances in the theoretical description of motor co-operativity and discuss related experimental results.

  6. Microgravity Transport Phenomena Experiment (MTPE) Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mason, Larry W.

    1999-01-01

    of constant cross sectional area, and to facilitate fluid filling and draining operations in microgravity. The fluid cells may be used singly for bulk solutions, or in a Stokes diaphragm configuration to investigate membrane mediated phenomena. Thermal and electrical driving potentials are applied to the experiment fluids through boundary plates located at the ends of the fluid cells. In the ground based instrument, two constant temperature baths circulate through reservoirs adjacent to the boundary plates, and establish the thermal environment within the fluid cells. The boundary plates also serve as electrodes for measurement and application of electrical potentials. The Fluid Manipulation System associated with the MTA is a computer controlled system that enables storage and transfer of experiment fluids during on orbit operations. The system is used to automatically initiate experiments and manipulate fluids by orchestrating pump and valve operations through scripted sequences. Unique technologies are incorporated in the MTA for measurement of fluid properties. Volumetric Flow Sensors have been developed for precision measurement of total fluid volume contained within the fluid cells over time. This data is most useful for measuring the kinetics of osmosis, where fluid is transported from one fluid cell to another through a semipermeable membrane. The MicroSensor Array has been designed to perform in situ measurement of several important fluid parameters, providing simultaneous measurement of solution composition at multiple locations within the experiment fluids. Micromachined sensors and interface electronics have been developed to measure temperature, electrical conductivity, pH, cation activity, and anion activity. The Profile Refractometer uses a laser optical system to directly image the fluid Index of Refraction profile that exists along the MTA fluid cell axis. A video system acquires images of the RI profile over time, and records the transport kinetics

  7. Catalog of Apollo experiment operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sullivan, Thomas A.

    1994-01-01

    This catalog reviews Apollo mission reports, preliminary science reports, technical crew debriefings, lunar surface operations plans, and various relevant lunar experiment documents, collecting engineering- and operation-specific information by experiment. It is organized by discrete experimental and equipment items emplaced or operated on the lunar surface or at zero gravity during the Apollo missions. It also attempts to summarize some of the general problems encountered on the surface and provides guidelines for the design of future lunar surface experiments with an eye toward operations. Many of the problems dealt with on the lunar surface originated from just a few novel conditions that manifested themselves in various nasty ways. Low gravity caused cables to stick up and get caught on feet, and also made it easy for instruments to tip over. Dust was a problem and caused abrasion, visibility, and thermal control difficulties. Operating in a pressure suit limited a person's activity, especially in the hands. I hope to capture with this document some of the lessons learned from the Apollo era to make the jobs of future astronauts, principle investigators, engineers, and operators of lunar experiments more productive.

  8. Comparing PRAs with operating experience

    SciTech Connect

    Picard, R.R.; Martz, H.F.

    1998-12-01

    Probabilistic Risk Assessment is widely used to estimate the frequencies of rare events, such as nuclear power plant accidents. An obvious question concerns the extent to which PRAs conform to operating experience--that is, do PRAs agree with reality? The authors discuss a formal methodology to address this issue and examine its performance using plant-specific data.

  9. HPRR operating experience and applications

    SciTech Connect

    Bailiff, E.G.; Sims, C.S.; Swaja, R.E.

    1986-01-01

    The Health Physics Research Reactor (HPRR) is a small, unmoderated fast pulse reactor located at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The HPRR is the principal research tool of ORNL's Dosimetry Applications Research (DOSAR) Group. The reactor is described, its operating experience is presented, and its major applications are discussed.

  10. Transport experiments with Dirac electrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Checkelsky, Joseph George

    This thesis presents transport experiments performed on solid state systems in which the behavior of the charge carriers can be described by the Dirac equation. Unlike the massive carriers in a typical material, in these systems the carriers behave like massless fermions with a photon-like dispersion predicted to greatly modify their spin and charge transport properties. The first system studied is graphene, a crystalline monolayer of carbon arranged in a hexagonal lattice. The band structure calculated from the hexagonal lattice has the form of the massless Dirac Hamiltonian. At the charge neutral Dirac point, we find that application of a magnetic field drives a transition to an insulating state. We also study the thermoelectric properties of graphene and find that the states near the Dirac point have a unique response compared to those at higher charge density. The second system is the 3D topological insulator Bi2Se3, where a Dirac-like dispersion for states on the 2D surface of the insulating 3D crystal arises as a result of the topology of the 3D bands and time reversal symmetry. To access the transport properties of the 2D states, we suppress the remnant bulk conduction channel by chemical doping and electrostatic gating. In bulk crystals we find strong quantum corrections to transport at low temperature when the bulk conduction channel is maximally suppressed. In microscopic crystals we are able better to isolate the surface conduction channel properties. We identify in-gap conducting states that have relatively high mobility compared to the bulk and exhibit weak anti-localization, consistent with predictions for protected 2D surface states with strong spin-orbit coupling.

  11. Microgravity Transport Phenomena Experiment (MTPE) Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mason, Larry W.

    1999-01-01

    of constant cross sectional area, and to facilitate fluid filling and draining operations in microgravity. The fluid cells may be used singly for bulk solutions, or in a Stokes diaphragm configuration to investigate membrane mediated phenomena. Thermal and electrical driving potentials are applied to the experiment fluids through boundary plates located at the ends of the fluid cells. In the ground based instrument, two constant temperature baths circulate through reservoirs adjacent to the boundary plates, and establish the thermal environment within the fluid cells. The boundary plates also serve as electrodes for measurement and application of electrical potentials. The Fluid Manipulation System associated with the MTA is a computer controlled system that enables storage and transfer of experiment fluids during on orbit operations. The system is used to automatically initiate experiments and manipulate fluids by orchestrating pump and valve operations through scripted sequences. Unique technologies are incorporated in the MTA for measurement of fluid properties. Volumetric Flow Sensors have been developed for precision measurement of total fluid volume contained within the fluid cells over time. This data is most useful for measuring the kinetics of osmosis, where fluid is transported from one fluid cell to another through a semipermeable membrane. The MicroSensor Array has been designed to perform in situ measurement of several important fluid parameters, providing simultaneous measurement of solution composition at multiple locations within the experiment fluids. Micromachined sensors and interface electronics have been developed to measure temperature, electrical conductivity, pH, cation activity, and anion activity. The Profile Refractometer uses a laser optical system to directly image the fluid Index of Refraction profile that exists along the MTA fluid cell axis. A video system acquires images of the RI profile over time, and records the transport kinetics

  12. Microgravity Transport Phenomena Experiment (MTPE) Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mason, Larry W.

    1999-01-01

    of constant cross sectional area, and to facilitate fluid filling and draining operations in microgravity. The fluid cells may be used singly for bulk solutions, or in a Stokes diaphragm configuration to investigate membrane mediated phenomena. Thermal and electrical driving potentials are applied to the experiment fluids through boundary plates located at the ends of the fluid cells. In the ground based instrument, two constant temperature baths circulate through reservoirs adjacent to the boundary plates, and establish the thermal environment within the fluid cells. The boundary plates also serve as electrodes for measurement and application of electrical potentials. The Fluid Manipulation System associated with the MTA is a computer controlled system that enables storage and transfer of experiment fluids during on orbit operations. The system is used to automatically initiate experiments and manipulate fluids by orchestrating pump and valve operations through scripted sequences. Unique technologies are incorporated in the MTA for measurement of fluid properties. Volumetric Flow Sensors have been developed for precision measurement of total fluid volume contained within the fluid cells over time. This data is most useful for measuring the kinetics of osmosis, where fluid is transported from one fluid cell to another through a semipermeable membrane. The MicroSensor Array has been designed to perform in situ measurement of several important fluid parameters, providing simultaneous measurement of solution composition at multiple locations within the experiment fluids. Micromachined sensors and interface electronics have been developed to measure temperature, electrical conductivity, pH, cation activity, and anion activity. The Profile Refractometer uses a laser optical system to directly image the fluid Index of Refraction profile that exists along the MTA fluid cell axis. A video system acquires images of the RI profile over time, and records the transport kinetics

  13. The SILEX experiment system operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Demelenne, B.

    1994-01-01

    The European Space Agency is going to conduct an inter orbit link experiment which will connect a low Earth orbiting satellite and a Geostationary satellite via optical terminals. This experiment has been called SILEX (Semiconductor Inter satellite Link EXperiment). Two payloads will be built. One called PASTEL (PASsager de TELecommunication) will be embarked on the French Earth observation satellite SPOT4. The future European experimental data relay satellite ARTEMIS (Advanced Relay and TEchnology MISsion) will carry the OPALE terminal (Optical PAyload Experiment). The principal characteristic of the mission is a 50 Megabits flow of data transmitted via the optical satellite link. The relay satellite will route the data via its feeder link thus permitting a real time reception in the European region of images taken by the observation satellite. The PASTEL terminal has been designed to cover up to 9 communication sessions per day with an average of 5. The number of daily contact opportunities with the low earth orbiting satellite will be increased and the duration will be much longer than the traditional passes over a ground station. The terminals have an autonomy of 24 hours with respect to ground control. Each terminal will contain its own orbit model and that of its counter terminal for orbit prediction and for precise computation of pointing direction. Due to the very narrow field of view of the communication laser beam, the orbit propagation calculation needs to be done with a very high accuracy. The European Space Agency is responsible for the operation of both terminals. A PASTEL Mission Control System (PMCS) is being developed to control the PASTEL terminal on board SPOT4. The PMCS will interface with the SPOT4 Control Centre for the execution of the PASTEL operations. The PMCS will also interface with the ARTEMIS Mission Control System for the planning and the coordination of the operation. It is the first time that laser technology will be used to support

  14. Operational considerations for the airship in short-haul transportation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, C. D.

    1975-01-01

    The airship's problems and the possibilities for their solution in a short-haul transportation environment are surveyed. The problems are derived from both past experience and envisioned operation. Problems relative to both fully buoyant and semi-buoyant configurations are considered and their origins in principle discussed. Also addressed in this paper are the state-of-the-art technologies with the potential of providing answers to the airship's operational difficulties.

  15. Spent fuel and HLW transportation the French experience

    SciTech Connect

    Giraud, J.P.; Charles, J.L.

    1995-12-31

    With 53 nuclear power plants in operation at EDF and a fuel cycle with recycling policy of the valuable materials, COGEMA is faced with the transport of a wide range of radioactive materials. In this framework, the transport activity is a key link in closing the fuel cycle. COGEMA has developed a comprehensive Transport Organization System dealing with all the sectors of the fuel cycle. The paper will describe the status of transportation of spent fuel and HLW in France and the experience gathered. The Transport Organization System clearly defines the role of all actors where COGEMA, acting as the general coordinator, specifies the tasks to be performed and brings technical and commercial support to its various subcontractors: TRANSNUCLEAIRE, specialized in casks engineering and transport operations, supplies packaging and performs transport operations, LEMARECHAL and CELESTIN operate transport by truck in the Vicinity of the nuclear sites while French Railways are in charge of spent fuel transport by train. HLW issued from the French nuclear program is stored for 30 years in an intermediate storage installation located at the La Hague reprocessing plant. Ultimately, these canisters will be transported to the disposal site. COGEMA has set up a comprehensive transport organization covering all operational aspects including adapted procedures, maintenance programs and personnel qualification.

  16. Preliminary description of the transportation operations systems

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-03-01

    This document presents a preliminary description of the transportation operations systems designed to ship spent fuel and high-level waste (HLW) from waste generator sites to authorized waste receiving facilities. It is an initial effort to define the operations system and identifies the activities and system components necessary to provide complete transportation capability. It is intended that this be a project level working document to facilitate dialog for further identification of system elements and functional requirements. This process will lead to issuance of a System Requirements and Description (SRD) document for the transportation operations systems and will identify detailed system functional requirements, performance criteria, and functional interfaces. The transportation system is quite complex and is influenced by a large number of external factors and interfaces. Some of these interfaces (such as the repository) are just now being developed. Others (such as utility-handling capabilities) are currently in existence and must be accommodated or modified. Additionally, the allocation of requirements is likewise both developing (with the repository) and somewhat fixed. 16 refs., 15 figs., 12 tabs.

  17. Stack Monitor Operating Experience Review

    SciTech Connect

    L. C. Cadwallader; S. A. Bruyere

    2009-05-01

    Stack monitors are used to sense radioactive particulates and gases in effluent air being vented from rooms of nuclear facilities. These monitors record the levels and types of effluents to the environment. This paper presents the results of a stack monitor operating experience review of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Occurrence Reporting and Processing System (ORPS) database records from the past 18 years. Regulations regarding these monitors are briefly described. Operating experiences reported by the U.S. DOE and in engineering literature sources were reviewed to determine the strengths and weaknesses of these monitors. Electrical faults, radiation instrumentation faults, and human errors are the three leading causes of failures. A representative “all modes” failure rate is 1E-04/hr. Repair time estimates vary from an average repair time of 17.5 hours (with spare parts on hand) to 160 hours (without spare parts on hand). These data should support the use of stack monitors in any nuclear facility, including the National Ignition Facility and the international ITER project.

  18. Small Aircraft Transportation System, Higher Volume Operations Concept: Normal Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbott, Terence S.; Jones, Kenneth M.; Consiglio, Maria C.; Williams, Daniel M.; Adams, Catherine A.

    2004-01-01

    This document defines the Small Aircraft Transportation System (SATS), Higher Volume Operations (HVO) concept for normal conditions. In this concept, a block of airspace would be established around designated non-towered, non-radar airports during periods of poor weather. Within this new airspace, pilots would take responsibility for separation assurance between their aircraft and other similarly equipped aircraft. Using onboard equipment and procedures, they would then approach and land at the airport. Departures would be handled in a similar fashion. The details for this operational concept are provided in this document.

  19. Transportable Xenon Laboratory (TXL-1) Operations Manual

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, Robert C.; Stewart, Timothy L.; Willett, Jesse A.; Woods, Vincent T.

    2011-03-07

    The Transportable Xenon Laboratory Operations Manual is a guide to set up and shut down TXL, a fully contained laboratory made up of instruments to identify and measure concentrations of the radioactive isotopes of xenon by taking air samples and analyzing them. The TXL is housed in a standard-sized shipping container. TXL can be shipped to and function in any country in the world.

  20. Transport systems research vehicle color display system operations manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Easley, Wesley C.; Johnson, Larry E.

    1989-01-01

    A recent upgrade of the Transport Systems Research Vehicle operated by the Advanced Transport Operating Systems Program Office at the NASA Langley Research Center has resulted in an all-glass panel in the research flight deck. Eight ARINC-D size CRT color displays make up the panel. A major goal of the display upgrade effort was ease of operation and maintenance of the hardware while maintaining versatility needed for flight research. Software is the key to this required versatility and will be the area demanding the most detailed technical design expertise. This document is is intended to serve as a single source of quick reference information needed for routine operation and system level maintenance. Detailed maintenance and modification of the display system will require specific design documentation and must be accomplished by individuals with specialized knowledge and experience.

  1. A space transportation system operations model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, W. Douglas; White, Nancy H.

    1987-01-01

    Presented is a description of a computer program which permits assessment of the operational support requirements of space transportation systems functioning in both a ground- and space-based environment. The scenario depicted provides for the delivery of payloads from Earth to a space station and beyond using upper stages based at the station. Model results are scenario dependent and rely on the input definitions of delivery requirements, task times, and available resources. Output is in terms of flight rate capabilities, resource requirements, and facility utilization. A general program description, program listing, input requirements, and sample output are included.

  2. Operating systems in the air transportation environment.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cherry, G. W.

    1971-01-01

    Consideration of the problems facing air transport at present, and to be expected in the future. In the Northeast Corridor these problems involve community acceptance, airway and airport congestion and delays, passenger acceptance, noise reduction, and improvements in low-density short-haul economics. In the development of a superior short-haul operating system, terminal-configured vs cruise-configured vehicles are evaluated. CTOL, STOL, and VTOL aircraft of various types are discussed. In the field of noise abatement, it is shown that flight procedural techniques are capable of supplementing ?quiet engine' technology.

  3. Operational Amplifier Experiments for the Chemistry Laboratory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braun, Robert D.

    1996-01-01

    Provides details of experiments that deal with the use of operational amplifiers and are part of a course in instrumental analysis. These experiments are performed after the completion of a set of electricity and electronics experiments. (DDR)

  4. Operational Amplifier Experiments for the Chemistry Laboratory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braun, Robert D.

    1996-01-01

    Provides details of experiments that deal with the use of operational amplifiers and are part of a course in instrumental analysis. These experiments are performed after the completion of a set of electricity and electronics experiments. (DDR)

  5. Electrical Transport Experiments at High Pressure

    SciTech Connect

    Weir, S

    2009-02-11

    High-pressure electrical measurements have a long history of use in the study of materials under ultra-high pressures. In recent years, electrical transport experiments have played a key role in the study of many interesting high pressure phenomena including pressure-induced superconductivity, insulator-to-metal transitions, and quantum critical behavior. High-pressure electrical transport experiments also play an important function in geophysics and the study of the Earth's interior. Besides electrical conductivity measurements, electrical transport experiments also encompass techniques for the study of the optoelectronic and thermoelectric properties of materials under high pressures. In addition, electrical transport techniques, i.e., the ability to extend electrically conductive wires from outside instrumentation into the high pressure sample chamber have been utilized to perform other types of experiments as well, such as high-pressure magnetic susceptibility and de Haas-van Alphen Fermi surface experiments. Finally, electrical transport techniques have also been utilized for delivering significant amounts of electrical power to high pressure samples, for the purpose of performing high-pressure and -temperature experiments. Thus, not only do high-pressure electrical transport experiments provide much interesting and valuable data on the physical properties of materials extreme compression, but the underlying high-pressure electrical transport techniques can be used in a number of ways to develop additional diagnostic techniques and to advance high pressure capabilities.

  6. Environmental aspects of marine transport operations

    SciTech Connect

    Potter, I.J.; Reader, G.T.; Bowen, C.E.

    1995-12-31

    The oceans have been used for almost five thousand years for military purposes, for the transportation of goods and people and, especially in this century, for recreational activities. Today the oceanic seaways still provide a vitally important transportation system and probably always will. They also contain rich resources of food, energy and minerals which have yet to be fully exploited but there is already growing concern that they are being contaminated by pollution originating not only from the populated coastal areas but also from the actual use of the seas by marine vehicles. The waste generated in shipping activities has invariably been dumped into the oceans, often indiscriminately and in ignorance of the effects. However, increasing environmental awareness has now led the civilian and military marine transportation sectors to focus on the elimination of ship based environmental hazards. These hazards can take the form of atmospheric pollution, such as exhaust gases, or seawater pollution, such as sewage discharge and garbage disposal. The environmentally unfriendly discharges from vessels are not always intentional, for example, grease from the steering mechanism and erosion of the toxic anti-fouling hull paint have only been recently identified as harmful agents. The purpose of this paper is to review the actual and potential environmental problem associated with the operation of both surface ships and underwater vehicles. In addition, techniques and problems associated with the control or elimination of the hazards are discussed and areas for future research identified.

  7. Transportation Safety Excellence in Operations Through Improved Transportation Safety Document

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Michael A. Lehto; MAL

    2007-05-01

    A recent accomplishment of the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Materials and Fuels Complex (MFC) Nuclear Safety analysis group was to obtain DOE-ID approval for the inter-facility transfer of greater-than-Hazard-Category-3 quantity radioactive/fissionable waste in Department of Transportation (DOT) Type A drums at MFC. This accomplishment supported excellence in operations through safety analysis by better integrating nuclear safety requirements with waste requirements in the Transportation Safety Document (TSD); reducing container and transport costs; and making facility operations more efficient. The MFC TSD governs and controls the inter-facility transfer of greater-than-Hazard-Category-3 radioactive and/or fissionable materials in non-DOT approved containers. Previously, the TSD did not include the capability to transfer payloads of greater-than-Hazard-Category-3 radioactive and/or fissionable materials using DOT Type A drums. Previous practice was to package the waste materials to less-than-Hazard-Category-3 quantities when loading DOT Type A drums for transfer out of facilities to reduce facility waste accumulations. This practice allowed operations to proceed, but resulted in drums being loaded to less than the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) waste acceptance criteria (WAC) waste limits, which was not cost effective or operations friendly. An improved and revised safety analysis was used to gain DOE-ID approval for adding this container configuration to the MFC TSD safety basis. In the process of obtaining approval of the revised safety basis, safety analysis practices were used effectively to directly support excellence in operations. Several factors contributed to the success of MFC’s effort to obtain approval for the use of DOT Type A drums, including two practices that could help in future safety basis changes at other facilities. 1) The process of incorporating the DOT Type A drums into the TSD at MFC helped to better integrate nuclear safety

  8. Tripol condensate polishing - operational experience

    SciTech Connect

    Swainsbury, D.

    1995-01-01

    This paper gives a brief outline of the Mission Energy Management Australia Company who operate and maintain the Loy Yang B Power Station in the Latrobe Valley, Victoria, Australia. Details of the plant configuration, the water/steam circuit and cycle chemistry are discussed. The arrangement of the TRIPOL Condensate Polishing Plant and it`s operational modes are examined. Results of the first twelve months operation of the TRIPOL plant are detailed. Levels of crud removal during early commissioning phases employing the pre-filter are presented. Typical parameters achieved during a simulated condenser leak and an operational run beyond the ammonia break point are also documented.

  9. Terminal-area STOL operating systems experiments program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, D. W.; Watson, D.; Christensen, J. V.

    1972-01-01

    A system study to determine the application of short takeoff aircraft for a high speed, short haul air transportation service was conducted. The study focused on developing information which will aid in choosing system concepts, design criteria, operating procedures, landing guidance systems, air traffic control systems, and airborne avionics and flight control systems. A terminal area STOL operating system experiments program was developed. The objectives, program approach, program schedule, typical experiments, research facilities to be used, and program status are discussed.

  10. Operating experience feedback program at Olkiluoto NPP

    SciTech Connect

    Kosonen, Mikko

    2002-07-01

    Recent review and development of the operating experience feedback program will be described. The development of the program has been based on several reviews by outside organizations. Main conclusions from these review reports and from the self assessment of safety performance, safety problems and safety culture on the basis of the operational events made by ASSET-method will be described. An approach to gather and analyze small events - so-called near misses - will be described. The operating experience program has been divided into internal and external operating experience. ASSET-methodology and a computer program assisting the analysis are used for the internal operating experience events. Noteworthy incidents occurred during outage are analyzed also by ASSET-method. Screening and pre analysis of the external operating experience relies on co-operation with ERFATOM, an organization of Nordic utilities for the exchange of nuclear industry experience. A short presentation on the performance of the Olkiluoto units will conclude the presentation. (author)

  11. Operational experience with superconducting synchrotron magnets

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, P.S.

    1987-03-01

    The operational experience with the Fermilab Tevatron is presented, with emphasis on reliability and failure modes. Comprisons are made between the operating efficiencies for the superconducting machine and for he conventional Main Ring.

  12. Magnet operating experience review for fusion applications

    SciTech Connect

    Cadwallader, L.C.

    1991-11-01

    This report presents a review of magnet operating experiences for normal-conducting and superconducting magnets from fusion, particle accelerator, medical technology, and magnetohydrodynamics research areas. Safety relevant magnet operating experiences are presented to provide feedback on field performance of existing designs and to point out the operational safety concerns. Quantitative estimates of magnet component failure rates and accident event frequencies are also presented, based on field experience and on performance of similar components in other industries.

  13. Magnet operating experience review for fusion applications

    SciTech Connect

    Cadwallader, L.C.

    1991-11-01

    This report presents a review of magnet operating experiences for normal-conducting and superconducting magnets from fusion, particle accelerator, medical technology, and magnetohydrodynamics research areas. Safety relevant magnet operating experiences are presented to provide feedback on field performance of existing designs and to point out the operational safety concerns. Quantitative estimates of magnet component failure rates and accident event frequencies are also presented, based on field experience and on performance of similar components in other industries.

  14. Transport Experiments on Topological Insulators

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-08-16

    compounds that may exhibit Weyl physics and the chiral anomaly. In a different direction, Murakami has proposed that Weyl nodes always appear when the...been extended to the composition x(Sn) = 0.5. A major motivation for these experiments is a recent theory by Murakami et al. who predict that all...significantly the range of compounds that may exhibit Weyl physics and the chiral anomaly. In a different direction, Murakami has proposed that Weyl nodes

  15. Air medical transportation in India: Our experience

    PubMed Central

    Khurana, Himanshu; Mehta, Yatin; Dubey, Sunil

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims: Long distance air travel for medical needs is on the increase worldwide. The condition of some patients necessitates specially modified aircraft, and monitoring and interventions during transport by trained medical personnel. This article presents our experience in domestic and international interhospital air medical transportation from January 2010 to January 2014. Material and Methods: Hospital records of all air medical transportation undertaken to the institute during the period were analyzed for demographics, primary etiology, and events during transport. Results: 586 patients, 453 (77.3%) males and 133 (22.6%) females of ages 46.7 ± 12.6 years and 53.4 ± 9.7 years were transported by us to the institute. It took 3030 flying hours with an average of 474 ± 72 min for each mission. The most common indication for transport was cardiovascular diseases in 210 (35.8%) and central nervous system disease in 120 (20.4%) cases. The overall complication rate was 5.3% There was no transport related mortality. Conclusion: Cardiac and central nervous system ailments are the most common indication for air medical transportation. These patients may need attention and interventions as any critical patient in the hospital but in a difficult environment lacking space and help. Air medical transport carries no more risk than ground transportation. PMID:27625486

  16. Bacterial Transport Experiments in Fractured Crystalline Bedrock

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Becker, M.W.; Metge, D.W.; Collins, S.A.; Shapiro, A.M.; Harvey, R.W.

    2003-01-01

    The efficiency of contaminant biodegradation in ground water depends, in part, on the transport properties of the degrading bacteria. Few data exist concerning the transport of bacteria in saturated bedrock, particularly at the field scale. Bacteria and microsphere tracer experiments were conducted in a fractured crystalline bedrock under forced-gradient conditions over a distance of 36 m. Bacteria isolated from the local ground water were chosen on the basis of physicochemical and physiological differences (shape, cell-wall type, motility), and were differentially stained so that their transport behavior could be compared. No two bacterial strains transported in an identical manner, and microspheres produced distinctly different breakthrough curves than bacteria. Although there was insufficient control in this field experiment to completely separate the effects of bacteria shape, reaction to Gram staining, cell size, and motility on transport efficiency, it was observed that (1) the nonmotile, mutant strain exhibited better fractional recovery than the motile parent strain; (2) Gram-negative rod-shaped bacteria exhibited higher fractional recovery relative to the Gram-positive rod-shaped strain of similar size; and (3) coccoidal (spherical-shaped) bacteria transported better than all but one strain of the rod-shaped bacteria. The field experiment must be interpreted in the context of the specific bacterial strains and ground water environment in which they were conducted, but experimental results suggest that minor differences in the physical properties of bacteria can lead to major differences in transport behavior at the field scale.

  17. The JPL telerobot operator control station: Operational experiences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kan, Edwin P.

    1990-01-01

    The Operator Control Station of the JPL/NASA Telerobot Demonstration System provides an efficient man-machine interface for the performance of telerobot tasks. Its hardware and software have been designed with high flexibility. It provides a feedback-rich interactive environment in which the Operator performs teleoperation tasks, robotic tasks, and telerobotic tasks with ease. The to-date operational experiences of this system, particularly related to the Object Designate Process and the Voice Input/Output Process are discussed.

  18. An Operational Perspective of Challenging Statistical Dogma While Establishing a Modern, Secure Distributed Data Management and Imaging Transport System: The Pediatric Brain Tumor Consortium Phase I Experience

    PubMed Central

    Onar, Arzu; Ramamurthy, Uma; Wallace, Dana; Boyett, James M.

    2009-01-01

    Abstract The Pediatric Brain Tumor Consortium (PBTC) is a multidisciplinary cooperative research organization devoted to the study of correlative tumor biology and new therapies for primary central nervous system (CNS) tumors of childhood. The PBTC was created in 1999 to conduct early‐phase studies in a rapid fashion in order to provide sound scientific foundation for the Children's Oncology Group to conduct definitive trials. The Operations and Biostatistics Center (OBC) of the PBTC is responsible for centrally administering study design and trial development, study conduct and monitoring, data collection and management as well as various regulatory and compliance processes. The phase I designs utilized for the consortium trials have accommodated challenges unique to pediatric trials such as body surface area (BSA)‐based dosing in the absence of pediatric formulations of oral agents. Further during the past decade, the OBC has developed and implemented a state‐of‐the‐art secure and efficient internet‐based paperless distributed data management system. Additional web‐based systems are also in place for tracking and distributing correlative study data as well as neuroimaging files. These systems enable effective communications among the members of the consortium and facilitate the conduct and timely reporting of multi‐institutional early‐phase clinical trials. PMID:20443880

  19. Transportation requirements for drilling operations on the Arctic North Slope of Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Gulick, J.F.

    1983-12-01

    Drilling on Alaska's Arctic North Slope poses a number of interesting operational problems, including transporting and supporting drilling rigs to their respective locations. Sohio Alaska Petroleum Co. has extensive experience in transporting and supporting drilling rigs in development operations (Prudhoe Bay) and exploration locations both on- and offshore Alaska's North Slope. This paper addresses how arctic drilling rigs are transported to development locations within the Prudhoe bay unit and to remote on and off shore locations.

  20. The uvulopalatopharyngoplasty operation: the Edinburgh experience.

    PubMed Central

    Sharp, J F; Jalaludin, M; Murray, J A; Maran, A G

    1990-01-01

    The experience of the uvulopalatopharyngoplasty operation, performed on 24 patients for the relief of loud or heroic snoring, is presented. The operation successfully reduced the severity of snoring in 96% of patients. Postoperative complications were uncommon but included nasal regurgitation and intrapharyngeal adhesions in one patient. The role of the uvulopalatopharyngoplasty operation in the treatment of obstructive sleep apnoea is undecided but the authors do not perform this operation on such patients. PMID:2213805

  1. Spacelab operations planning. [ground handling, launch, flight and experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, T. J.

    1976-01-01

    The paper reviews NASA planning in the fields of ground, launch and flight operations and experiment integration to effectively operate Spacelab. Payload mission planning is discussed taking consideration of orbital analysis and the mission of a multiuser payload which may be either single or multidiscipline. Payload analytical integration - as active process of analyses to ensure that the experiment payload is compatible to the mission objectives and profile ground and flight operations and that the resource demands upon Spacelab can be satisfied - is considered. Software integration is touched upon and the major integration levels in ground operational processing of Spacelab and its experimental payloads are examined. Flight operations, encompassing the operation of the Space Transportation System and the payload, are discussed as are the initial Spacelab missions. Charts and diagrams are presented illustrating the various planning areas.

  2. Experiment module concepts study. Volume 2: Experiments and mission operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macdonald, J. M.

    1970-01-01

    The baseline experiment program is concerned with future space experiments and cover the scientific disciplines of astronomy, space physics, space biology, biomedicine and biotechnology, earth applications, materials science, and advanced technology. The experiments within each discipline are grouped into functional program elements according to experiments that support a particular area of research or investigation and experiments that impose similar or related demand on space station support systems. The experiment requirements on module subsystems, experiment operating modes and time profiles, and the role of the astronaut are discussed. Launch and rendezvous with the space station, disposal, and on-orbit operations are delineated. The operational interfaces between module and other system elements are presented and include space station and logistic system interfaces. Preliminary launch and on-orbit environmental criteria and requirements are discussed, and experiment equipment weights by functional program elements are tabulated.

  3. A database containing operational experience in spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callaghan, Thomas; Gosbee, John; Adam, Susan C.

    1991-01-01

    A relational data base, called the Operational Experience Data Base, was constructed to electronically store and organize human-factors information from the Skylab and Space Shuttle missions. The taxonomy used to organize this data base builds on the one used for the Skylab human-machine experiments. This information can be used by NASA engineers and operations personnel to remedy design problems, or expand on design successes. Work to improve and expand the data base is underway.

  4. Synthesized voice approach callouts for air transport operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simpson, C. A.

    1980-01-01

    A flight simulation experiment was performed to determine the effectiveness of synthesized voice approach callouts for air transport operations. Flight deck data was first collected on scheduled air carrier operations to describe existing pilot-not-flying callout procedures in the flight context and to document the types and amounts of other auditory cockpit information during different types of air carrier operations. A flight simulation scenario for a wide-body jet transport airline training simulator was developed in collaboration with a major U.S. air carrier and flown by three-man crews of qualified line pilots as part of their normally scheduled recurrent training. Each crew flew half their approaches using the experimental synthesized voice approach callout system (SYNCALL) and the other half using the company pilot-not-flying approach callout procedures (PNF). Airspeed and sink rate performance was better with the SYNCALL system than with the PNF system for non-precision approaches. For the one-engine approach, for which SYNCALL made inappropriate deviation callouts, airspeed performance was worse with SYNCALL than with PNF. Reliability of normal altitude approach callouts was comparable for PNF on the line and in the simulator and for SYNCALL in the simulator.

  5. 14 CFR 135.244 - Operating experience.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... REQUIREMENTS: COMMUTER AND ON DEMAND OPERATIONS AND RULES GOVERNING PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Flight... completion of the appropriate ground and flight training for the aircraft and crewmember position. Approved... under this part, operating experience acquired in the aircraft during proving flights or ferry...

  6. 14 CFR 135.244 - Operating experience.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... REQUIREMENTS: COMMUTER AND ON DEMAND OPERATIONS AND RULES GOVERNING PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Flight... completion of the appropriate ground and flight training for the aircraft and crewmember position. Approved... under this part, operating experience acquired in the aircraft during proving flights or ferry...

  7. 14 CFR 135.244 - Operating experience.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... REQUIREMENTS: COMMUTER AND ON DEMAND OPERATIONS AND RULES GOVERNING PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Flight... completion of the appropriate ground and flight training for the aircraft and crewmember position. Approved... under this part, operating experience acquired in the aircraft during proving flights or ferry...

  8. 14 CFR 135.244 - Operating experience.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... REQUIREMENTS: COMMUTER AND ON DEMAND OPERATIONS AND RULES GOVERNING PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Flight... completion of the appropriate ground and flight training for the aircraft and crewmember position. Approved... under this part, operating experience acquired in the aircraft during proving flights or ferry...

  9. 14 CFR 135.244 - Operating experience.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... REQUIREMENTS: COMMUTER AND ON DEMAND OPERATIONS AND RULES GOVERNING PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Flight... completion of the appropriate ground and flight training for the aircraft and crewmember position. Approved... under this part, operating experience acquired in the aircraft during proving flights or ferry...

  10. MIT January Operational Internship Experience 2011

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeLatte, Danielle; Furhmann, Adam; Habib, Manal; Joujon-Roche, Cecily; Opara, Nnaemeka; Pasterski, Sabrina Gonzalez; Powell, Christina; Wimmer, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the 2011 January Operational Internship experience (JOIE) program which allows students to study operational aspects of spaceflight, how design affects operations and systems engineering in practice for 3 weeks. Topics include: (1) Systems Engineering (2) NASA Organization (3) Workforce Core Values (4) Human Factors (5) Safety (6) Lean Engineering (7) NASA Now (8) Press, Media, and Outreach and (9) Future of Spaceflight.

  11. 32 CFR 245.18 - Transportation security operations center (TSOC).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... DEFENSE (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS PLAN FOR THE EMERGENCY SECURITY CONTROL OF AIR TRAFFIC (ESCAT) Procedures for Implementation of ESCAT § 245.18 Transportation security operations center (TSOC). TSOC will... 32 National Defense 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Transportation security operations center (TSOC...

  12. Public transportation 1995: Current research in operations. Transportation research record

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-31

    ;Contents: Metromover Extensions and Downtown Bus Service in Miami; Electric Bus Operation and Evaluation in California; Assessment of Alternative Structures for Privately Operated Bus Systems; Bus Priority at Traffic Signals in Portland: The Powell Boulevard Pilot Project; Transit Vehicle-Type Scheduling Problem; Optimal Mixed Bus Fleet for Urban Operations; Operational Characteristics of Paratransit in Developing Countries of Asia; Economics of Electric Trolley Coach Operation; Evaluation of Visual Impacts of Trolleybus Overhead Caternary System Intersections; Electric and Magnetic Fields and Electric Transit Systems; Diverting Automobile Users to Transit: Early Lessons from the Chicago Transit Authority`s Orange Line; Street-Running Rail Transit: A Historical Perspective; Diesel or Electric Power for Commuter Rail; It Depends; Generic Objectives for Evaluation of Intermodal Passenger Transfer Facilities; Airport Ground Access: Rail Transit Alternatives; Retrofit Techniques for Floating Slab Track; Calgary Light Rail Transit Surface Operations and Grade-Level Crossings; and Cost of Light Rail Collision Accidents.

  13. Mass Transportation Operators' Beliefs about Visual Impairment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Almon, Pamela A.

    2001-01-01

    A study investigated 171 mass transit operators' beliefs about blindness and the factors that may influence their beliefs. There were statistically significant differences among transit operators' beliefs on the basis of the operators' ethnicity. White participants had significantly fewer irrational beliefs about blindness than Hispanic and…

  14. Mass Transportation Operators' Beliefs about Visual Impairment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Almon, Pamela A.

    2001-01-01

    A study investigated 171 mass transit operators' beliefs about blindness and the factors that may influence their beliefs. There were statistically significant differences among transit operators' beliefs on the basis of the operators' ethnicity. White participants had significantly fewer irrational beliefs about blindness than Hispanic and…

  15. The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Transportation Operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    Ready for transportation to the Kennedy Space Center, the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) is pictured onboard the strongback dolly at the Vertical Processing Facility (VPF) at the Lockheed assembly plant upon completion of final testing and verification.

  16. Nova pulse power design and operational experience

    SciTech Connect

    Whitham, K.; Larson, D.; Merritt, B.; Christie, D.

    1987-01-01

    Nova is a 100 TW Nd/sup + +/ solid state laser designed for experiments with laser fusion at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The pulsed power for Nova includes a 58 MJ capacitor bank driving 5336 flashlamps with millisecond pulses and subnanosecond high voltages for electro optics. This paper summarizes the pulsed power designs and the operational experience to date.

  17. Nova pulse power design and operational experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitham, K.; Larson, D.; Merritt, B.; Christie, D.

    1987-01-01

    Nova is a 100 TW Nd++ solid state laser designed for experiments with laser fusion at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The pulsed power for Nova includes a 58 MJ capacitor bank driving 5336 flashlamps with millisecond pulses and subnanosecond high voltages for electro optics. This paper summarizes the pulsed power designs and the operational experience to date.

  18. Accelerator/Experiment operations - FY 2004

    SciTech Connect

    Bromberg, C.; Conrad, J.; Denisov, D.; Holmes, S.; Louis, W.; Meyer, A.; Moore, Craig D.; Raja, R.; Ramberg, E.; Roser, R.; /Fermilab

    2004-12-01

    This Technical Memorandum (TM) summarizes the accelerator and experiment operations for FY 2004. It is one of a series of annual publications intended to gather information in one place. In this case, the information concerns the FY 2004 Run II at the Tevatron Collider, the MiniBooNE neutrino experiment, and SY 120 activities.

  19. Operating and maintenance experience in tritium environments

    SciTech Connect

    Tuer, G.L.

    1987-01-01

    This presentation is a summary of practical experience gained over more than twenty years from analyzing failures of process equipment operated in tritium and deuterium environments. Significant improvements have been achieved in design and procurement of new equipment, testing and selection of materials, and gradually more favorable maintenance experience. Preferred materials and inspection methods are described. 6 tabs.

  20. Transportation Telematics Systems Operation Efficiency Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siergiejczyk, Mirosław

    2012-03-01

    In the paper is presented a method of assessing of the exploitation efficiency of transport telematics systems. In order to obtain as an overall assessment of transport telematics systems, as the method for evaluating was accepted the multi-state analysis of the exploitation process. Then was elaborated the model of exploitation process of the telematics system. The problem of fundamental importance in the study of efficiency is to determine the partial measures of effectiveness. Using the characteristics of the exploitation process, a model of exploitation efficiency of telematics system was elaborated and the measures of its evaluation are presented.

  1. Accelerator/Experiment Operations - FY 2014

    SciTech Connect

    Czarapata, P.; Geer, S.; Geesaman, D.; Harris, D.; Lang, K.; McFarland, K.; Moore, C. D.; Nagaitsev, S.; Plunkett, R.; Reimer, P.; Schmidt, J. J.; Soha, A. K.; Tayloe, R.; Thomas, J.; Torretta, D.; Van de Water, R.

    2014-10-01

    This Technical Memorandum (TM) summarizes the Fermilab accelerator and accelerator experiment operations for FY 2014. It is one of a series of annual publications intended to gather information in one place. In this case, the information concerns the FY 2014 MINOS and MINERvA experiments using the Main Injector Neutrino Beam (NuMI), the MiniBooNE experiment running in the Booster Neutrino Beam (BNB), and the SeaQuest experiment and Meson Test Beam (MTest) activities in the 120 GeV external Switchyard beam (SY120). Each section was prepared by the relevant authors, and was somewhat edited for inclusion in this summary.

  2. Concept of Operation for Waste Transport, Emplacement, and Retrieval

    SciTech Connect

    Norman T. Raczka

    2001-07-02

    The preparation of this technical report has two objectives. The first objective is to discuss the base case concepts of waste transport, emplacement, and retrieval operations and evaluate these operations relative to a lower-temperature repository design. Aspects of the operations involved in waste transport, emplacement and retrieval may be affected by the lower-temperature operating schemes. This report evaluates the effects the lower-temperature alternatives may have on the operational concepts involved in emplacing and retrieving waste. The second objective is to provide backup material for the design description, in a traceable and defensible format, for Section 2 of the Waste Emplacement/Retrieval System Description Document.

  3. Operation Heli-STAR - Atlanta Communications Experiment (ACE). Volume 9

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Operation Heli-STAR (Helicopter Short-Haul Transportation and Aviation Research) was established and operated in Atlanta, Georgia, during the period of the 1996 Centennial Olympic Games. Heli-STAR had three major thrusts: (1) the establishment and operation of a helicopter-based cargo transportation system, (2) the management of low-altitude air traffic in the airspace of an urban area, and (3) the collection and analysis of research and development data associated with items 1 and 2. Heli-STAR was a cooperative industry/government program that included parcel package shippers and couriers in the Atlanta area, the helicopter industry, aviation electronics manufacturers, the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), and support contractors. Several detailed reports have been produced as a result of Operation Heli-STAR. These include four reports on acoustic measurements and associated analyses, and reports on the Heli-STAR tracking data including the data processing and retrieval system, the Heli-STAR cargo simulation, and the community response system. In addition, NASA's Advanced General Aviation Transport Experiments (AGATE) program has produced a report describing the Atlanta Communications Experiment (ACE) which produced the avionics and ground equipment using automatic dependent surveillance-broadcast (ADS-B) technology. This latter report is restricted to organizations belonging to NASA's AGATE industry consortium. A complete list of these reports is shown on the following page.

  4. Operation Heli-STAR - Atlanta Communications Experiment (ACE). Volume 9

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Operation Heli-STAR (Helicopter Short-Haul Transportation and Aviation Research) was established and operated in Atlanta, Georgia, during the period of the 1996 Centennial Olympic Games. Heli-STAR had three major thrusts: (1) the establishment and operation of a helicopter-based cargo transportation system, (2) the management of low-altitude air traffic in the airspace of an urban area, and (3) the collection and analysis of research and development data associated with items 1 and 2. Heli-STAR was a cooperative industry/government program that included parcel package shippers and couriers in the Atlanta area, the helicopter industry, aviation electronics manufacturers, the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), and support contractors. Several detailed reports have been produced as a result of Operation Heli-STAR. These include four reports on acoustic measurements and associated analyses, and reports on the Heli-STAR tracking data including the data processing and retrieval system, the Heli-STAR cargo simulation, and the community response system. In addition, NASA's Advanced General Aviation Transport Experiments (AGATE) program has produced a report describing the Atlanta Communications Experiment (ACE) which produced the avionics and ground equipment using automatic dependent surveillance-broadcast (ADS-B) technology. This latter report is restricted to organizations belonging to NASA's AGATE industry consortium. A complete list of these reports is shown on the following page.

  5. Some experiences with BEPCII SRF system operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Tong-ming; Lin, Hai-ying; Sun, Yi; Dai, Jian-ping; Wang, Guang-wei; Pan, Wei-min Li, Zhong-quan; Ma, Qiang; Wang, Qun-yao; Zhao, Guang-yuan; Mi, Zheng-hui; Sha, Peng

    2016-06-01

    The Superconducting Radio Frequency (SRF) system of the upgrade project of the Beijing Electron Positron Collider (BEPCII) has been in operation for almost 8 years. During operation, many problems have been encountered, such as excessive heating of the power couplers, frequent beam trips during high intensity colliding, false arc interlock trigger and so on. Among them, some has been solved successfully, some have been alleviated. This paper will describe some experiences with BEPCII SRF system operation, including the symptoms, causes and solutions of problems.

  6. Accelerator/Experiment operations - FY 2006

    SciTech Connect

    Brice, S.; Conrad, J.; Denisov, D.; Ginther, G.; Holmes, S.; James, C.; Lee, W.; Louis, W.; Moore, C.; Plunkett, R.; Raja, R.; /Fermilab

    2006-10-01

    This Technical Memorandum (TM) summarizes the Fermilab accelerator and experiment operations for FY 2006. It is one of a series of annual publications intended to gather information in one place. In this case, the information concerns the FY 2006 Run II at the Tevatron Collider, the MiniBooNE experiments running in the Booster Neutrino Beam in neutrino and antineutrino modes, MINOS using the Main Injector Neutrino Beam (NuMI), and SY 120 activities.

  7. Effectiveness evaluation of STOL transport operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hitt, E. F.; Bruckner, J. M. H.; Drago, V. J.; Brown, R. A.; Rea, F. G.; Porter, R. F.

    1973-01-01

    A short-takeoff and landing (STOL) systems simulation model has been developed and implemented in a computer code (known as STOL OPS) which permits evaluation of the operation of a STOL aircraft and its avionics in a commercial airline operating environment. STOL OPS concentrated on the avionics functions of navigation, guidance, control, communication, hazard aviodance, and systems management. External world factors influencing the operation of the STOL aircraft include each airport and its geometry, air traffic at each airport, air traffic control equipment and procedures, weather (including winds and visibility), and the flight path between each airport served by the route. The development of the STOL OPS program provides NASA a set of computer programs which can be used for detailed analysis of a STOL aircraft and its avionics and permit establishment of system requirements as a function of airline mission performance goals.

  8. NASA Space Program experience in hydrogen transportation and handling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bain, A. L.

    1976-01-01

    This paper portrays the experience gained in the transportation and handling of hydrogen in support of the Apollo launch site at Kennedy Space Center (KSC), Fla., one of NASA's prime hydrogen users in the Space Program. The objective of the paper is basically to reveal the types of systems involved in handling hydrogen, safety practices, operational techniques, other general experience information, and primarily to convey the routinism by which this potential fuel of the future has already been handled in significant quantities for a number of years.

  9. Nevada commercial spent nuclear fuel transportation experience

    SciTech Connect

    1991-09-01

    The purpose of this report is to present an historic overview of commercial reactor spent nuclear fuel (SNF) shipments that have occurred in the state of Nevada, and to review the accident and incident experience for this type of shipments. Results show that between 1964 and 1990, 309 truck shipments covering approximately 40,000 miles moved through Nevada; this level of activity places Nevada tenth among the states in the number of truck shipments of SNF. For the same period, 15 rail shipments moving through the State covered approximately 6,500 miles, making Nevada 20th among the states in terms of number of rail shipments. None of these shipments had an accident or an incident associated with them. Because the data for Nevada are so limited, national data on SNF transportation and the safety of truck and rail transportation in general were also assessed.

  10. Accelerator/Experiment Operations - FY 2010

    SciTech Connect

    Adamson, M.; Appel, J.A.; Casarsa, M.; Coleman, R.; Denisov, D.; Dixon, R.; Escobar, C.; Ginther, G.; Gruenendahl, S.; Harris, D.; Henderson, S.; /Fermilab

    2010-11-01

    This Technical Memorandum (TM) summarizes the Fermilab accelerator and accelerator experiment operations for FY 2010. It is one of a series of annual publications intended to gather information in one place. In this case, the information concerns the FY 2010 Run II at the Tevatron Collider, the MINOS and MINER?A experiments using the Main Injector Neutrino Beam (NuMI), the MiniBooNE experiment running in the Booster Neutrino Beam (BNB), and the Meson Test Beam (MTest) activities in the 120 GeV external Switchyard beam (SY120). Each section was prepared by the relevant authors, and was somewhat edited for inclusion in this summary.

  11. Accelerator/Experiment Operations - FY 2011

    SciTech Connect

    Adamson, P.; Bernardi, G.; Casarsa, M.; Coleman, R.; Denisov, D.; Dixon, R.; Ginther, G.; Gruenendahl, S.; Hahn, S.; Harris, D.; Henderson, S.

    2011-11-01

    This Technical Memorandum (TM) summarizes the Fermilab accelerator and accelerator experiment operations for FY 2011. It is one of a series of annual publications intended to gather information in one place. In this case, the information concerns the FY 2011 Run II at the Tevatron Collider, the MINOS and MINERvA experiments using the Main Injector Neutrino Beam (NuMI), the MiniBooNE experiment running in the Booster Neutrino Beam (BNB), and the Meson Test Beam (MTest) activities in the 120 GeV external Switchyard beam (SY120).

  12. Accelerator/Experiment Operations - FY 2015

    SciTech Connect

    Czarapata, P.

    2015-10-01

    This Technical Memorandum summarizes the Fermilab accelerator and experiment operations for FY 2015. It is one of a series of annual publications intended to gather information in one place. In this case, the information concerns the FY 2015 NOvA, MINOS+ and MINERvA experiments using the Main Injector Neutrino Beam (NuMI), the activities in the SciBooNE Hall using the Booster Neutrino Beam (BNB), and the SeaQuest experiment and Meson Test Beam (MTest) activities in the 120 GeV external Switchyard beam (SY120).

  13. Self-adjoint integral operator for bounded nonlocal transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maggs, J. E.; Morales, G. J.

    2016-11-01

    An integral operator is developed to describe nonlocal transport in a one-dimensional system bounded on both ends by material walls. The "jump" distributions associated with nonlocal transport are taken to be Lévy α -stable distributions, which become naturally truncated by the bounding walls. The truncation process results in the operator containing a self-consistent, convective inward transport term (pinch). The properties of the integral operator as functions of the Lévy distribution parameter set [α ,γ ] and the wall conductivity are presented. The integral operator continuously recovers the features of local transport when α =2 . The self-adjoint formulation allows for an accurate description of spatial variation in the Lévy parameters in the nonlocal system. Spatial variation in the Lévy parameters is shown to result in internally generated flows. Examples of cold-pulse propagation in nonlocal systems illustrate the capabilities of the methodology.

  14. Self-adjoint integral operator for bounded nonlocal transport.

    PubMed

    Maggs, J E; Morales, G J

    2016-11-01

    An integral operator is developed to describe nonlocal transport in a one-dimensional system bounded on both ends by material walls. The "jump" distributions associated with nonlocal transport are taken to be Lévy α-stable distributions, which become naturally truncated by the bounding walls. The truncation process results in the operator containing a self-consistent, convective inward transport term (pinch). The properties of the integral operator as functions of the Lévy distribution parameter set [α,γ] and the wall conductivity are presented. The integral operator continuously recovers the features of local transport when α=2. The self-adjoint formulation allows for an accurate description of spatial variation in the Lévy parameters in the nonlocal system. Spatial variation in the Lévy parameters is shown to result in internally generated flows. Examples of cold-pulse propagation in nonlocal systems illustrate the capabilities of the methodology.

  15. Occupational Work Experience. Manual of Operation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Dept. of Education, Columbus. Div. of Vocational and Adult Education.

    This manual is designed to assist school personnel, employers, parents/guardians, and students in understanding the policies and procedures required to operate effective occupational work experience (OWE) programs. The OWE mission statement appears first. Chapter I describes the OWE program, its structure, types of program organization, and…

  16. Accelerator/Experiment Operations - FY 2016

    SciTech Connect

    Blake, A.; Convery, M.; Geer, S.; Geesaman, D.; Harris, D.; Johnson, D.; Lang, K.; McFarland, K.; Messier, M.; Moore, C. D.; Newhart, D.; Reimer, P. E.; Plunkett, R.; Rominsky, M.; Sanchez, M.; Schmidt, J. J.; Shanahan, P.; Tate, C.; Thomas, J.; Donatella Torretta, Donatella Torretta; Matthew Wetstein, Matthew Wetstein

    2016-10-01

    This Technical Memorandum summarizes the Fermilab accelerator and experiment operations for FY 2016. It is one of a series of annual publications intended to gather information in one place. In this case, the information concerns the FY 2016 NOvA, MINOS+ and MINERvA experiments using the Main Injector Neutrino Beam (NuMI), the MicroBooNE experiment and the activities in the SciBooNE Hall using the Booster Neutrino Beam (BNB), and the SeaQuest experiment, LArIAT experiment and Meson Test Beam activities in the 120 GeV external switchyard beam (SY120). Each section was prepared by the relevant authors, and was then edited for inclusion in this summary.

  17. Modelling of lithium erosion and transport in FTU lithium experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, R.; Maddaluno, G.; Apicella, M. L.; Mazzitelli, G.; Pericoli Ridolfini, V.; Kirschner, A.; Chen, J. L.; Li, J. G.; Luo, G.-N.

    2013-07-01

    The ERO code has been used to simulate lithium erosion, transport and re-deposition from liquid lithium limiter experiments in FTU. Two different operational cases from LLL experiments with different plasma parameters and surface temperature are modelled. According to the effective lithium sputtering yields, for both cases the lithium erosion is mainly due to physical sputtering rather than evaporation. Furthermore, the modelled re-deposition fraction of evaporated lithium is much higher than that of sputtered lithium, which is due to the shorter ionisation mean free path of thermal lithium atoms. Therefore, the evaporation erosion effect can be neglected compared to physical sputtering when the surface temperature is below 450 °C. According to the simulations, most of the lithium impurities exist in the form of Li+, and the main plasma contamination by lithium ions is low because most of eroded lithium particles are not transported into the core plasma and stay outside of the LCFS.

  18. The Deep Impact Network Experiment Operations Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Torgerson, J. Leigh; Clare, Loren; Wang, Shin-Ywan

    2009-01-01

    Delay/Disruption Tolerant Networking (DTN) promises solutions in solving space communications challenges arising from disconnections as orbiters lose line-of-sight with landers, long propagation delays over interplanetary links, and other phenomena. DTN has been identified as the basis for the future NASA space communications network backbone, and international standardization is progressing through both the Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS) and the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF). JPL has developed an implementation of the DTN architecture, called the Interplanetary Overlay Network (ION). ION is specifically implemented for space use, including design for use in a real-time operating system environment and high processing efficiency. In order to raise the Technology Readiness Level of ION, the first deep space flight demonstration of DTN is underway, using the Deep Impact (DI) spacecraft. Called the Deep Impact Network (DINET), operations are planned for Fall 2008. An essential component of the DINET project is the Experiment Operations Center (EOC), which will generate and receive the test communications traffic as well as "out-of-DTN band" command and control of the DTN experiment, store DTN flight test information in a database, provide display systems for monitoring DTN operations status and statistics (e.g., bundle throughput), and support query and analyses of the data collected. This paper describes the DINET EOC and its value in the DTN flight experiment and potential for further DTN testing.

  19. The Deep Impact Network Experiment Operations Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Torgerson, J. Leigh; Clare, Loren; Wang, Shin-Ywan

    2009-01-01

    Delay/Disruption Tolerant Networking (DTN) promises solutions in solving space communications challenges arising from disconnections as orbiters lose line-of-sight with landers, long propagation delays over interplanetary links, and other phenomena. DTN has been identified as the basis for the future NASA space communications network backbone, and international standardization is progressing through both the Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS) and the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF). JPL has developed an implementation of the DTN architecture, called the Interplanetary Overlay Network (ION). ION is specifically implemented for space use, including design for use in a real-time operating system environment and high processing efficiency. In order to raise the Technology Readiness Level of ION, the first deep space flight demonstration of DTN is underway, using the Deep Impact (DI) spacecraft. Called the Deep Impact Network (DINET), operations are planned for Fall 2008. An essential component of the DINET project is the Experiment Operations Center (EOC), which will generate and receive the test communications traffic as well as "out-of-DTN band" command and control of the DTN experiment, store DTN flight test information in a database, provide display systems for monitoring DTN operations status and statistics (e.g., bundle throughput), and support query and analyses of the data collected. This paper describes the DINET EOC and its value in the DTN flight experiment and potential for further DTN testing.

  20. GRAS NRT Precise Orbit Determination: Operational Experience

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    MartinezFadrique, Francisco M.; Mate, Alberto Agueda; Rodriquez-Portugal, Francisco Sancho

    2007-01-01

    EUMETSAT launched the meteorological satellite MetOp-A in October 2006; it is the first of the three satellites that constitute the EUMETSAT Polar System (EPS) space segment. This satellite carries a challenging and innovative instrument, the GNSS Receiver for Atmospheric Sounding (GRAS). The goal of the GRAS instrument is to support the production of atmospheric profiles of temperature and humidity with high accuracy, in an operational context, based on the bending of the GPS signals traversing the atmosphere during the so-called occultation periods. One of the key aspects associated to the data processing of the GRAS instrument is the necessity to describe the satellite motion and GPS receiver clock behaviour with high accuracy and within very strict timeliness limitations. In addition to these severe requirements, the GRAS Product Processing Facility (PPF) must be integrated in the EPS core ground segment, which introduces additional complexity from the data integration and operational procedure points of view. This paper sets out the rationale for algorithm selection and the conclusions from operational experience. It describes in detail the rationale and conclusions derived from the selection and implementation of the algorithms leading to the final orbit determination requirements (0.1 mm/s in velocity and 1 ns in receiver clock error at 1 Hz). Then it describes the operational approach and extracts the ideas and conclusions derived from the operational experience.

  1. Operating procedures: Fusion Experiments Analysis Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Lerche, R.A.; Carey, R.W.

    1984-03-20

    The Fusion Experiments Analysis Facility (FEAF) is a computer facility based on a DEC VAX 11/780 computer. It became operational in late 1982. At that time two manuals were written to aid users and staff in their interactions with the facility. This manual is designed as a reference to assist the FEAF staff in carrying out their responsibilities. It is meant to supplement equipment and software manuals supplied by the vendors. Also this manual provides the FEAF staff with a set of consistent, written guidelines for the daily operation of the facility.

  2. Accelerator/Experiment Operations - FY 2008

    SciTech Connect

    Brice, Stephen J.; Buehler, M.; Casarsa, M.; Coleman, R.; Denisov, D.; Ginther, G.; Grinstein, S.; Habig, A.; Holmes, S.; Hylen, J.; Kissel, W.; /Fermilab

    2008-10-01

    This Technical Memorandum (TM) summarizes the Fermilab accelerator and accelerator experiment operations for FY 2008. It is one of a series of annual publications intended to gather information in one place. In this case, the information concerns the FY 2008 Run II at the Tevatron Collider, MINOS using the Main Injector Neutrino Beam (NuMI), the MiniBooNE and SciBooNE experiments running in the Booster Neutrino Beam (BNB), and the Meson Test Beam (MTest) activities in the 120 GeV external Switchyard beam (SY120).

  3. Accelerator/Experiment Operations - FY 2009

    SciTech Connect

    Andrews, M.N; Appel, J.A.; Brice, S.; Casarsa, M.; Coleman, R.; Denisov, d.; Ginther, G.; Gruenendahl, S.; Holmes, S.; Kissel, W.; Lee, W.M.; /Fermilab

    2009-10-01

    This Technical Memorandum (TM) summarizes the Fermilab accelerator and accelerator experiment operations for FY 2009. It is one of a series of annual publications intended to gather information in one place. In this case, the information concerns the FY 2009 Run II at the Tevatron Collider, MINOS using the Main Injector Neutrino Beam (NuMI), the MiniBooNE experiment running in the Booster Neutrino Beam (BNB), and the Meson Test Beam (MTest) activities in the 120 GeV external Switchyard beam (SY120). Each section was prepared by the relevant authors, and was somewhat edited for inclusion in this summary.

  4. Accelerator/Experiment Operations - FY 2007

    SciTech Connect

    Brice, S.; Buchanan, N.; Coleman, R.; Convery, M.; Denisov, D.; Ginther, G.; Habig, A.; Holmes, S.; Kissel, W.; Lee, W.; Nakaya, T.; /Fermilab

    2007-10-01

    This Technical Memorandum (TM) summarizes the Fermilab accelerator and accelerator experiment operations for FY 2007. It is one of a series of annual publications intended to gather information in one place. In this case, the information concerns the FY 2007 Run II at the Tevatron Collider, the MiniBooNE and SciBooNE experiments running in the Booster Neutrino Beam (BNB), MINOS using the Main Injector Neutrino Beam (NuMI), and the Meson Test Beam (MTest) activities in the 120 GeV external Switchyard beam (SY120). Each section was prepared by the relevant authors, and was somewhat edited for inclusion in this summary.

  5. Operational experience from solar thermal energy projects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cameron, C. P.

    1984-03-01

    Over the past few years, Sandia National Laboratories were involved in the design, construction, and operation of a number of DOE-sponsored solar thermal energy systems. Among the systems currently in operation are several industrial process heat projects and the Modular Industrial Solar Retrofit qualification test systems, all of which use parabolic troughs, and the Shenandoah Total Energy Project, which uses parabolic dishes. Operational experience has provided insight to both desirable and undesirable features of the designs of these systems. Features of these systems which are also relevant to the design of parabolic concentrator thermal electric systems are discussed. Other design features discussed are system control functions which were found to be especially convenient or effective, such as local concentrator controls, rainwash controls, and system response to changing isolation. Drive systems are also discussed with particular emphasis of the need for reliability and the usefulness of a manual drive capability.

  6. SCRF Cryogenic Operating Experience at FNPL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeGraff, B.; Soyars, W.; Martinez, A.

    2006-04-01

    The Fermilab-NICADD Photoinjector Laboratory (FNPL), a photoelectron research and development beam line, has been operational since 1998. A single TESLA 9-cell superconducting RF cavity is operated in support of this accelerator system. The superfluid cryogenic system consists of a dewar-fed liquid helium supply with up to 2 g/s vacuum pumping capacity. Helium gas is recovered to the Tevatron cryogenic system. The photoinjector static load is about 2.5 W to 1.8 K, with a typical dynamic component of about 0.5 W. The capabilities, performance, operating experience, and reliability of this superfluid cryogenic system will be discussed. An auxiliary cryogenic system for testing bare superconducting RF cavities in a vertical dewar is also available, providing a steady state capacity of about 12 W at 1.8 K for testing.

  7. Operational Experience from Solar Thermal Energy Projects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cameron, C. P.

    1984-01-01

    Over the past few years, Sandia National Laboratories were involved in the design, construction, and operation of a number of DOE-sponsored solar thermal energy systems. Among the systems currently in operation are several industrial process heat projects and the Modular Industrial Solar Retrofit qualification test systems, all of which use parabolic troughs, and the Shenandoah Total Energy Project, which uses parabolic dishes. Operational experience has provided insight to both desirable and undesirable features of the designs of these systems. Features of these systems which are also relevant to the design of parabolic concentrator thermal electric systems are discussed. Other design features discussed are system control functions which were found to be especially convenient or effective, such as local concentrator controls, rainwash controls, and system response to changing isolation. Drive systems are also discussed with particular emphasis of the need for reliability and the usefulness of a manual drive capability.

  8. Operational experience of the OC-OTEC experiments at NELH

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Link, Hal

    1989-02-01

    The Solar Energy Research Institute, under funding and program direction from the U.S. Department of Energy, has been operating a small-scale test apparatus to investigate key components of open-cycle ocean thermal energy conversion (OC-OTEC). The apparatus started operations in October 1987 and continues to provide valuable information on heat- and mass-transfer processes in evaporators and condensers, gas sorption processes as seawater is depressurized and repressurized, and control and instrumentation characteristics of open-cycle systems. Although other test facilities have been used to study some of these interactions, this is the largest apparatus of its kind to use seawater since Georges Claude's efforts in 1926. The information obtained from experiments conducted in this apparatus is being used to design a larger scale experiment in which a positive net power production is expected to be demonstrated for the first time with OC-OTEC. This paper describes the apparatus, the major tests conducted during its first 18 months of operation, and the experience gained in OC-OTEC system operation.

  9. Operational experience of the OC-OTEC experiments at NELH

    SciTech Connect

    Link, H

    1989-02-01

    The Solar Energy Research Institute, under funding and program direction from the US Department of Energy, has been operating a small-scale test apparatus to investigate key components of open- cycle ocean thermal energy conversion (OC-OTEC). The apparatus started operations in October 1987 and continues to provide valuable information on heat-and mass-transfer processes in evaporators and condensers, gas sorption processes as seawater is depressurized and repressurized, and control and instrumentation characteristics of open-cycle systems. Although other test facilities have been used to study some of these interactions, this is the largest apparatus of its kind to use seawater since Georges Claude`s efforts in 1926. The information obtained from experiments conducted in this apparatus is being used to design a larger scale experiment in which a positive net power production is expected to be demonstrated for the first time with OC-OTEC. This paper describes the apparatus, the major tests conducted during its first 18 months of operation, and the experience gained in OC-OTEC system operation. 13 refs., 8 figs.

  10. Operational experience of the OC-OTEC experiments at NELH

    SciTech Connect

    Link, H.

    1989-02-01

    The Solar Energy Research Institute, under funding and program direction from the US Department of Energy, has been operating a small-scale test apparatus to investigate key components of open- cycle ocean thermal energy conversion (OC-OTEC). The apparatus started operations in October 1987 and continues to provide valuable information on heat-and mass-transfer processes in evaporators and condensers, gas sorption processes as seawater is depressurized and repressurized, and control and instrumentation characteristics of open-cycle systems. Although other test facilities have been used to study some of these interactions, this is the largest apparatus of its kind to use seawater since Georges Claude's efforts in 1926. The information obtained from experiments conducted in this apparatus is being used to design a larger scale experiment in which a positive net power production is expected to be demonstrated for the first time with OC-OTEC. This paper describes the apparatus, the major tests conducted during its first 18 months of operation, and the experience gained in OC-OTEC system operation. 13 refs., 8 figs.

  11. Aeolian snow transport from wind tunnel experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paterna, E.; Crivelli, P.; Lehning, M.

    2016-12-01

    Aeolian snow transport has a significant impact on snow redistribution in mountains, prairies as well as on glaciers, ice shelves, and sea ice. In all these environments, the local mass balance is highly influenced by Aeolian snow transport. The dynamics of snow saltation has a high impact on the land surface processes shaping these regions. More specifically, the observed high intermittency of saltation fluxes poses a problem for saltation models and needs to be better understood. We therefore aimed at unveiling the mechanisms underlying snow saltation at different saltation strengths and its coupling with the turbulent fluctuations of the wind. We conducted wind tunnel measurements of the momentum and mass-fluxes during snow saltation. For the mass-flux measurements we employed a shadowgraphy system which acquires images of the snow particle's shadows at high spatial and temporal resolution. The size and displacement of the particles are then determined by means of image analysis and Particle Tracking Velocimetry (PTV), allowing to estimate both snow mass-flux and flow velocity. Our controlled wind tunnel experiments revealed the existence of two regimes of saltation. In a turbulence-dependent regime occurring during weak saltation activity, we observed a strong coupling between snow transport and turbulent flow. Conversely during stronger saltation activity a turbulence-independent regime emerges, where the saltation develops its own length scale and it efficiently decouples from the wind fluctuations. We argue that different entrainment mechanisms could explain the existence of the two different saltation regimes as well as the observed high level of mass-flux intermittency.

  12. Operational experience with the ALICE pixel detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mastroserio, A.

    2017-01-01

    The Silicon Pixel Detector (SPD) constitutes the two innermost layers of the Inner Tracking System of the ALICE experiment and it is the closest detector to the interaction point. As a vertex detector, it has the unique feature of generating a trigger signal that contributes to the L0 trigger of the ALICE experiment. The SPD started collecting data since the very first pp collisions at LHC in 2009 and since then it has taken part in all pp, Pb-Pb and p-Pb data taking campaigns. This contribution will present the main features of the SPD, the detector performance and the operational experience, including calibration and optimization activities from Run 1 to Run 2.

  13. OTEC-1 test operations experience. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Hoshide, R.K.; Klein, A.; Polino, D.L.; Poucher, F.W.

    1983-07-15

    During Phase III, the complete integrated system was operated, and information was obtained on the performance of the test article, the performance of the seawater and ammonia systems, the operation of the platform and moor systems, the effects of biofouling countermeasures, and the effects of the OTEC cycle on the environment. After several months spent in completing construction of the test system and checking out and repairing the various systems, 4 months of test operations were conducted before funding constraints caused the discontinuation of the test program. Plans were made for long-term storage and/or disposition of the test facility. The OEC test platform is currently located at Pearl Harbor, in the US Navy Inactive Reserve Fleet anchorage. The CWP was placed in underwater storage adjacent to the moor, awaiting a decision on final disposition. In October 1982, the CWP was recovered and custody given to the State of Hawaii. Although the test period lasted only about 4 months, deployment and at-sea operation of a large-scale OTEC plant was demonstrated, and information was obtained towards satisfying each of the objectives of the OTEC-1 project. This document summarizes the OTEC-1 test operations experience, discusses technical lessons learned, and makes recommendations for future OTEC plants.

  14. Operation Experience of LBE Loop: HELIOS

    SciTech Connect

    Seung Ho, Jeong; Chi Bum, Bahn; Seung Hee, Chang; Young Jin, Oh; Won Chang, Nam; Kyung Ha, Ryu; Hyo On, Nam; Jun, Lim; Tai Hyun, Lee; Seung Gi, Lee; Na Young, Lee; Il Soon, Hwang

    2006-07-01

    An LBE (lead-bismuth eutectic) coolant loop, named as HELIOS (Heavy Eutectic liquid metal Loop for Investigation of Operability and Safety of PEACER), has been designed by thermal-hydraulic scaling of the PEACER-300MW{sub e} (Proliferation-resistant, Environment-friendly, Accident-tolerant, Continuable and Economical Reactor). HELIOS is consisted of an electrically-heated core at its bottom and a heat exchanger at its top with their mean elevation difference of 8 meter, closely matching with that of PEACER. Natural circulation experiment and material test are principal goals of HELIOS operation. About 2 metric ton of LBE is circulated by a centrifugal pump at a rate up to 76 liter/min through HELIOS having a total 12 meter height. A material test bypass was installed to perform LBE corrosion experiments in continuous operation conditions at temperature and flow velocity higher than nominal values. During the initial start-up test, there was an accidental cooling water leak into LBE at around 250 deg C, but without any consequences. A small LBE leak occurred through a crack in a bellows for connecting storage tank to the main loop, apparently due to excessive stress arisen from faulty installation, however, there was no significant safety hazard or chemical reaction with environment. Many practical difficulties arouse with sensors for pressure measurement, level control in sump pump tank. LBE loop operation experiences are summarized herein. Upon the sensor calibrations, HELIOS will be utilized to examine the materials durability and natural circulation capability of PEACER-300. (authors)

  15. Operational requirements for flight control and navigation systems for short haul transport aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, J. A.

    1976-01-01

    Operational procedures for use in an assumed short haul transport route were evaluated. The curved path approaches in airline use by large jet airplanes were studied. The characteristics of these approaches were included in development of operational procedures for transitions and approaches by a jet STOL transport. These procedures were used in a simulation experiment and were satisfactory for autoflight operation. A minimum turn radius of 3,000 ft. for a 180 final turn was determined for the wind conditions tested. The accuracy of the approaches was very good.

  16. Identification and Assessment of Transport Systems Operation Quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muślewski, Łukasz; Bojar, Piotr; Woropay, Maciej

    2011-09-01

    The basis of a transport system operation is accomplishment of set goals in specified conditions, place quantity and time. From an analysis of the literature it results that the reasearch on these systems operation quality is crucial for the processes of service - repair, control, fuel supply and diagnosis, especially for machines and dvices used in them. The discussed systems are classified as socio-technical ones of the type (human-machine-environment), including the transport system which is the research object of this paper. On the basis of the authors' own experimental tests results and identification of processes which take palce in the research object, a method for assessment of such transport systems operation quality has been presented in the article. The authors of the paper have made an attempt to develop a model for assessment of undesirable impact of actions of people present in the system and its environment.

  17. 14 CFR 121.434 - Operating experience, operating cycles, and consolidation of knowledge and skills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Operating experience, operating cycles, and... Qualifications § 121.434 Operating experience, operating cycles, and consolidation of knowledge and skills. Link... completed, on that type airplane and in that crewmember position, the operating experience, operating cycles...

  18. The General Surgery Chief Resident Operative Experience

    PubMed Central

    Drake, Frederick Thurston; Horvath, Karen D.; Goldin, Adam B.; Gow, Kenneth W.

    2014-01-01

    IMPORTANCE The chief resident (CR) year is a pivotal experience in surgical training. Changes in case volume and diversity may impact the educational quality of this important year. OBJECTIVE To evaluate changes in operative experience for general surgery CRs. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Review of Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education case logs from 1989–1990 through 2011–2012 divided into 5 periods. Graduates in period 3 were the last to train with unrestricted work hours; those in period 4 were part of a transition period and trained under both systems; and those in period 5 trained fully under the 80-hour work week. Diversity of cases was assessed based on Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education defined categories. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Total cases and defined categories were evaluated for changes over time. RESULTS The average total CR case numbers have fallen (271 in period 1 vs 242 in period 5, P < .001). Total CR cases dropped to their lowest following implementation of the 80-hour work week (236 cases), but rebounded in period 5. The percentage of residents’ 5-year operative experience performed as CRs has decreased (30% in period 1 vs 25.6% in period 5, P < .001). Regarding case mix: thoracic, trauma, and vascular cases declined steadily, while alimentary and intra-abdominal operations increased. Recent graduates averaged 80 alimentary and 78 intra-abdominal procedures during their CR years. Compared with period 1, in which these 2 categories represented 47.1% of CR experience, in period 5, they represented 65.2% (P < .001). Endocrine experience has been relatively unchanged. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE Total CR cases declined especially acutely following implementation of the 80-hour work week but have since rebounded. Chief resident cases contribute less to overall experience, although this proportion stabilized before the 80-hour work week. Case mix has narrowed, with significant increases in alimentary and

  19. Tritium Room Air Monitor Operating Experience Review

    SciTech Connect

    L. C. Cadwallader; B. J. Denny

    2008-09-01

    Monitoring the breathing air in tritium facility rooms for airborne tritium is a radiological safety requirement and a best practice for personnel safety. Besides audible alarms for room evacuation, these monitors often send signals for process shutdown, ventilation isolation, and cleanup system actuation to mitigate releases and prevent tritium spread to the environment. Therefore, these monitors are important not only to personnel safety but also to public safety and environmental protection. This paper presents an operating experience review of tritium monitor performance on demand during small (1 mCi to 1 Ci) operational releases, and intentional airborne inroom tritium release tests. The tritium tests provide monitor operation data to allow calculation of a statistical estimate for the reliability of monitors annunciating in actual tritium gas airborne release situations. The data show a failure to operate rate of 3.5E-06/monitor-hr with an upper bound of 4.7E-06, a failure to alarm on demand rate of 1.4E-02/demand with an upper bound of 4.4E-02, and a spurious alarm rate of 0.1 to 0.2/monitor-yr.

  20. International aircraft ECMO transportation: first French pediatric experience.

    PubMed

    Rambaud, Jerome; Léger, Pierre L; Porlier, Ludovic; Larroquet, Michelle; Raffin, Herve; Pierron, Charlotte; Walti, Herve; Carbajal, Ricardo

    2017-04-01

    Refractory severe hemodynamic or respiratory failure may require extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO). Since some patients are too sick to be transported safely to a referral ECMO center on conventional transportation, mobile ECMO transport teams have been developed. The experiences of some ECMO transport teams have already been reported, including air and international transport. We report the first French pediatric international ECMO transport by aircraft. This case shows that a long distance intervention of the pediatric ECMO transport team is feasible, even in an international setting. Long distance ECMO transportations are widely carried out for adults, but remain rare in neonates and children.

  1. Advanced Transport Operating System (ATOPS) control display unit software description

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slominski, Christopher J.; Parks, Mark A.; Debure, Kelly R.; Heaphy, William J.

    1992-01-01

    The software created for the Control Display Units (CDUs), used for the Advanced Transport Operating Systems (ATOPS) project, on the Transport Systems Research Vehicle (TSRV) is described. Module descriptions are presented in a standardized format which contains module purpose, calling sequence, a detailed description, and global references. The global reference section includes subroutines, functions, and common variables referenced by a particular module. The CDUs, one for the pilot and one for the copilot, are used for flight management purposes. Operations performed with the CDU affects the aircraft's guidance, navigation, and display software.

  2. Transportation and operations aspects of space energy systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woodcock, Gordon R.

    1989-07-01

    A brief comparative analysis was made for three concepts of supplying large-scale electrical energy to Earth from space. The concepts were: (1) mining helium-3 on the Moon and returning it to Earth; (2) constructing solar power satellites in geosynchronous orbit from lunar materials (the energy is beamed by microwave to receivers on Earth); and (3) constructing power collection and beaming systems on the Moon itself and transmitting the energy to Earth by microwave. This analysis concerned mainly space transportation and operations, but each of the systems is briefly characterized to provide a basis for space transportation and operations analysis.

  3. Sediment transport capacity as an objective of reservoir operations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Milhous, Robert T.; ,

    1998-01-01

    A sediment transport capacity index was developed as a part of a program to develop methods of flushing flow analysis. The index can be used to develop reservoir operation strategies that consider the movement of sediment as one of the reservoir management goals. The sedimentation transport capacity index determines the instream flow for the maintenance of the substrate below a reservoir in a condition needed by a desirable ecosystem. It can also be used in investigating the impacts of reservoir on the river channel downstream of the reservoir. The method allows a reservoir operator the flexibility of meeting the streamflow needs with a mix of streamflows.

  4. Transportation and operations aspects of space energy systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodcock, Gordon R.

    1989-01-01

    A brief comparative analysis was made for three concepts of supplying large-scale electrical energy to Earth from space. The concepts were: (1) mining helium-3 on the Moon and returning it to Earth; (2) constructing solar power satellites in geosynchronous orbit from lunar materials (the energy is beamed by microwave to receivers on Earth); and (3) constructing power collection and beaming systems on the Moon itself and transmitting the energy to Earth by microwave. This analysis concerned mainly space transportation and operations, but each of the systems is briefly characterized to provide a basis for space transportation and operations analysis.

  5. Consideration of Fuel Requirements for Supersonic Transport Operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stickle, Joseph W.

    1965-01-01

    An analysis of the interaction of operational environment and aircraft characteristics of the supersonic transport (SST) in the areas of design-range and reserve-fuel requirements has been made. Design-range requirements are considered in relation to the effects of wind, temperature, flight-level assignment, and payload variation. An approach toward combining en route and holding reserve requirements while maintaining protection equivalent to that provided subsonic jet transport operations by the present civil air regulation en route plus holding reserves is given. This approach results in a savings in reserve fuel over that required by separate requirements.

  6. Electric buses in operation: The Chattanooga experience

    SciTech Connect

    Dugan, T.W.

    1994-10-01

    In the early 1990s the City of Chattanooga, Tennessee, and the Chattanooga Area Regional Transportation Authority (CARTA) were looking for an innovative approach to the need for a downtown shuttle. As a result of finding a solution to this problem, the transit system has embarked on the most extensive electric transit vehicle program in the United States. The program now uses electric buses made with existing technology and actively participates in developing new electric vehicle technologies, testing vehicles and components, manufacturing electric transit vehicles, and formatting the Electric Transit Vehicle Institute. The history of the program, the policy and operational issues that were addressed by the CARTA governing board and management staff, and the areas of consideration for transit systems considering the use of electric transit vehicles are provided, as are the author`s thoughts concerning the future of electric transit vehicles. Emphasis is given to the policy and organizational concerns that face a transit system seeking to implement a new technology from the perspective of an agency whose focus is on the actual real-life operation of electric buses rather than short-term demonstration programs.

  7. Experience in operating the Bratsk Reservoir

    SciTech Connect

    Nazarov, A.V.

    1984-04-01

    The Bratsk reservoir is the largest in the USSR and second largest in the world. Initially, the reservoir was expected to be filled by the end of 1966. However, the actual filling was not completed until September of 1967. During filling and in the first years of operation it was constantly necessary to deal with floating timber in order to ensure normal operation of the hydrostation, navigation safety, conditions for fishery, and fulfillment of the sanitary requirements. During seasonal variations of the reservoir level about 160 sq km of the shore zone was subjected to variable flooding and waterlogging. Maximum erosion occurred on expanded stretches, and within their limits on slopes composed of loam and sand deposits. Within the narrows, where the banks are composed mainly of hard and soft rocks and wave action is weak, erosion is negligible. Wind setup and setdown cause maximum denivellation of the water surface. The maximum increase of the level during setup reaches 232 cm and the maximum decrease during setdown is 24 cm. Seiche oscillations with various amplitudes and periods are observed on the reservoir surface. The main uses of the complex are hydropower, water transport, timber floating, water supply, and fishery. For the successful development of the shores of reservoirs it is necessary to select the construction sites with consideration of possible occurrence of karstic and landslide processes; the construction of heavy structures requires special karst-control measures. 3 references, 3 figures, 1 table.

  8. OPERATIONS ELECTRONIC LOGBOOK EXPERIENCE AT BNL.

    SciTech Connect

    SATOGATA,T.; CAMPBELL,I.; MARR,G.; SAMPSON,P.

    2002-06-02

    A web-based system for electronic logbooks, ''elog'', developed at Fermilab (FNAL), has been adopted for use by AGS and RHIC operations and physicists at BNL for the 2001-2 fixed target and collider runs. This paper describes the main functional and technical issues encountered in the first year of electronic logbook use, including security, search and indexing, sequencer integration, archival, and graphics management. We also comment on organizational experience and planned changes for the next facility run starting in September 2002.

  9. D0 data handling operational experience

    SciTech Connect

    Lee Lueking et al.

    2003-08-11

    We report on the production experience of the D0 experiment at the Fermilab Tevatron, using the SAM data handling system with a variety of computing hardware configurations, batch systems, and mass storage strategies. We have stored more than 300 TB of data in the Fermilab Enstore mass storage system. We deliver data through this system at an average rate of more than 2 TB/day to analysis programs, with a substantial multiplication factor in the consumed data through intelligent cache management. We handle more than 1.7 Million files in this system and provide data delivery to user jobs at Fermilab on four types of systems: a reconstruction farm, a large SMP system, a Linux batch cluster, and a Linux desktop cluster. In addition, we import simulation data generated at 6 sites worldwide, and deliver data to jobs at many more sites. We describe the scope of the data handling deployment worldwide, the operational experience with this system, and the feedback of that experience.

  10. Gyrokinetic simulations of neoclassical transport using a minimal collision operator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dif-Pradalier, G.; Grandgirard, V.; Sarazin, Y.; Garbet, X.; Ghendrih, Ph.; Angelino, P.

    2008-11-01

    Conventional neoclassical predictions are successfully recovered within a gyrokinetic framework using a minimal Fokker-Planck collision operator. This operator is shown to accurately describe some essential features of neoclassical theory, namely the neoclassical transport, the poloidal rotation and the linear damping of axisymmetric flows while interestingly preserving a high numerical efficiency. Its form makes it especially adapted to Eulerian or Semi-Lagrangian schemes.

  11. European experience in transport/storage cask for vitrified residues

    SciTech Connect

    Otton, Camille; Sicard, Damien

    2007-07-01

    Available in abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: Because of the evolution of burnup of spent fuel to be reprocessed, the high activity vitrified residues would not be transported in the existing cask designs. Therefore, TN International has decided in the late nineties to develop a brand new design of casks with optimized capacity able to store and transport the most active and hottest canisters: the TN{sup TM}81 casks currently in use in Switzerland and the TN{sup TM}85 cask which shall permit in the near future in Germany the storage and the transport of the most active vitrified residues defining a thermal power of 56 kW (kilowatts). The challenges for the TN{sup TM}81 and TN{sup TM}85 cask designs were that the geometry entry data were very restrictive and were combined with a fairly wide range set by the AREVA NC Specification relative to vitrified residue canister. The TN{sup TM}81 and the TN{sup TM}85 casks have been designed to fully anticipate shipment constraints of the present vitrified residue production. It also used the feedback of current shipments and the operational constraints and experience of receiving and shipping facilities. The casks had to fit as much as possible in the existing procedures for the already existing flasks such as the TN{sup TM}28 cask and TS 28 V cask, all along the logistics chain of loading, unloading, transport and maintenance. (authors)

  12. 32 CFR 245.18 - Transportation security operations center (TSOC).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Transportation security operations center (TSOC). 245.18 Section 245.18 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS PLAN FOR THE EMERGENCY SECURITY CONTROL OF AIR TRAFFIC...

  13. 32 CFR 245.18 - Transportation security operations center (TSOC).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Transportation security operations center (TSOC). 245.18 Section 245.18 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS PLAN FOR THE EMERGENCY SECURITY CONTROL OF AIR TRAFFIC...

  14. 32 CFR 245.18 - Transportation security operations center (TSOC).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Transportation security operations center (TSOC). 245.18 Section 245.18 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS PLAN FOR THE EMERGENCY SECURITY CONTROL OF AIR TRAFFIC...

  15. 32 CFR 245.18 - Transportation security operations center (TSOC).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Transportation security operations center (TSOC). 245.18 Section 245.18 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS PLAN FOR THE EMERGENCY SECURITY CONTROL OF AIR TRAFFIC...

  16. Operational Weight Estimations of Commercial Jet Transport Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Joseph L.

    1972-01-01

    In evaluating current or proposed commercial transport airplanes, there has not been available a ready means to determine weights so as to compare airplanes within this particular class. This paper describes the development of and presents such comparative tools. The major design characteristics of current American jet transport airplanes were collected, and these data were correlated by means of regression analysis to develop weight relationships for these airplanes as functions of their operational requirements. The characteristics for 23 airplanes were assembled and examined in terms of the effects of the number of people carried, the cargo load, and the operating range. These airplane characteristics were correlated for the airplanes as one of three subclasses, namely the small, twin-engine jet transport, the conventional three- and four-engine jets, and the new wide-body jets.

  17. Feasibility study for a transportation operations system cask maintenance facility

    SciTech Connect

    Rennich, M.J.; Medley, L.G.; Attaway, C.R.

    1991-01-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) is responsible for the development of a waste management program for the disposition of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and high-level waste (HLW). The program will include a transportation system for moving the nuclear waste from the sources to a geologic repository for permanent disposal. Specially designed casks will be used to safely transport the waste. The cask systems must be operated within limits imposed by DOE, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), and the Department of Transportation (DOT). A dedicated facility for inspecting, testing, and maintaining the cask systems was recommended by the General Accounting Office (in 1979) as the best means of assuring their operational effectiveness and safety, as well as regulatory compliance. In November of 1987, OCRWM requested a feasibility study be made of a Cask Maintenance Facility (CMF) that would perform the required functions. 46 refs., 16 figs., 13 tabs.

  18. The Drop Tower Bremen -Experiment Operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Könemann, Thorben; von Kampen, Peter; Rath, Hans J.

    The idea behind the drop tower facility of the Center of Applied Space Technology and Micro-gravity (ZARM) in Bremen is to provide an inimitable technical opportunity of a daily access to short-term weightlessness on earth. In this way ZARM`s european unique ground-based microgravity laboratory displays an excellent economic alternative for research in space-related conditions at low costs comparable to orbital platforms. Many national and international ex-perimentalists motivated by these prospects decide to benefit from the high-quality and easy accessible microgravity environment only provided by the Drop Tower Bremen. Corresponding experiments in reduced gravity could open new perspectives of investigation methods and give scientists an impressive potential for a future technology and multidisciplinary applications on different research fields like Fundamental Physics, Astrophysics, Fluid Dynamics, Combus-tion, Material Science, Chemistry and Biology. Generally, realizing microgravity experiments at ZARM`s drop tower facility meet new requirements of the experimental hardware and may lead to some technical constraints in the setups. In any case the ZARM Drop Tower Operation and Service Company (ZARM FAB mbH) maintaining the drop tower facility is prepared to as-sist experimentalists by offering own air-conditioned laboratories, clean rooms, workshops and consulting engineers, as well as scientific personal. Furthermore, ZARM`s on-site apartment can be used for accommodations during the experiment campaigns. In terms of approaching drop tower experimenting, consulting of experimentalists is mandatory to successfully accomplish the pursued drop or catapult capsule experiment. For this purpose there will be a lot of expertise and help given by ZARM FAB mbH in strong cooperation to-gether with the experimentalists. However, in comparison to standard laboratory setups the drop or catapult capsule setup seems to be completely different at first view. While defining a

  19. Small Aircraft Transportation System Higher Volume Operations Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbott, Terence S.; Consiglio, Maria C.; Baxley, Brian T.; Williams, Daniel M.; Jones, Kenneth M.; Adams, Catherine A.

    2006-01-01

    This document defines the Small Aircraft Transportation System (SATS) Higher Volume Operations concept. The general philosophy underlying this concept is the establishment of a newly defined area of flight operations called a Self-Controlled Area (SCA). Within the SCA, pilots would take responsibility for separation assurance between their aircraft and other similarly equipped aircraft. This document also provides details for a number of off-nominal and emergency procedures which address situations that could be expected to occur in a future SCA. The details for this operational concept along with a description of candidate aircraft systems to support this concept are provided.

  20. Centaur operations at the space station: Cost and transportation analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    A study was conducted to expand on the results of an initial study entitled Centaur Operations at the Space Station. The previous study developed technology demonstration missions (TDMs) that utilized the Centaur G-prime upper stage to advance OTV technologies required for accomodations and operations at the Space Station. An initial evaluation was performed of the cost to NASA for TDM implementation. Due to the potential for commercial communication satellite operation utilizing the TDM hardware, an evaluation of the Centaur's transportation potential was also performed.

  1. Space Transportation Operations: Assessment of Methodologies and Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joglekar, Prafulla

    2002-01-01

    The systems design process for future space transportation involves understanding multiple variables and their effect on lifecycle metrics. Variables such as technology readiness or potential environmental impact are qualitative, while variables such as reliability, operations costs or flight rates are quantitative. In deciding what new design concepts to fund, NASA needs a methodology that would assess the sum total of all relevant qualitative and quantitative lifecycle metrics resulting from each proposed concept. The objective of this research was to review the state of operations assessment methodologies and models used to evaluate proposed space transportation systems and to develop recommendations for improving them. It was found that, compared to the models available from other sources, the operations assessment methodology recently developed at Kennedy Space Center has the potential to produce a decision support tool that will serve as the industry standard. Towards that goal, a number of areas of improvement in the Kennedy Space Center's methodology are identified.

  2. Space Transportation Operations: Assessment of Methodologies and Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joglekar, Prafulla

    2001-01-01

    The systems design process for future space transportation involves understanding multiple variables and their effect on lifecycle metrics. Variables such as technology readiness or potential environmental impact are qualitative, while variables such as reliability, operations costs or flight rates are quantitative. In deciding what new design concepts to fund, NASA needs a methodology that would assess the sum total of all relevant qualitative and quantitative lifecycle metrics resulting from each proposed concept. The objective of this research was to review the state of operations assessment methodologies and models used to evaluate proposed space transportation systems and to develop recommendations for improving them. It was found that, compared to the models available from other sources, the operations assessment methodology recently developed at Kennedy Space Center has the potential to produce a decision support tool that will serve as the industry standard. Towards that goal, a number of areas of improvement in the Kennedy Space Center's methodology are identified.

  3. Space Transportation Operations: Assessment of Methodologies and Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joglekar, Prafulla

    2001-01-01

    The systems design process for future space transportation involves understanding multiple variables and their effect on lifecycle metrics. Variables such as technology readiness or potential environmental impact are qualitative, while variables such as reliability, operations costs or flight rates are quantitative. In deciding what new design concepts to fund, NASA needs a methodology that would assess the sum total of all relevant qualitative and quantitative lifecycle metrics resulting from each proposed concept. The objective of this research was to review the state of operations assessment methodologies and models used to evaluate proposed space transportation systems and to develop recommendations for improving them. It was found that, compared to the models available from other sources, the operations assessment methodology recently developed at Kennedy Space Center has the potential to produce a decision support tool that will serve as the industry standard. Towards that goal, a number of areas of improvement in the Kennedy Space Center's methodology are identified.

  4. Space Transportation Operations: Assessment of Methodologies and Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joglekar, Prafulla

    2002-01-01

    The systems design process for future space transportation involves understanding multiple variables and their effect on lifecycle metrics. Variables such as technology readiness or potential environmental impact are qualitative, while variables such as reliability, operations costs or flight rates are quantitative. In deciding what new design concepts to fund, NASA needs a methodology that would assess the sum total of all relevant qualitative and quantitative lifecycle metrics resulting from each proposed concept. The objective of this research was to review the state of operations assessment methodologies and models used to evaluate proposed space transportation systems and to develop recommendations for improving them. It was found that, compared to the models available from other sources, the operations assessment methodology recently developed at Kennedy Space Center has the potential to produce a decision support tool that will serve as the industry standard. Towards that goal, a number of areas of improvement in the Kennedy Space Center's methodology are identified.

  5. An Investigation of Landing-Contact Conditions for Two Large Turbojet Transports and a Turboprop Transport During Routine Daylight Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stickle, Joseph W.

    1961-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration has recently completed a statistical investigation of landing-contact conditions for two large turbojet transports and a turboprop transport landing on a dry runway during routine daylight operations at the Los Angeles International Airport. Measurements were made to obtain vertical velocity, airspeed, rolling velocity, bank angle, and distance from the runway threshold, just prior to ground contact. The vertical velocities at touchdown for one of the turbojet airplanes measured in this investigation were essentially the same as those measured on the same type of airplane during a similar investigation (see NASA Technical Note D-527) conducted approximately 8 months earlier. Thus, it appeared that 8 months of additional pilot experience has had no noticeable tendency toward lowering the vertical velocities of this transport. Distributions of vertical velocities for the turbojet transports covered in this investigation were similar and considerably higher than'those for the turboprop transport. The data for the turboprop transport were in good agreement with the data for the piston-engine transports (see NACA Report 1214 and NASA Technical Note D-147) for all the measured parameters. For the turbojet transports, 1 landing in 100 would be expected to equal or exceed a vertical velocity of approximately 4.2 ft/sec; whereas, for the turboprop transport, 1 landing in 100 would be expected to equal or exceed 3.2 ft/sec. The mean airspeeds at touchdown for the three transports ranged from 22.5 percent to 26.6 percent above the stalling speed. Rolling velocities for the turbojet transports were considerably higher than those for the turboprop transport. Distributions of bank angles at contact for the three transports were similar. For each type of airplane, 1 landing in 100 would be expected to equal or exceed a bank angle at touchdown of approximately 3.0 deg. Distributions of touchdown distances for the three transports

  6. Stratospheric aerosol modification by supersonic transport operations with climate implications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Toon, O. B.; Turco, R. P.; Pollack, J. B.; Whitten, R. C.; Poppoff, I. G.; Hamill, P.

    1980-01-01

    The potential effects on stratospheric aerosois of supersonic transport emissions of sulfur dioxide gas and submicron size soot granules are estimated. An interactive particle-gas model of the stratospheric aerosol is used to compute particle changes due to exhaust emissions, and an accurate radiation transport model is used to compute the attendant surface temperature changes. It is shown that a fleet of several hundred supersonic aircraft, operating daily at 20 km, could produce about a 20% increase in the concentration of large particles in the stratosphere. Aerosol increases of this magnitude would reduce the global surface temperature by less than 0.01 K.

  7. Medical supply on contingency military operations: experience from Operation GRITROCK.

    PubMed

    Robinson, J P; Reeves, P

    2015-01-01

    Medical supply during military operations has the ability to affect the efficacy of the operation being undertaken, either negatively or positively. An appropriately-managed maritime platform with a robust medical supply chain during transit and on arrival in theatre is the main aim. A secure supply chain will reduce any implications that logistics may have with regard to capability, and negate the effects of deficiencies of short shelf life items occurring over time and during use in high tempo operations.

  8. A 22-year experience in global transport extracorporeal membrane oxygenation.

    PubMed

    Coppola, Christopher P; Tyree, Melissa; Larry, Karen; DiGeronimo, Robert

    2008-01-01

    Transport extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is currently available at 12 centers. We report a 22-year experience from the only facility providing global transport ECMO. Indications for transport ECMO include lack of ECMO services, inability to transport conventionally, inability to wean from cardiopulmonary bypass, extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation, and need to move a patient on ECMO for specialized services such as organ transplantation. Retrospective database review of children undergoing inhouse and transport ECMO from 1985 to 2007. Sixty-eight children underwent transport ECMO. Fifty-six were transported on ECMO into our facility. The remaining 12 were moved between 2 outside locations. Ground vehicles and fixed-wing aircraft were used. Distance transported was 8 to 7500 miles (13-12070 km), mean 1380 miles (2220 km). There were 116 inhouse ECMO runs. No child died during transport. Survival to discharge after transport ECMO was 65% (44/68) and, for inhouse ECMO, was 70% (81/116). Transport ECMO is feasible and effective, with survival rates comparable to inhouse ECMO. We have used transport ECMO to help children at non-ECMO centers with pulmonary failure who have not improved with inhaled nitric oxide and high-frequency ventilation. We have also transported a child after extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation, which may represent an emerging indication for transport ECMO. Transport ECMO often is the only option for children too unstable for conventional transport or those already on ECMO and requiring a specialized service at another facility, such as organ transplantation.

  9. Mass and Momentum Turbulent Transport Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, B. V.; Roback, R.

    1984-01-01

    An experimental study of mixing downstream of axial and swirling coaxial jets is being conducted to obtain data for the evaluation and improvement of turbulent transport models currently employed in a variety of computational procedures used throughout the propulsion community. Effort was directed toward the acquisition of length scale and dissipation rate data that will provide more accurate inlet boundary conditions for the computational procedures and a data base to evaluate the turbulent transport models in the near jet region where recirculation does not occur. Mass and momentum turbulent transport data with a blunt inner-jet inlet configuration will also be acquired.

  10. Transport studies in fusion plasmas: Perturbative experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Cardozo, N.J.L.

    1996-03-01

    By subjecting a plasma in steady state to small perturbations and measuring the response, it is possible to determine elements of the matrix of transport coefficients. Experimentally this is difficult, and results are mainly limited to transport driven by the pressure and temperature gradients. Importantly, off-diagonal elements in the transport matrix appear to be important. This has also implications for the interpretation of the so-called `power balance` diffusivity, determined from the steady state fluxes and gradients. Experimental techniques, analysis techniques, basic formulas, etc., are briefly reviewed. Experimental results are summarized. The fundamental question whether the fluxes are linear functions of the gradients or not is discussed. 31 refs.

  11. Synthetic Vision Systems - Operational Considerations Simulation Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kramer, Lynda J.; Williams, Steven P.; Bailey, Randall E.; Glaab, Louis J.

    2007-01-01

    Synthetic vision is a computer-generated image of the external scene topography that is generated from aircraft attitude, high-precision navigation information, and data of the terrain, obstacles, cultural features, and other required flight information. A synthetic vision system (SVS) enhances this basic functionality with real-time integrity to ensure the validity of the databases, perform obstacle detection and independent navigation accuracy verification, and provide traffic surveillance. Over the last five years, NASA and its industry partners have developed and deployed SVS technologies for commercial, business, and general aviation aircraft which have been shown to provide significant improvements in terrain awareness and reductions in the potential for Controlled-Flight-Into-Terrain incidents/accidents compared to current generation cockpit technologies. It has been hypothesized that SVS displays can greatly improve the safety and operational flexibility of flight in Instrument Meteorological Conditions (IMC) to a level comparable to clear-day Visual Meteorological Conditions (VMC), regardless of actual weather conditions or time of day. An experiment was conducted to evaluate SVS and SVS-related technologies as well as the influence of where the information is provided to the pilot (e.g., on a Head-Up or Head-Down Display) for consideration in defining landing minima based upon aircraft and airport equipage. The "operational considerations" evaluated under this effort included reduced visibility, decision altitudes, and airport equipage requirements, such as approach lighting systems, for SVS-equipped aircraft. Subjective results from the present study suggest that synthetic vision imagery on both head-up and head-down displays may offer benefits in situation awareness; workload; and approach and landing performance in the visibility levels, approach lighting systems, and decision altitudes tested.

  12. Synthetic vision systems: operational considerations simulation experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kramer, Lynda J.; Williams, Steven P.; Bailey, Randall E.; Glaab, Louis J.

    2007-04-01

    Synthetic vision is a computer-generated image of the external scene topography that is generated from aircraft attitude, high-precision navigation information, and data of the terrain, obstacles, cultural features, and other required flight information. A synthetic vision system (SVS) enhances this basic functionality with real-time integrity to ensure the validity of the databases, perform obstacle detection and independent navigation accuracy verification, and provide traffic surveillance. Over the last five years, NASA and its industry partners have developed and deployed SVS technologies for commercial, business, and general aviation aircraft which have been shown to provide significant improvements in terrain awareness and reductions in the potential for Controlled-Flight-Into-Terrain incidents / accidents compared to current generation cockpit technologies. It has been hypothesized that SVS displays can greatly improve the safety and operational flexibility of flight in Instrument Meteorological Conditions (IMC) to a level comparable to clear-day Visual Meteorological Conditions (VMC), regardless of actual weather conditions or time of day. An experiment was conducted to evaluate SVS and SVS-related technologies as well as the influence of where the information is provided to the pilot (e.g., on a Head-Up or Head-Down Display) for consideration in defining landing minima based upon aircraft and airport equipage. The "operational considerations" evaluated under this effort included reduced visibility, decision altitudes, and airport equipage requirements, such as approach lighting systems, for SVS-equipped aircraft. Subjective results from the present study suggest that synthetic vision imagery on both head-up and head-down displays may offer benefits in situation awareness; workload; and approach and landing performance in the visibility levels, approach lighting systems, and decision altitudes tested.

  13. Future operational plans for the National Space Transportation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neubauer, C. H., Jr.

    1986-01-01

    In March 1985, the NASA/DOD Space Transportation System Master Plan was published. This document establishes objectives and plans for operating the Space Transportation System (STS) for the next decade. In the present paper, some key points are discussed, and the significance of the weather forecasting capability is indicated. The STS is to become fully operational by the later 1980's and is to support fully the national needs into the mid-1990's. Attention is given to NASA/DOD STS coordination, NASA/DOD STS Master Plan Traffic Models, the Orbiter Launch-Rate Capability, Launch-Rate Capabilities for Shuttle Processing Facilities at Kennedy Space Center, and Launch-Rate Capabilities for Shuttle Processing Facilities at Vandenberg Air Force Base.

  14. USA/FBR program status FFTF operations startup experience

    SciTech Connect

    Moffitt, W.C.; Izatt, R.D.

    1981-06-01

    This paper gives highlights of the major Operations evaluations and operational results of the startup acceptance testing program and initiation of normal operating cycles for experiment irradiation in the FFTF. 33 figures. (DLC)

  15. Near independence of OLED operating voltage on transport layer thickness

    SciTech Connect

    Swensen, James S.; Wang, Liang; Polikarpov, Evgueni; Rainbolt, James E.; Koech, Phillip K.; Cosimbescu, Lelia; Padmaperuma, Asanga B.

    2013-01-01

    We report organic light emitting devices (OLEDs) with weak drive voltage dependence on the thickness of the hole transport layer (HTL) for thicknesses up to 1150 Å using the N,N'-Bis(naphthalen-1-yl)-N,N'-bis(phenyl)-benzidine (α-NPD) and N,N'-bis(3-methyl phenyl)-N,N'-diphenyl-[1,1'-biphenyl]-4,4'diamine (TPD), both of which have hole mobilities in the range of 2 × 10-3 cm2V-1s-1. Lower mobility HTL materials show larger operating voltage dependence on thickness. The near independence of the operating voltage for high mobility transport material thickness was only observed when the energy barrier for charge injection into the transport material was minimized. To ensure low injection barriers, a thin film of 2-(3-(adamantan-1-yl)propyl)-3,5,6-trifluorotetracyanoquinodimethane (F3TCNQ-Adl) was cast from solution onto the ITO surface. These results indicate that thick transport layers can be integrated into OLED stacks without the need for bulk conductivity doping.

  16. Advanced Transport Operating System (ATOPS) utility library software description

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clinedinst, Winston C.; Slominski, Christopher J.; Dickson, Richard W.; Wolverton, David A.

    1993-01-01

    The individual software processes used in the flight computers on-board the Advanced Transport Operating System (ATOPS) aircraft have many common functional elements. A library of commonly used software modules was created for general uses among the processes. The library includes modules for mathematical computations, data formatting, system database interfacing, and condition handling. The modules available in the library and their associated calling requirements are described.

  17. The HEAO experience - design through operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, D. P.

    1983-01-01

    The design process and performance of the NASA High Energy Astronomy Observatories (HEAO-1, 2, and 3) are surveyed from the initiation of the program in 1968 through the end of HEAO-3 operation in May, 1981, with a focus on the attitude control and determination subsystem (ACDS). The science objectives, original and revised overall design concepts, final design for each spacecraft, and details of the ACDS designs are discussed, and the stages of the ACDS design process, including redefinition to achieve 50 percent cost reduction, detailed design of common and mission-unique hardware and software, unit qualification, subsystem integration, and observatory-level testing, are described. Overall and ACDS performance is evaluated for each mission and found to meet or exceed design requirements despite some difficulties arising from errors in startracker-ACDS-interface coordination and from gyroscope failures. These difficulties were resolved by using the flexibility of the software design. The implicationns of the HEAO experience for the design process of future spacecraft are suggested.

  18. Defense waste processing facility radioactive operations. Part 1 - operating experience

    SciTech Connect

    Little, D.B.; Gee, J.T.; Barnes, W.M.

    1997-12-31

    The Savannah River Site`s Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) near Aiken, SC is the nation`s first and the world`s largest vitrification facility. Following a ten year construction program and a 3 year non-radioactive test program, DWPF began radioactive operations in March 1996. This paper presents the results of the first 9 months of radioactive operations. Topics include: operations of the remote processing equipment reliability, and decontamination facilities for the remote processing equipment. Key equipment discussed includes process pumps, telerobotic manipulators, infrared camera, Holledge{trademark} level gauges and in-cell (remote) cranes. Information is presented regarding equipment at the conclusion of the DWPF test program it also discussed, with special emphasis on agitator blades and cooling/heating coil wear. 3 refs., 4 figs.

  19. Actual Operation Simulation of RESSOX Ground Experiments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-11-01

    experiments with VCOCXO control of Experiment Two. In Experiment One, the remote synchronization system of the onboard crystal oscillator (RESSOX...Experiment One, the remote synchronization system of the onboard crystal oscillator (RESSOX) control signal that includes information of the standard time...receive navigation signals from at least one of the QZSs near the zenith. In general, a global navigation satellite system ( GNSS ), such as the GPS of

  20. Mass and Momentum Turbulent Transport Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, B. V.

    1983-01-01

    The downstream mixing of coaxial jets discharging in an expanded duct was studied to improve turbulent transport models which are used in computational procedures throughout the propulsion community for combustor flow modeling. Laser velocimeter (LV) and laser induced fluorescence (LIF) techniques were used to measure velocities and concentration and flow visualization techniques to determine the time dependent characteristics of the flow and the scale of the turbulent structure.

  1. The tritium operations experience on TFTR

    SciTech Connect

    von Halle, A.; Gentile, C.; Anderson, J.L.

    1994-09-01

    The Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) tritium gas system is administratively limited to 5 grains of tritium and provides the feedstock gas for the neutral beam and torus injection systems. Tritium operations on TFTR began with leak checking of gas handling systems, qualification of the gas injection systems, and high power plasma operations using using trace amounts of tritium in deuterium feedstock gas. Full tritium operation commenced with four highly diagnosed neutral beam pulses into a beamline calorimeter to verify planned tritium beam operating routines and to demonstrate the deuterium to tritium beam isotope exchange. Since that time, TFTR has successfully operated each of the twelve neutral beam ion sources in tritium during hundreds of tritium beam pulses and torus gas injections. This paper describes- the TFTR tritium gas handling systems and TFTR tritium operations of the gas injection systems and the neutral beam ion sources. Tritium accounting and accountability is discussed, including tritium retention issues of the torus limiters and beam impinged surfaces of the beamline components. Also included is tritium beam velocity analysis that compares the neutral beam extracted ion species composition for deuterium and tritium and that determines the extent of beam isotope exchange on subsequent deuterium and tritium beam pulses. The required modifications to TFTR operating routines to meet the US Department of Energy regulations for a low hazard nuclear facility and the problems encountered during initial tritium operations are described.

  2. Mod-2 wind turbine field operations experience

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gordon, L. H.

    1984-01-01

    The Mod-2 wind turbine is now in a 2-year research/experimental operations phase which offers a unique opportunity to study the effects of single and multiple wind turbines interacting with each other, the power grid, and the environment. This paper addresses the field operations and research testing experienced at the Mod-2 Cluster Goodnoe Hills Research Test Site near Goldendale, WA. Field operation, both routine and nonroutine, are discussed as well as the role of the participating utility. Technical areas discussed pertain to system performance and loads. Specific research tests relating to acoustics, TV interference, and wake effects are also discussed.

  3. Recent operational experiments at the LANSCE facility

    SciTech Connect

    Rybarcyk, Lawrence J

    2010-09-15

    The Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) consists of a pulsed 800-MeV room-temperature linear accelerator and an 800-MeV accumulator ring. It simultaneously provides H{sup +} and H{sup -} beams to several user facilities that have their own distinctive requirements, e.g. intensity, chopping pattern, duty factor, etc.. This multibeam operation presents challenges both from the standpoint of meeting the individual requirements but also achieving good overall performance for the integrated operation. Various aspects of more recent operations including the some of these challenges will be discussed.

  4. The Small Aircraft Transportation System (SATS), Higher Volume Operations (HVO) Off-Nominal Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baxley, B.; Williams, D.; Consiglio, M.; Conway, S.; Adams, C.; Abbott, T.

    2005-01-01

    The ability to conduct concurrent, multiple aircraft operations in poor weather, at virtually any airport, offers an important opportunity for a significant increase in the rate of flight operations, a major improvement in passenger convenience, and the potential to foster growth of charter operations at small airports. The Small Aircraft Transportation System, (SATS) Higher Volume Operations (HVO) concept is designed to increase traffic flow at any of the 3400 nonradar, non-towered airports in the United States where operations are currently restricted to one-in/one-out procedural separation during Instrument Meteorological Conditions (IMC). The concept's key feature is pilots maintain their own separation from other aircraft using procedures, aircraft flight data sent via air-to-air datalink, cockpit displays, and on-board software. This is done within the Self-Controlled Area (SCA), an area of flight operations established during poor visibility or low ceilings around an airport without Air Traffic Control (ATC) services. The research described in this paper expands the HVO concept to include most off-nominal situations that could be expected to occur in a future SATS environment. The situations were categorized into routine off-nominal operations, procedural deviations, equipment malfunctions, and aircraft emergencies. The combination of normal and off-nominal HVO procedures provides evidence for an operational concept that is safe, requires little ground infrastructure, and enables concurrent flight operations in poor weather.

  5. Mod-2 wind turbine field operations experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gordon, L. H.

    1985-01-01

    The three-machine, 7.5 MW Goodnoe Hills located near Goldendale, Washington and is now in a research/experimental operations phase that offers a unique opportunity to study the effects of single and multiple wind turbines interacting with each other, the power grid; and the environment. Following a brief description of the turbine and project history, this paper addresses major problem areas and research and development test results. Field operations, both routine and nonroutine, are discussed. Routine operation to date has produced over 13,379,000 KWh of electrical energy during 11,064 hr of rotation. Nonroutine operation includes suspended activities caused by a crack in the low speed shaft that necessitated a redesign and reinstallation of this assembly on all three turbines. With the world's largest cluster back in full operation, two of the turbines will be operated over the next years to determine their value as energy producer. The third unit will be used primarily for conducting research tests requiring configuration changes to better understand the wind turbine technology. Technical areas summarized pertain to system performance and enhancements. Specific research tests relating to acoustics, TV interference, and wake effects conclude the paper.

  6. Orbiter Kapton wire operational requirements and experience

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterson, R. V.

    1994-01-01

    The agenda of this presentation includes the Orbiter wire selection requirements, the Orbiter wire usage, fabrication and test requirements, typical wiring installations, Kapton wire experience, NASA Kapton wire testing, summary, and backup data.

  7. Orbiter Kapton wire operational requirements and experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peterson, R. V.

    1994-09-01

    The agenda of this presentation includes the Orbiter wire selection requirements, the Orbiter wire usage, fabrication and test requirements, typical wiring installations, Kapton wire experience, NASA Kapton wire testing, summary, and backup data.

  8. Inverse Modeling of Experiments to Support More Realistic Simulations of Sorbing Radionuclide Transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnold, B. W.; James, S. C.; Reimus, P. W.

    2012-12-01

    A series of adsorption, desorption, and column transport experiments were conducted to evaluate the transport of uranium (U) and neptunium (Np) through saturated volcanic tuffs. For potential high-level radioactive waste sites, these experiments demonstrate that slow radionuclide desorption processes, which are typically not accounted for in transport models implementing simple partition coefficients (Kd values), may dominate field-scale transport. A complimentary interpretive numerical model couples a simplified geochemical description of the system with transport calculations where heterogeneities are represented as an ensemble of sorption sites with characteristic adsorption and desorption rate constants that have widely varying values. Adsorption and desorption rate constants were estimated through inverse modeling such that reliable upscaled predictions of reactive transport in field settings could be simulated. The inverse modeling software, PEST, was also used to perform advanced uncertainty quantification. The multicomponent model/parameters matching the combined data sets suggest that over much longer time and distance scales the transport of U and Np under the experimental conditions would result in very little transport over field scales because even a small number of strong sorption sites will have an exaggerated retarding influence on the transport of a radionuclide plume. Modeling of combined sorption/desorption experiments and column transport experiments that involve both the measurement of column effluent breakthrough curves and the distribution of radionuclides remaining in the column at the conclusion of the experiments holds significant promise for supporting an improved approach to properly account for mineralogical heterogeneity over long time and distance scales in reactive radionuclide transport models. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed

  9. HPG operating experience at CEM-UT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gully, J. H.; Aanstoos, T. A.; Nalty, K.; Walls, W. A.

    1986-11-01

    Design and functional features are presented for three homopolar generators (HPG) used in experiments during the last decade at the Center for Electromechanics at the University of Texas. The first, a disk-type, 10 MJ HPG, was built in 1973 as a prototype power source for fusion experiments. A second, compact HPG was built in 1980 for opening switch experiments as part of railgun research. The third device is an iron-core, full-scale, high speed bearing and brush test facility for supplying an energy density of 60 MJ/cu m. Engineering data obtained during studies of armature reactions actively cooled brushes morganite-copper graphite rim brushes, and peak currents, are summarized.

  10. Garan conducts CsPINs Experiment Operations

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-04-28

    ISS027-E-017840 (28 April 2011) --- NASA astronaut Ron Garan, Expedition 27 flight engineer, supports the Dynamism of Auxin Efflux Facilitators responsible for Gravity-regulated Growth and Development in Cucumber (CsPINs) experiment in the Kibo laboratory of the International Space Station. CsPINs studies the phenomenon of tropism, i.e., the growth or turning movement of a biological organism, usually a plant, in response to an environmental stimulus. Specifically focusing on gravity, the new JAXA life science experiment investigates how plants sense gravity as an environmental signal and use it for governing their morphology and growth orientation.

  11. Garan conducts CsPINs Experiment Operations

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-04-28

    ISS027-E-017839 (28 April 2011) --- NASA astronaut Ron Garan, Expedition 27 flight engineer, supports the Dynamism of Auxin Efflux Facilitators responsible for Gravity-regulated Growth and Development in Cucumber (CsPINs) experiment in the Kibo laboratory of the International Space Station. CsPINs studies the phenomenon of tropism, i.e., the growth or turning movement of a biological organism, usually a plant, in response to an environmental stimulus. Specifically focusing on gravity, the new JAXA life science experiment investigates how plants sense gravity as an environmental signal and use it for governing their morphology and growth orientation.

  12. Garan conducts CsPINs Experiment Operations

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-04-28

    ISS027-E-017843 (28 April 2011) --- NASA astronaut Ron Garan, Expedition 27 flight engineer, supports the Dynamism of Auxin Efflux Facilitators responsible for Gravity-regulated Growth and Development in Cucumber (CsPINs) experiment in the Kibo laboratory of the International Space Station. CsPINs studies the phenomenon of tropism, i.e., the growth or turning movement of a biological organism, usually a plant, in response to an environmental stimulus. Specifically focusing on gravity, the new JAXA life science experiment investigates how plants sense gravity as an environmental signal and use it for governing their morphology and growth orientation.

  13. Cassidy conducts BASS Experiment Test Operations

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-04-05

    ISS035-E-015081 (5 April 2013) --- Astronaut Chris Cassidy, Expedition 35 flight engineer, conducts a session of the Burning and Suppression of Solids (BASS) experiment onboard the Earth-orbiting International Space Station. Following a series of preparations, Cassidy conducted a run of the experiment, which examined the burning and extinction characteristics of a wide variety of fuel samples in microgravity and will guide strategies for extinguishing fires in microgravity. BASS results contribute to the combustion computational models used in the design of fire detection and suppression systems in microgravity and on Earth.

  14. Operations experience at the Bevalac radiotherapy facility

    SciTech Connect

    Alonso, J.R.; Criswell, T.L.; Howard, J.; Chu, W.T.; Singh, R.P.; Geller, D.; Nyman, M.

    1981-03-01

    During the first years of Bevalac operation the biomedical effort concentrated on radiobiology work, laying the foundation for patient radiotherapy. A dedicated radiotherapy area was created in 1978, and in 1979 full-scale patient treatment was begun. As of now over 500 treatments with carbon, neon and argon beams have been delivered to about 50 patients, some as boosts from other modalities and some as complete heavy ion treatments. Up to 12 patients per day have been treated in this facility. Continuing efforts in refining techniques and operating procedures are increasing efficiency and accuracy of treatments, and are contributing to the alleviation of scheduling difficulties caused by the unique requirements of radiotherapy with human patients.

  15. FFTF operating experience, 1982-1984

    SciTech Connect

    Waldo, J B; Franz, G R; Loika, E F; Krupar, J J

    1984-01-01

    The Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) is a 400 Mwt sodium-cooled fast reactor operating at the Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory, Richland, Washington, to conduct fuels and materials testing in support of the US Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor (LMFBR) program. Startup and initial power testing included a comprehensive series of nonnuclear and nuclear tests to verify the thermal, hydraulic, and neutronic characteristics of the plant. A specially designed series of natural circulation tests were then performed to demonstrate the inherent safety features of the plant. Early in 1982, the FFTF began its first 100-day irradiation cycle. Since that time the plant has operated very well, achieving a cycle capacity factor of 94% in the most recent irradiation cycle. Seventy-five specific test assemblies and 25,000 individual fuel pins have been irradiated, some in excess of 80 MWd/Kg.

  16. NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope's Operational Mission Experience

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Robert K.; Scott, Charles P.

    2006-01-01

    New Generation of Detector Arrays(100 to 10,000 Gain in Capability over Previous Infrared Space Missions). IRAC: 256 x 256 pixel arrays operating at 3.6 microns, 4.5 microns, 5.8 microns, 8.0 microns. MIPS: Photometer with 3 sets of arrays operating at 24 microns, 70 microns and 160 microns. 128 x 128; 32 x 32 and 2 x 20 arrays. Spectrometer with 50-100 micron capabilities. IRS: 4 Array (128x128 pixel) Spectrograph, 4 -40 microns. Warm Launch Architecture: All other Infrared Missions launched with both the telescope and scientific instrument payload within the cryostat or Dewar. Passive cooling used to cool outer shell to approx.40 K. Cryogenic Boil-off then cools telescope to required 5.5K. Earth Trailing Heliocentric Orbit: Increased observing efficiency, simplification of observation planning, removes earth as heat source.

  17. Weapons Experiments Division Explosives Operations Overview

    SciTech Connect

    Laintz, Kenneth E.

    2012-06-19

    Presentation covers WX Division programmatic operations with a focus on JOWOG-9 interests. A brief look at DARHT is followed by a high level overview of explosives research activities currently being conducted within in the experimental groups of WX-Division. Presentation covers more emphasis of activities and facilities at TA-9 as these efforts have been more traditionally aligned with ongoing collaborative explosive exchanges covered under JOWOG-9.

  18. ECH experiments aiming at further advanced operations in LHD

    SciTech Connect

    Igami, H.; Kubo, S.; Shimozuma, T.; Yoshimura, Y.; Miyazawa, J.; Yamada, I.; Narihara, K.; Tamura, N.; Ida, K.; Mutoh, T.; Komori, A.; Inagaki, S.; Nagasaki, K.; Tanaka, H.; Maekawa, T.; Uchida, M.; Notake, T.

    2007-09-28

    In the Large helical device (LHD), super dense core (SDC) regime [1] and high electron temperature regime with formation of the electron internal transport barrier (e-ITB) [2][3] have been studied strenuously. Electron cyclotron heating (ECH) and current drive (ECCD) in such regimes can be powerful tools for heating and control of the plasma confinement. In this paper, recent progress of ECH experiments aiming at further advanced operation in these regimes is reported. Study of fundamental ECH by electron Bernstein waves (EBWs) has been required in the SDC regime. Early experimental results of EBW-ECH by so-called O-X-B and X-B method are introduced. In a newly realized enhanced magnetic field configuration, the highest central electron temperature over 10 keV was obtained in electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) discharges. ECCD will be very important in both of high density and high temperature regimes. It has been progressed with the optimization of microwave injection and magnetic field configuration. Progress of ECCD experiment is shortly introduced.

  19. Development of the COMmerical Experiment Transporter (COMET)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pawlick, Joseph F., Jr.

    1990-01-01

    In order to commercialize space, this nation must develop a well defined path through which the Centers for the Commercial Development of Space (CCDS's) and their industrial partners and counterparts can exploit the advantages of space manufacturing and processing. Such a capability requires systems, a supporting infrastructure, and funding to become a viable component of this nation's economic strength. This paper follows the development of the COMmercial Experiment Program (COMET) from inception to its current position as the country's first space program dedicated to satisfying the needs of industry: an industry which must investigate the feasibility of space based processes, materials, and prototypes. With proposals now being evaluated, much of the COMET story is yet to be written, however concepts and events which led to it's current status and the plans for implementation may be presented.

  20. Small Aircraft Transportation System, Higher Volume Operations Concept: Off-Nominal Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbott, Terence S.; Consiglio, Maria C.; Baxley, Brian T.; Williams, Daniel M.; Conway, Sheila R.

    2005-01-01

    This document expands the Small Aircraft Transportation System, (SATS) Higher Volume Operations (HVO) concept to include off-nominal conditions. The general philosophy underlying the HVO concept is the establishment of a newly defined area of flight operations called a Self-Controlled Area (SCA). During periods of poor weather, a block of airspace would be established around designated non-towered, non-radar airports. Aircraft flying enroute to a SATS airport would be on a standard instrument flight rules flight clearance with Air Traffic Control providing separation services. Within the SCA, pilots would take responsibility for separation assurance between their aircraft and other similarly equipped aircraft. Previous work developed the procedures for normal HVO operations. This document provides details for off-nominal and emergency procedures for situations that could be expected to occur in a future SCA.

  1. Operating experience with the ALS linac

    SciTech Connect

    Selph, F.; Massoletti, D.

    1991-05-01

    The linac injector for the Advanced Light Source (ALS) at LBL was recently put into operation. Energy is 50 MeV, frequency 3 GHz. The electron gun delivers up to 6nC in a 3.0-ns bunch at 120 kV. A train of bunches is injected into a 1-Hz booster and accelerated to 1.5 GHz for storage ring injection. A magnetic analysis system is used for optimizing the linac. Measured beam properties from the gun and after acceleration in the linac are described. 9 refs., 3 figs.

  2. Hadfield during BP Reg Experiment Operations

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-04-17

    ISS035-E-022360 (17 April 2013) --- In support of the Blood Pressure Regulation Experiment (BP Reg), Expedition 35 Commander Chris Hadfield of the Canadian Space Agency is pictured after having set up the Human Research Facility (HRF) PFS (Pulmonary Function System) and the European Physiology Module (EPM) Cardiolab (CDL) Leg/Arm Cuff System (LACS) and conducting the first ever session of this experiment. The test, which will be repeated using other crew members as well, will help to identify the astronauts who could benefit from countermeasures before returning to Earth. Thus, this method has great potential for astronaut health monitoring during future long-term space flights and it also has important implications for testing of individuals on Earth, especially the elderly, who are at risk for fainting. The research will also allow demonstrating the feasibility of obtaining a set of indicators of overall cardiovascular regulation from the non-invasive measurement of continuous blood pressure.

  3. Hadfield during BP Reg Experiment Operations

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-04-17

    ISS035-E-022356 (17 April 2013) --- In support of the Blood Pressure Regulation Experiment (BP Reg), Expedition 35 Commander Chris Hadfield of the Canadian Space Agency is pictured after having set up the Human Research Facility (HRF) PFS (Pulmonary Function System) and the European Physiology Module (EPM) Cardiolab (CDL) Leg/Arm Cuff System (LACS) and conducting the first ever session of this experiment. The test, which will be repeated using other crew members as well, will help to identify the astronauts who could benefit from countermeasures before returning to Earth. Thus, this method has great potential for astronaut health monitoring during future long-term space flights and it also has important implications for testing of individuals on Earth, especially the elderly, who are at risk for fainting. The research will also allow demonstrating the feasibility of obtaining a set of indicators of overall cardiovascular regulation from the non-invasive measurement of continuous blood pressure.

  4. Hadfield during BP Reg Experiment Operations

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-04-17

    ISS035-E-022357 (17 April 2013) --- In support of the Blood Pressure Regulation Experiment (BP Reg), Expedition 35 Commander Chris Hadfield of the Canadian Space Agency is pictured after having set up the Human Research Facility (HRF) PFS (Pulmonary Function System) and the European Physiology Module (EPM) Cardiolab (CDL) Leg/Arm Cuff System (LACS) and conducting the first ever session of this experiment. The test, which will be repeated using other crew members as well, will help to identify the astronauts who could benefit from countermeasures before returning to Earth. Thus, this method has great potential for astronaut health monitoring during future long-term space flights and it also has important implications for testing of individuals on Earth, especially the elderly, who are at risk for fainting. The research will also allow demonstrating the feasibility of obtaining a set of indicators of overall cardiovascular regulation from the non-invasive measurement of continuous blood pressure.

  5. An operationally simple hydroboration-oxidation experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Kabalka, G.W.; Wadgaonkar, P.P.; Chatla, N. )

    1990-11-01

    The hydroboration-oxidation sequence provides an efficient route to the anti-Markovnikov hydration of alkenes and is one of the most widely used synthetic reactions. The beauty of the hydroboration reaction as a synthetic method stems from the facts that it is broadly applicable, generally quantitative, occurs at ambient temperature, and is highly regio- and stereoselective. The hydroboration-oxidation experiment might thus be expected to enjoy a prominent place in the undergraduate laboratory curriculum. However, it is generally not considered to be suitable for the following reasons: (1) the key reagent, diborane, is somewhat difficult to prepare by traditional methods requiring the use of metal hydrides and strong mineral or Lewis acids (e.g., boron trifluoride etherate); (2) the most commonly used and commercially available hydroborating reagents, borane-tetrahydrofuran (BH[sub 3]-THF) and borane-dimethyl sulfide (BMS), are difficult to manipulate requiring dry and oxygen-free conditions; (3) the standard oxidation procedure requires the use of a dangerous 30% hydrogen peroxide solution. The authors have developed a hydroboration-oxidation experiment that can be readily performed in an undergraduate laboratory in a 4-h laboratory period. The experiment utilizes commercially available, stable, inexpensive, safe, and easily handled reagents and standard laboratory glassware. The reactions involve the use of in situ generated diborane (via reaction of sodium borohydride with iodine) as the hydroborating reagent and sodium perborate as the oxidizing agent.

  6. Fatigue and associated performance decrements in air transport operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lyman, E. G.; Orlady, H. W.

    1981-01-01

    A study of safety reports was conducted to examine the hypothesis that fatigue and associated performance decrements occur in air transport operations, and that these are associated with some combination of factors: circadian desynchronosis, duty time; pre-duty activity; sleep; work scheduling; workload; and environmental deprivation. The findings are based on a selected sample of reported incidents in which the reporter associated fatigue with the occurrence. In comparing the fatigue reports with a control set, significant performance decrements were found to exist related to time-of-day, awareness and attention to duty, less significantly, final phases of flights. The majority of the fatigue incidents involved such unsafe events as altitude deviations, takeoffs and landing without clearance, and the like. Considerations of duty and sleep are the major factors in the reported fatigue conditions.

  7. Transportable Payload Operations Control Center reusable software: Building blocks for quality ground data systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mahmot, Ron; Koslosky, John T.; Beach, Edward; Schwarz, Barbara

    1994-01-01

    The Mission Operations Division (MOD) at Goddard Space Flight Center builds Mission Operations Centers which are used by Flight Operations Teams to monitor and control satellites. Reducing system life cycle costs through software reuse has always been a priority of the MOD. The MOD's Transportable Payload Operations Control Center development team established an extensive library of 14 subsystems with over 100,000 delivered source instructions of reusable, generic software components. Nine TPOCC-based control centers to date support 11 satellites and achieved an average software reuse level of more than 75 percent. This paper shares experiences of how the TPOCC building blocks were developed and how building block developer's, mission development teams, and users are all part of the process.

  8. Lunar Transportation Facilities and Operations Study, option 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    During the Option 2 period of the Lunar Transportation Facilities and Operations Study (LTFOS), a joint McDonnell Douglas Space Systems Company Kennedy Space Center (MDSSC-KSC) and National Aeronautics and Space Administration Kennedy Space Center (NASA-KSC) Study team conducted a comparison of the functional testing of the RL-10 and Space Shuttle Main Engine, a quick-look impact assessment of the Synthesis Group Report, and a detailed assessment of the Synthesis Group Report. The results of these KSC LTFOS team efforts are included. The most recent study task effort was a detailed assessment of the Synthesis Group Report. The assessment was conducted to determine the impact on planetary launch and landing facilities and operations. The result of that effort is a report entitled 'Analysis of the Synthesis Group Report, its Architectures and their Impacts on PSS Launch and Landing Operations' and is contained in Appendix A. The report is structured in a briefing format with facing pages as opposed to a narrative style. A quick-look assessment of the Synthesis Group Report was conducted to determine the impact of implementing the recommendations of the Synthesis Group on KSC launch facilities and operations. The data was documented in a presentation format as requested by Kennedy Space Center Technology and Advanced Projects Office and is included in Appendix B. Appendix C is a white paper on the comparison of the functional testing of the RL-10 and Space Shuttle Main Engine. The comparison was undertaken to provide insight regarding common test requirements that would be applicable to Lunar and Mars Excursion Vehicles (LEV and MEV).

  9. Lunar Transportation Facilities and Operations Study, option 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1992-02-01

    During the Option 2 period of the Lunar Transportation Facilities and Operations Study (LTFOS), a joint McDonnell Douglas Space Systems Company Kennedy Space Center (MDSSC-KSC) and National Aeronautics and Space Administration Kennedy Space Center (NASA-KSC) Study team conducted a comparison of the functional testing of the RL-10 and Space Shuttle Main Engine, a quick-look impact assessment of the Synthesis Group Report, and a detailed assessment of the Synthesis Group Report. The results of these KSC LTFOS team efforts are included. The most recent study task effort was a detailed assessment of the Synthesis Group Report. The assessment was conducted to determine the impact on planetary launch and landing facilities and operations. The result of that effort is a report entitled 'Analysis of the Synthesis Group Report, its Architectures and their Impacts on PSS Launch and Landing Operations' and is contained in Appendix A. The report is structured in a briefing format with facing pages as opposed to a narrative style. A quick-look assessment of the Synthesis Group Report was conducted to determine the impact of implementing the recommendations of the Synthesis Group on KSC launch facilities and operations. The data was documented in a presentation format as requested by Kennedy Space Center Technology and Advanced Projects Office and is included in Appendix B. Appendix C is a white paper on the comparison of the functional testing of the RL-10 and Space Shuttle Main Engine. The comparison was undertaken to provide insight regarding common test requirements that would be applicable to Lunar and Mars Excursion Vehicles (LEV and MEV).

  10. Operational experience acquired in radioactive waste compaction

    SciTech Connect

    Bauer, S.; Mohr, P.; Hempelmann, W.

    1993-12-31

    The low-level radioactive waste scrapping facility in the KfK decontamination division was commissioned in 1983. Non-combustible residues and removed system components of low activity, but which are to be handled and disposed of as radioactive waste are in drums, casks or containers delivered to the facility. The waste usually undergoes pretreatment in a crusher, with the volume being definitively reduced at a pressure of 690 bar in the high-pressure compactor. In 1990, the overhead-crane was refurbished for remote control handling in the scrapping caisson. The parts to undergo scrapping are unpacked in the material lock, and then go into the scrapping caisson. It is possible to use here various mechanical and thermal methods to dismantle the respective parts. But most of the parts to undergo scrapping are such as that it is possible to directly pretreat them in the crusher. The obtained scrap is loaded into 180-liter drums. Most of the machinery in the caisson is manually operated. The operating crew enters the caisson in fully ventilated protective overalls. The drums filled with the scrap then go to the high-pressure compactor in the caisson. The compacts are temporarily stored, until recalled depending on their height and filled into drums such as that optimal drum filling is guaranteed.

  11. Operating experience firing waxed corrugated cardboard waste

    SciTech Connect

    McBurney, B.

    1995-09-01

    Georgia-Pacific operates a corrugated packaging facility in Doraville, Georgia which a suburb of Atlanta. The plant processes bulk brown paper into corrugated sheets for corrugated packaging. The plant`s process and building heat requires approximately 15,000 PPH steam at 150 psig which was supplied by a natural gas fired package boiler. The mill disposed of the cardboard trimmings and waste in a nearby landfill at a disposal cost of several thousand dollars per month. In 1992, the mill recognized that the landfill would close in several years which would result in a significant increase in monthly cardboard waste disposal costs. Therefore, the mill sought an alternate yet economical solution for waste disposal. After evaluating several different alternatives including recycling, the mill installed a boiler system designed to fire the waxed corrugated cardboard waste (WCW) as both a solution for disposal of this waste and as an alternate source of boiler fuel. This paper reviews plant design, operating performance and maintenance history.

  12. SNS Ring Operational Experience and Power Ramp Up Status

    SciTech Connect

    Plum, Michael A

    2009-01-01

    The SNS Ring has now been operating for about 3.5 years, and our march continues to increase the beam power to the full design value of 1.4 MW. The Ring is a loss-limited machine, and in general the radioactivation levels are good, but there are some unanticipated hot spots that we are working to improve. High intensity collective effects such as space-charge and beam instability have had minimal impact on beam operations to date. The cross plane coupling issue in the ring to target beam transport line has been solved. We will also discuss the status of equipment upgrades in the high-energy beam transport beam line, the injection-dump beam transport line, the ring, and the ring-to-target beam transport line.

  13. Extending helicopter operations to meet future integrated transportation needs.

    PubMed

    Stanton, Neville A; Plant, Katherine L; Roberts, Aaron P; Harvey, Catherine; Thomas, T Glyn

    2016-03-01

    Helicopters have the potential to be an integral part of the future transport system. They offer a means of rapid transit in an overly populated transport environment. However, one of the biggest limitations on rotary wing flight is their inability to fly in degraded visual conditions in the critical phases of approach and landing. This paper presents a study that developed and evaluated a Head up Display (HUD) to assist rotary wing pilots by extending landing to degraded visual conditions. The HUD was developed with the assistance of the Cognitive Work Analysis method as an approach for analysing the cognitive work of landing the helicopter. The HUD was tested in a fixed based flight simulator with qualified helicopter pilots. A qualitative analysis to assess situation awareness and workload found that the HUD enabled safe landing in degraded conditions whilst simultaneously enhancing situation awareness and reducing workload. Continued development in this area has the potential to extend the operational capability of helicopters in the future.

  14. Design, operation, and evaluation of the transportable vitrification system

    SciTech Connect

    Zamecnik, J.R.; Young, S.R.; Hansen, E.K.; Whitehouse, J.C.

    1997-02-20

    The Transportable Vitrification System (TVS) is a transportable melter system designed to demonstrate the treatment of low-level and mixed hazardous and radioactive wastes such as wastewater treatment sludges, contaminated soils and incinerator ash. The TVS is a large-scale, fully integrated vitrification system consisting of melter feed preparation, melter, offgas, service, and control modules. The TVS was tested with surrogate waste at the Clemson University Environmental Systems Engineering Department`s (ESED) DOE/Industry Center for Vitrification Research prior to being shipped to the DOE Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) K-25 site for treatment of mixed waste. This testing, along with additional testing at ORR, proved that the TVS would be able to successfully treat mixed waste. These surrogate tests consistently produced glass that met the EPA Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP). Performance of the system resulted in acceptable emissions of regulated metals from the offgas system. The TVS is scheduled to begin mixed waste operations at ORR in June 1997.

  15. SPALLATION NEUTRON SOURCE OPERATIONAL EXPERIENCE AT 1 MW

    SciTech Connect

    Galambos, John D

    2011-01-01

    The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) has been operating at the MW level for about one year. Experience in beam loss control and machine activation at this power level is presented. Also experience with machine protection systems is reviewed, which is critical at this power level. One of the most challenging operational aspects of high power operation has been attaining high availability, which is also discussed

  16. Operating Experience Review of the INL HTE Gas Monitoring System

    SciTech Connect

    L. C. Cadwallader; K. G. DeWall

    2010-06-01

    This paper describes the operations of several types of gas monitors in use at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) High Temperature Electrolysis Experiment (HTE) laboratory. The gases monitored at hydrogen, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and oxygen. The operating time, calibration, and unwanted alarms are described. The calibration session time durations are described. Some simple statistics are given for the reliability of these monitors and the results are compared to operating experiences of other types of monitors.

  17. Operating experience with high beta superconducting rf cavities

    SciTech Connect

    Dylla, H.F.; Doolittle, L.R.; Benesch, J.F.

    1993-06-01

    The number of installed and operational {beta} = 1 superconducting rf cavities has grown significantly over the last two years in accelerator laboratories in Europe, Japan and the US. The total installed acceleration capability as of mid-1993 is approximately 1 GeV at nominal gradients. Major installations at CERN, DESY, KEK and CEBAF have provided large increments to the installed base and valuable operational experience. A selection of test data and operational experience gathered to date is reviewed.

  18. A Preliminary Evaluation of Supersonic Transport Category Vehicle Operations in the National Airspace System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Underwood, Matthew C.; Guminsky, Michael D.

    2015-01-01

    Several public sector businesses and government agencies, including the National Aeronautics and Space Administration are currently working on solving key technological barriers that must be overcome in order to realize the vision of low-boom supersonic flights conducted over land. However, once these challenges are met, the manner in which this class of aircraft is integrated in the National Airspace System may become a potential constraint due to the significant environmental, efficiency, and economic repercussions that their integration may cause. Background research was performed on historic supersonic operations in the National Airspace System, including both flight deck procedures and air traffic controller procedures. Using this information, an experiment was created to test some of these historic procedures in a current-day, emerging Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) environment and observe the interactions between commercial supersonic transport aircraft and modern-day air traffic. Data was gathered through batch simulations of supersonic commercial transport category aircraft operating in present-day traffic scenarios as a base-lining study to identify the magnitude of the integration problems and begin the exploration of new air traffic management technologies and architectures which will be needed to seamlessly integrate subsonic and supersonic transport aircraft operations. The data gathered include information about encounters between subsonic and supersonic aircraft that may occur when supersonic commercial transport aircraft are integrated into the National Airspace System, as well as flight time data. This initial investigation is being used to inform the creation and refinement of a preliminary Concept of Operations and for the subsequent development of technologies that will enable overland supersonic flight.

  19. Implementation of transportation distance for analyzing FLIM and FRET experiments.

    PubMed

    Heinrich, Philippe; Gonzalez Pisfil, Mariano; Kahn, Jonas; Héliot, Laurent; Leray, Aymeric

    2014-10-01

    Analysis of fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM) and Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) experiments in living cells is usually based on mean lifetimes computations. However, these mean lifetimes can induce misinterpretations. We propose in this work the implementation of the transportation distance for FLIM and FRET experiments in vivo. This non-fitting indicator, which is easy to compute, reflects the similarity between two distributions and can be used for pixels clustering to improve the estimation of the FRET parameters. We study the robustness and the discriminating power of this transportation distance, both theoretically and numerically. In addition, a comparison study with the largely used mean lifetime differences is performed. We finally demonstrate practically the benefits of the transportation distance over the usual mean lifetime differences for both FLIM and FRET experiments in living cells.

  20. Sediment-transport experiments in zero-gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iversen, James D.; Greeley, Ronald

    1987-01-01

    One of the important parameters in the analysis of sediment entrainment and transport is gravitational attraction. The availability of a laboratory in earth orbit would afford an opportunity to conduct experiments in zero and variable gravity environments. Elimination of gravitational attraction as a factor in such experiments would enable other critical parameters (such as particle cohesion and aerodynamic forces) to be evaluated much more accurately. A Carousel Wind Tunnel (CWT) is proposed for use in conducting experiments concerning sediment particle entrainment and transport in a space station. In order to test the concept of this wind tunnel design a one third scale model CWT was constructed and calibrated. Experiments were conducted in the prototype to determine the feasibility of studying various aeolian processes and the results were compared with various numerical analysis. Several types of experiments appear to be feasible utilizing the proposed apparatus.

  1. Automatic braking system modification for the Advanced Transport Operating Systems (ATOPS) Transportation Systems Research Vehicle (TSRV)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coogan, J. J.

    1986-01-01

    Modifications were designed for the B-737-100 Research Aircraft autobrake system hardware of the Advanced Transport Operating Systems (ATOPS) Program at Langley Research Center. These modifications will allow the on-board flight control computer to control the aircraft deceleration after landing to a continuously variable level for the purpose of executing automatic high speed turn-offs from the runway. A bread board version of the proposed modifications was built and tested in simulated stopping conditions. Test results, for various aircraft weights, turnoff speed, winds, and runway conditions show that the turnoff speeds are achieved generally with errors less than 1 ft/sec.

  2. Operating experience and construction status of ATLAS

    SciTech Connect

    Pardo, R.C.; DenHartog, P.; Shepard, K.W.; Zinkann, G.

    1984-01-01

    The present Argonne Tandem-Linac accelerator has operated in a reliable manner during the past year. The accelerator system provided 4402 hours of experimental beam time with a wide variety of heavy-ions. Figure 1 shows the beams which have been provided during the past year. New beams accelerated by the linac include 300 MeV /sup 82/Se and 390 MeV /sup 109/Ag. In tests, the tandem accelerated 102 MeV /sup 127/I. This is the heaviest beam ever accelerated by the Argonne tandem. The long-term performance of the niobium resonators appears to be good. No significant degradation of performance has been observed for most resonators over many years of use with the exceptions of problems caused by catastrophic vacuum accidents. Resonators whose performance has deteriorated after vacuum accidents have recently been restored to their original performance state by a simple technique. The technique used is to rinse the interior of the resonator with a sequence of baths of solvents and water.

  3. Recycling galvanized steel: Operating experience and benefits

    SciTech Connect

    Dudek, F.J.; Daniels, E.J.; Morgan, W.A.

    1993-08-01

    In response to the increase in consumption of galvanized steel for automobiles in the last decade and the problems associated with remelting larger quantities of galvanized steel scrap, a process is being developed to separate and recover the steel and zinc from galvanized ferrous scrap. The zinc is dissolved from the scrap in hot caustic using anodic assistance and is recovered electrolytically as dendritic powder. The dezinced ferrous scrap is rinsed and used directly. The process is effective for zinc, lead, and aluminum removal on loose and baled scrap and on all types of galvanized steel. The process has been pilot tested for batch treatment of 900 tonnes of mostly baled scrap. A pilot plant to continuously treat loose scrap, with a design capacity of 48,000 tonnes annually, has been in operation in East Chicago, Indiana since early in 1993. The first 450 t of scrap degalvanized in the pilot plant have residual zinc below 0.01% and sodium dragout below 0.01%. Use of degalvanized steel scrap decreases raw materials, environmental compliance, and opportunity costs to steel- and iron-makers. Availability of clean degalvanized scrap may enable integrated steel producers to recycle furnace dusts to the sinter plant and EAF shops to produce flat products without use of high quality scrap alternatives such as DRI, pig iron, or iron carbide. Recycling the components of galvanized steel scrap saves primary energy, decreases zinc imports, and adds value to the scrap. The quantities of zinc available by the year 2000 from prompt and obsolete automotive scrap win approach 25% of zinc consumed in the major automotive production centers of the world. Zinc recycling from galvanized steel scrap, either before or after scrap melting, will have to be implemented.

  4. Army Transportation Systems in a Twenty-First Century Joint Operational Environment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-01

    Wheeled Vehicles Classification : Unclassified Five components of the U.S. Army Transportation Systems collectively meet...Army Transportation Systems in a Twenty-First Century Joint Operational Environment by Lieutenant Colonel Mark D. Stimer...Transportation Systems in a Twenty-First Century Joint Operational Environment 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER

  5. [Operating Room Nurses' Experiences of Securing for Patient Safety].

    PubMed

    Park, Kwang Ok; Kim, Jong Kyung; Kim, Myoung Sook

    2015-10-01

    This study was done to evaluate the experience of securing patient safety in hospital operating rooms. Experiential data were collected from 15 operating room nurses through in-depth interviews. The main question was "Could you describe your experience with patient safety in the operating room?". Qualitative data from the field and transcribed notes were analyzed using Strauss and Corbin's grounded theory methodology. The core category of experience with patient safety in the operating room was 'trying to maintain principles of patient safety during high-risk surgical procedures'. The participants used two interactional strategies: 'attempt continuous improvement', 'immersion in operation with sharing issues of patient safety'. The results indicate that the important factors for ensuring the safety of patients in the operating room are manpower, education, and a system for patient safety. Successful and safe surgery requires communication, teamwork and recognition of the importance of patient safety by the surgical team.

  6. TSTA Piping and Flame Arrestor Operating Experience Data

    SciTech Connect

    Cadwallader, Lee C.; Willms, R. Scott

    2014-10-01

    The Tritium Systems Test Assembly (TSTA) was a facility dedicated to tritium handling technology and experiment research at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. The facility operated from 1984 to 2001, running a prototype fusion fuel processing loop with ~100 grams of tritium as well as small experiments. There have been several operating experience reports written on this facility’s operation and maintenance experience. This paper describes analysis of two additional components from TSTA, small diameter gas piping that handled small amounts of tritium in a nitrogen carrier gas, and the flame arrestor used in this piping system. The operating experiences and the component failure rates for these components are discussed in this paper. Comparison data from other applications are also presented.

  7. Terminal-area STOL operating systems experiments program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, D. W.; Watson, D.; Christensen, J. V.

    1973-01-01

    Information which will aid in the choice by the U.S. Government and industry of system concepts, design criteria, operating procedures for STOL aircraft and STOL ports, STOL landing guidance systems, air traffic control systems, and airborne avionics and flight control systems. Ames has developed a terminal-area STOL operating systems experiments program which is a part of the joint DOT/NASA effort is discussed. The Ames operating systems experiments program, its objectives, the program approach, the program schedule, typical experiments, the research facilities to be used, and the program status are described.

  8. Femtosecond Operation of the LCLS for User Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Frisch, Josef; Bostedt, Christoph; Bozek, John; Brachmann, Axel; Coffee, Ryan; Decker, Franz-Josef; Ding, Yuantao; Dowell, David; Emma, Paul; Gilevich, Sasha; Haller, Gunther; Hays, Gregory; Hering, Philippe; Hill, Bruce; Huang, Zhirong; Iverson, Richard Kanter, Elliot; Kraessig, Bertold; Loos, Henrik; Miahnahri, Alan; Nuhn, Heinz-Dieter; /SLAC /SLAC /SLAC /SLAC /SLAC /SLAC /SLAC /SLAC /SLAC /SLAC /SLAC /LBL, Berkeley

    2010-09-02

    In addition to its normal operation at 250pC, the LCLS has operated with 20pC bunches delivering X-ray beams to users with energies between 800eV and 2 keV and with bunch lengths below 10 fs FWHM. A bunch arrival time monitor and timing transmission system provide users with sub 50 fs synchronization between a laser and the X-rays for pump/probe experiments. We describe the performance and operational experience of the LCLS for short bunch experiments.

  9. Fire protection system operating experience review for fusion applications

    SciTech Connect

    Cadwallader, L.C.

    1995-12-01

    This report presents a review of fire protection system operating experiences from particle accelerator, fusion experiment, and other applications. Safety relevant operating experiences and accident information are discussed. Quantitative order-of-magnitude estimates of fire protection system component failure rates and fire accident initiating event frequencies are presented for use in risk assessment, reliability, and availability studies. Safety concerns with these systems are discussed, including spurious operation. This information should be useful to fusion system designers and safety analysts, such as the team working on the Engineering Design Activities for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor.

  10. Design of a proof of principle high current transport experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Lund, S.M.; Bangerter, R.O.; Barnard, J.J.; Celata, C.M.; Faltens, A.; Friedman, A.; Kwan, J.W.; Lee, E.P.; Seidl, P.A.

    2000-01-15

    Preliminary designs of an intense heavy-ion beam transport experiment to test issues for Heavy Ion Fusion (HIF) are presented. This transport channel will represent a single high current density beam at full driver scale and will evaluate practical issues such as aperture filling factors, electrons, halo, imperfect vacuum, etc., that cannot be fully tested using scaled experiments. Various machine configurations are evaluated in the context of the range of physics and technology issues that can be explored in a manner relevant to a full scale driver. it is anticipated that results from this experiment will allow confident construction of next generation ''Integrated Research Experiments'' leading to a full scale driver for energy production.

  11. Undergraduate Laboratory Experiment Facilitating Active Learning of Concepts in Transport Phenomena: Experiment with a Subliming Solid

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Utgikar, Vivek P.

    2015-01-01

    An experiment based on the sublimation of a solid was introduced in the undergraduate Transport Phenomena course. The experiment required the students to devise their own apparatus and measurement techniques. The theoretical basis, assignment of the experiment, experimental results, and student/instructor observations are described in this paper.…

  12. Undergraduate Laboratory Experiment Facilitating Active Learning of Concepts in Transport Phenomena: Experiment with a Subliming Solid

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Utgikar, Vivek P.

    2015-01-01

    An experiment based on the sublimation of a solid was introduced in the undergraduate Transport Phenomena course. The experiment required the students to devise their own apparatus and measurement techniques. The theoretical basis, assignment of the experiment, experimental results, and student/instructor observations are described in this paper.…

  13. INTEX-NA: Intercontinental Chemical Transport Experiment - North America

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, Hanwant B.; Jacob, D.; Pfister, L.; Hipskind, R. Stephen (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    INTEX-NA is an integrated atmospheric chemistry field experiment to be performed over North America using the NASA DC-8 and P-3B aircraft as its primary platforms. It seeks to understand the exchange of chemicals and aerosols between continents and the global troposphere. The constituents of interest are ozone and its precursors (hydrocarbons, NOX and HOX), aerosols, and the major greenhouse gases (CO2, CH4, N2O). INTEX-NA will provide the observational database needed to quantify inflow, outflow, and transformations of chemicals over North America. INTEX-NA is to be performed in two phases. Phase A will take place during the period of May-August 2004 and Phase B during March-June 2006. Phase A is in summer when photochemistry is most intense and climatic issues involving aerosols and carbon cycle are most pressing, and Phase B is in spring when Asian transport to North America is at its peak. INTEX-NA will coordinate its activities with concurrent measurement programs including satellites (e. g. Terra, Aura, Envisat), field activities undertaken by the North American Carbon Program (NACP), and other U.S. and international partners. However, it is being designed as a 'stand alone' mission such that its successful execution is not contingent on other programs. Synthesis of the ensemble of observation from surface, airborne, and space platforms, with the help of global/regional models is an important It is anticipated that approximately 175 flight hours for each of the aircraft (DC-8 and P-3B) will be required for each Phase. Principal operational sites are tentatively selected to be Bangor, ME; Wallops Island, VA; Seattle, WA; Rhinelander, WI; Lancaster, CA; and New Orleans, LA. These coastal and continental sites can support large missions and are suitable for INTEX-NA objectives. The experiment will be supported by forecasts from meteorological and chemical models, satellite observations, surface networks, and enhanced O3,-sonde releases. In addition to

  14. INTEX-NA: Intercontinental Chemical Transport Experiment - North America

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, Hanwant B.; Jacob, D.; Pfister, L.; Hipskind, R. Stephen (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    INTEX-NA is an integrated atmospheric chemistry field experiment to be performed over North America using the NASA DC-8 and P-3B aircraft as its primary platforms. It seeks to understand the exchange of chemicals and aerosols between continents and the global troposphere. The constituents of interest are ozone and its precursors (hydrocarbons, NOX and HOX), aerosols, and the major greenhouse gases (CO2, CH4, N2O). INTEX-NA will provide the observational database needed to quantify inflow, outflow, and transformations of chemicals over North America. INTEX-NA is to be performed in two phases. Phase A will take place during the period of May-August 2004 and Phase B during March-June 2006. Phase A is in summer when photochemistry is most intense and climatic issues involving aerosols and carbon cycle are most pressing, and Phase B is in spring when Asian transport to North America is at its peak. INTEX-NA will coordinate its activities with concurrent measurement programs including satellites (e. g. Terra, Aura, Envisat), field activities undertaken by the North American Carbon Program (NACP), and other U.S. and international partners. However, it is being designed as a 'stand alone' mission such that its successful execution is not contingent on other programs. Synthesis of the ensemble of observation from surface, airborne, and space platforms, with the help of global/regional models is an important It is anticipated that approximately 175 flight hours for each of the aircraft (DC-8 and P-3B) will be required for each Phase. Principal operational sites are tentatively selected to be Bangor, ME; Wallops Island, VA; Seattle, WA; Rhinelander, WI; Lancaster, CA; and New Orleans, LA. These coastal and continental sites can support large missions and are suitable for INTEX-NA objectives. The experiment will be supported by forecasts from meteorological and chemical models, satellite observations, surface networks, and enhanced O3,-sonde releases. In addition to

  15. Abrasion resistance of muscovite in aeolian and subaqueous transport experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Calvin J.; Struble, Alexander; Whitmore, John H.

    2017-02-01

    Complementary aeolian and subaqueous transport experiments showed a trend in muscovite abrasion that may be useful for identifying ancient sandstones as aeolian or subaqueous in origin. We found that our experimental aeolian processes pulverized the micas quickly, while our subaqueous processes did not. In a pair of abrasion resistance experiments conducted with micaceous quartz sand, it was found that large muscovite grains were (1) reduced by aeolian processes to less than 500 μm in just 4 days, and (2) preserved by subaqueous processes to 610 ± 90 μm even after 356 days. At 20 days of aeolian transport no loose micas could be found even under the microscope, but after a year of subaqueous transport loose muscovite grains could still be seen with the naked eye. Thus, the occurrence and character of micas in a sandstone, particularly muscovite, may be helpful in determining the ancient depositional process.

  16. Change of Collision Efficiency with Distance in Bacterial Transport Experiements

    SciTech Connect

    Dong, Hailiang; Scheibe, Timothy D.; Johnson, William P.; Monkman, Crystal; Fuller, Mark E.

    2006-05-01

    Previous bacterial transport studies have shown decreased bacterial adhesion with transport distance, largely based on laboratory core experiments. An inferred effect of microbial population variability is invoked to interpret experimental data, but there lacks direct measurement at field-scale, especially in correlation of transport distance with change of bacterial surface properties. This study was undertaken to determine change of collision efficiency with transport distance, taking advantage of the bacterial transport experiment in Oyster, VA in the summer of 2001. Upon injection of an adhesion deficient strain, Comamonas sp. DA001 into a up-gradient well, bacterial samples were taken from multi-level samplers along the flow path, and were injected into cores of 40 cm in length and 7.5 cm in diameter packed with homogenized sediment from the same site, South Oyster focus area (SOFA). Bacterial suspension samples were also measured for bacterial electrophoretic mobility distribution. Using filtration theory, collision efficiency, the probability of bacterial attachment to the grain surfaces upon collision and a quantitative measure of bacterial adhesion, was determined using CXTFIT model fitted attachment rate, measured grain size (10th percentile), porosity, flow velocity, and collector efficiency. Collision efficiency was also determined based on the fraction of retention in the cores. Contrary to previous results and interpretation of field-scale breakthrough curves, our experimentally determined collision efficiency increases with transport distance in the core experiments, which correlates with increasingly negative surface charge of the injected bacteria. Therefore we conclude that the apparent decrease in adhesion with transport distance in the field is strongly controlled by field-scale heterogeneity in physical and chemical aquifer properties and not by microbial population heterogeneity.

  17. Operating Experience Review of Tritium-in-Water Monitors

    SciTech Connect

    S. A. Bruyere; L. C. Cadwallader

    2011-09-01

    Monitoring tritium facility and fusion experiment effluent streams is an environmental safety requirement. This paper presents data on the operating experience of a solid scintillant monitor for tritium in effluent water. Operating experiences were used to calculate an average monitor failure rate of 4E-05/hour for failure to function. Maintenance experiences were examined to find the active repair time for this type of monitor, which varied from 22 minutes for filter replacement to 11 days of downtime while waiting for spare parts to arrive on site. These data support planning for monitor use; the number of monitors needed, allocating technician time for maintenance, inventories of spare parts, and other issues.

  18. 14 CFR 135.397 - Small transport category airplane performance operating limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Small transport category airplane... PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Airplane Performance Operating Limitations § 135.397 Small transport category airplane performance operating limitations. (a) No person may operate a reciprocating...

  19. 14 CFR 135.397 - Small transport category airplane performance operating limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Small transport category airplane... PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Airplane Performance Operating Limitations § 135.397 Small transport category airplane performance operating limitations. (a) No person may operate a reciprocating...

  20. 14 CFR 135.397 - Small transport category airplane performance operating limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Small transport category airplane... PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Airplane Performance Operating Limitations § 135.397 Small transport category airplane performance operating limitations. (a) No person may operate a reciprocating engine...

  1. 14 CFR 135.397 - Small transport category airplane performance operating limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Small transport category airplane... PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Airplane Performance Operating Limitations § 135.397 Small transport category airplane performance operating limitations. (a) No person may operate a reciprocating engine...

  2. 14 CFR 135.397 - Small transport category airplane performance operating limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Small transport category airplane... PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Airplane Performance Operating Limitations § 135.397 Small transport category airplane performance operating limitations. (a) No person may operate a reciprocating engine...

  3. The Gerbil Jar: A Basic Home Experience in Operant Conditioning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plant, L.

    1980-01-01

    Explains how a teaching method such as allowing students to raise gerbils at home can encourage students to gain experience with the fundamental techniques of operant conditioning which are otherwise generally unavailable to students in large introductory psychology courses. (DB)

  4. Stochastic analysis of transport of conservative solutes in caisson experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Dagan, G.

    1995-02-01

    The Los Alamos National Laboratory has conducted in the past a series of experiments of transport of conservative and reactive solutes. The experimental setup and the experimental results are presented in a series of reports. The main aim of the experiments was to validate models of transport of solutes in unsaturated flow at the caisson intermediate scale, which is much larger than the one pertaining to laboratory columns. First attempts to analyze the experimental results were by one-dimensional convective-dispersion models. These models could not explain the observed solute breakthrough curves and particularly the large solute dispersion in the caisson effluent Since there were some question marks about the uniformity of water distribution at the caisson top, the transport experiments were repeated under conditions of saturated flow. In these experiments constant heads were applied at the top and the bottom of the caisson and the number of concentration monitoring stations was quadrupled. The analysis of the measurements by the same one-dimensional model indicated clearly that the fitted dispersivity is much larger than the pore-sole dispersivity and that it grows with the distance in an approximately linear fashion. This led to the conclusion, raised before, that transport in the caisson is dominated by heterogeneity effects, i.e. by spatial variability of the material Such effects cannot be captured by traditional one-dimensional models. In order to account for the effect of heterogeneity, the saturated flow experiments have been analyzed by using stochastic transport modeling. The apparent linear growth of dispersivity with distance suggested that the system behaves like a stratified one. Consequently, the model of Dagan and Bresier has been adopted in order to interpret concentration measurements. In this simple model the caisson is viewed as a bundle of columns of different permeabilities, which are characterized by a p.d.f. (probability denasity function).

  5. On-Site Incineration: Overview of Superfund Operating Experience

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-03-01

    Site Incineration: Overview of Superfund Operating Experience Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB No. 0704-0188 Public reporting burden for the...Incineration: Overview of Superfund Operating Experience 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT...32 1 INTRODUCTION Incineration has been used as a remedy at more than 40 Superfund sites. Information on cost and

  6. Transport experiments on dilute, spin-polarized Fermi fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Candela, D.; McAllaster, D. R.; Wei, L.-J.; Kalechofsky, N.

    1992-10-01

    A series of experiments has been carried out on very dilute3He-4He mixtures and on pure3He liquid at very high field/temperature ratios (H≤8 T, T≥4.3mK). In this regime these systems display a strong Leggett-Rice effect, weakly damped paramagnetic spin waves, and significant polarization effects on spin and momentum transport. The dilute mixture experiments used NMR to observe standing spin waves, and vibrating-wire viscometry to measure momentum transport. A very satisfactory agreement is found with the recent kinetic-equation calculations of Jeon and Mullin. The pure3He experiments may provide the first evidence for field-induced relaxation of transverse spin currents.

  7. Anomalous reactive transport in porous media: Experiments and modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edery, Yaniv; Dror, Ishai; Scher, Harvey; Berkowitz, Brian

    2015-05-01

    We analyze dynamic behavior of chemically reactive species in a porous medium, subject to anomalous transport. In this context, we present transport experiments in a refraction-index-matched, three-dimensional, water-saturated porous medium. A pH indicator (Congo red) was used as either a conservative or a reactive tracer, depending on the tracer solution pH relative to that of the background solution. The porous medium consisted of an acrylic polymer material formed as spherical beads that have pH-buffering capacity. The magnitude of reaction during transport through the porous medium was related to the color change of the Congo red, via image analysis. Here, we focused on point injection of the tracer into a macroscopically uniform flow field containing water at a pH different from that of the injected tracer. The setup yielded measurements of the temporally evolving spatial (local-in-space) concentration field. Parallel experiments with the same tracer, but without reactions (no changes in pH), enabled identification of the transport itself to be anomalous (non-Fickian); this was quantified by a continuous time random walk (CTRW) formulation. A CTRW particle tracking model was then used to quantify the spatial and temporal migration of both the conservative and reactive tracer plumes. Model parameters related to the anomalous transport were determined from the conservative tracer experiments. An additional term accounting for chemical reaction was established solely from analysis of the reactant concentrations, and significantly, no other fitting parameters were required. The measurements and analysis emphasized the localized nature of reaction, caused by small-scale concentration fluctuations and preferential pathways. In addition, a threshold radius for pH-controlled reactive transport processes was defined under buffering conditions, which delineated the region in which reactions occurred rapidly.

  8. Measurements of impurity concentrations and transport in the Lithium Tokamak Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyle, D. P.; Bell, R. E.; Kaita, R.; Lucia, M.; Schmitt, J. C.; Scotti, F.; Kubota, S.; Hansen, C.; Biewer, T. M.; Gray, T. K.

    2016-10-01

    The Lithium Tokamak Experiment (LTX) is a modest-sized spherical tokamak with all-metal plasma facing components (PFCs), uniquely capable of operating with large area solid and/or liquid lithium coatings essentially surrounding the entire plasma. This work presents measurements of core plasma impurity concentrations and transport in LTX. In discharges with solid Li coatings, volume averaged impurity concentrations were low but non-negligible, with 2 - 4 % Li, 0.6 - 2 % C, 0.4 - 0.7 % O, and Zeff < 1.2 . Transport was assessed using the TRANSP, NCLASS, and MIST codes. Collisions with the main H ions dominated the neoclassical impurity transport, and neoclassical transport coefficients calculated with NCLASS were similar across all impurity species and differed no more than a factor of two. However, time-independent simulations with MIST indicated that neoclassical theory did not fully capture the impurity transport and anomalous transport likely played a significant role in determining impurity profiles. Progress on additional analysis, including time-dependent impurity transport simulations and impurity measurements with liquid lithium coatings, and plans for diagnostic upgrades and future experiments in LTX- β will also be presented. This work supported by US DOE contracts DE-AC02-09CH11466 and DE-AC05-00OR22725.

  9. Unit Operation Experiment Linking Classroom with Industrial Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benson, Tracy J.; Richmond, Peyton C.; LeBlanc, Weldon

    2013-01-01

    An industrial-type distillation column, including appropriate pumps, heat exchangers, and automation, was used as a unit operations experiment to provide a link between classroom teaching and real-world applications. Students were presented with an open-ended experiment where they defined the testing parameters to solve a generalized problem. The…

  10. Unit Operation Experiment Linking Classroom with Industrial Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benson, Tracy J.; Richmond, Peyton C.; LeBlanc, Weldon

    2013-01-01

    An industrial-type distillation column, including appropriate pumps, heat exchangers, and automation, was used as a unit operations experiment to provide a link between classroom teaching and real-world applications. Students were presented with an open-ended experiment where they defined the testing parameters to solve a generalized problem. The…

  11. Operating experience review of an INL gas monitoring system

    SciTech Connect

    Cadwallader, Lee C.; DeWall, K. G.; Herring, J. S.

    2015-03-12

    This article describes the operations of several types of gas monitors in use at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) High Temperature Electrolysis Experiment (HTE) laboratory. The gases monitored in the lab room are hydrogen, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and oxygen. The operating time, calibration, and both actual and unwanted alarms are described. The calibration session time durations are described. In addition, some simple calculations are given to estimate the reliability of these monitors and the results are compared to operating experiences of other types of monitors.

  12. Shifting from Production to Service to Experience-Based Operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angelis, Jannis; de Lima, Edson Pinheiro

    This chapter covers the shift in focus of value added business operations from ­production to services, and in turn, to experience-based operations where customer involvement itself becomes part of the offering. The shift has significant implications for how businesses are managed. The greater service focus affects the firm's unique value proposition, which necessitates considerations on strategy, supplier relations, post-sale offerings and so on. Meanwhile, the inclusion of customer ­experiences affect the way operations are designed and employed so that these are structurally systematically captured and capitalised.

  13. Operating Experience of the Tritium Laboratory at CRL

    SciTech Connect

    Gallagher, C.L.; McCrimmon, K.D.

    2005-07-15

    The Chalk River Laboratories Tritium Laboratory has been operating safely and reliably for over 20 years. Safe operations are achieved through proper management, supervision, training and using approved operating procedures and techniques. Reliability is achieved through appropriate equipment selection, routine equipment surveillance testing and routine preventative maintenance. This paper summarizes the laboratory's standard operating protocols and formal compliance programs followed to ensure safe operations. The paper will also review the general set-up of the laboratory and will focus on the experience gained with the operation of various types of equipment such as tritium monitors, tritium analyzers, pumps, purification systems and other systems used in the laboratory during its 20 years of operation.

  14. Operative experience of surgery residents: trends and challenges.

    PubMed

    Malangoni, Mark A; Biester, Thomas W; Jones, Andrew T; Klingensmith, Mary E; Lewis, Frank R

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate trends in operative experience and to determine the effect of establishing the Surgical Council on Resident Education (SCORE) operative classification system on changes in operative volume among graduating surgery residents. The general surgery operative logs of graduating surgery residents from 2005 were retrospectively compared with residents who completed training in 2010 and 2011. Nonparametric statistical analyses were used (Mann-Whitney and median test) with significance set at p<0.01. A total of 1022 residents completing residency in 2005 were compared with 1923 residents completing training in 2010-2011. Total operations reported increased from a median of 1023 to 1238 (21%) between 2005 and 2010-2011 (p<0.001). Cases increased in most SCORE categories. The median numbers of total, basic, and complex laparoscopic operations increased by 49%, 37%, and 82%, respectively, over the 5-year interval (p<0.001). Open cavitary (thoracic + abdominal) operations decreased by 5%, whereas other major operations increased by 35% (both p<0.001). The frequency of discrete operations done at least 10 times during residency did not change. The median number of SCORE essential-common operations performed ranged from 1 to 107, whereas essential-uncommon operations ranged from 0 to 4. Twenty-three of 67 SCORE essential-common operations (34%) had a median of less than 5 and 4 had a median of 0. The operative volume of graduating surgical residents has increased by 21% since 2005; however, the number of operations done 10 times or greater has not changed. Although open cavitary procedures continue to decline, there has been a large increase in endoscopy, complex laparoscopic, and other major operations. Some essential-common operations continue to be performed infrequently. These results suggest that education in the operating room must improve and alternate methods for teaching infrequently performed procedures are needed. © 2013 Published by Association of Program

  15. Cryogenic system operating experience review for fusion applications

    SciTech Connect

    Cadwallader, L.C.

    1992-01-01

    This report presents a review of cryogenic system operating experiences, from particle accelerator, fusion experiment, space research, and other applications. Safety relevant operating experiences and accident information are discussed. Quantitative order-of-magnitude estimates of cryogenic component failure rates and accident initiating event frequencies are presented for use in risk assessment, reliability, and availability studies. Safety concerns with cryogenic systems are discussed, including ozone formation, effects of spills, and modeling spill behavior. This information should be useful to fusion system designers and safety analysts, such as the team working on the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor design.

  16. Cryogenic system operating experience review for fusion applications

    SciTech Connect

    Cadwallader, L.C.

    1992-01-01

    This report presents a review of cryogenic system operating experiences, from particle accelerator, fusion experiment, space research, and other applications. Safety relevant operating experiences and accident information are discussed. Quantitative order-of-magnitude estimates of cryogenic component failure rates and accident initiating event frequencies are presented for use in risk assessment, reliability, and availability studies. Safety concerns with cryogenic systems are discussed, including ozone formation, effects of spills, and modeling spill behavior. This information should be useful to fusion system designers and safety analysts, such as the team working on the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor design.

  17. 76 FR 63714 - Big Spring Rail System, Inc.;Operation Exemption;Transport Handling Specialists, Inc.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-13

    ...] Big Spring Rail System, Inc.;Operation Exemption;Transport Handling Specialists, Inc. Big Spring Rail... Howard County, Tex., owned by the City of Big Spring, Tex. (City). BSRS will be operating the line...

  18. Centrifuge Techniques and Apparatus for Transport Experiments in Porous Media

    SciTech Connect

    Earl D. Mattson; Carl D. Paler; Robert W. Smith; Markus Flury

    2010-06-01

    This paper describes experimental approaches and apparatus that we have developed to study solute and colloid transport in porous media using Idaho National Laboratory's 2-m radius centrifuge. The ex-perimental techniques include water flux scaling with applied acceleration at the top of the column and sub-atmospheric pressure control at the column base, automation of data collection, and remote experimental con-trol over the internet. These apparatus include a constant displacement piston pump, a custom designed liquid fraction collector based on switching valve technology, and modified moisture monitoring equipment. Suc-cessful development of these experimental techniques and equipment is illustrated through application to transport of a conservative tracer through unsaturated sand column, with centrifugal acceleration up to 40 gs. Development of such experimental equipment that can withstand high accelerations enhances the centrifuge technique to conduct highly controlled unsaturated solute/colloid transport experiments and allows in-flight liquid sample collection of the effluent.

  19. Risk management for operations of the LANL Critical Experiments Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Paternoster, R.; Butterfield, K.

    1998-12-31

    The Los Alamos Critical Experiments Facility (LACEF) currently operates two burst reactors (Godiva-IV and Skua), one solution assembly [the Solution High-Energy Burst Assembly (SHEBA)], two fast-spectrum benchmark assemblies (Flattop and Big Ten), and five general-purpose remote assembly machines that may be configured with nuclear materials and assembled by remote control. Special nuclear materials storage vaults support these and other operations at the site. With this diverse set of operations, several approaches are possible in the analysis and management of risk. The most conservative approach would be to write a safety analysis report (SAR) for each assembly and experiment. A more cost-effective approach is to analyze the probability and consequences of several classes of operations representative of operations on each critical assembly machine and envelope the bounding case accidents. Although the neutron physics of these machines varies widely, the operations performed at LACEF fall into four operational modes: steady-state mode, approach-to-critical mode, prompt burst mode, and nuclear material operations, which can include critical assembly fuel loading. The operational sequences of each mode are very nearly identical, whether operated on one assembly machine or another. The use of an envelope approach to accident analysis is facilitated by the use of classes of operations and the use of bounding case consequence analysis. A simple fault tree analysis of operational modes helps resolve which operations are sensitive to human error and which are initiated by hardware of software failures. Where possible, these errors and failures are blocked by TSR LCOs. Future work will determine the probability of accidents with various initiators.

  20. The high current transport experiment for heavy ion inertial fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Prost, L.R.; Baca, D.; Bieniosek, F.M.; Celata, C.M.; Faltens, A.; Henestroza, E.; Kwan, J.W.; Leitner, M.; Seidl, P.A.; Waldron, W.L.; Cohen, R.; Friedman, A.; Grote, D.; Lund, S.M.; Molvik, A.W.; Morse, E.

    2004-05-01

    The High Current Experiment (HCX) at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory is part of the US program to explore heavy-ion beam transport at a scale representative of the low-energy end of an induction linac driver for fusion energy production. The primary mission of this experiment is to investigate aperture fill factors acceptable for the transport of space-charge-dominated heavy-ion beams at high intensity (line charge density {approx} 0.2 {micro}C/m) over long pulse durations (4 {micro}s) in alternating gradient focusing lattices of electrostatic or magnetic quadrupoles. This experiment is testing transport issues resulting from nonlinear space-charge effects and collective modes, beam centroid alignment and steering, envelope matching, image charges and focusing field nonlinearities, halo and, electron and gas cloud effects. We present the results for a coasting 1 MeV K{sup +} ion beam transported through ten electrostatic quadrupoles. The measurements cover two different fill factor studies (60% and 80% of the clear aperture radius) for which the transverse phase-space of the beam was characterized in detail, along with beam energy measurements and the first halo measurements. Electrostatic quadrupole transport at high beam fill factor ({approx}80%) is achieved with acceptable emittance growth and beam loss, even though the initial beam distribution is not ideal (but the emittance is low) nor in thermal equilibrium. We achieved good envelope control, and rematching may only be needed every ten lattice periods (at 80% fill factor) in a longer lattice of similar design. We also show that understanding and controlling the time dependence of the envelope parameters is critical to achieving high fill factors, notably because of the injector and matching section dynamics.

  1. Paediatric surgery: trends in UK surgical trainees' operative experience.

    PubMed

    Youngson, G G; Adams, S; Winton, E

    2006-02-01

    This study assesses the effects of the reconfiguration of postgraduate surgical training and changes to work patterns through legislation within UK on the operative experience of trainees completing specialty training in paediatric surgery. Data were collected from the consolidation record of operative experience submitted by every candidate sitting the Intercollegiate Specialty Board Examination in Paediatric Surgery in UK from 1996 through 2004. A number of index procedures were chosen as surrogates of the overall operative experience and underwent detailed analysis. These comprised operations performed in the following categories: Neonatal Surgery, General Paediatric Surgery, Paediatric Urology, Paediatric Oncology, and Emergency Paediatric Surgery. Sixty-three sets of data comprising 12,866 operations were ultimately identified as being suitable for analysis. The average number of operations performed annually by trainees increased over the study period as did the number in each of the operative categories. The number of operations performed with senior assistance or supervision increased over this period by an average of 12.5%. This trend was also evident in emergency surgery where the average number of sample procedures performed by trainees increased by 28% over the study period. In 1995, reforms to the training grade within UK reduced the time spent in specialist training from a previously unregulated period to 72 months of higher surgical training. Subsequent directives in response to health and safety legislation have further abbreviated the length of time spent at the workplace, initially to 72 hours and more recently to 58 hours per week. This combination has been generally perceived throughout the surgical community as prejudicial to acquisition of clinical and operative competence. This study, however, fails to endorse this perception and suggests to the contrary that perhaps through increased delegation, the volume of training operations is being

  2. Momentum transport experiments using NBI in an RFP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nornberg, M. D.; Sarff, J. S.; den Hartog, D. J.; Kumar, S.; Anderson, J. K.; Waksman, J.; Dobbins, T.; Craig, D.; Ding, W. X.; Lin, L.; Brower, D. L.

    2012-10-01

    The self-organization process that shapes the current density profile in an RFP discharge gives rise to large turbulent stresses that also shape the parallel flow profile. These stresses drive rapid transport during relaxation events flattening both the plasma current and parallel flow profiles. Experiments using tangential neutral beam injection to create a core-localized torque are presented for a range of equilibrium conditions in MST plasmas: from standard RFP discharges where tearing modes give rise to stochastic transport to discharges with inductive profile control (PPCD) which greatly suppress the tearing modes. Measurements of plasma spin-down after NBI turn-off are used to gauge momentum transport in plasmas with varying levels of tearing mode activity. Plasmas tending toward the quasi-single-helicity state have a dominant core mode that induces a braking torque on the plasma. This core mode is suppressed by NBI thereby reducing the braking torque on the plasma. Variation of the magnetic fluctuation level through inductive profile control shows a reduction in momentum transport consistent with stochastic transport theory.

  3. Nonlocal neoclassical transport in tokamak and spherical torus experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, W. X.; Rewoldt, G.; Tang, W. M.; Hinton, F. L.; Manickam, J.; Zakharov, L. E.; White, R. B.; Kaye, S.

    2006-08-15

    Large ion orbits can produce nonlocal neoclassical effects on ion heat transport, the ambipolar radial electric field, and the bootstrap current in realistic toroidal plasmas. Using a global {delta}f particle simulation, it is found that the conventional local, linear gradient-flux relation is broken for the ion thermal transport near the magnetic axis. With regard to the transport level, it is found that details of the ion temperature profile determine whether the transport is higher or lower when compared with the predictions of standard neoclassical theory. Particularly, this nonlocal feature is suggested to exist in the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) [M. Ono, S. M. Kaye, Y.-K. M. Peng et al., Nucl. Fusion 40, 557 (2000)], being consistent with NSTX experimental evidence. It is also shown that a large ion temperature gradient can increase the bootstrap current. When the plasma rotation is taken into account, the toroidal rotation gradient can drive an additional parallel flow for the ions and then additional bootstrap current, either positive or negative, depending on the gradient direction. Compared with the carbon radial force balance estimate for the neoclassical poloidal flow, our nonlocal simulation predicts a significantly deeper radial electric field well at the location of an internal transport barrier of an NSTX discharge.

  4. US nuclear power plant operating cost and experience summaries

    SciTech Connect

    Kohn, W.E.; Reid, R.L.; White, V.S.

    1998-02-01

    NUREG/CR-6577, U.S. Nuclear Power Plant Operating Cost and Experience Summaries, has been prepared to provide historical operating cost and experience information on U.S. commercial nuclear power plants. Cost incurred after initial construction are characterized as annual production costs, representing fuel and plant operating and maintenance expenses, and capital expenditures related to facility additions/modifications which are included in the plant capital asset base. As discussed in the report, annual data for these two cost categories were obtained from publicly available reports and must be accepted as having different degrees of accuracy and completeness. Treatment of inconclusive and incomplete data is discussed. As an aid to understanding the fluctuations in the cost histories, operating summaries for each nuclear unit are provided. The intent of these summaries is to identify important operating events; refueling, major maintenance, and other significant outages; operating milestones; and significant licensing or enforcement actions. Information used in the summaries is condensed from annual operating reports submitted by the licensees, plant histories contained in Nuclear Power Experience, trade press articles, and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) web site (www.nrc.gov).

  5. 14 CFR 121.434 - Operating experience, operating cycles, and consolidation of knowledge and skills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... consolidation of knowledge and skills. 121.434 Section 121.434 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION... Qualifications § 121.434 Operating experience, operating cycles, and consolidation of knowledge and skills. (a... of knowledge and skills, required by this section, except as follows: (1) Crewmembers other...

  6. 14 CFR 121.434 - Operating experience, operating cycles, and consolidation of knowledge and skills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... consolidation of knowledge and skills. 121.434 Section 121.434 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION... Qualifications § 121.434 Operating experience, operating cycles, and consolidation of knowledge and skills. (a... of knowledge and skills, required by this section, except as follows: (1) Crewmembers other...

  7. 14 CFR 121.434 - Operating experience, operating cycles, and consolidation of knowledge and skills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... consolidation of knowledge and skills. 121.434 Section 121.434 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION... Qualifications § 121.434 Operating experience, operating cycles, and consolidation of knowledge and skills. (a... of knowledge and skills, required by this section, except as follows: (1) Crewmembers other...

  8. 14 CFR 121.434 - Operating experience, operating cycles, and consolidation of knowledge and skills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... consolidation of knowledge and skills. 121.434 Section 121.434 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION... Qualifications § 121.434 Operating experience, operating cycles, and consolidation of knowledge and skills. (a... of knowledge and skills, required by this section, except as follows: (1) Crewmembers other...

  9. SUBTASK 2.19 – OPERATIONAL FLEXIBILITY OF CO2 TRANSPORT AND STORAGE

    SciTech Connect

    Jensen, Melanie; Schlasner, Steven; Sorensen, James; Hamling, John

    2014-12-31

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) is produced in large quantities during electricity generation and by industrial processes. These CO2 streams vary in terms of both composition and mass flow rate, sometimes substantially. The impact of a varying CO2 stream on pipeline and storage operation is not fully understood in terms of either operability or infrastructure robustness. This study was performed to summarize basic background from the literature on the topic of operational flexibility of CO2 transport and storage, but the primary focus was on compiling real-world lessons learned about flexible operation of CO2 pipelines and storage from both large-scale field demonstrations and commercial operating experience. Modeling and pilot-scale results of research in this area were included to illustrate some of the questions that exist relative to operation of carbon capture and storage (CCS) projects with variable CO2 streams. It is hoped that this report’s real-world findings provide readers with useful information on the topic of transport and storage of variable CO2 streams. The real-world results were obtained from two sources. The first source consisted of five full-scale, commercial transport–storage projects: Sleipner, Snøhvit, In Salah, Weyburn, and Illinois Basin–Decatur. These scenarios were reviewed to determine the information that is available about CO2 stream variability/intermittency on these demonstration-scale projects. The five projects all experienced mass flow variability or an interruption in flow. In each case, pipeline and/or injection engineers were able to accommodate any issues that arose. Significant variability in composition has not been an issue at these five sites. The second source of real- world results was telephone interviews conducted with experts in CO2 pipeline transport, injection, and storage during which commercial anecdotal information was acquired to augment that found during the literature search of the five full-scale projects. The

  10. CTS (Hermes): United States experiments and operations summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Donoughe, P. L.; Hunczak, H. R.

    1977-01-01

    The Communications Technology Satellite, launched in January 1976 and embodying the highest power transmitter in a communications satellite, was considered. As a joint program between the U.S. and Canada, close coordination of the two countries was necessitated since the management and control of experiments were done in real time. Criteria used by NASA for acceptance of the United States experiments are noted and acceptance procedures are discussed. The category for each accepted experiment is given. The modus operandi employed for the U.S. experiments in the areas of management, coordination, liaison, and real time operation are described. Some of the highlights associated with satellite utilization are given.

  11. Lunar Transportation Facilities and Operations Study, option 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Throughout the Option I period of the Lunar Transportation Facilities and Operations Study (LTFOS), McDonnell Douglas Space Systems Company - Kennedy Space Center (MDSSC-KSC) provided support to both the Planetary Surface Systems (PSS) Office at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) at the Johnson Space Center and to the Flight and Ground Systems Projects Office (Payload Projects Management) at the Kennedy Space Center. The primary objective of the Option I phase of the study was to assist the above NASA centers in developing Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) concepts. MDSSC-KSC conducted three analyses which provided launch and landing detail to the proposed exploration concepts. One analysis, the Lunar Ejecta Assessment, was conducted to determine the effects of launch and landing a vehicle in a dusty environment. A second analysis, the Thermal/Micrometeoroid Protection Trade Study, was refined to determine the impacts that Reference Architecture Option 5A would have on thermal/micrometeoroid protection approaches. The third analysis, the Centaur Prelaunch Procedure Analysis, used a Centaur prelaunch test and checkout flow to identify key considerations that would be important if a Lunar Excursion Vehicle (LEV) was to use an expander cycle liquid oxygen-liquid hydrogen engine. Several 'quick look' assessments were also conducted. One quick look assessment, the Storable Propellant Quick Look Assessment, was conducted to identify design considerations that should be made if storable propellants were to be used instead of liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen. The LEV Servicer Maintenance Analysis provided an early look at the effort required to maintain an LEV Servicer on the lunar surface. Also, support was provided to the PSS Logistics Manager to develop initial LEV Servicer cost inputs. Consideration was given to the advanced development that must be provided to accomplish a lunar and/or Mars mission. MDSS-KSC also provided support to both MASE

  12. Lunar Transportation Facilities and Operations Study, option 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1991-05-01

    Throughout the Option I period of the Lunar Transportation Facilities and Operations Study (LTFOS), McDonnell Douglas Space Systems Company - Kennedy Space Center (MDSSC-KSC) provided support to both the Planetary Surface Systems (PSS) Office at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) at the Johnson Space Center and to the Flight and Ground Systems Projects Office (Payload Projects Management) at the Kennedy Space Center. The primary objective of the Option I phase of the study was to assist the above NASA centers in developing Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) concepts. MDSSC-KSC conducted three analyses which provided launch and landing detail to the proposed exploration concepts. One analysis, the Lunar Ejecta Assessment, was conducted to determine the effects of launch and landing a vehicle in a dusty environment. A second analysis, the Thermal/Micrometeoroid Protection Trade Study, was refined to determine the impacts that Reference Architecture Option 5A would have on thermal/micrometeoroid protection approaches. The third analysis, the Centaur Prelaunch Procedure Analysis, used a Centaur prelaunch test and checkout flow to identify key considerations that would be important if a Lunar Excursion Vehicle (LEV) was to use an expander cycle liquid oxygen-liquid hydrogen engine. Several 'quick look' assessments were also conducted. One quick look assessment, the Storable Propellant Quick Look Assessment, was conducted to identify design considerations that should be made if storable propellants were to be used instead of liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen. The LEV Servicer Maintenance Analysis provided an early look at the effort required to maintain an LEV Servicer on the lunar surface. Also, support was provided to the PSS Logistics Manager to develop initial LEV Servicer cost inputs. Consideration was given to the advanced development that must be provided to accomplish a lunar and/or Mars mission. MDSS-KSC also provided support to both MASE

  13. 14 CFR 375.42 - Transport operations-occasional planeload charters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Transport operations-occasional planeload... Operations Requiring Specific Preflight Authorization of Filing § 375.42 Transport operations—occasional... services to the general public. Such charters are normally limited to those in which the entire capacity...

  14. 14 CFR 203.5 - Compliance as condition on operations in air transportation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Compliance as condition on operations in air transportation. 203.5 Section 203.5 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF... DEFENSES § 203.5 Compliance as condition on operations in air transportation. It shall be a condition on...

  15. 14 CFR 203.5 - Compliance as condition on operations in air transportation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Compliance as condition on operations in air transportation. 203.5 Section 203.5 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF... DEFENSES § 203.5 Compliance as condition on operations in air transportation. It shall be a condition on...

  16. 14 CFR 203.5 - Compliance as condition on operations in air transportation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Compliance as condition on operations in air transportation. 203.5 Section 203.5 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF... DEFENSES § 203.5 Compliance as condition on operations in air transportation. It shall be a condition on...

  17. 14 CFR 203.5 - Compliance as condition on operations in air transportation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Compliance as condition on operations in air transportation. 203.5 Section 203.5 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF... DEFENSES § 203.5 Compliance as condition on operations in air transportation. It shall be a condition on...

  18. 14 CFR 203.5 - Compliance as condition on operations in air transportation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Compliance as condition on operations in air transportation. 203.5 Section 203.5 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF... DEFENSES § 203.5 Compliance as condition on operations in air transportation. It shall be a condition on...

  19. Human renal organic anion transporter 4 operates as an asymmetric urate transporter.

    PubMed

    Hagos, Yohannes; Stein, Daniel; Ugele, Bernhard; Burckhardt, Gerhard; Bahn, Andrew

    2007-02-01

    Human organic anion transporter 4 (hOAT4) is located at the apical membrane of proximal tubule cells and involved in renal secretion and reabsorption of endogenous substances as well as many drugs and xenobiotics. This study reevaluated the physiologic role, transport mode, and driving forces of hOAT4. 6-Carboxyfluorescein (6-CF) uptake into HEK293 cells that stably expressed hOAT4 was saturable, resulting in a K(m) of 108 muM. 6-CF as well as [(3)H]estrone sulfate ([(3)H]ES) accumulation by HEK293-hOAT4 cells were abolished by ES, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, sulfinpyrazone, benzbromarone, and probenecid, whereas several OA, including p-aminohippurate (PAH), lactate, pyrazinoate, nicotinate, glutarate, and the diuretic hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ) exhibited a slight or a NS inhibitory effect. PAH and glutarate are not taken up by HEK293-hOAT4 cells, but they trans-stimulated 6-CF and [(3)H]ES uptake, indicating an asymmetric interaction of hOAT4 with these substrates. In chloride-free medium, HEK293-hOAT4-mediated [(3)H]PAH efflux was almost abolished, whereas addition of ES restored it comparable to Ringer solution, consistent with a physiologic ES/PAH or PAH/Cl(-) exchange mode of hOAT4. Moreover, an acidification of the uptake medium increased 6-CF as well as [(3)H]ES uptake, which was reduced by nigericin, suggesting that hOAT4 also can operate as an OA/OH(-) exchanger. hOAT4 facilitates substantial uptake of [(14)C]urate, which was elevated 2.6-fold by intracellular HCTZ. Thus, hOAT4 is the long-postulated, low-affinity apical urate anion exchanger that facilitates HCTZ-associated hyperuricemia.

  20. Ventilation Systems Operating Experience Review for Fusion Applications

    SciTech Connect

    L. C. Cadwallader

    1999-12-01

    This report is a collection and review of system operation and failure experiences for air ventilation systems in nuclear facilities. These experiences are applicable for magnetic and inertial fusion facilities since air ventilation systems are support systems that can be considered generic to nuclear facilities. The report contains descriptions of ventilation system components, operating experiences with these systems, component failure rates, and component repair times. Since ventilation systems have a role in mitigating accident releases in nuclear facilities, these data are useful in safety analysis and risk assessment of public safety. An effort has also been given to identifying any safety issues with personnel operating or maintaining ventilation systems. Finally, the recommended failure data were compared to an independent data set to determine the accuracy of individual values. This comparison is useful for the International Energy Agency task on fusion component failure rate data collection.

  1. Telescience testbed: Operational support functions for biomedical experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamashita, Masamichi; Watanabe, Satoru; Shoji, Takatoshi; Clarke, Andrew H.; Suzuki, Hiroyuki; Yanagihara, Dai

    A telescience testbed was conducted to study the methodology of space biomedicine with simulated constraints imposed on space experiments. An experimental subject selected for this testbedding was an elaborate surgery of animals and electrophysiological measurements conducted by an operator onboard. The standing potential in the ampulla of the pigeon's semicircular canal was measured during gravitational and caloric stimulation. A principal investigator, isolated from the operation site, participated in the experiment interactively by telecommunication links. Reliability analysis was applied to the whole layers of experimentation, including design of experimental objectives and operational procedures. Engineering and technological aspects of telescience are discussed in terms of reliability to assure quality of science. Feasibility of robotics was examined for supportive functions to reduce the workload of the onboard operator.

  2. Insertion device operating experience at the Advanced Photon Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grimmer, John; Ramanathan, Mohan; Smith, Martin; Merritt, Michael

    2002-03-01

    The Advanced Photon Source has 29 insertion devices (IDs) installed in the 7 GeV electron storage ring; 28 of these devices, most of which are 3.3 cm period undulators, use two horizontal permanent magnet structures positioned over a straight vacuum chamber. A support and drive mechanism allows the vertical gap between the magnet structures to be varied, thus changing the x-ray energy produced by the ID [J. Viccaro, Proc. SPIE 1345, 28 (1990); E. Gluskin, J. Synchrotron Radiat. 5, 189 (1998)]. Most of these IDs use a drive scheme with two stepper motors, one driving each end through a mechanism synchronizing the upper and lower magnet structures. Our experience in almost 5 yr of operating this system will be discussed. All of the IDs are in continuous operation for approximately 10 weeks at a time. Reliability of operation is of paramount importance, as access to the storage ring for servicing of a single ID inhibits operation for all users. Our experience in achieving highly reliable ID operation is reviewed. Accuracy of operation and repeatability over time are also vital. To this end, these devices use absolute optical linear encoders with submicron resolution for primary position feedback. Absolute rotary encoders are used as a backup to the linear encoders. The benefits and limitations of each type of encoder, and our experience dealing with radiation and electrical noise are reviewed. The insertion devices operate down to gaps as small as 8.5 mm, with clearance over the vacuum chamber as small as 200 μm. The vacuum chamber has a minimum wall thickness of only 1 mm. A number of levels of safeguards are used to prevent contact between the magnet structure and the vacuum chamber. These safeguards and their evolution after gaining operational experience are presented.

  3. Parabolic dish test site: History and operating experience

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Selcuk, M. K. (Compiler)

    1985-01-01

    The parabolic dish test site (PDTS) was established for testing point-focusing solar concentrator systems operating at temperatures approaching 1650 C. Among tests run were evaluation and performance characterization of parabolic dish concentrators, receivers, power conversion units, and solar/fossil-fuel hybrid systems. The PDTS was fully operational until its closure in June, 1984. The evolution of the test program, a chronological listing of the experiments run, and data summaries for most of the tests conducted are presented.

  4. Flight Validation of On-Demand Operations: The Deep Space One Beacon Monitor Operations Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wyatt, Jay; Sherwood, Rob; Sue, Miles; Szijjarto, John

    2000-01-01

    After a brief overview of the operational concept, this paper will provide a detailed description of the _as-flown_ flight software components, the DS1 experiment plan, and experiment results to date. Special emphasis will be given to experiment results and lessons learned since the basic system design has been previously reported. Mission scenarios where beacon operations is highly applicable will be described. Detailed cost savings estimates for a sample science mission will be provided as will cumulative savings that are possible over the next fifteen years of NASA missions.

  5. Accelerator/Experiment Operations - FY 2001 Through FY 2003

    SciTech Connect

    Jeffrey A. Appel et al.

    2004-02-05

    This Technical Memorandum (TM) summarizes the accelerator and experiment operations for the period FY 2001 through FY 2003. The plan is to have an annual TM to gather such information in one place. In this case, the information concerns the startup of Run II at the Tevatron Collider and the beginning of the MiniBooNE neutrino experiment. While the focus is on the FY 2003 efforts, this document includes summaries of the earlier years where available for completeness.

  6. Crew factors in flight operations. Part 3: The operational significance of exposure to short-haul air transport operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foushee, H. C.; Lauber, J. K.; Baetge, M. M.; Acomb, D. B.

    1986-01-01

    Excessive flightcrew fatigue has potentially serious safety consequences. Laboratory studies have implicated fatigue as a causal factor associated with varying levels of performance deterioration depending on the amount of fatigue and the type of measure utilized in assessing performance. These studies have been of limited utility because of the difficulty of relating laboratory task performance to the demands associated with the operation of a complex aircraft. The performance of 20 volunteer twin-jet transport crews is examined in a full-mission simulator scenario that included most aspects of an actual line operation. The scenario included both routine flight operations and an unexpected mechanical abnormality which resulted in a high level of crew workload. Half of the crews flew the simulation within two to three hours after completing a three-day, high-density, short-haul duty cycle (Post-Duty condition). The other half flew the scenario after a minimum of three days off duty (Pre-Duty) condition). The results revealed that, not surprisingly, Post-Duty crews were significantly more fatigued than Pre-Duty crews. However, a somewhat counter-intuitive pattern of results emerged on the crew performancemeasures. In general, the performance of Post-Duty crews was significantly better than that of Pre-Duty crews, as rated by an expert observer on a number of dimensions relevant to flight safety. Analyses of the flightcrew communication patterns revealed that Post-Duty crews communicated significantly more overall, suggesting, as has previous research, that communication is a good predictor of overall crew performance.

  7. Development and operational experience of magnetic horn system for T2K experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sekiguchi, T.; Bessho, K.; Fujii, Y.; Hagiwara, M.; Hasegawa, T.; Hayashi, K.; Ishida, T.; Ishii, T.; Kobayashi, H.; Kobayashi, T.; Koike, S.; Koseki, K.; Maruyama, T.; Matsumoto, H.; Nakadaira, T.; Nakamura, K.; Nakayoshi, K.; Nishikawa, K.; Oyama, Y.; Sakashita, K.; Shibata, M.; Suzuki, Y.; Tada, M.; Takahashi, K.; Tsukamoto, T.; Yamada, Y.; Yamanoi, Y.; Yamaoka, H.; Ichikawa, A. K.; Kubo, H.; Butcher, Z.; Coleman, S.; Missert, A.; Spitz, J.; Zimmerman, E. D.; Tzanov, M.; Bartoszek, L.

    2015-07-01

    A magnetic horn system to be operated at a pulsed current of 320 kA and to survive high-power proton beam operation at 750 kW was developed for the T2K experiment. The first set of T2K magnetic horns was operated for over 12 million pulses during the four years of operation from 2010 to 2013, under a maximum beam power of 230 kW, and 6.63×1020 protons were exposed to the production target. No significant damage was observed throughout this period. This successful operation of the T2K magnetic horns led to the discovery of the νμ →νe oscillation phenomenon in 2013 by the T2K experiment. In this paper, details of the design, construction, and operation experience of the T2K magnetic horns are described.

  8. Evaluation of Bed Load Transport Formulas Using Flume Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cashman, E. M.; Smith, B.; Sorenson, C.; Gayheart, J.

    2002-12-01

    The ability to model sediment transport is a critical assessment tool for forest management of water quality, endangered fisheries and downstream communities. The analysis of sediment transport is especially relevant on the North Coast of California. The economy of the region is heavily dependent upon the production of wood products and the extensive ownership and activity of forest product companies has led to substantial controversy over the effects of forest management on other resources. In this research, an experimental flume has been used to evaluate bed load transport formulas based on sediment size distributions appropriate to Coastal watersheds in Northern California. The intended outcome of this research project is to verify the total sediment transport equation used in mathematical modeling of sediments in this particular model (KINEROS2) to ensure that the most appropriate equation is being used for modeling sediment load in the North Coast Region. This analysis is critical to improve the physical and numerical models of sediment transport and extend this type of analysis to other Northern California watersheds. The flume experiments are being conducted in a research quality sediment transport flume at the College of Natural Resources and Sciences at Humboldt State University. The open channel flow laboratory flume is capable of simulation of open channel flows, sediment transport, flow through floodplains and unsteady flow over in-stream structures such as sediment traps and weirs. The flume is 40 feet long and 2.5 feet wide, with two-foot high sidewalls. There is a storage tank for water that runs under the flume, and water is recirculated through the tank and down the flume by several pumps. A headworks tank with baffling allows the water to enter at the top of the flume. At maximum output the flow is approximately 550 gpm and about 6 inches high. The slope on the flume can be adjusted from 0 to 6%. Instrumentation on the flume includes flow meters

  9. H{sup -} beam transport experiments in a solenoid low energy beam transport

    SciTech Connect

    Gabor, C.; Back, J. J.; Faircloth, D. C.; Lawrie, S. R.; Letchford, A. P.; Izaola, Z.

    2012-02-15

    The Front End Test Stand (FETS) is located at Rutherford Appleton Laboratory and aims for a high current, fast chopped 3 MeV H{sup -} ion beam suitable for future high power proton accelerators like ISIS upgrade. The main components of the front end are the Penning ion source, a low energy beam transport line, an radio-frequency quadrupole (RFQ) and a medium energy beam transport (MEBT) providing also a chopper section and rebuncher. FETS is in the stage of commissioning its low energy beam transport (LEBT) line consisting of three solenoids. The LEBT has to transport an H{sup -} high current beam (up to 60 mA) at 65 keV. This is the injection energy of the beam into the RFQ. The main diagnostics are slit-slit emittance scanners for each transversal plane. For optimizing the matching to the RFQ, experiments have been performed with a variety of solenoid settings to better understand the actual beam transport. Occasionally, source parameters such as extractor slit width and beam energy were varied as well. The paper also discusses simulations based on these measurements.

  10. Operational experience from three full scale methane digesters

    SciTech Connect

    Coppinger, E.R.; Richter, M.

    1981-01-01

    Three full scale anaerobic digesters are described and operational experience is discussed. The digesters are located in Monroe, Washington on a 200 head dairy; in Bartow, Florida on a 10,000 head feedlot; and in Bedford, Virginia on a 100 head dairy. 11 refs.

  11. Target Operational Experience at the Spallation Neutron Source

    SciTech Connect

    Riemer, Bernie; Janney, Jim G; Kaminskas, Saulius; McClintock, David A; Rosenblad, Peter M

    2013-01-01

    The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has operated at unprecedented power levels for a short-pulse spallation source. Target operations have been successful but not without difficulties. Three targets out of the eight used to date have ended life unexpectedly causing interruptions to the neutron science users. The first of a kind mercury target design experiences beam-pulse induced cavitation damage that is suspected in one of the target leaks. The two other targets suffered early failures due to defective welds. Diagnosing the causes of target leaks and understanding of the progression of cavitation erosion and radiation damage effects has made use of post-irradiation examination (PIE) capabilities. As a result of PIE, review of quality assurance practices and related investigations, design changes are being implemented and manufacturing oversight improved. This paper describes SNS target operating experience, including the more important observations and lessons learned.

  12. Field experiments of nonlocal sediment transport on a steep hillslope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DiBiase, R.; Booth, A. M.; Ganti, V.; Scheingross, J. S.; Lamb, M. P.

    2014-12-01

    Steep rocky hillslopes dominate the areal extent of rapidly uplifting mountain ranges, and pose a significant hazard to encroaching population centers. Existing models for hillslope sediment transport developed for soil-mantled landscapes are poorly suited to explain the evolution of steep hillslopes characterized by: (1) intermittent or patchy soil cover, (2) slopes that exceed the angle of repose, and (3) transport events that often involve long travel distances. Recently, nonlocal formulations of hillslope sediment transport laws that account for long travel distances have been proposed to overcome the limitations of traditional continuum-based models. However, their application to natural landscapes has been limited owing to few field constraints on key parameters, and computational difficulties expanding the framework to two-dimensions. To address this knowledge gap, we performed a series of field experiments on natural hillslopes to inform a simple particle-based model of hillslope sediment transport. We compiled the distribution of average velocity and transport distance for over 300 stones ranging in diameter from 2-10 cm using a video camera and laser range-finder. To characterize surface roughness, we used a tripod-based laser scanner to generate a 1 cm-resolution digital elevation model of each 30 m long hillslope. We find that hillslope travel distance follows a heavy-tailed distribution that varies systematically with the ratio of particle diameter to roughness height, in general agreement to published laboratory experiments. Mean particle velocity ranges from 1-3 m/s and scales weakly with distance traveled. Our modeling exercise reveals three key effects that should be included in any treatment of steep hillslope evolution: (1) there is a strong grain-size and surface roughness dependence on sediment transport distance, (2) sediment storage on slopes steeper than the angle of repose is possible due to vegetation or topographic roughness, and (3

  13. Towards an Operational Model for Prediction and Transport of Oil Spills in the Black Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korotenko, K.; Bowman, M. J.; Dietrich, D. E.

    2006-12-01

    The potential for oil spills in the Black Sea continues to increase with the growth of shipping traffic from the Russian port of Novorossiysk and other ports in the eastern Black Sea, connected to oil fields in the Caspian Sea region. An oil spill model intended for operational use for the prediction of the circulation, mixing and transport of contaminants in the Black Sea is presented. The hydrodynamic module is based on a very high resolution (1/30 deg.; 30 vertical layer) DieCAST model adapted to the Black Sea. The oil spill transport module is constructed on the basis of the random walk approach, which allows the prediction of the motion of individual particles, the assembly of which represents the oil spill. Preliminary results of numerical experiments will be presented showing that the model reproduces with high accuracy the principal features of the Black Sea dynamics, including the Rim Current, the genesis and dynamical features of mesoscale near-shore anticyclonic eddies, and the transport and dispersal of oil discharges.

  14. Recent operating experiences with steam generators in Japanese NPPs

    SciTech Connect

    Yashima, Seiji

    1997-02-01

    In 1994, the Genkai-3 of Kyushu Electric Power Co., Inc. and the Ikata-3 of Shikoku Electric Power Co., Inc. started commercial operation, and now 22 PWR plants are being operated in Japan. Since the first PWR plant now 22 PWR plants are being operated in was started to operate, Japanese PWR plants have had an operating experience of approx. 280 reactor-years. During that period, many tube degradations have been experienced in steam generators (SGs). And, in 1991, the steam generator tube rupture (SGTR) occurred in the Mihama-2 of Kansai Electric Power Co., Inc. However, the occurrence of tube degradation of SGs has been decreased by the instructions of the MITI as regulatory authorities, efforts of Electric Utilities, and technical support from the SG manufacturers. Here the author describes the recent SGs in Japan about the following points. (1) Recent Operating Experiences (2) Lessons learned from Mihama-2 SGTR (3) SG replacement (4) Safety Regulations on SG (5) Research and development on SG.

  15. Simulation of UCN transport in the UCN τ Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adamek, Evan; Liu, Chen-Yu; Salvat, Daniel; Callahan, Nathan; UCNτ Collaboration

    2013-10-01

    The UCN τ experiment aims to measure the neutron β-decay lifetime to 1 s total uncertainty and beyond by trapping ultracold neutrons (UCN) in a magneto-gravitational trap, in which UCN undergo no material interactions with the walls of the trap. To investigate UCN transport in the experiment, we have built Monte-Carlo simulations of the full-scale experiment using GEANT4. We have modeled the delivery of UCN to the trap with a highly accurate transport geometry. The model is bench-marked against the experimental data collected in the early 2013 run. The simulation is used to compare proposed geometry upgrades to enhance the efficiency of UCN delivery (planned for the late 2013 run). In addition, work is underway to expand the scope of simulation to include β and γ detection, with the goal of modeling our in-situ UCN detector using the technique of neutron activation on a large-surface Vanadium foil. Here we present the results of this simulation effort. The work is supported by the NSF grant PHY-1068712.

  16. Safety Verification of the Small Aircraft Transportation System Concept of Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carreno, Victor; Munoz, Cesar

    2005-01-01

    A critical factor in the adoption of any new aeronautical technology or concept of operation is safety. Traditionally, safety is accomplished through a rigorous process that involves human factors, low and high fidelity simulations, and flight experiments. As this process is usually performed on final products or functional prototypes, concept modifications resulting from this process are very expensive to implement. This paper describe an approach to system safety that can take place at early stages of a concept design. It is based on a set of mathematical techniques and tools known as formal methods. In contrast to testing and simulation, formal methods provide the capability of exhaustive state exploration analysis. We present the safety analysis and verification performed for the Small Aircraft Transportation System (SATS) Concept of Operations (ConOps). The concept of operations is modeled using discrete and hybrid mathematical models. These models are then analyzed using formal methods. The objective of the analysis is to show, in a mathematical framework, that the concept of operation complies with a set of safety requirements. It is also shown that the ConOps has some desirable characteristic such as liveness and absence of dead-lock. The analysis and verification is performed in the Prototype Verification System (PVS), which is a computer based specification language and a theorem proving assistant.

  17. Vacuum system operating experience review for fusion applications

    SciTech Connect

    Cadwallader, L.C.

    1994-03-01

    This report presents a review of vacuum system operating experiences from particle accelerator, fusion experiment, space simulation chamber, and other applications. Safety relevant operating experiences and accident information are discussed. Quantitative order-of-magnitude estimates of vacuum system component failure rates and accident initiating event frequencies are presented for use in risk assessment, reliability, and availability studies. Safety concerns with vacuum systems are discussed, including personnel safety, foreign material intrusion, and factors relevant to vacuum systems being the primary confinement boundary for tritium and activated dusts. This information should be useful to fusion system designers and safety analysts, such as the team working on the Engineering Design Activities for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor.

  18. Microwave transport system for the MTX (Microwave Tokamak Experiment)

    SciTech Connect

    Felker, B.; Ferguson, S.W.

    1989-09-27

    This paper presents the design and construction, as well as the initial operation, of the Microwave Transmission System. The system consists of containment vessels, mirror boxes, mirrors, an alignment system, two turbo-molecular pump vacuum stations, and microwave source. Fifty-ns-length pulses of 6-MeV electrons pass through a free electron laser (FEL) wiggler. A 300 W extended interaction oscillator (EIO) of 140 GHz frequency supplies the seed signal for amplification in the wiggler. The electron beam is dumped and the microwave beam is transmitted quasi-optically 90 ft by six aluminum mirrors through an evacuated tube. Three of the mirrors are elliptical paraboloids and the others are flat. A seventh mirror is rotated into the microwave beam to divert it into a load tank. The transport vacuum vessel is 20-in.-diameter stainless steel tube with bellows and mirror boxes at each mirror. Two vacuum systems at each end of the transport tube allow a base pressure of 10{sup {minus}7} Torr to be attained by 7000 L/s of turbo-molecular pumping. Also at each mirror, at the MTX vessel, and at the two ends of the wiggler waveguide are HeNe laser detectors used for vacuum alignment. Descriptions of the major components, their requirements and system requirements will be presented, and the initial operation of the system and its performance will be described. 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  19. Experiments on polarization-dependent transport in 3He systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Candela, D.; McAllaster, D. R.; Wei, L.-J.; Kalechofsy, N.

    1994-03-01

    Spin and momentum transport experiments are described for very dilute 3He- 4He mixtures and pure 3He brute-force polarized by a static field. Spin diffusion and rotation were observed in very dilute mixtures using a spin-wave resonance technique, and the viscosity increase due to polarization was observed using a vibrating wire. The mixture results are all well fit by the recent kinetic-equation calculations of Mullin and Jeon. Spin echoes were used to study transverse spin diffusion in pure 3He, providing the first clear evidence for polarization-induced relaxation-time anisotropy in a degenerate Fermi liquid.

  20. Transport Experiments on 2D Correlated Electron Physics in Semiconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Tsui, Daniel

    2014-03-24

    This research project was designed to investigate experimentally the transport properties of the 2D electrons in Si and GaAs, two prototype semiconductors, in several new physical regimes that were previously inaccessible to experiments. The research focused on the strongly correlated electron physics in the dilute density limit, where the electron potential energy to kinetic energy ratio rs>>1, and on the fractional quantum Hall effect related physics in nuclear demagnetization refrigerator temperature range on samples with new levels of purity and controlled random disorder.

  1. Operating experience with a flexible cogeneration plant in Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Wadman, B.

    1997-01-01

    Much has been written about the interesting gas turbine cogeneration Project in Fort Lupton, Colorado, U.S.A., as created and developed by the Thermo Cogeneration Partnership under the leadership of Paul Steinway, project general manager. The plant is based on five 40 MW-class gas turbine generator modules supplied by Stewart & Stevenson, who is also responsible for operation and maintenance of the plant through its operating arm, Stewart & Stevenson Operations, Inc. The plant, first placed into service in mid-1994 after only 18 months of construction, is of particular interest because it has to function with a wide degree of flexibility in load management, and it also uses one of the latest-design aeroderivative gas turbines, namely the GE LM6000. This article describes the plant design, equipment and operating experience thus far. 6 figs.

  2. Operational design factors for advanced space transportation vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitehair, C. L.; Hickman, R. A.; Adams, J. D.; Wolfe, M. G.

    1992-08-01

    The tools and techniques needed to provide design decision-makers with balanced quantitative assessments of the potential operability consequences of their decisions are addressed. The factors controlling operability are identified, and a methodology to predict the impact of these factors on a specific launch vehicle is developed. Requirements to control these factors are established, and analytical tools developed specifically for performing detailed simulations to verify specific operability characteristics are described. An approach to collect, store, organize, and access high-quality historical, current, and future launch system data for the benefit of the USAF and the U.S. launch system community at large is outlined.

  3. A unified theory of tokamak transport via the generalized Balescu--Lenard collision operator

    SciTech Connect

    Mynick, H.E.; Duvall, R.E.

    1988-06-01

    A unified basis from which to study the transport of tokamaks at low collisionality is provided by specializing the ''generalized Balescu--Lenard'' collision operator to toridal geometry. Explicitly evaluating this operator, ripple, turbulent, and neoclassical transport coefficients are obtained, simply by further specializing the single operator to different particular classes of fluctuation wavelength and mode structure. For each class of fluctuations, the operator possesses a diffusive, test-particle contribution D, and in addition a dynamic drag term F, which makes the operator self-consistent, and whose presence is accordingly essential for the resultant fluxes to possess the appropriate conservation laws and symmetrics. These properties, well-known for axisymmetric transport, are demonstrated for one type of turbulent transport, chosen for definiteness, by explicit evaluation of both ''anomalous diffusion'' term arising from D, as well as the closely related test particle calculations, but is shown to have an important impact on the predicted fluxes. 16 refs., 1 fig.

  4. Mission Control Center operations for the Space Transportation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frank, M. P.

    1982-01-01

    Orbital flight tests of the Space Shuttle Program involved three types of activities, including classic flight testing of the vehicle hardware and software, operational procedures evaluation and development, and performance of payload mission operations. This combination of activities required a capability of the Mission Control Center (MCC) to provide thorough support to the Orbiter and its crew across a broad spectrum of activities. Attention is given to MCC organization, the general functions performed by the MCC teams, a flight support description, the motivation for a change in MCC operations, support elements, orbit phase functions, and dynamic flight phase functions. It is pointed out that the MCC facilities for the operational mode of support will not be fully implemented until 1984.

  5. Retrospective studies of operating problems in air transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Billings, C. E.; Lauber, J. K.; Cooper, G. E.; Ruffell-Smith, H. P.

    1976-01-01

    An epidemiological model for the study of human errors in aviation is presented. In this approach, retrospective data are used as the basis for formulation of hypotheses as to system factors which may have contributed to such errors. Prospective experimental studies of aviation operations are also required in order to prove or disprove the hypotheses, and to evaluate the effectiveness of intervention techniques designed to solve operational problems in the aviation system.

  6. Experience with the operation of the European ALMA antennas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanghellini, Stefano; Laing, Robert; Rossi, Silvio; Wild, Wolfgang

    2016-07-01

    The 25 European antennas of ALMA were delivered by ESO to the ALMA project in Chile between April 2011 and September 2013. Their combined time of operation is already significant and allows us to draw conclusions regarding their ability to fulfil the original specification, in terms of both scientific performance and operational availability. In this paper, we will summarize the experience gained during the past five years of operation. We will characterize the performance of the antennas in routine operation and compare with the data obtained during acceptance testing. We will also describe the few technical issues experienced while operating at 5000m and the way in which these were treated during these first years of operation. We will evaluate the effective reliability obtained in service based on field data and draw some conclusions as to the way in which reliability and maintainability aspects were covered during the process which led to the final design of the antenna. We will discuss the smart use of software to handle redundancy in a flexible way and to exclude failed components without affecting overall antenna operability. The use of low-level diagnostics enabled by remote access allows us to shorten the trouble-shooting cycle and to optimise physical interventions on the antennas. Finally, the paper will cover Antenna maintenance manuals edited using an industrial interactive standard. It will be explained why this advanced and innovative concept has not achieved the success that was expected, and why the traditional form is preferred at the ALMA Observatory.

  7. Transportation energy-contingency planning: a guide for transit operators

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-04-01

    This guide is designed to help transit operators assemble workable and effective contingency plans. Although it is written primarily for the operator who is developing a plan for the first time, it also provides practical guidance for refining or updating an existing plan. In addition to this introduction, the guide consists of two chapters that present practical guidelines to help plan for and manage a crisis under two different sets of circumstances. A step-by-step approach for developing a plan in advance of a crisis is outlined. In this best of all worlds, when ample time and resources are available for looking ahead to an energy shortage, Chapter II will help an operator develop a comprehensive plan for meeting the demands of a crisis situation. On the other hand, Chapter III is designed to help an operator cope with a planner's worst nightmare: A crisis has developed overnight and the operator is caught unawares with no plan for dealing with it. This chapter presents a bare-bones approach to crisis management and will be useful to those operators who have been unable to prepare a plan in advance.

  8. Telescience operations with the solar array module plasma interaction experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Wald, L.W.; Bibyk, I.K.

    1995-09-01

    The Solar Array Module Plasma Interactions Experiment (SAMPIE) is a flight experiment that flew on the Space Shuttle Columbia (STS-62) in March 1994, as part of the OAST-2 mission. The overall objective of SAMPIE was to determine the adverse environmental interactions within the space plasma of low earth orbit (LEO) on modern solar cells and space power system materials which are artificially biased to high positive and negative direct current (DC) voltages. The two environmental interactions of interest included high voltage arcing from the samples to the space plasma and parasitic current losses. High voltage arcing can cause physical damage to power system materials and shorten expected hardware life. Parasitic current losses can reduce power system efficiency because electric currents generated in a power system drain into the surrounding plasma via parasitic resistance. The flight electronics included two programmable high voltage DC power supplies to bias the experiment samples, instruments to measure the surrounding plasma environment in the STS cargo bay, and the on-board data acquisition system (DAS). The DAS provided in-flight experiment control, data storage, and communications through the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) Hitchhiker flight avionics to the GSFC Payload Operations Control Center (POCC). The DAS and the SAMPIE POCC computer systems were designed for telescience operations; this paper will focus on the experiences of the SAMPIE team regarding telescience development and operations from the GSFC POCC during STS-62. The SAMPIE conceptual development, hardware design, and system verification testing were accomplished at the NASA Lewis Research Center (LeRC). SAMPIE was developed under the In-Space Technology Experiment Program (IN-STEP), which sponsors NASA, industry, and university flight experiments designed to enable and enhance space flight technology.

  9. Telescience operations with the solar array module plasma interaction experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wald, Lawrence W.; Bibyk, Irene K.

    1995-01-01

    The Solar Array Module Plasma Interactions Experiment (SAMPIE) is a flight experiment that flew on the Space Shuttle Columbia (STS-62) in March 1994, as part of the OAST-2 mission. The overall objective of SAMPIE was to determine the adverse environmental interactions within the space plasma of low earth orbit (LEO) on modern solar cells and space power system materials which are artificially biased to high positive and negative direct current (DC) voltages. The two environmental interactions of interest included high voltage arcing from the samples to the space plasma and parasitic current losses. High voltage arcing can cause physical damage to power system materials and shorten expected hardware life. parasitic current losses can reduce power system efficiency because electric currents generated in a power system drain into the surrounding plasma via parasitic resistance. The flight electronics included two programmable high voltage DC power supplies to bias the experiment samples, instruments to measure the surrounding plasma environment in the STS cargo bay, and the on-board data acquisition system (DAS). The DAS provided in-flight experiment control, data storage, and communications through the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) Hitchhiker flight avionics to the GSFC Payload Operations Control Center (POCC). The DAS and the SAMPIE POCC computer systems were designed for telescience operations; this paper will focus on the experiences of the SAMPIE team regarding telescience development and operations from the GSFC POCC during STS-62. The SAMPIE conceptual development, hardware design, and system verification testing were accomplished at the NASA Lewis Research Center (LeRC). SAMPIE was developed under the In-Space Technology Experiment Program (IN-STEP), which sponsors NASA, industry, and university flight experiments designed to enable and enhance space flight technology. The IN-STEP Program is sponsored by the Office of Space Access and Technology (OSAT).

  10. Boulder transport by tsunamis: A laboratory experiment on incipient motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bressan, Lidia; Antonini, Alessandro; Gaeta, Maria Gabriella; Guerrero, Massimo; Miani, Marco; Petruzzelli, Valentina; Samaras, Achilleas

    2015-04-01

    Coastal boulders transported inland by high-energy events, such as tsunamis or storms, have been found along several coastal areas worldwide. The importance of these deposits relies on their implications on coastal hazard assessment, since they contribute to the identification of past events and to the study of their magnitude and characteristics. However, the identification of the event responsible of the dislocation of the boulder (tsunami or storm) is not trivial given the complexities of the tsunami and storm phenomena, the coastal environment, the initial boulder conditions, the uncertainties of the problem, etc. The hydrodynamics methods usually adopted are 1) the use of simple hydrodynamics formulae to estimate the minimum flow velocity and height required to move a boulder, and 2) numerical simulations that model the boulder transport together with the specific tsunami (or storm) event. The main shortcomings of the first method are the simplifications adopted, while the second approach implies the simulation of the transport event, which might not be practical because of the amount of uncertainties involved. To contribute to this study field, a laboratory experiment on the flow conditions for boulder transport was carried out at the Hydraulic Engineering Laboratory (LIDR) of the University of Bologna, Italy, in a 11 m long and 0.5 m wide flume. The main objective of this experiment is to provide experimental data for the conditions of the incipient motion for boulders, i.e. to relate the threshold flow velocity and depth for transport with the characteristics of the boulders, i.e. weight and geometry. The experimental channel is divided in three parts: on one end of the channel, a water tank is closed by a gate, followed by a central flat bed and a 1:10 slope, where the boulder is located. A bore, generated by quickly opening the gate (simulating a dam-break), flows in the channel, climbs up the slope and hits the boulder. The impact of the flow on the

  11. Raccoon Mountain pumped-storage plant: Ten years operating experience

    SciTech Connect

    Adkins, F.E.

    1987-09-01

    Operational experience at the 1 530 MW Raccoon Mountain underground pumped-storage plant can be relevant to other large hydro facilities. A number of unusual features were incorporated and individual unit size was only recently overtaken elsewhere. Direct water cooling of rotor and stator winding has been successfully applied to salient pole machines. A number of problems, including difficulties with oil-filled 161 kV current transformers, and some mechanical aspects, are reported. Designed for remote supervisory control, the plant has required closer attention. Operating statistics are included.

  12. Multicomponent reactive transport modeling of uranium bioremediation field experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Yilin; Yabusaki, Steven B.; Morrison, Stan J.; Amonette, James P.; Long, Philip E.

    2009-10-01

    A reaction network integrating abiotic and microbially mediated reactions has been developed to simulate biostimulation field experiments at a former Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) site in Rifle, Colorado. The reaction network was calibrated using data from the 2002 field experiment, after which it was applied without additional calibration to field experiments performed in 2003 and 2007. The robustness of the model specification is significant in that (1) the 2003 biostimulation field experiment was performed with 3 times higher acetate concentrations than the previous biostimulation in the same field plot (i.e., the 2002 experiment), and (2) the 2007 field experiment was performed in a new unperturbed plot on the same site. The biogeochemical reactive transport simulations accounted for four terminal electron-accepting processes (TEAPs), two distinct functional microbial populations, two pools of bioavailable Fe(III) minerals (iron oxides and phyllosilicate iron), uranium aqueous and surface complexation, mineral precipitation and dissolution. The conceptual model for bioavailable iron reflects recent laboratory studies with sediments from the UMTRA site that demonstrated that the bulk (˜90%) of initial Fe(III) bioreduction is associated with phyllosilicate rather than oxide forms of iron. The uranium reaction network includes a U(VI) surface complexation model based on laboratory studies with Rifle site sediments and aqueous complexation reactions that include ternary complexes (e.g., calcium-uranyl-carbonate). The bioreduced U(IV), Fe(II), and sulfide components produced during the experiments are strongly associated with the solid phases and may play an important role in long-term uranium immobilization.

  13. Multicomponent reactive transport modeling of uranium bioremediation field experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Fang, Yilin; Yabusaki, Steven B.; Morrison, Stan J.; Amonette, James E.; Long, Philip E.

    2009-10-15

    Biostimulation field experiments with acetate amendment are being performed at a former uranium mill tailings site in Rifle, Colorado, to investigate subsurface processes controlling in situ bioremediation of uranium-contaminated groundwater. An important part of the research is identifying and quantifying field-scale models of the principal terminal electron-accepting processes (TEAPs) during biostimulation and the consequent biogeochemical impacts to the subsurface receiving environment. Integrating abiotic chemistry with the microbially mediated TEAPs in the reaction network brings into play geochemical observations (e.g., pH, alkalinity, redox potential, major ions, and secondary minerals) that the reactive transport model must recognize. These additional constraints provide for a more systematic and mechanistic interpretation of the field behaviors during biostimulation. The reaction network specification developed for the 2002 biostimulation field experiment was successfully applied without additional calibration to the 2003 and 2007 field experiments. The robustness of the model specification is significant in that 1) the 2003 biostimulation field experiment was performed with 3 times higher acetate concentrations than the previous biostimulation in the same field plot (i.e., the 2002 experiment), and 2) the 2007 field experiment was performed in a new unperturbed plot on the same site. The biogeochemical reactive transport simulations accounted for four TEAPs, two distinct functional microbial populations, two pools of bioavailable Fe(III) minerals (iron oxides and phyllosilicate iron), uranium aqueous and surface complexation, mineral precipitation, and dissolution. The conceptual model for bioavailable iron reflects recent laboratory studies with sediments from the Old Rifle Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) site that demonstrated that the bulk (~90%) of Fe(III) bioreduction is associated with the phyllosilicates rather than the iron oxides

  14. Demonstration of Four Operating Capabilities to Enable a Small Aircraft Transportation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Viken, Sally A.; Brooks, Frederick M.

    2005-01-01

    The Small Aircraft Transportation System (SATS) project has been a five-year effort fostering research and development that could lead to the transformation of our country s air transportation system. It has become evident that our commercial air transportation system is reaching its peak in terms of capacity, with numerous delays in the system and the demand keeps steadily increasing. The SATS vision is to increase mobility in our nation s transportation system by expanding access to more than 3400 small community airports that are currently under-utilized. The SATS project has focused its efforts on four key operating capabilities that have addressed new emerging technologies and procedures to pave the way for a new way of air travel. The four key operating capabilities are: Higher Volume Operations at Non-Towered/Non-Radar Airports, En Route Procedures and Systems for Integrated Fleet Operations, Lower Landing Minimums at Minimally Equipped Landing Facilities, and Increased Single Pilot Performance. These four capabilities are key to enabling low-cost, on-demand, point-to-point transportation of goods and passengers utilizing small aircraft operating from small airports. The focus of this paper is to discuss the technical and operational feasibility of the four operating capabilities and demonstrate how they can enable a small aircraft transportation system.

  15. Space Transportation System design for operations in the 2000+ era

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ehrlich, C. F., Jr.; Stone, H. W., Jr.

    1992-01-01

    Highlights of design studies for the Personnel Launch System (PLS) and the Advanced Manned Launch System (AMLS) are reviewed, and the benefits achieved by the involvement of product development teams (PDTs) in the advanced design environment are considered. The definition of system concept for the PLS and the AMLS and the development philosophy of the systems are addressed, including the adoption of major features of aircraft design, development, and operation, including performance trending, the use of certified airframe and powerplant personnel, lifetime certification, and the operational environment. Design features of the systems are examined.

  16. Operations summary for the convection and moisture experiment (CAMEX)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Griffin, V. L.; Guillory, A. R.; Susko, M.; Arnold, J. E.

    1994-01-01

    During the fall of 1993, NASA sponsored a field program called the Convection and Moisture Experiment (CAMEX) at Wallops Island, Virginia. CAMEX was a multidisciplinary experiment design to measure the three dimensional moisture fields over Wallops Island and to characterize the multifrequency radiometric signature of tropical convection over the Gulf Stream and southeastern Atlantic Ocean. This document summarizes the daily CAMEX activities, including ground and aircraft (NASA ER-2) operations, and includes 'quick-look' summaries of data acquisition along with data examples provided by the various CAMEX PI's.

  17. ATLAS Operations: Experience and Evolution in the Data Taking Era

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ueda, I.; ATLAS Collaboration

    2011-12-01

    This paper summarises the operational experience and improvements of the ATLAS hierarchical multi-tier computing infrastructure in the past year leading to taking and processing of the first collisions in 2009 and 2010. Special focus will be given to the Tier-0 which is responsible, among other things, for a prompt processing of the raw data coming from the online DAQ system and is thus a critical part of the chain. We will give an overview of the Tier-0 architecture, and improvements based on the operational experience. Emphasis will be put on the new developments, namely the Task Management System opening Tier-0 to expert users and Web 2.0 monitoring and management suite. We then overview the achieved performances with the distributed computing system, discuss observed data access patterns over the grid and describe how we used this information to improve analysis rates.

  18. The National Flood Interoperability Experiment: Bridging Resesarch and Operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salas, F. R.

    2015-12-01

    The National Weather Service's new National Water Center, located on the University of Alabama campus in Tuscaloosa, will become the nation's hub for comprehensive water resources forecasting. In conjunction with its federal partners the US Geological Survey, Army Corps of Engineers and Federal Emergency Management Agency, the National Weather Service will operationally support both short term flood prediction and long term seasonal forecasting of water resource conditions. By summer 2016, the National Water Center will begin evaluating four streamflow data products at the scale of the NHDPlus river reaches (approximately 2.67 million). In preparation for the release of these products, from September 2014 to August 2015, the National Weather Service partnered with the Consortium of Universities for the Advancement of Hydrologic Science, Inc. to support the National Flood Interoperability Experiment which included a seven week in-residence Summer Institute in Tuscaloosa for university students interested in learning about operational hydrology and flood forecasting. As part of the experiment, 15 hour forecasts from the operational High Resolution Rapid Refresh atmospheric model were used to drive a three kilometer Noah-MP land surface model loosely coupled to a RAPID river routing model operating on the NHDPlus dataset. This workflow was run every three hours during the Summer Institute and the results were made available to those engaged to pursue a range of research topics focused on flood forecasting (e.g. reservoir operations, ensemble forecasting, probabilistic flood inundation mapping, rainfall product evaluation etc.) Although the National Flood Interoperability Experiment was finite in length, it provided a platform through which the academic community could engage federal agencies and vice versa to narrow the gap between research and operations and demonstrate how state of the art research infrastructure, models, services, datasets etc. could be utilized

  19. Structure of the isotropic transport operators in three independent space variables

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abu-Shumays, I. K.; Bareiss, E. H.

    1969-01-01

    Based on the idea of separation of variables, a spectral theory for the three-dimensional, stationary, isotropic transport operator in a vector space of complex-valued Borel functions results in continuous sets of regular and generalized eigenfunctions.

  20. SMART-1 Technology and Science Experiments and their Operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marini, A.; Lumb, R.; Dias-Almeida, M.; Foing, B. H.

    2002-01-01

    SMART-1, the first European mission to the Moon, hosts 10 Technology and science experiments run by 7 on-board instruments. The primary objective of the mission is the demonstration of the solar electric propulsion. Therefore the monitoring of the spacecraft plasma environment and the contamination produced by the Stationary Plasma thruster is a key-task, which will be carried out by two experiments (SPEDE - Spacecraft Potential, Electron and Dust Experiment - and EPDP - Electric propulsion diagnostic Package). SPEDE and EPDP will contribute also to the characterisation of the near-Earth and interplanetary plasma environment and to study the solar wind. A package of three spectroscopy and imaging instruments has been selected to run technology demonstration of miniaturised compact instrument for planetary remote sensing and for carrying out valuable science at the Moon. AMIE (Asteroid-Moon micro-Imager Experiment) is a miniature medium-resolution (30 m at 300 km height) camera, equipped with a fixed panchromatic and 3-colour filter, for Moon topography and imaging support to other experiments. D-CIXS (Demonstration of a Compact Imaging X-ray Spectrometer) is based on novel detector and filter/collimator technologies, and will perform the first global mapping of the lunar elemental composition, by looking at X-ray fluorescence in the 0.5-10 keV range. It is supported in its operation by XSM (X-ray Solar Monitor) that also monitors long-term coronal X-ray emission and solar flares. SIR is a miniature near-infrared spectrometer operating in the 0.9-2.6 μm wavelength range and will carry out mineralogical survey of the lunar crust in a previously uncovered bandwidth. Technology experiments for deep space communications are: The SMART-1 Instruments have been integrated in the Spacecraft in the current year and have undergone functional verification following environmental tests. The Experiments will be performed during two distinct phases of the SMART-1 mission

  1. The experience of Taiwan photon source commissioning and operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Y. C.; Chen, C. H.; Y Chen, J.; Chiu, M. S.; Chou, P. J.; Huang, C. S.; Fann, Sam; Kuo, C. C.; Y Lee, T.; Liang, C. C.; Luo, G. H.; Tsai, H. J.; Tseng, F. H.

    2017-07-01

    TPS commissioning occurred between August 2014 and March 2016. The experience of phase I (bare lattice 2014.8∼2015.3) and phase II (SRF and insertion devices 2015.9∼2016.3) commissioning will be discussed. The Taiwan Photon Source (TPS) started user operation in March 2016 and delivery of user time has reached 3,211 hours in 2016. Continuous improvements of integrated accelerator performance and future developments are described and discussed.

  2. Perceptions and attitudes toward workplace transport risks: a study of industrial lift truck operators in a London authority.

    PubMed

    Majekodunmi, Adekunle; Farrow, Alexandra

    2009-01-01

    Workplace transport risks remain the second largest cause of work-related fatal and major injuries in the UK. In the period 2004-2005, of the 5,427 workplace transport injuries, 68 were fatal and industrial lift trucks were associated with 24% of accidents. This study aimed to quantify risk perceptions and attitudes of lift truck operators for workplace transport risks and to ascertain opinions on common accidents, risk factors, and control measures. The cross-sectional study design with a postal questionnaire collected data in a population of lift truck operators (n = 140). Questions related to training and experience; perception of risks; safety attitudes, awareness, and knowledge; and safety responsibility. A response rate of 61% (n = 86) indicated lift truck operators had a high perception of workplace transport risks. Common lift truck incidents were considered "very serious" while respondents demonstrated a good knowledge of accident risk factors and control measures. Greater support was called for from employers and regulatory authorities to improve workplace safety. Recommendations include future safety initiatives for lift truck operators. These may be useful to organisations and enforcing authorities charged with safety obligations.

  3. Wabash River coal gasification repowering project -- first year operation experience

    SciTech Connect

    Troxclair, E.J.; Stultz, J.

    1997-12-31

    The Wabash River Coal Gasification Repowering Project (WRCGRP), a joint venture between Destec Energy, Inc. and PSI Energy, Inc., began commercial operation in November of 1995. The Project, selected by the United States Department of Energy (DOE) under the Clean Coal Program (Round IV) represents the largest operating coal gasification combined cycle plant in the world. This Demonstration Project has allowed PSI Energy to repower a 1950`s vintage steam turbine and install a new syngas fired combustion turbine to provide 262 MW (net) of electricity in a clean, efficient manner in a commercial utility setting while utilizing locally mined high sulfur Indiana bituminous coal. In doing so, the Project is also demonstrating some novel technology while advancing the commercialization of integrated coal gasification combined cycle technology. This paper discusses the first year operation experience of the Wabash Project, focusing on the progress towards achievement of the demonstration objectives.

  4. Mars Exploration Rover Science Operations and Physical Properties Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arvidson, R. E.; Athena Science Team

    2004-05-01

    The two Mars Exploration Rovers, Spirit and Opportunity, landed in January 2004 and have been operating on the surface on the floor of Gusev Crater and Meridiani Planum, respectively. In addition to acquiring multi-spectral imaging, emission spectra, elemental abundance, and iron mineralogy data from the Athena Payload, the rover engineering telemetry and camera data have been used to reconstruct topography and soil properties along rover traverses, and soil mechanical properties from wheel-trenching operations. During traverses two types of science sequences have been developed, one focused on detailed soil and rock characterization, and one focused on a reconnaissance measurements of surface materials and a campaign of atmospheric observations, including optical depth, sky brightness, sky temperature profiles, and thermal sky ``stares." Results from the traverse and trenching experiments will be discussed in detail, along with approaches for conducting remote science operations with planetary rovers.

  5. Operator experiences on working in screen-based control rooms

    SciTech Connect

    Salo, L.; Laarni, J.; Savioja, P.

    2006-07-01

    This paper introduces the results of two interview studies carried out in Finland in four conventional power plants and one nuclear power plant. The aim of the studies was to gather data on user experiences on the effects of control room modernization and digital control room technology on operator work Since the number of completed digitalization projects in nuclear power plants is small supplementary information was gathered by interviewing operators in conventional power plants. Our results suggest that even though the modernization processes have been success stories, they have created new challenges for operator personnel. Examples of these challenges are increased requirements for competence and collaboration, problems in trust calibration and development of awareness of the process state. Some major differences in the digitalization of human-system interfaces between conventional and nuclear power plants were discussed. (authors)

  6. Operational experience with CW high gradient and high QL cryomodules

    SciTech Connect

    Hovater, J. Curt; Allison, Trent L.; Bachimanchi, Ramakrishna; Daly, Edward F.; Drury, Michael A.; Lahti, George E.; Mounts, Clyde I.; Nelson, Richard M.; Plawski, Tomasz E.

    2014-12-01

    The Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF) energy upgrade from 6 GeV to 12 GeV includes the installation of ten new 100 MV cryomodules (80 cavities). The superconducting RF cavities are designed to operate CW at an accelerating gradient of 19.3 MV/m with a QL of 3×107. The RF system employs single cavity control using new digital LLRF controls and 13 kW klystrons. Recently, all of the new cryomodules and associated RF hardware and software have been commissioned and operated in the CEBAF accelerator. Electrons at linac currents up to 10 ?A have been successfully accelerated and used for nuclear physics experiments. This paper reports on the commissioning and operation of the cryomodules and RF system.

  7. Five years operating experience at the Fast Flux Test Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Baumhardt, R. J.; Bechtold, R. A.

    1987-04-01

    The Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) is a 400 Mw(t), loop-type, sodium-cooled, fast neutron reactor. It is operated by the Westinghouse Hanford Company for the United States Department of Energy at Richland, Washington. The FFTF is a multipurpose test reactor used to irradiate fuels and materials for programs such as Liquid Metal Reactor (LMR) research, fusion research, space power systems, isotope production and international research. FFTF is also used for testing concepts to be used in Advanced Reactors which will be designed to maximize passive safety features and not require complex shutdown systems to assure safe shutdown and heat removal. The FFTF also provides experience in the operation and maintenance of a reactor having prototypic components and systems typical of large LMR (LMFBR) power plants. The 5 year operational performance of the FFTF reactor is discussed in this report. 6 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. Uranium transport in a crushed granodiorite: experiments and reactive transport modeling.

    PubMed

    Dittrich, T M; Reimus, P W

    2015-01-01

    The primary objective of this study was to develop and demonstrate an experimental method to refine and better parameterize process models for reactive contaminant transport in aqueous subsurface environments and to reduce conservatism in such models without attempting to fully describe the geochemical system. Uranium was used as an example of a moderately adsorbing contaminant because of its relevance in geologic disposal of spent nuclear fuel. A fractured granodiorite from the Grimsel Test Site (GTS) in Switzerland was selected because this system has been studied extensively and field experiments have been conducted with radionuclides including uranium. We evaluated the role of pH, porous media size fraction, and flow interruptions on uranium transport. Rock cores drilled from the GTS were shipped to Los Alamos National Laboratory, characterized by x-ray diffraction and optical microscopy, and used in uranium batch sorption and column breakthrough experiments. A synthetic water was prepared that represented the porewater that would be present after groundwater interacts with bentonite backfill material near a nuclear waste package. Uranium was conservatively transported at pH8.8. Significant adsorption and subsequent desorption was observed at pH ~7, with long desorption tails resulting after switching the column injection solution to uranium-free groundwater. Our experiments were designed to better interrogate this slow desorption behavior. A three-site model predicted sorption rate constants for a pH7.2 solution with a 75-150 μm granodiorite fraction to be 3.5, 0.012, and 0.012 mL/g-h for the forward reactions and 0.49, 0.0025, and 0.001 h(-1) for the reverse reactions. Surface site densities were 1.3, 0.042, and 0.042 μmol/g for the first, second, and third sites, respectively. 10-year simulations show that including a slow binding site increases the arrival time of a uranium pulse by ~70%.

  9. Uranium transport in a crushed granodiorite: Experiments and reactive transport modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dittrich, T. M.; Reimus, P. W.

    2015-04-01

    The primary objective of this study was to develop and demonstrate an experimental method to refine and better parameterize process models for reactive contaminant transport in aqueous subsurface environments and to reduce conservatism in such models without attempting to fully describe the geochemical system. Uranium was used as an example of a moderately adsorbing contaminant because of its relevance in geologic disposal of spent nuclear fuel. A fractured granodiorite from the Grimsel Test Site (GTS) in Switzerland was selected because this system has been studied extensively and field experiments have been conducted with radionuclides including uranium. We evaluated the role of pH, porous media size fraction, and flow interruptions on uranium transport. Rock cores drilled from the GTS were shipped to Los Alamos National Laboratory, characterized by x-ray diffraction and optical microscopy, and used in uranium batch sorption and column breakthrough experiments. A synthetic water was prepared that represented the porewater that would be present after groundwater interacts with bentonite backfill material near a nuclear waste package. Uranium was conservatively transported at pH 8.8. Significant adsorption and subsequent desorption was observed at pH ~ 7, with long desorption tails resulting after switching the column injection solution to uranium-free groundwater. Our experiments were designed to better interrogate this slow desorption behavior. A three-site model predicted sorption rate constants for a pH 7.2 solution with a 75-150 μm granodiorite fraction to be 3.5, 0.012, and 0.012 mL/g-h for the forward reactions and 0.49, 0.0025, and 0.001 h- 1 for the reverse reactions. Surface site densities were 1.3, 0.042, and 0.042 μmol/g for the first, second, and third sites, respectively. 10-year simulations show that including a slow binding site increases the arrival time of a uranium pulse by ~ 70%.

  10. Aircrew Fatigue during Extended Transport, Tactical and Command Post Operations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-11-01

    USAF School of Aerospace Medicine Aerospace Medical Divislon (APSC) Brooks Air Force aise, Texas 78235 MMRlf-r{tings of subjective fatigue and sleep... Medicine (UBAPSRN) has used a variety of psychobiological measures to evaluate crew fatigue in both air- borne and ground operations. The measures...the mission-day (Table 4). Because of missing data, beet -estimates of means were calculated for the various com- parisons, resulting in two sets of

  11. Operational Experience of the Upgraded Cryogenic Systems at the Nscl

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCartney, A. H.; Laumer, H. L.; Jones, S. A.

    2010-04-01

    The National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory (NSCL) is a NSF-supported facility, with additional support from Michigan State University (MSU) for conducting research in nuclear and accelerator science. The facility consists of two superconducting cyclotrons and over fifty individual cryostats, each containing several superconducting magnets that are used in the beam transport system. Beginning in 1999 a major facility upgrade was started. New, larger magnets were added, increasing the total 4.5 K loads, necessitating an increase of the cryogenic capacity. A helium plant (nominal 1750-Watt at 4.5 K) was acquired from the United States Bureau of Mines where it had been operating as a pure liquefier since the early 1980's. It was refurbished for the NSCL with extensive support from the cryogenics group at Thomas Jefferson National Laboratory. The new cryogenic system came online early in 2001. The cold-mass is relatively high in relation to the installed capacity, presenting challenges during cool downs. Reliability over the last five years has been greater than 99%. An overview of the last seven years of operations of our cryogenic systems is presented that includes normal operations, testing of new equipment, noteworthy breakdowns, routine maintenance, and system reliability.

  12. Transport and Removal experiment of Dust (TReD) for the Dust Particle Controls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woo, Hyun-Jong; Cho, Soon-Gook; Chung, Kyu-Sun; Park, Eun-Kyung; Park, Sang-Joon; Hong, Suk-Ho

    2011-10-01

    The tokamak dust might be hazardous based on the radioactive from tritium or activated metals (e.g. tritium retention), toxic and/or explosive (or chemically reactive) in steam and air conditions. Therefore, controls of dust particle inventory can be treated a critical issue for safe operation of ITER and next step fusion devices. Although the dust removal experiments for fusion reactor had been tried in 1990s, it cannot directly applied to ITER and next step fusion reactors since scale issues does not solved. In this work, one developed the dedicated plasma device for the dust particle transport and removal tests to the level required in ITER or next step fusion reactors (~1 m dust particle transportation), which is called TReD (Transport and Removal experiments of Dust). The TReD also plan to test the dust particle detectors, such as electrostatic dust detector and capacitance diaphragm microbalance (CDM) used (or will be used) in fusion plasmas. The first experimental results of dust particle transport and removal will be explained along with the design concepts, assembly structure, also collaboration plans, etc.

  13. Reactive transport modeling for Cs retention: from batch to field experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Pourcq, K.; Ayora, C.; Carrera, J.; García-Gutiérrez, M.; Missana, T.; Mingarro, M.

    2012-04-01

    A Permeable Reactive Barrier has been designed to treat 137Cs polluted groundwater. In order to check both reactivity and permeability, laboratory batch and column tests combined with reactive transport modeling have been performed. The trapping mechanism is based on the sorption of cesium mainly on illite-containing clays. Batch experiments were conducted to obtain the partition coefficients (Kd) of different clay samples in solutions with different potassium concentration. A clear correlation of Kd values with potassium content was observed. The results were modeled with a cation-exchange model. The permeability of the reactive material is provided by the dispersion of the clay on a matrix of wooden shavings. Constant head tests allowed obtaining permeability values. Several column experiments with different flow rates were conducted to confirm the 137Cs retention under different conditions. A blind 1D reactive transport model based on the cation-exchange model was able to predict reasonably well the results of column experiments. The reactive transport model, validated with the column experiments, was used to investigate the performance and duration of 1m thick barrier under different scenarios (flow, clay proportion, 137Cs and K concentration). As expected, the sensitivity tests proved that the retention capacity of dissolved 137Cs in groundwater depends linearly on the amount of clay used in the filling material. As well, the operation time increases linearly when decreasing the flow rate. Finally, the concentration of potassium in inflow water has a remarkable and non-linear influence in the retention of 137Cs. Very high concentrations of potassium are the greatest threat and can lead to the unfeasibility of a permeable reactive barrier. Due to the Cs-K competition, the barrier is comparatively more efficient to treat high concentrations of 137Cs. Up to now, preliminary results from a field scale experiment have confirmed the reactivity and permeability

  14. DIII-D safety procedures and operational experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petersen, Peter I.; Savercool, Richard L.; Taylor, Peter L.

    1989-06-01

    The DIII-D research tokamak, which has near reactor dimensions, has been operating for approximately ten years. The hazards at the facility include high voltages, high currents, cryogenics, radiation, and normal industrial hazards. Procedures have been developed for operating the device, minimizing both the hazards to personnel and the damage caused by equipment failures, and for logging of failures. The machine and the neutral beamlines have been operated in hydrogen and are now starting operation in deuterium to expand the machine capabilities to reactor relevant regimes. Deuterium operation creates a significant amount of neutrons and therefore a neutron shield is being built around the machine area to reduce personnel radiation to As Low As Reasonably Achievable (ALARA) and to keep radiation at the site boundary at or below a limit of 20 mrem per calendar year. Gamma radiation shielding walls have been in place since the initial machine construction. The safety procedures for the DIII-D facility will be outlined and the accident experience will be discussed together with the neutron radiation monitoring program being developed.

  15. Neutron Transport Simulations for NIST Neutron Lifetime Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Fangchen; BL2 Collaboration Collaboration

    2016-09-01

    Neutrons in stable nuclei can exist forever; a free neutron lasts for about 15 minutes on average before it beta decays to a proton, an electron, and an antineutrino. Precision measurements of the neutron lifetime test the validity of weak interaction theory and provide input into the theory of the evolution of light elements in the early universe. There are two predominant ways of measuring the neutron lifetime: the bottle method and the beam method. The bottle method measures decays of ultracold neutrons that are stored in a bottle. The beam method measures decay protons in a beam of cold neutrons of known flux. An improved beam experiment is being prepared at the National Institute of Science and Technology (Gaithersburg, MD) with the goal of reducing statistical and systematic uncertainties to the level of 1 s. The purpose of my studies was to develop computer simulations of neutron transport to determine the beam collimation and study the neutron distribution's effect on systematic effects for the experiment, such as the solid angle of the neutron flux monitor. The motivation for the experiment and the results of this work will be presented. This work was supported, in part, by a Grant to Gettysburg College from the Howard Hughes Medical Institute through the Precollege and Undergraduate Science Education Program.

  16. Improved Ribbon Bridge (IRB) Prototype Transporter-Operational Test

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-05-01

    Mitchell S MAY 2 8 1992P , Report Date May 1992 SO Distribution uNlmfted; approved for public release. • Ft United States Army Belvoir Research, Deve’pment...difficulties, system Inadequacies, etc., while In operation. knprved ftbbai Wdkge O1RB) Pro~otpe Tmr ~orte-42per&trd Tedt TEST OBJECTIVES * Determine the...Communicaions, and US Army Aviation Test Board ATTN: STEBF-ABTD ATTN. STEBG-PO Fort Bragg . NC 28307 Fort Rucker, AL 36360 SPresidet I US Army Aviation School

  17. Transport with reversed shear in the National Spherical Torus Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Levinton, F. M.; Yuh, H.; Bell, M. G.; Bell, R. E.; Fredrickson, E. D.; Gates, D. A.; Kaye, S. M.; LeBlanc, B. P.; Menard, J. E.; Mikkelsen, D.; Mueller, D.; Rewoldt, G.; Wang, W.; Delgado-Aparicio, L.; Finkenthal, M.; Stutman, D.; Tritz, K.; Maingi, R.; Raman, R.; Sabbagh, S. A.

    2007-05-15

    In the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) [M. Ono et al., Nucl. Fusion 40, 557 (2000)], plasmas with strongly reversed magnetic shear, s{identical_to}(r/q)(dq/dr)<0, in the plasma core exhibit a marked improvement in electron confinement compared to otherwise similar plasmas with positive or only weakly reversed magnetic shear. The q profile itself is determined by the early evolution of the plasma current, the plasma cross section, and the neutral-beam heating power. In the region of shear reversal, the electron thermal diffusivity can be significantly reduced. Detailed experimental investigation of this phenomenon has been made possible by the successful development of a motional Stark effect (MSE) polarimetry diagnostic suitable for the low magnetic field in NSTX, typically 0.35-0.55 T. Measurements of the electron and ion temperature, density, and plasma toroidal rotation profiles are also available with high spatial and temporal resolution for analysis of the plasma transport properties.

  18. Trade study: Liquid hydrogen transportation - Kennedy Space Center. [cost and operational effectivenss of shipping methods.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gray, D. J.

    1978-01-01

    Cryogenic transportation methods for providing liquid hydrogen requirements are examined in support of shuttle transportation system launch operations at Kennedy Space Center, Florida, during the time frames 1982-1991 in terms of cost and operational effectiveness. Transportation methods considered included sixteen different options employing mobile semi-trailer tankers, railcars, barges and combinations of each method. The study concludes that the most effective method of delivering liquid hydrogen from the vendor production facility in New Orleans to Kennedy Space Center includes maximum utilization of existing mobile tankers and railcars supplemented by maximum capacity mobile tankers procured incrementally in accordance with shuttle launch rates actually achieved.

  19. Overview of the microwave tokamak experiment operation and developments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lang, D. D.; Allen, S. L.; Bell, H. H.

    1991-09-01

    At Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), we assembled and presently operate the Microwave Tokamak Experiment (MTX) to demonstrate the feasibility of using intense microwave pulses (up to 6 GW peak power) from a free electron laser (FEL) to provide electron cyclotron heating (ECH) for use in tokamaks, particularly high field machines. The MTX consists primarily of the ALCATOR C tokamak and power supplies from MIT, along with FEL; the FEL is made up of the ETA-II linear induction accelerator and the IMP steady-state wiggler. A four-barrel pellet injector was added to the tokamak to produce peaked density profiles. The tokamak operations started in November 1988, with full duration plasmas being obtained at a toroidal field of both 5 and 9 tesla. Initial results were obtained with the single pulse 140 GHz FEL at peak power levels of 200 to 400 MW late in 1989. Due to excessive transverse electron beam motion, and arcing in the accelerator cells, the accelerator was modified. These modifications have been successfully tested on a small portion of the rebuilt accelerator and have been incorporated in the remaining portion of the accelerator. A 140 GHz, 400 kW gyrotron was used to perform preliminary heating experiments during the fall of 1990. This same gyrotron system is serving as the master oscillator for the burst mode FEL. The new IMP steady state wiggler will be used to produce the high power microwaves for the burst mode. The FEL construction has been completed, and it will be used for heating experiments scheduled for this fall. This paper describes the recent experimental operations. It also briefly outlines the additions and improvements to the experiment, which are described in more detail in companion papers at this conference.

  20. LEDA beam diagnostics instrumentation: Measurement comparisons and operational experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilpatrick, J. D.; Barr, D.; Bruhn, D.; Day, L. A.; Kasemir, K. U.; Kamperschroer, J. H.; Ledford, J.; Lysenko, W.; Madsen, D. W.; Martinez, D. G.; O'Hara, J. F.; Pieck, M.; Power, J. F.; Sellyey, W.; Shurter, R. B.; Stettler, M. W.

    2000-11-01

    The Low Energy Demonstration Accelerator (LEDA) facility has been used to characterize the pulsed- and cw-beam performance of a 6.7 MeV, 100 mA radio frequency quadrupole (RFQ). Diagnostic instrumentation, primarily located in a short beam transport downstream of the RFQ, allow facility commissioners and operators to measure and monitor the RFQ's accelerated and total beam transmission, beam loss, bunched beam current, beam energy and output phase, and beam position. Transverse beam profile measurements are acquired under both low and high duty-factor pulsed beam conditions using a slow wire scanner and a camera that images beam-induced fluorescence. The wire scanner is also used to acquire transverse beam emittance information using a technique known as a "quad scan". This paper reviews the measurement performance and discusses the resulting data.

  1. MagLev Cobra: Test Facilities and Operational Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sotelo, G. G.; Dias, D. H. J. N.; de Oliveira, R. A. H.; Ferreira, A. C.; De Andrade, R., Jr.; Stephan, R. M.

    2014-05-01

    The superconducting MagLev technology for transportation systems is becoming mature due to the research and developing effort of recent years. The Brazilian project, named MagLev-Cobra, started in 1998. It has the goal of developing a superconducting levitation vehicle for urban areas. The adopted levitation technology is based on the diamagnetic and the flux pinning properties of YBa2Cu3O7-δ (YBCO) bulk blocks in the interaction with Nd-Fe-B permanent magnets. A laboratory test facility with permanent magnet guideway, linear induction motor and one vehicle module is been built to investigate its operation. The MagLev-Cobra project state of the art is presented in the present paper, describing some construction details of the new test line with 200 m.

  2. The experience from field operation of a subsea multiphase booster

    SciTech Connect

    De Donno, S.; Colombi, P.; Chiesa, G.; Ferrari Aggradi, G.

    1995-12-31

    The subsea multiphase production -- based on the transportation over long distance of the untreated oil-well fluids (oil, water and gas) -- is expected to be one of the most efficient tool for economic exploitation of deep offshore and marginal fields. A long term testing campaign on a multiphase screw pump was successfully completed in 1990 at the AGIP Trecate onshore oil field and the results confirmed the industrial viability for such a kind of equipment for surface application. Then, a subsea version of an improved multiphase twin screw pump has been integrated into a Subsea Multiphase Boosting Unit and installed on the Prezioso Field, offshore Sicily, in Summer 1994. Long term testing under real operating conditions were initiated after a successful start-up of the Unit. To the Authors` knowledge, this is the first world-wide subsea installation of an electrically driven multiphase pump operating with live oil. The paper presents first a description of the marine twin screw pump concept adopted for the subsea application including the main features of the complete boosting unit and the adopted solutions to allow it to operate under different conditions. Then, the project implementation activities from the onshore integration through the installation, commissioning and start-up operations are described. Moreover, the results of the initial functional tests are discussed with particular reference to the screw pump hydraulic performance as well as to the behavior of the pump pressure compensation and seal/lube oil systems. Transient and steady state conditions experienced by the system are finally characterized and the early evidences of its long term performance are discussed.

  3. Structures of the fractional spaces generated by the difference neutron transport operator

    SciTech Connect

    Ashyralyev, Allaberen; Taskin, Abdulgafur

    2015-09-18

    The initial boundary value problem for the neutron transport equation is considered. The first, second and third order of accuracy difference schemes for the approximate solution of this problem are presented. Highly accurate difference schemes for neutron transport equation based on Padé approximation are constructed. In applications, stability estimates for solutions of difference schemes for the approximate solution of the neutron transport equation are obtained.The positivity of the neutron transport operator in Slobodeckij spaces is proved. Numerical techniques are developed and algorithms are tested on an example in MATLAB.

  4. Anomalous transport in fracture networks: field scale experiments and modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, P. K.; Le Borgne, T.; Bour, O.; Dentz, M.; Juanes, R.

    2012-12-01

    Anomalous transport is widely observed in different settings and scales of transport through porous and fractured geologic media. A common signature of anomalous transport is the late-time power law tailing in breakthrough curves (BTCs) during tracer tests. Various conceptual models of anomalous transport have been proposed, including multirate mass transfer, continuous time random walk, and stream tube models. Since different conceptual models can produce equally good fits to a single BTC, tracer test interpretation has been plagued with ambiguity. Here, we propose to resolve such ambiguity by analyzing BTCs obtained from both convergent and push-pull flow configurations at two different fracture planes. We conducted field tracer tests in a fractured granite formation close to Ploemeur, France. We observe that BTC tailing depends on the flow configuration and the injection fracture. Specifically the tailing disappears under push-pull geometry, and when we injected at a fracture with high flux (Figure 1). This indicates that for this fractured granite, BTC tailing is controlled by heterogeneous advection and not by matrix diffusion. To explain the change in tailing behavior for different flow configurations, we employ a simple lattice network model with heterogeneous conductivity distribution. The model assigns random conductivities to the fractures and solves the Darcy equation for an incompressible fluid, enforcing mass conservation at fracture intersections. The mass conservation constraint yields a correlated random flow through the fracture system. We investigate whether BTC tailing can be explained by the spatial distribution of preferential flow paths and stagnation zones, which is controlled by the conductivity variance and correlation length. By combining the results from the field tests and numerical modeling, we show that the reversibility of spreading is a key mechanism that needs to be captured. We also demonstrate the dominant role of the injection

  5. Operative experience of residents in US general surgery programs: a gap between expectation and experience.

    PubMed

    Bell, Richard H; Biester, Thomas W; Tabuenca, Arnold; Rhodes, Robert S; Cofer, Joseph B; Britt, L D; Lewis, Frank R

    2009-05-01

    The purpose of the study was to identify a group of operations which general surgery residency program directors believed residents should be competent to perform by the end of 5 years of training and then ascertain actual resident experience with these procedures during their training. There is concern about the adequacy of training of general surgeons in the United States. The American Board of Surgery and the Association of Program Directors in Surgery undertook a study to determine what operative procedures residency program directors consider to be essential to the practice of general surgery and then we measured the actual operative experience of graduating residents in those procedures, as reported to the Residency Review Committee for Surgery (RRC). An electronic survey was sent to residency program directors at the 254 general surgery programs in the US accredited by the RRC as of spring 2006. The program directors were presented with a list of 300 types of operations. Program directors graded the 300 procedures "A," "B," or "C" using the following criteria: A--graduating general surgery residents should be competent to perform the procedure independently; B--graduating residents should be familiar with the procedure, but not necessarily competent to perform it; and C--graduating residents neither need to be familiar with nor competent to perform the procedure. After ballots were tallied, the actual resident operative experience reported to the RRC by all residents finishing general surgery training in June 2005 was reviewed. One hundred twenty-one of the 300 operations were considered A level procedures by a majority of program directors (PDs). Graduating 2005 US residents (n = 1022) performed only 18 of the 121 A procedures, an average of more than 10 times during residency; 83 of 121 procedures were performed on an average less than 5 times and 31 procedures less than once. For 63 of the 121 procedures, the mode (most commonly reported) experience was 0

  6. Reservoir transport and poroelastic properties from oscillating pore pressure experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasanov, Azar K.

    Hydraulic transport properties of reservoir rocks, permeability and storage capacity are traditionally defined as rock properties, responsible for the passage of fluids through the porous rock sample, as well as their storage. The evaluation of both is an important part of any reservoir characterization workflow. Moreover, permeability and storage capacity are main inputs into any reservoir simulation study, routinely performed by reservoir engineers on almost any major oil and gas field in the world. An accurate reservoir simulation is essential for production forecast and economic analysis, hence the transport properties directly control the profitability of the petroleum reservoir and their estimation is vital for oil and gas industry. This thesis is devoted to an integrated study of reservoir rocks' hydraulic, streaming potential and poroelastic properties as measured with the oscillating pore pressure experiment. The oscillating pore pressure method is traditionally used to measure hydraulic transport properties. We modified the method and built an experimental setup, capable of measuring all aforementioned rock properties simultaneously. The measurements were carried out for four conventional reservoir-rock quality samples at a range of oscillation frequencies and effective stresses. An apparent frequency dependence of permeability and streaming potential coupling coefficient was observed. Measured frequency dispersion of drained poroelastic properties indicates an intrinsically inelastic nature of the porous mineral rock frame. Standard Linear Model demonstrated the best fit to the experimental dispersion data. Pore collapse and grain crushing effects took place during hydrostatic loading of the dolomitic sample and were observed in permeability, coupling coefficient and poroelastic measurements simultaneously. I established that hydraulically-measured storage capacities are overestimated by almost one order of magnitude when compared to elastically

  7. A minimal collision operator for implementing neoclassical transport in gyrokinetic simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garbet, X.; Dif-Pradalier, G.; Nguyen, C.; Angelino, P.; Sarazin, Y.; Grandgirard, V.; Ghendrih, P.; Samain, A.

    2008-11-01

    This paper presents a class of collision operators, which reproduce neoclassical transport and comply with the constraints of a full-f global gyrokinetic code. The assessment of these operators is based on a variational entropy method, which allows a fast calculation of the neoclassical diffusivity and poloidal velocity.

  8. The Software Engineering Laboratory: An operational software experience factory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Basili, Victor R.; Caldiera, Gianluigi; Mcgarry, Frank; Pajerski, Rose; Page, Gerald; Waligora, Sharon

    1992-01-01

    For 15 years, the Software Engineering Laboratory (SEL) has been carrying out studies and experiments for the purpose of understanding, assessing, and improving software and software processes within a production software development environment at NASA/GSFC. The SEL comprises three major organizations: (1) NASA/GSFC, Flight Dynamics Division; (2) University of Maryland, Department of Computer Science; and (3) Computer Sciences Corporation, Flight Dynamics Technology Group. These organizations have jointly carried out several hundred software studies, producing hundreds of reports, papers, and documents, all of which describe some aspect of the software engineering technology that was analyzed in the flight dynamics environment at NASA. The studies range from small, controlled experiments (such as analyzing the effectiveness of code reading versus that of functional testing) to large, multiple project studies (such as assessing the impacts of Ada on a production environment). The organization's driving goal is to improve the software process continually, so that sustained improvement may be observed in the resulting products. This paper discusses the SEL as a functioning example of an operational software experience factory and summarizes the characteristics of and major lessons learned from 15 years of SEL operations.

  9. Nocturnal violence: implications for resident trauma operative experiences.

    PubMed

    Watkins, Colyn J; Feingold, Paul L; Hashimoto, Barry; Johnson, Laura S; Dente, Christopher J

    2012-06-01

    Trauma centers face novel challenges in resource allocation in an era of cost consciousness and work-hour restrictions. Studies have shown that time of day and day of week affect trauma admission volume; however, these studies were performed in cold climates. Data from 2000 to 2010 at a Level I trauma center were reviewed. Demographic, injury severity, and injury timing from 23,827 trauma patients were analyzed along with their emergency department disposition (operating room, intensive care unit, ward) and final outcome. Nighttime arrivals (NAs) accounted for 56.6 per cent and daytime arrivals accounted for 43.4 per cent of total admissions. The increase in NAs was most pronounced during the period from midnight to 6 am on weekends (P < 0.05). Also, the period from midnight to 6 am on weekends showed a significantly increased proportion of penetrating trauma (P < 0.01). Similarly, there was an increased rate of trauma arrivals needing emergent operative intervention in the period between midnight and 6 am on weekends when compared with any other time period (P < 0.01). In a southern Level I trauma center, patient volume varies nonrandomly with time. Emergent operative intervention is more likely between midnight and 6 am, the peak time for penetrating trauma. Because resident operative experience is maximized at night and on weekends, coverage during these periods should remain a priority for residency programs.

  10. APL experience with space weather modeling and transition to operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zanetti, L. J.; Wing, S.

    2009-12-01

    In response to the growing space weather needs, the Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory (APL) developed and delivered twenty two state of the art space weather products under the auspice of the University Partnering in Operational Support program, initiated in 1998. These products offer nowcasts and forecasts for the region spanning from the Sun to the Earth. Some of these products have been transitioned to the Air Force Weather Agency and other space weather centers. The transition process is quite different from research modeling, requiring additional staff with different sets of expertise. Recently, APL has developed a space weather web page to serve these products to the research and user community. For the initial stage, we have chosen ten of these products to be served from our website, which is presently still under construction. APL’s experience, lessons learned, and successes from developing space weather models, the transition to operations process and the webpage access will be shared and discussed

  11. Two year operational experience with the TPS vacuum system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Y. C.; Chan, C. K.; Sheng, I. C.; Huang, I. T.; Y Chung, J.; Liang, C. C.

    2017-07-01

    The Taiwan Photon Source (TPS), a 3-GeV third generation synchrotron light source, was commissioned in 2014 December and is now currently operated in top-up mode at 300mA for users. During the past two years, the machine was completed to meet design goals with among others the installation of superconducting cavities (SRF), the installation of insertion devices (ID) and the correction of vacuum chamber structure downstream from the IDs. The design goal of 500mA beam current was achieved with a total accumulated beam dose of more than 1000Ah, resulting in three orders of magnitude reduction of out-gassing. As the beam current was increased, a few vacuum problems were encountered, including vacuum leaks, unexpected pressure bursts, etc. Vacuum related issues including high pressure events, lessons learned and operational experience will be presented and discussed in this paper.

  12. Superconducting radio-frequency modules test faciilty operating experience

    SciTech Connect

    Soyars, W.; Bossert, R.; Darve, C.; Degraff, B.; Klebaner, A.; Martinez, A.; Pei, L.; Theilacker, J.; /Fermilab

    2007-07-01

    Fermilab is heavily engaged and making strong technical contributions to the superconducting radio-frequency research and development program (SRF R&D). Four major SRF test areas are being constructed to enable vertical and horizontal cavity testing, as well as cryomodule testing. The existing Fermilab cryogenic infrastructure has been modified to service Fermilab SRF R&D needs. The first stage of the project has been successfully completed, which allows for distribution of cryogens for a single cavity cryomodule using the existing Cryogenic Test Facility (CTF) that houses three Tevatron satellite refrigerators. The cooling capacity available for cryomodule testing at MDB results from the liquefaction capacity of the CTF cryogenic system. The cryogenic system for a single 9-cell cryomodule is currently operational. The paper describes the status, challenges and operational experience of the initial phase of the project.

  13. Fluid Physical and Transport Phenomena Studies aboard the International Space Station: Planned Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, Bhim S.

    1999-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the microgravity fluid physics and transport phenomena experiments planned for the International Spare Station. NASA's Office of Life and Microgravity Science and Applications has established a world-class research program in fluid physics and transport phenomena. This program combines the vast expertise of the world research community with NASA's unique microgravity facilities with the objectives of gaining new insight into fluid phenomena by removing the confounding effect of gravity. Due to its criticality to many terrestrial and space-based processes and phenomena, fluid physics and transport phenomena play a central role in the NASA's Microgravity Program. Through widely publicized research announcement and well established peer-reviews, the program has been able to attract a number of world-class researchers and acquired a critical mass of investigations that is now adding rapidly to this field. Currently there arc a total of 106 ground-based and 20 candidate flight principal investigators conducting research in four major thrust areas in the program: complex flows, multiphase flow and phase change, interfacial phenomena, and dynamics and instabilities. The International Space Station (ISS) to be launched in 1998, provides the microgravity research community with a unprecedented opportunity to conduct long-duration microgravity experiments which can be controlled and operated from the Principal Investigators' own laboratory. Frequent planned shuttle flights to the Station will provide opportunities to conduct many more experiments than were previously possible. NASA Lewis Research Center is in the process of designing a Fluids and Combustion Facility (FCF) to be located in the Laboratory Module of the ISS that will not only accommodate multiple users but, allow a broad range of fluid physics and transport phenomena experiments to be conducted in a cost effective manner.

  14. Laboratory Experiments Modelling Sediment Transport by River Plumes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sutherland, Bruce; Gingras, Murray; Knudson, Calla; Steverango, Luke; Surma, Chris

    2016-11-01

    Through lock-release laboratory experiments, the transport of particles by hypopycnal (surface) currents is examined as they flow into a uniform-density and a two-layer ambient fluid. In most cases the tank is tilted so that the current flows over a slope representing an idealization of a sediment-bearing river flowing into the ocean and passing over the continental shelf. When passing into a uniform-density ambient, the hypopycnal current slows and stops as particles rain out, carrying some of the light interstitial fluid with them. Rather than settling on the bottom, in many cases the descending particles accumulate to form a hyperpycnal (turbidity) current that flows downslope. This current then slows and stops as particles both rain out to the bottom and also rise again to the surface, carried upward by the light interstitial fluid. For a hypopycnal current flowing into a two-layer fluid, the current slows as particles rain out and accumulate at the interface of the two-layer ambient. Eventually these particles penetrate through the interface and settle to the bottom with no apparent formation of a hyperpycnal current. Analyses are performed to characterize the speed of the currents and stopping distances as they depend upon experiment parameters. Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council.

  15. Vascular Trauma Operative Experience is Inadequate in General Surgery Programs.

    PubMed

    Yan, Huan; Maximus, Steven; Koopmann, Matthew; Keeley, Jessica; Smith, Brian; Virgilio, Christian de; Kim, Dennis Y

    2016-05-01

    Vascular injuries may be challenging, particularly for surgeons who have not received formal vascular surgery fellowship training. Lack of experience and improper technique can result in significant complications. The objective of this study was to examine changes in resident experience with operative vascular trauma over time. A retrospective review was performed using Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) case logs of general surgery residents graduating between 2004 and 2014 at 2 academic, university-affiliated institutions associated with level 1 trauma centers. The primary outcome was number of reported vascular trauma operations, stratified by year of graduation and institution. A total of 112 residents graduated in the study period with a median 7 (interquartile range 4.5-13.5) vascular trauma cases per resident. Fasciotomy and exposure and/or repair of peripheral vessels constituted the bulk of the operative volume. Linear regression showed no significant trend in cases with respect to year of graduation (P = 0.266). Residents from program A (n = 53) reported a significantly higher number of vascular trauma cases when compared with program B (n = 59): 12.0 vs. 5.0 cases, respectively (P < 0.001). Level 1 trauma center verification does not guarantee sufficient exposure to vascular trauma. The operative exposure in program B is reflective of the national average of 4.0 cases per resident as reported by the ACGME, and this trend is unlikely to change in the near future. Fellowship training may be critical for surgeons who plan to work in a trauma setting, particularly in areas lacking vascular surgeons. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Soft-Stowed Approach: Safe Transportation to ISS for Experiments, Spares & New Hardware

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Itta, Antonietta; Quagliotti, Francesco

    2012-07-01

    The ISS operational and logistic scenario relies on the regular upload of new experiments and maintenance hardware. The extension of the ISS lifetime places even more emphasis on a resupply policy based on safe, cheap and flexible transportation solutions to ISS. A transportation method suitable for all available carriers is represented by foam packaged items put inside bags or containers. This flight condition can now be analyzed thanks to the results derived from an extensive test campaign performed by Boeing in 2009 under NASA sponsorship. Data and guidelines are provided for the calculation of the attenuated flight environments due to the soft packaging conditions. The paper also reports a real life application: the uploading to ISS of the Columbus PDU (some 90 kg) inside ATV II Johannes Kepler, wrapped in 1” of zotek and put inside a M01 bag. The mission was successful: PDU is today safely stored inside a Columbus Rack.

  17. Analysis of operational requirements for medium density air transportation. Volume 1: Summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The medium density air travel market was studied to determine the aircraft design and operational requirements. The impact of operational characteristics on the air travel system and the economic viability of the study aircraft were also evaluated. Medium density is defined in terms of numbers of people transported (20 to 500 passengers per day on round trip routes), and frequency of service ( a minumium of two and maximum of eight round trips per day) for 10 regional carriers. The operational characteristics of aircraft best suited to serve the medium density air transportation market are determined and a basepoint aircraft is designed from which tradeoff studies and parametric variations could be conducted. The impact of selected aircraft on the medium density market, economics, and operations is ascertained. Research and technology objectives for future programs in medium density air transportation are identified and ranked.

  18. Combat Stress: Lessons Learned from Recent Operational Experiences. Part B.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-01-01

    Harefuah (July 1978), 95(2): 53-57. Llewellyn, C.H. Memorandum for Dean, School of Medicine. Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences...Medical Center , Reid Hall, Bldg. 1001, Fort Sam Houston, TX 78234 (1) Stimson Library, Academy of Health Sciences, Bldg. 2840, Fort Sam Houston, TX 78234 (1) 24 . .. FILMED 12-85 DTIC ...AD-RI59 861 COMBAT STRESS LESSONS LEARNED FROM RECENT OPERATIONAL i/1 EXPERIENCES PART B(U) ARNY HEALTH CARE STUDIES AND CLINICAL INVESTIGATION

  19. Nevada Experiments and Operations Program (N Program) Management Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Nattrass, L.; Anastasio, M.R.

    2000-02-01

    This plan briefly describes the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) institutional structure and how Nevada Experiments and Operations Program (N Program's) organization fits within this structure, roles and responsibilities, and management processes that govern N Program activities. This plan also serves as the Integrated Safety Management (ISM) Implementation Plan for N Program work. This plan applies to all work performed by and for LLNL that falls under the oversight of DOE/NV except LLNL activities in support of the Yucca Mountain Project Office (YMPO).

  20. Skylab Medical Experiments Altitude Test /SMEAT/ facility design and operation.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinners, A. H., Jr.; Correale, J. V.

    1973-01-01

    This paper presents the design approaches and test facility operation methods used to successfully accomplish a 56-day test for Skylab to permit evaluation of selected Skylab medical experiments in a ground test simulation of the Skylab environment with an astronaut crew. The systems designed for this test include the two-gas environmental control system, the fire suppression and detection system, equipment transfer lock, ground support equipment, safety systems, potable water system, waste management system, lighting and power system, television monitoring, communications and recreation systems, and food freezer.

  1. Apollo experience report: Communications used during recovery operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoover, J. E.

    1974-01-01

    Apollo program experience in recovery-support communications is reviewed, and the working relationships among NASA, the Department of Defense, and commercial communications facilities are discussed. The organization, facilities, philosophy, and funding of recovery-support communications are described. The relocation of two recovery control centers is discussed, as are the functions of primary and secondary recovery ships, aircraft, and relay satellities. The possibility of using ships of opportunity for recovery operations is considered. Finally, the means by which money, manpower, and resources have been saved and longlines leased are delineated.

  2. Skylab Medical Experiments Altitude Test /SMEAT/ facility design and operation.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinners, A. H., Jr.; Correale, J. V.

    1973-01-01

    This paper presents the design approaches and test facility operation methods used to successfully accomplish a 56-day test for Skylab to permit evaluation of selected Skylab medical experiments in a ground test simulation of the Skylab environment with an astronaut crew. The systems designed for this test include the two-gas environmental control system, the fire suppression and detection system, equipment transfer lock, ground support equipment, safety systems, potable water system, waste management system, lighting and power system, television monitoring, communications and recreation systems, and food freezer.

  3. Flight crew fatigue III: North Sea helicopter air transport operations.

    PubMed

    Gander, P H; Barnes, R M; Gregory, K B; Graeber, R C; Connell, L J; Rosekind, M R

    1998-09-01

    We studied 32 helicopter pilots before, during, and after 4-5 d trips from Aberdeen, Scotland, to service North Sea oil rigs. On duty days, subjects awoke 1.5 h earlier than pretrip or posttrip, after having slept nearly an hour less. Subjective fatigue was greater posttrip than pretrip. By the end of trip days, fatigue was greater and mood more negative than by the end of pretrip days. During trips, daily caffeine consumption increased 42%, reports of headache doubled, reports of back pain increased 12-fold, and reports of burning eyes quadrupled. In the cockpits studied, thermal discomfort and high vibration levels were common. Subjective workload during preflight, taxi, climb, and cruise was related to the crewmembers' ratings of the quality of the aircraft systems. During descent and approach, workload was affected by weather at the landing site. During landing, it was influenced by the quality of the landing site and air traffic control. Beginning duty later, and greater attention to aircraft comfort and maintenance, should reduce fatigue in these operations.

  4. STS-26 MS Nelson operates controls for PVTOS-2 experiment on aft middeck

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    STS-26 Mission Specialist (MS) George D. Nelson operates generic electronics module for the Physical Vapor Transport of Organic Solids 2 (PVTOS-2) experiment on Discovery's, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103's, aft middeck. PVTOS-2 consists of nine independent experimental cells about 12 inches long and 3 inches in diameter. They are mounted in a circular base plate inside the drum-like experimental apparatus container (EAC). PVTOS-2 is sponsored by NASA's Office of Commercial Programs and is being conducted by 3M's Space Research and Applications Laboratory.

  5. Experiments in hand-operated, hypersonic shock tunnel facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sudhiesh Kumar, Chintoo; Reddy, K. P. J.

    2016-11-01

    Experiments were conducted using the newly developed table-top, hand-operated hypersonic shock tunnel, otherwise known as the Reddy hypersonic shock tunnel. This novel instrument uses only manual force to generate the shock wave in the shock tube, and is designed to generate a freestream flow of Mach 6.5 in the test section. The flow was characterized using stagnation point pressure measurements made using fast-acting piezoelectric transducers. Schlieren visualization was also carried out to capture the bow shock in front of a hemispherical body placed in the flow. Freestream Mach numbers estimated at various points in the test section showed that for a minimum diameter of 46 mm within the test section, the value did not vary by more than 3 % along any cross-sectional plane. The results of the experiments presented here indicate that the device may be successfully employed for basic hypersonic research activities at the university level.

  6. Experiments on hydrodynamic transport in ultra-cold bose gasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koller, S. B.

    2012-09-01

    At temperatures near the absolut zero, a gas, here atomic sodium vapour, with high enough density cannot be described as tiny balls moving around as in classical physics. Since the temperature is low, the atoms are so slow that the matterwave of each atom starts to extend over the size of the atom and even over the interatomic distance. Therefore, they start to interfere like waves. Quantum mechanics start to dominate the physics in this regime. Further, depending on the sort of atoms (bosons or fermions) the atoms prefer to be in the same state or avoid to be in the same state. In the case of bosons as in the thesis, if the temperature is lowered to sub micro Kelvin temperature, a new state of matter appears after a phase transition - a macroscopic, standing wave, the Bose-Einstein condensate. This leads to a new phenomena: superfluidity - frictionless flow, second sound, vorticity and coherent scattering effects to name a few. The atoms are trapped in a elongated trap as in most of the experiments in ultra cold gasses. Usually experiments are done in a regime where the atoms seldomly collide with each other while travelling from one end to the other end of the cloud. In this experiment, however, the atoms collide many times with each other when they oscillate in the trap. This means that the cloud is hydrodynamic and leads to a very different behaviour. Two different sound waves (first and second sound), heat conduction, and collisional dominated transport can be observed in this case. The fact that the gas is weakly interacting allows comparison with current theory. At very low temperatures as in the experiments described in the thesis, the Bose character strongly alters the collisions of the atoms. The outcome of the collision does not only depend on the colliding atoms, but also on the atoms near by in phase space. The experiments outlined in this thesis cover some aspects of physics involved. Vortices have been created and observed in the Bose

  7. Double Transport Barrier Experiments on Alcator C-Mod

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wukitch, S. J.

    2001-10-01

    Double transport barrier modes (core and edge barrier) have been observed with intense, off-axis ICRF heating in Alcator C-Mod. An internal transport barrier (ITB) is routinely produced in enhanced D_α H-mode, 4.5 T, sawtoothing discharges with the minority resonance layer r/a ~ -0.5 to the high field side of the magnetic axis during current flat top. The measured density and calculated \\chi_eff (from TRANSP) profiles suggest the central particle and thermal barriers are formed less than one energy confinement time after the H-mode develops. The density, radiation and \\chi_eff profiles indicate that the foot of the barrier is r/a ~ 0.5. Furthermore, the thermal and particle confinement are improved across the entire region inside the barrier. Interestingly, the central toroidal rotation reverses from co-current direction, typical of H-mode plasmas, to the counter-current direction as the density profile becomes more peaked. Typically, increased core impurity radiation, presumably due to improved particle confinement, leads to a barrier collapse after ~ 10 energy confinement times. A BT scan showed that the double barrier mode was accessed for B_T=4.1-4.5 T with the foot of the ITB remaining at r/a ~ 0.5. Importantly, experiments with additional central ICRF heating maintained the double barrier mode for as long as the ICRF was applied ( ~ 6 confinement times). With the application of central heating, the central rotation reversed back to the co-current direction. In addition, the density peaking and impurity accumulation were arrested with the application of the central heating. Thus, the additional central heating appears to provide a means for controlling this mode.

  8. Atmospheric Transport During the Transport and Chemical Evolution over the Pacific TRACE-P Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fuelberg, Henry E.; Kiley, C. M.; Hannan, J. R.; Westberg, D. J.; Avery, M. A.; Newell, R. E.

    2003-01-01

    Atmospheric transport over the Pacific Basin is described during NASA's Transport and Chemical Evolution Over the Pacific Experiment (TRACE-P) that was conducted between February - April 2001. The mission included extensive chemical sampling from two aircraft based primarily in Hong Kong and Yokota Air Base, Japan. Meteorological conditions during TRACE-P changed rapidly due to the seasonal winter/spring transition and the decay of prolonged ENSO cold phase (La Nina) conditions. To document these changes, TRACE-P was divided into two halves, and mean flow patterns during each half are presented and discussed. Important circulation features are the semi-permanent Siberian anticyclone and transient middle latitude cyclones that form near eastern Asia and then move eastward over the northern Pacific. Five-day backward trajectories from the various flight tracks show that air sampled by the aircraft had been transported from a variety of locations. Some parcels remained over the tropical western North Pacific during the entire period, while other important origins were Southeast Asia, Africa, and central Asia. Patterns of satellite-derived precipitation and lightning are described. TRACE-P occurs during a neutral to weak La Nina period of relatively cold sea surface temperatures in the tropical Pacific. Compared to climatology, the TRACE-P period exhibits deep convection located west of its typical position; however, tropospheric flow patterns do not exhibit a strong La Nina signal. Circulation patterns during TRACE-P are found to be generally similar to those during NASA's PEM WEST-B mission that occurred in the same region during February - March 1994.

  9. Atmospheric Transport During the Transport and Chemical Evolution over the Pacific TRACE-P Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fuelberg, Henry E.; Kiley, C. M.; Hannan, J. R.; Westberg, D. J.; Avery, M. A.; Newell, R. E.

    2003-01-01

    Atmospheric transport over the Pacific Basin is described during NASA's Transport and Chemical Evolution Over the Pacific Experiment (TRACE-P) that was conducted between February - April 2001. The mission included extensive chemical sampling from two aircraft based primarily in Hong Kong and Yokota Air Base, Japan. Meteorological conditions during TRACE-P changed rapidly due to the seasonal winter/spring transition and the decay of prolonged ENSO cold phase (La Nina) conditions. To document these changes, TRACE-P was divided into two halves, and mean flow patterns during each half are presented and discussed. Important circulation features are the semi-permanent Siberian anticyclone and transient middle latitude cyclones that form near eastern Asia and then move eastward over the northern Pacific. Five-day backward trajectories from the various flight tracks show that air sampled by the aircraft had been transported from a variety of locations. Some parcels remained over the tropical western North Pacific during the entire period, while other important origins were Southeast Asia, Africa, and central Asia. Patterns of satellite-derived precipitation and lightning are described. TRACE-P occurs during a neutral to weak La Nina period of relatively cold sea surface temperatures in the tropical Pacific. Compared to climatology, the TRACE-P period exhibits deep convection located west of its typical position; however, tropospheric flow patterns do not exhibit a strong La Nina signal. Circulation patterns during TRACE-P are found to be generally similar to those during NASA's PEM WEST-B mission that occurred in the same region during February - March 1994.

  10. Development of a Dynamically Scaled Generic Transport Model Testbed for Flight Research Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jordan, Thomas; Langford, William; Belcastro, Christine; Foster, John; Shah, Gautam; Howland, Gregory; Kidd, Reggie

    2004-01-01

    This paper details the design and development of the Airborne Subscale Transport Aircraft Research (AirSTAR) test-bed at NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC). The aircraft is a 5.5% dynamically scaled, remotely piloted, twin-turbine, swept wing, Generic Transport Model (GTM) which will be used to provide an experimental flight test capability for research experiments pertaining to dynamics modeling and control beyond the normal flight envelope. The unique design challenges arising from the dimensional, weight, dynamic (inertial), and actuator scaling requirements necessitated by the research community are described along with the specific telemetry and control issues associated with a remotely piloted subscale research aircraft. Development of the necessary operational infrastructure, including operational and safety procedures, test site identification, and research pilots is also discussed. The GTM is a unique vehicle that provides significant research capacity due to its scaling, data gathering, and control characteristics. By combining data from this testbed with full-scale flight and accident data, wind tunnel data, and simulation results, NASA will advance and validate control upset prevention and recovery technologies for transport aircraft, thereby reducing vehicle loss-of-control accidents resulting from adverse and upset conditions.

  11. The relationship between manual handling performance and recent flying experience in air transport pilots.

    PubMed

    Ebbatson, Matt; Harris, Don; Huddlestone, John; Sears, Rodney

    2010-02-01

    Modern jet transport aircraft are typically flown using the on-board automation by the pilot programming commands into the auto-flight systems. Anecdotal evidence exists suggesting that pilots of highly automated aircraft experience manual flying skills decay as a result of a lack of opportunity to practise hand-flying during line operations. The ability of a pilot to revert to basic manual control is essential, for example, in cases where the aircraft's automatic capability is diminished or when reconfiguring the automatics is an ineffective use of crew capacity. However, there is a paucity of objective data to substantiate this perceived threat to flight safety. Furthermore, traditional performance measurement techniques may lack the ability to identify subtle but significant differences in pilots' manual handling ability in large transport aircraft. This study examines the relationship between pilot manual handling performance and their recent flying experience using both traditional flight path tracking measures and frequency-based control strategy measures. Significant relationships are identified between pilots' very recent flying experience and their manual control strategy. Statement of Relevance: The study demonstrates a novel application of frequency analysis, which produces a broader and more sensitive analysis of pilot performance than has been offered in previous research. Additionally, the relationships that are found to exist between recent flying experience and manual flying performance will help to guide future pilot assessment and training.

  12. Using operations research to plan improvement of the transport of critically ill patients.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jing; Awasthi, Anjali; Shechter, Steven; Atkins, Derek; Lemke, Linda; Fisher, Les; Dodek, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Operations research is the application of mathematical modeling, statistical analysis, and mathematical optimization to understand and improve processes in organizations. The objective of this study was to illustrate how the methods of operations research can be used to identify opportunities to reduce the absolute value and variability of interfacility transport intervals for critically ill patients. After linking data from two patient transport organizations in British Columbia, Canada, for all critical care transports during the calendar year 2006, the steps for transfer of critically ill patients were tabulated into a series of time intervals. Statistical modeling, root-cause analysis, Monte Carlo simulation, and sensitivity analysis were used to test the effect of changes in component intervals on overall duration and variation of transport times. Based on quality improvement principles, we focused on reducing the 75th percentile and standard deviation of these intervals. We analyzed a total of 3808 ground and air transports. Constraining time spent by transport personnel at sending and receiving hospitals was projected to reduce the total time taken by 33 minutes with as much as a 20% reduction in standard deviation of these transport intervals in 75% of ground transfers. Enforcing a policy of requiring acceptance of patients who have life- or limb-threatening conditions or organ failure was projected to reduce the standard deviation of air transport time by 63 minutes and the standard deviation of ground transport time by 68 minutes. Based on findings from our analyses, we developed recommendations for technology renovation, personnel training, system improvement, and policy enforcement. Use of the tools of operations research identifies opportunities for improvement in a complex system of critical care transport.

  13. Experience of Pseudospark Switch Operation in Pulse Power Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voitenko, N. V.; Yudin, A. S.; Kuznetsova, N. S.; Bochkov, V. D.

    2015-11-01

    The paper demonstrates the results of TDIl-200k/25SN-P pseudospark switch (PSS) developed by Russian company "Pulsed Technologies Ltd" application. PSS was used in pulsed power unit intended for electric-discharge fracture of rocks and concrete blocks and splitting off from monolith. The pulsed power unit has a pulse current generator with the capacity of 560 μF, stored energy of up to 63 kJ, operating voltage of up to15 kV, current pulse amplitude of up to 200 kA and pulse duration more than 200 μsec. The study also shows the current waveforms determined in the short-circuit experiment of the pulse current generator and in the experiments of the electric-discharge fragmentation of concrete at the charging voltage of 13 kV. PSS was operated in ringing single-pulse mode with the exceedance of more than two maximum permissible parameters: current pulse amplitude, current pulse duration and maximum pulse energy. Internal electrode erosion of PSS is shown and possible reasons of asymmetric current feed are discussed.

  14. An Operational evaluation of head up displays for civil transport operations. NASA/FAA phase 3 report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lauber, J. K.; Bray, R. S.; Harrison, R. L.; Hemingway, J. C.; Scott, B. C.

    1982-01-01

    The advantages and disadvantages of head-up displays (HUDs) in commercial jet transport approach and landing operations was evaluated. Ten airline captains currently qualified in the B-727 aircraft flew a series of instrument landing system (ILS) and nonprecision approaches in a motion base simulator using both a flight director HUD concept and a flightpath HUD concept as well as conventional head-down instruments under a variety of environmental and operational conditions to assess: (1) the potential benefits of these HUDs in airline operations; (2) problems which might be associated with their use; and (3) flight crew training requirements and flight crew operating procedures suitable for use with the HUDs. Results are presented in terms of objective simulator based performance measures, subject pilot opinion and rating data, and observer data.

  15. Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES)-8 mission flight experience

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noonan, C. H.; Mcintosh, R. J.; Rowe, J. N.; Defazio, R. L.; Galal, K. F.

    1995-01-01

    The Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES)-8 spacecraft was launched on April 13, 1994, at 06:04:02 coordinated universal time (UTC), with separation from the Atlas-Centaur launch vehicle occurring at 06:33:05 UTC. The launch was followed by a series of complex, intense operations to maneuver the spacecraft into its geosynchronous mission orbit. The Flight Dynamics Facility (FDF) of the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) Flight Dynamics Division (FDD) was responsible for GOES-8 attitude, orbit maneuver, orbit determination, and station acquisition support during the ascent phase. This paper summarizes the efforts of the FDF support teams and highlights some of the unique challenges the launch team faced during critical GOES-8 mission support. FDF operations experience discussed includes: (1) The abort of apogee maneuver firing-1 (AMF-1), cancellation of AMF-3, and the subsequent replans of the maneuver profile; (2) The unexpectedly large temperature dependence of the digital integrating rate assembly (DIRA) and its effect on GOES-8 attitude targeting in support of perigee raising maneuvers; (3) The significant effect of attitude control thrusting on GOES-8 orbit determination solutions; (4) Adjustment of the trim tab to minimize torque due to solar radiation pressure; and (5) Postlaunch analysis performed to estimate the GOES-8 separation attitude. The paper also discusses some key FDF GOES-8 lessons learned to be considered for the GOES-J launch which is currently scheduled for May 19, 1995.

  16. Operational Experience with Autonomous Star Trackers on ESA Interplanetary Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lauer, Mathias; Jauregui, Libe; Kielbassa, Sabine

    2007-01-01

    Mars Express (MEX), Rosetta and Venus Express (VEX) are ESA interplanetary spacecrafts (S/C) launched in June 2003, March 2004 and November 2005, respectively. Mars Express was injected into Mars orbit end of 2003 with routine operations starting in spring 2004. Rosetta is since launch on its way to rendezvous comet Churyumov-Gerasimenko in 2014. It has completed several test and commissioning activities and is performing several planetary swingbys (Earth in spring 2005, Mars in spring 2007, Earth in autumn 2007 and again two years later). Venus Express has also started routine operations since the completion of the Venus orbit insertion maneuver sequence beginning of May 2006. All three S/C are three axes stabilized with a similar attitude and orbit control system (AOCS). The attitude is estimated on board using star and rate sensors and controlled using four reaction wheels. A bipropellant reaction control system with 10N thrusters serves for wheel off loadings and attitude control in safe mode. Mars Express and Venus Express have an additional 400N engine for the planetary orbit insertion. Nominal Earth communication is accomplished through a high gain antenna. All three S/C are equipped with a redundant set of autonomous star trackers (STR) which are based on almost the same hardware. The STR software is especially adapted for the respective mission. This paper addresses several topics related to the experience gained with the STR operations on board the three S/C so far.

  17. An operational information systems architecture for assessing sustainable transportation planning: principles and design.

    PubMed

    Borzacchiello, Maria Teresa; Torrieri, Vincenzo; Nijkamp, Peter

    2009-11-01

    This paper offers the description of an integrated information system framework for the assessment of transportation planning and management. After an introductory exposition, in the first part of the paper, a broad overview of international experiences regarding information systems on transportation is given, focusing in particular on the relationship between transportation system's performance monitoring and the decision-making process, and on the importance of this connection in the evaluation and planning process, in Italian and European cases. Next, the methodological design of an information system to support efficient and sustainable transportation planning and management aiming to integrate inputs from several different data sources is presented. The resulting framework deploys modular and integrated databases which include data stemming from different national or regional data banks and which integrate information belonging to different transportation fields. For this reason, it allows public administrations to account for many strategic elements that influence their decisions regarding transportation, both from a systemic and infrastructural point of view.

  18. Effect of minimally invasive surgery fellowship on residents' operative experience.

    PubMed

    Altieri, Maria S; Frenkel, Catherine; Scriven, Richard; Thornton, Deborah; Halbert, Caitlin; Talamini, Mark; Telem, Dana A; Pryor, Aurora D

    2017-01-01

    There is an increased need for surgical trainees to acquire advanced laparoscopic skills as laparoscopy becomes the standard of care in many areas of general surgery. Since the introduction of minimally invasive surgery (MIS) fellowships, there has been a continuing debate as to whether these fellowships adversely affect general surgery resident exposure to laparoscopic cases. The aim of our study was to examine whether the introduction of an MIS fellowship negatively impacts general surgery residents' experience at a single academic center. We describe the changes following establishment of MIS fellowship at an academic center. Resident case log system from the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education was queried to obtain all PGY 1-5 resident operative case logs. Two-year time period preceding and following the institution of an MIS fellowship at our institution in 2012 was compared. P values less than 0.05 were considered statistically significant. Following initiation of the MIS fellowship, an MIS service was established. The service comprised of a fellow, midlevel resident, and intern. Operative experience was examined. From 2010-2012 to 2012-2014, residents logged a total of 272 and 585 complex laparoscopic cases, respectively. There were 43 residents from 2010 to 2013 and 44 residents from 2013 to 2014. When the two time periods were compared, a trend of increased numbers for all procedures was noted, except laparoscopic GYN/genito-urinary procedures. Average percent increase in complex general surgery procedures was 249 ± 179.8 %. Following establishment of a MIS fellowship, reported cases by residents were higher or similar to those reported nationally for laparoscopic procedures. Institution of an MIS fellowship had a favorable effect on general surgery resident operative education at a single academic training center. Residents may benefit from the presence of a fellowship at an academic center because they are able to participate in an

  19. Effect of electromagnetic interference by neonatal transport equipment on aircraft operation.

    PubMed

    Nish, W A; Walsh, W F; Land, P; Swedenburg, M

    1989-06-01

    The number of civilian air ambulance services operating in the United States has been steadily increasing. The quantity and sophistication of electronic equipment used during neonatal transport have also increased. All medical equipment generates some electromagnetic interference (EMI). Excessive EMI can interfere with any of an aircraft's electrical systems, including navigation and communications. The United States military has strict standards for maximum EMI in transport equipment. Over the past 15 years, approximately 70% of neonatal transport monitors, ventilators, and incubators have failed testing due to excessive EMI. As neonatal transport equipment becomes more sophisticated, EMI is increased, and there is greater potential for aircraft malfunction. The Federal Aviation Administration should develop civilian standards for acceptable EMI, civilian aircraft operators must be aware of the possible dangers of excessive EMI, and equipment which does not meet future FAA standards should not be purchased.

  20. [Results of operator's work during space flight (experiment "pilot") under different work-and-rest cycles].

    PubMed

    Sal'nitskiĭ, V P; Dudukin, A V; Savchenko, É G; Stepanova, S I; Nesterov, V F; Saraev, I F

    2012-01-01

    The correlation between operator's job quality and crew work-rest cycle (WRC) aboard the International space station was studied. The experiment involved 10 Russian members of ISS missions 17-24 at the age of 35 to 51 yrs. Mission duration varied from 163 to 200 days, averaging 180 days. Each cosmonaut carried out several "pilot" test sessions. The number of sessions per mission ranged from 4 to 6. The procedure consisted of simulating manual operation of transport vehicle Soyuz on the stages of hang-up, berthing and docking with the ISS. Objective job quality parameters were accuracy of the Soyuz and ISS relative motion control and time for completion which actually characterized work rate. WRC intensity was judged by the data of monitoring at the Moscow Mission Control Center. The results lend support to the dependence of operator's efficiency on WRC. In operators aimed at the highest accuracy this dependence manifested itself in work rate parameters; work accuracy but not rate was more WRC-dependent in operators aimed at doing their job fast. In other words, WRC intensity impacted mostly those job qualities that operator considered to be of secondary importance.

  1. Tungsten injector for scrape-off layer impurity transport experiments in the Tore Supra tokamak

    SciTech Connect

    Kočan, M.; Lunt, T.; Gunn, J. P.; Meyer, O.; Pascal, J.-Y.

    2013-07-15

    This paper describes the design and operation of a new tungsten (W) injection system for impurity transport experiments in the Tore Supra tokamak. The system is mounted on a reciprocating manipulator and injects a controlled amount of gaseous tungsten hexacarbonyl, W(CO){sub 6} at arbitrary depth in the scrape-off layer, using an inertially activated valve. Injected W(CO){sub 6} is dissociated in the plasma, forming a radially localized plume of W atoms. The injector does not require an external gas feed and can perform a large number of injections from an on-board reservoir of W(CO){sub 6}. Some examples of W injections in Tore Supra are included, demonstrating successful operation and discussing some technical issues of the injector prototype.

  2. Integrating Renewable Generation into Grid Operations: Four International Experiences

    SciTech Connect

    Weimar, Mark R.; Mylrea, Michael E.; Levin, Todd; Botterud, Audun; O'Shaughnessy, Eric; Bird, Lori

    2016-04-22

    International experiences with power sector restructuring and the resultant impacts on bulk power grid operations and planning may provide insight into policy questions for the evolving United States power grid as resource mixes are changing in response to fuel prices, an aging generation fleet and to meet climate goals. Australia, Germany, Japan and the UK were selected to represent a range in the level and attributes of electricity industry liberalization in order to draw comparisons across a variety of regions in the United States such as California, ERCOT, the Southwest Power Pool and the Southeast Reliability Region. The study draws conclusions through a literature review of the four case study countries with regards to the changing resource mix and the electricity industry sector structure and their impact on grid operations and planning. This paper derives lessons learned and synthesizes implications for the United States based on answers to the above questions and the challenges faced by the four selected countries. Each country was examined to determine the challenges to their bulk power sector based on their changing resource mix, market structure, policies driving the changing resource mix, and policies driving restructuring. Each countries’ approach to solving those changes was examined, as well as how each country’s market structure either exacerbated or mitigated the approaches to solving the challenges to their bulk power grid operations and planning. All countries’ policies encourage renewable energy generation. One significant finding included the low- to zero-marginal cost of intermittent renewables and its potential negative impact on long-term resource adequacy. No dominant solution has emerged although a capacity market was introduced in the UK and is being contemplated in Japan. Germany has proposed the Energy Market 2.0 to encourage flexible generation investment. The grid operator in Australia proposed several approaches to maintaining

  3. LANL OPERATING EXPERIENCE WITH THE WAND AND HERCULES PROTOTYPE SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect

    K. M. GRUETZMACHER; C. L. FOXX; S. C. MYERS

    2000-09-01

    The Waste Assay for Nonradioactive Disposal (WAND) and the High Efficiency Radiation Counters for Ultimate Low Emission Sensitivity (HERCULES) prototype systems have been operating at Los Alamos National Laboratory's (LANL's) Solid Waste Operation's (SWO'S) non-destructive assay (NDA) building since 1997 and 1998, respectively. These systems are the cornerstone of the verification program for low-density Green is Clean (GIC) waste at the Laboratory. GIC waste includes all non-regulated waste generated in radiological controlled areas (RCAS) that has been actively segregated as clean (i.e., nonradioactive) through the use of waste generator acceptable knowledge (AK). The use of this methodology alters LANL's past practice of disposing of all room trash generated in nuclear facilities in radioactive waste landfills. Waste that is verified clean can be disposed of at the Los Alamos County Landfill. It is estimated that 50-90% of the low-density room trash from radioactive material handling areas at Los Alamos might be free of contamination. This approach avoids the high cost of disposal of clean waste at a radioactive waste landfill. It also reduces consumption of precious space in the radioactive waste landfill where disposal of this waste provides no benefit to the public or the environment. Preserving low level waste (LLW) disposal capacity for truly radioactive waste is critical in this era when expanding existing radioactive waste landfills or permitting new ones is resisted by regulators and stakeholders. This paper describes the operating experience with the WAND and HERCULES since they began operation at SWO. Waste for verification by the WAND system has been limited so far to waste from the Plutonium Facility and the Solid Waste Operations Facility. A total of461 ft3 (13.1 m3) of low-density shredded waste and paper have been verified clean by the WAND system. The HERCULES system has been used to verify waste from four Laboratory facilities. These are the

  4. Operation of the intensity monitors in beam transport lines at Fermilab during Run II¹

    DOE PAGES

    Crisp, J.; Fellenz, B.; Fitzgerald, J.; ...

    2011-10-06

    The intensity of charged particle beams at Fermilab must be kept within pre-determined safety and operational envelopes in part by assuring all beam within a few percent has been transported from any source to destination. Beam instensity monitors with toroidial pickups provide such beam intensity measurements in the transport lines between accelerators at FNAL. With Run II, much effort was made to continually improve the resolution and accuracy of the system.

  5. Transient Transport Experiments in the CDX-U Spherical Torus

    SciTech Connect

    T. Munsat; P.C. Efthimion; B. Jones; R. Kaita; R. Majeski; D. Stutman; and G. Taylor

    2001-06-12

    Electron transport has been measured in the Current Drive Experiment-Upgrade (CDX-U) using two separate perturbative techniques. Gas modulation at the plasma edge was used to introduce cold-pulses which propagate towards the plasma center, providing time-of-flight information leading to a determination of chi(subscript e) as a function of radius. Sawteeth at the q=1 radius (r/a {approx} 0.15) induced heat-pulses which propagated outward towards the plasma edge, providing a complementary time-of-flight based chi(subscript e) profile measurement. This work represents the first localized measurement of chi(subscript e) in a spherical torus. It is found that chi(subscript e) = 1-2 meters squared per second in the plasma core (r/a < 1/3), increasing by an order of magnitude or more outside of this region. Furthermore, the chi(subscript e) profile exhibits a sharp transition near r/a = 1/3. Spectral and profile analyses of the soft X-rays, scanning interferometer, and edge probe data show no evidence of a significant magnetic island causing the high chi(subscript e) region.

  6. Aerothermodynamic Analysis of Commercial Experiment Transporter (COMET) Reentry Capsule

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, William A.; Gnoffo, Peter A.; Rault, Didier F. G.

    1996-01-01

    An aerothermodynamic analysis of the Commercial Experiment Transporter (COMET) reentry capsule has been performed using the laminar thin-layer Navier-Stokes solver Langley Aerothermodynamic Upwind Relaxation Algorithm. Flowfield solutions were obtained at Mach numbers 1.5, 2, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, and 27.5. Axisymmetric and 5, 10, and 20 degree angles of attack were considered across the Mach-number range, with the Mach 25 conditions taken to 90 degrees angle of attack and the Mach 27.5 cases taken to 60 degrees angle of attack. Detailed surface heat-transfer rates were computed at Mach 20 and 25, revealing that heating rates on the heat-shield shoulder ,can exceed the stagnation-point heating by 230 percent. Finite-rate chemistry solutions were performed above Mach 10, otherwise perfect gas computations were made. Drag, lift, and pitching moment coefficients are computed and details of a wake flow are presented. The effect of including the wake in the solution domain was investigated and base pressure corrections to forebody drag coefficients were numerically determined for the lower Mach numbers. Pitching moment comparisons are made with direct simulation Monte Carlo results in the more rarefied flow at the highest Mach numbers, showing agreement within two-percent. Thin-layer Navier-Stokes computations of the axial force are found to be 15 percent higher across the speed range than the empirical/Newtonian based results used during the initial trajectory analyses.

  7. EDF Nuclear Power Plants Operating Experience with MOX fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Thibault, Xavier

    2006-07-01

    EDF started Plutonium recycling in PWR in 1987 and progressively all the 20 reactors, licensed in using MOX fuel, have been loaded with MOX assemblies. At the origin of MOX introduction, these plants operated at full power in base load and the core management limited the irradiation time of MOX fuel assemblies to 3 annual cycles. Since 1995 all these reactors can operate in load follow mode. Since that time, a large amount of experience has been accumulated. This experience is very positive considering: - Receipt, handling, in core behaviour, pool storage and shipment of MOX fuel; - Operation of the various systems of the plant; - Environment impact; - Radioprotection; - Safety file requirements; - Availability for the grid. In order to reduce the fuel cost and to reach a better adequacy between UO{sub 2} fuel reprocessing flow and plutonium consumption, EDF had decided to improve the core management of MOX plants. This new core management call 'MOX Parity' achieves parity for MOX and UO{sub 2} assemblies in term of discharge burn-up. Compared to the current MOX assembly the Plutonium content is increased from 7,08% to 8,65% (equivalent to natural uranium enriched to respectively 3,25% and 3,7%) and the maximum MOX assembly burn-up moves from 42 to 52 GWd/t. This amount of burn-up is obtained from loading MOX assemblies for one additional annual cycle. Some, but limited, adaptations of the plant are necessary. In addition a new MOX fuel assembly has been designed to comply with the safety criteria taking into account the core management performances. These design improvements are based on the results of an important R and D program including numerous experimental tests and post-irradiated fuel examinations. In particular, envelope conditions compared to MOX Parity neutronic solicitations has been extensively investigated in order to get a full knowledge of the in reactor fuel behavior. Moreover, the operating conditions of the plant have been evaluated in many

  8. Transition from avalanche dominated transport to drift-wave dominated transport in a basic laboratory experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Compernolle, Bart; Morales, George; Maggs, James; Sydora, Richard

    2016-10-01

    Results of a basic heat transport experiment involving an off-axis heat source are presented. Experiments are performed in the Large Plasma Device (LAPD) at UCLA. A ring-shaped electron beam source injects low energy electrons (below ionization energy) along a strong magnetic field into a preexisting, large and cold plasma. The injected electrons are thermalized by Coulomb collisions within a short distance and provide an off-axis heat source that results in a long, hollow, cylindrical region of elevated plasma pressure embedded in a colder plasma, and far from the machine walls. The off-axis source is active for a period long compared to the density decay time, i.e. as time progresses the power per particle increases. Two distinct regimes are observed to take place, an initial regime dominated by avalanches, identified as sudden intermittent rearrangements of the pressure profile, and a second regime dominated by sustained drift-Alfvén wave activity. The transition between the two regimes is sudden, affects the full radial profile and is preceded by the growth of drift Alfvén waves. Langmuir probe data will be shown on the evolution of the density, temperature and flow profiles during the transition. The character of the sustained drift wave activity will also be presented. Work supported by NSF/DOE Grant 1619505, and performed at the Basic Plasma Science Facility, sponsored jointly by DOE and NSF.

  9. Passepartout Sherpa - A low-cost, reusable transportation system into the stratosphere for small experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taraba, M.; Fauland, H.; Turetschek, T.; Stumptner, W.; Kudielka, V.; Scheer, D.; Sattler, B.; Fritz, A.; Stingl, B.; Fuchs, H.; Gubo, B.; Hettrich, S.; Hirtl, A.; Unger, E.; Soucek, A.; Frischauf, N.; Grömer, G.

    2014-12-01

    The Passepartout sounding balloon transportation system for low-mass (< 1200 g) experiments or hardware for validation to an altitude of 35 km is described. We present the general flight configuration, set-up of the flight control system, environmental and position sensors, power system, buoyancy considerations as well as the ground control infrastructure including recovery operations. In the telemetry and command module the integrated airborne computer is able to control the experiment, transmit telemetry and environmental data and allows for a duplex communication to a control centre for tele-commanding. The experiment module is mounted below the telemetry and command module and can either work as a standalone system or be controlled by the airborne computer. This spacing between experiment- and control unit allows for a high flexibility in the experiment design. After a parachute landing, the on-board satellite based recovery subsystems allow for a rapid tracking and recovery of the telemetry and command module and the experiment. We discuss flight data and lessons learned from two representative flights with research payloads.

  10. Moderation control in low enriched {sup 235}U uranium hexafluoride packaging operations and transportation

    SciTech Connect

    Dyer, R.H.; Kovac, F.M.; Pryor, W.A.

    1993-10-01

    Moderation control is the basic parameter for ensuring nuclear criticality safety during the packaging and transport of low {sup 235}U enriched uranium hexafluoride before its conversion to nuclear power reactor fuel. Moderation control has permitted the shipment of bulk quantities in large cylinders instead of in many smaller cylinders and, therefore, has resulted in economies without compromising safety. Overall safety and uranium accountability have been enhanced through the use of the moderation control. This paper discusses moderation control and the operating procedures to ensure that moderation control is maintained during packaging operations and transportation.

  11. 49 CFR 385.415 - What operational requirements apply to the transportation of a hazardous material for which a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... transportation of a hazardous material for which a permit is required? 385.415 Section 385.415 Transportation..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY REGULATIONS SAFETY FITNESS PROCEDURES Hazardous Materials Safety Permits § 385.415 What operational requirements apply to the transportation of a hazardous...

  12. 49 CFR 385.415 - What operational requirements apply to the transportation of a hazardous material for which a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... transportation of a hazardous material for which a permit is required? 385.415 Section 385.415 Transportation..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY REGULATIONS SAFETY FITNESS PROCEDURES Hazardous Materials Safety Permits § 385.415 What operational requirements apply to the transportation of a hazardous...

  13. Mass and momentum turbulent transport experiments with confined coaxial jets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, B. V.; Bennett, J. C.

    1984-01-01

    An experimental study of mixing downstream of coaxial jets discharging into an expanded circular duct was conducted to obtain data for the evaluation and improvement of turbulent transport models. A combination of turbulent momentum transport rate and two components of velocity data were obtained from simultaneous measurements with a two-color LV system. A combination of turbulent mass transport rate, concentration and velocity data were obtained from simultaneous measurements with laser velocimeter (LV) and laser induced fluorescence (LIF) systems.

  14. Overview of the Small Aircraft Transportation System Project Four Enabling Operating Capabilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Viken, Sally A.; Brooks, Frederick M.; Johnson, Sally C.

    2005-01-01

    It has become evident that our commercial air transportation system is reaching its peak in terms of capacity, with numerous delays in the system and the demand still steadily increasing. NASA, FAA, and the National Consortium for Aviation Mobility (NCAM) have partnered to aid in increasing the mobility throughout the United States through the Small Aircraft Transportation System (SATS) project. The SATS project has been a five-year effort to provide the technical and economic basis for further national investment and policy decisions to support a small aircraft transportation system. The SATS vision is to enable people and goods to have the convenience of on-demand point-to-point travel, anywhere, anytime for both personal and business travel. This vision can be obtained by expanding near all-weather access to more than 3,400 small community airports that are currently under-utilized throughout the United States. SATS has focused its efforts on four key operating capabilities that have addressed new emerging technologies, procedures, and concepts to pave the way for small aircraft to operate in nearly all weather conditions at virtually any runway in the United States. These four key operating capabilities are: Higher Volume Operations at Non-Towered/Non-Radar Airports, En Route Procedures and Systems for Integrated Fleet Operations, Lower Landing Minimums at Minimally Equipped Landing Facilities, and Increased Single Pilot Performance. The SATS project culminated with the 2005 SATS Public Demonstration in Danville, Virginia on June 5th-7th, by showcasing the accomplishments achieved throughout the project and demonstrating that a small aircraft transportation system could be viable. The technologies, procedures, and concepts were successfully demonstrated to show that they were safe, effective, and affordable for small aircraft in near all weather conditions. The focus of this paper is to provide an overview of the technical and operational feasibility of the

  15. Overview of the Small Aircraft Transportation System Project Four Enabling Operating Capabilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Viken, Sally A.; Brooks, Frederick M.; Johnson, Sally C.

    2005-01-01

    It has become evident that our commercial air transportation system is reaching its peak in terms of capacity, with numerous delays in the system and the demand still steadily increasing. NASA, FAA, and the National Consortium for Aviation Mobility (NCAM) have partnered to aid in increasing the mobility throughout the United States through the Small Aircraft Transportation System (SATS) project. The SATS project has been a five-year effort to provide the technical and economic basis for further national investment and policy decisions to support a small aircraft transportation system. The SATS vision is to enable people and goods to have the convenience of on-demand point-to-point travel, anywhere, anytime for both personal and business travel. This vision can be obtained by expanding near all-weather access to more than 3,400 small community airports that are currently under-utilized throughout the United States. SATS has focused its efforts on four key operating capabilities that have addressed new emerging technologies, procedures, and concepts to pave the way for small aircraft to operate in nearly all weather conditions at virtually any runway in the United States. These four key operating capabilities are: Higher Volume Operations at Non-Towered/Non-Radar Airports, En Route Procedures and Systems for Integrated Fleet Operations, Lower Landing Minimums at Minimally Equipped Landing Facilities, and Increased Single Pilot Performance. The SATS project culminated with the 2005 SATS Public Demonstration in Danville, Virginia on June 5th-7th, by showcasing the accomplishments achieved throughout the project and demonstrating that a small aircraft transportation system could be viable. The technologies, procedures, and concepts were successfully demonstrated to show that they were safe, effective, and affordable for small aircraft in near all weather conditions. The focus of this paper is to provide an overview of the technical and operational feasibility of the

  16. Savannah River Site Operating Experience with Transuranic (TRU) Waste Retrieval

    SciTech Connect

    Stone, K.A.; Milner, T.N.

    2006-07-01

    Drums of TRU Waste have been stored at the Savannah River Site (SRS) on concrete pads from the 1970's through the 1980's. These drums were subsequently covered with tarpaulins and then mounded over with dirt. Between 1996 and 2000 SRS ran a successful retrieval campaign and removed some 8,800 drums, which were then available for venting and characterization for WIPP disposal. Additionally, a number of TRU Waste drums, which were higher in activity, were stored in concrete culverts, as required by the Safety Analysis for the Facility. Retrieval of drums from these culverts has been ongoing since 2002. This paper will describe the operating experience and lessons learned from the SRS retrieval activities. (authors)

  17. Operational Experience with the Nb/Pb SRF Photoelectron Gun

    SciTech Connect

    Kamps, T; Barday, R; Jankowiak, A; Knoblock, J; Kugeler, O; Matveenko, A N; Neumann, A; Quast, T; Rudolph, J; Schubert, S G; Volker, J; Kneisel, P; Nietubyc, R; Sekutowicz, J K; Smedley, J; Teichert, J; Volkov, V; Will, I

    2012-07-01

    SRF photoelectron guns offer the promise of high brightness, high average current beam production for the next generation of accelerator driven light sources such as free electron lasers, THz radiation sources or energy-recovery linac driven synchrotron radiation sources. In a first step a fully superconducting RF (SRF) photoelectron gun is under development by a collaboration between HZB, DESY, JLAB, BNL and NCBJ. The aim of the experiment is to understand and improve the performance of a Nb SRF gun cavity coated with a small metallic Pb cathode film on the cavity backplane. This paper describes the highlights from the commissioning and beam parameter measurements. The main focus is on lessons learned from operation of the SRF gun.

  18. Using Information from Operating Experience to Inform Human Reliability Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Bruce P. Hallbert; David I. Gertman; Julie Marble; Erasmia Lois; Nathan Siu

    2004-06-01

    This paper reports on efforts being sponsored by the U.S. NRC and performed by INEEL to develop a technical basis and perform work to extract information from sources for use in HRA. The objectives of this work are to: 1) develop a method for conducting risk-informed event analysis of human performance information that stems from operating experience at nuclear power plants and for compiling and documenting the results in a structured manner; 2) provide information from these analyses for use in risk-informed and performance-based regulatory activities; 3) create methods for information extraction and a repository for this information that, likewise, support HRA methods and their applications.

  19. Operational experience running Hadoop XRootD Fallback

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dost, J. M.; Tadel, A.; Tadel, M.; Würthwein, F.

    2015-12-01

    In April of 2014, the UCSD T2 Center deployed hdfs-xrootd-fallback, a UCSD- developed software system that interfaces Hadoop with XRootD to increase reliability of the Hadoop file system. The hdfs-xrootd-fallback system allows a site to depend less on local file replication and more on global replication provided by the XRootD federation to ensure data redundancy. Deploying the software has allowed us to reduce Hadoop replication on a significant subset of files in our cluster, freeing hundreds of terabytes in our local storage, and to recover HDFS blocks lost due to storage degradation. An overview of the architecture of the hdfs-xrootd-fallback system will be presented, as well as details of our experience operating the service over the past year.

  20. Experiment Definition Using the Space Laboratory, Long Duration Exposure Facility, and Space Transportation System Shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sheppard, Albert P.; Wood, Joan M.

    1976-01-01

    Candidate experiments designed for the space shuttle transportation system and the long duration exposure facility are summarized. The data format covers: experiment title, Experimenter, technical abstract, benefits/justification, technical discussion of experiment approach and objectives, related work and experience, experiment facts space properties used, environmental constraints, shielding requirements, if any, physical description, and sketch of major elements. Information was also included on experiment hardware, research required to develop experiment, special requirements, cost estimate, safety considerations, and interactions with spacecraft and other experiments.

  1. Recent Experiences with Operating Unmanned Aircraft in Arctic Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, G.

    2011-12-01

    The University of Alaska Geophysical Institute has been identifying technical issues with operating small-unmanned aircraft in the harsh conditions of flying in the Arctic. Here we first describe the Institute's recent and ongoing scientific activity that involve unmanned aircraft in the Arctic and correlate these technical challenges to conducting safe operations. Of specific interest is building survivable observation platforms for low altitude remote sensing within the Marginal Ice Zone (MIZ) that fly from either shore or an Arctic capable research vessel. Unmanned aircraft based sensors can assist with obtaining ground truth knowledge of sea ice conditions and characteristics within the MIZ. The Institute's high-resolution imagery capability coupled to its airborne synthetic aperture radar can capture the floe size distribution, show what percent of ice in the MIZ complex is multi-year ice, and capture the effects of wind on the ice edge in real time. The Institute's experiments have also demonstrated a cost-effective, safe means of surveying marine mammals in such conditions. This presentation addresses ongoing work with Steller sea lion survey and past work with ice seal populations that have afforded wonderful opportunities to identify the technology limitations that exist today that prevent further unmanned aircraft exploitation.

  2. Avoiding Human Error in Mission Operations: Cassini Flight Experience

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burk, Thomas A.

    2012-01-01

    Operating spacecraft is a never-ending challenge and the risk of human error is ever- present. Many missions have been significantly affected by human error on the part of ground controllers. The Cassini mission at Saturn has not been immune to human error, but Cassini operations engineers use tools and follow processes that find and correct most human errors before they reach the spacecraft. What is needed are skilled engineers with good technical knowledge, good interpersonal communications, quality ground software, regular peer reviews, up-to-date procedures, as well as careful attention to detail and the discipline to test and verify all commands that will be sent to the spacecraft. Two areas of special concern are changes to flight software and response to in-flight anomalies. The Cassini team has a lot of practical experience in all these areas and they have found that well-trained engineers with good tools who follow clear procedures can catch most errors before they get into command sequences to be sent to the spacecraft. Finally, having a robust and fault-tolerant spacecraft that allows ground controllers excellent visibility of its condition is the most important way to ensure human error does not compromise the mission.

  3. Nuclear plant operations: The U.S. experience

    SciTech Connect

    Lang, J.

    1996-12-31

    Over the past 20 years, electricity has taken on an increasingly important role in the U.S. energy mix and an increasing fraction of that electricity has been generated by nuclear power plants. However, producing electricity with nuclear energy is not an end in itself for electric utilities. Nuclear power is attractive only in so far as it is a safe and economical means of producing electricity. Safety has been and will remain a priority with the nuclear industry-it`s part of the culture. However, during the 1980`s, the economy of nuclear power was called into question. Nuclear production costs (operations, maintenance and fuel) grew at a rate greater than inflation, led by the costs of operations and maintenance. The production costs peaked in 1987 at which time several factors responding to competition from other forms of generation combined to bring them down. The decline in costs is continuing, yielding the positive experience discussed in this paper. 1 ref., 11 figs.

  4. Avoiding Human Error in Mission Operations: Cassini Flight Experience

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burk, Thomas A.

    2012-01-01

    Operating spacecraft is a never-ending challenge and the risk of human error is ever- present. Many missions have been significantly affected by human error on the part of ground controllers. The Cassini mission at Saturn has not been immune to human error, but Cassini operations engineers use tools and follow processes that find and correct most human errors before they reach the spacecraft. What is needed are skilled engineers with good technical knowledge, good interpersonal communications, quality ground software, regular peer reviews, up-to-date procedures, as well as careful attention to detail and the discipline to test and verify all commands that will be sent to the spacecraft. Two areas of special concern are changes to flight software and response to in-flight anomalies. The Cassini team has a lot of practical experience in all these areas and they have found that well-trained engineers with good tools who follow clear procedures can catch most errors before they get into command sequences to be sent to the spacecraft. Finally, having a robust and fault-tolerant spacecraft that allows ground controllers excellent visibility of its condition is the most important way to ensure human error does not compromise the mission.

  5. Industrial operating experience of the GTE ceramic recuperator

    SciTech Connect

    Gonzalez, J.M.; Ferri, J.L. ); Rebello, W.J. )

    1990-06-01

    GTE Products Corporation, under a jointly funded program with the US Department of Energy (DOE), developed a compact ceramic high temperature recuperator that could recover heat from a relatively clean exhaust gases at temperatures up to of 2500{degree}F. The DOE program was very successful in that it allowed GTE to improve the technical and economic characteristics of the recuperator and stimulate industrial acceptance of the recuperator as an energy- saving technology. The success of the DOE Program was measured by the fact that from January 1981 to December 1984, 561 recuperators were installed by GTE on new or retrofitted furnaces. One objective of this contract was to conduct a telephone survey of the industrial plants that use the recuperator to determine their operating experience, present status, and common problems, and thus to complete the historical picture. Additionally, recuperators were returned to GTE after operating on industrial furnaces, and a post mortem'' analysis was undertaken with a goal of identifying the potential reason(s) for premature failure of the ceramic matrix. When contamination of the matrix was evident, historical data and spectrographic analysis were used to identify the type of contaminant, and its source. This effort has shown the type of degradation that occurs and has identified system design techniques that can be used to maximize the ceramic recuperator life cycle. 12 refs., 14 figs., 13 tabs.

  6. Measurements of impurity concentrations and transport in the Lithium Tokamak Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyle, Dennis Patrick

    This thesis presents new measurements of core impurity concentrations and transport in plasmas with lithium coatings on all-metal plasma facing components (PFCs) in the Lithium Tokamak Experiment (LTX). LTX is a modest-sized spherical tokamak uniquely capable of operating with large area solid and/or liquid lithium coatings essentially surrounding the entire plasma (as opposed to just the divertor or limiter region in other devices). Lithium (Li) wall-coatings have improved plasma performance and confinement in several tokamaks with carbon (C) PFCs, including the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX). In NSTX, contamination of the core plasma with Li impurities was very low (<0.1%) despite extensive divertor coatings. Low Li levels in NSTX were found to be largely due to neoclassical forces from the high level of C impurities. Studying impurity levels and transport with Li coatings on stainless steel surfaces in LTX is relevant to future devices (including future enhancements to NSTX-Upgrade) with all-metal PFCs. The new measurements in this thesis were enabled by a refurbished Thomson scattering system and improved impurity spectroscopy, primarily using a novel visible spectrometer monitoring several Li, C, and oxygen (O) emission lines. A simple model was used to account for impurities in unmeasured charge states, assuming constant density in the plasma core and constant concentration in the edge. In discharges with solid Li coatings, volume averaged impurity concentrations were low but non-negligible, with 2-4% Li, 0.6-2% C, 0.4-0.7% O, and Z eff<1.2. Transport was assessed using the TRANSP, NCLASS, and MIST codes. Collisions with the main H ions dominated the neoclassical impurity transport, unlike in NSTX, where collisions with C dominated. Furthermore, neoclassical transport coefficients calculated with NCLASS were similar across all impurity species and differed no more than a factor of two, in contrast to NSTX where they differed by an order of

  7. Measurements of impurity concentrations and transport in the Lithium Tokamak Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Boyle, Dennis Patrick

    2016-09-01

    This thesis presents new measurements of core impurity concentrations and transport in plasmas with lithium coatings on all-metal plasma facing components (PFCs) in the Lithium Tokamak Experiment (LTX). LTX is a modest-sized spherical tokamak uniquely capable of operating with large area solid and/or liquid lithium coatings essentially surrounding the entire plasma (as opposed to just the divertor or limiter region in other devices). Lithium (Li) wall-coatings have improved plasma performance and confinement in several tokamaks with carbon (C) PFCs, including the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX). In NSTX, contamination of the core plasma with Li impurities was very low (<0.1%) despite extensive divertor coatings. Low Li levels in NSTX were found to be largely due to neoclassical forces from the high level of C impurities. Studying impurity levels and transport with Li coatings on stainless steel surfaces in LTX is relevant to future devices (including future enhancements to NSTX-Upgrade) with all-metal PFCs. The new measurements in this thesis were enabled by a refurbished Thomson scattering system and improved impurity spectroscopy, primarily using a novel visible spectrometer monitoring several Li, C, and oxygen (O) emission lines. A simple model was used to account for impurities in unmeasured charge states, assuming constant density in the plasma core and constant concentration in the edge. In discharges with solid Li coatings, volume averaged impurity concentrations were low but non-negligible, with~2-4% Li, ~0.6-2% C, ~0.4-0.7% O, and Z_eff<1.2. Transport was assessed using the TRANSP, NCLASS, and MIST codes. Collisions with the main H ions dominated the neoclassical impurity transport, unlike in NSTX, where collisions with C dominated. Furthermore, neoclassical transport coefficients calculated with NCLASS were similar across all impurity species and differed no more than a factor of two, in contrast to NSTX where they differed by an order of

  8. Using full-mission simulation for human factors research in air transport operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orlady, Harry W.; Hennessy, Robert W.; Obermayer, Richard; Vreuls, Donald; Murphy, Miles R.

    1988-01-01

    This study examined state-of-the-art mission oriented simulation and its use in human factors research. Guidelines were developed for doing full-mission human factors research on crew member behavior during simulated air transport operations. The existing literature was reviewed. However, interviews with experienced investigators provided the most useful information. The fundamental scientific and practical issues of behavioral research in a simulation environment are discussed. Guidelines are presented for planning, scenario development, and the execution of behavioral research using full-mission simulation in the context of air transport flight operations . Research is recommended to enhance the validity and productivity of full-mission research by: (1) validating the need for high-fidelity simulation of all major elements in the operational environment, (2) improving methods for conducting full-mission research, and (3) examining part-task research on specific problems through the use of vehicles which contain higher levels of abstraction (and lower fidelity) of the operational environment.

  9. Experiment operations plan for the MT-4 experiment in the NRU reactor. [PWR

    SciTech Connect

    Russcher, G.E.; Wilson, C.L.; Parchen, L.J.; Marshall, R.K.; Hesson, G.M.; Webb, B.J.; Freshley, M.D.

    1983-06-01

    A series of thermal-hydraulic and cladding materials deformation experiments were conducted using light-water reactor fuel bundles as part of the Pacific Northwest Laboratory Loss-of-Coolant Accident (LOCA) Simulation Program. This report is the formal operations plan for MT-4 - the fourth materials deformation experiment conducted in the National Research Universal (NRU) reactor, Chalk River, Ontario, Canada. A major objective of MT-4 was to simulate a pressurized water reactor LOCA that could induce fuel rod cladding deformation and rupture due to a short-term adiabatic transient and a peak fuel cladding temperature of 1200K (1700/sup 0/F).

  10. A bounce-averaged Monte Carlo collision operator and ripple transport in a tokamak

    SciTech Connect

    Albert, J.M.; Boozer, A.H.

    1986-09-01

    A bounce-averaged Monte Carlo operator is presented that simulates bounce-averaged perturbative Lorentz pitch angle scattering of particles in toroidal plasmas, in particular a tokamak. In conjunction with bounce-averaged expressions for the deterministic motion, this operator allows a quick and inexpensive simulation on time scales long compared to a bounce time. An analytically tractable model of transport due to toroidal magnetic field ripple is described.

  11. Hepatobiliary transporter expression and post-operative jaundice in patients undergoing partial hepatectomy.

    PubMed

    Bernhardt, Gerwin A; Zollner, Gernot; Cerwenka, Herwig; Kornprat, Peter; Fickert, Peter; Bacher, Heinz; Werkgartner, Georg; Müller, Gabriele; Zatloukal, Kurt; Mischinger, Hans-Jörg; Trauner, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Post-operative hyperbilirubinaemia in patients undergoing liver resections is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Apart from different known factors responsible for the development of post-operative jaundice, little is known about the role of hepatobiliary transport systems in the pathogenesis of post-operative jaundice in humans after liver resection. Two liver tissue samples were taken from 14 patients undergoing liver resection before and after Pringle manoeuvre. Patients were retrospectively divided into two groups according to post-operative bilirubin serum levels. The two groups were analysed comparing the results of hepatobiliary transporter [Na-taurocholate cotransporter (NTCP); multidrug resistance gene/phospholipid export pump(MDR3); bile salt export pump (BSEP); canalicular bile salt export pump (MRP2)], heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) expression as well as the results of routinely taken post-operative liver chemistry tests. Patients with low post-operative bilirubin had lower levels of NTCP, MDR3 and BSEP mRNA compared to those with high bilirubin after Pringle manoeuvre. HSP70 levels were significantly higher after ischaemia-reperfusion (IR) injury in both groups resulting in 4.5-fold median increase. Baseline median mRNA expression of all four transporters prior to Pringle manoeuvre tended to be lower in the low bilirubin group whereas expression of HSP70 was higher in the low bilirubin group compared to the high bilirubin group. Higher mRNA levels of HSP70 in the low bilirubin group could indicate a possible protective effect of high HSP70 levels against IR injury. Although the exact role of hepatobiliary transport systems in the development of post-operative hyper bilirubinemia is not yet completely understood, this study provides new insights into the molecular aspects of post-operative jaundice after liver surgery. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  12. Aeolian transport of biota with dust: A wind tunnel experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivas, J. A., Jr.; Gill, T. E.; Van Pelt, R. S.; Walsh, E.

    2015-12-01

    Ephemeral wetlands are ideal sources for dust emission, as well as repositories for dormant stages of aquatic invertebrates. An important component of invertebrate dispersal and colonization to new areas is the ability to be entrained into the atmosphere. Aquatic invertebrate eggs fall within the size of dust and sand grains (30-600μm), are less dense and aerodynamically shaped. We have shown previously that aquatic invertebrates can be dispersed long distances in dust storms but the extent of transport of taxa based on diapausing egg size/morphology has not been investigated. Here, we control the wind erosion process in a wind tunnel to test entrainment of diapausing stages of brine shrimp, clam shrimp, tadpole shrimp, fairy shrimp, Daphnia, and the rotifers Brachionus plicatilis and B. calyciflorus into the air by saltation. Diapausing eggs were mixed with sterilized wind-erodible soil. The soil/egg mixture was moistened with distilled water and air dried to form a crust. Dust was generated in a wind tunnel by releasing sand grains that act as saltator material similar to wind-entrained natural sands. Maximum wind velocity was 10m/s and entrained particles were sampled through an isokinetic horizontal intake opening. Aeolian sediment was collected from three points in the system; transfer section for coarse sediment, the pan subtending a settling chamber for finer saltation-sized sediment, and two paper filters for suspension-sized sediment. Samples were then passed through 250 and 350 μm sieves to remove abrader sand and rehydrated with various sterile media depending on the type of organism. We retrieved viable brine, fairy, and tadpole shrimp, ostracods, Daphnia, and diapausing eggs of the rotifers after hydration. This experiment demonstrates that resting stages of many invertebrates can be wind-eroded due to size and egg morphology and remain viable under controlled conditions mimicking dust emission.

  13. Operations of a spaceflight experiment to investigate plant tropisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiss, John Z.; Kumar, Prem; Millar, Katherine D. L.; Edelmann, Richard E.; Correll, Melanie J.

    2009-10-01

    Plants will be an important component in bioregenerative systems for long-term missions to the Moon and Mars. Since gravity is reduced both on the Moon and Mars, studies that identify the basic mechanisms of plant growth and development in altered gravity are required to ensure successful plant production on these space colonization missions. To address these issues, we have developed a project on the International Space Station (ISS) to study the interaction between gravitropism and phototropism in Arabidopsis thaliana. These experiments were termed TROPI (for tropisms) and were performed on the European Modular Cultivation System (EMCS) in 2006. In this paper, we provide an operational summary of TROPI and preliminary results on studies of tropistic curvature of seedlings grown in space. Seed germination in TROPI was lower compared to previous space experiments, and this was likely due to extended storage in hardware for up to 8 months. Video downlinks provided an important quality check on the automated experimental time line that also was monitored with telemetry. Good quality images of seedlings were obtained, but the use of analog video tapes resulted in delays in image processing and analysis procedures. Seedlings that germinated exhibited robust phototropic curvature. Frozen plant samples were returned on three space shuttle missions, and improvements in cold stowage and handing procedures in the second and third missions resulted in quality RNA extracted from the seedlings that was used in subsequent microarray analyses. While the TROPI experiment had technical and logistical difficulties, most of the procedures worked well due to refinement during the project.

  14. Experiments on viscous transport in pure-electron plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kriesel, Jason M.; Driscoll, C. Fred

    1999-12-01

    Viscous transport in pure-electron plasmas is a rearrangement of particles due to like-particle interactions, eventually leading to a confined global thermal equilibrium state. The measured transport is observed to be proportional to the shear in the total (E×B+diamagnetic) fluid rotation of the plasma, for both hollow and monotonic rotation profiles. We determine the local kinematic viscosity, κ, from measurements of the local flux of electrons. The measured viscosity is 50-104 times larger than expected from classical transport due to short-range velocity-scattering collisions, but is within a factor of 10 of recent theories by O'Neil and Dubin of transport due to long-range drift collisions. The measured viscosity scales with magnetic field and plasma length roughly as κ∝B/L. This scaling suggests a finite-length transport enhancement caused by particles interacting multiple times as they bounce axially between the ends of the plasma.

  15. Transportable enhanced simulation technologies for pre-implementation limited operations testing: neonatal intensive care unit.

    PubMed

    Bender, Jesse; Shields, Robin; Kennally, Karen

    2011-08-01

    Transition of a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) to a new physical plant incurs many challenges. These are amplified when the culture of care is changing from traditional cohort-based care to the single-family room model. Altered healthcare delivery systems can be tested in situ with TESTPILOT: Transportable Enhanced Simulation Technologies for Pre-Implementation Limited Operations Testing. The aims of the study included promoting translation of existing processes and identifying staff orientation material. We hypothesized that (1) numerous process gaps would be discovered and resolved, and (2) participants would feel better prepared. A functional neonatal intensive care unit was modeled before its opening. Scenarios were developed, volunteers recruited, and rooms supplied with equipment. Participants performed usual duties in two 30-minute in situ simulations followed by facilitated debriefings. As latent safety hazards were identified, they were corrected and retested in subsequent simulations. Staff was surveyed for perceived preparedness. Ninety-six multidisciplinary participants identified 164 latent safety hazards in verbal and written communication, facilities, supplies, staffing, and training, 93% of which were resolved at transition. Staff preparedness varied but showed improving communication, workflow patterns, and awareness of equipment and supply locations. The majority stated that this simulation experience changed their practice. Simulation is very effective for identifying process gaps before major institutional change. TESTPILOT generated iterative workflow enhancements and staff orientation toward improving patient care at transition and beyond. The extensive coordination required to implement such large-scale simulations is well worth the benefit for systems refinement and patient safety.

  16. Alternative electron transport mediated by flavodiiron proteins is operational in organisms from cyanobacteria up to gymnosperms.

    PubMed

    Ilík, Petr; Pavlovič, Andrej; Kouřil, Roman; Alboresi, Alessandro; Morosinotto, Tomas; Allahverdiyeva, Yagut; Aro, Eva-Mari; Yamamoto, Hiroshi; Shikanai, Toshiharu

    2017-05-01

    Photo-reduction of O2 to water mediated by flavodiiron proteins (FDPs) represents a safety valve for the photosynthetic electron transport chain in fluctuating light. So far, the FDP-mediated O2 photo-reduction has been evidenced only in cyanobacteria and the moss Physcomitrella; however, a recent phylogenetic analysis of transcriptomes of photosynthetic organisms has also revealed the presence of FDP genes in several nonflowering plant groups. What remains to be clarified is whether the FDP-dependent O2 photo-reduction is actually operational in these organisms. We have established a simple method for the monitoring of FDP-mediated O2 photo-reduction, based on the measurement of redox kinetics of P700 (the electron donor of photosystem I) upon dark-to-light transition. The O2 photo-reduction is manifested as a fast re-oxidation of P700. The validity of the method was verified by experiments with transgenic organisms, namely FDP knock-out mutants of Synechocystis and Physcomitrella and transgenic Arabidopsis plants expressing FDPs from Physcomitrella. We observed the fast P700 re-oxidation in representatives of all green plant groups excluding angiosperms. Our results provide strong evidence that the FDP-mediated O2 photo-reduction is functional in all nonflowering green plant groups. This finding suggests a major change in the strategy of photosynthetic regulation during the evolution of angiosperms. © 2017 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2017 New Phytologist Trust.

  17. Estimation of Mass-Transport Overpotentials During Long-Term PEMFC Operation

    SciTech Connect

    WoodIII, David L; Borup, Rodney

    2010-01-01

    A comprehensive method for separating cathode catalyst-layer and GDL mass-transport overpotentials was derived utilizing kinetic and Ohmic analysis of high-humidified H2/O2 and low-humidified H2/air polarization data. A hybridized method was applied accounting for electrochemical surface area (ECSA), hydrogen crossover, and exchange current density. This method delineates separate cathode GDL and electrode mass-transport overpotentials as a function of current density and operating time. The methodology is systematic and generalized and can be applied to polarization data from any type of durability test. The derivation was applied to periodic polarization data from a steady-state 1050-hour durability test and is shown to provide an accurate breakdown of the sources of performance losses. Increases in mass-transport overpotential for the cathode GDL and oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) overpotential were predominantly offset by improvements in the mass-transport overpotential of the cathode catalyst layer and reductions in the high-frequency resistance (HFR). Little increase in GDL mass-transport overpotential was observed during the first ~500 hour period, but a substantial increase was seen during the second ~500 hour period. The mass-transport overpotential of the cathode catalyst-layer was almost negligible at the end of ~1000 hours of operation, suggesting little O2 diffusion resistance through the ionomer and adjacent void volume.

  18. Three long-range transport models compared to the ETEX experiment. a performance study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wendum, D.

    For operational or research purposes (dispersion computations of radioactive effluents during nuclear emergency situations, simulations of chemical pollution in the vicinity of thermal power plants), different models of passive dispersion in the atmosphere have been developed at the Environment Department of EDF's R and D Division. This report presents the comparison of the performances of three such models: DIFTRA (lagrangian puff model, with operational goal), DIFEUL (three dimensional eulerian) and DIFPAR (Monte Carlo particle model) for the simulation of the first ETEX release, an international tracer campaign during which a passive tracer cloud has been followed over Europe. The results obtained in this study give model vs. experience differences of the same order as the model vs. experience differences observed during an international model comparison experiment using data of the Chernobyl release, the ATMES exercise. In addition to the standard statistical scores used in the evaluation of the performances of the transport models two asymmetric scores (in contradistinction with the Figure of Merit in Space) are proposed: "efficiency" and "power". Their aim is to separate the two manners in which a model may be wrong: by predicting presence of pollutant while none is measured or conversely predicting absence when pollutant is actually detected.

  19. Flight Studies of Problems Pertinent to Low-Speed Operation of Jet Transports

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fischel. Jack; Butchart, Stanley P.; Robinson, Glenn H.; Tremant, Robert A.

    1959-01-01

    Flight studies have been made of the low-speed operational regime of jet transports in order to assess potential operating problems. The study was performed utilizing a large multiengine jet airplane having geometric characteristics fairly representative of the jet transports; however, to insure general applicability of the results, the aerodynamic characteristics of the test airplane were varied to simulate a variety of jet-transport airplanes. The specific areas investigated include those of the take-off and landing, and the relation of these maneuvers to the 1 g stall speed and stalling characteristics. The take-off studies included evaluation of the factors affecting the take-off speed and attitude, including the effects of premature rotation and of over-rotation on ground run required. The approach and landing studies pertained to such factors as: desirable lateral-directional damping characteristics; lateral-control requirements; space-positioning limitations during approach under VFR or IFR conditions and requirements for glide-path controls; and evaluation of factors affecting the pilot's choice of landing speeds. Specific recommendations and some indication of desirable characteristics for the jet transports are advanced to alleviate possible operational difficulties or to improve operational performance in the low-speed range.

  20. Solar power satellite system definition study. Part 2, volume 5: Space operations (construction and transportation)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, K.; Davis, E. E.

    1977-01-01

    Construction and transportation systems and operations are described for the following combinations: (1) silicon photovoltaic CR=1 satellite constructed primarily in low earth orbit (LEO); (2) silicon photovoltaic CR=1 satellite constructed in geosynchronous earth orbit (GEO); (3) Rankine thermal engine satellite constructed primarily in LEO; and (4) Rankine thermal engine satellite constructed in GEO.

  1. Dr. Ravindra Lal follows a live downlink of experiments operations on shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    Dr. Ravindra Lal, principal investigator for a crystal growth experiment for Spacelab 3, follows a live downlink of the experiments operations in the shuttle science module. He is in the payload operations control center (POCC) in JSC's mission control center.

  2. Chamber transport

    SciTech Connect

    OLSON,CRAIG L.

    2000-05-17

    Heavy ion beam transport through the containment chamber plays a crucial role in all heavy ion fusion (HIF) scenarios. Here, several parameters are used to characterize the operating space for HIF beams; transport modes are assessed in relation to evolving target/accelerator requirements; results of recent relevant experiments and simulations of HIF transport are summarized; and relevant instabilities are reviewed. All transport options still exist, including (1) vacuum ballistic transport, (2) neutralized ballistic transport, and (3) channel-like transport. Presently, the European HIF program favors vacuum ballistic transport, while the US HIF program favors neutralized ballistic transport with channel-like transport as an alternate approach. Further transport research is needed to clearly guide selection of the most attractive, integrated HIF system.

  3. "Smart" Magnetic Fluids Experiment Operated on the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Agui, Juan H.; Lekan, Jack F.

    2004-01-01

    InSPACE is a microgravity fluid physics experiment that was operated on the International Space Station (ISS) in the Microgravity Science Glovebox from late March 2003 through early July 2003. (InSPACE is an acronym for Investigating the Structure of Paramagnetic Aggregates From Colloidal Emulsions.) The purpose of the experiment is to obtain fundamental data of the complex properties of an exciting class of smart materials termed magnetorheological (MR) fluids. MR fluids are suspensions, or colloids, comprised of small (micrometer-sized) superparamagnetic particles in a nonmagnetic medium. Colloids are suspensions of very small particles suspended in a liquid. (Examples of other colloids are blood, milk, and paint.) These controllable fluids can quickly transition into a nearly solid state when exposed to a magnetic field and return to their original liquid state when the magnetic field is removed. Controlling the strength of the magnetic field can control the relative stiffness of these fluids. MR fluids can be used to improve or develop new seat suspensions, robotics, clutches, airplane landing gear, and vibration damping systems. The principal investigator for InSPACE is Professor Alice P. Gast of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). The InSPACE hardware was developed at the NASA Glenn Research Center. The InSPACE samples were delivered to the ISS in November 2002, on the Space Shuttle Endeavour, on Space Station Utilization Flight UF-2/STS113. Operations began on March 31, 2003, with the processing of three different particle size samples at multiple test parameters. This investigation focused on determining the structural organization of MR colloidal aggregates when exposed to a pulsing magnetic field. On Earth, the aggregates take the shape of footballs with spiky tips. This characteristic shape may be influenced by the pull of gravity, which causes most particles initially suspended in the fluid to sediment, (i.e., settle and collect at the

  4. Transportation system modeling and simulation in support of logistics and operations

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshimura, R.H.; Kjeldgaard, E.A.; Turnquist, M.A.; List, G.F.

    1997-12-01

    Effective management of DOE`s transportation operations requires better data than are currently available, a more integrated management structure for making transportation decisions, and decision support tools to provide needed analysis capabilities. This paper describes a vision of an advanced logistics management system for DOE, and the rationale for developing improved modeling and simulation capability as an integral part of that system. The authors illustrate useful types of models through four examples, addressing issues of transportation package allocation, fleet sizing, routing/scheduling, and emergency responder location. The overall vision for the advanced logistics management system, and the specific examples of potential capabilities, provide the basis for a conclusion that such a system would meet a critical DOE need in the area of radioactive material and waste transportation.

  5. Multiphase flow and multicomponent reactive transport model of the ventilation experiment in Opalinus clay

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng, L.; Samper, J.; Montenegro, L.; Major, J.C.

    2008-10-15

    During the construction and operational phases of a high-level radioactive waste (HLW) repository constructed in a clay formation, ventilation of underground drifts will cause desaturation and oxidation of the rock. The Ventilation Experiment (VE) was performed in a 1.3 m diameter unlined horizontal microtunnel on Opalinus clay at Mont Terri underground research laboratory in Switzerland to evaluate the impact of desaturation on rock properties. A multiphase flow and reactive transport model of VE is presented here. The model accounts for liquid, vapor and air flow, evaporation/condensation and multicomponent reactive solute transport with kinetic dissolution of pyrite and siderite and local-equilibrium dissolution/precipitation of calcite, ferrihydrite, dolomite, gypsum and quartz. Model results reproduce measured vapor flow, liquid pressure and hydrochemical data and capture the trends of measured relative humidities, although such data are slightly overestimated near the rock interface due to uncertainties in the turbulence factor. Rock desaturation allows oxygen to diffuse into the rock and triggers pyrite oxidation, dissolution of calcite and siderite, precipitation of ferrihydrite, dolomite and gypsum and cation exchange. pH in the unsaturated rock varies from 7.8 to 8 and is buffered by calcite. Computed changes in the porosity and the permeability of Opalinus clay in the unsaturated zone caused by oxidation and mineral dissolution/precipitation are smaller than 5%. Therefore, rock properties are not expected to be affected significantly by ventilation of underground drifts during construction and operational phases of a HLW repository in clay.

  6. Autonomous Sciencecraft Experiment (ASE) Test Operations in 2003

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chien, S.; Davies, A. G.; Baker, V.; Castano, B.; Cichy, B.; Doggett, T.; Dohm, J. M.; Greeley, R.; Sherwood, R.; Williams, K.

    2003-01-01

    NASA has identified the development of an autonomously operating spacecraft as a necessity for an expanded program of missions exploring the Solar System. The Autonomous Sciencecraft Experiment (ASE) has been selected for flight demonstration by NASA s New Millennium Program (NMP) as part of the Space Technology 6 (ST6) mission. ASE is scheduled to fly on the US Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) Techsat-21 constellation in 2006. Tech- Sat-21 consists of three satellites flying in a variable-geometry formation in Earth orbit. Each satellite is equipped with X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar, yielding high spatial resolution images (approx. 3 m) of the Earth s surface. The constellation will fly at an altitude of 550 km, in a 35.4 inclination circular orbit, yielding exact repeat-track observations every 13 days. Prior to full deployment, elements of the versatile ASE spacecraft command and control software, image formation software and science processing software will be utilized and tested on two very different platforms in 2003: AirSAR and EO-1 (described below). Advantages of Autonomous Operations: ASE will demonstrate advanced autonomous science data acquisition, processing, and product downlink prioritization, as well as autonomous spacecraft command and control, and fault detection. The advantages of spacecraft autonomy are to future missions include: (a) making the best use of reduced downlink; (b) the overcoming of communication delays through decisionmaking in situ, enabling fast reaction to dynamic events; (c) an increase of science content per byte of returned data; and (d) an avoidance of return of null (no-change/no feature) datasets: if there is no change detectable between two scenes of the same target, there is no need to return the second dataset.

  7. Operational and troubleshooting experiences in the SST-1 cryogenic system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahesuria, G.; Panchal, P.; Panchal, R.; Patel, R.; Sonara, D.; Gupta, N. C.; Srikanth, G. L. N.; Christian, D.; Garg, A.; Bairagi, N.; Patel, K.; Shah, P.; Nimavat, H.; Sharma, R.; Patel, J. C.; Tank, J.; Tanna, V. L.; Pradhan, S.

    2014-01-01

    Recently, the cooldown and current charging campaign have been carried out towards the demonstration of the first successful plasma discharge in the steady state superconducting Tokomak (SST-1). The SST-1 machine consists of cable-in-conduit wound superconducting toroidal as well as poloidal coils, cooled using 1.3 kW at 4.5 K helium refrigerator -cum- liquefier (HRL) system. The cryo system provides the two-phase helium at 0.13 MPa at 4.5 K as well as forced-flow pressurized helium at 0.4 MPa and in addition to 7 g-s-1 liquefaction capacity required for the current leads and other cold mass at 4.5 K. The entire integrated cold masses having different thermo hydraulic resistances cooled with the SST-1 HRL in optimised process parameters. In order to maintain different levels of temperatures and to facilitate smooth and reliable cooldown, warm-up, normal operations as well as to handle abnormal events such as, quench or utilities failures etc., exergy efficient process are adopted for the helium refrigerator-cum-liquefier (HRL) with an installed equivalent capacity of 1.3 kW at 4.5 K. Using the HRL, the cold mass of about 40 tons is being routinely cooled down from ambient temperature to 4.5 K with an average cooldown rate of 0.75 - 1 K-h-1. Long-term cryogenic stable conditions were obtained within 15 days in the superconducting coils and their connecting feeders. Afterwards, all of the cold mass is warmed-up in a controlled manner to ambient temperature. In this paper, we report the recent operational results of the cryogenic system during the first plasma discharge in SST-1 as well as the troubleshooting experiences of the cryogenic plant related hardware.

  8. Transport simulations of ohmic pellet experiments on the TFTR, ASDEX, and ALCATOR-C tokamaks

    SciTech Connect

    Redi, M.H.; Tang, W.M.; Owens, D.K.; Greenwald, M.; Gruber, O.; Kaufmann, M.

    1988-07-01

    Transport simulations of ohmic gas-fuelled and pellet-fuelled experiments have been carried out to test a microinstability-based, profile-consistent model of anomalous transport in tokamaks. Predictions for experiments on the TFTR, ASDEX, and ALCATOR-C tokamaks were found consistent with the observed confinement and temperature measurements. 26 refs., 11 figs., 10 tabs.

  9. Safety Standard for Oxygen and Oxygen Systems: Guidelines for Oxygen System Design, Materials Selection, Operations, Storage, and Transportation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    NASA's standard for oxygen system design, materials selection, operation, and transportation is presented. Minimum guidelines applicable to NASA Headquarters and all NASA Field Installations are contained.

  10. Methods for conditioning anisotropic, operator-scaling, fractal random fields, and the effect on solute transport simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Revielle, J.; Benson, D. A.

    2008-12-01

    The fractal scaling of aquifer materials have been observed in many data sets. Typically, the scaling coefficient is different in different directions. To date, only unconditional realizations with these properties can be generated. We present and analyze two methods of creating conditional operator-scaling fractal random fields (OSFRF) which have the ability to condition any number and geometry of measurements into each realization. One method is based on the theory of Orthographic Projection (Feller, 1971) and requires the continuous checking of a conditional probability function. The other method uses a best linear unbiased estimate (i.e., a kriged mean surface between known points) and an unconditional realization to create each conditional field. These two methods are analyzed for computational difficulty and their ability to recreate the desired fractal scaling along different (eigenvector) directions. Finally these methods are applied to a transport experiment through a slab of Massillon sandstone to show the advantage of using conditional OSFRF in solute transport modeling.

  11. Neonatal Transport - Experience of a Tertiary Care Hospital of Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Dey, S K; Sharker, S; Jahan, I; Moni, S C; Shabuj, K H; Chisti, M J; Mannan, M A; Shahidullah, M

    2017-01-01

    Safe transportation is mostly an unnoticed neonatal health issue in Bangladesh and no documentation is available regarding the existing practices. So this study was intended to document transport status of the referred newborn to a tertiary care hospital. This observational study included 150 out born neonates over 12 months period transported from various places to NICU, Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University (BSMMU) from May 2015 to April 2016. A structured data collection form was used to record information categorized into pre-transport, during transport and at admission. At admission detailed clinical assessment of the baby was done and recorded. Outcome was determined as discharge or death. Of 150 transported neonates, two-third were preterm 115(77%) & LBW 113(75%). Common indications for referral were prematurity and sepsis. Most of the patients were referred from private hospital 107(71%). Majority of newborns (86%) were referred from hospitals of Dhaka city while only 14% were referred from outside Dhaka. Referral notes were supplied in most of the cases 134(89%) but comprehensive information was obtainable only in 3 cases. Although main transport vehicle was ambulance 130(87%), medical personnel accompanied the sick baby only in 6(4%) of cases. The distance traveled was less than 10 kilometers (kms) in 95(63%) and more than 100 km in 10(7%) of enrolled neonates. Transport time was less than 1 hour in 72(48%), 1-6 hours in 66(44%) and more than 6 hours in 12(8%) of cases. Nearly two third of newborn were transported after office period, 107(72%). At admission 21(14%) babies had hypothermia, 8(7.62%) hypoglycemia, 16(11%), poor perfusion 28(19%), low saturation 27(18%). Hyperthermia & hyperglycemia were observed in 8(5%) & 7(5%) cases respectively. Of the total 150 babies referred, 17(11%) died. While comparing with discharged newborn, died newborn were more frequent sufferer of hypothermia (p value 0.007) and low saturation (p value 0.049) at

  12. Mass and Momentum Turbulent Transport Experiments with Confined Coaxial Jets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, B. V.; Bennett, J. C.

    1981-01-01

    Downstream mixing of coaxial jets discharging in an expanded duct was studied to obtain data for the evaluation and improvement of turbulent transport models currently used in a variety of computational procedures throughout the propulsion community for combustor flow modeling. Flow visualization studies showed four major shear regions occurring; a wake region immediately downstream of the inlet jet inlet duct; a shear region further downstream between the inner and annular jets; a recirculation zone; and a reattachment zone. A combination of turbulent momentum transport rate and two velocity component data were obtained from simultaneous measurements with a two color laser velocimeter (LV) system. Axial, radial and azimuthal velocities and turbulent momentum transport rate measurements in the r-z and r-theta planes were used to determine the mean value, second central moment (or rms fluctuation from mean), skewness and kurtosis for each data set probability density function (p.d.f.). A combination of turbulent mass transport rate, concentration and velocity data were obtained system. Velocity and mass transport in all three directions as well as concentration distributions were used to obtain the mean, second central moments, skewness and kurtosis for each p.d.f. These LV/LIF measurements also exposed the existence of a large region of countergradient turbulent axial mass transport in the region where the annular jet fluid was accelerating the inner jet fluid.

  13. Effects of Flaming Gorge Dam hydropower operations on downstream flow, stage, and sediment transport

    SciTech Connect

    Yin, S.C.L.; Tomasko, D.; Cho, H.E.; Williams, G.; McCoy, J.; Palmer, C.

    1996-11-01

    Hydropower operations at Flaming Gorge Dam, located on the Green River in Utah, can produce rapid downstream changes in flow and stage. These changes can in turn affect sediment transport and ecologic resources below the dam. To evaluate these effects, four hydropower operational scenarios with varying degrees of hydropower-release fluctuations were examined. This study demonstrates that the combined use of river-flow routing, water-surface profile, and sediment-transport models can provide useful information for evaluating the potential impacts of hydropower-operations on ecological and other resources downstream of the dam. Study results show that flow fluctuations may or may not persist for a long distance, depending on the initial magnitude of fluctuation and the duration of hydropower peaking. Stage fluctuations depend not only on flow fluctuations but also on river channel characteristics, such as channel width and longitudinal slope.

  14. Operational awareness in future space transportation system concepts and technology selections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eide, D. G.; Morris, W. D.

    1984-01-01

    An analysis of operations for a two-stage, fully reusable future space transportation system has been performed, and the results are discussed. The value of conducting an analysis of operations in the conceptual design phase to produce a highly productive system was demonstrated by obtaining estimated reductions in resources and ground turnaround time and comparing them with estimated mature Shuttle program requirements. Cooperative efforts by users, future vehicle designers, and operations analysts during the conceptual design phase are shown to produce an efficient vehicle design with broad market potential. The synergistic effects of vehicle design configuration, subsystems, and procedures can enhance productivity of the transportation system as measured by flexibility, availability, and viability. Advanced technologies and subsystems beneficial to such a system are identified.

  15. Long Length Contaminated Equipment Retrieval System Receiver Trailer and Transport Trailer Operations and Maintenance Manual

    SciTech Connect

    DALE, R.N.

    2000-05-01

    A system to accommodate the removal of long-length contaminated equipment (LLCE) from Hanford underground radioactive waste storage tanks was designed, procured, and demonstrated, via a project activity during the 1990s. The system is the Long Length Contaminated Equipment Removal System (LLCERS). LLCERS will be maintained and operated by Tank Farms Engineering and Operations organizations and other varied projects having a need for the system. The responsibility for the operation and maintenance of the LLCERS Receiver Trailer (RT) and Transport Trailer (TT) resides with the RPP Characterization Project Operations organization. The purpose of this document is to provide vendor supplied operating and maintenance (O & M) information for the RT and TT in a readily retrievable form. This information is provided this way instead of in a vendor information (VI) file to maintain configuration control of the operations baseline as described in RPP-6085, ''Configuration Management Plan for Long Length Contaminated Equipment Receiver and Transport Trailers''. Additional Operations Baseline documents are identified in RPP-6085.

  16. NASA battery testbed: A designed experiment for the optimization of LEO battery operational parameters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deligiannis, F.; Perrone, D.; DiStefano, S.

    1996-01-01

    Simulation of spacecraft battery operation is implemented. Robust design experiment to obtain optimum battery operational parameters is performed. It is found that short term tests using robust design of experiments can provide guidelines for optimum battery operation. It is decided to use robust design approach to provide guidelines for battery operation on current spacecraft in orbit as batteries age (GRO, UARS, EUVE, TOPEX).

  17. NASA battery testbed: A designed experiment for the optimization of LEO battery operational parameters

    SciTech Connect

    Deligiannis, F.; Perrone, D.; Distefano, S.

    1996-02-01

    Simulation of spacecraft battery operation is implemented. Robust design experiment to obtain optimum battery operational parameters is performed. It is found that short term tests using robust design of experiments can provide guidelines for optimum battery operation. It is decided to use robust design approach to provide guidelines for battery operation on current spacecraft in orbit as batteries age (GRO, UARS, EUVE, TOPEX).

  18. NASA battery testbed: A designed experiment for the optimization of LEO battery operational parameters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deligiannis, F.; Perrone, D.; DiStefano, S.

    1996-01-01

    Simulation of spacecraft battery operation is implemented. Robust design experiment to obtain optimum battery operational parameters is performed. It is found that short term tests using robust design of experiments can provide guidelines for optimum battery operation. It is decided to use robust design approach to provide guidelines for battery operation on current spacecraft in orbit as batteries age (GRO, UARS, EUVE, TOPEX).

  19. Crew factors in flight operations 2: Psychophysiological responses to short-haul air transport operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gander, Philippa H.; Graeber, R. Curtis; Foushee, H. Clayton; Lauber, John K.; Connell, Linda J.

    1994-01-01

    Seventy-four pilots were monitored before, during, and after 3- or 4-day commercial short-haul trip patterns. The trips studied averaged 10.6 hr of duty per day with 4.5 hr of flight time and 5.5 flight segments. The mean rest period lasted 12.5 hr and occurred progressively earlier across successive days. On trip nights, subjects took longer to fall asleep, slept less, woke earlier, and reported lighter, poorer sleep with more awakenings than on pretrip nights. During layovers, subjective fatigue and negative affect were higher, and positive affect and activation lower, than during pretrip, in-flight, or posttrip. Pilots consumed more caffeine, alcohol, and snacks on trip days than either pretrip or posttrip. Increases in heart rate over mid-cruise were observed during descent and landing, and were greater for the pilot flying. Heart-rate increases were greater during takeoff and descent under instrument meteorological conditions (IMC) than under visual meteorological conditions (VMC). The following would be expected to reduce fatigue in short-haul operations: regulating duty hours, as well as flight hours; scheduling rest periods to begin at the same time of day, or progressively later, across the days of a trip; and educating pilots about alternatives to alcohol as a means of relaxing before sleep.

  20. AH-64 IHADSS aviator vision experiences in Operation Iraqi Freedom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiatt, Keith L.; Rash, Clarence E.; Harris, Eric S.; McGilberry, William H.

    2004-09-01

    Forty AH-64 Apache aviators representing a total of 8564 flight hours and 2260 combat hours during Operation Iraqi Freedom and its aftermath were surveyed for their visual experiences with the AH-64's monocular Integrated Helmet and Display Sighting System (IHADSS) helmet-mounted display in a combat environment. A major objective of this study was to determine if the frequencies of reports of visual complaints and illusions reported in the previous studies, addressing mostly benign training environments, differ in the more stressful combat environments. The most frequently reported visual complaints, both while and after flying, were visual discomfort and headache, which is consistent with previous studies. Frequencies of complaints after flying in the current study were numerically lower for all complaint types, but differences from previous studies are statistically significant only for visual discomfort and disorientation (vertigo). With the exception of "brownout/whiteout," reports of degraded visual cues in the current study were numerically lower for all types, but statistically significant only for impaired depth perception, decreased field of view, and inadvertent instrumental meteorological conditions. This study also found statistically lower reports of all static and dynamic illusions (with one exception, disorientation). This important finding is attributed to the generally flat and featureless geography present in a large portion of the Iraqi theater and to the shift in the way that the aviators use the two disparate visual inputs presented by the IHADSS monocular design (i.e., greater use of both eyes as opposed to concentrating primarily on display imagery).

  1. The safety experience of New Zealand adventure tourism operators.

    PubMed

    Bentley, Tim A; Page, Stephen; Walker, Linda

    2004-01-01

    This survey examined parameters of the New Zealand adventure tourism industry client injury risk. The research also sought to establish priorities for intervention to reduce adventure tourism risk, and identify client injury control measures currently in place (or absent) in the New Zealand adventure tourism industry, with a view to establishing guidelines for the development of effective adventure tourism safety management systems. This 2003 survey builds upon an exploratory study of New Zealand adventure tourism safety conducted by us during 1999. A postal questionnaire was used to survey all identifiable New Zealand adventure tourism operators. The questionnaire asked respondents about their recorded client injury experience, perceptions of client injury risk factors, safety management practices, and barriers to safety. Some 27 adventure tourism activities were represented among the responding sample (n=96). The highest client injury risk was reported in the snow sports, bungee jumping and horse riding sectors, although serious underreporting of minor injuries was evident across the industry. Slips, trips and falls (STF) were the major client injury mechanisms, and a range of risk factors for client injuries were identified. Safety management measures were inconsistently applied across the industry. The industry should consider the implications of poor injury reporting standards and safety management practices generally. Specifically, the industry should consider risk management that focuses on minor (e.g., STF) as well as catastrophic events.

  2. Spaceliner Class Operability Gains Via Combined Airbreathing/ Rocket Propulsion: Summarizing an Operational Assessment of Highly Reusable Space Transports

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nix, Michael B.; Escher, William J. d.

    1999-01-01

    In discussing a new NASA initiative in advanced space transportation systems and technologies, the Director of the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, Arthur G. Stephenson, noted that, "It would use new propulsion technology, air-breathing engine so you don't have to carry liquid oxygen, at least while your flying through the atmosphere. We are calling it Spaceliner 100 because it would be 100 times cheaper, costing $ 100 dollars a pound to orbit." While airbreathing propulsion is directly named, rocket propulsion is also implied by, "... while you are flying through the atmosphere." In-space final acceleration to orbital speed mandates rocket capabilities. Thus, in this informed view, Spaceliner 100 will be predicated on combined airbreathing/rocket propulsion, the technical subject of this paper. Interestingly, NASA's recently concluded Highly Reusable Space Transportation (HRST) study focused on the same affordability goal as that of the Spaceliner 100 initiative and reflected the decisive contribution of combined propulsion as a way of expanding operability and increasing the design robustness of future space transports, toward "aircraft like" capabilities. The HRST study built on the Access to Space Study and the Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV) development activities to identify and characterize space transportation concepts, infrastructure and technologies that have the greatest potential for reducing delivery cost by another order of magnitude, from $1,000 to $100-$200 per pound for 20,000 lb. - 40.000 lb. payloads to low earth orbit (LEO). The HRST study investigated a number of near-term, far-term, and very far-term launch vehicle concepts including all-rocket single-stage-to-orbit (SSTO) concepts, two-stage-to-orbit (TSTO) concepts, concepts with launch assist, rocket-based combined cycle (RBCC) concepts, advanced expendable vehicles, and more far term ground-based laser powered launchers. The HRST study consisted of preliminary concept studies, assessments

  3. Spaceliner Class Operability Gains Via Combined Airbreathing/ Rocket Propulsion: Summarizing an Operational Assessment of Highly Reusable Space Transports

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nix, Michael B.; Escher, William J. d.

    1999-01-01

    In discussing a new NASA initiative in advanced space transportation systems and technologies, the Director of the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, Arthur G. Stephenson, noted that, "It would use new propulsion technology, air-breathing engine so you don't have to carry liquid oxygen, at least while your flying through the atmosphere. We are calling it Spaceliner 100 because it would be 100 times cheaper, costing $ 100 dollars a pound to orbit." While airbreathing propulsion is directly named, rocket propulsion is also implied by, "... while you are flying through the atmosphere." In-space final acceleration to orbital speed mandates rocket capabilities. Thus, in this informed view, Spaceliner 100 will be predicated on combined airbreathing/rocket propulsion, the technical subject of this paper. Interestingly, NASA's recently concluded Highly Reusable Space Transportation (HRST) study focused on the same affordability goal as that of the Spaceliner 100 initiative and reflected the decisive contribution of combined propulsion as a way of expanding operability and increasing the design robustness of future space transports, toward "aircraft like" capabilities. The HRST study built on the Access to Space Study and the Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV) development activities to identify and characterize space transportation concepts, infrastructure and technologies that have the greatest potential for reducing delivery cost by another order of magnitude, from $1,000 to $100-$200 per pound for 20,000 lb. - 40.000 lb. payloads to low earth orbit (LEO). The HRST study investigated a number of near-term, far-term, and very far-term launch vehicle concepts including all-rocket single-stage-to-orbit (SSTO) concepts, two-stage-to-orbit (TSTO) concepts, concepts with launch assist, rocket-based combined cycle (RBCC) concepts, advanced expendable vehicles, and more far term ground-based laser powered launchers. The HRST study consisted of preliminary concept studies, assessments

  4. An Evaluation of the Ability of Amputees to Operate Highway Transport Equipment. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McFarland, Ross A.; And Others

    To document the driving experience of amputees and to test whether amputees differ from non-amputees in the operation of a simulated motor vehicle, related literature was reviewed, a comprehensive study of private motor vehicle operation by amputees was carried out, and 100 persons (20 non-impaired, non-commercial drivers, 20 non-impaired,…

  5. Better-Than-Visual Technologies for Next Generation Air Transportation System Terminal Maneuvering Area Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prinzel, Lawrence J., III; Bailey, Randall E.; Shelton, Kevin J.; Jones, Denise R.; Kramer, Lynda J.; Arthur, Jarvis J., III; Williams, Steve P.; Barmore, Bryan E.; Ellis, Kyle E.; Rehfeld, Sherri A.

    2011-01-01

    A consortium of industry, academia and government agencies are devising new concepts for future U.S. aviation operations under the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen). Many key capabilities are being identified to enable NextGen, including the concept of Equivalent Visual Operations (EVO) replicating the capacity and safety of today's visual flight rules (VFR) in all-weather conditions. NASA is striving to develop the technologies and knowledge to enable EVO and to extend EVO towards a Better-Than-Visual (BTV) operational concept. The BTV operational concept uses an electronic means to provide sufficient visual references of the external world and other required flight references on flight deck displays that enable VFR-like operational tempos and maintain and improve the safety of VFR while using VFR-like procedures in all-weather conditions. NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) research on technologies to enable the concept of BTV is described.

  6. Flight Studies of Problems Pertinent to High-Speed Operation of Jet Transports

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butchart, Stanley P.; Fischel, Jack; Tremant, Robert A.; Robinson, Glenn H.

    1959-01-01

    A flight investigation was made to assess the potential operational problems of jet transports in the transonic cruise range. In this study a large multiengine jet airplane having geometric characteristics fairly representative of the jet transport was used; however, in order to ensure general applicability of the results, the aerodynamic characteristics of the test airplane were varied to simulate a variety of jet- transport airplanes. Some of the specific areas investigated include: (1) an overall evaluation of longitudinal stability and control characteristics at transonic speeds, with an assessment of pitch-up characteristics, (2) the effect of buffeting on airplane operational speeds and maneuvering, (3) the desirable lateral-directional damping characteristics, (4) the desirable lateral-control characteristics, (5) an assessment of over-speed and speed-spread requirements, including the upset maneuver, and (6) an assessment of techniques and airplane characteristics for rapid descent and slow-down. The results presented include pilots' evaluation of the various problem areas and specific recommendations for possible improvement of jet-transport operations in the cruising speed range.

  7. Operational analysis supporting the definition of the repository/transportation interface

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, R.W.; Smith, L.A.; Wampler, J.A.

    1985-06-01

    This report discusses progress made to date in an on-going effort to analyze operations at the repository-transportation interface of the Mined Geologic Disposal System of the Salt Repository Project (SRP). The interface is where the two systems actually are in physical contact with one another. The overall intent of the on-going effort is to to evaluate several interface design concepts for the extent to which workers are exposed to radiation, for the time required to receive and process transportation casks, and for the associated capital and operating costs. The design criteria report will outline interface functional requirements, which when incorporated into the interfacing systems (transportation-repository receiving), will ensure their physical compatibility, their optimal operation, and their compliance with performance standards. The final design criteria report will subsequently serve as an input to the receiving facility design portions of the SRP System Design Description (SDD), and System Requirements Specifications (SRS), and to the transportation cask design specifications. 6 refs., 13 figs., 6 tabs.

  8. Spent Fuel Storage Operational Experience With Increased Crud Activities

    SciTech Connect

    Barnabas, I.; Eigner, T.; Gresits, I.; Ordagh, M.

    2008-07-01

    experience gained. In summary: On the basis of the design assessments and measurement of the results during the fuel transfer operations, it was shown that radiological activity values increased due to the consequences of the 2003 accident but that these levels did not compromise the release and dose limits for the fuel storage facility. In the environment there was no measurable radioactivity as a result of the operation of the Paks ISFSI. The exposure of the surrounding population was calculated on measured releases and meteorological data. The calculations show negligible doses until 2004. Due to the increased surface contamination on the spent fuel assemblies the dose rate increased almost 5 times compared to the least annual value, but still less then 0.01 percent of the allowed dose restriction. (authors)

  9. The Indonesian's Road Transportations as the Contexts to Support Primary School Students Learning Number Operation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kairuddin; Darmawijoyo

    2011-01-01

    This paper highlights the Indonesian's road transportation contexts, namely, angkot, that used in learning and teaching of addition and subtraction in first grade and second grade MIN-2 Palembang. PMRI approach that adopt from RME [Realistic Mathematics Education] was used in this design research. From teaching experiment was founded that the…

  10. A Head Operated Joystick--Experience with Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Gareth; Blenkhorn, Paul

    This paper describes the development and evaluation of a low-cost head-operated joystick for computer users with disabilities that prevent them from using a conventional hand-operated computer mouse and/or keyboard. The paper focuses on three issues: first, the style of head movement required by the device; second, whether a head-operated device…

  11. Operational demonstration of a field of high performance flat plate collectors with isothermal heat transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merges, V.; Klippel, E.

    1983-12-01

    A solar plant with 21 sq m of highly efficient flat plate collectors and which requires no electricity is described. Heat transport is provided by saturated steam that condenses in a four cubic meter storage tank. The operation temperature is set by the buffer gas pressure between 100 and 140 C, and an absorption chiller is simulated as a heat consumer. The solar collectors were observed to exhibit high performance. Heat transport and temperature control offered high reliability and the thermal stratification in the tank was satisfactory. The positive result permits the design and construction of larger solar plants following the same technical principles.

  12. Electrostatic dust transport and Apollo 17 LEAM experiment. [Lunar Ejecta And Meteorite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rhee, J. W.; Berg, O. E.; Wolf, H.

    1977-01-01

    The Lunar Ejecta and Meteorite (LEAM) experiment has been in operation since December 1973 when it was deployed in the Taurus-Littrow region of the moon by the Apollo 17 crew. A specialized analysis based on more than twenty-two lunations of the impact data shows that all of the events recorded by the sensors during the terminator passages are essentially lunar surface microparticles carrying a high electrostatic charge. Charged lunar fines held in place by adhesive forces can be ejected into space if the electrostatic stress exceeds the adhesive strength. A simple laboratory test demonstrated that this soil transport can indeed take place at the lunar terminator and in the vicinity of it.

  13. Near-field radiative thermal transport: From theory to experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Song, Bai Fiorino, Anthony; Meyhofer, Edgar; Reddy, Pramod

    2015-05-15

    Radiative thermal transport via the fluctuating electromagnetic near-field has recently attracted increasing attention due to its fundamental importance and its impact on a range of applications from data storage to thermal management and energy conversion. After a brief historical account of radiative thermal transport, we summarize the basics of fluctuational electrodynamics, a theoretical framework for the study of radiative heat transfer in terms of thermally excited propagating and evanescent electromagnetic waves. Various approaches to modeling near-field thermal transport are briefly discussed, together with key results and proposals for manipulation and utilization of radiative heat flow. Subsequently, we review the experimental advances in the characterization of both near-field heat flow and energy density. We conclude with remarks on the opportunities and challenges for future explorations of radiative heat transfer at the nanoscale.

  14. A preliminary assessment of field transport experiments using encapsulated cells

    SciTech Connect

    Petrich, C.R.; Knaebel, D.B.; Ralston, D.R.; Crawford, R.L.; Stormo, K.E.

    1995-12-31

    Microencapsulation of nonindigenous degradative organisms is a technique that enhances microorganism survival. An intermediate-scale field tracer test was conducted to evaluate the transport of encapsulated-cell microbeads and other particles in a shallow, confined, heterogeneous aquifer consisting of unconsolidated silts, sands, and gravels under induced-gradient, uniform flow conditions. Tracers included bromide; 2-, 5-, and 15-{micro}m-diameter polystyrene microspheres; and encapsulated Flavobacterium microbeads ranging in diameter from approximately 2 to 80 {micro}m. Results suggest that aquifer heterogeneity was a dominant factor in bromide- and particle-transport patterns. Encapsulated-cell migration appeared to be retarded with respect to the bromide and microsphere tracers. Results of this study also indicate that encapsulated-cell particle sizes and encapsulation material characteristics may be important factors affecting the transport of encapsulated cells in a subsurface environment.

  15. Modelling reactive CAH transport using batch experiment degradation kinetics.

    PubMed

    Haest, Pieter J; Springael, Dirk; Smolders, Erik

    2010-05-01

    Models describing transport of degradable organic substances in a porous medium require parameters of the biodegradation kinetics that can be obtained from batch degradation assays. It is rarely assessed if liquid batch biodegradation rates allow extrapolation to reactive transport in a porous medium, i.e. if the cell specific activity in a porous medium with flow-through is identical to that of pelagic cells in liquid cultures. Failure of model predictions can be used to identify the rate-limiting processes in the reactive transport. Column data of anaerobic trichloroethene (TCE) transport and degradation at three flow rates were predicted with a model using biodegradation kinetics derived from a liquid culture. The extent of dechlorination at the column outlet was very well predicted within a factor 1.4 if the specific microbial biomass in the columns was used as an input parameter. This suggests that potential mass transfer limitations in biofilms or differences in microbial ecology between batch and column had minor effects on dechlorination. The model was subsequently extended with Monod kinetics to predict both biomass growth and chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbon (CAH) degradation in the columns using liquid batch data. These models largely overestimated CAH dechlorination unless microbial transport with cell elution was included and unless a slight batch to column adjustment was made to better predict microbial biomass. With 4 adjustable parameters the model succeeded in predicting the microbial numbers within a factor 4.3 and the extent of dechlorination within a factor 1.2. Our analysis validates the batch to column extrapolation for this dedicated set-up provided that the microbial biomass in columns is well predicted. The sensitivity analysis shows that the extent of dechlorination in the reactive transport is most sensitive to the parameters of TCE degradation kinetics, including microbial growth followed by the residence time. Copyright (c) 2010

  16. Development of an applied-magnetic-field diode for ion-beam-transport experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Young, F.C.; Neri, J.M.; Boller, J.R.

    1996-12-31

    An applied-magnetic-field ion diode (ABD) is being developed to study the transport of intense ion beams for light-ion inertial confinement fusion. Initially, the beam from this diode will be used to test the concept of self-pinched transport (SPT). The design goal is diode operation at 1.5 MV and 250-kA total current on the Gamble 2 generator at NRL. For SPT experiments, the beam is extracted from the diode and focused into a transport channel. The ATHETA code is used to calculate B-field configurations in the diode and ion-beam trajectories. Shaping of the anode surface to aim the beam and to counteract focusing due to self B-field and solenoidal-lens effects results in a convex anode surface. Most of the beam can be focused within a spot size of 1.4-cm diameter at 65 cm from the anode. The B-field is generated with inner and outer cathode coils connected in series and driven by a 100-{micro}s risetime, 50-kA pulse. A shunt inductor in parallel with the outer coil is used to control the ratio of the currents in the two coils. To cancel flux penetration of the aluminum anode by the main B-field, a current pulse of opposite polarity with a 1-ms risetime is applied prior to the main pulse. This current is adjusted to place the B-field separatrix on the ion emission surface in the diode gap, accounting for anode plasma expansion. A grooved-anode flashover source is planned for initial experiments. Preliminary results are presented.

  17. Association of sleep habits with accidents and near misses in United States transportation operators.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Kevin D; Patel, Sanjay R; Baur, Dorothee M; Edens, Edward; Sherry, Patrick; Malhotra, Atul; Kales, Stefanos N

    2014-05-01

    To explore sleep risk factors and their association with adverse events in transportation operators. Self-reported sleep-related behaviors were analyzed in transportation operators (drivers, pilots, and rail operators) aged 26 to 78 years who completed the National Sleep Foundation's 2012 "Planes, Trains, Automobiles, and Sleep" survey. Regression analyses were used to assess the associations of various sleep-related variables with the combined outcome of self-reported accidents and near misses. Age- and body mass-adjusted predictors of accidents/near misses included an accident while commuting (odds ratio [OR] = 4.6; confidence interval [CI], 2.1 to 9.8), driving drowsy (OR = 4.1; CI, 2.5 to 6.7), and Sheehan Disability Scale score greater than 15 (OR = 3.5; CI, 2.2 to 5.5). Sleeping more than 7 hours nightly was protective for accident/near misses (OR = 0.6; CI, 0.4 to 0.9). Recognized risk factors for poor sleep or excessive daytime sleepiness were significantly associated with self-reported near misses and/or accidents in transportation operators.

  18. Association of Sleep Habits With Accidents and Near Misses in United States Transportation Operators

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Kevin D.; Patel, Sanjay R.; Baur, Dorothee M.; Edens, Edward; Sherry, Patrick; Malhotra, Atul; Kales, Stefanos N.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore sleep risk factors and their association with adverse events in transportation operators. Methods Self-reported sleep-related behaviors were analyzed in transportation operators (drivers, pilots, and rail operators) aged 26 to 78 years who completed the National Sleep Foundation’s 2012 “Planes, Trains, Automobiles, and Sleep” survey. Regression analyses were used to assess the associations of various sleep-related variables with the combined outcome of self-reported accidents and near misses. Results Age- and body mass–adjusted predictors of accidents/near misses included an accident while commuting (odds ratio [OR] = 4.6; confidence interval [CI], 2.1 to 9.8), driving drowsy (OR = 4.1; CI, 2.5 to 6.7), and Sheehan Disability Scale score greater than 15 (OR = 3.5; CI, 2.2 to 5.5). Sleeping more than 7 hours nightly was protective for accident/near misses (OR = 0.6; CI, 0.4 to 0.9). Conclusion Recognized risk factors for poor sleep or excessive daytime sleepiness were significantly associated with self-reported near misses and/or accidents in transportation operators. PMID:24806564

  19. Effect of Band-Alignment Operation on Carrier Transport in Bi2Se3 Topological Insulator

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Gaurav; Jalil, Mansoor Bin Abdul; Liang, Gengchiau

    2014-01-01

    Band-alignment induced current modulation in Bi2Se3 three-dimensional topological insulator slab has been investigated by quantum transport simulations for three different device designs, one for purely lateral transport and other two with vertical transport. Non-Equilibrium Green Function formalism has been deployed to understand the transport mechanism in band-alignment devices to appraise the possibility of a 3D-TI based resonant device. A resonance condition is observed when the Dirac-points (bands) are aligned. This results in the maximum current at resonance for the design with only lateral transport. However, current ratio between resonant and non-resonant condition is found to be relatively small and strong temperature dependence is also noticed. The other two designs with vertical transport have degraded transfer characteristics, although from state-of-art literature they are expected to manifest nearly an ideal resonance peak. The physical insights for these observations have been posited along with the suggestions for attaining close to an ideal operation for the first design, which we also suggest for the pursuit in the future for spintronic oscillators and analog multipliers based on band-alignment induced resonance. PMID:25164148

  20. A multiobjective optimization approach to the operation and investment of the national energy and transportation systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibanez, Eduardo

    Most U.S. energy usage is for electricity production and vehicle transportation, two interdependent infrastructures. The strength and number of the interdependencies will increase rapidly as hybrid electric transportation systems, including plug-in hybrid electric vehicles and hybrid electric trains, become more prominent. There are several new energy supply technologies reaching maturity, accelerated by public concern over global warming. The National Energy and Transportation Planning Tool (NETPLAN) is the implementation of the long-term investment and operation model for the transportation and energy networks. An evolutionary approach with underlying fast linear optimization are in place to determine the solutions with the best investment portfolios in terms of cost, resiliency and sustainability, i.e., the solutions that form the Pareto front. The popular NSGA-II algorithm is used as the base for the multiobjective optimization and metrics are developed for to evaluate the energy and transportation portfolios. An integrating approach to resiliency is presented, allowing the evaluation of high-consequence events, like hurricanes or widespread blackouts. A scheme to parallelize the multiobjective solver is presented, along with a decomposition method for the cost minimization program. The modular and data-driven design of the software is presented. The modeling tool is applied in a numerical example to optimize the national investment in energy and transportation in the next 40 years.

  1. Operations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkins, Jesse L. M.; Norton, Anderson; Boyce, Steven J.

    2013-01-01

    Previous research has documented schemes and operations that undergird students' understanding of fractions. This prior research was based, in large part, on small-group teaching experiments. However, written assessments are needed in order for teachers and researchers to assess students' ways of operating on a whole-class scale. In this study,…

  2. Model Validation of an RSRM Transporter Through Full-scale Operational and Modal Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brillhart, Ralph; Davis, Joshua; Allred, Bradley

    2009-01-01

    The Reusable Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM) segments, which are part of the current Space Shuttle system and will provide the first stage of the Ares launch vehicle, must be transported from their manufacturing facility in Promontory, Utah, to a railhead in Corinne, Utah. This approximately 25-mile trip on secondary paved roads is accomplished using a special transporter system which lifts and conveys each individual segment. ATK Launch Systems (ATK) has recently obtained a new set of these transporters from Scheuerle, a company in Germany. The transporter is a 96-wheel, dual tractor vehicle that supports the payload via a hydraulic suspension. Since this system is a different design than was previously used, computer modeling with validation via test is required to ensure that the environment to which the segment is exposed is not too severe for this space-critical hardware. Accurate prediction of the loads imparted to the rocket motor is essential in order to prevent damage to the segment. To develop and validate a finite element model capable of such accurate predictions, ATA Engineering, Inc., teamed with ATK to perform a modal survey of the transport system, including a forward RSRM segment. A set of electrodynamic shakers was placed around the transporter at locations capable of exciting the transporter vehicle dynamics. Forces from the shakers with varying phase combinations were applied using sinusoidal sweep excitation. The relative phase of the shaker forcing functions was adjusted to match the shape characteristics of each of several target modes, thereby customizing each sweep run for exciting a particular mode. The resulting frequency response functions (FRF) from this series of sine sweeps allowed identification of all target modes and other higher-order modes, allowing good comparison to the finite element model. Furthermore, the survey-derived modal frequencies were correlated with peak frequencies observed during road-going operating tests. This

  3. Variably saturated flow and multicomponent biogeochemical reactive transport modeling of a uranium bioremediation field experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yabusaki, Steven B.; Fang, Yilin; Williams, Kenneth H.; Murray, Christopher J.; Ward, Andy L.; Dayvault, Richard D.; Waichler, Scott R.; Newcomer, Darrell R.; Spane, Frank A.; Long, Philip E.

    2011-11-01

    Three-dimensional, coupled variably saturated flow and biogeochemical reactive transport modeling of a 2008 in situ uranium bioremediation field experiment is used to better understand the interplay of transport and biogeochemical reactions controlling uranium behavior under pulsed acetate amendment, seasonal water table variation, spatially variable physical (hydraulic conductivity, porosity) and geochemical (reactive surface area) material properties. While the simulation of the 2008 Big Rusty acetate biostimulation field experiment in Rifle, Colorado was generally consistent with behaviors identified in previous field experiments at the Rifle IFRC site, the additional process and property detail provided several new insights. A principal conclusion from this work is that uranium bioreduction is most effective when acetate, in excess of the sulfate-reducing bacteria demand, is available to the metal-reducing bacteria. The inclusion of an initially small population of slow growing sulfate-reducing bacteria identified in proteomic analyses led to an additional source of Fe(II) from the dissolution of Fe(III) minerals promoted by biogenic sulfide. The falling water table during the experiment significantly reduced the saturated thickness of the aquifer and resulted in reactants and products, as well as unmitigated uranium, in the newly unsaturated vadose zone. High permeability sandy gravel structures resulted in locally high flow rates in the vicinity of injection wells that increased acetate dilution. In downgradient locations, these structures created preferential flow paths for acetate delivery that enhanced local zones of TEAP reactivity and subsidiary reactions. Conversely, smaller transport rates associated with the lower permeability lithofacies (e.g., fine) and vadose zone were shown to limit acetate access and reaction. Once accessed by acetate, however, these same zones limited subsequent acetate dilution and provided longer residence times that resulted

  4. Preliminary results of column experiments simulating nutrients transport in artificial recharge by treated wastewater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leal, María; Meffe, Raffaella; Lillo, Javier

    2013-04-01

    Nutrients (phosphates, nitrates, nitrites and ammonium) are very often present in treated wastewater as consequence of the inefficient removal capability during wastewater treatments. Such compounds represent an environmental concern since they are responsible for contamination and/or eutrophication problems when reaching the water bodies (groundwater, river, streams…). Therefore, when wastewater reclamation activities such as artificial recharge are planned, special attention should be paid to these compounds to avoid groundwater deterioration. In this context, we proposed the installation of a Horizontal Permeable Reactive Barrier (H-PRB) made of different reactive materials, among them zeolite and palygorskite, to remove nutrients or at least to decrease their concentrations. The overall aim of this research is to evaluate if the application of a H-PRB could represent a feasible solution for the attenuation of nutrients when unconventional water resources (i.e. treated wastewater) are used for recharge activities. Specifically, this study is intended to identify the transport processes affecting nitrates, nitrites, ammonium and phosphates when treated wastewater is infiltrated through the reactive materials of the H-PRB. Column experiments are generally suitable to examine the interactions between reactive materials and treated wastewater that affect the transport behavior of nutrients. For example, processes such as adsorption can be identified and quantified. Thus, laboratory column experiments were carried out using zeolite or palygorskite as column infilling material and synthetic treated wastewater as column influent. The experiments are closely connected to an experimental field study in Carrión de los Céspedes (Seville-Spain) where a pilot H-PRB is currently under evaluation. The columns were operated under saturated conditions applying a constant flow rate of 1.2 mL/min equivalent to the infiltration rate estimated through infiltration experiments at

  5. Transport in nanoporous carbon membranes: Experiments and analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Acharya, M.; Foley, H.C.

    2000-05-01

    Single-component permeances of six gases were measured on three different supported nanoporous carbon membranes prepared by spray coating and pyrolysis of poly(furfuryl alcohol) on porous stainless-steel disks. Global activation energies were regressed from data collected as a function of temperature. Permeances and global activation energies were correlated to molecular size, assuming that entropic affects dominated the transport. The permeance was best correlated to the minimum projected area of the molecule computed from first principles. The free-energy barriers to transport within the membranes were derived from the temperature dependence of the permeance data, after accounting for porosity differences between the membranes and differences in molecular adsorption. Using transition-state theory and an entropic model derived, the free energy, enthalpy, and entropic barriers to transport within the membrane were examined as a function of molecular size. Computed on the basis of size, the entropic component of this barrier did not account for the large differences in the transition-state free energies. However, when these entropic barrier values were used to compute the enthalpic portion of the barrier free energies, the minimum projected area of each molecule correlated strongly. Furthermore, these enthalpic components of the barriers were fitted nicely by the Everett-Powl mean field potential, using only the pore size as the adjustable parameter. These results shed light on the underlying mechanism by which shape-selective transport takes place in the NPC membranes and small molecules are separated.

  6. "Transport distraction osteogenesis for reconstruction of mandibular defects": our experience.

    PubMed

    Nanjappa, Madan; Natashekara, M; Sendil Kumar, C; Kumaraswamy, S V; Keerthi, R; Ashwin, D P; Gopinath, A L

    2011-06-01

    Mandibular defects usually involve a combination of osseous and soft tissue deficiency and are among the most challenging problems in maxillofacial surgery, many options are available for mandibular reconstruction. One of the options discussed in literature recently being distraction osteogenesis. The aims and objectives of the study were to evaluate clinically the technique of distraction osteogenesis to reconstruct mandibular defects, using indigenous transport distractors, and to evaluate the efficacy of Indigenous transport distraction osteogenesis device. A prospective, experimental study was designed to examine the use of transport distraction osteogenesis in the treatment of defects of the mandible. Four patients with defects of the mandible were subjected to distraction osteogenesis with indigenously manufactured distraction device. The regenerate was assessed clinically and radiographically. The results showed that the regenerate was clinically as hard as the adjacent unaffected mandible and radiologic evidence of bone regeneration was observed. The major advantage being regeneration of hard tissue and soft tissue components without the morbidity of donor site, so that functional rehabilitation of the patient is possible. Thus from our study it is shown that transport distraction osteogenesis using indigenous distractors is a reliable yet affordable option for reconstruction of mandibular defects.

  7. Experiments on Viscous Transport in Pure-Electron Plasmas.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kriesel, J. M.; Driscoll, C. F.

    1999-11-01

    Viscous transport in pure-electron plasmas is a rearrangement of particles due to like-particle interactions, leading to the confined global thermal equilibrium state. The measured transport is observed to be proportional to the shear in the total (E × B + diamagnetic) fluid rotation of the plasma for both hollow and monotonic rotation profiles. We determine the local viscosity coefficient η in the plasma from measurements of the local flux of particles. The measured viscosity is 50-10^4 times larger than expected from classical transport due to short-range velocity-scattering collisions, but is within a factor of 10 agreement with recent theories by O'Neil and Dubin of transport due to long-range drift collisions. The measured viscosity scales with magnetic field B and length L roughly as η ∝ B/L. This scaling suggests a finite length enhancement of the viscosity, which occurs because particles interact many times as they bounce axially before they are sheared apart azimuthally.

  8. Building on 50 Years of Mission Operations Experience for a New Era of Space Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Onken, Jay F.; Singer, Christopher E.

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. National Space Policy, I the 14-nation Global Exploration Strategy,2 and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) 2006 Strategic Plan3 provide foundational direction for far-ranging missions, from safely flying the Space Shuttle and completing construction of the International Space Station by 2010, to fielding a next generation space transportation system consisting of the Ares I Crew Launch Vehicle!Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle and the Ares V Cargo Launch Vehicle!Altair Lunar Lander (fig. 1). Transportation beyond low-Earth orbit will open the frontier for a lunar outpost, where astronauts will harness in-situ resources while exploring this 4 billion-year-old archaeological site, which may hold answers to how the Earth and its satellite were formed. Ultimately, this experience will pave the way for the first human footprint on Mars. In October 2007, NASA" announced assignments for this lunar exploration work.4 The Marshall Space Flight Center is responsible for designing, developing, testing, and evaluating the Ares I and Ares V, which are Space Shuttle derived launch vehicles, along with a number of lunar tasks. The Marshall Center's Engineering Directorate provides the skilled workforce and unique manufacturing, testing, and operational infrastructure needed to deliver space transportation solutions that meet the requirements stated in the Constellation Architecture Requirements Document (CARD). While defining design reference missions to the Station and the Moon, the CARD includes goals that include reducing recurring and nonrecurring costs, while increasing safety and reliability. For this reason, future systems are being designed with operability considerations and lifecycle expenses as independent variables in engineering trade studies.

  9. Modeling Polymer Stabilized Nano-scale Zero Valent Iron Transport Experiments in Porous Media to Understand the Transport Behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mondal, P.; Krol, M.; Sleep, B. E.

    2015-12-01

    A wide variety of groundwater contaminants can be treated with nano-scale zero valent iron (nZVI). However, delivery of nZVI in the subsurface to the treatment zones is challenging as the bare nZVI particles have a higher tendency to agglomerate. The subsurface mobility of nZVI can be enhanced by stabilizing nZVI with polymer, such as carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC). In this study, numerical simulations were conducted to evaluate CMC stabilized nZVI transport behavior in porous media. The numerical simulations were based on a set of laboratory-scale transport experiments that were conducted in a two-dimensional water-saturated glass-walled sandbox (length - 55 cm; height - 45 cm; width - 1.4 cm), uniformly packed with silica sand. In the transport experiments: CMC stabilized nZVI and a non-reactive dye tracer Lissamine Green B (LGB) were used; water specific discharge and CMC concentration were varied; movements of LGB, and CMC-nZVI in the sandbox were tracked using a camera, a light source and a dark box. The concentrations of LGB, CMC, and CMC-nZVI at the sandbox outlet were analyzed. A 2D multiphase flow and transport model was applied to simulate experimental results. The images from LGB dye transport experiments were used to determine the pore water velocities and media permeabilities in various layers in the sand box. These permeability values were used in the subsequent simulations of CMC-nZVI transport. The 2D compositional simulator, modified to include colloid filtration theory (CFT), treated CMC as a solute and nZVI as a colloid. The simulator included composition dependent viscosity to account for CMC injection and mixing, and attachment efficiency as a fitting parameter for nZVI transport modeling. In the experiments, LGB and CMC recoveries were greater than 95%; however, CMC residence time was significantly higher than the LGB residence time and the higher CMC concentration caused higher pressure drops in the sandbox. The nZVI recovery was lower than 40

  10. Device for passive downward heat transport - Design criteria and operational results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Beni, G.; Friesen, R.; Thoma, H.; Veneroni, R.

    A semi-continuous device for passive downward heat transport has been designed, built and operated. Heat is transported as latent heat of vaporization as in a heat pipe; the return of the liquid is obtained through the action of an energy accumulator containing an inert gas and charged by the vapour itself during the transport of heat. The capability of winning the difference in level is exchanged with a difference of a few degrees centigrade between evaporator and condenser. The laboratory device worked with a difference in level of 1.7 m. Working under pressure, differences in level of 10 meters and more can be attained. A typical application can be the storage of heat available from solar collectors.

  11. An Assessment of Civil Tiltrotor Concept of Operations in the Next Generation Air Transportation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chung, William W.; Salvano, Dan; Rinehart, David; Young, Ray; Cheng, Victor; Lindsey, James

    2012-01-01

    Based on a previous Civil Tiltrotor (CTR) National Airspace System (NAS) performance analysis study, CTR operations were evaluated over selected routes and terminal airspace configurations assuming noninterference operations (NIO) and runway-independent operations (RIO). This assessment aims to further identify issues associated with these concepts of operations (ConOps), and their dependency on the airspace configuration and interaction with conventional fixed-wing traffic. Safety analysis following a traditional Safety Management System (SMS) methodology was applied to CTR-unique departure and arrival failures in the selected airspace to identify any operational and certification issues. Additional CTR operational cases were then developed to get a broader understanding of issues and gaps that will need to be addressed in future CTR operational studies. Finally, needed enhancements to National Airspace System performance analysis tools were reviewed, and recommendations were made on improvements in these tools that are likely to be required to support future progress toward CTR fleet operations in the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen).

  12. New experiments selected for 1980 operational shuttle flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    Experiments selected for NASA's Long Duration Exposure Facility mission are described. Technical areas represented by the experiments include materials, thermal control coatings, detectors, power, micrometeoroids, electronics, lubrication, optics, and space debris detection.

  13. Analysis of operational requirements for medium density air transportation, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The medium density air travel market is examined and defined in terms of numbers of people transported per route per day and frequency of service. The operational characteristics for aircraft to serve this market are determined and a basepoint aircraft is designed from which tradeoff studies and parametric variations can be conducted. The impact of the operational characteristics on the air travel system is evaluated along with the economic viability of the study aircraft. Research and technology programs for future study consideration are identified.

  14. Practices and risks associated with operation of tie-down lashings in the vehicle transport industry.

    PubMed

    Fraysse, François; Milanese, Steven; Thewlis, Dominic

    2016-12-01

    Load restraint systems in automobile transport utilise tie-down lashings placed over the car's tyres, which are tensioned manually by the operator using a ratchet assembly. This process has been identified as a significant manual handling injury risk. The aim of this study was to gain insight on the current practices associated with tie-down lashings operation, and identify the gaps between current and optimal practice. We approached this with qualitative and quantitative assessments and one numerical simulation to establish: (i) insight into the factors involved in ratcheting; (ii) the required tension to hold the car on the trailer; and (iii) the tension achieved by drivers in practice and associated joint loads. We identified that the method recommended to the drivers was not used in practice. Drivers instead tensioned the straps to the maximum of their capability, leading to over-tensioning and mechanical overload at the shoulder and elbow. We identified the postures and strategies that resulted in the lowest loads on the upper body during ratcheting (using both hands and performing the task with their full body). This research marks the first step towards the development of a training programme aiming at changing practice to reduce injury risks associated with the operation of tie-down lashings in the automobile transport industry. Practitioner Summary: The study investigated current practice associated with the operation of tie-down lashings through qualitative (interviews) and quantitative (biomechanical analysis) methods. Operators tended to systematically over-tension the lashings and consequently overexert, increasing injury risks.

  15. Jet transport flight operations using cockpit display of traffic information during instrument meteorological conditions: Simulation evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, David H.; Wells, Douglas C.

    1986-01-01

    A simulation study was undertaken to evaluate flight operations using cockpit display of traffic information (CDTI) in a conventional jet transport aircraft. Eight two-person airline flight crews participated as test subjects flying simulated terminal area approach and departure operations under instrument meteorological conditions (IMC). A fixed-base cockpit simulator configured with a full complement of conventional electromechanical instrumentation to permit full workload operations was utilized. Traffic information was displayed on a color cathode-ray tube (CRT) mounted above the throttle quadrant in the typical weather radar location. A transparent touchpanel overlay was utilized for pilot interface with the display. Air traffic control (ATC) simulation included an experienced controller and full partyline radio environment for evaluation of pilot-controlled self-separation and traffic situation monitoring tasks. Results of the study revealed the CDTI to be well received by the test subjects as a useful system which could be incorporated into an existing jet transport cockpit. Crew coordination and consistent operating procedures were identified as important considerations in operational implementation of traffic displays. Cockpit workload was increased with active CDTI tasks. However, all test subjects rated the increase to be acceptable.

  16. Statistical Measurements of Contact Conditions of 478 Transport-airplane Landings During Routine Daytime Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Silsby, Norman S

    1955-01-01

    Statistical measurements of contact conditions have been obtained, by means of a special photographic technique, of 478 landings of present-day transport airplanes made during routine daylight operations in clear air at the Washington National Airport. From the measurements, sinking speeds, rolling velocities, bank angles, and horizontal speeds at the instant before contact have been evaluated and a limited statistical analysis of the results has been made and is reported in this report.

  17. Concept of Operations for the Next Generation Air Transportation System. Version 3.0

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    operations to enable optimized route selection, landing, and take-off procedures based on a range of data feeds including noise, air emission, fuel burn...transportation system • Reduce noise, emissions, and fuel consumption • Balance aviation’s environmental impacts with other societal objectives...landing, and approach procedures based on a range of data, including noise, emissions, and fuel burn, thus enhancing the ability to reduce

  18. Remotely Operated Vehicles under sea ice - Experiences and results from five years of polar operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katlein, Christian; Arndt, Stefanie; Lange, Benjamin; Belter, Hans Jakob; Schiller, Martin; Nicolaus, Marcel

    2016-04-01

    The availability of advanced robotic technologies to the Earth Science community has largely increased in the last decade. Remotely operated vehicles (ROV) enable spatially extensive scientific investigations underneath the sea ice of the polar oceans, covering a larger range and longer diving times than divers with significantly lower risks. Here we present our experiences and scientific results acquired from ROV operations during the last five years in the Arctic and Antarctic sea ice region. Working under the sea ice means to have all obstacles and investigated objects above the vehicle, and thus changes several paradigms of ROV operations as compared to blue water applications. Observations of downwelling spectral irradiance and radiance allow a characterization of the optical properties of sea ice and the spatial variability of the energy partitioning across the atmosphere-ice-ocean boundary. Our results show that the decreasing thickness and age of the sea ice have led to a significant increase in light transmission during summer over the last three decades. Spatially extensive measurements from ROV surveys generally provide more information on the light field variability than single spot measurements. The large number of sampled ice conditions during five cruises with the German research icebreaker RV Polarstern allows for the investigations of the seasonal evolution of light transmittance. Both, measurements of hyperspectral light transmittance through sea ice, as well as classification of upward-looking camera images were used to investigate the spatial distribution of ice-algal biomass. Buoyant ice-algal aggregates were found to be positioned in the stretches of level ice, rather than pressure ridges due to a physical interaction of aggregate-buoyancy and under-ice currents. Synchronous measurements of sea ice thickness by upward looking sonar provides crucial additional information to put light-transmittance and biological observations into context

  19. Analysis of radiation doses from operation of postulated commercial spent fuel transportation systems: Main report

    SciTech Connect

    Schneider, K.J.; Hostick, C.J.; Ross, W.A.; Peterson, R.W.; Smith, R.I.; Stiles, D.L.; Daling, P.M.; Weakley, S.A.; Grinde, R.B.; Young, J.R.

    1987-11-01

    This report contains a system study of estimated radiation doses to the public and workers resulting from the transport of spent fuel from commercial nuclear power reactors to a geologic repository. The report contains a detailed breakdown of activities and a description of time/distance/dose-rate estimates for each activity within the system. Collective doses are estimated for each of the major activities at the reactor site, in transit, and at the repository receiving facility. Annual individual doses to the maximally exposed individuals or groups of individuals are also estimated. A total of 17 alternatives and subalternatives to the postulated reference transportation system are identified, conceptualized, and their dose-reduction potentials and costs estimated. Resulting ratios of ..delta..cost/..delta..collective system dose for each alternative relative to the postulated reference transportation system are given. Most of the alternatives evaluated are estimated to provide both cost and dose reductions. Major reductions in transportation system dose and cost are estimated to result from using higher-capacity rail and truck casks, and particularly when replacing legalweight truck casks with ''advanced design'' overweight truck casks. The greatest annual dose reduction to the highest exposed individual workers (i.e., at the repository) is estimated to be achieved by using remote handling equipment for the cask handling operations at the repository. Additional shielding is also effective in reducing doses to both radiation workers at the reactor and repository and to transport workers. 69 refs., 36 figs., 156 tabs.

  20. Sensitivity of chemistry-transport model simulations to the duration of chemical and transport operators: a case study with GEOS-Chem v10-01

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Philip, Sajeev; Martin, Randall V.; Keller, Christoph A.

    2016-05-01

    Chemistry-transport models involve considerable computational expense. Fine temporal resolution offers accuracy at the expense of computation time. Assessment is needed of the sensitivity of simulation accuracy to the duration of chemical and transport operators. We conduct a series of simulations with the GEOS-Chem chemistry-transport model at different temporal and spatial resolutions to examine the sensitivity of simulated atmospheric composition to operator duration. Subsequently, we compare the species simulated with operator durations from 10 to 60 min as typically used by global chemistry-transport models, and identify the operator durations that optimize both computational expense and simulation accuracy. We find that longer continuous transport operator duration increases concentrations of emitted species such as nitrogen oxides and carbon monoxide since a more homogeneous distribution reduces loss through chemical reactions and dry deposition. The increased concentrations of ozone precursors increase ozone production with longer transport operator duration. Longer chemical operator duration decreases sulfate and ammonium but increases nitrate due to feedbacks with in-cloud sulfur dioxide oxidation and aerosol thermodynamics. The simulation duration decreases by up to a factor of 5 from fine (5 min) to coarse (60 min) operator duration. We assess the change in simulation accuracy with resolution by comparing the root mean square difference in ground-level concentrations of nitrogen oxides, secondary inorganic aerosols, ozone and carbon monoxide with a finer temporal or spatial resolution taken as "truth". Relative simulation error for these species increases by more than a factor of 5 from the shortest (5 min) to longest (60 min) operator duration. Chemical operator duration twice that of the transport operator duration offers more simulation accuracy per unit computation. However, the relative simulation error from coarser spatial resolution generally

  1. Dual-tracer transport experiments in a physically and chemically heterogeneous porous aquifer: effective transport parameters and spatial variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ptak, T.; Schmid, G.

    1996-08-01

    In order to investigate the effects of reactive transport processes within a heterogeneous porous aquifer, two small-scale forced gradient tracer tests were conducted at the 'Horkheimer Insel' field site. During the experiments, two fluorescent tracers were injected simultaneously in the same fully penetrating groundwater monitoring well, located approximately 10 m from the pumping well. Fluoresceine and Rhodamine WT were used to represent the classes of practically non-sorbing and sorbing solutes, respectively. Multilevel breakthrough curves with a temporal resolution of 1 min were measured for both tracers at different depths within the pumping well using fibre-optic fluorimeters. This paper presents the tracer test design, the fibre-optic fluorimetry instrumentation, the experimental results and the interpretation of the measured multilevel breakthrough curves in terms of temporal moments and effective transport parameters. Significant sorption of Rhodamine WT is apparent from the effective retardation factors. Furthermore, an enhanced tailing of Rhodamine WT breakthrough curves is observed, which is possibly caused by a variability of aquifer sorption properties. The determined effective parameters are spatially variable, suggesting that a complex numerical flow and transport modelling approach within a stochastic framework will be needed to adequately describe the transport behaviour observed in the two experiments. Therefore, the tracer test results will serve in future work for the validation of numerical stochastic transport simulations taking into account the spatial variability of hydraulic conductivity and sorption-related aquifer properties.

  2. Design reuse experience of space and hazardous operations robots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oneil, P. Graham

    1994-01-01

    A comparison of design drivers for space and hazardous nuclear waste operating robots details similarities and differences in operations, performance and environmental parameters for these critical environments. The similarities are exploited to provide low risk system components based on reuse principles and design knowledge. Risk reduction techniques are used for bridging areas of significant differences. As an example, risk reduction of a new sensor design for nuclear environment operations is employed to provide upgradeable replacement units in a reusable architecture for significantly higher levels of radiation.

  3. Operational experience with SLC damping ring kicker magnets

    SciTech Connect

    Mattison, T.; Cassel, R.; Donaldson, A.; Gross, G.; Harvey, A.

    1991-05-01

    The damping ring kickers for the SLAC Linear Collider must provide 7 mrad kicks to 1.2 GeV beams with 60 nsec rise and fall times and fit in a 50 cm length around a 21 mm diameter ceramic beam pipe. This requires that they operate at up to 40 KV. The construction and operation of two types of quasi-coaxial ferrite magnet potted with RTV silicone rubber is discussed. Production yield has been improved by changes in RTV degassing, transfer, and cure. Operation lifetime is dominated by voltage, radiation, and thermal cycling. 4 refs., 2 figs.

  4. Colloid Facilitated Transport of Radioactive Cations in the Vadose Zone: Field Experiments Oak Ridge

    SciTech Connect

    James E. Saiers

    2012-09-20

    The overarching goal of this study was to improve understanding of colloid-facilitated transport of radioactive cations through unsaturated soils and sediments. We conducted a suite of laboratory experiments and field experiments on the vadose-zone transport of colloids, organic matter, and associated contaminants of interest to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The laboratory and field experiments, together with transport modeling, were designed to accomplish the following detailed objectives: 1. Evaluation of the relative importance of inorganic colloids and organic matter to the facilitation of radioactive cation transport in the vadose zone; 2. Assessment of the role of adsorption and desorption kinetics in the facilitated transport of radioactive cations in the vadose zone; 3. Examination of the effects of rainfall and infiltration dynamics and in the facilitated transport of radioactive cations through the vadose zone; 4. Exploration of the role of soil heterogeneity and preferential flow paths (e.g., macropores) on the facilitated transport of radioactive cations in the vadose zone; 5. Development of a mathematical model of facilitated transport of contaminants in the vadose zone that accurately incorporates pore-scale and column-scale processes with the practicality of predicting transport with readily available parameters.

  5. Experience with Mandibular Reconstruction Using Transport-Disc-Distraction Osteogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Pingarrón-Martín, Lorena; Otero, T. González; Gallo, L.J. Arias

    2014-01-01

    The goal of transport-disc-distraction osteogenesis (TDDO) is to restore bone continuity by using in-situ bone. It may be useful following trauma, gunshot injuries, or tumor ablation, especially when there may be contraindications at the donor site or for prolonged surgery. To the best of the authors' knowledge, this is the first time TDDO has been used for mandibular reconstruction reporting additional procedures, which include osseointegrated dental implants rehabilitation and orthognathic surgery. A retrospective study is performed analyzing all mandibular reconstruction cases that may be suitable for distraction from January 2006 to December 2011. A thorough description of the documented cases includes details about sex, gender, complications, duration of hospitalization, etiology, size, and location of the defect. Eight cases of mandibular reconstruction were included. Six cases correspond to mandibular ameloblastoma. The remaining two cases were mandibular gunshot comminuted fractures. Range of the defects was from 45 to 60 mm. Length of the transport disc was 15 to 20 mm. Protocolized technique consisted of 5 days of latency period, 19 to 45 days of activation term (average 30 days), and 8 to 12 weeks for consolidation. Mean distraction length achieved was 40.45 mm. We can conclude that TDDO is an alternative to conventional and more invasive procedures, when we face severe segmental mandibular defects reconstruction. It shows the potential to restore a better anatomical bone regeneration, also providing soft tissues and reducing donor-site morbidity. Patients' education and awareness about the proper use of the transport-disc-distraction device is important to optimize functional outcomes. PMID:26000082

  6. Mass and Momentum Transport Experiments with Swirling Flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, B. V.; Roback, R.

    1984-01-01

    An experimental study of mixing downstream of axial and swirling coaxial jets is being conducted to obtain data for the evaluation and improvement of turbulent transport models currently employed in a variety of computational procedures used throughout the propulsion community. The axial coaxial jet study was completed under Phase 1. The swirling coaxial jet study, which is the subject of this paper, was conducted under Phase 2 of the contract. A TEACH code was acquired, checked out for several test cases, and is reported. A study to measure length scales and to obtain a limited number of measurements with a blunt trailing edge inlet is being conducted under Phase 3 of the contract.

  7. The wartime need for aeromedical evacuation physicians: the U.S. Air Force experience during Operation Desert Storm.

    PubMed

    Mabry, E W; Munson, R A; Richardson, L A

    1993-10-01

    Air transportation has been the primary method of moving patients by the armed services of the United States since 1949. It is fast, reliable, and allows for centralized medical care. Aeromedical Evacuation (AE), performed by the U.S. Air Force under Department of Defense directive, was intended as a method to transport medically stable patients. Modern warfare has evolved into a process capable of generating large numbers of casualties in a short period of time that can overwhelm local medical facilities. Such casualties would then require immediate transportation in order to obtain appropriate treatment. The terrorist bombing of the U.S. Marine barracks in Beirut and the 1989 military action in Panama (Operation Just Cause) are recent experiences where unstable casualties were transported by an AE system not designed to care for acute injuries while en route to definitive care. During Operation Desert Storm, Aeromedical Evacuation Flight Surgeons (AE/FS's) augmented AE crews and provided flexibility to transport critically ill patients. Future planning should augment designated AE crews with appropriately trained physicians and include equipment on aircraft to resuscitate patients that decompensate inflight.

  8. Operating experience of Pyroflow boilers in a 250 MWe unit

    SciTech Connect

    Chelian, P.K.; Hyvarinen, K.

    1995-12-31

    The Cedar Bay Cogeneration project is a 250 MWe unit owned and operated by US Generating Company. This plant has one turbine rated at 250 MWe net which is supplied by three Pyroflow CFB boilers that operate in parallel while supplying a paper mill with steam on an uninterruptible basis. Compared to similar size CFB boilers the Cedar Bay boilers have certain unique features. First, these are reheat boilers which must continue to supply process steam even when the steam turbine is down. Second, the SO{sub 2} control operates at a very low Ca/S molar ratio by optimizing the process conditions and flyash reinjection. Third, the NO{sub x} reduction process utilizes aqueous ammonia injection. This paper presents the operating data at full load in terms of boiler efficiency, and the ability to limit gaseous emissions with minimum limestone and ammonia usage. Unique features relating to the multiple boiler installation are also discussed.

  9. FFTF operating experience with sodium natural circulation: slides included

    SciTech Connect

    Burke, T.M.; Additon, S.L.; Beaver, T.R.; Midgett, J.C.

    1981-01-01

    The Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) has been designed for passive, back-up, safety grade decay heat removal utilizing natural circulation of the sodium coolant. This paper discusses the process by which operator preparation for this emergency operating mode has been assured, in paralled with the design verification during the FFTF startup and acceptance testing program. Over the course of the test program, additional insights were gained through the testing program, through on-going plant analyses and through general safety evaluations performed throughout the nuclear industry. These insights led to development of improved operator training material for control of decay heat removal during both forced and natural circulation as well as improvements in the related plant operating procedures.

  10. Transportation-Driven Mars Surface Operations Supporting an Evolvable Mars Campaign

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Toups, Larry; Brown, Kendall; Hoffman, Stephen J.

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the results of a study evaluating options for supporting a series of human missions to a single Mars surface destination. In this scenario the infrastructure emplaced during previous visits to this site is leveraged in following missions. The goal of this single site approach to Mars surface infrastructure is to enable "Steady State" operations by at least 4 crew for up to 500 sols at this site. These characteristics, along with the transportation system used to deliver crew and equipment to and from Mars, are collectively known as the Evolvable Mars Campaign (EMC). Information in this paper is presented in the sequence in which it was accomplished. First, a logical buildup sequence of surface infrastructure was developed to achieve the desired "Steady State" operations on the Mars surface. This was based on a concept of operations that met objectives of the EMC. Second, infrastructure capabilities were identified to carry out this concept of operations. Third, systems (in the form of conceptual elements) were identified to provide these capabilities. This included top-level mass, power and volume estimates for these elements. Fourth, the results were then used in analyses to evaluate three options (18t, 27t, and 40t landed mass) of Mars Lander delivery capability to the surface. Finally, Mars arrival mass estimates were generated based upon the entry, descent, and landing requirements for inclusion in separate assessments of in-space transportation capabilities for the EMC.

  11. Measurement of electron particle transport coefficients in different operational modes of DIII-D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, D. R.; Wade, M. R.; Jackson, G. L.; Maingi, R.; Stockdale, R. E.; de Grassie, J. S.; Groebner, R. J.; Forest, C. B.; Porter, G. D.; DIII-D Team

    1998-04-01

    Electron transport coefficients have been obtained for different operational modes on the DIII-D tokamak. The operational modes are: double null diverted (DND) low confinement (L mode), DND high confinement (H mode) without edge localized modes (ELM-free), single null diverted (SND) ELM-free H mode and pumped SND ELMing H mode. Various values of plasma current and safety factor (q) profiles were investigated. For the L mode and ELMing H mode, the coefficients were obtained by a modulated puff of deuterium gas at the edge. For the ELM-free modes, the coefficients were obtained by analysing the temporal evolution of the electron density profile immediately after the L-H transition. The results show clearly that the radial profile of the electron diffusion coefficient depends on the operational mode of DIII-D. The difference in the radial dependences of the transport coefficients between the different tokamak operational modes is significant. In the L mode and the ELMing H mode, the diffusion coefficient increases with radius. In ELMing H mode, the diffusion coefficient increases with the edge value of q. The value at the edge for L mode is about twice that for ELMing H mode. In ELM-free H mode, the diffusion coefficient decreases rapidly outside a normalized radius of about 0.8. Within the (relatively large) error bars for ELM-free H mode, there is no measurable difference in diffusion coefficient between the DND and SND plasmas.

  12. An Investigation of Landing-Contact Conditions for a Large Turbojet Transport During Routine Daylight Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stickle, Joseph W.; Silsby, Norman S.

    1960-01-01

    An investigation has been made by the NASA to obtain statistical measurements of landing-contact conditions for a large turbojet transport in commercial airline operations. The investigation was conducted at the Los Angeles International Airport in Los Angeles, California. Measurements were taken photographically during routine daylight operations. The quantities determined were vertical velocity, horizontal velocity, rolling velocity, bank angle, and distance from runway threshold, just prior to ground contact. The results indicated that the mean vertical velocity for the turbojet-transport landings was 1.62 feet per second and that 1 landing out of 100 would be expected to equal or exceed about 4.0 feet per second. The mean airspeed at contact was 132.0 knots, with 1 landing in 100 likely to equal or exceed about 153.0 knots. The mean rolling velocity was about 1.6 deg per second. One lending in 100 would probably equal or exceed a rolling velocity of about 4.0 deg. per second in the direction of the first wheel to touch. The mean bank angle for the turbojet transports was 1.04 deg, and right and left angles of bank were about evenly divided. One lending in 100 would be likely to equal or exceed a bank angle of about 3.5 deg. The mean value of distance to touchdown from the runway threshold was 1,560 feet. One lending in 100 would be expected to touchdown at or beyond about 2,700 feet from the runway threshold. The mean values for vertical velocity, airspeed, and distance t o touch-down for the turbojet transports were somewhat higher than those found previously for piston-engine transports. No significant differences were found for values of rolling velocity and bank angle.

  13. Experiences performing conceptual design optimization of transport aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arbuckle, P. D.; Sliwa, S. M.

    1984-01-01

    Optimum Preliminary Design of Transports (OPDOT) is a computer program developed at NASA Langley Research Center for evaluating the impact of new technologies upon transport aircraft. For example, it provides the capability to look at configurations which have been resized to take advantage of active controls and provide and indication of economic sensitivity to its use. Although this tool returns a conceptual design configuration as its output, it does not have the accuracy, in absolute terms, to yield satisfactory point designs for immediate use by aircraft manufacturers. However, the relative accuracy of comparing OPDOT-generated configurations while varying technological assumptions has been demonstrated to be highly reliable. Hence, OPDOT is a useful tool for ascertaining the synergistic benefits of active controls, composite structures, improved engine efficiencies and other advanced technological developments. The approach used by OPDOT is a direct numerical optimization of an economic performance index. A set of independent design variables is iterated, given a set of design constants and data. The design variables include wing geometry, tail geometry, fuselage size, and engine size. This iteration continues until the optimum performance index is found which satisfies all the constraint functions. The analyst interacts with OPDOT by varying the input parameters to either the constraint functions or the design constants. Note that the optimization of aircraft geometry parameters is equivalent to finding the ideal aircraft size, but with more degrees of freedom than classical design procedures will allow.

  14. Solute transport in intervertebral disc: experiments and finite element modeling.

    PubMed

    Das, D B; Welling, A; Urban, J P G; Boubriak, O A

    2009-04-01

    Loss of nutrient supply to the human intervertebral disc (IVD) cells is thought to be a major cause of disc degeneration in humans. To address this issue, transport of molecules of different size have been analyzed by a combination of experimental and modeling studies. Solute transport has been compared for steady-state and transient diffusion of several different solutes with molecular masses in the range 3-70 kDa, injected into parts of the disc where degeneration is thought most likely to occur first and into the blood supply to the disc. Diffusion coefficients of fluorescently tagged dextran molecules of different molecular weights have been measured in vitro using the concentration gradient technique in thin specimens of disc outer annulus and nucleus pulposus. Diffusion coefficients were found to decrease with molecular weight following a nonlinear relationship. Diffusion coefficients changed more rapidly for solutes with molecular masses less than 10 kDa. Although unrealistic or painful, solutes injected directly into the disc achieve the largest disc coverage with concentrations that would be high enough to be of practical use. Although more practical, solutes injected into the blood supply do not penetrate to the central regions of the disc and their concentrations dissipate more rapidly. Injection into the disc would be the best method to get drugs or growth factors to regions of degeneration in IVDs quickly; else concentrations of solute must be kept at a high value for several hours in the blood supply to the discs.

  15. Uranium transport in a crushed granodiorite: Experiments and reactive transport modeling

    DOE PAGES

    Dittrich, T. M.; Reimus, P. W.

    2015-02-12

    The primary objective of this study was to develop and demonstrate an experimental method to refine and better parameterize process models for reactive contaminant transport in aqueous subsurface environments and to reduce conservatism in such models without attempting to fully describe the geochemical system.

  16. The generalized Balescu-Lenard collision operator: A unifying concept for tokamak transport

    SciTech Connect

    Mynick, H.E.

    1987-08-01

    The generalization of the Balescu-Lenard collision operator to its fully electromagnetic counterpart in Kaufman's action-angle formalism is derived and its properties investigated. The general form may be specialized to any particular geometry where the unperturbed particle motion is integrable, and thus includes cylindrical plasmas, inhomogeneous slabs with nonuniform magnetic fields, tokamaks, and the particularly simple geometry of the standard operator as special cases. The general form points to the commonality between axisymmetric, turbulent, and ripple transport, and implies properties (e.g., intrinsic ambipolarity) which should be shared by them, under appropriate conditions. Along with a turbulent ''anomalous diffusion coefficient'' calculated for tokamaks in previous work, an ''anomalous pinch'' term of closely related structure and scaling is also implied by the generalized operator. 20 refs. (LSP)

  17. Model of the mass transport to the surface of animal cells cultured in a rotating bioreactor operated in micro gravity.

    PubMed

    Rivera-Solorio, Ivan; Kleis, Stanley J

    2006-06-20

    A mathematical model is used to investigate the transport of dissolved oxygen from the bulk fluid to the surface of aggregates of animal cells cultured in a rotating bioreactor. These aggregates move through different regions of the bioreactor with a local flow field and concentration distribution that vary with time. The time variation of the Sherwood number and the surface concentration for a range of parameters typical of a cell science experiment executed in the Rotating Wall Perfused Vessel (RWPV) bioreactor in space are investigated. The Reynolds numbers experienced by the aggregate are generally low (Re < 1) and the Peclet numbers range from O(1) to O(100). Comparison of the results from the numerical solution of the mathematical model with those from a quasi-steady model, using a steady-state correlation for mass transport on a sphere, indicate that the quasi-steady assumption is not a good model to compute the instantaneous Sherwood number. This indicates a significant history effect in the Sherwood number response to the variations of acceleration of the aggregates in the bioreactor. A high resistance to the mass transport from the bulk fluid to the surface of the aggregate exists for the bioreactor operated in micro gravity. The difference between the surface concentration and the free stream concentration was as high as 30% for aggregates larger than 3 mm. Diffusion reduces the variations of the free stream concentration resulting in a nearly constant value for the concentration at the surface of the aggregates. 2006 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Ganges Valley Aerosol Experiment: Science and Operations Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Kotamarthi, VR

    2010-06-21

    The Ganges Valley region is one of the largest and most rapidly developing sections of the Indian subcontinent. The Ganges River, which provides the region with water needed for sustaining life, is fed primarily by snow and rainfall associated with Indian summer monsoons. Impacts of changes in precipitation patterns, temperature, and the flow of the snow-fed rivers can be immense. Recent satellite-based measurements have indicated that the upper Ganges Valley has some of the highest persistently observed aerosol optical depth values. The aerosol layer covers a vast region, extending across the Indo-Gangetic Plain to the Bay of Bengal during the winter and early spring of each year. The persistent winter fog in the region is already a cause of much concern, and several studies have been proposed to understand the economic, scientific, and societal dimensions of this problem. During the INDian Ocean EXperiment (INDOEX) field studies, aerosols from this region were shown to affect cloud formation and monsoon activity over the Indian Ocean. This is one of the few regions showing a trend toward increasing surface dimming and enhanced mid-tropospheric warming. Increasing air pollution over this region could modify the radiative balance through direct, indirect, and semi-indirect effects associated with aerosols. The consequences of aerosols and associated pollution for surface insolation over the Ganges Valley and monsoons, in particular, are not well understood. The proposed field study is designed for use of (1) the ARM Mobile Facility (AMF) to measure relevant radiative, cloud, convection, and aerosol optical characteristics over mainland India during an extended period of 9–12 months and (2) the G-1 aircraft and surface sites to measure relevant aerosol chemical, physical, and optical characteristics in the Ganges Valley during a period of 6–12 weeks. The aerosols in this region have complex sources, including burning of coal, biomass, and biofuels; automobile

  19. Special Operations of CERES for Radiation Experiment Tests (SOCRATES)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szewczyk, Z. Peter

    The Clouds and Earth Radiant Energy System project flew a scanning radiometer (PFM) aboard the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission TRMM satellite, and two each aboard the Terra (FM1 FM2) and Aqua spacecraft (FM3 FM4). The primary objectives of the pairs of in-struments were for one to scan cross-track to map the geographical distribution of reflected solar radiation and Earth-emitted radiation and for the other to scan in azimuth as well as in elevation angle to provide data from which to develop models to describe the directionally-dependent dis-tribution of reflected solar radiance and Earth-emitted radiance. The Programmable Azimuth Plane Scan (PAPS) feature of the CERES instrument is a variant of the latter, and enables a scanner to target ground stations, or to match other satellite instruments viewing geometry to generate data sets for various scientific investigations. This paper presents special operations of CERES using the PAPS mode with the objective to collect data for comparison at the radiance level with other Earth Radiation Budget (ERB) instruments, and also shows numerical results of such comparisons. The following campaigns are covered in the paper: (i) In 1998, the CERES instrument (PFM) was rotated in azimuth so its scan plane coincided with the cross-track scan plane of the ScaRAB-2 instrument when the orbits of their spacecraft intersected. In this data set, both instruments viewed the same scenes from the same directions within a few minutes of each other, so the radiance measured by both instruments could be compared. (ii) In March of 2000, the scan plane of CERES Terra (FM1 and FM2) was rotated to coincide with the cross-track scan of the PFM aboard TRMM satellite. Data collected over up to 10 orbital crossings per day are used to compare radiance measurements of PFM and FM1 or FM2. (iii) In July of 2002, radiance measurements of scanners on Terra and Aqua satellites are compared. Since both satellites are in a polar orbit, the scan planes

  20. Long-term Operational Experience with the Barrel CRID at SLD

    SciTech Connect

    Va'Vra, Jaroslav

    1999-05-20

    The Barrel CRID detector has been operating successfully at SLD for the past seven years. It is an important tool for SLD physics analyses. The long-term operational experience with this device is described.

  1. Operation and Development Status of the Spacecraft Fire Experiments (Saffire)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruff, Gary A.; Urban, David L.

    2016-01-01

    Since 2012, a series of Spacecraft Fire Experiments (Saffire) have been under development by the Spacecraft Fire Safety Demonstration (SFS Demo) project, funded by NASA's Advanced Exploration Systems Division. The overall objective of this project is to reduce the uncertainty and risk associated with the design of spacecraft fire safety systems for NASA's exploration missions. The approach to achieving this goal has been to define, develop, and conduct experiments that address gaps in spacecraft fire safety knowledge and capabilities identified by NASA's Fire Safety System Maturation Team. The Spacecraft Fire Experiments (Saffire-I, -II, and -III) are material flammability tests at length scales that are realistic for a spacecraft fire in low-gravity. The specific objectives of these three experiments are to (1) determine how rapidly a large scale fire grows in low-gravity and (2) investigate the low-g flammability limits compared to those obtained in NASA's normal gravity material flammability screening test. The experiments will be conducted in Orbital ATK's Cygnus vehicle after it has unberthed from the International Space Station. The tests will be fully automated with the data downlinked at the conclusion of the test before the Cygnus vehicle reenters the atmosphere. This paper discusses the status of the Saffire-I, II, and III experiments followed by a review of the fire safety technology gaps that are driving the development of objectives for the next series of experiments, Saffire-IV, V, and VI.

  2. Other Than War: The American Military Experience and Operations in the Post-Cold War Decade

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-01-01

    War The American Military Experience and Operations in the Post-Cold War Decade FRANK N. SCHUBERT The Author Frank Schubert was born in Washington...than War The American Military Experience and Operations in the Post-Cold War Decade FRANK N. SCHUBERT Joint History Office Office of the Chairman...American military experience and operations in the post-Cold War decade / Frank N. Schubert. p;lgcs till Includes bibliographical references and index

  3. Three years of operational experience from Schauinsland CTBT monitoring station.

    PubMed

    Zähringer, M; Bieringer, J; Schlosser, C

    2008-04-01

    Data from three years of operation of a low-level aerosol sampler and analyzer (RASA) at Schauinsland monitoring station are reported. The system is part of the International Monitoring System (IMS) for verification of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT). The fully automatic system is capable to measure aerosol borne gamma emitters with high sensitivity and routinely quantifies 7Be and 212Pb. The system had a high level of data availability of 90% within the reporting period. A daily screening process rendered 66 tentative identifications of verification relevant radionuclides since the system entered IMS operation in February 2004. Two of these were real events and associated to a plausible source. The remaining 64 cases can consistently be explained by detector background and statistical phenomena. Inter-comparison with data from a weekly sampler operated at the same station shows instabilities of the calibration during the test phase and a good agreement since certification of the system.

  4. The West Valley Demonstration Project's vitrification system operating experience

    SciTech Connect

    Pope, J.M.; Barnes, S.M.

    1989-01-01

    A full-sized, integrated vitrification system is being tested at the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) to establish its operational characteristics that will allow a quality, high-level nuclear waste (HLW) glass product to be consistently produced. Recently, this nonradioactive verification testing has emphasized (a) ensuring flow sheet and feed makeup chemistry that enables well-balanced melter performance, (b) achieving design basis melter throughput rates at steady-state operating conditions, and (c) demonstrating that the release limit of NO{sub x} is met by the vitrification off-gas system. The West Valley vitrification process testing is rapidly converging to demonstrate that the acceptance specification in the glass product and the environmental requirements on the off-gas will indeed be met, thereby providing the basis for approval to begin radioactive operations in 1992.

  5. Operational experience from a large EPICS-based accelerator facility

    SciTech Connect

    Ciarlette, D.J.; Gerig, R.

    1995-12-31

    The Advanced Photon Source (APS) at Argonne National Laboratory is a third-generation x-ray light source which uses the Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS) to operate its linear accelerator, positron accumulator ring, booster synchrotron, and storage ring equipment. EPICS has been used at the APS since the beginning of installation and commissioning. Currently, EPICS controls approximately 100 VME crates containing over 100,000 process variables. With this complexity, the APS has had to review some of the methods originally employed and make changes as necessary. In addition, due to commissioning and operational needs, higher-level operator software needed to be created. EPICS has been flexible enough to allow this.

  6. Adequacy of transport parameters obtained in soil column experiments for selected chemicals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raymundo-Raymundo, E.; Nikolskii, Yu. N.; Guber, A. K.; Landeros-Sanchez, C.

    2012-07-01

    The transport parameters were determined for the 18O isotope (in the form of H2 18O), the Br- ion, and atrazine in intact columns of allophanic Andosol (Mexico State, Mexico). A one-dimensional model for the convective-dispersive transport of chemicals with account for the decomposition and equilibrium adsorption (HYDRUS-1D), which is widely applied for assessing the risk of the chemical and bacterial contamination of natural waters, was used. The model parameters were obtained by solving the inverse problem on the basis of laboratory experiments on the transport of the 18O isotope, the Br- ion, and atrazine in intact soil columns at a fixed filtration velocity. The hydrodynamic dispersion parameters determined for the 18O and Br- ions in one column were of the same order of magnitude, and those for atrazine were higher by 3-4 times. The obtained parameters were used to calculate the transport of these substances in another column with different values of the water content and filtration velocity. The transport process was adequately described only for the 18O isotope. In the case of the Br- ion, the model significantly underestimated the transport velocity; for atrazine, its peak concentration in the column was overestimated. The column study of the transport of the three chemical compounds showed that transport parameters could not be reliably predicted from the results of a single experiment, even when several compounds were used in this experiment.

  7. Operational experience at a "dog-hair" site.

    Treesearch

    Stephen R. Ricketts; Richard E. Miller

    1995-01-01

    To monitor consequences of past operational practices, we installed eight 0.05-acre plots in a 9-year-old Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco var. menziesii) plantation established after clearcutting a grossly overstocked stand on a poor-quality site. Logging slash was broadcast burned on half this clearcut. One...

  8. One year's experience with an operating saturated solar pond

    SciTech Connect

    Ochs, T.L.; Stojanoff, C.G.; Day, D.L.

    1980-01-01

    While the saturated non-convecting solar pond concept is not new, the borax pond at the Desert Research Institute (DRI) is the first application of the concept to an operating solar pond. As with any new application there have been experimentally identified problem areas. Four of these problems are discussed: 1) departure from saturation, 2) contamination, 3) bottom crystalization, and 4) covers.

  9. Mountain Plains Learning Experience Guide: Marketing. Course: Marketing Operations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Preston, T.; Egan, B.

    One of thirteen individualized courses included in a marketing curriculum, this course covers the fundamental concepts of the marketing and distribution field, including the operations of wholesale and retail businesses. The course is comprised of three units: (1) The Marketing Process, (2) Wholesaling, and (3) Retailing. Each unit begins with a…

  10. Federated software defined network operations for LHC experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Dongkyun; Byeon, Okhwan; Cho, Kihyeon

    2013-09-01

    The most well-known high-energy physics collaboration, the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), which is based on e-Science, has been facing several challenges presented by its extraordinary instruments in terms of the generation, distribution, and analysis of large amounts of scientific data. Currently, data distribution issues are being resolved by adopting an advanced Internet technology called software defined networking (SDN). Stability of the SDN operations and management is demanded to keep the federated LHC data distribution networks reliable. Therefore, in this paper, an SDN operation architecture based on the distributed virtual network operations center (DvNOC) is proposed to enable LHC researchers to assume full control of their own global end-to-end data dissemination. This may achieve an enhanced data delivery performance based on data traffic offloading with delay variation. The evaluation results indicate that the overall end-to-end data delivery performance can be improved over multi-domain SDN environments based on the proposed federated SDN/DvNOC operation framework.

  11. Operational experiences with Bt in the Eastern United States

    Treesearch

    Henry, Jr. Trial

    1985-01-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis (B. t.) has been used operationally in the eastern U. S. since 1978 with most applications occurring in Maine. Changes in B. t. dosage rates, volume, cost, spray aircraft, and use patterns will be discussed. Evaluation of B. t. dosage in the east has consisted of variable results with 8 B.I.U. treatments in 1978 through 1980,...

  12. Advanced Transport Operating System (ATOPS) Flight Management/Flight Controls (FM/FC) software description

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolverton, David A.; Dickson, Richard W.; Clinedinst, Winston C.; Slominski, Christopher J.

    1993-01-01

    The flight software developed for the Flight Management/Flight Controls (FM/FC) MicroVAX computer used on the Transport Systems Research Vehicle for Advanced Transport Operating Systems (ATOPS) research is described. The FM/FC software computes navigation position estimates, guidance commands, and those commands issued to the control surfaces to direct the aircraft in flight. Various modes of flight are provided for, ranging from computer assisted manual modes to fully automatic modes including automatic landing. A high-level system overview as well as a description of each software module comprising the system is provided. Digital systems diagrams are included for each major flight control component and selected flight management functions.

  13. Operation regimes and electrical transport of steep slope Schottky Si-FinFETs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeon, Dae-Young; Zhang, Jian; Trommer, Jens; Park, So Jeong; Gaillardon, Pierre-Emmanuel; De Micheli, Giovanni; Mikolajick, Thomas; Weber, Walter M.

    2017-02-01

    In the quest for energy efficient circuits, considerable focus has been given to steep slope and polarity-controllable devices, targeting low supply voltages and reduction of transistor count. The recently proposed concept of the three-independent gated Si-FinFETs with Schottky-barriers (SBs) has proven to bring both functionalities even in a single device. However, the complex combination of transport properties including Schottky emission and weak impact ionization as well as the body effect makes the design of such devices challenging. In this work, we perform a deep electrical characterization analysis to visualize and decouple the different operation regimes and electrical properties of the SB Si-FinFETs using a graphical transport map. From these, we give important guidelines for the design of future devices.

  14. Advanced Transport Operating System (ATOPS) color displays software description microprocessor system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slominski, Christopher J.; Plyler, Valerie E.; Dickson, Richard W.

    1992-01-01

    This document describes the software created for the Sperry Microprocessor Color Display System used for the Advanced Transport Operating Systems (ATOPS) project on the Transport Systems Research Vehicle (TSRV). The software delivery known as the 'baseline display system', is the one described in this document. Throughout this publication, module descriptions are presented in a standardized format which contains module purpose, calling sequence, detailed description, and global references. The global reference section includes procedures and common variables referenced by a particular module. The system described supports the Research Flight Deck (RFD) of the TSRV. The RFD contains eight cathode ray tubes (CRTs) which depict a Primary Flight Display, Navigation Display, System Warning Display, Takeoff Performance Monitoring System Display, and Engine Display.

  15. Advanced Transport Operating System (ATOPS) color displays software description: MicroVAX system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slominski, Christopher J.; Plyler, Valerie E.; Dickson, Richard W.

    1992-01-01

    This document describes the software created for the Display MicroVAX computer used for the Advanced Transport Operating Systems (ATOPS) project on the Transport Systems Research Vehicle (TSRV). The software delivery of February 27, 1991, known as the 'baseline display system', is the one described in this document. Throughout this publication, module descriptions are presented in a standardized format which contains module purpose, calling sequence, detailed description, and global references. The global references section includes subroutines, functions, and common variables referenced by a particular module. The system described supports the Research Flight Deck (RFD) of the TSRV. The RFD contains eight Cathode Ray Tubes (CRTs) which depict a Primary Flight Display, Navigation Display, System Warning Display, Takeoff Performance Monitoring System Display, and Engine Display.

  16. Point-to-Point! Validation of the Small Aircraft Transportation System Higher Volume Operations Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Daniel M.

    2006-01-01

    Described is the research process that NASA researchers used to validate the Small Aircraft Transportation System (SATS) Higher Volume Operations (HVO) concept. The four phase building-block validation and verification process included multiple elements ranging from formal analysis of HVO procedures to flight test, to full-system architecture prototype that was successfully shown to the public at the June 2005 SATS Technical Demonstration in Danville, VA. Presented are significant results of each of the four research phases that extend early results presented at ICAS 2004. HVO study results have been incorporated into the development of the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NGATS) vision and offer a validated concept to provide a significant portion of the 3X capacity improvement sought after in the United States National Airspace System (NAS).

  17. Chronic blockade or constitutive deletion of the serotonin transporter reduces operant responding for food reward.

    PubMed

    Sanders, Amy Cecilia; Hussain, Ali J; Hen, René; Zhuang, Xiaoxi

    2007-11-01

    The therapeutic effects of chronic selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are well documented, yet the elementary behavioral processes that are affected by such treatment have not been fully investigated. We report here the effects of chronic fluoxetine treatment and genetic deletion of the serotonin transporter (SERT) on food reinforced behavior in three paradigms: the progressive ratio operant task, the concurrent choice operant task, and the Pavlovian-to-Instrumental transfer task. We consistently find that chronic pharmacological blockade or genetic deletion of SERT result in similar behavioral consequences: reduced operant responding for natural reward. This is in line with previous studies reporting declines in operant responding for drugs and intracranial self-stimulation with fluoxetine treatment, suggesting that the effect of SERT blockade can be generalized to different reward types. Detailed analyses of behavioral parameters indicate that this reduction in operant responding affect both goal-directed and non-goal-directed behaviors without affecting the Pavlovian cue-triggered excessive operant responding. In addition, both pharmacological and genetic manipulations reduce locomotor activity in the open field novel environment. Our data contrast with the effect of dopamine in increasing operant responding for natural reward specifically in goal-directed behaviors and in increasing Pavlovian cue-triggered excessive operant responding. Serotonin and dopamine have been proposed to serve opposing functions in motivational processes. Our data suggest that their interactions do not result in simple opponency. The fact that pharmacological blockade and genetic deletion of SERT have similar behavioral consequences reinforces the utility of the SERT null mice for investigation of the mechanisms underlying chronic SSRIs treatment.

  18. Lessons Learned from Bacterial Transport Experiments at the South Oyster Site

    SciTech Connect

    Scheibe, Timothy D; Hubbard, Susan S; Onstott, Tullis C; Deflaun, Mary F

    2011-09-27

    This paper provides a high-level review of bacterial transport experiments conducted by a multi-investigator, multi-institution, multi-disciplinary team of researchers under the auspices of the U. S. Department of Energy. The experiments considered were conducted during the time period 1999-2001 at a field site near the town of Oyster, Virginia known as the South Oyster Site, and included four major experimental campaigns aimed at understanding and quantifying bacterial transport in the subsurface environment. Several key elements of the research are discussed here: 1) Quantification of bacterial transport in physically and biogeochemically heterogeneous aquifers, 2) evaluation of the efficacy of conventional colloid filtration theory, 3) scale effects in bacterial transport, 4) development of new methods for microbial enumeration and screening for low adhesion strains, 5) application of novel hydrogeophysical techniques for aquifer characterization, and 6) experiences regarding management of a large field research effort.

  19. Method efficiency and signal quantification of bacteria for a groundwater transport experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Burlage, R.S.; Palumbo, A.V.; McCarthy, J.

    1995-04-01

    Bacterial transport is a key process in delivery of microbes to contaminated sites for bioremediation of chemicals. However, relatively little is known about the geochemical and hydrologic factors controlling the mobility of bacteria and viruses within subsurface systems. Laboratory-scale column studies have provided useful information (Harvey et al, 1989, 1993). However, successful application to in situ remediation will require that one identify and understand properties relevant to transport in aquifers. Only through field experiments can one evaluate the scales of physical and chemical heterogeneity in natural aquifers that affect the transport of microbiota in ways not predicted from experiments conducted at the laboratory-scale. Bacterial transport field experiments cannot be replicated as can column experiments. Rigorous testing of experimental hypotheses will require comparisons of the mobility of multiple strains with contrasting transport properties under identical field conditions. Consequently, a technique is needed to permit the transport of multiple strains of bacteria to be monitored simultaneously in a single field experiment. Molecular techniques can also detect very low levels of injected bacteria. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) has been used successfully for the detection of microorganisms. This paper explores the use of PCR for identifying and enumerating the arrival of several individual strains of bacteria at monitoring wells downgradient of an experimental tracer injection well.

  20. Operational experience and design recommendations for teleoperated flight hardware

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burgess, T. W.; Kuban, D. P.; Hankins, W. W.; Mixon, R. W.

    1988-01-01

    Teleoperation (remote manipulation) will someday supplement/minimize astronaut extravehicular activity in space to perform such tasks as satellite servicing and repair, and space station construction and servicing. This technology is being investigated by NASA with teleoperation of two space-related tasks having been demonstrated at the Oak Ridge National Lab. The teleoperator experiments are discussed and the results of these experiments are summarized. The related equipment design recommendations are also presented. In addition, a general discussion of equipment design for teleoperation is also presented.