Science.gov

Sample records for operating point studies

  1. PIV study of the wake of a model wind turbine transitioning between operating set points

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houck, Dan; Cowen, Edwin (Todd)

    2016-11-01

    Wind turbines are ideally operated at their most efficient tip speed ratio for a given wind speed. There is increasing interest, however, in operating turbines at other set points to increase the overall power production of a wind farm. Specifically, Goit and Meyers (2015) used LES to examine a wind farm optimized by unsteady operation of its turbines. In this study, the wake of a model wind turbine is measured in a water channel using PIV. We measure the wake response to a change in operational set point of the model turbine, e.g., from low to high tip speed ratio or vice versa, to examine how it might influence a downwind turbine. A modified torque transducer after Kang et al. (2010) is used to calibrate in situ voltage measurements of the model turbine's generator operating across a resistance to the torque on the generator. Changes in operational set point are made by changing the resistance or the flow speed, which change the rotation rate measured by an encoder. Single camera PIV on vertical planes reveals statistics of the wake at various distances downstream as the turbine transitions from one set point to another. From these measurements, we infer how the unsteady operation of a turbine may affect the performance of a downwind turbine as its incoming flow. National Science Foundation and the Atkinson Center for a Sustainable Future.

  2. Space tug point design study. Volume 2: Operations, performance and requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    A design study to determine the configuration and characteristics of a space tug was conducted. Among the subjects analyzed in the study are: (1) flight and ground operations, (2) vehicle flight performance and performance enhancement techniques, (3) flight requirements, (4) basic design criteria, and (5) functional and procedural interface requirements between the tug and other systems.

  3. Infrared image mosaic using point feature operators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Zhen; Sun, Shaoyuan; Shen, Zhenyi; Hou, Junjie; Zhao, Haitao

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, we study infrared image mosaic around a single point of rotation, aiming at expanding the narrow view range of infrared images. We propose an infrared image mosaic method using point feature operators including image registration and image synthesis. Traditional mosaic algorithms usually use global image registration methods to extract the feature points in the global image, which cost too much time as well as considerable matching errors. To address this issue, we first roughly calculate the image shift amount using phase correlation and determine the overlap region between images, and then extract image features in overlap region, which shortens the registration time and increases the quality of feature points. We improve the traditional algorithm through increasing constraints of point matching based on prior knowledge of image shift amount based on which the weighted map is computed using fade in-out method. The experimental results verify that the proposed method has better real time performance and robustness.

  4. Fuel/Engine/Airframe Trade-Off Study. Operational Effects of Increased Freeze Point Fuels.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-08-01

    bridged shut, * thus trapping liquid fuel between stringers. * Some gaps remain in the study of fuel at low temperatures. Reconmmended future work ...for the tracks studied . It is conceivable that more severe ground soak conditions than considered in this work could invalidate the above conclusion...Evaluate other airplanes using procedures similar to those of this study . This extension of work would be relatively simple in view of the success of

  5. Sensitivity and alternative operating point studies on a high charge CW FEL injector test stand at CEBAF

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, H.; Kehne, D.; Benson, S.

    1995-12-31

    A high charge CW FEL injector test stand is being built at CEBAF based on a 500 kV DC laser gun, a 1500 MHz room-temperature buncher, and a high-gradient ({approx}10 MV/m) CEBAF cryounit containing two 1500 MHz CEBAF SRF cavities. Space-charge-dominated beam dynamics simulations show that this injector should be an excellent high-brightness electron beam source for CW UV FELs if the nominal parameters assigned to each component of the system are experimentally achieved. Extensive sensitivity and alternative operating point studies have been conducted numerically to establish tolerances on the parameters of various injector system components. The consequences of degraded injector performance, due to failure to establish and/or maintain the nominal system design parameters, on the performance of the main accelerator and the FEL itself are discussed.

  6. A study on the influence of operating circuit on the position of emission point of fluorescent lamp

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uetsuki, Tadao; Genba, Yuki; Kanda, Takashi

    2009-10-01

    High efficiency fluorescent lamp systems driven by high frequency are very popular for general lighting. Therefore it is very beneficial to be able to predict the lamp's life before the lamp dying, because people can buy a new lamp just before the lamp dying and need not have stocks. In order to judge the lifetime of a lamp it is very useful to know where the emission point is on the electrode filament. With regard to a method for grasping the emission point, it has been reported that the distance from the emission point to the end of the filament can be calculated by measuring the voltage across the filament and the currents flowing in both ends of the filament. The lamp's life can be predicted by grasping the movement of the emission point with operating time. Therefore it is very important to confirm whether the movement of the emission point changes or not when the operating circuit is changed. The authors investigated the difference in the way the emission points moved for two lamp systems which are very popular. One system had an electronic ballast having an auxiliary power source for the heating cathode. Another system had an electronic ballast with no power source, but with a capacitor connected to the lamp in parallel. In this presentation these measurement results will be reported.

  7. Linearization: Students Forget the Operating Point

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roubal, J.; Husek, P.; Stecha, J.

    2010-01-01

    Linearization is a standard part of modeling and control design theory for a class of nonlinear dynamical systems taught in basic undergraduate courses. Although linearization is a straight-line methodology, it is not applied correctly by many students since they often forget to keep the operating point in mind. This paper explains the topic and…

  8. 47 CFR 22.591 - Channels for point-to-point operation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Channels for point-to-point operation. 22.591... PUBLIC MOBILE SERVICES Paging and Radiotelephone Service Point-To-Point Operation § 22.591 Channels for point-to-point operation. The following channels are allocated for assignment to fixed transmitters...

  9. 47 CFR 22.591 - Channels for point-to-point operation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Channels for point-to-point operation. 22.591... PUBLIC MOBILE SERVICES Paging and Radiotelephone Service Point-To-Point Operation § 22.591 Channels for point-to-point operation. The following channels are allocated for assignment to fixed transmitters...

  10. 47 CFR 22.591 - Channels for point-to-point operation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Channels for point-to-point operation. 22.591... PUBLIC MOBILE SERVICES Paging and Radiotelephone Service Point-To-Point Operation § 22.591 Channels for point-to-point operation. The following channels are allocated for assignment to fixed transmitters...

  11. 47 CFR 22.591 - Channels for point-to-point operation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Channels for point-to-point operation. 22.591... PUBLIC MOBILE SERVICES Paging and Radiotelephone Service Point-To-Point Operation § 22.591 Channels for point-to-point operation. The following channels are allocated for assignment to fixed transmitters...

  12. 47 CFR 22.591 - Channels for point-to-point operation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Channels for point-to-point operation. 22.591... PUBLIC MOBILE SERVICES Paging and Radiotelephone Service Point-To-Point Operation § 22.591 Channels for point-to-point operation. The following channels are allocated for assignment to fixed transmitters...

  13. A study to assess the influence of interprofessional point of care simulation training on safety culture in the operating theatre environment of a university teaching hospital.

    PubMed

    Hinde, Theresa; Gale, Thomas; Anderson, Ian; Roberts, Martin; Sice, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Interprofessional point of care or in situ simulation is used as a training tool in our operating theatre directorate with the aim of improving crisis behaviours. This study aimed to assess the impact of interprofessional point of care simulation on the safety culture of operating theatres. A validated Safety Attitude Questionnaire was administered to staff members before each simulation scenario and then re-administered to the same staff members after 6-12 months. Pre- and post-training Safety Attitude Questionnaire-Operating Room (SAQ-OR) scores were compared using paired sample t-tests. Analysis revealed a statistically significant perceived improvement in both safety (p < 0.001) and teamwork (p = 0.013) climate scores (components of safety culture) 6-12 months after interprofessional simulation training. A growing body of literature suggests that a positive safety culture is associated with improved patient outcomes. Our study supports the implementation of point of care simulation as a useful intervention to improve safety culture in theatres.

  14. Improving Small Signal Stability through Operating Point Adjustment

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Zhenyu; Zhou, Ning; Tuffner, Francis K.; Chen, Yousu; Trudnowski, Daniel J.; Mittelstadt, William; Hauer, John F.; Dagle, Jeffery E.

    2010-09-30

    ModeMeter techniques for real-time small signal stability monitoring continue to mature, and more and more phasor measurements are available in power systems. It has come to the stage to bring modal information into real-time power system operation. This paper proposes to establish a procedure for Modal Analysis for Grid Operations (MANGO). Complementary to PSS’s and other traditional modulation-based control, MANGO aims to provide suggestions such as increasing generation or decreasing load for operators to mitigate low-frequency oscillations. Different from modulation-based control, the MANGO procedure proactively maintains adequate damping for all time, instead of reacting to disturbances when they occur. Effect of operating points on small signal stability is presented in this paper. Implementation with existing operating procedures is discussed. Several approaches for modal sensitivity estimation are investigated to associate modal damping and operating parameters. The effectiveness of the MANGO procedure is confirmed through simulation studies of several test systems.

  15. Operational equations for the five-point rectangle

    SciTech Connect

    Silver, G.L.

    1993-09-15

    Two operational polynomials are demonstrated for the four-point rectangle with center point. The equations are exact on the points and the surfaces they describe ordinarily fit known monotonic surfaces better tan the standard five-point equation, as judged by the L{sub 2} norm test. Equations for fitting the five-point rectangle by sines and cosines are presented.

  16. Engineering to Control Noise, Loading, and Optimal Operating Points

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell R. Swartz

    2000-11-12

    Successful engineering of low-energy nuclear systems requires control of noise, loading, and optimum operating point (OOP) manifolds. The latter result from the biphasic system response of low-energy nuclear reaction (LENR)/cold fusion systems, and their ash production rate, to input electrical power. Knowledge of the optimal operating point manifold can improve the reproducibility and efficacy of these systems in several ways. Improved control of noise, loading, and peak production rates is available through the study, and use, of OOP manifolds. Engineering of systems toward the OOP-manifold drive-point peak may, with inclusion of geometric factors, permit more accurate uniform determinations of the calibrated activity of these materials/systems.

  17. Imaging study on acupuncture points

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, X. H.; Zhang, X. Y.; Liu, C. L.; Dang, R. S.; Ando, M.; Sugiyama, H.; Chen, H. S.; Ding, G. H.

    2009-09-01

    The topographic structures of acupuncture points were investigated by using the synchrotron radiation based Dark Field Image (DFI) method. Four following acupuncture points were studied: Sanyinjiao, Neiguan, Zusanli and Tianshu. We have found that at acupuncture point regions there exists the accumulation of micro-vessels. The images taken in the surrounding tissue out of the acupuncture points do not show such kind of structure. It is the first time to reveal directly the specific structure of acupuncture points by X-ray imaging.

  18. 47 CFR 101.137 - Interconnection of private operational fixed point-to-point microwave stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... point-to-point microwave stations. 101.137 Section 101.137 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES FIXED MICROWAVE SERVICES Technical Standards § 101.137 Interconnection of private operational fixed point-to-point microwave stations....

  19. 47 CFR 101.137 - Interconnection of private operational fixed point-to-point microwave stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... point-to-point microwave stations. 101.137 Section 101.137 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES FIXED MICROWAVE SERVICES Technical Standards § 101.137 Interconnection of private operational fixed point-to-point microwave stations....

  20. 47 CFR 101.137 - Interconnection of private operational fixed point-to-point microwave stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... point-to-point microwave stations. 101.137 Section 101.137 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES FIXED MICROWAVE SERVICES Technical Standards § 101.137 Interconnection of private operational fixed point-to-point microwave stations....

  1. 47 CFR 101.137 - Interconnection of private operational fixed point-to-point microwave stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... point-to-point microwave stations. 101.137 Section 101.137 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES FIXED MICROWAVE SERVICES Technical Standards § 101.137 Interconnection of private operational fixed point-to-point microwave stations....

  2. 47 CFR 101.137 - Interconnection of private operational fixed point-to-point microwave stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... point-to-point microwave stations. 101.137 Section 101.137 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES FIXED MICROWAVE SERVICES Technical Standards § 101.137 Interconnection of private operational fixed point-to-point microwave stations....

  3. 77 FR 7184 - Entergy Nuclear Indian Point 2, LLC; Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc.; Indian Point Nuclear...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Entergy Nuclear Indian Point 2, LLC; Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc.; Indian Point Nuclear Generating Unit No. 2; Exemption 1.0 Background Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc. (Entergy or the licensee)...

  4. Automated design of image operators that detect interest points.

    PubMed

    Trujillo, Leonardo; Olague, Gustavo

    2008-01-01

    This work describes how evolutionary computation can be used to synthesize low-level image operators that detect interesting points on digital images. Interest point detection is an essential part of many modern computer vision systems that solve tasks such as object recognition, stereo correspondence, and image indexing, to name but a few. The design of the specialized operators is posed as an optimization/search problem that is solved with genetic programming (GP), a strategy still mostly unexplored by the computer vision community. The proposed approach automatically synthesizes operators that are competitive with state-of-the-art designs, taking into account an operator's geometric stability and the global separability of detected points during fitness evaluation. The GP search space is defined using simple primitive operations that are commonly found in point detectors proposed by the vision community. The experiments described in this paper extend previous results (Trujillo and Olague, 2006a,b) by presenting 15 new operators that were synthesized through the GP-based search. Some of the synthesized operators can be regarded as improved manmade designs because they employ well-known image processing techniques and achieve highly competitive performance. On the other hand, since the GP search also generates what can be considered as unconventional operators for point detection, these results provide a new perspective to feature extraction research.

  5. On Motivating Operations at the Point of Online Purchase Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fagerstrom, Asle; Arntzen, Erik

    2013-01-01

    Consumer behavior analysis can be applied over a wide range of economic topics in which the main focus is the contingencies that influence the behavior of the economic agent. This paper provides an overview on the work that has been done on the impact from motivating operations at the point of online purchase situation. Motivating operations, a…

  6. Testing single point incremental forming molds for thermoforming operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afonso, Daniel; de Sousa, Ricardo Alves; Torcato, Ricardo

    2016-10-01

    Low pressure polymer processing processes as thermoforming or rotational molding use much simpler molds then high pressure processes like injection. However, despite the low forces involved with the process, molds manufacturing for this operations is still a very material, energy and time consuming operation. The goal of the research is to develop and validate a method for manufacturing plastically formed sheets metal molds by single point incremental forming (SPIF) operation for thermoforming operation. Stewart platform based SPIF machines allow the forming of thick metal sheets, granting the required structural stiffness for the mold surface, and keeping the short lead time manufacture and low thermal inertia.

  7. Properties and Cycle Performance of Refrigerant Blends Operating Near and Above the Refrigerant Critical Point, Task 2: Air Conditioner System Study

    SciTech Connect

    Piotr A. Domanski; W. Vance Payne

    2002-10-31

    The main goal of this project was to investigate and compare the performance of an R410A air conditioner to that of an R22 air conditioner, with specific interest in performance at high ambient temperatures at which the condenser of the R410A system may be operating above the refrigerant's critical point. Part 1 of this project consisted of conducting comprehensive measurements of thermophysical for refrigerant R125 and refrigerant blends R410A and R507A and developing new equation of state formulations and mixture models for predicting thermophysical properties of HFC refrigerant blends. Part 2 of this project conducted performance measurements of split-system, 3-ton R22 and R410A residential air conditioners in the 80 to 135 F (27.8 to 57.2 C) outdoor temperature range and development of a system performance model. The performance data was used in preparing a beta version of EVAP-COND, a windows-based simulation package for predicting performance of finned-tube evaporators and condensers. The modeling portion of this project also included the formulation of a model for an air-conditioner equipped with a thermal expansion valve (TXV). Capacity and energy efficiency ratio (EER) were measured and compared. The R22 system's performance was measured over the outdoor ambient temperature range of 80 to 135 F (27.8 to 57.2 C). The same test range was planned for the R410A system. However, the compressor's safety system cut off the compressor at the 135.0 F (57.2 C) test temperature. The highest measurement on this system was at 130.0 F (54.4 C). Subsequently, a custom-manufactured R410A compressor with a disabled safety system and a more powerful motor was installed and performance was measured at outdoor temperatures up to 155.0 F (68.3 C). Both systems had similar capacity and EER performance at 82.0 F (27.8 C). The capacity and EER degradation of both systems were nearly linearly dependent with rising ambient outdoor ambient test temperatures. The performance

  8. Applications of operational calculus: equations for the five-point rectangle and robust center point estimators

    SciTech Connect

    Silver, Gary L

    2009-01-01

    Equations for interpolating five data in rectangular array are seldom encountered in textbooks. This paper describes a new method that renders polynomial and exponential equations for the design. Operational center point estimators are often more more resistant to the effects of an outlying datum than the mean.

  9. Operations research study to implement HIV and syphilis point-of-care tests and assess client perceptions in a marginalised area of Lima, Peru.

    PubMed

    Flores, Elaine C; Lluque, Maria E; Chiappe, Marina; Lino, Rosabel; Bayer, Angela M

    2015-09-01

    In Peru, a significant proportion of people tested for HIV and syphilis do not receive timely results. Our objective was to assess the institutional feasibility of implementing simultaneous HIV/syphilis point-of-care tests and client perceptions regarding these point-of-care tests. Point-of-care tests were implemented in a hospital consultation room in a marginalised zone of Lima. A time-series design was used to compare the proportion of tested clients who received timely results, with and without the point-of-care test intervention. Experience and satisfaction with point-of-care tests was evaluated with 149 people. In the 6 months without intervention, 69% and 61% of clients tested for HIV and syphilis, respectively, received their results within the required 45-minute window. During the 2-month point-of-care test intervention, all clients tested for HIV (n = 387) and syphilis (n = 398) received their results within 45 minutes. All clients surveyed were completely satisfied (52%) or satisfied (48%) with the simultaneous HIV/syphilis point-of-care test screening process. Additionally, 73% strongly agreed with the statement 'I feel satisfied with the rapid testing process.' Screening using point-of-care tests represents an important opportunity to reduce the time, resource and cost burden for users and institutions and increase the proportion of users receiving their test results in a timely manner.

  10. Matrix product density operators: Renormalization fixed points and boundary theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cirac, J. I.; Pérez-García, D.; Schuch, N.; Verstraete, F.

    2017-03-01

    We consider the tensors generating matrix product states and density operators in a spin chain. For pure states, we revise the renormalization procedure introduced in (Verstraete et al., 2005) and characterize the tensors corresponding to the fixed points. We relate them to the states possessing zero correlation length, saturation of the area law, as well as to those which generate ground states of local and commuting Hamiltonians. For mixed states, we introduce the concept of renormalization fixed points and characterize the corresponding tensors. We also relate them to concepts like finite correlation length, saturation of the area law, as well as to those which generate Gibbs states of local and commuting Hamiltonians. One of the main result of this work is that the resulting fixed points can be associated to the boundary theories of two-dimensional topological states, through the bulk-boundary correspondence introduced in (Cirac et al., 2011).

  11. Cask fleet operations study

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-01-01

    The Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 assigned to the Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Civilian Waste Management the responsibility for disposing of high-level waste and spent fuel. A significant part of that responsibility involves transporting nuclear waste materials within the federal waste management system; that is, from the waste generator to the repository. The lead responsibility for transportation operations has been assigned to Oak Ridge Operations, with Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) providing technical support through the Transportation Operations Support Task Group. One of the ORNL support activities involves assessing what facilities, equipment and services are required to assure that an acceptable, cost-effective and safe transportation operations system can be designed, operated and maintained. This study reviews, surveys and assesses the experience of Nuclear Assurance Corporation (NAC) in operating a fleet of spent-fuel shipping casks to aid in developing the spent-fuel transportation system.

  12. Operator Certification Study Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Water Works Association, Denver, CO.

    This study guide contains typical questions and answers that all levels of water treatment plant operators might expect to find on a certification examination. The manual covers the basic sciences, treatment techniques, testing procedures, and federal legislation. (Author/SB)

  13. Beach Point Test Site, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Edgewood Area, Maryland. Focused Feasibility Study, Final Quality Assurance Project Plan, Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs). Appendix A

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-10-01

    sections on purging and sample collection for set up and general operation. 3.4.1.2 Collecting dense non-aqueous phase liquids ( DNAPLs ) will be...the well in a controlled fashion. Sample for analysis as above. The same field check described above may be employed for DNAPL . Refer to following...aqueous phase liquids (LNAPL and DNAPL ) ii. COMMENTS: record any pertinent information not already covered in the form. jj. SIGNATURE: sign the form

  14. An Efficient Operator for the Change Point Estimation in Partial Spline Model.

    PubMed

    Han, Sung Won; Zhong, Hua; Putt, Mary

    2015-05-01

    In bio-informatics application, the estimation of the starting and ending points of drop-down in the longitudinal data is important. One possible approach to estimate such change times is to use the partial spline model with change points. In order to use estimate change time, the minimum operator in terms of a smoothing parameter has been widely used, but we showed that the minimum operator causes large MSE of change point estimates. In this paper, we proposed the summation operator in terms of a smoothing parameter, and our simulation study showed that the summation operator gives smaller MSE for estimated change points than the minimum one. We also applied the proposed approach to the experiment data, blood flow during photodynamic cancer therapy.

  15. The influence of transducer operating point on distortion generation in the cochlea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sirjani, Davud B.; Salt, Alec N.; Gill, Ruth M.; Hale, Shane A.

    2004-03-01

    Distortion generated by the cochlea can provide a valuable indicator of its functional state. In the present study, the dependence of distortion on the operating point of the cochlear transducer and its relevance to endolymph volume disturbances has been investigated. Calculations have suggested that as the operating point moves away from zero, second harmonic distortion would increase. Cochlear microphonic waveforms were analyzed to derive the cochlear transducer operating point and to quantify harmonic distortions. Changes in operating point and distortion were measured during endolymph manipulations that included 200-Hz tone exposures at 115-dB SPL, injections of artificial endolymph into scala media at 80, 200, or 400 nl/min, and treatment with furosemide given intravenously or locally into the cochlea. Results were compared with other functional changes that included action potential thresholds at 2.8 or 8 kHz, summating potential, endocochlear potential, and the 2 f1-f2 and f2-f1 acoustic emissions. The results demonstrated that volume disturbances caused changes in the operating point that resulted in predictable changes in distortion. Understanding the factors influencing operating point is important in the interpretation of distortion measurements and may lead to tests that can detect abnormal endolymph volume states.

  16. Nonlinear Burn Control and Operating Point Optimization in ITER

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyer, Mark; Schuster, Eugenio

    2013-10-01

    Control of the fusion power through regulation of the plasma density and temperature will be essential for achieving and maintaining desired operating points in fusion reactors and burning plasma experiments like ITER. In this work, a volume averaged model for the evolution of the density of energy, deuterium and tritium fuel ions, alpha-particles, and impurity ions is used to synthesize a multi-input multi-output nonlinear feedback controller for stabilizing and modulating the burn condition. Adaptive control techniques are used to account for uncertainty in model parameters, including particle confinement times and recycling rates. The control approach makes use of the different possible methods for altering the fusion power, including adjusting the temperature through auxiliary heating, modulating the density and isotopic mix through fueling, and altering the impurity density through impurity injection. Furthermore, a model-based optimization scheme is proposed to drive the system as close as possible to desired fusion power and temperature references. Constraints are considered in the optimization scheme to ensure that, for example, density and beta limits are avoided, and that optimal operation is achieved even when actuators reach saturation. Supported by the NSF CAREER award program (ECCS-0645086).

  17. 24 CFR 902.47 - Management operations portion of total PHAS points.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Management operations portion of... Operations § 902.47 Management operations portion of total PHAS points. Of the total 100 points available for a PHAS score, a PHA may receive up to 30 points based on the Management Operations Indicator....

  18. 75 FR 3856 - Drawbridge Operation Regulations; Great Egg Harbor Bay, Between Beesleys Point and Somers Point, NJ

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-25

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 117 RIN 1625-AA09 Drawbridge Operation Regulations; Great Egg Harbor Bay... Bridge over Great Egg Harbor Bay, at mile 3.5, between Beesleys Point and Somers Point, NJ. This rule... notice of proposed rulemaking (NPRM) entitled Drawbridge Operation Regulations; Great Egg Harbor...

  19. Sliding control of pointing and tracking with operator spline estimation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dwyer, Thomas A. W., III; Fakhreddine, Karray; Kim, Jinho

    1989-01-01

    It is shown how a variable structure control technique could be implemented to achieve precise pointing and good tracking of a deformable structure subject to fast slewing maneuvers. The correction torque that has to be applied to the structure is based on estimates of upper bounds on the model errors. For a rapid rotation of the deformable structure, the elastic response can be modeled by oscillators driven by angular acceleration, and where stiffness and damping coefficients are also angular velocity and acceleration dependent. By transforming this slew-driven elastic dynamics into bilinear form (be regarding the vector made up of the angular velocity, squared angular velocity and angular acceleration components, which appear in the coefficients as the input to the deformation dynamics), an operator spline can be constructed, that gives a low order estimate of the induced disturbance. Moreover, a worst case error bound between the estimated deformation and the unknown exact deformation is also generated, which can be used where required in the sliding control correction.

  20. Improvements in floating point addition/subtraction operations

    DOEpatents

    Farmwald, P.M.

    1984-02-24

    Apparatus is described for decreasing the latency time associated with floating point addition and subtraction in a computer, using a novel bifurcated, pre-normalization/post-normalization approach that distinguishes between differences of floating point exponents.

  1. Jamming Transition of Point-To Traffic Through Co-Operative Mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Jun; Qin, Zheng; Chen, Xiqun; Xu, Zhaohui

    2012-11-01

    We study the jamming transition of two-dimensional point-to-point traffic through co-operative mechanisms (DCM) using computer simulation. We propose two decentralized co-operative mechanisms CM which are incorporated into the point-to-point traffic models: stepping aside (CM-SA) and choosing alternative routes (CM-CAR). Incorporating CM-SA is to prevent a type of ping-pong jumps from happening when two objects standing face-to-face want to move in opposite directions. Incorporating CM-CAR is to handle the conflict when more than one object competes for the same point in parallel update. We investigate and compare four models mainly from fundamental diagrams, jam patterns and the distribution of co-operation probability. It is found that although it decreases the average velocity a little, the CM-SA increases the critical density and the average flow. Despite increasing the average velocity, the CM-CAR decreases the average flow by creating substantially vacant areas inside jam clusters. We investigate the jam patterns of four models carefully and explain this result qualitatively. In addition, we discuss the advantage and applicability of decentralized co-operation modeling.

  2. Optimal operating points of oscillators using nonlinear resonators.

    PubMed

    Kenig, Eyal; Cross, M C; Villanueva, L G; Karabalin, R B; Matheny, M H; Lifshitz, Ron; Roukes, M L

    2012-11-01

    We demonstrate an analytical method for calculating the phase sensitivity of a class of oscillators whose phase does not affect the time evolution of the other dynamic variables. We show that such oscillators possess the possibility for complete phase noise elimination. We apply the method to a feedback oscillator which employs a high Q weakly nonlinear resonator and provide explicit parameter values for which the feedback phase noise is completely eliminated and others for which there is no amplitude-phase noise conversion. We then establish an operational mode of the oscillator which optimizes its performance by diminishing the feedback noise in both quadratures, thermal noise, and quality factor fluctuations. We also study the spectrum of the oscillator and provide specific results for the case of 1/f noise sources.

  3. 76 FR 60733 - Drawbridge Operation Regulations; Narrow Bay, Smith Point, NY

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-30

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 117 Drawbridge Operation Regulations; Narrow Bay, Smith Point, NY AGENCY... the Smith Point Bridge, 6.1, across Narrow Bay, between Smith Point and Fire Island, New York. The.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The Smith Point Bridge, across Narrow Bay, mile 6.1, between Smith Point and...

  4. Point-to-Point! Validation of the Small Aircraft Transportation System Higher Volume Operations Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Daniel M.

    2006-01-01

    Described is the research process that NASA researchers used to validate the Small Aircraft Transportation System (SATS) Higher Volume Operations (HVO) concept. The four phase building-block validation and verification process included multiple elements ranging from formal analysis of HVO procedures to flight test, to full-system architecture prototype that was successfully shown to the public at the June 2005 SATS Technical Demonstration in Danville, VA. Presented are significant results of each of the four research phases that extend early results presented at ICAS 2004. HVO study results have been incorporated into the development of the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NGATS) vision and offer a validated concept to provide a significant portion of the 3X capacity improvement sought after in the United States National Airspace System (NAS).

  5. A fixed point theorem for certain operator valued maps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, D. R.; Omalley, M. J.

    1978-01-01

    In this paper, we develop a family of Neuberger-like results to find points z epsilon H satisfying L(z)z = z and P(z) = z. This family includes Neuberger's theorem and has the additional property that most of the sequences q sub n converge to idempotent elements of B sub 1(H).

  6. 75 FR 3497 - Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc., Entergy Nuclear Indian Point 2, LLC, Entergy Nuclear Indian...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc., Entergy Nuclear Indian Point 2, LLC, Entergy Nuclear Indian Point 3, LLC,: Indian Point Nuclear Generating Unit Nos. 2 and 3; Notice of Consideration of Issuance of Amendment to Facility Operating License...

  7. 78 FR 23845 - Drawbridge Operation Regulations; Narrow Bay, Smith Point, NY

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-23

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 117 Drawbridge Operation Regulations; Narrow Bay, Smith Point, NY AGENCY... the Smith Point Bridge, mile 6.1, across Narrow Bay, between Smith Point and Fire Island, New York. The deviation is necessary to facilitate the Smith Point Triathlon. This deviation allows the...

  8. On Point: The United States Army in Operation Iraqi Freedom

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-01-01

    come to grips with what happened and what it meant. For all of these reasons, those of us who wrote On Point depended upon help from many people to...shepherds.88 The two battalions’ pincer movements into the city appeared to force some pro-Saddam forces to flee from the north end of As Samawah. However...the way, both instinctively raising their hands to wave as they turned. Shock and horror gripped the two as they realized they were waving at a pair

  9. Schrödinger Operator with Non-Zero Accumulation Points of Complex Eigenvalues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bögli, Sabine

    2016-11-01

    We study Schrödinger operators {H=-Δ + V} in {L2(Ω)} where {Ω} is {R^d} or the half-space {{R+d}} , subject to (real) Robin boundary conditions in the latter case. For {p > d} we construct a non-real potential {V in Lp(Ω) \\cap L^{∞}(Ω)} that decays at infinity so that H has infinitely many non-real eigenvalues accumulating at every point of the essential spectrum {σ_ess(H)=[0,∞)} . This demonstrates that the Lieb-Thirring inequalities for selfadjoint Schrödinger operators are no longer true in the non-selfadjoint case.

  10. ICESat Spacecraft Pointing Support Study Grant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The Geodetic Laser Altimeter System (GLAS) mission is designed to measure changes in the elevations of the polar ice sheets. The ICESat satellite will carry the GLAS altimeter, and will have a nominal orbit altitude of 600 km and orbit inclination of 94deg. The groundtrack repeat period is 182 days and will be maintained to less than 1 km at the equator via routine orbit adjustments. Science requirements for the GLAS mission demand that the laser altimeter be pointed to within 50 meters of a predetermined reference groundtrack. As the actual ICESat groundtrack drifts away from the reference groundtrack, the attitude must be controlled such that the altimeter boresight is pointed, crosstrack, at the reference groundtrack. This orientation may be described by a rotation, theta, about the instantaneous geodetic local horizontal direction vector, which lies in the orbit plane and is oriented in the direction of motion of the satellite. The attitude is further complicated by requirements related to thermal and power considerations for various instruments, spacecraft components, and solar array orientation. In order to keep battery temperatures within the specified operating range, and maintain near normal pointing of the solar array with respect to the sunline direction vector as the orbit precesses relative to the sun, the satellite will be oriented in one of four fixed yaw modes. Each of these yaw modes depends upon the angle between the orbit plane and the sunline direction vector; this angle is designated Beta'. Table 1 shows the satellite yaw angle, Psi, for a given Beta' range. The angle Psi represents a rotation about the satellite z-axis, which points in the geodetic nadir direction; for Psi = 0deg the satellite x-axis points in the direction of motion.

  11. Lunar libration point flight dynamics study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    Two satellite concepts, Halo and Hummingbird, for a lunar libration point satellite to be used as a tracking and communications link with the far side of the moon were evaluated. Study areas included flight dynamics, communications, attitude control, propulsion, and system integration. Both concepts were proved feasible, but Halo was shown to be the better concept.

  12. 47 CFR 22.621 - Channels for point-to-multipoint operation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Channels for point-to-multipoint operation. 22... Channels for point-to-multipoint operation. The following channels are allocated for assignment to... service. Unless otherwise indicated, all channels have a bandwidth of 20 kHz and are designated by...

  13. 47 CFR 22.621 - Channels for point-to-multipoint operation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Channels for point-to-multipoint operation. 22... Channels for point-to-multipoint operation. The following channels are allocated for assignment to... service. Unless otherwise indicated, all channels have a bandwidth of 20 kHz and are designated by...

  14. 77 FR 56115 - Drawbridge Operation Regulations; Fort Point Channel, Boston, MA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-12

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 117 Drawbridge Operation Regulations; Fort Point Channel, Boston, MA... of the Northern Avenue Bridge, mile 0.1, across the Fort Point Channel, at Boston, Massachusetts...: The Northern Avenue Bridge, across the Fort Point Channel, mile 0.1, has a vertical clearance in...

  15. Analysis of conditions for operating the S193 Rad/Scat in the solar pointing mode

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pintar, J.; Sobti, A.

    1973-01-01

    The S193 Rad/Scat, although initially programmed for operating in the earth pointing mode, can be operated in the solar pointing mode as well. The usual coordinate systems for describing the S193 in orbit are defined. The instructions for the operation of the radiometer and scatterometer are presented in terms of standard Euler angles for these coordinate systems. A sample analysis for the scatterometer is described. The relationships between the various Euler angles and physically meaningful orbit parameters are defined.

  16. On the Scaling Limits of Determinantal Point Processes with Kernels Induced by Sturm-Liouville Operators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bornemann, Folkmar

    2016-08-01

    By applying an idea of Borodin and Olshanski [J. Algebra 313 (2007), 40-60], we study various scaling limits of determinantal point processes with trace class projection kernels given by spectral projections of selfadjoint Sturm-Liouville operators. Instead of studying the convergence of the kernels as functions, the method directly addresses the strong convergence of the induced integral operators. We show that, for this notion of convergence, the Dyson, Airy, and Bessel kernels are universal in the bulk, soft-edge, and hard-edge scaling limits. This result allows us to give a short and unified derivation of the known formulae for the scaling limits of the classical random matrix ensembles with unitary invariance, that is, the Gaussian unitary ensemble (GUE), the Wishart or Laguerre unitary ensemble (LUE), and the MANOVA (multivariate analysis of variance) or Jacobi unitary ensemble (JUE).

  17. Hubble Space Telescope pointing control system: Designed for performance and mission operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bradley, A.; Ryan, J.

    1991-01-01

    The Hubble Space Telescope was designed to be an orbiting astronomical observatory which could be operated in the same manner as ground based observatories. The design drivers for the pointing control system's hardware and software were the requirements of an absolute pointing accuracy of 4.8E-8 radians and pointing stability (jitter) of 3.4E-8 radians. Of comparable importance was the objective of providing a flexible command methodology and structure to enable seven day operational planning employing stored program command and real time command capability. The pointing control system hardware, software, safemode control schemes, ground system monitoring capability, and in-orbit results are reviewed.

  18. 78 FR 20144 - Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc., Indian Point Nuclear Generating Unit 3

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-03

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc., Indian Point Nuclear Generating Unit 3 AGENCY: Nuclear... for public comment. SUMMARY: The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is reconsidering...

  19. 78 FR 52987 - Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc., Indian Point Nuclear Generating Unit 3

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc., Indian Point Nuclear Generating Unit 3 AGENCY: Nuclear.... SUMMARY: The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has concluded that existing exemptions from...

  20. 78 FR 39018 - Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc.; Indian Point Nuclear Generating Unit Nos. 2 and 3

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc.; Indian Point Nuclear Generating Unit Nos. 2 and 3 AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Supplement to Final Supplement 38 to the Generic...

  1. 78 FR 33223 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; York River, Between Yorktown and Gloucester Point, VA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-04

    ... Gloucester Point and Yorktown, VA. This deviation is necessary to facilitate electrical motor maintenance on... operating regulations set out in 33 CFR 117.1025, to facilitate electric motor maintenance on the...

  2. Applications of operational calculus: trigonometric interpolating equation for the eight-point cube

    SciTech Connect

    Silver, Gary L

    2009-01-01

    A general method for obtaining a trigonometric-type interpolating equation for the eight-point cubical array is illustrated. It can often be used to reproduce a ninth datum at an arbitrary point near the center of the array by adjusting a variable exponent. The new method complements operational polynomial and exponential methods for the same design.

  3. MANGO – Modal Analysis for Grid Operation: A Method for Damping Improvement through Operating Point Adjustment

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Zhenyu; Zhou, Ning; Tuffner, Francis K.; Chen, Yousu; Trudnowski, Daniel J.; Diao, Ruisheng; Fuller, Jason C.; Mittelstadt, William A.; Hauer, John F.; Dagle, Jeffery E.

    2010-10-18

    Small signal stability problems are one of the major threats to grid stability and reliability in the U.S. power grid. An undamped mode can cause large-amplitude oscillations and may result in system breakups and large-scale blackouts. There have been several incidents of system-wide oscillations. Of those incidents, the most notable is the August 10, 1996 western system breakup, a result of undamped system-wide oscillations. Significant efforts have been devoted to monitoring system oscillatory behaviors from measurements in the past 20 years. The deployment of phasor measurement units (PMU) provides high-precision, time-synchronized data needed for detecting oscillation modes. Measurement-based modal analysis, also known as ModeMeter, uses real-time phasor measurements to identify system oscillation modes and their damping. Low damping indicates potential system stability issues. Modal analysis has been demonstrated with phasor measurements to have the capability of estimating system modes from both oscillation signals and ambient data. With more and more phasor measurements available and ModeMeter techniques maturing, there is yet a need for methods to bring modal analysis from monitoring to actions. The methods should be able to associate low damping with grid operating conditions, so operators or automated operation schemes can respond when low damping is observed. The work presented in this report aims to develop such a method and establish a Modal Analysis for Grid Operation (MANGO) procedure to aid grid operation decision making to increase inter-area modal damping. The procedure can provide operation suggestions (such as increasing generation or decreasing load) for mitigating inter-area oscillations.

  4. 47 CFR 90.471 - Points of operation in internal transmitter control systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... licensee for internal communications and transmitter control purposes. Operating positions in internal... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Points of operation in internal transmitter control systems. 90.471 Section 90.471 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION...

  5. 47 CFR 90.471 - Points of operation in internal transmitter control systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... licensee for internal communications and transmitter control purposes. Operating positions in internal... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Points of operation in internal transmitter control systems. 90.471 Section 90.471 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION...

  6. 47 CFR 90.471 - Points of operation in internal transmitter control systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... licensee for internal communications and transmitter control purposes. Operating positions in internal... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Points of operation in internal transmitter control systems. 90.471 Section 90.471 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION...

  7. 47 CFR 90.473 - Operation of internal transmitter control systems through licensed fixed control points.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Transmitter Control Internal Transmitter Control Systems § 90.473 Operation of internal transmitter control systems through licensed fixed control points. An internal transmitter control system may be operated... internal system from the transmitter control circuit or to close the system......

  8. 47 CFR 90.473 - Operation of internal transmitter control systems through licensed fixed control points.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Transmitter Control Internal Transmitter Control Systems § 90.473 Operation of internal transmitter control systems through licensed fixed control points. An internal transmitter control system may be operated... internal system from the transmitter control circuit or to close the system......

  9. Fixed Points and Stability for a Sum of Two Operators in Locally Convex Spaces

    DTIC Science & Technology

    topological spaces is formulated in terms of specific topologies on the set of nonlinear operators, and a theorem on the stability of fixed points of a sum of two operators is given. As a byproduct, sufficient conditions for a mapping to be open or to be onto are

  10. To the point: teaching the obstetrics and gynecology medical student in the operating room.

    PubMed

    Hampton, Brittany S; Craig, LaTasha B; Abbott, Jodi F; Buery-Joyner, Samantha D; Dalrymple, John L; Forstein, David A; Hopkins, Laura; McKenzie, Margaret L; Page-Ramsey, Sarah M; Pradhan, Archana; Wolf, Abigail; Graziano, Scott C

    2015-10-01

    This article, from the "To the Point" series that is prepared by the Association of Professors of Gynecology and Obstetrics Undergraduate Medical Education Committee, is a review of considerations for teaching the medical student in the operating room during the obstetrics/gynecology clerkship. The importance of the medical student operating room experience and barriers to learning in the operating room are discussed. Specific considerations for the improvement of medical student learning and operating room experience, which include the development of operating room objectives and specific curricula, an increasing awareness regarding role modeling, and faculty development, are reviewed.

  11. Extension of the Operating Point of the Mercury IVA from 6 to 8 MV

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-06-01

    EXTENSION OF THE OPERATING POINT OF THE MERCURY IVA FROM 6 TO 8 MV∗ R. J. Allenξ, R. J. Commisso, G. Coopersteina, P. F. Ottingera and J. W...over 200 shots at 8 MV. I. INTRODUCTION The original design of the Mercury IVA allowed operation at 6 MV and 300 kA [1]. Although the...Operating Point Of The Mercury Iva From 6 To 8 Mv 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e

  12. Implementation of neural network hardware based on a floating point operation in an FPGA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jeong-Seob; Jung, Seul

    2007-12-01

    This paper presents a hardware design and implementation of the radial basis function (RBF) neural network (NN) by the hardware description language. Due to its nonlinear characteristics, it is very difficult to implement for a system with integer-based operation. To develop nonlinear functions such sigmoid functions or exponential functions, floating point operations are required. The exponential function is designed based on the 32bit single-precision floating-point format. In addition, to update weights in the network, the back-propagation algorithm is also implemented in the hardware. Most operations are performed in the floating-point based arithmetic unit and accomplished sequentially by the instruction order stored in ROM. The NN is implemented and tested on the Altera FPGA "Cyclone2 EP2C70F672C8" for nonlinear classifications.

  13. Providing nearest neighbor point-to-point communications among compute nodes of an operational group in a global combining network of a parallel computer

    DOEpatents

    Archer, Charles J.; Faraj, Ahmad A.; Inglett, Todd A.; Ratterman, Joseph D.

    2012-10-23

    Methods, apparatus, and products are disclosed for providing nearest neighbor point-to-point communications among compute nodes of an operational group in a global combining network of a parallel computer, each compute node connected to each adjacent compute node in the global combining network through a link, that include: identifying each link in the global combining network for each compute node of the operational group; designating one of a plurality of point-to-point class routing identifiers for each link such that no compute node in the operational group is connected to two adjacent compute nodes in the operational group with links designated for the same class routing identifiers; and configuring each compute node of the operational group for point-to-point communications with each adjacent compute node in the global combining network through the link between that compute node and that adjacent compute node using that link's designated class routing identifier.

  14. Pointing calibration of the MKIVA DSN antennas Voyager 2 Uranus encounter operations support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stevens, R.; Riggs, R. L.; Wood, B.

    1986-01-01

    The MKIVA DSN introduced significant changes to the pointing systems of the 34-meter and 64-meter diameter antennas. To support the Voyager 2 Uranus Encounter, the systems had to be accurately calibrated. Reliable techniques for use of the calibrations during intense mission support activity had to be provided. This article describes the techniques used to make the antenna pointing calibrations and to demonstrate their operational use. The results of the calibrations are summarized.

  15. Phase-operation for conduction electron by atomic-scale scattering via single point-defect

    SciTech Connect

    Nagaoka, Katsumi Yaginuma, Shin; Nakayama, Tomonobu

    2014-03-17

    In order to propose a phase-operation technique for conduction electrons in solid, we have investigated, using scanning tunneling microscopy, an atomic-scale electron-scattering phenomenon on a 2D subband state formed in Si. Particularly, we have noticed a single surface point-defect around which a standing-wave pattern created, and a dispersion of scattering phase-shifts by the defect-potential against electron-energy has been measured. The behavior is well-explained with appropriate scattering parameters: the potential height and radius. This result experimentally proves that the atomic-scale potential scattering via the point defect enables phase-operation for conduction electrons.

  16. Space station operating system study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horn, Albert E.; Harwell, Morris C.

    1988-01-01

    The current phase of the Space Station Operating System study is based on the analysis, evaluation, and comparison of the operating systems implemented on the computer systems and workstations in the software development laboratory. Primary emphasis has been placed on the DEC MicroVMS operating system as implemented on the MicroVax II computer, with comparative analysis of the SUN UNIX system on the SUN 3/260 workstation computer, and to a limited extent, the IBM PC/AT microcomputer running PC-DOS. Some benchmark development and testing was also done for the Motorola MC68010 (VM03 system) before the system was taken from the laboratory. These systems were studied with the objective of determining their capability to support Space Station software development requirements, specifically for multi-tasking and real-time applications. The methodology utilized consisted of development, execution, and analysis of benchmark programs and test software, and the experimentation and analysis of specific features of the system or compilers in the study.

  17. Astrometric Telescope Facility isolation and pointing study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hibble, William; Allen, Terry; Jackson, Louis; Medbery, James; Self, Richard

    1988-01-01

    The Astrometric Telescope Facility (ATF), an optical telescope designed to detect extrasolar planetary systems, is scheduled to be a major user of the Space Station's Payload Pointing System (PPS). However, because the ATF has such a stringent pointing stability specification and requires + or - 180 deg roll about its line of sight, mechanisms to enhance the basic PPS capability are required. The ATF pointing performance achievable by the addition of a magnetic isolation and pointing system (MIPS) between the PPS upper gimbal and the ATF, and separately, by the addition of a passive isolation system between the Space Station and the PPS base was investigated. The candidate MIPS can meet the ATF requirements in the presence of a 0.01 g disturbance. It fits within the available annular region between the PPS and the ATF while meeting power and weight limitations and providing the required roll motion, payload data and power services. By contrast, the passive base isolator system must have an unrealistically low isolation bandwidth on all axes to meet ATF pointing requirements and does not provide roll about the line of sight.

  18. A unified treatment of some perturbed fixed point iterative methods with an infinite pool of operators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikazad, Touraj; Abbasi, Mokhtar

    2017-04-01

    In this paper, we introduce a subclass of strictly quasi-nonexpansive operators which consists of well-known operators as paracontracting operators (e.g., strictly nonexpansive operators, metric projections, Newton and gradient operators), subgradient projections, a useful part of cutter operators, strictly relaxed cutter operators and locally strongly Féjer operators. The members of this subclass, which can be discontinuous, may be employed by fixed point iteration methods; in particular, iterative methods used in convex feasibility problems. The closedness of this subclass, with respect to composition and convex combination of operators, makes it useful and remarkable. Another advantage with members of this subclass is the possibility to adapt them to handle convex constraints. We give convergence result, under mild conditions, for a perturbation resilient iterative method which is based on an infinite pool of operators in this subclass. The perturbation resilient iterative methods are relevant and important for their possible use in the framework of the recently developed superiorization methodology for constrained minimization problems. To assess the convergence result, the class of operators and the assumed conditions, we illustrate some extensions of existence research works and some new results.

  19. Common fixed points in best approximation for Banach operator pairs with Ciric type I-contractions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hussain, N.

    2008-02-01

    The common fixed point theorems, similar to those of Ciric [Lj.B. Ciric, On a common fixed point theorem of a Gregus type, Publ. Inst. Math. (Beograd) (N.S.) 49 (1991) 174-178; Lj.B. Ciric, On Diviccaro, Fisher and Sessa open questions, Arch. Math. (Brno) 29 (1993) 145-152; Lj.B. Ciric, On a generalization of Gregus fixed point theorem, Czechoslovak Math. J. 50 (2000) 449-458], Fisher and Sessa [B. Fisher, S. Sessa, On a fixed point theorem of Gregus, Internat. J. Math. Math. Sci. 9 (1986) 23-28], Jungck [G. Jungck, On a fixed point theorem of Fisher and Sessa, Internat. J. Math. Math. Sci. 13 (1990) 497-500] and Mukherjee and Verma [R.N. Mukherjee, V. Verma, A note on fixed point theorem of Gregus, Math. Japon. 33 (1988) 745-749], are proved for a Banach operator pair. As applications, common fixed point and approximation results for Banach operator pair satisfying Ciric type contractive conditions are obtained without the assumption of linearity or affinity of either T or I. Our results unify and generalize various known results to a more general class of noncommuting mappings.

  20. Empirical study on human acupuncture point network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jian; Shen, Dan; Chang, Hui; He, Da-Ren

    2007-03-01

    Chinese medical theory is ancient and profound, however is confined by qualitative and faint understanding. The effect of Chinese acupuncture in clinical practice is unique and effective, and the human acupuncture points play a mysterious and special role, however there is no modern scientific understanding on human acupuncture points until today. For this reason, we attend to use complex network theory, one of the frontiers in the statistical physics, for describing the human acupuncture points and their connections. In the network nodes are defined as the acupuncture points, two nodes are connected by an edge when they are used for a medical treatment of a common disease. A disease is defined as an act. Some statistical properties have been obtained. The results certify that the degree distribution, act degree distribution, and the dependence of the clustering coefficient on both of them obey SPL distribution function, which show a function interpolating between a power law and an exponential decay. The results may be helpful for understanding Chinese medical theory.

  1. A Mathematical Study of the Game "Twenty-Four Points".

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shi, Yixun

    1999-01-01

    Presents a mathematical analysis of the game "twenty-four points" that aims to apply arithmetic operations on the four numbers to reach a specific number. This game can improve children's ability to do mental arithmetic. (ASK)

  2. 77 FR 40091 - Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc.; Indian Point Nuclear Generating, Units 2 and 3

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc.; Indian Point Nuclear Generating, Units 2 and 3 AGENCY: Nuclear... statement for license renewal of nuclear plants; availability. SUMMARY: The U.S. Nuclear...

  3. Office of Naval Research (ONR) Support for R/V Point Sur Ship Operations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-01-07

    WORK UNIT NUMBER N/A 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) San Jose State university Research Foundation 210 N. Fourth St...Discussion of Work : The ONR Ship Operations Award, N00014-15-1-2123, provided support for the Research Vessel Point Sur from January 1, 2014 through June

  4. 47 CFR 90.471 - Points of operation in internal transmitter control systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... control systems. 90.471 Section 90.471 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PRIVATE LAND MOBILE RADIO SERVICES Transmitter Control Internal Transmitter Control Systems § 90.471 Points of operation in internal transmitter control systems....

  5. 47 CFR 90.471 - Points of operation in internal transmitter control systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... control systems. 90.471 Section 90.471 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PRIVATE LAND MOBILE RADIO SERVICES Transmitter Control Internal Transmitter Control Systems § 90.471 Points of operation in internal transmitter control systems....

  6. 76 FR 65118 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Bear Creek, Sparrows Point, MD

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-20

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 117 RIN 1625-AA09 Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Bear Creek, Sparrows... Avenue) highway toll drawbridge across Bear Creek, mile 1.5, Sparrows Point, MD was replaced with a fixed... Bear Creek, mile 1.5 was removed and replaced with a fixed bridge in 1998. Prior to 1998, a...

  7. ATP-gamma-S shifts the operating point of outer hair cell transduction towards scala tympani.

    PubMed

    Bobbin, Richard P; Salt, Alec N

    2005-07-01

    ATP receptor agonists and antagonists alter cochlear mechanics as measured by changes in distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAE). Some of the effects on DPOAEs are consistent with the hypothesis that ATP affects mechano-electrical transduction and the operating point of the outer hair cells (OHCs). This hypothesis was tested by monitoring the effect of ATP-gamma-S on the operating point of the OHCs. Guinea pigs anesthetized with urethane and with sectioned middle ear muscles were used. The cochlear microphonic (CM) was recorded differentially (scala vestibuli referenced to scala tympani) across the basal turn before and after perfusion (20 min) of the perilymph compartment with artificial perilymph (AP) and ATP-gamma-S dissolved in AP. The operating point was derived from the cochlear microphonics (CM) recorded in response low frequency (200 Hz) tones at high level (106, 112 and 118 dB SPL). The analysis procedure used a Boltzmann function to simulate the CM waveform and the Boltzmann parameters were adjusted to best-fit the calculated waveform to the CM. Compared to the initial perfusion with AP, ATP-gamma-S (333 microM) enhanced peak clipping of the positive peak of the CM (that occurs during organ of Corti displacements towards scala tympani), which was in keeping with ATP-induced displacement of the transducer towards scala tympani. CM waveform analysis quantified the degree of displacement and showed that the changes were consistent with the stimulus being centered on a different region of the transducer curve. The change of operating point meant that the stimulus was applied to a region of the transducer curve where there was greater saturation of the output on excursions towards scala tympani and less saturation towards scala vestibuli. A significant degree of recovery of the operating point was observed after washing with AP. Dose response curves generated by perfusing ATP-gamma-S (333 microM) in a cumulative manner yielded an EC(50) of 19.8 micro

  8. The Hubble Space Telescope fine guidance system operating in the coarse track pointing control mode

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whittlesey, Richard

    1993-01-01

    The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Fine Guidance System has set new standards in pointing control capability for earth orbiting spacecraft. Two precision pointing control modes are implemented in the Fine Guidance System; one being a Coarse Track Mode which employs a pseudo-quadrature detector approach and the second being a Fine Mode which uses a two axis interferometer implementation. The Coarse Track Mode was designed to maintain FGS pointing error to within 20 milli-arc seconds (rms) when guiding on a 14.5 Mv star. The Fine Mode was designed to maintain FGS pointing error to less than 3 milli-arc seconds (rms). This paper addresses the HST FGS operating in the Coarse Track Mode. An overview of the implementation, the operation, and both the predicted and observed on orbit performance is presented. The discussion includes a review of the Fine Guidance System hardware which uses two beam steering Star Selector servos, four photon counting photomultiplier tube detectors, as well as a 24 bit microprocessor, which executes the control system firmware. Unanticipated spacecraft operational characteristics are discussed as they impact pointing performance. These include the influence of spherically aberrated star images as well as the mechanical shocks induced in the spacecraft during and following orbital day/night terminator crossings. Computer modeling of the Coarse Track Mode verifies the observed on orbit performance trends in the presence of these optical and mechanical disturbances. It is concluded that the coarse track pointing control function is performing as designed and is providing a robust pointing control capability for the Hubble Space Telescope.

  9. Renormalization of quark bilinear operators in a momentum-subtraction scheme with a nonexceptional subtraction point

    SciTech Connect

    Sturm, C.; Soni, A.; Aoki, Y.; Christ, N. H.; Izubuchi, T.; Sachrajda, C. T. C.

    2009-07-01

    We extend the Rome-Southampton regularization independent momentum-subtraction renormalization scheme (RI/MOM) for bilinear operators to one with a nonexceptional, symmetric subtraction point. Two-point Green's functions with the insertion of quark bilinear operators are computed with scalar, pseudoscalar, vector, axial-vector and tensor operators at one-loop order in perturbative QCD. We call this new scheme RI/SMOM, where the S stands for 'symmetric'. Conversion factors are derived, which connect the RI/SMOM scheme and the MS scheme and can be used to convert results obtained in lattice calculations into the MS scheme. Such a symmetric subtraction point involves nonexceptional momenta implying a lattice calculation with substantially suppressed contamination from infrared effects. Further, we find that the size of the one-loop corrections for these infrared improved kinematics is substantially decreased in the case of the pseudoscalar and scalar operator, suggesting a much better behaved perturbative series. Therefore it should allow us to reduce the error in the determination of the quark mass appreciably.

  10. Planned LMSS propagation experiment using ACTS: Preliminary antenna pointing results during mobile operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rowland, John R.; Goldhirsh, Julius; Vogel, Wolfhard J.; Torrence, Geoffrey W.

    1991-01-01

    An overview and a status description of the planned LMSS mobile K band experiment with ACTS is presented. As a precursor to the ACTS mobile measurements at 20.185 GHz, measurements at 19.77 GHz employing the Olympus satellite were originally planned. However, because of the demise of Olympus in June of 1991, the efforts described here are focused towards the ACTS measurements. In particular, we describe the design and testing results of a gyro controlled mobile-antenna pointing system. Preliminary pointing measurements during mobile operations indicate that the present system is suitable for measurements employing a 15 cm aperture (beamwidth at approximately 7 deg) receiving antenna operating with ACTS in the high gain transponder mode. This should enable measurements with pattern losses smaller than plus or minus 1 dB over more than 95 percent of the driving distance. Measurements with the present mount system employing a 60 cm aperture (beamwidth at approximately 1.7 deg) results in pattern losses smaller than plus or minus 3 dB for 70 percent of the driving distance. Acceptable propagation measurements may still be made with this system by employing developed software to flag out bad data points due to extreme pointing errors. The receiver system including associated computer control software has been designed and assembled. Plans are underway to integrate the antenna mount with the receiver on the University of Texas mobile receiving van and repeat the pointing tests on highways employing a recently designed radome system.

  11. Planned LMSS propagation experiment using ACTS: Preliminary antenna pointing results during mobile operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rowland, John R.; Goldhirsh, Julius; Vogel, Wolfhard J.; Torrence, Geoffrey W.

    1991-07-01

    An overview and a status description of the planned LMSS mobile K band experiment with ACTS is presented. As a precursor to the ACTS mobile measurements at 20.185 GHz, measurements at 19.77 GHz employing the Olympus satellite were originally planned. However, because of the demise of Olympus in June of 1991, the efforts described here are focused towards the ACTS measurements. In particular, we describe the design and testing results of a gyro controlled mobile-antenna pointing system. Preliminary pointing measurements during mobile operations indicate that the present system is suitable for measurements employing a 15 cm aperture (beamwidth at approximately 7 deg) receiving antenna operating with ACTS in the high gain transponder mode. This should enable measurements with pattern losses smaller than plus or minus 1 dB over more than 95 percent of the driving distance. Measurements with the present mount system employing a 60 cm aperture (beamwidth at approximately 1.7 deg) results in pattern losses smaller than plus or minus 3 dB for 70 percent of the driving distance. Acceptable propagation measurements may still be made with this system by employing developed software to flag out bad data points due to extreme pointing errors. The receiver system including associated computer control software has been designed and assembled. Plans are underway to integrate the antenna mount with the receiver on the University of Texas mobile receiving van and repeat the pointing tests on highways employing a recently designed radome system.

  12. Zero-point energies, the uncertainty principle, and positivity of the quantum Brownian density operator.

    PubMed

    Tameshtit, Allan

    2012-04-01

    High-temperature and white-noise approximations are frequently invoked when deriving the quantum Brownian equation for an oscillator. Even if this white-noise approximation is avoided, it is shown that if the zero-point energies of the environment are neglected, as they often are, the resultant equation will violate not only the basic tenet of quantum mechanics that requires the density operator to be positive, but also the uncertainty principle. When the zero-point energies are included, asymptotic results describing the evolution of the oscillator are obtained that preserve positivity and, therefore, the uncertainty principle.

  13. Performance of FORTRAN floating-point operations on the Flex/32 multicomputer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crockett, Thomas W.

    1987-01-01

    A series of experiments has been run to examine the floating-point performance of FORTRAN programs on the Flex/32 (Trademark) computer. The experiments are described, and the timing results are presented. The time required to execute a floating-point operation is found to vary considerbaly depending on a number of factors. One factor of particular interest from an algorithm design standpoint is the difference in speed between common memory accesses and local memory accesses. Common memory accesses were found to be slower, and guidelines are given for determinig when it may be cost effective to copy data from common to local memory.

  14. Pointing device usage guidelines for people with quadriplegia: a simulation and validation study utilizing an integrated pointing device apparatus.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hsieh-Ching; Chen, Chia-Ling; Lu, Chang-Ching; Wu, Ching-Yi

    2009-06-01

    This study undertakes a simulation and validation experiment to provide guidelines regarding pointing device usage for quadriplegic individuals assisted by a newly developed integrated pointing device apparatus (IPDA). The simulation experiment involving 30 normal subjects whose upper limb movement was restricted by splints. Another 15 subjects with high level cervical spinal cord injury (SCI) were recruited for the validation study. All normal subjects employed six control modes for target-acquisition and drag-and-drop tasks using an IPDA to integrate common pointing devices. A previously designed software was used to evaluate the operational efficiency (OE), expressed as "able performance" (%AP), of the subjects. The experimental results indicated that the OE of normal subjects for controlling the pointing devices were dominated first by using the unilateral hand (69-100 %AP), then by using the wrist/hand (65-73 %AP), and finally by using either bilateral body parts or the combination of limb and chin (45-53 %AP). The OE for operating an orientation-rotated mouse using the dominant wrist/hand via IPDA in both tasks was equivalent to that for operating a trackball using the dominant hand. The experimental results obtained by subjects with SCI also demonstrated similar findings, although the OEs in each control mode were lower than in normal subjects. Results of this study provide valuable guidelines for selecting and integrating common pointing devices using IPDA for quadriplegic individuals. The priority for selecting which body part should control the pointing devices was as follows: unilateral hands, unilateral wrist/hands, and either bilateral body parts or a limb and chin/head/neck in combination.

  15. Earth-Moon Libration Point Orbit Stationkeeping: Theory, Modeling and Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Folta, David C.; Pavlak, Thomas A.; Haapala, Amanda F.; Howell, Kathleen C.; Woodard, Mark A.

    2013-01-01

    Collinear Earth-Moon libration points have emerged as locations with immediate applications. These libration point orbits are inherently unstable and must be maintained regularly which constrains operations and maneuver locations. Stationkeeping is challenging due to relatively short time scales for divergence effects of large orbital eccentricity of the secondary body, and third-body perturbations. Using the Acceleration Reconnection and Turbulence and Electrodynamics of the Moon's Interaction with the Sun (ARTEMIS) mission orbit as a platform, the fundamental behavior of the trajectories is explored using Poincare maps in the circular restricted three-body problem. Operational stationkeeping results obtained using the Optimal Continuation Strategy are presented and compared to orbit stability information generated from mode analysis based in dynamical systems theory.

  16. TDRSS operations control analysis study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The use of an operational Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS) and the remaining ground stations for the STDN (GSTDN) was investigated. The operational aspects of TDRSS concepts, GSTDN as a 14-site network, and GSTDN as a 7 site-network were compared and operations control concepts for the configurations developed. Man/machine interface, scheduling system, and hardware/software tradeoff analyses were among the factors considered in the analysis.

  17. 49 CFR 236.303 - Control circuits for signals, selection through circuit controller operated by switch points or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...-point frogs and derails shall be selected through circuit controller operated directly by switch points... switch, movable-point frog, and derail in the routes governed by such signal. Circuits shall be arranged... when each switch, movable-point frog, and derail in the route is in proper position....

  18. 49 CFR 236.303 - Control circuits for signals, selection through circuit controller operated by switch points or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...-point frogs and derails shall be selected through circuit controller operated directly by switch points... switch, movable-point frog, and derail in the routes governed by such signal. Circuits shall be arranged... when each switch, movable-point frog, and derail in the route is in proper position....

  19. 49 CFR 236.303 - Control circuits for signals, selection through circuit controller operated by switch points or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...-point frogs and derails shall be selected through circuit controller operated directly by switch points... switch, movable-point frog, and derail in the routes governed by such signal. Circuits shall be arranged... when each switch, movable-point frog, and derail in the route is in proper position....

  20. Laser pointing camera: a valuable tool for the LGS-AO operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Centrone, M.; Bonaccini Calia, D.; Pedichini, F.; Cerruto, A.; Ricciardi, A.; Ambrosino, F.

    2016-07-01

    We describe the design, functionalities and commissioning results of the Laser Pointing Camera, developed at INAF-OAR in collaboration with ESO and Astrel for the 4LGSF of the ESO Adaptive Optics Facility. The LPC has proven a fundamental tool during commissioning and operation of the 4LGSF. It allows to calibrate the pointing and focusing models of the four LGS, to reduce to zero the overhead time for the open-loop acquisition of the LGS in the wavefront sensor. During LGS-AO operation it collects regularly the LGS photometry, the LGS fwhm and the cirrus clouds scattering levels. By recognizing via astrometric software the field stars as well as the multiple LGS, LPC is insensitive to flexures of the laser launch telescope or of the receiver telescope opto-mechanics. We present the Commissioning results of the Laser Pointing Camera, obtained at the ESO VLT during the all 4LGSF Laser Guide Star Units Commissioning, and will discuss its possible extension for the ELT operations.

  1. Sound source localization on an axial fan at different operating points

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zenger, Florian J.; Herold, Gert; Becker, Stefan; Sarradj, Ennes

    2016-08-01

    A generic fan with unskewed fan blades is investigated using a microphone array method. The relative motion of the fan with respect to the stationary microphone array is compensated by interpolating the microphone data to a virtual rotating array with the same rotational speed as the fan. Hence, beamforming algorithms with deconvolution, in this case CLEAN-SC, could be applied. Sound maps and integrated spectra of sub-components are evaluated for five operating points. At selected frequency bands, the presented method yields sound maps featuring a clear circular source pattern corresponding to the nine fan blades. Depending on the adjusted operating point, sound sources are located on the leading or trailing edges of the fan blades. Integrated spectra show that in most cases leading edge noise is dominant for the low-frequency part and trailing edge noise for the high-frequency part. The shift from leading to trailing edge noise is strongly dependent on the operating point and frequency range considered.

  2. Barbers Point Harbor, Hawaii, Jetty Modification Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-11-01

    meter studies of the circulation patterns and flows in the channel, and (d) input from the sponsor, EPA , and harbor pilots. DISCLAIMER: The...tests and review study results. Participating in this meeting were Stanley Boc, HED, Dr. Wendy I. Wiltse, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency ( EPA ...U.S. Environmental Protection Agency ( EPA ), Capt. Dave Lyman, Hawaii Pilots Association, Capt. Thomas L. Heberle, Hawaii Pilots Association, and Capt

  3. Loop Heat Pipe Operation Using Heat Source Temperature for Set Point Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ku, Jentung; Paiva, Kleber; Mantelli, Marcia

    2011-01-01

    Loop heat pipes (LHPs) have been used for thermal control of several NASA and commercial orbiting spacecraft. The LHP operating temperature is governed by the saturation temperature of its compensation chamber (CC). Most LHPs use the CC temperature for feedback control of its operating temperature. There exists a thermal resistance between the heat source to be cooled by the LHP and the LHP's CC. Even if the CC set point temperature is controlled precisely, the heat source temperature will still vary with its heat output. For most applications, controlling the heat source temperature is of most interest. A logical question to ask is: "Can the heat source temperature be used for feedback control of the LHP operation?" A test program has been implemented to answer the above question. Objective is to investigate the LHP performance using the CC temperature and the heat source temperature for feedback control

  4. Science Operations for the 2008 NASA Lunar Analog Field Test at Black Point Lava Flow, Arizona

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garry W. D.; Horz, F.; Lofgren, G. E.; Kring, D. A.; Chapman, M. G.; Eppler, D. B.; Rice, J. W., Jr.; Nelson, J.; Gernhardt, M. L.; Walheim, R. J.

    2009-01-01

    Surface science operations on the Moon will require merging lessons from Apollo with new operation concepts that exploit the Constellation Lunar Architecture. Prototypes of lunar vehicles and robots are already under development and will change the way we conduct science operations compared to Apollo. To prepare for future surface operations on the Moon, NASA, along with several supporting agencies and institutions, conducted a high-fidelity lunar mission simulation with prototypes of the small pressurized rover (SPR) and unpressurized rover (UPR) (Fig. 1) at Black Point lava flow (Fig. 2), 40 km north of Flagstaff, Arizona from Oct. 19-31, 2008. This field test was primarily intended to evaluate and compare the surface mobility afforded by unpressurized and pressurized rovers, the latter critically depending on the innovative suit-port concept for efficient egress and ingress. The UPR vehicle transports two astronauts who remain in their EVA suits at all times, whereas the SPR concept enables astronauts to remain in a pressurized shirt-sleeve environment during long translations and while making contextual observations and enables rapid (less than or equal to 10 minutes) transfer to and from the surface via suit-ports. A team of field geologists provided realistic science scenarios for the simulations and served as crew members, field observers, and operators of a science backroom. Here, we present a description of the science team s operations and lessons learned.

  5. Loop Heat Pipe Operation Using Heat Source Temperature for Set Point Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ku, Jentung; Paiva, Kleber; Mantelli, Marcia

    2011-01-01

    The LHP operating temperature is governed by the saturation temperature of its reservoir. Controlling the reservoir saturation temperature is commonly accomplished by cold biasing the reservoir and using electrical heaters to provide the required control power. Using this method, the loop operating temperature can be controlled within +/- 0.5K. However, because of the thermal resistance that exists between the heat source and the LHP evaporator, the heat source temperature will vary with its heat output even if LHP operating temperature is kept constant. Since maintaining a constant heat source temperature is of most interest, a question often raised is whether the heat source temperature can be used for LHP set point temperature control. A test program with a miniature LHP has been carried out to investigate the effects on the LHP operation when the control temperature sensor is placed on the heat source instead of the reservoir. In these tests, the LHP reservoir is cold-biased and is heated by a control heater. Tests results show that it is feasible to use the heat source temperature for feedback control of the LHP operation. Using this method, the heat source temperature can be maintained within a tight range for moderate and high powers. At low powers, however, temperature oscillations may occur due to interactions among the reservoir control heater power, the heat source mass, and the heat output from the heat source. In addition, the heat source temperature could temporarily deviate from its set point during fast thermal transients. The implication is that more sophisticated feedback control algorithms need to be implemented for LHP transient operation when the heat source temperature is used for feedback control.

  6. Operations planning simulation: Model study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    The use of simulation modeling for the identification of system sensitivities to internal and external forces and variables is discussed. The technique provides a means of exploring alternate system procedures and processes, so that these alternatives may be considered on a mutually comparative basis permitting the selection of a mode or modes of operation which have potential advantages to the system user and the operator. These advantages are measurements is system efficiency are: (1) the ability to meet specific schedules for operations, mission or mission readiness requirements or performance standards and (2) to accomplish the objectives within cost effective limits.

  7. Performance prediction of the high head Francis-99 turbine for steady operation points

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casartelli, E.; Mangani, L.; Ryan, O.; Del Rio, A.

    2017-01-01

    Steady-state numerical investigations are still the reference computational method for the prediction of the global machine performance during the design phase. Accordingly, steady state CFD simulations of the complete high head Francis-99 turbine, from spiral casing to draft tube have been performed at three operating conditions, namely at part load (PL), best efficiency point (BEP), and high load (HL). In addition, simulations with a moving runner for the three operating points are conducted and compared to the steady state results. The prediction accuracy of the numerical results is assessed comparing global and local data to the available experimental results. A full 360°-model is applied for the unsteady simulations and for the steady state simulations a reduced domain was used for the periodic components, with respectively only one guide vane and one runner passage. The steady state rotor-stator interactions were modeled with a mixing-plane. All CFD simulations were performed at model scale with an in-house 3D, unstructured, object-oriented finite volume code designed to solve incompressible RANS-Equations. Steady and unsteady solver simulations are both able to predict similar values for torque and head in design and off-design. Flow features in off-design operation such as a vortex rope in PL operation can be predicted by both simulation types, though all simulations tend to overestimate head and torque. Differences among steady and unsteady simulations can mainly be attributed to the averaging process used in the mixing plane interface in steady state simulations. Measured efficiency agrees best with the unsteady simulations for BEP and PL operation, though the steady state simulations also provide a cost-effective alternative with comparable accuracy.

  8. Ultrasensitive optical microfiber coupler based sensors operating near the turning point of effective group index difference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Kaiwei; Zhang, Ting; Liu, Guigen; Zhang, Nan; Zhang, Mengying; Wei, Lei

    2016-09-01

    We propose and study an optical microfiber coupler (OMC) sensor working near the turning point of effective group index difference between the even supermode and odd supermode to achieve high refractive index (RI) sensitivity. Theoretical calculations reveal that infinite sensitivity can be obtained when the measured RI is close to the turning point value. This diameter-dependent turning point corresponds to the condition that the effective group index difference equals zero. To validate our proposed sensing mechanism, we experimentally demonstrate an ultrahigh sensitivity of 39541.7 nm/RIU at a low ambient RI of 1.3334 based on an OMC with the diameter of 1.4 μm. An even higher sensitivity can be achieved by carrying out the measurements at RI closer to the turning point. The resulting ultrasensitive RI sensing platform offers a substantial impact on a variety of applications from high performance trace analyte detection to small molecule sensing.

  9. 49 CFR 236.303 - Control circuits for signals, selection through circuit controller operated by switch points or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... circuit controller operated by switch points or by switch locking mechanism. 236.303 Section 236.303... § 236.303 Control circuits for signals, selection through circuit controller operated by switch points or by switch locking mechanism. The control circuit for each aspect with indication more...

  10. 49 CFR 236.303 - Control circuits for signals, selection through circuit controller operated by switch points or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... circuit controller operated by switch points or by switch locking mechanism. 236.303 Section 236.303... § 236.303 Control circuits for signals, selection through circuit controller operated by switch points or by switch locking mechanism. The control circuit for each aspect with indication more...

  11. Critical Point Facility (CPE) Group in the Spacelab Payload Operations Control Center (SL POCC)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The primary payload for Space Shuttle Mission STS-42, launched January 22, 1992, was the International Microgravity Laboratory-1 (IML-1), a pressurized manned Spacelab module. The goal of IML-1 was to explore in depth the complex effects of weightlessness of living organisms and materials processing. Around-the-clock research was performed on the human nervous system's adaptation to low gravity and effects of microgravity on other life forms such as shrimp eggs, lentil seedlings, fruit fly eggs, and bacteria. Materials processing experiments were also conducted, including crystal growth from a variety of substances such as enzymes, mercury iodide, and a virus. The Huntsville Operations Support Center (HOSC) Spacelab Payload Operations Control Center (SL POCC) at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) was the air/ground communication channel used between the astronauts and ground control teams during the Spacelab missions. Featured is the Critical Point Facility (CPE) group in the SL POCC during STS-42, IML-1 mission.

  12. Critical Point Facility (CPF) Team in the Spacelab Payload Operations Control Center (SL POCC)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    The primary payload for Space Shuttle Mission STS-42, launched January 22, 1992, was the International Microgravity Laboratory-1 (IML-1), a pressurized manned Spacelab module. The goal of IML-1 was to explore in depth the complex effects of weightlessness of living organisms and materials processing. Around-the-clock research was performed on the human nervous system's adaptation to low gravity and effects of microgravity on other life forms such as shrimp eggs, lentil seedlings, fruit fly eggs, and bacteria. Materials processing experiments were also conducted, including crystal growth from a variety of substances such as enzymes, mercury iodide, and a virus. The Huntsville Operations Support Center (HOSC) Spacelab Payload Operations Control Center (SL POCC) at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) was the air/ground communication channel used between the astronauts and ground control teams during the Spacelab missions. Featured is the Critical Point Facility (CPF) team in the SL POCC during the IML-1 mission.

  13. A cask fleet operations study

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-03-01

    This document describes the cask fleet currently available to transport spent nuclear fuels. The report describes the proposed operational procedures for these casks and the vehicles intended to transport them. Included are techniques for loading the cask, lifting it onto the transport vehicle, preparing the invoices, and unloading the cask at the destination. The document concludes with a discussion on the maintenance and repair of the casks. (tem) 29 figs.

  14. Design and feasibility study of an integrated pointing device apparatus for individuals with spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hsieh-Ching; Liu, Yung-Ping; Chen, Chia-Ling; Chen, Chih-Yong

    2007-05-01

    Despite the commercial availability of numerous computer-pointing devices, many severely disabled individuals still rely on customized equipment to operate computers. This study presents a novel Integrated Pointing Device Apparatus (IPDA) that integrates numerous commercial pointing devices. The novel IPDA, which complies with a standard USB 1.1 interface, is compatible with most tested computer-pointing devices and flexibly integrates commercial computer devices, tailoring them to suit individual needs. By using simple integrated circuit design and low-cost electronic components, this low-cost apparatus is easily maintained. The feasibility of the IPDA was evaluated by four subjects with high-level cervical (C4-5) spinal cord injury (SCI). Participants performed normal move-and-click and drag-and-drop tasks typically performed by computer pointing devices. Each participant not able to use a traditional computer mouse or trackball were able to operate a computer adequately with the IPDA and three including one operating a trackball with his chin, operated computers easily and smoothly. This feasibility study showed that the IPDA effectively integrates commercial pointing devices, thereby providing the possibility for some people with SCI to obtain computer operability. This study demonstrated the advantages of flexibility, low cost, and acceptable efficiency of the novel IPDA.

  15. Origins of the Human Pointing Gesture: A Training Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Danielle; Behne, Tanya; Lieven, Elena; Tomasello, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Despite its importance in the development of children's skills of social cognition and communication, very little is known about the ontogenetic origins of the pointing gesture. We report a training study in which mothers gave children one month of extra daily experience with pointing as compared with a control group who had extra experience with…

  16. [Importance of displacement ventilation for operations and small surgical procedures from the infection preventive point of view].

    PubMed

    Kramer, A; Külpmann, R; Wille, F; Christiansen, B; Exner, M; Kohlmann, T; Heidecke, C D; Lippert, H; Oldhafer, K; Schilling, M; Below, H; Harnoss, J C; Assadian, O

    2010-02-01

    Surgical teams need to breathe air that is conducive to their health. An adequate exchange of air ensures oxygen supply, the ventilation of humidity, smells, toxic substances, especially narcotic gases and surgical smoke, pathogens and particles. With regard to the infection risk, DIN 1946 / 4 -differentiates between operation theaters with the highest demand for clean air (operation room class I a), operation theatres with a high demand (operation room class I b) and rooms within the operation theatres without special requirements, meaning that the microbial load in the air is close to or equal to that of normal in-room air quality (room class II). For an operation room class I a, ventilation that displaces the used air is necessary, while a regular ventilation is sufficient for operation room class I b. Because of ambiguous -results in previous studies, the necessity to define a -class I a for operation rooms is being questioned. Therefore, this review focuses on the analysis of the existing publications with respect to this -question. The result of this analysis indicates that so far there is only one surgical procedure, the -implantation of hip endoprosthetics, for which a preventive effect on SSI of a class I a ventilation (displacement of the used air) is documented. One recent study, reviewed critically here, -showed opposite results, but lacks methodological clarity. Thus, it is concluded that evidence for the requirement of operation room classes can only be derived from risk assessment (infection risk by surgical intervention, extent of possible damages), but not from epidemiological studies. Risk assessment must be based on the following criteria: size and depth of the operation field, -duration of the procedure, vascular perfusion of the wound, implantation of alloplastic material and general risk of the patient for an infection. From an infection preventive point of view, no class I a "displacement ventilation" is necessary for small surgical

  17. 77 FR 6601 - Facility Operating License Amendment From Nine Mile Point Nuclear Station, LLC.; Nine Mile Point...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-08

    ... of the beam to apply a downward clamping force on each inlet subassembly to resist the elbow and nozzle hydraulic reaction forces during normal operation. ] The material change does not affect the... request for hearing, a petition for leave to intervene, any motion or other document filed in...

  18. Point and non-point microbial source pollution: A case study of Delhi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jamwal, Priyanka; Mittal, Atul K.; Mouchel, Jean-Marie

    The present study identifies major point and non-point sources of microbial pollution during dry and wet weather in Delhi watershed which is the first prerequisite for planning and management of water quality of the river Yamuna. Fecal coliforms (FC) and fecal streptococci (FS) levels were determined from two types of sources - point source (effluent from sewage treatment plants) and non-point source (stormwater runoff during dry and wet weather). FC and FS levels in the river Yamuna were also monitored, which is an ultimate sink for all microbial loads in Delhi watershed. Effluent from sewage treatment plants (STPs) employing different treatment technologies were evaluated. FC and FS levels greater than the effluent discharge standard (1000 MPN/100 ml) were observed in the effluents from all STPs except “oxidation pond Timarpur”. This study also involved field program for characterization of urban runoff from different land-uses. Results indicated that the microbial quality of urban runoff produced during wet weather from different land-uses was similar to that of raw sewage. Sewage overflows along with human and animal sources were responsible for high FC and FS levels in the runoff samples. Wet weather FC and FS levels in river Yamuna were higher as compared to the dry weather levels suggesting that dilution of the river water during wet weather does not affect its microbiological quality. Thus on the basis of this study it was found that urban runoff also contributes to the microbial quality of the river Yamuna.

  19. Cluster Multi-Point Studies of the Auroral Acceleration Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marklund, G. T.

    2014-12-01

    Multi-point studies of the auroral acceleration region (AAR) by the Cluster spacecraft has enabled a number of open issues on the auroral acceleration to be addressed and revealed. Data from AAR crossings of Inverted-V aurora, by the C1 and C3 spacecraft at different altitudes, enabled a detailed reconstruction of the acceleration potential and a verification of its stability on a five min time scale. The relative role of quasi-static and Alfvénic acceleration behind aurora are addressed in two event studies. In one of these, the two processes are shown to operate jointly on the plasma population within the polar cap boundary. In the other, the electron energy flux producing multiple arcs within a surge is found to be generally dominated by the quasi-static contribution. Acceleration features and the FAC closure associated with surge-horn aurora crossed by the Cluster fleet were derived in another event study. A study of the density distribution within the auroral cavity, showed for all included events, exponential density decreases, relative to the ambient densities, from the mid to top of the AAR. In another study, cavities were found to extend well beyond the top of the AAR. Finally, statistical high-latitude electric field and plasma density distributions are presented based on 10 years of Cluster data collected between 2 and 4 RE altitudes. Intense electric fields appear in two altitude regimes on the nightside, separated by a gap at 2.8 RE. The upper altitude fields were interpreted to be Alfvénic and the lower altitude fields quasi-static, related to the AAR. The gap in the electric field intensity indicates a partial closure of the potentials in the lower region, with similarities to model results of reflected Alfvén waves and earlier reported observations

  20. A Foundation for Operational Planning: The Concepts of Center of Gravity, Decisive Point, and the Culminating Point.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-04-21

    and the spring thaw. Southwestern Front farces Included the 6th Irug (40,566 menI 46 tanks), the I1st Wuards Bring (70,811 men), Moble Girup Papau...theiatn preced seulplning httoialeamls. Odfertiaons CUReR the paucity of aircraft, technology , or doctrine, concentrated armored forces produced the...with respect to theoretical concepts provides Insights for operational planning on the contemperarg battlefield. Technological and doctrinal

  1. Point-of-care ultrasonography during rescue operations on board a Polish Medical Air Rescue helicopter.

    PubMed

    Darocha, Tomasz; Gałązkowski, Robert; Sobczyk, Dorota; Żyła, Zbigniew; Drwiła, Rafał

    2014-12-01

    Point-of-care ultrasound examination has been increasingly widely used in pre-hospital care. The use of ultrasound in rescue medicine allows for a quick differential diagnosis, identification of the most important medical emergencies and immediate introduction of targeted treatment. Performing and interpreting a pre-hospital ultrasound examination can improve the accuracy of diagnosis and thus reduce mortality. The authors' own experiences are presented in this paper, which consist in using a portable, hand-held ultrasound apparatus during rescue operations on board a Polish Medical Air Rescue helicopter. The possibility of using an ultrasound apparatus during helicopter rescue service allows for a full professional evaluation of the patient's health condition and enables the patient to be brought to a center with the most appropriate facilities for their condition.

  2. Spontaneous fluctuation indices of the cardiovagal baroreflex accurately measure the baroreflex sensitivity at the operating point during upright tilt.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Christopher E; Medow, Marvin S; Messer, Zachary; Stewart, Julian M

    2013-06-15

    Spontaneous fluctuation indices of cardiovagal baroreflex have been suggested to be inaccurate measures of baroreflex function during orthostatic stress compared with alternate open-loop methods (e.g. neck pressure/suction, modified Oxford method). We therefore tested the hypothesis that spontaneous fluctuation measurements accurately reflect local baroreflex gain (slope) at the operating point measured by the modified Oxford method, and that apparent differences between these two techniques during orthostasis can be explained by a resetting of the baroreflex function curve. We computed the sigmoidal baroreflex function curves supine and during 70° tilt in 12 young, healthy individuals. With the use of the modified Oxford method, slopes (gains) of supine and upright curves were computed at their maxima (Gmax) and operating points. These were compared with measurements of spontaneous indices in both positions. Supine spontaneous analyses of operating point slope were similar to calculated Gmax of the modified Oxford curve. In contrast, upright operating point was distant from the centering point of the reset curve and fell on the nonlinear portion of the curve. Whereas spontaneous fluctuation measurements were commensurate with the calculated slope of the upright modified Oxford curve at the operating point, they were significantly lower than Gmax. In conclusion, spontaneous measurements of cardiovagal baroreflex function accurately estimate the slope near operating points in both supine and upright position.

  3. Physical constraints, fundamental limits, and optimal locus of operating points for an inverted pendulum based actuated dynamic walker.

    PubMed

    Patnaik, Lalit; Umanand, Loganathan

    2015-10-26

    The inverted pendulum is a popular model for describing bipedal dynamic walking. The operating point of the walker can be specified by the combination of initial mid-stance velocity (v0) and step angle (φm) chosen for a given walk. In this paper, using basic mechanics, a framework of physical constraints that limit the choice of operating points is proposed. The constraint lines thus obtained delimit the allowable region of operation of the walker in the v0-φm plane. A given average forward velocity vx,avg can be achieved by several combinations of v0 and φm. Only one of these combinations results in the minimum mechanical power consumption and can be considered the optimum operating point for the given vx,avg. This paper proposes a method for obtaining this optimal operating point based on tangency of the power and velocity contours. Putting together all such operating points for various vx,avg, a family of optimum operating points, called the optimal locus, is obtained. For the energy loss and internal energy models chosen, the optimal locus obtained has a largely constant step angle with increasing speed but tapers off at non-dimensional speeds close to unity.

  4. Tethered Balloon Operations at ARM AMF3 Site at Oliktok Point, AK

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dexheimer, D.; Lucero, D. A.; Helsel, F.; Hardesty, J.; Ivey, M.

    2015-12-01

    Oliktok Point has been the home of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program's (ARM) third ARM Mobile Facility, or AMF3, since October 2013. The AMF3 is operated through Sandia National Laboratories and hosts instrumentation collecting continuous measurements of clouds, aerosols, precipitation, energy, and other meteorological variables. The Arctic region is warming more quickly than any other region due to climate change and Arctic sea ice is declining to record lows. Sparsity of atmospheric data from the Arctic leads to uncertainty in process comprehension, and atmospheric general circulation models (AGCM) are understood to underestimate low cloud presence in the Arctic. Increased vertical resolution of meteorological properties and cloud measurements will improve process understanding and help AGCMs better characterize Arctic clouds. SNL is developing a tethered balloon system capable of regular operation at AMF3 in order to provide increased vertical resolution atmospheric data. The tethered balloon can be operated within clouds at altitudes up to 7,000' AGL within DOE's R-2204 restricted area. Pressure, relative humidity, temperature, wind speed, and wind direction are recorded at multiple altitudes along the tether. These data were validated against stationary met tower data in Albuquerque, NM. The altitudes of the sensors were determined by GPS and calculated using a line counter and clinometer and compared. Wireless wetness sensors and supercooled liquid water content sensors have also been deployed and their data has been compared with other sensors. This presentation will provide an overview of the balloons, sensors, and test flights flown, and will provide a preliminary look at data from sensor validation campaigns and test flights.

  5. 77 FR 66492 - Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc., Entergy Nuclear Indian Point 2, LLC, and Entergy Nuclear Indian...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-05

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION [Docket Nos.: 50-003, 50-247, 50-286; NRC-2012-0265: License Nos.: DPR- 5, DPR-26, and DPR-64] Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc., Entergy Nuclear Indian Point 2, LLC, and Entergy Nuclear Indian Point 3, LLC; Issuance of Director's Decision Notice...

  6. Study of Waverider-based Point-to-Point Suborbital Rocketplane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takama, Yoshiki; Ishimoto, Shinji

    As a high-speed manned transportation system in the future, point-to-point (P2P) suborbital rocketplane is currently studied in Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) space transportation mission directorate. The vehicle was designed on the basis of the concept of waverider allowing high L/D in hypersonic regime, which is required for longer flight range and smaller load factor. Compared with an ideal waverider, the designed P2P suborbital rocketplane has outer wings for the improvement of the low-speed aerodynamic performance, finite thickness in the leading edge for the reduction of the aerodynamic heating, and twin vertical tails for directional stability. The aerodynamic performance of the P2P vehicle was investigated through numerical simulation of both subsonic and hypersonic flows, and the baseline aerodynamic shape of the P2P vehicle was discussed. The L/D in the trim condition at hypersonic speed was 2.6.

  7. Generalized Wilson-Fisher Critical Points from the Conformal Operator Product Expansion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gliozzi, Ferdinando; Guerrieri, Andrea L.; Petkou, Anastasios C.; Wen, Congkao

    2017-02-01

    We study possible smooth deformations of the generalized free conformal field theory in arbitrary dimensions by exploiting the singularity structure of the conformal blocks dictated by the null states. We derive in this way, at the first nontrivial order in the ɛ expansion, the anomalous dimensions of an infinite class of scalar local operators, without using the equations of motion. In the cases where other computational methods apply, the results agree.

  8. Antiemetic efficacy of capsicum plaster on acupuncture points in patients undergoing thyroid operation

    PubMed Central

    Koo, Min Seok; Lee, Hee-Jong; Jeong, Ji Seon; Lee, Jung-Won

    2013-01-01

    Background Postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) occurs in up to 63-84% of patients after thyroid surgery. This study aims to assess the effects of using a capsicum plaster to reduce PONV after thyroid surgery at either the Chinese acupuncture point (acupoint) Pericardium 6 (P6) or Korean hand acupuncture point K-D2. Methods One-hundred eighty-four patients who underwent thyroid surgery were randomized in four groups (n = 46 each): control group = inactive tape at P6 acupoints and on both shoulders as a nonacupoint; P6 group = capsicum plaster at P6 points and inactive tape on both shoulders; K-D2 group = capsicum plaster at K-D2 acupoints and inactive tape on both shoulders; Sham group = capsicum plaster on both shoulders and inactive tape at P6 acupoints. The capsicum plaster was applied before the induction of anesthesia and removed at 8 hr after surgery. Results The incidence and severity of nausea and vomiting and the need for rescue antiemetics were decreased in the patients in the P6 and K-D2 groups compared to the patients in the control and sham groups (P < 0.001). The patients in the P6 and K-D2 groups also reported that they were more satisfied (P < 0.05). Conclusions We conclude that the capsicum plaster at the P6 and K-D2 acupoint was a promising antiemetic method for the patients undergoing thyroid surgery. PMID:24427460

  9. 78 FR 4879 - Nine Mile Point 3 Nuclear Project, LLC and UniStar Nuclear Operating Services, LLC Combined...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-23

    ... COMMISSION Nine Mile Point 3 Nuclear Project, LLC and UniStar Nuclear Operating Services, LLC Combined... Nuclear Project, LLC, and UniStar Nuclear Operating Services, LLC (UniStar), submitted a Combined License...) application for UniStar's Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, Unit 3 (CCNPP3). The NRC docketed the...

  10. The acetabular point: a morphological and ontogenetic study

    PubMed Central

    RISSECH, C.; SAÑUDO, J. R.; MALGOSA, A.

    2001-01-01

    The acetabular point was analysed by studying human pelvic bones from 326 individuals ranging from newborns to age 97 y. The bones were categorised into 3 groups according to the degree of fusion for the 3 elements of the pelvis: nonfused (59), semifused (5) and fused (262). The acetabular point in immature pelvic bones is clearly represented by the point of the fusion lines for each bony element at the level of the acetabular fossa. In adult pelvic bones the acetabular fossa has an irregular clover-leaf shape, the superior lobe being smaller than the anterior and posterior lobes. Cross-sectional analysis of acetabular morphology suggested that the acetabular point in adult pelvic bones is always represented by the indentation between the superior and the anterior lobes of the acetabular fossa. PMID:11465866

  11. Tuning operating point of extrinsic Fabry-Perot interferometric fiber-optic sensors using microstructured fiber and gas pressure.

    PubMed

    Tian, Jiajun; Zhang, Qi; Fink, Thomas; Li, Hong; Peng, Wei; Han, Ming

    2012-11-15

    Intensity-based demodulation of extrinsic Fabry-Perot interferometric (EFPI) fiber-optic sensors requires the light wavelength to be on the quadrature point of the interferometric fringes for maximum sensitivity. In this Letter, we propose a novel and remote operating-point tuning method for EFPI fiber-optic sensors using microstructured fibers (MFs) and gas pressure. We demonstrated the method using a diaphragm-based EFPI sensor with a microstructured lead-in fiber. The holes in the MF were used as gas channels to remotely control the gas pressure inside the Fabry-Perot cavity. Because of the deformation of the diaphragm with gas pressure, the cavity length and consequently the operating point can be remotely tuned for maximum sensitivity. The proposed operating-point tuning method has the advantage of reduced complexity and cost compared to previously reported methods.

  12. Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points among Chinese Food Business Operators

    PubMed Central

    Amadei, Paolo; Masotti, Gianfranco; Condoleo, Roberto; Guidi, Alessandra

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the present paper is to highlight some critical situations emerged during the implementation of long-term projects locally managed by Prevention Services, to control some manufacturing companies in Rome and Prato, Central Italy. In particular, some critical issues on the application of self-control in marketing and catering held by Chinese operators are underlined. The study showed serious flaws in preparing and controlling of manuals for good hygiene practice, participating of the consultants among food business operators (FBOs) to the control of the procedures. Only after regular actions by the Prevention Services, there have been satisfying results. This confirms the need to have qualified and expert partners able to promptly act among FBOs and to give adequate support to authorities in charge in order to guarantee food safety. PMID:27800356

  13. Third Class Broadcast Operator Permit Study Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federal Communications Commission, Washington, DC.

    The study guide contains reference material necessary for the applicant preparing to take the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) examination for a Radiotelephone Third Class Operator Permit with the endorsement to operate certain AM and FM broadcast radio stations. To obtain a permit, the applicant must successfully complete examination…

  14. Estimating the operating point of the cochlear transducer using low-frequency biased distortion products

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Daniel J.; Hartsock, Jared J.; Gill, Ruth M.; Fitzgerald, Hillary E.; Salt, Alec N.

    2009-01-01

    Distortion products in the cochlear microphonic (CM) and in the ear canal in the form of distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs) are generated by nonlinear transduction in the cochlea and are related to the resting position of the organ of Corti (OC). A 4.8 Hz acoustic bias tone was used to displace the OC, while the relative amplitude and phase of distortion products evoked by a single tone [most often 500 Hz, 90 dB SPL (sound pressure level)] or two simultaneously presented tones (most often 4 kHz and 4.8 kHz, 80 dB SPL) were monitored. Electrical responses recorded from the round window, scala tympani and scala media of the basal turn, and acoustic emissions in the ear canal were simultaneously measured and compared during the bias. Bias-induced changes in the distortion products were similar to those predicted from computer models of a saturating transducer with a first-order Boltzmann distribution. Our results suggest that biased DPOAEs can be used to non-invasively estimate the OC displacement, producing a measurement equivalent to the transducer operating point obtained via Boltzmann analysis of the basal turn CM. Low-frequency biased DPOAEs might provide a diagnostic tool to objectively diagnose abnormal displacements of the OC, as might occur with endolymphatic hydrops. PMID:19354389

  15. Results of blue crab studies at Chalk Point. Final report 1978-1979

    SciTech Connect

    Souza, P.A.; Polgar, T.T.; Miller, R.E.; Holland, A.F.

    1980-11-01

    This report summarizes the findings of two years of blue crab tagging studies conducted in the Patuxent estuary near the Chalk Point power plant. This report is organized in the following manner: An introduction and objectives section defines the objectives of the blue crab study, discusses the modes of interaction between blue crabs and power plant operations, and discusses the life history characteristics of blue crabs. A study methods section provides detailed information on tagging and capture operations and on analysis methods. A results section presents the major findings of the study. A discussion and conclusions section interprets and discusses major findings and defines the impacts of power plant operations at Chalk Point on blue crab populations in the Patuxent estuary. A list of references is included.

  16. Acousto-optic, point receiver hydrophone probe for operation up to 100 MHz.

    PubMed

    Lewin, P A; Mu, C; Umchid, S; Daryoush, A; El-Sherif, M

    2005-12-01

    This work describes the results of initial evaluation of a wideband acousto-optic hydrophone probe designed to operate as point receiver in the frequency range up to 100 MHz. The hydrophone was implemented as a tapered fiber optic (FO) probe sensor with a tip diameter of approximately 7 microm. Such small physical dimensions of the sensor eliminate the need for spatial averaging corrections so that true pressure-time (p-t) waveforms can be faithfully recorded. The theoretical considerations that predicted the FO probe sensitivity to be equal to 4.3 mV/MPa are presented along with a brief description of the manufacturing process. The calibration results that verified the theoretically predicted sensitivity are also presented along with a brief description of the improvements being currently implemented to increase this sensitivity level by approximately 20 dB. The results of preliminary measurements indicate that the fiber optic probes will exhibit a uniform frequency response and a zero phase shift in the frequency range considered. These features might be very useful in rapid complex calibration i.e. determining both magnitude and phase response of other hydrophones by the substitution method. Also, because of their robust design and linearity, these fiber optic hydrophones could also meet the challenges posed by high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) and other therapeutic applications. Overall, the outcome of this work shows that when fully developed, the FO probes will be well suited for high frequency measurements of ultrasound fields and will be able to complement the data collected by the current finite aperture piezoelectric PVDF hydrophones.

  17. A highly sensitive and simply operated protease sensor toward point-of-care testing.

    PubMed

    Park, Seonhwa; Shin, Yu Mi; Seo, Jeongwook; Song, Ji-Joon; Yang, Haesik

    2016-04-21

    Protease sensors for point-of-care testing (POCT) require simple operation, a detection period of less than 20 minutes, and a detection limit of less than 1 ng mL(-1). However, it is difficult to meet these requirements with protease sensors that are based on proteolytic cleavage. This paper reports a highly reproducible protease sensor that allows the sensitive and simple electrochemical detection of the botulinum neurotoxin type E light chain (BoNT/E-LC), which is obtained using (i) low nonspecific adsorption, (ii) high signal-to-background ratio, and (iii) one-step solution treatment. The BoNT/E-LC detection is based on two-step proteolytic cleavage using BoNT/E-LC (endopeptidase) and l-leucine-aminopeptidase (LAP, exopeptidase). Indium-tin oxide (ITO) electrodes are modified partially with reduced graphene oxide (rGO) to increase their electrocatalytic activities. Avidin is then adsorbed on the electrodes to minimize the nonspecific adsorption of proteases. Low nonspecific adsorption allows a highly reproducible sensor response. Electrochemical-chemical (EC) redox cycling involving p-aminophenol (AP) and dithiothreitol (DTT) is performed to obtain a high signal-to-background ratio. After adding a C-terminally AP-labeled oligopeptide, DTT, and LAP simultaneously to a sample solution, no further treatment of the solution is necessary during detection. The detection limits of BoNT/E-LC in phosphate-buffered saline are 0.1 ng mL(-1) for an incubation period of 15 min and 5 fg mL(-1) for an incubation period of 4 h. The detection limit in commercial bottled water is 1 ng mL(-1) for an incubation period of 15 min. The developed sensor is selective to BoNT/E-LC among the four types of BoNTs tested. These results indicate that the protease sensor meets the requirements for POCT.

  18. A novel auto-bias control scheme for stabilizing lithium niobate Mach-Zehnder modulator at any operating point

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, Jin-jing; Zhang, Yang-an; Zhang, Jin-nan; Yuan, Xue-guang; Huang, Yong-qing; Li, Yu-peng

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we propose and experimentally demonstrate an auto-bias control scheme for stabilizing a lithium niobate (LN) Mach-Zehnder modulator (MZM) at any operating point along the power transmission curve. It is based on that the bias drift would change the operating point and result in varying the output optical average power of the Mach-Zehnder modulator and its first and second derivatives. The ratio of the first to the second derivative of the output optical average power is used in the proposed scheme as the key parameter. The experimental results show that the output optical average power of the LN MZM hardly changes at the desired operating point, and the maximum deviation of output optical average power is less than ±4%.

  19. Operational equations for the five-point rectangle, the geometric mean, and data in prismatic arrray

    SciTech Connect

    Silver, Gary L

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the results of three applications of operational calculus: new representations of five data in a rectangular array, new relationships among data in a prismatic array, and the operational analog of the geometric mean.

  20. Electron tunneling and point contact Andreev reflection studies of superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Wenqing

    The energy gap is the most fundamental property of a superconductor. Electron tunneling spectroscopy and point contact spectroscopy (PCS) are powerful techniques for studying the density of states and energy gap features of superconductors. Two different superconducting systems, multiband superconductor MgB2 and proximity induced topological superconductor NbSe2/Bi 2Se3 heterostructures were studied using either quasiparticle tunneling in planar tunnel junctions or PCS in this work. (Abstract shortened by ProQuest.).

  1. Registration of 2D point sets by complex translation and rotation operations.

    PubMed

    Sahin, Ismet

    2010-01-01

    Alignment of two sets containing two dimensional vectors (2D points) constitutes an important problem in medical imaging, remote sensing, and computer vision. We assume that the points in one set, called the transformed set, are constructed by translating and rotating the points in the other set, called the original set. The points in both sets are represented by complex numbers. In order to translate and then rotate a point, we add a complex constant and then multiply by a complex exponential respectively. We construct a cost function which tries to achieve the least-squares differences between a given transformed set and the set containing transformed points with respect to optimization parameters. We implement the Newton-Raphson optimization algorithm with polynomial line search in order to minimize this cost function. Simulation results with multiple datasets demonstrate that the proposed method aligns two sets efficiently and reliably.

  2. Floating point only SIMD instruction set architecture including compare, select, Boolean, and alignment operations

    DOEpatents

    Gschwind, Michael K.

    2011-03-01

    Mechanisms for implementing a floating point only single instruction multiple data instruction set architecture are provided. A processor is provided that comprises an issue unit, an execution unit coupled to the issue unit, and a vector register file coupled to the execution unit. The execution unit has logic that implements a floating point (FP) only single instruction multiple data (SIMD) instruction set architecture (ISA). The floating point vector registers of the vector register file store both scalar and floating point values as vectors having a plurality of vector elements. The processor may be part of a data processing system.

  3. A path towards uncertainty assignment in an operational cloud-phase algorithm from ARM vertically pointing active sensors

    DOE PAGES

    Riihimaki, Laura D.; Comstock, Jennifer M.; Anderson, Kevin K.; ...

    2016-06-10

    Knowledge of cloud phase (liquid, ice, mixed, etc.) is necessary to describe the radiative impact of clouds and their lifetimes, but is a property that is difficult to simulate correctly in climate models. One step towards improving those simulations is to make observations of cloud phase with sufficient accuracy to help constrain model representations of cloud processes. In this study, we outline a methodology using a basic Bayesian classifier to estimate the probabilities of cloud-phase class from Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) vertically pointing active remote sensors. The advantage of this method over previous ones is that it provides uncertainty informationmore » on the phase classification. We also test the value of including higher moments of the cloud radar Doppler spectrum than are traditionally used operationally. Using training data of known phase from the Mixed-Phase Arctic Cloud Experiment (M-PACE) field campaign, we demonstrate a proof of concept for how the method can be used to train an algorithm that identifies ice, liquid, mixed phase, and snow. Over 95 % of data are identified correctly for pure ice and liquid cases used in this study. Mixed-phase and snow cases are more problematic to identify correctly. When lidar data are not available, including additional information from the Doppler spectrum provides substantial improvement to the algorithm. This is a first step towards an operational algorithm and can be expanded to include additional categories such as drizzle with additional training data.« less

  4. First regularized trace of integro-differential Sturm-Liouville operator on a segment with punctured points at generalized conditions of bonding in deleted points

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarsenbi, Abdisalam A.; Zhumanova, Lyazzat K.

    2016-12-01

    The present work is devoted to calculating a first regularized trace of one integro-differential operator with the main part of the Sturm-Liouville type on a segment with punctured points at integral perturbation of "transmission" conditions. The integro-differential Sturm-Liouville operator -y″(x )+q (x )y (x )+γ ∫0πy (t )d t =λ y (x ) given on the segments π/n (k -1 )points x =π/n k , are solutions. The value of jumps is expressed by the formula y'(π/k n -0 )=y'(π/k n +0 )-βk∫0πy (t )d t , k =1 ,n -1 ¯ . The basic result of the paper is the exact formula of the first regularized trace of the considered differential operator.

  5. Martian Aerocapture Terminal Point Guidance: A Reference Path Optimization Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ro, Theodore U.; Queen, Eric M.; Striepe, Scott A.

    1999-01-01

    An effective method of terminal point guidance is to employ influence coefficients, which are solved from a set of differential equations adjoint to the linearized perturbations of the equations of motion about a reference trajectory. Hence, to optimize this type of guidance, one must first optimize the reference trajectory that the guidance is based upon. This study concentrates on various methods to optimize a reference trajectory for a Martian aerocapture maneuver, including a parametric analysis and first order gradient method. Resulting reference trajectories were tested in separate 2000 6-DOF Monte Carlo runs, using the Atmospheric Guidance Algorithm Testbed for the Mars Surveyor Program 2001 (MSP '01) Orbiter. These results were compared to an August 1998 study using the same terminal point control guidance algorithm and simulation testbed. Satisfactory improvements over the 1998 study are amply demonstrated.

  6. Providing full point-to-point communications among compute nodes of an operational group in a global combining network of a parallel computer

    DOEpatents

    Archer, Charles J; Faraj, Ahmad A; Inglett, Todd A; Ratterman, Joseph D

    2013-04-16

    Methods, apparatus, and products are disclosed for providing full point-to-point communications among compute nodes of an operational group in a global combining network of a parallel computer, each compute node connected to each adjacent compute node in the global combining network through a link, that include: receiving a network packet in a compute node, the network packet specifying a destination compute node; selecting, in dependence upon the destination compute node, at least one of the links for the compute node along which to forward the network packet toward the destination compute node; and forwarding the network packet along the selected link to the adjacent compute node connected to the compute node through the selected link.

  7. Lubrication study for Single Point Incremental Forming of Copper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jawale, Kishore; Ferreira Duarte, José; Reis, Ana; Silva, M. B.

    2016-08-01

    In conventional machining and sheet metal forming processes, in general, lubrication assists to increase the quality of the final product. Similarly it is observed that there is a positive effect of the use of lubrication in Single point incremental forming, namely in the surface roughness. This study is focused on the investigation of the most appropriate lubricant for incremental forming of copper sheet. The study involves the selection of the best lubricant from a range of several lubricants that provides the best surface finishing. The influence of the lubrication on other parameters such as the maximum forming angle, the fracture strains and the deformed profile are also studied for Copper.

  8. Study of point defects in alkaline-earth sulfides

    SciTech Connect

    Pandey, R.; Kunz, A.B.; Vail, J.M.

    1988-11-01

    The results of a computer simulation study of point defects including vacancy, interstitial, and F/sup +/ center in alkaline-earth sulfides are presented. The study is based on ICECAP/HADES simulation procedures and uses empirical interionic potentials obtained from the analysis of macroscopic data for these materials. The results predict the dominance of Schottky disorder and suggest that vacancy migration predominates in alkaline-earth sulfides. Furthermore, the calculated F/sup +/ center absorption energy is in good agreement with the experimental data deduced from the optical stimulated studies in these materials.

  9. Early Mission Maneuver Operations for the Deep Space Climate Observatory Sun-Earth L1 Libration Point Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, Craig; Case, Sara; Reagoso, John; Webster, Cassandra

    2015-01-01

    The Deep Space Climate Observatory mission launched on February 11, 2015, and inserted onto a transfer trajectory toward a Lissajous orbit around the Sun-Earth L1 libration point. This paper presents an overview of the baseline transfer orbit and early mission maneuver operations leading up to the start of nominal science orbit operations. In particular, the analysis and performance of the spacecraft insertion, mid-course correction maneuvers, and the deep-space Lissajous orbit insertion maneuvers are discussed, com-paring the baseline orbit with actual mission results and highlighting mission and operations constraints..

  10. 77 FR 22361 - Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc., (Indian Point Nuclear Generating Units 2 and 3); Notice of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc., (Indian Point Nuclear Generating Units 2 and 3); Notice of Atomic Safety and Licensing Board Reconstitution Pursuant to 10 CFR 2.313(c) and 2.321(b), the...

  11. 47 CFR 90.473 - Operation of internal transmitter control systems through licensed fixed control points.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Operation of internal transmitter control... COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PRIVATE LAND MOBILE RADIO SERVICES Transmitter Control Internal Transmitter Control Systems § 90.473 Operation of internal transmitter...

  12. 47 CFR 90.473 - Operation of internal transmitter control systems through licensed fixed control points.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Operation of internal transmitter control... COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PRIVATE LAND MOBILE RADIO SERVICES Transmitter Control Internal Transmitter Control Systems § 90.473 Operation of internal transmitter...

  13. 47 CFR 90.473 - Operation of internal transmitter control systems through licensed fixed control points.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Operation of internal transmitter control... COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PRIVATE LAND MOBILE RADIO SERVICES Transmitter Control Internal Transmitter Control Systems § 90.473 Operation of internal transmitter...

  14. 78 FR 44881 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; York River, Between Yorktown and Gloucester Point, VA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-25

    ... structure. Under the regular operating schedule, the Coleman Memorial Bridge, mile 7.0, between Gloucester... operation of the Coleman Memorial Bridge (US 17/George P. Coleman Memorial Swing Bridge) across the York... maintenance work on the moveable spans on the Coleman Memorial Bridge. This temporary deviation allows...

  15. Towards a controlled study of the QCD critical point

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Forcrand, Ph; Philipsen, O.

    2008-10-01

    The phase diagram of QCD, as a function of temperature T and quark chemical potential μ, may contain a critical point (μE, TE) whose non-perturbative nature makes it a natural object of lattice studies. However, the sign problem prevents the application of standard Monte Carlo techniques at nonzero baryon density. We have been pursuing an approach free of the sign problem, where the chemical potential is taken as imaginary and the results are Taylor expanded in μ/T about μ = 0, then analytically continued to real μ. Within this approach we have determined the sensitivity of the critical chemical potential μE to the quark mass, d(\\mu_E)^2/dm_q|_{\\mu_E=0} . Our study indicates that the critical point moves to a larger chemical potential as the quark mass decreases. This finding, contrary to common wisdom, implies that the deconfinement crossover, which takes place in QCD at μ = 0 when the temperature is raised, will remain a crossover in the μ-region where our Taylor expansion can be trusted. If this result, obtained on a coarse lattice, is confirmed by simulations on finer lattices now in progress, then we predict that no chiral critical point will be found for μB lsim 500 MeV, unless the phase diagram contains additional transitions.

  16. Space Shuttle Proximity Operation Sensor Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weber, C. L.; Alem, W. K.

    1978-01-01

    The performance of the Kuband radar was analyzed in detail, and the performance was updated and summarized. In so doing, two different radar design philosophies were described, and the corresponding differences in losses were enumerated. The resulting design margins were determined for both design philosophies and for both the designated and nondesignated range modes of operation. In some cases, the design margin was about zero, and in other cases it was significantly less than zero. With the point of view described above, the recommended solution is to allow more scan time but at the present scan rate. With no other changes in the present configuration, the radar met design detection specifications for all design philosophies at a range of 11.3 nautical miles.

  17. LST data management and mission operations concept. [pointing control optimization for maximum data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, R.; Hudson, F.; Murphy, L.

    1977-01-01

    A candidate design concept for an LST ground facility is described. The design objectives were to use NASA institutional hardware, software and facilities wherever practical, and to maximize efficiency of telescope use. The pointing control performance requirements of LST are summarized, and the major data interfaces of the candidate ground system are diagrammed.

  18. Computational Analysis of Distance Operators for the Iterative Closest Point Algorithm

    PubMed Central

    Mora-Pascual, Jerónimo M.; García-García, Alberto; Martínez-González, Pablo

    2016-01-01

    The Iterative Closest Point (ICP) algorithm is currently one of the most popular methods for rigid registration so that it has become the standard in the Robotics and Computer Vision communities. Many applications take advantage of it to align 2D/3D surfaces due to its popularity and simplicity. Nevertheless, some of its phases present a high computational cost thus rendering impossible some of its applications. In this work, it is proposed an efficient approach for the matching phase of the Iterative Closest Point algorithm. This stage is the main bottleneck of that method so that any efficiency improvement has a great positive impact on the performance of the algorithm. The proposal consists in using low computational cost point-to-point distance metrics instead of classic Euclidean one. The candidates analysed are the Chebyshev and Manhattan distance metrics due to their simpler formulation. The experiments carried out have validated the performance, robustness and quality of the proposal. Different experimental cases and configurations have been set up including a heterogeneous set of 3D figures, several scenarios with partial data and random noise. The results prove that an average speed up of 14% can be obtained while preserving the convergence properties of the algorithm and the quality of the final results. PMID:27768714

  19. A survey of ground operations tools developed to simulate the pointing of space telescopes and the design for WISE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fabinsky, Beth

    2006-01-01

    WISE, the Wide Field Infrared Survey Explorer, is scheduled for launch in June 2010. The mission operations system for WISE requires a software modeling tool to help plan, integrate and simulate all spacecraft pointing and verify that no attitude constraints are violated. In the course of developing the requirements for this tool, an investigation was conducted into the design of similar tools for other space-based telescopes. This paper summarizes the ground software and processes used to plan and validate pointing for a selection of space telescopes; with this information as background, the design for WISE is presented.

  20. Acupuncture points for treating Parkinson's disease based on animal studies.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Sunoh; Seo, Byung-Kwan; Kim, Seungtae

    2016-10-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a well-known neurodegenerative disease caused by dopaminergic cell death in the nigrostriatal pathway. Recent studies have shown that acupuncture can be a potential therapy for the treatment of PD, but it is not clear which acupuncture points (acupoints) play major roles in reliving symptoms of PD. Yanglingquan (GB 34), Zusanli (ST 36), Fengfu (GV 16), Taichong (LR 3), Baihui (GV 20) and Dazhui (GV 14) acupoints have frequently been to investigate the effectiveness and action mechanism of acupuncture for treating PD, but it is not clear why they were selected. This review summarizes the current understanding of the acupoints for PD treatment based on Oriental medicine theories and on the accumulated findings from previous animal studies. The results of this study will be useful to development of a strategy for future research in this field.

  1. First-principles study of point defects in thorium carbide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez Daroca, D.; Jaroszewicz, S.; Llois, A. M.; Mosca, H. O.

    2014-11-01

    Thorium-based materials are currently being investigated in relation with their potential utilization in Generation-IV reactors as nuclear fuels. One of the most important issues to be studied is their behavior under irradiation. A first approach to this goal is the study of point defects. By means of first-principles calculations within the framework of density functional theory, we study the stability and formation energies of vacancies, interstitials and Frenkel pairs in thorium carbide. We find that C isolated vacancies are the most likely defects, while C interstitials are energetically favored as compared to Th ones. These kind of results for ThC, to the best authors' knowledge, have not been obtained previously, neither experimentally, nor theoretically. For this reason, we compare with results on other compounds with the same NaCl-type structure.

  2. Sensor study for high speed autonomous operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, Anne; La Celle, Zachary; Lacaze, Alberto; Murphy, Karl; Del Giorno, Mark; Close, Ryan

    2015-06-01

    As robotic ground systems advance in capabilities and begin to fulfill new roles in both civilian and military life, the limitation of slow operational speed has become a hindrance to the wide-spread adoption of these systems. For example, military convoys are reluctant to employ autonomous vehicles when these systems slow their movement from 60 miles per hour down to 40. However, these autonomous systems must operate at these lower speeds due to the limitations of the sensors they employ. Robotic Research, with its extensive experience in ground autonomy and associated problems therein, in conjunction with CERDEC/Night Vision and Electronic Sensors Directorate (NVESD), has performed a study to specify system and detection requirements; determined how current autonomy sensors perform in various scenarios; and analyzed how sensors should be employed to increase operational speeds of ground vehicles. The sensors evaluated in this study include the state of the art in LADAR/LIDAR, Radar, Electro-Optical, and Infrared sensors, and have been analyzed at high speeds to study their effectiveness in detecting and accounting for obstacles and other perception challenges. By creating a common set of testing benchmarks, and by testing in a wide range of real-world conditions, Robotic Research has evaluated where sensors can be successfully employed today; where sensors fall short; and which technologies should be examined and developed further. This study is the first step to achieve the overarching goal of doubling ground vehicle speeds on any given terrain.

  3. Vaccine distribution: an operations research study.

    PubMed

    Subramanyam, K

    1989-01-01

    The implementation of an immunization program in rural areas is affected by lacunae in the vaccine distribution system. A study conducted in India identified the extent to which irregular supply of vaccines has affected the immunization program. This study also identified other problem areas, such as a faulty cold chain and the need for an improved monitoring and control system and for better supervision. A model was designed to represent the immunization program and was used to assess the performance of the system under different supply conditions and operational policies. The study identified a number of improvements that could be made in the vaccine distribution system.

  4. Point-and-stare operation and high-speed image acquisition in real-time hyperspectral imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Driver, Richard D.; Bannon, David P.; Ciccone, Domenic; Hill, Sam L.

    2010-04-01

    The design and optical performance of a small-footprint, low-power, turnkey, Point-And-Stare hyperspectral analyzer, capable of fully automated field deployment in remote and harsh environments, is described. The unit is packaged for outdoor operation in an IP56 protected air-conditioned enclosure and includes a mechanically ruggedized fully reflective, aberration-corrected hyperspectral VNIR (400-1000 nm) spectrometer with a board-level detector optimized for point and stare operation, an on-board computer capable of full system data-acquisition and control, and a fully functioning internal hyperspectral calibration system for in-situ system spectral calibration and verification. Performance data on the unit under extremes of real-time survey operation and high spatial and high spectral resolution will be discussed. Hyperspectral acquisition including full parameter tracking is achieved by the addition of a fiber-optic based downwelling spectral channel for solar illumination tracking during hyperspectral acquisition and the use of other sensors for spatial and directional tracking to pinpoint view location. The system is mounted on a Pan-And-Tilt device, automatically controlled from the analyzer's on-board computer, making the HyperspecTM particularly adaptable for base security, border protection and remote deployments. A hyperspectral macro library has been developed to control hyperspectral image acquisition, system calibration and scene location control. The software allows the system to be operated in a fully automatic mode or under direct operator control through a GigE interface.

  5. Case Study of Reservoir Operation with SSSLP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howard, C. D.

    2012-12-01

    by Charles D. D. Howard, Member AGU Senior Advisor, CddHoward Consulting Ltd Victoria, BC, Canada. For a continuous period of eight years a conceptual hydrologic model was coupled with a stochastic optimization model during operation of two hydroelectric reservoirs in mountain watersheds of coastal British Columbia. The results in terms of increased actual energy generation may provide insight into a simple methodology suitable for other similar situations. The optimization model was updated each week with current reservoir levels, operating criteria (such as unit outages) and stochastic inflow forecasts covering a 52 week time horizon. The weekly operating decisions were based on a stochastic linear programming model of the time horizon but recommended the optimal releases in only the first week. Implementation and management of the method was expedited by not considering the full multi-stage decision tree. This method is called SSLP, Single Stage Stochastic Linear Programming. The paper provides two comparisons for how well this methodology can perform. The first shows comparisons of actual energy generation, generation that could have been achieved if the model recommendations had been more strictly adopted, and generation that would have occurred if the previous rule curve had been followed. The second is an academic study that explored how much detail is actually needed in reservoir operations optimization. For this a single stage stochastic linear programming model of a hypothetical reservoir was compared with a stochastic dynamic programming application that modeled the full decision tree.

  6. Partial difference operators on weighted graphs for image processing on surfaces and point clouds.

    PubMed

    Lozes, Francois; Elmoataz, Abderrahim; Lezoray, Olivier

    2014-09-01

    Partial difference equations (PDEs) and variational methods for image processing on Euclidean domains spaces are very well established because they permit to solve a large range of real computer vision problems. With the recent advent of many 3D sensors, there is a growing interest in transposing and solving PDEs on surfaces and point clouds. In this paper, we propose a simple method to solve such PDEs using the framework of PDEs on graphs. This latter approach enables us to transcribe, for surfaces and point clouds, many models and algorithms designed for image processing. To illustrate our proposal, three problems are considered: (1) p -Laplacian restoration and inpainting; (2) PDEs mathematical morphology; and (3) active contours segmentation.

  7. Particulate emissions calculations from fall tillage operations using point and remote sensors

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Preparation of soil for agricultural crops produces aerosols that may significantly contribute to seasonal atmospheric loadings of particulate matter (PM). Efforts to reduce PM emissions from tillage operations through a variety of conservation management practices (CMP) have been made but the reduc...

  8. 78 FR 21064 - Drawbridge Operation Regulations; York River, between Yorktown and Gloucester Point, VA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-09

    ... draw of the US 17/George P. Coleman Memorial Swing Bridge across the York River, at mile 7.0, between.... Coleman Memorial Swing Bridge. This temporary deviation allows the drawbridge to remain in the closed- to... Transportation, who owns and operates this swing bridge, has requested a temporary deviation from the...

  9. The QACITS pointing sensor: from theory to on-sky operation on Keck/NIRC2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huby, Elsa; Absil, Olivier; Mawet, Dimitri; Baudoz, Pierre; Femenıa Castellã, Bruno; Bottom, Michael; Ngo, Henry; Serabyn, Eugene

    2016-07-01

    Small inner working angle coronagraphs are essential to benefit from the full potential of large and future extremely large ground-based telescopes, especially in the context of the detection and characterization of exoplanets. Among existing solutions, the vortex coronagraph stands as one of the most effective and promising solutions. However, for focal-plane coronagraph, a small inner working angle comes necessarily at the cost of a high sensitivity to pointing errors. This is the reason why a pointing control system is imperative to stabilize the star on the vortex center against pointing drifts due to mechanical flexures, that generally occur during observation due for instance to temperature and/or gravity variations. We have therefore developed a technique called QACITS1 (Quadrant Analysis of Coronagraphic Images for Tip-tilt Sensing), which is based on the analysis of the coronagraphic image shape to infer the amount of pointing error. It has been shown that the flux gradient in the image is directly related to the amount of tip-tilt affecting the beam. The main advantage of this technique is that it does not require any additional setup and can thus be easily implemented on all current facilities equipped with a vortex phase mask. In this paper, we focus on the implementation of the QACITS sensor at Keck/NIRC2, where an L-band AGPM has been recently commissioned (June and October 2015), successfully validating the QACITS estimator in the case of a centrally obstructed pupil. The algorithm has been designed to be easily handled by any user observing in vortex mode, which is available for science in shared risk mode since 2016B.

  10. Temperature Effects of Point Sources, Riparian Shading, and Dam Operations on the Willamette River, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rounds, Stewart A.

    2007-01-01

    Water temperature is an important factor influencing the migration, rearing, and spawning of several important fish species in rivers of the Pacific Northwest. To protect these fish populations and to fulfill its responsibilities under the Federal Clean Water Act, the Oregon Department of Environmental Quality set a water temperature Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) in 2006 for the Willamette River and the lower reaches of its largest tributaries in northwestern Oregon. As a result, the thermal discharges of the largest point sources of heat to the Willamette River now are limited at certain times of the year, riparian vegetation has been targeted for restoration, and upstream dams are recognized as important influences on downstream temperatures. Many of the prescribed point-source heat-load allocations are sufficiently restrictive that management agencies may need to expend considerable resources to meet those allocations. Trading heat allocations among point-source dischargers may be a more economical and efficient means of meeting the cumulative point-source temperature limits set by the TMDL. The cumulative nature of these limits, however, precludes simple one-to-one trades of heat from one point source to another; a more detailed spatial analysis is needed. In this investigation, the flow and temperature models that formed the basis of the Willamette temperature TMDL were used to determine a spatially indexed 'heating signature' for each of the modeled point sources, and those signatures then were combined into a user-friendly, spreadsheet-based screening tool. The Willamette River Point-Source Heat-Trading Tool allows the user to increase or decrease the heating signature of each source and thereby evaluate the effects of a wide range of potential point-source heat trades. The predictions of the Trading Tool were verified by running the Willamette flow and temperature models under four different trading scenarios, and the predictions typically were accurate

  11. Point defects in thorium nitride: A first-principles study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez Daroca, D.; Llois, A. M.; Mosca, H. O.

    2016-11-01

    Thorium and its compounds (carbides and nitrides) are being investigated as possible materials to be used as nuclear fuels for Generation-IV reactors. As a first step in the research of these materials under irradiation, we study the formation energies and stability of point defects in thorium nitride by means of first-principles calculations within the framework of density functional theory. We focus on vacancies, interstitials, Frenkel pairs and Schottky defects. We found that N and Th vacancies have almost the same formation energy and that the most energetically favorable defects of all studied in this work are N interstitials. These kind of results for ThN, to the best authors' knowledge, have not been obtained previously, neither experimentally, nor theoretically.

  12. Point of View: Leadership Studies from Different Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harter, Nathan

    2012-01-01

    By adopting the dictum that all knowledge is knowledge from a point of view, educators can arrange the literature on leadership into nine categories from three conceptually distinct points of view, namely the Leader, the Follower, and the Investigator. Students who come to appreciate and account for point of view not only increase their…

  13. Operational Implementation of the Healthy Communities Study

    PubMed Central

    John, Lisa V.; Gregoriou, Maria; Pate, Russell R.; Fawcett, Stephen B.; Crawford, Patricia B.; Strauss, Warren; Frongillo, Edward A.; Ritchie, Lorrene D.; Loria, Catherine M.; Kelley, Melinda; Fishbein, Howard; Arteaga, S. Sonia

    2015-01-01

    The Healthy Communities Study (HCS) is examining how characteristics of community programs and policies targeting childhood obesity are related to childhood diet, physical activity, and obesity outcomes. The study involves selected districts and public schools in 130 communities; families recruited through schools; and data collected at the community, school, household, and child levels. Data collection took place in two waves—Wave 1 in Spring 2012 and Wave 2 from 2013 to 2015—with analysis to be completed by August 2016. This paper describes operational elements of the HCS, including recruitment activities, field operations, training of data collectors, human subjects protection, and quality assurance and quality control procedures. Experienced trainers oversaw and conducted all training, including training of: (1) district and school recruitment staff; (2) telephone interviewers for household screening and recruitment; (3) field data collectors for conducting household data collection; and (4) community liaisons for conducting key informant interviews, document abstraction, and community observations. The study team developed quality assurance and quality control procedures that were implemented for all aspects of the study. Planning and operationalizing a study of this complexity and magnitude, with multiple functional teams, required frequent communication and strong collaboration among all study partners to ensure timely and effective decision making. PMID:26384933

  14. Calculation studies on point defects in perovskite solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Dan; Dai, Chenmin; Chen, Shiyou

    2017-01-01

    The close-to-optimal band gap, large absorption coefficient, low manufacturing cost and rapid increase in power conversion efficiency make the organic–inorganic hybrid halide (CH3NH3PbI3) and related perovskite solar cells very promising for commercialization. The properties of point defects in the absorber layer semiconductors have important influence on the photovoltaic performance of solar cells, so the investigation on the defect properties in the perovskite semiconductors is necessary for the optimization of their photovoltaic performance. In this work, we give a brief review to the first-principles calculation studies on the defect properties in a series of perovskite semiconductors, including the organic–inorganic hybrid perovskites and inorganic halide perovskites. Experimental identification of these point defects and characterization of their properties are called for. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 61574059), the Shanghai Rising-Star Program (No. 14QA1401500), the Shu-Guang Program (15SG20), and the CC of ECNU.

  15. Correlation of part-span damper losses through transonic rotors operating near design point

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, W. B.

    1977-01-01

    The design-point losses caused by part-span dampers (PSD) were correlated for 21 transonic axial flow fan rotors that had tip speeds varying from 350 to 488 meters per second and design pressure ratios of 1.5 to 2.0. For these rotors a correlation using mean inlet Mach number at the damper location, along with relevant geometric and aerodynamic loading parameters, predicts the variation of total pressure loss coefficient in the region of the damper to a good approximation.

  16. Studies of acoustic emission from point and extended sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sachse, W.; Kim, K. Y.; Chen, C. P.

    1986-01-01

    The use of simulated and controlled acoustic emission signals forms the basis of a powerful tool for the detailed study of various deformation and wave interaction processes in materials. The results of experiments and signal analyses of acoustic emission resulting from point sources such as various types of indentation-produced cracks in brittle materials and the growth of fatigue cracks in 7075-T6 aluminum panels are discussed. Recent work dealing with the modeling and subsequent signal processing of an extended source of emission in a material is reviewed. Results of the forward problem and the inverse problem are presented with the example of a source distributed through the interior of a specimen.

  17. Integrated Operations Architecture Technology Assessment Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    As part of NASA's Integrated Operations Architecture (IOA) Baseline, NASA will consolidate all communications operations. including ground-based, near-earth, and deep-space communications, into a single integrated network. This network will make maximum use of commercial equipment, services and standards. It will be an Internet Protocol (IP) based network. This study supports technology development planning for the IOA. The technical problems that may arise when LEO mission spacecraft interoperate with commercial satellite services were investigated. Commercial technology and services that could support the IOA were surveyed, and gaps in the capability of existing technology and techniques were identified. Recommendations were made on which gaps should be closed by means of NASA research and development funding. Several findings emerged from the interoperability assessment: in the NASA mission set, there is a preponderance of small. inexpensive, low data rate science missions; proposed commercial satellite communications services could potentially provide TDRSS-like data relay functions; and. IP and related protocols, such as TCP, require augmentation to operate in the mobile networking environment required by the space-to-ground portion of the IOA. Five case studies were performed in the technology assessment. Each case represented a realistic implementation of the near-earth portion of the IOA. The cases included the use of frequencies at L-band, Ka-band and the optical spectrum. The cases also represented both space relay architectures and direct-to-ground architectures. Some of the main recommendations resulting from the case studies are: select an architecture for the LEO/MEO communications network; pursue the development of a Ka-band space-qualified transmitter (and possibly a receiver), and a low-cost Ka-band ground terminal for a direct-to-ground network, pursue the development of an Inmarsat (L-band) space-qualified transceiver to implement a global, low

  18. Space Shuttle Earth Observation sensors pointing and stabilization requirements study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The shuttle orbiter inertial measurement unit (IMU), located in the orbiter cabin, is used to supply inertial attitude reference signals; and, in conjunction with the onboard navigation system, can provide a pointing capability of the navigation base accurate to within plus or minus 0.5 deg for earth viewing missions. This pointing accuracy can degrade to approximately plus or minus 2.0 deg for payloads located in the aft bay due to structural flexure of the shuttle vehicle, payload structural and mounting misalignments, and calibration errors with respect to the navigation base. Drawbacks to obtaining pointing accuracy by using the orbiter RCS jets are discussed. Supplemental electromechanical pointing systems are developed to provide independent pointing for individual sensors, or sensor groupings. The missions considered and the sensors required for these missions and the parameters of each sensor are described. Assumptions made to derive pointing and stabilization requirements are delineated.

  19. Common Operating Picture: UAV Security Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This initial communication security study is a top-level assessment of basic security issues related to the operation of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) in the National Airspace System (NAS). Security considerations will include information relating to the use of International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) Aeronautical Telecommunications Network (ATN) protocols and applications identifying their maturity, as well as the use of IPV4 and a version of mobile IPV6. The purpose of this assessment is to provide an initial analysis of the security implications of introducing UAVs into the NAS.

  20. Ergonomic comparison of operating a built-in touch-pad pointing device and a trackball mouse on posture and muscle activity.

    PubMed

    Lee, Tzu-Hsien

    2005-12-01

    This study examined the effects of operating a built-in touch-pad pointing device and a trackball mouse on participants' completion times, hand positions during operation, postural angles, and muscle activities. 8 young men were asked to perform a cursor travel task on a notebook computer using both 60- and 80-cm high table conditions. Analysis showed that the trackball mouse significantly decreased completion times. Participants selected a hand position farther from the table edge and larger elbow angle for the trackball mouse than for the built-in touch-pad pointing device. Participants' neck, thoracic, and arm angles, or splenius capitis, trapezius, deltoid, and erector spinae muscle activities were not significantly affected by the devices, but table height significantly affected participants' completion times, hand positions, and postural angles.

  1. Intracellular calcium affects prestin's voltage operating point indirectly via turgor-induced membrane tension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Lei; Santos-Sacchi, Joseph

    2015-12-01

    Recent identification of a calmodulin binding site within prestin's C-terminus indicates that calcium can significantly alter prestin's operating voltage range as gauged by the Boltzmann parameter Vh (Keller et al., J. Neuroscience, 2014). We reasoned that those experiments may have identified the molecular substrate for the protein's tension sensitivity. In an effort to understand how this may happen, we evaluated the effects of turgor pressure on such shifts produced by calcium. We find that the shifts are induced by calcium's ability to reduce turgor pressure during whole cell voltage clamp recording. Clamping turgor pressure to 1kPa, the cell's normal intracellular pressure, completely counters the calcium effect. Furthermore, following unrestrained shifts, collapsing the cells abolishes induced shifts. We conclude that calcium does not work by direct action on prestin's conformational state. The possibility remains that calcium interaction with prestin alters water movements within the cell, possibly via its anion transport function.

  2. Chandra X-Ray Observatory Pointing Control System Performance During Transfer Orbit and Initial On-Orbit Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quast, Peter; Tung, Frank; West, Mark; Wider, John

    2000-01-01

    The Chandra X-ray Observatory (CXO, formerly AXAF) is the third of the four NASA great observatories. It was launched from Kennedy Space Flight Center on 23 July 1999 aboard the Space Shuttle Columbia and was successfully inserted in a 330 x 72,000 km orbit by the Inertial Upper Stage (IUS). Through a series of five Integral Propulsion System burns, CXO was placed in a 10,000 x 139,000 km orbit. After initial on-orbit checkout, Chandra's first light images were unveiled to the public on 26 August, 1999. The CXO Pointing Control and Aspect Determination (PCAD) subsystem is designed to perform attitude control and determination functions in support of transfer orbit operations and on-orbit science mission. After a brief description of the PCAD subsystem, the paper highlights the PCAD activities during the transfer orbit and initial on-orbit operations. These activities include: CXO/IUS separation, attitude and gyro bias estimation with earth sensor and sun sensor, attitude control and disturbance torque estimation for delta-v burns, momentum build-up due to gravity gradient and solar pressure, momentum unloading with thrusters, attitude initialization with star measurements, gyro alignment calibration, maneuvering and transition to normal pointing, and PCAD pointing and stability performance.

  3. A Data Filter for Identifying Steady-State Operating Points in Engine Flight Data for Condition Monitoring Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, Donald L.; Litt, Jonathan S.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents an algorithm that automatically identifies and extracts steady-state engine operating points from engine flight data. It calculates the mean and standard deviation of select parameters contained in the incoming flight data stream. If the standard deviation of the data falls below defined constraints, the engine is assumed to be at a steady-state operating point, and the mean measurement data at that point are archived for subsequent condition monitoring purposes. The fundamental design of the steady-state data filter is completely generic and applicable for any dynamic system. Additional domain-specific logic constraints are applied to reduce data outliers and variance within the collected steady-state data. The filter is designed for on-line real-time processing of streaming data as opposed to post-processing of the data in batch mode. Results of applying the steady-state data filter to recorded helicopter engine flight data are shown, demonstrating its utility for engine condition monitoring applications.

  4. Tricritical point in ferroelastic ammonium titanyl fluoride: NMR study

    SciTech Connect

    Kavun, V.Ya.; Kozlova, S.G.; Laptash, N.M; Tkachenko, I.A.; Gabuda, S.P

    2010-09-15

    Ionic mobility and phase transitions in ammonium titanyl pentafluoride (NH{sub 4}){sub 3}TiOF{sub 5} were studied using the {sup 19}F and {sup 1}H NMR data. The high-temperature phase (I) is characterized by spherically symmetric (isotropic) reorientation of [TiOF{sub 5}]{sup 3-} anions and by uniaxial reorientation of these anions in the ferroelastic phase II. A previously unknown second-order phase transition to the low-temperature modification (NH{sub 4}){sub 3}TiOF{sub 5}(III) was found at 205 K. The transition is accompanied by hindering of uniaxial rotations of [TiOF{sub 5}]{sup 3-} anions and by noticeable change of {sup 19}F magnetic shielding tensor associated with the influence of pseudo-Jahn-Teller effect. A pressure-induced tricritical point with coordinates p{sub TCR{approx}}2 kbar and T{sub TCR{approx}}170 K is estimated on the base of {sup 19}F NMR chemical shift data, and previously studied p-T diagram of (NH{sub 4}){sub 3}TiOF{sub 5}. - Graphical abstract: p-T phase diagram of (NH{sub 4}){sub 3}TiOF{sub 5}.

  5. Surfactant studies for bench-scale operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hickey, Gregory S.; Sharma, Pramod K.

    1992-01-01

    A phase 2 study was initiated to investigate surfactant-assisted coal liquefaction, with the objective of quantifying the enhancement in liquid yields and product quality. This publication covers the first quarter of work. The major accomplishments were: the refurbishment of the high-pressure, high-temperature reactor autoclave, the completion of four coal liquefaction runs with Pittsburgh #8 coal, two each with and without sodium lignosulfonate surfactant, and the development of an analysis scheme for the product liquid filtrate and filter cake. Initial results at low reactor temperatures show that the addition of the surfactant produces an improvement in conversion yields and an increase in lighter boiling point fractions for the filtrate.

  6. Rulemaking Petition to lower the threshold that qualifies animal feeding operations (“AFOs”) as concentrated animal feeding operations (“CAFOs”) and thereby “point sources” under section 402 of the Clean Water Act (“CWA”)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Rulemaking Petition submitted September 20, 2015 to lower the threshold that qualifies animal feeding operations (AFOs) as concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) and thereby point sources under§ 402 of the Clean Water Act (CWA).

  7. [Receiver operating characteristic analysis and the cost--benefit analysis in determination of the optimal cut-off point].

    PubMed

    Vránová, J; Horák, J; Krátká, K; Hendrichová, M; Kovaírková, K

    2009-01-01

    An overview of the use of Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) analysis within medicine is provided. A survey of the theory behind the analysis is offered together with a presentation on how to create a ROC curve and how to use Cost--Benefit analysis to determine the optimal cut-off point or threshold. The use of ROC analysis is exemplified in the "Cost--Benefit analysis" section of the paper. In these examples, it can be seen that the determination of the optimal cut-off point is mainly influenced by the prevalence and the severity of the disease, by the risks and adverse events of treatment or the diagnostic testing, by the overall costs of treating true and false positives (TP and FP), and by the risk of deficient or non-treatment of false negative (FN) cases.

  8. [Garbage incineration plants -- planning, organisation and operation from health point of view].

    PubMed

    Thriene, B

    2004-12-01

    The Waste Disposal Regulation which became effective March 1, 2001 stipulates that from June 1, 2005 biodegradable residential household and commercial waste may only be deposited on landfills after thermal or mechanical-biological pre-treatment. The Regulation aims at preventing generation of landfill gases that are detrimental to health and climate, and discharge of pollutants from landfills into the groundwater. Waste calculations for the year 2005 predict a volume of 28 million tons. Existing incineration and mechanical-biological treatment plants cover volumes of 14 and 2.5 million tons, respectively. Consequently, their capacity does not meet the demand in Germany. Waste disposal plans have been prepared in the German Federal State of Saxony-Anhalt since 1996 and potential sites for garbage incineration plants have been identified. Energy and waste management companies have initiated application procedures for thermal waste treatment plants and utilization of energy. Health Departments and the Hygiene Institute contributed to the approval procedure by providing the required Health Impact Assessment. We recommended selecting sites in the vicinity of large cities and conurbations and - taking into account the main wind direction - preferably in the northeast. Long-distance transport should be avoided. Based on immission forecasts for territorial background pollution, additional noise and air pollution were examined for reasonableness. In addition, providing structural safety of plants and guaranteeing continuous monitoring of emission limit values of air pollutants, was a prerequisite for strict observance of the 17 (th) BImSchV (Federal Decree on the Prevention of Immissions). The paper informs about planning, construction and conditions for operating the combined garbage heating and power station in Magdeburg-Rothensee (600,000 t/a). Saxony-Anhalt's waste legislation requires non-recyclable waste to be disposed of at the place of its generation, if possible

  9. Operations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkins, Jesse L. M.; Norton, Anderson; Boyce, Steven J.

    2013-01-01

    Previous research has documented schemes and operations that undergird students' understanding of fractions. This prior research was based, in large part, on small-group teaching experiments. However, written assessments are needed in order for teachers and researchers to assess students' ways of operating on a whole-class scale. In this study,…

  10. Study of freezing-point depression of selected food extracts

    SciTech Connect

    Tanaka, Fumihiko; Murata, Satoshi; Habara, Kazuhiro; Amaratunga, K.S.P.

    1996-12-31

    The phenomenon of freezing-point depression that accompanies the solute concentration of selected food extracts was investigated to reveal the characteristics of solid-liquid phase equilibrium. The freezing curves of various food extracts did not exhibit ideal solution behavior in the higher concentration range. The experimental data were fitted to new freezing-point depression equations by the method of nonlinear least squares, and the results clearly indicated that the calculated freezing points at various concentrations were in good agreement with the experimental data. Furthermore, by using the determined parameters, the freezing ratio and the activation coefficient were derived.

  11. Operationally Efficient Propulsion System Study (OEPPS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wong, G. S.; Waldrop, G. S.; Byrd, R. J.; Ziese, J. M.

    1991-01-01

    A description is presented, through view graphs, of the problems encountered in today's launch vehicles and how these problems have adversely affected the ability to achieve serviceability, reliability, and operability. The need is emphasized to recognize and understand the operations problems and the effort that must be made to avoid them in future designs. Technology areas that will enhance operations requirements are also presented.

  12. The use of experimental design to find the operating maximum power point of PEM fuel cells

    SciTech Connect

    Crăciunescu, Aurelian; Pătularu, Laurenţiu; Ciumbulea, Gloria; Olteanu, Valentin; Pitorac, Cristina; Drugan, Elena

    2015-03-10

    Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) Fuel Cells are difficult to model due to their complex nonlinear nature. In this paper, the development of a PEM Fuel Cells mathematical model based on the Design of Experiment methodology is described. The Design of Experiment provides a very efficient methodology to obtain a mathematical model for the studied multivariable system with only a few experiments. The obtained results can be used for optimization and control of the PEM Fuel Cells systems.

  13. Operationally efficient propulsion system study (OEPSS) data book. Volume 6; Space Transfer Propulsion Operational Efficiency Study Task of OEPSS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harmon, Timothy J.

    1992-01-01

    This document is the final report for the Space Transfer Propulsion Operational Efficiency Study Task of the Operationally Efficient Propulsion System Study (OEPSS) conducted by the Rocketdyne Division of Rockwell International. This Study task studied, evaluated and identified design concepts and technologies which minimized launch and in-space operations and optimized in-space vehicle propulsion system operability.

  14. Short-term scheduling of crude oil operations in refinery with high-fusion-point oil and two transportation pipelines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, NaiQi; Zhu, MengChu; Bai, LiPing; Li, ZhiWu

    2016-07-01

    In some refineries, storage tanks are located at two different sites, one for low-fusion-point crude oil and the other for high one. Two pipelines are used to transport different oil types. Due to the constraints resulting from the high-fusion-point oil transportation, it is challenging to schedule such a system. This work studies the scheduling problem from a control-theoretic perspective. It proposes to use a hybrid Petri net method to model the system. It then finds the schedulability conditions by analysing the dynamic behaviour of the net model. Next, it proposes an efficient scheduling method to minimize the cost of high-fusion-point oil transportation. Finally, it gives a complex industrial case study to show its application.

  15. A randomised controlled trial examining the effect of acupuncture at the EX-HN3 (Yintang) point on pre-operative anxiety levels in neurosurgical patients.

    PubMed

    Wiles, M D; Mamdani, J; Pullman, M; Andrzejowski, J C

    2017-03-01

    Pre-operative anxiety is an unpleasant state of psychological distress that occurs in up to 87% of patients awaiting neurosurgical procedures. Sedative medication is undesirable in this population due to the need for early postoperative neurological assessment. Acupuncture has previously been shown to reduce pre-operative anxiety, but studies involving neurosurgical patients are lacking. This single-centre, prospective, randomised controlled trial was designed to determine the effect of acupuncture at the EX-HN3 (Yintang point) on pre-operative anxiety levels in neurosurgical patients. The study was prospectively registered before participant recruitment. After measuring baseline anxiety levels, 128 patients were randomly allocated in a 1:1 ratio by a web-based computer program to receive either acupuncture at the EX-HN3 (Yintang) point (acupuncture group) or no intervention (control group). Participants were not blinded, but all analyses were performed by a member of the research team who was unaware of the group allocation. The primary outcome measure was anxiety level after 30 min, as measured by the six-item short form of the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (possible score range 20-80). Sixty-two patients in each group were subsequently analysed. Median (IQR [range]) anxiety State-Trait Anxiety Inventory score reduced significantly in the acupuncture group (46.7 (36.7-53.3 [23.3-70.0]) to 40.0 (30.0-46.7) [20.0-53.3]), p < 0.001), with no change seen in the control group (41.7 (33.3-53.3 [20.0-76.7]) to 43.3 (36.7-50.0 [20.0-76.7]), p = 0.829). There were no adverse events in either group. Acupuncture at the EX-HN3 point reduces pre-operative anxiety levels in patients awaiting neurosurgery.

  16. Design Evolution Study Thermal Operating Methodology

    SciTech Connect

    T.L. Mitchell

    2002-04-29

    This study provides results supporting the conclusion that the repository can be operated over a varying range of thermal modes and therefore temperatures. In particular, this work focused on limiting the peak, postclosure waste package surface temperature to less than 85 degrees Celsius, a possible limit due to corrosion considerations. These operating modes were compared by varying the waste package in drift spacing (0.1-2.83 meters), drift pitch (drift spacing centerline to centerline of 40-120 meters), ventilation duration (75-300 years), and ventilation efficiency (50-80%). The resulting graphical representation shows where the constant temperature of the waste package (85 degrees Celsius) lies with respect to drift pitch and waste package spacing. The waste considered in this study is the strict youngest fuel first 5 years old fuel. Using only strict youngest fuel first 5 years old fuel in the waste stream results in an average heat load per waste package of 12.48kW/Pkg. With this high average heat load, it is not possible to achieve a maximum waste package surface temperature of 85 degrees Celsius or less. By aging 63% of the strict youngest fuel first 5 years old fuel for 27 years, it becomes possible to maintain the waste package surface temperature at 85 degrees Celsius or less. The 27 years of aging comes from the fact that the repository could be closed in as little as 50 years. It takes 23 years to emplace the waste and therefore the last fuel received for emplacement is 27 years prior to closures. The strict youngest fuel first 5 years old fuel waste stream with 63% aged for 27 years, results in an average power level of 8.4kW/Pkg. This lower heat load allows the controlled parameters of drift pitch, waste package spacing, aging, and ventilation duration to be varied to achieve the desired results. This study compares the hot strict youngest fuel first 5 years old fuel to the previous waste stream, which has an average of 26-year-old fuel. The 26-year

  17. Airborne Precision Spacing for Dependent Parallel Operations Interface Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Volk, Paul M.; Takallu, M. A.; Hoffler, Keith D.; Weiser, Jarold; Turner, Dexter

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes a usability study of proposed cockpit interfaces to support Airborne Precision Spacing (APS) operations for aircraft performing dependent parallel approaches (DPA). NASA has proposed an airborne system called Pair Dependent Speed (PDS) which uses their Airborne Spacing for Terminal Arrival Routes (ASTAR) algorithm to manage spacing intervals. Interface elements were designed to facilitate the input of APS-DPA spacing parameters to ASTAR, and to convey PDS system information to the crew deemed necessary and/or helpful to conduct the operation, including: target speed, guidance mode, target aircraft depiction, and spacing trend indication. In the study, subject pilots observed recorded simulations using the proposed interface elements in which the ownship managed assigned spacing intervals from two other arriving aircraft. Simulations were recorded using the Aircraft Simulation for Traffic Operations Research (ASTOR) platform, a medium-fidelity simulator based on a modern Boeing commercial glass cockpit. Various combinations of the interface elements were presented to subject pilots, and feedback was collected via structured questionnaires. The results of subject pilot evaluations show that the proposed design elements were acceptable, and that preferable combinations exist within this set of elements. The results also point to potential improvements to be considered for implementation in future experiments.

  18. Recent progress towards an advanced spherical torus operating point in NSTX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerhardt, S. P.; Gates, D. A.; Kaye, S. M.; Maingi, R.; Menard, J. E.; Sabbagh, S. A.; Soukhanovskii, V.; Bell, M. G.; Bell, R. E.; Canik, J. M.; Fredrickson, E.; Kaita, R.; Kolemen, E.; Kugel, H.; Le Blanc, B. P.; Mastrovito, D.; Mueller, D.; Yuh, H.

    2011-07-01

    Progress in the development of integrated advanced ST plasma scenarios in NSTX (Ono et al 2000 Nucl. Fusion 40 557) is reported. Recent high-performance plasmas in NSTX following lithium coating of the plasma facing surfaces have achieved higher elongation and lower internal inductance than previously. Analysis of the thermal confinement in these lithiumized discharges shows a stronger plasma current and weaker toroidal field dependence than in previous ST confinement scaling studies; the ITER-98(y, 2) scaling expression describes these scenarios reasonably well. Analysis during periods free of MHD activity has shown that the reconstructed current profile can be understood as the sum of pressure driven, inductive and neutral beam driven currents, without requiring any anomalous fast-ion transport. Non-inductive fractions of 65-70%, and βP > 2, have been achieved at lower plasma current. Some of these low-inductance discharges have a significantly reduced no-wall βN limit, and often have βN at or near the with-wall limit. Coupled m/n = 1/1 + 2/1 kink/tearing modes can limit the sustained β values when rapidly growing ideal modes are avoided. A βN controller has been commissioned and utilized in sustaining high-performance plasmas. 'Snowflake' divertors compatible with high-performance plasmas have been developed. Scenarios with significantly larger aspect ratios have also been developed, in support of next-step ST devices. Overall, these NSTX plasmas have many characteristics required for next-step ST devices.

  19. Recent progress toward an advanced spherical torus operating point in NSTX

    DOE PAGES

    S. P. Gerhardt; Gates, D. A.; Kaye, S.; ...

    2011-05-13

    Progress in the development of integrated advanced ST plasma scenarios in NSTX (Ono et al., 2000 Nucl. Fusion 40 557) is reported. Recent high-performance plasmas in NSTX following lithium coating of the plasma facing surfaces have achieved higher elongation and lower internal inductance than previously. Analysis of the thermal confinement in these lithiumized discharges shows a stronger plasma current and weaker toroidal field dependence than in previous ST confinement scaling studies; the ITER-98(y, 2) scaling expression describes these scenarios reasonably well. Analysis during periods free of MHD activity has shown that the reconstructed current profile can be understood as themore » sum of pressure driven, inductive and neutral beam driven currents, without requiring any anomalous fast-ion transport. Non-inductive fractions of 65–70%, and βP > 2, have been achieved at lower plasma current. Some of these low-inductance discharges have a significantly reduced no-wall βN limit, and often have βN at or near the with-wall limit. Coupled m/n = 1/1 + 2/1 kink/tearing modes can limit the sustained β values when rapidly growing ideal modes are avoided. A βN controller has been commissioned and utilized in sustaining high-performance plasmas. 'Snowflake' divertors compatible with high-performance plasmas have been developed. Scenarios with significantly larger aspect ratios have also been developed, in support of next-step ST devices. Furthermore, these NSTX plasmas have many characteristics required for next-step ST devices.« less

  20. Case Study: Operation Enduring Freedom Philippines

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-10-01

    Special Operations units worked with local authorities, host nation military and non- governmental agencies, to ensure unity of effort. Over time...relatively short time, the local population was made sufficiently comfortable with the host nation and US forces that they began to provide useful...Enduring Freedom Philippines 4 local communities by the terrorist group, highlighted by friendly psychological operations, probably facilitated the

  1. A Theoretical Study of Stagnation-Point Ablation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, Leonard

    1959-01-01

    A simplified analysis is made of ablation cooling near the stagnation point of a two-dimensional or axisymmetric body which occurs as the body vaporizes directly from the solid state. The automatic shielding mechanism Is discussed and the important thermal properties required by a good ablation material are given. The results of the analysis are given in terms of dimensionless parameters.

  2. Clinically relevant study end points in rectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Fernandez-Martos, Carlos; Guerrero, Angel; Minsky, Bruce

    2012-01-01

    In rectal cancer currently there are no clearly validated early end points which can serve as surrogates for long-term clinical outcome such as local control and survival. However, the use of a variety of response rates (i.e. pathological complete response, downsizing the primary tumor, tumor regression grade (TRG), radiological response) as endpoints in early (phase II) clinical trials is common since objective response to therapy is an early indication of activity. Disease-free survival (DFS) has been proposed as the most appropriate end point in adjuvant trials and is one of the most frequently used in newer rectal cancer trials. Due to the devastating nature of local recurrence in locally advanced rectal cancer, local control (which is itself a subset of the overall DFS endpoint) is still considered an important endpoint. Recently, circumferential resection margin (CRM) has been proposed as novel early end point because the CRM status can account for effects on DFS and overall survival after chemoradiation, radiation (RT), or surgery alone. Consensus is needed to define the most appropriate end points in both early and phase III trials in locally advanced cancer.

  3. Review Team Focused Modeling Analysis of Radial Collector Well Operation on the Hypersaline Groundwater Plume beneath the Turkey Point Site near Homestead, Florida

    SciTech Connect

    Oostrom, Martinus; Vail, Lance W.

    2016-08-01

    Researchers at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory served as members of a U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission review team for the Florida Power & Light Company’s application for two combined construction permits and operating licenses (combined licenses or COLs) for two proposed new reactor units—Turkey Point Units 6 and 7. The review team evaluated the environmental impacts of the proposed action based on the October 29, 2014 revision of the COL application, including the Environmental Report, responses to requests for additional information, and supplemental information. As part of this effort, team members tasked with assessing the environmental effects of proposed construction and operation of Units 6 and 7 at the Turkey Point site reviewed two separate modeling studies that analyzed the interaction between surface water and groundwater that would be altered by the operation of radial collector wells (RCWs) at the site. To further confirm their understanding of the groundwater hydrodynamics and to consider whether certain actions, proposed after the two earlier modeling studies were completed, would alter the earlier conclusions documented by the review team in their draft environmental impact statement (EIS; NRC 2015), a third modeling analysis was performed. The third modeling analysis is discussed in this report.

  4. Dirac point and transconductance of top-gated graphene field-effect transistors operating at elevated temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Hopf, T.; Vassilevski, K. V. Escobedo-Cousin, E.; King, P. J.; Wright, N. G.; O'Neill, A. G.; Horsfall, A. B.; Goss, J. P.; Wells, G. H.; Hunt, M. R. C.

    2014-10-21

    Top-gated graphene field-effect transistors (GFETs) have been fabricated using bilayer epitaxial graphene grown on the Si-face of 4H-SiC substrates by thermal decomposition of silicon carbide in high vacuum. Graphene films were characterized by Raman spectroscopy, Atomic Force Microscopy, Scanning Tunnelling Microscopy, and Hall measurements to estimate graphene thickness, morphology, and charge transport properties. A 27 nm thick Al₂O₃ gate dielectric was grown by atomic layer deposition with an e-beam evaporated Al seed layer. Electrical characterization of the GFETs has been performed at operating temperatures up to 100 °C limited by deterioration of the gate dielectric performance at higher temperatures. Devices displayed stable operation with the gate oxide dielectric strength exceeding 4.5 MV/cm at 100 °C. Significant shifting of the charge neutrality point and an increase of the peak transconductance were observed in the GFETs as the operating temperature was elevated from room temperature to 100 °C.

  5. Two-point bend studies of glass fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Zhongzhi

    The principal objective of this research is to advance our understanding of how glass breaks. Glass, a material well known for its brittleness, has been used widely but within a frustrating limit of its strength. Generally, strength is not considered as an intrinsic property of glass, due to the difficulty of avoiding the presence of flaws on the sample surface. The fiber drawing system and two-point bending (TPB) equipment developed at Missouri S&T allow the fabrication of pristine glass fibers and failure strain measurements while minimizing the effects of strength limiting critical flaws. Several conditions affect the failure behavior of glasses, including glass composition, thermal history of melts and environmental conditions during the failure tests. Understanding how these conditions affect failure helps us understand how glass fails. In this dissertation, failure strains for many different silicate and borate glasses were measured under a variety of experimental conditions. Failure stresses for various silicate glasses were calculated using values of the nonlinear elastic moduli reported in the literature. Inert intrinsic strengths for alkali silicate glasses were related to the structure and corresponding bond strengths, and the dependence of the inert strengths on faceplate velocity is discussed. Inert failure strains were also obtained for sodium borate glasses. Up to ˜40% failure strain was measured for vitreous B2O 3. The addition of soda to boron oxide increases the dimensionality and connectivity of the glass structure and hence increases its resistance to deformation, as was observed in elasticity and brittleness measurements reported in the literature. The increase in deformation resistance produces lower failure strains, a behavior also seen for alkali silicate and aluminosilicate glasses where the reduction of non-bridging oxygen increases the structure stiffness and leads to lower inert failure strain. Fatigue effects on silicate glasses were

  6. Probabilistic Safety Study Applications Program for inspection of the Indian Point Unit 3 Nuclear Power Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, J.H.; Fullwood, R.; Fresco, A.

    1986-03-01

    By prioritizing the various areas of interest for inspection and by better defining inspection needs, the NRC expects to make more effective use of finite inspection resources by concentrating on those potential areas most significant to safety. Through review and application of the Indian Point Unit 3 Probabilistic Safety Study's numerical data and event tree modeling, and by utilizing related documents, a technical basis for prioritizing areas for NRC inspection has been developed. This was then tested at the plant site for the NRC Operating Reactor Inspection Program, I and E Manual Chapter 2515. Inspection activities addressed include normal operations, system and component testing, maintenance and surveillance. A computer program entitled NSPKTR, which was developed specifically for this program, modeled the internal plant states to the system level and performed the risk and importance calculations. 17 refs., 21 tabs.

  7. Space transportation system biomedical operations support study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, S. C.

    1983-01-01

    The shift of the Space Transportation System (STS) flight tests of the orbiter vehicle to the preparation and flight of the payloads is discussed. Part of this change is the transition of the medical and life sciences aspects of the STS flight operations to reflect the new state. The medical operations, the life sciences flight experiments support requirements and the intramural research program expected to be at KSC during the operational flight period of the STS and a future space station are analyzed. The adequacy of available facilities, plans, and resources against these future needs are compared; revisions and/or alternatives where appropriate are proposed.

  8. IUS/TUG orbital operations and mission support study. Volume 3: Space tug operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    A study was conducted to develop space tug operational concepts and baseline operations plan, and to provide cost estimates for space tug operations. Background data and study results are presented along with a transition phase analysis (the transition from interim upper state to tug operations). A summary is given of the tug operational and interface requirements with emphasis on the on-orbit checkout requirements, external interface operational requirements, safety requirements, and system operational interface requirements. Other topics discussed include reference missions baselined for the tug and details for the mission functional flows and timelines derived for the tug mission, tug subsystems, tug on-orbit operations prior to the tug first burn, spacecraft deployment and retrieval by the tug, operations centers, mission planning, potential problem areas, and cost data.

  9. Study on unaberrational points test for conic surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hao, Peiming; Li, Kexin; Yuan, Liyin; Fu, Lianxiao; Li, Hongguang

    2006-02-01

    Based on the third-order aberration theory, the equation expressing the relationship between the conic constant and unaberration conjugate points is obtained. The corresponding graphs illuminating the relationship between e2 and β are given. According to the equation and graphs, the analyses of convex and concave surfaces are given in detail. We not only consider the unification of all kinds of reflective testing methods, such as Hindle test, concave elliptical mirror test and Ritchey-Common test etc, but also apply the unaberrational conjugate points test to refractive surface. The auto-collimating and interferometer diagnostic methods are powerful for the manufacture of lens. Kinds of convex and concave aspheric lenses have been manufactured with the detecting methods as mentioned above.

  10. Optimum structural properties for an anode current collector used in a polymer electrolyte membrane water electrolyzer operated at the boiling point of water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hua; Fujigaya, Tsuyohiko; Nakajima, Hironori; Inada, Akiko; Ito, Kohei

    2016-11-01

    This study attempts to optimize the properties of the anode current collector of a polymer electrolyte membrane water electrolyzer at high temperatures, particularly at the boiling point of water. Different titanium meshes (4 commercial ones and 4 modified ones) with various properties are experimentally examined by operating a cell with each mesh under different conditions. The average pore diameter, thickness, and contact angle of the anode current collector are controlled in the ranges of 10-35 μm, 0.2-0.3 mm, and 0-120°, respectively. These results showed that increasing the temperature from the conventional temperature of 80 °C to the boiling point could reduce both the open circuit voltage and the overvoltages to a large extent without notable dehydration of the membrane. These results also showed that decreasing the contact angle and the thickness suppresses the electrolysis overvoltage largely by decreasing the concentration overvoltage. The effect of the average pore diameter was not evident until the temperature reached the boiling point. Using operating conditions of 100 °C and 2 A/cm2, the electrolysis voltage is minimized to 1.69 V with a hydrophilic titanium mesh with an average pore diameter of 21 μm and a thickness of 0.2 mm.

  11. IUS/TUG orbital operations and mission support study. Volume 2: Interim upper stage operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Background data and study results are presented for the interim upper stage (IUS) operations phase of the IUS/tug orbital operations study. The study was conducted to develop IUS operational concepts and an IUS baseline operations plan, and to provide cost estimates for IUS operations. The approach used was to compile and evaluate baseline concepts, definitions, and system, and to use that data as a basis for the IUS operations phase definition, analysis, and costing analysis. Both expendable and reusable IUS configurations were analyzed and two autonomy levels were specified for each configuration. Topics discussed include on-orbit operations and interfaces with the orbiter, the tracking and data relay satellites and ground station support capability analysis, and flight control center sizing to support the IUS operations.

  12. Universal Signatures of Quantum Critical Points from Finite-Size Torus Spectra: A Window into the Operator Content of Higher-Dimensional Conformal Field Theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuler, Michael; Whitsitt, Seth; Henry, Louis-Paul; Sachdev, Subir; Läuchli, Andreas M.

    2016-11-01

    The low-energy spectra of many body systems on a torus, of finite size L , are well understood in magnetically ordered and gapped topological phases. However, the spectra at quantum critical points separating such phases are largely unexplored for (2 +1 )D systems. Using a combination of analytical and numerical techniques, we accurately calculate and analyze the low-energy torus spectrum at an Ising critical point which provides a universal fingerprint of the underlying quantum field theory, with the energy levels given by universal numbers times 1 /L . We highlight the implications of a neighboring topological phase on the spectrum by studying the Ising* transition (i.e. the transition between a Z2 topological phase and a trivial paramagnet), in the example of the toric code in a longitudinal field, and advocate a phenomenological picture that provides qualitative insight into the operator content of the critical field theory.

  13. Universal Signatures of Quantum Critical Points from Finite-Size Torus Spectra: A Window into the Operator Content of Higher-Dimensional Conformal Field Theories.

    PubMed

    Schuler, Michael; Whitsitt, Seth; Henry, Louis-Paul; Sachdev, Subir; Läuchli, Andreas M

    2016-11-18

    The low-energy spectra of many body systems on a torus, of finite size L, are well understood in magnetically ordered and gapped topological phases. However, the spectra at quantum critical points separating such phases are largely unexplored for (2+1)D systems. Using a combination of analytical and numerical techniques, we accurately calculate and analyze the low-energy torus spectrum at an Ising critical point which provides a universal fingerprint of the underlying quantum field theory, with the energy levels given by universal numbers times 1/L. We highlight the implications of a neighboring topological phase on the spectrum by studying the Ising* transition (i.e. the transition between a Z_{2} topological phase and a trivial paramagnet), in the example of the toric code in a longitudinal field, and advocate a phenomenological picture that provides qualitative insight into the operator content of the critical field theory.

  14. Numerical Studies and Equipment Development for Single Point Incremental Forming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marabuto, S. R.; Sena, J. I. V.; Afonso, D.; Martins, M. A. B. E.; Coelho, R. M.; Ferreira, J. A. F.; Valente, R. A. F.; de Sousa, R. J. Alves

    2011-05-01

    This paper summarizes the achievements obtained so far in the context of a research project carried out at the University of Aveiro, Portugal on both numerical and experimental viewpoints concerning Single Point Incremental Forming (SPIF). On the experimental side, the general guidelines on the development of a new SPIF machine are detailed. The innovation features are related to the choice of a six-degrees-of-freedom, parallel kinematics machine, with a high payload, to broad the range of materials to be tested, and allowing for a higher flexibility on tool-path generation. On the numerical side, preliminary results on simulation of SPIF processes resorting to an innovative solid-shell finite element are presented. The final target is an accurate and fast simulation of SPIF processes by means of numerical methods. Accuracy is obtained through the use of a finite element accounting for three-dimensional stress and strain fields. The developed formulation allows for an unlimited number of integration points through its thickness direction, which promotes accuracy without loss of CPU efficiency. Preliminary results and designs are shown and discussions over the obtained solutions are provided in order to further improve the research framework.

  15. Specific SPS construction studies: Operations and maintenance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, K. H.

    1980-01-01

    Surface as well as in-space operations of the solar power satellite program are addressed. The primary end products of SPS industrial enterprise are shown SPS and its ground receiving antenna every six months; and (3) construction of electric cargo orbital transfer vehicles. The production of photovoltaic cells and solar blankets is also considered.

  16. Instructor/Operator Station Design Study.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-04-01

    incorporated into alternative #1. It also provides a good basis for discussions of program- med modes of operation. The example chosen is a ’ chock -to... chock " exercise in which the trainee begins on the ramp with pre-start checks and terminates on the ramp with engine shutdown. During the exercise he...always begins at leg 1. The AUTOMATED TRAINING EXER- CISE MAP display calls up a map of the gaming area for the selected exer- cise. The PRINTOUT

  17. Explosives Hazard Reduction (EHR) Studies Joint Operations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-07-01

    Analysts, Inc. (ISA) Explosives Hazard Reduction (EHR) ProgramAs of: 2 ● Identify / Quantify Explosives Hazards ● Minimize Risks ● Resolve long...Siting Recommendations ● Produce DDESB Compliant Explosives Safety Site plans EHR Goals & Objectives Explosives Hazard Reduction (EHR) ProgramAs of: 3...of Barricades ● Automated Wash Rack ● Use ISO Trailers in MSA Explosives Hazard Reduction (EHR) ProgramAs of: 6 Proposed Facilities Joint Operations

  18. Study Points to Genetic Subtypes of Esophageal Cancer

    Cancer.gov

    A Cancer Currents blog post about a study by The Cancer Genome Atlas Research Network that identified distinct genetic and molecular changes in esophageal cancers that could improve their classification and identify potential new treatments.

  19. Do Woody Plants Operate Near the Point of Catastrophic Xylem Dysfunction Caused by Dynamic Water Stress? 1

    PubMed Central

    Tyree, Melvin T.; Sperry, John S.

    1988-01-01

    We discuss the relationship between the dynamically changing tension gradients required to move water rapidly through the xylem conduits of plants and the proportion of conduits lost through embolism as a result of water tension. We consider the implications of this relationship to the water relations of trees. We have compiled quantitative data on the water relations, hydraulic architecture and vulnerability of embolism of four widely different species: Rhizophora mangle, Cassipourea elliptica, Acer saccharum, and Thuja occidentalis. Using these data, we modeled the dynamics of water flow and xylem blockage for these species. The model is specifically focused on the conditions required to generate `runaway embolism,' whereby the blockage of xylem conduits through embolism leads to reduced hydraulic conductance causing increased tension in the remaining vessels and generating more tension in a vicious circle. The model predicted that all species operate near the point of catastrophic xylem failure due to dynamic water stress. The model supports Zimmermann's plant segmentation hypothesis. Zimmermann suggested that plants are designed hydraulically to sacrifice highly vulnerable minor branches and thus improve the water balance of remaining parts. The model results are discussed in terms of the morphology, hydraulic architecture, eco-physiology, and evolution of woody plants. PMID:16666351

  20. Space tug point design study. Volume 4: Program requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine the configuration of a space tug and to predict the performance parameters. The program plans and planning data generated in support of the tug development program are presented. The preliminary plans and supporting planning data emphasize the following requirements: (1) maintenance and refurbishment, (2) technology development, (3) production, (4) test facilities, (5) quality control, and (6) scheduling.

  1. A Cross-Cultural Study of Reference Point Adaptation: Evidence from China, Korea, and the US

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arkes, Hal R.; Hirshleifer, David; Jiang, Danling; Lim, Sonya S.

    2010-01-01

    We examined reference point adaptation following gains or losses in security trading using participants from China, Korea, and the US. In both questionnaire studies and trading experiments with real money incentives, reference point adaptation was larger for Asians than for Americans. Subjects in all countries adapted their reference points more…

  2. TYCHO: Demonstrator and operational satellite mission to Earth-Moon-Libration point EML-4 for communication relay provision as a service

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hornig, Andreas; Homeister, Maren

    2015-03-01

    operation time of up to 10 years. It also enables measurements of the libration point environment with the scientific payloads. This includes sensors for space dust, solar and cosmic radiation activity for satellite lifetime estimation and lunar crew protection by providing early-warning systems. The paper describes the mission concept and the pre-design of the demonstrator satellite according to the operational mission requirements, advantages and benefits of this service. The concept was awarded with the Space Generation Advisory Council and OHB Scholarship in 2011 and the concept study is conducted at the Institute of Space Systems (IRS) [1] of the University of Stuttgart and OHB-System, Bremen [2].

  3. Study on the engine oil's wear based on the flash point

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niculescu, R.; Iorga-Simăn, V.; Trică, A.; Clenci, A.

    2016-08-01

    Increasing energy performance of internal combustion engines is largely influenced by frictional forces that arise between moving parts. Thus, in this respect, the nature and quality of the engine oil used is an important factor. Equally important is the effect of various engine injection strategies upon the oil quality. In other words, it's of utmost importance to maintain the quality of engine oil during engine's operation. Oil dilution is one of the most common causes that lead to its wear, creating lubrication problems. Moreover, at low temperatures operating conditions, the oil dilution with diesel fuel produces wax. When starting the engine, this may lead to lubrication deficiencies and even oil starvation with negative consequences on the engine mechanism parts wear (piston, rings and cylinders) but also crankcase bearings wear.Engine oil dilution with diesel fuel have several causes: wear of rings and/or injectors, late post-injection strategy for the sake of particulate filter regeneration, etc.This paper presents a study on the degree of deterioration of engine oils as a result of dilution with diesel fuel. The analysed oils used for this study were taken from various models of engines equipped with diesel particulate filter. The assessment is based on the determination of oil flash point and dilution degree using the apparatus Eraflash produced by Eralytics, Austria. Eraflash measurement is directly under the latest and safest standards ASTM D6450 & D7094), which are in excellent correlation with ASTM D93 Pensky - Martens ASTM D56 TAG methods; it uses the Continuous Closed Cup method for finding the Flash Point (CCCFP).

  4. Environmental surveys during operation and following removal of the OTEC-1 system off Keahole Point, Hawaii. Final report, January-April 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Noda, E.K.; Bienfang, P.K.; Kimmerer, W.J.; Walsh, T.W.

    1981-09-01

    Detailed are two biological chemical cruises off Keahole Point, Hawaii, which took place during (HOTEC-11, January 1981) and immediately after cessation (HOTEC-12, April 1981) of operation of OTEC-1. The objectives of the study were to: (1) compare site specific data taken before OTEC-1 was operating to data taken after OTEC-1 left the site; and (2) perform an analysis of OTEC environmental effects to indicate areas in which future sampling efforts might be expended. Data from temperature, nutrient, phytoplankton and zooplankton analyses taken immediately after OTEC-1 left the site show only minor differences with data taken before OTEC-1 occupied the site (HOTEC-01-06, MSG-82-013). The differences were not significant, and therefore, OTEC-1 had no demonstrable post-operational impacts on these environmental variables. From temperature records the minimum /sup 0/T between surface waters (0-30 m) and 700 m water was about 18/sup 0/C. There was no demonstrable temperature effect due to operation of OTEC-1. Significant increases in near surface water (0 to 70 m) nitrate concentrations were noted at Station 1 (Control) during OTEC-1 operations; while after shut-down no effect was seen. This effect can not be directly attributed to OTEC-1. Increased chlorophyll a standing stock downstream of OTEC-1 indicated some effect of OTEC-1. No toxic effect was noted and primary productivity rates were the same at all stations. The chlorophyll a biomass in the < 5 ..mu..m size fraction was significantly higher at the downstream station. No effect on zooplankton were noted at any station. Abundance of ichthytoplankton taxa are reported but there is insufficient data to perform an analysis.

  5. Experimental Studies on Hypersonic Stagnation Point Chemical Environment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-02-01

    emission spectroscopy and atomic absorbtion spectroscopy , Appl. Spectrosc. vol. 31, 1977, pp 237-239 [27] Allemand C. D., Barnes R.M., A study of...ii se ie se e zh h c Le Lelffl h glgf µ (3) Atom mass conservation: 02 1 =⎟ ⎠ ⎞ ⎜ ⎝ ⎛− ′ ⎟ ⎠ ⎞ ⎜ ⎝ ⎛ ′+′ − is ie cdx duz... spectroscopy , material processing, spray coating, powder synthesis, chemical vapor deposition and in many, generally called Thermal Plasma

  6. Operationally Efficient Propulsion System Study (OEPSS) data book. Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wong, George S.

    1990-01-01

    The study was initiated to identify operations problems and cost drivers for current propulsion systems and to identify technology and design approaches to increase the operational efficiency and reduce operations costs for future propulsion systems. To provide readily usable data for the Advanced Launch System (ALS) program, the results of the Operationally Efficient Propulsion System Study (OEPSS) were organized into a series of OEPSS Data Books as follows: Volume 1, Generic Ground Operations Data; Volume 2, Ground Operations Problems; Volume 3, Operations Technology; Volume 4, OEPSS Design Concepts; and Volume 5, OEPSS Final Review Briefing, which summarizes the activities and results of the study. Summarized here are the salient results of the first year. A synopsis of each volume listed above is presented.

  7. 76 FR 32994 - Nine Mile Point 3 Nuclear Project, LLC and Unistar Nuclear Operating Services, LLC; Combined...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-07

    ... License Application for Nine Mile Point 3 Nuclear Power Plant; Exemption 1.0 Background Nine Mile Point 3... 52, ``Licenses, Certifications, and Approvals for Nuclear Power Plants.'' This reactor is to be identified as Nine Mile Point 3 Nuclear Power Plant (NMP3NPP), and located adjacent to the current Nine...

  8. Space tug point design study. Volume 1: Summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The design and characteristics of a space tug are discussed. The primary objective of the study is to verify the performance capability of a baseline design to deliver and retrieve payloads between 100 nautical miles, 28.5 degrees inclination, and geosynchronous. The space tug is ground based, reusable for 20 mission cycles, and is shuttled to and from low earth orbit by an earth orbital shuttle (EOS) with a 65,000 pound payload capability. It is shown that the baseline concept can meet the target performance goals. The design analysis encompassed: (1) definition of the vehicle primary structure, (2) thermal control, (3) meteoroid protection, (4) propulsion and mechanical subsystems, and (5) avionics including power generation and distribution.

  9. Operationally Efficient Propulsion System Study (OEPSS) data book. Volume 2: Ground operations problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waldrop, Glen S.

    1990-01-01

    Operations problems and cost drivers were identified for current propulsion systems and design and technology approaches were identified to increase the operational efficiency and to reduce operations costs for future propulsion systems. To provide readily usable data for the ALS program, the results of the OEPSS study were organized into a series of OEPSS Data Books. This volume presents a detailed description of 25 major problems encountered during launch processing of current expendable and reusable launch vehicles. A concise description of each problem and its operational impact on launch processing is presented, along with potential solutions and technology recommendation.

  10. Operationally Efficient Propulsion System Study (OEPSS) data book. Volume 1: Generic ground operations data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Byrd, Raymond J.

    1990-01-01

    This study was initiated to identify operations problems and cost drivers for current propulsion systems and to identify technology and design approaches to increase the operational efficiency and reduce operations costs for future propulsion systems. To provide readily usable data for the Advance Launch System (ALS) program, the results of the Operationally Efficient Propulsion System Study (OEPSS) were organized into a series of OEPSS Data Books as follows: Volume 1, Generic Ground Operations Data; Volume 2, Ground Operations Problems; Volume 3, Operations Technology; Volume 4, OEPSS Design Concepts; and Volume 5, OEPSS Final Review Briefing, which summarizes the activities and results of the study. This volume presents ground processing data for a generic LOX/LH2 booster and core propulsion system based on current STS experience. The data presented includes: top logic diagram, process flow, activities bar-chart, loaded timelines, manpower requirements in terms of duration, headcount and skill mix per operations and maintenance instruction (OMI), and critical path tasks and durations.

  11. Brigade Prepositioned (PREPO) Afloat Operations Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-03-01

    the JWG to determine the overall duration of the two situations. The study team developed this interim representation using Modeler, a Petri - net ...heavy equipment transpost Pit platoon ad* bdgade HHB headquaters headquarter battery RORO roli-oWro"ld Bn battalion HHC headqyiwle- headquarters compay...technique pit platoon PMCS preventive maintenance checks and services POD port(s) of debarkation prep prepare PREPO prepositioned PSA port support authority

  12. Semiclassical computation of three-point functions of closed string vertex operators in AdS{sub 5}xS{sup 5}

    SciTech Connect

    Roiban, R.; Tseytlin, A. A.

    2010-11-15

    We consider the leading large string tension correction to correlation functions of three vertex operators of particular massive string states in AdS{sub 5}xS{sup 5} string theory. We assume that two of these states are 'heavy' carrying large spins (of order string tension) and thus can be treated semiclassically while the third state is 'light' having fixed quantum numbers. We study several examples. In the case when the 'heavy' states are described by a folded string with large-spin in AdS{sub 5} the 3-point function scales as a semiclassical spin parameter of the 'heavy' state in power of the string level of the 'light' massive string state. We observe similar behavior in the case of 'heavy' states which admit a small angular momentum limit, which may thus represent creatures of three quantum massive string states.

  13. A Study on Optimal Operation of Power Generation by Waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugahara, Hideo; Aoyagi, Yoshihiro; Kato, Masakazu

    This paper proposes the optimal operation of power generation by waste. Refuse is taken as a new energy resource of biomass. Although some fossil fuel origin refuse like plastic may be mixed in, CO2 emission is not counted up except for above fossil fuel origin refuse for the Kyoto Protocol. Incineration is indispensable for refuse disposal and power generation by waste is environment-friendly and power system-friendly using synchronous generators. Optimal planning is a key point to make much of this merit. The optimal plan includes refuse incinerator operation plan with refuse collection and maintenance scheduling of refuse incinerator plant. In this paper, it has been made clear that the former plan increases generation energy through numerical simulations. Concerning the latter plan, a method to determine the maintenance schedule using genetic algorithm has been established. In addition, taking environmental load of CO2 emission into account, this is expected larger merits from environment and energy resource points of view.

  14. Shuttle Ground Operations Efficiencies/Technologies (SGOE/T) study. Volume 2: Ground Operations evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scholz, A. L.; Hart, M. T.; Lowry, D. J.

    1987-01-01

    The Ground Operations Evaluation describes the breath and depth of the various study elements selected as a result of an operational analysis conducted during the early part of the study. Analysis techniques used for the evaluation are described in detail. Elements selected for further evaluation are identified; the results of the analysis documented; and a follow-on course of action recommended. The background and rationale for developing recommendations for the current Shuttle or for future programs is presented.

  15. Surfactant studies for bench-scale operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hickey, Gregory S.; Sharma, Pramod K.

    1993-01-01

    A phase 2 study has been initiated to investigate surfactant-assisted coal liquefaction, with the objective of quantifying the enhancement in liquid yields and product quality. This report covers the second quarter of work. The major accomplishments were: completion of coal liquefaction autoclave reactor runs with Illinois number 6 coal at processing temperatures of 300, 325, and 350 C, and pressures of 1800 psig; analysis of the filter cake and the filtrate obtained from the treated slurry in each run; and correlation of the coal conversions and the liquid yield quality to the surfactant concentration. An increase in coal conversions and upgrading of the liquid product quality due to surfactant addition was observed for all runs.

  16. A study of the operation of selected national research facilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eisner, M.

    1974-01-01

    The operation of national research facilities was studied. Conclusions of the study show that a strong resident scientific staff is required for successful facility operation. No unique scheme of scientific management is revealed except for the obvious fact that the management must be responsive to the users needs and requirements. Users groups provide a convenient channel through which these needs and requirements are communicated.

  17. Lathe Operator. Coordinator's Guide. Individualized Study Guide. General Metal Trades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    East Texas State Univ., Commerce. Occupational Curriculum Lab.

    This guide provides information to enable coordinators to direct learning activities for students using an individualized study guide on operating a lathe. The study material is designed for students enrolled in cooperative part-time training and employed, or desiring to be employed, as lathe operators. Contents include a sample progress chart,…

  18. The OPALS Plan for Operations: Use of ISS Trajectory and Attitude Models in the OPALS Pointing Strategy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abrahamson, Matthew J.; Oaida, Bogdan; Erkmen, Baris

    2013-01-01

    This paper will discuss the OPALS pointing strategy, focusing on incorporation of ISS trajectory and attitude models to build pointing predictions. Methods to extrapolate an ISS prediction based on past data will be discussed and will be compared to periodically published ISS predictions and Two-Line Element (TLE) predictions. The prediction performance will also be measured against GPS states available in telemetry. The performance of the pointing products will be compared to the allocated values in the OPALS pointing budget to assess compliance with requirements.

  19. Experimental Study of Saddle Point of Attachment in Laminar Juncture Flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coon, Michael D.; Tobak, Murray

    1995-01-01

    An experimental study of laminar horseshoe vortex flows upstream of a cylinder/flat plate juncture has been conducted to verify the existence of saddle-point-of-attachment topologies. In the classical depiction of this flowfield, a saddle point of separation exists on the flat plate upstream of the cylinder, and the boundary layer separates from the surface. Recent computations have indicated that the topology may actually involve a saddle point of attachment on the surface and additional singular points in the flow. Laser light sheet flow visualizations have been performed on the symmetry plane and crossflow planes to identify the saddle-point-of-attachment flowfields. The visualizations reveal that saddle-point-of-attachment topologies occur over a range of Reynolds numbers in both single and multiple vortex regimes. An analysis of the flow topologies is presented that describes the existence and evolution of the singular points in the flowfield.

  20. Long-Term Operating System Maintenance. A Linux Case Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-01-01

    when maintaining an operating system for long periods. Therefore, this report serves as an introduction and a simple methodology for performing...and necessary reconfiguration capabilities have been established, an appropriate methodology could be developed for upgrading and updating an...this study proposes a methodology for upgrading and updating an operating system so that installing a newer operating system is not required in order

  1. Operations: A Comparative Study of the United States and Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Cheng-Yao; Becker, Jerry; Byun, Mi-Ran; Yang, Der-Ching; Huang, Tsai-Wei

    2013-01-01

    This study examined (a) the differences in preservice teachers’ procedural knowledge in four areas of fraction operations in Taiwan and the United States, (b) the differences in preservice teachers’ conceptual knowledge in four areas of fraction operations in Taiwan and the United States, and (c) correlation in preservice teachers’ conceptual…

  2. 38th Annual Maintenance & Operations Cost Study for Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agron, Joe

    2009-01-01

    Despite the worst economic environment in generations, spending by K-12 institutions on maintenance and operations (M&O) held its own--defying historical trends that have shown M&O spending among the most affected in times of budget tightening. This article presents data from the 38th annual Maintenance & Operations Cost Study for…

  3. Case Studies on UN Information Operations: Ethiopia, Liberia, and Kosovo

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-01

    physiological, psychological, and sociological needs such as food, clothes, safety, belongingness, love, esteem , and self -actualization and their...peacekeeping information operations based on case studies. This thesis will analyze how the United Nations Public Information Office utilized media tools in...This research will analyze the outcomes of Public Information (PI) campaigns and other information operations, utilizing Maslow’s information

  4. Training Program for Operation of Emergency Vehicles. Trainee Study Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    INNOVATRIX, Inc., Ingomar, PA.

    A two-part trainee study guide for use in the classroom phase of the Emergency Vehicle Operation (EVO) training program is provided. Part 1, to be taken by all trainees, contains seven units organized into various subunits and includes the following: (1) introduction to the course; (2) some legal aspects of emergency vehicle operation (state…

  5. Operation of Wastewater Treatment Plants: A Home Study Training Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Univ., Sacramento. Dept. of Civil Engineering.

    This manual was prepared by experienced wastewater treatment plant operators to provide a home study course to develop new qualified workers and expand the abilities of existing workers. The objective of this manual is to provide the knowledge and skills necessary for certification. Participants learn the basic operational aspects of treatment…

  6. CETF Space Station payload pointing system design and analysis feasibility study. [Critical Evaluation Task Force

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smagala, Tom; Mcglew, Dave

    1988-01-01

    The expected pointing performance of an attached payload coupled to the Critical Evaluation Task Force Space Station via a payload pointing system (PPS) is determined. The PPS is a 3-axis gimbal which provides the capability for maintaining inertial pointing of a payload in the presence of disturbances associated with the Space Station environment. A system where the axes of rotation were offset from the payload center of mass (CM) by 10 in. in the Z axis was studied as well as a system having the payload CM offset by only 1 inch. There is a significant improvement in pointing performance when going from the 10 in. to the 1 in. gimbal offset.

  7. Turning Points during the Life of Student Project Teams: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raes, Elisabeth; Kyndt, Eva; Dochy, Filip

    2015-01-01

    In this qualitative study a more flexible alternative of conceptualising changes over time in teams is tested within student project teams. The conceptualisation uses turning points during the lifespan of a team to outline team development, based on work by Erbert, Mearns, & Dena (2005). Turning points are moments that made a significant…

  8. Extracurricular Activities and Their Effect on the Student's Grade Point Average: Statistical Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bakoban, R. A.; Aljarallah, S. A.

    2015-01-01

    Extracurricular activities (ECA) are part of students' everyday life; they play important roles in students' lives. Few studies have addressed the question of how student engagements to ECA affect student's grade point average (GPA). This research was conducted to know whether the students' grade point average in King Abdulaziz University,…

  9. Retrospective studies of operating problems in air transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Billings, C. E.; Lauber, J. K.; Cooper, G. E.; Ruffell-Smith, H. P.

    1976-01-01

    An epidemiological model for the study of human errors in aviation is presented. In this approach, retrospective data are used as the basis for formulation of hypotheses as to system factors which may have contributed to such errors. Prospective experimental studies of aviation operations are also required in order to prove or disprove the hypotheses, and to evaluate the effectiveness of intervention techniques designed to solve operational problems in the aviation system.

  10. MECAR operation during the 6/95 study period

    SciTech Connect

    Capista, Dave; /Fermilab

    1995-01-01

    The MECAR system was scheduled to be used 36 hours during the study period. In practice the system was used a bit more since there is increasing pressure to switch completely over to MECAR. During this period of MECAR operation there were power supply studies, tune calibration, general tune-up with this system, and identification and some repair of bugs found in both the applications program and the MECAR operating system.

  11. Field studies of inspection and repair operations of subsea structures

    SciTech Connect

    Bourhis, M.Y.; Aldridge, T.

    1983-03-01

    Subsea inspection techniques are required to confirm that the initial construction of offshore oil platforms meets pre-established standards and specifications and that structural deterioration does not exceed levels which are consistent with the design and continued serviceability of a structure. Such inspection, rigorously performed, will normally satisfy the various interrelated requirements of the operators, the government, and the certifying authority. This paper presents a review of the current techniques for underwater inspection, an application of ultrasonic equipment for this purpose, and an application of welded point repair in a hyperbaric habitat.

  12. 77 FR 66641 - In the Matter of Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc.; Entergy Nuclear Indian Point 2, LLC; Entergy...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-06

    ... system, structure, or component that Indian Point Units 2 and 3 rely upon. Convene an evidentiary hearing... before the NRC or its predecessor, the Atomic Energy Commission, developed siting criteria. The.... Therefore, any system, structure, or component located at Unit 1 that supports the fire protection...

  13. Study of infrared point source simulator for generating the multi-decoy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Chang-e.; Yang, Di; Su, Jian-gang; Huang, Yan-jun; Wang, Zhi-sheng

    2013-08-01

    The hardware-in-loop test system for infrared point-type guide missile was introduced;The decoy irradiation and motion characteristics were analyzed; multi-decoy generation mode and principle were studied.

  14. Preliminary Study on Appearance-Based Detection of Anatomical Point Landmarks in Body Trunk CT Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nemoto, Mitsutaka; Nomura, Yukihiro; Hanaoka, Shohei; Masutani, Yoshitaka; Yoshikawa, Takeharu; Hayashi, Naoto; Yoshioka, Naoki; Ohtomo, Kuni

    Anatomical point landmarks as most primitive anatomical knowledge are useful for medical image understanding. In this study, we propose a detection method for anatomical point landmark based on appearance models, which include gray-level statistical variations at point landmarks and their surrounding area. The models are built based on results of Principal Component Analysis (PCA) of sample data sets. In addition, we employed generative learning method by transforming ROI of sample data. In this study, we evaluated our method with 24 data sets of body trunk CT images and obtained 95.8 ± 7.3 % of the average sensitivity in 28 landmarks.

  15. Multi-temporal UAV-borne LiDAR point clouds for vegetation analysis - a case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandlburger, Gottfried; Wieser, Martin; Hollaus, Markus; Pfennigbauer, Martin; Riegl, Ursula

    2016-04-01

    In the recent past the introduction of compact and lightweight LiDAR (Light Detection And Ranging) sensors together with progress in UAV (Unmanned Aerial Vehicle) technology allowed the integration of laser scanners on remotely piloted multicopter, helicopter-type and even fixed-wing platforms. The multi-target capabilities of state-of-the-art time-of-flight full-waveform laser sensors operated from low flying UAV-platforms has enabled capturing of the entire 3D structure of semi-transparent objects like deciduous forests under leaf-off conditions in unprecedented density and completeness. For such environments it has already been demonstrated that UAV-borne laser scanning combines the advantages of terrestrial laser scanning (high point density, short range) and airborne laser scanning (bird's eye perspective, homogeneous point distribution). Especially the oblique looking capabilities of scanners with a large field of view (>180°) enable capturing of vegetation from different sides resulting in a constantly high point density also in the sub canopy domain. Whereas the findings stated above were drawn based on a case study carried out in February 2015 with the Riegl VUX-1UAV laser scanner system mounted on a Riegl RiCopter octocopter UAV-platform over an alluvial forest at the Pielach River (Lower Austria), the site was captured a second time with the same sensor system and mission parameters at the end of the vegetation period on October 28th, 2015. The main goal of this experiment was to assess the impact of the late autumn foliage on the achievable 3D point density. Especially the entire understory vegetation and certain tree species (e.g. willow) were still in full leaf whereas the bigger trees (poplar) where already partly defoliated. The comparison revealed that, although both campaigns featured virtually the same laser shot count, the ground point density dropped from 517 points/m2 in February (leaf-off) to 267 points/m2 end of October (leaf-on). The

  16. Operationally Efficient Propulsion System Study (OEPSS): OEPSS Video Script

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wong, George S.; Waldrop, Glen S.; Trent, Donnie (Editor)

    1992-01-01

    The OEPSS video film, along with the OEPSS Databooks, provides a data base of current launch experience that will be useful for design of future expendable and reusable launch systems. The focus is on the launch processing of propulsion systems. A brief 15-minute overview of the OEPSS study results is found at the beginning of the film. The remainder of the film discusses in more detail: current ground operations at the Kennedy Space Center; typical operations issues and problems; critical operations technologies; and efficiency of booster and space propulsion systems. The impact of system architecture on the launch site and its facility infrastucture is emphasized. Finally, a particularly valuable analytical tool, developed during the OEPSS study, that will provide for the "first time" a quantitative measure of operations efficiency for a propulsion system is described.

  17. Study to determine operational and performance criteria for STOL aircraft operating in low visibility conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gorham, J. A.

    1978-01-01

    The operational and performance criteria for civil CTOL passenger-carrying airplanes landing in low visibilities depend upon the characteristics of the airplane, the nature and use of the ground and airborne guidance and control systems, and the geometry and lighting of the landing field. Based upon these criteria, FAA advisory circulars, airplane and equipment design characteristics, and airline operational and maintenance procedures were formulated. The documents are selected, described, and discussed in relationship to the potential low weather minima operation of STOL aircraft. An attempt is made to identify fundamental differences between CTOL and STOL aircraft characteristics which could impact upon existing CTOL documentation. Further study and/or flight experiments are recommended.

  18. LHC Abort Gap Cleaning Studies During Luminosity Operation

    SciTech Connect

    Gianfelice-Wendt, E.; Bartmann, W.; Boccardi, A.; Bracco, C.; Bravin, E.; Goddard, B.; Hofle, W.; Jacquet, D.; Jeff, A.; Kain, V.; Meddahi, M.; /CERN

    2012-05-11

    The presence of significant intensities of un-bunched beam is a potentially serious issue in the LHC. Procedures using damper kickers for cleaning both the Abort Gap (AG) and the buckets targeted for injection, are currently in operation at flat bottom. Recent observations of relatively high population of the AG during physics runs brought up the need for AG cleaning during luminosity operation. In this paper the results of experimental studies performed in October 2011 are presented.

  19. 78 FR 26662 - Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc., Indian Point Nuclear Generating Unit No. 3 Extension of Public...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-07

    ... Project Manager, Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation, U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC... Licensing Branch I-1, Division of Operating Reactor Licensing, Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation. BILLING... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR...

  20. New formulas for Maslov's canonical operator in a neighborhood of focal points and caustics in two-dimensional semiclassical asymptotics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobrokhotov, S. Yu.; Makrakis, G. N.; Nazaikinskii, V. E.; Tudorovskii, T. Ya.

    2013-12-01

    We suggest a new representation of Maslov's canonical operator in a neighborhood of caustics using a special class of coordinate systems (eikonal coordinates) on Lagrangian manifolds. We present the results in the two-dimensional case and illustrate them with examples.

  1. [Hybrid operation theatre from the point of view of cardiac surgery. The future for the heart team].

    PubMed

    Börgermann, J; Jategaonkar, S; Haas, N; Gummert, J F; Ensminger, S M

    2013-12-01

    Nowadays, increasing numbers of procedures jointly conducted by cardiac surgeons and cardiologists are performed as minimally invasive surgical procedures or interventions. Transcatheter aortic valve implantation, endovascular aortic aneurysm repair and a large variety of hybrid procedures for congenital heart disease have become current standards. Some of these hybrid procedures were shown to improve the therapeutic safety and efficacy, effects particularly true for high-risk patients and complex interventions. Hybrid procedures require indirect imaging, commonly provided by an angiography system in the hybrid operation theatre. This article describes the technical prerequisites required for a hybrid operation theatre as well as indications and rationales for hybrid procedures conducted in this environment. It is likely that the indications for cardiovascular hybrid procedures will continue to be expanded and that the hybrid operation theatre may become a laboratory for developing innovative approaches in the cardiovascular field. Therefore, the hybrid operation theatre will not only be the working environment for hybrid surgeons and interventionalists but also help to evolve their future.

  2. Defining a BMI Cut-Off Point for the Iranian Population: The Shiraz Heart Study

    PubMed Central

    Babai, Mohammad Ali; Arasteh, Peyman; Hadibarhaghtalab, Maryam; Naghizadeh, Mohammad Mehdi; Salehi, Alireza; Askari, Alireza; Homayounfar, Reza

    2016-01-01

    In this study we evaluated and redefined the optimum body mass index (BMI) cut-off point for the Iranian population based on metabolic syndrome (MeS) risk factors. We further evaluated BMI cut-off points with and without waist circumference (WC) as a cofactor of risk and compared the differences. This study is part of the largest surveillance programs conducted in Shiraz, Iran, termed the Shiraz Heart study. Our study sample included subjects between the ages of 20 to 65 years old. After excluding pregnant women, those with missing data and those with comorbid disease, a total of 12283 made up the study population. The participants underwent a series of tests and evaluations by trained professionals in accordance with WHO recommendations. Hypertension, abnormal fasting blood sugar (FBS), triglyceride (TG) and high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL) (in the context of the definition of metabolic syndrome) were prevalent among 32.4%, 27.6%, 42.1 and 44.2% of our participants, respectively. Women displayed higher rates of overall obesity compared to men (based on the definition by the WHO as higher than 30 kg/m2). Regarding MeS, 38.9% of our population had the all symptoms of MeS which was more prevalent among women (41.5% vs. 36%). When excluding WC in the definition of MeS, results showed that males tend to show a higher rate of metabolic risk factors (19.2% vs. 15.6%). Results of multivariate analysis showed that parallel to an increase in BMI, the odds ratio (OR) for acquiring each component of the metabolic syndrome increased (OR = 1.178; CI: 1.166–1.190). By excluding WC, the previous OR decreased (OR = 1.105; CI: 1.093–1.118). Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve analysis showed that the optimum BMI cut-off point for predicting metabolic syndrome was 26.1 kg/m2 and 26.2 kg/m2 [Accuracy (Acc) = 69% and 61%, respectively)] for males and females, respectively. The overall BMI cut-off for both sexes was 26.2 kg/m2 (Acc = 65%) with sensitivity and

  3. Initial measurements of plasma current and electron density profiles using a polarimeter/interferometer (POINT) for long pulse operation in EAST (invited).

    PubMed

    Liu, H Q; Qian, J P; Jie, Y X; Ding, W X; Brower, D L; Zou, Z Y; Li, W M; Lian, H; Wang, S X; Yang, Y; Zeng, L; Lan, T; Yao, Y; Hu, L Q; Zhang, X D; Wan, B N

    2016-11-01

    A double-pass, radially viewing, far-infrared laser-based POlarimeter-INTerferometer (POINT) system utilizing the three-wave technique has been implemented for diagnosing the plasma current and electron density profiles in the Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak (EAST). POINT has been operated routinely during the most recent experimental campaign and provides continuous 11 chord line-integrated Faraday effect and density measurement throughout the entire plasma discharge for all heating schemes and all plasma conditions (including ITER relevant scenario development). Reliability of both the polarimetric and interferometric measurements is demonstrated in 25 s plasmas with H-mode and 102 s long-pulse discharges. Current density, safety factor (q), and electron density profiles are reconstructed using equilibrium fitting code (EFIT) with POINT constraints for the plasma core.

  4. Initial measurements of plasma current and electron density profiles using a polarimeter/interferometer (POINT) for long pulse operation in EAST (invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, H. Q.; Qian, J. P.; Jie, Y. X.; Ding, W. X.; Brower, D. L.; Zou, Z. Y.; Li, W. M.; Lian, H.; Wang, S. X.; Yang, Y.; Zeng, L.; Lan, T.; Yao, Y.; Hu, L. Q.; Zhang, X. D.; Wan, B. N.

    2016-11-01

    A double-pass, radially viewing, far-infrared laser-based POlarimeter-INTerferometer (POINT) system utilizing the three-wave technique has been implemented for diagnosing the plasma current and electron density profiles in the Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak (EAST). POINT has been operated routinely during the most recent experimental campaign and provides continuous 11 chord line-integrated Faraday effect and density measurement throughout the entire plasma discharge for all heating schemes and all plasma conditions (including ITER relevant scenario development). Reliability of both the polarimetric and interferometric measurements is demonstrated in 25 s plasmas with H-mode and 102 s long-pulse discharges. Current density, safety factor (q), and electron density profiles are reconstructed using equilibrium fitting code (EFIT) with POINT constraints for the plasma core.

  5. Feasibility study report for the 200-BP-1 operable unit

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-06-01

    This feasibility study examines a range of alternatives and provides recommendations for selecting a preferred alternative for remediating contamination at the 200-BP-1 operable unit. The 200-BP-1 operable unit is located in the center of the Hanford Site along the northern boundary of the 200 East Area. The 241-BY Tank Farm is located immediately to the south of the operable unit. 200-BP-1 is a source operable unit with contaminated soils associated primarily with nine inactive cribs (known as the 216-B cribs). These cribs were used for disposal of low-level radioactive liquid waste from U Plant uranium recovery operations, and waste storage tank condensate from the adjacent 241-BY Tank Farm. The cribs used for disposal of U Plant waste were in operation from 1955--1965, and the cribs used for disposal of tank condensate were in operation from 1965--1975. In addition to the cribs, four unplanned releases of radioactive materials have occurred within the operable unit. Contaminated surface soils associated with the unplanned releases have been consolidated over the cribs and covered with clean soil to reduce contaminant migration and exposure. Discharge of wastes to the cribs has resulted in soil and groundwater contamination. The groundwater is being addressed as part of the 200 East Aggregate Area, groundwater operable unit. Contaminated soils at the site can be categorized by the types of contaminants, their distribution in the soil column, and the risk posed by the various potential exposure pathways. Below the clean soil cover, the near surface soils contain low-levels of contamination with cesium-137, radium-226, strontium-90, thorium-228, and uranium. The lifetime incremental cancer risk associated with these soils if they were exposed at the surface is 9{times}10{sup {minus}5}.

  6. A Time Scheduling Model of Logistics Service Supply Chain Based on the Customer Order Decoupling Point: A Perspective from the Constant Service Operation Time

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yi; Xu, Haitao; Liu, Xiaoyan; Wang, Yijia; Liang, Zhicheng

    2014-01-01

    In mass customization logistics service, reasonable scheduling of the logistics service supply chain (LSSC), especially time scheduling, is benefit to increase its competitiveness. Therefore, the effect of a customer order decoupling point (CODP) on the time scheduling performance should be considered. To minimize the total order operation cost of the LSSC, minimize the difference between the expected and actual time of completing the service orders, and maximize the satisfaction of functional logistics service providers, this study establishes an LSSC time scheduling model based on the CODP. Matlab 7.8 software is used in the numerical analysis for a specific example. Results show that the order completion time of the LSSC can be delayed or be ahead of schedule but cannot be infinitely advanced or infinitely delayed. Obtaining the optimal comprehensive performance can be effective if the expected order completion time is appropriately delayed. The increase in supply chain comprehensive performance caused by the increase in the relationship coefficient of logistics service integrator (LSI) is limited. The relative concern degree of LSI on cost and service delivery punctuality leads to not only changes in CODP but also to those in the scheduling performance of the LSSC. PMID:24715818

  7. A time scheduling model of logistics service supply chain based on the customer order decoupling point: a perspective from the constant service operation time.

    PubMed

    Liu, Weihua; Yang, Yi; Xu, Haitao; Liu, Xiaoyan; Wang, Yijia; Liang, Zhicheng

    2014-01-01

    In mass customization logistics service, reasonable scheduling of the logistics service supply chain (LSSC), especially time scheduling, is benefit to increase its competitiveness. Therefore, the effect of a customer order decoupling point (CODP) on the time scheduling performance should be considered. To minimize the total order operation cost of the LSSC, minimize the difference between the expected and actual time of completing the service orders, and maximize the satisfaction of functional logistics service providers, this study establishes an LSSC time scheduling model based on the CODP. Matlab 7.8 software is used in the numerical analysis for a specific example. Results show that the order completion time of the LSSC can be delayed or be ahead of schedule but cannot be infinitely advanced or infinitely delayed. Obtaining the optimal comprehensive performance can be effective if the expected order completion time is appropriately delayed. The increase in supply chain comprehensive performance caused by the increase in the relationship coefficient of logistics service integrator (LSI) is limited. The relative concern degree of LSI on cost and service delivery punctuality leads to not only changes in CODP but also to those in the scheduling performance of the LSSC.

  8. A Mixed-Methods Study Investigating the Relationship between Media Multitasking Orientation and Grade Point Average

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    The intent of this study was to examine the relationship between media multitasking orientation and grade point average. The study utilized a mixed-methods approach to investigate the research questions. In the quantitative section of the study, the primary method of statistical analyses was multiple regression. The independent variables for the…

  9. The Social Studies Program of the Grosse Pointe Public Schools: K-12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grosse Pointe Public School System, MI.

    This outline specifies social studies subject matter, concepts, skills, and attitudes appropriate for students at various grade levels from K-12. The social studies program combines educational practices of the Grosse Pointe Public Schools, concepts developed by the National Council of the Social Studies, and ideas from junior high and high school…

  10. A study of impulsive multiterm fractional differential equations with single and multiple base points and applications.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yuji; Ahmad, Bashir

    2014-01-01

    We discuss the existence and uniqueness of solutions for initial value problems of nonlinear singular multiterm impulsive Caputo type fractional differential equations on the half line. Our study includes the cases for a single base point fractional differential equation as well as multiple base points fractional differential equation. The asymptotic behavior of solutions for the problems is also investigated. We demonstrate the utility of our work by applying the main results to fractional-order logistic models.

  11. A Study of Impulsive Multiterm Fractional Differential Equations with Single and Multiple Base Points and Applications

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yuji; Ahmad, Bashir

    2014-01-01

    We discuss the existence and uniqueness of solutions for initial value problems of nonlinear singular multiterm impulsive Caputo type fractional differential equations on the half line. Our study includes the cases for a single base point fractional differential equation as well as multiple base points fractional differential equation. The asymptotic behavior of solutions for the problems is also investigated. We demonstrate the utility of our work by applying the main results to fractional-order logistic models. PMID:24578623

  12. Parametric Optimization of Some Critical Operating System Functions--An Alternative Approach to the Study of Operating Systems Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sobh, Tarek M.; Tibrewal, Abhilasha

    2006-01-01

    Operating systems theory primarily concentrates on the optimal use of computing resources. This paper presents an alternative approach to teaching and studying operating systems design and concepts by way of parametrically optimizing critical operating system functions. Detailed examples of two critical operating systems functions using the…

  13. [Study on water quality monitoring scheme based on non-point source pollution].

    PubMed

    Wu, Xi-Jun; Li, Huai-En; Li, Jia-Ke; Li, Qiang-Kun; Dong, Wen

    2013-06-01

    In order to improve standardization and normalization of non-point source pollution monitoring, this paper summarized the non-point source pollution monitoring scheme that based on conventional technology condition. The scheme firstly emphasized the preparation work before monitoring, including situation investigation and index selection of the monitoring area and so on; In the process of establishing monitoring scheme, the monitoring area was divided into three types: city, agriculture and watershed. Take urban area monitoring scheme for Xi'an as an example, through dividing function zone setting sampling point, summarized sampling time interval, frequency and sampling methods during a rainfall process. An irrigation district was an example for agricultural monitoring scheme, through unit division, setting sampling point at the approach channel and drain channel, introduced sampling times, interval time and so on in the process of irrigation. Watershed monitoring scheme's example was the Weihe GuanZhong section, raised the setting principle of each sample section, and analyzed each section's sampling law in the process of rainfall. Finally the principal character of different non-point source pollution monitoring areas was discussed, and concluded that non-point source pollution monitoring scheme is the base of non-point source pollution study and control.

  14. All three-loop four-point correlators of half-BPS operators in planar N = 4 SYM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chicherin, Dmitry; Drummond, James; Heslop, Paul; Sokatchev, Emery

    2016-08-01

    We obtain the planar correlation function of four half-BPS operators of arbitrary weights, up to three loops. Our method exploits only elementary properties of the integrand of the planar correlator, such as its symmetries and singularity structure. This allows us to write down a general ansatz for the integrand. The coefficients in the ansatz are fixed by means of a powerful light-cone OPE relation between correlators with different weights. Our result is formulated in terms of a limited number of functions built from known one-, two- and three-loop conformal integrals. These results are useful for checking recent integrability predictions for the OPE structure constants.

  15. Experimental study of adaptive pointing and tracking for large flexible space structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boussalis, D.; Bayard, D. S.; Ih, C.; Wang, S. J.; Ahmed, A.

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes an experimental study of adaptive pointing and tracking control for flexible spacecraft conducted on a complex ground experiment facility. The algorithm used in this study is based on a multivariable direct model reference adaptive control law. Several experimental validation studies were performed earlier using this algorithm for vibration damping and robust regulation, with excellent results. The current work extends previous studies by addressing the pointing and tracking problem. As is consistent with an adaptive control framework, the plant is assumed to be poorly known to the extent that only system level knowledge of its dynamics is available. Explicit bounds on the steady-state pointing error are derived as functions of the adaptive controller design parameters. It is shown that good tracking performance can be achieved in an experimental setting by adjusting adaptive controller design weightings according to the guidelines indicated by the analytical expressions for the error.

  16. National facilities study. Volume 4: Space operations facilities task group

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    The principal objectives of the National Facilities Study (NFS) were to: (1) determine where U.S. facilities do not meet national aerospace needs; (2) define new facilities required to make U.S. capabilities 'world class' where such improvements are in the national interest; (3) define where consolidation and phase-out of existing facilities is appropriate; and (4) develop a long-term national plan for world-class facility acquisition and shared usage. The Space Operations Facilities Task Group defined discrete tasks to accomplish the above objectives within the scope of the study. An assessment of national space operations facilities was conducted to determine the nation's capability to meet the requirements of space operations during the next 30 years. The mission model used in the study to define facility requirements is described in Volume 3. Based on this model, the major focus of the Task Group was to identify any substantive overlap or underutilization of space operations facilities and to identify any facility shortfalls that would necessitate facility upgrades or new facilities. The focus of this initial study was directed toward facility recommendations related to consolidations, closures, enhancements, and upgrades considered necessary to efficiently and effectively support the baseline requirements model. Activities related to identifying facility needs or recommendations for enhancing U.S. international competitiveness and achieving world-class capability, where appropriate, were deferred to a subsequent study phase.

  17. Technology Solutions Case Study: Hydronic Systems: Designing for Setback Operation

    SciTech Connect

    2014-05-01

    For years, conventional wisdom surrounding space heating has specified two points: size the mechanical systems to the heating loads, and setting the thermostat back at night will result in energy savings. The problem is these two recommendations oppose each other. A system that is properly sized to the heating load will not have the extra capacity necessary to recover from a thermostat setback, especially at design conditions. Properly designing a hydronic system for setback operation can be accomplished but depends on several factors. Determining the appropriateness of setback for a particular project is the first step. This is followed by proper sizing of the boiler and baseboard to ensure the needed capacity can be met. Finally, control settings must be chosen that result in the most efficient and responsive performance. This guide provides step-by-step instructions for heating contractors and hydronic designers for selecting the proper control settings to maximize system performance and improve response time when using a thermostat setback.

  18. Space station automation and robotics study. Operator-systems interface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    This is the final report of a Space Station Automation and Robotics Planning Study, which was a joint project of the Boeing Aerospace Company, Boeing Commercial Airplane Company, and Boeing Computer Services Company. The study is in support of the Advanced Technology Advisory Committee established by NASA in accordance with a mandate by the U.S. Congress. Boeing support complements that provided to the NASA Contractor study team by four aerospace contractors, the Stanford Research Institute (SRI), and the California Space Institute. This study identifies automation and robotics (A&R) technologies that can be advanced by requirements levied by the Space Station Program. The methodology used in the study is to establish functional requirements for the operator system interface (OSI), establish the technologies needed to meet these requirements, and to forecast the availability of these technologies. The OSI would perform path planning, tracking and control, object recognition, fault detection and correction, and plan modifications in connection with extravehicular (EV) robot operations.

  19. Analysis of remote operating systems for space-based servicing operations. Volume 2: Study results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    The developments in automation and robotics have increased the importance of applications for space based servicing using remotely operated systems. A study on three basic remote operating systems (teleoperation, telepresence and robotics) was performed in two phases. In phase one, requirements development, which consisted of one three-month task, a group of ten missions were selected. These included the servicing of user equipment on the station and the servicing of the station itself. In phase two, concepts development, which consisted of three tasks, overall system concepts were developed for the selected missions. These concepts, which include worksite servicing equipment, a carrier system, and payload handling equipment, were evaluated relative to the configurations of the overall worksite. It is found that the robotic/teleoperator concepts are appropriate for relatively simple structured tasks, while the telepresence/teleoperator concepts are applicable for missions that are complex, unstructured tasks.

  20. Acquisition of Operational Environmental Literacy in Social Studies Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fidan, Nuray Kurtdede; Ay, Tugba Selanik

    2016-01-01

    Environmental literacy can be defined as having necessary perceptions and competency of health and environmental systems and as being active in developing necessary acts about them. Individuals are expected to use their knowledge and concepts in daily life. The aim of this study is to determine students' views about operational environmental…

  1. C++ and operating systems performance - A case study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russo, Vincent F.; Madany, Peter W.; Campbell, Roy H.

    1990-01-01

    Object-oriented design and programming has many software engineering advantages. Its application to large systems, however, has previously been constrained by performance concerns. The Choices operating system, which has over 75,000 lines of code, is object-oriented and programmed in C++. This paper is a case study of the performance of Choices.

  2. Assessing the Flipped Classroom in Operations Management: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prashar, Anupama

    2015-01-01

    The author delved into the results of a flipped classroom pilot conducted for an operations management course module. It assessed students' perception of a flipped learning environment after making them experience it in real time. The classroom environment was construed using a case research approach and students' perceptions were studied using…

  3. A quantitative study on accumulation of age mass around stagnation points in nested flow systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Xiao-Wei; Wan, Li; Ge, Shemin; Cao, Guo-Liang; Hou, Guang-Cai; Hu, Fu-Sheng; Wang, Xu-Sheng; Li, Hailong; Liang, Si-Hai

    2012-12-01

    The stagnant zones in nested flow systems have been assumed to be critical to accumulation of transported matter, such as metallic ions and hydrocarbons in drainage basins. However, little quantitative research has been devoted to prove this assumption. In this paper, the transport of age mass is used as an example to demonstrate that transported matter could accumulate around stagnation points. The spatial distribution of model age is analyzed in a series of drainage basins of different depths. We found that groundwater age has a local or regional maximum value around each stagnation point, which proves the accumulation of age mass. In basins where local, intermediate and regional flow systems are all well developed, the regional maximum groundwater age occurs at the regional stagnation point below the basin valley. This can be attributed to the long travel distances of regional flow systems as well as stagnancy of the water. However, when local flow systems dominate, the maximum groundwater age in the basin can be located around the local stagnation points due to stagnancy, which are far away from the basin valley. A case study is presented to illustrate groundwater flow and age in the Ordos Plateau, northwestern China. The accumulation of age mass around stagnation points is confirmed by tracer age determined by 14C dating in two boreholes and simulated age near local stagnation points under different dispersivities. The results will help shed light on the relationship between groundwater flow and distributions of groundwater age, hydrochemistry, mineral resources, and hydrocarbons in drainage basins.

  4. Selecting the most appropriate time points to profile in high-throughput studies

    PubMed Central

    Kleyman, Michael; Sefer, Emre; Nicola, Teodora; Espinoza, Celia; Chhabra, Divya; Hagood, James S; Kaminski, Naftali; Ambalavanan, Namasivayam; Bar-Joseph, Ziv

    2017-01-01

    Biological systems are increasingly being studied by high throughput profiling of molecular data over time. Determining the set of time points to sample in studies that profile several different types of molecular data is still challenging. Here we present the Time Point Selection (TPS) method that solves this combinatorial problem in a principled and practical way. TPS utilizes expression data from a small set of genes sampled at a high rate. As we show by applying TPS to study mouse lung development, the points selected by TPS can be used to reconstruct an accurate representation for the expression values of the non selected points. Further, even though the selection is only based on gene expression, these points are also appropriate for representing a much larger set of protein, miRNA and DNA methylation changes over time. TPS can thus serve as a key design strategy for high throughput time series experiments. Supporting Website: www.sb.cs.cmu.edu/TPS DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.18541.001 PMID:28124972

  5. An avionics sensitivity study. Volume 1: Operational considerations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott, R. W.; Mcconkey, E. D.

    1976-01-01

    Equipment and operational concepts affecting aircraft in the terminal area are reported. Curved approach applications and modified climb and descent procedures for minimum fuel consumption are considered. The curved approach study involves the application of MLS guidance to enable execution of the current visual approach to Washington National Airport under instrument flight conditions. The operational significance and the flight path control requirements involved in the application of curved approach paths to this situation are considered. Alternative flight path control regimes are considered to achieve minimum fuel consumption subject to constraints related to air traffic control requirements, flight crew and passenger reactions, and airframe and powerplant limitations.

  6. Cryogenic Propellant Storage and Transfer Technology Demonstration: Prephase A Government Point-of-Departure Concept Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mulqueen, J. A.; Addona, B. M.; Gwaltney, D. A.; Holt, K. A.; Hopkins, R. C.; Matis, J. A.; McRight, P. S.; Popp, C. G.; Sutherlin, S. G.; Thomas, H. D.; Baysinger, M. F.; Maples, C. D.; Capizzo, P. D.; Fabisinski, L. L.; Hornsby, L. S.; Percy, T. K.; Thomas, S. D.

    2012-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to define a point-of-departure prephase A mission concept for the cryogenic propellant storage and transfer technology demonstration mission to be conducted by the NASA Office of the Chief Technologist (OCT). The mission concept includes identification of the cryogenic propellant management technologies to be demonstrated, definition of a representative mission timeline, and definition of a viable flight system design concept. The resulting mission concept will serve as a point of departure for evaluating alternative mission concepts and synthesizing the results of industry- defined mission concepts developed under the OCT contracted studies

  7. Space tug point design study. Volume 3: Design definition. Part 1: Propulsion and mechanical, avionics, thermal control and electrical power subsystems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine the configuration and performance of a space tug. Details of the space tug systems are presented to include: (1) propulsion systems, (2) avionics, (3) thermal control, and (4) electric power subsystems. The data generated include engineering drawings, schematics, subsystem operation, and component description. Various options investigated and the rational for the point design selection are analyzed.

  8. Tender mooring for infill drilling operations: A case study

    SciTech Connect

    1997-04-01

    The Tapis-pump platform is a four-leg jacket structure located 230 ft south of the Tapis-D platform and connected to it by a walkway bridge. All crude production (360,000 B/D) from Esso Production Malaysia Inc. (EPMI) wells in the South China Sea offshore Terengganu is piped to the Tapais-pump platform for pumping to an onshore terminal. The continuous operation of this platform is essential. The Tapis-D platform is a manned production platform that also acts as a central communication center and emergency response command center for EPMI`s offshore operations in the South China Sea. A total of nine wells is planned for an infill drilling program at the Tapis-D platform. The rig selected for this infill drilling program is a self-erecting tender-assisted rig that uses an eight-point wire rope mooring system. Eleven pipelines are connected to the Tapis-pump/Tapis-D platform complex. All the pipelines were laid on the seafloor without any special external protection and were not tied down or anchored. The paper describes the planning of the mooring system for drilling.

  9. Ground Operations Aerospace Language (GOAL). Volume 1: Study overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    A series of NASA and Contractor studies sponsored by NASA/KSC resulted in a specification for the Ground Operations Aerospace Language (GOAL). The Cape Kennedy Facility of the IBM Corporation was given the responsibility, under existing contracts, to perform an analysis of the Language Specification, to design and develop a GOAL Compiler, to provide a specification for a data bank, to design and develop an interpretive code translator, and to perform associated application studies.

  10. The first regularized trace of integro-differential Sturm-Liouville operator on the segment with punctured points at integral perturbation of transmission conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aimakhanova, Aizat Sh.; Shalginbayeva, Saltanat Kh.; Zhumanova, Lyazzat K.

    2016-08-01

    The paper is devoted to calculation of a first regularized trace of one integro-differential operator with the main part of the Sturm-Liouville type on a segment with punctured points at integral perturbation of "transmission" conditions. The Sturm-Liouville operator -y″(x )+q (x )y (x )+γ ∫0πy (t ) d t =λ y (x ) given on the segments π/n (k -1 )points x =π/n k are solutions. The value of jumps is expressed by the formula y'(π/k n -0 ) =y'(π/k n +0 ) -βk∫0πy (t )d t , k =1 , n -1 ¯. The basic result of the paper is the exact formula of the first regularized trace of the considered differential operator.

  11. Lithium-ion drifting: Application to the study of point defects in floating-zone silicon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walton, J. T.; Wong, Y. K.; Zulehner, W.

    1997-01-01

    The use of lithium-ion (Li(+)) drifting to study the properties of point defects in p-type Floating-Zone (FZ) silicon crystals is reported. The Li(+) drift technique is used to detect the presence of vacancy-related defects (D defects) in certain p-type FZ silicon crystals. SUPREM-IV modeling suggests that the silicon point defect diffusivities are considerably higher than those commonly accepted, but are in reasonable agreement with values recently proposed. These results demonstrate the utility of Li(+) drifting in the study of silicon point defect properties in p-type FZ crystals. Finally, a straightforward measurement of the Li(+) compensation depth is shown to yield estimates of the vacancy-related defect concentration in p-type FZ crystals.

  12. Study on the Impurity Effect in the Realization of Silver Fixed Point

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, S. F.

    2016-03-01

    The application of a thermal analysis model to estimate the temperature depression from the ideal fixed-point temperature is important, especially when the chemical analysis of the sample in a cell is insufficient or the cell might have been contaminated during fabrication. This study extends previous work, on thermal analysis with the tin point, to an investigation of the impurity dependence of the silver-point temperature. Close agreement was found between the temperature depression (-0.36 mK) inferred from the thermal analysis of the measured fixed-point plateau and the temperature depression (-0.32 mK) inferred using the sum of individual estimates (SIE) method with an impurity analysis based on glow discharge mass spectrometry. Additionally, the results of the thermal analysis manifest no significant dependence on the rate of solidification, and the scatter of observed gradients was within 0.36 mK among five plateaux with different temperature settings of the furnace. Although the results support the application of both the SIE method and thermal analysis for the silver point, further experiments with cell-to-cell comparisons linked to thermal analysis, a study of the thermometer-furnace systematic effects, the oxygen effect, and the locus of the freezing plateau should be investigated to reach a firm conclusion.

  13. New Approach in Filling of Fixed-Point Cells: Case Study of the Melting Point of Gallium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bojkovski, J.; Hiti, M.; Batagelj, V.; Drnovšek, J.

    2008-02-01

    The typical way of constructing fixed-point cells is very well described in the literature. The crucible is loaded with shot, or any other shape of pure metal, inside an argon-filled glove box. Then, the crucible is carefully slid into a fused-silica tube that is closed at the top with an appropriate cap. After that, the cell is removed from the argon glove box and melted inside a furnace while under vacuum or filled with an inert gas like argon. Since the metal comes as shot, or in some other shape such as rods of various sizes, and takes more volume than the melted material, it is necessary to repeat the procedure until a sufficient amount of material is introduced into the crucible. With such a procedure, there is the possibility of introducing additional impurities into the pure metal with each cycle of melting the material and putting it back into the glove box to fill the cell. Our new approach includes the use of a special, so-called dry-box system, which is well known in chemistry. The atmosphere inside the dry box contains less than 20 ppm of water and less than 3 ppm of oxygen. Also, the size of the dry box allows it to contain a furnace for melting materials, not only for gallium but for higher-temperature materials as well. With such an approach, the cell and all its parts (pure metal, graphite, fused-silica tube, and cap) are constantly inside the controlled atmosphere, even while melting the material and filling the crucible. With such a method, the possibility of contaminating the cell during the filling process is minimized.

  14. Mission Operations Planning with Preferences: An Empirical Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bresina, John L.; Khatib, Lina; McGann, Conor

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents an empirical study of some nonexhaustive approaches to optimizing preferences within the context of constraint-based, mixed-initiative planning for mission operations. This work is motivated by the experience of deploying and operating the MAPGEN (Mixed-initiative Activity Plan GENerator) system for the Mars Exploration Rover Mission. Responsiveness to the user is one of the important requirements for MAPGEN, hence, the additional computation time needed to optimize preferences must be kept within reasonabble bounds. This was the primary motivation for studying non-exhaustive optimization approaches. The specific goals of rhe empirical study are to assess the impact on solution quality of two greedy heuristics used in MAPGEN and to assess the improvement gained by applying a linear programming optimization technique to the final solution.

  15. Impact of Field of Study, College and Year on Calculation of Cumulative Grade Point Average

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trail, Carla; Reiter, Harold I.; Bridge, Michelle; Stefanowska, Patricia; Schmuck, Marylou; Norman, Geoff

    2008-01-01

    A consistent finding from many reviews is that undergraduate Grade Point Average (uGPA) is a key predictor of academic success in medical school. Curiously, while uGPA has established predictive validity, little is known about its reliability. For a variety of reasons, medical schools use different weighting schemas to combine years of study.…

  16. Retrospective study using MRI to measure depths of acupuncture points in neck and shoulder region

    PubMed Central

    Chou, Pei-Chi; Huang, Yu-Chuen; Hsueh, Chun-Jen; Lin, Jaung-Geng; Chu, Heng-Yi

    2015-01-01

    Objectives There are safety issues associated with acupuncture treatment. Previous studies regarding needling depth of acupuncture points revealed inconsistent results due to vague depth definition, acupuncture point localisation and measuring tools. The objective of this study is to find and compare the differences of the mean depths of 11 acupuncture points in the neck and shoulder region between subjects, with variables including gender and body mass index (BMI). Setting This study was conducted at a single medical center in Taiwan. Participants Three hundred and ninety-four participants were included in this study. Participants were grouped according to gender and BMI. Acupuncture points were localised by WHO standard and measured by MRI. Outcome measures The distance from the needle insertion point (surface of the skin) to any tissues that would cause possible/severe complications. Results Mean depths of 11 points were obtained in groups of different BMI and gender. Mean depths of all participants regardless of BMI and gender are as follows, in centimetres: GB21=5.6, SI14=5.2, SI15=8.8, GV15=4.9, GV16=4.6, GB20=5.0, ST9=1.6, SI16=1.8, SI17=2.4, TE16=3.1, LI18=1.3. Participants with higher BMI had greater measured depths in both gender groups. Male participants had larger mean depths than female participants regardless of BMI except in SI17 and LI18. When taking BMI into consideration, depths in male participants are greater than in female participants in most of the points except the following: GB21, TE16 in obesity group; ST9 in underweight and obesity group; SI16 in ideal body weight, overweight and obesity group; SI17, LI18 in each group. Conclusions Participants with higher BMI had greater measured depths and males tended to have greater depths in most of the points. Clinical practitioners are recommended to consider this information to prevent complications when applying acupuncture treatment to their patients. PMID:26224017

  17. [Perioperative point-of-care coagulation testing--recently published studies].

    PubMed

    Adam, Elisabeth H; Meybohm, Patrick; Zacharowski, Kai; Weber, Christian F

    2013-05-01

    Point-of-care (POC) devices are increasingly being used at the bedside in perioperative patient management of hemostatic function. Aggregometric methods can be utilized in preoperative screening of thrombocytopathia and are qualified to describe the efficacy of antiplatelet therapy. Published data about the value of point-of-care diagnostic gives partially conflicting results.Current prospective randomized studies indicate that implementation of hemostatic treatment algorithms based on viscoelastic and aggregometric POC-analysis may reduce transfusion rate of allogenic blood products, improve clinical outcome and reduce cost of hemostatic treatment.

  18. Version changes in medical software: proposing minimal requirements for release notes and a version number convention - an operators' point of view.

    PubMed

    Ahlbrandt, Janko; Bott, Constantin; Moll, Peter; Naziyok, Tolga; Majeed, Raphael W; Röhrig, Rainer

    2015-01-01

    Medical software--like any other software--is susceptible to errors. To avoid false system behaviour or attenuate its consequences, system operators need to know about changes in the software. The goal of this proposal is to define terms and minimum requirements regarding documentation for a version change from the operator's point of view, especially in the domain of medical software or software as a medical device (SaMD). The results are a classification of version changes (Upgrade: breaks support for a rollback to a prior version, Major Update: either substantial configuration or user education needed, Minor Update: minor configuration or user information needed, Patch: collection of (small) changes that require neither configuration nor user information.). Additionally, minimal requirements for release notes are determined and a document structure recommended.

  19. Retina-on-a-chip: a microfluidic platform for point access signaling studies

    PubMed Central

    Dodson, Kirsten H.; Echevarria, Franklin D.; Li, Deyu; Sappington, Rebecca M.; Edd, Jon F.

    2016-01-01

    We report on a microfluidic platform for culture of whole organs or tissue slices with the capability of point access reagent delivery to probe the transport of signaling events. Whole mice retina were maintained for multiple days with negative pressure applied to tightly but gently bind the bottom of the retina to a thin poly-(dimethylsiloxane) membrane, through which twelve 100 μm diameter through-holes served as fluidic access points. Staining with toluidine blue, transport of locally applied cholera toxin beta, and transient response to lipopolysaccharide in the retina demonstrated the capability of the microfluidic platform. The point access fluidic delivery capability could enable new assays in the study of various kinds of excised tissues, including retina. PMID:26559199

  20. Retina-on-a-chip: a microfluidic platform for point access signaling studies.

    PubMed

    Dodson, Kirsten H; Echevarria, Franklin D; Li, Deyu; Sappington, Rebecca M; Edd, Jon F

    2015-12-01

    We report on a microfluidic platform for culture of whole organs or tissue slices with the capability of point access reagent delivery to probe the transport of signaling events. Whole mice retina were maintained for multiple days with negative pressure applied to tightly but gently bind the bottom of the retina to a thin poly-(dimethylsiloxane) membrane, through which twelve 100 μm diameter through-holes served as fluidic access points. Staining with toluidine blue, transport of locally applied cholera toxin beta, and transient response to lipopolysaccharide in the retina demonstrated the capability of the microfluidic platform. The point access fluidic delivery capability could enable new assays in the study of various kinds of excised tissues, including retina.

  1. Evolution of clinical trials for irritable bowel syndrome: issues in end points and study design.

    PubMed

    Trentacosti, Ann Marie; He, Ruyi; Burke, Laurie B; Griebel, Donna; Kennedy, Dianne L

    2010-04-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) involves a broad range of physiological and psychological alterations that may affect brain-gut dysregulation, gut function, visceral perception, and mucosal integrity and function. Despite advances in our understanding of basic neuroenteric mechanisms and the role of effectors and transmitters in the brain-gut axis, a reliable biologic marker of IBS has yet to be identified. IBS diagnosis and status depend entirely on an assessment of IBS signs and symptoms. This has made development of optimal end points and study design for evaluation of efficacy of IBS drugs a challenge. This article addresses three main topics: the evolution of primary end points for IBS clinical trials; a potential path forward for IBS end points in new clinical trials; and recommendations for the future development of patient-reported outcome (PRO) instruments for use in IBS clinical trials.

  2. Experimental study of the furnace effect with the copper point blackbody

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imbe, Masatoshi; Yamada, Yoshiro

    2016-12-01

    The furnace effect is a major uncertainty source in the realization of high-temperature fixed points in metal-carbon systems. The cause of this effect is as yet unexplained, and understanding it is a high-priority task for the inclusion of fixed points in future high-temperature metrology. In this paper, the furnace effect is studied experimentally and systematically with three furnaces, two cells, and two radiation thermometers. The copper point is chosen for the fixed point of investigation in order to eliminate the influence of the properties of the furnace. Correction for drift and the size-of-source effect of the thermometer is applied to achieve the required measurement accuracy. As a result, the furnace effect has been demonstrated quantitatively for the first time as the difference in radiance temperature of the same cell observed in different furnaces by the same thermometer. The experimental results show that it is related to the dimension of the furnace and the design of the fixed-point blackbody cell.

  3. Aspect-Oriented Approach to Operating System Development Empirical Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuusela, Jaakko; Tuominen, Harri

    This paper presents a case-study where a new programming technique is applied to an established branch of software development. The purpose of the study was to test whether or not aspect-oriented programming (AOP) could be used in operating systems development. Instead of any real world operating system an educational OS with the name Nachos was used. This was because Nachos is written in Java which makes it easy to introduce aspect-oriented techniques. In this paper a new file system for the Nachos OS is developed and then it is analyzed by profiling and metrics. The results show that it is possible to use AOP in OS development and that it is also beneficial to do so.

  4. Current and future developments in civil aircraft non-destructive evaluation from an operator's point of view

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Register, Jeff

    1992-01-01

    In June, 1988, the first International Conference on aging aircraft was held to address nondestructive tests (NDT) of aging aircraft and other issues. From this meeting, a research program was initiated and funded by the FAA. As a result of this program, a lot of work has been done to study current NDT practices in the aviation industry and secondly, to research and develop new NDT methods to improve the reliability and efficiency of in-service inspection of aircraft structures and powerplants. The following is an overview of the current and future developments in civil aircraft NDT, as viewed by an air carrier and the concerns for NDT in the future.

  5. Lunar Transportation Facilities and Operations Study, option 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    During the Option 2 period of the Lunar Transportation Facilities and Operations Study (LTFOS), a joint McDonnell Douglas Space Systems Company Kennedy Space Center (MDSSC-KSC) and National Aeronautics and Space Administration Kennedy Space Center (NASA-KSC) Study team conducted a comparison of the functional testing of the RL-10 and Space Shuttle Main Engine, a quick-look impact assessment of the Synthesis Group Report, and a detailed assessment of the Synthesis Group Report. The results of these KSC LTFOS team efforts are included. The most recent study task effort was a detailed assessment of the Synthesis Group Report. The assessment was conducted to determine the impact on planetary launch and landing facilities and operations. The result of that effort is a report entitled 'Analysis of the Synthesis Group Report, its Architectures and their Impacts on PSS Launch and Landing Operations' and is contained in Appendix A. The report is structured in a briefing format with facing pages as opposed to a narrative style. A quick-look assessment of the Synthesis Group Report was conducted to determine the impact of implementing the recommendations of the Synthesis Group on KSC launch facilities and operations. The data was documented in a presentation format as requested by Kennedy Space Center Technology and Advanced Projects Office and is included in Appendix B. Appendix C is a white paper on the comparison of the functional testing of the RL-10 and Space Shuttle Main Engine. The comparison was undertaken to provide insight regarding common test requirements that would be applicable to Lunar and Mars Excursion Vehicles (LEV and MEV).

  6. Reviving common standards in point-count surveys for broad inference across studies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Matsuoka, Steven M.; Mahon, C. Lisa; Handel, Colleen M.; Solymos, Peter; Bayne, Erin M.; Fontaine, Patricia C.; Ralph, C.J.

    2014-01-01

    We revisit the common standards recommended by Ralph et al. (1993, 1995a) for conducting point-count surveys to assess the relative abundance of landbirds breeding in North America. The standards originated from discussions among ornithologists in 1991 and were developed so that point-count survey data could be broadly compared and jointly analyzed by national data centers with the goals of monitoring populations and managing habitat. Twenty years later, we revisit these standards because (1) they have not been universally followed and (2) new methods allow estimation of absolute abundance from point counts, but these methods generally require data beyond the original standards to account for imperfect detection. Lack of standardization and the complications it introduces for analysis become apparent from aggregated data. For example, only 3% of 196,000 point counts conducted during the period 1992-2011 across Alaska and Canada followed the standards recommended for the count period and count radius. Ten-minute, unlimited-count-radius surveys increased the number of birds detected by >300% over 3-minute, 50-m-radius surveys. This effect size, which could be eliminated by standardized sampling, was ≥10 times the published effect sizes of observers, time of day, and date of the surveys. We suggest that the recommendations by Ralph et al. (1995a) continue to form the common standards when conducting point counts. This protocol is inexpensive and easy to follow but still allows the surveys to be adjusted for detection probabilities. Investigators might optionally collect additional information so that they can analyze their data with more flexible forms of removal and time-of-detection models, distance sampling, multiple-observer methods, repeated counts, or combinations of these methods. Maintaining the common standards as a base protocol, even as these study-specific modifications are added, will maximize the value of point-count data, allowing compilation and

  7. Operational definitions of asthma in recent epidemiological studies are inconsistent

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Objective The best combination of questions to define asthma in epidemiological asthma studies is not known. We summarized the operational definitions of asthma used in prevalence studies and empirically assess how asthma prevalence estimates vary depending on the definition used. Methods We searched the Thomson Reuters ISI Web of knowledge and included (1) cross-sectional studies (2) on asthma prevalence (3) conducted in the general population and (4) containing an explicit definition of asthma. The search was limited to the 100 most-cited papers or published since January 2010. For each paper, we recorded the asthma definition used and other variables. Then we applied the definitions to the data of the Portuguese National Asthma survey (INAsma) and of the 2005–2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) computing asthma prevalence estimates for the different definitions. Results Of 1738 papers retrieved, 117 were included for analysis. Lifetime asthma, diagnosed asthma and current asthma were defined in 8, 12 and 29 different ways, respectively. By applying definitions of current asthma on INAsma and NHANES data, the prevalence ranged between 5.3%-24.4% and 1.1%-17.2%, respectively. Conclusions There is considerable heterogeneity in the definitions of asthma used in epidemiological studies leading to highly variable estimates of asthma prevalence. Studies to inform a standardized operational definition are needed. Meanwhile, we propose a set of questions to be reported when defining asthma in epidemiological studies. PMID:25136441

  8. Orbit Transfer Vehicle (OTV) advanced expander cycle engine point design study. Volume 2: Study results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Detailed computer models of the engine were developed to predict both the steady state and transient operation of the engine system. Mechanical design layout drawings were prepared for the following components: thrust chamber and nozzle; extendible nozzle actuating mechanism and seal; LOX turbopump and boost pump; hydrogen turbopump and boost pump; and the propellant control valves. The necessary heat transfer, stress, fluid flow, dynamic, and performance analyses were performed to support the mechanical design.

  9. International cooperative study of aircrew layover sleep Operational summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graeber, R. Curtis; Dement, William C.; Nicholson, Anthony N.; Sasaki, Mitsuo; Wegmann, Hans M.

    1986-01-01

    The findings of this cooperative study of layover sleep have direct implications for flight operations. In the consensus view of the principal investigators, these can be divided into their relevance for eastward or westward flight. Eastward flight produced more sleep disruption than westward. Different sleep and scheduling strategies are recommended for each flight direction, and the importance of individual crewmember factors is discussed in relation to age and circadian type. Despite the limitations of this study with regard to trip simplicity and the baseline data, the results for each airline are highly consistent and should be applicable to a wide range of long-haul crewmembers and carriers.

  10. Proximity Operations Nano-Satellite Flight Demonstration (PONSFD) Rendezvous Proximity Operations Design and Trade Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griesbach, J.; Westphal, J. J.; Roscoe, C.; Hawes, D. R.; Carrico, J. P.

    2013-09-01

    The Proximity Operations Nano-Satellite Flight Demonstration (PONSFD) program is to demonstrate rendezvous proximity operations (RPO), formation flying, and docking with a pair of 3U CubeSats. The program is sponsored by NASA Ames via the Office of the Chief Technologist (OCT) in support of its Small Spacecraft Technology Program (SSTP). The goal of the mission is to demonstrate complex RPO and docking operations with a pair of low-cost 3U CubeSat satellites using passive navigation sensors. The program encompasses the entire system evolution including system design, acquisition, satellite construction, launch, mission operations, and final disposal. The satellite is scheduled for launch in Fall 2015 with a 1-year mission lifetime. This paper provides a brief mission overview but will then focus on the current design and driving trade study results for the RPO mission specific processor and relevant ground software. The current design involves multiple on-board processors, each specifically tasked with providing mission critical capabilities. These capabilities range from attitude determination and control to image processing. The RPO system processor is responsible for absolute and relative navigation, maneuver planning, attitude commanding, and abort monitoring for mission safety. A low power processor running a Linux operating system has been selected for implementation. Navigation is one of the RPO processor's key tasks. This entails processing data obtained from the on-board GPS unit as well as the on-board imaging sensors. To do this, Kalman filters will be hosted on the processor to ingest and process measurements for maintenance of position and velocity estimates with associated uncertainties. While each satellite carries a GPS unit, it will be used sparsely to conserve power. As such, absolute navigation will mainly consist of propagating past known states, and relative navigation will be considered to be of greater importance. For relative observations

  11. Feasibility study for a transportation operations system cask maintenance facility

    SciTech Connect

    Rennich, M.J.; Medley, L.G.; Attaway, C.R.

    1991-01-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) is responsible for the development of a waste management program for the disposition of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and high-level waste (HLW). The program will include a transportation system for moving the nuclear waste from the sources to a geologic repository for permanent disposal. Specially designed casks will be used to safely transport the waste. The cask systems must be operated within limits imposed by DOE, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), and the Department of Transportation (DOT). A dedicated facility for inspecting, testing, and maintaining the cask systems was recommended by the General Accounting Office (in 1979) as the best means of assuring their operational effectiveness and safety, as well as regulatory compliance. In November of 1987, OCRWM requested a feasibility study be made of a Cask Maintenance Facility (CMF) that would perform the required functions. 46 refs., 16 figs., 13 tabs.

  12. Bilateral carpal tunnel surgery in one operation: Retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Herisson, O; Dury, M; Rapp, E; Marin-Braun, F

    2016-06-01

    Carpal tunnel syndrome is the most common entrapment syndrome. The incidence of a bilateral condition varies between 22% and 87%. The aim of our study was to assess the level of satisfaction and the clinical outcomes in a group of patients operated on through a bilateral neurolysis on the median nerve in the carpal tunnel, in one operating session. This is a retrospective study involving patients with an electromyographic and clinical diagnosis of bilateral carpal tunnel syndrome. Patients were treated on an outpatient basis and the bilateral neurolysis was performed by endoscopy. The postoperative data was collected during consultation by a senior surgeon or during telephone interviews. Patients were asked to respond to a satisfaction questionnaire and the functional outcome was assessed through the Quick-Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand (Quick-DASH) questionnaire. Twenty-nine patients with bilateral carpal tunnel syndrome were operated on in single operating sessions between January 2009 and January 2014. The average follow-up was 46 months. The average age at the time of the intervention was 45 years. Two patients were lost to follow-up, and 27 were able to be assessed. In relation to the clinical and functional outcomes, the average Quick-DASH score was 6.78 (ranges: 0-43.2). Twenty-five patients (92.5%) were satisfied with this simultaneous treatment and 26 patients (96%) would choose the same technique again. One-stage surgery in cases of bilateral carpal tunnel syndrome appears to constitute a benefit for the patient, the surgeon and the anaesthetist, but it is reserved for patients who request it and who are motivated by this type of intervention.

  13. Ergonomic study of an operator's work of a molybdenum plant.

    PubMed

    Oñate, Esteban; Meyer, Felipe

    2012-01-01

    This study was part of an ergonomic program which is being carried out through an agreement between the University of Concepción and a Chilean private mining company. The purpose of this case study was to identify working conditions in which the physical and mental workload could be over the capabilities of the operator. He was responsible for loading trucks with sacks of molybdenum and for downloading reagents and handles them. The methods employed in this study included electronic records, interviews, surveys, review of the company standards, a time study and physical and mental workload analysis. Results showed that 84% of the time the operator was carrying out principal and secondary activities and no break periods were detected. It was found that the pace of work and the shift system generated unfavorable conditions by imbalance in the workload on the different days of the week. In the light of the results recommendations were made for a number of ergonomic changes. Most of them were accepted by the company. The most important achievement was a change in the shift system. The overload of the operator was due to the fact that he was in a shift working 5 days and resting on weekends. The imbalance was mainly because the work of the week end was accumulated for Monday. As a result of the study, the company contracted a second worker for this job and adopted a 7x7 shift system, meaning that they work seven days and rest seven days. An evaluation carried out two month after adopting the new shift revealed that changes were well accepted by the worker.

  14. Vascular Fasciatherapy Danis Bois Method: a Study on Mechanism Concerning the Supporting Point Applied on Arteries

    PubMed Central

    Payrau, Bernard; Quéré, Nadine; Bois, Danis

    2011-01-01

    Background A first study on vascular fasciatherapy enabled us to observe the turning of a turbulent blood flow into a laminar one, and a questioning on the process involved in this transformation emerged. The first question was: What is the nature of artery from the point of view of fascia? And a second question was: Which is the link permitting the observed process working in our first study? So this time, we are investigating a specific aspect of the big question that polarizes the interest of many researchers: “What is fascia?” Methods Following Donald Ingber’s statement, “It is necessary to understand how tissues and organs are structured across multiple size scales”, our research methods have been established in order to collect information on what is artery and what is fascia. Concerning these two organs, we have questioned science across the scales of embryology, anatomy, histology and cytology. Beyond the knowledge on structure, the functional link between artery and fascia is the necessary complement of this study whose starting point is in fact a questioning on process. As an application of this study, vascular fasciatherapy Danis-Bois Method and mechanotransduction have been investigated in theoretical and in research aspects to improve the understanding of how they work. Results The embryological approach points out a common origin and a histofunctional community of connective tissue and artery. As organs, arteries are sheathed by the adventia-fascia, and are penetrated by connective tissue extensions in media and intima. Furthermore, the functional point of view of this study reports the knowledge on mechanotransduction involving artery, both from the connective side and from the luminal side. Functional anatomy, surgery, histology, and cytology integrating the theory of the extended cytoskeleton, underline continuity from the static and functional points of view, with tensegrity being the architectural principle linking molecules to the

  15. Novel Landmark for Cervical Pedicle Screw Insertion Point from Computed Tomography-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Study Design Cross-sectional study. Purpose The purpose of this study was to evaluate a novel landmark for the cervical pedicle screw insertion point. Overview of Literature To improve the accuracy of pedicle screw placement, several studies have employed the lateral mass, lateral vertical notch, and/or inferior articular process as landmarks; however, we often encounter patients in whom we cannot identify accurate insertion points for pedicle screws using these landmarks because of degenerative changes in the facet joints. The superomedial edge of the lamina is less affected by degenerative changes, and we hypothesized that it could be a new landmark for identifying an accurate cervical pedicle screw insertion point. Methods A total of 327 consecutive patients, who had undergone neck computed tomographic scanning for determination of neck disease in our institute, were included in the study. At first, the line was drawn parallel to the superior border of the pedicle in the sagittal plane and parallel to the vertical body in the coronal plane. The line was moved downward in 1-mm increments to the inferior border of the pedicle. We determined whether the line passing through the superomedial edge of the lamina (termed the “N-line”) was located between the superior and inferior borders of the pedicle in the sagittal plane. Results The percentages of N-lines located between the superior and inferior borders of the pedicle were 100% at C3, 100% at C4, 99% at C5, 96% at C6, and 97% at C7. The lower cervical spine has the higher N-line location. Conclusions The N-line was frequently located at the level of the pedicle of each cervical spine in the sagittal plane. The superomedial edge of the lamina could be a new landmark for the insertion point of the cervical pedicle screw. PMID:28243374

  16. Study of the transfer between libration point orbits and lunar orbits in Earth-Moon system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Yu; Gómez, Gerard; Masdemont, Josep J.; Yuan, Jianping

    2017-02-01

    This paper is devoted to the study of the transfer problem from a libration point orbit of the Earth-Moon system to an orbit around the Moon. The transfer procedure analysed has two legs: the first one is an orbit of the unstable manifold of the libration orbit and the second one is a transfer orbit between a certain point on the manifold and the final lunar orbit. There are only two manoeuvres involved in the method and they are applied at the beginning and at the end of the second leg. Although the numerical results given in this paper correspond to transfers between halo orbits around the L_1 point (of several amplitudes) and lunar polar orbits with altitudes varying between 100 and 500 km, the procedure we develop can be applied to any kind of lunar orbits, libration orbits around the L_1 or L_2 points of the Earth-Moon system, or to other similar cases with different values of the mass ratio.

  17. Using GENIE to study a tipping point in the climate system.

    PubMed

    Lenton, Timothy M; Myerscough, Richard J; Marsh, Robert; Livina, Valerie N; Price, Andrew R; Cox, Simon J; Genie Team

    2009-03-13

    We have used the Grid ENabled Integrated Earth system modelling framework to study the archetypal example of a tipping point in the climate system; a threshold for the collapse of the Atlantic thermohaline circulation (THC). eScience has been invaluable in this work and we explain how we have made it work for us. Two stable states of the THC have been found to coexist, under the same boundary conditions, in a hierarchy of models. The climate forcing required to collapse the THC and the reversibility or irreversibility of such a collapse depends on uncertain model parameters. Automated methods have been used to assimilate observational data to constrain the pertinent parameters. Anthropogenic climate forcing leads to a robust weakening of the THC and increases the probability of crossing a THC tipping point, but some ensemble members collapse readily, whereas others are extremely resistant. Hence, we test general methods that have been developed to directly diagnose, from time-series data, the proximity of a 'tipping element', such as the THC to a bifurcation point. In a three-dimensional ocean-atmosphere model exhibiting THC hysteresis, despite high variability in the THC driven by the dynamical atmosphere, some early warning of an approaching tipping point appears possible.

  18. Parametric study of two-body floating-point wave absorber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amiri, Atena; Panahi, Roozbeh; Radfar, Soheil

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, we present a comprehensive numerical simulation of a point wave absorber in deep water. Analyses are performed in both the frequency and time domains. The converter is a two-body floating-point absorber (FPA) with one degree of freedom in the heave direction. Its two parts are connected by a linear mass-spring-damper system. The commercial ANSYS-AQWA software used in this study performs well in considering validations. The velocity potential is obtained by assuming incompressible and irrotational flow. As such, we investigated the effects of wave characteristics on energy conversion and device efficiency, including wave height and wave period, as well as the device diameter, draft, geometry, and damping coefficient. To validate the model, we compared our numerical results with those from similar experiments. Our study results can clearly help to maximize the converter's efficiency when considering specific conditions.

  19. Damage states in laminated composite three-point bend specimens: An experimental-analytical correlation study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Starbuck, J. Michael; Guerdal, Zafer; Pindera, Marek-Jerzy; Poe, Clarence C.

    1990-01-01

    Damage states in laminated composites were studied by considering the model problem of a laminated beam subjected to three-point bending. A combination of experimental and theoretical research techniques was used to correlate the experimental results with the analytical stress distributions. The analytical solution procedure was based on the stress formulation approach of the mathematical theory of elasticity. The solution procedure is capable of calculating the ply-level stresses and beam displacements for any laminated beam of finite length using the generalized plane deformation or plane stress state assumption. Prior to conducting the experimental phase, the results from preliminary analyses were examined. Significant effects in the ply-level stress distributions were seen depending on the fiber orientation, aspect ratio, and whether or not a grouped or interspersed stacking sequence was used. The experimental investigation was conducted to determine the different damage modes in laminated three-point bend specimens. The test matrix consisted of three-point bend specimens of 0 deg unidirectional, cross-ply, and quasi-isotropic stacking sequences. The dependence of the damage initiation loads and ultimate failure loads were studied, and their relation to damage susceptibility and damage tolerance of the mean configuration was discussed. Damage modes were identified by visual inspection of the damaged specimens using an optical microscope. The four fundamental damage mechanisms identified were delaminations, matrix cracking, fiber breakage, and crushing. The correlation study between the experimental results and the analytical results were performed for the midspan deflection, indentation, damage modes, and damage susceptibility.

  20. Distributed situation awareness in complex collaborative systems: A field study of bridge operations on platform supply vessels

    PubMed Central

    Sandhåland, Hilde; Oltedal, Helle A; Hystad, Sigurd W; Eid, Jarle

    2015-01-01

    This study provides empirical data about shipboard practices in bridge operations on board a selection of platform supply vessels (PSVs). Using the theoretical concept of distributed situation awareness, the study examines how situation awareness (SA)-related information is distributed and coordinated at the bridge. This study thus favours a systems approach to studying SA, viewing it not as a phenomenon that solely happens in each individual's mind but rather as something that happens between individuals and the tools that they use in a collaborative system. Thus, this study adds to our understanding of SA as a distributed phenomenon. Data were collected in four field studies that lasted between 8 and 14 days on PSVs that operate on the Norwegian continental shelf and UK continental shelf. The study revealed pronounced variations in shipboard practices regarding how the bridge team attended to operational planning, communication procedures, and distracting/interrupting factors during operations. These findings shed new light on how SA might decrease in bridge teams during platform supply operations. The findings from this study emphasize the need to assess and establish shipboard practices that support the bridge teams' SA needs in day-to-day operations. Practitioner points Provides insights into how shipboard practices that are relevant to planning, communication and the occurrence of distracting/interrupting factors are realized in bridge operations. Notes possible areas for improvement to enhance distributed SA in bridge operations. PMID:26028823

  1. Two-craft Coulomb formation study about circular orbits and libration points

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inampudi, Ravi Kishore

    This dissertation investigates the dynamics and control of a two-craft Coulomb formation in circular orbits and at libration points; it addresses relative equilibria, stability and optimal reconfigurations of such formations. The relative equilibria of a two-craft tether formation connected by line-of-sight elastic forces moving in circular orbits and at libration points are investigated. In circular Earth orbits and Earth-Moon libration points, the radial, along-track, and orbit normal great circle equilibria conditions are found. An example of modeling the tether force using Coulomb force is discussed. Furthermore, the non-great-circle equilibria conditions for a two-spacecraft tether structure in circular Earth orbit and at collinear libration points are developed. Then the linearized dynamics and stability analysis of a 2-craft Coulomb formation at Earth-Moon libration points are studied. For orbit-radial equilibrium, Coulomb forces control the relative distance between the two satellites. The gravity gradient torques on the formation due to the two planets help stabilize the formation. Similar analysis is performed for along-track and orbit-normal relative equilibrium configurations. Where necessary, the craft use a hybrid thrusting-electrostatic actuation system. The two-craft dynamics at the libration points provide a general framework with circular Earth orbit dynamics forming a special case. In the presence of differential solar drag perturbations, a Lyapunov feedback controller is designed to stabilize a radial equilibrium, two-craft Coulomb formation at collinear libration points. The second part of the thesis investigates optimal reconfigurations of two-craft Coulomb formations in circular Earth orbits by applying nonlinear optimal control techniques. The objective of these reconfigurations is to maneuver the two-craft formation between two charged equilibria configurations. The reconfiguration of spacecraft is posed as an optimization problem using the

  2. Feasibility Study for Operable Unit 7-13/14

    SciTech Connect

    K. Jean Holdren Thomas E. Bechtold Brian D. Preussner

    2007-05-29

    The Subsurface Disposal Area is a radioactive waste landfill located within the Radioactive Waste Management Complex at the Idaho National Laboratory Site in southeastern Idaho. This Feasibility Study for Operable Unit 7-13/14 analyzes options for mitigating risks to human health and the environment associated with the landfill. Analysis is conducted in accordance with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act, using nine evaluation criteria to develop detailed and comparative analysis of five assembled alternatives. Assembled alternatives are composed of discrete modules. Ultimately, decision-makers will select, recombine, and sum various modules into an optimized preferred alternative and final remedial decision.

  3. A Study on Effects of Waiting Period in Software Operation on the Operator's Psychophysiological State

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayasaka, Yoshiaki; Kimura, Tatsuhiro; Segawa, Norihisa; Miyazaki, Masatoshi; Yamazaki, Kiyoyuki; Murayama, Yuko

    The authors have been studying psychophysiological workload of human interface (HI) with physiological measurements and analysis. In this study, we investigated a kind of mental workload produced by user's unexpected waiting period from the request input to the termination of data processing during personal computer (PC) operation. As the experimental setting of HI, we used interactive software containing easy questions with unexpected time interval between each question. The effects of progress indicator (PI) indicating during waiting period on psychophysiological status of users were analyzed by using respiration, finger plethysmogram (PTG), heart rate (HR) and electroencephalogram (EEG) measurements. Results showed that the theta wave component of the EEG increased in the non-PI condition, even though autonomic nervous system parameters showed no significant change. Negative correlation between preference score for HI and integrated theta component percentage was observed only in non-PI condition. It is supposed that the PI was controlling theta activity coused by waiting stress in experimental condition. Utilizing physiological indices for HI assessment, this experimental method could be available to waiting stress estimation.

  4. Pre-operational radio-environmental studies of Plant Vogtle

    SciTech Connect

    Winn, W.G.; Sigg, R.A.

    1989-05-01

    This baseline study evaluates radioactivity in the environment near Plant Vogtle before initial reactor startup in 1987. These data will distinguish between any future radio-environmental effects from SRS and Plant Vogtle. Alpha, beta, and gamma-spectrometric methods analyzed river, stream, sediment, and soil samples. The study detected manmade radionuclides {sup 3}H, {sup 60}Co, {sup 134}Cs, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 239}Pu, {sup 240}Pu, and {sup 241}Pu. However, all concentration levels are extremely low and are consistent with levels expected from fallout and from SRS operations in its early years. The measurements begun in this study continue to be used to monitor Vogtle post-startup effluents. 12 refs., 6 figs., 7 tabs.

  5. Understanding Semiotic Technology in University Classrooms: A Social Semiotic Approach to PowerPoint-Assisted Cultural Studies Lectures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhao, Sumin; van Leeuwen, Theo

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a social semiotic approach to studying PowerPoint in university classrooms. Our approach is centred on two premises: (1) PowerPoint is a semiotic technology that can be integrated into the pedagogical discourse of classrooms, and (2) PowerPoint technology encompasses three interrelated dimensions of social semiotic…

  6. First-principles study on native point defects of cubic cuprite Ag2O

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Yuan; Chen, Guangde; Duan, Xiangyang; Ye, Honggang; Jin, Wentao; Zhu, Youzhang; Wu, Yelong

    2016-12-01

    Using the first-principles calculations, we have systematically investigated the atomic configurations, electronic structures, formation energies and transition energies of native point defects in cuprite Ag2O. Under the conditions of Ag-rich, we find that the oxygen vacancy (VO) and the oxygen interstitial (Oi) have the lowest formation energies in p-type and n-type conditions, respectively. Silver vacancy (VAg) acts as a shallow acceptor, which has high formation energy in p-type sample. Oxygen anti-site (OAg) is the most stable state and acts as an acceptor-type point defect in the O-rich conditions. Ag interstitial (Agi) is a shallow donor, which can be formed easily in the Ag-rich conditions. Moreover, we study the band offsets of heterojunction between Ag2O in cuprite structure and ZnO, GaN, and AlN in the wurtzite structure. These results would provide guidance for the experimental studies of point defects in cuprite Ag2O.

  7. First-principles study of native point defects in hafnia and zirconia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, J. X.; Ceder, G.; Maxisch, T.; Chim, W. K.; Choi, W. K.

    2007-03-01

    A first-principles study of native point defects in hafnia (HfO2) and zirconia (ZrO2) is carried out to identify dominant defects under different oxygen chemical potentials and Fermi levels. Oxygen vacancies and oxygen interstitials in both HfO2 and ZrO2 show negative- U behavior. It is shown that HfO2 is less prone to the formation of oxygen point defects than ZrO2 under the same oxygen chemical potential. When the Fermi level is constrained to be within the band gap of silicon, the dominant defects are negatively charged hafnium or zirconium vacancies under intermediate to high oxygen chemical potential. We find no evidence for magnetic defects.

  8. Enhancing generalisation in biofeedback intervention using the challenge point framework: a case study.

    PubMed

    Hitchcock, Elaine R; Byun, Tara McAllister

    2015-01-01

    Biofeedback intervention can help children achieve correct production of a treatment-resistant error sound, but generalisation is often limited. This case study suggests that generalisation can be enhanced when biofeedback intervention is structured in accordance with a "challenge point" framework for speech-motor learning. The participant was an 11-year-old with residual /r/ misarticulation who had previously attained correct /r/ production through a structured course of ultrasound biofeedback treatment but did not generalise these gains beyond the word level. Treatment difficulty was adjusted in an adaptive manner following predetermined criteria for advancing, maintaining, or moving back a level in a multidimensional hierarchy of functional task complexity. The participant achieved and maintained virtually 100% accuracy in producing /r/ at both word and sentence levels. These preliminary results support the efficacy of a semi-structured implementation of the challenge point framework as a means of achieving generalisation and maintenance of treatment gains.

  9. Microscopic study on magnetocaloric and electrocaloric effects near the critical point

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Honmi, Hitoshi; Hashizume, Yoichiro; Nakajima, Takashi; Okamura, Soichiro

    2015-09-01

    Adiabatic temperature changes of magnetocaloric/electrocaloric effects are analytically investigated. The analytical studies are based on the microscopic statistical models such as Husimi-Temperley model and Slater model. As a result, we show the characteristic scales of the adiabatic processes correspond to microscopic parameters, namely exchange couplings and Slater energy. The scaled parameter dependence become stronger near the critical point. Furthermore, using a general Hamiltonian method, we clarify the adiabatic temperature changes depend on the relative ratio of characteristic scales. The present study may propose a useful aspect for applications.

  10. The Apache Point Observatory Lunar Laser-ranging Operation: Testing General Relativity with Millimeter-precision Measurements of the Earth-Moon Separation.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Battat, James B.; Murphy, T. W.; Adelberger, E. G.; Hoyle, C. D.; McMillan, R. J.; Michelsen, E.; Nordtvedt, K.; Orin, A.; Stubbs, C. W.; Swanson, H. E.

    2006-12-01

    Based on the discovery of the accelerating universe and dark energy, along with our inability to unite quantum mechanics and General Relativity, there is a clear need to probe deeper into gravitational physics. The Earth-Moon-Sun system is a natural, fertile laboratory for such tests. The Apache Point Observatory Lunar Laser-ranging Operation (APOLLO) bounces laser light off of man-made retro-reflectors on the lunar surface to measure the Earth-Moon separation with a precision of one millimeter. Such precise measurements of the lunar orbit allow us to improve constraints on gravitational phenomena such as the Weak Equivalence Principle, the Strong Equivalence Principle, de Sitter precession and dG/dt by an order of magnitude or better. I will describe the APOLLO project and its current status, as well as prospects for constraining PPN parameters and the universality of free-fall. This work was carried out under the financial support of NASA and NSF.

  11. Study of waveguide resonators for FEL operating at submillimeter wavelengths

    SciTech Connect

    Yakover, I.M.; Pinhasi, Y.; Gover, A.

    1995-12-31

    This paper presents theoretical results of waveguide resonator study for FEL operating at the submillimeter wavelength region. Because of increased ohmic losses it is harder to obtain high Q waveguide cavities at these wavelengths. The following unconventional multimode waveguides: metal-dielectric, corrugated and curved parallel plates, were considered. The type and structure of the operating modes were determined and their attenuation constant, effective mode area and wave impedance were calculated. On the basis of this analysis small-signal gain simulations were made. We have performed a parametric study of the various FEL oscillator cavity designs based on the parameters of the Israeli Tandem FEL experiment. It was found that an FEL utilizing unconventional waveguides has much better performance in comparison to an FEL based on conventional multimode rectangular and circular waveguides. In particular, promising design parameters for a sub-mm wavelength FEL utilizing a metal-dielectric waveguide were identified: gain of 45%/Amp and ohmic losses of 2% at frequency 300 GHz, and gain of 20%/Amp and ohmic losses 1% at frequency 675 GHz.

  12. Ground Operations Aerospace Language (GOAL). Volume 5: Application Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The Ground Operations Aerospace Language (GOAL) was designed to be used by test oriented personnel to write procedures which would be executed in a test environment. A series of discussions between NASA LV-CAP personnel and IBM resulted in some peripheral tasks which would aid in evaluating the applicability of the language in this environment, and provide enhancement for future applications. The results of these tasks are contained within this volume. The GOAL vocabulary provides a high degree of readability and retainability. To achieve these benefits, however, the procedure writer utilizes words and phrases of considerable length. Brief form study was undertaken to determine a means of relieving this burden. The study resulted in a version of GOAL which enables the writer to develop a dialect suitable to his needs and satisfy the syntax equations. The output of the compiler would continue to provide readability by printing out the standard GOAL language. This task is described.

  13. A Network-Centric Operations Case Study: US/UK Coalition Combat Operations During Operation Iraqi Freedom

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-03-02

    correlate well with the physical elements of the joint operational picture ( JOP )13 that includes other elements of situational awareness such as NBC...fires, logistics and meteorology. Command intent is included to set the context for the need for situational awareness. The layers of the JOP are...highlighted in Figure 3.6.2-1. METOC Enemy / Intel Friendly Fires Coord NBC Logistics Neutrals Geospatial Framework JOP Figure 3.6.2-1, The UK Joint

  14. Application of Ultrasound-Guided Trigger Point Injection for Myofascial Trigger Points in the Subscapularis and Pectoralis Muscles to Post-Mastectomy Patients: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Hyuk Jai; Shin, Ji Cheol; Kim, Wan Sung; Chang, Won Hyuk

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the therapeutic effectiveness of ultrasound (US)-guided trigger point injection for myofascial trigger points (MTrPs) in the internal rotator muscles of the shoulder in post-mastectomy patients. Materials and Methods This pilot study was a non-controlled, prospective, clinical trial. Nineteen post-mastectomy patients with a diagnosis of at least one active MTrP in the subscapularis and/or pectoralis muscles were included. We performed trigger point injections into the subscapularis muscle deep behind the scapula as well as the pectoralis muscle for diagnostic and therapeutic purpose by the newly developed US-guided method. Results Visual analogue scale and range of motion of the shoulder for external rotation and of abduction showed significant improvement immediately after the first injection and 3 months after the last injection compared with baseline (p<0.05 for both). Duration from onset to surgery and duration of myofascial pain syndrome in the good responder group were significantly shorter than in the bad responder group (p<0.05). Patients did not report any complications related to the procedure or serious adverse events attributable to the treatment. Conclusion In post-mastectomy patients with shoulder pain, US-guided trigger point injections of the subscapularis and/or pectoralis muscles are effective for both diagnosis and treatment when the cause of shoulder pain is suspected to originate from active MTrPs in these muscles, particularly, the subscapularis. PMID:24719150

  15. Anatomical Variations in the Emergence of the Cutaneous Nerves from the Nerve Point in the Neck and Identification of the Landmarks to Locate the Nerve Point with Its Clinical Implications: A Cadaveric Study on South Indian Human Foetuses

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Chandni; D’souza, Antony Sylvan; Raythe, Biswabswabina

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The cutaneous nerves from the cervical plexuses are anaesthetized by using local anaesthetics for pain relief or when minor surgical operations are performed. Knowing the variations in these nerves is important for anaestheticists to administer an effective anaesthesia to a particular nerve. So, the aim of this study was to look for the variations in the emerging patterns of the cervical cutaneous nerves in the neck and to locate the nerve point in the neck by using the superficial landmarks. Materials and Methods: The neck was dissected in 16 foetal cadavers (total 32). The foetuses were divided into 2 groups, depending upon their ages- group 1 (13-24wks) and group 2 (24-38wks). The cervical cutaneous nerves were dissected. Measurements for locating the nerve point, were taken in both the groups. Results: The statistical analysis of the measurements was done. In group 1, the mean distances of the nerve point from the External Acoustic Meatus (EAM), on the right and left sides, were 2.06cm and1.85cm and in group 2, the distances on the right and left sides were 2.32cm and 2.08cm. The mean distance of the nerve point from the clavicle in group 1, on both the right and the left sides was 1.85cm, and in group 2, the mean distances on the right and left sides were 2.67cm and 2.62cm. The variations in the cutaneous nerves which emerged from the nerve point were recorded and photographed. Conclusion: These landmarks will help the anaestheticists in locating the nerve point. These variations in the branches of the cervical plexus should be known to the anaestheticists while they give anaesthesia to a particular nerve during a nerve block. PMID:23634386

  16. A Study of Operator Performance for a Mechanical Sweet Cherry Harvester: Comparison between Manual and Remote-Controlled Operation.

    PubMed

    Larbi, P A; Vong, C N; Karkee, M

    2015-07-01

    An experimental mechanical sweet cherry harvester was upgraded by changing its rapid impact mechanism to a continuous impact mechanism, in which an end effector (impactor) is positioned on fruit-loaded branches to transfer vibrational energy for fruit removal, and by adding remote control capability. Before the upgrade, the operator was seated at the rear of the harvester to manually control its operation. Adding remote control capability allowed operator mobility while operating the machine. This mobility was aimed at improving operator performance in harvesting cherries. In this study, the performances of the manual and remote operator were compared in terms of the field of view for perceiving target branches, the accuracy of hitting a target branch, and the ease of maneuvering between tree rows. Several sets of photographs totaling 140 individual photos were taken to assess how easy perceiving target branches was in light and dense foliage from the viewpoint of a manual operator and from multiple viewpoints of a remote operator. The percentages of successful hits on the target branch on the first trial (measure of accuracy in positioning the impactor) and the time taken for each successful hit for the manual and remote operator were recorded. The time to travel approximately 126 m long tree rows was also recorded for the manual and remote operators. On average, the remote operator (rank = 6.5) had better perception of the target branch than the manual operator (rank = 3.7) and was more accurate in positioning the impactor on a target branch (93.3% success rate) than the manual operator (84.4% success rate). Similarly, the remote operator spent 19.9 s of positioning time per branch, which was significantly less than the 23.6 s spent by the manual operator. However, the manual operator had better focus and was numerically faster (1.4 km h(-1)) than the remote operator (1.1 km h(-1)), even though the difference was not statistically significant. Overall, the

  17. Study of short-haul aircraft operating economics, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    A short-haul air transportation operating cost model is developed. The effect is identified of such factors as level of service provided, traffic density of the market, stage length, number of flight cycles, level of automation, as well as aircraft type and other operational factors on direct and indirect operating costs.

  18. First-principles study of point defects at a semicoherent interface

    PubMed Central

    Metsanurk, E.; Tamm, A.; Caro, A.; Aabloo, A.; Klintenberg, M.

    2014-01-01

    Most of the atomistic modeling of semicoherent metal-metal interfaces has so far been based on the use of semiempirical interatomic potentials. We show that key conclusions drawn from previous studies are in contradiction with more precise ab-initio calculations. In particular we find that single point defects do not delocalize, but remain compact near the interfacial plane in Cu-Nb multilayers. We give a simple qualitative explanation for this difference on the basis of the well known limited transferability of empirical potentials. PMID:25524061

  19. Structural transformations from point to extended defects in silicon: A molecular dynamics study

    SciTech Connect

    Marques, Luis A.; Pelaz, Lourdes; Santos, Ivan; Lopez, Pedro; Aboy, Maria

    2008-11-15

    We use classical molecular dynamics simulation techniques to study how point defects aggregate to form extended defects in silicon. We have found that <110> chains of alternating interstitials and bond defects, a generalization of the Si di-interstitial structure, are metastable at room temperature but spontaneously transform into (311) defects when annealed at higher temperatures. Obtained atomic configurations and energetics are in good agreement with experiments and previous theoretical calculations. We have found a (311) structural unit which consists of two interstitial chains along <110> but arranged differently with respect to the known (311) units.

  20. First-principles study of point defects at a semicoherent interface

    DOE PAGES

    Metsanurk, E.; Tamm, A.; Caro, A.; ...

    2014-12-19

    Most of the atomistic modeling of semicoherent metal-metal interfaces has so far been based on the use of semiempirical interatomic potentials. Here, we show that key conclusions drawn from previous studies are in contradiction with more precise ab-initio calculations. In particular we find that single point defects do not delocalize, but remain compact near the interfacial plane in Cu-Nb multilayers. Lastly, we give a simple qualitative explanation for this difference on the basis of the well known limited transferability of empirical potentials.

  1. Electron scattering as a tool to study zero-point kinetic energies of atoms in molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreh, R.; Finkelstein, Y.; Vos, M.

    2015-07-01

    High resolution electron compton scattering (ECS) is being used to study the atomic momentum distributions and hence the zero-point kinetic energies (ZPKE) of the scattering atoms. Such studies have shown that the scattering is from a single atom of the scattering sample. For an electron beam with a well defined incident energy, the scattered electron energy at any angle from each atomic species is Doppler broadened. The broadening reflects the atomic momentum distribution contributed by both the internal and external motions of the molecular system. By measuring the Doppler broadening of the scattered electron lines it was possible to determine the kinetic energy of the scattering atom including that of its zero-point motion. Thus, the atomic kinetic energies in gases such as H2, D2, HD, CH4 and in H2O, D2O and NH3 were measured and compared with those calculated semi-empirically using the measured optical infra red (IR) and Raman frequencies of the internal vibrations of the molecules. In general, good agreement between the measured and calculated values was found. Electron scattering was also used to study the ratio of e-scattering intensities from the H- and O-atoms in water (H2O), where some anomalies were reported to exist.

  2. Structure and energy of point defects in TiC: An ab initio study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Weiwei; Ehteshami, Hossein; Korzhavyi, Pavel A.

    2015-04-01

    We employ first-principles calculations to study the atomic and electronic structure of various point defects such as vacancies, interstitials, and antisites in the stoichiometric as well as slightly off-stoichiometric Ti1 -cCc (including both C-poor and C-rich compositions, 0.49 ≤c ≤0.51 ). The atomic structure analysis has revealed that both interstitial and antisite defects can exist in split conformations involving dumbbells. To characterize the electronic structure changes caused by a defect, we introduce differential density of states (dDOS) defined as a local perturbation of the density of states (DOS) on the defect site and its surrounding relative to the perfect TiC. This definition allows us to identify the DOS peaks characteristic of the studied defects in several conformations. So far, characteristic defect states have been discussed only in connection with carbon vacancies. Here, in particular, we have identified dDOS peaks of carbon interstitials and dumbbells, which can be used for experimental detection of such defects in TiC. The formation energies of point defects in TiC are derived in the framework of a grand-canonical formalism. Among the considered defects, carbon vacancies and interstitials are shown to have, respectively, the lowest and the second-lowest formation energies. Their formation energetics are consistent with the thermodynamic data on the phase stability of nonstoichiometric TiC. A cluster type of point defect is found to be next in energy, a titanium [100] dumbbell terminated by two carbon vacancies.

  3. Cloud point, fluorimetric and 1H NMR studies of ibuprofen-polymer systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Iqrar Ahmad; Anjum, Kahkashan; Koya, P. Ajmal; Qadeer, Atiytul; Kabir-ud-Din

    2014-01-01

    Influence of six polymers viz. hydroxyethyl cellulose (HEC), hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose (HPMC), polyethylene glycol (PEG), polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP), sodium carboxy methyl cellulose (NaCMC) and dextran sulfate (DxS) on solution properties of amphiphilic drug ibuprofen (IBF) has been described in this work. As only HPMC showed the clouding behavior (among the polymers employed herein), its cloud point (CP) was studied in detail in presence of varying amounts of IBF containing different fixed concentrations of inorganic salts (NaCl, NaNO3, Na2SO4, KBr and KNO3). Presence of all these salts had CP reducing effect. By means of steady state fluorescence quenching studies, average aggregation number of IBF aggregates (Nagg) in the presence of varying amounts of the mentioned polymers were evaluated and discussed. 1H NMR studies show that the magnitude of chemical shifts (δ) varies with the nature of the polymer.

  4. Study of the diffusion of points defects in crystalline silicon using the kinetic ART method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trochet, Mickael; Brommer, Peter; Beland, Laurent-Karim; Joly, Jean-Francois; Mousseau, Normand

    2013-03-01

    Because of the long-time scale involved, the activated diffusion of point defects is often studied in standard molecular dynamics at high temperatures only, making it more difficult to characterize complex diffusion mechanisms. Here, we turn to the study of point defect diffusion in crystalline silicon using kinetic ART (kART), an off-lattice kinetic Monte Carlo method with on-the-fly catalog building based on the activation-relaxation technique (ART nouveau). By generating catalogs of diffusion mechanisms and fully incorporating elastic and off-lattice effects, kART is a unique tool for characterizing this problem. More precisely, using kART with the standard Stillinger-Weber potential we consider the evolution of crystalline cells with 1 to 4 vacancies and 1 to 4 interstitials at various temperatures and to provide a detailed picture of both the atomistic diffusion mechanisms and overall kinetics in addition to identifying special configurations such as a 2-interstitial super-diffuser.

  5. Viewing another person's body as a target object: a behavioural and PET study of pointing.

    PubMed

    Cleret de Langavant, Laurent; Trinkler, Iris; Remy, Philippe; Thirioux, Bérangère; McIntyre, Joseph; Berthoz, Alain; Dupoux, Emmanuel; Bachoud-Lévi, Anne-Catherine

    2012-07-01

    Humans usually point at objects to communicate with other persons, although they generally avoid pointing at the other's body. Moreover, patients with heterotopagnosia after left parietal damage cannot point at another person's body parts, although they can point at objects and at their own body parts and although they can grasp the others' body parts. Strikingly, their performance gradually improves for figurative human body targets. Altogether, this suggests that the body of another real person holds a specific status in communicative pointing. Here, we test in healthy individuals whether performance for communicative pointing is influenced by the communicative capacity of the target. In Experiment 1, pointing at another real person's body parts was compared to pointing at objects, and in Experiment 2, the person was replaced by a manikin. While reaction times for pointing at objects were shorter compared to pointing at other person's body parts, they were similar for objects and manikin body parts. By adapting Experiment 1 to PET-scan imaging (Experiment 3), we showed that, compared to pointing at objects, the brain network for pointing at other person's body parts involves the left posterior intraparietal sulcus, lesion of which could cause heterotopagnosia. Taken together, our results indicate that the specificity of pointing at another person's body goes beyond the visuo-spatial features of the human body and might rather rely on its communicative capacity.

  6. Reduction of VOC emissions from metal dip coating applications -- Canam Steel Corporation Point of Rocks, MD case study

    SciTech Connect

    Monfet, J.P.

    1997-12-31

    The reduction of VOC emissions from metal dip coating applications is not an environmental constraint, it is an economic opportunity. This case study shows how the industry can reap economic benefits from VOC reductions while improving air quality. The Canam Steel Corporation plant located in Point of Rocks, MD operates dip tanks for primer application on fabricated steel joists and joist girders. This process is presently subject to a regulation that limits the paint VOC content to 3.5 pounds per gallon of coating less water. As a result of the high paint viscosity associated with that regulation, the paint thickness of the dipped steel is thicker than the customers` specifications. Most of the VOC emissions can therefore be associated with the excess of paint applied to the products rather than to the required thickness of the coating. The higher paint usage rate has more than environmental consequences, it increases the cost of the applied coating. The project is to reduce the paint usage by controlling the viscosity of the coating in the tank. Experimental results as well as actual mass balance calculations show that using a higher VOC content paint would reduce the overall VOC emissions. The author explained the project to the Maryland Department of the Environment (MDE) Air and Radiation Management Administration. First, the MDE agreed to develop a new RACT determination for fabricated steel dipping operations. The new regulation would limit the amount of VOC than can be emitted to dip coat a ton of fabricated steel. Second, the MDE agreed to allow experimentation of the higher VOC content paint as a pilot project for the new regulation. This paper demonstrates the need for a RACT determination specific to fabricated steel dipping operations.

  7. Nonlinear Seismic Analysis of Morrow Point Dam: A Study for the United States Bureau of Reclamation

    SciTech Connect

    Noble, C R; Solberg, J

    2004-02-20

    This research and development project was sponsored by the United States Bureau of Reclamation (USBR), who are best known for the dams, power plants, and canals it constructed in the 17 western states. The mission statement of the USBR's Dam Safety Office, located in Denver, Colorado, is ''to ensure Reclamation dams do not present unacceptable risk to people, property, and the environment.'' The Dam Safety Office does this by quickly identifying the dams which pose an increased threat to the public, and quickly completing the related analyses in order to make decisions that will safeguard the public and associated resources. The research study described in this report constitutes one element of USBR's research and development work to advance their computational and analysis capabilities for studying the response of dams to strong earthquake motions. This project focused on the seismic response of Morrow Point Dam, which is located 263 km southwest of Denver, Colorado.

  8. Space science/space station attached payload pointing accommodation study: Technology assessment white paper

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Richard Y.; Mann, Kenneth E.; Laskin, Robert A.; Sirlin, Samuel W.

    1987-01-01

    Technology assessment is performed for pointing systems that accommodate payloads of large mass and large dimensions. Related technology areas are also examined. These related areas include active thermal lines or power cables across gimbals, new materials for increased passive damping, tethered pointing, and inertially reacting pointing systems. Conclusions, issues and concerns, and recommendations regarding the status and development of large pointing systems for space applications are made based on the performed assessments.

  9. Hospital-acquired urinary tract infections in Turkey: a nationwide multicenter point prevalence study.

    PubMed

    Leblebicioglu, H; Esen, S

    2003-03-01

    Hospital-acquired urinary tract infection (UTI) is the most common infection acquired in hospitals. The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of UTIs in Turkey. A nationwide one day point-prevalence survey was conducted. Centers for Diseases Control and Prevention (CDC) standard definitions for nosocomial UTIs were used. Data were collected by detailed uniform questionnaires for each patient with UTI. A total of 13269 patients were investigated, the number of patients observed in each hospital varied from 21 to 1329 patients, an average of 458 patients per prevalence study per hospital. The overall prevalence of UTI was 1.7%. Fifty-eight (26.1%) of the patients had sepsis or septic shock. Twenty-five (11.3%) patients had culture-proven bloodstream infection. Over 60% (65.3%) of urinary tract infections were associated with urinary catheters. Overall, 78.4% of UTIs were culture-proven. Escherichia coli (32.4%) was the most common reported pathogen, followed by Klebsiella spp. (17.0%), Candida spp. (12.8%),Pseudomonas aeruginosa (11.7%) and enterococci 8.5%. The prevalence of ampicillin-resistant E. coli was 23.9% and accounted for 73.8% of all E. coli isolated from UTI 8.2%, and 24.6% of E. coli were resistant to quinolones and ceftriaxone, respectively. There were no resistance to carbapenems in E. coli but 6.25, 40.6, 59.4% of Klebsiella spp. were resistant to carbapenems, quinolones and ceftriaxone, respectively. The results of this first national point-prevalence study offers a reliable measure of the prevalence of nosocomial UTIs at hospitals in Turkey and provides a baseline for future studies which will enable the monitoring of trends over time.

  10. Acupuncture point injection treatment of primary dysmenorrhoea: a randomised, double blind, controlled study

    PubMed Central

    Wade, C; Wang, L; Zhao, W J; Cardini, F; Kronenberg, F; Gui, S Q; Ying, Z; Zhao, N Q; Chao, M T; Yu, J

    2016-01-01

    Objective To determine if injection of vitamin K3 in an acupuncture point is optimal for the treatment of primary dysmenorrhoea, when compared with 2 other injection treatments. Setting A Menstrual Disorder Centre at a public hospital in Shanghai, China. Participants Chinese women aged 14–25 years with severe primary dysmenorrhoea for at least 6 months not relieved by any other treatment were recruited. Exclusion criteria were the use of oral contraceptives, intrauterine devices or anticoagulant drugs, pregnancy, history of abdominal surgery, participation in other therapies for pain and diagnosis of secondary dysmenorrhoea. Eighty patients with primary dysmenorrhoea, as defined on a 4-grade scale, completed the study. Two patients withdrew after randomisation. Interventions A double-blind, double-dummy, randomised controlled trial compared vitamin K3 acupuncture point injection to saline acupuncture point injection and vitamin K3 deep muscle injection. Patients in each group received 3 injections at a single treatment visit. Primary and secondary outcome measures The primary outcome was the difference in subjective perception of pain as measured by an 11 unit Numeric Rating Scale (NRS). Secondary measurements were Cox Pain Intensity and Duration scales and the consumption of analgesic tablets before and after treatment and during 6 following cycles. Results Patients in all 3 groups experienced pain relief from the injection treatments. Differences in NRS measured mean pain scores between the 2 active control groups were less than 1 unit (−0.71, CI −1.37 to −0.05) and not significant, but the differences in average scores between the treatment hypothesised to be optimal and both active control groups (1.11, CI 0.45 to 1.78) and (1.82, CI 1.45 to 2.49) were statistically significant in adjusted mixed-effects models. Menstrual distress and use of analgesics were diminished for 6 months post-treatment. Conclusions Acupuncture point injection of

  11. 40-MW(e) OTEC (Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion) plant at Kahe Point, Oahu, Hawaii: a case study of potential biological impacts. Technical memo

    SciTech Connect

    Harrison, J.T.

    1987-02-01

    Construction and operation of an Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) facility will affect marine, terrestrial, and atmospheric environments. The nature and degree of OTEC environmental impacts have been subjects of numerous studies and reports. The proposed 40-MWe OTEC plant at Kahe Point, Oahu, Hawaii has been the focus of much of the work. The first section provides a summary of pertinent design features of the proposed plant, including standard operating parameters. Next, salient elements of the biological oceanography in the region of the proposed development are summarized. The following sections discuss expected impacts of construction and operation of the plant, and finally, significant aspects of modeling studies conducted in support of the Kahe OTEC plant development are presented.

  12. An experimental-theoretical study of free vibrations of plates on elastic point supports

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leuner, T. R.

    1972-01-01

    A theoretical and experimental study is made to investigate the effect on plate vibrations of varying the stiffness of corner elastic point supports. A theoretical model is developed using a Rayleigh-Ritz analysis which approximates the plate mode shapes as products of free-free beam modes. The elastic point supports are modelled both as massless translational springs, and springs with tip masses. The tip masses are included to better represent the experimental supports. An experiment is constructed using the bending stiffness of horizontal beams to support a square plate at its four corners. The stiffness of these supports can be varied over such a range that the plate fundamental frequency is lowered to 40% of the rigid support frequency. The variation with support stiffness of the frequencies of the first eight plate modes is measured, and compared with the theoretical results. The plate mode shapes for rigid supports are analyzed using holographic interferometry. There is excellent agreement between the theoretical and experimental results, except for high plate modes where the theoretical model is demonstrated to be inadequate.

  13. A randomized clinical trial of auricular point acupressure for chronic low back pain: a feasibility study.

    PubMed

    Yeh, Chao Hsing; Chien, Lung Chang; Balaban, Devora; Sponberg, Rebecca; Primavera, Jaclyn; Morone, Natalia E; Glick, Ronald; Albers, Kathryn M; Cohen, Susan M; Ren, Dianxu; Huang, Li Chun; Suen, Lorna Kwai-Ping

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. This prospective, randomized clinical trial (RCT) was designed to investigate the feasibility and effects of a 4-week auricular point acupressure (APA) for chronic low back pain (CLBP). Methods. Participants were randomized to either true APA (true acupoints with taped seeds on the designated ear points for CLBP) or sham APA (sham acupoints with taped seeds but on different locations than those designated for CLBP). The duration of treatment was four weeks. Participants were assessed before treatment, weekly during treatment, and 1 month following treatment. Results. Participants in the true APA group who completed the 4-week APA treatment had a 70% reduction in worst pain intensity, a 75% reduction in overall pain intensity, and a 42% improvement in disability due to back pain from baseline assessment. The reductions of worst pain and overall pain intensity in the true APA group were statistically greater than participants in the sham group (P < 0.01) at the completion of a 4-week APA and 1 month followup. Discussion. The preliminary findings of this feasibility study showed a reduction in pain intensity and improvement in physical function suggesting that APA may be a promising treatment for patients with CLBP.

  14. Developing Point-of-Decision Prompts to Encourage Airport Walking: The Walk to Fly Study

    PubMed Central

    Frederick, Ginny M.; Paul, Prabasaj; Watson, Kathleen Bachtel; Dorn, Joan M.; Fulton, Janet

    2017-01-01

    Background Point-of-decision prompts may be appropriate to promote walking, instead of using a mechanized mode of transport, such as a train, in airports. To our knowledge, no current studies describe the development of messages for prompts in this setting. Methods In-person interviews were conducted with 150 randomly selected airport travelers who rode the train to their departure gate. Travelers reported various reasons for riding the train to their gate. They were asked about messages that would encourage them to walk. Exploratory factor analysis was conducted for reasons for riding the train. Confirmatory factor analysis was conducted for messages to encourage walking to the departure gate. Results Travelers reported not knowing walking was an option (23.8%), seeing others riding the train (14.4%), and being afraid of getting lost (9.2%) as reasons for riding the train. Many indicated that directional signs and prompts promoting walking as exercise would encourage them to walk instead of riding the train. Conclusions Some reasons for riding the train in an airport may be modifiable by installing point-of-decision prompts. Providing directional signs to travelers may prompt them to walk to their gate instead of riding the train. Similar prompts may also be considered in other community settings. PMID:26445371

  15. Experimental study on the regenerator under actual operating conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nam, Kwanwoo; Jeong, Sangkwon

    2002-05-01

    An experimental apparatus was prepared to investigate thermal and hydrodynamic characteristics of the regenerator under its actual operating conditions. The apparatus included a compressor to pressurize and depressurize regenerator with various operating frequencies. Cold end of the regenerator was maintained around 100 K by means of liquid nitrogen container and heat exchanger. Instantaneous gas temperature and mass flow rate were measured at both ends of the regenerator during the whole pressure cycle. Pulsating pressure and pressure drop across the regenerator were also measured. The operating frequency of the pressure cycle was varied between 3 and 60 Hz, which are typical operating frequencies of Gifford-McMahon, pulse tube, and Stirling cryocoolers. First, friction factor for the wire screen mesh was directly determined from room temperature experiments. When the operating frequency was less than 9 Hz, the oscillating flow friction factor was nearly same as the steady flow friction factor for Reynolds number up to 100. For 60 Hz operations, the ratio of oscillating flow friction factor to steady flow one was increased as hydraulic Reynolds number became high. When the Reynolds number was 100, this ratio was about 1.6. Second, ineffectiveness of the regenerator was obtained when the cold-end was maintained around 100 K and the warm-end at 300 K to simulate the actual operating condition of the regenerator in cryocooler. Effect of the operating frequency on ineffectiveness of regenerator was discussed at low frequency range.

  16. Six-month functional recovery of stroke patients: a multi-time-point study

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kyoung Bo; Lim, Seong Hoon; Kim, Kyung Hoon; Kim, Ki Jeon; Kim, Yang Rae; Chang, Woo Nam; Yeom, Jun Woo; Kim, Young Dong

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to compare the time-course changes in neurologic impairments (trunk control, motor function, sensory, and cognition) and recovery in functional impairments (activity of daily livings and gait) simultaneously from initiating rehabilitation to 6 months after stroke. Consecutive stroke patients were recruited from the department of nervous surgery, and transferred into the department of rehabilitation medicine and continued on treatment during the acute stage. Outcome measures were examined at the initial rehabilitation baseline, 1, 2, and 4 weeks after rehabilitation treatment, and 3, 4, 5, and 6 months after stroke. Patients were assessed using the Trunk Impairment Scale, the Fugl-Meyer Motor and Sensory Assessments for the upper and lower limbs, Mini-Mental State Examination, Functional Ambulation Category, and Modified Barthel Index. Twenty consecutive patients were analyzed in the study with complete assessments. The recovery was relatively rapid during the 4 weeks after treatment (P value ranges from <0.001 to <0.007) and then to a lesser extent decelerated between 3 and 6 months after stroke (P value between <0.001 and 0.080). Statistical comparison by repeated measures analysis showed a significant interaction between time points and measures of all recovery variables (P<0.001). Significant differences in level of impairments and functional recovery were found at the different time points. In comparison with the lower leg and trunk control, the upper arm showed less recovery, with a significant difference. All variables except for leg motor function improved continuously over 6 months after stroke. Nevertheless, this study confirms the importance of the period within 3 months for recovery after stroke, during which most of the recovery occurred, ranging from 48 to 91%. Therefore, intensive treatment targeting motor and sensory functions early after stroke may be beneficial for recovery of impairments and functional performance. PMID

  17. Fundamental studies on a novel die concept for round-point shear-clinching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hörhold, Réjane; Müller, Martin; Merklein, Marion; Meschut, Gerson

    2016-10-01

    A newly-developed round-point shear-clinching technology could increase the use of different materials like well formable aluminium and hardly formable ultra-high-strength steels (UHSS). This innovative technology joins in a single-stage process without any pilot-hole, surface pre-treatment or auxiliary joining part. The combination of an inner and outer punch realises an indirect cutting operation of the die-sided material, whereas the punch-sided material remains unharmed. The current die-sided tool set acts as a cutting die and enables a radial extrusion of the punch-sided material after being drawn though the created hole in the UHSS. The die has a fixed die depth. After ejecting the joined components, the slug has to be removed from the top of the spring-loaded anvil. The novel die concept investigated in this paper offers the possibility to push the slug continuously through the die in the joining direction. The removed slugs remain inside the die, so manual removal is unnecessary. The one-parted tool is supposed to be more robust than the multi-parted one that is currently used. This paper represents the task to evaluate the geometry of a useful shear-clinching die concept. To reduce the experimental effort, FEM should assist the development of the most promising approach. To quantify the success, conventional shear-clinching with opening die acts as a reference. The results show the high potential and the raison d'être of shear-clinching technologies as a mechanical joining technology for future multimaterial applications especially for UHSS.

  18. A pilot reactor study on the effect of the naphtha boiling point properties in catalytic reforming

    SciTech Connect

    Moliord, K.; Tanem, I.; Grande, K.

    1995-12-31

    Three naphthas with different initial and three naphthas with different final boiling points were compared by testing in a pilot reactor. The pilot reactor unit consisted of isothermal, once-through 200 cm{sup 2} reactors with on-line GCs for full product analysis and octane number determination. Octane numbers, reformate yields and composition, gas and hydrogen yields were measured as function of reaction temperature at 16 bar reaction pressure and a molar H{sub 2}/HC ratio of 4.23. Catalyst deactivation was studied over 2 weeks periods at high seventy conditions, i.e. 102.4 RON and a H{sub 2}/HC ratio of 2.2. Test results, with emphasis on the yields of benzene and other aromatics, hydrogen yields as well as catalyst deactivation, are presented.

  19. Adhesive friction based on finite element study and n-point asperity model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahoo, Prasanta; Waghmare, Ajay K.

    2016-08-01

    The present work considers analysis of adhesive friction of rough surfaces using n- point asperity concept for statistical definition of surface roughness features, and accurate finite element analysis of elastic-plastic deformation of single asperity contact. Well defined adhesion index and plasticity index are used to study the prospective contact situations arising out of variation in material properties and surface roughness features. From the present results it is possible to locate the combinations of adhesion index and plasticity index that may yield very low coefficient of friction. Thus suitable choice of surface and material parameters for the contact of two rough surfaces can be made in order to minimize friction typically at low load and micro scale roughness situations.

  20. Study to define points of entry for potential contaminants in limestone aquifers. [in Alabama

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doyle, F. L.

    1973-01-01

    Visual examinations of both prints and transparencies from ERTS 1 and U-2 aircraft imagery provided a method for discovering possible points of entry of potential contaminants into the limestone aquifer in Madison County, Alabama. Knowledge of the locations at which contaminants could enter the aquifer is an important consideration in water quality management, particularly for regions that depend, at least partially, on ground water for their water supply. ERTS 1 imagery recorded on December 28, 1972 in the Multispectral Scanner-5 (MSS-5) and MSS-7 bands, and a false-color composite of the MSS-4 (green), MSS-5 (red), and MSS-7 (near infrared) bands were the principal materials used, along with thermography recorded by an RS-7 infrared scanner onboard a U-2 aircraft. The results of the study are discussed in detail, providing information on prominent lineations and major fracture trends which are related to aquifer contamination. Maps depicting the observations are also presented.

  1. Fault tree application to the study of systems interactions at Indian Point 3

    SciTech Connect

    Youngblood, R.; Hanan, N.; Fitzpatrick, R.; Xue, D.; Bozoki, G.; Fresco, A.; Papazoglou, I.; Mitra, S.; MacDonald, G.; Mazour, T.

    1986-01-01

    This report describes an application of fault tree methods to search for systems interactions at Indian Point 3. This project was carried out in support of the resolution of Unresolved Safety Issue A-17 on Systems Interaction. Here, the methods are introduced, the findings are presented, and comments on the methods are offered. Findings are presented in the following manner. Systems interactions which may qualitatively violate regulatory requirements (regardless of their probability) are discussed; additionally, a probabilistically ranked list of system interactions is provided. This study resulted in the discovery of a previously undetected active single failure causing loss of low pressure injection. After verifying this finding, the licensee took immediate corrective actions, including a design modification to the switching logic for one of the safety buses, as well as procedural changes.

  2. Analgesics as Reinforcers with Chronic Pain: Evidence from Operant Studies

    PubMed Central

    Ewan, Eric E.; Martin, Thomas J.

    2013-01-01

    Previously preclinical pain research has focused on simple behavioral endpoints to assess the efficacy of analgesics in acute and chronic pain models, primarily reflexive withdrawal from an applied mechanical or thermal stimulus. However recent research has been aimed at investigating other behavioral states in the presence of pain, including spontaneous, non-elicited pain. One approach is to investigate the reinforcing effects of analgesics in animals with experimental pain, which should serve as reinforcers by virtue of their ability to alleviate the relevant subjective states induced by pain. The gold standard for assessing drug reinforcement is generally accepted to be drug self-administration, and this review highlights the ability of drugs to serve as reinforcers in animals with experimental neuropathic pain, and the extent to which this behavior is altered in chronic pain states. Additionally, intracranial self-stimulation is an operant procedure that has been used extensively to study drug reinforcement mechanisms and the manner in which neuropathic pain alters the ability of drugs to serve as reinforcers in this paradigm will also be discussed. Drug self-administration and intracranial self-stimulation have promise as tools to investigate behavioral effects of analgesics in animals with chronic pain, particularly regarding the mechanisms through which these drugs motivate consumption in a chronic pain state. PMID:23973302

  3. Analgesics as reinforcers with chronic pain: Evidence from operant studies.

    PubMed

    Ewan, Eric E; Martin, Thomas J

    2013-12-17

    Previously preclinical pain research has focused on simple behavioral endpoints to assess the efficacy of analgesics in acute and chronic pain models, primarily reflexive withdrawal from an applied mechanical or thermal stimulus. However recent research has been aimed at investigating other behavioral states in the presence of pain, including spontaneous, non-elicited pain. One approach is to investigate the reinforcing effects of analgesics in animals with experimental pain, which should serve as reinforcers by virtue of their ability to alleviate the relevant subjective states induced by pain. The gold standard for assessing drug reinforcement is generally accepted to be drug self-administration, and this review highlights the ability of drugs to serve as reinforcers in animals with experimental neuropathic pain, and the extent to which this behavior is altered in chronic pain states. Additionally, intracranial self-stimulation is an operant procedure that has been used extensively to study drug reinforcement mechanisms and the manner in which neuropathic pain alters the ability of drugs to serve as reinforcers in this paradigm will also be discussed. Drug self-administration and intracranial self-stimulation have promise as tools to investigate behavioral effects of analgesics in animals with chronic pain, particularly regarding the mechanisms through which these drugs motivate consumption in a chronic pain state.

  4. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) drug approval end points for chronic cutaneous ulcer studies.

    PubMed

    Eaglstein, William H; Kirsner, Robert S; Robson, Martin C

    2012-01-01

    The rising costs of caring for chronic cutaneous ulcers (CCUs) and recent appreciation of the mortality of CCUs have led to consideration of the reasons for the failure to have new drug therapies. No new chemical entities to heal CCUs have been approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in over a decade, in part due to an inability to reach the FDA accepted end point of "complete wound closure." The frequent failure to reach the complete closure end point brings forward the question of the relevance of other healing end points such as improved quality of life, or partial healing. Because CCUs carry a prognosis and mortality rate worse than many cancers, it is reasonable to compare the FDA trial end points for cancer drug approval with those for CCUs. And the difference is quite striking. While there is only one end point for CCUs, there are five surrogate and three direct end points for cancers. In contrast to cancer, surrogate end points and partial healing are not acceptable for therapies aimed at CCUs. For example, making tumors smaller is an acceptable end point, but making CCUs smaller is not and improvement in the signs and symptoms of cancer is an acceptable end point for cancers but not CCUs. As CCUs carry a prognosis and mortality rate worse than many cancers, we believe a reconsideration of end points for CCUs is highly warranted.

  5. Genetic thinking in the study of social relationships: Five points of entry

    PubMed Central

    Reiss, David

    2014-01-01

    For nearly a generation, researchers studying human behavioral development have combined genetically informed research designs with careful measures of social relationships: parenting, sibling relationships, peer relationships, marital processes, social class stratifications and patterns of social engagement in the elderly. In what way have these genetically informed studies altered the construction and testing of social theories of human development? We consider five points where genetic thinking is taking hold. First, genetic findings suggest an alternative scenario for explaining social data. Associations between measures of the social environment and human development may be due to genes that influence both. Second, genetic studies add to other prompts to study the early developmental origins of current social phenomena in mid-life and beyond. Third, genetic analyses promise to bring to the surface understudied social systems, such as sibling relationships, that have an impact on human development independent of genotype. Fourth, genetic analyses anchor in neurobiology individual differences in resilience and sensitivity to both adverse and favorable social environments. Finally, genetic analyses increase the utility of laboratory simulations of human social processes and of animal models. PMID:25419225

  6. Family planning programs in industrial establishments: an operations research study.

    PubMed

    Cabigon, J; Magsino, E

    1993-01-01

    An operations research study in the Philippines sought to uncover determinants of the sustainability of employment-based family planning (FP) programs offered in industrial settings where the Philippine Center for Population and Development (PCPD) had provided assistance in implementing Responsible Parenthood/FP-Maternal Health (RP/FP-MH) Programs. Qualitative data were gathered through observations and interviews with the target population and with company management and program implementers. Based on this study, the following recommendations were made: 1) training outputs should be echoed to employees immediately; 2) RP/FP-MCH team members should be recruited from each level of the work force; 3) an appropriate IEC (information, education, and communication) strategy should be devised to respond to the short time-frame in which employees can participate; 4) team-building training should be incorporated as a regular activity early in the contract period; 5) sectoral targeting should be used within a given company; 6) training programs should be designed for each of the three types of team members and should overlap the basic topics; 7) teamwork and mutual assistance should be encouraged; 8) the work of the teams should be rewarded; 9) commendable initiative of liaison officers should be sustained; 10) representatives of the PCPD should maintain a close relationship with the teams through PCPD staff visits to the companies; 11) management requires more intensive orientation on the RP/FP-MH program; 12) PCPD support should be withdrawn gradually until the companies are able to sustain the program themselves; 13) it may be helpful to require a company to meet rigid criteria in order to take part in the PCPD project; 14) OR should be continued; and 15) the concept and practice of quality of care should be introduced to service delivery and training of staff and motivators.

  7. Space operations center: Shuttle interaction study extension, executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    The Space Operations Center (SOC) is conceived as a permanent facility in low Earth orbit incorporating capabilities for space systems construction; space vehicle assembly, launching, recovery and servicing; and the servicing of co-orbiting satellites. The Shuttle Transportation System is an integral element of the SOC concept. It will transport the various elements of the SOC into space and support the assembly operation. Subsequently, it will regularly service the SOC with crew rotations, crew supplies, construction materials, construction equipment and components, space vehicle elements, and propellants and spare parts. The implications to the SOC as a consequence of the Shuttle supporting operations are analyzed. Programmatic influences associated with propellant deliveries, spacecraft servicing, and total shuttle flight operations are addressed.

  8. Integrated operations payloads/fleet analysis study extension report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    An analysis of the factors affecting the cost effectiveness of space shuttle operations is presented. The subjects discussed are: (1)payload data bank, (2) program risk analysis, (3)navigation satellite program, and (4) reusable launch systems.

  9. a Comparative Study Between Pair-Point Clique and Multi-Point Clique Markov Random Field Models for Land Cover Classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, B.; Li, P.

    2013-07-01

    Markov random field (MRF) is an effective method for description of local spatial-temporal dependence of image and has been widely used in land cover classification and change detection. However, existing studies only use pair-point clique (PPC) to describe spatial dependence of neighbouring pixels, which may not fully quantify complex spatial relations, particularly in high spatial resolution images. In this study, multi-point clique (MPC) is adopted in MRF model to quantitatively express spatial dependence among pixels. A modified least squares fit (LSF) method based on robust estimation is proposed to calculate potential parameters for MRF models with different types. The proposed MPC-MRF method is evaluated and quantitatively compared with traditional PPCMRF in urban land cover classification using high resolution hyperspectral HYDICE data of Washington DC. The experimental results revealed that the proposed MPC-MRF method outperformed the traditional PPC-MRF method in terms of classification details. The MPC-MRF provides a sophisticated way of describing complex spatial dependence for relevant applications.

  10. Dual keel Space Station payload pointing system design and analysis feasibility study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smagala, Tom; Class, Brian F.; Bauer, Frank H.; Lebair, Deborah A.

    1988-01-01

    A Space Station attached Payload Pointing System (PPS) has been designed and analyzed. The PPS is responsible for maintaining fixed payload pointing in the presence of disturbance applied to the Space Station. The payload considered in this analysis is the Solar Optical Telescope. System performance is evaluated via digital time simulations by applying various disturbance forces to the Space Station. The PPS meets the Space Station articulated pointing requirement for all disturbances except Shuttle docking and some centrifuge cases.

  11. A Study of Point of View and Character in Preparation for Oral Performance of Cuttings from "The Optimist's Daughter."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snow, Nancy Hill

    In the process of perfecting oral performances of selected scenes from Eudora Welty's "The Optimist's Daughter," it is important to study point of view and character as they pertain to the play. Four aspects should be considered to understand the point of view: (1) the character's story, (2) the position from which the narrator speaks,…

  12. [Jamming a child's finger: an experimental study to determine elastic resistance and the point of onset of bone/joint deformation].

    PubMed

    Hohendorff, B; Weidermann, C; Pollinger, P; Burkhart, K; Prommersberger, K-J; Müller, L P

    2012-01-01

    Knowledge of the elastic properties of children's fingers is very important to understand the potential hazard for jamming injuries that exists in modern motor vehicles with automatic power-operated windows. This study determined the elastic resistance and the point of onset of bone/joint deformation at each of 5 different jam positions of a child's finger under continuous dorsal-palmar compression. An unembalmed finger that recently had been surgically removed from a polydactylic 8 month-old girl was jammed in a custom hydraulic test apparatus. A subminiature force sensor and an electrometric path sensor measured force and deflection values. To visualise the respective point of onset of bone/joint deformation, jamming of the finger was performed under fluoroscopy. The mean force at the point of onset of bone/joint deformation was 78.4 N. The current statutory limit of 100 N for the maximum closing force of an automatic power-operated motor vehicle window is thus well beyond the point at which finger injuries can occur in children. Assuming finger injuries in children can occur at a jamming force below approximately 80 N, a reduction of the statutory limit to us higher than 50 N is reasonable.

  13. Impact of field of study, college and year on calculation of cumulative grade point average.

    PubMed

    Trail, Carla; Reiter, Harold I; Bridge, Michelle; Stefanowska, Patricia; Schmuck, Marylou; Norman, Geoff

    2008-08-01

    A consistent finding from many reviews is that undergraduate Grade Point Average (uGPA) is a key predictor of academic success in medical school. Curiously, while uGPA has established predictive validity, little is known about its reliability. For a variety of reasons, medical schools use different weighting schemas to combine years of study. Additional concerns relate to the equivalence of grades obtained from different fields of study and institutions, with little hard data to guide conclusions. At the Michael G. DeGroote School of Medicine Class of 2007 at McMaster University, every undergraduate grade of 2,138 applicants, along with field of study and post-secondary educational institution, was analyzed. Individual grades were aggregated into an overall uGPA using published algorithms from several medical school, and correlated with a non-weighted sum. Correlations of the different schemas with equal weights ranged from 0.973 to 0.990. The extent of the difference between fields of study was small, accounting for only 1.5% of the variance. However, differences among 16 Ontario universities were larger, and accounted for 9.3% of the variance. The results of this study suggest that all weighting schemas are virtually equivalent, making any formulation reasonable. Differences by field of study are small, but do not show any bias against non-science students. Differences by institution are larger, amounting to a range in average score from 78.7 to 84.6; however it is not clear whether this reflects candidate ability or institutional policy, so attempts to correct for institution may be difficult.

  14. Study of the critical points of HPMC hydrophilic matrices for controlled drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Miranda, Antonia; Millán, Mónica; Caraballo, Isidoro

    2006-03-27

    The knowledge of the percolation thresholds of a system results in a clear improvement of the design of controlled release dosage forms such as inert matrices. Despite hydrophilic matrices are one of the most used controlled delivery systems in the world, but actuality, the mechanisms of drug release from these systems continue to be a matter of debate nowadays. The objective of the present paper is to apply the percolation theory to study the release and hydration rate of hydrophilic matrices. Matrix tablets have been prepared using KCl as a drug model and HPMC K4M as matrix-forming material, employing five different excipient/drug particle size ratios (ranging from 0.42 to 2.33). The formulations studied containing a drug loading in the range of 20-90% (w/w). Dissolution studies were carried out using the paddle method and the water uptake measurements were performed using a modified Enslin apparatus. In order to estimate the percolation threshold, the behaviour of the kinetic parameters with respect to the volumetric fraction of each component at time zero, was studied. The percolation theory has been applied for the first time to the study of matrix type controlled delivery systems. The application of this theory allowed to explain changes in the release and hydration kinetics of these matrices. The critical points observed in dissolution and water uptake studies can be attributed to the excipient percolation threshold, being this threshold one of the main factors governing the gel layer formation and consequently, the drug release control from hydrophilic matrices.

  15. Lunar Transportation Facilities and Operations Study, option 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Throughout the Option I period of the Lunar Transportation Facilities and Operations Study (LTFOS), McDonnell Douglas Space Systems Company - Kennedy Space Center (MDSSC-KSC) provided support to both the Planetary Surface Systems (PSS) Office at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) at the Johnson Space Center and to the Flight and Ground Systems Projects Office (Payload Projects Management) at the Kennedy Space Center. The primary objective of the Option I phase of the study was to assist the above NASA centers in developing Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) concepts. MDSSC-KSC conducted three analyses which provided launch and landing detail to the proposed exploration concepts. One analysis, the Lunar Ejecta Assessment, was conducted to determine the effects of launch and landing a vehicle in a dusty environment. A second analysis, the Thermal/Micrometeoroid Protection Trade Study, was refined to determine the impacts that Reference Architecture Option 5A would have on thermal/micrometeoroid protection approaches. The third analysis, the Centaur Prelaunch Procedure Analysis, used a Centaur prelaunch test and checkout flow to identify key considerations that would be important if a Lunar Excursion Vehicle (LEV) was to use an expander cycle liquid oxygen-liquid hydrogen engine. Several 'quick look' assessments were also conducted. One quick look assessment, the Storable Propellant Quick Look Assessment, was conducted to identify design considerations that should be made if storable propellants were to be used instead of liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen. The LEV Servicer Maintenance Analysis provided an early look at the effort required to maintain an LEV Servicer on the lunar surface. Also, support was provided to the PSS Logistics Manager to develop initial LEV Servicer cost inputs. Consideration was given to the advanced development that must be provided to accomplish a lunar and/or Mars mission. MDSS-KSC also provided support to both MASE

  16. Deregulation and Intercity Bus Operations in Florida: A Preliminary Study.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-03-02

    Campbellton Macclenny Century Mango Charlotte Harbor Marietta C, itra Marineland CUewiston Mayo Coleman Moore Haven Dania Nalcrest Deerfield Beach...started many new ones. The former regulatory system had, however, probably prevented these carriers from dropping extremely thin traffic points. Prior

  17. A CMB foreground study in WMAP data: Extragalactic point sources and zodiacal light emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xi

    The Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) radiation is the remnant heat from the Big Bang. It serves as a primary tool to understand the global properties, content and evolution of the universe. Since 2001, NASA's Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) satellite has been napping the full sky anisotropy with unprecedented accuracy, precision and reliability. The CMB angular power spectrum calculated from the WMAP full sky maps not only enables accurate testing of cosmological models, but also places significant constraints on model parameters. The CMB signal in the WMAP sky maps is contaminated by microwave emission from the Milky Way and from extragalactic sources. Therefore, in order to use the maps reliably for cosmological studies, the foreground signals must be well understood and removed from the maps. This thesis focuses on the separation of two foreground contaminants from the WMAP maps: extragalactic point sources and zodiacal light emission. Extragalactic point sources constitute the most important foreground on small angular scales. Various methods have been applied to the WMAP single frequency maps to extract sources. However, due to the limited angular resolution of WMAP, it is possible to confuse positive CMB excursions with point sources or miss sources that are embedded in negative CMB fluctuations. We present a novel CMB-free source finding technique that utilizes the spectrum difference of point sources and CMB to form internal linear combinations of multifrequency maps to suppress the CMB and better reveal sources. When applied to the WMAP 41, 64 and 94 GHz maps, this technique has not only enabled detection of sources that are previously cataloged by independent methods, but also allowed disclosure of new sources. Without the noise contribution from the CMB, this method responds rapidly with the integration time. The number of detections varies as 0( t 0.72 in the two-band search and 0( t 0.70 in the three-band search from one year to five years

  18. Two-micron Laser Atmospheric Wind Sounder (LAWS) pointing/tracking study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manlief, Scott

    1995-01-01

    The objective of the study was to identify and model major sources of short-term pointing jitter for a free-flying, full performance 2 micron LAWS system and evaluate the impact of the short-term jitter on wind-measurement performance. A fast steering mirror controls system was designed for the short-term jitter compensation. The performance analysis showed that the short-term jitter performance of the controls system over the 5.2 msec round-trip time for a realistic spacecraft environment was = 0.3 micro rad, rms, within the specified value of less than 0.5 micro rad, rms, derived in a 2 micron LAWS System Study. Disturbance modes were defined for: (1) the Bearing and Power Transfer Assembly (BAPTA) scan bearing, (2) the spacecraft reaction wheel torques, and (3) the solar array drive torques. The scan bearing disturbance was found to be the greatest contributing noise source to the jitter performance. Disturbances from the fast steering mirror reaction torques and a boom-mounted cross-link antenna clocking were also considered but were judged to be small compared to the three principal disturbance sources above and were not included in the final controls analysis.

  19. Lightweight Floating-Point Arithmetic: Case Study of Inverse Discrete Cosine Transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Fang; Chen, Tsuhan; Rutenbar, Rob A.

    2002-12-01

    To enable floating-point (FP) signal processing applications in low-power mobile devices, we propose lightweight floating-point arithmetic. It offers a wider range of precision/power/speed/area trade-offs, but is wrapped in forms that hide the complexity of the underlying implementations from both multimedia software designers and hardware designers. Libraries implemented in C++ and Verilog provide flexible and robust floating-point units with variable bit-width formats, multiple rounding modes and other features. This solution bridges the design gap between software and hardware, and accelerates the design cycle from algorithm to chip by avoiding the translation to fixed-point arithmetic. We demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed scheme using the inverse discrete cosine transform (IDCT), in the context of video coding, as an example. Further, we implement lightweight floating-point IDCT into hardware and demonstrate the power and area reduction.

  20. Thermodynamic analysis and experimental study of the effect of atmospheric pressure on the ice point

    SciTech Connect

    Harvey, A. H.; McLinden, M. O.; Tew, W. L.

    2013-09-11

    We present a detailed thermodynamic analysis of the temperature of the ice point as a function of atmospheric pressure. This analysis makes use of accurate international standards for the properties of water and ice, and of available high-accuracy data for the Henry's constants of atmospheric gases in liquid water. The result is an ice point of 273.150 019(5) K at standard atmospheric pressure, with higher ice-point temperatures (varying nearly linearly with pressure) at lower pressures. The effect of varying ambient CO{sub 2} concentration is analyzed and found to be significant in comparison to other uncertainties in the model. The thermodynamic analysis is compared with experimental measurements of the temperature difference between the ice point and the triple point of water performed at elevations ranging from 145 m to 4302 m, with atmospheric pressures from 101 kPa to 60 kPa.

  1. Critical points in the 16-moment approximation. [plasma flow in laboratory and space plasmas study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yasseen, F.; Retterer, J. M.

    1991-01-01

    The singular points in steady state, field-aligned plasma transport models based on velocity moment theory are examined. In particular, two separate singular points in the equations obtained from the 16-moment approximation are identified. These equations are presented in a form that makes the singularities apparent, and they are solved in a simple illustrative case. The singular points, one occurring at the sonic point and the other at a critical value of the parallel heat flux, give rise to different outflow regimes, characterized generically by different asymptotic behavior. The existence of the different outflow regimes separated by the heat flux critical point has been only hinted at in previous discussions of numerical simulation of the polar wind.

  2. Operation of Packed-Bed Reactors Studied in Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Motil, Brian J.; Balakotaiah, Vemuri

    2004-01-01

    The operation of a packed bed reactor (PBR) involves gas and liquid flowing simultaneously through a fixed-bed of solid particles. Depending on the application, the particles can be various shapes and sizes but are generally designed to force the two fluid phases through a tortuous route of narrow channels connecting the interstitial space. The PBR is the most common type of reactor in industry because it provides for intimate contact and high rates of transport between the phases needed to sustain chemical or biological reactions. The packing may also serve as either a catalyst or as a support for growing biological material. Furthermore, this type of reactor is relatively compact and requires minimal power to operate. This makes it an excellent candidate for unit operations in support of long-duration human space activities.

  3. Infrared cameras are potential traceable "fixed points" for future thermometry studies.

    PubMed

    Yap Kannan, R; Keresztes, K; Hussain, S; Coats, T J; Bown, M J

    2015-01-01

    The National physical laboratory (NPL) requires "fixed points" whose temperatures have been established by the International Temperature Scale of 1990 (ITS 90) be used for device calibration. In practice, "near" blackbody radiators together with the standard platinum resistance thermometer is accepted as a standard. The aim of this study was to report the correlation and limits of agreement (LOA) of the thermal infrared camera and non-contact infrared temporal thermometer against each other and the "near" blackbody radiator. Temperature readings from an infrared thermography camera (FLIR T650sc) and a non-contact infrared temporal thermometer (Hubdic FS-700) were compared to a near blackbody (Hyperion R blackbody model 982) at 0.5 °C increments between 20-40 °C. At each increment, blackbody cavity temperature was confirmed with the platinum resistance thermometer. Measurements were taken initially with the thermal infrared camera followed by the infrared thermometer, with each device mounted in turn on a stand at a fixed distance of 20 cm and 5 cm from the blackbody aperture, respectively. The platinum thermometer under-estimated the blackbody temperature by 0.015 °C (95% LOA: -0.08 °C to 0.05 °C), in contrast to the thermal infrared camera and infrared thermometer which over-estimated the blackbody temperature by 0.16 °C (95% LOA: 0.03 °C to 0.28 °C) and 0.75 °C (95% LOA: -0.30 °C to 1.79 °C), respectively. Infrared thermometer over-estimates thermal infrared camera measurements by 0.6 °C (95% LOA: -0.46 °C to 1.65 °C). In conclusion, the thermal infrared camera is a potential temperature reference "fixed point" that could substitute mercury thermometers. However, further repeatability and reproducibility studies will be required with different models of thermal infrared cameras.

  4. 40 CFR 26.1605 - Operation of the Human Studies Review Board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Operation of the Human Studies Review... PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS Review of Proposed and Completed Human Research § 26.1605 Operation of the Human Studies Review Board. EPA shall establish and operate a Human Studies Review Board as follows:...

  5. 40 CFR 26.1603 - Operation of the Human Studies Review Board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Operation of the Human Studies Review... PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS Review of Proposed and Completed Human Research § 26.1603 Operation of the Human Studies Review Board. EPA shall establish and operate a Human Studies Review Board as follows:...

  6. 40 CFR 26.1605 - Operation of the Human Studies Review Board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Operation of the Human Studies Review... PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS Review of Proposed and Completed Human Research § 26.1605 Operation of the Human Studies Review Board. EPA shall establish and operate a Human Studies Review Board as follows:...

  7. 40 CFR 26.1603 - Operation of the Human Studies Review Board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Operation of the Human Studies Review... PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS Review of Proposed and Completed Human Research § 26.1603 Operation of the Human Studies Review Board. EPA shall establish and operate a Human Studies Review Board as follows:...

  8. 40 CFR 26.1603 - Operation of the Human Studies Review Board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Operation of the Human Studies Review... PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS Review of Proposed and Completed Human Research § 26.1603 Operation of the Human Studies Review Board. EPA shall establish and operate a Human Studies Review Board as follows:...

  9. Initial Scaling Studies and Conceptual Thermal Fluids Experiments for the Prismatic NGNP Point Design

    SciTech Connect

    D. M. McEligot; G. E. McCreery

    2004-09-01

    The objective of this report is to document the initial high temperature gas reactor scaling studies and conceptual experiment design for gas flow and heat transfer. The general approach of the project is to develop new benchmark experiments for assessment in parallel with CFD and coupled CFD/ATHENA/RELAP5-3D calculations for the same geometry. Two aspects of the complex flow in an NGNP are being addressed: (1) flow and thermal mixing in the lower plenum ("hot streaking" issue) and (2) turbulence and resulting temperature distributions in reactor cooling channels ("hot channel" issue). Current prismatic NGNP concepts are being examined to identify their proposed flow conditions and geometries over the range from normal operation to decay heat removal in a pressurized cooldown. Approximate analyses are being applied to determine key non-dimensional parameters and their magnitudes over this operating range. For normal operation, the flow in the coolant channels can be considered to be dominant forced convection with slight transverse property variation. The flow in the lower plenum can locally be considered to be a situation of multiple buoyant jets into a confined density-stratified crossflow -- with obstructions. Experiments are needed for the combined features of the lower plenum flows. Missing from the typical jet experiments are interactions with nearby circular posts and with vertical posts in the vicinity of vertical walls - with near stagnant surroundings at one extreme and significant crossflow at the other. Two heat transfer experiments are being considered. One addresses the "hot channel" problem, if necessary. The second experiment will treat heated jets entering a model plenum. Unheated MIR (Matched-Index-of-Refraction) experiments are first steps when the geometry is complicated. One does not want to use a computational technique which will not even handle constant properties properly. The MIR experiment will simulate flow features of the paths of jets

  10. A Study on Amino Acids: Synthesis of Alpha-Aminophenylacetic Acid (Phenylglycine) and Determination of its Isoelectric Point.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrelle, M.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Background information and procedures are provided for an experimental study on aminophenylacetic acid (phenylglycine). These include physical chemistry (determination of isoelectric point by pH measurement) and organic chemistry (synthesis of an amino acid in racemic form) experiments. (JN)

  11. Mortality Rates and Associated Factors in Equine Colic Operations — A Retrospective Study of 341 Operations

    PubMed Central

    Pascoe, P. J.; McDonell, W. N.; Trim, Cynthia M.; Van Gorder, J.

    1983-01-01

    A retrospective survey of 300 surgical treatments for colic involving 341 interventions was carried out to determine mortality rates and associated factors. These horses had been referred to the Ontario Veterinary College over the period September 1974 to February 1980. Data from the case records was collected and stored on a computer and statistical analysis was carried out using X2 tests. Fifty percent (150/300) of the horses survived to be discharged from the hospital. Fifty-two horses were euthanized during the operation and another ten horses should have been; if these cases are excluded the overall survival rate is 64.7% (150/232). A wide range of breeds were involved but the breed did not significantly affect survival. There was a significantly greater occurrence of serious colic in the two week to two month and one to two year age groups and significantly less in the two to four year age groups when compared with the total number of horses admitted over the same period. There was an even distribution of male and female horses but males showed a significantly lower mortality rate (57% of the males survived compared with 43% of the females). The size of the animal did not affect survival significantly. There was no seasonal variation when compared with the total number of equine patients. Survival was significantly influenced by the lesion, the preoperative packed cell volume and total plasma protein and by the length of the surgical procedure. PMID:17422234

  12. Proof of Concept Trade Study For Type-1 Operator Training

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-03-15

    Operations Center COTS Commercial of the Shelf DOD Department of Defense ELMS Electronic Learning Management System ENB Engineering Notebook ESC...Explorer IIS Internet Information Server Kbps Kilo Bites per Second LM Lockheed Martin LMS Learning Management System MTT Mobile Training Team...Electronic Learning Management System (ELMS) • Collaborative virtual classroom • Scheduling • Survey Program 3.2.2 REQUIREMENTS SATISFACTION

  13. Vestibuloplasty: a retrospective study on conventional and laser operation techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neckel, Claus P.

    1999-05-01

    40 patients with edentulous maxillary jaws were referred to our private practice limited to maxillofacial surgery, due to atrophy of the alveolar ridge. Before prosthetic renewal of the upper removable prosthesis the restorative dentist requested a sufficient vestibule. After supraperiostal preparation, soft tissue advancement and fixation with absorbable sutures. The recipient site was covered with a free gingival graft. Group I was operated on traditionally using a scalpel. In group II incision and soft tissue preparation was performed using a diode laser. Wavelength: 810 nm; Continuous wave mode; 400 micron optic fiber; Output power 1.6 Watt. All operations were performed by one surgeon experienced in both operation techniques. Every patient was followed-up 1, 4, 8 weeks, 6 and 12 months. The vestibular height directly adjacent to the nasal cavity and 2cm distal to these first measuring locations were taken. Each patient was asked to evaluate their individual discomfort and postoperative pain level. Both groups showed no significant difference in vestibular height after 1, 4, 8 weeks, 6 months and 1 year. The postoperative height of 1.28 cm was reduced to 0.84 cm after 1 year. Furthermore both groups showed uneventful healing and take of the free gingival grafts. The assessment of the pain and discomfort level by the patients brought a significant difference between both groups in favor of the laser assisted operation technique.

  14. A Historical Study of Operational: A Resource for Researches

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-03-01

    48 11.3 Centralised or decentralised organisations...73 APPENDIX D : FALKLANDS CAMPAIGN 1982........................................................... 74 APPENDIX E: OPERATION DESERT STORM...particularly the more complex land component. DSTO-GD-0430 Unity of command does not necessarily mean centralised command. Distributed command

  15. A Historical Study of Operational Command: A Resource for Researchers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-03-01

    48 11.3 Centralised or decentralised organisations...73 APPENDIX D : FALKLANDS CAMPAIGN 1982........................................................... 74 APPENDIX E: OPERATION DESERT STORM...particularly the more complex land component. DSTO-GD-0430 Unity of command does not necessarily mean centralised command. Distributed command

  16. Simulation Study of Evacuation Control Center Operations Analysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-06-01

    host country nationals from life threatening situations in foreign countries. Plan - ning for these operations is difficult due to its dynamic nature and...complex inter- department command and execution structure. Planning efficiencies could be realized through insights into dependencies and fundamental...9 3.2 Setting of objectives and overall project plan . . . . . . . 9 3.3 Model conceptualization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10

  17. Do Owners Have a Clever Hans Effect on Dogs? Results of a Pointing Study

    PubMed Central

    Schmidjell, Teresa; Range, Friederike; Huber, Ludwig; Virányi, Zsófia

    2012-01-01

    Dogs are exceptionally successful at interpreting human pointing gestures to locate food hidden in one of two containers. However, it has repeatedly been questioned whether dogs rely on the pointing gesture or their success is increased by subtle cues from their human handler. In two experiments we used a standard two-way object-choice task to focus on this potential Clever Hans effect. We investigated if and how owners’ knowledge and beliefs influenced their dogs’ performance. In two experiments, as is typical in such pointing tasks, the owners sat behind their dogs, in close auditory and tactile contact with them. In Experiment 1, we systematically manipulated the owners’ knowledge of whether or not their dog should follow the pointing gesture, but at the same time instructed the owners to refrain from influencing the choice of their dog. We found no influence of subtle cues from the owners, if indeed they existed: dogs in the different groups followed the pointing uniformly. Furthermore, in the absence of pointing dogs chose randomly, even though the owners had been informed about the location of the reward. In Experiment 2, owners were instructed to actively influence the choice of their dogs, and they, indeed, succeeded in sending their dogs to the container they believed to be baited. However, their influence was significantly weaker if the experimenter had previously pointed to the other location. Overall the pointing gesture seems to have a strong effect on the choice of dogs in an object-choice task. Pointing can lead the dogs to success without help from their owners as well as it can counteract clear directional instructions provided by the owners. PMID:23272000

  18. Exploring Pre-Operational and Concrete Operational Children's Thinking on Nutrition: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brouse, Corey H.; Chow, Tracy H. F.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: In this exploratory study, we observed the process in which children make food choices from a cognitive development perspective and the implications that these choices have on the areas of cognitive development and health and nutrition education. Design: This was a cross-sectional case study that involved an in-depth examination of the…

  19. First-principles study of point defects in chalcopyrite ZnSnP2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumagai, Yu; Choi, Minseok; Nose, Yoshitaro; Oba, Fumiyasu

    2014-09-01

    Chalcopyrite ZnSnP2 is an alternative photoabsorber material for solar cells because of its controllable band gap, high absorption coefficient, and earth abundant constituents. In this study we systematically investigate its native point defects including vacancies, interstitials, and antisites using first-principles calculations with the Heyd-Scuseria-Ernzerhof hybrid functional. We evaluate the defect formation energies and defect single-particle levels at the dilute limit using finite-size image-charge corrections and compare them with those reported for CuInSe2 and CuGaSe2. The most likely donors and acceptors are cation antisites, Sn-on-Zn and Zn-on-Sn, respectively. Because of their significantly low formation energies, they lead to Fermi level pinning in the band gap under any growth condition, and constrain the carrier concentration. The Sn-on-Zn antisite in the neutral charge state becomes an intrinsic DX center, a complex of the Sn interstitial and Zn vacancy, and shows a deep donor level as reported for CuGaSe2.

  20. Native Point Defects in GaN: A Hybrid-Functional Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diallo, I. C.; Demchenko, D. O.

    2016-12-01

    We present a systematic study of properties of common native point defects in GaN based on hybrid density-functional calculations. These defects include vacancies, interstitials, antisites, and common complexes. Using configuration coordinate diagrams, we estimate the likelihood of defects to be radiative or nonradiative. Our results show that gallium vacancies exhibit a large magnetic moment in the neutral charge state and are most likely nonradiative. This is in contrast to nitrogen vacancies, which are probable sources of the experimentally observed green-luminescence band peaking at 2.35 eV in undoped GaN. We also show that infrared photoluminescence (PL) bands that are created by 2.5-MeV electron irradiation in GaN can be explained by the formation of native defects. Namely, the interstitial gallium is likely to be responsible for the narrow infrared PL band centered around 0.85 eV, with a phonon fine structure at 0.88 eV; the gallium-nitrogen divacancies are possible sources of the broad PL band with a peak at 0.95 eV.

  1. First-principles study of point defects in CePO4 monazite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Yong; Zhao, Xiaofeng; Teng, Yuancheng; Bi, Beng; Wang, Lili; Wu, Lang; Zhang, Kuibao

    2016-12-01

    CePO4 monazite is an important radiation-resistant material that may act as a potential minor actinides waste form. Here, we present the results of the calculations for the basic radiation defect modellings in CePO4 crystals, along with the examination of their defect formation energies and effect of the defect concentrations. This study focused on building a fully-relaxed CePO4 model with the step iterative optimization from the DFT-GGA calculations using the VASP and CASTEP databases. The results show that the Frenkel defect configuration resulting from the center interstitials has a lower energy when compared to two adjacent orthophosphate centers (the saddle point position). High formation energies were found for all the types of intrinsic Frenkel and vacancy defects. The formation energies conform to the following trend (given in the decreasing order of energy): Ce Frenkel (12.41 eV) > O Frenkel (11.02 eV) > Ce vacancy (9.09 eV) > O vacancy (6.69 eV). We observed almost no effect from the defect concentrations on the defect formation energies.

  2. Antibiotic consumption in Turkish hospitals; a multi-centre point prevalence study.

    PubMed

    Guclu, Ertugrul; Ogutlu, Aziz; Karabay, Oguz; Demirdal, Tuna; Erayman, Ibrahim; Hosoglu, Salih; Turhan, Vedat; Erol, Serpil; Oztoprak, Nefise; Batirel, Ayse; Altay, Fatma Aybala; Kaya, Gulsum; Karahocagil, Mustafa; Sozen, Hamdi; Yildirim, Mustafa; Kocak, Funda; Teker, Bahri

    2017-02-01

    This multi-centre study aimed to determine the antibiotic consumption in Turkish hospitals by point prevalence. Antibiotic consumption of 14 centres was determined using the DDD method. Among hospitalized patients, 44.8% were using antibiotics and the total antibiotic consumption was 674.5 DDD/1000 patient-days (DPD). 189.6 (28%) DPD of the antibiotic consumption was restricted while 484.9 (72%) DPD was unrestricted. Carbapenems (24%) and beta lactam/beta lactamase inhibitors (ampicillin-sulbactam or amoxicillin-clavulanate; 22%) were the most commonly used restricted and unrestricted antibiotics. Antibiotics were most commonly used in intensive care units (1307.7 DPD). Almost half of the hospitalized patients in our hospitals were using at least one antibiotic. Moreover, among these antibiotics, the most commonly used ones were carbapenems, quinolones and cephalosporins, which are known to cause collateral damage. We think that antibiotic resistance, which is seen at considerably high rates in our hospitals, is associated with this level of consumption.

  3. Ab initio study of point defects near stacking faults in 3C-SiC

    DOE PAGES

    Xi, Jianqi; Liu, Bin; Zhang, Yanwen; ...

    2016-07-02

    Interactions between point defects and stacking faults in 3C-SiC are studied using an ab initio method based on density functional theory. The results show that the discontinuity of the stacking sequence considerably affects the configurations and behavior of intrinsic defects, especially in the case of silicon interstitials. The existence of an intrinsic stacking fault (missing a C-Si bilayer) shortens the distance between the tetrahedral-center site and its second-nearest-neighboring silicon layer, making the tetrahedral silicon interstitial unstable. Instead of a tetrahedral configuration with four C neighbors, a pyramid-like interstitial structure with a defect state within the band gap becomes a stablemore » configuration. In addition, orientation rotation occurs in the split interstitials that has diverse effects on the energy landscape of silicon and carbon split interstitials in the stacking fault region. Moreover, our analyses of ionic relaxation and electronic structure of vacancies show that the built-in strain field, owing to the existence of the stacking fault, makes the local environment around vacancies more complex than that in the bulk.« less

  4. Electron spin resonance study of point defects in thermal GaAs/GaAs-oxide structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, S.; Afanas'ev, V. V.; Stesmans, A.

    2012-12-01

    In an attempt to atomically assess interface and oxide-related point defects, a first basic multifrequency low-temperature electron spin resonance study has been carried out on semi-insulating (Fe compensated) GaAs/oxide structures, implying both powders and (100)GaAs/oxide slices, thermally grown in the range Tox=350-615 °C. Various spectra are observed: As for powders, this includes the 4-line EL2 defect spectrum centered at g~2.043 and characterized by the isotropic hyperfine constant Aiso~ 910 G, ascribed to the 75AsGa+ antisite defect. Observed in freshly crushed powder, it substantially increases in density with oxidation, in line with theoretical expectation; A maximum appears reached for at Tox~440 °C. It is not observed in the parent c-GaAs wafer. A second isotropic signal is observed at g~1.937 in powders for Tox in the range 510-615 °C, but only after additional VUV irradiation; it may correspond to As clusters. In bulk (100)GaAs, we observe the 5-branch spectrum of substitutional Fe impurities (spin S=5/2) in GaAs, with inferred crystal field constant a ≈ 360 G, well in line with previous observations. The results are discussed within the framework of advanced theoretical interface and defect models and previous experimental assessment.

  5. Vertical Field of View Reference Point Study for Flight Path Control and Hazard Avoidance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Comstock, J. Raymond, Jr.; Rudisill, Marianne; Kramer, Lynda J.; Busquets, Anthony M.

    2002-01-01

    Researchers within the eXternal Visibility System (XVS) element of the High-Speed Research (HSR) program developed and evaluated display concepts that will provide the flight crew of the proposed High-Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) with integrated imagery and symbology to permit path control and hazard avoidance functions while maintaining required situation awareness. The challenge of the XVS program is to develop concepts that would permit a no-nose-droop configuration of an HSCT and expanded low visibility HSCT operational capabilities. This study was one of a series of experiments exploring the 'design space' restrictions for physical placement of an XVS display. The primary experimental issues here was 'conformality' of the forward display vertical position with respect to the side window in simulated flight. 'Conformality' refers to the case such that the horizon and objects appear in the same relative positions when viewed through the forward windows or display and the side windows. This study quantified the effects of visual conformality on pilot flight path control and hazard avoidance performance. Here, conformality related to the positioning and relationship of the artificial horizon line and associated symbology presented on the forward display and the horizon and associated ground, horizon, and sky textures as they would appear in the real view through a window presented in the side window display. No significant performance consequences were found for the non-conformal conditions.

  6. Modification of the in vivo four-point loading model for studying mechanically induced bone adaptation.

    PubMed

    Forwood, M R; Bennett, M B; Blowers, A R; Nadorfi, R L

    1998-09-01

    We modified the noninvasive, in vivo technique for strain application in the tibiae of rats (Turner et al., Bone 12:73-79, 1991). The original model applies four-point bending to right tibiae via an open-loop, stepper-motor-driven spring linkage. Depending on the magnitude of applied load, the model produces new bone formation at periosteal (Ps) or endocortical surfaces (Ec.S). Due to the spring linkage, however, the range of frequencies at which loads can be applied is limited. The modified system replaces this design with an electromagnetic vibrator. A load transducer in series with the loading points allows calibration, the loaders' position to be adjusted, and cyclic loading completed under load control as a closed servo-loop. Two experiments were conducted to validate the modified system: (1) a strain gauge was applied to the lateral surface of the right tibia of 5 adult female rats and strains measured at applied loads from 10 to 60 N; and (2) the bone formation response was determined in 28 adult female Sprague-Dawley rats. Loading was applied as a haversine wave with a frequency of 2 Hz for 18 sec, every second day for 10 days. Peak bending loads were applied at 33, 40, 52, and 64 N, and a sham-loading group was included at 64 N. Strains in the tibiae were linear between 10 and 60 N, and the average peak strain at the Ps.S at 60 N was 2664 +/- 250 microstrain, consistent with the results of Turner's group. Lamellar bone formation was stimulated at the Ec.S by applied bending, but not by sham loading. Bending strains above a loading threshold of 40 N increased Ec lamellar bone formation rate, bone forming surface, and mineral apposition rate with a dose response similar to that reported by Turner et al. (J Bone Miner Res 9:87-97, 1994). We conclude that the modified loading system offers precision for applied loads of between 0 and 70 N, versatility in the selection of loading rates up to 20 Hz, and a reproducible bone formation response in the rat tibia

  7. SELF-STUDY PROGRAM IN RETAIL STORE OPERATIONS, UNITS 1-13 AND STUDY GUIDE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quaker Oats Co., Chicago, IL.

    THE PURPOSE OF THIS SELF-STUDY PROGRAM IS TO PROVIDE A COMPREHENSIVE VIEW OF TOTAL RETAIL FOOD STORE OPERATIONS AND TO BROADEN THE KNOWLEDGE AND UNDERSTANDING OF THOSE IN OR STUDENTS AND OTHERS PREPARING TO ENTER THE FOOD INDUSTRY. IT WAS DEVELOPED BY THE QUAKER OATS COMPANY FOR ITS SALESMEN BUT WAS EXPANDED FOR USE OUTSIDE THE COMPANY. THE…

  8. Spaceflight Operations Services Grid (SOSG) Prototype Implementation and Feasibility Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bradford, Robert N.; Thigpen, William W.; Lisotta, Anthony J.; Redman, Sandra

    2004-01-01

    Science Operations Services Grid is focusing on building a prototype grid-based environment that incorporates existing and new spaceflight services to enable current and future NASA programs with cost savings and new and evolvable methods to conduct science in a distributed environment. The Science Operations Services Grid (SOSG) will provide a distributed environment for widely disparate organizations to conduct their systems and processes in a more efficient and cost effective manner. These organizations include those that: 1) engage in space-based science and operations, 2) develop space-based systems and processes, and 3) conduct scientific research, bringing together disparate scientific disciplines like geology and oceanography to create new information. In addition educational outreach will be significantly enhanced by providing to schools the same tools used by NASA with the ability of the schools to actively participate on many levels in the science generated by NASA from space and on the ground. The services range from voice, video and telemetry processing and display to data mining, high level processing and visualization tools all accessible from a single portal. In this environment, users would not require high end systems or processes at their home locations to use these services. Also, the user would need to know minimal details about the applications in order to utilize the services. In addition, security at all levels is an underlying goal of the project. The Science Operations Services Grid will focus on four tools that are currently used by the ISS Payload community along with nine more that are new to the community. Under the prototype four Grid virtual organizations PO) will be developed to represent four types of users. They are a Payload (experimenters) VO, a Flight Controllers VO, an Engineering and Science Collaborators VO and an Education and Public Outreach VO. The User-based services will be implemented to replicate the operational voice

  9. Fisheries and Limnological Studies on West Point Reservoir, Alabama-Georgia. Phase IV.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-05-01

    132 45. Relative condition factors of various lengths for male and female largemouth bass, West Point Lake, Alabama-Georgia...bass by age within each year (1975-1978) at West Point Lake, Alabama-Georgia . . . . . . . . . . . 131 41. Length-weight relationship for male and...Chattahooc ee River mile 201. The reservoir has a total drainage area of 8,745 km and a surface area of 10,467 hectares (ha) at the normal pool

  10. A radiation belt disturbance study from the space weather point of view

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rochel, S.; Boscher, D.; Benacquista, R.; Roussel, J. F.

    2016-11-01

    The radiation belts are a key region located close to the Earth, where the satellites travel. They are located in the centre of the magnetosphere and constitute a region sensitive to the variations of magnetosphere activity. The magnetosphere is in equilibrium in the solar wind. If the solar wind parameters change, then, the magnetospheric balance is upset. Using several processes, particles and energy from the solar wind can enter it, disturbing the magnetosphere and the radiation belts. In this paper, the am index has been used to define a new parameter named Cm, which is indicative of the energy level in the magnetosphere. The impact of CIRs (Corotating Interaction region) and of CMEs (Coronal Mass Ejection) on the magnetosphere has been studied from the Cm point of view, as well as the reaction of the radiation belts to a solar wind disturbance. The results show that the Cm parameter provides a new perspective in space weather studies as it clearly shows that the energy level can be higher for a CIR than for a CME. It also demonstrates that the events with several solar wind structures are much more effective to increase the energy level in the magnetosphere than single ones. Finally, Cm correlates better with the radiation belts fluxes, showing again that Cm is a good indicator of the inner magnetosphere activity. Nevertheless, the energy level in the radiation belts is maximised and the energy level in this population cannot go above a given value which depends on the altitude. The particles coming from the plasmasheet also push the particles from the highest altitudes to the lower ones, allowing the slot filling for Cm> .

  11. Study 2.6 operations analysis mission characterization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolfe, R. R.

    1973-01-01

    An analysis of the current operations concepts of NASA and DoD is presented to determine if alternatives exist which may improve the utilization of resources. The final product is intended to show how sensitive these ground rules and design approaches are relative to the total cost of doing business. The results are comparative in nature, and assess one concept against another as opposed to establishing an absolute cost value for program requirements. An assessment of the mission characteristics is explained to clarify the intent, scope, and direction of this effort to improve the understanding of what is to be accomplished. The characterization of missions is oriented toward grouping missions which may offer potential economic benefits by reducing overall program costs. Program costs include design, development, testing, and engineering, recurring unit costs for logistic vehicles, payload costs. and direct operating costs.

  12. A full optically operated magnetometer array: an experimental study.

    PubMed

    Ijsselsteijn, R; Kielpinski, M; Woetzel, S; Scholtes, T; Kessler, E; Stolz, R; Schultze, V; Meyer, H-G

    2012-11-01

    We show the operation of an optically pumped magnetometer array in a 50 μT magnetic field. The various components for a fully optical and non-magnetic detector unit were constructed and evaluated, from which a prototype unit was assembled with fiber coupled electronics. In this unit the magnetometers were operated using the intensity modulated method and heated with an off-resonant laser. Calculations on the temperature distribution were used to design the magnetometer array. Different magnetometers in such a detector unit were characterized and showed identical performance. Without applying noise reduction schemes, the obtained magnetic field resolution is a factor 2.5 above the shot noise level down to frequencies of about 7 Hz.

  13. Study of EVA operations associated with satellite services

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nash, J. O.; Wilde, R. D.

    1982-01-01

    Extravehicular mobility unit (EMU) factors associated with satellite servicing activities are identified and the EMU improvements necessary to enhance satellite servicing operations are outlined. Areas of EMU capabilities, equipment and structural interfaces, time lines, EMU modifications for satellite servicing, environmental hazards, and crew training are vital to manned Eva/satellite services and as such are detailed. Evaluation of EMU capabilities indicates that the EMU can be used in performing near term, basic satellite servicing tasks; however, satellite servicing is greatly enhanced by incorporating key modifications into the EMU. The servicing missions involved in contamination sensitive payload repair are illustrated. EVA procedures and equipment can be standardized, reducing both crew training time and in orbit operations time. By standardizing and coordinating procedures, mission cumulative time lines fall well within the EMU capability.

  14. Stability Operations in Somalia 1992-1993: A Case Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-07-01

    Movement (SNM), an Isaaq clan-family organization based in north- western Somalia, launched a military campaign in May 1988. In response, the...flee to Ethiopia. 3. The Somali Patriotic Movement (SPM), a Darod family-clan faction, opposed the Barre govern- ment in the south around Kismayo. 4...and Somali Patriotic Movement (SPM) had the greatest impact on Operation RESTORE HOPE: Composed principally of Hawiye clan-family members, the USC was

  15. Compendium of Operations Research and Economic Analysis Studies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-10-01

    and to project these costs through FY 2010. To accomplish this, a personal computer based cost model was developed. The model utilizes the Oracle...potential effects of new inventory policies and operating methods. This interactive, menu driven model runs on personal computers and ope,-ates on C&T...Resourcing Model is a personal comnputer model designed to provide the manager at work center level or the Director of Distribut ion with the least cost

  16. Coalition Logistics: A Case Study in Operation Restore Hope

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-06-03

    prerequisites forbid the intake of certain foods include Israel (no pork, Kosher prepared), Muslim nations (no pork, Halal prepared), and Hindu nations (no beef...communications. The critical life support supplies, such as food , water, and medicine, were pushed into the theater along with the transportation and...dictates a common sense burden-sharing philosophy.ś In a coalition operation, countries share common resources such as food , water, blood, transportation

  17. A Multiburst Fallout Model for Operational Type Studies.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-03-01

    the cloud and f~y~t)= ! e Yt It is obvious from Eq (5) that f (y ,t is a norm:ial function describing the crosswind spread of a single nuclear cloud ...If two or more clouds are in close proximity and merge at some point to become one large cloud , a siingle normal function will no longer account for...horizontal activity; there will be some cumulative effect from each contributing single-burst cloud . The fallout on the ground from this new, large

  18. Study of aerodynamic noise in low supersonic operation of an axial flow compressor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnoldi, R. A.

    1972-01-01

    A study of compressor noise is presented, based upon supersonic, part-speed operation of a high hub/tip ratio compressor designed for spanwise uniformity of aerodynamic conditions, having straight cylindrical inlet and exit passages for acoustic simplicity. Acoustic spectra taken in the acoustically-treated inlet plenum, are presented for five operating points at each of two speeds, corresponding to relative rotor tip Mach numbers of about 1.01 and 1.12 (60 and 67 percent design speed). These spectra are analyzed for low and high frequency broadband noise, blade passage frequency noise, combination tone noise and "haystack' noise (a very broad peak somewhat below blade passage frequency, which is occasionally observed in engines and fan test rigs). These types of noise are related to diffusion factor, total pressure ratio, and relative rotor tip Mach number. Auxiliary measurements of fluctuating wall static pressures and schlieren photographs of upstream shocks in the inlet are also presented and related to the acoustic and performance data.

  19. Ephemeral active regions and coronal bright points: A solar maximum Mission 2 guest investigator study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harvey, K. L.; Tang, F. Y. C.; Gaizauskas, V.; Poland, A. I.

    1986-01-01

    A dominate association of coronal bright points (as seen in He wavelength 10830) was confirmed with the approach and subsequent disappearance of opposite polarity magnetic network. While coronal bright points do occur with ephemeral regions, this association is a factor of 2 to 4 less than with sites of disappearing magnetic flux. The intensity variations seen in He I wavelength 10830 are intermittent and often rapid, varying over the 3 minute time resolution of the data; their bright point counterparts in the C IV wavelength 1548 and 20 cm wavelength show similar, though not always coincident time variations. Ejecta are associated with about 1/3 of the dark points and are evident in the C IV and H alpha data. These results support the idea that the anti-correlation of X-ray bright points with the solar cycle can be explained by the correlation of these coronal emission structures with sites of cancelling flux, indicating that, in some cases, the process of magnetic flux removal results in the release of energy. That the intensity variations are rapid and variable suggests that this process works intermittently.

  20. Thermodynamic analysis and experimental study of the effect of atmospheric pressure on the ice point

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harvey, A. H.; McLinden, M. O.; Tew, W. L.

    2013-09-01

    We present a detailed thermodynamic analysis of the temperature of the ice point as a function of atmospheric pressure. This analysis makes use of accurate international standards for the properties of water and ice, and of available high-accuracy data for the Henry's constants of atmospheric gases in liquid water. The result is an ice point of 273.150 019(5) K at standard atmospheric pressure, with higher ice-point temperatures (varying nearly linearly with pressure) at lower pressures. The effect of varying ambient CO2 concentration is analyzed and found to be significant in comparison to other uncertainties in the model. The thermodynamic analysis is compared with experimental measurements of the temperature difference between the ice point and the triple point of water performed at elevations ranging from 145 m to 4302 m, with atmospheric pressures from 101 kPa to 60 kPa. At the request of the authors and the Proceedings Editor the above article has been replaced with a corrected version. The original PDF file supplied to AIP Publishing contained several equations with incorrect/missing characters resulting from processes used to create the PDF file. The article has been replaced and the equations now display correctly.

  1. Summary of Fermilab's Recycler Electron Cooler Operation and Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Prost, L.R.; Shemyakin, A.; /Fermilab

    2012-05-15

    Fermilab's Recycler ring was used as a storage ring for accumulation and subsequent manipulations of 8 GeV antiprotons destined for the Tevatron collider. To satisfy these missions, a unique electron cooling system was designed, developed and successfully implemented. The most important features that distinguish the Recycler cooler from other existing electron coolers are its relativistic energy, 4.3 MV combined with 0.1-0.5 A DC beam current, a weak continuous longitudinal magnetic field in the cooling section, 100 G, and lumped focusing elsewhere. With the termination of the Tevatron collider operation, so did the cooler. In this article, we summarize the experience of running this unique machine.

  2. Analysis of space tug operating techniques. Volume 2: Study results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The design requirements for space tug systems and cost analysis of the refurbishment phases are discussed. The vehicle is an integral propulsion stage using liquid hydrogen and liquid oxygen as propellants and is capable of operating either as a fully or a partially autonomous vehicle. Structural features are an integral liquid hydrogen tank, a liquid oxygen tank, a meteoroid shield, an aft conical docking and structural support ring, and a staged combustion main engine. The vehicle is constructed of major modules for ease of maintenance. Line drawings and block diagrams are included to explain the maintenance requirements for the subsystems.

  3. Staff Study Operation "BAKER-SIXTY"

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1945-08-12

    agreed. (b) Be prepared to provide additional air cover and air support for Operation "BAKER-SIXTY" over JAPAN , as arranged with CI\\NCAFPACo (10...51’ 58" East The office and studios of Station JOAK, principal radio broad- casting station in JAPAN , are located in the block directly across from I...Eastern Japan Radio Central). b. 350 49’ 20" Northi; 1390 L9’ 15" East Two 150,000 watt transmitter stations of Station JOAK are located in the sanie

  4. Staff Study Coronet Operations in the Kanto Plain of Honshu

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1945-08-15

    TOKYO-YOKOHAMA and KANTO PLAINS areas and effect the unconditional surrender of JAPAN . Target Date: ("Y" - Day), 1 March 194.6. b. The following...basic command relationships are established by the Joint Chiefs of Staff for operations of United States Army and Navy Forces against JAPAN ; (1) Command...Army Forces in the Pacific is charged i-rith making plans and preparations for ’ ;; ’ "T6V ’SECRET i,./ ? ?"’<!’.’’ the campaign in JAPAN . He

  5. Integrating Nuclear Energy to Oilfield Operations – Two Case Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Eric P. Robertson; Lee O. Nelson; Michael G. McKellar; Anastasia M. Gandrik; Mike W. Patterson

    2011-11-01

    Fossil fuel resources that require large energy inputs for extraction, such as the Canadian oil sands and the Green River oil shale resource in the western USA, could benefit from the use of nuclear power instead of power generated by natural gas combustion. This paper discusses the technical and economic aspects of integrating nuclear energy with oil sands operations and the development of oil shale resources. A high temperature gas reactor (HTGR) that produces heat in the form of high pressure steam (no electricity production) was selected as the nuclear power source for both fossil fuel resources. Both cases were based on 50,000 bbl/day output. The oil sands case was a steam-assisted, gravity-drainage (SAGD) operation located in the Canadian oil sands belt. The oil shale development was an in-situ oil shale retorting operation located in western Colorado, USA. The technical feasibility of the integrating nuclear power was assessed. The economic feasibility of each case was evaluated using a discounted cash flow, rate of return analysis. Integrating an HTGR to both the SAGD oil sands operation and the oil shale development was found to be technically feasible for both cases. In the oil sands case, integrating an HTGR eliminated natural gas combustion and associated CO2 emissions, although there were still some emissions associated with imported electrical power. In the in situ oil shale case, integrating an HTGR reduced CO2 emissions by 88% and increased natural gas production by 100%. Economic viabilities of both nuclear integrated cases were poorer than the non-nuclear-integrated cases when CO2 emissions were not taxed. However, taxing the CO2 emissions had a significant effect on the economics of the non-nuclear base cases, bringing them in line with the economics of the nuclear-integrated cases. As we move toward limiting CO2 emissions, integrating non-CO2-emitting energy sources to the development of energy-intense fossil fuel resources is becoming

  6. Flood Management and Protection from the Social Point of View: Case Study from Ukraine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manukalo, V.; Gerasymenko, H.

    2012-12-01

    Defining Issue According to the statistics presented by the Ministry of Emergencies of Ukraine, river floods have imposed the most severe damages to the sectors of economy and the human communities in Ukraine. But, an adaptability and a vulnerability of Ukrainian society to floods are still poorly understood. Results Presentation In the response to increasing flood losses in the country between 1998 and 2008, the State Hydrometeorological Service of Ukraine, which is subordinate to the Ministry of Emergencies, in the cooperation with the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine have carried out the research study focusing on public views on the problem of river floods for Ukraine. Aims of this study were: a) exploring the main sources of information on water-related hazards and the level of knowledge useful in a flood crisis situation in different groups of peoples; b) learning what the various population groups think of the most significant causes and consequences of flood damages and the role of various central/governmental/ and local authorities in an elaboration and implementation of mitigation measures. Public attitudes towards various prevention and mitigation strategies, as well as sources of emerging conflict were also revealed. The results of study have given a possibility to compare points of view of population groups which: a) living in the low- and high- flood risk areas; b) living in the urban and rural areas; c) having the different levels of education. The responses from 2550 residents have been analyzed and summarized. Among the most important findings of this study can be indicated following: a) on the one hand, the level of knowledge of some aspects of flood problem (impact of climate variation and change, adaptation measures) of the general public should be improved, on the other hand, the most of peoples understand that floods are the significant economical and ecological problem; b) views of the public on the problem differ very much with regard

  7. Orbit Transfer Vehicle (OTV) advanced expander cycle engine point design study, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    The engine requirements are emphasized and include: high specific impulse within a restricted installed length constraint, long life, multiple starts, different thrust levels, and man-rated reliability. The engine operating characteristics and the major component analytical design are summarized.

  8. First-principles study of point defects in an fcc Fe-10Ni-20Cr model alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piochaud, J. B.; Klaver, T. P. C.; Adjanor, G.; Olsson, P.; Domain, C.; Becquart, C. S.

    2014-01-01

    The influence of the local environment on vacancy and self-interstitial formation energies has been investigated in a face-centered-cubic (fcc) Fe-10Ni-20Cr model alloy by analyzing an extensive set of first-principle calculations based on density functional theory. Chemical disorder has been considered by designing special quasirandom structures and four different collinear magnetic structures have been investigated in order to determine a relevant reference state to perform point defect calculations at 0 K. Two different convergence methods have also been used to characterize the importance of the method on the results. Although our fcc Fe-10Ni-20Cr would be better represented in terms of applications by the paramagnetic state, we found that the antiferromagnetic single-layer magnetic structure was the most stable at 0 K and we chose it as a reference state to determine the point defect properties. Point defects have been introduced in this reference state, i.e., vacancies and Fe-Fe, Fe-Ni, Fe-Cr, Cr-Cr, Ni-Ni, and Ni-Cr dumbbell interstitials oriented either parallel or perpendicular to the single layer antiferromagnetic planes. Each point defect studied was introduced at different lattice sites to consider a sufficient variety of local environments and analyze its influence on the formation energy values. We have estimated the point defect formation energies with linear regressions using variables which describe the local environment surrounding the point defects. The number and the position of Ni and Cr first nearest neighbors to the point defects were found to drive the evolution of the formation energies. In particular, Ni is found to decrease and Cr to increase the vacancy formation energy of the model alloy, while the opposite trends are found for the dumbbell interstitials. This study suggested that, to a first approximation, the first nearest atoms to point defects can provide reliable estimates of point defect formation energies.

  9. Multivariate meta-analysis of prognostic factor studies with multiple cut-points and/or methods of measurement.

    PubMed

    Riley, Richard D; Elia, Eleni G; Malin, Gemma; Hemming, Karla; Price, Malcolm P

    2015-07-30

    A prognostic factor is any measure that is associated with the risk of future health outcomes in those with existing disease. Often, the prognostic ability of a factor is evaluated in multiple studies. However, meta-analysis is difficult because primary studies often use different methods of measurement and/or different cut-points to dichotomise continuous factors into 'high' and 'low' groups; selective reporting is also common. We illustrate how multivariate random effects meta-analysis models can accommodate multiple prognostic effect estimates from the same study, relating to multiple cut-points and/or methods of measurement. The models account for within-study and between-study correlations, which utilises more information and reduces the impact of unreported cut-points and/or measurement methods in some studies. The applicability of the approach is improved with individual participant data and by assuming a functional relationship between prognostic effect and cut-point to reduce the number of unknown parameters. The models provide important inferential results for each cut-point and method of measurement, including the summary prognostic effect, the between-study variance and a 95% prediction interval for the prognostic effect in new populations. Two applications are presented. The first reveals that, in a multivariate meta-analysis using published results, the Apgar score is prognostic of neonatal mortality but effect sizes are smaller at most cut-points than previously thought. In the second, a multivariate meta-analysis of two methods of measurement provides weak evidence that microvessel density is prognostic of mortality in lung cancer, even when individual participant data are available so that a continuous prognostic trend is examined (rather than cut-points).

  10. Success in an Introductory Operations Research Course: A Case Study at the United Arab Emirates University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yousef, Darwish Abdulrahman

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the influence of a number of factors such as high school major, high school score, gender, Stat105, Maths I, Maths II grades, and grade point average (GPA) on students' academic performance in an introductory operations research (OR) course at the department of Business Administration--College of…

  11. Ship Underwater Threat Response System (SUTRS): A Feasibility Study of Organic Mine Point-Defense

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-01

    AGENCY REPORT NUMBER 11. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES The views expressed in this thesis are those of the author and do not reflect the official policy or...Center OA Operational Activity OASIS Organic Airborne and Surface Influence Sweep xvii OMFTS Operational Maneuver from the Sea OMOE ...used by all the major warring powers to defend regions through the tactical and strategic policies of anti-access (Benes and Sandel 2009) (Committee

  12. Quartz Microbalance Study of 400-angstrom Thick Films near the lambda Point

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chan, Moses H. W.

    2003-01-01

    In a recent measurement we observed the thinning of an adsorbed helium film induced by the confinement of critical fluctuations a few millikelvin below the lambda point. A capacitor set-up was used to measure this Casimir effect. In this poster we will present our measurement of an adsorbed helium film of 400 angstroms near the lambda point with a quartz microbalance. For films this thick, we must take into account the non-linear dynamics of the shear waves in the fluid. In spite of the added complications, we were able to confirm the thinning of the film due to the Casimir effect and the onset of the superfluid transition. In addition, we observe a sharp anomaly at the bulk lambda point, most likely related to critical dissipation of the first sound. This work is carried out in collaboration with Rafael Garcia, Stephen Jordon and John Lazzaretti. This work is funded by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research under grant.

  13. Kinetics of Particle Adsorption in Stagnation Point Flow Studied by Optical Reflectometry

    PubMed

    Böhmer; van der Zeeuw EA; Koper

    1998-01-15

    The kinetics of adsorption of nano-sized silica particles on a polymer pretreated surface were followed in situ by using optical reflectometry in a stagnation point flow setup. Conversion of the reflectometric signal to the surface coverage could be performed using a homogeneous slab model which was verified by determining the particle density on SEM pictures taken in the stagnation point and by comparison with a model which includes the particulate nature of the layer explicitly. The effects of salt concentration on the plateau adsorbed amounts for all particle sizes can be described with an effective hard sphere concept. Although initial slopes and plateau values are in reasonable agreement with a random sequential adsorption model, this model does not accurately describe the evolution of the surface coverage as a function of time in a stagnation point flow system. Copyright 1998 Academic Press. Copyright 1998Academic Press

  14. Direct inpatient burden caused by foot-related conditions: a multisite point-prevalence study

    PubMed Central

    Lazzarini, Peter A; Hurn, Sheree E; Kuys, Suzanne S; Kamp, Maarten C; Ng, Vanessa; Thomas, Courtney; Jen, Scott; Kinnear, Ewan M; d'Emden, Michael C; Reed, Lloyd

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aims of this point-prevalence study were to investigate a representative inpatient population to determine the prevalence of people admitted to hospital for the reason of a foot-related condition, and identify associated independent factors. Methods Participants were adult inpatients in 5 different representative hospitals, admitted for any reason on the day of data collection. Maternity, mental health and cognitively impaired inpatients were excluded. Participants were surveyed on a range of self-reported demographic, social determinant, medical history, foot disease history, self-care, footwear, past foot treatment prior to hospitalisation and reason for admission variables. Physical examinations were performed to clinically diagnose a range of foot disease and foot risk factor variables. Independent factors associated with being admitted to hospital for the primary or secondary reason of a foot-related condition were analysed using multivariate logistic regression. Results Overall, 733 participants were included; mean (SD) age 62 (19) years, male 55.8%. Foot-related conditions were the primary reason for admission in 54 participants (7.4% (95% CI 5.7% to 9.5%)); 36 for foot disease (4.9%), 15 foot trauma (2.1%). Being admitted for the primary reason of a foot-related condition was independently associated with foot infection, critical peripheral arterial disease, foot trauma and past foot treatment by a general practitioner and surgeon (p<0.01). Foot-related conditions were a secondary reason for admission in 28 participants (3.8% (2.6% to 5.6%)), and were independently associated with diabetes and current foot ulcer (p<0.01). Conclusions This study, the first in a representative inpatient population, suggests the direct inpatient burden caused by foot-related conditions is significantly higher than previously appreciated. Findings indicate 1 in every 13 inpatients was primarily admitted because of a foot-related condition with most due to foot

  15. Optimal point of insertion of the needle in neuraxial blockade using a midline approach: study in a geometrical model

    PubMed Central

    Vogt, Mark; van Gerwen, Dennis J; van den Dobbelsteen, John J; Hagenaars, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Performance of neuraxial blockade using a midline approach can be technically difficult. It is therefore important to optimize factors that are under the influence of the clinician performing the procedure. One of these factors might be the chosen point of insertion of the needle. Surprisingly few data exist on where between the tips of two adjacent spinous processes the needle should be introduced. A geometrical model was adopted to gain more insight into this issue. Spinous processes were represented by parallelograms. The length, the steepness relative to the skin, and the distance between the parallelograms were varied. The influence of the chosen point of insertion of the needle on the range of angles at which the epidural and subarachnoid space could be reached was studied. The optimal point of insertion was defined as the point where this range is the widest. The geometrical model clearly demonstrated, that the range of angles at which the epidural or subarachnoid space can be reached, is dependent on the point of insertion between the tips of the adjacent spinous processes. The steeper the spinous processes run, the more cranial the point of insertion should be. Assuming that the model is representative for patients, the performance of neuraxial blockade using a midline approach might be improved by choosing the optimal point of insertion. PMID:27570462

  16. Public Internet Access Points (PIAPs) and Their Social Impact: A Case Study from Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Afacan, Gulgun; Er, Erkan; Arifoglu, Ali

    2013-01-01

    Building public Internet access points (PIAPs) is a significant contribution of governments towards achieving an information society. While many developing countries are investing great amounts to establish PIAPs today, people may not use PIAPs effectively. Yet, the successful implementation of PIAPs is the result of citizens' acceptance to use…

  17. Using Modification Indexes to Detect Turning Points in Longitudinal Data: A Monte Carlo Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kwok, Oi-Man; Luo, Wen; West, Stephen G.

    2010-01-01

    Some nonlinear developmental phenomena can be represented by using a simple piecewise procedure in which 2 linear growth models are joined at a single knot. The major problem of using this piecewise approach is that researchers have to optimally locate the knot (or turning point) where the change in the growth rate occurs. A relatively simple way…

  18. Status of the BATSE Enhanced Earth Occultation Analysis Package for Studying Point Sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skelton, R. T.; Ling, J. C.; Radocinski, R.; Wheaton, Wm. A.

    1993-01-01

    The compton Gama-Ray Observatory's Burst and Transient Source Experiment (BATSE) has a powerful capability to provide nearly uninterrupted monitoring in the 25keV--2MeV range of cosmic point sources using occultation by the Earth.

  19. Blogging for the Record: A Study of Blogging from an Archival Point of View

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paulus, Michael J., Jr.

    2006-01-01

    This article examines the current phenomenon of blogging from an archival point of view. To better understand the nature of blogs, the author conducted an informal survey of bloggers at Princeton Theological Seminary. The results of this survey show that blogs represent a dynamic but ephemeral new form of electronic record and writing practice.…

  20. Designing a Feasibility Study: A Starting Point for Considering New Management Initiatives for Working Parents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedman, Dana E.

    This brief paper was prepared as a starting point for employers considering the adoption of a new management initiative for working parents. It is not an exhaustive outline of all considerations in the decision-making process, nor does it provide solutions to all the known pitfalls. It does, however, suggest the potential scope and complexity of…

  1. Instrument pointing system applicability and orbiter stabilization for EVAL missions. Application studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spector, V. A.

    1977-01-01

    Related aspect of the Earth Viewing Applications Laboratory (EVAL) shuttle missions were investigated. The applicability of the gimballed Instrument Pointing System (IPS) to EVAL missions by comparing the IPS capabilities with the EVAL requirements was evaluated, and a means of stabilizing the shuttle orbiter attitude in earth viewing orientations for prolonged periods without use of the orbiter gas reaction control system was assessed.

  2. School Attendance Revisited: A Study of Urban African American Students' Grade Point Averages and Coping Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steward, Robbie J.; Steward, Astin Devine; Blair, Jonathan; Jo, Hanik; Hill, Martin F.

    2008-01-01

    Urban African American first-year high school students' absenteeism was found to be negatively related to grade point average (GPA) and avoidance as a means of coping (use of substances as a way to escape--food, alcohol, smoking, caffeine, etc.) and positively related to use of social support as a means of coping (efforts to stay emotionally…

  3. Fisheries and Limnological Studies on West Point Reservoir, Alabama-Georgia. Phase V.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-12-01

    Usually blue-green algal communities are dominated by Oscillatoria angustissima in West Point Lake. However, this year a different alga, Spirulina ...different alga, Spirulina laxa, dominated samples at several stations during the summer (Table 7). Chlorophyll 60. Chlorophyll values measured on a volume

  4. Gas mixture studies for streamer operated Resistive Plate Chambers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paoloni, A.; Longhin, A.; Mengucci, A.; Pupilli, F.; Ventura, M.

    2016-06-01

    Resistive Plate Chambers operated in streamer mode are interesting detectors in neutrino and astro-particle physics applications (like OPERA and ARGO experiments). Such experiments are typically characterized by large area apparatuses with no stringent requirements on detector aging and rate capabilities. In this paper, results of cosmic ray tests performed on a RPC prototype using different gas mixtures are presented, the principal aim being the optimization of the TetraFluoroPropene concentration in Argon-based mixtures. The introduction of TetraFluoroPropene, besides its low Global Warming Power, is helpful because it simplifies safety requirements allowing to remove also isobutane from the mixture. Results obtained with mixtures containing SF6, CF4, CO2, N2 and He are also shown, presented both in terms of detectors properties (efficiency, multiple-streamer probability and time resolution) and in terms of streamer characteristics.

  5. Theoretical study of SET operation in carbon nanotube memory cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stopa, Michael; Rueckes, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    We present results of self-consistent electronic structure calculations for an electromechanical memory cell consisting of a carbon nanotube (CNT) fabric between titanium leads to elucidate the mechanism whereby the applied bias works to close the current gaps in the CNT fabric. We demonstrate that the asymmetry in the bias conditions required to achieve the “SET” operation of the cell (changing it from a high resistivity to low resistivity) results from the nature of a voltage drop in a compensated semiconducting material and depends sensitively on the background charge as well as on the position of the layer where the conducting gaps occur. The calculations provide insight into the behavior of the material and suggest possible fabrication strategies to modify the functionality.

  6. Space Operations Center, shuttle interaction study, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    The feasibility of the shuttle remote manipulator system (SRMS)-aided space operations center (SOC)/orbiter berthing was evaluated to determine: (1) whether the initial rates between the SOC and the orbiter can be removed by the arm; (2) what is the best strategy to be used; (3) whether the post-capture and maneuvering loads are within the capability of the SRMS; (4) can the SOC berthing port be brought in the immediate proximity of the orbiter berthing port; and (5) what is the best way to remove the residual relative motions. Various notational conventions are established and various important locations on the orbiter and SOC structures are defined. Reference frames are defined together with the mass properties of both the SOC and the orbiter.

  7. A Comparative Study of Precise Point Positioning (PPP) Accuracy Using Online Services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malinowski, Marcin; Kwiecień, Janusz

    2016-12-01

    Precise Point Positioning (PPP) is a technique used to determine the position of receiver antenna without communication with the reference station. It may be an alternative solution to differential measurements, where maintaining a connection with a single RTK station or a regional network of reference stations RTN is necessary. This situation is especially common in areas with poorly developed infrastructure of ground stations. A lot of research conducted so far on the use of the PPP technique has been concerned about the development of entire day observation sessions. However, this paper presents the results of a comparative analysis of accuracy of absolute determination of position from observations which last between 1 to 7 hours with the use of four permanent services which execute calculations with PPP technique such as: Automatic Precise Positioning Service (APPS), Canadian Spatial Reference System Precise Point Positioning (CSRS-PPP), GNSS Analysis and Positioning Software (GAPS) and magicPPP - Precise Point Positioning Solution (magicGNSS). On the basis of acquired results of measurements, it can be concluded that at least two-hour long measurements allow acquiring an absolute position with an accuracy of 2-4 cm. An evaluation of the impact on the accuracy of simultaneous positioning of three points test network on the change of the horizontal distance and the relative height difference between measured triangle vertices was also conducted. Distances and relative height differences between points of the triangular test network measured with a laser station Leica TDRA6000 were adopted as references. The analyses of results show that at least two hours long measurement sessions can be used to determine the horizontal distance or the difference in height with an accuracy of 1-2 cm. Rapid products employed in calculations conducted with PPP technique reached the accuracy of determining coordinates on a close level as in elaborations which employ Final products.

  8. An epistemology of patient safety research: a framework for study design and interpretation. Part 3. End points and measurement.

    PubMed

    Brown, C; Hofer, T; Johal, A; Thomson, R; Nicholl, J; Franklin, B D; Lilford, R J

    2008-06-01

    This article builds on the previous two articles in this series, which focused on an evaluation framework and study designs for patient safety research. The current article focuses on what to measure as evidence of safety and how these measurements can be undertaken. It considers four different end points, highlighting their methodological advantages and disadvantages: patient outcomes, fidelity, intervening variables and clinical error. The choice of end point depends on the nature of the intervention being evaluated and the patient safety problem it has been designed to address. This paper also discusses the different methods of measuring error, reviewing best practice and paying particular attention to case note review. Two key issues with any method of data collection are ensuring construct validity and reliability. Since no end point or method of data collection is infallible, the present authors advocate the use of multiple end points and methods where feasible.

  9. A metagenomic study of methanotrophic microorganisms in Coal Oil Point seep sediments

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Methane oxidizing prokaryotes in marine sediments are believed to function as a methane filter reducing the oceanic contribution to the global methane emission. In the anoxic parts of the sediments, oxidation of methane is accomplished by anaerobic methanotrophic archaea (ANME) living in syntrophy with sulphate reducing bacteria. This anaerobic oxidation of methane is assumed to be a coupling of reversed methanogenesis and dissimilatory sulphate reduction. Where oxygen is available aerobic methanotrophs take part in methane oxidation. In this study, we used metagenomics to characterize the taxonomic and metabolic potential for methane oxidation at the Tonya seep in the Coal Oil Point area, California. Two metagenomes from different sediment depth horizons (0-4 cm and 10-15 cm below sea floor) were sequenced by 454 technology. The metagenomes were analysed to characterize the distribution of aerobic and anaerobic methanotrophic taxa at the two sediment depths. To gain insight into the metabolic potential the metagenomes were searched for marker genes associated with methane oxidation. Results Blast searches followed by taxonomic binning in MEGAN revealed aerobic methanotrophs of the genus Methylococcus to be overrepresented in the 0-4 cm metagenome compared to the 10-15 cm metagenome. In the 10-15 cm metagenome, ANME of the ANME-1 clade, were identified as the most abundant methanotrophic taxon with 8.6% of the reads. Searches for particulate methane monooxygenase (pmoA) and methyl-coenzyme M reductase (mcrA), marker genes for aerobic and anaerobic oxidation of methane respectively, identified pmoA in the 0-4 cm metagenome as Methylococcaceae related. The mcrA reads from the 10-15 cm horizon were all classified as originating from the ANME-1 clade. Conclusions Most of the taxa detected were present in both metagenomes and differences in community structure and corresponding metabolic potential between the two samples were mainly due to abundance

  10. Water Treatment Plant Operation. Volume II. A Field Study Training Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Univ., Sacramento. School of Engineering.

    The purpose of this water treatment field study training program is to: (1) develop new qualified water treatment plant operators; (2) expand the abilities of existing operators, permitting better service both to employers and public; and (3) prepare operators for civil service and certification examinations (examinations administered by…

  11. Water Treatment Plant Operation Volume 2. A Field Study Training Program. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Univ., Sacramento. School of Engineering.

    The purpose of this water treatment field study training program is to: (1) develop new qualified water treatment plant operators; (2) expand the abilities of existing operators, permitting better service both to employers and public; and (3) prepare operators for civil service and certification examinations (examinations administered by…

  12. Water Treatment Plant Operation. Volume I. A Field Study Training Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Univ., Sacramento. School of Engineering.

    The purpose of this water treatment field study training program is to: (1) develop new qualified water treatment plant operators; (2) expand the abilities of existing operators, permitting better service both to employers and public; and (3) prepare operators for civil service and certification examinations (examinations administered by…

  13. Operation of Wastewater Treatment Plants. Volume 1. A Field Study Training Program. Third Edition. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Univ., Sacramento. Dept. of Civil Engineering.

    The purpose of this wastewater treatment field study training program is to: (1) develop new qualified wastewater treatment plant operators; (2) expand the abilities of existing operators, permitting better service both to employers and public; and (3) prepare operators for civil service and certification examinations (examinations administered by…

  14. Protocol and standard operating procedures for common use in a worldwide multicenter study on reference values.

    PubMed

    Ozarda, Yesim; Ichihara, Kiyoshi; Barth, Julian H; Klee, George

    2013-05-01

    The reference intervals (RIs) given in laboratory reports have an important role in aiding clinicians in interpreting test results in reference to values of healthy populations. In this report, we present a proposed protocol and standard operating procedures (SOPs) for common use in conducting multicenter RI studies on a national or international scale. The protocols and consensus on their contents were refined through discussions in recent C-RIDL meetings. The protocol describes in detail (1) the scheme and organization of the study, (2) the target population, inclusion/exclusion criteria, ethnicity, and sample size, (3) health status questionnaire, (4) target analytes, (5) blood collection, (6) sample processing and storage, (7) assays, (8) cross-check testing, (9) ethics, (10) data analyses, and (11) reporting of results. In addition, the protocol proposes the common measurement of a panel of sera when no standard materials exist for harmonization of test results. It also describes the requirements of the central laboratory, including the method of cross-check testing between the central laboratory of each country and local laboratories. This protocol and the SOPs remain largely exploratory and may require a reevaluation from the practical point of view after their implementation in the ongoing worldwide study. The paper is mainly intended to be a basis for discussion in the scientific community.

  15. Using Divertor Strike Point Splitting to Study Plasma Response and Its Sensitivity to Equilibrium Uncertainties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, J. S.; Orlov, D. M.; Moyer, R. A.; Bykov, I.; Evans, T. E.; Wu, W.; Lyons, B. C.; Sugiyama, L. E.

    2016-10-01

    Magnetic field perturbations (RMPs) split the strike points in divertor tokamaks. This splitting is measured using fast imaging of filtered visible light from the divertor. We compare the observed splitting during n=3 RMP experiments to vacuum and plasma response modeling to determine if the measured splitting provides a sensitive diagnostic for the plasma response to the RMP. We also investigate the sensitivity of the computed plasma response to uncertainties in the initial 2D equilibrium. Strike point splitting was also observed in ELMing H-mode without the RMP, possibly due to n=1 error- and error-field correction fields. We compare the measured splitting during ELMs to linear plasma response modeling of the divertor footprints, and to nonlinear M3D ELM simulations. Work supported by U.S. DOE under Grant Numbers DE-FG02-07ER54917, DE-FG02-05ER54809.

  16. A comparative study of artificial intelligent-based maximum power point tracking for photovoltaic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hussain Mutlag, Ammar; Mohamed, Azah; Shareef, Hussain

    2016-03-01

    Maximum power point tracking (MPPT) is normally required to improve the performance of photovoltaic (PV) systems. This paper presents artificial intelligent-based maximum power point tracking (AI-MPPT) by considering three artificial intelligent techniques, namely, artificial neural network (ANN), adaptive neuro fuzzy inference system with seven triangular fuzzy sets (7-tri), and adaptive neuro fuzzy inference system with seven gbell fuzzy sets. The AI-MPPT is designed for the 25 SolarTIFSTF-120P6 PV panels, with the capacity of 3 kW peak. A complete PV system is modelled using 300,000 data samples and simulated in the MATLAB/SIMULINK. The AI-MPPT has been tested under real environmental conditions for two days from 8 am to 18 pm. The results showed that the ANN based MPPT gives the most accurate performance and then followed by the 7-tri-based MPPT.

  17. A study on the validity of the point-particle model for particle-turbulence interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhongzhen; Prosperetti, Andrea

    2002-11-01

    The point-particle model, widely used in simulations of particle-turbulence interaction, is justified when the particle size is smaller than or comparable to the Kolmogorov scale. The precise limits of validity of the approximation and the manner in which errors accrue when the particle size increases are not well known. In the present work, direct simulations are conducted for a single finite-size particle suspended in a decaying homogeneous turbulent flow generated with a spectral code as an intial condition. The simulations are conducted by means of the PHYSALIS method. The trajectories of finite-size and point particles are compared as the particle radius is increased above the Kolmogorov scale for different Stokes numbers.

  18. Statistical approach towards point sources of groundwater pollution with tetrachloroethylene: a field study.

    PubMed

    Kido, K; Magara, Y; Furuichi, T; Ikeda, M

    1989-03-01

    Tetrachloroethylene contamination of well water occurred in a primarily residential area. To search for point source(s) of tetrachloroethylene contamination, 91 water samples were collected on three separate occasions from 41 shallow wells scattered in the areas. Three methods of groundwater level analysis (limited to 30 wells), cluster analysis of water quality indicators and contour drawing of tetrachloroethylene concentrations were applied. The former two analyses showed that the pollution took place in aquifers of two terraces out of the three in the polluted area. The contour mapping demonstrated the presence of three spots of suspected pollution sources as the estimated points of highest tetrachloroethylene concentrations. The available information suggested the existence of a facility with possible use of tetrachloroethylene in the past.

  19. Intra-operative probe for brain cancer: feasibility study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vu Thi, M. H.; Charon, Y.; Duval, M. A.; Lefebvre, F.; Menard, L.; Pitre, S.; Pinot, L.; Siebert, R.

    2007-07-01

    The present work aims a new medical probe for surgeons devoted to brain cancers, in particular glioblastoma multiforme. Within the last years, our group has started the development of a new intra-operative beta imaging probe. More recently, we took an alternative approach for the same application: a fluorescence probe. In both cases the purpose is to differentiate normal from tumor brain tissue. In a first step, we developed set-ups capable to measure autofluorescence. They are based on a dedicated epi-fluorescence design and on specific fiber optic probes. Relative signal amplitude, spectral shape and fluorescence lifetime measurements are foreseen to distinguish normal and cancer tissue by analyzing fluorophores like NADH, lipopigments and porphyrines. The autofluorescence spectra are recorded in the 460-640 nm range with a low resolution spectrometer. For lifetime measurements a fast detector (APD) is used together with a TCSPC-carte. Intrinsic wavelength- and time-resolutions are a few nm and 200 ps, respectively. Different samples have been analyzed to validate our new detection system and to allow a first configuration of our medical fluorescence probe. First results from the tissue measurements are shown.

  20. Modeling the operational risk in Iranian commercial banks: case study of a private bank

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Momen, Omid; Kimiagari, Alimohammad; Noorbakhsh, Eaman

    2012-08-01

    The Basel Committee on Banking Supervision from the Bank for International Settlement classifies banking risks into three main categories including credit risk, market risk, and operational risk. The focus of this study is on the operational risk measurement in Iranian banks. Therefore, issues arising when trying to implement operational risk models in Iran are discussed, and then, some solutions are recommended. Moreover, all steps of operational risk measurement based on Loss Distribution Approach with Iran's specific modifications are presented. We employed the approach of this study to model the operational risk of an Iranian private bank. The results are quite reasonable, comparing the scale of bank and other risk categories.

  1. Satellite Power Systems (SPS) concept definition study. Volume 4: SPS point design definition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanley, G.

    1978-01-01

    The satellite power systems point design concept is described. The concept definition includes satellite, ground and space systems, and their relationships. Emphasis is placed on the definition of the GaAlAs photovoltaic satellite system. The major subsystems of the satellite system including power conversion, power distribution and control, microwave, attitude control and stationkeeping, thermal control, structures, and information management and control are discussed.

  2. An exploratory study of Yang-Mills three-point functions at non-zero temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huber, Markus Q.

    2017-03-01

    Results for three-point functions of Landau gauge Yang-Mills theory at non-vanishing temperature are presented and compared to lattice results. It is found that the three-gluon vertex is enhanced for temperatures below the phase transition. At very low momenta it becomes negative for all temperatures. Furthermore, truncation effects in functional equations are discussed at the example of three-dimensional Yang-Mills theory for which a self-contained solution is presented.

  3. Naval Air Station Cubi Point: A ’Hot Turnover’? A Management Case Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-09-01

    Subic Bay Metropolitan Authority ( SBMA ) chief in the next administration. Gordon’s adamant stance on eliminating AFP presence in Subic would run...initially resolved the struggle over military versus commercial use of the facility by giving the Subic Bay Metropolitan Authority ( SBMA ), headed by Olongapo...would be no housing for military families at Cubi Point -- a concession to SBMA Chairman Gordon. Ramp space at the airfield was divided between the

  4. Adhesion of leukocytes under oscillating stagnation point conditions: a numerical study.

    PubMed

    Walker, P G; Alshorman, A A; Westwood, S; David, T

    2002-01-01

    Leukocyte recruitment from blood to the endothelium plays an important role in atherosclerotic plaque formation. Cells show a primary and secondary adhesive process with primary bonds responsible for capture and rolling and secondary bonds for arrest. Our objective was to investigate the role played by this process on the adhesion of leukocytes in complex flow. Cells were modelled as rigid spheres with spring like adhesion molecules which formed bonds with endothelial receptors. Models of bond kinetics and Newton's laws of motion were solved numerically to determine cell motion. Fluid force was obtained from the local shear rate obtained from a CFD simulation of the flow over a backward facing step.In stagnation point flow the shear rate near the stagnation point has a large gradient such that adherent cells in this region roll to a high shear region preventing permanent adhesion. This is enhanced if a small time dependent perturbation is imposed upon the stagnation point. For lower shear rates the cell rolling velocity may be such that secondary bonds have time to form. These bonds resist the lower fluid forces and consequently there is a relatively large permanent adhesion region.

  5. Study of the ST2 model of water close to the liquid-liquid critical point.

    PubMed

    Sciortino, Francesco; Saika-Voivod, Ivan; Poole, Peter H

    2011-11-28

    We perform successive umbrella sampling grand canonical Monte Carlo computer simulations of the original ST2 model of water in the vicinity of the proposed liquid-liquid critical point, at temperatures above and below the critical temperature. Our results support the previous work of Y. Liu, A. Z. Panagiotopoulos and P. G. Debenedetti [J. Chem. Phys., 2009, 131, 104508], who provided evidence for the existence and location of the critical point for ST2 using the Ewald method to evaluate the long-range forces. Our results therefore demonstrate the robustness of the evidence for critical behavior with respect to the treatment of the electrostatic interactions. In addition, we verify that the liquid is equilibrated at all densities on the Monte Carlo time scale of our simulations, and also that there is no indication of crystal formation during our runs. These findings demonstrate that the processes of liquid-state relaxation and crystal nucleation are well separated in time. Therefore, the bimodal shape of the density of states, and hence the critical point itself, is a purely liquid-state phenomenon that is distinct from the crystal-liquid transition.

  6. Child Nutrition Program Operations Study: First Year Report Executive Summary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    St. Pierre, Robert; And Others

    Summarizing the first year report of a multi-year study of the Food and Nutrition Service's (Department of Agriculture) Child Nutrition Programs, this report describes the programs and methods of the study. Data were collected through telephone interviews with states and School Food Authorities (SFAs) between 1987 and 1992. Findings from 1987-1988…

  7. [Studies on the cutting ability of dental diamond points--the trial manufacture of the cutting test apparatus (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Miyairi, H; Nagai, M; Muramatsu, A

    1978-10-01

    Diamond points and tungstencarbite burs are used as the dental cutting tools for many appliance accordingly with the many purpose of used positions. Notwithstanding that the dental cutting tools have been usually applied for many purpose of dental treatment, the paper on these studies have scarcely been reported. In this studies the test of dental cutting tools curried out using the diamond points and examined these characteristics. As the problems on the cutting tests are the push load of cutting tools and the cutting quantities. This studies tried to make the test apparatus for the cutting test of dental diamond points considering to dental treatments. The glass plates used for photograph are used for cutting materials supposing to the enamel properties of teeth and the cutting tests put into practice for the types of diamond points with different diameter. The cutting characteristics of the diamond points are examined with the using of the test results and are appreciated with the considering to the test apparatus.

  8. Operational procedure for computer program for design point characteristics of a gas generator or a turbojet lift engine for V/STOL applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krebs, R. P.

    1972-01-01

    The computer program described calculates the design-point characteristics of a gas generator or a turbojet lift engine for V/STOL applications. The program computes the dimensions and mass, as well as the thermodynamic performance of the model engine and its components. The program was written in FORTRAN 4 language. Provision has been made so that the program accepts input values in either SI Units or U.S. Customary Units. Each engine design-point calculation requires less than 0.5 second of 7094 computer time.

  9. US EPA Base Study Standard Operating Procedure for Building Recruiting

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Building recruiting for the BASE study is defined by a random selection of buildings within cities of population exceeding 100,000 inhabitants and located in selected climatic regions of the United States.

  10. Low level laser therapy with trigger points technique: a clinical study on 243 patients.

    PubMed

    Simunovic, Z

    1996-08-01

    Among the various methods of application techniques in low level laser therapy (LLLT) (HeNe 632.8 nm visible red or infrared 820-830 nm continuous wave and 904 nm pulsed emission) there are very promising "trigger points" (TPs), i.e., myofascial zones of particular sensibility and of highest projection of focal pain points, due to ischemic conditions. The effect of LLLT and the results obtained after clinical treatment of more than 200 patients (headaches and facial pain, skeletomuscular ailments, myogenic neck pain, shoulder and arm pain, epicondylitis humery, tenosynovitis, low back and radicular pain, Achilles tendinitis) to whom the "trigger points" were applied were better than we had ever expected. According to clinical parameters, it has been observed that the rigidity decreases, the mobility is restored (functional recovery), and the spontaneous or induced pain decreases or even disappears, by movement, too. LLLT improves local microcirculation and it can also improve oxygen supply to hypoxic cells in the TP areas and at the same time it can remove the collected waste products. The normalization of the microcirculation, obtained due to laser applications, interrupts the "circulus vitiosus" of the origin of the pain and its development (Melzak: muscular tension > pain > increased tension > increased pain, etc.). Results measured according to VAS/VRS/PTM: in acute pain, diminished more than 70%; in chronic pain more than 60%. Clinical effectiveness (success or failure) depends on the correctly applied energy dose--over/underdosage produces opposite, negative effects on cellular metabolism. We did not observe any negative effects on the human body and the use of analgesic drugs could be reduced or completely excluded. LLLT suggests that the laser beam can be used as monotherapy or as a supplementary treatment to other therapeutic procedures for pain treatment.

  11. Videotaped Feedback Method to Enhance Learning in Preclinical Operative Dentistry: An Experimental Study.

    PubMed

    Shah, Dipali Yogesh; Dadpe, Ashwini Manish; Kalra, Dheeraj Deepak; Garcha, Vikram P

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate if a videotaped feedback method enhanced teaching and learning outcomes in a preclinical operative laboratory setting for novice learners. In 2013, 60 dental students at a dental school in India were randomly assigned to two groups: control (n=30) and experimental (n=30). The control group prepared a Class II tooth preparation for amalgam after receiving a video demonstration of the exercise. The experimental group received the same video demonstration as the control group, but they also participated in a discussion and analysis of the control groups' videotaped performance and then performed the same exercise. The self-evaluation scores (SS) and examiner evaluation scores (ES) of the two groups were compared using the unpaired t-test. The experimental group also used a five-point Likert scale to rate each item on the feedback form. The means of SS (13.65±2.43) and ES (14.75±1.97) of the experimental group were statistically higher than the means of SS (11.55±2.09) and ES (11.60±1.82) of the control group. Most students in the experimental group perceived that this technique enhanced their learning experience. Within the limits of this study, the videotaped feedback using both ideal and non-ideal examples enhanced the students' performance.

  12. Transitivity analysis: a framework for the study of social values in the context of points of view.

    PubMed

    Tsirogianni, Stavroula; Sammut, Gordon

    2014-09-01

    Since its inception, psychology has struggled with issues of conceptualization and operationalization of social-psychological phenomena. The study of social values and points of view has been prone to such difficulties, despite a predominant concern of qualitative distinctions in the variability of both of these phenomena across different individuals and social groups. And while interest in both traces a common origin in Rokeach's studies of narrow mindedness, the study of both phenomena has since proceeded apace. In this study, we posit a renewed reconciliation between the two that is best served through a social-psychological model of points of view in terms of the values that inspire them. We draw on critical linguistics to propose a theoretical and methodological framework that can aid a systematic study of value structures as they take different forms and meanings through particular types of points of view. In five stages of qualitative analysis, the model deconstructs utterances into distinct terms that reveal a predominant perspective-taking style that can be utilized towards the categorization of different points of view, in terms of values that imbue them and that serve to provide them with a coherent angle of constructing a particular narrative.

  13. A study on the evaporation process with multiple point-sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jun, Sunghoon; Kim, Minseok; Kim, Suk Han; Lee, Moon Yong; Lee, Eung Ki

    2013-10-01

    In Organic Light Emitting Display (OLED) manufacturing processes, there is a need to enlarge the mother glass substrate to raise its productivity and enable OLED TV. The larger the size of the glass substrate, the more difficult it is to establish a uniform thickness profile of the organic thin-film layer in the vacuum evaporation process. In this paper, a multiple point-source evaporation process is proposed to deposit a uniform organic layer uniformly. Using this method, a uniformity of 3.75% was achieved along a 1,300 mm length of Gen. 5.5 glass substrate (1300 × 1500 mm2).

  14. A system study for satellite operation and control in next generation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nakayama, K.; Shigeta, T.; Gotanda, T.; Yamamoto, K.; Yokokawa, Y.

    1994-01-01

    Ever since the first satellite, ETS-1, in 1975, 28 NASDA satellites in total have been launched. With regards to satellite operations, NASDA has developed realtime TLM/CMD processing systems which could be commonly used for different types of satellite. Presently the third generation system is operational. Meanwhile, the recent trend of satellite operations is becoming more complicated, for example, CCSDS-adapted Satellites are emerging and computer technology is developing quite rapidly. Moreover, NASDA's role in satellite operations is changing from mainly Satellite Bus operations to experimental/whole satellite missions operations. Considering these circumstances, NASDA has initiated a study for the next generation system which is suitable for operations of future satellites keeping in mind the following viewpoints: (1) demands from mission support; (2) trend of satellite design; and (3) progress of computer environment. This is an interim report of the study.

  15. A Cross-Culture Study in Classification Operation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sintoovongse, Kingfa

    1978-01-01

    Investigates classification achievement in Thai and American children as well as children's classification achievement within cultures and across cultures at different age levels. One hundred and twenty American and Thai children from 6 to 11 years of age were randomly selected to participate in this study. (HM)

  16. Co-operative Education: Studies of Learning from Workplace Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munby, Hugh; Chin, Peter; Hutchinson, Nancy L.; Young, Jonathan

    Case studies were conducted of four female cooperative education (co-op) students who participated in two 4-month co-op placements in a veterinary clinic as part of a high school biology credit. Two graduate students gathered data onsite during two phases: an initial 2-month period that oriented the methods of the inquiry at the clinic to match…

  17. The Jigsaw Strategy: Co-operative Learning in Social Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, John; Lemon, Carolyn

    1988-01-01

    Discusses cooperative learning in the social studies classroom, highlighting the Jigsaw Strategy--a cooperative learning technique used to encourage students to interact, exchange ideas with peers, and gain confidence in the learning process. Presents an example of its use from a grade seven unit on Canada's native people. (GEA)

  18. Studies on swallowing in patients operated by subtotal laryngectomy.

    PubMed

    Dutkiewicz, J; Strek, P; Modrzejewski, M; Olszewski, E

    1999-01-01

    A series of 39 patients with problems of deglutition after total laryngectomy was studied by X-ray screening and manometry. The importance of the retropulsive movement of the tongue on the quality of deglutition has been demonstrated, as has the function of the superior oesophageal constrictor, the effect of a reduced relaxation time, and of the force of suction in reducing its quality.

  19. The activation of theory of mind network differentiates between point-to-self and point-to-other verbal jokes: an fMRI study.

    PubMed

    Feng, Shengchuang; Ye, Xiang; Mao, Lihua; Yue, Xiaodong

    2014-04-03

    The mind-reading hypothesis of humor and the inner eye theory of laughter both claim that readers' mentalizing about characters in jokes is essential for perceiving humor. On the basis of this notion, we hypothesized that point-to-other verbal jokes (in which one character said funny things about the other character) induced more theory of mind (ToM) processing than point-to-self verbal jokes (in which one character said funny things about him/herself to the other character). Our hypothesis was tested by comparing percent signal changes of these two conditions in six core components of the ToM neural network. A whole-brain analysis was also conducted. Results from both the region of interest (ROI) analysis and the whole-brain analysis show that theory of mind network is more activated when subjects read point-to-other jokes than when they read point-to-self jokes. Moreover, the whole-brain results provide support for the viewpoint that the right hemisphere, especially the right frontal lobe, is important in ToM and humor processing.

  20. Estimating Implementation and Operational Costs of an Integrated Tiered CD4 Service including Laboratory and Point of Care Testing in a Remote Health District in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Cassim, Naseem; Coetzee, Lindi M.; Schnippel, Kathryn; Glencross, Deborah K.

    2014-01-01

    Background An integrated tiered service delivery model (ITSDM) has been proposed to provide ‘full-coverage’ of CD4 services throughout South Africa. Five tiers are described, defined by testing volumes and number of referring health-facilities. These include: (1) Tier-1/decentralized point-of-care service (POC) in a single site; Tier-2/POC-hub servicing processing <30–40 samples from 8–10 health-clinics; Tier-3/Community laboratories servicing ∼50 health-clinics, processing <150 samples/day; high-volume centralized laboratories (Tier-4 and Tier-5) processing <300 or >600 samples/day and serving >100 or >200 health-clinics, respectively. The objective of this study was to establish costs of existing and ITSDM-tiers 1, 2 and 3 in a remote, under-serviced district in South Africa. Methods Historical health-facility workload volumes from the Pixley-ka-Seme district, and the total volumes of CD4 tests performed by the adjacent district referral CD4 laboratories, linked to locations of all referring clinics and related laboratory-to-result turn-around time (LTR-TAT) data, were extracted from the NHLS Corporate-Data-Warehouse for the period April-2012 to March-2013. Tiers were costed separately (as a cost-per-result) including equipment, staffing, reagents and test consumable costs. A one-way sensitivity analyses provided for changes in reagent price, test volumes and personnel time. Results The lowest cost-per-result was noted for the existing laboratory-based Tiers- 4 and 5 ($6.24 and $5.37 respectively), but with related increased LTR-TAT of >24–48 hours. Full service coverage with TAT <6-hours could be achieved with placement of twenty-seven Tier-1/POC or eight Tier-2/POC-hubs, at a cost-per-result of $32.32 and $15.88 respectively. A single district Tier-3 laboratory also ensured ‘full service coverage’ and <24 hour LTR-TAT for the district at $7.42 per-test. Conclusion Implementing a single Tier-3/community laboratory to extend and improve delivery

  1. In-situ electron paramagnetic resonance studies of paramagnetic point defects in superconducting microwave resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Shengke; Kopas, Cameron; Wagner, Brian; Queen, Daniel; Newman, N.

    2016-09-01

    The physical nature and concentration of paramagnetic point defects in the dielectrics of superconducting planar microwave resonators have been determined using in-situ electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy. To perform this work, the quality factor of parallel plate and stripline resonators was measured as a function of the magnitude of a magnetic-field applied parallel to the electrode surfaces. YBa2Cu3O7-δ thin film electrodes proved to be a preferred choice over Nb and MgB2 because they are readily available and have a small surface resistance (Rs) up to high temperatures (˜77 K) and magnetic fields (i.e., <1 T). Stripline resonators with a widely used high performance microwave dielectric, Co2+-doped Ba(Zn1/3Nb2/3)O3, are shown to have losses dominated by d-electron spin-excitations in exchange-coupled Co2+ point-defect clusters, even in the absence of an applied magnetic field. A significant enhanced microwave loss in stripline and parallel plate resonators is found to correlate with the presence of paramagnetic Mn2+ dopants in Ba(Zn1/3Ta2/3)O3 ceramics and dangling bond states in amorphous Si thin films, although the identification of the dominant loss mechanism(s) in these dielectrics requires further investigation.

  2. Randomized trial of trigger point acupuncture treatment for chronic shoulder pain: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Itoh, Kazunori; Saito, Shingo; Sahara, Shunsaku; Naitoh, Yuki; Imai, Kenji; Kitakoji, Hiroshi

    2014-04-01

    There is evidence for the efficacy of acupuncture treatment for chronic shoulder pain, but it remains unclear which acupuncture modes are most effective. We compared the effect of trigger point acupuncture (TrP), with that of sham (SH) acupuncture treatments, on pain and shoulder function in patients with chronic shoulder pain. The participants were 18 patients (15 women, 3 men; aged 42-65 years) with nonradiating shoulder pain for at least 6 months and normal neurological findings. The participants were randomized into two groups, each receiving five treatment sessions. The TrP group received treatment at trigger points for the muscle, while the other group received SH acupuncture treatment on the same muscle. Outcome measures were pain intensity (visual analogue scale, VAS) and shoulder function (Constant-Murley Score: CMS). After treatment, pain intensity between pretreatment and 5 weeks after TrP decreased significantly (p<0.001). Shoulder function also increased significantly between pretreatment and 5 weeks after TrP (p<0.001). A comparison using the area under the outcome curves demonstrated a significant difference between groups (p=0.024). Compared with SH acupuncture therapy, TrP therapy appears more effective for chronic shoulder pain.

  3. Fluid adsorption up to the critical point. Experimental study of a wetting fluid/solid interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Findenegg, G. H.; Löring, R.

    1984-10-01

    We have measured multilayer adsorption isotherms of propane on graphitized carbon black over a wide temperature range, corresponding to reduced temperatures T/Tc of the fluid from 0.7 to 1.004 and reduced densities ρ/ρc up to 1.4. Experimental isotherms of the surface excess concentration Γgs are analyzed in terms of the Frenkel-Halsey-Hill (FHH) model. The exponent n is somewhat less than 3 (2.55±0.30) and the amplitude parameter Δɛ/kT becomes nearly independent of temperature, up to T/Tc=0.98, when the simple one-step density profile of the original FHH model is replaced by a two-step profile, to account for the compression of the layer next to the solid substrate. Evidence for a compression of the liquid boundary layer comes from measurements of the surface excess concentration Γls at the liquid/substrate interface. Along the liquid-vapor coexistence curve, Γls0 diverges as T approaches Tc, in qualitative agreement with scaling law theory. The analogy of the present one-component fluid/solid-substrate interface near the critical point of the fluid, with a two-component liquid/vapor interface near the critical solution point of the liquid mixture is discussed.

  4. eLISA Telescope In-Field Pointing and Scattered Light Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Livas, Jeffrey C.; Sankar, Shannon R.

    2017-01-01

    The orbital motion of the three spacecraft that make up the eLISA observatory constellation causes long-arm line of sight variations of approximately +/- one degree over the course of a year. The baseline solution is to package the telescope, the optical bench, and the gravitational reference sensor (GRS) into an optical assembly at each end of the measurement arm, and then to articulate the assembly. An optical phase reference is exchanged between the moving optical benches with a single mode optical fiber (“backlink” fiber). An alternative solution, referred to as in-field pointing, embeds a steering mirror into the optical design, fixing the optical benches and eliminating the backlink fiber, but requiring the additional complication of a two-stage optical design for the telescope. We compare the scattered light performance of a realistic in-field pointing design with a baseline telescope design.This work was funded in part by NASA SAT grant 14-SAT14-0014.

  5. Space Operations Center, shuttle interaction study, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    The implication of using the Shuttle with the SOC, including constraints that the Shuttle places upon the SOC design is studied. The considerations involved in the use of the Shuttle as a part of the SOC concept, and the constraints to the SOC imposed by the Shuttle in its interactions with the SOC, and on the design or technical solutions which allow satisfactory accomplishment of the interactions are identified.

  6. Remotely Operated Vehicle (ROV) Reliability Study. Phase 1.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-12-01

    for long periods of time, becoming encrusted with coraline algae that covers both the shafts and their housings. Extra force is required to break...problems similar to those of coraline biofouling. [A study should be done to develop methods to prevent build up or to remove silts that can...in the final ROV assembly. 24 pq 1.8 Biofouling Build-up of Coraline Algae on Shafts and Seals The growth of certain coraline marine organisms of the

  7. Evaluating the Turning Points Curriculum: A Three-Year Study to Assess Parenting Knowledge in a Sample of Incarcerated Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Urban, Lynn S.; Burton, Barb

    2015-01-01

    The current study is an evaluation of the Turning Points parenting curriculum specially designed for use with incarcerated populations. The project combines intensive parent education with supervised offender mother/child visits in special family visiting rooms as well as ongoing offender support groups to help offender mothers become more…

  8. A repeated-measures study of recreational water exposure, non-point source pollution, and risk of illness

    EPA Science Inventory

    Discharge of stormwater runoff onto beaches is a major cause of beach closings and advisories in the United States. Prospective studies of recreational water quality and health have often been limited to two time points (baseline and follow-up). Little is known about the risk of ...

  9. The Impact of Providing Web-Based PowerPoint Slides as Study Guides in Undergraduate Business Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frank, Jonathan; Shaw, Lewis; Wilson, Elizabeth

    2009-01-01

    This study examines undergraduate business students' use of PowerPoint slides provided as a supplement to class attendance, textbook reading, and other traditional course resources. We survey students in 4 diverse (accounting, marketing, management, and information systems) lower-level undergraduate courses in which the instructor provided…

  10. Self-association of nicotinamide in aqueous solution: mass transport, freezing-point depression, and partition coefficient studies.

    PubMed

    Charman, W N; Lai, C S; Finnin, B C; Reed, B L

    1991-09-01

    The steady-state flux (SSF) of nicotinamide from an aqueous donor phase across a model Silastic membrane did not increase proportionally with increasing donor phase concentration. The suspected self-association of the drug in aqueous solution was evaluated by studying the concentration-dependent changes in (i) the molal osmotic coefficient of nicotinamide (freezing-point depression studies) and (ii) the partition coefficient between water and n-octanol. The freezing points of aqueous solutions of nicotinamide were measured and a plot of osmolality vs molality was nonlinear. The partition coefficient of nicotinamide, studied at 15, 25, and 32 degrees C, also decreased with increasing concentration of drug. Mathematical models describing dimerization and higher orders of association were applied to the data. The results indicated the involvement of higher orders of association and it was found that an isodesmic (step-association) model was an adequate description of the freezing-point depression and partition coefficient data. The association constant, K, ranged between 1.59 +/- 0.02 M-1 at the freezing point and 0.48 +/- 0.01 M-1 as estimated from the partition coefficient data at 32 degrees C. These models for the self-association of nicotinamide allowed estimation of the apparent concentration of "monomeric" nicotinamide in the donor phase solutions studied in the SSF experiments. When the SSF data were analyzed with regard to the concentration of monomeric nicotinamide in the donor phase, a relationship close to linearity was observed.

  11. Petition Requesting that the Administrator Object to Issuance of the Proposed Title V Operating Permit for the Suffolk County Bergen Point Sewage Treatement Plant

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This document may be of assistance in applying the Title V air operating permit regulations. This document is part of the Title V Petition Database available at www2.epa.gov/title-v-operating-permits/title-v-petition-database. Some documents in the database are a scanned or retyped version of a paper photocopy of the original. Although we have taken considerable effort to quality assure the documents, some may contain typographical errors. Contact the office that issued the document if you need a copy of the original.

  12. Order Responding to October 11, 2001 Petition Requesting the Administrator Object to Suffolk County Bergen Point Sewage Treatment Plant's Operating Permit

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This document may be of assistance in applying the Title V air operating permit regulations. This document is part of the Title V Petition Database available at www2.epa.gov/title-v-operating-permits/title-v-petition-database. Some documents in the database are a scanned or retyped version of a paper photocopy of the original. Although we have taken considerable effort to quality assure the documents, some may contain typographical errors. Contact the office that issued the document if you need a copy of the original.

  13. High-resolution Monte Carlo study of the multicritical point in the three-dimensional XXZ Heisenberg antiferromagnet.

    PubMed

    Hu, Siyan; Tsai, Shan-Ho; Landau, D P

    2014-03-01

    We use Monte Carlo simulations to study the XXZ Heisenberg antiferromagnet in a field in order to clearly determine the nature of the multicritical point. We use a hybrid sampling method with Metropolis and Wolff-cluster algorithms, along with histogram reweighting techniques. Staggered magnetization susceptibilities, Binder cumulants, and finite-size scaling are considered in an effort to detect a possible biconical phase. An analysis of the probability distribution of the magnetization allowed us to conclude that the multicritical point is bicritical and it is in the three-dimensional Heisenberg universality class.

  14. High-resolution Monte Carlo study of the multicritical point in the three-dimensional XXZ Heisenberg antiferromagnet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Siyan; Tsai, Shan-Ho; Landau, D. P.

    2014-03-01

    We use Monte Carlo simulations to study the XXZ Heisenberg antiferromagnet in a field in order to clearly determine the nature of the multicritical point. We use a hybrid sampling method with Metropolis and Wolff-cluster algorithms, along with histogram reweighting techniques. Staggered magnetization susceptibilities, Binder cumulants, and finite-size scaling are considered in an effort to detect a possible biconical phase. An analysis of the probability distribution of the magnetization allowed us to conclude that the multicritical point is bicritical and it is in the three-dimensional Heisenberg universality class.

  15. IUS/TUG Orbital Operations and Mission Support Study. Volume 1; Executive Summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The space transportation system (STS) is discussed which will include a propulsive stage that is carried into low earth orbit by the space shuttle. Data were accumulated from the analyses of various stage concepts, operating modes, and projected missions (space tug systems studies, growth stage studies, engine studies, and critical area studies). The foundation formulated by these studies aided in establishing a tentative two-phase approach for the extension of the STS operating regime beyond the space shuttle including plane changes, higher orbits, geosynchronous orbits and beyond. The orbital operations study, was conducted to provide the generation and analysis of operational plans, requirement, and concepts for the utilization of these vehicles. Primary emphasis was placed on methods and techniques to provide a sound technical approach to operations at reduced cost for the STS mission period.

  16. A quantitative study of 3D-scanning frequency and Δd of tracking points on the tooth surface

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hong; Lyu, Peijun; Sun, Yuchun; Wang, Yong; Liang, Xiaoyue

    2015-01-01

    Micro-movement of human jaws in the resting state might influence the accuracy of direct three-dimensional (3D) measurement. Providing a reference for sampling frequency settings of intraoral scanning systems to overcome this influence is important. In this study, we measured micro-movement, or change in distance (∆d), as the change in position of a single tracking point from one sampling time point to another in five human subjects. ∆d of tracking points on incisors at 7 sampling frequencies was judged against the clinical accuracy requirement to select proper sampling frequency settings. The curve equation was then fit quantitatively between ∆d median and the sampling frequency to predict the trend of ∆d with increasing f. The difference of ∆d among the subjects and the difference between upper and lower incisor feature points of the same subject were analyzed by a non-parametric test (α = 0.05). Significant differences of incisor feature points were noted among different subjects and between upper and lower jaws of the same subject (P < 0.01). Overall, ∆d decreased with increasing frequency. When the frequency was 60 Hz, ∆d nearly reached the clinical accuracy requirement. Frequencies higher than 60 Hz did not significantly decrease Δd further. PMID:26400112

  17. Operational procedure for computer program for design point characteristics of a compressed-air generator with through-flow combustor for V/STOL applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krebs, R. P.

    1971-01-01

    The computer program described in this report calculates the design-point characteristics of a compressed-air generator for use in V/STOL applications such as systems with a tip-turbine-driven lift fan. The program computes the dimensions and mass, as well as the thermodynamic performance of a model air generator configuration which involves a straight through-flow combustor. Physical and thermodynamic characteristics of the air generator components are also given. The program was written in FORTRAN IV language. Provision has been made so that the program will accept input values in either SI units or U.S. customary units. Each air generator design-point calculation requires about 1.5 seconds of 7094 computer time for execution.

  18. Racial and familial factors in otitis media. A point prevalence study on Easter Island.

    PubMed

    Goycoolea, H G; Goycoolea, M V; Farfan, C R

    1988-02-01

    Of the 249 children aged 5 to 9 years who live on Easter Island, 220 underwent complete otolaryngological evaluation. Twenty children were found to have otitis media (acute, chronic, or both). Three of these children were genetically impure natives, nine were of mixed parentage, and eight were "continentals" (with a birth origin other than the island). None of the genetically pure natives had otitis media. Our data show that, in a population with all factors in common except for familial and racial background, the point prevalence of otitis media is higher in children of mixed or continental origin than in genetically pure native children. The high prevalence of otitis media in children of mixed parentage and in one particular family of European ancestry suggests the presence of intrinsic or pronicity factors that are seemingly transmissible.

  19. Turning points in international labor migration: a case study of Thailand.

    PubMed

    Vasuprasat, P

    1994-01-01

    "This article describes the dynamics of the structural transformation of the Thai economy, labor migration and direct foreign investment and proposes an econometric model to explain the migration phenomenon. Though migration shifts have been significantly influenced by political factors such as the Gulf crisis and tensions with Saudi Arabia, economic factors such as the Thai government's liberalization of markets and the expansion of trade and direct foreign investment have contributed to changes in labor market needs. The economic conditions of a shift from net exporter to net importer for labor are posited in the model. The empirical results reveal a turning point in labor migration from Thailand and also confirm the contribution of commodity export in place of labor export in creating employment and income."

  20. Modelling a point absorbing wave energy converter by the equivalent electric circuit theory: A feasibility study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hai, Ling; Svensson, Olle; Isberg, Jan; Leijon, Mats

    2015-04-01

    There is a need to have a reliable tool to quickly assess wave energy converters (WECs). This paper explores whether it is possible to apply the equivalent electric circuit theory as an evaluation tool for point absorbing WEC system modelling. The circuits were developed starting from the force analysis, in which the hydrodynamic, mechanical, and electrical parameters were expressed by electrical components. A methodology on how to determine the parameters for electrical components has been explained. It is found that by using a multimeter, forces in the connection line and the absorbed electric power can be simulated and read directly from the electric circuit model. Finally, the circuit model has been validated against the full scale offshore experiment. The results indicated that the captured power could be predicted rather accurately and the line force could be estimated accurately near the designed working condition of the WEC.