Science.gov

Sample records for operating point studies

  1. PIV study of the wake of a model wind turbine transitioning between operating set points

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houck, Dan; Cowen, Edwin (Todd)

    2016-11-01

    Wind turbines are ideally operated at their most efficient tip speed ratio for a given wind speed. There is increasing interest, however, in operating turbines at other set points to increase the overall power production of a wind farm. Specifically, Goit and Meyers (2015) used LES to examine a wind farm optimized by unsteady operation of its turbines. In this study, the wake of a model wind turbine is measured in a water channel using PIV. We measure the wake response to a change in operational set point of the model turbine, e.g., from low to high tip speed ratio or vice versa, to examine how it might influence a downwind turbine. A modified torque transducer after Kang et al. (2010) is used to calibrate in situ voltage measurements of the model turbine's generator operating across a resistance to the torque on the generator. Changes in operational set point are made by changing the resistance or the flow speed, which change the rotation rate measured by an encoder. Single camera PIV on vertical planes reveals statistics of the wake at various distances downstream as the turbine transitions from one set point to another. From these measurements, we infer how the unsteady operation of a turbine may affect the performance of a downwind turbine as its incoming flow. National Science Foundation and the Atkinson Center for a Sustainable Future.

  2. Space tug point design study. Volume 2: Operations, performance and requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    A design study to determine the configuration and characteristics of a space tug was conducted. Among the subjects analyzed in the study are: (1) flight and ground operations, (2) vehicle flight performance and performance enhancement techniques, (3) flight requirements, (4) basic design criteria, and (5) functional and procedural interface requirements between the tug and other systems.

  3. Fixed points and closure operators: Programmological aspects

    SciTech Connect

    Bui, D.B.; Red`ko, V.N.

    1995-09-01

    The present article continues the research of others into the declarative nature of specification languages that describe the properties of objects in the form of solutions of equations with the left-hand side solved for the unknown, i.e., equations of the form x = f(x), x {element_of} D, where D is the data universe and f is an operator on D. The main purpose of this study is to elucidate the essence of the iterative processes that can be used to find the solutions of this equation, i.e., the fixed points of the operator f. In the programmological context, the data universe should be viewed as a data type, i.e., the set of data should be endowed with an appropriate structure. Operating on the lowest level of abstraction, we regard the data universe as a partially ordered set (poset), and thus speak of the first approximation, the next approximation, and so on. The relevant programmological applications also impose certain restrictions on the operators. Specifically, we consider operators that preserve the initial relation on data. Indeed, if x{prime} is an approximation to x, then we naturally stipulate that f(x{prime}) be an approximation to f(x). Moreover, the operators in applications are always effective; and as we know, effectiveness implies monotonicity. Thus, we consider equations of the form x = f(x), x {element_of} D, where D is a poset and f a monotone operator on D. Contrary to other references, where we used direct methods traceable to the work of Tarski, the main instrument in this study are the so-called a-chains of the element a of a poset relative to an operator. This enables us, first, to describe the fixed points of a monotone operator on any poset and, second, to construct the closure operator on the set of fixed points of the initial monotone operator.

  4. Infrared image mosaic using point feature operators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Zhen; Sun, Shaoyuan; Shen, Zhenyi; Hou, Junjie; Zhao, Haitao

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, we study infrared image mosaic around a single point of rotation, aiming at expanding the narrow view range of infrared images. We propose an infrared image mosaic method using point feature operators including image registration and image synthesis. Traditional mosaic algorithms usually use global image registration methods to extract the feature points in the global image, which cost too much time as well as considerable matching errors. To address this issue, we first roughly calculate the image shift amount using phase correlation and determine the overlap region between images, and then extract image features in overlap region, which shortens the registration time and increases the quality of feature points. We improve the traditional algorithm through increasing constraints of point matching based on prior knowledge of image shift amount based on which the weighted map is computed using fade in-out method. The experimental results verify that the proposed method has better real time performance and robustness.

  5. Fuel/Engine/Airframe Trade-Off Study. Operational Effects of Increased Freeze Point Fuels.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-08-01

    bridged shut, * thus trapping liquid fuel between stringers. * Some gaps remain in the study of fuel at low temperatures. Reconmmended future work ...for the tracks studied . It is conceivable that more severe ground soak conditions than considered in this work could invalidate the above conclusion...Evaluate other airplanes using procedures similar to those of this study . This extension of work would be relatively simple in view of the success of

  6. Sensitivity and alternative operating point studies on a high charge CW FEL injector test stand at CEBAF

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, H.; Kehne, D.; Benson, S.

    1995-12-31

    A high charge CW FEL injector test stand is being built at CEBAF based on a 500 kV DC laser gun, a 1500 MHz room-temperature buncher, and a high-gradient ({approx}10 MV/m) CEBAF cryounit containing two 1500 MHz CEBAF SRF cavities. Space-charge-dominated beam dynamics simulations show that this injector should be an excellent high-brightness electron beam source for CW UV FELs if the nominal parameters assigned to each component of the system are experimentally achieved. Extensive sensitivity and alternative operating point studies have been conducted numerically to establish tolerances on the parameters of various injector system components. The consequences of degraded injector performance, due to failure to establish and/or maintain the nominal system design parameters, on the performance of the main accelerator and the FEL itself are discussed.

  7. A study on the influence of operating circuit on the position of emission point of fluorescent lamp

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uetsuki, Tadao; Genba, Yuki; Kanda, Takashi

    2009-10-01

    High efficiency fluorescent lamp systems driven by high frequency are very popular for general lighting. Therefore it is very beneficial to be able to predict the lamp's life before the lamp dying, because people can buy a new lamp just before the lamp dying and need not have stocks. In order to judge the lifetime of a lamp it is very useful to know where the emission point is on the electrode filament. With regard to a method for grasping the emission point, it has been reported that the distance from the emission point to the end of the filament can be calculated by measuring the voltage across the filament and the currents flowing in both ends of the filament. The lamp's life can be predicted by grasping the movement of the emission point with operating time. Therefore it is very important to confirm whether the movement of the emission point changes or not when the operating circuit is changed. The authors investigated the difference in the way the emission points moved for two lamp systems which are very popular. One system had an electronic ballast having an auxiliary power source for the heating cathode. Another system had an electronic ballast with no power source, but with a capacitor connected to the lamp in parallel. In this presentation these measurement results will be reported.

  8. Linearization: Students Forget the Operating Point

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roubal, J.; Husek, P.; Stecha, J.

    2010-01-01

    Linearization is a standard part of modeling and control design theory for a class of nonlinear dynamical systems taught in basic undergraduate courses. Although linearization is a straight-line methodology, it is not applied correctly by many students since they often forget to keep the operating point in mind. This paper explains the topic and…

  9. Linearization: Students Forget the Operating Point

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roubal, J.; Husek, P.; Stecha, J.

    2010-01-01

    Linearization is a standard part of modeling and control design theory for a class of nonlinear dynamical systems taught in basic undergraduate courses. Although linearization is a straight-line methodology, it is not applied correctly by many students since they often forget to keep the operating point in mind. This paper explains the topic and…

  10. GLAS Spacecraft Pointing Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Born, George H.; Gold, Kenn; Ondrey, Michael; Kubitschek, Dan; Axelrad, Penina; Komjathy, Attila

    1998-01-01

    Science requirements for the GLAS mission demand that the laser altimeter be pointed to within 50 m of the location of the previous repeat ground track. The satellite will be flown in a repeat orbit of 182 days. Operationally, the required pointing information will be determined on the ground using the nominal ground track, to which pointing is desired, and the current propagated orbit of the satellite as inputs to the roll computation algorithm developed by CCAR. The roll profile will be used to generate a set of fit coefficients which can be uploaded on a daily basis and used by the on-board attitude control system. In addition, an algorithm has been developed for computation of the associated command quaternions which will be necessary when pointing at targets of opportunity. It may be desirable in the future to perform the roll calculation in an autonomous real-time mode on-board the spacecraft. GPS can provide near real-time tracking of the satellite, and the nominal ground track can be stored in the on-board computer. It will be necessary to choose the spacing of this nominal ground track to meet storage requirements in the on-board environment. Several methods for generating the roll profile from a sparse reference ground track are presented.

  11. 47 CFR 22.591 - Channels for point-to-point operation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Channels for point-to-point operation. 22.591... PUBLIC MOBILE SERVICES Paging and Radiotelephone Service Point-To-Point Operation § 22.591 Channels for point-to-point operation. The following channels are allocated for assignment to fixed transmitters...

  12. 47 CFR 22.591 - Channels for point-to-point operation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Channels for point-to-point operation. 22.591... PUBLIC MOBILE SERVICES Paging and Radiotelephone Service Point-To-Point Operation § 22.591 Channels for point-to-point operation. The following channels are allocated for assignment to fixed transmitters...

  13. 47 CFR 22.591 - Channels for point-to-point operation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Channels for point-to-point operation. 22.591... PUBLIC MOBILE SERVICES Paging and Radiotelephone Service Point-To-Point Operation § 22.591 Channels for point-to-point operation. The following channels are allocated for assignment to fixed transmitters...

  14. 47 CFR 22.591 - Channels for point-to-point operation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Channels for point-to-point operation. 22.591... PUBLIC MOBILE SERVICES Paging and Radiotelephone Service Point-To-Point Operation § 22.591 Channels for point-to-point operation. The following channels are allocated for assignment to fixed transmitters...

  15. 47 CFR 22.591 - Channels for point-to-point operation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Channels for point-to-point operation. 22.591... PUBLIC MOBILE SERVICES Paging and Radiotelephone Service Point-To-Point Operation § 22.591 Channels for point-to-point operation. The following channels are allocated for assignment to fixed transmitters...

  16. A study to assess the influence of interprofessional point of care simulation training on safety culture in the operating theatre environment of a university teaching hospital.

    PubMed

    Hinde, Theresa; Gale, Thomas; Anderson, Ian; Roberts, Martin; Sice, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Interprofessional point of care or in situ simulation is used as a training tool in our operating theatre directorate with the aim of improving crisis behaviours. This study aimed to assess the impact of interprofessional point of care simulation on the safety culture of operating theatres. A validated Safety Attitude Questionnaire was administered to staff members before each simulation scenario and then re-administered to the same staff members after 6-12 months. Pre- and post-training Safety Attitude Questionnaire-Operating Room (SAQ-OR) scores were compared using paired sample t-tests. Analysis revealed a statistically significant perceived improvement in both safety (p < 0.001) and teamwork (p = 0.013) climate scores (components of safety culture) 6-12 months after interprofessional simulation training. A growing body of literature suggests that a positive safety culture is associated with improved patient outcomes. Our study supports the implementation of point of care simulation as a useful intervention to improve safety culture in theatres.

  17. Multiprocessing system for performing floating point arithmetic operations

    SciTech Connect

    Nguyenphu, M.; Thatcher, L.E.

    1990-10-02

    This patent describes a data processing system. It comprises: a fixed point arithmetic processor means for performing fixed point arithmetic operations and including control means for decoding a floating point arithmetic instruction specifying a floating point arithmetic operation, and an addressing means for computing addresses for floating point data for the floating point operation from a memory means. The memory means for storing data and including means for receiving the addresses from the fixed point arithmetic processor means and providing the floating point data to a floating point arithmetic processor means; and the floating point arithmetic processor means for performing floating point arithmetic operations and including control means for decoding the floating point instruction and performing the specified floating point arithmetic operation upon the floating point data from the memory means.

  18. Documentation of quality control and operator training at point-of-care testing: a College of American Pathologists Q-Probes study of 106 institutions.

    PubMed

    Dyhdalo, Kathryn S; Howanitz, Peter J; Wilkinson, David S; Souers, Rhona J; Jones, Bruce A

    2014-11-01

    Operator training, quality control, and proper follow-up for out-of-range quality control (QC) events are crucial steps that must be adequately performed and documented to ensure excellent patient care and regulatory compliance. To examine point-of-care testing (POCT) personnel training and QC documentation/compliance. Participants in a POCT documentation study of the College of American Pathologists Q-Probes program collected data retrospectively for glucose and urine dipstick testing regarding test operators, operator competency assessment, and QC documentation. Documentation was assessed for participant adherence to 4 quality indicators: (1) whether test operator training was up to date, (2) whether the test operator names were noted in the test records, (3) whether QC was performed, and (4) whether out-of-range QC events were followed up. Data were analyzed for associations with institutional demographic and practice variables. The institutional median number of POCT personnel was 648 for blood glucose and 76 for urine dipstick testing, with a median number of 105 948 glucose tests and 9113 urine tests performed. Ninety-four percent (3830 of 4074) of the test operators completed training or competency assessment within the prior 12 months, 96.8% (21 603 of 22 317) of the test records documented the operator, and 95.7% (19 632 of 20 514) of the expected QC events (per institutional regulations) were documented. Approximately 3% (659 of 20 514) of the QC events were outside the designated range (an average of 6 out-of-range QC events were identified per institution [n = 106]). Of the out-of-range QC events, 92.6% (610 of 659) had documentation of appropriate follow-up. Most laboratories (176 of 179; 98.3%) violated specimen requirements by storing POCT urine specimens for less than 24 hours. There was greater than 90% compliance for POCT documentation and nearly 96% of expected QC events were properly documented.

  19. Improving Small Signal Stability through Operating Point Adjustment

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Zhenyu; Zhou, Ning; Tuffner, Francis K.; Chen, Yousu; Trudnowski, Daniel J.; Mittelstadt, William; Hauer, John F.; Dagle, Jeffery E.

    2010-09-30

    ModeMeter techniques for real-time small signal stability monitoring continue to mature, and more and more phasor measurements are available in power systems. It has come to the stage to bring modal information into real-time power system operation. This paper proposes to establish a procedure for Modal Analysis for Grid Operations (MANGO). Complementary to PSS’s and other traditional modulation-based control, MANGO aims to provide suggestions such as increasing generation or decreasing load for operators to mitigate low-frequency oscillations. Different from modulation-based control, the MANGO procedure proactively maintains adequate damping for all time, instead of reacting to disturbances when they occur. Effect of operating points on small signal stability is presented in this paper. Implementation with existing operating procedures is discussed. Several approaches for modal sensitivity estimation are investigated to associate modal damping and operating parameters. The effectiveness of the MANGO procedure is confirmed through simulation studies of several test systems.

  20. Operational equations for the five-point rectangle

    SciTech Connect

    Silver, G.L.

    1993-09-15

    Two operational polynomials are demonstrated for the four-point rectangle with center point. The equations are exact on the points and the surfaces they describe ordinarily fit known monotonic surfaces better tan the standard five-point equation, as judged by the L{sub 2} norm test. Equations for fitting the five-point rectangle by sines and cosines are presented.

  1. Engineering to Control Noise, Loading, and Optimal Operating Points

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell R. Swartz

    2000-11-12

    Successful engineering of low-energy nuclear systems requires control of noise, loading, and optimum operating point (OOP) manifolds. The latter result from the biphasic system response of low-energy nuclear reaction (LENR)/cold fusion systems, and their ash production rate, to input electrical power. Knowledge of the optimal operating point manifold can improve the reproducibility and efficacy of these systems in several ways. Improved control of noise, loading, and peak production rates is available through the study, and use, of OOP manifolds. Engineering of systems toward the OOP-manifold drive-point peak may, with inclusion of geometric factors, permit more accurate uniform determinations of the calibrated activity of these materials/systems.

  2. On the operating point of cortical computation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Robert; Stimberg, Marcel; Wimmer, Klaus; Obermayer, Klaus

    2010-06-01

    In this paper, we consider a class of network models of Hodgkin-Huxley type neurons arranged according to a biologically plausible two-dimensional topographic orientation preference map, as found in primary visual cortex (V1). We systematically vary the strength of the recurrent excitation and inhibition relative to the strength of the afferent input in order to characterize different operating regimes of the network. We then compare the map-location dependence of the tuning in the networks with different parametrizations with the neuronal tuning measured in cat V1 in vivo. By considering the tuning of neuronal dynamic and state variables, conductances and membrane potential respectively, our quantitative analysis is able to constrain the operating regime of V1: The data provide strong evidence for a network, in which the afferent input is dominated by strong, balanced contributions of recurrent excitation and inhibition, operating in vivo. Interestingly, this recurrent regime is close to a regime of "instability", characterized by strong, self-sustained activity. The firing rate of neurons in the best-fitting model network is therefore particularly sensitive to small modulations of model parameters, possibly one of the functional benefits of this particular operating regime.

  3. 47 CFR 101.137 - Interconnection of private operational fixed point-to-point microwave stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... point-to-point microwave stations. 101.137 Section 101.137 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES FIXED MICROWAVE SERVICES Technical Standards § 101.137 Interconnection of private operational fixed point-to-point microwave stations. Private...

  4. 47 CFR 101.137 - Interconnection of private operational fixed point-to-point microwave stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... point-to-point microwave stations. 101.137 Section 101.137 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES FIXED MICROWAVE SERVICES Technical Standards § 101.137 Interconnection of private operational fixed point-to-point microwave stations. Private...

  5. 47 CFR 101.137 - Interconnection of private operational fixed point-to-point microwave stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... point-to-point microwave stations. 101.137 Section 101.137 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES FIXED MICROWAVE SERVICES Technical Standards § 101.137 Interconnection of private operational fixed point-to-point microwave stations....

  6. 47 CFR 101.137 - Interconnection of private operational fixed point-to-point microwave stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... point-to-point microwave stations. 101.137 Section 101.137 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES FIXED MICROWAVE SERVICES Technical Standards § 101.137 Interconnection of private operational fixed point-to-point microwave stations....

  7. 47 CFR 101.137 - Interconnection of private operational fixed point-to-point microwave stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... point-to-point microwave stations. 101.137 Section 101.137 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES FIXED MICROWAVE SERVICES Technical Standards § 101.137 Interconnection of private operational fixed point-to-point microwave stations....

  8. Imaging study on acupuncture points

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, X. H.; Zhang, X. Y.; Liu, C. L.; Dang, R. S.; Ando, M.; Sugiyama, H.; Chen, H. S.; Ding, G. H.

    2009-09-01

    The topographic structures of acupuncture points were investigated by using the synchrotron radiation based Dark Field Image (DFI) method. Four following acupuncture points were studied: Sanyinjiao, Neiguan, Zusanli and Tianshu. We have found that at acupuncture point regions there exists the accumulation of micro-vessels. The images taken in the surrounding tissue out of the acupuncture points do not show such kind of structure. It is the first time to reveal directly the specific structure of acupuncture points by X-ray imaging.

  9. Predictors for bowel resection and the presence of a pathological lead point for operated childhood intussusception: A multi-center study.

    PubMed

    Wong, Carol W Y; Jin, Shuguang; Chen, Jie; Tam, Paul K H; Wong, Kenneth K Y

    2016-12-01

    Intussusception may require bowel resection. Here, we aim to define factors that predict the need of bowel resection and the presence of pathological lead point. A retrospective review was taken from three tertiary centers for all operated intussusception patients from January 2010 to December 2014. Patient demographics were recorded. Statistical analysis was performed, and risk factors were derived by binary logistic regression. Five thousand ninety-six patients were treated for intussusception with 73 (57 male, 16 female) operated. The median age was 23.2months, and median duration of symptoms was 2days. Twenty-eight patients (38.4%) required bowel resection. Logistic regression demonstrated that older age (p=0.018) and longer duration of symptoms (p=0.009) were associated with bowel resection. Furthermore, older age was a predictive factor for the presence of a pathological lead point (p=0.01). A palpable abdominal mass was also found to be associated with the need of bowel resection (risk ratio 2.3) and the presence of pathological lead point (risk ratio 2.3) independently. Older age at presentation and a longer duration of symptoms are positive predictors for the need of bowel resection in intussusception. The presence of a pathological lead point is more likely in older children. Case series with no comparison group - Level IV. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. 77 FR 70847 - Entergy Nuclear Indian Point 2, LLC; Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc., Indian Point Nuclear...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-27

    ... COMMISSION Entergy Nuclear Indian Point 2, LLC; Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc., Indian Point Nuclear Generating Unit No. 2, Request for Action AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Request for Action... that the NRC take action with regard to Indian Point Nuclear Generating Unit No. 2. The petitioner's...

  11. Automated design of image operators that detect interest points.

    PubMed

    Trujillo, Leonardo; Olague, Gustavo

    2008-01-01

    This work describes how evolutionary computation can be used to synthesize low-level image operators that detect interesting points on digital images. Interest point detection is an essential part of many modern computer vision systems that solve tasks such as object recognition, stereo correspondence, and image indexing, to name but a few. The design of the specialized operators is posed as an optimization/search problem that is solved with genetic programming (GP), a strategy still mostly unexplored by the computer vision community. The proposed approach automatically synthesizes operators that are competitive with state-of-the-art designs, taking into account an operator's geometric stability and the global separability of detected points during fitness evaluation. The GP search space is defined using simple primitive operations that are commonly found in point detectors proposed by the vision community. The experiments described in this paper extend previous results (Trujillo and Olague, 2006a,b) by presenting 15 new operators that were synthesized through the GP-based search. Some of the synthesized operators can be regarded as improved manmade designs because they employ well-known image processing techniques and achieve highly competitive performance. On the other hand, since the GP search also generates what can be considered as unconventional operators for point detection, these results provide a new perspective to feature extraction research.

  12. On Motivating Operations at the Point of Online Purchase Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fagerstrom, Asle; Arntzen, Erik

    2013-01-01

    Consumer behavior analysis can be applied over a wide range of economic topics in which the main focus is the contingencies that influence the behavior of the economic agent. This paper provides an overview on the work that has been done on the impact from motivating operations at the point of online purchase situation. Motivating operations, a…

  13. On Motivating Operations at the Point of Online Purchase Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fagerstrom, Asle; Arntzen, Erik

    2013-01-01

    Consumer behavior analysis can be applied over a wide range of economic topics in which the main focus is the contingencies that influence the behavior of the economic agent. This paper provides an overview on the work that has been done on the impact from motivating operations at the point of online purchase situation. Motivating operations, a…

  14. Testing single point incremental forming molds for thermoforming operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afonso, Daniel; de Sousa, Ricardo Alves; Torcato, Ricardo

    2016-10-01

    Low pressure polymer processing processes as thermoforming or rotational molding use much simpler molds then high pressure processes like injection. However, despite the low forces involved with the process, molds manufacturing for this operations is still a very material, energy and time consuming operation. The goal of the research is to develop and validate a method for manufacturing plastically formed sheets metal molds by single point incremental forming (SPIF) operation for thermoforming operation. Stewart platform based SPIF machines allow the forming of thick metal sheets, granting the required structural stiffness for the mold surface, and keeping the short lead time manufacture and low thermal inertia.

  15. Orbital operations study. Appendix B: Operational procedures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Galvin, D. M.; Mattson, H. L.; True, D. M.; Anderson, N. R.; Mehrbach, E.; Gianformaggio, A.; Steinwachs, W. L.; Turkel, S. H.

    1972-01-01

    Operational procedures for each alternate approach for each interfacing activity of the orbital operations study are presented. The applicability of the procedures to interfacing element pairs is identified.

  16. Properties and Cycle Performance of Refrigerant Blends Operating Near and Above the Refrigerant Critical Point, Task 2: Air Conditioner System Study

    SciTech Connect

    Piotr A. Domanski; W. Vance Payne

    2002-10-31

    The main goal of this project was to investigate and compare the performance of an R410A air conditioner to that of an R22 air conditioner, with specific interest in performance at high ambient temperatures at which the condenser of the R410A system may be operating above the refrigerant's critical point. Part 1 of this project consisted of conducting comprehensive measurements of thermophysical for refrigerant R125 and refrigerant blends R410A and R507A and developing new equation of state formulations and mixture models for predicting thermophysical properties of HFC refrigerant blends. Part 2 of this project conducted performance measurements of split-system, 3-ton R22 and R410A residential air conditioners in the 80 to 135 F (27.8 to 57.2 C) outdoor temperature range and development of a system performance model. The performance data was used in preparing a beta version of EVAP-COND, a windows-based simulation package for predicting performance of finned-tube evaporators and condensers. The modeling portion of this project also included the formulation of a model for an air-conditioner equipped with a thermal expansion valve (TXV). Capacity and energy efficiency ratio (EER) were measured and compared. The R22 system's performance was measured over the outdoor ambient temperature range of 80 to 135 F (27.8 to 57.2 C). The same test range was planned for the R410A system. However, the compressor's safety system cut off the compressor at the 135.0 F (57.2 C) test temperature. The highest measurement on this system was at 130.0 F (54.4 C). Subsequently, a custom-manufactured R410A compressor with a disabled safety system and a more powerful motor was installed and performance was measured at outdoor temperatures up to 155.0 F (68.3 C). Both systems had similar capacity and EER performance at 82.0 F (27.8 C). The capacity and EER degradation of both systems were nearly linearly dependent with rising ambient outdoor ambient test temperatures. The performance

  17. Applications of operational calculus: equations for the five-point rectangle and robust center point estimators

    SciTech Connect

    Silver, Gary L

    2009-01-01

    Equations for interpolating five data in rectangular array are seldom encountered in textbooks. This paper describes a new method that renders polynomial and exponential equations for the design. Operational center point estimators are often more more resistant to the effects of an outlying datum than the mean.

  18. Matrix product density operators: Renormalization fixed points and boundary theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cirac, J. I.; Pérez-García, D.; Schuch, N.; Verstraete, F.

    2017-03-01

    We consider the tensors generating matrix product states and density operators in a spin chain. For pure states, we revise the renormalization procedure introduced in (Verstraete et al., 2005) and characterize the tensors corresponding to the fixed points. We relate them to the states possessing zero correlation length, saturation of the area law, as well as to those which generate ground states of local and commuting Hamiltonians. For mixed states, we introduce the concept of renormalization fixed points and characterize the corresponding tensors. We also relate them to concepts like finite correlation length, saturation of the area law, as well as to those which generate Gibbs states of local and commuting Hamiltonians. One of the main result of this work is that the resulting fixed points can be associated to the boundary theories of two-dimensional topological states, through the bulk-boundary correspondence introduced in (Cirac et al., 2011).

  19. A systematic review and meta-analysis of studies evaluating the performance and operational characteristics of dual point-of-care tests for HIV and syphilis.

    PubMed

    Gliddon, Harriet D; Peeling, Rosanna W; Kamb, Mary L; Toskin, Igor; Wi, Teodora E; Taylor, Melanie M

    2017-07-26

    Mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of syphilis and HIV continue to be important yet preventable causes of perinatal and infant morbidity and mortality. To systematically review, critically appraise and perform a meta-analysis to evaluate the operational characteristics of dual rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) for HIV/syphilis and evaluate whether they are cost effective, acceptable and easy to use. Systematic review and meta-analysis. We searched seven electronic bibliographic databases from 2012 to December 2016 with no language restrictions. Search keywords included HIV, syphilis and diagnosis. We included studies that evaluated the operational characteristics of dual HIV/syphilis RDTs. Outcomes included diagnostic test accuracy, cost effectiveness, ease of use and interpretation and acceptability. All studies were assessed against quality criteria and assessed for risk of bias. Of 1914 identified papers, 18 were included for the meta-analysis of diagnostic accuracy for HIV and syphilis. All diagnostic accuracy evaluation studies showed a very high sensitivity and specificity for HIV and a lower, yet adequate, sensitivity and specificity for syphilis, with some variation among types of test. Dual screening for HIV and syphilis was more cost effective than single rapid tests for HIV and syphilis and prevented more adverse pregnancy outcomes. Qualitative data suggested dual RDTs were highly acceptable to clients, who cited time to result, cost and the requirement of a single finger prick as important characteristics of dual RDTs. The results of this systematic review and meta-analysis can be used by policy-makers and national programme managers who are considering implementing dual RDTs for HIV and syphilis. PROSPERO 2016:CRD42016049168. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  20. Operations research study to implement HIV and syphilis point-of-care tests and assess client perceptions in a marginalised area of Lima, Peru.

    PubMed

    Flores, Elaine C; Lluque, Maria E; Chiappe, Marina; Lino, Rosabel; Bayer, Angela M

    2015-09-01

    In Peru, a significant proportion of people tested for HIV and syphilis do not receive timely results. Our objective was to assess the institutional feasibility of implementing simultaneous HIV/syphilis point-of-care tests and client perceptions regarding these point-of-care tests. Point-of-care tests were implemented in a hospital consultation room in a marginalised zone of Lima. A time-series design was used to compare the proportion of tested clients who received timely results, with and without the point-of-care test intervention. Experience and satisfaction with point-of-care tests was evaluated with 149 people. In the 6 months without intervention, 69% and 61% of clients tested for HIV and syphilis, respectively, received their results within the required 45-minute window. During the 2-month point-of-care test intervention, all clients tested for HIV (n = 387) and syphilis (n = 398) received their results within 45 minutes. All clients surveyed were completely satisfied (52%) or satisfied (48%) with the simultaneous HIV/syphilis point-of-care test screening process. Additionally, 73% strongly agreed with the statement 'I feel satisfied with the rapid testing process.' Screening using point-of-care tests represents an important opportunity to reduce the time, resource and cost burden for users and institutions and increase the proportion of users receiving their test results in a timely manner.

  1. Cask fleet operations study

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-01-01

    The Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 assigned to the Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Civilian Waste Management the responsibility for disposing of high-level waste and spent fuel. A significant part of that responsibility involves transporting nuclear waste materials within the federal waste management system; that is, from the waste generator to the repository. The lead responsibility for transportation operations has been assigned to Oak Ridge Operations, with Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) providing technical support through the Transportation Operations Support Task Group. One of the ORNL support activities involves assessing what facilities, equipment and services are required to assure that an acceptable, cost-effective and safe transportation operations system can be designed, operated and maintained. This study reviews, surveys and assesses the experience of Nuclear Assurance Corporation (NAC) in operating a fleet of spent-fuel shipping casks to aid in developing the spent-fuel transportation system.

  2. On Point: The United States Army in Operation Iraqi Freedom

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-01-01

    colleagues in the other services, and others may find useful or interesting. On Point will not be the last word or the definitive history of this operation...has, by definition , no secure areas. Every unit in the theater must be prepared to fight to accomplish its mission. OIF drove this idea home and...The Darkest Day By any definition , 23 March 2003 proved a dark day for the coalition forces fi ghting in Iraq. CFLCC’s maneuver units fought from As

  3. Operator Certification Study Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Water Works Association, Denver, CO.

    This study guide contains typical questions and answers that all levels of water treatment plant operators might expect to find on a certification examination. The manual covers the basic sciences, treatment techniques, testing procedures, and federal legislation. (Author/SB)

  4. Operator Certification Study Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Water Works Association, Denver, CO.

    This study guide contains typical questions and answers that all levels of water treatment plant operators might expect to find on a certification examination. The manual covers the basic sciences, treatment techniques, testing procedures, and federal legislation. (Author/SB)

  5. An Efficient Operator for the Change Point Estimation in Partial Spline Model.

    PubMed

    Han, Sung Won; Zhong, Hua; Putt, Mary

    2015-05-01

    In bio-informatics application, the estimation of the starting and ending points of drop-down in the longitudinal data is important. One possible approach to estimate such change times is to use the partial spline model with change points. In order to use estimate change time, the minimum operator in terms of a smoothing parameter has been widely used, but we showed that the minimum operator causes large MSE of change point estimates. In this paper, we proposed the summation operator in terms of a smoothing parameter, and our simulation study showed that the summation operator gives smaller MSE for estimated change points than the minimum one. We also applied the proposed approach to the experiment data, blood flow during photodynamic cancer therapy.

  6. The influence of transducer operating point on distortion generation in the cochlea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sirjani, Davud B.; Salt, Alec N.; Gill, Ruth M.; Hale, Shane A.

    2004-03-01

    Distortion generated by the cochlea can provide a valuable indicator of its functional state. In the present study, the dependence of distortion on the operating point of the cochlear transducer and its relevance to endolymph volume disturbances has been investigated. Calculations have suggested that as the operating point moves away from zero, second harmonic distortion would increase. Cochlear microphonic waveforms were analyzed to derive the cochlear transducer operating point and to quantify harmonic distortions. Changes in operating point and distortion were measured during endolymph manipulations that included 200-Hz tone exposures at 115-dB SPL, injections of artificial endolymph into scala media at 80, 200, or 400 nl/min, and treatment with furosemide given intravenously or locally into the cochlea. Results were compared with other functional changes that included action potential thresholds at 2.8 or 8 kHz, summating potential, endocochlear potential, and the 2 f1-f2 and f2-f1 acoustic emissions. The results demonstrated that volume disturbances caused changes in the operating point that resulted in predictable changes in distortion. Understanding the factors influencing operating point is important in the interpretation of distortion measurements and may lead to tests that can detect abnormal endolymph volume states.

  7. Nonlinear Burn Control and Operating Point Optimization in ITER

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyer, Mark; Schuster, Eugenio

    2013-10-01

    Control of the fusion power through regulation of the plasma density and temperature will be essential for achieving and maintaining desired operating points in fusion reactors and burning plasma experiments like ITER. In this work, a volume averaged model for the evolution of the density of energy, deuterium and tritium fuel ions, alpha-particles, and impurity ions is used to synthesize a multi-input multi-output nonlinear feedback controller for stabilizing and modulating the burn condition. Adaptive control techniques are used to account for uncertainty in model parameters, including particle confinement times and recycling rates. The control approach makes use of the different possible methods for altering the fusion power, including adjusting the temperature through auxiliary heating, modulating the density and isotopic mix through fueling, and altering the impurity density through impurity injection. Furthermore, a model-based optimization scheme is proposed to drive the system as close as possible to desired fusion power and temperature references. Constraints are considered in the optimization scheme to ensure that, for example, density and beta limits are avoided, and that optimal operation is achieved even when actuators reach saturation. Supported by the NSF CAREER award program (ECCS-0645086).

  8. 24 CFR 902.47 - Management operations portion of total PHAS points.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Management operations portion of... Operations § 902.47 Management operations portion of total PHAS points. Of the total 100 points available for a PHAS score, a PHA may receive up to 30 points based on the Management Operations Indicator....

  9. 75 FR 3856 - Drawbridge Operation Regulations; Great Egg Harbor Bay, Between Beesleys Point and Somers Point, NJ

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-25

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 117 RIN 1625-AA09 Drawbridge Operation Regulations; Great Egg Harbor Bay... Bridge over Great Egg Harbor Bay, at mile 3.5, between Beesleys Point and Somers Point, NJ. This rule... notice of proposed rulemaking (NPRM) entitled Drawbridge Operation Regulations; Great Egg Harbor...

  10. Sliding control of pointing and tracking with operator spline estimation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dwyer, Thomas A. W., III; Fakhreddine, Karray; Kim, Jinho

    1989-01-01

    It is shown how a variable structure control technique could be implemented to achieve precise pointing and good tracking of a deformable structure subject to fast slewing maneuvers. The correction torque that has to be applied to the structure is based on estimates of upper bounds on the model errors. For a rapid rotation of the deformable structure, the elastic response can be modeled by oscillators driven by angular acceleration, and where stiffness and damping coefficients are also angular velocity and acceleration dependent. By transforming this slew-driven elastic dynamics into bilinear form (be regarding the vector made up of the angular velocity, squared angular velocity and angular acceleration components, which appear in the coefficients as the input to the deformation dynamics), an operator spline can be constructed, that gives a low order estimate of the induced disturbance. Moreover, a worst case error bound between the estimated deformation and the unknown exact deformation is also generated, which can be used where required in the sliding control correction.

  11. Improvements in floating point addition/subtraction operations

    DOEpatents

    Farmwald, P.M.

    1984-02-24

    Apparatus is described for decreasing the latency time associated with floating point addition and subtraction in a computer, using a novel bifurcated, pre-normalization/post-normalization approach that distinguishes between differences of floating point exponents.

  12. Operations dashboard: comparative study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramly, Noor Nashriq; Ismail, Ahmad Zuhairi; Aziz, Mohd Haris; Ahmad, Nurul Haszeli

    2011-10-01

    In this present days and age, there are increasing needs for companies to monitor application and infrastructure health. Apart from having proactive measures to secure their application and infrastructure, many see monitoring dashboards as crucial investment in disaster preparedness. As companies struggle to find the best solution to cater for their needs and interest for monitoring their application and infrastructure's health, this paper summarizes the studies made on several known off-the-shelf operations dashboard and in-house developed dashboard. A few criteria of good dashboard are collected from previous studies carried out by several researchers and rank them according to importance and business needs. The finalized criteria that will be discussed in later sections are data visualization, performance indicator, dashboard personalization, audit capability and alert/ notification. Comparative studies between several popular dashboards were then carried out to determine whether they met these criteria that we derived from the first exercise. The findings hopefully can be used to educate and provide an overview of selecting the best IT application and infrastructure operations dashboard that suit business needs, thus become the main contribution of this paper.

  13. Optimal operating points of oscillators using nonlinear resonators.

    PubMed

    Kenig, Eyal; Cross, M C; Villanueva, L G; Karabalin, R B; Matheny, M H; Lifshitz, Ron; Roukes, M L

    2012-11-01

    We demonstrate an analytical method for calculating the phase sensitivity of a class of oscillators whose phase does not affect the time evolution of the other dynamic variables. We show that such oscillators possess the possibility for complete phase noise elimination. We apply the method to a feedback oscillator which employs a high Q weakly nonlinear resonator and provide explicit parameter values for which the feedback phase noise is completely eliminated and others for which there is no amplitude-phase noise conversion. We then establish an operational mode of the oscillator which optimizes its performance by diminishing the feedback noise in both quadratures, thermal noise, and quality factor fluctuations. We also study the spectrum of the oscillator and provide specific results for the case of 1/f noise sources.

  14. Optimal operating points of oscillators using nonlinear resonators

    PubMed Central

    Kenig, Eyal; Cross, M. C.; Villanueva, L. G.; Karabalin, R. B.; Matheny, M. H.; Lifshitz, Ron; Roukes, M. L.

    2013-01-01

    We demonstrate an analytical method for calculating the phase sensitivity of a class of oscillators whose phase does not affect the time evolution of the other dynamic variables. We show that such oscillators possess the possibility for complete phase noise elimination. We apply the method to a feedback oscillator which employs a high Q weakly nonlinear resonator and provide explicit parameter values for which the feedback phase noise is completely eliminated and others for which there is no amplitude-phase noise conversion. We then establish an operational mode of the oscillator which optimizes its performance by diminishing the feedback noise in both quadratures, thermal noise, and quality factor fluctuations. We also study the spectrum of the oscillator and provide specific results for the case of 1/f noise sources. PMID:23214857

  15. Parallel point-multiplication architecture using combined group operations for high-speed cryptographic applications

    PubMed Central

    Saeedi, Ehsan; Kong, Yinan

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a novel parallel architecture for fast hardware implementation of elliptic curve point multiplication (ECPM), which is the key operation of an elliptic curve cryptography processor. The point multiplication over binary fields is synthesized on both FPGA and ASIC technology by designing fast elliptic curve group operations in Jacobian projective coordinates. A novel combined point doubling and point addition (PDPA) architecture is proposed for group operations to achieve high speed and low hardware requirements for ECPM. It has been implemented over the binary field which is recommended by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). The proposed ECPM supports two Koblitz and random curves for the key sizes 233 and 163 bits. For group operations, a finite-field arithmetic operation, e.g. multiplication, is designed on a polynomial basis. The delay of a 233-bit point multiplication is only 3.05 and 3.56 μs, in a Xilinx Virtex-7 FPGA, for Koblitz and random curves, respectively, and 0.81 μs in an ASIC 65-nm technology, which are the fastest hardware implementation results reported in the literature to date. In addition, a 163-bit point multiplication is also implemented in FPGA and ASIC for fair comparison which takes around 0.33 and 0.46 μs, respectively. The area-time product of the proposed point multiplication is very low compared to similar designs. The performance (1Area×Time=1AT) and Area × Time × Energy (ATE) product of the proposed design are far better than the most significant studies found in the literature. PMID:28459831

  16. Parallel point-multiplication architecture using combined group operations for high-speed cryptographic applications.

    PubMed

    Hossain, Md Selim; Saeedi, Ehsan; Kong, Yinan

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a novel parallel architecture for fast hardware implementation of elliptic curve point multiplication (ECPM), which is the key operation of an elliptic curve cryptography processor. The point multiplication over binary fields is synthesized on both FPGA and ASIC technology by designing fast elliptic curve group operations in Jacobian projective coordinates. A novel combined point doubling and point addition (PDPA) architecture is proposed for group operations to achieve high speed and low hardware requirements for ECPM. It has been implemented over the binary field which is recommended by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). The proposed ECPM supports two Koblitz and random curves for the key sizes 233 and 163 bits. For group operations, a finite-field arithmetic operation, e.g. multiplication, is designed on a polynomial basis. The delay of a 233-bit point multiplication is only 3.05 and 3.56 μs, in a Xilinx Virtex-7 FPGA, for Koblitz and random curves, respectively, and 0.81 μs in an ASIC 65-nm technology, which are the fastest hardware implementation results reported in the literature to date. In addition, a 163-bit point multiplication is also implemented in FPGA and ASIC for fair comparison which takes around 0.33 and 0.46 μs, respectively. The area-time product of the proposed point multiplication is very low compared to similar designs. The performance ([Formula: see text]) and Area × Time × Energy (ATE) product of the proposed design are far better than the most significant studies found in the literature.

  17. Jamming Transition of Point-To Traffic Through Co-Operative Mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Jun; Qin, Zheng; Chen, Xiqun; Xu, Zhaohui

    2012-11-01

    We study the jamming transition of two-dimensional point-to-point traffic through co-operative mechanisms (DCM) using computer simulation. We propose two decentralized co-operative mechanisms CM which are incorporated into the point-to-point traffic models: stepping aside (CM-SA) and choosing alternative routes (CM-CAR). Incorporating CM-SA is to prevent a type of ping-pong jumps from happening when two objects standing face-to-face want to move in opposite directions. Incorporating CM-CAR is to handle the conflict when more than one object competes for the same point in parallel update. We investigate and compare four models mainly from fundamental diagrams, jam patterns and the distribution of co-operation probability. It is found that although it decreases the average velocity a little, the CM-SA increases the critical density and the average flow. Despite increasing the average velocity, the CM-CAR decreases the average flow by creating substantially vacant areas inside jam clusters. We investigate the jam patterns of four models carefully and explain this result qualitatively. In addition, we discuss the advantage and applicability of decentralized co-operation modeling.

  18. 76 FR 60733 - Drawbridge Operation Regulations; Narrow Bay, Smith Point, NY

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-30

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 117 Drawbridge Operation Regulations; Narrow Bay, Smith Point, NY AGENCY... the Smith Point Bridge, 6.1, across Narrow Bay, between Smith Point and Fire Island, New York. The.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The Smith Point Bridge, across Narrow Bay, mile 6.1, between Smith Point and Fire...

  19. Point-to-Point! Validation of the Small Aircraft Transportation System Higher Volume Operations Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Daniel M.

    2006-01-01

    Described is the research process that NASA researchers used to validate the Small Aircraft Transportation System (SATS) Higher Volume Operations (HVO) concept. The four phase building-block validation and verification process included multiple elements ranging from formal analysis of HVO procedures to flight test, to full-system architecture prototype that was successfully shown to the public at the June 2005 SATS Technical Demonstration in Danville, VA. Presented are significant results of each of the four research phases that extend early results presented at ICAS 2004. HVO study results have been incorporated into the development of the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NGATS) vision and offer a validated concept to provide a significant portion of the 3X capacity improvement sought after in the United States National Airspace System (NAS).

  20. A fixed point theorem for certain operator valued maps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, D. R.; Omalley, M. J.

    1978-01-01

    In this paper, we develop a family of Neuberger-like results to find points z epsilon H satisfying L(z)z = z and P(z) = z. This family includes Neuberger's theorem and has the additional property that most of the sequences q sub n converge to idempotent elements of B sub 1(H).

  1. 78 FR 58570 - Environmental Assessment; Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc., Big Rock Point

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-24

    ... COMMISSION Environmental Assessment; Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc., Big Rock Point AGENCY: Nuclear... Nuclear Operations, Inc. (ENO) (the applicant or the licensee), for the Big Rock Point (BRP) Independent... for Production and Utilization Facilities,'' for the Big Rock Point (BRP) Independent Spent Fuel...

  2. 77 FR 8904 - Entergy Nuclear Indian Point 3, LLC.; Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc., Indian Point Nuclear...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-15

    ...) pump to alternate power supply or align city water to charging pumps. 3 7A Operate 480V Bus 3A breaker... Appendix R Diesel Generator (ARDG) to 480 V Buses 2A, 3A, 5A, and 312. 7 7A, 60A Swap 31 or 32 charging... Auxiliary Feedwater 23 Locally start 33 AFW (AFW) Pump Room. Pump via operation of the Bus 6A circuit...

  3. 78 FR 23845 - Drawbridge Operation Regulations; Narrow Bay, Smith Point, NY

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-23

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 117 Drawbridge Operation Regulations; Narrow Bay, Smith Point, NY AGENCY... the Smith Point Bridge, mile 6.1, across Narrow Bay, between Smith Point and Fire Island, New York. The deviation is necessary to facilitate the Smith Point Triathlon. This deviation allows the bridge...

  4. Schrödinger Operator with Non-Zero Accumulation Points of Complex Eigenvalues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bögli, Sabine

    2016-11-01

    We study Schrödinger operators {H=-Δ + V} in {L2(Ω)} where {Ω} is {R^d} or the half-space {{R+d}} , subject to (real) Robin boundary conditions in the latter case. For {p > d} we construct a non-real potential {V in Lp(Ω) \\cap L^{∞}(Ω)} that decays at infinity so that H has infinitely many non-real eigenvalues accumulating at every point of the essential spectrum {σ_ess(H)=[0,∞)} . This demonstrates that the Lieb-Thirring inequalities for selfadjoint Schrödinger operators are no longer true in the non-selfadjoint case.

  5. Schrödinger Operator with Non-Zero Accumulation Points of Complex Eigenvalues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bögli, Sabine

    2017-06-01

    We study Schrödinger operators {H=-Δ + V} in {L2(Ω)} where {Ω} is R^d or the half-space R+d, subject to (real) Robin boundary conditions in the latter case. For {p > d} we construct a non-real potential {V \\in Lp(Ω) \\cap L^{∞}(Ω)} that decays at infinity so that H has infinitely many non-real eigenvalues accumulating at every point of the essential spectrum {σ_ess(H)=[0,∞)}. This demonstrates that the Lieb-Thirring inequalities for selfadjoint Schrödinger operators are no longer true in the non-selfadjoint case.

  6. Stabilizing operation point technique based on the tunable distributed feedback laser for interferometric sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, Xuefeng; Zhou, Xinlei; Yu, Qingxu

    2016-02-01

    We describe a stabilizing operation point technique based on the tunable Distributed Feedback (DFB) laser for quadrature demodulation of interferometric sensors. By introducing automatic lock quadrature point and wavelength periodically tuning compensation into an interferometric system, the operation point of interferometric system is stabilized when the system suffers various environmental perturbations. To demonstrate the feasibility of this stabilizing operation point technique, experiments have been performed using a tunable-DFB-laser as light source to interrogate an extrinsic Fabry-Perot interferometric vibration sensor and a diaphragm-based acoustic sensor. Experimental results show that good tracing of Q-point was effectively realized.

  7. 47 CFR 22.621 - Channels for point-to-multipoint operation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Channels for point-to-multipoint operation. 22... Channels for point-to-multipoint operation. The following channels are allocated for assignment to... service. Unless otherwise indicated, all channels have a bandwidth of 20 kHz and are designated by...

  8. 47 CFR 22.621 - Channels for point-to-multipoint operation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Channels for point-to-multipoint operation. 22... Channels for point-to-multipoint operation. The following channels are allocated for assignment to... service. Unless otherwise indicated, all channels have a bandwidth of 20 kHz and are designated by...

  9. ICESat Spacecraft Pointing Support Study Grant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The Geodetic Laser Altimeter System (GLAS) mission is designed to measure changes in the elevations of the polar ice sheets. The ICESat satellite will carry the GLAS altimeter, and will have a nominal orbit altitude of 600 km and orbit inclination of 94deg. The groundtrack repeat period is 182 days and will be maintained to less than 1 km at the equator via routine orbit adjustments. Science requirements for the GLAS mission demand that the laser altimeter be pointed to within 50 meters of a predetermined reference groundtrack. As the actual ICESat groundtrack drifts away from the reference groundtrack, the attitude must be controlled such that the altimeter boresight is pointed, crosstrack, at the reference groundtrack. This orientation may be described by a rotation, theta, about the instantaneous geodetic local horizontal direction vector, which lies in the orbit plane and is oriented in the direction of motion of the satellite. The attitude is further complicated by requirements related to thermal and power considerations for various instruments, spacecraft components, and solar array orientation. In order to keep battery temperatures within the specified operating range, and maintain near normal pointing of the solar array with respect to the sunline direction vector as the orbit precesses relative to the sun, the satellite will be oriented in one of four fixed yaw modes. Each of these yaw modes depends upon the angle between the orbit plane and the sunline direction vector; this angle is designated Beta'. Table 1 shows the satellite yaw angle, Psi, for a given Beta' range. The angle Psi represents a rotation about the satellite z-axis, which points in the geodetic nadir direction; for Psi = 0deg the satellite x-axis points in the direction of motion.

  10. 77 FR 56115 - Drawbridge Operation Regulations; Fort Point Channel, Boston, MA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-12

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 117 Drawbridge Operation Regulations; Fort Point Channel, Boston, MA... of the Northern Avenue Bridge, mile 0.1, across the Fort Point Channel, at Boston, Massachusetts...: The Northern Avenue Bridge, across the Fort Point Channel, mile 0.1, has a vertical clearance in...

  11. Analysis of conditions for operating the S193 Rad/Scat in the solar pointing mode

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pintar, J.; Sobti, A.

    1973-01-01

    The S193 Rad/Scat, although initially programmed for operating in the earth pointing mode, can be operated in the solar pointing mode as well. The usual coordinate systems for describing the S193 in orbit are defined. The instructions for the operation of the radiometer and scatterometer are presented in terms of standard Euler angles for these coordinate systems. A sample analysis for the scatterometer is described. The relationships between the various Euler angles and physically meaningful orbit parameters are defined.

  12. Study of Huizhou architecture component point cloud in surface reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Runmei; Wang, Guangyin; Ma, Jixiang; Wu, Yulu; Zhang, Guangbin

    2017-06-01

    Surface reconfiguration softwares have many problems such as complicated operation on point cloud data, too many interaction definitions, and too stringent requirements for inputing data. Thus, it has not been widely popularized so far. This paper selects the unique Huizhou Architecture chuandou wooden beam framework as the research object, and presents a complete set of implementation in data acquisition from point, point cloud preprocessing and finally implemented surface reconstruction. Firstly, preprocessing the acquired point cloud data, including segmentation and filtering. Secondly, the surface’s normals are deduced directly from the point cloud dataset. Finally, the surface reconstruction is studied by using Greedy Projection Triangulation Algorithm. Comparing the reconstructed model with the three-dimensional surface reconstruction softwares, the results show that the proposed scheme is more smooth, time efficient and portable.

  13. Lunar libration point flight dynamics study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    Two satellite concepts, Halo and Hummingbird, for a lunar libration point satellite to be used as a tracking and communications link with the far side of the moon were evaluated. Study areas included flight dynamics, communications, attitude control, propulsion, and system integration. Both concepts were proved feasible, but Halo was shown to be the better concept.

  14. Attendance and Grade Point Average: A Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strickland, Vinnie P.

    This study investigated the correlation between attendance and grade point average among high school juniors, hypothesizing that there would not be a significant correlation between the two. The sample consisted of 32 students randomly selected from among 172 high school students enrolled in a Chicago public school during school years 1995-1996…

  15. 78 FR 37591 - Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc., Entergy Nuclear Indian Point Unit 2, LLC, Issuance of Director...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-21

    ... COMMISSION Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc., Entergy Nuclear Indian Point Unit 2, LLC, Issuance of Director's... (ADAMS) Accession No. ML12108A052), concerns the operation of Indian Point Nuclear Generating Unit No. 2 (Indian Point 2), owned by Entergy Nuclear Indian Point 2, LLC, and operated by Entergy Nuclear Operations...

  16. On the Scaling Limits of Determinantal Point Processes with Kernels Induced by Sturm-Liouville Operators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bornemann, Folkmar

    2016-08-01

    By applying an idea of Borodin and Olshanski [J. Algebra 313 (2007), 40-60], we study various scaling limits of determinantal point processes with trace class projection kernels given by spectral projections of selfadjoint Sturm-Liouville operators. Instead of studying the convergence of the kernels as functions, the method directly addresses the strong convergence of the induced integral operators. We show that, for this notion of convergence, the Dyson, Airy, and Bessel kernels are universal in the bulk, soft-edge, and hard-edge scaling limits. This result allows us to give a short and unified derivation of the known formulae for the scaling limits of the classical random matrix ensembles with unitary invariance, that is, the Gaussian unitary ensemble (GUE), the Wishart or Laguerre unitary ensemble (LUE), and the MANOVA (multivariate analysis of variance) or Jacobi unitary ensemble (JUE).

  17. Wilson, fixed point and Neuberger's lattice Dirac operator for the Schwinger model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farchioni, F.; Hip, I.; Lang, C. B.

    1998-12-01

    We perform a comparison between different lattice regularizations of the Dirac operator for massless fermions in the framework of the single and two flavor Schwinger model. We consider a) the Wilson-Dirac operator at the critical value of the hopping parameter; b) Neuberger's overlap operator; c) the fixed point operator. We test chiral properties of the spectrum, dispersion relations and rotational invariance of the mesonic bound state propagators.

  18. 78 FR 20144 - Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc., Indian Point Nuclear Generating Unit 3

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-03

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc., Indian Point Nuclear Generating Unit 3 AGENCY: Nuclear... for public comment. SUMMARY: The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is reconsidering...

  19. 78 FR 52987 - Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc., Indian Point Nuclear Generating Unit 3

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc., Indian Point Nuclear Generating Unit 3 AGENCY: Nuclear.... SUMMARY: The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has concluded that existing exemptions from...

  20. 78 FR 39018 - Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc.; Indian Point Nuclear Generating Unit Nos. 2 and 3

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc.; Indian Point Nuclear Generating Unit Nos. 2 and 3 AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Supplement to Final Supplement 38 to the Generic...

  1. 75 FR 3497 - Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc., Entergy Nuclear Indian Point 2, LLC, Entergy Nuclear Indian...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-21

    ..., ``Hybrid Hearing Procedures for Expansion of Spent Fuel Storage Capacity at Civilian Nuclear Power Reactors... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc., Entergy Nuclear Indian Point 2, LLC, Entergy Nuclear...

  2. 78 FR 33223 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; York River, Between Yorktown and Gloucester Point, VA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-04

    ... Gloucester Point and Yorktown, VA. This deviation is necessary to facilitate electrical motor maintenance on... operating regulations set out in 33 CFR 117.1025, to facilitate electric motor maintenance on the structure...

  3. Operating Point Self-Regulator for Giant Magneto-Impedance Magnetic Sensor

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Han; Pan, Zhongming; Zhang, Dasha

    2017-01-01

    The giant magneto-impedance (GMI) magnetic sensor based on the amorphous wire has been believed to be tiny dimensions, high sensitivity, quick response, and small power consumption. This kind of sensor is usually working under a bias magnetic field that is called the sensor’s operating point. However, the changes in direction and intensity of the external magnetic field, or the changes in sensing direction and position of the sensor, will lead to fluctuations in operating point when the sensor is working without any magnetic shield. In this work, a GMI sensor based on the operating point self-regulator is designed to overcome the problem. The regulator is based on the compensated feedback control that can maintain the operating point of a GMI sensor in a uniform position. With the regulator, the GMI sensor exhibits a stable sensitivity regardless of the external magnetic field. In comparison with the former work, the developed operating point regulator can improve the accuracy and stability of the operating point and therefore decrease the noise and disturbances that are introduced into the GMI sensor by the previous self-regulation system. PMID:28492514

  4. Operating Point Self-Regulator for Giant Magneto-Impedance Magnetic Sensor.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Han; Pan, Zhongming; Zhang, Dasha

    2017-05-11

    The giant magneto-impedance (GMI) magnetic sensor based on the amorphous wire has been believed to be tiny dimensions, high sensitivity, quick response, and small power consumption. This kind of sensor is usually working under a bias magnetic field that is called the sensor's operating point. However, the changes in direction and intensity of the external magnetic field, or the changes in sensing direction and position of the sensor, will lead to fluctuations in operating point when the sensor is working without any magnetic shield. In this work, a GMI sensor based on the operating point self-regulator is designed to overcome the problem. The regulator is based on the compensated feedback control that can maintain the operating point of a GMI sensor in a uniform position. With the regulator, the GMI sensor exhibits a stable sensitivity regardless of the external magnetic field. In comparison with the former work, the developed operating point regulator can improve the accuracy and stability of the operating point and therefore decrease the noise and disturbances that are introduced into the GMI sensor by the previous self-regulation system.

  5. Applications of operational calculus: trigonometric interpolating equation for the eight-point cube

    SciTech Connect

    Silver, Gary L

    2009-01-01

    A general method for obtaining a trigonometric-type interpolating equation for the eight-point cubical array is illustrated. It can often be used to reproduce a ninth datum at an arbitrary point near the center of the array by adjusting a variable exponent. The new method complements operational polynomial and exponential methods for the same design.

  6. MANGO – Modal Analysis for Grid Operation: A Method for Damping Improvement through Operating Point Adjustment

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Zhenyu; Zhou, Ning; Tuffner, Francis K.; Chen, Yousu; Trudnowski, Daniel J.; Diao, Ruisheng; Fuller, Jason C.; Mittelstadt, William A.; Hauer, John F.; Dagle, Jeffery E.

    2010-10-18

    Small signal stability problems are one of the major threats to grid stability and reliability in the U.S. power grid. An undamped mode can cause large-amplitude oscillations and may result in system breakups and large-scale blackouts. There have been several incidents of system-wide oscillations. Of those incidents, the most notable is the August 10, 1996 western system breakup, a result of undamped system-wide oscillations. Significant efforts have been devoted to monitoring system oscillatory behaviors from measurements in the past 20 years. The deployment of phasor measurement units (PMU) provides high-precision, time-synchronized data needed for detecting oscillation modes. Measurement-based modal analysis, also known as ModeMeter, uses real-time phasor measurements to identify system oscillation modes and their damping. Low damping indicates potential system stability issues. Modal analysis has been demonstrated with phasor measurements to have the capability of estimating system modes from both oscillation signals and ambient data. With more and more phasor measurements available and ModeMeter techniques maturing, there is yet a need for methods to bring modal analysis from monitoring to actions. The methods should be able to associate low damping with grid operating conditions, so operators or automated operation schemes can respond when low damping is observed. The work presented in this report aims to develop such a method and establish a Modal Analysis for Grid Operation (MANGO) procedure to aid grid operation decision making to increase inter-area modal damping. The procedure can provide operation suggestions (such as increasing generation or decreasing load) for mitigating inter-area oscillations.

  7. Fixed Points and Stability for a Sum of Two Operators in Locally Convex Spaces

    DTIC Science & Technology

    topological spaces is formulated in terms of specific topologies on the set of nonlinear operators, and a theorem on the stability of fixed points of a sum of two operators is given. As a byproduct, sufficient conditions for a mapping to be open or to be onto are

  8. 47 CFR 90.473 - Operation of internal transmitter control systems through licensed fixed control points.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Transmitter Control Internal Transmitter Control Systems § 90.473 Operation of internal transmitter control systems through licensed fixed control points. An internal transmitter control system may be operated... internal system from the transmitter control circuit or to close the system......

  9. 47 CFR 90.473 - Operation of internal transmitter control systems through licensed fixed control points.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Transmitter Control Internal Transmitter Control Systems § 90.473 Operation of internal transmitter control systems through licensed fixed control points. An internal transmitter control system may be operated... internal system from the transmitter control circuit or to close the system......

  10. 47 CFR 90.471 - Points of operation in internal transmitter control systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... licensee for internal communications and transmitter control purposes. Operating positions in internal... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Points of operation in internal transmitter control systems. 90.471 Section 90.471 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION...

  11. 47 CFR 90.471 - Points of operation in internal transmitter control systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... licensee for internal communications and transmitter control purposes. Operating positions in internal... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Points of operation in internal transmitter control systems. 90.471 Section 90.471 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION...

  12. 47 CFR 90.471 - Points of operation in internal transmitter control systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... licensee for internal communications and transmitter control purposes. Operating positions in internal... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Points of operation in internal transmitter control systems. 90.471 Section 90.471 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION...

  13. To the point: teaching the obstetrics and gynecology medical student in the operating room.

    PubMed

    Hampton, Brittany S; Craig, LaTasha B; Abbott, Jodi F; Buery-Joyner, Samantha D; Dalrymple, John L; Forstein, David A; Hopkins, Laura; McKenzie, Margaret L; Page-Ramsey, Sarah M; Pradhan, Archana; Wolf, Abigail; Graziano, Scott C

    2015-10-01

    This article, from the "To the Point" series that is prepared by the Association of Professors of Gynecology and Obstetrics Undergraduate Medical Education Committee, is a review of considerations for teaching the medical student in the operating room during the obstetrics/gynecology clerkship. The importance of the medical student operating room experience and barriers to learning in the operating room are discussed. Specific considerations for the improvement of medical student learning and operating room experience, which include the development of operating room objectives and specific curricula, an increasing awareness regarding role modeling, and faculty development, are reviewed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. EDF field operation computerization study

    SciTech Connect

    Guillot, L.; Pirus, D.

    2006-07-01

    The main control room has been the subject of extensive research and actions into improved operations assistance. On the other hand, few studies concern the need for field operation improvements, which have few assistance resources adapted to working requirements. Why? Past studies have shown the inability of technology to assume job constraints (insufficient screen readability, excessive equipment weight, prohibitive response times). Nevertheless, today new technologies can be adapted to field operations, and they justify further study. Real needs exist: local operations are often complex and are led in difficult environments where conditions prevent the use of paper-based documents. The issue is a significant risk of error which might impact plant reliability. The cumbersome nature of paper procedures, the working environment and the operational feed-back of experience led us to concentrate on the field operation to identify how it may be improved by the use of these new technologies. Such equipment would allow a better traceability and quality of actions. Possibility of communications with other plant personnel and information sharing may be also immediately available for all. This paper presents a study which intends to collect assistance requirements through an analysis of working practices and organizations with local personnel. Our aim is to identify which of those might benefit from IT support. This collection was obtained through interviews and observations. These two methods helped us to define potential needs, constraints and consequences for work organization. This paper presents the study results and findings, identifies professions which may benefit from the use of wearable computers and describes how the reliability and efficiency of human actions would be improved. Finally we identify design requirements and criteria to be used for writing the technical specifications for a test prototype. (authors)

  15. Implementation of neural network hardware based on a floating point operation in an FPGA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jeong-Seob; Jung, Seul

    2007-12-01

    This paper presents a hardware design and implementation of the radial basis function (RBF) neural network (NN) by the hardware description language. Due to its nonlinear characteristics, it is very difficult to implement for a system with integer-based operation. To develop nonlinear functions such sigmoid functions or exponential functions, floating point operations are required. The exponential function is designed based on the 32bit single-precision floating-point format. In addition, to update weights in the network, the back-propagation algorithm is also implemented in the hardware. Most operations are performed in the floating-point based arithmetic unit and accomplished sequentially by the instruction order stored in ROM. The NN is implemented and tested on the Altera FPGA "Cyclone2 EP2C70F672C8" for nonlinear classifications.

  16. Providing nearest neighbor point-to-point communications among compute nodes of an operational group in a global combining network of a parallel computer

    DOEpatents

    Archer, Charles J.; Faraj, Ahmad A.; Inglett, Todd A.; Ratterman, Joseph D.

    2012-10-23

    Methods, apparatus, and products are disclosed for providing nearest neighbor point-to-point communications among compute nodes of an operational group in a global combining network of a parallel computer, each compute node connected to each adjacent compute node in the global combining network through a link, that include: identifying each link in the global combining network for each compute node of the operational group; designating one of a plurality of point-to-point class routing identifiers for each link such that no compute node in the operational group is connected to two adjacent compute nodes in the operational group with links designated for the same class routing identifiers; and configuring each compute node of the operational group for point-to-point communications with each adjacent compute node in the global combining network through the link between that compute node and that adjacent compute node using that link's designated class routing identifier.

  17. Pointing calibration of the MKIVA DSN antennas Voyager 2 Uranus encounter operations support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stevens, R.; Riggs, R. L.; Wood, B.

    1986-01-01

    The MKIVA DSN introduced significant changes to the pointing systems of the 34-meter and 64-meter diameter antennas. To support the Voyager 2 Uranus Encounter, the systems had to be accurately calibrated. Reliable techniques for use of the calibrations during intense mission support activity had to be provided. This article describes the techniques used to make the antenna pointing calibrations and to demonstrate their operational use. The results of the calibrations are summarized.

  18. Phase-operation for conduction electron by atomic-scale scattering via single point-defect

    SciTech Connect

    Nagaoka, Katsumi Yaginuma, Shin; Nakayama, Tomonobu

    2014-03-17

    In order to propose a phase-operation technique for conduction electrons in solid, we have investigated, using scanning tunneling microscopy, an atomic-scale electron-scattering phenomenon on a 2D subband state formed in Si. Particularly, we have noticed a single surface point-defect around which a standing-wave pattern created, and a dispersion of scattering phase-shifts by the defect-potential against electron-energy has been measured. The behavior is well-explained with appropriate scattering parameters: the potential height and radius. This result experimentally proves that the atomic-scale potential scattering via the point defect enables phase-operation for conduction electrons.

  19. An efficient and robust implicit operator for upwind point Gauss Seidel method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Joo Sung; Kwon, Oh Joon

    2007-06-01

    An efficient and robust implicit operator for the point Gauss-Seidel method is presented for solving the compressible Euler equations. The new implicit operator was derived by adding a scalar form of artificial dissipation to the upwind implicit side. The amount of artificial dissipation was locally adjusted using a weighting factor based on the solution gradient. For validation, the performance of the new implicit operator was compared in detail with that of several existing implicit operators which have been widely used for solving the flow equations. Numerical experiments showed that the stability and convergence characteristics of the new implicit operator are significantly better than those of other existing implicit operators for calculating flows ranging from subsonic to hypersonic speeds.

  20. A unified treatment of some perturbed fixed point iterative methods with an infinite pool of operators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikazad, Touraj; Abbasi, Mokhtar

    2017-04-01

    In this paper, we introduce a subclass of strictly quasi-nonexpansive operators which consists of well-known operators as paracontracting operators (e.g., strictly nonexpansive operators, metric projections, Newton and gradient operators), subgradient projections, a useful part of cutter operators, strictly relaxed cutter operators and locally strongly Féjer operators. The members of this subclass, which can be discontinuous, may be employed by fixed point iteration methods; in particular, iterative methods used in convex feasibility problems. The closedness of this subclass, with respect to composition and convex combination of operators, makes it useful and remarkable. Another advantage with members of this subclass is the possibility to adapt them to handle convex constraints. We give convergence result, under mild conditions, for a perturbation resilient iterative method which is based on an infinite pool of operators in this subclass. The perturbation resilient iterative methods are relevant and important for their possible use in the framework of the recently developed superiorization methodology for constrained minimization problems. To assess the convergence result, the class of operators and the assumed conditions, we illustrate some extensions of existence research works and some new results.

  1. Multi-point transmission problems for Sturm-Liouville equation with an abstract linear operator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muhtarov, Fahreddin; Kandemir, Mustafa; Mukhtarov, O. Sh.

    2017-04-01

    In this paper, we consider the spectral problem for the equation -u″(x) + (A + λI)u(x) = f(x) on the two disjoint intervals (-1, 0) and (0, 1) together with multi-point boundary conditions and supplementary transmission conditions at the point of interaction x = 0, where A is an abstract linear operator. So, our problem is not a pure differential boundary-value one. Starting with the analysis of the principal part of the problem, the coercive estimates, the Fredholmness and isomorphism are established for the main problem. The obtained results are new even in the case of boundary conditions without internal points.

  2. Common fixed points in best approximation for Banach operator pairs with Ciric type I-contractions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hussain, N.

    2008-02-01

    The common fixed point theorems, similar to those of Ciric [Lj.B. Ciric, On a common fixed point theorem of a Gregus type, Publ. Inst. Math. (Beograd) (N.S.) 49 (1991) 174-178; Lj.B. Ciric, On Diviccaro, Fisher and Sessa open questions, Arch. Math. (Brno) 29 (1993) 145-152; Lj.B. Ciric, On a generalization of Gregus fixed point theorem, Czechoslovak Math. J. 50 (2000) 449-458], Fisher and Sessa [B. Fisher, S. Sessa, On a fixed point theorem of Gregus, Internat. J. Math. Math. Sci. 9 (1986) 23-28], Jungck [G. Jungck, On a fixed point theorem of Fisher and Sessa, Internat. J. Math. Math. Sci. 13 (1990) 497-500] and Mukherjee and Verma [R.N. Mukherjee, V. Verma, A note on fixed point theorem of Gregus, Math. Japon. 33 (1988) 745-749], are proved for a Banach operator pair. As applications, common fixed point and approximation results for Banach operator pair satisfying Ciric type contractive conditions are obtained without the assumption of linearity or affinity of either T or I. Our results unify and generalize various known results to a more general class of noncommuting mappings.

  3. Clinical, operational and economic outcomes of point-of-care blood gas analysis in COPD patients.

    PubMed

    Oliver, Paloma; Buno, Antonio; Alvarez-Sala, Rodolfo; Fernandez-Calle, Pilar; Alcaide, Maria Jose; Casitas, Raquel; Garcia-Quero, Cristina; Madero, Rosario; Gomez-Rioja, Ruben; Iturzaeta, Jose Manuel

    2015-04-01

    Arterial blood gas analysis is relevant in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) management. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the use of a blood gas analyzer in pulmonology departments improves the clinical, operational and economic outcomes when compared with clinical laboratory measurements. It is an observational prospective study. 112 patients were selected. After specimen collection, the measurement was performed both in pulmonology office as point-of-care and in laboratory. We evaluated clinical outcomes (modification of the indication of long-term oxygen therapy (LTOT) according to results, changes in blood gas analysis results, relationship of the partial pressure of oxygen (PaO2) obtained in the medical visit and velocity of change of the PaO2, influence of total haemoglobin concentration and the change in PaO2), operational outcomes (turnaround time (TAT) from specimen collection to receiving the blood gas analysis report) and economic outcomes (overall cost per process of patient care). There were discrepancies in the indication of LTOT in 13.4% of patients. All parameters showed changes. PaO2 levels showed changes in 2 ways, though they frequently increase over time. The correlation was not good in the other two clinical outcomes. The median TATs in pulmonology office were 1 min versus 79 in laboratory, with 52 min for specimen preparation and transport and 17 min for TAT intralaboratory. The overall cost for the 112 patients in pulmonology office and laboratory was 16,769.89€ and 22,260.97€ respectively. The use of a blood gas analyzer in a pulmonology office improves clinical, operational and economic outcomes when compared with clinical laboratory. Copyright © 2014 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Studying Fluid Properties Near the Critical Point

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gauthier, J. P.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    Illustrated and described is the design of an apparatus that can be used by students in a short period of time. It gives quantitative results showing evidence of thermoelastic properties of fluids near the critical point. (Author/MA)

  5. Space station operating system study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horn, Albert E.; Harwell, Morris C.

    1988-01-01

    The current phase of the Space Station Operating System study is based on the analysis, evaluation, and comparison of the operating systems implemented on the computer systems and workstations in the software development laboratory. Primary emphasis has been placed on the DEC MicroVMS operating system as implemented on the MicroVax II computer, with comparative analysis of the SUN UNIX system on the SUN 3/260 workstation computer, and to a limited extent, the IBM PC/AT microcomputer running PC-DOS. Some benchmark development and testing was also done for the Motorola MC68010 (VM03 system) before the system was taken from the laboratory. These systems were studied with the objective of determining their capability to support Space Station software development requirements, specifically for multi-tasking and real-time applications. The methodology utilized consisted of development, execution, and analysis of benchmark programs and test software, and the experimentation and analysis of specific features of the system or compilers in the study.

  6. 77 FR 40091 - Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc.; Indian Point Nuclear Generating, Units 2 and 3

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc.; Indian Point Nuclear Generating, Units 2 and 3 AGENCY: Nuclear... statement for license renewal of nuclear plants; availability. SUMMARY: The U.S. Nuclear...

  7. 76 FR 65118 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Bear Creek, Sparrows Point, MD

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-20

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 117 RIN 1625-AA09 Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Bear Creek, Sparrows... Avenue) highway toll drawbridge across Bear Creek, mile 1.5, Sparrows Point, MD was replaced with a fixed... Bear Creek, mile 1.5 was removed and replaced with a fixed bridge in 1998. Prior to 1998, a regulation...

  8. 47 CFR 90.471 - Points of operation in internal transmitter control systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... control systems. 90.471 Section 90.471 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PRIVATE LAND MOBILE RADIO SERVICES Transmitter Control Internal Transmitter Control Systems § 90.471 Points of operation in internal transmitter control systems....

  9. 47 CFR 90.471 - Points of operation in internal transmitter control systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... control systems. 90.471 Section 90.471 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PRIVATE LAND MOBILE RADIO SERVICES Transmitter Control Internal Transmitter Control Systems § 90.471 Points of operation in internal transmitter control systems....

  10. ATP-gamma-S shifts the operating point of outer hair cell transduction towards scala tympani.

    PubMed

    Bobbin, Richard P; Salt, Alec N

    2005-07-01

    ATP receptor agonists and antagonists alter cochlear mechanics as measured by changes in distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAE). Some of the effects on DPOAEs are consistent with the hypothesis that ATP affects mechano-electrical transduction and the operating point of the outer hair cells (OHCs). This hypothesis was tested by monitoring the effect of ATP-gamma-S on the operating point of the OHCs. Guinea pigs anesthetized with urethane and with sectioned middle ear muscles were used. The cochlear microphonic (CM) was recorded differentially (scala vestibuli referenced to scala tympani) across the basal turn before and after perfusion (20 min) of the perilymph compartment with artificial perilymph (AP) and ATP-gamma-S dissolved in AP. The operating point was derived from the cochlear microphonics (CM) recorded in response low frequency (200 Hz) tones at high level (106, 112 and 118 dB SPL). The analysis procedure used a Boltzmann function to simulate the CM waveform and the Boltzmann parameters were adjusted to best-fit the calculated waveform to the CM. Compared to the initial perfusion with AP, ATP-gamma-S (333 microM) enhanced peak clipping of the positive peak of the CM (that occurs during organ of Corti displacements towards scala tympani), which was in keeping with ATP-induced displacement of the transducer towards scala tympani. CM waveform analysis quantified the degree of displacement and showed that the changes were consistent with the stimulus being centered on a different region of the transducer curve. The change of operating point meant that the stimulus was applied to a region of the transducer curve where there was greater saturation of the output on excursions towards scala tympani and less saturation towards scala vestibuli. A significant degree of recovery of the operating point was observed after washing with AP. Dose response curves generated by perfusing ATP-gamma-S (333 microM) in a cumulative manner yielded an EC(50) of 19.8 micro

  11. Revisiting the dilatation operator of the Wilson-Fisher fixed point

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liendo, Pedro

    2017-07-01

    We revisit the order-ε dilatation operator of the Wilson-Fisher fixed point obtained by Kehrein, Pismak, and Wegner in light of recent results in conformal field theory. Our approach is algebraic and based only on symmetry principles. The starting point of our analysis is that the first correction to the dilatation operator is a conformal invariant, which implies that its form is fixed up to an infinite set of coefficients associated with the scaling dimensions of higher-spin currents. These coefficients can be fixed using well-known perturbative results, however, they were recently re-obtained using CFT arguments without relying on perturbation theory. Our analysis then implies that all order-ε scaling dimensions of the Wilson-Fisher fixed point can be fixed by symmetry.

  12. Astrometric Telescope Facility isolation and pointing study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hibble, William; Allen, Terry; Jackson, Louis; Medbery, James; Self, Richard

    1988-01-01

    The Astrometric Telescope Facility (ATF), an optical telescope designed to detect extrasolar planetary systems, is scheduled to be a major user of the Space Station's Payload Pointing System (PPS). However, because the ATF has such a stringent pointing stability specification and requires + or - 180 deg roll about its line of sight, mechanisms to enhance the basic PPS capability are required. The ATF pointing performance achievable by the addition of a magnetic isolation and pointing system (MIPS) between the PPS upper gimbal and the ATF, and separately, by the addition of a passive isolation system between the Space Station and the PPS base was investigated. The candidate MIPS can meet the ATF requirements in the presence of a 0.01 g disturbance. It fits within the available annular region between the PPS and the ATF while meeting power and weight limitations and providing the required roll motion, payload data and power services. By contrast, the passive base isolator system must have an unrealistically low isolation bandwidth on all axes to meet ATF pointing requirements and does not provide roll about the line of sight.

  13. The Hubble Space Telescope fine guidance system operating in the coarse track pointing control mode

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whittlesey, Richard

    1993-01-01

    The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Fine Guidance System has set new standards in pointing control capability for earth orbiting spacecraft. Two precision pointing control modes are implemented in the Fine Guidance System; one being a Coarse Track Mode which employs a pseudo-quadrature detector approach and the second being a Fine Mode which uses a two axis interferometer implementation. The Coarse Track Mode was designed to maintain FGS pointing error to within 20 milli-arc seconds (rms) when guiding on a 14.5 Mv star. The Fine Mode was designed to maintain FGS pointing error to less than 3 milli-arc seconds (rms). This paper addresses the HST FGS operating in the Coarse Track Mode. An overview of the implementation, the operation, and both the predicted and observed on orbit performance is presented. The discussion includes a review of the Fine Guidance System hardware which uses two beam steering Star Selector servos, four photon counting photomultiplier tube detectors, as well as a 24 bit microprocessor, which executes the control system firmware. Unanticipated spacecraft operational characteristics are discussed as they impact pointing performance. These include the influence of spherically aberrated star images as well as the mechanical shocks induced in the spacecraft during and following orbital day/night terminator crossings. Computer modeling of the Coarse Track Mode verifies the observed on orbit performance trends in the presence of these optical and mechanical disturbances. It is concluded that the coarse track pointing control function is performing as designed and is providing a robust pointing control capability for the Hubble Space Telescope.

  14. Empirical study on human acupuncture point network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jian; Shen, Dan; Chang, Hui; He, Da-Ren

    2007-03-01

    Chinese medical theory is ancient and profound, however is confined by qualitative and faint understanding. The effect of Chinese acupuncture in clinical practice is unique and effective, and the human acupuncture points play a mysterious and special role, however there is no modern scientific understanding on human acupuncture points until today. For this reason, we attend to use complex network theory, one of the frontiers in the statistical physics, for describing the human acupuncture points and their connections. In the network nodes are defined as the acupuncture points, two nodes are connected by an edge when they are used for a medical treatment of a common disease. A disease is defined as an act. Some statistical properties have been obtained. The results certify that the degree distribution, act degree distribution, and the dependence of the clustering coefficient on both of them obey SPL distribution function, which show a function interpolating between a power law and an exponential decay. The results may be helpful for understanding Chinese medical theory.

  15. A Mathematical Study of the Game "Twenty-Four Points".

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shi, Yixun

    1999-01-01

    Presents a mathematical analysis of the game "twenty-four points" that aims to apply arithmetic operations on the four numbers to reach a specific number. This game can improve children's ability to do mental arithmetic. (ASK)

  16. Renormalization of quark bilinear operators in a momentum-subtraction scheme with a nonexceptional subtraction point

    SciTech Connect

    Sturm, C.; Soni, A.; Aoki, Y.; Christ, N. H.; Izubuchi, T.; Sachrajda, C. T. C.

    2009-07-01

    We extend the Rome-Southampton regularization independent momentum-subtraction renormalization scheme (RI/MOM) for bilinear operators to one with a nonexceptional, symmetric subtraction point. Two-point Green's functions with the insertion of quark bilinear operators are computed with scalar, pseudoscalar, vector, axial-vector and tensor operators at one-loop order in perturbative QCD. We call this new scheme RI/SMOM, where the S stands for 'symmetric'. Conversion factors are derived, which connect the RI/SMOM scheme and the MS scheme and can be used to convert results obtained in lattice calculations into the MS scheme. Such a symmetric subtraction point involves nonexceptional momenta implying a lattice calculation with substantially suppressed contamination from infrared effects. Further, we find that the size of the one-loop corrections for these infrared improved kinematics is substantially decreased in the case of the pseudoscalar and scalar operator, suggesting a much better behaved perturbative series. Therefore it should allow us to reduce the error in the determination of the quark mass appreciably.

  17. Planned LMSS propagation experiment using ACTS: Preliminary antenna pointing results during mobile operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rowland, John R.; Goldhirsh, Julius; Vogel, Wolfhard J.; Torrence, Geoffrey W.

    1991-01-01

    An overview and a status description of the planned LMSS mobile K band experiment with ACTS is presented. As a precursor to the ACTS mobile measurements at 20.185 GHz, measurements at 19.77 GHz employing the Olympus satellite were originally planned. However, because of the demise of Olympus in June of 1991, the efforts described here are focused towards the ACTS measurements. In particular, we describe the design and testing results of a gyro controlled mobile-antenna pointing system. Preliminary pointing measurements during mobile operations indicate that the present system is suitable for measurements employing a 15 cm aperture (beamwidth at approximately 7 deg) receiving antenna operating with ACTS in the high gain transponder mode. This should enable measurements with pattern losses smaller than plus or minus 1 dB over more than 95 percent of the driving distance. Measurements with the present mount system employing a 60 cm aperture (beamwidth at approximately 1.7 deg) results in pattern losses smaller than plus or minus 3 dB for 70 percent of the driving distance. Acceptable propagation measurements may still be made with this system by employing developed software to flag out bad data points due to extreme pointing errors. The receiver system including associated computer control software has been designed and assembled. Plans are underway to integrate the antenna mount with the receiver on the University of Texas mobile receiving van and repeat the pointing tests on highways employing a recently designed radome system.

  18. Zero-point energies, the uncertainty principle, and positivity of the quantum Brownian density operator.

    PubMed

    Tameshtit, Allan

    2012-04-01

    High-temperature and white-noise approximations are frequently invoked when deriving the quantum Brownian equation for an oscillator. Even if this white-noise approximation is avoided, it is shown that if the zero-point energies of the environment are neglected, as they often are, the resultant equation will violate not only the basic tenet of quantum mechanics that requires the density operator to be positive, but also the uncertainty principle. When the zero-point energies are included, asymptotic results describing the evolution of the oscillator are obtained that preserve positivity and, therefore, the uncertainty principle.

  19. Performance of FORTRAN floating-point operations on the Flex/32 multicomputer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crockett, Thomas W.

    1987-01-01

    A series of experiments has been run to examine the floating-point performance of FORTRAN programs on the Flex/32 (Trademark) computer. The experiments are described, and the timing results are presented. The time required to execute a floating-point operation is found to vary considerbaly depending on a number of factors. One factor of particular interest from an algorithm design standpoint is the difference in speed between common memory accesses and local memory accesses. Common memory accesses were found to be slower, and guidelines are given for determinig when it may be cost effective to copy data from common to local memory.

  20. Operating point stabilization of fiber-based line detectors for photoacoustic imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Felbermayer, Karoline; Grün, Hubert; Berer, Thomas; Burgholzer, Peter

    2011-07-01

    Photoacoustic imaging is an upcoming technique in the field of biomedical imaging. Our group introduced fiber-based line detectors, which are used to acquire broad-band ultrasonic signals, several years ago. Up to now operating point stabilization of fiber-based line detectors was realized by tuning the wavelength of the detection laser. This is, because of the high costs, not applicable for parallel detection. An alternative stabilization method, the change of the optical path length, is presented in this paper. Changing of the optical path length is realized by stretching the fiber with piezoelectric tubes. Fringe patterns and operation point stabilization of both stabilization schemes are compared. Next, signal detection utilizing a polymer optical fiber in a Mach-Zehnder and Fabry-Perot interferometer is demonstrated, and the influence of the detection wavelength (633nm and 1550nm) is examined. Finally, two-dimensional imaging by utilizing a perfluorinated polymer fiber is demonstrated.

  1. Earth-Moon Libration Point Orbit Stationkeeping: Theory, Modeling and Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Folta, David C.; Pavlak, Thomas A.; Haapala, Amanda F.; Howell, Kathleen C.; Woodard, Mark A.

    2013-01-01

    Collinear Earth-Moon libration points have emerged as locations with immediate applications. These libration point orbits are inherently unstable and must be maintained regularly which constrains operations and maneuver locations. Stationkeeping is challenging due to relatively short time scales for divergence effects of large orbital eccentricity of the secondary body, and third-body perturbations. Using the Acceleration Reconnection and Turbulence and Electrodynamics of the Moon's Interaction with the Sun (ARTEMIS) mission orbit as a platform, the fundamental behavior of the trajectories is explored using Poincare maps in the circular restricted three-body problem. Operational stationkeeping results obtained using the Optimal Continuation Strategy are presented and compared to orbit stability information generated from mode analysis based in dynamical systems theory.

  2. A point interaction for the discrete Schrödinger operator and generalized Chebyshev polynomials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yafaev, D. R.

    2017-06-01

    We consider semi-infinite Jacobi matrices corresponding to a point interaction for the discrete Schrödinger operator. Our goal is to find explicit expressions for the spectral measure, the resolvent, and other spectral characteristics of such Jacobi matrices. It turns out that the spectral analysis of this toy problem leads to a new class of orthogonal polynomials generalizing the classical Chebyshev polynomials.

  3. Laser pointing camera: a valuable tool for the LGS-AO operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Centrone, M.; Bonaccini Calia, D.; Pedichini, F.; Cerruto, A.; Ricciardi, A.; Ambrosino, F.

    2016-07-01

    We describe the design, functionalities and commissioning results of the Laser Pointing Camera, developed at INAF-OAR in collaboration with ESO and Astrel for the 4LGSF of the ESO Adaptive Optics Facility. The LPC has proven a fundamental tool during commissioning and operation of the 4LGSF. It allows to calibrate the pointing and focusing models of the four LGS, to reduce to zero the overhead time for the open-loop acquisition of the LGS in the wavefront sensor. During LGS-AO operation it collects regularly the LGS photometry, the LGS fwhm and the cirrus clouds scattering levels. By recognizing via astrometric software the field stars as well as the multiple LGS, LPC is insensitive to flexures of the laser launch telescope or of the receiver telescope opto-mechanics. We present the Commissioning results of the Laser Pointing Camera, obtained at the ESO VLT during the all 4LGSF Laser Guide Star Units Commissioning, and will discuss its possible extension for the ELT operations.

  4. Sound source localization on an axial fan at different operating points

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zenger, Florian J.; Herold, Gert; Becker, Stefan; Sarradj, Ennes

    2016-08-01

    A generic fan with unskewed fan blades is investigated using a microphone array method. The relative motion of the fan with respect to the stationary microphone array is compensated by interpolating the microphone data to a virtual rotating array with the same rotational speed as the fan. Hence, beamforming algorithms with deconvolution, in this case CLEAN-SC, could be applied. Sound maps and integrated spectra of sub-components are evaluated for five operating points. At selected frequency bands, the presented method yields sound maps featuring a clear circular source pattern corresponding to the nine fan blades. Depending on the adjusted operating point, sound sources are located on the leading or trailing edges of the fan blades. Integrated spectra show that in most cases leading edge noise is dominant for the low-frequency part and trailing edge noise for the high-frequency part. The shift from leading to trailing edge noise is strongly dependent on the operating point and frequency range considered.

  5. 49 CFR 236.303 - Control circuits for signals, selection through circuit controller operated by switch points or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...-point frogs and derails shall be selected through circuit controller operated directly by switch points... switch, movable-point frog, and derail in the routes governed by such signal. Circuits shall be arranged... when each switch, movable-point frog, and derail in the route is in proper position. ...

  6. 49 CFR 236.303 - Control circuits for signals, selection through circuit controller operated by switch points or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...-point frogs and derails shall be selected through circuit controller operated directly by switch points... switch, movable-point frog, and derail in the routes governed by such signal. Circuits shall be arranged... when each switch, movable-point frog, and derail in the route is in proper position. ...

  7. 49 CFR 236.303 - Control circuits for signals, selection through circuit controller operated by switch points or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...-point frogs and derails shall be selected through circuit controller operated directly by switch points... switch, movable-point frog, and derail in the routes governed by such signal. Circuits shall be arranged... when each switch, movable-point frog, and derail in the route is in proper position. ...

  8. 49 CFR 236.303 - Control circuits for signals, selection through circuit controller operated by switch points or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...-point frogs and derails shall be selected through circuit controller operated directly by switch points... switch, movable-point frog, and derail in the routes governed by such signal. Circuits shall be arranged... when each switch, movable-point frog, and derail in the route is in proper position. ...

  9. 49 CFR 236.303 - Control circuits for signals, selection through circuit controller operated by switch points or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...-point frogs and derails shall be selected through circuit controller operated directly by switch points... switch, movable-point frog, and derail in the routes governed by such signal. Circuits shall be arranged... when each switch, movable-point frog, and derail in the route is in proper position. ...

  10. Viscous Three-Dimensional Simulation of Flow in an Axial Low Pressure Compressor at Engine Icing Operating Points

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rigby, David L.; Ameri, Ali A.; Veres, Joe; Jorgenson, Philip C. E.

    2017-01-01

    Viscous three-dimensional simulations of the Honeywell ALF502R-5 low pressure compressor (sometimes called a booster) using the NASA Glenn code GlennHT have been carried out. A total of ten simulations were produced. Five operating points are investigated, with each point run with two different wall thermal conditions. These operating points are at, or near, points where engine icing has been determined to be likely. In the future, the results of this study will be used for further analysis such as predicting collection efficiency of ice particles and ice growth rates at various locations in the compressor. A mixing plane boundary condition is used between each blade row, resulting in convergence to steady state within each blade row. The k-omega turbulence model of Wilcox, combined with viscous grid spacing near the wall on the order of one, is used to resolve the turbulent boundary layers. For each of the operating points, heat transfer coefficients are generated on the blades and walls. The heat transfer coefficients are produced by running the operating point with two different wall thermal conditions and then solving simultaneously for the heat transfer coefficient and adiabatic wall temperature at each point. Average Nusselt numbers are calculated for the most relevant surfaces. The values are seen to scale with Reynolds number to approximately a power of 0.7. Additionally, images of surface distribution of Nusselt number are presented. Qualitative comparison between the five operating points show that there is relatively little change in the character of the distribution. The dominant observed effect is that of an overall scaling, which is expected due to Reynolds number differences. One interesting aspect about the Nusselt number distribution is observed on the casing (outer diameter) downstream of the exit guide vanes (EGVs). The Nusselt number is relatively high between the pairs of EGVs, with two lower troughs downstream of each EGV trailing edge. This

  11. Science Operations for the 2008 NASA Lunar Analog Field Test at Black Point Lava Flow, Arizona

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garry W. D.; Horz, F.; Lofgren, G. E.; Kring, D. A.; Chapman, M. G.; Eppler, D. B.; Rice, J. W., Jr.; Nelson, J.; Gernhardt, M. L.; Walheim, R. J.

    2009-01-01

    Surface science operations on the Moon will require merging lessons from Apollo with new operation concepts that exploit the Constellation Lunar Architecture. Prototypes of lunar vehicles and robots are already under development and will change the way we conduct science operations compared to Apollo. To prepare for future surface operations on the Moon, NASA, along with several supporting agencies and institutions, conducted a high-fidelity lunar mission simulation with prototypes of the small pressurized rover (SPR) and unpressurized rover (UPR) (Fig. 1) at Black Point lava flow (Fig. 2), 40 km north of Flagstaff, Arizona from Oct. 19-31, 2008. This field test was primarily intended to evaluate and compare the surface mobility afforded by unpressurized and pressurized rovers, the latter critically depending on the innovative suit-port concept for efficient egress and ingress. The UPR vehicle transports two astronauts who remain in their EVA suits at all times, whereas the SPR concept enables astronauts to remain in a pressurized shirt-sleeve environment during long translations and while making contextual observations and enables rapid (less than or equal to 10 minutes) transfer to and from the surface via suit-ports. A team of field geologists provided realistic science scenarios for the simulations and served as crew members, field observers, and operators of a science backroom. Here, we present a description of the science team s operations and lessons learned.

  12. Loop Heat Pipe Operation Using Heat Source Temperature for Set Point Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ku, Jentung; Paiva, Kleber; Mantelli, Marcia

    2011-01-01

    Loop heat pipes (LHPs) have been used for thermal control of several NASA and commercial orbiting spacecraft. The LHP operating temperature is governed by the saturation temperature of its compensation chamber (CC). Most LHPs use the CC temperature for feedback control of its operating temperature. There exists a thermal resistance between the heat source to be cooled by the LHP and the LHP's CC. Even if the CC set point temperature is controlled precisely, the heat source temperature will still vary with its heat output. For most applications, controlling the heat source temperature is of most interest. A logical question to ask is: "Can the heat source temperature be used for feedback control of the LHP operation?" A test program has been implemented to answer the above question. Objective is to investigate the LHP performance using the CC temperature and the heat source temperature for feedback control

  13. Surrogate runner model for draft tube losses computation within a wide range of operating points

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Susan-Resiga, R.; Muntean, S.; Ciocan, T.; de Colombel, T.; Leroy, P.

    2014-03-01

    We introduce a quasi two-dimensional (Q2D) methodology for assessing the swirling flow exiting the runner of hydraulic turbines at arbitrary operating points, within a wide operating range. The Q2D model does not need actual runner computations, and as a result it represents a surrogate runner model for a-priori assessment of the swirling flow ingested by the draft tube. The axial, radial and circumferential velocity components are computed on a conical section located immediately downstream the runner blades trailing edge, then used as inlet conditions for regular draft tube computations. The main advantage of our model is that it allows the determination of the draft tube losses within the intended turbine operating range in the early design stages of a new or refurbished runner, thus providing a robust and systematic methodology to meet the optimal requirements for the flow at the runner outlet.

  14. TDRSS operations control analysis study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The use of an operational Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS) and the remaining ground stations for the STDN (GSTDN) was investigated. The operational aspects of TDRSS concepts, GSTDN as a 14-site network, and GSTDN as a 7 site-network were compared and operations control concepts for the configurations developed. Man/machine interface, scheduling system, and hardware/software tradeoff analyses were among the factors considered in the analysis.

  15. Loop Heat Pipe Operation Using Heat Source Temperature for Set Point Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ku, Jentung; Paiva, Kleber; Mantelli, Marcia

    2011-01-01

    The LHP operating temperature is governed by the saturation temperature of its reservoir. Controlling the reservoir saturation temperature is commonly accomplished by cold biasing the reservoir and using electrical heaters to provide the required control power. Using this method, the loop operating temperature can be controlled within +/- 0.5K. However, because of the thermal resistance that exists between the heat source and the LHP evaporator, the heat source temperature will vary with its heat output even if LHP operating temperature is kept constant. Since maintaining a constant heat source temperature is of most interest, a question often raised is whether the heat source temperature can be used for LHP set point temperature control. A test program with a miniature LHP has been carried out to investigate the effects on the LHP operation when the control temperature sensor is placed on the heat source instead of the reservoir. In these tests, the LHP reservoir is cold-biased and is heated by a control heater. Tests results show that it is feasible to use the heat source temperature for feedback control of the LHP operation. Using this method, the heat source temperature can be maintained within a tight range for moderate and high powers. At low powers, however, temperature oscillations may occur due to interactions among the reservoir control heater power, the heat source mass, and the heat output from the heat source. In addition, the heat source temperature could temporarily deviate from its set point during fast thermal transients. The implication is that more sophisticated feedback control algorithms need to be implemented for LHP transient operation when the heat source temperature is used for feedback control.

  16. Pointing device usage guidelines for people with quadriplegia: a simulation and validation study utilizing an integrated pointing device apparatus.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hsieh-Ching; Chen, Chia-Ling; Lu, Chang-Ching; Wu, Ching-Yi

    2009-06-01

    This study undertakes a simulation and validation experiment to provide guidelines regarding pointing device usage for quadriplegic individuals assisted by a newly developed integrated pointing device apparatus (IPDA). The simulation experiment involving 30 normal subjects whose upper limb movement was restricted by splints. Another 15 subjects with high level cervical spinal cord injury (SCI) were recruited for the validation study. All normal subjects employed six control modes for target-acquisition and drag-and-drop tasks using an IPDA to integrate common pointing devices. A previously designed software was used to evaluate the operational efficiency (OE), expressed as "able performance" (%AP), of the subjects. The experimental results indicated that the OE of normal subjects for controlling the pointing devices were dominated first by using the unilateral hand (69-100 %AP), then by using the wrist/hand (65-73 %AP), and finally by using either bilateral body parts or the combination of limb and chin (45-53 %AP). The OE for operating an orientation-rotated mouse using the dominant wrist/hand via IPDA in both tasks was equivalent to that for operating a trackball using the dominant hand. The experimental results obtained by subjects with SCI also demonstrated similar findings, although the OEs in each control mode were lower than in normal subjects. Results of this study provide valuable guidelines for selecting and integrating common pointing devices using IPDA for quadriplegic individuals. The priority for selecting which body part should control the pointing devices was as follows: unilateral hands, unilateral wrist/hands, and either bilateral body parts or a limb and chin/head/neck in combination.

  17. Performance prediction of the high head Francis-99 turbine for steady operation points

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casartelli, E.; Mangani, L.; Ryan, O.; Del Rio, A.

    2017-01-01

    Steady-state numerical investigations are still the reference computational method for the prediction of the global machine performance during the design phase. Accordingly, steady state CFD simulations of the complete high head Francis-99 turbine, from spiral casing to draft tube have been performed at three operating conditions, namely at part load (PL), best efficiency point (BEP), and high load (HL). In addition, simulations with a moving runner for the three operating points are conducted and compared to the steady state results. The prediction accuracy of the numerical results is assessed comparing global and local data to the available experimental results. A full 360°-model is applied for the unsteady simulations and for the steady state simulations a reduced domain was used for the periodic components, with respectively only one guide vane and one runner passage. The steady state rotor-stator interactions were modeled with a mixing-plane. All CFD simulations were performed at model scale with an in-house 3D, unstructured, object-oriented finite volume code designed to solve incompressible RANS-Equations. Steady and unsteady solver simulations are both able to predict similar values for torque and head in design and off-design. Flow features in off-design operation such as a vortex rope in PL operation can be predicted by both simulation types, though all simulations tend to overestimate head and torque. Differences among steady and unsteady simulations can mainly be attributed to the averaging process used in the mixing plane interface in steady state simulations. Measured efficiency agrees best with the unsteady simulations for BEP and PL operation, though the steady state simulations also provide a cost-effective alternative with comparable accuracy.

  18. One-point functions of non-protected operators in the SO(5) symmetric D3-D7 dCFT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Leeuw, Marius; Kristjansen, Charlotte; Linardopoulos, Georgios

    2017-06-01

    We study tree level one-point functions of non-protected scalar operators in the defect CFT, based on { N}=4 SYM, which is dual to the SO(5) symmetric D3-D7 probe brane system with non-vanishing instanton number. Whereas symmetries prevent operators from the SU(2) and SU(3) sub-sectors from having non-vanishing one-point functions, more general scalar conformal operators, which in particular constitute Bethe eigenstates of the integrable SO(6) spin chain, are allowed to have non-trivial one-point functions. For a series of operators with a small number of excitations we find closed expressions in terms of Bethe roots for these one-point functions, valid for any value of the instanton number. In addition, we present some numerical results for operators with more excitations.

  19. Operations planning simulation: Model study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    The use of simulation modeling for the identification of system sensitivities to internal and external forces and variables is discussed. The technique provides a means of exploring alternate system procedures and processes, so that these alternatives may be considered on a mutually comparative basis permitting the selection of a mode or modes of operation which have potential advantages to the system user and the operator. These advantages are measurements is system efficiency are: (1) the ability to meet specific schedules for operations, mission or mission readiness requirements or performance standards and (2) to accomplish the objectives within cost effective limits.

  20. Street curb recognition in 3d point cloud data using morphological operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez-Cuenca, Borja; Concepción Alonso-Rodríguez, María; García-Cortés, Silverio; Ordóñez, Celestino

    2015-04-01

    Accurate and automatic detection of cartographic-entities saves a great deal of time and money when creating and updating cartographic databases. The current trend in remote sensing feature extraction is to develop methods that are as automatic as possible. The aim is to develop algorithms that can obtain accurate results with the least possible human intervention in the process. Non-manual curb detection is an important issue in road maintenance, 3D urban modeling, and autonomous navigation fields. This paper is focused on the semi-automatic recognition of curbs and street boundaries using a 3D point cloud registered by a mobile laser scanner (MLS) system. This work is divided into four steps. First, a coordinate system transformation is carried out, moving from a global coordinate system to a local one. After that and in order to simplify the calculations involved in the procedure, a rasterization based on the projection of the measured point cloud on the XY plane was carried out, passing from the 3D original data to a 2D image. To determine the location of curbs in the image, different image processing techniques such as thresholding and morphological operations were applied. Finally, the upper and lower edges of curbs are detected by an unsupervised classification algorithm on the curvature and roughness of the points that represent curbs. The proposed method is valid in both straight and curved road sections and applicable both to laser scanner and stereo vision 3D data due to the independence of its scanning geometry. This method has been successfully tested with two datasets measured by different sensors. The first dataset corresponds to a point cloud measured by a TOPCON sensor in the Spanish town of Cudillero. That point cloud comprises more than 6,000,000 points and covers a 400-meter street. The second dataset corresponds to a point cloud measured by a RIEGL sensor in the Austrian town of Horn. That point cloud comprises 8,000,000 points and represents a

  1. Barbers Point Harbor, Hawaii, Jetty Modification Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-11-01

    meter studies of the circulation patterns and flows in the channel, and (d) input from the sponsor, EPA , and harbor pilots. DISCLAIMER: The...tests and review study results. Participating in this meeting were Stanley Boc, HED, Dr. Wendy I. Wiltse, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency ( EPA ...U.S. Environmental Protection Agency ( EPA ), Capt. Dave Lyman, Hawaii Pilots Association, Capt. Thomas L. Heberle, Hawaii Pilots Association, and Capt

  2. Ultrasensitive optical microfiber coupler based sensors operating near the turning point of effective group index difference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Kaiwei; Zhang, Ting; Liu, Guigen; Zhang, Nan; Zhang, Mengying; Wei, Lei

    2016-09-01

    We propose and study an optical microfiber coupler (OMC) sensor working near the turning point of effective group index difference between the even supermode and odd supermode to achieve high refractive index (RI) sensitivity. Theoretical calculations reveal that infinite sensitivity can be obtained when the measured RI is close to the turning point value. This diameter-dependent turning point corresponds to the condition that the effective group index difference equals zero. To validate our proposed sensing mechanism, we experimentally demonstrate an ultrahigh sensitivity of 39541.7 nm/RIU at a low ambient RI of 1.3334 based on an OMC with the diameter of 1.4 μm. An even higher sensitivity can be achieved by carrying out the measurements at RI closer to the turning point. The resulting ultrasensitive RI sensing platform offers a substantial impact on a variety of applications from high performance trace analyte detection to small molecule sensing.

  3. Critical Point Facility (CPF) Team in the Spacelab Payload Operations Control Center (SL POCC)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    The primary payload for Space Shuttle Mission STS-42, launched January 22, 1992, was the International Microgravity Laboratory-1 (IML-1), a pressurized manned Spacelab module. The goal of IML-1 was to explore in depth the complex effects of weightlessness of living organisms and materials processing. Around-the-clock research was performed on the human nervous system's adaptation to low gravity and effects of microgravity on other life forms such as shrimp eggs, lentil seedlings, fruit fly eggs, and bacteria. Materials processing experiments were also conducted, including crystal growth from a variety of substances such as enzymes, mercury iodide, and a virus. The Huntsville Operations Support Center (HOSC) Spacelab Payload Operations Control Center (SL POCC) at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) was the air/ground communication channel used between the astronauts and ground control teams during the Spacelab missions. Featured is the Critical Point Facility (CPF) team in the SL POCC during the IML-1 mission.

  4. Critical Point Facility (CPF) Team in the Spacelab Payload Operations Control Center (SL POCC)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    The primary payload for Space Shuttle Mission STS-42, launched January 22, 1992, was the International Microgravity Laboratory-1 (IML-1), a pressurized manned Spacelab module. The goal of IML-1 was to explore in depth the complex effects of weightlessness of living organisms and materials processing. Around-the-clock research was performed on the human nervous system's adaptation to low gravity and effects of microgravity on other life forms such as shrimp eggs, lentil seedlings, fruit fly eggs, and bacteria. Materials processing experiments were also conducted, including crystal growth from a variety of substances such as enzymes, mercury iodide, and a virus. The Huntsville Operations Support Center (HOSC) Spacelab Payload Operations Control Center (SL POCC) at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) was the air/ground communication channel used between the astronauts and ground control teams during the Spacelab missions. Featured is the Critical Point Facility (CPF) team in the SL POCC during the IML-1 mission.

  5. Critical Point Facility (CPE) Group in the Spacelab Payload Operations Control Center (SL POCC)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The primary payload for Space Shuttle Mission STS-42, launched January 22, 1992, was the International Microgravity Laboratory-1 (IML-1), a pressurized manned Spacelab module. The goal of IML-1 was to explore in depth the complex effects of weightlessness of living organisms and materials processing. Around-the-clock research was performed on the human nervous system's adaptation to low gravity and effects of microgravity on other life forms such as shrimp eggs, lentil seedlings, fruit fly eggs, and bacteria. Materials processing experiments were also conducted, including crystal growth from a variety of substances such as enzymes, mercury iodide, and a virus. The Huntsville Operations Support Center (HOSC) Spacelab Payload Operations Control Center (SL POCC) at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) was the air/ground communication channel used between the astronauts and ground control teams during the Spacelab missions. Featured is the Critical Point Facility (CPE) group in the SL POCC during STS-42, IML-1 mission.

  6. Critical Point Facility (CPE) Group in the Spacelab Payload Operations Control Center (SL POCC)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The primary payload for Space Shuttle Mission STS-42, launched January 22, 1992, was the International Microgravity Laboratory-1 (IML-1), a pressurized manned Spacelab module. The goal of IML-1 was to explore in depth the complex effects of weightlessness of living organisms and materials processing. Around-the-clock research was performed on the human nervous system's adaptation to low gravity and effects of microgravity on other life forms such as shrimp eggs, lentil seedlings, fruit fly eggs, and bacteria. Materials processing experiments were also conducted, including crystal growth from a variety of substances such as enzymes, mercury iodide, and a virus. The Huntsville Operations Support Center (HOSC) Spacelab Payload Operations Control Center (SL POCC) at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) was the air/ground communication channel used between the astronauts and ground control teams during the Spacelab missions. Featured is the Critical Point Facility (CPE) group in the SL POCC during STS-42, IML-1 mission.

  7. Two-point functions of SU(2)-subsector and length-two operators in dCFT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Widén, Erik

    2017-10-01

    We consider a particular set of two-point functions in the setting of N = 4 SYM with a defect, dual to the fuzzy-funnel solution for the probe D5-D3-brane system. The two-point functions in focus involve a single trace operator in the SU(2)-subsector of arbitrary length and a length-two operator built out of any scalars. By interpreting the contractions as a spin-chain operator, simple expressions were found for the leading contribution to the two-point functions, mapping them to earlier known formulas for the one-point functions in this setting.

  8. High-freezing-point fuel studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tolle, F. F.

    1980-01-01

    Considerable progress in developing the experimental and analytical techniques needed to design airplanes to accommodate fuels with less stringent low temperature specifications is reported. A computer technique for calculating fuel temperature profiles in full tanks was developed. The computer program is being extended to include the case of partially empty tanks. Ultimately, the completed package is to be incorporated into an aircraft fuel tank thermal analyser code to permit the designer to fly various thermal exposure patterns, study fuel temperatures versus time, and determine holdup.

  9. Chalk Point auxiliary pump study: 1981. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Hirshfield, M.F.; Hixson, J.H. III; Perry, E.S.

    1982-03-26

    In July 1981, the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia undertook a study to examine the numbers of finfish and blue crabs (Callinectes sapidus) entrained through the auxiliary cooling pumps at the Chalk Point Steam Electric Station (SES) operated by the Potomac Electric Power Company. Samples were collected by positioning a net attached to a hinged steel frame directly in the discharge of the auxiliary pumps. Concurrently, impingement rates of fish and blue crabs on the travelling screens were estimated by collecting the organisms washed into the troughs that lead to the discharge canal. A total of 6673 fish and blue crabs, representing 13 species, was collected in auxiliary pump samples at the Chalk Point generating station during July and August 1981. A total of 2154 fish and blue crabs representing seven species was collected in concurrent impingement samples. Blue crabs represented almost all of the total. The numbers of individuals entrained through auxiliary pumps showed a diel effect, with most individuals entrained at night.

  10. A cask fleet operations study

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-03-01

    This document describes the cask fleet currently available to transport spent nuclear fuels. The report describes the proposed operational procedures for these casks and the vehicles intended to transport them. Included are techniques for loading the cask, lifting it onto the transport vehicle, preparing the invoices, and unloading the cask at the destination. The document concludes with a discussion on the maintenance and repair of the casks. (tem) 29 figs.

  11. Lattice Assisted Nuclear Reactions From Nanostructured Metamaterials Electrically Driven at Their Optimal Operating Point

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swartz, Mitchell R.

    2011-03-01

    In lattice assisted nuclear reactions, hydrogen-loaded alloys enable near room temperature deuterium fusion and other nuclear reactions (1). The structural metamaterial shape of some D-loaded Pd nanostructures and deuterium flux (2) through them, driven by an applied electric field, appear to play decisive roles. The spiral Phusor -type cathode with open helical cylindrical geometry in a high electrical resistance solution is a LANR metamaterial design creating intrapalladial deuteron flow. Optimal operating point technology allows improved and more reproducible operation (3). LANR power gain can be considerable. In situ imaging has revealed that the excess power gain is linked to non-thermal near-IR emission when the LANR devices are operated at their OOP. LANR devices have shown power gains more than 200%, and short term power gains to ~ 8000 % . 1. Swartz, M, J. Sci. Exploration, 23, 4, 419-436 (2009). 2. Swartz, M, Fusion Technology, 22, 2, 296-300 (1992); 26, 4T, 74-77 (1994); 32, 126-130 (1997). 3. Swartz. M, Fusion Technology, 31, 63-74 (1997).

  12. 77 FR 6601 - Facility Operating License Amendment From Nine Mile Point Nuclear Station, LLC.; Nine Mile Point...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-08

    ... of the beam to apply a downward clamping force on each inlet subassembly to resist the elbow and nozzle hydraulic reaction forces during normal operation. ] The material change does not affect the... request for hearing, a petition for leave to intervene, any motion or other document filed in...

  13. [Importance of displacement ventilation for operations and small surgical procedures from the infection preventive point of view].

    PubMed

    Kramer, A; Külpmann, R; Wille, F; Christiansen, B; Exner, M; Kohlmann, T; Heidecke, C D; Lippert, H; Oldhafer, K; Schilling, M; Below, H; Harnoss, J C; Assadian, O

    2010-02-01

    Surgical teams need to breathe air that is conducive to their health. An adequate exchange of air ensures oxygen supply, the ventilation of humidity, smells, toxic substances, especially narcotic gases and surgical smoke, pathogens and particles. With regard to the infection risk, DIN 1946 / 4 -differentiates between operation theaters with the highest demand for clean air (operation room class I a), operation theatres with a high demand (operation room class I b) and rooms within the operation theatres without special requirements, meaning that the microbial load in the air is close to or equal to that of normal in-room air quality (room class II). For an operation room class I a, ventilation that displaces the used air is necessary, while a regular ventilation is sufficient for operation room class I b. Because of ambiguous -results in previous studies, the necessity to define a -class I a for operation rooms is being questioned. Therefore, this review focuses on the analysis of the existing publications with respect to this -question. The result of this analysis indicates that so far there is only one surgical procedure, the -implantation of hip endoprosthetics, for which a preventive effect on SSI of a class I a ventilation (displacement of the used air) is documented. One recent study, reviewed critically here, -showed opposite results, but lacks methodological clarity. Thus, it is concluded that evidence for the requirement of operation room classes can only be derived from risk assessment (infection risk by surgical intervention, extent of possible damages), but not from epidemiological studies. Risk assessment must be based on the following criteria: size and depth of the operation field, -duration of the procedure, vascular perfusion of the wound, implantation of alloplastic material and general risk of the patient for an infection. From an infection preventive point of view, no class I a "displacement ventilation" is necessary for small surgical

  14. Identification of optimal operating point of PV modules using neural network for real time maximum power tracking control

    SciTech Connect

    Hiyama, Takashi, Kouzuma, Shinichi; Imakubo, Tomofumi

    1995-06-01

    This paper presents an application of a neutral network for the identification of the optimal operating point of PV modules for the real time maximum power tracking control. The output power from the modules depends on the environmental factors such as insolation, cell temperature, and so on. Therefore, accurate identification of optimal operating point and real time continuous control are required to achieve the maximum output efficiency. The proposed neural network has a quite simple structure and provides a highly accurate identification of the optimal operating point and also a highly accurate estimation of the maximum power from the PV modules.

  15. A Foundation for Operational Planning: The Concepts of Center of Gravity, Decisive Point, and the Culminating Point.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-04-21

    and the spring thaw. Southwestern Front farces Included the 6th Irug (40,566 menI 46 tanks), the I1st Wuards Bring (70,811 men), Moble Girup Papau...theiatn preced seulplning httoialeamls. Odfertiaons CUReR the paucity of aircraft, technology , or doctrine, concentrated armored forces produced the...with respect to theoretical concepts provides Insights for operational planning on the contemperarg battlefield. Technological and doctrinal

  16. Design and feasibility study of an integrated pointing device apparatus for individuals with spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hsieh-Ching; Liu, Yung-Ping; Chen, Chia-Ling; Chen, Chih-Yong

    2007-05-01

    Despite the commercial availability of numerous computer-pointing devices, many severely disabled individuals still rely on customized equipment to operate computers. This study presents a novel Integrated Pointing Device Apparatus (IPDA) that integrates numerous commercial pointing devices. The novel IPDA, which complies with a standard USB 1.1 interface, is compatible with most tested computer-pointing devices and flexibly integrates commercial computer devices, tailoring them to suit individual needs. By using simple integrated circuit design and low-cost electronic components, this low-cost apparatus is easily maintained. The feasibility of the IPDA was evaluated by four subjects with high-level cervical (C4-5) spinal cord injury (SCI). Participants performed normal move-and-click and drag-and-drop tasks typically performed by computer pointing devices. Each participant not able to use a traditional computer mouse or trackball were able to operate a computer adequately with the IPDA and three including one operating a trackball with his chin, operated computers easily and smoothly. This feasibility study showed that the IPDA effectively integrates commercial pointing devices, thereby providing the possibility for some people with SCI to obtain computer operability. This study demonstrated the advantages of flexibility, low cost, and acceptable efficiency of the novel IPDA.

  17. Point-of-care ultrasonography during rescue operations on board a Polish Medical Air Rescue helicopter

    PubMed Central

    Gałązkowski, Robert; Sobczyk, Dorota; Żyła, Zbigniew; Drwiła, Rafał

    2014-01-01

    Point-of-care ultrasound examination has been increasingly widely used in pre-hospital care. The use of ultrasound in rescue medicine allows for a quick differential diagnosis, identification of the most important medical emergencies and immediate introduction of targeted treatment. Performing and interpreting a pre-hospital ultrasound examination can improve the accuracy of diagnosis and thus reduce mortality. The authors’ own experiences are presented in this paper, which consist in using a portable, hand-held ultrasound apparatus during rescue operations on board a Polish Medical Air Rescue helicopter. The possibility of using an ultrasound apparatus during helicopter rescue service allows for a full professional evaluation of the patient's health condition and enables the patient to be brought to a center with the most appropriate facilities for their condition. PMID:26674604

  18. Feature extraction and segmentation in medical images by statistical optimization and point operation approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Shuyu; King, Philip; Corona, Enrique; Wilson, Mark P.; Aydin, Kaan; Mitra, Sunanda; Soliz, Peter; Nutter, Brian S.; Kwon, Young H.

    2003-05-01

    Feature extraction is a critical preprocessing step, which influences the outcome of the entire process of developing significant metrics for medical image evaluation. The purpose of this paper is firstly to compare the effect of an optimized statistical feature extraction methodology to a well designed combination of point operations for feature extraction at the preprocessing stage of retinal images for developing useful diagnostic metrics for retinal diseases such as glaucoma and diabetic retinopathy. Segmentation of the extracted features allow us to investigate the effect of occlusion induced by these features on generating stereo disparity mapping and 3-D visualization of the optic cup/disc. Segmentation of blood vessels in the retina also has significant application in generating precise vessel diameter metrics in vascular diseases such as hypertension and diabetic retinopathy for monitoring progression of retinal diseases.

  19. Point-of-care ultrasonography during rescue operations on board a Polish Medical Air Rescue helicopter.

    PubMed

    Darocha, Tomasz; Gałązkowski, Robert; Sobczyk, Dorota; Żyła, Zbigniew; Drwiła, Rafał

    2014-12-01

    Point-of-care ultrasound examination has been increasingly widely used in pre-hospital care. The use of ultrasound in rescue medicine allows for a quick differential diagnosis, identification of the most important medical emergencies and immediate introduction of targeted treatment. Performing and interpreting a pre-hospital ultrasound examination can improve the accuracy of diagnosis and thus reduce mortality. The authors' own experiences are presented in this paper, which consist in using a portable, hand-held ultrasound apparatus during rescue operations on board a Polish Medical Air Rescue helicopter. The possibility of using an ultrasound apparatus during helicopter rescue service allows for a full professional evaluation of the patient's health condition and enables the patient to be brought to a center with the most appropriate facilities for their condition.

  20. Synoptic operative record for point of care outcomes: a leap forward in knowledge translation.

    PubMed

    Mack, L A; Dabbs, K; Temple, W J

    2010-09-01

    Modern information technology coupled with synoptic methodology allows point of care, real time outcomes generation. Our objective was to review province-wide breast cancer surgery outcomes from a prospective synoptic operative record to demonstrate its value in knowledge translation. All synoptic reports for breast cancer procedures from 2006 until March 2010 were reviewed and descriptively analyzed. Key outcomes included frequency of breast cancer procedures captured over time, methods of breast cancer detection, clinical staging, method of axillary staging, breast conservation and reconstruction rates. Further analysis involved important decision-making for mastectomy and resource allocation for surgery. Four thousand nine hundred fifty-five breast cancer procedures were recorded synoptically; greater than 80% of cases provincially. Method of breast cancer detection was 49%, 45% and 4% by screening radiology, patient or family, and physician, respectively. Pathologic diagnoses were via core or mammotome biopsy in 94%; nearly half of all patients were clinical Stage I at time of operation. Overall rate of breast conservation was 48%. Of the 65% who had no contra-indication to breast conservation surgery, 76% had breast conservation and 4% had primary reconstruction. Of those having mastectomy, one third were due to patient choice. Seventy-nine percent had sentinel node staging, 18% had full axillary dissection and 3% had no axillary staging. A new paradigm of creating medical records using synoptic electronic templates allows prospective outcomes generation at point of care by the surgeon which is unparalleled in its depth of surgical detail capturing surgical decision-making. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Spontaneous fluctuation indices of the cardiovagal baroreflex accurately measure the baroreflex sensitivity at the operating point during upright tilt.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Christopher E; Medow, Marvin S; Messer, Zachary; Stewart, Julian M

    2013-06-15

    Spontaneous fluctuation indices of cardiovagal baroreflex have been suggested to be inaccurate measures of baroreflex function during orthostatic stress compared with alternate open-loop methods (e.g. neck pressure/suction, modified Oxford method). We therefore tested the hypothesis that spontaneous fluctuation measurements accurately reflect local baroreflex gain (slope) at the operating point measured by the modified Oxford method, and that apparent differences between these two techniques during orthostasis can be explained by a resetting of the baroreflex function curve. We computed the sigmoidal baroreflex function curves supine and during 70° tilt in 12 young, healthy individuals. With the use of the modified Oxford method, slopes (gains) of supine and upright curves were computed at their maxima (Gmax) and operating points. These were compared with measurements of spontaneous indices in both positions. Supine spontaneous analyses of operating point slope were similar to calculated Gmax of the modified Oxford curve. In contrast, upright operating point was distant from the centering point of the reset curve and fell on the nonlinear portion of the curve. Whereas spontaneous fluctuation measurements were commensurate with the calculated slope of the upright modified Oxford curve at the operating point, they were significantly lower than Gmax. In conclusion, spontaneous measurements of cardiovagal baroreflex function accurately estimate the slope near operating points in both supine and upright position.

  2. Cancellation of elective operations on the day of intended surgery in a Hong Kong hospital: point prevalence and reasons.

    PubMed

    Chiu, C H; Lee, Anna; Chui, P T

    2012-02-01

    To determine the point prevalence of elective surgical case cancellations and the reasons. Cross-sectional study. Teaching hospital, Hong Kong. PATIENTS; Operating theatre records of elective surgery cancellations from 1 January 2009 to 31 December 2009 were retrospectively reviewed. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES. Cancellation of scheduled elective surgery on the day of surgery and the corresponding reasons. Of 6234 cases scheduled, 476 were cancelled, which yielded a point prevalence of 7.6%, with a 95% confidence interval of 7.0-8.3%. The highest number of cancellations occurred in patients scheduled for major general surgical procedures (n=94, 20%), major urological procedures (n=64, 13%), major orthopaedic surgery (n=38, 8%), and ultra-major cardiothoracic surgery (n=29, 6%). The most common category for cancellation was facility (73%), followed by work-up (17%), patient (10%), and surgeon (1%). No available operating room time due to overrun of the previous surgery was the most common reason for case cancellation (n=310). Compared to general surgery, the odds of no available operating time was significantly less in orthopaedics (odds ratio=0.26; 95% confidence interval, 0.17-0.39), otolaryngology (0.25; 0.13-0.46), neurosurgery (0.36; 0.16-0.70), paediatrics (0.53; 0.31-0.87), gynaecology (0.18; 0.11-0.29), ophthalmology (0.19; 0.07-0.41), and dentistry (0.10; 0.00-0.60). CONCLUSIONS. Case cancellations were mainly due to facility factors, such as no operating room time being available. The odds of having no operating room time available varied between surgical specialties.

  3. Physical constraints, fundamental limits, and optimal locus of operating points for an inverted pendulum based actuated dynamic walker.

    PubMed

    Patnaik, Lalit; Umanand, Loganathan

    2015-10-26

    The inverted pendulum is a popular model for describing bipedal dynamic walking. The operating point of the walker can be specified by the combination of initial mid-stance velocity (v0) and step angle (φm) chosen for a given walk. In this paper, using basic mechanics, a framework of physical constraints that limit the choice of operating points is proposed. The constraint lines thus obtained delimit the allowable region of operation of the walker in the v0-φm plane. A given average forward velocity vx,avg can be achieved by several combinations of v0 and φm. Only one of these combinations results in the minimum mechanical power consumption and can be considered the optimum operating point for the given vx,avg. This paper proposes a method for obtaining this optimal operating point based on tangency of the power and velocity contours. Putting together all such operating points for various vx,avg, a family of optimum operating points, called the optimal locus, is obtained. For the energy loss and internal energy models chosen, the optimal locus obtained has a largely constant step angle with increasing speed but tapers off at non-dimensional speeds close to unity.

  4. Tethered Balloon Operations at ARM AMF3 Site at Oliktok Point, AK

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dexheimer, D.; Lucero, D. A.; Helsel, F.; Hardesty, J.; Ivey, M.

    2015-12-01

    Oliktok Point has been the home of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program's (ARM) third ARM Mobile Facility, or AMF3, since October 2013. The AMF3 is operated through Sandia National Laboratories and hosts instrumentation collecting continuous measurements of clouds, aerosols, precipitation, energy, and other meteorological variables. The Arctic region is warming more quickly than any other region due to climate change and Arctic sea ice is declining to record lows. Sparsity of atmospheric data from the Arctic leads to uncertainty in process comprehension, and atmospheric general circulation models (AGCM) are understood to underestimate low cloud presence in the Arctic. Increased vertical resolution of meteorological properties and cloud measurements will improve process understanding and help AGCMs better characterize Arctic clouds. SNL is developing a tethered balloon system capable of regular operation at AMF3 in order to provide increased vertical resolution atmospheric data. The tethered balloon can be operated within clouds at altitudes up to 7,000' AGL within DOE's R-2204 restricted area. Pressure, relative humidity, temperature, wind speed, and wind direction are recorded at multiple altitudes along the tether. These data were validated against stationary met tower data in Albuquerque, NM. The altitudes of the sensors were determined by GPS and calculated using a line counter and clinometer and compared. Wireless wetness sensors and supercooled liquid water content sensors have also been deployed and their data has been compared with other sensors. This presentation will provide an overview of the balloons, sensors, and test flights flown, and will provide a preliminary look at data from sensor validation campaigns and test flights.

  5. Suitability of 3-point versus 7-point postprandial retinyl palmitate AUC in human bioavailability studies.

    PubMed

    Herrero-Barbudo, Carmen; Granado-Lorencio, Fernando; Olmedilla-Alonso, Begoña

    2008-02-01

    Bioavailability is a critical feature in the assessment of the role of micronutrients in human health. Although postprandial behaviour does not predict long-term responses and acute responses, it is accepted that the study of triglyceride-rich lipoprotein fractions reflects newly absorbed lipids from recent meals. To assess the predictive value of a 3-point versus 7-point post-prandial response (area under the curve) in nutrient bioavailability studies in humans. We used results from a human bioavailability study (n = 19) that consisted of a single-dose pharmacokinetic assay involving three types of commercially available vitamin A and E fortified milk. Correlation coefficients between 3-point AUC (AUCp, predictive) versus 7-point AUC (AUCc, conventional) ranged between r = 0.81 (P < 0.001) for vitamin A-fortified skim milk and r = 0.95 (P < 0.001) for whole milk. Bland-Altman representations showed a good agreement between the two methods with 95% of the differences within the concordance limits. More than 90% of the subjects were correctly classified in the same or adjacent quartiles and he calculated relative absorption of vitamin A from the foods was, on average, <5% lower using the AUCp compared to that estimated using AUCc. The use of the 3-point approach may be a reliable alternative to assess the relative postprandial lipid response in human bioavailability studies. Nevertheless, since this approach has been studied considering one nutrient (i.e. preformed vitamin A) and one type of food (i.e. milk), its applicability to other nutrients and foods should be tested.

  6. Point and non-point microbial source pollution: A case study of Delhi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jamwal, Priyanka; Mittal, Atul K.; Mouchel, Jean-Marie

    The present study identifies major point and non-point sources of microbial pollution during dry and wet weather in Delhi watershed which is the first prerequisite for planning and management of water quality of the river Yamuna. Fecal coliforms (FC) and fecal streptococci (FS) levels were determined from two types of sources - point source (effluent from sewage treatment plants) and non-point source (stormwater runoff during dry and wet weather). FC and FS levels in the river Yamuna were also monitored, which is an ultimate sink for all microbial loads in Delhi watershed. Effluent from sewage treatment plants (STPs) employing different treatment technologies were evaluated. FC and FS levels greater than the effluent discharge standard (1000 MPN/100 ml) were observed in the effluents from all STPs except “oxidation pond Timarpur”. This study also involved field program for characterization of urban runoff from different land-uses. Results indicated that the microbial quality of urban runoff produced during wet weather from different land-uses was similar to that of raw sewage. Sewage overflows along with human and animal sources were responsible for high FC and FS levels in the runoff samples. Wet weather FC and FS levels in river Yamuna were higher as compared to the dry weather levels suggesting that dilution of the river water during wet weather does not affect its microbiological quality. Thus on the basis of this study it was found that urban runoff also contributes to the microbial quality of the river Yamuna.

  7. Origins of the Human Pointing Gesture: A Training Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Danielle; Behne, Tanya; Lieven, Elena; Tomasello, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Despite its importance in the development of children's skills of social cognition and communication, very little is known about the ontogenetic origins of the pointing gesture. We report a training study in which mothers gave children one month of extra daily experience with pointing as compared with a control group who had extra experience with…

  8. Origins of the Human Pointing Gesture: A Training Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Danielle; Behne, Tanya; Lieven, Elena; Tomasello, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Despite its importance in the development of children's skills of social cognition and communication, very little is known about the ontogenetic origins of the pointing gesture. We report a training study in which mothers gave children one month of extra daily experience with pointing as compared with a control group who had extra experience with…

  9. 77 FR 66492 - Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc., Entergy Nuclear Indian Point 2, LLC, and Entergy Nuclear Indian...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-05

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION [Docket Nos.: 50-003, 50-247, 50-286; NRC-2012-0265: License Nos.: DPR- 5, DPR-26, and DPR-64] Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc., Entergy Nuclear Indian Point 2, LLC, and Entergy Nuclear Indian Point 3, LLC; Issuance of Director's Decision Notice...

  10. Cluster Multi-Point Studies of the Auroral Acceleration Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marklund, G. T.

    2014-12-01

    Multi-point studies of the auroral acceleration region (AAR) by the Cluster spacecraft has enabled a number of open issues on the auroral acceleration to be addressed and revealed. Data from AAR crossings of Inverted-V aurora, by the C1 and C3 spacecraft at different altitudes, enabled a detailed reconstruction of the acceleration potential and a verification of its stability on a five min time scale. The relative role of quasi-static and Alfvénic acceleration behind aurora are addressed in two event studies. In one of these, the two processes are shown to operate jointly on the plasma population within the polar cap boundary. In the other, the electron energy flux producing multiple arcs within a surge is found to be generally dominated by the quasi-static contribution. Acceleration features and the FAC closure associated with surge-horn aurora crossed by the Cluster fleet were derived in another event study. A study of the density distribution within the auroral cavity, showed for all included events, exponential density decreases, relative to the ambient densities, from the mid to top of the AAR. In another study, cavities were found to extend well beyond the top of the AAR. Finally, statistical high-latitude electric field and plasma density distributions are presented based on 10 years of Cluster data collected between 2 and 4 RE altitudes. Intense electric fields appear in two altitude regimes on the nightside, separated by a gap at 2.8 RE. The upper altitude fields were interpreted to be Alfvénic and the lower altitude fields quasi-static, related to the AAR. The gap in the electric field intensity indicates a partial closure of the potentials in the lower region, with similarities to model results of reflected Alfvén waves and earlier reported observations

  11. Operative planning aid for optimal endoscopic third ventriculostomy entry points in pediatric cases.

    PubMed

    Zador, Zsolt; Coope, David J; Mostofi, Abteen; Kamaly-Asl, Ian D

    2017-02-01

    Endoscopic third ventriculostomy (ETV) uses anatomical spaces of the ventricular system to reach the third ventricle floor and create an alternative pathway for cerebrospinal fluid flow. Optimal ETV trajectories have been previously proposed in the literature, designed to grant access to the third ventricle floor without a displacement of eloquent periventricular structures. However, in hydrocephalus, there is a significant variability to the configuration of the ventricular system, implying that the optimal ETV trajectory and cranial entry point needs to be planned on a case-by-case basis. In the current study, we created a mathematical model, which tailors the optimal ETV entry point to the individual case by incorporating the ventricle dimensions. We retrospectively reviewed the imaging of 30 consecutive pediatric patients with varying degrees of ventriculomegaly. Three dimensional radioanatomical models were created using preoperative MRI scans to simulate the optimal ETV trajectory and entry point for each case. The surface location of cranial entry points for individual ETV trajectories was recorded as Cartesian coordinates centered at Bregma. The distance from the Bregma in the coronal plane represented as "x", and the distance from the coronal suture in the sagittal plane represented as "y". The correlation between the ventricle dimensions and the x, y coordinates were tested using linear regression models. The distance of the optimal ETV entry point from the Bregma in the coronal plane ("x") and from the coronal suture in the sagittal plane ("y") correlated well with the frontal horn ratio (FHR). The coordinates for x and y were fitted along the following linear equations: x = 85.8 FHR-13.3 (r (2) = 0.84, p < 0.001) and y = -69.6 FHR + 16.7 (r (2) = 0.83, p < 0.001). The surface location of the optimal cranial ETV entry point correlates well with the ventricle size. We provide the first model that can be used as a surgical planning aid for a

  12. Generalized Wilson-Fisher Critical Points from the Conformal Operator Product Expansion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gliozzi, Ferdinando; Guerrieri, Andrea L.; Petkou, Anastasios C.; Wen, Congkao

    2017-02-01

    We study possible smooth deformations of the generalized free conformal field theory in arbitrary dimensions by exploiting the singularity structure of the conformal blocks dictated by the null states. We derive in this way, at the first nontrivial order in the ɛ expansion, the anomalous dimensions of an infinite class of scalar local operators, without using the equations of motion. In the cases where other computational methods apply, the results agree.

  13. Semiparametric Estimation of the Relationship between ROC Operating Points and the Test-result Scale

    PubMed Central

    Pesce, Lorenzo L.; Horsch, Karla; Drukker, Karen; Metz, Charles E.

    2011-01-01

    Rationale and Objectives Semiparametric methods provide smooth and continuous receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve fits to ordinal test results and require only that the data follow some unknown monotonic transformation of the model's assumed distributions. The quantitative relationship between cutoff settings or individual test-result values on the data scale and points on the estimated ROC curve is lost in this procedure, however. To recover that relationship in a principled way, we propose a new algorithm for “proper” ROC curves and illustrate it by use of the proper binormal model. Materials and Methods Several authors have proposed the use of multinomial distributions to fit semiparametric ROC curves by maximum-likelihood estimation. The resulting approach requires nuisance parameters that specify interval probabilities associated with the data, which are used subsequently as a basis for estimating values of the curve parameters of primary interest. In the method described here, we employ those “nuisance” parameters to recover the relationship between any ordinal test-result scale and true-positive fraction, false-positive fraction, and likelihood ratio. Computer simulations based on the proper binormal model were used to evaluate our approach in estimating those relationships and to assess the coverage of its confidence intervals for realistically sized datasets. Results In our simulations, the method reliably estimated simple relationships between test-result values and the several ROC quantities. Conclusion The proposed approach provides an effective and reliable semiparametric method with which to estimate the relationship between cutoff settings or individual test-result values and corresponding points on the ROC curve. PMID:22055797

  14. 78 FR 4879 - Nine Mile Point 3 Nuclear Project, LLC and UniStar Nuclear Operating Services, LLC Combined...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-23

    ... COMMISSION Nine Mile Point 3 Nuclear Project, LLC and UniStar Nuclear Operating Services, LLC Combined... Nuclear Project, LLC, and UniStar Nuclear Operating Services, LLC (UniStar), submitted a Combined License...) application for UniStar's Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, Unit 3 (CCNPP3). The NRC docketed the...

  15. 40 CFR Table 3 to Subpart Vvvv of... - MACT Model Point Value Formulas for Open Molding Operations 1

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Open Molding Operations 1 3 Table 3 to Subpart VVVV of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Boat... for Open Molding Operations 1 As specified in §§ 63.5710(d) and 63.5714(a), you must calculate point...

  16. Antiemetic efficacy of capsicum plaster on acupuncture points in patients undergoing thyroid operation

    PubMed Central

    Koo, Min Seok; Lee, Hee-Jong; Jeong, Ji Seon; Lee, Jung-Won

    2013-01-01

    Background Postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) occurs in up to 63-84% of patients after thyroid surgery. This study aims to assess the effects of using a capsicum plaster to reduce PONV after thyroid surgery at either the Chinese acupuncture point (acupoint) Pericardium 6 (P6) or Korean hand acupuncture point K-D2. Methods One-hundred eighty-four patients who underwent thyroid surgery were randomized in four groups (n = 46 each): control group = inactive tape at P6 acupoints and on both shoulders as a nonacupoint; P6 group = capsicum plaster at P6 points and inactive tape on both shoulders; K-D2 group = capsicum plaster at K-D2 acupoints and inactive tape on both shoulders; Sham group = capsicum plaster on both shoulders and inactive tape at P6 acupoints. The capsicum plaster was applied before the induction of anesthesia and removed at 8 hr after surgery. Results The incidence and severity of nausea and vomiting and the need for rescue antiemetics were decreased in the patients in the P6 and K-D2 groups compared to the patients in the control and sham groups (P < 0.001). The patients in the P6 and K-D2 groups also reported that they were more satisfied (P < 0.05). Conclusions We conclude that the capsicum plaster at the P6 and K-D2 acupoint was a promising antiemetic method for the patients undergoing thyroid surgery. PMID:24427460

  17. Antiemetic efficacy of capsicum plaster on acupuncture points in patients undergoing thyroid operation.

    PubMed

    Koo, Min Seok; Kim, Kyo Sang; Lee, Hee-Jong; Jeong, Ji Seon; Lee, Jung-Won

    2013-12-01

    Postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) occurs in up to 63-84% of patients after thyroid surgery. This study aims to assess the effects of using a capsicum plaster to reduce PONV after thyroid surgery at either the Chinese acupuncture point (acupoint) Pericardium 6 (P6) or Korean hand acupuncture point K-D2. One-hundred eighty-four patients who underwent thyroid surgery were randomized in four groups (n = 46 each): control group = inactive tape at P6 acupoints and on both shoulders as a nonacupoint; P6 group = capsicum plaster at P6 points and inactive tape on both shoulders; K-D2 group = capsicum plaster at K-D2 acupoints and inactive tape on both shoulders; Sham group = capsicum plaster on both shoulders and inactive tape at P6 acupoints. The capsicum plaster was applied before the induction of anesthesia and removed at 8 hr after surgery. The incidence and severity of nausea and vomiting and the need for rescue antiemetics were decreased in the patients in the P6 and K-D2 groups compared to the patients in the control and sham groups (P < 0.001). The patients in the P6 and K-D2 groups also reported that they were more satisfied (P < 0.05). We conclude that the capsicum plaster at the P6 and K-D2 acupoint was a promising antiemetic method for the patients undergoing thyroid surgery.

  18. Baby Teeth Study Points to Links Between Autism, Lead Levels

    MedlinePlus

    ... Baby Teeth Study Points to Links Between Autism, Lead Levels Lead exposure raised risk, while too little zinc, manganese ... chemicals in baby teeth suggests that exposure to lead in pregnancy or shortly after birth might make ...

  19. Tuning operating point of extrinsic Fabry-Perot interferometric fiber-optic sensors using microstructured fiber and gas pressure.

    PubMed

    Tian, Jiajun; Zhang, Qi; Fink, Thomas; Li, Hong; Peng, Wei; Han, Ming

    2012-11-15

    Intensity-based demodulation of extrinsic Fabry-Perot interferometric (EFPI) fiber-optic sensors requires the light wavelength to be on the quadrature point of the interferometric fringes for maximum sensitivity. In this Letter, we propose a novel and remote operating-point tuning method for EFPI fiber-optic sensors using microstructured fibers (MFs) and gas pressure. We demonstrated the method using a diaphragm-based EFPI sensor with a microstructured lead-in fiber. The holes in the MF were used as gas channels to remotely control the gas pressure inside the Fabry-Perot cavity. Because of the deformation of the diaphragm with gas pressure, the cavity length and consequently the operating point can be remotely tuned for maximum sensitivity. The proposed operating-point tuning method has the advantage of reduced complexity and cost compared to previously reported methods.

  20. Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points among Chinese Food Business Operators

    PubMed Central

    Amadei, Paolo; Masotti, Gianfranco; Condoleo, Roberto; Guidi, Alessandra

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the present paper is to highlight some critical situations emerged during the implementation of long-term projects locally managed by Prevention Services, to control some manufacturing companies in Rome and Prato, Central Italy. In particular, some critical issues on the application of self-control in marketing and catering held by Chinese operators are underlined. The study showed serious flaws in preparing and controlling of manuals for good hygiene practice, participating of the consultants among food business operators (FBOs) to the control of the procedures. Only after regular actions by the Prevention Services, there have been satisfying results. This confirms the need to have qualified and expert partners able to promptly act among FBOs and to give adequate support to authorities in charge in order to guarantee food safety. PMID:27800356

  1. Parathyroidectomy monitored by intra-operative PTH: the relevance of the 20 min end-point.

    PubMed

    Di Stasio, Enrico; Carrozza, Cinzia; Pio Lombardi, Celestino; Raffaelli, Marco; Traini, Emanuela; Bellantone, Rocco; Zuppi, Cecilia

    2007-06-01

    RI-PTH measurements are a prerequisite for minimally invasive parathyroidectomy, providing guidance regarding the removal of hyper-functioning tissue. Different criteria of PTH decrease, concentration and clearance were analyzed in order to predict surgical treatment. Blood samples at pre-incision, manipulation, 5, 10 and 20 min after resection, were collected from 145 patients presenting unambiguous, pre-surgical "single adenoma" diagnosis. The meeting of Irvin criterion would have permitted the identification of 28% uncured cases leading to 4% unnecessary neck exploration. On the contrary, we would have identified all of the uncured patients, to the detriment of 7% unnecessarily prolonged procedure by taking into account PTH drop, concentration and clearance shape at 20 min. The 20' end-point plays a key role in the correct determination of surgical outcome, strongly improving the possibility of adequate patient treatment. However, since the high success rate of traditional parathyroidectomy, yet not provided by RI-PTH, the utmost improvement to hyper-parathyroidism surgical treatment by RI-PTH could be achieved in pre-operative equivocal glands localization or multiglandular disease selected population to quickly guide and confirm the complete removal of all hyper-secreting tissue.

  2. Estimating the operating point of the cochlear transducer using low-frequency biased distortion products

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Daniel J.; Hartsock, Jared J.; Gill, Ruth M.; Fitzgerald, Hillary E.; Salt, Alec N.

    2009-01-01

    Distortion products in the cochlear microphonic (CM) and in the ear canal in the form of distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs) are generated by nonlinear transduction in the cochlea and are related to the resting position of the organ of Corti (OC). A 4.8 Hz acoustic bias tone was used to displace the OC, while the relative amplitude and phase of distortion products evoked by a single tone [most often 500 Hz, 90 dB SPL (sound pressure level)] or two simultaneously presented tones (most often 4 kHz and 4.8 kHz, 80 dB SPL) were monitored. Electrical responses recorded from the round window, scala tympani and scala media of the basal turn, and acoustic emissions in the ear canal were simultaneously measured and compared during the bias. Bias-induced changes in the distortion products were similar to those predicted from computer models of a saturating transducer with a first-order Boltzmann distribution. Our results suggest that biased DPOAEs can be used to non-invasively estimate the OC displacement, producing a measurement equivalent to the transducer operating point obtained via Boltzmann analysis of the basal turn CM. Low-frequency biased DPOAEs might provide a diagnostic tool to objectively diagnose abnormal displacements of the OC, as might occur with endolymphatic hydrops. PMID:19354389

  3. Study of Waverider-based Point-to-Point Suborbital Rocketplane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takama, Yoshiki; Ishimoto, Shinji

    As a high-speed manned transportation system in the future, point-to-point (P2P) suborbital rocketplane is currently studied in Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) space transportation mission directorate. The vehicle was designed on the basis of the concept of waverider allowing high L/D in hypersonic regime, which is required for longer flight range and smaller load factor. Compared with an ideal waverider, the designed P2P suborbital rocketplane has outer wings for the improvement of the low-speed aerodynamic performance, finite thickness in the leading edge for the reduction of the aerodynamic heating, and twin vertical tails for directional stability. The aerodynamic performance of the P2P vehicle was investigated through numerical simulation of both subsonic and hypersonic flows, and the baseline aerodynamic shape of the P2P vehicle was discussed. The L/D in the trim condition at hypersonic speed was 2.6.

  4. Third Class Broadcast Operator Permit Study Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federal Communications Commission, Washington, DC.

    The study guide contains reference material necessary for the applicant preparing to take the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) examination for a Radiotelephone Third Class Operator Permit with the endorsement to operate certain AM and FM broadcast radio stations. To obtain a permit, the applicant must successfully complete examination…

  5. A highly sensitive and simply operated protease sensor toward point-of-care testing.

    PubMed

    Park, Seonhwa; Shin, Yu Mi; Seo, Jeongwook; Song, Ji-Joon; Yang, Haesik

    2016-04-21

    Protease sensors for point-of-care testing (POCT) require simple operation, a detection period of less than 20 minutes, and a detection limit of less than 1 ng mL(-1). However, it is difficult to meet these requirements with protease sensors that are based on proteolytic cleavage. This paper reports a highly reproducible protease sensor that allows the sensitive and simple electrochemical detection of the botulinum neurotoxin type E light chain (BoNT/E-LC), which is obtained using (i) low nonspecific adsorption, (ii) high signal-to-background ratio, and (iii) one-step solution treatment. The BoNT/E-LC detection is based on two-step proteolytic cleavage using BoNT/E-LC (endopeptidase) and l-leucine-aminopeptidase (LAP, exopeptidase). Indium-tin oxide (ITO) electrodes are modified partially with reduced graphene oxide (rGO) to increase their electrocatalytic activities. Avidin is then adsorbed on the electrodes to minimize the nonspecific adsorption of proteases. Low nonspecific adsorption allows a highly reproducible sensor response. Electrochemical-chemical (EC) redox cycling involving p-aminophenol (AP) and dithiothreitol (DTT) is performed to obtain a high signal-to-background ratio. After adding a C-terminally AP-labeled oligopeptide, DTT, and LAP simultaneously to a sample solution, no further treatment of the solution is necessary during detection. The detection limits of BoNT/E-LC in phosphate-buffered saline are 0.1 ng mL(-1) for an incubation period of 15 min and 5 fg mL(-1) for an incubation period of 4 h. The detection limit in commercial bottled water is 1 ng mL(-1) for an incubation period of 15 min. The developed sensor is selective to BoNT/E-LC among the four types of BoNTs tested. These results indicate that the protease sensor meets the requirements for POCT.

  6. Acousto-optic, point receiver hydrophone probe for operation up to 100 MHz.

    PubMed

    Lewin, P A; Mu, C; Umchid, S; Daryoush, A; El-Sherif, M

    2005-12-01

    This work describes the results of initial evaluation of a wideband acousto-optic hydrophone probe designed to operate as point receiver in the frequency range up to 100 MHz. The hydrophone was implemented as a tapered fiber optic (FO) probe sensor with a tip diameter of approximately 7 microm. Such small physical dimensions of the sensor eliminate the need for spatial averaging corrections so that true pressure-time (p-t) waveforms can be faithfully recorded. The theoretical considerations that predicted the FO probe sensitivity to be equal to 4.3 mV/MPa are presented along with a brief description of the manufacturing process. The calibration results that verified the theoretically predicted sensitivity are also presented along with a brief description of the improvements being currently implemented to increase this sensitivity level by approximately 20 dB. The results of preliminary measurements indicate that the fiber optic probes will exhibit a uniform frequency response and a zero phase shift in the frequency range considered. These features might be very useful in rapid complex calibration i.e. determining both magnitude and phase response of other hydrophones by the substitution method. Also, because of their robust design and linearity, these fiber optic hydrophones could also meet the challenges posed by high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) and other therapeutic applications. Overall, the outcome of this work shows that when fully developed, the FO probes will be well suited for high frequency measurements of ultrasound fields and will be able to complement the data collected by the current finite aperture piezoelectric PVDF hydrophones.

  7. Evaluating Operational Specifications of Point-of-Care Diagnostic Tests: A Standardized Scorecard

    PubMed Central

    Lehe, Jonathan D.; Sitoe, Nádia E.; Tobaiwa, Ocean; Loquiha, Osvaldo; Quevedo, Jorge I.; Peter, Trevor F.; Jani, Ilesh V.

    2012-01-01

    The expansion of HIV antiretroviral therapy into decentralized rural settings will increasingly require simple point-of-care (POC) diagnostic tests that can be used without laboratory infrastructure and technical skills. New POC test devices are becoming available but decisions around which technologies to deploy may be biased without systematic assessment of their suitability for decentralized healthcare settings. To address this, we developed a standardized, quantitative scorecard tool to objectively evaluate the operational characteristics of POC diagnostic devices. The tool scores devices on a scale of 1–5 across 30 weighted characteristics such as ease of use, quality control, electrical requirements, shelf life, portability, cost and service, and provides a cumulative score that ranks products against a set of ideal POC characteristics. The scorecard was tested on 19 devices for POC CD4 T-lymphocyte cell counting, clinical chemistry or hematology testing. Single and multi-parameter devices were assessed in each of test categories. The scores across all devices ranged from 2.78 to 4.40 out of 5. The tool effectively ranked devices within each category (p<0.01) except the CD4 and multi-parameter hematology products. The tool also enabled comparison of different characteristics between products. Agreement across the four scorers for each product was high (intra-class correlation >0.80; p<0.001). Use of this tool enables the systematic evaluation of diagnostic tests to facilitate product selection and investment in appropriate technology. It is particularly relevant for countries and testing programs considering the adoption of new POC diagnostic tests. PMID:23118871

  8. The acetabular point: a morphological and ontogenetic study

    PubMed Central

    RISSECH, C.; SAÑUDO, J. R.; MALGOSA, A.

    2001-01-01

    The acetabular point was analysed by studying human pelvic bones from 326 individuals ranging from newborns to age 97 y. The bones were categorised into 3 groups according to the degree of fusion for the 3 elements of the pelvis: nonfused (59), semifused (5) and fused (262). The acetabular point in immature pelvic bones is clearly represented by the point of the fusion lines for each bony element at the level of the acetabular fossa. In adult pelvic bones the acetabular fossa has an irregular clover-leaf shape, the superior lobe being smaller than the anterior and posterior lobes. Cross-sectional analysis of acetabular morphology suggested that the acetabular point in adult pelvic bones is always represented by the indentation between the superior and the anterior lobes of the acetabular fossa. PMID:11465866

  9. A novel auto-bias control scheme for stabilizing lithium niobate Mach-Zehnder modulator at any operating point

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, Jin-jing; Zhang, Yang-an; Zhang, Jin-nan; Yuan, Xue-guang; Huang, Yong-qing; Li, Yu-peng

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we propose and experimentally demonstrate an auto-bias control scheme for stabilizing a lithium niobate (LN) Mach-Zehnder modulator (MZM) at any operating point along the power transmission curve. It is based on that the bias drift would change the operating point and result in varying the output optical average power of the Mach-Zehnder modulator and its first and second derivatives. The ratio of the first to the second derivative of the output optical average power is used in the proposed scheme as the key parameter. The experimental results show that the output optical average power of the LN MZM hardly changes at the desired operating point, and the maximum deviation of output optical average power is less than ±4%.

  10. One-point functions of non-SUSY operators at arbitrary genus in a matrix model for type IIA superstrings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuroki, Tsunehide; Sugino, Fumihiko

    2017-06-01

    In the previous paper, the authors pointed out correspondence between a supersymmetric double-well matrix model and two-dimensional type IIA superstring theory on a Ramond-Ramond background from the viewpoint of symmetry and spectrum. This was confirmed by agreement between planar correlation functions in the matrix model and tree-level amplitudes in the superstring theory. In order to investigate the correspondence further, in this paper we compute correlation functions to all order of genus expansion in the double scaling limit of the matrix model. One-point functions of operators protected by supersymmetry terminate at some finite order, whereas those of unprotected operators yield non-Borel summable series. The behavior of the latter is characteristic in string perturbation series, providing further evidence that the matrix model describes a string theory. Moreover, instanton corrections to the planar one-point functions are also computed, and universal logarithmic scaling behavior is found for non-supersymmetric operators.

  11. Operational equations for the five-point rectangle, the geometric mean, and data in prismatic arrray

    SciTech Connect

    Silver, Gary L

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the results of three applications of operational calculus: new representations of five data in a rectangular array, new relationships among data in a prismatic array, and the operational analog of the geometric mean.

  12. Results of blue crab studies at Chalk Point. Final report 1978-1979

    SciTech Connect

    Souza, P.A.; Polgar, T.T.; Miller, R.E.; Holland, A.F.

    1980-11-01

    This report summarizes the findings of two years of blue crab tagging studies conducted in the Patuxent estuary near the Chalk Point power plant. This report is organized in the following manner: An introduction and objectives section defines the objectives of the blue crab study, discusses the modes of interaction between blue crabs and power plant operations, and discusses the life history characteristics of blue crabs. A study methods section provides detailed information on tagging and capture operations and on analysis methods. A results section presents the major findings of the study. A discussion and conclusions section interprets and discusses major findings and defines the impacts of power plant operations at Chalk Point on blue crab populations in the Patuxent estuary. A list of references is included.

  13. Enhancement of operational efficiencies for people with high cervical spinal cord injuries using a flexible integrated pointing device apparatus.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chia-Ling; Chen, Hsieh-Ching; Cheng, Pao-Tsai; Chen, Chih-Yong; Chen, Huang-Chung; Chou, Shih-Wei

    2006-06-01

    To investigate the effectiveness of a universal integrated pointing device apparatus (IPDA), which can integrate numerous commercial pointing devices and can be controlled by various combinations of available movements, for people with cervical spinal cord injury (SCI) who cannot operate standard computer pointing devices. An exploratory quasi-experimental design. All subjects were required to perform specific mouse-operating (continuous-clicking, target-acquisition, drag-and-drop) tasks. People with SCI received clinical assessments and were classified into 2 groups based on pointing device used: group A, who used standard mouse devices, and group B (IPDA combinations), who were unable to use standard mouse devices. The measures of group A and group B were compared. Rehabilitation science center of a medical institution. Thirty-seven people with high cervical SCI and 30 able-bodied subjects. The IPDA. The efficiency of the people with SCI in each mouse-operation task was expressed as a percentage of that for able-bodied subjects (%NL). Group B displayed similar operational efficiency in performing the drag-and-drop tasks ( approximately 30% NL) to group A, although they exhibited worse efficiency than group A in performing the other tasks (P<.05). Operational efficiencies of all tasks had negative relationships with age by using linear regression analysis (adjusted r(2)>.36, P<.001). The use of pointing devices was associated with American Spinal Injury Association Impairment Scale (P<.001), completeness (P<.001), and muscle strength (P<.01), particularly finger flexor muscle strength, but not with neurologic level or muscle tone. The IPDA could help most people with high cervical SCI who could not use commercial mouse devices to achieve acceptable operational efficiencies. Pointing devices were assigned based on the underlying SCI severity and muscle strength, particularly finger flexor muscle strength.

  14. Registration of 2D point sets by complex translation and rotation operations.

    PubMed

    Sahin, Ismet

    2010-01-01

    Alignment of two sets containing two dimensional vectors (2D points) constitutes an important problem in medical imaging, remote sensing, and computer vision. We assume that the points in one set, called the transformed set, are constructed by translating and rotating the points in the other set, called the original set. The points in both sets are represented by complex numbers. In order to translate and then rotate a point, we add a complex constant and then multiply by a complex exponential respectively. We construct a cost function which tries to achieve the least-squares differences between a given transformed set and the set containing transformed points with respect to optimization parameters. We implement the Newton-Raphson optimization algorithm with polynomial line search in order to minimize this cost function. Simulation results with multiple datasets demonstrate that the proposed method aligns two sets efficiently and reliably.

  15. Floating point only SIMD instruction set architecture including compare, select, Boolean, and alignment operations

    DOEpatents

    Gschwind, Michael K.

    2011-03-01

    Mechanisms for implementing a floating point only single instruction multiple data instruction set architecture are provided. A processor is provided that comprises an issue unit, an execution unit coupled to the issue unit, and a vector register file coupled to the execution unit. The execution unit has logic that implements a floating point (FP) only single instruction multiple data (SIMD) instruction set architecture (ISA). The floating point vector registers of the vector register file store both scalar and floating point values as vectors having a plurality of vector elements. The processor may be part of a data processing system.

  16. First regularized trace of integro-differential Sturm-Liouville operator on a segment with punctured points at generalized conditions of bonding in deleted points

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarsenbi, Abdisalam A.; Zhumanova, Lyazzat K.

    2016-12-01

    The present work is devoted to calculating a first regularized trace of one integro-differential operator with the main part of the Sturm-Liouville type on a segment with punctured points at integral perturbation of "transmission" conditions. The integro-differential Sturm-Liouville operator -y″(x )+q (x )y (x )+γ ∫0πy (t )d t =λ y (x ) given on the segments π/n (k -1 )points x =π/n k , are solutions. The value of jumps is expressed by the formula y'(π/k n -0 )=y'(π/k n +0 )-βk∫0πy (t )d t , k =1 ,n -1 ¯ . The basic result of the paper is the exact formula of the first regularized trace of the considered differential operator.

  17. A path towards uncertainty assignment in an operational cloud-phase algorithm from ARM vertically pointing active sensors

    DOE PAGES

    Riihimaki, Laura D.; Comstock, Jennifer M.; Anderson, Kevin K.; ...

    2016-06-10

    Knowledge of cloud phase (liquid, ice, mixed, etc.) is necessary to describe the radiative impact of clouds and their lifetimes, but is a property that is difficult to simulate correctly in climate models. One step towards improving those simulations is to make observations of cloud phase with sufficient accuracy to help constrain model representations of cloud processes. In this study, we outline a methodology using a basic Bayesian classifier to estimate the probabilities of cloud-phase class from Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) vertically pointing active remote sensors. The advantage of this method over previous ones is that it provides uncertainty informationmore » on the phase classification. We also test the value of including higher moments of the cloud radar Doppler spectrum than are traditionally used operationally. Using training data of known phase from the Mixed-Phase Arctic Cloud Experiment (M-PACE) field campaign, we demonstrate a proof of concept for how the method can be used to train an algorithm that identifies ice, liquid, mixed phase, and snow. Over 95 % of data are identified correctly for pure ice and liquid cases used in this study. Mixed-phase and snow cases are more problematic to identify correctly. When lidar data are not available, including additional information from the Doppler spectrum provides substantial improvement to the algorithm. As a result, this is a first step towards an operational algorithm and can be expanded to include additional categories such as drizzle with additional training data.« less

  18. New Advances in the Study of the Proximal Point Algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moroşanu, Gheorghe

    2010-09-01

    Consider in a real Hilbert space H the inexact, Halpern-type, proximal point algorithm xn+1 = αnu+(1-αn)Jβnxn+en, n = 0,1,…, (H—PPA) where u, x∈H are given points, Jβn = (I+βna) for a given maximal monotone operator A, and (en) is the error sequence, under new assumptions on αn∈(0,1) and βn∈(0,1). Several strong convergence results for the H—PPA are presented under the general condition that the error sequence converges strongly to zero, thus improving the classical Rockafellar's summability condition on (‖en‖) that has been extensively used so far for different versions of the proximal point algorithm. Our results extend and improve some recent ones. These results can be applied to approximate minimizers of convex functionals. Convergence rate estimates are established for a sequence approximating the minimum value of such a functional.

  19. Providing full point-to-point communications among compute nodes of an operational group in a global combining network of a parallel computer

    DOEpatents

    Archer, Charles J; Faraj, Ahmad A; Inglett, Todd A; Ratterman, Joseph D

    2013-04-16

    Methods, apparatus, and products are disclosed for providing full point-to-point communications among compute nodes of an operational group in a global combining network of a parallel computer, each compute node connected to each adjacent compute node in the global combining network through a link, that include: receiving a network packet in a compute node, the network packet specifying a destination compute node; selecting, in dependence upon the destination compute node, at least one of the links for the compute node along which to forward the network packet toward the destination compute node; and forwarding the network packet along the selected link to the adjacent compute node connected to the compute node through the selected link.

  20. Particulate emissions calculations from fall tillage operations using point and remote sensors.

    PubMed

    Moore, Kori D; Wojcik, Michael D; Martin, Randal S; Marchant, Christian C; Bingham, Gail E; Pfeiffer, Richard L; Prueger, John H; Hatfield, Jerry L

    2013-07-01

    Soil preparation for agricultural crops produces aerosols that may significantly contribute to seasonal atmospheric particulate matter (PM). Efforts to reduce PM emissions from tillage through a variety of conservation management practices (CMPs) have been made, but the reductions from many of these practices have not been measured in the field. A study was conducted in California's San Joaquin Valley to quantify emissions reductions from fall tillage CMP. Emissions were measured from conventional tillage methods and from a "combined operations" CMP, which combines several implements to reduce tractor passes. Measurements were made of soil moisture, bulk density, meteorological profiles, filter-based total suspended PM (TSP), concentrations of PM with an equivalent aerodynamic diameter ≤10 μm (PM) and PM with an equivalent aerodynamic diameter ≤2.5 μm (PM), and aerosol size distribution. A mass-calibrated, scanning, three-wavelength light detection and ranging (LIDAR) procedure estimated PM through a series of algorithms. Emissions were calculated via inverse modeling with mass concentration measurements and applying a mass balance to LIDAR data. Inverse modeling emission estimates were higher, often with statistically significant differences. Derived PM emissions for conventional operations generally agree with literature values. Sampling irregularities with a few filter-based samples prevented calculation of a complete set of emissions through inverse modeling; however, the LIDAR-based emissions dataset was complete. The CMP control effectiveness was calculated based on LIDAR-derived emissions to be 29 ± 2%, 60 ± 1%, and 25 ± 1% for PM, PM, and TSP size fractions, respectively. Implementation of this CMP provides an effective method for the reduction of PM emissions. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  1. Epidemiological study of fixed drug eruption in Pointe-Noire.

    PubMed

    Ognongo-Ibiaho, A N; Atanda, H L

    2012-11-01

    A prospective study was conducted over a 27 month period in order to determine the epidemiological profile of fixed drug eruption (FDE) observed during a dermatological consultation at Pointe-Noire. During the study period 54 out of 9,070 persons consulting (0.6%) suffered from clinically diagnosed FDE. The variables studied were: age, sex, medicine and point of sale. The average age of onset was 30 years. The frequency of onset was higher in males (38 patients) than in females (16 patients). The incriminated medicines were: the sulfamides (48 patients) including Cotrimoxazole (45 patients ) and Sulfadoxine and Pyremethamine (3 patients) Coartem(®) + Doliprane(®) (1 patient), Chloramphenicol(®) (1 patient), Amidol(®) (1 patient), Duocotexin(®) + Paracetamol(®) (1 patient), Surquina(®) (1 patient), Amodiaquine(®) (1 patient). The point of sale was illicit (peddlers, markets) for 44 patients; for 10 patients it was a lawful outlet (pharmacies). This study shows that cotrimoxazole bought at illicit points of sale is the main etiology of FDE in the department, confirming that these medicines are counterfeit. The involvement of dermatologists in the fight against the illicit sale of medicines should be made a priority. © 2012 The International Society of Dermatology.

  2. Early Mission Maneuver Operations for the Deep Space Climate Observatory Sun-Earth L1 Libration Point Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, Craig; Case, Sara; Reagoso, John; Webster, Cassandra

    2015-01-01

    The Deep Space Climate Observatory mission launched on February 11, 2015, and inserted onto a transfer trajectory toward a Lissajous orbit around the Sun-Earth L1 libration point. This paper presents an overview of the baseline transfer orbit and early mission maneuver operations leading up to the start of nominal science orbit operations. In particular, the analysis and performance of the spacecraft insertion, mid-course correction maneuvers, and the deep-space Lissajous orbit insertion maneuvers are discussed, com-paring the baseline orbit with actual mission results and highlighting mission and operations constraints..

  3. 77 FR 22361 - Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc., (Indian Point Nuclear Generating Units 2 and 3); Notice of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc., (Indian Point Nuclear Generating Units 2 and 3); Notice of Atomic Safety and Licensing Board Reconstitution Pursuant to 10 CFR 2.313(c) and 2.321(b), the Atomic...

  4. 78 FR 44881 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; York River, Between Yorktown and Gloucester Point, VA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-25

    ... structure. Under the regular operating schedule, the Coleman Memorial Bridge, mile 7.0, between Gloucester... operation of the Coleman Memorial Bridge (US 17/George P. Coleman Memorial Swing Bridge) across the York... maintenance work on the moveable spans on the Coleman Memorial Bridge. This temporary deviation allows...

  5. Operating points and feedback control of plasma characteristics in tokamaks with full current drive

    SciTech Connect

    Swain, D.W.; Attenberger, S.E.; Houlberg, W.A.; Bonoli, P.T.; Nevins, W.M.

    1994-12-31

    Tokamak operation using advanced tokamak modes with steady-state current drive may provide better performance, thereby improving the prospects of power-producing fusion reactors. Scenarios for such operation in TPX and in an ITER-like scale-up of TPX are modeled. Results indicate that the heating and current drive power and feedback control requirements may be achievable.

  6. 47 CFR 90.473 - Operation of internal transmitter control systems through licensed fixed control points.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Operation of internal transmitter control... COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PRIVATE LAND MOBILE RADIO SERVICES Transmitter Control Internal Transmitter Control Systems § 90.473 Operation of internal transmitter...

  7. 47 CFR 90.473 - Operation of internal transmitter control systems through licensed fixed control points.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Operation of internal transmitter control... COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PRIVATE LAND MOBILE RADIO SERVICES Transmitter Control Internal Transmitter Control Systems § 90.473 Operation of internal transmitter...

  8. 47 CFR 90.473 - Operation of internal transmitter control systems through licensed fixed control points.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Operation of internal transmitter control... COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PRIVATE LAND MOBILE RADIO SERVICES Transmitter Control Internal Transmitter Control Systems § 90.473 Operation of internal transmitter...

  9. Orbital transfer vehicle launch operations study. Processing flows. Volume 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    The Orbit Transfer Vehicle (OTV) processing flow and Resource Identification Sheets (RISs) for the ground based orbit transfer vehicle and for the space based orbit transfer vehicle are the primary source of information for the rest of the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) OTV Launch Operations Study. Work is presented which identifies KSC facility requirements for the OTV Program, simplifies or automates either flow though the application technology, revises test practices and identifies crew sizes or skills used. These flows were used as the primary point of departure from current operations and practices. Analyses results were documented by revising the appropriate RIS page.

  10. Planning Bepicolombo MPO Science Operations to study Mercury Interior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De La Fuente, Sara; Carasa, Angela; Ortiz, Iñaki; Rodriguez, Pedro; Casale, Mauro; Benkhoff, Johannes; Zender, Joe

    2017-04-01

    BepiColombo is an Interdisciplinary Cornerstone ESA-JAXA Mission to Mercury, with two orbiters, the ESA Mercury Planetary Orbiter (MPO) and the JAXA Mercury Magnetospheric Orbiter (MMO) dedicated to study of the planet and its magnetosphere. The MPO, is a three-axis-stabilized, nadir-pointing spacecraft which will be placed in a polar orbit, providing excellent spatial resolution over the entire planet surface. The MPO's scientific payload comprises 11 instrument packages, including laser altimeter, cameras and the radio science experiment that will be dedicated to the study of Mercury's interior: structure, composition, formation and evolution. The planning of the science operations to be carried out by the Mercury's interior scientific instruments will be done by the SGS located at the European Space Astronomy Centre (ESAC), in conjunction with the scientific instrument teams. The process will always consider the complete nominal mission duration, such that the contribution of the scheduled science operations to the science objectives, the total data volume generated, and the seasonal interdependency, can be tracked. The heart of the science operations planning process is the Observations Catalogue (OC), a web-accessed database to collect and analyse all science operations requests. From the OC, the SGS will first determine all science opportunity windows compatible with the spacecraft operational constraints. Secondly, only those compatible with the resources (power and data volume) and pointing constraints will be chosen, including slew feasibility.

  11. Electron tunneling and point contact Andreev reflection studies of superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Wenqing

    The energy gap is the most fundamental property of a superconductor. Electron tunneling spectroscopy and point contact spectroscopy (PCS) are powerful techniques for studying the density of states and energy gap features of superconductors. Two different superconducting systems, multiband superconductor MgB2 and proximity induced topological superconductor NbSe2/Bi 2Se3 heterostructures were studied using either quasiparticle tunneling in planar tunnel junctions or PCS in this work. (Abstract shortened by ProQuest.).

  12. PSD Applicability Determination for Multiple Owner/Operator Point Sources Within a Single Facility

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This document may be of assistance in applying the Title V air operating permit regulations. This document is part of the Title V Policy and Guidance Database available at www2.epa.gov/title-v-operating-permits/title-v-operating-permit-policy-and-guidance-document-index. Some documents in the database are a scanned or retyped version of a paper photocopy of the original. Although we have taken considerable effort to quality assure the documents, some may contain typographical errors. Contact the office that issued the document if you need a copy of the original.

  13. Martian Aerocapture Terminal Point Guidance: A Reference Path Optimization Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ro, Theodore U.; Queen, Eric M.; Striepe, Scott A.

    1999-01-01

    An effective method of terminal point guidance is to employ influence coefficients, which are solved from a set of differential equations adjoint to the linearized perturbations of the equations of motion about a reference trajectory. Hence, to optimize this type of guidance, one must first optimize the reference trajectory that the guidance is based upon. This study concentrates on various methods to optimize a reference trajectory for a Martian aerocapture maneuver, including a parametric analysis and first order gradient method. Resulting reference trajectories were tested in separate 2000 6-DOF Monte Carlo runs, using the Atmospheric Guidance Algorithm Testbed for the Mars Surveyor Program 2001 (MSP '01) Orbiter. These results were compared to an August 1998 study using the same terminal point control guidance algorithm and simulation testbed. Satisfactory improvements over the 1998 study are amply demonstrated.

  14. A study on the basic drugs and points for point application in summer to treat the diseases with attacks in winter.

    PubMed

    Fang, Yi-Gong; Zhou, Xue-Zhong; Liu, Bao-Yan; Wang, Yong-Yan

    2010-09-01

    To study the basic prescriptions of drugs and points for point application in summer to treat the diseases with attacks in winter and the law governing their compatibility. A database was set up by collecting and sorting out the relevant literature, and the analysis was made with the complex network. It was found that Bai Jie Zi (Semen Sinapis Albae), Xi Xin (Herba Asari), Gan Sui (Radix Euphorbiae Kansui) and Yan Hu Suo (Rhizoma Corydalis) were used as the basic prescriptions of drugs, Feishu (BL 13), Dazhui (GV 14) and Shanzhong (CV 17) were selected as the basic prescription of points. The knowledge obtained from the complex networks on the basic prescriptions of drugs and points for point-application in summer to treat diseases with attacks in winter can provide a data support for working out operation norms and carrying on verification research.

  15. Jomini and the Ardennes: An Analysis of Lines of Operation and Decisive Points,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-05-01

    with P. almost 30 of these divisions concentrated in the Schnee Eifel region of Germany opposite the Ardennes.-" They organized this concentration into...succeed, the operation required absolute operations security and a believable deception plan. The Schnee Eifel region in Germany east of the Ardennes...these assembling forces. Furthermore, the Schnee Eifel was just to the south of the area for the conc:entration of the Sixth Panzer Army. The Germans

  16. Results of JET operation with continuous carbon and beryllium X-point target plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lowry, C. G.; Ady, W. N.; Campbell, D. J.; Carman, P.; Clement, S.; Deksnis, E. B.; Gondhalekar, A.; Harbour, P. J.; Horton, L.; Janeschitz, G.; Lesourd, M.; Lingertat, J.; Pick, M. A.; Saibene, G.; Summers, D. D. R.; Thomas, P. R.

    1992-12-01

    The 1991/92 JET experimental campaign assessed the performance of three different toroidally continuous X-point target plates. The main differences were in the tile material, beryllium and carbon, and the presence of exposed edges. These three configurations have been tested up to power levels in excess of 22 MW and with gas fuelling at the X-point and in the midplane. With the beryllium a radiating divertor was achieved by puffing deuterium into the X-point region, while rapid ELMs resulted from deuterium puffing on the carbon target. The investigation into the importance of small edges, up to 1.5 mm, yielded some interesting results. Although the surface temperature rise was substantially reduced by eliminating exposed tile edges, the onset of the carbon bloom was not delayed by a similar amount. In this paper a model is presented which can explain this and other features of the bloom.

  17. Space Shuttle Proximity Operation Sensor Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weber, C. L.; Alem, W. K.

    1978-01-01

    The performance of the Kuband radar was analyzed in detail, and the performance was updated and summarized. In so doing, two different radar design philosophies were described, and the corresponding differences in losses were enumerated. The resulting design margins were determined for both design philosophies and for both the designated and nondesignated range modes of operation. In some cases, the design margin was about zero, and in other cases it was significantly less than zero. With the point of view described above, the recommended solution is to allow more scan time but at the present scan rate. With no other changes in the present configuration, the radar met design detection specifications for all design philosophies at a range of 11.3 nautical miles.

  18. Computational Analysis of Distance Operators for the Iterative Closest Point Algorithm

    PubMed Central

    Mora-Pascual, Jerónimo M.; García-García, Alberto; Martínez-González, Pablo

    2016-01-01

    The Iterative Closest Point (ICP) algorithm is currently one of the most popular methods for rigid registration so that it has become the standard in the Robotics and Computer Vision communities. Many applications take advantage of it to align 2D/3D surfaces due to its popularity and simplicity. Nevertheless, some of its phases present a high computational cost thus rendering impossible some of its applications. In this work, it is proposed an efficient approach for the matching phase of the Iterative Closest Point algorithm. This stage is the main bottleneck of that method so that any efficiency improvement has a great positive impact on the performance of the algorithm. The proposal consists in using low computational cost point-to-point distance metrics instead of classic Euclidean one. The candidates analysed are the Chebyshev and Manhattan distance metrics due to their simpler formulation. The experiments carried out have validated the performance, robustness and quality of the proposal. Different experimental cases and configurations have been set up including a heterogeneous set of 3D figures, several scenarios with partial data and random noise. The results prove that an average speed up of 14% can be obtained while preserving the convergence properties of the algorithm and the quality of the final results. PMID:27768714

  19. LST data management and mission operations concept. [pointing control optimization for maximum data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, R.; Hudson, F.; Murphy, L.

    1977-01-01

    A candidate design concept for an LST ground facility is described. The design objectives were to use NASA institutional hardware, software and facilities wherever practical, and to maximize efficiency of telescope use. The pointing control performance requirements of LST are summarized, and the major data interfaces of the candidate ground system are diagrammed.

  20. Study of point defects in alkaline-earth sulfides

    SciTech Connect

    Pandey, R.; Kunz, A.B.; Vail, J.M.

    1988-11-01

    The results of a computer simulation study of point defects including vacancy, interstitial, and F/sup +/ center in alkaline-earth sulfides are presented. The study is based on ICECAP/HADES simulation procedures and uses empirical interionic potentials obtained from the analysis of macroscopic data for these materials. The results predict the dominance of Schottky disorder and suggest that vacancy migration predominates in alkaline-earth sulfides. Furthermore, the calculated F/sup +/ center absorption energy is in good agreement with the experimental data deduced from the optical stimulated studies in these materials.

  1. Lubrication study for Single Point Incremental Forming of Copper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jawale, Kishore; Ferreira Duarte, José; Reis, Ana; Silva, M. B.

    2016-08-01

    In conventional machining and sheet metal forming processes, in general, lubrication assists to increase the quality of the final product. Similarly it is observed that there is a positive effect of the use of lubrication in Single point incremental forming, namely in the surface roughness. This study is focused on the investigation of the most appropriate lubricant for incremental forming of copper sheet. The study involves the selection of the best lubricant from a range of several lubricants that provides the best surface finishing. The influence of the lubrication on other parameters such as the maximum forming angle, the fracture strains and the deformed profile are also studied for Copper.

  2. Operator Multiple-Tasking Study for Remotely Operated Platforms.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-04-01

    psycho- motor functions of percep- tion. information processing and control actuation. The block representing perception transforms displayed sensory...inability to generate perfect control responses, an equivalent " motor " noise is added to u[. The result is filtered to account for possible bandwidth...of Human Operator Activities ......................................................... 8 B. Review of Human Controller Modelling Theory

  3. A survey of ground operations tools developed to simulate the pointing of space telescopes and the design for WISE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fabinsky, Beth

    2006-01-01

    WISE, the Wide Field Infrared Survey Explorer, is scheduled for launch in June 2010. The mission operations system for WISE requires a software modeling tool to help plan, integrate and simulate all spacecraft pointing and verify that no attitude constraints are violated. In the course of developing the requirements for this tool, an investigation was conducted into the design of similar tools for other space-based telescopes. This paper summarizes the ground software and processes used to plan and validate pointing for a selection of space telescopes; with this information as background, the design for WISE is presented.

  4. Towards a controlled study of the QCD critical point

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Forcrand, Ph; Philipsen, O.

    2008-10-01

    The phase diagram of QCD, as a function of temperature T and quark chemical potential μ, may contain a critical point (μE, TE) whose non-perturbative nature makes it a natural object of lattice studies. However, the sign problem prevents the application of standard Monte Carlo techniques at nonzero baryon density. We have been pursuing an approach free of the sign problem, where the chemical potential is taken as imaginary and the results are Taylor expanded in μ/T about μ = 0, then analytically continued to real μ. Within this approach we have determined the sensitivity of the critical chemical potential μE to the quark mass, d(\\mu_E)^2/dm_q|_{\\mu_E=0} . Our study indicates that the critical point moves to a larger chemical potential as the quark mass decreases. This finding, contrary to common wisdom, implies that the deconfinement crossover, which takes place in QCD at μ = 0 when the temperature is raised, will remain a crossover in the μ-region where our Taylor expansion can be trusted. If this result, obtained on a coarse lattice, is confirmed by simulations on finer lattices now in progress, then we predict that no chiral critical point will be found for μB lsim 500 MeV, unless the phase diagram contains additional transitions.

  5. Point-and-stare operation and high-speed image acquisition in real-time hyperspectral imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Driver, Richard D.; Bannon, David P.; Ciccone, Domenic; Hill, Sam L.

    2010-04-01

    The design and optical performance of a small-footprint, low-power, turnkey, Point-And-Stare hyperspectral analyzer, capable of fully automated field deployment in remote and harsh environments, is described. The unit is packaged for outdoor operation in an IP56 protected air-conditioned enclosure and includes a mechanically ruggedized fully reflective, aberration-corrected hyperspectral VNIR (400-1000 nm) spectrometer with a board-level detector optimized for point and stare operation, an on-board computer capable of full system data-acquisition and control, and a fully functioning internal hyperspectral calibration system for in-situ system spectral calibration and verification. Performance data on the unit under extremes of real-time survey operation and high spatial and high spectral resolution will be discussed. Hyperspectral acquisition including full parameter tracking is achieved by the addition of a fiber-optic based downwelling spectral channel for solar illumination tracking during hyperspectral acquisition and the use of other sensors for spatial and directional tracking to pinpoint view location. The system is mounted on a Pan-And-Tilt device, automatically controlled from the analyzer's on-board computer, making the HyperspecTM particularly adaptable for base security, border protection and remote deployments. A hyperspectral macro library has been developed to control hyperspectral image acquisition, system calibration and scene location control. The software allows the system to be operated in a fully automatic mode or under direct operator control through a GigE interface.

  6. Lunar NTR vehicle design and operations study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hodge, John

    1993-01-01

    The results of a lunar nuclear thermal rocket (NTR) vehicle design and operations study are presented in text and graphic form. The objectives of the study were to evaluate the potential applications of a specific NTR design to past and current (First Lunar Outpost) mission profiles for piloted and cargo lunar missions, and to assess the applicability of utilizing lunar vehicle design concepts for Mars missions.

  7. Distributed Operating System Design Study. Volume II.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-01-01

    RADC-TR-81-384, Vol II (of two) has been reviewed and is approved for publication. APPROVED: THOMAS F. LAWRENCE Project Engineer APPROVED: JO J...distribution unlimited 17. DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT (of the ebstract entered in Block 20. If diierent from Report) Same 18. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES RADC Project ...of the study were reported in BBN Report No. 4455, titled "Distributed Operating System Design Study: Phase 1." The goal of this project is to advance

  8. Particulate emissions calculations from fall tillage operations using point and remote sensors

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Preparation of soil for agricultural crops produces aerosols that may significantly contribute to seasonal atmospheric loadings of particulate matter (PM). Efforts to reduce PM emissions from tillage operations through a variety of conservation management practices (CMP) have been made but the reduc...

  9. 78 FR 21064 - Drawbridge Operation Regulations; York River, between Yorktown and Gloucester Point, VA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-09

    ... draw of the US 17/George P. Coleman Memorial Swing Bridge across the York River, at mile 7.0, between.... Coleman Memorial Swing Bridge. This temporary deviation allows the drawbridge to remain in the closed- to... Transportation, who owns and operates this swing bridge, has requested a temporary deviation from the...

  10. Surgeon point-of-view recording: Using a high-definition head-mounted video camera in the operating room

    PubMed Central

    Nair, Akshay Gopinathan; Kamal, Saurabh; Dave, Tarjani Vivek; Mishra, Kapil; Reddy, Harsha S; Rocca, David Della; Rocca, Robert C Della; Andron, Aleza; Jain, Vandana

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To study the utility of a commercially available small, portable ultra-high definition (HD) camera (GoPro Hero 4) for intraoperative recording. Methods: A head mount was used to fix the camera on the operating surgeon's head. Due care was taken to protect the patient's identity. The recorded video was subsequently edited and used as a teaching tool. This retrospective, noncomparative study was conducted at three tertiary eye care centers. The surgeries recorded were ptosis correction, ectropion correction, dacryocystorhinostomy, angular dermoid excision, enucleation, blepharoplasty and lid tear repair surgery (one each). The recorded videos were reviewed, edited, and checked for clarity, resolution, and reproducibility. Results: The recorded videos were found to be high quality, which allowed for zooming and visualization of the surgical anatomy clearly. Minimal distortion is a drawback that can be effectively addressed during postproduction. The camera, owing to its lightweight and small size, can be mounted on the surgeon's head, thus offering a unique surgeon point-of-view. In our experience, the results were of good quality and reproducible. Conclusions: A head-mounted ultra-HD video recording system is a cheap, high quality, and unobtrusive technique to record surgery and can be a useful teaching tool in external facial and ophthalmic plastic surgery. PMID:26655001

  11. Surgeon point-of-view recording: Using a high-definition head-mounted video camera in the operating room.

    PubMed

    Nair, Akshay Gopinathan; Kamal, Saurabh; Dave, Tarjani Vivek; Mishra, Kapil; Reddy, Harsha S; Della Rocca, David; Della Rocca, Robert C; Andron, Aleza; Jain, Vandana

    2015-10-01

    To study the utility of a commercially available small, portable ultra-high definition (HD) camera (GoPro Hero 4) for intraoperative recording. A head mount was used to fix the camera on the operating surgeon's head. Due care was taken to protect the patient's identity. The recorded video was subsequently edited and used as a teaching tool. This retrospective, noncomparative study was conducted at three tertiary eye care centers. The surgeries recorded were ptosis correction, ectropion correction, dacryocystorhinostomy, angular dermoid excision, enucleation, blepharoplasty and lid tear repair surgery (one each). The recorded videos were reviewed, edited, and checked for clarity, resolution, and reproducibility. The recorded videos were found to be high quality, which allowed for zooming and visualization of the surgical anatomy clearly. Minimal distortion is a drawback that can be effectively addressed during postproduction. The camera, owing to its lightweight and small size, can be mounted on the surgeon's head, thus offering a unique surgeon point-of-view. In our experience, the results were of good quality and reproducible. A head-mounted ultra-HD video recording system is a cheap, high quality, and unobtrusive technique to record surgery and can be a useful teaching tool in external facial and ophthalmic plastic surgery.

  12. Partial difference operators on weighted graphs for image processing on surfaces and point clouds.

    PubMed

    Lozes, Francois; Elmoataz, Abderrahim; Lezoray, Olivier

    2014-09-01

    Partial difference equations (PDEs) and variational methods for image processing on Euclidean domains spaces are very well established because they permit to solve a large range of real computer vision problems. With the recent advent of many 3D sensors, there is a growing interest in transposing and solving PDEs on surfaces and point clouds. In this paper, we propose a simple method to solve such PDEs using the framework of PDEs on graphs. This latter approach enables us to transcribe, for surfaces and point clouds, many models and algorithms designed for image processing. To illustrate our proposal, three problems are considered: (1) p -Laplacian restoration and inpainting; (2) PDEs mathematical morphology; and (3) active contours segmentation.

  13. The QACITS pointing sensor: from theory to on-sky operation on Keck/NIRC2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huby, Elsa; Absil, Olivier; Mawet, Dimitri; Baudoz, Pierre; Femenıa Castellã, Bruno; Bottom, Michael; Ngo, Henry; Serabyn, Eugene

    2016-07-01

    Small inner working angle coronagraphs are essential to benefit from the full potential of large and future extremely large ground-based telescopes, especially in the context of the detection and characterization of exoplanets. Among existing solutions, the vortex coronagraph stands as one of the most effective and promising solutions. However, for focal-plane coronagraph, a small inner working angle comes necessarily at the cost of a high sensitivity to pointing errors. This is the reason why a pointing control system is imperative to stabilize the star on the vortex center against pointing drifts due to mechanical flexures, that generally occur during observation due for instance to temperature and/or gravity variations. We have therefore developed a technique called QACITS1 (Quadrant Analysis of Coronagraphic Images for Tip-tilt Sensing), which is based on the analysis of the coronagraphic image shape to infer the amount of pointing error. It has been shown that the flux gradient in the image is directly related to the amount of tip-tilt affecting the beam. The main advantage of this technique is that it does not require any additional setup and can thus be easily implemented on all current facilities equipped with a vortex phase mask. In this paper, we focus on the implementation of the QACITS sensor at Keck/NIRC2, where an L-band AGPM has been recently commissioned (June and October 2015), successfully validating the QACITS estimator in the case of a centrally obstructed pupil. The algorithm has been designed to be easily handled by any user observing in vortex mode, which is available for science in shared risk mode since 2016B.

  14. Temperature Effects of Point Sources, Riparian Shading, and Dam Operations on the Willamette River, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rounds, Stewart A.

    2007-01-01

    Water temperature is an important factor influencing the migration, rearing, and spawning of several important fish species in rivers of the Pacific Northwest. To protect these fish populations and to fulfill its responsibilities under the Federal Clean Water Act, the Oregon Department of Environmental Quality set a water temperature Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) in 2006 for the Willamette River and the lower reaches of its largest tributaries in northwestern Oregon. As a result, the thermal discharges of the largest point sources of heat to the Willamette River now are limited at certain times of the year, riparian vegetation has been targeted for restoration, and upstream dams are recognized as important influences on downstream temperatures. Many of the prescribed point-source heat-load allocations are sufficiently restrictive that management agencies may need to expend considerable resources to meet those allocations. Trading heat allocations among point-source dischargers may be a more economical and efficient means of meeting the cumulative point-source temperature limits set by the TMDL. The cumulative nature of these limits, however, precludes simple one-to-one trades of heat from one point source to another; a more detailed spatial analysis is needed. In this investigation, the flow and temperature models that formed the basis of the Willamette temperature TMDL were used to determine a spatially indexed 'heating signature' for each of the modeled point sources, and those signatures then were combined into a user-friendly, spreadsheet-based screening tool. The Willamette River Point-Source Heat-Trading Tool allows the user to increase or decrease the heating signature of each source and thereby evaluate the effects of a wide range of potential point-source heat trades. The predictions of the Trading Tool were verified by running the Willamette flow and temperature models under four different trading scenarios, and the predictions typically were accurate

  15. Lean Operations Strategy to Combat Uncertainties in Temperture at BOF End Point, Tapping, Deoxidation, Alloy Addition and Thermal History

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shukla, Ishani; Rajesh, G.; Agarwal, Pratik; Shukla, Ajay Kumar; Philip, Deepu

    Steel plants generally employ static BOF end point control models to arrive at a given temperature and chemistry at the end of blow. These end point models have now been supplemented with chaos control models to steer the blowing process in the right direction while the blow is in progress. Merely arriving at the correct end point temperature is however not adequate because in the subsequent stages as well the temperature variations can be large and unpredictable. The present paper deals with an integrated model to take into account the effect of all parameters affecting temperature and composition from tapping to the start of casting to minimize the use of LF or aluminum heating, and also minimize grade mixing. The application of lean operations strategy is explained in which the previous "Push System" is changed to a "Pull System", minimizing the use of ladle furnace or aluminum heating during steelmaking.

  16. Investigation of other operating points for the RCA streak tube in the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory streak camera

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, S.W.; Peterson, R.L.; Griffith, R.L.

    1982-07-01

    The soft x-ray streak camera uses the RCA C73435 streak tube body fitted with a removable x-ray cathode. The front of the streak tube is exposed to the vacuum of an experimental chamber, which is not entirely under the control of a streak camera operator. Occasionally, the vacuum becomes poor enough to cause corona and arcing from the cathode to the chamber wall. The corona problem is more difficult because the dimensions of the x-ray camera body are smaller than for the optical camera body. Therefore, we investigated the effects on camera performance of decreasing the accelerating voltage at the cathode from the customary 17 kV. Several operating points were evaluated and 12 kV cathode-to-anode with 5 kV cathode-to-grid were selected for more detailed investigation. Transverse spatial resolution and dynamic range were found to be essentially the same as at our normal operating point of 17 kV for the cathode and 2500 V on the grid. Magnification, sweep linearity and absolute sensitivity changed as expected. In the course of the investigation, we measured the dynamic range with our CCD readout system. The effect of Coulomb repulsion at the crossover point was also measured and found not to affect dynamic range.

  17. Correlation of part-span damper losses through transonic rotors operating near design point

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, W. B.

    1977-01-01

    The design-point losses caused by part-span dampers (PSD) were correlated for 21 transonic axial flow fan rotors that had tip speeds varying from 350 to 488 meters per second and design pressure ratios of 1.5 to 2.0. For these rotors a correlation using mean inlet Mach number at the damper location, along with relevant geometric and aerodynamic loading parameters, predicts the variation of total pressure loss coefficient in the region of the damper to a good approximation.

  18. Sensor study for high speed autonomous operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, Anne; La Celle, Zachary; Lacaze, Alberto; Murphy, Karl; Del Giorno, Mark; Close, Ryan

    2015-06-01

    As robotic ground systems advance in capabilities and begin to fulfill new roles in both civilian and military life, the limitation of slow operational speed has become a hindrance to the wide-spread adoption of these systems. For example, military convoys are reluctant to employ autonomous vehicles when these systems slow their movement from 60 miles per hour down to 40. However, these autonomous systems must operate at these lower speeds due to the limitations of the sensors they employ. Robotic Research, with its extensive experience in ground autonomy and associated problems therein, in conjunction with CERDEC/Night Vision and Electronic Sensors Directorate (NVESD), has performed a study to specify system and detection requirements; determined how current autonomy sensors perform in various scenarios; and analyzed how sensors should be employed to increase operational speeds of ground vehicles. The sensors evaluated in this study include the state of the art in LADAR/LIDAR, Radar, Electro-Optical, and Infrared sensors, and have been analyzed at high speeds to study their effectiveness in detecting and accounting for obstacles and other perception challenges. By creating a common set of testing benchmarks, and by testing in a wide range of real-world conditions, Robotic Research has evaluated where sensors can be successfully employed today; where sensors fall short; and which technologies should be examined and developed further. This study is the first step to achieve the overarching goal of doubling ground vehicle speeds on any given terrain.

  19. Case Study of Reservoir Operation with SSSLP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howard, C. D.

    2012-12-01

    by Charles D. D. Howard, Member AGU Senior Advisor, CddHoward Consulting Ltd Victoria, BC, Canada. For a continuous period of eight years a conceptual hydrologic model was coupled with a stochastic optimization model during operation of two hydroelectric reservoirs in mountain watersheds of coastal British Columbia. The results in terms of increased actual energy generation may provide insight into a simple methodology suitable for other similar situations. The optimization model was updated each week with current reservoir levels, operating criteria (such as unit outages) and stochastic inflow forecasts covering a 52 week time horizon. The weekly operating decisions were based on a stochastic linear programming model of the time horizon but recommended the optimal releases in only the first week. Implementation and management of the method was expedited by not considering the full multi-stage decision tree. This method is called SSLP, Single Stage Stochastic Linear Programming. The paper provides two comparisons for how well this methodology can perform. The first shows comparisons of actual energy generation, generation that could have been achieved if the model recommendations had been more strictly adopted, and generation that would have occurred if the previous rule curve had been followed. The second is an academic study that explored how much detail is actually needed in reservoir operations optimization. For this a single stage stochastic linear programming model of a hypothetical reservoir was compared with a stochastic dynamic programming application that modeled the full decision tree.

  20. Vaccine distribution: an operations research study.

    PubMed

    Subramanyam, K

    1989-01-01

    The implementation of an immunization program in rural areas is affected by lacunae in the vaccine distribution system. A study conducted in India identified the extent to which irregular supply of vaccines has affected the immunization program. This study also identified other problem areas, such as a faulty cold chain and the need for an improved monitoring and control system and for better supervision. A model was designed to represent the immunization program and was used to assess the performance of the system under different supply conditions and operational policies. The study identified a number of improvements that could be made in the vaccine distribution system.

  1. Space Operations Center: Shuttle interaction study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    The implication of using the Shuttle with the Space Operation Center (SOC), including constraints that the Shuttle will place upon the SOC design. The study identifies the considerations involved in the use of the Shuttle as a part of the SOC concept, and also identifies the constraints to the SOC imposed by the Shuttle in its interactions with the SOC, and on the design or technical solutions which allow satisfactory accomplishment of the interactions.

  2. Apparatus for the determination of melting points, molecular weights, freezing points and purity, and for the study of melting.

    PubMed

    Greenwood, R F

    1970-10-01

    An apparatus for the determination of the melting point of a partially frozen liquid is described. Thermal equilibrium is rapidly attained, largely because of the presence of glass balls in the experimental flask, and the method of agitation. The use of a thermistor and a recording potentiometer allows charting of the temperature changes with time. The melting point can be calculated from points on the trace. The apparatus has been used to study melting point depressions for solutions of hydrocarbons and phenols in benzene, nitrobenzene, water and dioxan.

  3. First-principles study of point defects in thorium carbide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez Daroca, D.; Jaroszewicz, S.; Llois, A. M.; Mosca, H. O.

    2014-11-01

    Thorium-based materials are currently being investigated in relation with their potential utilization in Generation-IV reactors as nuclear fuels. One of the most important issues to be studied is their behavior under irradiation. A first approach to this goal is the study of point defects. By means of first-principles calculations within the framework of density functional theory, we study the stability and formation energies of vacancies, interstitials and Frenkel pairs in thorium carbide. We find that C isolated vacancies are the most likely defects, while C interstitials are energetically favored as compared to Th ones. These kind of results for ThC, to the best authors' knowledge, have not been obtained previously, neither experimentally, nor theoretically. For this reason, we compare with results on other compounds with the same NaCl-type structure.

  4. Acupuncture points for treating Parkinson's disease based on animal studies.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Sunoh; Seo, Byung-Kwan; Kim, Seungtae

    2016-10-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a well-known neurodegenerative disease caused by dopaminergic cell death in the nigrostriatal pathway. Recent studies have shown that acupuncture can be a potential therapy for the treatment of PD, but it is not clear which acupuncture points (acupoints) play major roles in reliving symptoms of PD. Yanglingquan (GB 34), Zusanli (ST 36), Fengfu (GV 16), Taichong (LR 3), Baihui (GV 20) and Dazhui (GV 14) acupoints have frequently been to investigate the effectiveness and action mechanism of acupuncture for treating PD, but it is not clear why they were selected. This review summarizes the current understanding of the acupoints for PD treatment based on Oriental medicine theories and on the accumulated findings from previous animal studies. The results of this study will be useful to development of a strategy for future research in this field.

  5. Operational Implementation of the Healthy Communities Study

    PubMed Central

    John, Lisa V.; Gregoriou, Maria; Pate, Russell R.; Fawcett, Stephen B.; Crawford, Patricia B.; Strauss, Warren; Frongillo, Edward A.; Ritchie, Lorrene D.; Loria, Catherine M.; Kelley, Melinda; Fishbein, Howard; Arteaga, S. Sonia

    2015-01-01

    The Healthy Communities Study (HCS) is examining how characteristics of community programs and policies targeting childhood obesity are related to childhood diet, physical activity, and obesity outcomes. The study involves selected districts and public schools in 130 communities; families recruited through schools; and data collected at the community, school, household, and child levels. Data collection took place in two waves—Wave 1 in Spring 2012 and Wave 2 from 2013 to 2015—with analysis to be completed by August 2016. This paper describes operational elements of the HCS, including recruitment activities, field operations, training of data collectors, human subjects protection, and quality assurance and quality control procedures. Experienced trainers oversaw and conducted all training, including training of: (1) district and school recruitment staff; (2) telephone interviewers for household screening and recruitment; (3) field data collectors for conducting household data collection; and (4) community liaisons for conducting key informant interviews, document abstraction, and community observations. The study team developed quality assurance and quality control procedures that were implemented for all aspects of the study. Planning and operationalizing a study of this complexity and magnitude, with multiple functional teams, required frequent communication and strong collaboration among all study partners to ensure timely and effective decision making. PMID:26384933

  6. Intracellular calcium affects prestin's voltage operating point indirectly via turgor-induced membrane tension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Lei; Santos-Sacchi, Joseph

    2015-12-01

    Recent identification of a calmodulin binding site within prestin's C-terminus indicates that calcium can significantly alter prestin's operating voltage range as gauged by the Boltzmann parameter Vh (Keller et al., J. Neuroscience, 2014). We reasoned that those experiments may have identified the molecular substrate for the protein's tension sensitivity. In an effort to understand how this may happen, we evaluated the effects of turgor pressure on such shifts produced by calcium. We find that the shifts are induced by calcium's ability to reduce turgor pressure during whole cell voltage clamp recording. Clamping turgor pressure to 1kPa, the cell's normal intracellular pressure, completely counters the calcium effect. Furthermore, following unrestrained shifts, collapsing the cells abolishes induced shifts. We conclude that calcium does not work by direct action on prestin's conformational state. The possibility remains that calcium interaction with prestin alters water movements within the cell, possibly via its anion transport function.

  7. Point of View: Leadership Studies from Different Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harter, Nathan

    2012-01-01

    By adopting the dictum that all knowledge is knowledge from a point of view, educators can arrange the literature on leadership into nine categories from three conceptually distinct points of view, namely the Leader, the Follower, and the Investigator. Students who come to appreciate and account for point of view not only increase their…

  8. Point of View: Leadership Studies from Different Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harter, Nathan

    2012-01-01

    By adopting the dictum that all knowledge is knowledge from a point of view, educators can arrange the literature on leadership into nine categories from three conceptually distinct points of view, namely the Leader, the Follower, and the Investigator. Students who come to appreciate and account for point of view not only increase their…

  9. Point defects in thorium nitride: A first-principles study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez Daroca, D.; Llois, A. M.; Mosca, H. O.

    2016-11-01

    Thorium and its compounds (carbides and nitrides) are being investigated as possible materials to be used as nuclear fuels for Generation-IV reactors. As a first step in the research of these materials under irradiation, we study the formation energies and stability of point defects in thorium nitride by means of first-principles calculations within the framework of density functional theory. We focus on vacancies, interstitials, Frenkel pairs and Schottky defects. We found that N and Th vacancies have almost the same formation energy and that the most energetically favorable defects of all studied in this work are N interstitials. These kind of results for ThN, to the best authors' knowledge, have not been obtained previously, neither experimentally, nor theoretically.

  10. Ergonomic comparison of operating a built-in touch-pad pointing device and a trackball mouse on posture and muscle activity.

    PubMed

    Lee, Tzu-Hsien

    2005-12-01

    This study examined the effects of operating a built-in touch-pad pointing device and a trackball mouse on participants' completion times, hand positions during operation, postural angles, and muscle activities. 8 young men were asked to perform a cursor travel task on a notebook computer using both 60- and 80-cm high table conditions. Analysis showed that the trackball mouse significantly decreased completion times. Participants selected a hand position farther from the table edge and larger elbow angle for the trackball mouse than for the built-in touch-pad pointing device. Participants' neck, thoracic, and arm angles, or splenius capitis, trapezius, deltoid, and erector spinae muscle activities were not significantly affected by the devices, but table height significantly affected participants' completion times, hand positions, and postural angles.

  11. Chandra X-Ray Observatory Pointing Control System Performance During Transfer Orbit and Initial On-Orbit Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quast, Peter; Tung, Frank; West, Mark; Wider, John

    2000-01-01

    The Chandra X-ray Observatory (CXO, formerly AXAF) is the third of the four NASA great observatories. It was launched from Kennedy Space Flight Center on 23 July 1999 aboard the Space Shuttle Columbia and was successfully inserted in a 330 x 72,000 km orbit by the Inertial Upper Stage (IUS). Through a series of five Integral Propulsion System burns, CXO was placed in a 10,000 x 139,000 km orbit. After initial on-orbit checkout, Chandra's first light images were unveiled to the public on 26 August, 1999. The CXO Pointing Control and Aspect Determination (PCAD) subsystem is designed to perform attitude control and determination functions in support of transfer orbit operations and on-orbit science mission. After a brief description of the PCAD subsystem, the paper highlights the PCAD activities during the transfer orbit and initial on-orbit operations. These activities include: CXO/IUS separation, attitude and gyro bias estimation with earth sensor and sun sensor, attitude control and disturbance torque estimation for delta-v burns, momentum build-up due to gravity gradient and solar pressure, momentum unloading with thrusters, attitude initialization with star measurements, gyro alignment calibration, maneuvering and transition to normal pointing, and PCAD pointing and stability performance.

  12. A Data Filter for Identifying Steady-State Operating Points in Engine Flight Data for Condition Monitoring Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, Donald L.; Litt, Jonathan S.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents an algorithm that automatically identifies and extracts steady-state engine operating points from engine flight data. It calculates the mean and standard deviation of select parameters contained in the incoming flight data stream. If the standard deviation of the data falls below defined constraints, the engine is assumed to be at a steady-state operating point, and the mean measurement data at that point are archived for subsequent condition monitoring purposes. The fundamental design of the steady-state data filter is completely generic and applicable for any dynamic system. Additional domain-specific logic constraints are applied to reduce data outliers and variance within the collected steady-state data. The filter is designed for on-line real-time processing of streaming data as opposed to post-processing of the data in batch mode. Results of applying the steady-state data filter to recorded helicopter engine flight data are shown, demonstrating its utility for engine condition monitoring applications.

  13. A Comparative Study of Point Cloud Data Collection and Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pippin, J. E.; Matheney, M.; Gentle, J. N., Jr.; Pierce, S. A.; Fuentes-Pineda, G.

    2016-12-01

    Over the past decade, there has been dramatic growth in the acquisition of publicly funded high-resolution topographic data for scientific, environmental, engineering and planning purposes. These data sets are valuable for applications of interest across a large and varied user community. However, because of the large volumes of data produced by high-resolution mapping technologies and expense of aerial data collection, it is often difficult to collect and distribute these datasets. Furthermore, the data can be technically challenging to process, requiring software and computing resources not readily available to many users. This study presents a comparison of advanced computing hardware and software that is used to collect and process point cloud datasets, such as LIDAR scans. Activities included implementation and testing of open source libraries and applications for point cloud data processing such as, Meshlab, Blender, PDAL, and PCL. Additionally, a suite of commercial scale applications, Skanect and Cloudcompare, were applied to raw datasets. Handheld hardware solutions, a Structure Scanner and Xbox 360 Kinect V1, were tested for their ability to scan at three field locations. The resultant data projects successfully scanned and processed subsurface karst features ranging from small stalactites to large rooms, as well as a surface waterfall feature. Outcomes support the feasibility of rapid sensing in 3D at field scales.

  14. Calculation studies on point defects in perovskite solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Dan; Dai, Chenmin; Chen, Shiyou

    2017-01-01

    The close-to-optimal band gap, large absorption coefficient, low manufacturing cost and rapid increase in power conversion efficiency make the organic-inorganic hybrid halide (CH3NH3PbI3) and related perovskite solar cells very promising for commercialization. The properties of point defects in the absorber layer semiconductors have important influence on the photovoltaic performance of solar cells, so the investigation on the defect properties in the perovskite semiconductors is necessary for the optimization of their photovoltaic performance. In this work, we give a brief review to the first-principles calculation studies on the defect properties in a series of perovskite semiconductors, including the organic-inorganic hybrid perovskites and inorganic halide perovskites. Experimental identification of these point defects and characterization of their properties are called for. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 61574059), the Shanghai Rising-Star Program (No. 14QA1401500), the Shu-Guang Program (15SG20), and the CC of ECNU.

  15. Operations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkins, Jesse L. M.; Norton, Anderson; Boyce, Steven J.

    2013-01-01

    Previous research has documented schemes and operations that undergird students' understanding of fractions. This prior research was based, in large part, on small-group teaching experiments. However, written assessments are needed in order for teachers and researchers to assess students' ways of operating on a whole-class scale. In this study,…

  16. Integrated Operations Architecture Technology Assessment Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    As part of NASA's Integrated Operations Architecture (IOA) Baseline, NASA will consolidate all communications operations. including ground-based, near-earth, and deep-space communications, into a single integrated network. This network will make maximum use of commercial equipment, services and standards. It will be an Internet Protocol (IP) based network. This study supports technology development planning for the IOA. The technical problems that may arise when LEO mission spacecraft interoperate with commercial satellite services were investigated. Commercial technology and services that could support the IOA were surveyed, and gaps in the capability of existing technology and techniques were identified. Recommendations were made on which gaps should be closed by means of NASA research and development funding. Several findings emerged from the interoperability assessment: in the NASA mission set, there is a preponderance of small. inexpensive, low data rate science missions; proposed commercial satellite communications services could potentially provide TDRSS-like data relay functions; and. IP and related protocols, such as TCP, require augmentation to operate in the mobile networking environment required by the space-to-ground portion of the IOA. Five case studies were performed in the technology assessment. Each case represented a realistic implementation of the near-earth portion of the IOA. The cases included the use of frequencies at L-band, Ka-band and the optical spectrum. The cases also represented both space relay architectures and direct-to-ground architectures. Some of the main recommendations resulting from the case studies are: select an architecture for the LEO/MEO communications network; pursue the development of a Ka-band space-qualified transmitter (and possibly a receiver), and a low-cost Ka-band ground terminal for a direct-to-ground network, pursue the development of an Inmarsat (L-band) space-qualified transceiver to implement a global, low

  17. Common Operating Picture: UAV Security Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This initial communication security study is a top-level assessment of basic security issues related to the operation of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) in the National Airspace System (NAS). Security considerations will include information relating to the use of International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) Aeronautical Telecommunications Network (ATN) protocols and applications identifying their maturity, as well as the use of IPV4 and a version of mobile IPV6. The purpose of this assessment is to provide an initial analysis of the security implications of introducing UAVs into the NAS.

  18. [Garbage incineration plants -- planning, organisation and operation from health point of view].

    PubMed

    Thriene, B

    2004-12-01

    The Waste Disposal Regulation which became effective March 1, 2001 stipulates that from June 1, 2005 biodegradable residential household and commercial waste may only be deposited on landfills after thermal or mechanical-biological pre-treatment. The Regulation aims at preventing generation of landfill gases that are detrimental to health and climate, and discharge of pollutants from landfills into the groundwater. Waste calculations for the year 2005 predict a volume of 28 million tons. Existing incineration and mechanical-biological treatment plants cover volumes of 14 and 2.5 million tons, respectively. Consequently, their capacity does not meet the demand in Germany. Waste disposal plans have been prepared in the German Federal State of Saxony-Anhalt since 1996 and potential sites for garbage incineration plants have been identified. Energy and waste management companies have initiated application procedures for thermal waste treatment plants and utilization of energy. Health Departments and the Hygiene Institute contributed to the approval procedure by providing the required Health Impact Assessment. We recommended selecting sites in the vicinity of large cities and conurbations and - taking into account the main wind direction - preferably in the northeast. Long-distance transport should be avoided. Based on immission forecasts for territorial background pollution, additional noise and air pollution were examined for reasonableness. In addition, providing structural safety of plants and guaranteeing continuous monitoring of emission limit values of air pollutants, was a prerequisite for strict observance of the 17 (th) BImSchV (Federal Decree on the Prevention of Immissions). The paper informs about planning, construction and conditions for operating the combined garbage heating and power station in Magdeburg-Rothensee (600,000 t/a). Saxony-Anhalt's waste legislation requires non-recyclable waste to be disposed of at the place of its generation, if possible

  19. Rulemaking Petition to lower the threshold that qualifies animal feeding operations (“AFOs”) as concentrated animal feeding operations (“CAFOs”) and thereby “point sources” under section 402 of the Clean Water Act (“CWA”)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Rulemaking Petition submitted September 20, 2015 to lower the threshold that qualifies animal feeding operations (AFOs) as concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) and thereby point sources under§ 402 of the Clean Water Act (CWA).

  20. Studies of acoustic emission from point and extended sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sachse, W.; Kim, K. Y.; Chen, C. P.

    1986-01-01

    The use of simulated and controlled acoustic emission signals forms the basis of a powerful tool for the detailed study of various deformation and wave interaction processes in materials. The results of experiments and signal analyses of acoustic emission resulting from point sources such as various types of indentation-produced cracks in brittle materials and the growth of fatigue cracks in 7075-T6 aluminum panels are discussed. Recent work dealing with the modeling and subsequent signal processing of an extended source of emission in a material is reviewed. Results of the forward problem and the inverse problem are presented with the example of a source distributed through the interior of a specimen.

  1. [Receiver operating characteristic analysis and the cost--benefit analysis in determination of the optimal cut-off point].

    PubMed

    Vránová, J; Horák, J; Krátká, K; Hendrichová, M; Kovaírková, K

    2009-01-01

    An overview of the use of Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) analysis within medicine is provided. A survey of the theory behind the analysis is offered together with a presentation on how to create a ROC curve and how to use Cost--Benefit analysis to determine the optimal cut-off point or threshold. The use of ROC analysis is exemplified in the "Cost--Benefit analysis" section of the paper. In these examples, it can be seen that the determination of the optimal cut-off point is mainly influenced by the prevalence and the severity of the disease, by the risks and adverse events of treatment or the diagnostic testing, by the overall costs of treating true and false positives (TP and FP), and by the risk of deficient or non-treatment of false negative (FN) cases.

  2. Delirium in Critically Ill Children: An International Point Prevalence Study.

    PubMed

    Traube, Chani; Silver, Gabrielle; Reeder, Ron W; Doyle, Hannah; Hegel, Emily; Wolfe, Heather A; Schneller, Christopher; Chung, Melissa G; Dervan, Leslie A; DiGennaro, Jane L; Buttram, Sandra D W; Kudchadkar, Sapna R; Madden, Kate; Hartman, Mary E; deAlmeida, Mary L; Walson, Karen; Ista, Erwin; Baarslag, Manuel A; Salonia, Rosanne; Beca, John; Long, Debbie; Kawai, Yu; Cheifetz, Ira M; Gelvez, Javier; Truemper, Edward J; Smith, Rebecca L; Peters, Megan E; O'Meara, A M Iqbal; Murphy, Sarah; Bokhary, Abdulmohsen; Greenwald, Bruce M; Bell, Michael J

    2017-04-01

    To determine prevalence of delirium in critically ill children and explore associated risk factors. Multi-institutional point prevalence study. Twenty-five pediatric critical care units in the United States, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Australia, and Saudi Arabia. All children admitted to the pediatric critical care units on designated study days (n = 994). Children were screened for delirium using the Cornell Assessment of Pediatric Delirium by the bedside nurse. Demographic and treatment-related variables were collected. Primary study outcome measure was prevalence of delirium. In 159 children, a final determination of mental status could not be ascertained. Of the 835 remaining subjects, 25% screened positive for delirium, 13% were classified as comatose, and 62% were delirium-free and coma-free. Delirium prevalence rates varied significantly with reason for ICU admission, with highest delirium rates found in children admitted with an infectious or inflammatory disorder. For children who were in the PICU for 6 or more days, delirium prevalence rate was 38%. In a multivariate model, risk factors independently associated with development of delirium included age less than 2 years, mechanical ventilation, benzodiazepines, narcotics, use of physical restraints, and exposure to vasopressors and antiepileptics. Delirium is a prevalent complication of critical illness in children, with identifiable risk factors. Further multi-institutional, longitudinal studies are required to investigate effect of delirium on long-term outcomes and possible preventive and treatment measures. Universal delirium screening is practical and can be implemented in pediatric critical care units.

  3. Space Shuttle Earth Observation sensors pointing and stabilization requirements study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The shuttle orbiter inertial measurement unit (IMU), located in the orbiter cabin, is used to supply inertial attitude reference signals; and, in conjunction with the onboard navigation system, can provide a pointing capability of the navigation base accurate to within plus or minus 0.5 deg for earth viewing missions. This pointing accuracy can degrade to approximately plus or minus 2.0 deg for payloads located in the aft bay due to structural flexure of the shuttle vehicle, payload structural and mounting misalignments, and calibration errors with respect to the navigation base. Drawbacks to obtaining pointing accuracy by using the orbiter RCS jets are discussed. Supplemental electromechanical pointing systems are developed to provide independent pointing for individual sensors, or sensor groupings. The missions considered and the sensors required for these missions and the parameters of each sensor are described. Assumptions made to derive pointing and stabilization requirements are delineated.

  4. Surfactant studies for bench-scale operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hickey, Gregory S.; Sharma, Pramod K.

    1992-01-01

    A phase 2 study was initiated to investigate surfactant-assisted coal liquefaction, with the objective of quantifying the enhancement in liquid yields and product quality. This publication covers the first quarter of work. The major accomplishments were: the refurbishment of the high-pressure, high-temperature reactor autoclave, the completion of four coal liquefaction runs with Pittsburgh #8 coal, two each with and without sodium lignosulfonate surfactant, and the development of an analysis scheme for the product liquid filtrate and filter cake. Initial results at low reactor temperatures show that the addition of the surfactant produces an improvement in conversion yields and an increase in lighter boiling point fractions for the filtrate.

  5. The use of experimental design to find the operating maximum power point of PEM fuel cells

    SciTech Connect

    Crăciunescu, Aurelian; Pătularu, Laurenţiu; Ciumbulea, Gloria; Olteanu, Valentin; Pitorac, Cristina; Drugan, Elena

    2015-03-10

    Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) Fuel Cells are difficult to model due to their complex nonlinear nature. In this paper, the development of a PEM Fuel Cells mathematical model based on the Design of Experiment methodology is described. The Design of Experiment provides a very efficient methodology to obtain a mathematical model for the studied multivariable system with only a few experiments. The obtained results can be used for optimization and control of the PEM Fuel Cells systems.

  6. Operationally Efficient Propulsion System Study (OEPPS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wong, G. S.; Waldrop, G. S.; Byrd, R. J.; Ziese, J. M.

    1991-01-01

    A description is presented, through view graphs, of the problems encountered in today's launch vehicles and how these problems have adversely affected the ability to achieve serviceability, reliability, and operability. The need is emphasized to recognize and understand the operations problems and the effort that must be made to avoid them in future designs. Technology areas that will enhance operations requirements are also presented.

  7. Tricritical point in ferroelastic ammonium titanyl fluoride: NMR study

    SciTech Connect

    Kavun, V.Ya.; Kozlova, S.G.; Laptash, N.M; Tkachenko, I.A.; Gabuda, S.P

    2010-09-15

    Ionic mobility and phase transitions in ammonium titanyl pentafluoride (NH{sub 4}){sub 3}TiOF{sub 5} were studied using the {sup 19}F and {sup 1}H NMR data. The high-temperature phase (I) is characterized by spherically symmetric (isotropic) reorientation of [TiOF{sub 5}]{sup 3-} anions and by uniaxial reorientation of these anions in the ferroelastic phase II. A previously unknown second-order phase transition to the low-temperature modification (NH{sub 4}){sub 3}TiOF{sub 5}(III) was found at 205 K. The transition is accompanied by hindering of uniaxial rotations of [TiOF{sub 5}]{sup 3-} anions and by noticeable change of {sup 19}F magnetic shielding tensor associated with the influence of pseudo-Jahn-Teller effect. A pressure-induced tricritical point with coordinates p{sub TCR{approx}}2 kbar and T{sub TCR{approx}}170 K is estimated on the base of {sup 19}F NMR chemical shift data, and previously studied p-T diagram of (NH{sub 4}){sub 3}TiOF{sub 5}. - Graphical abstract: p-T phase diagram of (NH{sub 4}){sub 3}TiOF{sub 5}.

  8. Orbital operations study. Volume 2: Interfacing activities analysis. Part 4: Support operations activity group

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steinwachs, W. L.; Patrick, J. W.; Galvin, D. M.; Turkel, S. H.

    1972-01-01

    The findings of the support operations activity group of the orbital operations study are presented. Element interfaces, alternate approaches, design concepts, operational procedures, functional requirements, design influences, and approach selection are presented. The following areas are considered: (1) crew transfer, (2) cargo transfer, (3) propellant transfer, (4) attached element operations, and (5) attached element transport.

  9. Numerical assessment for Poisson image blending problem using MSOR iteration via five-point Laplacian operator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeng Hong, Eng; Saudi, Azali; Sulaiman, Jumat

    2017-09-01

    The demand for image editing in the field of image processing has been increased throughout the world. One of the most famous equations for solving image editing problem is Poisson equation. Due to the advantages of the Successive Over Relaxation (SOR) iterative method with one weighted parameter, this paper examined the efficiency of the Modified Successive Over Relaxation (MSOR) iterative method for solving Poisson image blending problem. As we know, this iterative method requires two weighted parameters by considering the Red-Black ordering strategy, thus comparison of Jacobi, Gauss-Seidel and MSOR iterative methods in solving Poisson image blending problem is carried out in this study. The performance of these iterative methods to solve the problem is examined through assessing the number of iterations and computational time taken. Based on the numerical assessment over several experiments, the findings had shown that MSOR iterative method is able to solve Poisson image blending problem effectively than the other two methods which it requires fewer number of iterations and lesser computational time.

  10. Short-term scheduling of crude oil operations in refinery with high-fusion-point oil and two transportation pipelines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, NaiQi; Zhu, MengChu; Bai, LiPing; Li, ZhiWu

    2016-07-01

    In some refineries, storage tanks are located at two different sites, one for low-fusion-point crude oil and the other for high one. Two pipelines are used to transport different oil types. Due to the constraints resulting from the high-fusion-point oil transportation, it is challenging to schedule such a system. This work studies the scheduling problem from a control-theoretic perspective. It proposes to use a hybrid Petri net method to model the system. It then finds the schedulability conditions by analysing the dynamic behaviour of the net model. Next, it proposes an efficient scheduling method to minimize the cost of high-fusion-point oil transportation. Finally, it gives a complex industrial case study to show its application.

  11. An Optimization Study of Hot Stamping Operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghoo, Bonyoung; Umezu, Yasuyoshi; Watanabe, Yuko; Ma, Ninshu; Averill, Ron

    2010-06-01

    In the present study, 3-dimensional finite element analyses for hot-stamping processes of Audi B-pillar product are conducted using JSTAMP/NV and HEEDS. Special attention is paid to the optimization of simulation technology coupling with thermal-mechanical formulations. Numerical simulation based on FEM technology and optimization design using the hybrid adaptive SHERPA algorithm are applied to hot stamping operation to improve productivity. The robustness of the SHERPA algorithm is found through the results of the benchmark example. The SHERPA algorithm is shown to be far superior to the GA (Genetic Algorithm) in terms of efficiency, whose calculation time is about 7 times faster than that of the GA. The SHERPA algorithm could show high performance in a large scale problem having complicated design space and long calculation time.

  12. Recent progress toward an advanced spherical torus operating point in NSTX

    DOE PAGES

    S. P. Gerhardt; Gates, D. A.; Kaye, S.; ...

    2011-05-13

    Progress in the development of integrated advanced ST plasma scenarios in NSTX (Ono et al., 2000 Nucl. Fusion 40 557) is reported. Recent high-performance plasmas in NSTX following lithium coating of the plasma facing surfaces have achieved higher elongation and lower internal inductance than previously. Analysis of the thermal confinement in these lithiumized discharges shows a stronger plasma current and weaker toroidal field dependence than in previous ST confinement scaling studies; the ITER-98(y, 2) scaling expression describes these scenarios reasonably well. Analysis during periods free of MHD activity has shown that the reconstructed current profile can be understood as themore » sum of pressure driven, inductive and neutral beam driven currents, without requiring any anomalous fast-ion transport. Non-inductive fractions of 65–70%, and βP > 2, have been achieved at lower plasma current. Some of these low-inductance discharges have a significantly reduced no-wall βN limit, and often have βN at or near the with-wall limit. Coupled m/n = 1/1 + 2/1 kink/tearing modes can limit the sustained β values when rapidly growing ideal modes are avoided. A βN controller has been commissioned and utilized in sustaining high-performance plasmas. 'Snowflake' divertors compatible with high-performance plasmas have been developed. Scenarios with significantly larger aspect ratios have also been developed, in support of next-step ST devices. Furthermore, these NSTX plasmas have many characteristics required for next-step ST devices.« less

  13. Recent progress towards an advanced spherical torus operating point in NSTX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerhardt, S. P.; Gates, D. A.; Kaye, S. M.; Maingi, R.; Menard, J. E.; Sabbagh, S. A.; Soukhanovskii, V.; Bell, M. G.; Bell, R. E.; Canik, J. M.; Fredrickson, E.; Kaita, R.; Kolemen, E.; Kugel, H.; Le Blanc, B. P.; Mastrovito, D.; Mueller, D.; Yuh, H.

    2011-07-01

    Progress in the development of integrated advanced ST plasma scenarios in NSTX (Ono et al 2000 Nucl. Fusion 40 557) is reported. Recent high-performance plasmas in NSTX following lithium coating of the plasma facing surfaces have achieved higher elongation and lower internal inductance than previously. Analysis of the thermal confinement in these lithiumized discharges shows a stronger plasma current and weaker toroidal field dependence than in previous ST confinement scaling studies; the ITER-98(y, 2) scaling expression describes these scenarios reasonably well. Analysis during periods free of MHD activity has shown that the reconstructed current profile can be understood as the sum of pressure driven, inductive and neutral beam driven currents, without requiring any anomalous fast-ion transport. Non-inductive fractions of 65-70%, and βP > 2, have been achieved at lower plasma current. Some of these low-inductance discharges have a significantly reduced no-wall βN limit, and often have βN at or near the with-wall limit. Coupled m/n = 1/1 + 2/1 kink/tearing modes can limit the sustained β values when rapidly growing ideal modes are avoided. A βN controller has been commissioned and utilized in sustaining high-performance plasmas. 'Snowflake' divertors compatible with high-performance plasmas have been developed. Scenarios with significantly larger aspect ratios have also been developed, in support of next-step ST devices. Overall, these NSTX plasmas have many characteristics required for next-step ST devices.

  14. Using Receiver Operating Characteristic Curve to Define the Cutoff Points of Voice Handicap Index Applied to Young Adult Male Smokers.

    PubMed

    Tafiadis, Dionysios; Chronopoulos, Spyridon K; Kosma, Evangelia I; Voniati, Louiza; Raptis, Vasilis; Siafaka, Vasiliki; Ziavra, Nausica

    2017-07-11

    Voice performance is an inextricable key factor of everyday life. Obviously, the deterioration of voice quality can cause various problems to human communication and can therefore reduce the performance of social skills (relevant to voice). The deterioration could be originated from changes inside the system of the vocal tract and larynx. Various prognostic methods exist, and among them is the Voice Handicap Index (VHI). This tool includes self-reported questionnaires, used for determining the cutoff points of total score and of its three domains relevant to young male Greek smokers. The interpretation of the calculated cutoff points can serve as a strong indicator of imminent or future evaluation by a clinician. Consistent with previous calculation, the VHI can also act as a feedback for smokers' voice condition and as monitoring procedure toward smoking cessation. Specifically, the sample consisted of 130 male nondysphonic smokers (aged 18-33 years) who all participated in the VHI test procedure. The test results (through receiver operating characteristic analysis) concluded to a total cutoff point score of 19.50 (sensitivity: 0.838, 1-specificity: 0). Also, in terms of constructs, the Functional domain was equal to 7.50 (sensitivity: 0.676, 1-specificity: 0.032), the Physical domain was equal to 7.50 (sensitivity: 0.706, 1-specificity: 0.032), and the Emotional domain was equal to 6.50 (sensitivity: 0.809, 1-specificity: 0.048). Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Study of freezing-point depression of selected food extracts

    SciTech Connect

    Tanaka, Fumihiko; Murata, Satoshi; Habara, Kazuhiro; Amaratunga, K.S.P.

    1996-12-31

    The phenomenon of freezing-point depression that accompanies the solute concentration of selected food extracts was investigated to reveal the characteristics of solid-liquid phase equilibrium. The freezing curves of various food extracts did not exhibit ideal solution behavior in the higher concentration range. The experimental data were fitted to new freezing-point depression equations by the method of nonlinear least squares, and the results clearly indicated that the calculated freezing points at various concentrations were in good agreement with the experimental data. Furthermore, by using the determined parameters, the freezing ratio and the activation coefficient were derived.

  16. A randomised controlled trial examining the effect of acupuncture at the EX-HN3 (Yintang) point on pre-operative anxiety levels in neurosurgical patients.

    PubMed

    Wiles, M D; Mamdani, J; Pullman, M; Andrzejowski, J C

    2017-03-01

    Pre-operative anxiety is an unpleasant state of psychological distress that occurs in up to 87% of patients awaiting neurosurgical procedures. Sedative medication is undesirable in this population due to the need for early postoperative neurological assessment. Acupuncture has previously been shown to reduce pre-operative anxiety, but studies involving neurosurgical patients are lacking. This single-centre, prospective, randomised controlled trial was designed to determine the effect of acupuncture at the EX-HN3 (Yintang point) on pre-operative anxiety levels in neurosurgical patients. The study was prospectively registered before participant recruitment. After measuring baseline anxiety levels, 128 patients were randomly allocated in a 1:1 ratio by a web-based computer program to receive either acupuncture at the EX-HN3 (Yintang) point (acupuncture group) or no intervention (control group). Participants were not blinded, but all analyses were performed by a member of the research team who was unaware of the group allocation. The primary outcome measure was anxiety level after 30 min, as measured by the six-item short form of the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (possible score range 20-80). Sixty-two patients in each group were subsequently analysed. Median (IQR [range]) anxiety State-Trait Anxiety Inventory score reduced significantly in the acupuncture group (46.7 (36.7-53.3 [23.3-70.0]) to 40.0 (30.0-46.7) [20.0-53.3]), p < 0.001), with no change seen in the control group (41.7 (33.3-53.3 [20.0-76.7]) to 43.3 (36.7-50.0 [20.0-76.7]), p = 0.829). There were no adverse events in either group. Acupuncture at the EX-HN3 point reduces pre-operative anxiety levels in patients awaiting neurosurgery.

  17. Orbital transfer vehicle launch operations study. Volume 1: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    The purpose was to use the operational experience at the launch site to identify, describe and quantify the operational impacts of the various configurations on the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and/or space station launch sites. Orbital Transfer Vehicle (OTV) configurations are being developed/defined by contractor teams. Lacking an approved configuration, the KSC Study Team defined a Reference Configuration to be used for this study. This configuration then become the baseline for the identification of the facilities, personnel and crew skills required for processing the OTV in a realistic manner that would help NASA achieve the lowest possible OTV life cycle costs. As the study progressed, researchers' initial apraisal that the vehicle, when delivered, would be a sophisticated, state-of-the-art vehicle was reinforced. It would be recovered and reused many times so the primary savings to be gained would be in the recurring-cycle of the vehicle operations--even to the point where it would be beneficial to break from tradition and make a significant expenditure in the development of processing facilities at the beginning of the program.

  18. Dirac point and transconductance of top-gated graphene field-effect transistors operating at elevated temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Hopf, T.; Vassilevski, K. V. Escobedo-Cousin, E.; King, P. J.; Wright, N. G.; O'Neill, A. G.; Horsfall, A. B.; Goss, J. P.; Wells, G. H.; Hunt, M. R. C.

    2014-10-21

    Top-gated graphene field-effect transistors (GFETs) have been fabricated using bilayer epitaxial graphene grown on the Si-face of 4H-SiC substrates by thermal decomposition of silicon carbide in high vacuum. Graphene films were characterized by Raman spectroscopy, Atomic Force Microscopy, Scanning Tunnelling Microscopy, and Hall measurements to estimate graphene thickness, morphology, and charge transport properties. A 27 nm thick Al₂O₃ gate dielectric was grown by atomic layer deposition with an e-beam evaporated Al seed layer. Electrical characterization of the GFETs has been performed at operating temperatures up to 100 °C limited by deterioration of the gate dielectric performance at higher temperatures. Devices displayed stable operation with the gate oxide dielectric strength exceeding 4.5 MV/cm at 100 °C. Significant shifting of the charge neutrality point and an increase of the peak transconductance were observed in the GFETs as the operating temperature was elevated from room temperature to 100 °C.

  19. Dirac point and transconductance of top-gated graphene field-effect transistors operating at elevated temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hopf, T.; Vassilevski, K. V.; Escobedo-Cousin, E.; King, P. J.; Wright, N. G.; O'Neill, A. G.; Horsfall, A. B.; Goss, J. P.; Wells, G. H.; Hunt, M. R. C.

    2014-10-01

    Top-gated graphene field-effect transistors (GFETs) have been fabricated using bilayer epitaxial graphene grown on the Si-face of 4H-SiC substrates by thermal decomposition of silicon carbide in high vacuum. Graphene films were characterized by Raman spectroscopy, Atomic Force Microscopy, Scanning Tunnelling Microscopy, and Hall measurements to estimate graphene thickness, morphology, and charge transport properties. A 27 nm thick Al2O3 gate dielectric was grown by atomic layer deposition with an e-beam evaporated Al seed layer. Electrical characterization of the GFETs has been performed at operating temperatures up to 100 °C limited by deterioration of the gate dielectric performance at higher temperatures. Devices displayed stable operation with the gate oxide dielectric strength exceeding 4.5 MV/cm at 100 °C. Significant shifting of the charge neutrality point and an increase of the peak transconductance were observed in the GFETs as the operating temperature was elevated from room temperature to 100 °C.

  20. Operationally efficient propulsion system study (OEPSS) data book. Volume 6; Space Transfer Propulsion Operational Efficiency Study Task of OEPSS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harmon, Timothy J.

    1992-01-01

    This document is the final report for the Space Transfer Propulsion Operational Efficiency Study Task of the Operationally Efficient Propulsion System Study (OEPSS) conducted by the Rocketdyne Division of Rockwell International. This Study task studied, evaluated and identified design concepts and technologies which minimized launch and in-space operations and optimized in-space vehicle propulsion system operability.

  1. Review Team Focused Modeling Analysis of Radial Collector Well Operation on the Hypersaline Groundwater Plume beneath the Turkey Point Site near Homestead, Florida

    SciTech Connect

    Oostrom, Martinus; Vail, Lance W.

    2016-08-01

    Researchers at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory served as members of a U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission review team for the Florida Power & Light Company’s application for two combined construction permits and operating licenses (combined licenses or COLs) for two proposed new reactor units—Turkey Point Units 6 and 7. The review team evaluated the environmental impacts of the proposed action based on the October 29, 2014 revision of the COL application, including the Environmental Report, responses to requests for additional information, and supplemental information. As part of this effort, team members tasked with assessing the environmental effects of proposed construction and operation of Units 6 and 7 at the Turkey Point site reviewed two separate modeling studies that analyzed the interaction between surface water and groundwater that would be altered by the operation of radial collector wells (RCWs) at the site. To further confirm their understanding of the groundwater hydrodynamics and to consider whether certain actions, proposed after the two earlier modeling studies were completed, would alter the earlier conclusions documented by the review team in their draft environmental impact statement (EIS; NRC 2015), a third modeling analysis was performed. The third modeling analysis is discussed in this report.

  2. Design Evolution Study Thermal Operating Methodology

    SciTech Connect

    T.L. Mitchell

    2002-04-29

    This study provides results supporting the conclusion that the repository can be operated over a varying range of thermal modes and therefore temperatures. In particular, this work focused on limiting the peak, postclosure waste package surface temperature to less than 85 degrees Celsius, a possible limit due to corrosion considerations. These operating modes were compared by varying the waste package in drift spacing (0.1-2.83 meters), drift pitch (drift spacing centerline to centerline of 40-120 meters), ventilation duration (75-300 years), and ventilation efficiency (50-80%). The resulting graphical representation shows where the constant temperature of the waste package (85 degrees Celsius) lies with respect to drift pitch and waste package spacing. The waste considered in this study is the strict youngest fuel first 5 years old fuel. Using only strict youngest fuel first 5 years old fuel in the waste stream results in an average heat load per waste package of 12.48kW/Pkg. With this high average heat load, it is not possible to achieve a maximum waste package surface temperature of 85 degrees Celsius or less. By aging 63% of the strict youngest fuel first 5 years old fuel for 27 years, it becomes possible to maintain the waste package surface temperature at 85 degrees Celsius or less. The 27 years of aging comes from the fact that the repository could be closed in as little as 50 years. It takes 23 years to emplace the waste and therefore the last fuel received for emplacement is 27 years prior to closures. The strict youngest fuel first 5 years old fuel waste stream with 63% aged for 27 years, results in an average power level of 8.4kW/Pkg. This lower heat load allows the controlled parameters of drift pitch, waste package spacing, aging, and ventilation duration to be varied to achieve the desired results. This study compares the hot strict youngest fuel first 5 years old fuel to the previous waste stream, which has an average of 26-year-old fuel. The 26-year

  3. Airborne Precision Spacing for Dependent Parallel Operations Interface Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Volk, Paul M.; Takallu, M. A.; Hoffler, Keith D.; Weiser, Jarold; Turner, Dexter

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes a usability study of proposed cockpit interfaces to support Airborne Precision Spacing (APS) operations for aircraft performing dependent parallel approaches (DPA). NASA has proposed an airborne system called Pair Dependent Speed (PDS) which uses their Airborne Spacing for Terminal Arrival Routes (ASTAR) algorithm to manage spacing intervals. Interface elements were designed to facilitate the input of APS-DPA spacing parameters to ASTAR, and to convey PDS system information to the crew deemed necessary and/or helpful to conduct the operation, including: target speed, guidance mode, target aircraft depiction, and spacing trend indication. In the study, subject pilots observed recorded simulations using the proposed interface elements in which the ownship managed assigned spacing intervals from two other arriving aircraft. Simulations were recorded using the Aircraft Simulation for Traffic Operations Research (ASTOR) platform, a medium-fidelity simulator based on a modern Boeing commercial glass cockpit. Various combinations of the interface elements were presented to subject pilots, and feedback was collected via structured questionnaires. The results of subject pilot evaluations show that the proposed design elements were acceptable, and that preferable combinations exist within this set of elements. The results also point to potential improvements to be considered for implementation in future experiments.

  4. A study of actions in operative notes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yan; Pakhomov, Serguei; Burkart, Nora E; Ryan, James O; Melton, Genevieve B

    2012-01-01

    Operative notes contain rich information about techniques, instruments, and materials used in procedures. To assist development of effective information extraction (IE) techniques for operative notes, we investigated the sublanguage used to describe actions within the operative report 'procedure description' section. Deep parsing results of 362,310 operative notes with an expanded Stanford parser using the SPECIALIST Lexicon resulted in 200 verbs (92% coverage) including 147 action verbs. Nominal action predicates for each action verb were gathered from WordNet, SPECIALIST Lexicon, New Oxford American Dictionary and Stedman's Medical Dictionary. Coverage gaps were seen in existing lexical, domain, and semantic resources (Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) Metathesaurus, SPECIALIST Lexicon, WordNet and FrameNet). Our findings demonstrate the need to construct surgical domain-specific semantic resources for IE from operative notes.

  5. Optimum structural properties for an anode current collector used in a polymer electrolyte membrane water electrolyzer operated at the boiling point of water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hua; Fujigaya, Tsuyohiko; Nakajima, Hironori; Inada, Akiko; Ito, Kohei

    2016-11-01

    This study attempts to optimize the properties of the anode current collector of a polymer electrolyte membrane water electrolyzer at high temperatures, particularly at the boiling point of water. Different titanium meshes (4 commercial ones and 4 modified ones) with various properties are experimentally examined by operating a cell with each mesh under different conditions. The average pore diameter, thickness, and contact angle of the anode current collector are controlled in the ranges of 10-35 μm, 0.2-0.3 mm, and 0-120°, respectively. These results showed that increasing the temperature from the conventional temperature of 80 °C to the boiling point could reduce both the open circuit voltage and the overvoltages to a large extent without notable dehydration of the membrane. These results also showed that decreasing the contact angle and the thickness suppresses the electrolysis overvoltage largely by decreasing the concentration overvoltage. The effect of the average pore diameter was not evident until the temperature reached the boiling point. Using operating conditions of 100 °C and 2 A/cm2, the electrolysis voltage is minimized to 1.69 V with a hydrophilic titanium mesh with an average pore diameter of 21 μm and a thickness of 0.2 mm.

  6. IUS/TUG orbital operations and mission support study. Volume 3: Space tug operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    A study was conducted to develop space tug operational concepts and baseline operations plan, and to provide cost estimates for space tug operations. Background data and study results are presented along with a transition phase analysis (the transition from interim upper state to tug operations). A summary is given of the tug operational and interface requirements with emphasis on the on-orbit checkout requirements, external interface operational requirements, safety requirements, and system operational interface requirements. Other topics discussed include reference missions baselined for the tug and details for the mission functional flows and timelines derived for the tug mission, tug subsystems, tug on-orbit operations prior to the tug first burn, spacecraft deployment and retrieval by the tug, operations centers, mission planning, potential problem areas, and cost data.

  7. Space transportation system biomedical operations support study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, S. C.

    1983-01-01

    The shift of the Space Transportation System (STS) flight tests of the orbiter vehicle to the preparation and flight of the payloads is discussed. Part of this change is the transition of the medical and life sciences aspects of the STS flight operations to reflect the new state. The medical operations, the life sciences flight experiments support requirements and the intramural research program expected to be at KSC during the operational flight period of the STS and a future space station are analyzed. The adequacy of available facilities, plans, and resources against these future needs are compared; revisions and/or alternatives where appropriate are proposed.

  8. Universal Signatures of Quantum Critical Points from Finite-Size Torus Spectra: A Window into the Operator Content of Higher-Dimensional Conformal Field Theories.

    PubMed

    Schuler, Michael; Whitsitt, Seth; Henry, Louis-Paul; Sachdev, Subir; Läuchli, Andreas M

    2016-11-18

    The low-energy spectra of many body systems on a torus, of finite size L, are well understood in magnetically ordered and gapped topological phases. However, the spectra at quantum critical points separating such phases are largely unexplored for (2+1)D systems. Using a combination of analytical and numerical techniques, we accurately calculate and analyze the low-energy torus spectrum at an Ising critical point which provides a universal fingerprint of the underlying quantum field theory, with the energy levels given by universal numbers times 1/L. We highlight the implications of a neighboring topological phase on the spectrum by studying the Ising* transition (i.e. the transition between a Z_{2} topological phase and a trivial paramagnet), in the example of the toric code in a longitudinal field, and advocate a phenomenological picture that provides qualitative insight into the operator content of the critical field theory.

  9. Universal Signatures of Quantum Critical Points from Finite-Size Torus Spectra: A Window into the Operator Content of Higher-Dimensional Conformal Field Theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuler, Michael; Whitsitt, Seth; Henry, Louis-Paul; Sachdev, Subir; Läuchli, Andreas M.

    2016-11-01

    The low-energy spectra of many body systems on a torus, of finite size L , are well understood in magnetically ordered and gapped topological phases. However, the spectra at quantum critical points separating such phases are largely unexplored for (2 +1 )D systems. Using a combination of analytical and numerical techniques, we accurately calculate and analyze the low-energy torus spectrum at an Ising critical point which provides a universal fingerprint of the underlying quantum field theory, with the energy levels given by universal numbers times 1 /L . We highlight the implications of a neighboring topological phase on the spectrum by studying the Ising* transition (i.e. the transition between a Z2 topological phase and a trivial paramagnet), in the example of the toric code in a longitudinal field, and advocate a phenomenological picture that provides qualitative insight into the operator content of the critical field theory.

  10. Clinically relevant study end points in rectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Fernandez-Martos, Carlos; Guerrero, Angel; Minsky, Bruce

    2012-01-01

    In rectal cancer currently there are no clearly validated early end points which can serve as surrogates for long-term clinical outcome such as local control and survival. However, the use of a variety of response rates (i.e. pathological complete response, downsizing the primary tumor, tumor regression grade (TRG), radiological response) as endpoints in early (phase II) clinical trials is common since objective response to therapy is an early indication of activity. Disease-free survival (DFS) has been proposed as the most appropriate end point in adjuvant trials and is one of the most frequently used in newer rectal cancer trials. Due to the devastating nature of local recurrence in locally advanced rectal cancer, local control (which is itself a subset of the overall DFS endpoint) is still considered an important endpoint. Recently, circumferential resection margin (CRM) has been proposed as novel early end point because the CRM status can account for effects on DFS and overall survival after chemoradiation, radiation (RT), or surgery alone. Consensus is needed to define the most appropriate end points in both early and phase III trials in locally advanced cancer.

  11. A Theoretical Study of Stagnation-Point Ablation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, Leonard

    1959-01-01

    A simplified analysis is made of ablation cooling near the stagnation point of a two-dimensional or axisymmetric body which occurs as the body vaporizes directly from the solid state. The automatic shielding mechanism Is discussed and the important thermal properties required by a good ablation material are given. The results of the analysis are given in terms of dimensionless parameters.

  12. Orbital operations study. Appendix A: Interactivity analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    Supplemental analyses conducted to verify that safe, feasible, design concepts exist for accomplishing the attendant interface activities of the orbital operations mission are presented. The data are primarily concerned with functions and concepts common to more than one of the interfacing activities or elements. Specific consideration is given to state vector update, payload deployment, communications links, jet plume impingement, attached element operations, docking and structural interface assessment, and propellant transfer.

  13. IUS/TUG orbital operations and mission support study. Volume 2: Interim upper stage operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Background data and study results are presented for the interim upper stage (IUS) operations phase of the IUS/tug orbital operations study. The study was conducted to develop IUS operational concepts and an IUS baseline operations plan, and to provide cost estimates for IUS operations. The approach used was to compile and evaluate baseline concepts, definitions, and system, and to use that data as a basis for the IUS operations phase definition, analysis, and costing analysis. Both expendable and reusable IUS configurations were analyzed and two autonomy levels were specified for each configuration. Topics discussed include on-orbit operations and interfaces with the orbiter, the tracking and data relay satellites and ground station support capability analysis, and flight control center sizing to support the IUS operations.

  14. Probabilistic Safety Study Applications Program for inspection of the Indian Point Unit 3 Nuclear Power Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, J.H.; Fullwood, R.; Fresco, A.

    1986-03-01

    By prioritizing the various areas of interest for inspection and by better defining inspection needs, the NRC expects to make more effective use of finite inspection resources by concentrating on those potential areas most significant to safety. Through review and application of the Indian Point Unit 3 Probabilistic Safety Study's numerical data and event tree modeling, and by utilizing related documents, a technical basis for prioritizing areas for NRC inspection has been developed. This was then tested at the plant site for the NRC Operating Reactor Inspection Program, I and E Manual Chapter 2515. Inspection activities addressed include normal operations, system and component testing, maintenance and surveillance. A computer program entitled NSPKTR, which was developed specifically for this program, modeled the internal plant states to the system level and performed the risk and importance calculations. 17 refs., 21 tabs.

  15. Two-point bend studies of glass fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Zhongzhi

    The principal objective of this research is to advance our understanding of how glass breaks. Glass, a material well known for its brittleness, has been used widely but within a frustrating limit of its strength. Generally, strength is not considered as an intrinsic property of glass, due to the difficulty of avoiding the presence of flaws on the sample surface. The fiber drawing system and two-point bending (TPB) equipment developed at Missouri S&T allow the fabrication of pristine glass fibers and failure strain measurements while minimizing the effects of strength limiting critical flaws. Several conditions affect the failure behavior of glasses, including glass composition, thermal history of melts and environmental conditions during the failure tests. Understanding how these conditions affect failure helps us understand how glass fails. In this dissertation, failure strains for many different silicate and borate glasses were measured under a variety of experimental conditions. Failure stresses for various silicate glasses were calculated using values of the nonlinear elastic moduli reported in the literature. Inert intrinsic strengths for alkali silicate glasses were related to the structure and corresponding bond strengths, and the dependence of the inert strengths on faceplate velocity is discussed. Inert failure strains were also obtained for sodium borate glasses. Up to ˜40% failure strain was measured for vitreous B2O 3. The addition of soda to boron oxide increases the dimensionality and connectivity of the glass structure and hence increases its resistance to deformation, as was observed in elasticity and brittleness measurements reported in the literature. The increase in deformation resistance produces lower failure strains, a behavior also seen for alkali silicate and aluminosilicate glasses where the reduction of non-bridging oxygen increases the structure stiffness and leads to lower inert failure strain. Fatigue effects on silicate glasses were

  16. Experimental study of radiation dose rate at different strategic points of the BAEC TRIGA Research Reactor.

    PubMed

    Ajijul Hoq, M; Malek Soner, M A; Salam, M A; Haque, M M; Khanom, Salma; Fahad, S M

    2017-09-09

    The 3MW TRIGA Mark-II Research Reactor of Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission (BAEC) has been under operation for about thirty years since its commissioning at 1986. In accordance with the demand of fundamental nuclear research works, the reactor has to operate at different power levels by utilizing a number of experimental facilities. Regarding the enquiry for safety of reactor operating personnel and radiation workers, it is necessary to know the radiation level at different strategic points of the reactor where they are often worked. In the present study, neutron, beta and gamma radiation dose rate at different strategic points of the reactor facility with reactor power level of 2.4MW was measured to estimate the rising level of radiation due to its operational activities. From the obtained results high radiation dose is observed at the measurement position of the piercing beam port which is caused by neutron leakage and accordingly, dose rate at the stated position with different reactor power levels was measured. This study also deals with the gamma dose rate measurements at a fixed position of the reactor pool top surface for different reactor power levels under both Natural Convection Cooling Mode (NCCM) and Forced Convection Cooling Mode (FCCM). Results show that, radiation dose rate is higher for NCCM in compared with FCCM and increasing with the increase of reactor power. Thus, concerning the radiological safety issues for working personnel and the general public, the radiation dose level monitoring and the experimental analysis performed within this paper is so much effective and the result of this work can be utilized for base line data and code verification of the nuclear reactor. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Study on unaberrational points test for conic surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hao, Peiming; Li, Kexin; Yuan, Liyin; Fu, Lianxiao; Li, Hongguang

    2006-02-01

    Based on the third-order aberration theory, the equation expressing the relationship between the conic constant and unaberration conjugate points is obtained. The corresponding graphs illuminating the relationship between e2 and β are given. According to the equation and graphs, the analyses of convex and concave surfaces are given in detail. We not only consider the unification of all kinds of reflective testing methods, such as Hindle test, concave elliptical mirror test and Ritchey-Common test etc, but also apply the unaberrational conjugate points test to refractive surface. The auto-collimating and interferometer diagnostic methods are powerful for the manufacture of lens. Kinds of convex and concave aspheric lenses have been manufactured with the detecting methods as mentioned above.

  18. Operationally Efficient Propulsion System Study (OEPSS) data book. Volume 3: Operations technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vilja, John O.

    1990-01-01

    The study was initiated to identify operational problems and cost drivers for current propulsion systems and to identify technology and design approaches to increase the operational efficiency and reduce operations costs for future propulsion systems. To provide readily usable data for the Advanced Launch System (ALS) program, the results of the OEPSS study were organized into a series of OEPSS Data Books. This volume describes operations technologies that will enhance operational efficiency of propulsion systems. A total of 15 operations technologies were identified that will eliminate or mitigate operations problems described in Volume 2. A recommended development plan is presented for eight promising technologies that will simplify the propulsion system and reduce operational requirements.

  19. Bringing research to the point of care: Hypergenes project study.

    PubMed

    Vitkin, Edward; Neuvirth-Telem, Hani; Carmeli, Boaz; Shabo, Amnon; Farkash, Ariel

    2012-01-01

    With advance of health information IT systems and increasing volumes of disparate biomedical information repositories, harvesting them for research purposes is becoming more difficult. This is partly due to the proprietary nature of the current systems, but also due to diverse requirements of different research paradigms. On the flip side, ever larger amounts of clinical and genomic data are currently accumulated in research projects. Tapping into these research silos would not only contribute to further research, but could help convey timely information to clinicians at the point of care. This paper presents RIMon - a portal-based infrastructure for information-intensive research cycle as used in the Hypergenes project, which aims at building a method to dissect complex genetic traits using essential hypertension as a disease model. RIMon allows users to: (a) collect data from points of care, (b) query and retrieve collected data for analysis, (c) query accumulated information and knowledge to construct disease models based on analysis results, and (d) to eventually make the research results readily available to the clinicians at the point of care. This translational cycle is demonstrated in the Hypergenes project along with a potential usage scenario.

  20. Specific SPS construction studies: Operations and maintenance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, K. H.

    1980-01-01

    Surface as well as in-space operations of the solar power satellite program are addressed. The primary end products of SPS industrial enterprise are shown SPS and its ground receiving antenna every six months; and (3) construction of electric cargo orbital transfer vehicles. The production of photovoltaic cells and solar blankets is also considered.

  1. Numerical Studies and Equipment Development for Single Point Incremental Forming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marabuto, S. R.; Sena, J. I. V.; Afonso, D.; Martins, M. A. B. E.; Coelho, R. M.; Ferreira, J. A. F.; Valente, R. A. F.; de Sousa, R. J. Alves

    2011-05-01

    This paper summarizes the achievements obtained so far in the context of a research project carried out at the University of Aveiro, Portugal on both numerical and experimental viewpoints concerning Single Point Incremental Forming (SPIF). On the experimental side, the general guidelines on the development of a new SPIF machine are detailed. The innovation features are related to the choice of a six-degrees-of-freedom, parallel kinematics machine, with a high payload, to broad the range of materials to be tested, and allowing for a higher flexibility on tool-path generation. On the numerical side, preliminary results on simulation of SPIF processes resorting to an innovative solid-shell finite element are presented. The final target is an accurate and fast simulation of SPIF processes by means of numerical methods. Accuracy is obtained through the use of a finite element accounting for three-dimensional stress and strain fields. The developed formulation allows for an unlimited number of integration points through its thickness direction, which promotes accuracy without loss of CPU efficiency. Preliminary results and designs are shown and discussions over the obtained solutions are provided in order to further improve the research framework.

  2. Explosives Hazard Reduction (EHR) Studies Joint Operations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-07-01

    Analysts, Inc. (ISA) Explosives Hazard Reduction (EHR) ProgramAs of: 2 ● Identify / Quantify Explosives Hazards ● Minimize Risks ● Resolve long...Siting Recommendations ● Produce DDESB Compliant Explosives Safety Site plans EHR Goals & Objectives Explosives Hazard Reduction (EHR) ProgramAs of: 3...of Barricades ● Automated Wash Rack ● Use ISO Trailers in MSA Explosives Hazard Reduction (EHR) ProgramAs of: 6 Proposed Facilities Joint Operations

  3. Do Woody Plants Operate Near the Point of Catastrophic Xylem Dysfunction Caused by Dynamic Water Stress? 1

    PubMed Central

    Tyree, Melvin T.; Sperry, John S.

    1988-01-01

    We discuss the relationship between the dynamically changing tension gradients required to move water rapidly through the xylem conduits of plants and the proportion of conduits lost through embolism as a result of water tension. We consider the implications of this relationship to the water relations of trees. We have compiled quantitative data on the water relations, hydraulic architecture and vulnerability of embolism of four widely different species: Rhizophora mangle, Cassipourea elliptica, Acer saccharum, and Thuja occidentalis. Using these data, we modeled the dynamics of water flow and xylem blockage for these species. The model is specifically focused on the conditions required to generate `runaway embolism,' whereby the blockage of xylem conduits through embolism leads to reduced hydraulic conductance causing increased tension in the remaining vessels and generating more tension in a vicious circle. The model predicted that all species operate near the point of catastrophic xylem failure due to dynamic water stress. The model supports Zimmermann's plant segmentation hypothesis. Zimmermann suggested that plants are designed hydraulically to sacrifice highly vulnerable minor branches and thus improve the water balance of remaining parts. The model results are discussed in terms of the morphology, hydraulic architecture, eco-physiology, and evolution of woody plants. PMID:16666351

  4. A Study on the Estimation of the Scale Factor for Precise Point Positioning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erdogan, Bahattin; Kayacik, Orhan

    2017-04-01

    Precise Point Positioning (PPP) technique is one of the most important subject in Geomatic Engineering. PPP technique needs only one GNSS receiver and users have preferred it instead of traditional relative positioning technique for several applications. Scientific software has been used for PPP solutions and the software may underestimate the formal errors of the estimated coordinates. The formal errors have major effects on statistical interpretation. Variance-Covariance (VCV) matrix derived from GNSS processing software plays important role for deformation analysis and scientists sometimes need to scale VCV matrix. In this study, 10 continuously operating reference stations have been considered for 11 days dated 2014. All points have been analyzed by Gipsy-OASIS v6.4 scientific software. The solutions were derived for different session durations as 2, 4, 6, 8, 12 and 24 hours to obtain repeatability of the coordinates and analyses were carried out in order to estimate scale factor for Gipsy-OASIS v6.4 PPP results. According to the first results scale factors slightly increase depending on the raises in respect of session duration. Keywords: Precise Point Positioning, Gipsy-OASIS v6.4, Variance-Covariance Matrix, Scale Factor

  5. Voice Handicap Index and Interpretation of the Cutoff Points Using Receiver Operating Characteristic Curve as Screening for Young Adult Female Smokers.

    PubMed

    Tafiadis, Dionysios; Kosma, Evangelia I; Chronopoulos, Spyridon K; Papadopoulos, Aggelos; Drosos, Konstantinos; Siafaka, Vassiliki; Toki, Eugenia I; Ziavra, Nausica

    2017-04-06

    The relationship between smoking and alterations of the vocal tract and larynx is well known. This pathology leads to the degradation of voice performance in daily living. Multiple assessment methods of vocal tract and larynx have been developed, and in recent years they were enriched with self-reported questionnaires such as Voice Handicap Index (VHI). This study determined the cutoff points of VHI's total score and its three domains for young female smokers in Greece. These estimated cutoff points could be used by voice specialists as an indicator for further clinical evaluation (foreseeing a potential risk of developing a vocal symptom because of smoking habits). A sample of 120 female nondysphonic smokers (aged 18-31) was recruited. Participants filled out the VHI and Voice Evaluation Form. VHI's cutoff point of total score was calculated at the value of 19.50 (sensitivity: 0.780, 1-specificity: 0.133). Specifically, the construct domain of functional was 7.50 (sensitivity: 0.900, 1-specificity: 0.217), for physical it was 8.50 (sensitivity: 0.867, 1-specificity: 0.483), and for emotional it was 7.50 (sensitivity: 0.833, 1-specificity: 0.200) through the use of receiver operating characteristic. Furthermore, VHI could be used as a monitoring tool for smokers and as a feedback for smoking cessation. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. TYCHO: Demonstrator and operational satellite mission to Earth-Moon-Libration point EML-4 for communication relay provision as a service

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hornig, Andreas; Homeister, Maren

    2015-03-01

    operation time of up to 10 years. It also enables measurements of the libration point environment with the scientific payloads. This includes sensors for space dust, solar and cosmic radiation activity for satellite lifetime estimation and lunar crew protection by providing early-warning systems. The paper describes the mission concept and the pre-design of the demonstrator satellite according to the operational mission requirements, advantages and benefits of this service. The concept was awarded with the Space Generation Advisory Council and OHB Scholarship in 2011 and the concept study is conducted at the Institute of Space Systems (IRS) [1] of the University of Stuttgart and OHB-System, Bremen [2].

  7. Environmental surveys during operation and following removal of the OTEC-1 system off Keahole Point, Hawaii. Final report, January-April 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Noda, E.K.; Bienfang, P.K.; Kimmerer, W.J.; Walsh, T.W.

    1981-09-01

    Detailed are two biological chemical cruises off Keahole Point, Hawaii, which took place during (HOTEC-11, January 1981) and immediately after cessation (HOTEC-12, April 1981) of operation of OTEC-1. The objectives of the study were to: (1) compare site specific data taken before OTEC-1 was operating to data taken after OTEC-1 left the site; and (2) perform an analysis of OTEC environmental effects to indicate areas in which future sampling efforts might be expended. Data from temperature, nutrient, phytoplankton and zooplankton analyses taken immediately after OTEC-1 left the site show only minor differences with data taken before OTEC-1 occupied the site (HOTEC-01-06, MSG-82-013). The differences were not significant, and therefore, OTEC-1 had no demonstrable post-operational impacts on these environmental variables. From temperature records the minimum /sup 0/T between surface waters (0-30 m) and 700 m water was about 18/sup 0/C. There was no demonstrable temperature effect due to operation of OTEC-1. Significant increases in near surface water (0 to 70 m) nitrate concentrations were noted at Station 1 (Control) during OTEC-1 operations; while after shut-down no effect was seen. This effect can not be directly attributed to OTEC-1. Increased chlorophyll a standing stock downstream of OTEC-1 indicated some effect of OTEC-1. No toxic effect was noted and primary productivity rates were the same at all stations. The chlorophyll a biomass in the < 5 ..mu..m size fraction was significantly higher at the downstream station. No effect on zooplankton were noted at any station. Abundance of ichthytoplankton taxa are reported but there is insufficient data to perform an analysis.

  8. College-Based Case Studies in Using PowerPoint Effectively

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Inoue-Smith, Yukiko

    2016-01-01

    This study reexamined PowerPoint's potential to enhance traditional pedagogical practices in higher education. The study addressed (1) the conditions under which PowerPoint meets students' needs in typical lecture-based classrooms, (2) whether professors consider PowerPoint-based lectures more effective than lectures supported by material on…

  9. Urinary point-of-care test for smoking in the pre-operative assessment of patients undergoing elective plastic surgery.

    PubMed

    Payne, C E; Southern, S J

    2006-01-01

    Self-reported information about smoking habit and cigarette consumption can be inaccurate and subject to bias in the clinical setting. Accurate assessment of a given smoking history at point-of-care is valuable. We describe the use of a comprehensive smoking questionnaire and the use of a disposable biomarker test to verify and quantify the exposure to tobacco smoke. This point-of-care test (SmokeScreen) is a 6-min, easy-to-use urine test that measures nicotine and its breakdown products. One hundred consecutive patients attending plastic surgery pre-assessment clinic filled in the questionnaire and gave a consented urine sample. Qualitative and semi-quantitative assessment of tobacco consumption was observed by a simple sample colour change set against a standardised colorimetric chart for nicotine metabolite containing urine. The questionnaire self-reported smoking prevalence was 30% with 98% test specificity. The cotinine validated smoking prevalence was 54% with a 26% self-denial rate. Half the patients (n = 15) who admitted smoking on the questionnaire underreported the amount they smoked daily, as quantified by biochemical measurement. Objective biochemical assessment shows that 26% of self-reporting non-smokers via self-completed questionnaire studies are actual smokers attending this pre-assessment clinic. When patients did report smoking there was consistent underreporting of cigarette consumption.

  10. Study Points to Genetic Subtypes of Esophageal Cancer

    Cancer.gov

    A Cancer Currents blog post about a study by The Cancer Genome Atlas Research Network that identified distinct genetic and molecular changes in esophageal cancers that could improve their classification and identify potential new treatments.

  11. Operationally Efficient Propulsion System Study (OEPSS) data book. Volume 2: Ground operations problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waldrop, Glen S.

    1990-01-01

    Operations problems and cost drivers were identified for current propulsion systems and design and technology approaches were identified to increase the operational efficiency and to reduce operations costs for future propulsion systems. To provide readily usable data for the ALS program, the results of the OEPSS study were organized into a series of OEPSS Data Books. This volume presents a detailed description of 25 major problems encountered during launch processing of current expendable and reusable launch vehicles. A concise description of each problem and its operational impact on launch processing is presented, along with potential solutions and technology recommendation.

  12. Kelly during Twins Study Experiment Operations

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-09-24

    ISS045E028258 (09/24/2015) --- NASA astronaut Scott Kelly gives himself a flu shot for an ongoing study on the human immune system. The vaccination is part of NASA’s Twins Study, a compilation of multiple investigations that take advantage of a unique opportunity to study identical twin astronauts Scott and Mark Kelly, while Scott spends a year aboard the International Space Station and Mark remains on Earth.

  13. Operationally Efficient Propulsion System Study (OEPSS) data book. Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wong, George S.

    1990-01-01

    The study was initiated to identify operations problems and cost drivers for current propulsion systems and to identify technology and design approaches to increase the operational efficiency and reduce operations costs for future propulsion systems. To provide readily usable data for the Advanced Launch System (ALS) program, the results of the Operationally Efficient Propulsion System Study (OEPSS) were organized into a series of OEPSS Data Books as follows: Volume 1, Generic Ground Operations Data; Volume 2, Ground Operations Problems; Volume 3, Operations Technology; Volume 4, OEPSS Design Concepts; and Volume 5, OEPSS Final Review Briefing, which summarizes the activities and results of the study. Summarized here are the salient results of the first year. A synopsis of each volume listed above is presented.

  14. Space tug point design study. Volume 4: Program requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine the configuration of a space tug and to predict the performance parameters. The program plans and planning data generated in support of the tug development program are presented. The preliminary plans and supporting planning data emphasize the following requirements: (1) maintenance and refurbishment, (2) technology development, (3) production, (4) test facilities, (5) quality control, and (6) scheduling.

  15. Operationally Efficient Propulsion System Study (OEPSS) data book. Volume 1: Generic ground operations data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Byrd, Raymond J.

    1990-01-01

    This study was initiated to identify operations problems and cost drivers for current propulsion systems and to identify technology and design approaches to increase the operational efficiency and reduce operations costs for future propulsion systems. To provide readily usable data for the Advance Launch System (ALS) program, the results of the Operationally Efficient Propulsion System Study (OEPSS) were organized into a series of OEPSS Data Books as follows: Volume 1, Generic Ground Operations Data; Volume 2, Ground Operations Problems; Volume 3, Operations Technology; Volume 4, OEPSS Design Concepts; and Volume 5, OEPSS Final Review Briefing, which summarizes the activities and results of the study. This volume presents ground processing data for a generic LOX/LH2 booster and core propulsion system based on current STS experience. The data presented includes: top logic diagram, process flow, activities bar-chart, loaded timelines, manpower requirements in terms of duration, headcount and skill mix per operations and maintenance instruction (OMI), and critical path tasks and durations.

  16. Semiclassical computation of three-point functions of closed string vertex operators in AdS{sub 5}xS{sup 5}

    SciTech Connect

    Roiban, R.; Tseytlin, A. A.

    2010-11-15

    We consider the leading large string tension correction to correlation functions of three vertex operators of particular massive string states in AdS{sub 5}xS{sup 5} string theory. We assume that two of these states are 'heavy' carrying large spins (of order string tension) and thus can be treated semiclassically while the third state is 'light' having fixed quantum numbers. We study several examples. In the case when the 'heavy' states are described by a folded string with large-spin in AdS{sub 5} the 3-point function scales as a semiclassical spin parameter of the 'heavy' state in power of the string level of the 'light' massive string state. We observe similar behavior in the case of 'heavy' states which admit a small angular momentum limit, which may thus represent creatures of three quantum massive string states.

  17. Study on the engine oil's wear based on the flash point

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niculescu, R.; Iorga-Simăn, V.; Trică, A.; Clenci, A.

    2016-08-01

    Increasing energy performance of internal combustion engines is largely influenced by frictional forces that arise between moving parts. Thus, in this respect, the nature and quality of the engine oil used is an important factor. Equally important is the effect of various engine injection strategies upon the oil quality. In other words, it's of utmost importance to maintain the quality of engine oil during engine's operation. Oil dilution is one of the most common causes that lead to its wear, creating lubrication problems. Moreover, at low temperatures operating conditions, the oil dilution with diesel fuel produces wax. When starting the engine, this may lead to lubrication deficiencies and even oil starvation with negative consequences on the engine mechanism parts wear (piston, rings and cylinders) but also crankcase bearings wear.Engine oil dilution with diesel fuel have several causes: wear of rings and/or injectors, late post-injection strategy for the sake of particulate filter regeneration, etc.This paper presents a study on the degree of deterioration of engine oils as a result of dilution with diesel fuel. The analysed oils used for this study were taken from various models of engines equipped with diesel particulate filter. The assessment is based on the determination of oil flash point and dilution degree using the apparatus Eraflash produced by Eralytics, Austria. Eraflash measurement is directly under the latest and safest standards ASTM D6450 & D7094), which are in excellent correlation with ASTM D93 Pensky - Martens ASTM D56 TAG methods; it uses the Continuous Closed Cup method for finding the Flash Point (CCCFP).

  18. A Cross-Cultural Study of Reference Point Adaptation: Evidence from China, Korea, and the US

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arkes, Hal R.; Hirshleifer, David; Jiang, Danling; Lim, Sonya S.

    2010-01-01

    We examined reference point adaptation following gains or losses in security trading using participants from China, Korea, and the US. In both questionnaire studies and trading experiments with real money incentives, reference point adaptation was larger for Asians than for Americans. Subjects in all countries adapted their reference points more…

  19. A Cross-Cultural Study of Reference Point Adaptation: Evidence from China, Korea, and the US

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arkes, Hal R.; Hirshleifer, David; Jiang, Danling; Lim, Sonya S.

    2010-01-01

    We examined reference point adaptation following gains or losses in security trading using participants from China, Korea, and the US. In both questionnaire studies and trading experiments with real money incentives, reference point adaptation was larger for Asians than for Americans. Subjects in all countries adapted their reference points more…

  20. The OPALS Plan for Operations: Use of ISS Trajectory and Attitude Models in the OPALS Pointing Strategy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abrahamson, Matthew J.; Oaida, Bogdan; Erkmen, Baris

    2013-01-01

    This paper will discuss the OPALS pointing strategy, focusing on incorporation of ISS trajectory and attitude models to build pointing predictions. Methods to extrapolate an ISS prediction based on past data will be discussed and will be compared to periodically published ISS predictions and Two-Line Element (TLE) predictions. The prediction performance will also be measured against GPS states available in telemetry. The performance of the pointing products will be compared to the allocated values in the OPALS pointing budget to assess compliance with requirements.

  1. The OPALS Plan for Operations: Use of ISS Trajectory and Attitude Models in the OPALS Pointing Strategy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abrahamson, Matthew J.; Oaida, Bogdan; Erkmen, Baris

    2013-01-01

    This paper will discuss the OPALS pointing strategy, focusing on incorporation of ISS trajectory and attitude models to build pointing predictions. Methods to extrapolate an ISS prediction based on past data will be discussed and will be compared to periodically published ISS predictions and Two-Line Element (TLE) predictions. The prediction performance will also be measured against GPS states available in telemetry. The performance of the pointing products will be compared to the allocated values in the OPALS pointing budget to assess compliance with requirements.

  2. Describing Elementary Teachers' Operative Systems: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dotger, Sharon; McQuitty, Vicki

    2014-01-01

    This case study introduces the notion of an operative system to describe elementary teachers' knowledge and practice. Drawing from complex systems theory, the operative system is defined as the network of knowledge and practices that constituted teachers' work within a lesson study cycle. Data were gathered throughout a lesson study cycle in which…

  3. Principal Point Classification: Applications to Differentiating Drug and Placebo Responses in Longitudinal Studies

    PubMed Central

    Tarpey, Thaddeus; Petkova, Eva

    2009-01-01

    Principal points are cluster means for theoretical distributions. A discriminant methodology based on principal points is introduced. The principal point classification method is useful in clinical trials where the goal is to distinguish and differentiate between different treatment effects. Particularly, in psychiatric studies where placebo response rates can be very high, the principal point classification is illustrated to distinguish specific drug responders from non-specific placebo responders. PMID:20563220

  4. Space tug point design study. Volume 1: Summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The design and characteristics of a space tug are discussed. The primary objective of the study is to verify the performance capability of a baseline design to deliver and retrieve payloads between 100 nautical miles, 28.5 degrees inclination, and geosynchronous. The space tug is ground based, reusable for 20 mission cycles, and is shuttled to and from low earth orbit by an earth orbital shuttle (EOS) with a 65,000 pound payload capability. It is shown that the baseline concept can meet the target performance goals. The design analysis encompassed: (1) definition of the vehicle primary structure, (2) thermal control, (3) meteoroid protection, (4) propulsion and mechanical subsystems, and (5) avionics including power generation and distribution.

  5. Estimation of Economical Validity of Usage Remote Operated Disconnectors for 110kV Switchgear Schemes From Optimal Reliability Level Point of View

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lvovs, Aleksandrs; Mutule, Anna

    2011-01-01

    The paper gives results of technical and economical calculations performed for estimation of validity of usage remote operated disconnectors for most commonly used 110kV switchgears from optimal reliability level point of view. Paper contains description of performed technical calculations - calculations of 110kV switchgear schemes' reliability level depending on type of disconnectors installed, and economical calculations, that are related with additional costs of Transmission System Operator and changes in total customer costs of power supply interruptions.

  6. Operation Brain Trauma Therapy Extended Studies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-05-01

    percussion, controlled cortical impact (CCI), and penetrating ballistic-like brain injury) in rats for screening of therapies and evaluation of two...cyclosporine, simvastatin, levetiracetam, glibenclamide, kollidon VA64, amantadine, and minocycline. Approximately 2000 rats have been studied and...sections from rats in each of the 3 therapy screening models used by the OBTT consortium. A total of 8 manuscripts were published in the issue (S1-S8

  7. Brigade Prepositioned (PREPO) Afloat Operations Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-03-01

    the JWG to determine the overall duration of the two situations. The study team developed this interim representation using Modeler, a Petri - net ...heavy equipment transpost Pit platoon ad* bdgade HHB headquaters headquarter battery RORO roli-oWro"ld Bn battalion HHC headqyiwle- headquarters compay...technique pit platoon PMCS preventive maintenance checks and services POD port(s) of debarkation prep prepare PREPO prepositioned PSA port support authority

  8. Shuttle Ground Operations Efficiencies/Technologies (SGOE/T) study. Volume 2: Ground Operations evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scholz, A. L.; Hart, M. T.; Lowry, D. J.

    1987-01-01

    The Ground Operations Evaluation describes the breath and depth of the various study elements selected as a result of an operational analysis conducted during the early part of the study. Analysis techniques used for the evaluation are described in detail. Elements selected for further evaluation are identified; the results of the analysis documented; and a follow-on course of action recommended. The background and rationale for developing recommendations for the current Shuttle or for future programs is presented.

  9. A Study on Optimal Operation of Power Generation by Waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugahara, Hideo; Aoyagi, Yoshihiro; Kato, Masakazu

    This paper proposes the optimal operation of power generation by waste. Refuse is taken as a new energy resource of biomass. Although some fossil fuel origin refuse like plastic may be mixed in, CO2 emission is not counted up except for above fossil fuel origin refuse for the Kyoto Protocol. Incineration is indispensable for refuse disposal and power generation by waste is environment-friendly and power system-friendly using synchronous generators. Optimal planning is a key point to make much of this merit. The optimal plan includes refuse incinerator operation plan with refuse collection and maintenance scheduling of refuse incinerator plant. In this paper, it has been made clear that the former plan increases generation energy through numerical simulations. Concerning the latter plan, a method to determine the maintenance schedule using genetic algorithm has been established. In addition, taking environmental load of CO2 emission into account, this is expected larger merits from environment and energy resource points of view.

  10. Surfactant studies for bench-scale operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hickey, Gregory S.; Sharma, Pramod K.

    1993-01-01

    A phase 2 study has been initiated to investigate surfactant-assisted coal liquefaction, with the objective of quantifying the enhancement in liquid yields and product quality. This report covers the second quarter of work. The major accomplishments were: completion of coal liquefaction autoclave reactor runs with Illinois number 6 coal at processing temperatures of 300, 325, and 350 C, and pressures of 1800 psig; analysis of the filter cake and the filtrate obtained from the treated slurry in each run; and correlation of the coal conversions and the liquid yield quality to the surfactant concentration. An increase in coal conversions and upgrading of the liquid product quality due to surfactant addition was observed for all runs.

  11. Study on the ability of Shanghai UHV AC grid access point voltage regulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Wentao; Xia, Hui; Han, Wenxuan; Yang, Xiu

    2017-05-01

    Shanghai as China’s highest load density and largest urban power grid, located in the end position of East China Power Grid, is an important access point of East China UHV AC power grid. Making sure the voltage of UHV power grid placement has enough regulation ability is an important condition for safe operation of the system. The basic measures of system voltage regulation are given and the possible problems of voltage of UHV power grid are analyzed in the actual operation. Using sensitivity analysis method to calculate the ability of Shanghai UHV power grid placement voltage regulation after East China UHV AC target grid operation.

  12. A synthesis of studies of access point density as a risk factor for road accidents.

    PubMed

    Elvik, Rune

    2017-10-01

    Studies of the relationship between access point density (number of access points, or driveways, per kilometre of road) and accident frequency or rate (number of accidents per unit of exposure) have consistently found that accident rate increases when access point density increases. This paper presents a formal synthesis of the findings of these studies. It was found that the addition of one access point per kilometre of road is associated with an increase of 4% in the expected number of accidents, controlling for traffic volume. Although studies consistently indicate an increase in accident rate as access point density increases, the size of the increase varies substantially between studies. In addition to reviewing studies of access point density as a risk factor, the paper discusses some issues related to formally synthesising regression coefficients by applying the inverse-variance method of meta-analysis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. A study of the operation of selected national research facilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eisner, M.

    1974-01-01

    The operation of national research facilities was studied. Conclusions of the study show that a strong resident scientific staff is required for successful facility operation. No unique scheme of scientific management is revealed except for the obvious fact that the management must be responsive to the users needs and requirements. Users groups provide a convenient channel through which these needs and requirements are communicated.

  14. Lathe Operator. Coordinator's Guide. Individualized Study Guide. General Metal Trades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    East Texas State Univ., Commerce. Occupational Curriculum Lab.

    This guide provides information to enable coordinators to direct learning activities for students using an individualized study guide on operating a lathe. The study material is designed for students enrolled in cooperative part-time training and employed, or desiring to be employed, as lathe operators. Contents include a sample progress chart,…

  15. Lathe Operator. Coordinator's Guide. Individualized Study Guide. General Metal Trades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    East Texas State Univ., Commerce. Occupational Curriculum Lab.

    This guide provides information to enable coordinators to direct learning activities for students using an individualized study guide on operating a lathe. The study material is designed for students enrolled in cooperative part-time training and employed, or desiring to be employed, as lathe operators. Contents include a sample progress chart,…

  16. Orbital operations study. Appendix C: Data sources and vehicle descriptions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steinwachs, W. L.

    1972-01-01

    A bibliography of published documents referred to throughout the orbital operations study is presented. A brief description of all of the space program elements included in the study vehicle inventory is developed.

  17. Long-Term Operating System Maintenance. A Linux Case Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-01-01

    when maintaining an operating system for long periods. Therefore, this report serves as an introduction and a simple methodology for performing...and necessary reconfiguration capabilities have been established, an appropriate methodology could be developed for upgrading and updating an...this study proposes a methodology for upgrading and updating an operating system so that installing a newer operating system is not required in order

  18. Experimental Study of Saddle Point of Attachment in Laminar Juncture Flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coon, Michael D.; Tobak, Murray

    1995-01-01

    An experimental study of laminar horseshoe vortex flows upstream of a cylinder/flat plate juncture has been conducted to verify the existence of saddle-point-of-attachment topologies. In the classical depiction of this flowfield, a saddle point of separation exists on the flat plate upstream of the cylinder, and the boundary layer separates from the surface. Recent computations have indicated that the topology may actually involve a saddle point of attachment on the surface and additional singular points in the flow. Laser light sheet flow visualizations have been performed on the symmetry plane and crossflow planes to identify the saddle-point-of-attachment flowfields. The visualizations reveal that saddle-point-of-attachment topologies occur over a range of Reynolds numbers in both single and multiple vortex regimes. An analysis of the flow topologies is presented that describes the existence and evolution of the singular points in the flowfield.

  19. Training Program for Operation of Emergency Vehicles. Trainee Study Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    INNOVATRIX, Inc., Ingomar, PA.

    A two-part trainee study guide for use in the classroom phase of the Emergency Vehicle Operation (EVO) training program is provided. Part 1, to be taken by all trainees, contains seven units organized into various subunits and includes the following: (1) introduction to the course; (2) some legal aspects of emergency vehicle operation (state…

  20. Case Studies on UN Information Operations: Ethiopia, Liberia, and Kosovo

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-01

    physiological, psychological, and sociological needs such as food, clothes, safety, belongingness, love, esteem , and self -actualization and their...peacekeeping information operations based on case studies. This thesis will analyze how the United Nations Public Information Office utilized media tools in...This research will analyze the outcomes of Public Information (PI) campaigns and other information operations, utilizing Maslow’s information

  1. Operations: A Comparative Study of the United States and Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Cheng-Yao; Becker, Jerry; Byun, Mi-Ran; Yang, Der-Ching; Huang, Tsai-Wei

    2013-01-01

    This study examined (a) the differences in preservice teachers’ procedural knowledge in four areas of fraction operations in Taiwan and the United States, (b) the differences in preservice teachers’ conceptual knowledge in four areas of fraction operations in Taiwan and the United States, and (c) correlation in preservice teachers’ conceptual…

  2. 38th Annual Maintenance & Operations Cost Study for Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agron, Joe

    2009-01-01

    The nation's colleges are feeling the pinch of the economic downturn, and maintenance and operations (M&O) budgets especially are under pressure. This article presents data from the 38th annual Maintenance & Operations Cost Study for colleges that can help one in benchmarking expenditures at one's institution. Data provided only targets two-year…

  3. 36th Annual Maintenance & Operations Cost Study: Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agron, Joe

    2007-01-01

    Spending by school districts on maintenance and operations increased in 2006-2007, reversing years of historic low expenditures. According to "American School & University's" 36th annual Maintenance and Operations (M&O) Cost Study, the median school district spends 9.19% of total district expenditures (TDE) on M&O, up from 7.58% the year before.…

  4. Operation of Wastewater Treatment Plants: A Home Study Training Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Univ., Sacramento. Dept. of Civil Engineering.

    This manual was prepared by experienced wastewater treatment plant operators to provide a home study course to develop new qualified workers and expand the abilities of existing workers. The objective of this manual is to provide the knowledge and skills necessary for certification. Participants learn the basic operational aspects of treatment…

  5. 38th Annual Maintenance & Operations Cost Study for Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agron, Joe

    2009-01-01

    Despite the worst economic environment in generations, spending by K-12 institutions on maintenance and operations (M&O) held its own--defying historical trends that have shown M&O spending among the most affected in times of budget tightening. This article presents data from the 38th annual Maintenance & Operations Cost Study for…

  6. Operations: A Comparative Study of the United States and Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Cheng-Yao; Becker, Jerry; Byun, Mi-Ran; Yang, Der-Ching; Huang, Tsai-Wei

    2013-01-01

    This study examined (a) the differences in preservice teachers’ procedural knowledge in four areas of fraction operations in Taiwan and the United States, (b) the differences in preservice teachers’ conceptual knowledge in four areas of fraction operations in Taiwan and the United States, and (c) correlation in preservice teachers’ conceptual…

  7. Operation of Wastewater Treatment Plants: A Home Study Training Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Univ., Sacramento. Dept. of Civil Engineering.

    This manual was prepared by experienced wastewater treatment plant operators to provide a home study course to develop new qualified workers and expand the abilities of existing workers. The objective of this manual is to provide the knowledge and skills necessary for certification. Participants learn the basic operational aspects of treatment…

  8. Operations and Costs; A Study of Educational Public Television Stations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, James A.

    Good programing in public television requires adequate funding; adequate funding requires an understanding of the total public television station picture. This study provides information concerning projected operating characteristics and the resultant costs of these operations for public broadcasting stations. After a discussion of the procedures…

  9. Setting of an endoscopic nasal reference point for surgical access to the anterior base through an anatomical study on cadavers.

    PubMed

    Zanuncio, Andressa Vinha; Crosara, Paulo Fernando Tormin Borges; Becker, Helena Maria Gonçalves; Becker, Celso Gonçalves; Guimarães, Roberto Eustáquio Dos Santos

    Diseases of paranasal sinuses, nasal cavity, and skull base can be treated by endonasal operations using a nasal rigid endoscope. When conducting this kind of surgery, anatomical references are critical for safety. To measure the distance from the posterior wall of the maxillary sinus to the skull base, according to socio-demographic characteristics, and to detail an anatomical reference point for paranasal sinus operations and for an access to the anterior skull base, comparing anatomical variations between right and left sides, gender, height, weight, age, and ethnicity in cadavers. Measures were taken from the 90° angle (the starting point where deflection of the skull base begins to form the anterior wall of the sphenoid, also known as Δ90°) to the upper, middle, and lower points of the posterior wall of the maxillary sinus. This study used 60 cadavers aged over 17 years, and evaluated these bodies with respect to age, height, BMI, weight, gender, and ethnicity, comparing measurements of right and left sides. The measurements were >1.5cm in all cadavers and did not vary with age, height, weight, gender, and ethnicity on their right and left sides. The lack of association between the measurement from Δ90° to the upper, middle, and lower posterior walls of the maxillary sinus (categorical or quantitative) is noteworthy, considering the characteristics studied. The methodology defined the nasal point of reference, considering an absence of variation in the cadavers' characteristics. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda.

  10. Quantized conductance operation near a single-atom point contact in a polymer-based atomic switch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishnan, Karthik; Muruganathan, Manoharan; Tsuruoka, Tohru; Mizuta, Hiroshi; Aono, Masakazu

    2017-06-01

    Highly-controlled conductance quantization is achieved near a single-atom point contact in a redox-based atomic switch device, in which a poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) film is sandwiched between Ag and Pt electrodes. Current-voltage measurements revealed reproducible quantized conductance of ˜1G 0 for more than 102 continuous voltage sweep cycles under a specific condition, indicating the formation of a well-defined single-atom point contact of Ag in the PEO matrix. The device exhibited a conductance state distribution centered at 1G 0, with distinct half-integer multiples of G 0 and small fractional variations. First-principles density functional theory simulations showed that the experimental observations could be explained by the existence of a tunneling gap and the structural rearrangement of an atomic point contact.

  11. Secure Cloud Computing Implementation Study For Singapore Military Operations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-09-01

    COMPUTING IMPLEMENTATION STUDY FOR SINGAPORE MILITARY OPERATIONS by Lai Guoquan September 2016 Thesis Advisor: John D. Fulp Co-Advisor...DATES COVERED Master’s thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE SECURE CLOUD COMPUTING IMPLEMENTATION STUDY FOR SINGAPORE MILITARY OPERATIONS 5. FUNDING NUMBERS...addition, from the military perspective, the benefits of cloud computing were analyzed from a study of the U.S. Department of Defense. Then, using

  12. [Application of tipping-point analysis to address missing data in clinical studies].

    PubMed

    Zhang, S J; Wang, Y; Li, W

    2017-05-10

    To use a visualized method, tipping-point analysis to address missing data in clinical study and discuss related problems. All the possible outcomes caused by missing data were listed and the tipping points where P-values of hypothesis test changed at 0.05 significant level were found out, then the ratio of P<0.05 was calculated, reflecting the reliability of the study's result. Tipping-point analysis can be applied to both continuous and binary data to help find points where p-values are changed. The area of P<0.05 of continuous data is 93.6%, indicating that the reliability of success of the study is large; and the area of P<0.05 of binary data is 29.7%, reflecting that the reliability of success of the study is small. Tipping-point analysis, which provides a visualized evidence for decision making, is suitable for analyzing clinical studies with missing data.

  13. 77 FR 66641 - In the Matter of Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc.; Entergy Nuclear Indian Point 2, LLC; Entergy...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-06

    ... system, structure, or component that Indian Point Units 2 and 3 rely upon. Convene an evidentiary hearing... before the NRC or its predecessor, the Atomic Energy Commission, developed siting criteria. The.... Therefore, any system, structure, or component located at Unit 1 that supports the fire protection program...

  14. CETF Space Station payload pointing system design and analysis feasibility study. [Critical Evaluation Task Force

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smagala, Tom; Mcglew, Dave

    1988-01-01

    The expected pointing performance of an attached payload coupled to the Critical Evaluation Task Force Space Station via a payload pointing system (PPS) is determined. The PPS is a 3-axis gimbal which provides the capability for maintaining inertial pointing of a payload in the presence of disturbances associated with the Space Station environment. A system where the axes of rotation were offset from the payload center of mass (CM) by 10 in. in the Z axis was studied as well as a system having the payload CM offset by only 1 inch. There is a significant improvement in pointing performance when going from the 10 in. to the 1 in. gimbal offset.

  15. Retrospective studies of operating problems in air transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Billings, C. E.; Lauber, J. K.; Cooper, G. E.; Ruffell-Smith, H. P.

    1976-01-01

    An epidemiological model for the study of human errors in aviation is presented. In this approach, retrospective data are used as the basis for formulation of hypotheses as to system factors which may have contributed to such errors. Prospective experimental studies of aviation operations are also required in order to prove or disprove the hypotheses, and to evaluate the effectiveness of intervention techniques designed to solve operational problems in the aviation system.

  16. MECAR operation during the 6/95 study period

    SciTech Connect

    Capista, Dave; /Fermilab

    1995-01-01

    The MECAR system was scheduled to be used 36 hours during the study period. In practice the system was used a bit more since there is increasing pressure to switch completely over to MECAR. During this period of MECAR operation there were power supply studies, tune calibration, general tune-up with this system, and identification and some repair of bugs found in both the applications program and the MECAR operating system.

  17. Field studies of inspection and repair operations of subsea structures

    SciTech Connect

    Bourhis, M.Y.; Aldridge, T.

    1983-03-01

    Subsea inspection techniques are required to confirm that the initial construction of offshore oil platforms meets pre-established standards and specifications and that structural deterioration does not exceed levels which are consistent with the design and continued serviceability of a structure. Such inspection, rigorously performed, will normally satisfy the various interrelated requirements of the operators, the government, and the certifying authority. This paper presents a review of the current techniques for underwater inspection, an application of ultrasonic equipment for this purpose, and an application of welded point repair in a hyperbaric habitat.

  18. New formulas for Maslov's canonical operator in a neighborhood of focal points and caustics in two-dimensional semiclassical asymptotics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobrokhotov, S. Yu.; Makrakis, G. N.; Nazaikinskii, V. E.; Tudorovskii, T. Ya.

    2013-12-01

    We suggest a new representation of Maslov's canonical operator in a neighborhood of caustics using a special class of coordinate systems (eikonal coordinates) on Lagrangian manifolds. We present the results in the two-dimensional case and illustrate them with examples.

  19. 75 FR 14639 - Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc.; Indian Point Nuclear Generating Unit Nos. 1, 2, and 3...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-26

    ... significantly affect plant safety and would not have a significant adverse effect on the probability of an... part 73, ``PHYSICAL PROTECTION OF PLANTS AND MATERIALS,'' for Facility Operating License Nos. DPR-5... to the reactor, fuel, plant structures, support structures, water, or land at the IP1, IP2, and IP3...

  20. [Hybrid operation theatre from the point of view of cardiac surgery. The future for the heart team].

    PubMed

    Börgermann, J; Jategaonkar, S; Haas, N; Gummert, J F; Ensminger, S M

    2013-12-01

    Nowadays, increasing numbers of procedures jointly conducted by cardiac surgeons and cardiologists are performed as minimally invasive surgical procedures or interventions. Transcatheter aortic valve implantation, endovascular aortic aneurysm repair and a large variety of hybrid procedures for congenital heart disease have become current standards. Some of these hybrid procedures were shown to improve the therapeutic safety and efficacy, effects particularly true for high-risk patients and complex interventions. Hybrid procedures require indirect imaging, commonly provided by an angiography system in the hybrid operation theatre. This article describes the technical prerequisites required for a hybrid operation theatre as well as indications and rationales for hybrid procedures conducted in this environment. It is likely that the indications for cardiovascular hybrid procedures will continue to be expanded and that the hybrid operation theatre may become a laboratory for developing innovative approaches in the cardiovascular field. Therefore, the hybrid operation theatre will not only be the working environment for hybrid surgeons and interventionalists but also help to evolve their future.

  1. 78 FR 26662 - Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc., Indian Point Nuclear Generating Unit No. 3 Extension of Public...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-07

    ... Project Manager, Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation, U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC... Licensing Branch I-1, Division of Operating Reactor Licensing, Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation. BILLING... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR...

  2. Turning Points during the Life of Student Project Teams: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raes, Elisabeth; Kyndt, Eva; Dochy, Filip

    2015-01-01

    In this qualitative study a more flexible alternative of conceptualising changes over time in teams is tested within student project teams. The conceptualisation uses turning points during the lifespan of a team to outline team development, based on work by Erbert, Mearns, & Dena (2005). Turning points are moments that made a significant…

  3. Extracurricular Activities and Their Effect on the Student's Grade Point Average: Statistical Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bakoban, R. A.; Aljarallah, S. A.

    2015-01-01

    Extracurricular activities (ECA) are part of students' everyday life; they play important roles in students' lives. Few studies have addressed the question of how student engagements to ECA affect student's grade point average (GPA). This research was conducted to know whether the students' grade point average in King Abdulaziz University,…

  4. Intent inferencing by an intelligent operator's associate - A validation study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Patricia M.

    1988-01-01

    In the supervisory control of a complex, dynamic system, one potential form of aiding for the human operator is a computer-based operator's associate. The design philosophy of the operator's associate is that of 'amplifying' rather than automating human skills. In particular, the associate possesses understanding and control properties. Understanding allows it to infer operator intentions and thus form the basis for context-dependent advice and reminders; control properties allow the human operator to dynamically delegate individual tasks or subfunctions to the associate. This paper focuses on the design, implementation, and validation of the intent inferencing function. Two validation studies are described which empirically demonstrate the viability of the proposed approach to intent inferencing.

  5. An Analysis of the Factors Affecting the Net Operating Result at Naval Aviation Depot Cherry Point, North Carolina

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-12-01

    Assistant Business Financial Manager , NADEP Cherry Point. 10. Vanderwende, Jim, Interview, NAVAIR 6.0, 27 Aug 2002. 11. Brigham , Eugene F...Gapenski, Louis C., Ehrhardt , Michael C., Financial Management Theory and Practice 9th ed., The Dryden Press, 1999. 12. Liao, Shu S., unpublished...the financial and management goals of the Navy Working Capital Fund are spelled out. An assessment of existing methods was based on variance

  6. Study to determine operational and performance criteria for STOL aircraft operating in low visibility conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gorham, J. A.

    1978-01-01

    The operational and performance criteria for civil CTOL passenger-carrying airplanes landing in low visibilities depend upon the characteristics of the airplane, the nature and use of the ground and airborne guidance and control systems, and the geometry and lighting of the landing field. Based upon these criteria, FAA advisory circulars, airplane and equipment design characteristics, and airline operational and maintenance procedures were formulated. The documents are selected, described, and discussed in relationship to the potential low weather minima operation of STOL aircraft. An attempt is made to identify fundamental differences between CTOL and STOL aircraft characteristics which could impact upon existing CTOL documentation. Further study and/or flight experiments are recommended.

  7. Initial measurements of plasma current and electron density profiles using a polarimeter/interferometer (POINT) for long pulse operation in EAST (invited).

    PubMed

    Liu, H Q; Qian, J P; Jie, Y X; Ding, W X; Brower, D L; Zou, Z Y; Li, W M; Lian, H; Wang, S X; Yang, Y; Zeng, L; Lan, T; Yao, Y; Hu, L Q; Zhang, X D; Wan, B N

    2016-11-01

    A double-pass, radially viewing, far-infrared laser-based POlarimeter-INTerferometer (POINT) system utilizing the three-wave technique has been implemented for diagnosing the plasma current and electron density profiles in the Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak (EAST). POINT has been operated routinely during the most recent experimental campaign and provides continuous 11 chord line-integrated Faraday effect and density measurement throughout the entire plasma discharge for all heating schemes and all plasma conditions (including ITER relevant scenario development). Reliability of both the polarimetric and interferometric measurements is demonstrated in 25 s plasmas with H-mode and 102 s long-pulse discharges. Current density, safety factor (q), and electron density profiles are reconstructed using equilibrium fitting code (EFIT) with POINT constraints for the plasma core.

  8. Initial measurements of plasma current and electron density profiles using a polarimeter/interferometer (POINT) for long pulse operation in EAST (invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, H. Q.; Qian, J. P.; Jie, Y. X.; Ding, W. X.; Brower, D. L.; Zou, Z. Y.; Li, W. M.; Lian, H.; Wang, S. X.; Yang, Y.; Zeng, L.; Lan, T.; Yao, Y.; Hu, L. Q.; Zhang, X. D.; Wan, B. N.

    2016-11-01

    A double-pass, radially viewing, far-infrared laser-based POlarimeter-INTerferometer (POINT) system utilizing the three-wave technique has been implemented for diagnosing the plasma current and electron density profiles in the Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak (EAST). POINT has been operated routinely during the most recent experimental campaign and provides continuous 11 chord line-integrated Faraday effect and density measurement throughout the entire plasma discharge for all heating schemes and all plasma conditions (including ITER relevant scenario development). Reliability of both the polarimetric and interferometric measurements is demonstrated in 25 s plasmas with H-mode and 102 s long-pulse discharges. Current density, safety factor (q), and electron density profiles are reconstructed using equilibrium fitting code (EFIT) with POINT constraints for the plasma core.

  9. Anatomical Localization of Motor Points of the Abductor Hallucis Muscle: A Cadaveric Study.

    PubMed

    Choi, Asayeon; Kwon, Na Yeon; Kim, Kyeongwon; Kim, Youngkook; Oh, Jeehae; Oh, Hyun Mi; Park, Joo Hyun

    2017-08-01

    To identify the anatomical motor points of the abductor hallucis muscle in cadavers. Motor nerve branches to the abductor hallucis muscles were examined in eight Korean cadaver feet. The motor point was defined as the site where the intramuscular nerve penetrates the muscle belly. The reference line connects the metatarsal base of the hallux (H) to the medial tubercle of the calcaneus (C). The x coordinate was the horizontal distance from the motor point to the point where the perpendicular line from the navicular tuberosity crossed the reference line. The y coordinate was the perpendicular distance from the motor point to the navicular tuberosity. Most of the medial plantar nerves to the abductor hallucis muscles divide into multiple branches before entering the muscles. One, two, and three motor branches were observed in 37.5%, 37.5%, and 25% of the feet, respectively. The ratios of the main motor point from the H with respect to the H-C line were: main motor point, 68.79%±5.69%; second motor point, 73.45%±3.25%. The mean x coordinate value from the main motor point was 0.65±0.49 cm. The mean value of the y coordinate was 1.43±0.35 cm. All of the motor points of the abductor hallucis were consistently found inferior and posterior to the navicular tuberosity. This study identified accurate locations of anatomical motor points of the abductor hallucis muscle by means of cadaveric dissection, which can be helpful for electrophysiological studies in order to correctly diagnose the various neuropathies associated with tibial nerve components.

  10. Operationally Efficient Propulsion System Study (OEPSS): OEPSS Video Script

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wong, George S.; Waldrop, Glen S.; Trent, Donnie (Editor)

    1992-01-01

    The OEPSS video film, along with the OEPSS Databooks, provides a data base of current launch experience that will be useful for design of future expendable and reusable launch systems. The focus is on the launch processing of propulsion systems. A brief 15-minute overview of the OEPSS study results is found at the beginning of the film. The remainder of the film discusses in more detail: current ground operations at the Kennedy Space Center; typical operations issues and problems; critical operations technologies; and efficiency of booster and space propulsion systems. The impact of system architecture on the launch site and its facility infrastucture is emphasized. Finally, a particularly valuable analytical tool, developed during the OEPSS study, that will provide for the "first time" a quantitative measure of operations efficiency for a propulsion system is described.

  11. LHC Abort Gap Cleaning Studies During Luminosity Operation

    SciTech Connect

    Gianfelice-Wendt, E.; Bartmann, W.; Boccardi, A.; Bracco, C.; Bravin, E.; Goddard, B.; Hofle, W.; Jacquet, D.; Jeff, A.; Kain, V.; Meddahi, M.; /CERN

    2012-05-11

    The presence of significant intensities of un-bunched beam is a potentially serious issue in the LHC. Procedures using damper kickers for cleaning both the Abort Gap (AG) and the buckets targeted for injection, are currently in operation at flat bottom. Recent observations of relatively high population of the AG during physics runs brought up the need for AG cleaning during luminosity operation. In this paper the results of experimental studies performed in October 2011 are presented.

  12. A Time Scheduling Model of Logistics Service Supply Chain Based on the Customer Order Decoupling Point: A Perspective from the Constant Service Operation Time

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yi; Xu, Haitao; Liu, Xiaoyan; Wang, Yijia; Liang, Zhicheng

    2014-01-01

    In mass customization logistics service, reasonable scheduling of the logistics service supply chain (LSSC), especially time scheduling, is benefit to increase its competitiveness. Therefore, the effect of a customer order decoupling point (CODP) on the time scheduling performance should be considered. To minimize the total order operation cost of the LSSC, minimize the difference between the expected and actual time of completing the service orders, and maximize the satisfaction of functional logistics service providers, this study establishes an LSSC time scheduling model based on the CODP. Matlab 7.8 software is used in the numerical analysis for a specific example. Results show that the order completion time of the LSSC can be delayed or be ahead of schedule but cannot be infinitely advanced or infinitely delayed. Obtaining the optimal comprehensive performance can be effective if the expected order completion time is appropriately delayed. The increase in supply chain comprehensive performance caused by the increase in the relationship coefficient of logistics service integrator (LSI) is limited. The relative concern degree of LSI on cost and service delivery punctuality leads to not only changes in CODP but also to those in the scheduling performance of the LSSC. PMID:24715818

  13. A time scheduling model of logistics service supply chain based on the customer order decoupling point: a perspective from the constant service operation time.

    PubMed

    Liu, Weihua; Yang, Yi; Xu, Haitao; Liu, Xiaoyan; Wang, Yijia; Liang, Zhicheng

    2014-01-01

    In mass customization logistics service, reasonable scheduling of the logistics service supply chain (LSSC), especially time scheduling, is benefit to increase its competitiveness. Therefore, the effect of a customer order decoupling point (CODP) on the time scheduling performance should be considered. To minimize the total order operation cost of the LSSC, minimize the difference between the expected and actual time of completing the service orders, and maximize the satisfaction of functional logistics service providers, this study establishes an LSSC time scheduling model based on the CODP. Matlab 7.8 software is used in the numerical analysis for a specific example. Results show that the order completion time of the LSSC can be delayed or be ahead of schedule but cannot be infinitely advanced or infinitely delayed. Obtaining the optimal comprehensive performance can be effective if the expected order completion time is appropriately delayed. The increase in supply chain comprehensive performance caused by the increase in the relationship coefficient of logistics service integrator (LSI) is limited. The relative concern degree of LSI on cost and service delivery punctuality leads to not only changes in CODP but also to those in the scheduling performance of the LSSC.

  14. Random Forest-Based Approach for Maximum Power Point Tracking of Photovoltaic Systems Operating under Actual Environmental Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Shareef, Hussain; Mohamed, Azah

    2017-01-01

    Many maximum power point tracking (MPPT) algorithms have been developed in recent years to maximize the produced PV energy. These algorithms are not sufficiently robust because of fast-changing environmental conditions, efficiency, accuracy at steady-state value, and dynamics of the tracking algorithm. Thus, this paper proposes a new random forest (RF) model to improve MPPT performance. The RF model has the ability to capture the nonlinear association of patterns between predictors, such as irradiance and temperature, to determine accurate maximum power point. A RF-based tracker is designed for 25 SolarTIFSTF-120P6 PV modules, with the capacity of 3 kW peak using two high-speed sensors. For this purpose, a complete PV system is modeled using 300,000 data samples and simulated using the MATLAB/SIMULINK package. The proposed RF-based MPPT is then tested under actual environmental conditions for 24 days to validate the accuracy and dynamic response. The response of the RF-based MPPT model is also compared with that of the artificial neural network and adaptive neurofuzzy inference system algorithms for further validation. The results show that the proposed MPPT technique gives significant improvement compared with that of other techniques. In addition, the RF model passes the Bland–Altman test, with more than 95 percent acceptability. PMID:28702051

  15. Random Forest-Based Approach for Maximum Power Point Tracking of Photovoltaic Systems Operating under Actual Environmental Conditions.

    PubMed

    Shareef, Hussain; Mutlag, Ammar Hussein; Mohamed, Azah

    2017-01-01

    Many maximum power point tracking (MPPT) algorithms have been developed in recent years to maximize the produced PV energy. These algorithms are not sufficiently robust because of fast-changing environmental conditions, efficiency, accuracy at steady-state value, and dynamics of the tracking algorithm. Thus, this paper proposes a new random forest (RF) model to improve MPPT performance. The RF model has the ability to capture the nonlinear association of patterns between predictors, such as irradiance and temperature, to determine accurate maximum power point. A RF-based tracker is designed for 25 SolarTIFSTF-120P6 PV modules, with the capacity of 3 kW peak using two high-speed sensors. For this purpose, a complete PV system is modeled using 300,000 data samples and simulated using the MATLAB/SIMULINK package. The proposed RF-based MPPT is then tested under actual environmental conditions for 24 days to validate the accuracy and dynamic response. The response of the RF-based MPPT model is also compared with that of the artificial neural network and adaptive neurofuzzy inference system algorithms for further validation. The results show that the proposed MPPT technique gives significant improvement compared with that of other techniques. In addition, the RF model passes the Bland-Altman test, with more than 95 percent acceptability.

  16. Alternative end points for trauma studies: A survey of academic trauma surgeons.

    PubMed

    Alawadi, Zeinab M; LeFebvre, Eric; Fox, Erin E; Del Junco, Deborah J; Cotton, Bryan A; Wade, Charles E; Holcomb, John B

    2015-11-01

    Changing the epidemiology of trauma makes traditional end points like 30-day mortality less than ideal. Many alternative end points have been suggested; however, they are not yet accepted by the trauma community or regulatory bodies. This study characterizes opinions about the adequacy of accepted end points of studies of trauma and the appropriateness of several novel end points. An electronic survey was administered to all members of the American Association for the Surgery of Trauma. Questions involved demographics, research experience, appropriateness of proposed study end points, and the role of nontraditional, surrogate, and composite end points. Response rate was 16% (141 of 873) with 74% of respondents practicing at Level 1 Trauma Centers. The respondents were very experienced, with 81% reporting >10 years of practice at the attending level and 87% actively involved in research. The majority of respondents rated the following end points favorably: 24-hour survival, 30-day survival, and time to control of acute hemorrhage with approval rates of 82%, 78%, and 76%, respectively. Six-hour survival, intensive care unit-free survival, and days free of multiorgan failure were rated as appropriate or very appropriate less than 66% of the time. Only 45% of respondents judged the currently used end points of trauma to be appropriate. More than 80% respondents disagreed or strongly disagreed that there was no role for of surrogate or composite endpoints in research of trauma resuscitation. There is strong interest in finding efficient end points in trauma research that are both specific and reflect the changing epidemiology of trauma death. The alternative end points of 24-hour survival and time to control of acute hemorrhage had similar approval rates to 30-day mortality. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Study of infrared point source simulator for generating the multi-decoy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Chang-e.; Yang, Di; Su, Jian-gang; Huang, Yan-jun; Wang, Zhi-sheng

    2013-08-01

    The hardware-in-loop test system for infrared point-type guide missile was introduced;The decoy irradiation and motion characteristics were analyzed; multi-decoy generation mode and principle were studied.

  18. Empirical Correlates of Frequently Occurring Two-Point MMPI Code Types: A Replicated Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewandowski, Denis; Graham, John R.

    1972-01-01

    The results of this study are consistent with previous research that has indicated that a large proportion of MMPI protocols obtained in a psychiatric setting can be classified into a relatively small number of two point code types. (Author)

  19. Preliminary Study on Appearance-Based Detection of Anatomical Point Landmarks in Body Trunk CT Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nemoto, Mitsutaka; Nomura, Yukihiro; Hanaoka, Shohei; Masutani, Yoshitaka; Yoshikawa, Takeharu; Hayashi, Naoto; Yoshioka, Naoki; Ohtomo, Kuni

    Anatomical point landmarks as most primitive anatomical knowledge are useful for medical image understanding. In this study, we propose a detection method for anatomical point landmark based on appearance models, which include gray-level statistical variations at point landmarks and their surrounding area. The models are built based on results of Principal Component Analysis (PCA) of sample data sets. In addition, we employed generative learning method by transforming ROI of sample data. In this study, we evaluated our method with 24 data sets of body trunk CT images and obtained 95.8 ± 7.3 % of the average sensitivity in 28 landmarks.

  20. All three-loop four-point correlators of half-BPS operators in planar N = 4 SYM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chicherin, Dmitry; Drummond, James; Heslop, Paul; Sokatchev, Emery

    2016-08-01

    We obtain the planar correlation function of four half-BPS operators of arbitrary weights, up to three loops. Our method exploits only elementary properties of the integrand of the planar correlator, such as its symmetries and singularity structure. This allows us to write down a general ansatz for the integrand. The coefficients in the ansatz are fixed by means of a powerful light-cone OPE relation between correlators with different weights. Our result is formulated in terms of a limited number of functions built from known one-, two- and three-loop conformal integrals. These results are useful for checking recent integrability predictions for the OPE structure constants.

  1. Multi-temporal UAV-borne LiDAR point clouds for vegetation analysis - a case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandlburger, Gottfried; Wieser, Martin; Hollaus, Markus; Pfennigbauer, Martin; Riegl, Ursula

    2016-04-01

    In the recent past the introduction of compact and lightweight LiDAR (Light Detection And Ranging) sensors together with progress in UAV (Unmanned Aerial Vehicle) technology allowed the integration of laser scanners on remotely piloted multicopter, helicopter-type and even fixed-wing platforms. The multi-target capabilities of state-of-the-art time-of-flight full-waveform laser sensors operated from low flying UAV-platforms has enabled capturing of the entire 3D structure of semi-transparent objects like deciduous forests under leaf-off conditions in unprecedented density and completeness. For such environments it has already been demonstrated that UAV-borne laser scanning combines the advantages of terrestrial laser scanning (high point density, short range) and airborne laser scanning (bird's eye perspective, homogeneous point distribution). Especially the oblique looking capabilities of scanners with a large field of view (>180°) enable capturing of vegetation from different sides resulting in a constantly high point density also in the sub canopy domain. Whereas the findings stated above were drawn based on a case study carried out in February 2015 with the Riegl VUX-1UAV laser scanner system mounted on a Riegl RiCopter octocopter UAV-platform over an alluvial forest at the Pielach River (Lower Austria), the site was captured a second time with the same sensor system and mission parameters at the end of the vegetation period on October 28th, 2015. The main goal of this experiment was to assess the impact of the late autumn foliage on the achievable 3D point density. Especially the entire understory vegetation and certain tree species (e.g. willow) were still in full leaf whereas the bigger trees (poplar) where already partly defoliated. The comparison revealed that, although both campaigns featured virtually the same laser shot count, the ground point density dropped from 517 points/m2 in February (leaf-off) to 267 points/m2 end of October (leaf-on). The

  2. Waist perimeter cutoff points and prediction of metabolic syndrome risk. A study in a Mexican population.

    PubMed

    Alonso, Ana Lucia; Munguía-Miranda, Catarina; Ramos-Ponce, David; Hernandez-Saavedra, Daniel; Kumate, Jesus; Cruz, Miguel

    2008-04-01

    Association between metabolic syndrome (MS) risk factors was analyzed to establish optimum waist perimeter (WP) cutoff points for a Latin American cluster. There were 1036 clinically healthy Mexican subjects without a history of CVD. Their full medical history and anthropometric and biochemical parameters were analyzed. Diagnosis of MS was classified by both the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) and the American Heart Association (AHA-NHLBI) definitions. The optimum WP cutoff point was defined through one-way ANOVA, homogeneity and chi(2) test of dependency, and receiver operator characteristic analysis (ROC). WP cutoff points suggested by the IDF (> or =90 cm in men, > or =80 cm in women) and AHA-NHLBI (> or =102 cm in men, > or =88 cm in women) showed a weak association with the other MS risk factors. By using the cutoff point of > or =98 cm for men and > or =84 cm for women, we obtained maximum sensitivity and specificity values by ROC analysis. These cutoff points defined as the Mexican Waist Perimeter Proposal (MxWPP) significantly change the prevalence of MS in contrast with the IDF and AHA-NHLBI. Applying the MxWPP new criteria enhances the capability to more accurately detect subjects with MS risk in an apparent healthy Latin American cluster.

  3. Parametric Optimization of Some Critical Operating System Functions--An Alternative Approach to the Study of Operating Systems Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sobh, Tarek M.; Tibrewal, Abhilasha

    2006-01-01

    Operating systems theory primarily concentrates on the optimal use of computing resources. This paper presents an alternative approach to teaching and studying operating systems design and concepts by way of parametrically optimizing critical operating system functions. Detailed examples of two critical operating systems functions using the…

  4. Parametric Optimization of Some Critical Operating System Functions--An Alternative Approach to the Study of Operating Systems Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sobh, Tarek M.; Tibrewal, Abhilasha

    2006-01-01

    Operating systems theory primarily concentrates on the optimal use of computing resources. This paper presents an alternative approach to teaching and studying operating systems design and concepts by way of parametrically optimizing critical operating system functions. Detailed examples of two critical operating systems functions using the…

  5. Feasibility study report for the 200-BP-1 operable unit

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-06-01

    This feasibility study examines a range of alternatives and provides recommendations for selecting a preferred alternative for remediating contamination at the 200-BP-1 operable unit. The 200-BP-1 operable unit is located in the center of the Hanford Site along the northern boundary of the 200 East Area. The 241-BY Tank Farm is located immediately to the south of the operable unit. 200-BP-1 is a source operable unit with contaminated soils associated primarily with nine inactive cribs (known as the 216-B cribs). These cribs were used for disposal of low-level radioactive liquid waste from U Plant uranium recovery operations, and waste storage tank condensate from the adjacent 241-BY Tank Farm. The cribs used for disposal of U Plant waste were in operation from 1955--1965, and the cribs used for disposal of tank condensate were in operation from 1965--1975. In addition to the cribs, four unplanned releases of radioactive materials have occurred within the operable unit. Contaminated surface soils associated with the unplanned releases have been consolidated over the cribs and covered with clean soil to reduce contaminant migration and exposure. Discharge of wastes to the cribs has resulted in soil and groundwater contamination. The groundwater is being addressed as part of the 200 East Aggregate Area, groundwater operable unit. Contaminated soils at the site can be categorized by the types of contaminants, their distribution in the soil column, and the risk posed by the various potential exposure pathways. Below the clean soil cover, the near surface soils contain low-levels of contamination with cesium-137, radium-226, strontium-90, thorium-228, and uranium. The lifetime incremental cancer risk associated with these soils if they were exposed at the surface is 9{times}10{sup {minus}5}.

  6. Post-operative endophthalmitis: the application of hazard analysis critical control points (HACCP) to an infection control problem.

    PubMed

    Baird, D R; Henry, M; Liddell, K G; Mitchell, C M; Sneddon, J G

    2001-09-01

    Hazard analysis critical control points (HACCP) is a quality assurance system widely used in the food industry to ensure safety. We adopted the HACCP approach when conventional infection control measures had failed to solve an ongoing problem with an increased incidence of postoperative endophthalmitis, and our ophthalmology unit was threatened with permanent cessation of intraocular surgery. Although time-consuming, the result was an entirely new set of protocols for the care of patients undergoing intraocular surgery, the development of an integrated care pathway, and a comprehensive and robust audit programme, which enabled intraocular surgery to continue in a new spirit of confidence. HACCP methodology has so far been little used in healthcare, but it might be usefully applied to a variety of apparently intractable infection control problems. Copyright 2001 The Hospital Infection Society.

  7. Defining a BMI Cut-Off Point for the Iranian Population: The Shiraz Heart Study

    PubMed Central

    Babai, Mohammad Ali; Arasteh, Peyman; Hadibarhaghtalab, Maryam; Naghizadeh, Mohammad Mehdi; Salehi, Alireza; Askari, Alireza; Homayounfar, Reza

    2016-01-01

    In this study we evaluated and redefined the optimum body mass index (BMI) cut-off point for the Iranian population based on metabolic syndrome (MeS) risk factors. We further evaluated BMI cut-off points with and without waist circumference (WC) as a cofactor of risk and compared the differences. This study is part of the largest surveillance programs conducted in Shiraz, Iran, termed the Shiraz Heart study. Our study sample included subjects between the ages of 20 to 65 years old. After excluding pregnant women, those with missing data and those with comorbid disease, a total of 12283 made up the study population. The participants underwent a series of tests and evaluations by trained professionals in accordance with WHO recommendations. Hypertension, abnormal fasting blood sugar (FBS), triglyceride (TG) and high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL) (in the context of the definition of metabolic syndrome) were prevalent among 32.4%, 27.6%, 42.1 and 44.2% of our participants, respectively. Women displayed higher rates of overall obesity compared to men (based on the definition by the WHO as higher than 30 kg/m2). Regarding MeS, 38.9% of our population had the all symptoms of MeS which was more prevalent among women (41.5% vs. 36%). When excluding WC in the definition of MeS, results showed that males tend to show a higher rate of metabolic risk factors (19.2% vs. 15.6%). Results of multivariate analysis showed that parallel to an increase in BMI, the odds ratio (OR) for acquiring each component of the metabolic syndrome increased (OR = 1.178; CI: 1.166–1.190). By excluding WC, the previous OR decreased (OR = 1.105; CI: 1.093–1.118). Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve analysis showed that the optimum BMI cut-off point for predicting metabolic syndrome was 26.1 kg/m2 and 26.2 kg/m2 [Accuracy (Acc) = 69% and 61%, respectively)] for males and females, respectively. The overall BMI cut-off for both sexes was 26.2 kg/m2 (Acc = 65%) with sensitivity and

  8. Operating theatre nurses' perceptions of competence: a focus group study.

    PubMed

    Gillespie, Brigid M; Chaboyer, Wendy; Wallis, Marianne; Chang, Hsiao-Yun Annie; Werder, Helen

    2009-05-01

    This paper is a report of a study exploring nurses' perceptions of the components of competence in the operating theatre. Competency Standards for operating theatre practice are used in some countries to guide clinical and professional behaviours. The need for competence assessment has been enshrined, but the conceptualization and agreement about what signifies competence in Operating Theatre has been lacking. Three focus groups were conducted with 27 operating theatre nurses in three major metropolitan hospitals in Queensland, Australia. Interviews were audio taped and field notes were taken. Data were collected during 2008. Thematic analysis was performed. From the analysis of the textual data, three themes were identified: 'coalescence of theoretical, practical, situational and aesthetic knowledge within a technocratic environment'; 'the importance of highly developed communication skills among teams of divergent personalities and situations'; and 'managing and coordinating the flow of the list'. These findings have identified that competence in respect to components of knowledge, teamwork and communication, and the ability to coordinate and manage are important and should be incorporated in operating theatre Competency Standards. Additionally, findings may assist in the development of an instrument to measure operating nurses' perceived competence.

  9. Smartphone-Based Endoscope System for Advanced Point-of-Care Diagnostics: Feasibility Study

    PubMed Central

    Bae, Jung Kweon; Vavilin, Andrey; You, Joon S; Kim, Hyeongeun; Ryu, Seon Young; Jang, Jeong Hun

    2017-01-01

    Background Endoscopic technique is often applied for the diagnosis of diseases affecting internal organs and image-guidance of surgical procedures. Although the endoscope has become an indispensable tool in the clinic, its utility has been limited to medical offices or operating rooms because of the large size of its ancillary devices. In addition, the basic design and imaging capability of the system have remained relatively unchanged for decades. Objective The objective of this study was to develop a smartphone-based endoscope system capable of advanced endoscopic functionalities in a compact size and at an affordable cost and to demonstrate its feasibility of point-of-care through human subject imaging. Methods We developed and designed to set up a smartphone-based endoscope system, incorporating a portable light source, relay-lens, custom adapter, and homebuilt Android app. We attached three different types of existing rigid or flexible endoscopic probes to our system and captured the endoscopic images using the homebuilt app. Both smartphone-based endoscope system and commercialized clinical endoscope system were utilized to compare the imaging quality and performance. Connecting the head-mounted display (HMD) wirelessly, the smartphone-based endoscope system could superimpose an endoscopic image to real-world view. Results A total of 15 volunteers who were accepted into our study were captured using our smartphone-based endoscope system, as well as the commercialized clinical endoscope system. It was found that the imaging performance of our device had acceptable quality compared with that of the conventional endoscope system in the clinical setting. In addition, images captured from the HMD used in the smartphone-based endoscope system improved eye-hand coordination between the manipulating site and the smartphone screen, which in turn reduced spatial disorientation. Conclusions The performance of our endoscope system was evaluated against a commercial

  10. Smartphone-Based Endoscope System for Advanced Point-of-Care Diagnostics: Feasibility Study.

    PubMed

    Bae, Jung Kweon; Vavilin, Andrey; You, Joon S; Kim, Hyeongeun; Ryu, Seon Young; Jang, Jeong Hun; Jung, Woonggyu

    2017-07-27

    Endoscopic technique is often applied for the diagnosis of diseases affecting internal organs and image-guidance of surgical procedures. Although the endoscope has become an indispensable tool in the clinic, its utility has been limited to medical offices or operating rooms because of the large size of its ancillary devices. In addition, the basic design and imaging capability of the system have remained relatively unchanged for decades. The objective of this study was to develop a smartphone-based endoscope system capable of advanced endoscopic functionalities in a compact size and at an affordable cost and to demonstrate its feasibility of point-of-care through human subject imaging. We developed and designed to set up a smartphone-based endoscope system, incorporating a portable light source, relay-lens, custom adapter, and homebuilt Android app. We attached three different types of existing rigid or flexible endoscopic probes to our system and captured the endoscopic images using the homebuilt app. Both smartphone-based endoscope system and commercialized clinical endoscope system were utilized to compare the imaging quality and performance. Connecting the head-mounted display (HMD) wirelessly, the smartphone-based endoscope system could superimpose an endoscopic image to real-world view. A total of 15 volunteers who were accepted into our study were captured using our smartphone-based endoscope system, as well as the commercialized clinical endoscope system. It was found that the imaging performance of our device had acceptable quality compared with that of the conventional endoscope system in the clinical setting. In addition, images captured from the HMD used in the smartphone-based endoscope system improved eye-hand coordination between the manipulating site and the smartphone screen, which in turn reduced spatial disorientation. The performance of our endoscope system was evaluated against a commercial system in routine otolaryngology examinations. We also

  11. A study of impulsive multiterm fractional differential equations with single and multiple base points and applications.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yuji; Ahmad, Bashir

    2014-01-01

    We discuss the existence and uniqueness of solutions for initial value problems of nonlinear singular multiterm impulsive Caputo type fractional differential equations on the half line. Our study includes the cases for a single base point fractional differential equation as well as multiple base points fractional differential equation. The asymptotic behavior of solutions for the problems is also investigated. We demonstrate the utility of our work by applying the main results to fractional-order logistic models.

  12. A prospective randomized study of the efficacy of "Turning Point," an inpatient violence intervention program.

    PubMed

    Loveland-Jones, Catherine; Ferrer, Lucas; Charles, Scott; Ramsey, Frederick; van Zandt, Andrea; Volgraf, Jill; Santora, Thomas; Pathak, Abhijit; Dujon, Jay; Sjoholm, Lars; Rappold, Joseph; Goldberg, Amy

    2016-11-01

    From 2002 to 2011, there were more than 17,000 shootings in Philadelphia. "Turning Point," Temple University Hospital's inpatient violence intervention program, takes advantage of the teachable moment that occurs after violent injury. In addition to receiving traditional social work services, Turning Point patients watch their trauma bay resuscitation video and a movie about violence, meet with a gunshot wound survivor and an outpatient case manager, and also undergo psychiatric assessment. The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy of Turning Point in changing attitudes toward guns and violence among victims of penetrating trauma. This prospective randomized study was conducted from January 2012 to January 2014. Patients who sustained a gunshot or stab wound were randomized to standard of care, which involved traditional social work services only, or Turning Point. The Attitudes Toward Guns and Violence Questionnaire was administered to assess attitude change. Analysis was performed with repeated-measures analysis of variance. A p < 0.05 was significant. A total of 80 of a potential 829 patients completed the study (40 standard of care, 40 Turning Point). The most common reason for exclusion was anticipated length of stay being less than 48 hours. The two groups were similar with respect to most demographics. Unlike the standard-of-care group, the Turning Point group demonstrated a 50% reduction in aggressive response to shame, a 29% reduction in comfort with aggression, and a 19% reduction in overall proclivity toward violence. Turning Point is effective in changing attitudes toward guns and violence among victims of penetrating trauma. Longer follow-up is necessary to determine if this program can truly be a turning point in patients' lives. Therapeutic/care management study, level II.

  13. A Study of Impulsive Multiterm Fractional Differential Equations with Single and Multiple Base Points and Applications

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yuji; Ahmad, Bashir

    2014-01-01

    We discuss the existence and uniqueness of solutions for initial value problems of nonlinear singular multiterm impulsive Caputo type fractional differential equations on the half line. Our study includes the cases for a single base point fractional differential equation as well as multiple base points fractional differential equation. The asymptotic behavior of solutions for the problems is also investigated. We demonstrate the utility of our work by applying the main results to fractional-order logistic models. PMID:24578623

  14. Analysis of remote operating systems for space-based servicing operations. Volume 2: Study results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    The developments in automation and robotics have increased the importance of applications for space based servicing using remotely operated systems. A study on three basic remote operating systems (teleoperation, telepresence and robotics) was performed in two phases. In phase one, requirements development, which consisted of one three-month task, a group of ten missions were selected. These included the servicing of user equipment on the station and the servicing of the station itself. In phase two, concepts development, which consisted of three tasks, overall system concepts were developed for the selected missions. These concepts, which include worksite servicing equipment, a carrier system, and payload handling equipment, were evaluated relative to the configurations of the overall worksite. It is found that the robotic/teleoperator concepts are appropriate for relatively simple structured tasks, while the telepresence/teleoperator concepts are applicable for missions that are complex, unstructured tasks.

  15. The Social Studies Program of the Grosse Pointe Public Schools: K-12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grosse Pointe Public School System, MI.

    This outline specifies social studies subject matter, concepts, skills, and attitudes appropriate for students at various grade levels from K-12. The social studies program combines educational practices of the Grosse Pointe Public Schools, concepts developed by the National Council of the Social Studies, and ideas from junior high and high school…

  16. A Mixed-Methods Study Investigating the Relationship between Media Multitasking Orientation and Grade Point Average

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    The intent of this study was to examine the relationship between media multitasking orientation and grade point average. The study utilized a mixed-methods approach to investigate the research questions. In the quantitative section of the study, the primary method of statistical analyses was multiple regression. The independent variables for the…

  17. The first regularized trace of integro-differential Sturm-Liouville operator on the segment with punctured points at integral perturbation of transmission conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aimakhanova, Aizat Sh.; Shalginbayeva, Saltanat Kh.; Zhumanova, Lyazzat K.

    2016-08-01

    The paper is devoted to calculation of a first regularized trace of one integro-differential operator with the main part of the Sturm-Liouville type on a segment with punctured points at integral perturbation of "transmission" conditions. The Sturm-Liouville operator -y″(x )+q (x )y (x )+γ ∫0πy (t ) d t =λ y (x ) given on the segments π/n (k -1 )points x =π/n k are solutions. The value of jumps is expressed by the formula y'(π/k n -0 ) =y'(π/k n +0 ) -βk∫0πy (t )d t , k =1 , n -1 ¯. The basic result of the paper is the exact formula of the first regularized trace of the considered differential operator.

  18. [Study on water quality monitoring scheme based on non-point source pollution].

    PubMed

    Wu, Xi-Jun; Li, Huai-En; Li, Jia-Ke; Li, Qiang-Kun; Dong, Wen

    2013-06-01

    In order to improve standardization and normalization of non-point source pollution monitoring, this paper summarized the non-point source pollution monitoring scheme that based on conventional technology condition. The scheme firstly emphasized the preparation work before monitoring, including situation investigation and index selection of the monitoring area and so on; In the process of establishing monitoring scheme, the monitoring area was divided into three types: city, agriculture and watershed. Take urban area monitoring scheme for Xi'an as an example, through dividing function zone setting sampling point, summarized sampling time interval, frequency and sampling methods during a rainfall process. An irrigation district was an example for agricultural monitoring scheme, through unit division, setting sampling point at the approach channel and drain channel, introduced sampling times, interval time and so on in the process of irrigation. Watershed monitoring scheme's example was the Weihe GuanZhong section, raised the setting principle of each sample section, and analyzed each section's sampling law in the process of rainfall. Finally the principal character of different non-point source pollution monitoring areas was discussed, and concluded that non-point source pollution monitoring scheme is the base of non-point source pollution study and control.

  19. National facilities study. Volume 4: Space operations facilities task group

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    The principal objectives of the National Facilities Study (NFS) were to: (1) determine where U.S. facilities do not meet national aerospace needs; (2) define new facilities required to make U.S. capabilities 'world class' where such improvements are in the national interest; (3) define where consolidation and phase-out of existing facilities is appropriate; and (4) develop a long-term national plan for world-class facility acquisition and shared usage. The Space Operations Facilities Task Group defined discrete tasks to accomplish the above objectives within the scope of the study. An assessment of national space operations facilities was conducted to determine the nation's capability to meet the requirements of space operations during the next 30 years. The mission model used in the study to define facility requirements is described in Volume 3. Based on this model, the major focus of the Task Group was to identify any substantive overlap or underutilization of space operations facilities and to identify any facility shortfalls that would necessitate facility upgrades or new facilities. The focus of this initial study was directed toward facility recommendations related to consolidations, closures, enhancements, and upgrades considered necessary to efficiently and effectively support the baseline requirements model. Activities related to identifying facility needs or recommendations for enhancing U.S. international competitiveness and achieving world-class capability, where appropriate, were deferred to a subsequent study phase.

  20. Technology Solutions Case Study: Hydronic Systems: Designing for Setback Operation

    SciTech Connect

    2014-05-01

    For years, conventional wisdom surrounding space heating has specified two points: size the mechanical systems to the heating loads, and setting the thermostat back at night will result in energy savings. The problem is these two recommendations oppose each other. A system that is properly sized to the heating load will not have the extra capacity necessary to recover from a thermostat setback, especially at design conditions. Properly designing a hydronic system for setback operation can be accomplished but depends on several factors. Determining the appropriateness of setback for a particular project is the first step. This is followed by proper sizing of the boiler and baseboard to ensure the needed capacity can be met. Finally, control settings must be chosen that result in the most efficient and responsive performance. This guide provides step-by-step instructions for heating contractors and hydronic designers for selecting the proper control settings to maximize system performance and improve response time when using a thermostat setback.

  1. Space station automation and robotics study. Operator-systems interface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    This is the final report of a Space Station Automation and Robotics Planning Study, which was a joint project of the Boeing Aerospace Company, Boeing Commercial Airplane Company, and Boeing Computer Services Company. The study is in support of the Advanced Technology Advisory Committee established by NASA in accordance with a mandate by the U.S. Congress. Boeing support complements that provided to the NASA Contractor study team by four aerospace contractors, the Stanford Research Institute (SRI), and the California Space Institute. This study identifies automation and robotics (A&R) technologies that can be advanced by requirements levied by the Space Station Program. The methodology used in the study is to establish functional requirements for the operator system interface (OSI), establish the technologies needed to meet these requirements, and to forecast the availability of these technologies. The OSI would perform path planning, tracking and control, object recognition, fault detection and correction, and plan modifications in connection with extravehicular (EV) robot operations.

  2. Assessing the Flipped Classroom in Operations Management: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prashar, Anupama

    2015-01-01

    The author delved into the results of a flipped classroom pilot conducted for an operations management course module. It assessed students' perception of a flipped learning environment after making them experience it in real time. The classroom environment was construed using a case research approach and students' perceptions were studied using…

  3. Orbital operation study. Volume 3: Basic vehicle summaries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, N. R.; Gianformaggio, A.

    1972-01-01

    The vehicle related data developed during the orbital operations study are described. The interfacing activity findings have been realigned into the four basic vehicle systems as follows: (1) earth orbital shuttle (EOS), (2) research and applications module (RAM), (3) space based, ground based, manned and unmanned tugs, and (4) modular space station (MSS).

  4. Acquisition of Operational Environmental Literacy in Social Studies Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fidan, Nuray Kurtdede; Ay, Tugba Selanik

    2016-01-01

    Environmental literacy can be defined as having necessary perceptions and competency of health and environmental systems and as being active in developing necessary acts about them. Individuals are expected to use their knowledge and concepts in daily life. The aim of this study is to determine students' views about operational environmental…

  5. C++ and operating systems performance - A case study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russo, Vincent F.; Madany, Peter W.; Campbell, Roy H.

    1990-01-01

    Object-oriented design and programming has many software engineering advantages. Its application to large systems, however, has previously been constrained by performance concerns. The Choices operating system, which has over 75,000 lines of code, is object-oriented and programmed in C++. This paper is a case study of the performance of Choices.

  6. 36th Annual Maintenance & Operations Cost Study: Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agron, Joe

    2007-01-01

    Colleges are focusing increased effort--and money--to improve the physical condition of existing facilities and address a huge backlog of deferred maintenance. According to "American School & University's" 36th annual Maintenance and Operations (M&O) Cost Study, the median college spends 16.4% of total college budget on M&O, up from 11% the year…

  7. C++ and operating systems performance - A case study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russo, Vincent F.; Madany, Peter W.; Campbell, Roy H.

    1990-01-01

    Object-oriented design and programming has many software engineering advantages. Its application to large systems, however, has previously been constrained by performance concerns. The Choices operating system, which has over 75,000 lines of code, is object-oriented and programmed in C++. This paper is a case study of the performance of Choices.

  8. Assessing the Flipped Classroom in Operations Management: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prashar, Anupama

    2015-01-01

    The author delved into the results of a flipped classroom pilot conducted for an operations management course module. It assessed students' perception of a flipped learning environment after making them experience it in real time. The classroom environment was construed using a case research approach and students' perceptions were studied using…

  9. Experimental study of adaptive pointing and tracking for large flexible space structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boussalis, D.; Bayard, D. S.; Ih, C.; Wang, S. J.; Ahmed, A.

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes an experimental study of adaptive pointing and tracking control for flexible spacecraft conducted on a complex ground experiment facility. The algorithm used in this study is based on a multivariable direct model reference adaptive control law. Several experimental validation studies were performed earlier using this algorithm for vibration damping and robust regulation, with excellent results. The current work extends previous studies by addressing the pointing and tracking problem. As is consistent with an adaptive control framework, the plant is assumed to be poorly known to the extent that only system level knowledge of its dynamics is available. Explicit bounds on the steady-state pointing error are derived as functions of the adaptive controller design parameters. It is shown that good tracking performance can be achieved in an experimental setting by adjusting adaptive controller design weightings according to the guidelines indicated by the analytical expressions for the error.

  10. Point-of-Care Coagulation Testing for Trauma Patients in a Military Setting: A Prospective Study.

    PubMed

    Cotte, Jean; D'Aanda, Erwan; Chauvin, Vincent; Kaiser, Eric; Meaudre, Eric

    2013-01-01

    Almost 50% of military trauma patients who need transfusions develop a coagulopathy. Immediately treating this coagulopathy improves the patient?s prognosis. Field military hospitals often lack laboratory devices needed to diagnose a clinically significant coagulopathy and have limited blood product resources such as plasma. Point-of-care (POC) devices for the measurement of prothrombin time (PT) are available and have been tested in a variety of situations, including hemorrhagic surgery. The authors compared a POC device, the Coaguchek XS Pro (F. Hoffmann-La Roche Ltd., Basel, Switzerland), with laboratory measures for determining the PT in military trauma patients in a field hospital. This single-center prospective study was designed to compare POC coagulation monitoring with traditional laboratory testing. It was conducted at the French military hospital located at Kabul International Airport. All patients with trauma injuries resulting from war operations were included. A blood sample was drawn immediately on admission. PT was determined both in the laboratory and with use of the Coaguchek XS pro. Forty patients with war trauma were enrolled during a 3-month period. The authors recorded 69 measurements. The two methods were correlated with a correlation coefficient of 0.78 (p < .001). The Bland-Altman plot showed a mean difference of 5.8% (95% confidence interval ?14.9% to 26.6%). Using a PT cutoff of 60%, POC had a sensitivity of 77.1% and a specificity of 94.1%. RESULTS from POC PT measurement were available within a mean of 25.8 minutes before laboratory measures. The Coaguchek XS Pro device can be used successfully in an austere environment without compromising its performance. 2013.

  11. An avionics sensitivity study. Volume 1: Operational considerations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott, R. W.; Mcconkey, E. D.

    1976-01-01

    Equipment and operational concepts affecting aircraft in the terminal area are reported. Curved approach applications and modified climb and descent procedures for minimum fuel consumption are considered. The curved approach study involves the application of MLS guidance to enable execution of the current visual approach to Washington National Airport under instrument flight conditions. The operational significance and the flight path control requirements involved in the application of curved approach paths to this situation are considered. Alternative flight path control regimes are considered to achieve minimum fuel consumption subject to constraints related to air traffic control requirements, flight crew and passenger reactions, and airframe and powerplant limitations.

  12. Co-operativity in seminal ribonuclease function: binding studies.

    PubMed Central

    Di Donato, A; Piccoli, R; D'Alessio, G

    1987-01-01

    Binding of nucleotides to bovine seminal RNAase was studied by differential spectrophotometry and equilibrium dialysis. Cytidine 3'-phosphate, the reaction product of the hydrolytic, rate-limiting step of the reaction, was found to be capable, in contrast to related nucleotides, of discriminating between the two structurally identical active sites of the enzyme. Negative co-operativity, with a 'half-of-sites' reactivity, was found at lower concentrations of ligand, whereas at higher concentrations positive co-operativity was detected. These findings exclude that the non-hyperbolic kinetics previously reported for the hydrolytic step of the reaction are due to hysteretic effect. A model of mixed-type co-operativity is proposed for interpreting the binding data. PMID:3593200

  13. Tender mooring for infill drilling operations: A case study

    SciTech Connect

    1997-04-01

    The Tapis-pump platform is a four-leg jacket structure located 230 ft south of the Tapis-D platform and connected to it by a walkway bridge. All crude production (360,000 B/D) from Esso Production Malaysia Inc. (EPMI) wells in the South China Sea offshore Terengganu is piped to the Tapais-pump platform for pumping to an onshore terminal. The continuous operation of this platform is essential. The Tapis-D platform is a manned production platform that also acts as a central communication center and emergency response command center for EPMI`s offshore operations in the South China Sea. A total of nine wells is planned for an infill drilling program at the Tapis-D platform. The rig selected for this infill drilling program is a self-erecting tender-assisted rig that uses an eight-point wire rope mooring system. Eleven pipelines are connected to the Tapis-pump/Tapis-D platform complex. All the pipelines were laid on the seafloor without any special external protection and were not tied down or anchored. The paper describes the planning of the mooring system for drilling.

  14. Version changes in medical software: proposing minimal requirements for release notes and a version number convention - an operators' point of view.

    PubMed

    Ahlbrandt, Janko; Bott, Constantin; Moll, Peter; Naziyok, Tolga; Majeed, Raphael W; Röhrig, Rainer

    2015-01-01

    Medical software--like any other software--is susceptible to errors. To avoid false system behaviour or attenuate its consequences, system operators need to know about changes in the software. The goal of this proposal is to define terms and minimum requirements regarding documentation for a version change from the operator's point of view, especially in the domain of medical software or software as a medical device (SaMD). The results are a classification of version changes (Upgrade: breaks support for a rollback to a prior version, Major Update: either substantial configuration or user education needed, Minor Update: minor configuration or user information needed, Patch: collection of (small) changes that require neither configuration nor user information.). Additionally, minimal requirements for release notes are determined and a document structure recommended.

  15. Ground Operations Aerospace Language (GOAL). Volume 1: Study overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    A series of NASA and Contractor studies sponsored by NASA/KSC resulted in a specification for the Ground Operations Aerospace Language (GOAL). The Cape Kennedy Facility of the IBM Corporation was given the responsibility, under existing contracts, to perform an analysis of the Language Specification, to design and develop a GOAL Compiler, to provide a specification for a data bank, to design and develop an interpretive code translator, and to perform associated application studies.

  16. A quantitative study on accumulation of age mass around stagnation points in nested flow systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Xiao-Wei; Wan, Li; Ge, Shemin; Cao, Guo-Liang; Hou, Guang-Cai; Hu, Fu-Sheng; Wang, Xu-Sheng; Li, Hailong; Liang, Si-Hai

    2012-12-01

    The stagnant zones in nested flow systems have been assumed to be critical to accumulation of transported matter, such as metallic ions and hydrocarbons in drainage basins. However, little quantitative research has been devoted to prove this assumption. In this paper, the transport of age mass is used as an example to demonstrate that transported matter could accumulate around stagnation points. The spatial distribution of model age is analyzed in a series of drainage basins of different depths. We found that groundwater age has a local or regional maximum value around each stagnation point, which proves the accumulation of age mass. In basins where local, intermediate and regional flow systems are all well developed, the regional maximum groundwater age occurs at the regional stagnation point below the basin valley. This can be attributed to the long travel distances of regional flow systems as well as stagnancy of the water. However, when local flow systems dominate, the maximum groundwater age in the basin can be located around the local stagnation points due to stagnancy, which are far away from the basin valley. A case study is presented to illustrate groundwater flow and age in the Ordos Plateau, northwestern China. The accumulation of age mass around stagnation points is confirmed by tracer age determined by 14C dating in two boreholes and simulated age near local stagnation points under different dispersivities. The results will help shed light on the relationship between groundwater flow and distributions of groundwater age, hydrochemistry, mineral resources, and hydrocarbons in drainage basins.

  17. Selecting the most appropriate time points to profile in high-throughput studies

    PubMed Central

    Kleyman, Michael; Sefer, Emre; Nicola, Teodora; Espinoza, Celia; Chhabra, Divya; Hagood, James S; Kaminski, Naftali; Ambalavanan, Namasivayam; Bar-Joseph, Ziv

    2017-01-01

    Biological systems are increasingly being studied by high throughput profiling of molecular data over time. Determining the set of time points to sample in studies that profile several different types of molecular data is still challenging. Here we present the Time Point Selection (TPS) method that solves this combinatorial problem in a principled and practical way. TPS utilizes expression data from a small set of genes sampled at a high rate. As we show by applying TPS to study mouse lung development, the points selected by TPS can be used to reconstruct an accurate representation for the expression values of the non selected points. Further, even though the selection is only based on gene expression, these points are also appropriate for representing a much larger set of protein, miRNA and DNA methylation changes over time. TPS can thus serve as a key design strategy for high throughput time series experiments. Supporting Website: www.sb.cs.cmu.edu/TPS DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.18541.001 PMID:28124972

  18. Space tug point design study. Volume 3: Design definition. Part 1: Propulsion and mechanical, avionics, thermal control and electrical power subsystems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine the configuration and performance of a space tug. Details of the space tug systems are presented to include: (1) propulsion systems, (2) avionics, (3) thermal control, and (4) electric power subsystems. The data generated include engineering drawings, schematics, subsystem operation, and component description. Various options investigated and the rational for the point design selection are analyzed.

  19. Cryogenic Propellant Storage and Transfer Technology Demonstration: Prephase A Government Point-of-Departure Concept Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mulqueen, J. A.; Addona, B. M.; Gwaltney, D. A.; Holt, K. A.; Hopkins, R. C.; Matis, J. A.; McRight, P. S.; Popp, C. G.; Sutherlin, S. G.; Thomas, H. D.; hide

    2012-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to define a point-of-departure prephase A mission concept for the cryogenic propellant storage and transfer technology demonstration mission to be conducted by the NASA Office of the Chief Technologist (OCT). The mission concept includes identification of the cryogenic propellant management technologies to be demonstrated, definition of a representative mission timeline, and definition of a viable flight system design concept. The resulting mission concept will serve as a point of departure for evaluating alternative mission concepts and synthesizing the results of industry- defined mission concepts developed under the OCT contracted studies

  20. Mission Operations Planning with Preferences: An Empirical Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bresina, John L.; Khatib, Lina; McGann, Conor

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents an empirical study of some nonexhaustive approaches to optimizing preferences within the context of constraint-based, mixed-initiative planning for mission operations. This work is motivated by the experience of deploying and operating the MAPGEN (Mixed-initiative Activity Plan GENerator) system for the Mars Exploration Rover Mission. Responsiveness to the user is one of the important requirements for MAPGEN, hence, the additional computation time needed to optimize preferences must be kept within reasonabble bounds. This was the primary motivation for studying non-exhaustive optimization approaches. The specific goals of rhe empirical study are to assess the impact on solution quality of two greedy heuristics used in MAPGEN and to assess the improvement gained by applying a linear programming optimization technique to the final solution.

  1. Current and future developments in civil aircraft non-destructive evaluation from an operator's point of view

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Register, Jeff

    1992-01-01

    In June, 1988, the first International Conference on aging aircraft was held to address nondestructive tests (NDT) of aging aircraft and other issues. From this meeting, a research program was initiated and funded by the FAA. As a result of this program, a lot of work has been done to study current NDT practices in the aviation industry and secondly, to research and develop new NDT methods to improve the reliability and efficiency of in-service inspection of aircraft structures and powerplants. The following is an overview of the current and future developments in civil aircraft NDT, as viewed by an air carrier and the concerns for NDT in the future.

  2. Current and future developments in civil aircraft non-destructive evaluation from an operator's point of view

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Register, Jeff

    1992-01-01

    In June, 1988, the first International Conference on aging aircraft was held to address nondestructive tests (NDT) of aging aircraft and other issues. From this meeting, a research program was initiated and funded by the FAA. As a result of this program, a lot of work has been done to study current NDT practices in the aviation industry and secondly, to research and develop new NDT methods to improve the reliability and efficiency of in-service inspection of aircraft structures and powerplants. The following is an overview of the current and future developments in civil aircraft NDT, as viewed by an air carrier and the concerns for NDT in the future.

  3. New Approach in Filling of Fixed-Point Cells: Case Study of the Melting Point of Gallium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bojkovski, J.; Hiti, M.; Batagelj, V.; Drnovšek, J.

    2008-02-01

    The typical way of constructing fixed-point cells is very well described in the literature. The crucible is loaded with shot, or any other shape of pure metal, inside an argon-filled glove box. Then, the crucible is carefully slid into a fused-silica tube that is closed at the top with an appropriate cap. After that, the cell is removed from the argon glove box and melted inside a furnace while under vacuum or filled with an inert gas like argon. Since the metal comes as shot, or in some other shape such as rods of various sizes, and takes more volume than the melted material, it is necessary to repeat the procedure until a sufficient amount of material is introduced into the crucible. With such a procedure, there is the possibility of introducing additional impurities into the pure metal with each cycle of melting the material and putting it back into the glove box to fill the cell. Our new approach includes the use of a special, so-called dry-box system, which is well known in chemistry. The atmosphere inside the dry box contains less than 20 ppm of water and less than 3 ppm of oxygen. Also, the size of the dry box allows it to contain a furnace for melting materials, not only for gallium but for higher-temperature materials as well. With such an approach, the cell and all its parts (pure metal, graphite, fused-silica tube, and cap) are constantly inside the controlled atmosphere, even while melting the material and filling the crucible. With such a method, the possibility of contaminating the cell during the filling process is minimized.

  4. Lithium-ion drifting: Application to the study of point defects in floating-zone silicon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walton, J. T.; Wong, Y. K.; Zulehner, W.

    1997-01-01

    The use of lithium-ion (Li(+)) drifting to study the properties of point defects in p-type Floating-Zone (FZ) silicon crystals is reported. The Li(+) drift technique is used to detect the presence of vacancy-related defects (D defects) in certain p-type FZ silicon crystals. SUPREM-IV modeling suggests that the silicon point defect diffusivities are considerably higher than those commonly accepted, but are in reasonable agreement with values recently proposed. These results demonstrate the utility of Li(+) drifting in the study of silicon point defect properties in p-type FZ crystals. Finally, a straightforward measurement of the Li(+) compensation depth is shown to yield estimates of the vacancy-related defect concentration in p-type FZ crystals.

  5. Plane-wave pseudopotential study of point defects in uranium dioxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crocombette, J. P.; Jollet, F.; Nga, L. Thien; Petit, T.

    2001-09-01

    A study on uranium and oxygen point defects in uranium dioxide using the ab initio plane-wave pseudopotential method in the local density approximation of the density functional theoretical framework is presented. Norm conserving pseudopotentials are used to describe oxygen and uranium atoms. The uranium pseudopotential is specifically described. Its validity is ascertained thanks to a detailed structural study of uranium dioxide and of three phases of metallic uranium (fcc, bcc, and α phase). The free energies of formation of both intrinsic (Frenkel pairs and Schottky defect) and extrinsic (single vacancies or interstitials) defects are calculated. The obtained values form a reliable set of numerical data that are analyzed in the framework of the point defect model which is commonly used to assess defect concentrations in uranium dioxide and their variation with stoichiometry. From the obtained results, the ability of the point defect model to accurately reproduce defect concentrations in uranium dioxide is discussed.

  6. Medication overuse headache: a critical review of end points in recent follow-up studies.

    PubMed

    Hagen, Knut; Jensen, Rigmor; Bøe, Magne Geir; Stovner, Lars Jacob

    2010-10-01

    No guidelines for performing and presenting the results of studies on patients with medication overuse headache (MOH) exist. The aim of this study was to review long-term outcome measures in follow-up studies published in 2006 or later. We included MOH studies with >6 months duration presenting a minimum of one predefined end point. In total, nine studies were identified. The 1,589 MOH patients (22% men) had an overall mean frequency of 25.3 headache days/month at baseline. Headache days/month at the end of follow-up was reported in six studies (mean 13.8 days/month). The decrease was more pronounced for studies including patients with migraine only (-14.6 days/month) compared to studies with the original diagnoses of migraine and tension-type headache (-9.2 days/month). Six studies reported relapse rate (mean of 26%) and/or responder rate (mean of 28%). Medication days/month and change in headache index at the end of follow-up were reported in only one and two of nine studies, respectively. The present review demonstrated a lack of uniform end points used in recently published follow-up studies. Guidelines for presenting follow-up data on MOH are needed and we propose end points such as headache days/month, medication days/month, relapse rate and responder rate defined as ≥50% reduction of headache frequency and/or headache index from baseline.

  7. A community-based study of asthenopia in computer operators

    PubMed Central

    Choudhary, Sushilkumar; Doshi, Vikas G

    2008-01-01

    Context: There is growing body of evidence that use of computers can adversely affect the visual health. Considering the rising number of computer users in India, computer-related asthenopia might take an epidemic form. In view of that, this study was undertaken to find out the magnitude of asthenopia in computer operators and its relationship with various personal and workplace factors. Aims: To study the prevalence of asthenopia among computer operators and its association with various epidemiological factors. Settings and Design: Community-based cross-sectional study of 419 subjects who work on computer for varying period of time. Materials and Methods: Four hundred forty computer operators working in different institutes were selected randomly. Twenty-one did not participate in the study, making the nonresponse rate 4.8%. Rest of the subjects (n = 419) were asked to fill a pre-tested questionnaire, after obtaining their verbal consent. Other relevant information was obtained by personal interview and inspection of workstation. Statistical Analysis Used: Simple proportions and Chi-square test. Results: Among the 419 subjects studied, 194 (46.3%) suffered from asthenopia during or after work on computer. Marginally higher proportion of asthenopia was noted in females compared to males. Occurrence of asthenopia was significantly associated with age of starting use of computer, presence of refractive error, viewing distance, level of top of the computer screen with respect to eyes, use of antiglare screen and adjustment of contrast and brightness of monitor screen. Conclusions: Prevalence of asthenopia was noted to be quite high among computer operators, particularly in those who started its use at an early age. Individual as well as work-related factors were found to be predictive of asthenopia. PMID:18158404

  8. Study on the Impurity Effect in the Realization of Silver Fixed Point

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, S. F.

    2016-03-01

    The application of a thermal analysis model to estimate the temperature depression from the ideal fixed-point temperature is important, especially when the chemical analysis of the sample in a cell is insufficient or the cell might have been contaminated during fabrication. This study extends previous work, on thermal analysis with the tin point, to an investigation of the impurity dependence of the silver-point temperature. Close agreement was found between the temperature depression (-0.36 mK) inferred from the thermal analysis of the measured fixed-point plateau and the temperature depression (-0.32 mK) inferred using the sum of individual estimates (SIE) method with an impurity analysis based on glow discharge mass spectrometry. Additionally, the results of the thermal analysis manifest no significant dependence on the rate of solidification, and the scatter of observed gradients was within 0.36 mK among five plateaux with different temperature settings of the furnace. Although the results support the application of both the SIE method and thermal analysis for the silver point, further experiments with cell-to-cell comparisons linked to thermal analysis, a study of the thermometer-furnace systematic effects, the oxygen effect, and the locus of the freezing plateau should be investigated to reach a firm conclusion.

  9. Study of structural break points in global and hemispheric temperature series by piecewise regression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Werner, Rolf; Valev, Dimitar; Danov, Dimitar; Guineva, Veneta

    2015-12-01

    The study of climate trends taking into consideration possible structural changes is important for understanding climate development characterized by a stochastic trend or by a determined one. In the paper global and hemisphere temperature anomalies are modeled by piecewise linear regression and break points in the temperature evolution are found. It was demonstrated that the used method allowed finding of breaks characterized by long time trends (low frequency processes) as well as abrupt changes (fast frequency processes). The obtained break points for slow temperature change are close to the ones found by other authors however additional conditions (as segment length, gradient and others) are not used here. The results for higher break point numbers are like the ones of step slope models. It was demonstrated that the successive phases of warming and cooling and most of the break points subdividing these periods in the Northern Hemisphere are introduced by the Atlantic multidecadal oscillation. Because the strong quasi periodicity of the Atlantic multidecadal oscillation the authors recommend the removal of its influence on the temperature from the temperature series before studies of trends or structural changes. The Northern Hemisphere temperature data after the removal of the Atlantic multidecadal oscillation influence show structures like the Southern Hemisphere temperatures. Model selection by the Schwarz-Bayesian Information Criterion developed by Liu, Wu and Zidek (LWZ criterion) shows that models with only one break point are to be preferred.

  10. Infant formula and neurocognitive outcomes: impact of study end-point selection.

    PubMed

    Sun, H; Como, P G; Downey, L C; Murphy, D; Ariagno, R L; Rodriguez, W

    2015-10-01

    Assessing validity and reliability of end points used in docosahexanoic and arachidonic acids (DHA and ARA) infant formula supplementation trials as an example for addressing the impact of end-point selection and critical need for well-defined, reliable and validated clinical outcome assessments for neurocognitive assessment in neonates and infants. We searched eight electronic databases and reviewed all randomized, controlled human trials using DHA/ARA supplements with neurodevelopment clinical outcomes. We systematically evaluated the validity and reliability of end-point measures based on the criteria for studying nutritional additives recommended by the Institute of Medicine, criteria described in the Food and Drug Administration guidance for clinical outcome assessment, development and literature review. We identified 29 articles that met the selection criteria. The end points that were used for neurodevelopment measures in 23 out of 29 original short-term studies included the Bayley Scale of Infant Development (BSID)-I and -II (n=12), Brunet-Lezine test (n=2), videotape infant's movements (n=1), record time to milestones including sitting, crawling, standing and walking (n=1), problem-solving test (n=2), brainstem auditory-evoked potential (n=1), Touwen examination (n=1), Fagan test of infant intelligence (n=2) and visual habituation protocol (n=1). None of these end points have a long-term predictive property for neurocognitive assessment. Compared with standard infant formula, the beneficial effects of DHA/ARA supplementation on neurodevelopment were reported in 2 out of 12 studies using BSID vs 8 out of 11 studies using other end-point measures. In addition, 6 out of 29 long-term follow-up studies used the end points including Stanford-Binet IQ test (n=1), Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence (n=4) and Bracken Basic Concept Scale (n=1), which are generally scales of intellectual ability and typically do not change substantively in the short

  11. Aspect-Oriented Approach to Operating System Development Empirical Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuusela, Jaakko; Tuominen, Harri

    This paper presents a case-study where a new programming technique is applied to an established branch of software development. The purpose of the study was to test whether or not aspect-oriented programming (AOP) could be used in operating systems development. Instead of any real world operating system an educational OS with the name Nachos was used. This was because Nachos is written in Java which makes it easy to introduce aspect-oriented techniques. In this paper a new file system for the Nachos OS is developed and then it is analyzed by profiling and metrics. The results show that it is possible to use AOP in OS development and that it is also beneficial to do so.

  12. Kharkov and Sinai: A Study in Operational Transition

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-04-29

    unlimited. I88- 286 ~I UNCLASSIFIED SECURIT CLSIFICATION OF THIS PAE REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE OMP No. 0704 -01P3 la. REPORT SECURITY CLASSIFICATION 1b...RESTRICTIVE MARKINGS UNCLASSIFIED 12a. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION A’JTHORITY 3. DISTRIBUTION /AVAILABILITY OF RE 7 RT Approved for public release; 2b... Classification ) Kharkov and Sinai A Study in Operational Transition (U) 12. PERSONA, UTHOR(S) Major J,.,:nes E. Sikes 13a. TYPE OF -_PORT 13b. TIME

  13. [Manual trigger point therapy of shoulder pain : Randomized controlled study of effectiveness].

    PubMed

    Sohns, S; Schnieder, K; Licht, G; von Piekartz, H

    2016-12-01

    Although chronic shoulder pain is highly prevalent and myofascial trigger points (mTrP) are thought to be found in the majority of patients with shoulder complaints, the influence on the pain mechanism remains unclear. There are only very few controlled clinical studies on the effects of manual trigger point compression therapy. This randomized controlled trial (RCT) compared the short-term effects of manual trigger point compression therapy (n = 6) with manual sham therapy (n = 6) in patients with unilateral shoulder pain due to myofascial syndrome (MFS). The measurement data were collected before and after two sessions of therapy. Pressure pain thresholds (PPT) of mTrP and symmetrically located points on the asymptomatic side were measured together with neutral points in order to detect a potential unilateral or generalized hyperalgesia. Additionally, the pain was assessed on a visual analog scale (VAS) at rest and during movement and the neck disability index (NDI) and disabilities of the arm, shoulder and hand (DASH) questionnaires were also completed and evaluated. Both treatment modalities led to a significant improvement; however, the manual trigger point compression therapy was significantly more effective in comparison to sham therapy, as measured by different parameters. The significant improvement of PPT values in the interventional group even at sites that were not directly treated, indicates central mechanisms in pain threshold modulation induced by manual compression therapy. The weaker but still measurable effects of sham therapy might be explained by the sham modality being a hands on technique or by sufficient stimulation of the trigger point region during the diagnostics and PPT measurements.

  14. On vanishing and localizing of transmission eigenfunctions near singular points: a numerical study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blåsten, Eemeli; Li, Xiaofei; Liu, Hongyu; Wang, Yuliang

    2017-10-01

    This paper is concerned with the intrinsic geometric structure of interior transmission eigenfunctions arising in wave scattering theory. We numerically show that the aforementioned geometric structure can be very delicate and intriguing. The major findings can be roughly summarized as follows. We say that a point on the boundary of the inhomogeneity is singular if the surface tangent is discontinuous there. The interior transmission eigenfunction then vanishes near a singular point where the interior angle is less than π, whereas the interior transmission eigenfunction localizes near a singular point if its interior angle is bigger than π. Furthermore, we show that the vanishing and blowup orders are inversely proportional to the interior angle of the singular point: the sharper the corner, the higher the convergence order. Our results are first of its type in the spectral theory for transmission eigenvalue problems, and the existing studies in the literature concentrate more on the intrinsic properties of the transmission eigenvalues instead of the transmission eigenfunctions. Due to the finiteness of computing resources, our study is by no means exclusive and complete. We consider our study only in a certain geometric setup including corner, curved corner and edge singularities. Nevertheless, we believe that similar results hold for more general singularities and rigorous theoretical justifications are much desirable. Our study enriches the spectral theory for transmission eigenvalue problems. We also discuss its implication to inverse scattering theory.

  15. Impact of Field of Study, College and Year on Calculation of Cumulative Grade Point Average

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trail, Carla; Reiter, Harold I.; Bridge, Michelle; Stefanowska, Patricia; Schmuck, Marylou; Norman, Geoff

    2008-01-01

    A consistent finding from many reviews is that undergraduate Grade Point Average (uGPA) is a key predictor of academic success in medical school. Curiously, while uGPA has established predictive validity, little is known about its reliability. For a variety of reasons, medical schools use different weighting schemas to combine years of study.…

  16. Impact of Field of Study, College and Year on Calculation of Cumulative Grade Point Average

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trail, Carla; Reiter, Harold I.; Bridge, Michelle; Stefanowska, Patricia; Schmuck, Marylou; Norman, Geoff

    2008-01-01

    A consistent finding from many reviews is that undergraduate Grade Point Average (uGPA) is a key predictor of academic success in medical school. Curiously, while uGPA has established predictive validity, little is known about its reliability. For a variety of reasons, medical schools use different weighting schemas to combine years of study.…

  17. Retrospective study using MRI to measure depths of acupuncture points in neck and shoulder region

    PubMed Central

    Chou, Pei-Chi; Huang, Yu-Chuen; Hsueh, Chun-Jen; Lin, Jaung-Geng; Chu, Heng-Yi

    2015-01-01

    Objectives There are safety issues associated with acupuncture treatment. Previous studies regarding needling depth of acupuncture points revealed inconsistent results due to vague depth definition, acupuncture point localisation and measuring tools. The objective of this study is to find and compare the differences of the mean depths of 11 acupuncture points in the neck and shoulder region between subjects, with variables including gender and body mass index (BMI). Setting This study was conducted at a single medical center in Taiwan. Participants Three hundred and ninety-four participants were included in this study. Participants were grouped according to gender and BMI. Acupuncture points were localised by WHO standard and measured by MRI. Outcome measures The distance from the needle insertion point (surface of the skin) to any tissues that would cause possible/severe complications. Results Mean depths of 11 points were obtained in groups of different BMI and gender. Mean depths of all participants regardless of BMI and gender are as follows, in centimetres: GB21=5.6, SI14=5.2, SI15=8.8, GV15=4.9, GV16=4.6, GB20=5.0, ST9=1.6, SI16=1.8, SI17=2.4, TE16=3.1, LI18=1.3. Participants with higher BMI had greater measured depths in both gender groups. Male participants had larger mean depths than female participants regardless of BMI except in SI17 and LI18. When taking BMI into consideration, depths in male participants are greater than in female participants in most of the points except the following: GB21, TE16 in obesity group; ST9 in underweight and obesity group; SI16 in ideal body weight, overweight and obesity group; SI17, LI18 in each group. Conclusions Participants with higher BMI had greater measured depths and males tended to have greater depths in most of the points. Clinical practitioners are recommended to consider this information to prevent complications when applying acupuncture treatment to their patients. PMID:26224017

  18. Proximity Operations Nano-Satellite Flight Demonstration (PONSFD) Rendezvous Proximity Operations Design and Trade Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griesbach, J.; Westphal, J. J.; Roscoe, C.; Hawes, D. R.; Carrico, J. P.

    2013-09-01

    The Proximity Operations Nano-Satellite Flight Demonstration (PONSFD) program is to demonstrate rendezvous proximity operations (RPO), formation flying, and docking with a pair of 3U CubeSats. The program is sponsored by NASA Ames via the Office of the Chief Technologist (OCT) in support of its Small Spacecraft Technology Program (SSTP). The goal of the mission is to demonstrate complex RPO and docking operations with a pair of low-cost 3U CubeSat satellites using passive navigation sensors. The program encompasses the entire system evolution including system design, acquisition, satellite construction, launch, mission operations, and final disposal. The satellite is scheduled for launch in Fall 2015 with a 1-year mission lifetime. This paper provides a brief mission overview but will then focus on the current design and driving trade study results for the RPO mission specific processor and relevant ground software. The current design involves multiple on-board processors, each specifically tasked with providing mission critical capabilities. These capabilities range from attitude determination and control to image processing. The RPO system processor is responsible for absolute and relative navigation, maneuver planning, attitude commanding, and abort monitoring for mission safety. A low power processor running a Linux operating system has been selected for implementation. Navigation is one of the RPO processor's key tasks. This entails processing data obtained from the on-board GPS unit as well as the on-board imaging sensors. To do this, Kalman filters will be hosted on the processor to ingest and process measurements for maintenance of position and velocity estimates with associated uncertainties. While each satellite carries a GPS unit, it will be used sparsely to conserve power. As such, absolute navigation will mainly consist of propagating past known states, and relative navigation will be considered to be of greater importance. For relative observations

  19. Experimental study of the furnace effect with the copper point blackbody

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imbe, Masatoshi; Yamada, Yoshiro

    2016-12-01

    The furnace effect is a major uncertainty source in the realization of high-temperature fixed points in metal-carbon systems. The cause of this effect is as yet unexplained, and understanding it is a high-priority task for the inclusion of fixed points in future high-temperature metrology. In this paper, the furnace effect is studied experimentally and systematically with three furnaces, two cells, and two radiation thermometers. The copper point is chosen for the fixed point of investigation in order to eliminate the influence of the properties of the furnace. Correction for drift and the size-of-source effect of the thermometer is applied to achieve the required measurement accuracy. As a result, the furnace effect has been demonstrated quantitatively for the first time as the difference in radiance temperature of the same cell observed in different furnaces by the same thermometer. The experimental results show that it is related to the dimension of the furnace and the design of the fixed-point blackbody cell.

  20. Graphical techniques to assist in pointing and control studies of orbiting spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howell, L. W.; Ruf, J. H.

    1986-01-01

    Computer generated graphics are developed to assist in the modeling and assessment of pointing and control systems of orbiting spacecraft. Three-dimensional diagrams are constructed of the Earth and of geometrical models which resemble the spacecraft of interest. Orbital positioning of the spacecraft model relative to the Earth and the orbital ground track are then displayed. A star data base is also available which may be used for telescope pointing and star tracker field-of-views to visually assist in spacecraft pointing and control studies. A geometrical model of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) is constructed and placed in Earth orbit to demonstrate the use of these programs. Simulated star patterns are then displayed corresponding to the primary mirror's FOV and the telescope's star trackers for various telescope orientations with respect to the celestial sphere.

  1. Retina-on-a-chip: a microfluidic platform for point access signaling studies

    PubMed Central

    Dodson, Kirsten H.; Echevarria, Franklin D.; Li, Deyu; Sappington, Rebecca M.; Edd, Jon F.

    2016-01-01

    We report on a microfluidic platform for culture of whole organs or tissue slices with the capability of point access reagent delivery to probe the transport of signaling events. Whole mice retina were maintained for multiple days with negative pressure applied to tightly but gently bind the bottom of the retina to a thin poly-(dimethylsiloxane) membrane, through which twelve 100 μm diameter through-holes served as fluidic access points. Staining with toluidine blue, transport of locally applied cholera toxin beta, and transient response to lipopolysaccharide in the retina demonstrated the capability of the microfluidic platform. The point access fluidic delivery capability could enable new assays in the study of various kinds of excised tissues, including retina. PMID:26559199

  2. Evolution of clinical trials for irritable bowel syndrome: issues in end points and study design.

    PubMed

    Trentacosti, Ann Marie; He, Ruyi; Burke, Laurie B; Griebel, Donna; Kennedy, Dianne L

    2010-04-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) involves a broad range of physiological and psychological alterations that may affect brain-gut dysregulation, gut function, visceral perception, and mucosal integrity and function. Despite advances in our understanding of basic neuroenteric mechanisms and the role of effectors and transmitters in the brain-gut axis, a reliable biologic marker of IBS has yet to be identified. IBS diagnosis and status depend entirely on an assessment of IBS signs and symptoms. This has made development of optimal end points and study design for evaluation of efficacy of IBS drugs a challenge. This article addresses three main topics: the evolution of primary end points for IBS clinical trials; a potential path forward for IBS end points in new clinical trials; and recommendations for the future development of patient-reported outcome (PRO) instruments for use in IBS clinical trials.

  3. Lunar Transportation Facilities and Operations Study, option 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    During the Option 2 period of the Lunar Transportation Facilities and Operations Study (LTFOS), a joint McDonnell Douglas Space Systems Company Kennedy Space Center (MDSSC-KSC) and National Aeronautics and Space Administration Kennedy Space Center (NASA-KSC) Study team conducted a comparison of the functional testing of the RL-10 and Space Shuttle Main Engine, a quick-look impact assessment of the Synthesis Group Report, and a detailed assessment of the Synthesis Group Report. The results of these KSC LTFOS team efforts are included. The most recent study task effort was a detailed assessment of the Synthesis Group Report. The assessment was conducted to determine the impact on planetary launch and landing facilities and operations. The result of that effort is a report entitled 'Analysis of the Synthesis Group Report, its Architectures and their Impacts on PSS Launch and Landing Operations' and is contained in Appendix A. The report is structured in a briefing format with facing pages as opposed to a narrative style. A quick-look assessment of the Synthesis Group Report was conducted to determine the impact of implementing the recommendations of the Synthesis Group on KSC launch facilities and operations. The data was documented in a presentation format as requested by Kennedy Space Center Technology and Advanced Projects Office and is included in Appendix B. Appendix C is a white paper on the comparison of the functional testing of the RL-10 and Space Shuttle Main Engine. The comparison was undertaken to provide insight regarding common test requirements that would be applicable to Lunar and Mars Excursion Vehicles (LEV and MEV).

  4. Lunar Transportation Facilities and Operations Study, option 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1992-02-01

    During the Option 2 period of the Lunar Transportation Facilities and Operations Study (LTFOS), a joint McDonnell Douglas Space Systems Company Kennedy Space Center (MDSSC-KSC) and National Aeronautics and Space Administration Kennedy Space Center (NASA-KSC) Study team conducted a comparison of the functional testing of the RL-10 and Space Shuttle Main Engine, a quick-look impact assessment of the Synthesis Group Report, and a detailed assessment of the Synthesis Group Report. The results of these KSC LTFOS team efforts are included. The most recent study task effort was a detailed assessment of the Synthesis Group Report. The assessment was conducted to determine the impact on planetary launch and landing facilities and operations. The result of that effort is a report entitled 'Analysis of the Synthesis Group Report, its Architectures and their Impacts on PSS Launch and Landing Operations' and is contained in Appendix A. The report is structured in a briefing format with facing pages as opposed to a narrative style. A quick-look assessment of the Synthesis Group Report was conducted to determine the impact of implementing the recommendations of the Synthesis Group on KSC launch facilities and operations. The data was documented in a presentation format as requested by Kennedy Space Center Technology and Advanced Projects Office and is included in Appendix B. Appendix C is a white paper on the comparison of the functional testing of the RL-10 and Space Shuttle Main Engine. The comparison was undertaken to provide insight regarding common test requirements that would be applicable to Lunar and Mars Excursion Vehicles (LEV and MEV).

  5. The positive impact of simultaneous implementation of the BD FocalPoint GS Imaging System and lean principles on the operation of gynecologic cytology.

    PubMed

    Wong, Rebecca; Levi, Angelique W; Harigopal, Malini; Schofield, Kevin; Chhieng, David C

    2012-02-01

    Our cytology laboratory, like many others, is under pressure to improve quality and provide test results faster while decreasing costs. We sought to address these issues by introducing new technology and lean principles. To determine the combined impact of the FocalPoint Guided Screener (GS) Imaging System (BD Diagnostics-TriPath, Burlington, North Carolina) and lean manufacturing principles on the turnaround time (TAT) and productivity of the gynecologic cytology operation. We established a baseline measure of the TAT for Papanicolaou tests. We then compared that to the performance after implementing the FocalPoint GS Imaging System and lean principles. The latter included value-stream mapping, workflow modification, and a first in-first out policy. The mean (SD) TAT for Papanicolaou tests before and after the implementation of FocalPoint GS Imaging System and lean principles was 4.38 (1.28) days and 3.20 (1.32) days, respectively. This represented a 27% improvement in the average TAT, which was statistically significant (P < .001). In addition, the productivity of staff improved 17%, as evidenced by the increase in slides screened from 8.85/h to 10.38/h. The false-negative fraction decreased from 1.4% to 0.9%, representing a 36% improvement. In our laboratory, the implementation of FocalPoint GS Imaging System in conjunction with lean principles resulted in a significant decrease in the average TAT for Papanicolaou tests and a substantial increase in the productivity of cytotechnologists while maintaining the diagnostic quality of gynecologic cytology.

  6. Operational definitions of asthma in recent epidemiological studies are inconsistent.

    PubMed

    Sá-Sousa, Ana; Jacinto, Tiago; Azevedo, Luís Filipe; Morais-Almeida, Mário; Robalo-Cordeiro, Carlos; Bugalho-Almeida, António; Bousquet, Jean; Fonseca, João Almeida

    2014-01-01

    The best combination of questions to define asthma in epidemiological asthma studies is not known. We summarized the operational definitions of asthma used in prevalence studies and empirically assess how asthma prevalence estimates vary depending on the definition used. We searched the Thomson Reuters ISI Web of knowledge and included (1) cross-sectional studies (2) on asthma prevalence (3) conducted in the general population and (4) containing an explicit definition of asthma. The search was limited to the 100 most-cited papers or published since January 2010. For each paper, we recorded the asthma definition used and other variables. Then we applied the definitions to the data of the Portuguese National Asthma survey (INAsma) and of the 2005-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) computing asthma prevalence estimates for the different definitions. Of 1738 papers retrieved, 117 were included for analysis. Lifetime asthma, diagnosed asthma and current asthma were defined in 8, 12 and 29 different ways, respectively. By applying definitions of current asthma on INAsma and NHANES data, the prevalence ranged between 5.3%-24.4% and 1.1%-17.2%, respectively. There is considerable heterogeneity in the definitions of asthma used in epidemiological studies leading to highly variable estimates of asthma prevalence. Studies to inform a standardized operational definition are needed. Meanwhile, we propose a set of questions to be reported when defining asthma in epidemiological studies.

  7. Operational definitions of asthma in recent epidemiological studies are inconsistent

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Objective The best combination of questions to define asthma in epidemiological asthma studies is not known. We summarized the operational definitions of asthma used in prevalence studies and empirically assess how asthma prevalence estimates vary depending on the definition used. Methods We searched the Thomson Reuters ISI Web of knowledge and included (1) cross-sectional studies (2) on asthma prevalence (3) conducted in the general population and (4) containing an explicit definition of asthma. The search was limited to the 100 most-cited papers or published since January 2010. For each paper, we recorded the asthma definition used and other variables. Then we applied the definitions to the data of the Portuguese National Asthma survey (INAsma) and of the 2005–2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) computing asthma prevalence estimates for the different definitions. Results Of 1738 papers retrieved, 117 were included for analysis. Lifetime asthma, diagnosed asthma and current asthma were defined in 8, 12 and 29 different ways, respectively. By applying definitions of current asthma on INAsma and NHANES data, the prevalence ranged between 5.3%-24.4% and 1.1%-17.2%, respectively. Conclusions There is considerable heterogeneity in the definitions of asthma used in epidemiological studies leading to highly variable estimates of asthma prevalence. Studies to inform a standardized operational definition are needed. Meanwhile, we propose a set of questions to be reported when defining asthma in epidemiological studies. PMID:25136441

  8. Feasibility study for a transportation operations system cask maintenance facility

    SciTech Connect

    Rennich, M.J.; Medley, L.G.; Attaway, C.R.

    1991-01-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) is responsible for the development of a waste management program for the disposition of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and high-level waste (HLW). The program will include a transportation system for moving the nuclear waste from the sources to a geologic repository for permanent disposal. Specially designed casks will be used to safely transport the waste. The cask systems must be operated within limits imposed by DOE, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), and the Department of Transportation (DOT). A dedicated facility for inspecting, testing, and maintaining the cask systems was recommended by the General Accounting Office (in 1979) as the best means of assuring their operational effectiveness and safety, as well as regulatory compliance. In November of 1987, OCRWM requested a feasibility study be made of a Cask Maintenance Facility (CMF) that would perform the required functions. 46 refs., 16 figs., 13 tabs.

  9. International cooperative study of aircrew layover sleep Operational summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graeber, R. Curtis; Dement, William C.; Nicholson, Anthony N.; Sasaki, Mitsuo; Wegmann, Hans M.

    1986-01-01

    The findings of this cooperative study of layover sleep have direct implications for flight operations. In the consensus view of the principal investigators, these can be divided into their relevance for eastward or westward flight. Eastward flight produced more sleep disruption than westward. Different sleep and scheduling strategies are recommended for each flight direction, and the importance of individual crewmember factors is discussed in relation to age and circadian type. Despite the limitations of this study with regard to trip simplicity and the baseline data, the results for each airline are highly consistent and should be applicable to a wide range of long-haul crewmembers and carriers.

  10. [Migraine prophylaxis with trigger point therapy and lymphatic drainage : A pilot study].

    PubMed

    Yedikardachian, Delphine; Quasthoff, Stefan; Lechner, Anita T; Giuliani, Albrecht; Fazekas, Franz

    2017-08-02

    Migraine is a complex, multifactorial, neurovascular disorder of the brain. Patients frequently have pericranial trigger points, but trigger point (TP) therapy for migraine has not yet been adequately studied. In contrast, lymphatic drainage (LD) has been studied in patients with migraine. The multifactorial origin of migraine suggests using a combination of approaches such as TP therapy and lymphatic drainage. The present study evaluated the effectiveness of TP therapy alone and in combination with LD in preventing migraine during treatment period and over an 8‑week period after completion of treatment. A wait list control group served as a control group. Patients completed a headache calendar. The results of this pilot study suggest a beneficial effect for TP alone and TP combined with LD for migraine prophylaxis for 8 weeks after completion of treatment.

  11. Bilateral carpal tunnel surgery in one operation: Retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Herisson, O; Dury, M; Rapp, E; Marin-Braun, F

    2016-06-01

    Carpal tunnel syndrome is the most common entrapment syndrome. The incidence of a bilateral condition varies between 22% and 87%. The aim of our study was to assess the level of satisfaction and the clinical outcomes in a group of patients operated on through a bilateral neurolysis on the median nerve in the carpal tunnel, in one operating session. This is a retrospective study involving patients with an electromyographic and clinical diagnosis of bilateral carpal tunnel syndrome. Patients were treated on an outpatient basis and the bilateral neurolysis was performed by endoscopy. The postoperative data was collected during consultation by a senior surgeon or during telephone interviews. Patients were asked to respond to a satisfaction questionnaire and the functional outcome was assessed through the Quick-Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand (Quick-DASH) questionnaire. Twenty-nine patients with bilateral carpal tunnel syndrome were operated on in single operating sessions between January 2009 and January 2014. The average follow-up was 46 months. The average age at the time of the intervention was 45 years. Two patients were lost to follow-up, and 27 were able to be assessed. In relation to the clinical and functional outcomes, the average Quick-DASH score was 6.78 (ranges: 0-43.2). Twenty-five patients (92.5%) were satisfied with this simultaneous treatment and 26 patients (96%) would choose the same technique again. One-stage surgery in cases of bilateral carpal tunnel syndrome appears to constitute a benefit for the patient, the surgeon and the anaesthetist, but it is reserved for patients who request it and who are motivated by this type of intervention.

  12. Ergonomic study of an operator's work of a molybdenum plant.

    PubMed

    Oñate, Esteban; Meyer, Felipe

    2012-01-01

    This study was part of an ergonomic program which is being carried out through an agreement between the University of Concepción and a Chilean private mining company. The purpose of this case study was to identify working conditions in which the physical and mental workload could be over the capabilities of the operator. He was responsible for loading trucks with sacks of molybdenum and for downloading reagents and handles them. The methods employed in this study included electronic records, interviews, surveys, review of the company standards, a time study and physical and mental workload analysis. Results showed that 84% of the time the operator was carrying out principal and secondary activities and no break periods were detected. It was found that the pace of work and the shift system generated unfavorable conditions by imbalance in the workload on the different days of the week. In the light of the results recommendations were made for a number of ergonomic changes. Most of them were accepted by the company. The most important achievement was a change in the shift system. The overload of the operator was due to the fact that he was in a shift working 5 days and resting on weekends. The imbalance was mainly because the work of the week end was accumulated for Monday. As a result of the study, the company contracted a second worker for this job and adopted a 7x7 shift system, meaning that they work seven days and rest seven days. An evaluation carried out two month after adopting the new shift revealed that changes were well accepted by the worker.

  13. Reviving common standards in point-count surveys for broad inference across studies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Matsuoka, Steven M.; Mahon, C. Lisa; Handel, Colleen M.; Solymos, Peter; Bayne, Erin M.; Fontaine, Patricia C.; Ralph, C.J.

    2014-01-01

    We revisit the common standards recommended by Ralph et al. (1993, 1995a) for conducting point-count surveys to assess the relative abundance of landbirds breeding in North America. The standards originated from discussions among ornithologists in 1991 and were developed so that point-count survey data could be broadly compared and jointly analyzed by national data centers with the goals of monitoring populations and managing habitat. Twenty years later, we revisit these standards because (1) they have not been universally followed and (2) new methods allow estimation of absolute abundance from point counts, but these methods generally require data beyond the original standards to account for imperfect detection. Lack of standardization and the complications it introduces for analysis become apparent from aggregated data. For example, only 3% of 196,000 point counts conducted during the period 1992-2011 across Alaska and Canada followed the standards recommended for the count period and count radius. Ten-minute, unlimited-count-radius surveys increased the number of birds detected by >300% over 3-minute, 50-m-radius surveys. This effect size, which could be eliminated by standardized sampling, was ≥10 times the published effect sizes of observers, time of day, and date of the surveys. We suggest that the recommendations by Ralph et al. (1995a) continue to form the common standards when conducting point counts. This protocol is inexpensive and easy to follow but still allows the surveys to be adjusted for detection probabilities. Investigators might optionally collect additional information so that they can analyze their data with more flexible forms of removal and time-of-detection models, distance sampling, multiple-observer methods, repeated counts, or combinations of these methods. Maintaining the common standards as a base protocol, even as these study-specific modifications are added, will maximize the value of point-count data, allowing compilation and

  14. Orbit Transfer Vehicle (OTV) advanced expander cycle engine point design study. Volume 2: Study results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Detailed computer models of the engine were developed to predict both the steady state and transient operation of the engine system. Mechanical design layout drawings were prepared for the following components: thrust chamber and nozzle; extendible nozzle actuating mechanism and seal; LOX turbopump and boost pump; hydrogen turbopump and boost pump; and the propellant control valves. The necessary heat transfer, stress, fluid flow, dynamic, and performance analyses were performed to support the mechanical design.

  15. The Apache Point Observatory Lunar Laser-ranging Operation: Testing General Relativity with Millimeter-precision Measurements of the Earth-Moon Separation.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Battat, James B.; Murphy, T. W.; Adelberger, E. G.; Hoyle, C. D.; McMillan, R. J.; Michelsen, E.; Nordtvedt, K.; Orin, A.; Stubbs, C. W.; Swanson, H. E.

    2006-12-01

    Based on the discovery of the accelerating universe and dark energy, along with our inability to unite quantum mechanics and General Relativity, there is a clear need to probe deeper into gravitational physics. The Earth-Moon-Sun system is a natural, fertile laboratory for such tests. The Apache Point Observatory Lunar Laser-ranging Operation (APOLLO) bounces laser light off of man-made retro-reflectors on the lunar surface to measure the Earth-Moon separation with a precision of one millimeter. Such precise measurements of the lunar orbit allow us to improve constraints on gravitational phenomena such as the Weak Equivalence Principle, the Strong Equivalence Principle, de Sitter precession and dG/dt by an order of magnitude or better. I will describe the APOLLO project and its current status, as well as prospects for constraining PPN parameters and the universality of free-fall. This work was carried out under the financial support of NASA and NSF.

  16. Influence of working fluid evaporation temperature in the near-critical point region on the effectiveness of ORC power plant operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nowak, Władysław; Borsukiewicz-Gozdur, Aleksandra; Wiśniewski, Sławomir

    2012-09-01

    In the paper presented are definitions of specific indicators of power which characterize the operation of the organic Rankine cycle (ORC) plant. These quantities have been presented as function of evaporation temperature for selected working fluids of ORC installation. In the paper presented also is the procedure for selection of working fluid with the view of obtaining maximum power. In the procedure of selection of working fluid the mentioned above indicators are of primary importance. In order to obtain maximum power there ought to be selected such working fluids which evaporate close to critical conditions. The value of this indicator increases when evaporation enthalpy decreases and it is known that the latent heat of evaporation decreases with temperature and reaches a value of zero at the critical point.

  17. A Study on Effects of Waiting Period in Software Operation on the Operator's Psychophysiological State

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayasaka, Yoshiaki; Kimura, Tatsuhiro; Segawa, Norihisa; Miyazaki, Masatoshi; Yamazaki, Kiyoyuki; Murayama, Yuko

    The authors have been studying psychophysiological workload of human interface (HI) with physiological measurements and analysis. In this study, we investigated a kind of mental workload produced by user's unexpected waiting period from the request input to the termination of data processing during personal computer (PC) operation. As the experimental setting of HI, we used interactive software containing easy questions with unexpected time interval between each question. The effects of progress indicator (PI) indicating during waiting period on psychophysiological status of users were analyzed by using respiration, finger plethysmogram (PTG), heart rate (HR) and electroencephalogram (EEG) measurements. Results showed that the theta wave component of the EEG increased in the non-PI condition, even though autonomic nervous system parameters showed no significant change. Negative correlation between preference score for HI and integrated theta component percentage was observed only in non-PI condition. It is supposed that the PI was controlling theta activity coused by waiting stress in experimental condition. Utilizing physiological indices for HI assessment, this experimental method could be available to waiting stress estimation.

  18. Electronic Performance Support for Operational Systems: A Case Study of the Link Monitor and Control Operator Assistant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, Randall W., Jr.; Cooper, Lynne P.

    1993-01-01

    For complex operational systems, help needs to come from the inside out. It is often not realistic to call a help desk for problems that need immediate attention, especially for tasks that put a heavy cognitive load on the system operator. This session addresses the issues associated with providing electronic performance support for operational systems, including situations where the system is already fielded and can only change through evolution rather than revolution. We present a case study based on our experiences in developing the Link Monitor and Control Operator Assistant for NASA's Deep Space Network (DSN). The goals of the Operator Assistant are to improve the operability of the system and increase the efficiency of mission operations.

  19. Study Design Implications of Death and Hospitalization as End Points in Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Kevin K.; Martinez, Fernando J.; Raghu, Ganesh; Roberts, Rhonda S.; Anstrom, Kevin J.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The feasibility of an interventional clinical trial in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) using death and hospitalization as primary end points is an area of uncertainty. Using data from a large well-characterized clinical trial population, this article aims to illustrate the impact of cohort enrichment and study duration on sample size requirements for IPF clinical trials in which death alone or death plus hospitalization serve as the primary end point. METHODS: Event rate estimates for death and hospitalization were determined from patients enrolled in National Institutes of Health-sponsored IPF Clinical Research Network clinical trials. Standard equations were applied to estimate the total sample size required for varying gender, age, and pulmonary function (GAP) stage-based cohorts. RESULTS: Risk estimates for death and hospitalization in the clinical trial cohort were substantially lower than those published. An IPF trial with death as its primary end point enrolling subjects designated as GAP stage 1 and 2 over 1 year with a minimum follow-up of 1 year would require an estimated 7,986 subjects to achieve 90% power for a hazard ratio of 0.70. Alternatively, an IPF trial with death plus hospitalization as its primary end point enrolling subjects with GAP stage 2 and 3 over 2 years with a minimum follow-up of 1 year would require an estimated 794 subjects for the same power and hazard ratio. CONCLUSIONS: Study design decisions, in particular cohort enrichment strategies, have a substantial impact on sample size requirements for IPF clinical trials using time-to-event primary end points such as death and death plus hospitalization. PMID:25144827

  20. Vascular Fasciatherapy Danis Bois Method: a Study on Mechanism Concerning the Supporting Point Applied on Arteries

    PubMed Central

    Payrau, Bernard; Quéré, Nadine; Bois, Danis

    2011-01-01

    Background A first study on vascular fasciatherapy enabled us to observe the turning of a turbulent blood flow into a laminar one, and a questioning on the process involved in this transformation emerged. The first question was: What is the nature of artery from the point of view of fascia? And a second question was: Which is the link permitting the observed process working in our first study? So this time, we are investigating a specific aspect of the big question that polarizes the interest of many researchers: “What is fascia?” Methods Following Donald Ingber’s statement, “It is necessary to understand how tissues and organs are structured across multiple size scales”, our research methods have been established in order to collect information on what is artery and what is fascia. Concerning these two organs, we have questioned science across the scales of embryology, anatomy, histology and cytology. Beyond the knowledge on structure, the functional link between artery and fascia is the necessary complement of this study whose starting point is in fact a questioning on process. As an application of this study, vascular fasciatherapy Danis-Bois Method and mechanotransduction have been investigated in theoretical and in research aspects to improve the understanding of how they work. Results The embryological approach points out a common origin and a histofunctional community of connective tissue and artery. As organs, arteries are sheathed by the adventia-fascia, and are penetrated by connective tissue extensions in media and intima. Furthermore, the functional point of view of this study reports the knowledge on mechanotransduction involving artery, both from the connective side and from the luminal side. Functional anatomy, surgery, histology, and cytology integrating the theory of the extended cytoskeleton, underline continuity from the static and functional points of view, with tensegrity being the architectural principle linking molecules to the

  1. Novel Landmark for Cervical Pedicle Screw Insertion Point from Computed Tomography-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Study Design Cross-sectional study. Purpose The purpose of this study was to evaluate a novel landmark for the cervical pedicle screw insertion point. Overview of Literature To improve the accuracy of pedicle screw placement, several studies have employed the lateral mass, lateral vertical notch, and/or inferior articular process as landmarks; however, we often encounter patients in whom we cannot identify accurate insertion points for pedicle screws using these landmarks because of degenerative changes in the facet joints. The superomedial edge of the lamina is less affected by degenerative changes, and we hypothesized that it could be a new landmark for identifying an accurate cervical pedicle screw insertion point. Methods A total of 327 consecutive patients, who had undergone neck computed tomographic scanning for determination of neck disease in our institute, were included in the study. At first, the line was drawn parallel to the superior border of the pedicle in the sagittal plane and parallel to the vertical body in the coronal plane. The line was moved downward in 1-mm increments to the inferior border of the pedicle. We determined whether the line passing through the superomedial edge of the lamina (termed the “N-line”) was located between the superior and inferior borders of the pedicle in the sagittal plane. Results The percentages of N-lines located between the superior and inferior borders of the pedicle were 100% at C3, 100% at C4, 99% at C5, 96% at C6, and 97% at C7. The lower cervical spine has the higher N-line location. Conclusions The N-line was frequently located at the level of the pedicle of each cervical spine in the sagittal plane. The superomedial edge of the lamina could be a new landmark for the insertion point of the cervical pedicle screw. PMID:28243374

  2. Feasibility Study for Operable Unit 7-13/14

    SciTech Connect

    K. Jean Holdren Thomas E. Bechtold Brian D. Preussner

    2007-05-29

    The Subsurface Disposal Area is a radioactive waste landfill located within the Radioactive Waste Management Complex at the Idaho National Laboratory Site in southeastern Idaho. This Feasibility Study for Operable Unit 7-13/14 analyzes options for mitigating risks to human health and the environment associated with the landfill. Analysis is conducted in accordance with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act, using nine evaluation criteria to develop detailed and comparative analysis of five assembled alternatives. Assembled alternatives are composed of discrete modules. Ultimately, decision-makers will select, recombine, and sum various modules into an optimized preferred alternative and final remedial decision.

  3. Study of the transfer between libration point orbits and lunar orbits in Earth-Moon system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Yu; Gómez, Gerard; Masdemont, Josep J.; Yuan, Jianping

    2017-08-01

    This paper is devoted to the study of the transfer problem from a libration point orbit of the Earth-Moon system to an orbit around the Moon. The transfer procedure analysed has two legs: the first one is an orbit of the unstable manifold of the libration orbit and the second one is a transfer orbit between a certain point on the manifold and the final lunar orbit. There are only two manoeuvres involved in the method and they are applied at the beginning and at the end of the second leg. Although the numerical results given in this paper correspond to transfers between halo orbits around the L_1 point (of several amplitudes) and lunar polar orbits with altitudes varying between 100 and 500 km, the procedure we develop can be applied to any kind of lunar orbits, libration orbits around the L_1 or L_2 points of the Earth-Moon system, or to other similar cases with different values of the mass ratio.

  4. The melting point of lithium: an orbital-free first-principles molecular dynamics study

    DOE PAGES

    Chen, Mohan; Hung, Linda; Huang, Chen; ...

    2013-08-25

    The melting point of liquid lithium near zero pressure is studied with large-scale orbital-free first-principles molecular dynamics (OF-FPMD) in the isobaric-isothermal ensemble. Here, we adopt the Wang-Govind-Carter (WGC) functional as our kinetic energy density functional (KEDF) and construct a bulk-derived local pseudopotential (BLPS) for Li. Our simulations employ both the ‘heat-until-melts’ method and the coexistence method. We predict 465 K as an upper bound of the melting point of Li from the ‘heat-until-melts’ method, while we predict 434 K as the melting point of Li from the coexistence method. These values compare well with an experimental melting point of 453more » K at zero pressure. Furthermore, we calculate a few important properties of liquid Li including the diffusion coefficients, pair distribution functions, static structure factors, and compressibilities of Li at 470 K and 725 K in the canonical ensemble. This theoretically-obtained results show good agreement with known experimental results, suggesting that OF-FPMD using a non-local KEDF and a BLPS is capable of accurately describing liquid metals.« less

  5. The melting point of lithium: an orbital-free first-principles molecular dynamics study

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Mohan; Hung, Linda; Huang, Chen; Xia, Junchao; Carter, Emily A.

    2013-12-01

    Abstract The melting point of liquid lithium near zero pressure is studied with large-scale orbital-free first-principles molecular dynamics (OF-FPMD) in the isobaric-isothermal ensemble. We adopt the Wang-Govind-Carter (WGC) functional as our kinetic energy density functional (KEDF) and construct a bulk-derived local pseudopotential (BLPS) for Li. Our simulations employ both the ‘heat-until-melts’ method and the coexistence method. We predict 465 K as an upper bound of the melting point of Li from the ‘heat-until-melts’ method, while we predict 434 K as the melting point of Li from the coexistence method. These values compare well with an experimental melting point of 453 K at zero pressure. Furthermore, we calculate a few important properties of liquid Li including the diffusion coefficients, pair distribution functions, static structure factors, and compressibilities of Li at 470 K and 725 K in the canonical ensemble. Our theoretically-obtained results show good agreement with known experimental results, suggesting that OF-FPMD using a non-local KEDF and a BLPS is capable of accurately describing liquid metals.

  6. The melting point of lithium: an orbital-free first-principles molecular dynamics study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Mohan; Hung, Linda; Huang, Chen; Xia, Junchao; Carter, Emily A.

    2013-12-01

    The melting point of liquid lithium near zero pressure is studied with large-scale orbital-free first-principles molecular dynamics (OF-FPMD) in the isobaric-isothermal ensemble. We adopt the Wang-Govind-Carter (WGC) functional as our kinetic energy density functional (KEDF) and construct a bulk-derived local pseudopotential (BLPS) for Li. Our simulations employ both the 'heat-until-melts' method and the coexistence method. We predict 465 K as an upper bound of the melting point of Li from the 'heat-until-melts' method, while we predict 434 K as the melting point of Li from the coexistence method. These values compare well with an experimental melting point of 453 K at zero pressure. Furthermore, we calculate a few important properties of liquid Li including the diffusion coefficients, pair distribution functions, static structure factors, and compressibilities of Li at 470 K and 725 K in the canonical ensemble. Our theoretically-obtained results show good agreement with known experimental results, suggesting that OF-FPMD using a non-local KEDF and a BLPS is capable of accurately describing liquid metals.

  7. A comparative mechanical analysis of the pointe shoe toe box. An in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, B W; DiStefano, A F; Kirjanov, N A; Levine, S E; Schon, L C

    1998-01-01

    Dancing en pointe requires the ballerina to stand on her toes, which are protected only by the pointe shoe toe box. This protection diminishes when the toe box loses its structural integrity. The objectives of this study were 1) to quantify the comparative structural static and fatigue properties of the pointe shoe toe box, and 2) to evaluate the preferred shoe characteristics as determined by a survey of local dancers. Five different pointe shoes (Capezio, Freed, Gaynor Minden, Leo's, and Grishko) were evaluated to quantify the static stiffness, static strength, and fatigue properties (cycles to failure) of the shoes. Under axial loading conditions, the Leo's shoe demonstrated the highest stiffness level, and the Freed shoe exhibited the least strength. Under vertical loading conditions, the Leo's and Freed shoes demonstrated the highest stiffness levels, and the Gaynor Minden and Freed shoes exhibited the highest strength. Fatigue testing highlighted the greatest differences among the five shoes, with the Gaynor Minden demonstrating the highest fatigue life. Dancers rated the top five shoe characteristics, in order of importance, as fit, comfort, box/platform shape, vamp shape, and durability and indicated that the "best" shoe is one that "feels right" and permits artistic maneuvers, not necessarily the strongest or most durable shoe.

  8. Using GENIE to study a tipping point in the climate system.

    PubMed

    Lenton, Timothy M; Myerscough, Richard J; Marsh, Robert; Livina, Valerie N; Price, Andrew R; Cox, Simon J; Genie Team

    2009-03-13

    We have used the Grid ENabled Integrated Earth system modelling framework to study the archetypal example of a tipping point in the climate system; a threshold for the collapse of the Atlantic thermohaline circulation (THC). eScience has been invaluable in this work and we explain how we have made it work for us. Two stable states of the THC have been found to coexist, under the same boundary conditions, in a hierarchy of models. The climate forcing required to collapse the THC and the reversibility or irreversibility of such a collapse depends on uncertain model parameters. Automated methods have been used to assimilate observational data to constrain the pertinent parameters. Anthropogenic climate forcing leads to a robust weakening of the THC and increases the probability of crossing a THC tipping point, but some ensemble members collapse readily, whereas others are extremely resistant. Hence, we test general methods that have been developed to directly diagnose, from time-series data, the proximity of a 'tipping element', such as the THC to a bifurcation point. In a three-dimensional ocean-atmosphere model exhibiting THC hysteresis, despite high variability in the THC driven by the dynamical atmosphere, some early warning of an approaching tipping point appears possible.

  9. Study of the transfer between libration point orbits and lunar orbits in Earth-Moon system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Yu; Gómez, Gerard; Masdemont, Josep J.; Yuan, Jianping

    2017-02-01

    This paper is devoted to the study of the transfer problem from a libration point orbit of the Earth-Moon system to an orbit around the Moon. The transfer procedure analysed has two legs: the first one is an orbit of the unstable manifold of the libration orbit and the second one is a transfer orbit between a certain point on the manifold and the final lunar orbit. There are only two manoeuvres involved in the method and they are applied at the beginning and at the end of the second leg. Although the numerical results given in this paper correspond to transfers between halo orbits around the L_1 point (of several amplitudes) and lunar polar orbits with altitudes varying between 100 and 500 km, the procedure we develop can be applied to any kind of lunar orbits, libration orbits around the L_1 or L_2 points of the Earth-Moon system, or to other similar cases with different values of the mass ratio.

  10. Single- and Multidimensional Robustness Studies of the NIF Ignition Point Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, K. S.; Betti, R.; Chang, P. Y.; Nora, R.; Shvarts, D.; Fatenejad, M.

    2009-11-01

    A robustness study of the NIF ignition point-design target is carried out using hydrodynamically equivalent, all-DT direct-drive targets. The direct-drive targets have similar final mass, kinetic energy, implosion velocity, and adiabat of the indirect-drive point design. The direct-drive target has an equivalent one-dimensional ignition-threshold factor [ITF (1-D)] to the indirect-drive point design. A 1-D sensitivity study of ignition is carried out for various hot-spot conditions, gas pressures, and preheat levels. The hot-spot conditions are varied by changing the thermal conductivity. Two-dimensional studies were performed relating the yield over clean (YOC) of a hydro-equivalent THD surrogate target to fusion gain in the DT ignition target. From these studies is found the minimum THD YOC required to demonstrate ignition in the DT campaign. This work was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Inertial Confinement Fusion under Cooperative Agreement Nos. DE-FC02-ER54789 and DE-FC52-08NA28302.

  11. Distributed situation awareness in complex collaborative systems: A field study of bridge operations on platform supply vessels

    PubMed Central

    Sandhåland, Hilde; Oltedal, Helle A; Hystad, Sigurd W; Eid, Jarle

    2015-01-01

    This study provides empirical data about shipboard practices in bridge operations on board a selection of platform supply vessels (PSVs). Using the theoretical concept of distributed situation awareness, the study examines how situation awareness (SA)-related information is distributed and coordinated at the bridge. This study thus favours a systems approach to studying SA, viewing it not as a phenomenon that solely happens in each individual's mind but rather as something that happens between individuals and the tools that they use in a collaborative system. Thus, this study adds to our understanding of SA as a distributed phenomenon. Data were collected in four field studies that lasted between 8 and 14 days on PSVs that operate on the Norwegian continental shelf and UK continental shelf. The study revealed pronounced variations in shipboard practices regarding how the bridge team attended to operational planning, communication procedures, and distracting/interrupting factors during operations. These findings shed new light on how SA might decrease in bridge teams during platform supply operations. The findings from this study emphasize the need to assess and establish shipboard practices that support the bridge teams' SA needs in day-to-day operations. Practitioner points Provides insights into how shipboard practices that are relevant to planning, communication and the occurrence of distracting/interrupting factors are realized in bridge operations. Notes possible areas for improvement to enhance distributed SA in bridge operations. PMID:26028823

  12. Parametric study of two-body floating-point wave absorber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amiri, Atena; Panahi, Roozbeh; Radfar, Soheil

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, we present a comprehensive numerical simulation of a point wave absorber in deep water. Analyses are performed in both the frequency and time domains. The converter is a two-body floating-point absorber (FPA) with one degree of freedom in the heave direction. Its two parts are connected by a linear mass-spring-damper system. The commercial ANSYS-AQWA software used in this study performs well in considering validations. The velocity potential is obtained by assuming incompressible and irrotational flow. As such, we investigated the effects of wave characteristics on energy conversion and device efficiency, including wave height and wave period, as well as the device diameter, draft, geometry, and damping coefficient. To validate the model, we compared our numerical results with those from similar experiments. Our study results can clearly help to maximize the converter's efficiency when considering specific conditions.

  13. A Network-Centric Operations Case Study: US/UK Coalition Combat Operations During Operation Iraqi Freedom

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-03-02

    correlate well with the physical elements of the joint operational picture ( JOP )13 that includes other elements of situational awareness such as NBC...fires, logistics and meteorology. Command intent is included to set the context for the need for situational awareness. The layers of the JOP are...highlighted in Figure 3.6.2-1. METOC Enemy / Intel Friendly Fires Coord NBC Logistics Neutrals Geospatial Framework JOP Figure 3.6.2-1, The UK Joint

  14. Pre-operational radio-environmental studies of Plant Vogtle

    SciTech Connect

    Winn, W.G.; Sigg, R.A.

    1989-05-01

    This baseline study evaluates radioactivity in the environment near Plant Vogtle before initial reactor startup in 1987. These data will distinguish between any future radio-environmental effects from SRS and Plant Vogtle. Alpha, beta, and gamma-spectrometric methods analyzed river, stream, sediment, and soil samples. The study detected manmade radionuclides {sup 3}H, {sup 60}Co, {sup 134}Cs, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 239}Pu, {sup 240}Pu, and {sup 241}Pu. However, all concentration levels are extremely low and are consistent with levels expected from fallout and from SRS operations in its early years. The measurements begun in this study continue to be used to monitor Vogtle post-startup effluents. 12 refs., 6 figs., 7 tabs.

  15. Damage states in laminated composite three-point bend specimens: An experimental-analytical correlation study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Starbuck, J. Michael; Guerdal, Zafer; Pindera, Marek-Jerzy; Poe, Clarence C.

    1990-01-01

    Damage states in laminated composites were studied by considering the model problem of a laminated beam subjected to three-point bending. A combination of experimental and theoretical research techniques was used to correlate the experimental results with the analytical stress distributions. The analytical solution procedure was based on the stress formulation approach of the mathematical theory of elasticity. The solution procedure is capable of calculating the ply-level stresses and beam displacements for any laminated beam of finite length using the generalized plane deformation or plane stress state assumption. Prior to conducting the experimental phase, the results from preliminary analyses were examined. Significant effects in the ply-level stress distributions were seen depending on the fiber orientation, aspect ratio, and whether or not a grouped or interspersed stacking sequence was used. The experimental investigation was conducted to determine the different damage modes in laminated three-point bend specimens. The test matrix consisted of three-point bend specimens of 0 deg unidirectional, cross-ply, and quasi-isotropic stacking sequences. The dependence of the damage initiation loads and ultimate failure loads were studied, and their relation to damage susceptibility and damage tolerance of the mean configuration was discussed. Damage modes were identified by visual inspection of the damaged specimens using an optical microscope. The four fundamental damage mechanisms identified were delaminations, matrix cracking, fiber breakage, and crushing. The correlation study between the experimental results and the analytical results were performed for the midspan deflection, indentation, damage modes, and damage susceptibility.

  16. Increasing supplemental nutrition assistance program/electronic benefits transfer sales at farmers' markets with vendor-operated wireless point-of-sale terminals.

    PubMed

    Buttenheim, Alison M; Havassy, Joshua; Fang, Michelle; Glyn, Jonathan; Karpyn, Allison E

    2012-05-01

    Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) (formerly Food Stamp Program) participants can use their benefits at many farmers' markets. However, most markets have only one market-operated wireless point-of-sale (POS) card swipe terminal for electronic benefits transfer (EBT) transactions. It is not known whether providing each farmer/vendor with individual wireless POS terminals and subsidizing EBT fees will increase SNAP/EBT purchases at farmers' markets. To evaluate the effects of multiple vendor-operated wireless POS terminals (vs a single market-operated terminal) on use of SNAP benefits at an urban farmers' market. Time-series analyses of SNAP/EBT sales. The Clark Park farmers' market in West Philadelphia, PA, which accounts for one quarter of all SNAP/EBT sales at farmers' markets in Pennsylvania. Vendors were provided with individual wireless POS terminals for 9 months (June 2008-February 2009.) The pilot program covered all equipment and wireless service costs and transaction fees associated with SNAP/EBT, credit, and debit sales. Monthly SNAP/EBT sales at the Clark Park farmers' market. SNAP/EBT sales data were collected for 48 months (January 2007-December 2010). Time-series regression analysis was used to estimate the effect of the intervention period (June 2008-February 2009) on SNAP/EBT sales, controlling for seasonal effects and total SNAP benefits issued in Philadelphia. The intervention was associated with a 38% increase in monthly SNAP/EBT sales. Effects were greatest during the busy fall market seasons. SNAP/EBT sales did not remain significantly higher after the intervention period. Providing individual wireless POS terminals to farmers' market vendors leads to increased sales. However, market vendors indicated that subsidies for equipment costs and fees would be needed to break even. Currently, SNAP provides some support for these services for supermarket and other SNAP retailers with landline access, but not for farmers' markets. Copyright

  17. A subjective study of fatigue during Navy flight operations over southern Iraq: Operation Southern Watch.

    PubMed

    Belland, K M; Bissell, C

    1994-06-01

    Carrier Air Wing FIVE (U.S.S. Independence) sustained and continuous operations during the onset of Operation Southern Watch provided an opportunity to evaluate fatigue and responses to fatigue in naval aviation aircrew personnel. We compiled U.S. Navy Carrier Air Wing Five (CVW-5) aircrew subjective fatigue reports during and immediately after the 18 d of intensive carrier aviation operations enforcing the "No Fly Zone" over southern Iraq. This survey provided indicators for monitoring fatigue during patrols of 5-6 hours. Also addressed are the most commonly used methods to combat fatigue, including caffeine tablets and nicotine gum.

  18. Two-craft Coulomb formation study about circular orbits and libration points

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inampudi, Ravi Kishore

    This dissertation investigates the dynamics and control of a two-craft Coulomb formation in circular orbits and at libration points; it addresses relative equilibria, stability and optimal reconfigurations of such formations. The relative equilibria of a two-craft tether formation connected by line-of-sight elastic forces moving in circular orbits and at libration points are investigated. In circular Earth orbits and Earth-Moon libration points, the radial, along-track, and orbit normal great circle equilibria conditions are found. An example of modeling the tether force using Coulomb force is discussed. Furthermore, the non-great-circle equilibria conditions for a two-spacecraft tether structure in circular Earth orbit and at collinear libration points are developed. Then the linearized dynamics and stability analysis of a 2-craft Coulomb formation at Earth-Moon libration points are studied. For orbit-radial equilibrium, Coulomb forces control the relative distance between the two satellites. The gravity gradient torques on the formation due to the two planets help stabilize the formation. Similar analysis is performed for along-track and orbit-normal relative equilibrium configurations. Where necessary, the craft use a hybrid thrusting-electrostatic actuation system. The two-craft dynamics at the libration points provide a general framework with circular Earth orbit dynamics forming a special case. In the presence of differential solar drag perturbations, a Lyapunov feedback controller is designed to stabilize a radial equilibrium, two-craft Coulomb formation at collinear libration points. The second part of the thesis investigates optimal reconfigurations of two-craft Coulomb formations in circular Earth orbits by applying nonlinear optimal control techniques. The objective of these reconfigurations is to maneuver the two-craft formation between two charged equilibria configurations. The reconfiguration of spacecraft is posed as an optimization problem using the

  19. Study of waveguide resonators for FEL operating at submillimeter wavelengths

    SciTech Connect

    Yakover, I.M.; Pinhasi, Y.; Gover, A.

    1995-12-31

    This paper presents theoretical results of waveguide resonator study for FEL operating at the submillimeter wavelength region. Because of increased ohmic losses it is harder to obtain high Q waveguide cavities at these wavelengths. The following unconventional multimode waveguides: metal-dielectric, corrugated and curved parallel plates, were considered. The type and structure of the operating modes were determined and their attenuation constant, effective mode area and wave impedance were calculated. On the basis of this analysis small-signal gain simulations were made. We have performed a parametric study of the various FEL oscillator cavity designs based on the parameters of the Israeli Tandem FEL experiment. It was found that an FEL utilizing unconventional waveguides has much better performance in comparison to an FEL based on conventional multimode rectangular and circular waveguides. In particular, promising design parameters for a sub-mm wavelength FEL utilizing a metal-dielectric waveguide were identified: gain of 45%/Amp and ohmic losses of 2% at frequency 300 GHz, and gain of 20%/Amp and ohmic losses 1% at frequency 675 GHz.

  20. A Study of Operator Performance for a Mechanical Sweet Cherry Harvester: Comparison between Manual and Remote-Controlled Operation.

    PubMed

    Larbi, P A; Vong, C N; Karkee, M

    2015-07-01

    An experimental mechanical sweet cherry harvester was upgraded by changing its rapid impact mechanism to a continuous impact mechanism, in which an end effector (impactor) is positioned on fruit-loaded branches to transfer vibrational energy for fruit removal, and by adding remote control capability. Before the upgrade, the operator was seated at the rear of the harvester to manually control its operation. Adding remote control capability allowed operator mobility while operating the machine. This mobility was aimed at improving operator performance in harvesting cherries. In this study, the performances of the manual and remote operator were compared in terms of the field of view for perceiving target branches, the accuracy of hitting a target branch, and the ease of maneuvering between tree rows. Several sets of photographs totaling 140 individual photos were taken to assess how easy perceiving target branches was in light and dense foliage from the viewpoint of a manual operator and from multiple viewpoints of a remote operator. The percentages of successful hits on the target branch on the first trial (measure of accuracy in positioning the impactor) and the time taken for each successful hit for the manual and remote operator were recorded. The time to travel approximately 126 m long tree rows was also recorded for the manual and remote operators. On average, the remote operator (rank = 6.5) had better perception of the target branch than the manual operator (rank = 3.7) and was more accurate in positioning the impactor on a target branch (93.3% success rate) than the manual operator (84.4% success rate). Similarly, the remote operator spent 19.9 s of positioning time per branch, which was significantly less than the 23.6 s spent by the manual operator. However, the manual operator had better focus and was numerically faster (1.4 km h(-1)) than the remote operator (1.1 km h(-1)), even though the difference was not statistically significant. Overall, the

  1. Study of the critical points of experimental HPMC-NaCMC hydrophilic matrices.

    PubMed

    Contreras, L; Melgoza, L M; Villalobos, R; Caraballo, I

    2010-02-15

    The purpose of the present work was to study the existence of critical points on the drug release and water uptake behaviour of ternary hydrophilic matrix tablets and to study the possibility of simplifying a ternary to a binary system. The ternary hydrophilic matrix tablets were prepared between 40 and 100% (w/w) of KCl, HPMC and NaCMC. Dissolution studies were carried out using the paddle method and the water uptake studies were measured using the modified Enslin apparatus and the behaviour of the kinetic parameters was studied. According to the percolation theory, both studies confirm the existence of critical points; those were related to the excipients percolation tresholds. The percolation thresholds for the binary hydrophilic matrix tablets were found between 28.7-40.7% (v/v) of HPMC and 38.6-53.9% (v/v) of NaCMC. For the ternary hydrophilic matrix tablets, the existence of a critical barrier between 54 and 61% (v/v) KCl (60-70%, w/w of KCl) was found. In the studied ternary systems HPMC and NaCMC showed that is not possible to simplify the system but they present a partial collaboration in order to establish the gel layer. The knowledge of this critical barrier will be useful in order to optimize the design of the ternary hydrophilic matrix systems. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Ground Operations Aerospace Language (GOAL). Volume 5: Application Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The Ground Operations Aerospace Language (GOAL) was designed to be used by test oriented personnel to write procedures which would be executed in a test environment. A series of discussions between NASA LV-CAP personnel and IBM resulted in some peripheral tasks which would aid in evaluating the applicability of the language in this environment, and provide enhancement for future applications. The results of these tasks are contained within this volume. The GOAL vocabulary provides a high degree of readability and retainability. To achieve these benefits, however, the procedure writer utilizes words and phrases of considerable length. Brief form study was undertaken to determine a means of relieving this burden. The study resulted in a version of GOAL which enables the writer to develop a dialect suitable to his needs and satisfy the syntax equations. The output of the compiler would continue to provide readability by printing out the standard GOAL language. This task is described.

  3. Multi-canister overpack closure operations location study

    SciTech Connect

    Goldmann, L.H.

    1996-04-15

    The Spent Nuclear Fuel Path Forward Project (SNF Project) has been established to develop engineered methods for the expedited removal of the irradiated uranium fuel from the K East (KE) and K West (KW) Basins. As specified by the SNF Project, the SNF will be removed from the K Basins, conditioned for dry storage and placed in a long term interim storage facility located in the 200 East Area. The SNF primarily consists of Zircaloy-2 clad uranium fuel discharged from the N-Reactor. A small portion of the SNF is Single Pass Reactor (SPR) Fuel, which is aluminum clad uranium fuel. The SNF will be loaded into Multi-Canister Overpacks (MCOs) at the K Basins, transferred to the Cold Vacuum Drying (CVD) facility for initial fuel conditioning, and transported to the Canister Storage Building (CSB) for staging, final fuel conditioning, and dry storage. The MCO is a transportation, conditioning, and storage vessel. The MCO consists of a 24 inch pipe with a welded bottom closure and a top closure that is field welded after the MCO is loaded with SNF. The MCO is handled and transported in the vertical orientation during all operations. Except for operations within the CSB, the MCO is always within the transportation cask which primarily provides radiological shielding and structural protection of the MCO. The MCO closure operations location study provides a relative evaluation of location options at the K Basins and the CVD Facility and recommends that the MCO closure weld be performed, inspected, and repaired at the CVD Facility.

  4. Sensitivity of landscape resistance estimates based on point selection functions to scale and behavioral state: Pumas as a case study

    Treesearch

    Katherine A. Zeller; Kevin McGarigal; Paul Beier; Samuel A. Cushman; T. Winston Vickers; Walter M. Boyce

    2014-01-01

    Estimating landscape resistance to animal movement is the foundation for connectivity modeling, and resource selection functions based on point data are commonly used to empirically estimate resistance. In this study, we used GPS data points acquired at 5-min intervals from radiocollared pumas in southern California to model context-dependent point selection...

  5. Understanding Semiotic Technology in University Classrooms: A Social Semiotic Approach to PowerPoint-Assisted Cultural Studies Lectures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhao, Sumin; van Leeuwen, Theo

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a social semiotic approach to studying PowerPoint in university classrooms. Our approach is centred on two premises: (1) PowerPoint is a semiotic technology that can be integrated into the pedagogical discourse of classrooms, and (2) PowerPoint technology encompasses three interrelated dimensions of social semiotic…

  6. Understanding Semiotic Technology in University Classrooms: A Social Semiotic Approach to PowerPoint-Assisted Cultural Studies Lectures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhao, Sumin; van Leeuwen, Theo

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a social semiotic approach to studying PowerPoint in university classrooms. Our approach is centred on two premises: (1) PowerPoint is a semiotic technology that can be integrated into the pedagogical discourse of classrooms, and (2) PowerPoint technology encompasses three interrelated dimensions of social semiotic…

  7. Study on cloud points of Triton X-100-cationic gemini surfactants mixtures: a spectroscopic approach.

    PubMed

    Akbaş, Halide; Boz, Mesut; Batigöç, Ciğdem

    2010-02-01

    This study investigates the effects of various cationic surfactants on the cloud point (CP) of the nonionic surfactant Triton X-100 (TX-100) in aqueous solutions. Instead of visual observation, a spectrophotometer was used for measurement of the cloud point temperatures. The values of CPs for Triton X-100 can be measured directly because TX-100 has an average number of oxyethylene units per molecule of p approximately 9.5 and a CP=66.0 degrees C. Quaternary ammonium dimeric surfactants (m-s-m, m=10, 12, and 16, and s=2, 6, and 10) were synthesized and used. The melting temperature T(M) and the Krafft temperature T(K) were measured for 1 wt% aqueous solutions of these synthesized surfactants. The melting temperature of the solid gemini surfactants increased with the carbon number of the alkyl chain. The results showed that additions of the gemini surfactants (which are infinitely miscible with water) to Triton X-100 increased the cloud point of the TX-100 solutions. All salts tested in these studies had a large effect on the CPs of nonionic surfactants due to their effect on water structure and their hydrophilicity. The effect of the alkyl chain length of the gemini surfactant on the CP of Triton X-100 is therefore more important than the spacer chain length. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. First-principles study on native point defects of cubic cuprite Ag2O

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Yuan; Chen, Guangde; Duan, Xiangyang; Ye, Honggang; Jin, Wentao; Zhu, Youzhang; Wu, Yelong

    2016-12-01

    Using the first-principles calculations, we have systematically investigated the atomic configurations, electronic structures, formation energies and transition energies of native point defects in cuprite Ag2O. Under the conditions of Ag-rich, we find that the oxygen vacancy (VO) and the oxygen interstitial (Oi) have the lowest formation energies in p-type and n-type conditions, respectively. Silver vacancy (VAg) acts as a shallow acceptor, which has high formation energy in p-type sample. Oxygen anti-site (OAg) is the most stable state and acts as an acceptor-type point defect in the O-rich conditions. Ag interstitial (Agi) is a shallow donor, which can be formed easily in the Ag-rich conditions. Moreover, we study the band offsets of heterojunction between Ag2O in cuprite structure and ZnO, GaN, and AlN in the wurtzite structure. These results would provide guidance for the experimental studies of point defects in cuprite Ag2O.

  9. First-principles study of native point defects in hafnia and zirconia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, J. X.; Ceder, G.; Maxisch, T.; Chim, W. K.; Choi, W. K.

    2007-03-01

    A first-principles study of native point defects in hafnia (HfO2) and zirconia (ZrO2) is carried out to identify dominant defects under different oxygen chemical potentials and Fermi levels. Oxygen vacancies and oxygen interstitials in both HfO2 and ZrO2 show negative- U behavior. It is shown that HfO2 is less prone to the formation of oxygen point defects than ZrO2 under the same oxygen chemical potential. When the Fermi level is constrained to be within the band gap of silicon, the dominant defects are negatively charged hafnium or zirconium vacancies under intermediate to high oxygen chemical potential. We find no evidence for magnetic defects.

  10. Enhancing generalisation in biofeedback intervention using the challenge point framework: a case study.

    PubMed

    Hitchcock, Elaine R; Byun, Tara McAllister

    2015-01-01

    Biofeedback intervention can help children achieve correct production of a treatment-resistant error sound, but generalisation is often limited. This case study suggests that generalisation can be enhanced when biofeedback intervention is structured in accordance with a "challenge point" framework for speech-motor learning. The participant was an 11-year-old with residual /r/ misarticulation who had previously attained correct /r/ production through a structured course of ultrasound biofeedback treatment but did not generalise these gains beyond the word level. Treatment difficulty was adjusted in an adaptive manner following predetermined criteria for advancing, maintaining, or moving back a level in a multidimensional hierarchy of functional task complexity. The participant achieved and maintained virtually 100% accuracy in producing /r/ at both word and sentence levels. These preliminary results support the efficacy of a semi-structured implementation of the challenge point framework as a means of achieving generalisation and maintenance of treatment gains.

  11. Occupancy Modelling for Moving Object Detection from LIDAR Point Clouds: a Comparative Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, W.; Vallet, B.; Xiao, Y.; Mills, J.; Paparoditis, N.

    2017-09-01

    Lidar technology has been widely used in both robotics and geomatics for environment perception and mapping. Moving object detection is important in both fields as it is a fundamental step for collision avoidance, static background extraction, moving pattern analysis, etc. A simple method involves checking directly the distance between nearest points from the compared datasets. However, large distances may be obtained when two datasets have different coverages. The use of occupancy grids is a popular approach to overcome this problem. There are two common theories employed to model occupancy and to interpret the measurements, Dempster- Shafer theory and probability. This paper presents a comparative study of these two theories for occupancy modelling with the aim of moving object detection from lidar point clouds. Occupancy is modelled using both approaches and their implementations are explained and compared in details. Two lidar datasets are tested to illustrate the moving object detection results.

  12. Study of short-haul aircraft operating economics, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    A short-haul air transportation operating cost model is developed. The effect is identified of such factors as level of service provided, traffic density of the market, stage length, number of flight cycles, level of automation, as well as aircraft type and other operational factors on direct and indirect operating costs.

  13. Microscopic study on magnetocaloric and electrocaloric effects near the critical point

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Honmi, Hitoshi; Hashizume, Yoichiro; Nakajima, Takashi; Okamura, Soichiro

    2015-09-01

    Adiabatic temperature changes of magnetocaloric/electrocaloric effects are analytically investigated. The analytical studies are based on the microscopic statistical models such as Husimi-Temperley model and Slater model. As a result, we show the characteristic scales of the adiabatic processes correspond to microscopic parameters, namely exchange couplings and Slater energy. The scaled parameter dependence become stronger near the critical point. Furthermore, using a general Hamiltonian method, we clarify the adiabatic temperature changes depend on the relative ratio of characteristic scales. The present study may propose a useful aspect for applications.

  14. Tactile cues in continuous operations: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Kelley, Amanda M; Grandizio, Catherine M; Estrada, Arthur; Crowley, John S

    2014-02-01

    Research has shown that tactile displays are an effective tool for augmenting spatial orientation and situation awareness information provided to aircraft operators. The tactile situation awareness system (TSAS) has been shown to improve flight performance in conditions of degraded visual environments and to safely maintain performance during hover over moving targets. The potential for the user to adapt and habituate to the stimulus of tactile display systems has not yet been investigated. Four UH-60 current, rated aviators (all male) participated in the pilot study. Subjects completed four consecutive iterations of a 3-h flight profile consisting of 10 maneuvers, totaling 12 h of continuous flight. Flight performance, tactor information, responses to a discomfort questionnaire, and ratings of fatigue symptoms were recorded. The independent variable in all analyses was session (four levels). The results showed that performance per maneuver and proportion of stimulus cues (measure of response to cues) per maneuver were consistent across sessions using independent-samples Kruskal-Wallis tests. The findings of this preliminary assessment support the use of tactile displays (consistent with parameters of TSAS) in continuous operations since performance and proportion of stimulus cues presented was consistent over a period of 12 h. In conclusion, the system will require further experimental testing, but these preliminary findings do not suggest performance or response to be affected by any adaptation or habituation to the stimulus.

  15. Application of Ultrasound-Guided Trigger Point Injection for Myofascial Trigger Points in the Subscapularis and Pectoralis Muscles to Post-Mastectomy Patients: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Hyuk Jai; Shin, Ji Cheol; Kim, Wan Sung; Chang, Won Hyuk

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the therapeutic effectiveness of ultrasound (US)-guided trigger point injection for myofascial trigger points (MTrPs) in the internal rotator muscles of the shoulder in post-mastectomy patients. Materials and Methods This pilot study was a non-controlled, prospective, clinical trial. Nineteen post-mastectomy patients with a diagnosis of at least one active MTrP in the subscapularis and/or pectoralis muscles were included. We performed trigger point injections into the subscapularis muscle deep behind the scapula as well as the pectoralis muscle for diagnostic and therapeutic purpose by the newly developed US-guided method. Results Visual analogue scale and range of motion of the shoulder for external rotation and of abduction showed significant improvement immediately after the first injection and 3 months after the last injection compared with baseline (p<0.05 for both). Duration from onset to surgery and duration of myofascial pain syndrome in the good responder group were significantly shorter than in the bad responder group (p<0.05). Patients did not report any complications related to the procedure or serious adverse events attributable to the treatment. Conclusion In post-mastectomy patients with shoulder pain, US-guided trigger point injections of the subscapularis and/or pectoralis muscles are effective for both diagnosis and treatment when the cause of shoulder pain is suspected to originate from active MTrPs in these muscles, particularly, the subscapularis. PMID:24719150

  16. Application of ultrasound-guided trigger point injection for myofascial trigger points in the subscapularis and pectoralis muscles to post-mastectomy patients: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Shin, Hyuk Jai; Shin, Ji Cheol; Kim, Wan Sung; Chang, Won Hyuk; Lee, Sang Chul

    2014-05-01

    To investigate the therapeutic effectiveness of ultrasound (US)-guided trigger point injection for myofascial trigger points (MTrPs) in the internal rotator muscles of the shoulder in post-mastectomy patients. This pilot study was a non-controlled, prospective, clinical trial. Nineteen post-mastectomy patients with a diagnosis of at least one active MTrP in the subscapularis and/or pectoralis muscles were included. We performed trigger point injections into the subscapularis muscle deep behind the scapula as well as the pectoralis muscle for diagnostic and therapeutic purpose by the newly developed US-guided method. Visual analogue scale and range of motion of the shoulder for external rotation and of abduction showed significant improvement immediately after the first injection and 3 months after the last injection compared with baseline (p<0.05 for both). Duration from onset to surgery and duration of myofascial pain syndrome in the good responder group were significantly shorter than in the bad responder group (p<0.05). Patients did not report any complications related to the procedure or serious adverse events attributable to the treatment. In post-mastectomy patients with shoulder pain, US-guided trigger point injections of the subscapularis and/or pectoralis muscles are effective for both diagnosis and treatment when the cause of shoulder pain is suspected to originate from active MTrPs in these muscles, particularly, the subscapularis.

  17. Anatomical Variations in the Emergence of the Cutaneous Nerves from the Nerve Point in the Neck and Identification of the Landmarks to Locate the Nerve Point with Its Clinical Implications: A Cadaveric Study on South Indian Human Foetuses

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Chandni; D’souza, Antony Sylvan; Raythe, Biswabswabina

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The cutaneous nerves from the cervical plexuses are anaesthetized by using local anaesthetics for pain relief or when minor surgical operations are performed. Knowing the variations in these nerves is important for anaestheticists to administer an effective anaesthesia to a particular nerve. So, the aim of this study was to look for the variations in the emerging patterns of the cervical cutaneous nerves in the neck and to locate the nerve point in the neck by using the superficial landmarks. Materials and Methods: The neck was dissected in 16 foetal cadavers (total 32). The foetuses were divided into 2 groups, depending upon their ages- group 1 (13-24wks) and group 2 (24-38wks). The cervical cutaneous nerves were dissected. Measurements for locating the nerve point, were taken in both the groups. Results: The statistical analysis of the measurements was done. In group 1, the mean distances of the nerve point from the External Acoustic Meatus (EAM), on the right and left sides, were 2.06cm and1.85cm and in group 2, the distances on the right and left sides were 2.32cm and 2.08cm. The mean distance of the nerve point from the clavicle in group 1, on both the right and the left sides was 1.85cm, and in group 2, the mean distances on the right and left sides were 2.67cm and 2.62cm. The variations in the cutaneous nerves which emerged from the nerve point were recorded and photographed. Conclusion: These landmarks will help the anaestheticists in locating the nerve point. These variations in the branches of the cervical plexus should be known to the anaestheticists while they give anaesthesia to a particular nerve during a nerve block. PMID:23634386

  18. Studies of pointing, acquisition, and tracking of agile optical wireless transceivers for free-space optical communication networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, Tzung-Hsien; Trisno, Sugianto; Smolyaninov, Igor I.; Milner, Stuart D.; Davis, Christopher C.

    2004-02-01

    Free space, dynamic, optical wireless communications will require topology control for optimization of network performance. Such networks may need to be configured for bi- or multiple-connectedness, reliability and quality-of-service. Topology control involves the introduction of new links and/or nodes into the network to achieve such performance objectives through autonomous reconfiguration as well as precise pointing, acquisition, tracking, and steering of laser beams. Reconfiguration may be required because of link degradation resulting from obscuration or node loss. As a result, the optical transceivers may need to be re-directed to new or existing nodes within the network and tracked on moving nodes. The redirection of transceivers may require operation over a whole sphere, so that small-angle beam steering techniques cannot be applied. In this context, we are studying the performance of optical wireless links using lightweight, bi-static transceivers mounted on high-performance stepping motor driven stages. These motors provide an angular resolution of 0.00072 degree at up to 80,000 steps per second. This paper focuses on the performance characteristics of these agile transceivers for pointing, acquisition, and tracking (PAT), including the influence of acceleration/deceleration time, motor angular speed, and angular re-adjustment, on latency and packet loss in small free space optical (FSO) wireless test networks.

  19. Case studies of ergonomic interventions in automotive parts distribution operations.

    PubMed

    Ulin, Sheryl S; Keyserling, W Monroe

    2004-12-01

    Ergonomic job analysis, intervention design, and intervention implementation are essential components of an ergonomics program designed to reduce worker exposure to risk factors associated with musculoskeletal disorders. As part of a 4-year study to reduce overexertion injuries in the service parts division of a major automaker, intervention case studies were identified that could be used at multiple facilities across the division. Interventions were developed and implemented. The three case studies include 1) self-elevating powered vehicle for transporting parts throughout the facility and for reaching to high bin locations; 2) lift and tilt pallet jacks for packing small parts into large bin-like containers; and 3) single-level telescoping conveyor used for delivering hand-held totes for subsequent sorting operations. Several analysis methods were used to assess worker exposure before and after intervention implementation (biomechanical analysis, posture analysis, worker interviews, and activity analysis). Following implementation, a decrease in exposure to risk factors for musculoskeletal disorders was documented. Worker interviews revealed acceptance and agreement that risk factors associated with the targeted tasks were reduced. Each case study includes a description of the implementation hurdles and can serve as both primary and secondary prevention of musculoskeletal disorders. Future work should document worker health and/or symptom changes as well as changes in risk factor exposure.

  20. Bulb turbine operating at medium head: XIA JIANG case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loiseau, F.; Desrats, C.; Petit, P.; Liu, J.

    2012-11-01

    With lots of references for 4-blade bulb turbines, such as these of Wu Jin Xia (4 units - 36.1 MW per unit - 9.2 m rated head), Chang Zhou (15 units - 46.7 MW per unit - 9.5 m rated head) and Tong Wan (4 units - 46.2 MW per unit - 11 m rated head), ALSTOM Power Hydro is one of the major suppliers of bulb turbines operating under medium head for the Chinese market. ALSTOM Power Hydro has been awarded in November 2010 a contract by Jiang Xi Province Xia Jiang Water Control Project Headquarters to equip Xia Jiang's new hydropower plant. The power dam is located on the Gan Jiang river, at about 160 km away from Nan Chang town in South Eastern China. The supply will consist in 5 bulb units including the furniture of both the turbine and its generator, for a total capacity of 200 MW, under a rated net head of 8.6 m. The prototype turbine is a 7.8 m diameter runner, rotating at 71.4 rpm speed. For this project, ALSTOM has proposed a fully new design of 4-blade bulb runner. This paper outlines the main steps of the hydraulic development. First of all, a fine tuning of the blade geometry was performed to enhance the runner behaviour at high loads and low heads, so that to fulfill the demanding requirements of efficiencies and maximum output. The challenge was also to keep an excellent cavitation behaviour, especially at the outer blade diameter in order to avoid cavitation erosion on the prototype. The shape of the blade was optimized by using the latest tools in computational fluid dynamics. Steady state simulations of the distributor and the runner were performed, in order to simulate more accurately the pressure fields on the blade and the velocity distribution at the outlet of the runner. Moreover, draft tube computations have been performed close to the design point and at higher loads. Then, a model fully homologous with the prototype was manufactured and tested at ALSTOM's laboratory in Grenoble (France). The model test results confirmed the predicted ones: the