Science.gov

Sample records for operating point studies

  1. Space tug point design study. Volume 2: Operations, performance and requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    A design study to determine the configuration and characteristics of a space tug was conducted. Among the subjects analyzed in the study are: (1) flight and ground operations, (2) vehicle flight performance and performance enhancement techniques, (3) flight requirements, (4) basic design criteria, and (5) functional and procedural interface requirements between the tug and other systems.

  2. Sensitivity and alternative operating point studies on a high charge CW FEL injector test stand at CEBAF

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, H.; Kehne, D.; Benson, S.

    1995-12-31

    A high charge CW FEL injector test stand is being built at CEBAF based on a 500 kV DC laser gun, a 1500 MHz room-temperature buncher, and a high-gradient ({approx}10 MV/m) CEBAF cryounit containing two 1500 MHz CEBAF SRF cavities. Space-charge-dominated beam dynamics simulations show that this injector should be an excellent high-brightness electron beam source for CW UV FELs if the nominal parameters assigned to each component of the system are experimentally achieved. Extensive sensitivity and alternative operating point studies have been conducted numerically to establish tolerances on the parameters of various injector system components. The consequences of degraded injector performance, due to failure to establish and/or maintain the nominal system design parameters, on the performance of the main accelerator and the FEL itself are discussed.

  3. A study on the influence of operating circuit on the position of emission point of fluorescent lamp

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uetsuki, Tadao; Genba, Yuki; Kanda, Takashi

    2009-10-01

    High efficiency fluorescent lamp systems driven by high frequency are very popular for general lighting. Therefore it is very beneficial to be able to predict the lamp's life before the lamp dying, because people can buy a new lamp just before the lamp dying and need not have stocks. In order to judge the lifetime of a lamp it is very useful to know where the emission point is on the electrode filament. With regard to a method for grasping the emission point, it has been reported that the distance from the emission point to the end of the filament can be calculated by measuring the voltage across the filament and the currents flowing in both ends of the filament. The lamp's life can be predicted by grasping the movement of the emission point with operating time. Therefore it is very important to confirm whether the movement of the emission point changes or not when the operating circuit is changed. The authors investigated the difference in the way the emission points moved for two lamp systems which are very popular. One system had an electronic ballast having an auxiliary power source for the heating cathode. Another system had an electronic ballast with no power source, but with a capacitor connected to the lamp in parallel. In this presentation these measurement results will be reported.

  4. Characterizations of fixed points of quantum operations

    SciTech Connect

    Li Yuan

    2011-05-15

    Let {phi}{sub A} be a general quantum operation. An operator B is said to be a fixed point of {phi}{sub A}, if {phi}{sub A}(B)=B. In this note, we shall show conditions under which B, a fixed point {phi}{sub A}, implies that B is compatible with the operation element of {phi}{sub A}. In particular, we offer an extension of the generalized Lueders theorem.

  5. Strategic operating indicators point to equity growth.

    PubMed

    Cleverley, W O

    1988-07-01

    As healthcare managers become more business-like in their behavior, they are becoming increasingly concerned with the equity growth rate of their organizations. Strong equity growth means a financially healthy organization. Equity growth can be expressed as a product of five financial ratios--the most important ratio being the operating margin. Improvements in operating margins will lead to improvements in equity growth. Thirty indicators, called strategic operating indicators, have been developed to monitor operating margins. These indicators, when compared with values from other peer groups, can help point to strategies for improvement of operating margins, and hence equity growth.

  6. Linearization: Students Forget the Operating Point

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roubal, J.; Husek, P.; Stecha, J.

    2010-01-01

    Linearization is a standard part of modeling and control design theory for a class of nonlinear dynamical systems taught in basic undergraduate courses. Although linearization is a straight-line methodology, it is not applied correctly by many students since they often forget to keep the operating point in mind. This paper explains the topic and…

  7. GLAS Spacecraft Pointing Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Born, George H.; Gold, Kenn; Ondrey, Michael; Kubitschek, Dan; Axelrad, Penina; Komjathy, Attila

    1998-01-01

    Science requirements for the GLAS mission demand that the laser altimeter be pointed to within 50 m of the location of the previous repeat ground track. The satellite will be flown in a repeat orbit of 182 days. Operationally, the required pointing information will be determined on the ground using the nominal ground track, to which pointing is desired, and the current propagated orbit of the satellite as inputs to the roll computation algorithm developed by CCAR. The roll profile will be used to generate a set of fit coefficients which can be uploaded on a daily basis and used by the on-board attitude control system. In addition, an algorithm has been developed for computation of the associated command quaternions which will be necessary when pointing at targets of opportunity. It may be desirable in the future to perform the roll calculation in an autonomous real-time mode on-board the spacecraft. GPS can provide near real-time tracking of the satellite, and the nominal ground track can be stored in the on-board computer. It will be necessary to choose the spacing of this nominal ground track to meet storage requirements in the on-board environment. Several methods for generating the roll profile from a sparse reference ground track are presented.

  8. A study to assess the influence of interprofessional point of care simulation training on safety culture in the operating theatre environment of a university teaching hospital.

    PubMed

    Hinde, Theresa; Gale, Thomas; Anderson, Ian; Roberts, Martin; Sice, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Interprofessional point of care or in situ simulation is used as a training tool in our operating theatre directorate with the aim of improving crisis behaviours. This study aimed to assess the impact of interprofessional point of care simulation on the safety culture of operating theatres. A validated Safety Attitude Questionnaire was administered to staff members before each simulation scenario and then re-administered to the same staff members after 6-12 months. Pre- and post-training Safety Attitude Questionnaire-Operating Room (SAQ-OR) scores were compared using paired sample t-tests. Analysis revealed a statistically significant perceived improvement in both safety (p < 0.001) and teamwork (p = 0.013) climate scores (components of safety culture) 6-12 months after interprofessional simulation training. A growing body of literature suggests that a positive safety culture is associated with improved patient outcomes. Our study supports the implementation of point of care simulation as a useful intervention to improve safety culture in theatres. PMID:26854195

  9. A study to assess the influence of interprofessional point of care simulation training on safety culture in the operating theatre environment of a university teaching hospital.

    PubMed

    Hinde, Theresa; Gale, Thomas; Anderson, Ian; Roberts, Martin; Sice, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Interprofessional point of care or in situ simulation is used as a training tool in our operating theatre directorate with the aim of improving crisis behaviours. This study aimed to assess the impact of interprofessional point of care simulation on the safety culture of operating theatres. A validated Safety Attitude Questionnaire was administered to staff members before each simulation scenario and then re-administered to the same staff members after 6-12 months. Pre- and post-training Safety Attitude Questionnaire-Operating Room (SAQ-OR) scores were compared using paired sample t-tests. Analysis revealed a statistically significant perceived improvement in both safety (p < 0.001) and teamwork (p = 0.013) climate scores (components of safety culture) 6-12 months after interprofessional simulation training. A growing body of literature suggests that a positive safety culture is associated with improved patient outcomes. Our study supports the implementation of point of care simulation as a useful intervention to improve safety culture in theatres.

  10. Improving Small Signal Stability through Operating Point Adjustment

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Zhenyu; Zhou, Ning; Tuffner, Francis K.; Chen, Yousu; Trudnowski, Daniel J.; Mittelstadt, William; Hauer, John F.; Dagle, Jeffery E.

    2010-09-30

    ModeMeter techniques for real-time small signal stability monitoring continue to mature, and more and more phasor measurements are available in power systems. It has come to the stage to bring modal information into real-time power system operation. This paper proposes to establish a procedure for Modal Analysis for Grid Operations (MANGO). Complementary to PSS’s and other traditional modulation-based control, MANGO aims to provide suggestions such as increasing generation or decreasing load for operators to mitigate low-frequency oscillations. Different from modulation-based control, the MANGO procedure proactively maintains adequate damping for all time, instead of reacting to disturbances when they occur. Effect of operating points on small signal stability is presented in this paper. Implementation with existing operating procedures is discussed. Several approaches for modal sensitivity estimation are investigated to associate modal damping and operating parameters. The effectiveness of the MANGO procedure is confirmed through simulation studies of several test systems.

  11. Operational equations for the five-point rectangle

    SciTech Connect

    Silver, G.L.

    1993-09-15

    Two operational polynomials are demonstrated for the four-point rectangle with center point. The equations are exact on the points and the surfaces they describe ordinarily fit known monotonic surfaces better tan the standard five-point equation, as judged by the L{sub 2} norm test. Equations for fitting the five-point rectangle by sines and cosines are presented.

  12. 47 CFR 101.137 - Interconnection of private operational fixed point-to-point microwave stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Interconnection of private operational fixed point-to-point microwave stations. 101.137 Section 101.137 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS....137 Interconnection of private operational fixed point-to-point microwave stations....

  13. Engineering to Control Noise, Loading, and Optimal Operating Points

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell R. Swartz

    2000-11-12

    Successful engineering of low-energy nuclear systems requires control of noise, loading, and optimum operating point (OOP) manifolds. The latter result from the biphasic system response of low-energy nuclear reaction (LENR)/cold fusion systems, and their ash production rate, to input electrical power. Knowledge of the optimal operating point manifold can improve the reproducibility and efficacy of these systems in several ways. Improved control of noise, loading, and peak production rates is available through the study, and use, of OOP manifolds. Engineering of systems toward the OOP-manifold drive-point peak may, with inclusion of geometric factors, permit more accurate uniform determinations of the calibrated activity of these materials/systems.

  14. On the operating point of cortical computation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Robert; Stimberg, Marcel; Wimmer, Klaus; Obermayer, Klaus

    2010-06-01

    In this paper, we consider a class of network models of Hodgkin-Huxley type neurons arranged according to a biologically plausible two-dimensional topographic orientation preference map, as found in primary visual cortex (V1). We systematically vary the strength of the recurrent excitation and inhibition relative to the strength of the afferent input in order to characterize different operating regimes of the network. We then compare the map-location dependence of the tuning in the networks with different parametrizations with the neuronal tuning measured in cat V1 in vivo. By considering the tuning of neuronal dynamic and state variables, conductances and membrane potential respectively, our quantitative analysis is able to constrain the operating regime of V1: The data provide strong evidence for a network, in which the afferent input is dominated by strong, balanced contributions of recurrent excitation and inhibition, operating in vivo. Interestingly, this recurrent regime is close to a regime of "instability", characterized by strong, self-sustained activity. The firing rate of neurons in the best-fitting model network is therefore particularly sensitive to small modulations of model parameters, possibly one of the functional benefits of this particular operating regime.

  15. Imaging study on acupuncture points

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, X. H.; Zhang, X. Y.; Liu, C. L.; Dang, R. S.; Ando, M.; Sugiyama, H.; Chen, H. S.; Ding, G. H.

    2009-09-01

    The topographic structures of acupuncture points were investigated by using the synchrotron radiation based Dark Field Image (DFI) method. Four following acupuncture points were studied: Sanyinjiao, Neiguan, Zusanli and Tianshu. We have found that at acupuncture point regions there exists the accumulation of micro-vessels. The images taken in the surrounding tissue out of the acupuncture points do not show such kind of structure. It is the first time to reveal directly the specific structure of acupuncture points by X-ray imaging.

  16. 47 CFR 101.137 - Interconnection of private operational fixed point-to-point microwave stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... point-to-point microwave stations. 101.137 Section 101.137 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES FIXED MICROWAVE SERVICES Technical Standards § 101.137 Interconnection of private operational fixed point-to-point microwave stations....

  17. 47 CFR 101.137 - Interconnection of private operational fixed point-to-point microwave stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... point-to-point microwave stations. 101.137 Section 101.137 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES FIXED MICROWAVE SERVICES Technical Standards § 101.137 Interconnection of private operational fixed point-to-point microwave stations....

  18. 47 CFR 101.137 - Interconnection of private operational fixed point-to-point microwave stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... point-to-point microwave stations. 101.137 Section 101.137 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES FIXED MICROWAVE SERVICES Technical Standards § 101.137 Interconnection of private operational fixed point-to-point microwave stations....

  19. 47 CFR 101.137 - Interconnection of private operational fixed point-to-point microwave stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... point-to-point microwave stations. 101.137 Section 101.137 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES FIXED MICROWAVE SERVICES Technical Standards § 101.137 Interconnection of private operational fixed point-to-point microwave stations....

  20. Automated design of image operators that detect interest points.

    PubMed

    Trujillo, Leonardo; Olague, Gustavo

    2008-01-01

    This work describes how evolutionary computation can be used to synthesize low-level image operators that detect interesting points on digital images. Interest point detection is an essential part of many modern computer vision systems that solve tasks such as object recognition, stereo correspondence, and image indexing, to name but a few. The design of the specialized operators is posed as an optimization/search problem that is solved with genetic programming (GP), a strategy still mostly unexplored by the computer vision community. The proposed approach automatically synthesizes operators that are competitive with state-of-the-art designs, taking into account an operator's geometric stability and the global separability of detected points during fitness evaluation. The GP search space is defined using simple primitive operations that are commonly found in point detectors proposed by the vision community. The experiments described in this paper extend previous results (Trujillo and Olague, 2006a,b) by presenting 15 new operators that were synthesized through the GP-based search. Some of the synthesized operators can be regarded as improved manmade designs because they employ well-known image processing techniques and achieve highly competitive performance. On the other hand, since the GP search also generates what can be considered as unconventional operators for point detection, these results provide a new perspective to feature extraction research.

  1. Automated design of image operators that detect interest points.

    PubMed

    Trujillo, Leonardo; Olague, Gustavo

    2008-01-01

    This work describes how evolutionary computation can be used to synthesize low-level image operators that detect interesting points on digital images. Interest point detection is an essential part of many modern computer vision systems that solve tasks such as object recognition, stereo correspondence, and image indexing, to name but a few. The design of the specialized operators is posed as an optimization/search problem that is solved with genetic programming (GP), a strategy still mostly unexplored by the computer vision community. The proposed approach automatically synthesizes operators that are competitive with state-of-the-art designs, taking into account an operator's geometric stability and the global separability of detected points during fitness evaluation. The GP search space is defined using simple primitive operations that are commonly found in point detectors proposed by the vision community. The experiments described in this paper extend previous results (Trujillo and Olague, 2006a,b) by presenting 15 new operators that were synthesized through the GP-based search. Some of the synthesized operators can be regarded as improved manmade designs because they employ well-known image processing techniques and achieve highly competitive performance. On the other hand, since the GP search also generates what can be considered as unconventional operators for point detection, these results provide a new perspective to feature extraction research. PMID:19053496

  2. On Motivating Operations at the Point of Online Purchase Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fagerstrom, Asle; Arntzen, Erik

    2013-01-01

    Consumer behavior analysis can be applied over a wide range of economic topics in which the main focus is the contingencies that influence the behavior of the economic agent. This paper provides an overview on the work that has been done on the impact from motivating operations at the point of online purchase situation. Motivating operations, a…

  3. Properties and Cycle Performance of Refrigerant Blends Operating Near and Above the Refrigerant Critical Point, Task 2: Air Conditioner System Study

    SciTech Connect

    Piotr A. Domanski; W. Vance Payne

    2002-10-31

    The main goal of this project was to investigate and compare the performance of an R410A air conditioner to that of an R22 air conditioner, with specific interest in performance at high ambient temperatures at which the condenser of the R410A system may be operating above the refrigerant's critical point. Part 1 of this project consisted of conducting comprehensive measurements of thermophysical for refrigerant R125 and refrigerant blends R410A and R507A and developing new equation of state formulations and mixture models for predicting thermophysical properties of HFC refrigerant blends. Part 2 of this project conducted performance measurements of split-system, 3-ton R22 and R410A residential air conditioners in the 80 to 135 F (27.8 to 57.2 C) outdoor temperature range and development of a system performance model. The performance data was used in preparing a beta version of EVAP-COND, a windows-based simulation package for predicting performance of finned-tube evaporators and condensers. The modeling portion of this project also included the formulation of a model for an air-conditioner equipped with a thermal expansion valve (TXV). Capacity and energy efficiency ratio (EER) were measured and compared. The R22 system's performance was measured over the outdoor ambient temperature range of 80 to 135 F (27.8 to 57.2 C). The same test range was planned for the R410A system. However, the compressor's safety system cut off the compressor at the 135.0 F (57.2 C) test temperature. The highest measurement on this system was at 130.0 F (54.4 C). Subsequently, a custom-manufactured R410A compressor with a disabled safety system and a more powerful motor was installed and performance was measured at outdoor temperatures up to 155.0 F (68.3 C). Both systems had similar capacity and EER performance at 82.0 F (27.8 C). The capacity and EER degradation of both systems were nearly linearly dependent with rising ambient outdoor ambient test temperatures. The performance

  4. Operations research study to implement HIV and syphilis point-of-care tests and assess client perceptions in a marginalised area of Lima, Peru.

    PubMed

    Flores, Elaine C; Lluque, Maria E; Chiappe, Marina; Lino, Rosabel; Bayer, Angela M

    2015-09-01

    In Peru, a significant proportion of people tested for HIV and syphilis do not receive timely results. Our objective was to assess the institutional feasibility of implementing simultaneous HIV/syphilis point-of-care tests and client perceptions regarding these point-of-care tests. Point-of-care tests were implemented in a hospital consultation room in a marginalised zone of Lima. A time-series design was used to compare the proportion of tested clients who received timely results, with and without the point-of-care test intervention. Experience and satisfaction with point-of-care tests was evaluated with 149 people. In the 6 months without intervention, 69% and 61% of clients tested for HIV and syphilis, respectively, received their results within the required 45-minute window. During the 2-month point-of-care test intervention, all clients tested for HIV (n = 387) and syphilis (n = 398) received their results within 45 minutes. All clients surveyed were completely satisfied (52%) or satisfied (48%) with the simultaneous HIV/syphilis point-of-care test screening process. Additionally, 73% strongly agreed with the statement 'I feel satisfied with the rapid testing process.' Screening using point-of-care tests represents an important opportunity to reduce the time, resource and cost burden for users and institutions and increase the proportion of users receiving their test results in a timely manner.

  5. Cask fleet operations study

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-01-01

    The Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 assigned to the Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Civilian Waste Management the responsibility for disposing of high-level waste and spent fuel. A significant part of that responsibility involves transporting nuclear waste materials within the federal waste management system; that is, from the waste generator to the repository. The lead responsibility for transportation operations has been assigned to Oak Ridge Operations, with Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) providing technical support through the Transportation Operations Support Task Group. One of the ORNL support activities involves assessing what facilities, equipment and services are required to assure that an acceptable, cost-effective and safe transportation operations system can be designed, operated and maintained. This study reviews, surveys and assesses the experience of Nuclear Assurance Corporation (NAC) in operating a fleet of spent-fuel shipping casks to aid in developing the spent-fuel transportation system.

  6. Operator Certification Study Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Water Works Association, Denver, CO.

    This study guide contains typical questions and answers that all levels of water treatment plant operators might expect to find on a certification examination. The manual covers the basic sciences, treatment techniques, testing procedures, and federal legislation. (Author/SB)

  7. Comparison of two stand-alone CADe systems at multiple operating points

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahiner, Berkman; Chen, Weijie; Pezeshk, Aria; Petrick, Nicholas

    2015-03-01

    Computer-aided detection (CADe) systems are typically designed to work at a given operating point: The device displays a mark if and only if the level of suspiciousness of a region of interest is above a fixed threshold. To compare the standalone performances of two systems, one approach is to select the parameters of the systems to yield a target false-positive rate that defines the operating point, and to compare the sensitivities at that operating point. Increasingly, CADe developers offer multiple operating points, which necessitates the comparison of two CADe systems involving multiple comparisons. To control the Type I error, multiple-comparison correction is needed for keeping the family-wise error rate (FWER) less than a given alpha-level. The sensitivities of a single modality at different operating points are correlated. In addition, the sensitivities of the two modalities at the same or different operating points are also likely to be correlated. It has been shown in the literature that when test statistics are correlated, well-known methods for controlling the FWER are conservative. In this study, we compared the FWER and power of three methods, namely the Bonferroni, step-up, and adjusted step-up methods in comparing the sensitivities of two CADe systems at multiple operating points, where the adjusted step-up method uses the estimated correlations. Our results indicate that the adjusted step-up method has a substantial advantage over other the two methods both in terms of the FWER and power.

  8. 47 CFR 22.591 - Channels for point-to-point operation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Channels for point-to-point operation. 22.591....46 72.88 75.74 72.12 72.50 72.90 75.76 72.14 72.54 72.92 75.78 72.16 72.58 72.94 75.80 72.18 72.62 72.96 75.82 72.20 72.64 72.98 75.84 72.22 72.66 75.42 75.86 72.24 72.68 75.46 75.88 72.26 72.70 75.50...

  9. 47 CFR 22.591 - Channels for point-to-point operation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Channels for point-to-point operation. 22.591....46 72.88 75.74 72.12 72.50 72.90 75.76 72.14 72.54 72.92 75.78 72.16 72.58 72.94 75.80 72.18 72.62 72.96 75.82 72.20 72.64 72.98 75.84 72.22 72.66 75.42 75.86 72.24 72.68 75.46 75.88 72.26 72.70 75.50...

  10. 47 CFR 22.591 - Channels for point-to-point operation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Channels for point-to-point operation. 22.591....46 72.88 75.74 72.12 72.50 72.90 75.76 72.14 72.54 72.92 75.78 72.16 72.58 72.94 75.80 72.18 72.62 72.96 75.82 72.20 72.64 72.98 75.84 72.22 72.66 75.42 75.86 72.24 72.68 75.46 75.88 72.26 72.70 75.50...

  11. 47 CFR 22.591 - Channels for point-to-point operation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Channels for point-to-point operation. 22.591....46 72.88 75.74 72.12 72.50 72.90 75.76 72.14 72.54 72.92 75.78 72.16 72.58 72.94 75.80 72.18 72.62 72.96 75.82 72.20 72.64 72.98 75.84 72.22 72.66 75.42 75.86 72.24 72.68 75.46 75.88 72.26 72.70 75.50...

  12. 47 CFR 22.591 - Channels for point-to-point operation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Channels for point-to-point operation. 22.591....46 72.88 75.74 72.12 72.50 72.90 75.76 72.14 72.54 72.92 75.78 72.16 72.58 72.94 75.80 72.18 72.62 72.96 75.82 72.20 72.64 72.98 75.84 72.22 72.66 75.42 75.86 72.24 72.68 75.46 75.88 72.26 72.70 75.50...

  13. Operations dashboard: comparative study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramly, Noor Nashriq; Ismail, Ahmad Zuhairi; Aziz, Mohd Haris; Ahmad, Nurul Haszeli

    2011-10-01

    In this present days and age, there are increasing needs for companies to monitor application and infrastructure health. Apart from having proactive measures to secure their application and infrastructure, many see monitoring dashboards as crucial investment in disaster preparedness. As companies struggle to find the best solution to cater for their needs and interest for monitoring their application and infrastructure's health, this paper summarizes the studies made on several known off-the-shelf operations dashboard and in-house developed dashboard. A few criteria of good dashboard are collected from previous studies carried out by several researchers and rank them according to importance and business needs. The finalized criteria that will be discussed in later sections are data visualization, performance indicator, dashboard personalization, audit capability and alert/ notification. Comparative studies between several popular dashboards were then carried out to determine whether they met these criteria that we derived from the first exercise. The findings hopefully can be used to educate and provide an overview of selecting the best IT application and infrastructure operations dashboard that suit business needs, thus become the main contribution of this paper.

  14. 24 CFR 902.47 - Management operations portion of total PHAS points.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Management operations portion of... Operations § 902.47 Management operations portion of total PHAS points. Of the total 100 points available for a PHAS score, a PHA may receive up to 30 points based on the Management Operations Indicator....

  15. Improvements in floating point addition/subtraction operations

    DOEpatents

    Farmwald, P.M.

    1984-02-24

    Apparatus is described for decreasing the latency time associated with floating point addition and subtraction in a computer, using a novel bifurcated, pre-normalization/post-normalization approach that distinguishes between differences of floating point exponents.

  16. Optimal operating points of oscillators using nonlinear resonators

    PubMed Central

    Kenig, Eyal; Cross, M. C.; Villanueva, L. G.; Karabalin, R. B.; Matheny, M. H.; Lifshitz, Ron; Roukes, M. L.

    2013-01-01

    We demonstrate an analytical method for calculating the phase sensitivity of a class of oscillators whose phase does not affect the time evolution of the other dynamic variables. We show that such oscillators possess the possibility for complete phase noise elimination. We apply the method to a feedback oscillator which employs a high Q weakly nonlinear resonator and provide explicit parameter values for which the feedback phase noise is completely eliminated and others for which there is no amplitude-phase noise conversion. We then establish an operational mode of the oscillator which optimizes its performance by diminishing the feedback noise in both quadratures, thermal noise, and quality factor fluctuations. We also study the spectrum of the oscillator and provide specific results for the case of 1/f noise sources. PMID:23214857

  17. 76 FR 60733 - Drawbridge Operation Regulations; Narrow Bay, Smith Point, NY

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-30

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 117 Drawbridge Operation Regulations; Narrow Bay, Smith Point, NY AGENCY... the Smith Point Bridge, 6.1, across Narrow Bay, between Smith Point and Fire Island, New York. The.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The Smith Point Bridge, across Narrow Bay, mile 6.1, between Smith Point and...

  18. Cove Point liquefied natural gas operations: a preliminary review of the risk

    SciTech Connect

    Margulies, T.S.

    1980-12-01

    In response to a request from Calvert County, Maryland the Energy and Coastal Zone Administration has made an effort to evaluate the impacts associated with the transport of LNG to Cove Point. This report discusses a study that has been performed to provide a preliminary review of the risk to the public. Several tasks included in the study were: (1) Review of safety and preventive measures currently being used to prevent a hazardous release of LNG; (2) Review of the calculated risk associated with tanker accidents including a discussion of the probabilistic ship collision and vapor cloud dispersion models used in a risk assessment of the Cove Point operation by Science Applications, Inc.; (3) provide an overview of risk assessment techniques applicable to marine transportation and facility problems in the event that further expansion of the Cove Point facility or a new facility is proposed and; (4) develop information on the population distribution surrounding Cove Point.

  19. Point-to-Point! Validation of the Small Aircraft Transportation System Higher Volume Operations Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Daniel M.

    2006-01-01

    Described is the research process that NASA researchers used to validate the Small Aircraft Transportation System (SATS) Higher Volume Operations (HVO) concept. The four phase building-block validation and verification process included multiple elements ranging from formal analysis of HVO procedures to flight test, to full-system architecture prototype that was successfully shown to the public at the June 2005 SATS Technical Demonstration in Danville, VA. Presented are significant results of each of the four research phases that extend early results presented at ICAS 2004. HVO study results have been incorporated into the development of the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NGATS) vision and offer a validated concept to provide a significant portion of the 3X capacity improvement sought after in the United States National Airspace System (NAS).

  20. Two Point Eigenvalue Correlation for a Class of Non-Selfadjoint Operators Under Random Perturbations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogel, Martin

    2016-09-01

    We consider a non-selfadjoint h-differential model operator P h in the semiclassical limit ({h→ 0} ) subject to random perturbations with a small coupling constant δ. Assume that {e^{-1/Ch} < δ ≪ h^{κ}} for constants {C,κ > 0} suitably large. Let Σ be the closure of the range of the principal symbol. We study the 2-point intensity measure of the random point process of eigenvalues of the randomly perturbed operator {P_h^{δ}} and prove an h-asymptotic formula for the average 2-point density of eigenvalues. With this we show that two eigenvalues of {P_h^{δ}} in the interior of Σ exhibit close range repulsion and long range decoupling.

  1. A fixed point theorem for certain operator valued maps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, D. R.; Omalley, M. J.

    1978-01-01

    In this paper, we develop a family of Neuberger-like results to find points z epsilon H satisfying L(z)z = z and P(z) = z. This family includes Neuberger's theorem and has the additional property that most of the sequences q sub n converge to idempotent elements of B sub 1(H).

  2. 77 FR 8904 - Entergy Nuclear Indian Point 3, LLC.; Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc., Indian Point Nuclear...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-15

    ... locally to start 31 AFW pump. 4 7A Locally operate the bypass valve for Flow Control Valve (FCV)- 1121 in... AFW flow to Steam Generators (SGs). 9 60A Locally open valve 227 to establish charging makeup flowpath... 4 is available to restore recirculation flow by locally operating the bypass valve for FCV-1121...

  3. 77 FR 14690 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; New Jersey Intracoastal Waterway (NJICW), Point Pleasant Canal, NJ

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-13

    ... (NJICW), Point Pleasant Canal, NJ AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of temporary deviation from... regulations governing the operation of the Route 88/Veterans Memorial Bridge across Point Pleasant Canal... Bridge across Point Pleasant Canal along the NJICW, in Point Pleasant, NJ. The bridge has a...

  4. 78 FR 23845 - Drawbridge Operation Regulations; Narrow Bay, Smith Point, NY

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-23

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 117 Drawbridge Operation Regulations; Narrow Bay, Smith Point, NY AGENCY... the Smith Point Bridge, mile 6.1, across Narrow Bay, between Smith Point and Fire Island, New York. The deviation is necessary to facilitate the Smith Point Triathlon. This deviation allows the...

  5. Stabilizing operation point technique based on the tunable distributed feedback laser for interferometric sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, Xuefeng; Zhou, Xinlei; Yu, Qingxu

    2016-02-01

    We describe a stabilizing operation point technique based on the tunable Distributed Feedback (DFB) laser for quadrature demodulation of interferometric sensors. By introducing automatic lock quadrature point and wavelength periodically tuning compensation into an interferometric system, the operation point of interferometric system is stabilized when the system suffers various environmental perturbations. To demonstrate the feasibility of this stabilizing operation point technique, experiments have been performed using a tunable-DFB-laser as light source to interrogate an extrinsic Fabry-Perot interferometric vibration sensor and a diaphragm-based acoustic sensor. Experimental results show that good tracing of Q-point was effectively realized.

  6. ICESat Spacecraft Pointing Support Study Grant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The Geodetic Laser Altimeter System (GLAS) mission is designed to measure changes in the elevations of the polar ice sheets. The ICESat satellite will carry the GLAS altimeter, and will have a nominal orbit altitude of 600 km and orbit inclination of 94deg. The groundtrack repeat period is 182 days and will be maintained to less than 1 km at the equator via routine orbit adjustments. Science requirements for the GLAS mission demand that the laser altimeter be pointed to within 50 meters of a predetermined reference groundtrack. As the actual ICESat groundtrack drifts away from the reference groundtrack, the attitude must be controlled such that the altimeter boresight is pointed, crosstrack, at the reference groundtrack. This orientation may be described by a rotation, theta, about the instantaneous geodetic local horizontal direction vector, which lies in the orbit plane and is oriented in the direction of motion of the satellite. The attitude is further complicated by requirements related to thermal and power considerations for various instruments, spacecraft components, and solar array orientation. In order to keep battery temperatures within the specified operating range, and maintain near normal pointing of the solar array with respect to the sunline direction vector as the orbit precesses relative to the sun, the satellite will be oriented in one of four fixed yaw modes. Each of these yaw modes depends upon the angle between the orbit plane and the sunline direction vector; this angle is designated Beta'. Table 1 shows the satellite yaw angle, Psi, for a given Beta' range. The angle Psi represents a rotation about the satellite z-axis, which points in the geodetic nadir direction; for Psi = 0deg the satellite x-axis points in the direction of motion.

  7. 77 FR 7184 - Entergy Nuclear Indian Point 2, LLC; Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc.; Indian Point Nuclear...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-10

    ... PCV- 1310A and PCV- 1310B. 4 Operate 22 AFW pump flow control valves FCV-405A (discharge to 21 steam... flow to selected steam generators. 5 F Primary Open HCV-142 Auxiliary bypass valve Building and 227 to... alternate power. 8 H Vapor (Reactor) Fail open valves Containment 204A (charging Building. flow to Loop...

  8. Lunar libration point flight dynamics study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    Two satellite concepts, Halo and Hummingbird, for a lunar libration point satellite to be used as a tracking and communications link with the far side of the moon were evaluated. Study areas included flight dynamics, communications, attitude control, propulsion, and system integration. Both concepts were proved feasible, but Halo was shown to be the better concept.

  9. 76 FR 79066 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Escatawpa River, Moss Point, MS

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-21

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 117 Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Escatawpa River, Moss Point, MS... of the Mississippi Export Railroad Company swing bridge across the Escatawpa River, mile 3.0, at Moss... operating schedule for the swing span bridge across Escatawpa River, mile 3.0, at Moss Point, Jackson...

  10. 75 FR 66308 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; New Jersey Intracoastal Waterway (NJICW), Point Pleasant Canal, NJ

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-28

    ... (NJICW), Point Pleasant Canal, NJ AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of temporary deviation from... regulations governing the operation of the Route 88/Veterans Memorial Bridge across Point Pleasant Canal, at... Canal along the NJICW, in Point Pleasant, NJ. The bridge has a vertical clearance in the closed...

  11. 78 FR 39018 - Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc.; Indian Point Nuclear Generating Unit Nos. 2 and 3

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc.; Indian Point Nuclear Generating Unit Nos. 2 and 3 AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Supplement to Final Supplement 38 to the Generic...

  12. EDF field operation computerization study

    SciTech Connect

    Guillot, L.; Pirus, D.

    2006-07-01

    The main control room has been the subject of extensive research and actions into improved operations assistance. On the other hand, few studies concern the need for field operation improvements, which have few assistance resources adapted to working requirements. Why? Past studies have shown the inability of technology to assume job constraints (insufficient screen readability, excessive equipment weight, prohibitive response times). Nevertheless, today new technologies can be adapted to field operations, and they justify further study. Real needs exist: local operations are often complex and are led in difficult environments where conditions prevent the use of paper-based documents. The issue is a significant risk of error which might impact plant reliability. The cumbersome nature of paper procedures, the working environment and the operational feed-back of experience led us to concentrate on the field operation to identify how it may be improved by the use of these new technologies. Such equipment would allow a better traceability and quality of actions. Possibility of communications with other plant personnel and information sharing may be also immediately available for all. This paper presents a study which intends to collect assistance requirements through an analysis of working practices and organizations with local personnel. Our aim is to identify which of those might benefit from IT support. This collection was obtained through interviews and observations. These two methods helped us to define potential needs, constraints and consequences for work organization. This paper presents the study results and findings, identifies professions which may benefit from the use of wearable computers and describes how the reliability and efficiency of human actions would be improved. Finally we identify design requirements and criteria to be used for writing the technical specifications for a test prototype. (authors)

  13. MANGO – Modal Analysis for Grid Operation: A Method for Damping Improvement through Operating Point Adjustment

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Zhenyu; Zhou, Ning; Tuffner, Francis K.; Chen, Yousu; Trudnowski, Daniel J.; Diao, Ruisheng; Fuller, Jason C.; Mittelstadt, William A.; Hauer, John F.; Dagle, Jeffery E.

    2010-10-18

    Small signal stability problems are one of the major threats to grid stability and reliability in the U.S. power grid. An undamped mode can cause large-amplitude oscillations and may result in system breakups and large-scale blackouts. There have been several incidents of system-wide oscillations. Of those incidents, the most notable is the August 10, 1996 western system breakup, a result of undamped system-wide oscillations. Significant efforts have been devoted to monitoring system oscillatory behaviors from measurements in the past 20 years. The deployment of phasor measurement units (PMU) provides high-precision, time-synchronized data needed for detecting oscillation modes. Measurement-based modal analysis, also known as ModeMeter, uses real-time phasor measurements to identify system oscillation modes and their damping. Low damping indicates potential system stability issues. Modal analysis has been demonstrated with phasor measurements to have the capability of estimating system modes from both oscillation signals and ambient data. With more and more phasor measurements available and ModeMeter techniques maturing, there is yet a need for methods to bring modal analysis from monitoring to actions. The methods should be able to associate low damping with grid operating conditions, so operators or automated operation schemes can respond when low damping is observed. The work presented in this report aims to develop such a method and establish a Modal Analysis for Grid Operation (MANGO) procedure to aid grid operation decision making to increase inter-area modal damping. The procedure can provide operation suggestions (such as increasing generation or decreasing load) for mitigating inter-area oscillations.

  14. 47 CFR 90.473 - Operation of internal transmitter control systems through licensed fixed control points.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Operation of internal transmitter control... Transmitter Control Internal Transmitter Control Systems § 90.473 Operation of internal transmitter control systems through licensed fixed control points. An internal transmitter control system may be...

  15. To the point: teaching the obstetrics and gynecology medical student in the operating room.

    PubMed

    Hampton, Brittany S; Craig, LaTasha B; Abbott, Jodi F; Buery-Joyner, Samantha D; Dalrymple, John L; Forstein, David A; Hopkins, Laura; McKenzie, Margaret L; Page-Ramsey, Sarah M; Pradhan, Archana; Wolf, Abigail; Graziano, Scott C

    2015-10-01

    This article, from the "To the Point" series that is prepared by the Association of Professors of Gynecology and Obstetrics Undergraduate Medical Education Committee, is a review of considerations for teaching the medical student in the operating room during the obstetrics/gynecology clerkship. The importance of the medical student operating room experience and barriers to learning in the operating room are discussed. Specific considerations for the improvement of medical student learning and operating room experience, which include the development of operating room objectives and specific curricula, an increasing awareness regarding role modeling, and faculty development, are reviewed.

  16. A Magnetic Bright Point Case Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Utz, D.; Jurčák, J.; Bellot-Rubio, L.; del Toro Iniesta, J. C.; Thonhofer, S.; Hanslmeier, A.; Veronig, A.; Muller, R.; Lemmerer, B.

    Due to its magnetic fields our host star - the Sun - becomes the interesting object for research as we know it. The magnetic fields themselves cover different spatial, lifetime and strength scales and reach down from enormous flux concentrations like active sunspot groups to single isolated magnetic flux tubes and even weaker, predominantly inclined intranetwork structures. Flux tubes can be seen in filtergram observations as magnetic bright points (MBPs). They are of interest for research not only due to their sheer existence but due to their important role in atmospheric heating (wave heating as well as reconnection processes), to their role in the understanding of creation and annihilation of magnetic fields as well as to their influence on the total solar irradiance variation. In this study we present a close look onto an evolutionary track of an MBP from its formation to its disintegration. Physical quantities of MBPs like their magnetic field strength and inclination, their line-of-sight velocity, and their temperature at different heights are inferred from the inversion of spectropolarimetric data. Original data are taken from the Sunrise/IMaX instrument and constitute a time series of some 60 min. The presented case resembles the convective collapse model and is in agreement with previous studies.

  17. Space station operating system study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horn, Albert E.; Harwell, Morris C.

    1988-01-01

    The current phase of the Space Station Operating System study is based on the analysis, evaluation, and comparison of the operating systems implemented on the computer systems and workstations in the software development laboratory. Primary emphasis has been placed on the DEC MicroVMS operating system as implemented on the MicroVax II computer, with comparative analysis of the SUN UNIX system on the SUN 3/260 workstation computer, and to a limited extent, the IBM PC/AT microcomputer running PC-DOS. Some benchmark development and testing was also done for the Motorola MC68010 (VM03 system) before the system was taken from the laboratory. These systems were studied with the objective of determining their capability to support Space Station software development requirements, specifically for multi-tasking and real-time applications. The methodology utilized consisted of development, execution, and analysis of benchmark programs and test software, and the experimentation and analysis of specific features of the system or compilers in the study.

  18. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) to determine cut-off points of biomarkers in lung cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Heidi L; Niwas, Santosh; Grizzle, William E; Piyathilake, Chandrika

    The role of biomarkers in disease prognosis continues to be an important investigation in many cancer studies. In order for these biomarkers to have practical application in clinical decision making regarding patient treatment and follow-up, it is common to dichotomize patients into those with low vs. high expression levels. In this study, receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves, area under the curve (AUC) of the ROC, sensitivity, specificity, as well as likelihood ratios were calculated to determine levels of growth factor biomarkers that best differentiate lung cancer cases versus control subjects. Selected cut-off points for p185(erbB-2) and EGFR membrane appear to have good discriminating power to differentiate control tissues versus uninvolved tissues from patients with lung cancer (AUC = 89% and 90%, respectively); while AUC increased to at least 90% for selected cut-off points for p185(erbB-2) membrane, EGFR membrane, and FASE when comparing between control versus carcinoma tissues from lung cancer cases. Using data from control subjects compared to patients with lung cancer, we presented a simple and intuitive approach to determine dichotomized levels of biomarkers and validated the value of these biomarkers as surrogate endpoints for cancer outcome.

  19. Pointing calibration of the MKIVA DSN antennas Voyager 2 Uranus encounter operations support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stevens, R.; Riggs, R. L.; Wood, B.

    1986-01-01

    The MKIVA DSN introduced significant changes to the pointing systems of the 34-meter and 64-meter diameter antennas. To support the Voyager 2 Uranus Encounter, the systems had to be accurately calibrated. Reliable techniques for use of the calibrations during intense mission support activity had to be provided. This article describes the techniques used to make the antenna pointing calibrations and to demonstrate their operational use. The results of the calibrations are summarized.

  20. Providing nearest neighbor point-to-point communications among compute nodes of an operational group in a global combining network of a parallel computer

    DOEpatents

    Archer, Charles J.; Faraj, Ahmad A.; Inglett, Todd A.; Ratterman, Joseph D.

    2012-10-23

    Methods, apparatus, and products are disclosed for providing nearest neighbor point-to-point communications among compute nodes of an operational group in a global combining network of a parallel computer, each compute node connected to each adjacent compute node in the global combining network through a link, that include: identifying each link in the global combining network for each compute node of the operational group; designating one of a plurality of point-to-point class routing identifiers for each link such that no compute node in the operational group is connected to two adjacent compute nodes in the operational group with links designated for the same class routing identifiers; and configuring each compute node of the operational group for point-to-point communications with each adjacent compute node in the global combining network through the link between that compute node and that adjacent compute node using that link's designated class routing identifier.

  1. Phase-operation for conduction electron by atomic-scale scattering via single point-defect

    SciTech Connect

    Nagaoka, Katsumi Yaginuma, Shin; Nakayama, Tomonobu

    2014-03-17

    In order to propose a phase-operation technique for conduction electrons in solid, we have investigated, using scanning tunneling microscopy, an atomic-scale electron-scattering phenomenon on a 2D subband state formed in Si. Particularly, we have noticed a single surface point-defect around which a standing-wave pattern created, and a dispersion of scattering phase-shifts by the defect-potential against electron-energy has been measured. The behavior is well-explained with appropriate scattering parameters: the potential height and radius. This result experimentally proves that the atomic-scale potential scattering via the point defect enables phase-operation for conduction electrons.

  2. The Apache Point Observatory Lunar Laser-ranging Operation: Instrument Description and First Detections

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, TW; Adelberger, Eric G.; Battat, J.; Carey, LN; Hoyle, Charles D.; LeBlanc, P.; Michelsen, EL; Nordtvedt, K.; Orin, AE; Strasburg, Jana D.; Stubbs, CW; Swanson, HE; Williams, E.

    2008-01-01

    A next-generation lunar laser ranging apparatus using the 3.5 m telescope at the Apache Point Observatory in southern New Mexico has begun science operation. APOLLO (the Apache Point Observatory Lunar Laser-ranging Operation) has achieved one-millimeter range precision to the moon which should lead to aproximately one-orderof-magnitude improvements in the precision of several tests of fundamental properties of gravity. We briefly motivate the scientific goals, and then give a detailed discussion of the APOLLO instrumentation.

  3. Astrometric Telescope Facility isolation and pointing study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hibble, William; Allen, Terry; Jackson, Louis; Medbery, James; Self, Richard

    1988-01-01

    The Astrometric Telescope Facility (ATF), an optical telescope designed to detect extrasolar planetary systems, is scheduled to be a major user of the Space Station's Payload Pointing System (PPS). However, because the ATF has such a stringent pointing stability specification and requires + or - 180 deg roll about its line of sight, mechanisms to enhance the basic PPS capability are required. The ATF pointing performance achievable by the addition of a magnetic isolation and pointing system (MIPS) between the PPS upper gimbal and the ATF, and separately, by the addition of a passive isolation system between the Space Station and the PPS base was investigated. The candidate MIPS can meet the ATF requirements in the presence of a 0.01 g disturbance. It fits within the available annular region between the PPS and the ATF while meeting power and weight limitations and providing the required roll motion, payload data and power services. By contrast, the passive base isolator system must have an unrealistically low isolation bandwidth on all axes to meet ATF pointing requirements and does not provide roll about the line of sight.

  4. 75 FR 3856 - Drawbridge Operation Regulations; Great Egg Harbor Bay, Between Beesleys Point and Somers Point, NJ

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-25

    ... Bridge over Great Egg Harbor Bay, at mile 3.5, between Beesleys Point and Somers Point, NJ. This rule....S. Route 9 Bridge, at mile 3.5, across Great Egg Harbor Bay, between Beesleys Point and Somers Point... follows: Sec. 117.722 Great Egg Harbor Bay. The draw of the U.S. Route 9/Beesleys Point Bridge, mile...

  5. Empirical study on human acupuncture point network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jian; Shen, Dan; Chang, Hui; He, Da-Ren

    2007-03-01

    Chinese medical theory is ancient and profound, however is confined by qualitative and faint understanding. The effect of Chinese acupuncture in clinical practice is unique and effective, and the human acupuncture points play a mysterious and special role, however there is no modern scientific understanding on human acupuncture points until today. For this reason, we attend to use complex network theory, one of the frontiers in the statistical physics, for describing the human acupuncture points and their connections. In the network nodes are defined as the acupuncture points, two nodes are connected by an edge when they are used for a medical treatment of a common disease. A disease is defined as an act. Some statistical properties have been obtained. The results certify that the degree distribution, act degree distribution, and the dependence of the clustering coefficient on both of them obey SPL distribution function, which show a function interpolating between a power law and an exponential decay. The results may be helpful for understanding Chinese medical theory.

  6. 76 FR 65118 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Bear Creek, Sparrows Point, MD

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-20

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 117 RIN 1625-AA09 Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Bear Creek, Sparrows... Avenue) highway toll drawbridge across Bear Creek, mile 1.5, Sparrows Point, MD was replaced with a fixed... Bear Creek, mile 1.5 was removed and replaced with a fixed bridge in 1998. Prior to 1998, a...

  7. 77 FR 56115 - Drawbridge Operation Regulations; Fort Point Channel, Boston, MA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 117 Drawbridge Operation Regulations; Fort Point Channel, Boston, MA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of temporary deviation from regulations. SUMMARY: The...

  8. 78 FR 26248 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; York River, between Yorktown and Gloucester Point, VA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-06

    ... draw of the US 17/George P. Coleman Memorial Swing Bridge across the York River, at mile 7.0, between.... Coleman Memorial Swing Bridge. This deviation allows the drawbridge to remain in the closed to navigation... regular operating schedule, the Coleman Memorial Bridge, at mile 7.0, between Gloucester Point...

  9. 78 FR 21064 - Drawbridge Operation Regulations; York River, between Yorktown and Gloucester Point, VA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-09

    ... draw of the US 17/George P. Coleman Memorial Swing Bridge across the York River, at mile 7.0, between.... Coleman Memorial Swing Bridge. This temporary deviation allows the drawbridge to remain in the closed- to... regular operating schedule, the Coleman Memorial Bridge, at mile 7.0, between Gloucester Point...

  10. 77 FR 40091 - Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc.; Indian Point Nuclear Generating, Units 2 and 3

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc.; Indian Point Nuclear Generating, Units 2 and 3 AGENCY: Nuclear... statement for license renewal of nuclear plants; availability. SUMMARY: The U.S. Nuclear...

  11. Existence and data dependence of fixed points for multivalued operators on gauge spaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Espínola, Rafael; Petrusel, Adrian

    2005-09-01

    The purpose of this note is to present some fixed point and data dependence theorems in complete gauge spaces and in hyperconvex metric spaces for the so-called Meir-Keeler multivalued operators and admissible multivalued a[alpha]-contractions. Our results extend and generalize several theorems of Espínola and Kirk [R. Espínola, W.A. Kirk, Set-valued contractions and fixed points, Nonlinear Anal. 54 (2003) 485-494] and Rus, Petrusel, and Sîntamarian [I.A. Rus, A. Petrusel, A. Sîntamarian, Data dependence of the fixed point set of some multivalued weakly Picard operators, Nonlinear Anal. 52 (2003) 1947-1959].

  12. A Mathematical Study of the Game "Twenty-Four Points".

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shi, Yixun

    1999-01-01

    Presents a mathematical analysis of the game "twenty-four points" that aims to apply arithmetic operations on the four numbers to reach a specific number. This game can improve children's ability to do mental arithmetic. (ASK)

  13. The Hubble Space Telescope fine guidance system operating in the coarse track pointing control mode

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whittlesey, Richard

    1993-01-01

    The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Fine Guidance System has set new standards in pointing control capability for earth orbiting spacecraft. Two precision pointing control modes are implemented in the Fine Guidance System; one being a Coarse Track Mode which employs a pseudo-quadrature detector approach and the second being a Fine Mode which uses a two axis interferometer implementation. The Coarse Track Mode was designed to maintain FGS pointing error to within 20 milli-arc seconds (rms) when guiding on a 14.5 Mv star. The Fine Mode was designed to maintain FGS pointing error to less than 3 milli-arc seconds (rms). This paper addresses the HST FGS operating in the Coarse Track Mode. An overview of the implementation, the operation, and both the predicted and observed on orbit performance is presented. The discussion includes a review of the Fine Guidance System hardware which uses two beam steering Star Selector servos, four photon counting photomultiplier tube detectors, as well as a 24 bit microprocessor, which executes the control system firmware. Unanticipated spacecraft operational characteristics are discussed as they impact pointing performance. These include the influence of spherically aberrated star images as well as the mechanical shocks induced in the spacecraft during and following orbital day/night terminator crossings. Computer modeling of the Coarse Track Mode verifies the observed on orbit performance trends in the presence of these optical and mechanical disturbances. It is concluded that the coarse track pointing control function is performing as designed and is providing a robust pointing control capability for the Hubble Space Telescope.

  14. TDRSS operations control analysis study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The use of an operational Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS) and the remaining ground stations for the STDN (GSTDN) was investigated. The operational aspects of TDRSS concepts, GSTDN as a 14-site network, and GSTDN as a 7 site-network were compared and operations control concepts for the configurations developed. Man/machine interface, scheduling system, and hardware/software tradeoff analyses were among the factors considered in the analysis.

  15. Planned LMSS propagation experiment using ACTS: Preliminary antenna pointing results during mobile operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rowland, John R.; Goldhirsh, Julius; Vogel, Wolfhard J.; Torrence, Geoffrey W.

    1991-01-01

    An overview and a status description of the planned LMSS mobile K band experiment with ACTS is presented. As a precursor to the ACTS mobile measurements at 20.185 GHz, measurements at 19.77 GHz employing the Olympus satellite were originally planned. However, because of the demise of Olympus in June of 1991, the efforts described here are focused towards the ACTS measurements. In particular, we describe the design and testing results of a gyro controlled mobile-antenna pointing system. Preliminary pointing measurements during mobile operations indicate that the present system is suitable for measurements employing a 15 cm aperture (beamwidth at approximately 7 deg) receiving antenna operating with ACTS in the high gain transponder mode. This should enable measurements with pattern losses smaller than plus or minus 1 dB over more than 95 percent of the driving distance. Measurements with the present mount system employing a 60 cm aperture (beamwidth at approximately 1.7 deg) results in pattern losses smaller than plus or minus 3 dB for 70 percent of the driving distance. Acceptable propagation measurements may still be made with this system by employing developed software to flag out bad data points due to extreme pointing errors. The receiver system including associated computer control software has been designed and assembled. Plans are underway to integrate the antenna mount with the receiver on the University of Texas mobile receiving van and repeat the pointing tests on highways employing a recently designed radome system.

  16. Performance of FORTRAN floating-point operations on the Flex/32 multicomputer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crockett, Thomas W.

    1987-01-01

    A series of experiments has been run to examine the floating-point performance of FORTRAN programs on the Flex/32 (Trademark) computer. The experiments are described, and the timing results are presented. The time required to execute a floating-point operation is found to vary considerbaly depending on a number of factors. One factor of particular interest from an algorithm design standpoint is the difference in speed between common memory accesses and local memory accesses. Common memory accesses were found to be slower, and guidelines are given for determinig when it may be cost effective to copy data from common to local memory.

  17. Zero-point energies, the uncertainty principle, and positivity of the quantum Brownian density operator.

    PubMed

    Tameshtit, Allan

    2012-04-01

    High-temperature and white-noise approximations are frequently invoked when deriving the quantum Brownian equation for an oscillator. Even if this white-noise approximation is avoided, it is shown that if the zero-point energies of the environment are neglected, as they often are, the resultant equation will violate not only the basic tenet of quantum mechanics that requires the density operator to be positive, but also the uncertainty principle. When the zero-point energies are included, asymptotic results describing the evolution of the oscillator are obtained that preserve positivity and, therefore, the uncertainty principle.

  18. Earth-Moon Libration Point Orbit Stationkeeping: Theory, Modeling and Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Folta, David C.; Pavlak, Thomas A.; Haapala, Amanda F.; Howell, Kathleen C.; Woodard, Mark A.

    2013-01-01

    Collinear Earth-Moon libration points have emerged as locations with immediate applications. These libration point orbits are inherently unstable and must be maintained regularly which constrains operations and maneuver locations. Stationkeeping is challenging due to relatively short time scales for divergence effects of large orbital eccentricity of the secondary body, and third-body perturbations. Using the Acceleration Reconnection and Turbulence and Electrodynamics of the Moon's Interaction with the Sun (ARTEMIS) mission orbit as a platform, the fundamental behavior of the trajectories is explored using Poincare maps in the circular restricted three-body problem. Operational stationkeeping results obtained using the Optimal Continuation Strategy are presented and compared to orbit stability information generated from mode analysis based in dynamical systems theory.

  19. Operating point stabilization of fiber-based line detectors for photoacoustic imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Felbermayer, Karoline; Grün, Hubert; Berer, Thomas; Burgholzer, Peter

    2011-07-01

    Photoacoustic imaging is an upcoming technique in the field of biomedical imaging. Our group introduced fiber-based line detectors, which are used to acquire broad-band ultrasonic signals, several years ago. Up to now operating point stabilization of fiber-based line detectors was realized by tuning the wavelength of the detection laser. This is, because of the high costs, not applicable for parallel detection. An alternative stabilization method, the change of the optical path length, is presented in this paper. Changing of the optical path length is realized by stretching the fiber with piezoelectric tubes. Fringe patterns and operation point stabilization of both stabilization schemes are compared. Next, signal detection utilizing a polymer optical fiber in a Mach-Zehnder and Fabry-Perot interferometer is demonstrated, and the influence of the detection wavelength (633nm and 1550nm) is examined. Finally, two-dimensional imaging by utilizing a perfluorinated polymer fiber is demonstrated.

  20. Operations planning simulation: Model study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    The use of simulation modeling for the identification of system sensitivities to internal and external forces and variables is discussed. The technique provides a means of exploring alternate system procedures and processes, so that these alternatives may be considered on a mutually comparative basis permitting the selection of a mode or modes of operation which have potential advantages to the system user and the operator. These advantages are measurements is system efficiency are: (1) the ability to meet specific schedules for operations, mission or mission readiness requirements or performance standards and (2) to accomplish the objectives within cost effective limits.

  1. 49 CFR 236.303 - Control circuits for signals, selection through circuit controller operated by switch points or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...-point frogs and derails shall be selected through circuit controller operated directly by switch points... switch, movable-point frog, and derail in the routes governed by such signal. Circuits shall be arranged... when each switch, movable-point frog, and derail in the route is in proper position....

  2. 49 CFR 236.303 - Control circuits for signals, selection through circuit controller operated by switch points or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...-point frogs and derails shall be selected through circuit controller operated directly by switch points... switch, movable-point frog, and derail in the routes governed by such signal. Circuits shall be arranged... when each switch, movable-point frog, and derail in the route is in proper position....

  3. 49 CFR 236.303 - Control circuits for signals, selection through circuit controller operated by switch points or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...-point frogs and derails shall be selected through circuit controller operated directly by switch points... switch, movable-point frog, and derail in the routes governed by such signal. Circuits shall be arranged... when each switch, movable-point frog, and derail in the route is in proper position....

  4. 49 CFR 236.303 - Control circuits for signals, selection through circuit controller operated by switch points or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...-point frogs and derails shall be selected through circuit controller operated directly by switch points... switch, movable-point frog, and derail in the routes governed by such signal. Circuits shall be arranged... when each switch, movable-point frog, and derail in the route is in proper position....

  5. 49 CFR 236.303 - Control circuits for signals, selection through circuit controller operated by switch points or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...-point frogs and derails shall be selected through circuit controller operated directly by switch points... switch, movable-point frog, and derail in the routes governed by such signal. Circuits shall be arranged... when each switch, movable-point frog, and derail in the route is in proper position....

  6. Sound source localization on an axial fan at different operating points

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zenger, Florian J.; Herold, Gert; Becker, Stefan; Sarradj, Ennes

    2016-08-01

    A generic fan with unskewed fan blades is investigated using a microphone array method. The relative motion of the fan with respect to the stationary microphone array is compensated by interpolating the microphone data to a virtual rotating array with the same rotational speed as the fan. Hence, beamforming algorithms with deconvolution, in this case CLEAN-SC, could be applied. Sound maps and integrated spectra of sub-components are evaluated for five operating points. At selected frequency bands, the presented method yields sound maps featuring a clear circular source pattern corresponding to the nine fan blades. Depending on the adjusted operating point, sound sources are located on the leading or trailing edges of the fan blades. Integrated spectra show that in most cases leading edge noise is dominant for the low-frequency part and trailing edge noise for the high-frequency part. The shift from leading to trailing edge noise is strongly dependent on the operating point and frequency range considered.

  7. Loop Heat Pipe Operation Using Heat Source Temperature for Set Point Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ku, Jentung; Paiva, Kleber; Mantelli, Marcia

    2011-01-01

    Loop heat pipes (LHPs) have been used for thermal control of several NASA and commercial orbiting spacecraft. The LHP operating temperature is governed by the saturation temperature of its compensation chamber (CC). Most LHPs use the CC temperature for feedback control of its operating temperature. There exists a thermal resistance between the heat source to be cooled by the LHP and the LHP's CC. Even if the CC set point temperature is controlled precisely, the heat source temperature will still vary with its heat output. For most applications, controlling the heat source temperature is of most interest. A logical question to ask is: "Can the heat source temperature be used for feedback control of the LHP operation?" A test program has been implemented to answer the above question. Objective is to investigate the LHP performance using the CC temperature and the heat source temperature for feedback control

  8. Science Operations for the 2008 NASA Lunar Analog Field Test at Black Point Lava Flow, Arizona

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garry W. D.; Horz, F.; Lofgren, G. E.; Kring, D. A.; Chapman, M. G.; Eppler, D. B.; Rice, J. W., Jr.; Nelson, J.; Gernhardt, M. L.; Walheim, R. J.

    2009-01-01

    Surface science operations on the Moon will require merging lessons from Apollo with new operation concepts that exploit the Constellation Lunar Architecture. Prototypes of lunar vehicles and robots are already under development and will change the way we conduct science operations compared to Apollo. To prepare for future surface operations on the Moon, NASA, along with several supporting agencies and institutions, conducted a high-fidelity lunar mission simulation with prototypes of the small pressurized rover (SPR) and unpressurized rover (UPR) (Fig. 1) at Black Point lava flow (Fig. 2), 40 km north of Flagstaff, Arizona from Oct. 19-31, 2008. This field test was primarily intended to evaluate and compare the surface mobility afforded by unpressurized and pressurized rovers, the latter critically depending on the innovative suit-port concept for efficient egress and ingress. The UPR vehicle transports two astronauts who remain in their EVA suits at all times, whereas the SPR concept enables astronauts to remain in a pressurized shirt-sleeve environment during long translations and while making contextual observations and enables rapid (less than or equal to 10 minutes) transfer to and from the surface via suit-ports. A team of field geologists provided realistic science scenarios for the simulations and served as crew members, field observers, and operators of a science backroom. Here, we present a description of the science team s operations and lessons learned.

  9. Loop Heat Pipe Operation Using Heat Source Temperature for Set Point Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ku, Jentung; Paiva, Kleber; Mantelli, Marcia

    2011-01-01

    The LHP operating temperature is governed by the saturation temperature of its reservoir. Controlling the reservoir saturation temperature is commonly accomplished by cold biasing the reservoir and using electrical heaters to provide the required control power. Using this method, the loop operating temperature can be controlled within +/- 0.5K. However, because of the thermal resistance that exists between the heat source and the LHP evaporator, the heat source temperature will vary with its heat output even if LHP operating temperature is kept constant. Since maintaining a constant heat source temperature is of most interest, a question often raised is whether the heat source temperature can be used for LHP set point temperature control. A test program with a miniature LHP has been carried out to investigate the effects on the LHP operation when the control temperature sensor is placed on the heat source instead of the reservoir. In these tests, the LHP reservoir is cold-biased and is heated by a control heater. Tests results show that it is feasible to use the heat source temperature for feedback control of the LHP operation. Using this method, the heat source temperature can be maintained within a tight range for moderate and high powers. At low powers, however, temperature oscillations may occur due to interactions among the reservoir control heater power, the heat source mass, and the heat output from the heat source. In addition, the heat source temperature could temporarily deviate from its set point during fast thermal transients. The implication is that more sophisticated feedback control algorithms need to be implemented for LHP transient operation when the heat source temperature is used for feedback control.

  10. High-freezing-point fuel studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tolle, F. F.

    1980-01-01

    Considerable progress in developing the experimental and analytical techniques needed to design airplanes to accommodate fuels with less stringent low temperature specifications is reported. A computer technique for calculating fuel temperature profiles in full tanks was developed. The computer program is being extended to include the case of partially empty tanks. Ultimately, the completed package is to be incorporated into an aircraft fuel tank thermal analyser code to permit the designer to fly various thermal exposure patterns, study fuel temperatures versus time, and determine holdup.

  11. Origins of the human pointing gesture: a training study.

    PubMed

    Matthews, Danielle; Behne, Tanya; Lieven, Elena; Tomasello, Michael

    2012-11-01

    Despite its importance in the development of children's skills of social cognition and communication, very little is known about the ontogenetic origins of the pointing gesture. We report a training study in which mothers gave children one month of extra daily experience with pointing as compared with a control group who had extra experience with musical activities. One hundred and two infants of 9, 10, or 11 months of age were seen at the beginning, middle, and end of this one-month period and tested for declarative pointing and gaze following. Infants'ability to point with the index finger at the end of the study was not affected by the training but was instead predicted by infants' prior ability to follow the gaze direction of an adult. The frequency with which infants pointed indexically was also affected by infant gaze following ability and, in addition, by maternal pointing frequency in free play, but not by training. In contrast, infants' ability to monitor their partner's gaze when pointing, and the frequency with which they did so, was affected by both training and maternal pointing frequency in free play. These results suggest that prior social cognitive advances, rather than adult socialization of pointing per se, determine the developmental onset of indexical pointing, but socialization processes such as imitation and adult shaping subsequently affect both infants' ability to monitor their interlocutor's gaze while they point and how frequently infants choose to point. PMID:23106736

  12. Street curb recognition in 3d point cloud data using morphological operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez-Cuenca, Borja; Concepción Alonso-Rodríguez, María; García-Cortés, Silverio; Ordóñez, Celestino

    2015-04-01

    Accurate and automatic detection of cartographic-entities saves a great deal of time and money when creating and updating cartographic databases. The current trend in remote sensing feature extraction is to develop methods that are as automatic as possible. The aim is to develop algorithms that can obtain accurate results with the least possible human intervention in the process. Non-manual curb detection is an important issue in road maintenance, 3D urban modeling, and autonomous navigation fields. This paper is focused on the semi-automatic recognition of curbs and street boundaries using a 3D point cloud registered by a mobile laser scanner (MLS) system. This work is divided into four steps. First, a coordinate system transformation is carried out, moving from a global coordinate system to a local one. After that and in order to simplify the calculations involved in the procedure, a rasterization based on the projection of the measured point cloud on the XY plane was carried out, passing from the 3D original data to a 2D image. To determine the location of curbs in the image, different image processing techniques such as thresholding and morphological operations were applied. Finally, the upper and lower edges of curbs are detected by an unsupervised classification algorithm on the curvature and roughness of the points that represent curbs. The proposed method is valid in both straight and curved road sections and applicable both to laser scanner and stereo vision 3D data due to the independence of its scanning geometry. This method has been successfully tested with two datasets measured by different sensors. The first dataset corresponds to a point cloud measured by a TOPCON sensor in the Spanish town of Cudillero. That point cloud comprises more than 6,000,000 points and covers a 400-meter street. The second dataset corresponds to a point cloud measured by a RIEGL sensor in the Austrian town of Horn. That point cloud comprises 8,000,000 points and represents a

  13. Field-scale operation of methane biofiltration systems to mitigate point source methane emissions.

    PubMed

    Hettiarachchi, Vijayamala C; Hettiaratchi, Patrick J; Mehrotra, Anil K; Kumar, Sunil

    2011-06-01

    Methane biofiltration (MBF) is a novel low-cost technique for reducing low volume point source emissions of methane (CH₄). MBF uses a granular medium, such as soil or compost, to support the growth of methanotrophic bacteria responsible for converting CH₄ to carbon dioxide (CO₂) and water (H₂O). A field research program was undertaken to evaluate the potential to treat low volume point source engineered CH₄ emissions using an MBF at a natural gas monitoring station. A new comprehensive three-dimensional numerical model was developed incorporating advection-diffusive flow of gas, biological reactions and heat and moisture flow. The one-dimensional version of this model was used as a guiding tool for designing and operating the MBF. The long-term monitoring results of the field MBF are also presented. The field MBF operated with no control of precipitation, evaporation, and temperature, provided more than 80% of CH₄ oxidation throughout spring, summer, and fall seasons. The numerical model was able to predict the CH₄ oxidation behavior of the field MBF with high accuracy. The numerical model simulations are presented for estimating CH₄ oxidation efficiencies under various operating conditions, including different filter bed depths and CH₄ flux rates. The field observations as well as numerical model simulations indicated that the long-term performance of MBFs is strongly dependent on environmental factors, such as ambient temperature and precipitation. PMID:21414700

  14. Ultrasensitive optical microfiber coupler based sensors operating near the turning point of effective group index difference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Kaiwei; Zhang, Ting; Liu, Guigen; Zhang, Nan; Zhang, Mengying; Wei, Lei

    2016-09-01

    We propose and study an optical microfiber coupler (OMC) sensor working near the turning point of effective group index difference between the even supermode and odd supermode to achieve high refractive index (RI) sensitivity. Theoretical calculations reveal that infinite sensitivity can be obtained when the measured RI is close to the turning point value. This diameter-dependent turning point corresponds to the condition that the effective group index difference equals zero. To validate our proposed sensing mechanism, we experimentally demonstrate an ultrahigh sensitivity of 39541.7 nm/RIU at a low ambient RI of 1.3334 based on an OMC with the diameter of 1.4 μm. An even higher sensitivity can be achieved by carrying out the measurements at RI closer to the turning point. The resulting ultrasensitive RI sensing platform offers a substantial impact on a variety of applications from high performance trace analyte detection to small molecule sensing.

  15. Study on the Realization of Zinc Point and the Zinc-Point Cell Comparison

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Widiatmo, J. V.; Sakai, M.; Satou, K.; Yamazawa, K.; Tamba, J.; Arai, M.

    2011-01-01

    Continuing our study on aluminum, tin, and silver points, a study on the realization of the zinc point was conducted. Zinc-point cells were newly fabricated using 6N-nominal grade zinc samples, impurity elements of which were analyzed extensively based on glow-discharge mass spectrometry (GDMS). The present paper reports the temperature measurements done using the newly fabricated cells during the zinc freezing process, under which the zinc fixed point is defined, and the analysis of the freezing curve obtained. Comparisons of zinc-point temperatures realized by the newly fabricated cells (cell-to-cell comparisons) were also conducted. Zinc-point depression due to impurity elements was calculated based on the sum of individual estimates and the impurity element analysis. One of the cells evaluated was drawn out from its crucible and analyzed by GDMS at four points, namely, at around the center of the top, of the middle, of the bottom, and around the outer part of the middle area. The purpose of this cell disassembly is to see whether or not there has been some difference before and after cell fabrication, as well as difference in impurity element distribution within the ingot. From the aforementioned studies, some findings were obtained. First finding is that the homogeneity of the zinc ingot was within 30%, except for Pb, which was more concentrated in the center part. Second finding is that the cell-to-cell temperature difference changes along with the progressing solidification process. As a consequence, for an accurate cell-to-cell comparison, the locus in the freezing plateau where the comparison is done should be determined. Third finding is that the slope analysis estimates accurately the cell-to-cell comparison, and is consistent with the impurity analysis. This shows that the slope analysis gives extensive information about the effect of impurity to the zinc-point realization, especially after the cell fabrication.

  16. Critical Point Facility (CPE) Group in the Spacelab Payload Operations Control Center (SL POCC)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The primary payload for Space Shuttle Mission STS-42, launched January 22, 1992, was the International Microgravity Laboratory-1 (IML-1), a pressurized manned Spacelab module. The goal of IML-1 was to explore in depth the complex effects of weightlessness of living organisms and materials processing. Around-the-clock research was performed on the human nervous system's adaptation to low gravity and effects of microgravity on other life forms such as shrimp eggs, lentil seedlings, fruit fly eggs, and bacteria. Materials processing experiments were also conducted, including crystal growth from a variety of substances such as enzymes, mercury iodide, and a virus. The Huntsville Operations Support Center (HOSC) Spacelab Payload Operations Control Center (SL POCC) at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) was the air/ground communication channel used between the astronauts and ground control teams during the Spacelab missions. Featured is the Critical Point Facility (CPE) group in the SL POCC during STS-42, IML-1 mission.

  17. Critical Point Facility (CPF) Team in the Spacelab Payload Operations Control Center (SL POCC)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    The primary payload for Space Shuttle Mission STS-42, launched January 22, 1992, was the International Microgravity Laboratory-1 (IML-1), a pressurized manned Spacelab module. The goal of IML-1 was to explore in depth the complex effects of weightlessness of living organisms and materials processing. Around-the-clock research was performed on the human nervous system's adaptation to low gravity and effects of microgravity on other life forms such as shrimp eggs, lentil seedlings, fruit fly eggs, and bacteria. Materials processing experiments were also conducted, including crystal growth from a variety of substances such as enzymes, mercury iodide, and a virus. The Huntsville Operations Support Center (HOSC) Spacelab Payload Operations Control Center (SL POCC) at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) was the air/ground communication channel used between the astronauts and ground control teams during the Spacelab missions. Featured is the Critical Point Facility (CPF) team in the SL POCC during the IML-1 mission.

  18. 77 FR 66641 - In the Matter of Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc.; Entergy Nuclear Indian Point 2, LLC; Entergy...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY... the Matter of Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc.; Entergy Nuclear Indian Point 2, LLC; Entergy Nuclear Indian Point 3, LLC; Indian Point Nuclear Generating, Units 1, 2, and 3; Director's Decision...

  19. OEPSS operationally efficient propulsion system study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    A final report on the Operationally Efficient Propulsion System Study (OEPSS) is presented. A review of Launch Site Operations, OEPSS objectives, operations support structure, OEPSS Concerns List, and scope of OEPSS are summarized, along with goals of OEPSS technologies, and operations technology levels. Air-augmented ejector/rocket, flash boiling tank pressurization technology, and advanced LH2 turbopump are described. Launch facilities, operations-driven propulsion system architecture, integrated booster propulsion module, turbopump operating conditions, and payload capability using integrated engine elements are addressed among other topics.

  20. Origins of the Human Pointing Gesture: A Training Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Danielle; Behne, Tanya; Lieven, Elena; Tomasello, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Despite its importance in the development of children's skills of social cognition and communication, very little is known about the ontogenetic origins of the pointing gesture. We report a training study in which mothers gave children one month of extra daily experience with pointing as compared with a control group who had extra experience with…

  1. Point and non-point microbial source pollution: A case study of Delhi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jamwal, Priyanka; Mittal, Atul K.; Mouchel, Jean-Marie

    The present study identifies major point and non-point sources of microbial pollution during dry and wet weather in Delhi watershed which is the first prerequisite for planning and management of water quality of the river Yamuna. Fecal coliforms (FC) and fecal streptococci (FS) levels were determined from two types of sources - point source (effluent from sewage treatment plants) and non-point source (stormwater runoff during dry and wet weather). FC and FS levels in the river Yamuna were also monitored, which is an ultimate sink for all microbial loads in Delhi watershed. Effluent from sewage treatment plants (STPs) employing different treatment technologies were evaluated. FC and FS levels greater than the effluent discharge standard (1000 MPN/100 ml) were observed in the effluents from all STPs except “oxidation pond Timarpur”. This study also involved field program for characterization of urban runoff from different land-uses. Results indicated that the microbial quality of urban runoff produced during wet weather from different land-uses was similar to that of raw sewage. Sewage overflows along with human and animal sources were responsible for high FC and FS levels in the runoff samples. Wet weather FC and FS levels in river Yamuna were higher as compared to the dry weather levels suggesting that dilution of the river water during wet weather does not affect its microbiological quality. Thus on the basis of this study it was found that urban runoff also contributes to the microbial quality of the river Yamuna.

  2. Feature extraction and segmentation in medical images by statistical optimization and point operation approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Shuyu; King, Philip; Corona, Enrique; Wilson, Mark P.; Aydin, Kaan; Mitra, Sunanda; Soliz, Peter; Nutter, Brian S.; Kwon, Young H.

    2003-05-01

    Feature extraction is a critical preprocessing step, which influences the outcome of the entire process of developing significant metrics for medical image evaluation. The purpose of this paper is firstly to compare the effect of an optimized statistical feature extraction methodology to a well designed combination of point operations for feature extraction at the preprocessing stage of retinal images for developing useful diagnostic metrics for retinal diseases such as glaucoma and diabetic retinopathy. Segmentation of the extracted features allow us to investigate the effect of occlusion induced by these features on generating stereo disparity mapping and 3-D visualization of the optic cup/disc. Segmentation of blood vessels in the retina also has significant application in generating precise vessel diameter metrics in vascular diseases such as hypertension and diabetic retinopathy for monitoring progression of retinal diseases.

  3. A three-stage Stirling pulse tube cryocooler operating below the critical point of helium-4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, L. M.; Cao, Q.; Zhi, X. Q.; Gan, Z. H.; Yu, Y. B.; Liu, Y.

    2011-10-01

    Precooled phase shifters can significantly enhance the phase shift effect and further improve the performance of pulse tube cryocoolers. A separate three-stage Stirling pulse tube cryocooler (SPTC) with a cold inertance tube was designed and fabricated. Helium-4 instead of the rare helium-3 was used as the working fluid. The cryocooler reached a bottom temperature of 4.97 K with a net cooling power of 25 mW at 6.0 K. The operating frequency was 29.9 Hz and the charging pressure was 0.91 MPa. It is the first time a refrigeration temperature below the critical point of helium-4 was obtained in a three-stage Stirling pulse tube cryocooler.

  4. Point-of-care ultrasonography during rescue operations on board a Polish Medical Air Rescue helicopter.

    PubMed

    Darocha, Tomasz; Gałązkowski, Robert; Sobczyk, Dorota; Żyła, Zbigniew; Drwiła, Rafał

    2014-12-01

    Point-of-care ultrasound examination has been increasingly widely used in pre-hospital care. The use of ultrasound in rescue medicine allows for a quick differential diagnosis, identification of the most important medical emergencies and immediate introduction of targeted treatment. Performing and interpreting a pre-hospital ultrasound examination can improve the accuracy of diagnosis and thus reduce mortality. The authors' own experiences are presented in this paper, which consist in using a portable, hand-held ultrasound apparatus during rescue operations on board a Polish Medical Air Rescue helicopter. The possibility of using an ultrasound apparatus during helicopter rescue service allows for a full professional evaluation of the patient's health condition and enables the patient to be brought to a center with the most appropriate facilities for their condition. PMID:26674604

  5. On the fixed points of monotonic operators in the critical case

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engibaryan, N. B.

    2006-10-01

    We consider the problem of constructing positive fixed points x of monotonic operators \\varphi acting on a cone K in a Banach space E. We assume that \\Vert\\varphi x\\Vert\\le\\Vert x\\Vert+\\gamma, \\gamma>0, for all x\\in K. In the case when \\varphi has a so-called non-trivial dissipation functional we construct a solution in an extension of E, which is a Banach space or a Fréchet space. We consider examples in which we prove the solubility of a conservative integral equation on the half-line with a sum-difference kernel, and of a non-linear integral equation of Urysohn type in the critical case.

  6. Operational point of neural cardiovascular regulation in humans up to 6 months in space.

    PubMed

    Verheyden, B; Liu, J; Beckers, F; Aubert, A E

    2010-03-01

    Entering weightlessness affects central circulation in humans by enhancing venous return and cardiac output. We tested whether the operational point of neural cardiovascular regulation in space sets accordingly to adopt a level close to that found in the ground-based horizontal position. Heart rate (HR), finger blood and brachial blood pressure (BP), and respiratory frequency were collected in 11 astronauts from nine space missions. Recordings were made in supine and standing positions at least 10 days before launch and during spaceflight (days 5-19, 45-67, 77-116, 146-180). Cross-correlation analyses of HR and systolic BP were used to measure three complementary aspects of cardiac baroreflex modulation: 1) baroreflex sensitivity, 2) number of effective baroreflex estimates, and 3) baroreflex time delay. A fixed breathing protocol was performed to measure respiratory sinus arrhythmia and low-frequency power of systolic BP variability. We found that HR and mean arterial pressure did not differ from preflight supine values for up to 6 mo in space. Respiration frequency tended to decrease during prolonged spaceflight. Concerning neural markers of cardiovascular regulation, we observed in-flight adaptations toward homeostatic conditions similar to those found in the ground-based supine position. Surprisingly, this was not the case for baroreflex time delay distribution, which had somewhat longer latencies in space. Except for this finding, our results confirm that the operational point of neural cardiovascular regulation in space sets to a level close to that of an Earth-based supine position. This adaptation level suggests that circulation is chronically relaxed for at least 6 mo in space. PMID:20075261

  7. An IPE back-end study for Turkey Point plant

    SciTech Connect

    Guey, C.; Kabadi, J. )

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes a study of Turkey Point plant's large dry containment as part of a response to the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission's individual plant examination Generic Letter 88-20. Two unique features of Turkey Point containment are discussed. This study includes an evaluation of the containment response to the physical processes occurring during an accident and probabilistic analysis of the spectrum of severe-accident progressions.

  8. Physical constraints, fundamental limits, and optimal locus of operating points for an inverted pendulum based actuated dynamic walker.

    PubMed

    Patnaik, Lalit; Umanand, Loganathan

    2015-10-26

    The inverted pendulum is a popular model for describing bipedal dynamic walking. The operating point of the walker can be specified by the combination of initial mid-stance velocity (v0) and step angle (φm) chosen for a given walk. In this paper, using basic mechanics, a framework of physical constraints that limit the choice of operating points is proposed. The constraint lines thus obtained delimit the allowable region of operation of the walker in the v0-φm plane. A given average forward velocity vx,avg can be achieved by several combinations of v0 and φm. Only one of these combinations results in the minimum mechanical power consumption and can be considered the optimum operating point for the given vx,avg. This paper proposes a method for obtaining this optimal operating point based on tangency of the power and velocity contours. Putting together all such operating points for various vx,avg, a family of optimum operating points, called the optimal locus, is obtained. For the energy loss and internal energy models chosen, the optimal locus obtained has a largely constant step angle with increasing speed but tapers off at non-dimensional speeds close to unity.

  9. The Spectrum of a Harmonic Oscillator Operator Perturbed by Point Interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mityagin, Boris S.

    2015-11-01

    We consider the operator Ly = - (d/dx)2y + x2 y + w(x) y, quad y { in} L2(R), where w(x) = s δ (x - b) + t δ (x + b) , quad b ≠ 0 {real}, quad s, t in C. This operator has a discrete spectrum: eventually the eigenvalues are simple. Their asymptotic is given. In particular, if s=- t, λ n = (2n + 1) + s2 {κ (n)}/{n} + ρ (n) where κ (n) = {1}/{2π } [(-1)^{n + 1} sin (2 b √ {2n} ) - {1}/{2} sin (4 b √ {2n} ) ] and \\vert ρ (n) \\vert ≤ C {log n}/{n^{3/2}}. If overline {s} = -t, the number T( s) of non-real eigenvalues is finite, and T(s) ≤ (C (1 + \\vert s \\vert ) log (e + \\vert s \\vert ) )2. The analogue of the above asymptotic is given in the case of any two-point interaction perturbation.

  10. Tethered Balloon Operations at ARM AMF3 Site at Oliktok Point, AK

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dexheimer, D.; Lucero, D. A.; Helsel, F.; Hardesty, J.; Ivey, M.

    2015-12-01

    Oliktok Point has been the home of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program's (ARM) third ARM Mobile Facility, or AMF3, since October 2013. The AMF3 is operated through Sandia National Laboratories and hosts instrumentation collecting continuous measurements of clouds, aerosols, precipitation, energy, and other meteorological variables. The Arctic region is warming more quickly than any other region due to climate change and Arctic sea ice is declining to record lows. Sparsity of atmospheric data from the Arctic leads to uncertainty in process comprehension, and atmospheric general circulation models (AGCM) are understood to underestimate low cloud presence in the Arctic. Increased vertical resolution of meteorological properties and cloud measurements will improve process understanding and help AGCMs better characterize Arctic clouds. SNL is developing a tethered balloon system capable of regular operation at AMF3 in order to provide increased vertical resolution atmospheric data. The tethered balloon can be operated within clouds at altitudes up to 7,000' AGL within DOE's R-2204 restricted area. Pressure, relative humidity, temperature, wind speed, and wind direction are recorded at multiple altitudes along the tether. These data were validated against stationary met tower data in Albuquerque, NM. The altitudes of the sensors were determined by GPS and calculated using a line counter and clinometer and compared. Wireless wetness sensors and supercooled liquid water content sensors have also been deployed and their data has been compared with other sensors. This presentation will provide an overview of the balloons, sensors, and test flights flown, and will provide a preliminary look at data from sensor validation campaigns and test flights.

  11. 78 FR 4879 - Nine Mile Point 3 Nuclear Project, LLC and UniStar Nuclear Operating Services, LLC Combined...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-23

    ... as described in Federal Register Notice (FRN) 76 FR 32994 (June 7, 2011). The NRC is currently... COMMISSION Nine Mile Point 3 Nuclear Project, LLC and UniStar Nuclear Operating Services, LLC Combined... Nuclear Project, LLC, and UniStar Nuclear Operating Services, LLC (UniStar), submitted a Combined...

  12. The acetabular point: a morphological and ontogenetic study

    PubMed Central

    RISSECH, C.; SAÑUDO, J. R.; MALGOSA, A.

    2001-01-01

    The acetabular point was analysed by studying human pelvic bones from 326 individuals ranging from newborns to age 97 y. The bones were categorised into 3 groups according to the degree of fusion for the 3 elements of the pelvis: nonfused (59), semifused (5) and fused (262). The acetabular point in immature pelvic bones is clearly represented by the point of the fusion lines for each bony element at the level of the acetabular fossa. In adult pelvic bones the acetabular fossa has an irregular clover-leaf shape, the superior lobe being smaller than the anterior and posterior lobes. Cross-sectional analysis of acetabular morphology suggested that the acetabular point in adult pelvic bones is always represented by the indentation between the superior and the anterior lobes of the acetabular fossa. PMID:11465866

  13. Tuning operating point of extrinsic Fabry-Perot interferometric fiber-optic sensors using microstructured fiber and gas pressure.

    PubMed

    Tian, Jiajun; Zhang, Qi; Fink, Thomas; Li, Hong; Peng, Wei; Han, Ming

    2012-11-15

    Intensity-based demodulation of extrinsic Fabry-Perot interferometric (EFPI) fiber-optic sensors requires the light wavelength to be on the quadrature point of the interferometric fringes for maximum sensitivity. In this Letter, we propose a novel and remote operating-point tuning method for EFPI fiber-optic sensors using microstructured fibers (MFs) and gas pressure. We demonstrated the method using a diaphragm-based EFPI sensor with a microstructured lead-in fiber. The holes in the MF were used as gas channels to remotely control the gas pressure inside the Fabry-Perot cavity. Because of the deformation of the diaphragm with gas pressure, the cavity length and consequently the operating point can be remotely tuned for maximum sensitivity. The proposed operating-point tuning method has the advantage of reduced complexity and cost compared to previously reported methods. PMID:23164875

  14. Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points among Chinese Food Business Operators

    PubMed Central

    Amadei, Paolo; Masotti, Gianfranco; Condoleo, Roberto; Guidi, Alessandra

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the present paper is to highlight some critical situations emerged during the implementation of long-term projects locally managed by Prevention Services, to control some manufacturing companies in Rome and Prato, Central Italy. In particular, some critical issues on the application of self-control in marketing and catering held by Chinese operators are underlined. The study showed serious flaws in preparing and controlling of manuals for good hygiene practice, participating of the consultants among food business operators (FBOs) to the control of the procedures. Only after regular actions by the Prevention Services, there have been satisfying results. This confirms the need to have qualified and expert partners able to promptly act among FBOs and to give adequate support to authorities in charge in order to guarantee food safety. PMID:27800356

  15. Estimating the operating point of the cochlear transducer using low-frequency biased distortion products

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Daniel J.; Hartsock, Jared J.; Gill, Ruth M.; Fitzgerald, Hillary E.; Salt, Alec N.

    2009-01-01

    Distortion products in the cochlear microphonic (CM) and in the ear canal in the form of distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs) are generated by nonlinear transduction in the cochlea and are related to the resting position of the organ of Corti (OC). A 4.8 Hz acoustic bias tone was used to displace the OC, while the relative amplitude and phase of distortion products evoked by a single tone [most often 500 Hz, 90 dB SPL (sound pressure level)] or two simultaneously presented tones (most often 4 kHz and 4.8 kHz, 80 dB SPL) were monitored. Electrical responses recorded from the round window, scala tympani and scala media of the basal turn, and acoustic emissions in the ear canal were simultaneously measured and compared during the bias. Bias-induced changes in the distortion products were similar to those predicted from computer models of a saturating transducer with a first-order Boltzmann distribution. Our results suggest that biased DPOAEs can be used to non-invasively estimate the OC displacement, producing a measurement equivalent to the transducer operating point obtained via Boltzmann analysis of the basal turn CM. Low-frequency biased DPOAEs might provide a diagnostic tool to objectively diagnose abnormal displacements of the OC, as might occur with endolymphatic hydrops. PMID:19354389

  16. Results of blue crab studies at Chalk Point. Final report 1978-1979

    SciTech Connect

    Souza, P.A.; Polgar, T.T.; Miller, R.E.; Holland, A.F.

    1980-11-01

    This report summarizes the findings of two years of blue crab tagging studies conducted in the Patuxent estuary near the Chalk Point power plant. This report is organized in the following manner: An introduction and objectives section defines the objectives of the blue crab study, discusses the modes of interaction between blue crabs and power plant operations, and discusses the life history characteristics of blue crabs. A study methods section provides detailed information on tagging and capture operations and on analysis methods. A results section presents the major findings of the study. A discussion and conclusions section interprets and discusses major findings and defines the impacts of power plant operations at Chalk Point on blue crab populations in the Patuxent estuary. A list of references is included.

  17. Evaluating Operational Specifications of Point-of-Care Diagnostic Tests: A Standardized Scorecard

    PubMed Central

    Lehe, Jonathan D.; Sitoe, Nádia E.; Tobaiwa, Ocean; Loquiha, Osvaldo; Quevedo, Jorge I.; Peter, Trevor F.; Jani, Ilesh V.

    2012-01-01

    The expansion of HIV antiretroviral therapy into decentralized rural settings will increasingly require simple point-of-care (POC) diagnostic tests that can be used without laboratory infrastructure and technical skills. New POC test devices are becoming available but decisions around which technologies to deploy may be biased without systematic assessment of their suitability for decentralized healthcare settings. To address this, we developed a standardized, quantitative scorecard tool to objectively evaluate the operational characteristics of POC diagnostic devices. The tool scores devices on a scale of 1–5 across 30 weighted characteristics such as ease of use, quality control, electrical requirements, shelf life, portability, cost and service, and provides a cumulative score that ranks products against a set of ideal POC characteristics. The scorecard was tested on 19 devices for POC CD4 T-lymphocyte cell counting, clinical chemistry or hematology testing. Single and multi-parameter devices were assessed in each of test categories. The scores across all devices ranged from 2.78 to 4.40 out of 5. The tool effectively ranked devices within each category (p<0.01) except the CD4 and multi-parameter hematology products. The tool also enabled comparison of different characteristics between products. Agreement across the four scorers for each product was high (intra-class correlation >0.80; p<0.001). Use of this tool enables the systematic evaluation of diagnostic tests to facilitate product selection and investment in appropriate technology. It is particularly relevant for countries and testing programs considering the adoption of new POC diagnostic tests. PMID:23118871

  18. A highly sensitive and simply operated protease sensor toward point-of-care testing.

    PubMed

    Park, Seonhwa; Shin, Yu Mi; Seo, Jeongwook; Song, Ji-Joon; Yang, Haesik

    2016-04-21

    Protease sensors for point-of-care testing (POCT) require simple operation, a detection period of less than 20 minutes, and a detection limit of less than 1 ng mL(-1). However, it is difficult to meet these requirements with protease sensors that are based on proteolytic cleavage. This paper reports a highly reproducible protease sensor that allows the sensitive and simple electrochemical detection of the botulinum neurotoxin type E light chain (BoNT/E-LC), which is obtained using (i) low nonspecific adsorption, (ii) high signal-to-background ratio, and (iii) one-step solution treatment. The BoNT/E-LC detection is based on two-step proteolytic cleavage using BoNT/E-LC (endopeptidase) and l-leucine-aminopeptidase (LAP, exopeptidase). Indium-tin oxide (ITO) electrodes are modified partially with reduced graphene oxide (rGO) to increase their electrocatalytic activities. Avidin is then adsorbed on the electrodes to minimize the nonspecific adsorption of proteases. Low nonspecific adsorption allows a highly reproducible sensor response. Electrochemical-chemical (EC) redox cycling involving p-aminophenol (AP) and dithiothreitol (DTT) is performed to obtain a high signal-to-background ratio. After adding a C-terminally AP-labeled oligopeptide, DTT, and LAP simultaneously to a sample solution, no further treatment of the solution is necessary during detection. The detection limits of BoNT/E-LC in phosphate-buffered saline are 0.1 ng mL(-1) for an incubation period of 15 min and 5 fg mL(-1) for an incubation period of 4 h. The detection limit in commercial bottled water is 1 ng mL(-1) for an incubation period of 15 min. The developed sensor is selective to BoNT/E-LC among the four types of BoNTs tested. These results indicate that the protease sensor meets the requirements for POCT. PMID:26980003

  19. New Advances in the Study of the Proximal Point Algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moroşanu, Gheorghe

    2010-09-01

    Consider in a real Hilbert space H the inexact, Halpern-type, proximal point algorithm xn+1 = αnu+(1-αn)Jβnxn+en, n = 0,1,…, (H—PPA) where u, x∈H are given points, Jβn = (I+βna) for a given maximal monotone operator A, and (en) is the error sequence, under new assumptions on αn∈(0,1) and βn∈(0,1). Several strong convergence results for the H—PPA are presented under the general condition that the error sequence converges strongly to zero, thus improving the classical Rockafellar's summability condition on (‖en‖) that has been extensively used so far for different versions of the proximal point algorithm. Our results extend and improve some recent ones. These results can be applied to approximate minimizers of convex functionals. Convergence rate estimates are established for a sequence approximating the minimum value of such a functional.

  20. Floating point only SIMD instruction set architecture including compare, select, Boolean, and alignment operations

    DOEpatents

    Gschwind, Michael K.

    2011-03-01

    Mechanisms for implementing a floating point only single instruction multiple data instruction set architecture are provided. A processor is provided that comprises an issue unit, an execution unit coupled to the issue unit, and a vector register file coupled to the execution unit. The execution unit has logic that implements a floating point (FP) only single instruction multiple data (SIMD) instruction set architecture (ISA). The floating point vector registers of the vector register file store both scalar and floating point values as vectors having a plurality of vector elements. The processor may be part of a data processing system.

  1. Orbital transfer vehicle launch operations study. Processing flows. Volume 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    The Orbit Transfer Vehicle (OTV) processing flow and Resource Identification Sheets (RISs) for the ground based orbit transfer vehicle and for the space based orbit transfer vehicle are the primary source of information for the rest of the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) OTV Launch Operations Study. Work is presented which identifies KSC facility requirements for the OTV Program, simplifies or automates either flow though the application technology, revises test practices and identifies crew sizes or skills used. These flows were used as the primary point of departure from current operations and practices. Analyses results were documented by revising the appropriate RIS page.

  2. A path towards uncertainty assignment in an operational cloud-phase algorithm from ARM vertically pointing active sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riihimaki, Laura D.; Comstock, Jennifer M.; Anderson, Kevin K.; Holmes, Aimee; Luke, Edward

    2016-06-01

    Knowledge of cloud phase (liquid, ice, mixed, etc.) is necessary to describe the radiative impact of clouds and their lifetimes, but is a property that is difficult to simulate correctly in climate models. One step towards improving those simulations is to make observations of cloud phase with sufficient accuracy to help constrain model representations of cloud processes. In this study, we outline a methodology using a basic Bayesian classifier to estimate the probabilities of cloud-phase class from Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) vertically pointing active remote sensors. The advantage of this method over previous ones is that it provides uncertainty information on the phase classification. We also test the value of including higher moments of the cloud radar Doppler spectrum than are traditionally used operationally. Using training data of known phase from the Mixed-Phase Arctic Cloud Experiment (M-PACE) field campaign, we demonstrate a proof of concept for how the method can be used to train an algorithm that identifies ice, liquid, mixed phase, and snow. Over 95 % of data are identified correctly for pure ice and liquid cases used in this study. Mixed-phase and snow cases are more problematic to identify correctly. When lidar data are not available, including additional information from the Doppler spectrum provides substantial improvement to the algorithm. This is a first step towards an operational algorithm and can be expanded to include additional categories such as drizzle with additional training data.

  3. A path towards uncertainty assignment in an operational cloud-phase algorithm from ARM vertically pointing active sensors

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Riihimaki, Laura D.; Comstock, Jennifer M.; Anderson, Kevin K.; Holmes, Aimee; Luke, Edward

    2016-06-10

    Knowledge of cloud phase (liquid, ice, mixed, etc.) is necessary to describe the radiative impact of clouds and their lifetimes, but is a property that is difficult to simulate correctly in climate models. One step towards improving those simulations is to make observations of cloud phase with sufficient accuracy to help constrain model representations of cloud processes. In this study, we outline a methodology using a basic Bayesian classifier to estimate the probabilities of cloud-phase class from Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) vertically pointing active remote sensors. The advantage of this method over previous ones is that it provides uncertainty informationmore » on the phase classification. We also test the value of including higher moments of the cloud radar Doppler spectrum than are traditionally used operationally. Using training data of known phase from the Mixed-Phase Arctic Cloud Experiment (M-PACE) field campaign, we demonstrate a proof of concept for how the method can be used to train an algorithm that identifies ice, liquid, mixed phase, and snow. Over 95 % of data are identified correctly for pure ice and liquid cases used in this study. Mixed-phase and snow cases are more problematic to identify correctly. When lidar data are not available, including additional information from the Doppler spectrum provides substantial improvement to the algorithm. This is a first step towards an operational algorithm and can be expanded to include additional categories such as drizzle with additional training data.« less

  4. Providing full point-to-point communications among compute nodes of an operational group in a global combining network of a parallel computer

    DOEpatents

    Archer, Charles J; Faraj, Ahmad A; Inglett, Todd A; Ratterman, Joseph D

    2013-04-16

    Methods, apparatus, and products are disclosed for providing full point-to-point communications among compute nodes of an operational group in a global combining network of a parallel computer, each compute node connected to each adjacent compute node in the global combining network through a link, that include: receiving a network packet in a compute node, the network packet specifying a destination compute node; selecting, in dependence upon the destination compute node, at least one of the links for the compute node along which to forward the network packet toward the destination compute node; and forwarding the network packet along the selected link to the adjacent compute node connected to the compute node through the selected link.

  5. Space Shuttle Proximity Operation Sensor Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weber, C. L.; Alem, W. K.

    1978-01-01

    The performance of the Kuband radar was analyzed in detail, and the performance was updated and summarized. In so doing, two different radar design philosophies were described, and the corresponding differences in losses were enumerated. The resulting design margins were determined for both design philosophies and for both the designated and nondesignated range modes of operation. In some cases, the design margin was about zero, and in other cases it was significantly less than zero. With the point of view described above, the recommended solution is to allow more scan time but at the present scan rate. With no other changes in the present configuration, the radar met design detection specifications for all design philosophies at a range of 11.3 nautical miles.

  6. Particulate emissions calculations from fall tillage operations using point and remote sensors.

    PubMed

    Moore, Kori D; Wojcik, Michael D; Martin, Randal S; Marchant, Christian C; Bingham, Gail E; Pfeiffer, Richard L; Prueger, John H; Hatfield, Jerry L

    2013-07-01

    Soil preparation for agricultural crops produces aerosols that may significantly contribute to seasonal atmospheric particulate matter (PM). Efforts to reduce PM emissions from tillage through a variety of conservation management practices (CMPs) have been made, but the reductions from many of these practices have not been measured in the field. A study was conducted in California's San Joaquin Valley to quantify emissions reductions from fall tillage CMP. Emissions were measured from conventional tillage methods and from a "combined operations" CMP, which combines several implements to reduce tractor passes. Measurements were made of soil moisture, bulk density, meteorological profiles, filter-based total suspended PM (TSP), concentrations of PM with an equivalent aerodynamic diameter ≤10 μm (PM) and PM with an equivalent aerodynamic diameter ≤2.5 μm (PM), and aerosol size distribution. A mass-calibrated, scanning, three-wavelength light detection and ranging (LIDAR) procedure estimated PM through a series of algorithms. Emissions were calculated via inverse modeling with mass concentration measurements and applying a mass balance to LIDAR data. Inverse modeling emission estimates were higher, often with statistically significant differences. Derived PM emissions for conventional operations generally agree with literature values. Sampling irregularities with a few filter-based samples prevented calculation of a complete set of emissions through inverse modeling; however, the LIDAR-based emissions dataset was complete. The CMP control effectiveness was calculated based on LIDAR-derived emissions to be 29 ± 2%, 60 ± 1%, and 25 ± 1% for PM, PM, and TSP size fractions, respectively. Implementation of this CMP provides an effective method for the reduction of PM emissions. PMID:24216354

  7. Lubrication study for Single Point Incremental Forming of Copper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jawale, Kishore; Ferreira Duarte, José; Reis, Ana; Silva, M. B.

    2016-08-01

    In conventional machining and sheet metal forming processes, in general, lubrication assists to increase the quality of the final product. Similarly it is observed that there is a positive effect of the use of lubrication in Single point incremental forming, namely in the surface roughness. This study is focused on the investigation of the most appropriate lubricant for incremental forming of copper sheet. The study involves the selection of the best lubricant from a range of several lubricants that provides the best surface finishing. The influence of the lubrication on other parameters such as the maximum forming angle, the fracture strains and the deformed profile are also studied for Copper.

  8. Early Mission Maneuver Operations for the Deep Space Climate Observatory Sun-Earth L1 Libration Point Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, Craig; Case, Sara; Reagoso, John; Webster, Cassandra

    2015-01-01

    The Deep Space Climate Observatory mission launched on February 11, 2015, and inserted onto a transfer trajectory toward a Lissajous orbit around the Sun-Earth L1 libration point. This paper presents an overview of the baseline transfer orbit and early mission maneuver operations leading up to the start of nominal science orbit operations. In particular, the analysis and performance of the spacecraft insertion, mid-course correction maneuvers, and the deep-space Lissajous orbit insertion maneuvers are discussed, com-paring the baseline orbit with actual mission results and highlighting mission and operations constraints..

  9. Lunar NTR vehicle design and operations study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hodge, John

    1993-01-01

    The results of a lunar nuclear thermal rocket (NTR) vehicle design and operations study are presented in text and graphic form. The objectives of the study were to evaluate the potential applications of a specific NTR design to past and current (First Lunar Outpost) mission profiles for piloted and cargo lunar missions, and to assess the applicability of utilizing lunar vehicle design concepts for Mars missions.

  10. 78 FR 26662 - Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc., Indian Point Nuclear Generating Unit No. 3 Extension of Public...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-07

    ... notice appearing in the Federal Register on April 3, 2013 (78 FR 20144), by extending the original public... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc., Indian Point Nuclear Generating Unit No. 3 Extension of...

  11. Sensor study for high speed autonomous operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, Anne; La Celle, Zachary; Lacaze, Alberto; Murphy, Karl; Del Giorno, Mark; Close, Ryan

    2015-06-01

    As robotic ground systems advance in capabilities and begin to fulfill new roles in both civilian and military life, the limitation of slow operational speed has become a hindrance to the wide-spread adoption of these systems. For example, military convoys are reluctant to employ autonomous vehicles when these systems slow their movement from 60 miles per hour down to 40. However, these autonomous systems must operate at these lower speeds due to the limitations of the sensors they employ. Robotic Research, with its extensive experience in ground autonomy and associated problems therein, in conjunction with CERDEC/Night Vision and Electronic Sensors Directorate (NVESD), has performed a study to specify system and detection requirements; determined how current autonomy sensors perform in various scenarios; and analyzed how sensors should be employed to increase operational speeds of ground vehicles. The sensors evaluated in this study include the state of the art in LADAR/LIDAR, Radar, Electro-Optical, and Infrared sensors, and have been analyzed at high speeds to study their effectiveness in detecting and accounting for obstacles and other perception challenges. By creating a common set of testing benchmarks, and by testing in a wide range of real-world conditions, Robotic Research has evaluated where sensors can be successfully employed today; where sensors fall short; and which technologies should be examined and developed further. This study is the first step to achieve the overarching goal of doubling ground vehicle speeds on any given terrain.

  12. 78 FR 44881 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; York River, Between Yorktown and Gloucester Point, VA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-25

    ... maintenance work on the moveable spans on the Coleman Memorial Bridge. This temporary deviation allows the... operating regulation set out in 33 CFR 117.1025, to facilitate maintenance of the moveable spans on...

  13. Space Operations Center: Shuttle interaction study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    The implication of using the Shuttle with the Space Operation Center (SOC), including constraints that the Shuttle will place upon the SOC design. The study identifies the considerations involved in the use of the Shuttle as a part of the SOC concept, and also identifies the constraints to the SOC imposed by the Shuttle in its interactions with the SOC, and on the design or technical solutions which allow satisfactory accomplishment of the interactions.

  14. 47 CFR 90.471 - Points of operation in internal transmitter control systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... transmitter control systems are not synonymous with dispatch points (See § 90.467) nor with telephone positions which are part of the public, switched telephone network; and the scheme of regulation is to be... the licensee. The fixed position may be part of a private telephone exchange or it may be any...

  15. Computational Analysis of Distance Operators for the Iterative Closest Point Algorithm

    PubMed Central

    Mora-Pascual, Jerónimo M.; García-García, Alberto; Martínez-González, Pablo

    2016-01-01

    The Iterative Closest Point (ICP) algorithm is currently one of the most popular methods for rigid registration so that it has become the standard in the Robotics and Computer Vision communities. Many applications take advantage of it to align 2D/3D surfaces due to its popularity and simplicity. Nevertheless, some of its phases present a high computational cost thus rendering impossible some of its applications. In this work, it is proposed an efficient approach for the matching phase of the Iterative Closest Point algorithm. This stage is the main bottleneck of that method so that any efficiency improvement has a great positive impact on the performance of the algorithm. The proposal consists in using low computational cost point-to-point distance metrics instead of classic Euclidean one. The candidates analysed are the Chebyshev and Manhattan distance metrics due to their simpler formulation. The experiments carried out have validated the performance, robustness and quality of the proposal. Different experimental cases and configurations have been set up including a heterogeneous set of 3D figures, several scenarios with partial data and random noise. The results prove that an average speed up of 14% can be obtained while preserving the convergence properties of the algorithm and the quality of the final results. PMID:27768714

  16. 78 FR 20144 - Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc., Indian Point Nuclear Generating Unit 3

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-03

    ... exemption and FONSI were published in the Federal Register (FR) on the same day the exemption was issued (72 FR 55254). The exemption was then implemented at Indian Point Unit 3. A draft EA for public comment.... See 75 FR 20248 (April 19, 2010). That 2010 rulemaking expanded the scope of an existing...

  17. Operational Implementation of the Healthy Communities Study

    PubMed Central

    John, Lisa V.; Gregoriou, Maria; Pate, Russell R.; Fawcett, Stephen B.; Crawford, Patricia B.; Strauss, Warren; Frongillo, Edward A.; Ritchie, Lorrene D.; Loria, Catherine M.; Kelley, Melinda; Fishbein, Howard; Arteaga, S. Sonia

    2015-01-01

    The Healthy Communities Study (HCS) is examining how characteristics of community programs and policies targeting childhood obesity are related to childhood diet, physical activity, and obesity outcomes. The study involves selected districts and public schools in 130 communities; families recruited through schools; and data collected at the community, school, household, and child levels. Data collection took place in two waves—Wave 1 in Spring 2012 and Wave 2 from 2013 to 2015—with analysis to be completed by August 2016. This paper describes operational elements of the HCS, including recruitment activities, field operations, training of data collectors, human subjects protection, and quality assurance and quality control procedures. Experienced trainers oversaw and conducted all training, including training of: (1) district and school recruitment staff; (2) telephone interviewers for household screening and recruitment; (3) field data collectors for conducting household data collection; and (4) community liaisons for conducting key informant interviews, document abstraction, and community observations. The study team developed quality assurance and quality control procedures that were implemented for all aspects of the study. Planning and operationalizing a study of this complexity and magnitude, with multiple functional teams, required frequent communication and strong collaboration among all study partners to ensure timely and effective decision making. PMID:26384933

  18. A survey of ground operations tools developed to simulate the pointing of space telescopes and the design for WISE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fabinsky, Beth

    2006-01-01

    WISE, the Wide Field Infrared Survey Explorer, is scheduled for launch in June 2010. The mission operations system for WISE requires a software modeling tool to help plan, integrate and simulate all spacecraft pointing and verify that no attitude constraints are violated. In the course of developing the requirements for this tool, an investigation was conducted into the design of similar tools for other space-based telescopes. This paper summarizes the ground software and processes used to plan and validate pointing for a selection of space telescopes; with this information as background, the design for WISE is presented.

  19. Surgeon point-of-view recording: Using a high-definition head-mounted video camera in the operating room

    PubMed Central

    Nair, Akshay Gopinathan; Kamal, Saurabh; Dave, Tarjani Vivek; Mishra, Kapil; Reddy, Harsha S; Rocca, David Della; Rocca, Robert C Della; Andron, Aleza; Jain, Vandana

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To study the utility of a commercially available small, portable ultra-high definition (HD) camera (GoPro Hero 4) for intraoperative recording. Methods: A head mount was used to fix the camera on the operating surgeon's head. Due care was taken to protect the patient's identity. The recorded video was subsequently edited and used as a teaching tool. This retrospective, noncomparative study was conducted at three tertiary eye care centers. The surgeries recorded were ptosis correction, ectropion correction, dacryocystorhinostomy, angular dermoid excision, enucleation, blepharoplasty and lid tear repair surgery (one each). The recorded videos were reviewed, edited, and checked for clarity, resolution, and reproducibility. Results: The recorded videos were found to be high quality, which allowed for zooming and visualization of the surgical anatomy clearly. Minimal distortion is a drawback that can be effectively addressed during postproduction. The camera, owing to its lightweight and small size, can be mounted on the surgeon's head, thus offering a unique surgeon point-of-view. In our experience, the results were of good quality and reproducible. Conclusions: A head-mounted ultra-HD video recording system is a cheap, high quality, and unobtrusive technique to record surgery and can be a useful teaching tool in external facial and ophthalmic plastic surgery. PMID:26655001

  20. First-principles study of point defects in thorium carbide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez Daroca, D.; Jaroszewicz, S.; Llois, A. M.; Mosca, H. O.

    2014-11-01

    Thorium-based materials are currently being investigated in relation with their potential utilization in Generation-IV reactors as nuclear fuels. One of the most important issues to be studied is their behavior under irradiation. A first approach to this goal is the study of point defects. By means of first-principles calculations within the framework of density functional theory, we study the stability and formation energies of vacancies, interstitials and Frenkel pairs in thorium carbide. We find that C isolated vacancies are the most likely defects, while C interstitials are energetically favored as compared to Th ones. These kind of results for ThC, to the best authors' knowledge, have not been obtained previously, neither experimentally, nor theoretically. For this reason, we compare with results on other compounds with the same NaCl-type structure.

  1. Operation of a low temperature absorption chiller at rating point and at reduced evaporator temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Best, R.; Biermann, W.; Reimann, R. C.

    1985-01-01

    The returned fifteen ton Solar Absorption Machine (SAM) 015 chiller was given a cursory visual inspection, some obvious problems were remedied, and then it was placed on a test stand to get a measure of dirty performance. It was then given a standard acid clean, the water side of the tubes was brushed clean, and then the machine was retested. The before and after cleaning data were compared to equivalent data taken before the machine was shipped. The second part of the work statement was to experimentally demonstrate the technical feasibility of operating the chiller at evaporator temperatures below 0(0)C (32(0)F) and identify any operational problems.

  2. Partial difference operators on weighted graphs for image processing on surfaces and point clouds.

    PubMed

    Lozes, Francois; Elmoataz, Abderrahim; Lezoray, Olivier

    2014-09-01

    Partial difference equations (PDEs) and variational methods for image processing on Euclidean domains spaces are very well established because they permit to solve a large range of real computer vision problems. With the recent advent of many 3D sensors, there is a growing interest in transposing and solving PDEs on surfaces and point clouds. In this paper, we propose a simple method to solve such PDEs using the framework of PDEs on graphs. This latter approach enables us to transcribe, for surfaces and point clouds, many models and algorithms designed for image processing. To illustrate our proposal, three problems are considered: (1) p -Laplacian restoration and inpainting; (2) PDEs mathematical morphology; and (3) active contours segmentation.

  3. Temperature Effects of Point Sources, Riparian Shading, and Dam Operations on the Willamette River, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rounds, Stewart A.

    2007-01-01

    Water temperature is an important factor influencing the migration, rearing, and spawning of several important fish species in rivers of the Pacific Northwest. To protect these fish populations and to fulfill its responsibilities under the Federal Clean Water Act, the Oregon Department of Environmental Quality set a water temperature Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) in 2006 for the Willamette River and the lower reaches of its largest tributaries in northwestern Oregon. As a result, the thermal discharges of the largest point sources of heat to the Willamette River now are limited at certain times of the year, riparian vegetation has been targeted for restoration, and upstream dams are recognized as important influences on downstream temperatures. Many of the prescribed point-source heat-load allocations are sufficiently restrictive that management agencies may need to expend considerable resources to meet those allocations. Trading heat allocations among point-source dischargers may be a more economical and efficient means of meeting the cumulative point-source temperature limits set by the TMDL. The cumulative nature of these limits, however, precludes simple one-to-one trades of heat from one point source to another; a more detailed spatial analysis is needed. In this investigation, the flow and temperature models that formed the basis of the Willamette temperature TMDL were used to determine a spatially indexed 'heating signature' for each of the modeled point sources, and those signatures then were combined into a user-friendly, spreadsheet-based screening tool. The Willamette River Point-Source Heat-Trading Tool allows the user to increase or decrease the heating signature of each source and thereby evaluate the effects of a wide range of potential point-source heat trades. The predictions of the Trading Tool were verified by running the Willamette flow and temperature models under four different trading scenarios, and the predictions typically were accurate

  4. 77 FR 36015 - Atomic Safety and Licensing Board; Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc. (Indian Point Nuclear...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-15

    ... FR 55,834 (Oct. 1, 2007). \\2\\ Establishment of Atomic Safety and Licensing Board, 72 FR 60,394 (Oct... and 3); Notice of Atomic Safety and Licensing Board Reconstitution, 77 FR 22,361 (Apr. 13, 2012). On... Renewal of Facility Operating License Nos. DPR-26 and DPR-64 for an Additional 20-Year Period, 72 FR...

  5. 78 FR 33223 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; York River, Between Yorktown and Gloucester Point, VA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-04

    ... draw of the US 17/George P. Coleman Memorial Swing Bridge across the York River, mile 7.0, between... the George P. Coleman Memorial Swing Bridge. This temporary deviation allows the drawbridge to remain.... Under the regular operating schedule, the Coleman Memorial Bridge, mile 7.0, between Gloucester...

  6. Point defects in thorium nitride: A first-principles study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez Daroca, D.; Llois, A. M.; Mosca, H. O.

    2016-11-01

    Thorium and its compounds (carbides and nitrides) are being investigated as possible materials to be used as nuclear fuels for Generation-IV reactors. As a first step in the research of these materials under irradiation, we study the formation energies and stability of point defects in thorium nitride by means of first-principles calculations within the framework of density functional theory. We focus on vacancies, interstitials, Frenkel pairs and Schottky defects. We found that N and Th vacancies have almost the same formation energy and that the most energetically favorable defects of all studied in this work are N interstitials. These kind of results for ThN, to the best authors' knowledge, have not been obtained previously, neither experimentally, nor theoretically.

  7. Analysis of turbine stator adjustment required for compressor design-point operation in high Mach number supersonic turbojet engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    English, Robert E; Cavicchi, Richard H

    1953-01-01

    For turbojet engines designed for flight Mach numbers of 2.5 and 3.0, use of turbine stator adjustment to maintain compressor design-point operation was evaluated analytically to determine the effect on the aerodynamics of the turbine. Since the effect of turbine stator adjustment is to make the turbine design sensitive to the particular engine design conditions selected, in some cases the turbine must be conservatively designed for the high-speed flight condition to assure satisfactory turbine performance at take-off. A new concept, the break-even point, is introduced to provide quick evaluation of the proximity of turbines to the blade-loading limit at any off-design operation.

  8. On the Origins of Pointing in Infancy: A Pilot Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butterworth, George; Adamson-Macedo, Elvidina

    Observations were made of the incidence of pointing behavior among infants differing in age when a radio-controlled truck entered the room in which mother and infant were seated. Infants' reactions over 5 to 6 minutes were recorded on videotape. Recordings were analyzed to establish the incidence of pointing, handedness of pointing, whether…

  9. Integrated Operations Architecture Technology Assessment Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    As part of NASA's Integrated Operations Architecture (IOA) Baseline, NASA will consolidate all communications operations. including ground-based, near-earth, and deep-space communications, into a single integrated network. This network will make maximum use of commercial equipment, services and standards. It will be an Internet Protocol (IP) based network. This study supports technology development planning for the IOA. The technical problems that may arise when LEO mission spacecraft interoperate with commercial satellite services were investigated. Commercial technology and services that could support the IOA were surveyed, and gaps in the capability of existing technology and techniques were identified. Recommendations were made on which gaps should be closed by means of NASA research and development funding. Several findings emerged from the interoperability assessment: in the NASA mission set, there is a preponderance of small. inexpensive, low data rate science missions; proposed commercial satellite communications services could potentially provide TDRSS-like data relay functions; and. IP and related protocols, such as TCP, require augmentation to operate in the mobile networking environment required by the space-to-ground portion of the IOA. Five case studies were performed in the technology assessment. Each case represented a realistic implementation of the near-earth portion of the IOA. The cases included the use of frequencies at L-band, Ka-band and the optical spectrum. The cases also represented both space relay architectures and direct-to-ground architectures. Some of the main recommendations resulting from the case studies are: select an architecture for the LEO/MEO communications network; pursue the development of a Ka-band space-qualified transmitter (and possibly a receiver), and a low-cost Ka-band ground terminal for a direct-to-ground network, pursue the development of an Inmarsat (L-band) space-qualified transceiver to implement a global, low

  10. Pressure-independent point in current-voltage characteristics of coplanar electrode microplasma devices operated in neon

    SciTech Connect

    Meng Lingguo; Lin Zhaojun; Xing Jianping; Liang Zhihu; Liu Chunliang

    2010-05-10

    We introduce the idea of a pressure-independent point (PIP) in a group of current-voltage curves for the coplanar electrode microplasma device (CEMPD) at neon pressures ranging from 15 to 95 kPa. We studied four samples of CEMPDs with different sizes of the microcavity and observed the PIP phenomenon for each sample. The PIP voltage depends on the area of the microcavity and is independent of the height of the microcavity. The PIP discharge current, I{sub PIP}, is proportional to the volume (Vol) of the microcavity and can be expressed by the formula I{sub PIP}=I{sub PIP0}+DxVol. For our samples, I{sub PIP0} (the discharge current when Vol is zero) is about zero and D (discharge current density) is about 3.95 mA mm{sup -3}. The error in D is 0.411 mA mm{sup -3} (less than 11% of D). When the CEMPD operates at V{sub PIP}, the discharge current is quite stable under different neon pressures.

  11. Common Operating Picture: UAV Security Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This initial communication security study is a top-level assessment of basic security issues related to the operation of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) in the National Airspace System (NAS). Security considerations will include information relating to the use of International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) Aeronautical Telecommunications Network (ATN) protocols and applications identifying their maturity, as well as the use of IPV4 and a version of mobile IPV6. The purpose of this assessment is to provide an initial analysis of the security implications of introducing UAVs into the NAS.

  12. Surfactant studies for bench-scale operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hickey, Gregory S.; Sharma, Pramod K.

    1992-01-01

    A phase 2 study was initiated to investigate surfactant-assisted coal liquefaction, with the objective of quantifying the enhancement in liquid yields and product quality. This publication covers the first quarter of work. The major accomplishments were: the refurbishment of the high-pressure, high-temperature reactor autoclave, the completion of four coal liquefaction runs with Pittsburgh #8 coal, two each with and without sodium lignosulfonate surfactant, and the development of an analysis scheme for the product liquid filtrate and filter cake. Initial results at low reactor temperatures show that the addition of the surfactant produces an improvement in conversion yields and an increase in lighter boiling point fractions for the filtrate.

  13. Surfactant studies for bench-scale operation

    SciTech Connect

    Hickey, G.S.; Sharma, P.K.

    1992-12-30

    A phase II study has been initiated to investigate surfactant-assisted coal liquefaction, with the objective of quantifying the enhancement in liquid yields and product quality. This publication covers the first quarter of work. The major accomplishments were: (1) the refurbishment of the high-pressure, high-temperature reactor autoclave, (2) the completion of four coal liquefaction runs with Pittsburgh [number sign]8 coal, two each with and without sodium lignosulfonate surfactant, and (3) the development of an analysis scheme for the product liquid filtrate and filter cake. Initial results at low reactor temperatures show that the addition of the surfactant produces an improvement in conversion yields and an increase in lighter boiling point fractions for the filtrate.

  14. Study on Thickness Effect of Three-Point-Bend Specimen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kikuchi, Masanori; Ishihara, Takehito

    The thickness effect of a three-point-bend (3PB) specimen on dimple fracture behavior is studied experimentally and numerically. At first, fracture toughness tests were conducted using 3PB specimens of different thicknesses. Fracture toughness values and R-curves are obtained, and the thickness effect is discussed. Using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), dimple fracture surfaces are observed precisely. It is found that the thickness effect appears clearly in the void growth process. Finite element (FEM) analyses are conducted based on these experimental data. Using Gurson’s constitutive equation, the nucleation and growth of voids during the dimple fracture process are simulated. The distribution patterns of stress triaxiality and the crack growth process are obtained. The results show a good agreement with experimental ones qualitatively. The effects of specimen thickness on R-curves are explained well on the basis of these numerical simulations.

  15. Critical sampling points methodology: case studies of geographically diverse watersheds.

    PubMed

    Strobl, Robert O; Robillard, Paul D; Debels, Patrick

    2007-06-01

    Only with a properly designed water quality monitoring network can data be collected that can lead to accurate information extraction. One of the main components of water quality monitoring network design is the allocation of sampling locations. For this purpose, a design methodology, called critical sampling points (CSP), has been developed for the determination of the critical sampling locations in small, rural watersheds with regard to total phosphorus (TP) load pollution. It considers hydrologic, topographic, soil, vegetative, and land use factors. The objective of the monitoring network design in this methodology is to identify the stream locations which receive the greatest TP loads from the upstream portions of a watershed. The CSP methodology has been translated into a model, called water quality monitoring station analysis (WQMSA), which integrates a geographic information system (GIS) for the handling of the spatial aspect of the data, a hydrologic/water quality simulation model for TP load estimation, and fuzzy logic for improved input data representation. In addition, the methodology was purposely designed to be useful in diverse rural watersheds, independent of geographic location. Three watershed case studies in Pennsylvania, Amazonian Ecuador, and central Chile were examined. Each case study offered a different degree of data availability. It was demonstrated that the developed methodology could be successfully used in all three case studies. The case studies suggest that the CSP methodology, in form of the WQMSA model, has potential in applications world-wide.

  16. Intracellular calcium affects prestin's voltage operating point indirectly via turgor-induced membrane tension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Lei; Santos-Sacchi, Joseph

    2015-12-01

    Recent identification of a calmodulin binding site within prestin's C-terminus indicates that calcium can significantly alter prestin's operating voltage range as gauged by the Boltzmann parameter Vh (Keller et al., J. Neuroscience, 2014). We reasoned that those experiments may have identified the molecular substrate for the protein's tension sensitivity. In an effort to understand how this may happen, we evaluated the effects of turgor pressure on such shifts produced by calcium. We find that the shifts are induced by calcium's ability to reduce turgor pressure during whole cell voltage clamp recording. Clamping turgor pressure to 1kPa, the cell's normal intracellular pressure, completely counters the calcium effect. Furthermore, following unrestrained shifts, collapsing the cells abolishes induced shifts. We conclude that calcium does not work by direct action on prestin's conformational state. The possibility remains that calcium interaction with prestin alters water movements within the cell, possibly via its anion transport function.

  17. A Data Filter for Identifying Steady-State Operating Points in Engine Flight Data for Condition Monitoring Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, Donald L.; Litt, Jonathan S.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents an algorithm that automatically identifies and extracts steady-state engine operating points from engine flight data. It calculates the mean and standard deviation of select parameters contained in the incoming flight data stream. If the standard deviation of the data falls below defined constraints, the engine is assumed to be at a steady-state operating point, and the mean measurement data at that point are archived for subsequent condition monitoring purposes. The fundamental design of the steady-state data filter is completely generic and applicable for any dynamic system. Additional domain-specific logic constraints are applied to reduce data outliers and variance within the collected steady-state data. The filter is designed for on-line real-time processing of streaming data as opposed to post-processing of the data in batch mode. Results of applying the steady-state data filter to recorded helicopter engine flight data are shown, demonstrating its utility for engine condition monitoring applications.

  18. Chandra X-Ray Observatory Pointing Control System Performance During Transfer Orbit and Initial On-Orbit Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quast, Peter; Tung, Frank; West, Mark; Wider, John

    2000-01-01

    The Chandra X-ray Observatory (CXO, formerly AXAF) is the third of the four NASA great observatories. It was launched from Kennedy Space Flight Center on 23 July 1999 aboard the Space Shuttle Columbia and was successfully inserted in a 330 x 72,000 km orbit by the Inertial Upper Stage (IUS). Through a series of five Integral Propulsion System burns, CXO was placed in a 10,000 x 139,000 km orbit. After initial on-orbit checkout, Chandra's first light images were unveiled to the public on 26 August, 1999. The CXO Pointing Control and Aspect Determination (PCAD) subsystem is designed to perform attitude control and determination functions in support of transfer orbit operations and on-orbit science mission. After a brief description of the PCAD subsystem, the paper highlights the PCAD activities during the transfer orbit and initial on-orbit operations. These activities include: CXO/IUS separation, attitude and gyro bias estimation with earth sensor and sun sensor, attitude control and disturbance torque estimation for delta-v burns, momentum build-up due to gravity gradient and solar pressure, momentum unloading with thrusters, attitude initialization with star measurements, gyro alignment calibration, maneuvering and transition to normal pointing, and PCAD pointing and stability performance.

  19. An Optimization Study of Hot Stamping Operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghoo, Bonyoung; Umezu, Yasuyoshi; Watanabe, Yuko; Ma, Ninshu; Averill, Ron

    2010-06-01

    In the present study, 3-dimensional finite element analyses for hot-stamping processes of Audi B-pillar product are conducted using JSTAMP/NV and HEEDS. Special attention is paid to the optimization of simulation technology coupling with thermal-mechanical formulations. Numerical simulation based on FEM technology and optimization design using the hybrid adaptive SHERPA algorithm are applied to hot stamping operation to improve productivity. The robustness of the SHERPA algorithm is found through the results of the benchmark example. The SHERPA algorithm is shown to be far superior to the GA (Genetic Algorithm) in terms of efficiency, whose calculation time is about 7 times faster than that of the GA. The SHERPA algorithm could show high performance in a large scale problem having complicated design space and long calculation time.

  20. Point Contact Andreev Reflection Studies on Iron Pnictide Superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiaohang; Saha, S. R.; Butch, N. P.; Kirshenbaum, K.; Paglione, J.; Greene, R. L.; Takeuchi, I.; Oh, Y.-S.; Liu, Y.; Yan, L. Q.; Kim, K.-H.

    2011-03-01

    We have systematically investigated the temperature, doping and the directional dependence of the gap structure for various types of single crystal iron pnictide superconductors by point contact Andreev reflection spectroscopy. Our studies were performed on highly transparent junctions evidenced by sharp and dramatic conductance enhancements at low temperatures. For the 122 family, despite some small features occasionally observed on the spectroscopy curves which may originate from the multiband superconductivity, a more conclusive characteristic of our obtained spectra is the presence of one predominant superconducting gap. By applying the BTK model, we find that the determined gap size scales well with the transition temperature, resulting in the 2 Δ / kBTC value of ~ 3.1 for both potassium doped and cobalt doped single crystals. Directional studies suggest that this gap is highly isotropic. Results on chalcogenide and nickel doped 122 superconductors will also be discussed. [X. H. Zhang et al., Phys. Rev. B 81, 024518 (2010)]. Supported by CNAM and NSF DMR-0653535.

  1. Chalk Point steam electric station studies Patuxent Estuary studies: ichthyoplankton population studies, 1979. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Mihursky, J.A.; Wood, K.V.; Kerig, S.; Setzler-Hamilton, E.M.

    1980-04-01

    Two years of riverwide ichthyoplankton data were collected as a part of a series of studies at the Chalk Point Steam Electric Station (SES) to contribute data necessary to evaluate information to be presented in the 316 variance demonstration document scheduled for Units 1 and 2 of this facility during 1981. These studies also provided information on the regional spatial and temporal distribution of fish eggs and larvae required to put nearfield studies conducted by the Potomac Electric Power Company into regional context. The principal species collected were white perch, striped bass, bay anchovy, sliversides, naked goby, yellow perch, and clupeids.

  2. [Garbage incineration plants -- planning, organisation and operation from health point of view].

    PubMed

    Thriene, B

    2004-12-01

    The Waste Disposal Regulation which became effective March 1, 2001 stipulates that from June 1, 2005 biodegradable residential household and commercial waste may only be deposited on landfills after thermal or mechanical-biological pre-treatment. The Regulation aims at preventing generation of landfill gases that are detrimental to health and climate, and discharge of pollutants from landfills into the groundwater. Waste calculations for the year 2005 predict a volume of 28 million tons. Existing incineration and mechanical-biological treatment plants cover volumes of 14 and 2.5 million tons, respectively. Consequently, their capacity does not meet the demand in Germany. Waste disposal plans have been prepared in the German Federal State of Saxony-Anhalt since 1996 and potential sites for garbage incineration plants have been identified. Energy and waste management companies have initiated application procedures for thermal waste treatment plants and utilization of energy. Health Departments and the Hygiene Institute contributed to the approval procedure by providing the required Health Impact Assessment. We recommended selecting sites in the vicinity of large cities and conurbations and - taking into account the main wind direction - preferably in the northeast. Long-distance transport should be avoided. Based on immission forecasts for territorial background pollution, additional noise and air pollution were examined for reasonableness. In addition, providing structural safety of plants and guaranteeing continuous monitoring of emission limit values of air pollutants, was a prerequisite for strict observance of the 17 (th) BImSchV (Federal Decree on the Prevention of Immissions). The paper informs about planning, construction and conditions for operating the combined garbage heating and power station in Magdeburg-Rothensee (600,000 t/a). Saxony-Anhalt's waste legislation requires non-recyclable waste to be disposed of at the place of its generation, if possible

  3. [Garbage incineration plants -- planning, organisation and operation from health point of view].

    PubMed

    Thriene, B

    2004-12-01

    The Waste Disposal Regulation which became effective March 1, 2001 stipulates that from June 1, 2005 biodegradable residential household and commercial waste may only be deposited on landfills after thermal or mechanical-biological pre-treatment. The Regulation aims at preventing generation of landfill gases that are detrimental to health and climate, and discharge of pollutants from landfills into the groundwater. Waste calculations for the year 2005 predict a volume of 28 million tons. Existing incineration and mechanical-biological treatment plants cover volumes of 14 and 2.5 million tons, respectively. Consequently, their capacity does not meet the demand in Germany. Waste disposal plans have been prepared in the German Federal State of Saxony-Anhalt since 1996 and potential sites for garbage incineration plants have been identified. Energy and waste management companies have initiated application procedures for thermal waste treatment plants and utilization of energy. Health Departments and the Hygiene Institute contributed to the approval procedure by providing the required Health Impact Assessment. We recommended selecting sites in the vicinity of large cities and conurbations and - taking into account the main wind direction - preferably in the northeast. Long-distance transport should be avoided. Based on immission forecasts for territorial background pollution, additional noise and air pollution were examined for reasonableness. In addition, providing structural safety of plants and guaranteeing continuous monitoring of emission limit values of air pollutants, was a prerequisite for strict observance of the 17 (th) BImSchV (Federal Decree on the Prevention of Immissions). The paper informs about planning, construction and conditions for operating the combined garbage heating and power station in Magdeburg-Rothensee (600,000 t/a). Saxony-Anhalt's waste legislation requires non-recyclable waste to be disposed of at the place of its generation, if possible

  4. Orbital transfer vehicle launch operations study. Volume 1: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    The purpose was to use the operational experience at the launch site to identify, describe and quantify the operational impacts of the various configurations on the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and/or space station launch sites. Orbital Transfer Vehicle (OTV) configurations are being developed/defined by contractor teams. Lacking an approved configuration, the KSC Study Team defined a Reference Configuration to be used for this study. This configuration then become the baseline for the identification of the facilities, personnel and crew skills required for processing the OTV in a realistic manner that would help NASA achieve the lowest possible OTV life cycle costs. As the study progressed, researchers' initial apraisal that the vehicle, when delivered, would be a sophisticated, state-of-the-art vehicle was reinforced. It would be recovered and reused many times so the primary savings to be gained would be in the recurring-cycle of the vehicle operations--even to the point where it would be beneficial to break from tradition and make a significant expenditure in the development of processing facilities at the beginning of the program.

  5. Study of freezing-point depression of selected food extracts

    SciTech Connect

    Tanaka, Fumihiko; Murata, Satoshi; Habara, Kazuhiro; Amaratunga, K.S.P.

    1996-12-31

    The phenomenon of freezing-point depression that accompanies the solute concentration of selected food extracts was investigated to reveal the characteristics of solid-liquid phase equilibrium. The freezing curves of various food extracts did not exhibit ideal solution behavior in the higher concentration range. The experimental data were fitted to new freezing-point depression equations by the method of nonlinear least squares, and the results clearly indicated that the calculated freezing points at various concentrations were in good agreement with the experimental data. Furthermore, by using the determined parameters, the freezing ratio and the activation coefficient were derived.

  6. Operationally efficient propulsion system study (OEPSS) data book. Volume 6; Space Transfer Propulsion Operational Efficiency Study Task of OEPSS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harmon, Timothy J.

    1992-01-01

    This document is the final report for the Space Transfer Propulsion Operational Efficiency Study Task of the Operationally Efficient Propulsion System Study (OEPSS) conducted by the Rocketdyne Division of Rockwell International. This Study task studied, evaluated and identified design concepts and technologies which minimized launch and in-space operations and optimized in-space vehicle propulsion system operability.

  7. The use of experimental design to find the operating maximum power point of PEM fuel cells

    SciTech Connect

    Crăciunescu, Aurelian; Pătularu, Laurenţiu; Ciumbulea, Gloria; Olteanu, Valentin; Pitorac, Cristina; Drugan, Elena

    2015-03-10

    Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) Fuel Cells are difficult to model due to their complex nonlinear nature. In this paper, the development of a PEM Fuel Cells mathematical model based on the Design of Experiment methodology is described. The Design of Experiment provides a very efficient methodology to obtain a mathematical model for the studied multivariable system with only a few experiments. The obtained results can be used for optimization and control of the PEM Fuel Cells systems.

  8. Short-term scheduling of crude oil operations in refinery with high-fusion-point oil and two transportation pipelines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, NaiQi; Zhu, MengChu; Bai, LiPing; Li, ZhiWu

    2016-07-01

    In some refineries, storage tanks are located at two different sites, one for low-fusion-point crude oil and the other for high one. Two pipelines are used to transport different oil types. Due to the constraints resulting from the high-fusion-point oil transportation, it is challenging to schedule such a system. This work studies the scheduling problem from a control-theoretic perspective. It proposes to use a hybrid Petri net method to model the system. It then finds the schedulability conditions by analysing the dynamic behaviour of the net model. Next, it proposes an efficient scheduling method to minimize the cost of high-fusion-point oil transportation. Finally, it gives a complex industrial case study to show its application.

  9. A Study of Actions in Operative Notes

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yan; Pakhomov, Serguei; Burkart, Nora E.; Ryan, James O.; Melton, Genevieve B.

    2012-01-01

    Operative notes contain rich information about techniques, instruments, and materials used in procedures. To assist development of effective information extraction (IE) techniques for operative notes, we investigated the sublanguage used to describe actions within the operative report ‘procedure description’ section. Deep parsing results of 362,310 operative notes with an expanded Stanford parser using the SPECIALIST Lexicon resulted in 200 verbs (92% coverage) including 147 action verbs. Nominal action predicates for each action verb were gathered from WordNet, SPECIALIST Lexicon, New Oxford American Dictionary and Stedman’s Medical Dictionary. Coverage gaps were seen in existing lexical, domain, and semantic resources (Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) Metathesaurus, SPECIALIST Lexicon, WordNet and FrameNet). Our findings demonstrate the need to construct surgical domain-specific semantic resources for IE from operative notes. PMID:23304423

  10. A study of actions in operative notes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yan; Pakhomov, Serguei; Burkart, Nora E; Ryan, James O; Melton, Genevieve B

    2012-01-01

    Operative notes contain rich information about techniques, instruments, and materials used in procedures. To assist development of effective information extraction (IE) techniques for operative notes, we investigated the sublanguage used to describe actions within the operative report 'procedure description' section. Deep parsing results of 362,310 operative notes with an expanded Stanford parser using the SPECIALIST Lexicon resulted in 200 verbs (92% coverage) including 147 action verbs. Nominal action predicates for each action verb were gathered from WordNet, SPECIALIST Lexicon, New Oxford American Dictionary and Stedman's Medical Dictionary. Coverage gaps were seen in existing lexical, domain, and semantic resources (Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) Metathesaurus, SPECIALIST Lexicon, WordNet and FrameNet). Our findings demonstrate the need to construct surgical domain-specific semantic resources for IE from operative notes. PMID:23304423

  11. A study of actions in operative notes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yan; Pakhomov, Serguei; Burkart, Nora E; Ryan, James O; Melton, Genevieve B

    2012-01-01

    Operative notes contain rich information about techniques, instruments, and materials used in procedures. To assist development of effective information extraction (IE) techniques for operative notes, we investigated the sublanguage used to describe actions within the operative report 'procedure description' section. Deep parsing results of 362,310 operative notes with an expanded Stanford parser using the SPECIALIST Lexicon resulted in 200 verbs (92% coverage) including 147 action verbs. Nominal action predicates for each action verb were gathered from WordNet, SPECIALIST Lexicon, New Oxford American Dictionary and Stedman's Medical Dictionary. Coverage gaps were seen in existing lexical, domain, and semantic resources (Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) Metathesaurus, SPECIALIST Lexicon, WordNet and FrameNet). Our findings demonstrate the need to construct surgical domain-specific semantic resources for IE from operative notes.

  12. Airborne Precision Spacing for Dependent Parallel Operations Interface Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Volk, Paul M.; Takallu, M. A.; Hoffler, Keith D.; Weiser, Jarold; Turner, Dexter

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes a usability study of proposed cockpit interfaces to support Airborne Precision Spacing (APS) operations for aircraft performing dependent parallel approaches (DPA). NASA has proposed an airborne system called Pair Dependent Speed (PDS) which uses their Airborne Spacing for Terminal Arrival Routes (ASTAR) algorithm to manage spacing intervals. Interface elements were designed to facilitate the input of APS-DPA spacing parameters to ASTAR, and to convey PDS system information to the crew deemed necessary and/or helpful to conduct the operation, including: target speed, guidance mode, target aircraft depiction, and spacing trend indication. In the study, subject pilots observed recorded simulations using the proposed interface elements in which the ownship managed assigned spacing intervals from two other arriving aircraft. Simulations were recorded using the Aircraft Simulation for Traffic Operations Research (ASTOR) platform, a medium-fidelity simulator based on a modern Boeing commercial glass cockpit. Various combinations of the interface elements were presented to subject pilots, and feedback was collected via structured questionnaires. The results of subject pilot evaluations show that the proposed design elements were acceptable, and that preferable combinations exist within this set of elements. The results also point to potential improvements to be considered for implementation in future experiments.

  13. Recent progress toward an advanced spherical torus operating point in NSTX

    DOE PAGESBeta

    S. P. Gerhardt; Gates, D. A.; Kaye, S.; Maingi, R.; Menard, J. E.; Sabbagh, S. A.; Soukhanovskii, V.; Bell, M. G.; Bell, R. E.; Canik, J. M.; et al

    2011-05-13

    Progress in the development of integrated advanced ST plasma scenarios in NSTX (Ono et al., 2000 Nucl. Fusion 40 557) is reported. Recent high-performance plasmas in NSTX following lithium coating of the plasma facing surfaces have achieved higher elongation and lower internal inductance than previously. Analysis of the thermal confinement in these lithiumized discharges shows a stronger plasma current and weaker toroidal field dependence than in previous ST confinement scaling studies; the ITER-98(y, 2) scaling expression describes these scenarios reasonably well. Analysis during periods free of MHD activity has shown that the reconstructed current profile can be understood as themore » sum of pressure driven, inductive and neutral beam driven currents, without requiring any anomalous fast-ion transport. Non-inductive fractions of 65–70%, and βP > 2, have been achieved at lower plasma current. Some of these low-inductance discharges have a significantly reduced no-wall βN limit, and often have βN at or near the with-wall limit. Coupled m/n = 1/1 + 2/1 kink/tearing modes can limit the sustained β values when rapidly growing ideal modes are avoided. A βN controller has been commissioned and utilized in sustaining high-performance plasmas. 'Snowflake' divertors compatible with high-performance plasmas have been developed. Scenarios with significantly larger aspect ratios have also been developed, in support of next-step ST devices. Furthermore, these NSTX plasmas have many characteristics required for next-step ST devices.« less

  14. Recent progress toward an advanced spherical torus operating point in NSTX

    SciTech Connect

    S. P. Gerhardt; Gates, D. A.; Kaye, S.; Maingi, R.; Menard, J. E.; Sabbagh, S. A.; Soukhanovskii, V.; Bell, M. G.; Bell, R. E.; Canik, J. M.; Fredrickson, E.; Kaita, R.; Kolemen, E.; Kugel, H.; Le Blanc, B. P.; Mastrovito, D.; Mueller, D.; Yuh, H.

    2011-05-13

    Progress in the development of integrated advanced ST plasma scenarios in NSTX (Ono et al., 2000 Nucl. Fusion 40 557) is reported. Recent high-performance plasmas in NSTX following lithium coating of the plasma facing surfaces have achieved higher elongation and lower internal inductance than previously. Analysis of the thermal confinement in these lithiumized discharges shows a stronger plasma current and weaker toroidal field dependence than in previous ST confinement scaling studies; the ITER-98(y, 2) scaling expression describes these scenarios reasonably well. Analysis during periods free of MHD activity has shown that the reconstructed current profile can be understood as the sum of pressure driven, inductive and neutral beam driven currents, without requiring any anomalous fast-ion transport. Non-inductive fractions of 65–70%, and βP > 2, have been achieved at lower plasma current. Some of these low-inductance discharges have a significantly reduced no-wall βN limit, and often have βN at or near the with-wall limit. Coupled m/n = 1/1 + 2/1 kink/tearing modes can limit the sustained β values when rapidly growing ideal modes are avoided. A βN controller has been commissioned and utilized in sustaining high-performance plasmas. 'Snowflake' divertors compatible with high-performance plasmas have been developed. Scenarios with significantly larger aspect ratios have also been developed, in support of next-step ST devices. Furthermore, these NSTX plasmas have many characteristics required for next-step ST devices.

  15. Space transportation system biomedical operations support study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, S. C.

    1983-01-01

    The shift of the Space Transportation System (STS) flight tests of the orbiter vehicle to the preparation and flight of the payloads is discussed. Part of this change is the transition of the medical and life sciences aspects of the STS flight operations to reflect the new state. The medical operations, the life sciences flight experiments support requirements and the intramural research program expected to be at KSC during the operational flight period of the STS and a future space station are analyzed. The adequacy of available facilities, plans, and resources against these future needs are compared; revisions and/or alternatives where appropriate are proposed.

  16. A Theoretical Study of Stagnation-Point Ablation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, Leonard

    1959-01-01

    A simplified analysis is made of ablation cooling near the stagnation point of a two-dimensional or axisymmetric body which occurs as the body vaporizes directly from the solid state. The automatic shielding mechanism Is discussed and the important thermal properties required by a good ablation material are given. The results of the analysis are given in terms of dimensionless parameters.

  17. IUS/TUG orbital operations and mission support study. Volume 3: Space tug operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    A study was conducted to develop space tug operational concepts and baseline operations plan, and to provide cost estimates for space tug operations. Background data and study results are presented along with a transition phase analysis (the transition from interim upper state to tug operations). A summary is given of the tug operational and interface requirements with emphasis on the on-orbit checkout requirements, external interface operational requirements, safety requirements, and system operational interface requirements. Other topics discussed include reference missions baselined for the tug and details for the mission functional flows and timelines derived for the tug mission, tug subsystems, tug on-orbit operations prior to the tug first burn, spacecraft deployment and retrieval by the tug, operations centers, mission planning, potential problem areas, and cost data.

  18. Dirac point and transconductance of top-gated graphene field-effect transistors operating at elevated temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Hopf, T.; Vassilevski, K. V. Escobedo-Cousin, E.; King, P. J.; Wright, N. G.; O'Neill, A. G.; Horsfall, A. B.; Goss, J. P.; Wells, G. H.; Hunt, M. R. C.

    2014-10-21

    Top-gated graphene field-effect transistors (GFETs) have been fabricated using bilayer epitaxial graphene grown on the Si-face of 4H-SiC substrates by thermal decomposition of silicon carbide in high vacuum. Graphene films were characterized by Raman spectroscopy, Atomic Force Microscopy, Scanning Tunnelling Microscopy, and Hall measurements to estimate graphene thickness, morphology, and charge transport properties. A 27 nm thick Al₂O₃ gate dielectric was grown by atomic layer deposition with an e-beam evaporated Al seed layer. Electrical characterization of the GFETs has been performed at operating temperatures up to 100 °C limited by deterioration of the gate dielectric performance at higher temperatures. Devices displayed stable operation with the gate oxide dielectric strength exceeding 4.5 MV/cm at 100 °C. Significant shifting of the charge neutrality point and an increase of the peak transconductance were observed in the GFETs as the operating temperature was elevated from room temperature to 100 °C.

  19. IUS/TUG orbital operations and mission support study. Volume 2: Interim upper stage operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Background data and study results are presented for the interim upper stage (IUS) operations phase of the IUS/tug orbital operations study. The study was conducted to develop IUS operational concepts and an IUS baseline operations plan, and to provide cost estimates for IUS operations. The approach used was to compile and evaluate baseline concepts, definitions, and system, and to use that data as a basis for the IUS operations phase definition, analysis, and costing analysis. Both expendable and reusable IUS configurations were analyzed and two autonomy levels were specified for each configuration. Topics discussed include on-orbit operations and interfaces with the orbiter, the tracking and data relay satellites and ground station support capability analysis, and flight control center sizing to support the IUS operations.

  20. Probabilistic Safety Study Applications Program for inspection of the Indian Point Unit 3 Nuclear Power Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, J.H.; Fullwood, R.; Fresco, A.

    1986-03-01

    By prioritizing the various areas of interest for inspection and by better defining inspection needs, the NRC expects to make more effective use of finite inspection resources by concentrating on those potential areas most significant to safety. Through review and application of the Indian Point Unit 3 Probabilistic Safety Study's numerical data and event tree modeling, and by utilizing related documents, a technical basis for prioritizing areas for NRC inspection has been developed. This was then tested at the plant site for the NRC Operating Reactor Inspection Program, I and E Manual Chapter 2515. Inspection activities addressed include normal operations, system and component testing, maintenance and surveillance. A computer program entitled NSPKTR, which was developed specifically for this program, modeled the internal plant states to the system level and performed the risk and importance calculations. 17 refs., 21 tabs.

  1. Study on unaberrational points test for conic surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hao, Peiming; Li, Kexin; Yuan, Liyin; Fu, Lianxiao; Li, Hongguang

    2006-02-01

    Based on the third-order aberration theory, the equation expressing the relationship between the conic constant and unaberration conjugate points is obtained. The corresponding graphs illuminating the relationship between e2 and β are given. According to the equation and graphs, the analyses of convex and concave surfaces are given in detail. We not only consider the unification of all kinds of reflective testing methods, such as Hindle test, concave elliptical mirror test and Ritchey-Common test etc, but also apply the unaberrational conjugate points test to refractive surface. The auto-collimating and interferometer diagnostic methods are powerful for the manufacture of lens. Kinds of convex and concave aspheric lenses have been manufactured with the detecting methods as mentioned above.

  2. Optimum structural properties for an anode current collector used in a polymer electrolyte membrane water electrolyzer operated at the boiling point of water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hua; Fujigaya, Tsuyohiko; Nakajima, Hironori; Inada, Akiko; Ito, Kohei

    2016-11-01

    This study attempts to optimize the properties of the anode current collector of a polymer electrolyte membrane water electrolyzer at high temperatures, particularly at the boiling point of water. Different titanium meshes (4 commercial ones and 4 modified ones) with various properties are experimentally examined by operating a cell with each mesh under different conditions. The average pore diameter, thickness, and contact angle of the anode current collector are controlled in the ranges of 10-35 μm, 0.2-0.3 mm, and 0-120°, respectively. These results showed that increasing the temperature from the conventional temperature of 80 °C to the boiling point could reduce both the open circuit voltage and the overvoltages to a large extent without notable dehydration of the membrane. These results also showed that decreasing the contact angle and the thickness suppresses the electrolysis overvoltage largely by decreasing the concentration overvoltage. The effect of the average pore diameter was not evident until the temperature reached the boiling point. Using operating conditions of 100 °C and 2 A/cm2, the electrolysis voltage is minimized to 1.69 V with a hydrophilic titanium mesh with an average pore diameter of 21 μm and a thickness of 0.2 mm.

  3. Specific SPS construction studies: Operations and maintenance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, K. H.

    1980-01-01

    Surface as well as in-space operations of the solar power satellite program are addressed. The primary end products of SPS industrial enterprise are shown SPS and its ground receiving antenna every six months; and (3) construction of electric cargo orbital transfer vehicles. The production of photovoltaic cells and solar blankets is also considered.

  4. High-Precision Lunar Ranging and Gravitational Parameter Estimation With the Apache Point Observatory Lunar Laser-ranging Operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Nathan H.

    This dissertation is concerned with several problems of instrumentation and data analysis encountered by the Apache Point Observatory Lunar Laser-ranging Operation. Chapter 2 considers crosstalk between elements of a single-photon avalanche photodiode detector. Experimental and analytic methods were developed to determine crosstalk rates, and empirical findings are presented. Chapter 3 details electronics developments that have improved the quality of data collected by detectors of the same type. Chapter 4 explores the challenges of estimating gravitational parameters on the basis of ranging data collected by this and other experiments and presents resampling techniques for the derivation of standard errors for estimates of such parameters determined by the Planetary Ephemeris Program (PEP), a solar-system model and data-fitting code. Possible directions for future work are discussed in Chapter 5. A manual of instructions for working with PEP is presented as an appendix.

  5. Operationally Efficient Propulsion System Study (OEPSS) data book. Volume 3: Operations technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vilja, John O.

    1990-01-01

    The study was initiated to identify operational problems and cost drivers for current propulsion systems and to identify technology and design approaches to increase the operational efficiency and reduce operations costs for future propulsion systems. To provide readily usable data for the Advanced Launch System (ALS) program, the results of the OEPSS study were organized into a series of OEPSS Data Books. This volume describes operations technologies that will enhance operational efficiency of propulsion systems. A total of 15 operations technologies were identified that will eliminate or mitigate operations problems described in Volume 2. A recommended development plan is presented for eight promising technologies that will simplify the propulsion system and reduce operational requirements.

  6. Spectrophotometric study of complexation equilibria with H-point standard addition and H-point curve isolation methods.

    PubMed

    Abdollahi, H; Zeinali, S

    2004-01-01

    The use of H-point curve isolation (HPCIM) and H-point standard addition methods (HPSAM) for spectrophotometric studies of complex formation equilibria are proposed. One step complex formation, two successive stepwise and mononuclear complex formation systems, and competitive complexation systems are studied successfully by the proposed methods. HPCIM is used for extracting the spectrum of complex or sum of complex species and HPSAM is used for calculation of equilibrium concentrations of ligand for each sample. The outputs of these procedures are complete concentration profiles of equilibrium system, spectral profile of intermediate components, and good estimation of conditional formation constants. The reliability of the method is evaluated using model data. Spectrophotometric studies of murexide-calcium, dithizone-nickel, methyl thymol blue (MTB)-copper, and competition of murexide and sulfate ions for complexation with zinc, are used as experimental model systems with different complexation stoichiometries and spectral overlapping of involved components.

  7. [Occupational exposure to sevoflurane in pediatric operating rooms: the multi-point sampling method for risk assessment].

    PubMed

    Zaffina, S; Camisa, V; Poscia, A; Tucci, M G; Montaldi, V; Cerabona, V; Wachocka, M; Moscato, U

    2012-01-01

    Several studies have shown that occupational exposure to anesthetic gases might be higher during pediatric surgery, probably due to the increased use of inhalational induction techniques. Our study aims to assess the level of exposure to sevoflurane in two rooms of pediatric surgery, using multi-point sampling method for environmental monitoring. The gas concentrations as well as its dispersion were measured in strategic points in the rooms for a total of 44 surgical interventions. Although the average of these concentrations has been rather low (1.32, SD +/- 1:55 ppm), the results obtained have documented a significant distribution kinetics difference inside the rooms as function of multiple factors among which there were the anesthetic technique used and the team involved. Therefore the method described allows to correctly analyze the spread of anesthetic gases and suggests a different risk stratification which may be dependent on the professional work.

  8. Precision pointing control for SPICA: risk mitigation phase study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitani, Shinji; Kawakatsu, Yasuhiro; Sakai, Shin-ichiro; Murakami, Naomi; Yamawaki, Toshihiko; Mizutani, Tadahito; Komatsu, Keiji; Kataza, Hirokazu; Enya, Keigo; Nakagawa, Takao

    2014-08-01

    SPICA (Space Infrared Telescope for Cosmology and Astrophysics) is an astronomical mission optimized for mid- and far-infrared astronomy with a 3-m class telescope which is cryogenically cooled to be less than 6 K. The SPICA mechanical cooling system is indispensable for the mission but, generates micro-vibrations which could affect to the pointing stability performances. Activities to be undertaken during a risk mitigation phase (RMP) include consolidation of micro-vibration control design for the satellite, as well as a number of breadboarding activities centered on technologies that are critical to the success of the mission. This paper presents the RMP activity results on the microvibration control design.

  9. Photovoltaic concentrator pointing dynamics and plasma interaction study

    SciTech Connect

    Stern, T.G.

    1984-01-01

    The objectives of this experiment are to use the Space Technology Experiments Platform (STEP) system to demonstrate the viability of concentrator photovoltaic arrays by: (1) configuring a deployable mast on the STEP pallet with concentrator mass models and some active photovoltaic modules (2) measuring the array pointing dynamics under normal rotation as well as disturbance conditions (3) performing an array plasma interaction experiment to determine the steady-state plasma losses under various voltage conditions and (4) providing active distributed control of the support truss to determine the improvement in dynamic response. Experiment approach and test control and instrumentation are described.

  10. Fluorescent Microspheres as Point Sources: A Localization Study.

    PubMed

    Chao, Jerry; Lee, Taiyoon; Ward, E Sally; Ober, Raimund J

    2015-01-01

    The localization of fluorescent microspheres is often employed for drift correction and image registration in single molecule microscopy, and is commonly carried out by fitting a point spread function to the image of the given microsphere. The mismatch between the point spread function and the image of the microsphere, however, calls into question the suitability of this localization approach. To investigate this issue, we subject both simulated and experimental microsphere image data to a maximum likelihood estimator that localizes a microsphere by fitting an Airy pattern to its image, and assess the suitability of the approach by evaluating the ability of the estimator to recover the true location of the microsphere with the best possible accuracy as determined based on the Cramér-Rao lower bound. Assessing against criteria based on the standard errors of the mean and the variance for an ideal estimator of the microsphere's location, we find that microspheres up to 100 nm in diameter can in general be localized using a fixed width Airy pattern, and that microspheres as large as 1 μm in diameter can in general be localized using a floated width Airy pattern. PMID:26218251

  11. Fluorescent Microspheres as Point Sources: A Localization Study

    PubMed Central

    Chao, Jerry; Lee, Taiyoon; Ward, E. Sally; Ober, Raimund J.

    2015-01-01

    The localization of fluorescent microspheres is often employed for drift correction and image registration in single molecule microscopy, and is commonly carried out by fitting a point spread function to the image of the given microsphere. The mismatch between the point spread function and the image of the microsphere, however, calls into question the suitability of this localization approach. To investigate this issue, we subject both simulated and experimental microsphere image data to a maximum likelihood estimator that localizes a microsphere by fitting an Airy pattern to its image, and assess the suitability of the approach by evaluating the ability of the estimator to recover the true location of the microsphere with the best possible accuracy as determined based on the Cramér-Rao lower bound. Assessing against criteria based on the standard errors of the mean and the variance for an ideal estimator of the microsphere’s location, we find that microspheres up to 100 nm in diameter can in general be localized using a fixed width Airy pattern, and that microspheres as large as 1 μm in diameter can in general be localized using a floated width Airy pattern. PMID:26218251

  12. Operator Influence on Blinded Diagnostic Accuracy of Point-of-Care Antigen Testing for Group A Streptococcal Pharyngitis.

    PubMed

    Penney, Carla; Porter, Robert; O'Brien, Mary; Daley, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Background. Acute pharyngitis caused by Group A Streptococcus (GAS) is a common presentation to pediatric emergency departments (ED). Diagnosis with conventional throat culture requires 18-24 hours, which prevents point-of-care treatment decisions. Rapid antigen detection tests (RADT) are faster, but previous reports demonstrate significant operator influence on performance. Objective. To measure operator influence on the diagnostic accuracy of a RADT when performed by pediatric ED nurses and clinical microbiology laboratory technologists, using conventional culture as the reference standard. Methods. Children presenting to a pediatric ED with suspected acute pharyngitis were recruited. Three pharyngeal swabs were collected at once. One swab was used to perform the RADT in the ED, and two were sent to the clinical microbiology laboratory for RADT and conventional culture testing. Results. The RADT when performed by technologists compared to nurses had a 5.1% increased sensitivity (81.4% versus 76.3%) (p = 0.791) (95% CI for difference between technologists and nurses = -11% to +21%) but similar specificity (97.7% versus 96.6%). Conclusion. The performance of the RADT was similar between technologists and ED nurses, although adequate power was not achieved. RADT may be employed in the ED without clinically significant loss of sensitivity. PMID:27579047

  13. Operator Influence on Blinded Diagnostic Accuracy of Point-of-Care Antigen Testing for Group A Streptococcal Pharyngitis

    PubMed Central

    O'Brien, Mary

    2016-01-01

    Background. Acute pharyngitis caused by Group A Streptococcus (GAS) is a common presentation to pediatric emergency departments (ED). Diagnosis with conventional throat culture requires 18–24 hours, which prevents point-of-care treatment decisions. Rapid antigen detection tests (RADT) are faster, but previous reports demonstrate significant operator influence on performance. Objective. To measure operator influence on the diagnostic accuracy of a RADT when performed by pediatric ED nurses and clinical microbiology laboratory technologists, using conventional culture as the reference standard. Methods. Children presenting to a pediatric ED with suspected acute pharyngitis were recruited. Three pharyngeal swabs were collected at once. One swab was used to perform the RADT in the ED, and two were sent to the clinical microbiology laboratory for RADT and conventional culture testing. Results. The RADT when performed by technologists compared to nurses had a 5.1% increased sensitivity (81.4% versus 76.3%) (p = 0.791) (95% CI for difference between technologists and nurses = −11% to +21%) but similar specificity (97.7% versus 96.6%). Conclusion. The performance of the RADT was similar between technologists and ED nurses, although adequate power was not achieved. RADT may be employed in the ED without clinically significant loss of sensitivity. PMID:27579047

  14. Study of magnetotransport across the neutrality point in CVD graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mani, Ramesh G.

    Hall effect compensation and a residual resistivity ρxx ~ h / 4e2 are experimentally examined over the p <-->n transition about the nominal Dirac point in CVD graphene. The observed characteristics are reproduced in a model with a parabolic distribution f (VN) of neutrality potentials, VN, and simultaneous electron- and hole- conduction. The results suggest that, broadly about the gate-induced n <--> p transition, charge transport is characterized by domain confined ambipolar currents, which leads to compensation in the global Hall effect and the observed residual resistivity. DOE-BES, Mat'l. Sci. & Eng. Div., DE-SC0001762; ARO W911NF-14-2-0076; ARO W911NF-15-1-0433.

  15. Accuracy Study of a 2-Component Point Doppler Velocimeter (PDV)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuhlman, John; Naylor, Steve; James, Kelly; Ramanath, Senthil

    1997-01-01

    A two-component Point Doppler Velocimeter (PDV) which has recently been developed is described, and a series of velocity measurements which have been obtained to quantify the accuracy of the PDV system are summarized. This PDV system uses molecular iodine vapor cells as frequency discriminating filters to determine the Doppler shift of laser light which is scattered off of seed particles in a flow. The majority of results which have been obtained to date are for the mean velocity of a rotating wheel, although preliminary data are described for fully-developed turbulent pipe flow. Accuracy of the present wheel velocity data is approximately +/- 1 % of full scale, while linearity of a single channel is on the order of +/- 0.5 % (i.e., +/- 0.6 m/sec and +/- 0.3 m/sec, out of 57 m/sec, respectively). The observed linearity of these results is on the order of the accuracy to which the speed of the rotating wheel has been set for individual data readings. The absolute accuracy of the rotating wheel data is shown to be consistent with the level of repeatability of the cell calibrations. The preliminary turbulent pipe flow data show consistent turbulence intensity values, and mean axial velocity profiles generally agree with pitot probe data. However, there is at present an offset error in the radial velocity which is on the order of 5-10 % of the mean axial velocity.

  16. Do Woody Plants Operate Near the Point of Catastrophic Xylem Dysfunction Caused by Dynamic Water Stress? 1

    PubMed Central

    Tyree, Melvin T.; Sperry, John S.

    1988-01-01

    We discuss the relationship between the dynamically changing tension gradients required to move water rapidly through the xylem conduits of plants and the proportion of conduits lost through embolism as a result of water tension. We consider the implications of this relationship to the water relations of trees. We have compiled quantitative data on the water relations, hydraulic architecture and vulnerability of embolism of four widely different species: Rhizophora mangle, Cassipourea elliptica, Acer saccharum, and Thuja occidentalis. Using these data, we modeled the dynamics of water flow and xylem blockage for these species. The model is specifically focused on the conditions required to generate `runaway embolism,' whereby the blockage of xylem conduits through embolism leads to reduced hydraulic conductance causing increased tension in the remaining vessels and generating more tension in a vicious circle. The model predicted that all species operate near the point of catastrophic xylem failure due to dynamic water stress. The model supports Zimmermann's plant segmentation hypothesis. Zimmermann suggested that plants are designed hydraulically to sacrifice highly vulnerable minor branches and thus improve the water balance of remaining parts. The model results are discussed in terms of the morphology, hydraulic architecture, eco-physiology, and evolution of woody plants. PMID:16666351

  17. Maintenance and Operations study for K basins sludge treatment

    SciTech Connect

    WESTRA, A.G.

    1998-11-30

    This study evaluates maintenance and operating concepts for the chemical treatment of sludge from the 100 K Basins at Hanford. The sludge treatment equipment that will require remote operation or maintenance was identified. Then various maintenance and operating concepts used in the nuclear industry were evaluated for applicability to sludge treatment. A hot cell or cells is recommended as the best maintenance and operating concept for a sludge treatment facility.

  18. Space tug point design study. Volume 4: Program requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine the configuration of a space tug and to predict the performance parameters. The program plans and planning data generated in support of the tug development program are presented. The preliminary plans and supporting planning data emphasize the following requirements: (1) maintenance and refurbishment, (2) technology development, (3) production, (4) test facilities, (5) quality control, and (6) scheduling.

  19. A Cross-Cultural Study of Reference Point Adaptation: Evidence from China, Korea, and the US

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arkes, Hal R.; Hirshleifer, David; Jiang, Danling; Lim, Sonya S.

    2010-01-01

    We examined reference point adaptation following gains or losses in security trading using participants from China, Korea, and the US. In both questionnaire studies and trading experiments with real money incentives, reference point adaptation was larger for Asians than for Americans. Subjects in all countries adapted their reference points more…

  20. Operationally Efficient Propulsion System Study (OEPSS) data book. Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wong, George S.

    1990-01-01

    The study was initiated to identify operations problems and cost drivers for current propulsion systems and to identify technology and design approaches to increase the operational efficiency and reduce operations costs for future propulsion systems. To provide readily usable data for the Advanced Launch System (ALS) program, the results of the Operationally Efficient Propulsion System Study (OEPSS) were organized into a series of OEPSS Data Books as follows: Volume 1, Generic Ground Operations Data; Volume 2, Ground Operations Problems; Volume 3, Operations Technology; Volume 4, OEPSS Design Concepts; and Volume 5, OEPSS Final Review Briefing, which summarizes the activities and results of the study. Summarized here are the salient results of the first year. A synopsis of each volume listed above is presented.

  1. Operationally Efficient Propulsion System Study (OEPSS) data book. Volume 2: Ground operations problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waldrop, Glen S.

    1990-01-01

    Operations problems and cost drivers were identified for current propulsion systems and design and technology approaches were identified to increase the operational efficiency and to reduce operations costs for future propulsion systems. To provide readily usable data for the ALS program, the results of the OEPSS study were organized into a series of OEPSS Data Books. This volume presents a detailed description of 25 major problems encountered during launch processing of current expendable and reusable launch vehicles. A concise description of each problem and its operational impact on launch processing is presented, along with potential solutions and technology recommendation.

  2. TYCHO: Demonstrator and operational satellite mission to Earth-Moon-Libration point EML-4 for communication relay provision as a service

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hornig, Andreas; Homeister, Maren

    2015-03-01

    operation time of up to 10 years. It also enables measurements of the libration point environment with the scientific payloads. This includes sensors for space dust, solar and cosmic radiation activity for satellite lifetime estimation and lunar crew protection by providing early-warning systems. The paper describes the mission concept and the pre-design of the demonstrator satellite according to the operational mission requirements, advantages and benefits of this service. The concept was awarded with the Space Generation Advisory Council and OHB Scholarship in 2011 and the concept study is conducted at the Institute of Space Systems (IRS) [1] of the University of Stuttgart and OHB-System, Bremen [2].

  3. 76 FR 32994 - Nine Mile Point 3 Nuclear Project, LLC and Unistar Nuclear Operating Services, LLC; Combined...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-07

    ... License Application for Nine Mile Point 3 Nuclear Power Plant; Exemption 1.0 Background Nine Mile Point 3... 52, ``Licenses, Certifications, and Approvals for Nuclear Power Plants.'' This reactor is to be identified as Nine Mile Point 3 Nuclear Power Plant (NMP3NPP), and located adjacent to the current Nine...

  4. Muscle channelopathies and critical points in functional and genetic studies

    PubMed Central

    Jurkat-Rott, Karin; Lehmann-Horn, Frank

    2005-01-01

    Muscle channelopathies are caused by mutations in ion channel genes, by antibodies directed against ion channel proteins, or by changes of cell homeostasis leading to aberrant splicing of ion channel RNA or to disturbances of modification and localization of channel proteins. As ion channels constitute one of the only protein families that allow functional examination on the molecular level, expression studies of putative mutations have become standard in confirming that the mutations cause disease. Functional changes may not necessarily prove disease causality of a putative mutation but could be brought about by a polymorphism instead. These problems are addressed, and a more critical evaluation of the underlying genetic data is proposed. PMID:16075040

  5. Study on the engine oil's wear based on the flash point

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niculescu, R.; Iorga-Simăn, V.; Trică, A.; Clenci, A.

    2016-08-01

    Increasing energy performance of internal combustion engines is largely influenced by frictional forces that arise between moving parts. Thus, in this respect, the nature and quality of the engine oil used is an important factor. Equally important is the effect of various engine injection strategies upon the oil quality. In other words, it's of utmost importance to maintain the quality of engine oil during engine's operation. Oil dilution is one of the most common causes that lead to its wear, creating lubrication problems. Moreover, at low temperatures operating conditions, the oil dilution with diesel fuel produces wax. When starting the engine, this may lead to lubrication deficiencies and even oil starvation with negative consequences on the engine mechanism parts wear (piston, rings and cylinders) but also crankcase bearings wear.Engine oil dilution with diesel fuel have several causes: wear of rings and/or injectors, late post-injection strategy for the sake of particulate filter regeneration, etc.This paper presents a study on the degree of deterioration of engine oils as a result of dilution with diesel fuel. The analysed oils used for this study were taken from various models of engines equipped with diesel particulate filter. The assessment is based on the determination of oil flash point and dilution degree using the apparatus Eraflash produced by Eralytics, Austria. Eraflash measurement is directly under the latest and safest standards ASTM D6450 & D7094), which are in excellent correlation with ASTM D93 Pensky - Martens ASTM D56 TAG methods; it uses the Continuous Closed Cup method for finding the Flash Point (CCCFP).

  6. Environmental surveys during operation and following removal of the OTEC-1 system off Keahole Point, Hawaii. Final report, January-April 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Noda, E.K.; Bienfang, P.K.; Kimmerer, W.J.; Walsh, T.W.

    1981-09-01

    Detailed are two biological chemical cruises off Keahole Point, Hawaii, which took place during (HOTEC-11, January 1981) and immediately after cessation (HOTEC-12, April 1981) of operation of OTEC-1. The objectives of the study were to: (1) compare site specific data taken before OTEC-1 was operating to data taken after OTEC-1 left the site; and (2) perform an analysis of OTEC environmental effects to indicate areas in which future sampling efforts might be expended. Data from temperature, nutrient, phytoplankton and zooplankton analyses taken immediately after OTEC-1 left the site show only minor differences with data taken before OTEC-1 occupied the site (HOTEC-01-06, MSG-82-013). The differences were not significant, and therefore, OTEC-1 had no demonstrable post-operational impacts on these environmental variables. From temperature records the minimum /sup 0/T between surface waters (0-30 m) and 700 m water was about 18/sup 0/C. There was no demonstrable temperature effect due to operation of OTEC-1. Significant increases in near surface water (0 to 70 m) nitrate concentrations were noted at Station 1 (Control) during OTEC-1 operations; while after shut-down no effect was seen. This effect can not be directly attributed to OTEC-1. Increased chlorophyll a standing stock downstream of OTEC-1 indicated some effect of OTEC-1. No toxic effect was noted and primary productivity rates were the same at all stations. The chlorophyll a biomass in the < 5 ..mu..m size fraction was significantly higher at the downstream station. No effect on zooplankton were noted at any station. Abundance of ichthytoplankton taxa are reported but there is insufficient data to perform an analysis.

  7. Operationally Efficient Propulsion System Study (OEPSS) data book. Volume 1: Generic ground operations data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Byrd, Raymond J.

    1990-01-01

    This study was initiated to identify operations problems and cost drivers for current propulsion systems and to identify technology and design approaches to increase the operational efficiency and reduce operations costs for future propulsion systems. To provide readily usable data for the Advance Launch System (ALS) program, the results of the Operationally Efficient Propulsion System Study (OEPSS) were organized into a series of OEPSS Data Books as follows: Volume 1, Generic Ground Operations Data; Volume 2, Ground Operations Problems; Volume 3, Operations Technology; Volume 4, OEPSS Design Concepts; and Volume 5, OEPSS Final Review Briefing, which summarizes the activities and results of the study. This volume presents ground processing data for a generic LOX/LH2 booster and core propulsion system based on current STS experience. The data presented includes: top logic diagram, process flow, activities bar-chart, loaded timelines, manpower requirements in terms of duration, headcount and skill mix per operations and maintenance instruction (OMI), and critical path tasks and durations.

  8. Surfactant studies for bench-scale operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hickey, Gregory S.; Sharma, Pramod K.

    1993-01-01

    A phase 2 study has been initiated to investigate surfactant-assisted coal liquefaction, with the objective of quantifying the enhancement in liquid yields and product quality. This report covers the second quarter of work. The major accomplishments were: completion of coal liquefaction autoclave reactor runs with Illinois number 6 coal at processing temperatures of 300, 325, and 350 C, and pressures of 1800 psig; analysis of the filter cake and the filtrate obtained from the treated slurry in each run; and correlation of the coal conversions and the liquid yield quality to the surfactant concentration. An increase in coal conversions and upgrading of the liquid product quality due to surfactant addition was observed for all runs.

  9. Surfactant studies for bench-scale operation

    SciTech Connect

    Hickey, G.S.; Sharma, P.K.

    1993-01-15

    A phase II study has been initiated to investigate surfactant-assisted coal liquefaction, with the objective of quantifying the enhancement in liquid yields and product quality. This report covers the second quarter of work. The major accomplishments were (1) completion of coal liquefaction autoclave reactor runs with Illinois No. 6 coal at processing temperatures of 300, 325, and 350[degrees]C, and pressures of 1800 psig, (2) analysis of the filter cake and the filtrate obtained from the treated slurry in each run, and (3) correlation of the coal conversions and the liquid yield quality to the surfactant concentration. An increase in coal conversions and upgrading of the liquid product quality due to surfactant addition was observed for all runs.

  10. Real-time predictions of drug release and end point detection of a coating operation by in-line near infrared measurements.

    PubMed

    Gendre, Claire; Boiret, Mathieu; Genty, Muriel; Chaminade, Pierre; Pean, Jean Manuel

    2011-12-15

    The aim of this work was to carry out real-time near infrared (NIR) predictions of drug release from sustained release coated tablets and to determine end point of coating operation. In-line measurements were ensured by implementation of a NIR probe inside a pan coater. Tablets were coated using a functional aqueous dispersion of ethylcellulose blended with PVA-PEG graft copolymer to obtain a controlled drug release dosage form over 16h. Samples were collected at regular intervals and subjected to a standardized curing step. Percentages of released drug at 4h, 8h and 12h were selected to describe the controlled drug release of cured tablets. These dissolution criteria were used as reference values to calibrate NIR spectral information and to develop three partial least squares regressions. Low predictive errors of 1.7%, 1.9% and 1.5%, respectively, were obtained. The coating operation was stopped while desired dissolution criteria were achieved, corresponding to a coating level around 10%. The present study demonstrated that real-time NIR measurements could be performed on non-finished drug products to predict dissolution properties of cured coated tablets. This novel and innovative approach fulfils the expectations of ICH Q8 guideline on pharmaceutical development, in terms of process understanding and process analytical technology (PAT) control strategy. This approach should be however adapted to curing operation to allow a real-time release testing.

  11. A Study on Optimal Operation of Power Generation by Waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugahara, Hideo; Aoyagi, Yoshihiro; Kato, Masakazu

    This paper proposes the optimal operation of power generation by waste. Refuse is taken as a new energy resource of biomass. Although some fossil fuel origin refuse like plastic may be mixed in, CO2 emission is not counted up except for above fossil fuel origin refuse for the Kyoto Protocol. Incineration is indispensable for refuse disposal and power generation by waste is environment-friendly and power system-friendly using synchronous generators. Optimal planning is a key point to make much of this merit. The optimal plan includes refuse incinerator operation plan with refuse collection and maintenance scheduling of refuse incinerator plant. In this paper, it has been made clear that the former plan increases generation energy through numerical simulations. Concerning the latter plan, a method to determine the maintenance schedule using genetic algorithm has been established. In addition, taking environmental load of CO2 emission into account, this is expected larger merits from environment and energy resource points of view.

  12. Shuttle Ground Operations Efficiencies/Technologies (SGOE/T) study. Volume 2: Ground Operations evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scholz, A. L.; Hart, M. T.; Lowry, D. J.

    1987-01-01

    The Ground Operations Evaluation describes the breath and depth of the various study elements selected as a result of an operational analysis conducted during the early part of the study. Analysis techniques used for the evaluation are described in detail. Elements selected for further evaluation are identified; the results of the analysis documented; and a follow-on course of action recommended. The background and rationale for developing recommendations for the current Shuttle or for future programs is presented.

  13. A study of the operation of selected national research facilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eisner, M.

    1974-01-01

    The operation of national research facilities was studied. Conclusions of the study show that a strong resident scientific staff is required for successful facility operation. No unique scheme of scientific management is revealed except for the obvious fact that the management must be responsive to the users needs and requirements. Users groups provide a convenient channel through which these needs and requirements are communicated.

  14. Describing Elementary Teachers' Operative Systems: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dotger, Sharon; McQuitty, Vicki

    2014-01-01

    This case study introduces the notion of an operative system to describe elementary teachers' knowledge and practice. Drawing from complex systems theory, the operative system is defined as the network of knowledge and practices that constituted teachers' work within a lesson study cycle. Data were gathered throughout a lesson study…

  15. Lathe Operator. Coordinator's Guide. Individualized Study Guide. General Metal Trades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    East Texas State Univ., Commerce. Occupational Curriculum Lab.

    This guide provides information to enable coordinators to direct learning activities for students using an individualized study guide on operating a lathe. The study material is designed for students enrolled in cooperative part-time training and employed, or desiring to be employed, as lathe operators. Contents include a sample progress chart,…

  16. Semiclassical computation of three-point functions of closed string vertex operators in AdS{sub 5}xS{sup 5}

    SciTech Connect

    Roiban, R.; Tseytlin, A. A.

    2010-11-15

    We consider the leading large string tension correction to correlation functions of three vertex operators of particular massive string states in AdS{sub 5}xS{sup 5} string theory. We assume that two of these states are 'heavy' carrying large spins (of order string tension) and thus can be treated semiclassically while the third state is 'light' having fixed quantum numbers. We study several examples. In the case when the 'heavy' states are described by a folded string with large-spin in AdS{sub 5} the 3-point function scales as a semiclassical spin parameter of the 'heavy' state in power of the string level of the 'light' massive string state. We observe similar behavior in the case of 'heavy' states which admit a small angular momentum limit, which may thus represent creatures of three quantum massive string states.

  17. The OPALS Plan for Operations: Use of ISS Trajectory and Attitude Models in the OPALS Pointing Strategy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abrahamson, Matthew J.; Oaida, Bogdan; Erkmen, Baris

    2013-01-01

    This paper will discuss the OPALS pointing strategy, focusing on incorporation of ISS trajectory and attitude models to build pointing predictions. Methods to extrapolate an ISS prediction based on past data will be discussed and will be compared to periodically published ISS predictions and Two-Line Element (TLE) predictions. The prediction performance will also be measured against GPS states available in telemetry. The performance of the pointing products will be compared to the allocated values in the OPALS pointing budget to assess compliance with requirements.

  18. Experimental Study of Saddle Point of Attachment in Laminar Juncture Flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coon, Michael D.; Tobak, Murray

    1995-01-01

    An experimental study of laminar horseshoe vortex flows upstream of a cylinder/flat plate juncture has been conducted to verify the existence of saddle-point-of-attachment topologies. In the classical depiction of this flowfield, a saddle point of separation exists on the flat plate upstream of the cylinder, and the boundary layer separates from the surface. Recent computations have indicated that the topology may actually involve a saddle point of attachment on the surface and additional singular points in the flow. Laser light sheet flow visualizations have been performed on the symmetry plane and crossflow planes to identify the saddle-point-of-attachment flowfields. The visualizations reveal that saddle-point-of-attachment topologies occur over a range of Reynolds numbers in both single and multiple vortex regimes. An analysis of the flow topologies is presented that describes the existence and evolution of the singular points in the flowfield.

  19. Properties and Cycle Performance of Refrigerant Blends Operating Near and Above the Refrigerant Critical Point, Task 1: Refrigerant Properties

    SciTech Connect

    Mark O. McLinden; Arno Laesecke; Eric W. Lemmon; Joseph W. Magee; Richard A. Perkins

    2002-08-30

    The main goal of this project was to investigate and compare the performance of an R410A air conditioner to that of an R22 air conditioner, with specific interest in performance at high ambient temperatures at which the condenser of the R410A system may be operating above the refrigerant's critical point. Part 1 of this project consisted of measuring thermodynamic properties R125, R410A and R507A, measuring viscosity and thermal conductivity of R410A and R507A and comparing data to mixture models in NIST REFPROP database. For R125, isochoric (constant volume) heat capacity was measured over a temperature range of 305 to 397 K (32 to 124 C) at pressures up to 20 MPa. For R410A, isochoric heat capacity was measured along 8 isochores with a temperature range of 303 to 397 K (30 to 124 C) at pressures up to 18 MPa. Pressure-density-temperature was also measured along 14 isochores over a temperature range of 200 to 400 K (-73 to 127 C) at pressures up to 35 MPa and thermal conductivity along 6 isotherms over a temperature range of 301 to 404 K (28 to 131 C) with pressures to 38 MPa. For R507A, viscosity was measured along 5 isotherms over a temperature range of 301 to 421 K (28 to 148 C) at pressures up to 83 MPa and thermal conductivity along 6 isotherms over a temperature range of 301 to 404 K (28 to 131 C) with pressures to 38 MPa. Mixture models were developed to calculate the thermodynamic properties of HFC refrigerant mixtures containing R32, R125, R134a and/or R125. The form of the model is the same for all the blends considered, but blend-specific mixing functions are required for the blends R32/125 (R410 blends) and R32/134a (a constituent binary of R407 blends). The systems R125/134a, R125/143a, R134a/143a, and R134a/152a share a common, generalized mixing function. The new equation of state for R125 is believed to be the most accurate and comprehensive formulation of the properties for that fluid. Likewise, the mixture model developed in this work is the

  20. Training Program for Operation of Emergency Vehicles. Trainee Study Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    INNOVATRIX, Inc., Ingomar, PA.

    A two-part trainee study guide for use in the classroom phase of the Emergency Vehicle Operation (EVO) training program is provided. Part 1, to be taken by all trainees, contains seven units organized into various subunits and includes the following: (1) introduction to the course; (2) some legal aspects of emergency vehicle operation (state…

  1. Operation of Wastewater Treatment Plants: A Home Study Training Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Univ., Sacramento. Dept. of Civil Engineering.

    This manual was prepared by experienced wastewater treatment plant operators to provide a home study course to develop new qualified workers and expand the abilities of existing workers. The objective of this manual is to provide the knowledge and skills necessary for certification. Participants learn the basic operational aspects of treatment…

  2. 38th Annual Maintenance & Operations Cost Study for Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agron, Joe

    2009-01-01

    The nation's colleges are feeling the pinch of the economic downturn, and maintenance and operations (M&O) budgets especially are under pressure. This article presents data from the 38th annual Maintenance & Operations Cost Study for colleges that can help one in benchmarking expenditures at one's institution. Data provided only targets two-year…

  3. Operations: A Comparative Study of the United States and Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Cheng-Yao; Becker, Jerry; Byun, Mi-Ran; Yang, Der-Ching; Huang, Tsai-Wei

    2013-01-01

    This study examined (a) the differences in preservice teachers’ procedural knowledge in four areas of fraction operations in Taiwan and the United States, (b) the differences in preservice teachers’ conceptual knowledge in four areas of fraction operations in Taiwan and the United States, and (c) correlation in preservice teachers’ conceptual…

  4. 38th Annual Maintenance & Operations Cost Study for Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agron, Joe

    2009-01-01

    Despite the worst economic environment in generations, spending by K-12 institutions on maintenance and operations (M&O) held its own--defying historical trends that have shown M&O spending among the most affected in times of budget tightening. This article presents data from the 38th annual Maintenance & Operations Cost Study for…

  5. Characteristics study of multimode directional coupler by elliptical point contacts and CMT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Supian, L. S.; Ramza, Harry; Ab-Rahman, Mohd Syuhaimi; Arsad, Norhana

    2014-08-01

    The developed directional coupler using polymer optical fiber performance is studied analytically where related theories are integrated and the outcomes are analyzed. Important theories such as simplified coupled mode theory and elliptical point contacts are integrated where the parameters such as coupling length, distance between the two fibers cores and forces are varied. Using simplified coupled mode theory, coupling coefficient and coupling efficiency is obtained based on the parameters of multimode fiber coupler such as the operating wavelength, numerical apertures, coupling length and diameter of the cores. The two fibers are initially tapered at certain length at most 20 mm and attached to geometrical blocks with certain radii and the middle tapered regions of the fibers are brought closed in proximity and they are lapped to each other. Investigation of different radii of the geometrical blocks represents the effect of macro-bending when the fibers are bent when attached to the circular blocks. This concept is used to transfer the modes from first fiber to the second. Then a particular amount of load force is exerted upon one side of the blocks so that the gap is closed and leads to increment of coupling length between the two fibers. The various load force amount will give different coupling lengths and distances between the two cores, thus leading to different coupling efficiencies. Analytically the expression that represents the coupling efficiency with force is an integrated expression from simplified coupled mode theory and Hertz's Law of elliptical point contacts. Optimized coupling efficiency obtained is as high as 70% for this study.

  6. CETF Space Station payload pointing system design and analysis feasibility study. [Critical Evaluation Task Force

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smagala, Tom; Mcglew, Dave

    1988-01-01

    The expected pointing performance of an attached payload coupled to the Critical Evaluation Task Force Space Station via a payload pointing system (PPS) is determined. The PPS is a 3-axis gimbal which provides the capability for maintaining inertial pointing of a payload in the presence of disturbances associated with the Space Station environment. A system where the axes of rotation were offset from the payload center of mass (CM) by 10 in. in the Z axis was studied as well as a system having the payload CM offset by only 1 inch. There is a significant improvement in pointing performance when going from the 10 in. to the 1 in. gimbal offset.

  7. Retrospective studies of operating problems in air transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Billings, C. E.; Lauber, J. K.; Cooper, G. E.; Ruffell-Smith, H. P.

    1976-01-01

    An epidemiological model for the study of human errors in aviation is presented. In this approach, retrospective data are used as the basis for formulation of hypotheses as to system factors which may have contributed to such errors. Prospective experimental studies of aviation operations are also required in order to prove or disprove the hypotheses, and to evaluate the effectiveness of intervention techniques designed to solve operational problems in the aviation system.

  8. Turning Points during the Life of Student Project Teams: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raes, Elisabeth; Kyndt, Eva; Dochy, Filip

    2015-01-01

    In this qualitative study a more flexible alternative of conceptualising changes over time in teams is tested within student project teams. The conceptualisation uses turning points during the lifespan of a team to outline team development, based on work by Erbert, Mearns, & Dena (2005). Turning points are moments that made a significant…

  9. Extracurricular Activities and Their Effect on the Student's Grade Point Average: Statistical Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bakoban, R. A.; Aljarallah, S. A.

    2015-01-01

    Extracurricular activities (ECA) are part of students' everyday life; they play important roles in students' lives. Few studies have addressed the question of how student engagements to ECA affect student's grade point average (GPA). This research was conducted to know whether the students' grade point average in King Abdulaziz University,…

  10. Intent inferencing by an intelligent operator's associate - A validation study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Patricia M.

    1988-01-01

    In the supervisory control of a complex, dynamic system, one potential form of aiding for the human operator is a computer-based operator's associate. The design philosophy of the operator's associate is that of 'amplifying' rather than automating human skills. In particular, the associate possesses understanding and control properties. Understanding allows it to infer operator intentions and thus form the basis for context-dependent advice and reminders; control properties allow the human operator to dynamically delegate individual tasks or subfunctions to the associate. This paper focuses on the design, implementation, and validation of the intent inferencing function. Two validation studies are described which empirically demonstrate the viability of the proposed approach to intent inferencing.

  11. Space Operations Training Concepts Benchmark Study (Training in a Continuous Operations Environment)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, Alan E.; Gilchrist, Michael; Underwood, Debrah (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The NASA/USAF Benchmark Space Operations Training Concepts Study will perform a comparative analysis of the space operations training programs utilized by the United States Air Force Space Command with those utilized by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The concentration of the study will be focused on Ground Controller/Flight Controller Training for the International Space Station Payload Program. The duration of the study is expected to be five months with report completion by 30 June 2002. The U.S. Air Force Space Command was chosen as the most likely candidate for this benchmark study because their experience in payload operations controller training and user interfaces compares favorably with the Payload Operations Integration Center's training and user interfaces. These similarities can be seen in the dynamics of missions/payloads, controller on-console requirements, and currency/proficiency challenges to name a few. It is expected that the report will look at the respective programs and investigate goals of each training program, unique training challenges posed by space operations ground controller environments, processes of setting up controller training programs, phases of controller training, methods of controller training, techniques to evaluate adequacy of controller knowledge and the training received, and approaches to training administration. The report will provide recommendations to the respective agencies based on the findings. Attached is a preliminary outline of the study. Following selection of participants and an approval to proceed, initial contact will be made with U.S. Air Force Space Command Directorate of Training to discuss steps to accomplish the study.

  12. 77 FR 66492 - Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc., Entergy Nuclear Indian Point 2, LLC, and Entergy Nuclear Indian...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-05

    ... accident at the Fukushima Dai- ichi nuclear power plant in Japan resulting from the March 11, 2011, Great T hoku Earthquake and questioned whether plant operators would be physically capable of performing...

  13. Analysis of non-point and point source pollution in China: case study in Shima Watershed in Guangdong Province

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Huaiyang; Lu, Qingshui; Gao, Zhiqiang; Shi, Runhe; Gao, Wei

    2013-09-01

    China economy has been rapidly increased since 1978. Rapid economic growth led to fast growth of fertilizer and pesticide consumption. A significant portion of fertilizers and pesticides entered the water and caused water quality degradation. At the same time, rapid economic growth also caused more and more point source pollution discharge into the water. Eutrophication has become a major threat to the water bodies. Worsening environment problems forced governments to take measures to control water pollution. We extracted land cover from Landsat TM images; calculated point source pollution with export coefficient method; then SWAT model was run to simulate non-point source pollution. We found that the annual TP loads from industry pollution into rivers are 115.0 t in the entire watershed. Average annual TP loads from each sub-basin ranged from 0 to 189.4 ton. Higher TP loads of each basin from livestock and human living mainly occurs in the areas where they are far from large towns or cities and the TP loads from industry are relatively low. Mean annual TP loads that delivered to the streams was 246.4 tons and the highest TP loads occurred in north part of this area, and the lowest TP loads is mainly distributed in middle part. Therefore, point source pollution has much high proportion in this area and governments should take measures to control point source pollution.

  14. Study to determine operational and performance criteria for STOL aircraft operating in low visibility conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gorham, J. A.

    1978-01-01

    The operational and performance criteria for civil CTOL passenger-carrying airplanes landing in low visibilities depend upon the characteristics of the airplane, the nature and use of the ground and airborne guidance and control systems, and the geometry and lighting of the landing field. Based upon these criteria, FAA advisory circulars, airplane and equipment design characteristics, and airline operational and maintenance procedures were formulated. The documents are selected, described, and discussed in relationship to the potential low weather minima operation of STOL aircraft. An attempt is made to identify fundamental differences between CTOL and STOL aircraft characteristics which could impact upon existing CTOL documentation. Further study and/or flight experiments are recommended.

  15. Operationally Efficient Propulsion System Study (OEPSS): OEPSS Video Script

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wong, George S.; Waldrop, Glen S.; Trent, Donnie (Editor)

    1992-01-01

    The OEPSS video film, along with the OEPSS Databooks, provides a data base of current launch experience that will be useful for design of future expendable and reusable launch systems. The focus is on the launch processing of propulsion systems. A brief 15-minute overview of the OEPSS study results is found at the beginning of the film. The remainder of the film discusses in more detail: current ground operations at the Kennedy Space Center; typical operations issues and problems; critical operations technologies; and efficiency of booster and space propulsion systems. The impact of system architecture on the launch site and its facility infrastucture is emphasized. Finally, a particularly valuable analytical tool, developed during the OEPSS study, that will provide for the "first time" a quantitative measure of operations efficiency for a propulsion system is described.

  16. Study of infrared point source simulator for generating the multi-decoy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Chang-e.; Yang, Di; Su, Jian-gang; Huang, Yan-jun; Wang, Zhi-sheng

    2013-08-01

    The hardware-in-loop test system for infrared point-type guide missile was introduced;The decoy irradiation and motion characteristics were analyzed; multi-decoy generation mode and principle were studied.

  17. LHC Abort Gap Cleaning Studies During Luminosity Operation

    SciTech Connect

    Gianfelice-Wendt, E.; Bartmann, W.; Boccardi, A.; Bracco, C.; Bravin, E.; Goddard, B.; Hofle, W.; Jacquet, D.; Jeff, A.; Kain, V.; Meddahi, M.; /CERN

    2012-05-11

    The presence of significant intensities of un-bunched beam is a potentially serious issue in the LHC. Procedures using damper kickers for cleaning both the Abort Gap (AG) and the buckets targeted for injection, are currently in operation at flat bottom. Recent observations of relatively high population of the AG during physics runs brought up the need for AG cleaning during luminosity operation. In this paper the results of experimental studies performed in October 2011 are presented.

  18. Preliminary Study on Appearance-Based Detection of Anatomical Point Landmarks in Body Trunk CT Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nemoto, Mitsutaka; Nomura, Yukihiro; Hanaoka, Shohei; Masutani, Yoshitaka; Yoshikawa, Takeharu; Hayashi, Naoto; Yoshioka, Naoki; Ohtomo, Kuni

    Anatomical point landmarks as most primitive anatomical knowledge are useful for medical image understanding. In this study, we propose a detection method for anatomical point landmark based on appearance models, which include gray-level statistical variations at point landmarks and their surrounding area. The models are built based on results of Principal Component Analysis (PCA) of sample data sets. In addition, we employed generative learning method by transforming ROI of sample data. In this study, we evaluated our method with 24 data sets of body trunk CT images and obtained 95.8 ± 7.3 % of the average sensitivity in 28 landmarks.

  19. Multi-temporal UAV-borne LiDAR point clouds for vegetation analysis - a case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandlburger, Gottfried; Wieser, Martin; Hollaus, Markus; Pfennigbauer, Martin; Riegl, Ursula

    2016-04-01

    In the recent past the introduction of compact and lightweight LiDAR (Light Detection And Ranging) sensors together with progress in UAV (Unmanned Aerial Vehicle) technology allowed the integration of laser scanners on remotely piloted multicopter, helicopter-type and even fixed-wing platforms. The multi-target capabilities of state-of-the-art time-of-flight full-waveform laser sensors operated from low flying UAV-platforms has enabled capturing of the entire 3D structure of semi-transparent objects like deciduous forests under leaf-off conditions in unprecedented density and completeness. For such environments it has already been demonstrated that UAV-borne laser scanning combines the advantages of terrestrial laser scanning (high point density, short range) and airborne laser scanning (bird's eye perspective, homogeneous point distribution). Especially the oblique looking capabilities of scanners with a large field of view (>180°) enable capturing of vegetation from different sides resulting in a constantly high point density also in the sub canopy domain. Whereas the findings stated above were drawn based on a case study carried out in February 2015 with the Riegl VUX-1UAV laser scanner system mounted on a Riegl RiCopter octocopter UAV-platform over an alluvial forest at the Pielach River (Lower Austria), the site was captured a second time with the same sensor system and mission parameters at the end of the vegetation period on October 28th, 2015. The main goal of this experiment was to assess the impact of the late autumn foliage on the achievable 3D point density. Especially the entire understory vegetation and certain tree species (e.g. willow) were still in full leaf whereas the bigger trees (poplar) where already partly defoliated. The comparison revealed that, although both campaigns featured virtually the same laser shot count, the ground point density dropped from 517 points/m2 in February (leaf-off) to 267 points/m2 end of October (leaf-on). The

  20. Operative files of legal medical emergency in Calabria: study team.

    PubMed

    Rizzo, M; D'Andrea, E; Rizzi, P; Barbaro, A; Ricci, P; Nisticò, G; Magro, G; Russo, G; Alberto, R; Calvano, R

    2004-12-01

    In Calabria, a study team form legal medicine emergency (LME) formed to initiate a Crisis Unit (CU) able to manage and deal LME with complicated operations and roles, people and technical aspects involvement. First steps are planning, scene study and organization. Everything connecting the first and second emergency to have practicable application.

  1. 75 FR 14639 - Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc.; Indian Point Nuclear Generating Unit Nos. 1, 2, and 3...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-26

    ... completion of certain actions required by the revised 10 CFR part 73, does not involve any physical changes... March 27, 2009 (74 FR 13926). There will be no change to radioactive effluents that affect radiation... part 73, ``PHYSICAL PROTECTION OF PLANTS AND MATERIALS,'' for Facility Operating License Nos....

  2. Feasibility study report for the 200-BP-1 operable unit

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-06-01

    This feasibility study examines a range of alternatives and provides recommendations for selecting a preferred alternative for remediating contamination at the 200-BP-1 operable unit. The 200-BP-1 operable unit is located in the center of the Hanford Site along the northern boundary of the 200 East Area. The 241-BY Tank Farm is located immediately to the south of the operable unit. 200-BP-1 is a source operable unit with contaminated soils associated primarily with nine inactive cribs (known as the 216-B cribs). These cribs were used for disposal of low-level radioactive liquid waste from U Plant uranium recovery operations, and waste storage tank condensate from the adjacent 241-BY Tank Farm. The cribs used for disposal of U Plant waste were in operation from 1955--1965, and the cribs used for disposal of tank condensate were in operation from 1965--1975. In addition to the cribs, four unplanned releases of radioactive materials have occurred within the operable unit. Contaminated surface soils associated with the unplanned releases have been consolidated over the cribs and covered with clean soil to reduce contaminant migration and exposure. Discharge of wastes to the cribs has resulted in soil and groundwater contamination. The groundwater is being addressed as part of the 200 East Aggregate Area, groundwater operable unit. Contaminated soils at the site can be categorized by the types of contaminants, their distribution in the soil column, and the risk posed by the various potential exposure pathways. Below the clean soil cover, the near surface soils contain low-levels of contamination with cesium-137, radium-226, strontium-90, thorium-228, and uranium. The lifetime incremental cancer risk associated with these soils if they were exposed at the surface is 9{times}10{sup {minus}5}.

  3. The point-to-point test: A new diagnostic tool for measuring lumbar tactile acuity? Inter and intra-examiner reliability study of pain-free subjects.

    PubMed

    Adamczyk, Wacław; Sługocka, Anna; Saulicz, Oskar; Saulicz, Edward

    2016-04-01

    A two-point discrimination test (TPD) is commonly used to investigate lumbar tactile acuity. However, low inter-examiner reliability and difficulties in execution significantly limit its application. Therefore the aim of this study was to compare the inter- and intra-examiner reliability of a new approach, the point-to-point test (PTP), with the TPD. Twenty-one pain-free subjects attended the inter-examiner stage of the study. Eighteen of them were further recruited into an intra-examiner (reproducibility and repeatability) reliability study. PTP was performed on the three points plotted at the L3 spinal level. Point '0' overlapped with the L3 spinous process, from which points '1' and '2' were horizontally separated by 5 and 10 cm, respectively. Participants manually indicated a point previously touched by the examiner, while the distance (error) was measured. Reliability was determined with the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC2,3). The results revealed good and moderate inter- and intra-examiner reliability at point '1' (ICC2,3 = 0.68-0.84) and good reliability at point '2' (ICC2,3 = 0.84-0.86). At point '0', reliability was moderate to poor (ICC2,3 = 0.13-0.63). TPD was characterised by a poor to moderate level of inter- (ICC2,1 = 0.51; ICC2,3 = 0.56) and intra-examiner reliability (ICC(2,1) = 0.50; ICC2,3 = 0.74). Our findings suggest that PTP is more reliable than TPD at two investigated points at the L3 spinal level. However, further research on PTP validity data is strongly warranted. PMID:26797175

  4. The point-to-point test: A new diagnostic tool for measuring lumbar tactile acuity? Inter and intra-examiner reliability study of pain-free subjects.

    PubMed

    Adamczyk, Wacław; Sługocka, Anna; Saulicz, Oskar; Saulicz, Edward

    2016-04-01

    A two-point discrimination test (TPD) is commonly used to investigate lumbar tactile acuity. However, low inter-examiner reliability and difficulties in execution significantly limit its application. Therefore the aim of this study was to compare the inter- and intra-examiner reliability of a new approach, the point-to-point test (PTP), with the TPD. Twenty-one pain-free subjects attended the inter-examiner stage of the study. Eighteen of them were further recruited into an intra-examiner (reproducibility and repeatability) reliability study. PTP was performed on the three points plotted at the L3 spinal level. Point '0' overlapped with the L3 spinous process, from which points '1' and '2' were horizontally separated by 5 and 10 cm, respectively. Participants manually indicated a point previously touched by the examiner, while the distance (error) was measured. Reliability was determined with the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC2,3). The results revealed good and moderate inter- and intra-examiner reliability at point '1' (ICC2,3 = 0.68-0.84) and good reliability at point '2' (ICC2,3 = 0.84-0.86). At point '0', reliability was moderate to poor (ICC2,3 = 0.13-0.63). TPD was characterised by a poor to moderate level of inter- (ICC2,1 = 0.51; ICC2,3 = 0.56) and intra-examiner reliability (ICC(2,1) = 0.50; ICC2,3 = 0.74). Our findings suggest that PTP is more reliable than TPD at two investigated points at the L3 spinal level. However, further research on PTP validity data is strongly warranted.

  5. Defining a BMI Cut-Off Point for the Iranian Population: The Shiraz Heart Study

    PubMed Central

    Babai, Mohammad Ali; Arasteh, Peyman; Hadibarhaghtalab, Maryam; Naghizadeh, Mohammad Mehdi; Salehi, Alireza; Askari, Alireza; Homayounfar, Reza

    2016-01-01

    In this study we evaluated and redefined the optimum body mass index (BMI) cut-off point for the Iranian population based on metabolic syndrome (MeS) risk factors. We further evaluated BMI cut-off points with and without waist circumference (WC) as a cofactor of risk and compared the differences. This study is part of the largest surveillance programs conducted in Shiraz, Iran, termed the Shiraz Heart study. Our study sample included subjects between the ages of 20 to 65 years old. After excluding pregnant women, those with missing data and those with comorbid disease, a total of 12283 made up the study population. The participants underwent a series of tests and evaluations by trained professionals in accordance with WHO recommendations. Hypertension, abnormal fasting blood sugar (FBS), triglyceride (TG) and high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL) (in the context of the definition of metabolic syndrome) were prevalent among 32.4%, 27.6%, 42.1 and 44.2% of our participants, respectively. Women displayed higher rates of overall obesity compared to men (based on the definition by the WHO as higher than 30 kg/m2). Regarding MeS, 38.9% of our population had the all symptoms of MeS which was more prevalent among women (41.5% vs. 36%). When excluding WC in the definition of MeS, results showed that males tend to show a higher rate of metabolic risk factors (19.2% vs. 15.6%). Results of multivariate analysis showed that parallel to an increase in BMI, the odds ratio (OR) for acquiring each component of the metabolic syndrome increased (OR = 1.178; CI: 1.166–1.190). By excluding WC, the previous OR decreased (OR = 1.105; CI: 1.093–1.118). Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve analysis showed that the optimum BMI cut-off point for predicting metabolic syndrome was 26.1 kg/m2 and 26.2 kg/m2 [Accuracy (Acc) = 69% and 61%, respectively)] for males and females, respectively. The overall BMI cut-off for both sexes was 26.2 kg/m2 (Acc = 65%) with sensitivity and

  6. Defining a BMI Cut-Off Point for the Iranian Population: The Shiraz Heart Study.

    PubMed

    Babai, Mohammad Ali; Arasteh, Peyman; Hadibarhaghtalab, Maryam; Naghizadeh, Mohammad Mehdi; Salehi, Alireza; Askari, Alireza; Homayounfar, Reza

    2016-01-01

    In this study we evaluated and redefined the optimum body mass index (BMI) cut-off point for the Iranian population based on metabolic syndrome (MeS) risk factors. We further evaluated BMI cut-off points with and without waist circumference (WC) as a cofactor of risk and compared the differences. This study is part of the largest surveillance programs conducted in Shiraz, Iran, termed the Shiraz Heart study. Our study sample included subjects between the ages of 20 to 65 years old. After excluding pregnant women, those with missing data and those with comorbid disease, a total of 12283 made up the study population. The participants underwent a series of tests and evaluations by trained professionals in accordance with WHO recommendations. Hypertension, abnormal fasting blood sugar (FBS), triglyceride (TG) and high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL) (in the context of the definition of metabolic syndrome) were prevalent among 32.4%, 27.6%, 42.1 and 44.2% of our participants, respectively. Women displayed higher rates of overall obesity compared to men (based on the definition by the WHO as higher than 30 kg/m2). Regarding MeS, 38.9% of our population had the all symptoms of MeS which was more prevalent among women (41.5% vs. 36%). When excluding WC in the definition of MeS, results showed that males tend to show a higher rate of metabolic risk factors (19.2% vs. 15.6%). Results of multivariate analysis showed that parallel to an increase in BMI, the odds ratio (OR) for acquiring each component of the metabolic syndrome increased (OR = 1.178; CI: 1.166-1.190). By excluding WC, the previous OR decreased (OR = 1.105; CI: 1.093-1.118). Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve analysis showed that the optimum BMI cut-off point for predicting metabolic syndrome was 26.1 kg/m2 and 26.2 kg/m2 [Accuracy (Acc) = 69% and 61%, respectively)] for males and females, respectively. The overall BMI cut-off for both sexes was 26.2 kg/m2 (Acc = 65%) with sensitivity and

  7. Initial measurements of plasma current and electron density profiles using a polarimeter/interferometer (POINT) for long pulse operation in EAST (invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, H. Q.; Qian, J. P.; Jie, Y. X.; Ding, W. X.; Brower, D. L.; Zou, Z. Y.; Li, W. M.; Lian, H.; Wang, S. X.; Yang, Y.; Zeng, L.; Lan, T.; Yao, Y.; Hu, L. Q.; Zhang, X. D.; Wan, B. N.

    2016-11-01

    A double-pass, radially viewing, far-infrared laser-based POlarimeter-INTerferometer (POINT) system utilizing the three-wave technique has been implemented for diagnosing the plasma current and electron density profiles in the Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak (EAST). POINT has been operated routinely during the most recent experimental campaign and provides continuous 11 chord line-integrated Faraday effect and density measurement throughout the entire plasma discharge for all heating schemes and all plasma conditions (including ITER relevant scenario development). Reliability of both the polarimetric and interferometric measurements is demonstrated in 25 s plasmas with H-mode and 102 s long-pulse discharges. Current density, safety factor (q), and electron density profiles are reconstructed using equilibrium fitting code (EFIT) with POINT constraints for the plasma core.

  8. Parametric Optimization of Some Critical Operating System Functions--An Alternative Approach to the Study of Operating Systems Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sobh, Tarek M.; Tibrewal, Abhilasha

    2006-01-01

    Operating systems theory primarily concentrates on the optimal use of computing resources. This paper presents an alternative approach to teaching and studying operating systems design and concepts by way of parametrically optimizing critical operating system functions. Detailed examples of two critical operating systems functions using the…

  9. A Mixed-Methods Study Investigating the Relationship between Media Multitasking Orientation and Grade Point Average

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    The intent of this study was to examine the relationship between media multitasking orientation and grade point average. The study utilized a mixed-methods approach to investigate the research questions. In the quantitative section of the study, the primary method of statistical analyses was multiple regression. The independent variables for the…

  10. A Time Scheduling Model of Logistics Service Supply Chain Based on the Customer Order Decoupling Point: A Perspective from the Constant Service Operation Time

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yi; Xu, Haitao; Liu, Xiaoyan; Wang, Yijia; Liang, Zhicheng

    2014-01-01

    In mass customization logistics service, reasonable scheduling of the logistics service supply chain (LSSC), especially time scheduling, is benefit to increase its competitiveness. Therefore, the effect of a customer order decoupling point (CODP) on the time scheduling performance should be considered. To minimize the total order operation cost of the LSSC, minimize the difference between the expected and actual time of completing the service orders, and maximize the satisfaction of functional logistics service providers, this study establishes an LSSC time scheduling model based on the CODP. Matlab 7.8 software is used in the numerical analysis for a specific example. Results show that the order completion time of the LSSC can be delayed or be ahead of schedule but cannot be infinitely advanced or infinitely delayed. Obtaining the optimal comprehensive performance can be effective if the expected order completion time is appropriately delayed. The increase in supply chain comprehensive performance caused by the increase in the relationship coefficient of logistics service integrator (LSI) is limited. The relative concern degree of LSI on cost and service delivery punctuality leads to not only changes in CODP but also to those in the scheduling performance of the LSSC. PMID:24715818

  11. A time scheduling model of logistics service supply chain based on the customer order decoupling point: a perspective from the constant service operation time.

    PubMed

    Liu, Weihua; Yang, Yi; Xu, Haitao; Liu, Xiaoyan; Wang, Yijia; Liang, Zhicheng

    2014-01-01

    In mass customization logistics service, reasonable scheduling of the logistics service supply chain (LSSC), especially time scheduling, is benefit to increase its competitiveness. Therefore, the effect of a customer order decoupling point (CODP) on the time scheduling performance should be considered. To minimize the total order operation cost of the LSSC, minimize the difference between the expected and actual time of completing the service orders, and maximize the satisfaction of functional logistics service providers, this study establishes an LSSC time scheduling model based on the CODP. Matlab 7.8 software is used in the numerical analysis for a specific example. Results show that the order completion time of the LSSC can be delayed or be ahead of schedule but cannot be infinitely advanced or infinitely delayed. Obtaining the optimal comprehensive performance can be effective if the expected order completion time is appropriately delayed. The increase in supply chain comprehensive performance caused by the increase in the relationship coefficient of logistics service integrator (LSI) is limited. The relative concern degree of LSI on cost and service delivery punctuality leads to not only changes in CODP but also to those in the scheduling performance of the LSSC.

  12. A time scheduling model of logistics service supply chain based on the customer order decoupling point: a perspective from the constant service operation time.

    PubMed

    Liu, Weihua; Yang, Yi; Xu, Haitao; Liu, Xiaoyan; Wang, Yijia; Liang, Zhicheng

    2014-01-01

    In mass customization logistics service, reasonable scheduling of the logistics service supply chain (LSSC), especially time scheduling, is benefit to increase its competitiveness. Therefore, the effect of a customer order decoupling point (CODP) on the time scheduling performance should be considered. To minimize the total order operation cost of the LSSC, minimize the difference between the expected and actual time of completing the service orders, and maximize the satisfaction of functional logistics service providers, this study establishes an LSSC time scheduling model based on the CODP. Matlab 7.8 software is used in the numerical analysis for a specific example. Results show that the order completion time of the LSSC can be delayed or be ahead of schedule but cannot be infinitely advanced or infinitely delayed. Obtaining the optimal comprehensive performance can be effective if the expected order completion time is appropriately delayed. The increase in supply chain comprehensive performance caused by the increase in the relationship coefficient of logistics service integrator (LSI) is limited. The relative concern degree of LSI on cost and service delivery punctuality leads to not only changes in CODP but also to those in the scheduling performance of the LSSC. PMID:24715818

  13. A Study of Impulsive Multiterm Fractional Differential Equations with Single and Multiple Base Points and Applications

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yuji; Ahmad, Bashir

    2014-01-01

    We discuss the existence and uniqueness of solutions for initial value problems of nonlinear singular multiterm impulsive Caputo type fractional differential equations on the half line. Our study includes the cases for a single base point fractional differential equation as well as multiple base points fractional differential equation. The asymptotic behavior of solutions for the problems is also investigated. We demonstrate the utility of our work by applying the main results to fractional-order logistic models. PMID:24578623

  14. National facilities study. Volume 4: Space operations facilities task group

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    The principal objectives of the National Facilities Study (NFS) were to: (1) determine where U.S. facilities do not meet national aerospace needs; (2) define new facilities required to make U.S. capabilities 'world class' where such improvements are in the national interest; (3) define where consolidation and phase-out of existing facilities is appropriate; and (4) develop a long-term national plan for world-class facility acquisition and shared usage. The Space Operations Facilities Task Group defined discrete tasks to accomplish the above objectives within the scope of the study. An assessment of national space operations facilities was conducted to determine the nation's capability to meet the requirements of space operations during the next 30 years. The mission model used in the study to define facility requirements is described in Volume 3. Based on this model, the major focus of the Task Group was to identify any substantive overlap or underutilization of space operations facilities and to identify any facility shortfalls that would necessitate facility upgrades or new facilities. The focus of this initial study was directed toward facility recommendations related to consolidations, closures, enhancements, and upgrades considered necessary to efficiently and effectively support the baseline requirements model. Activities related to identifying facility needs or recommendations for enhancing U.S. international competitiveness and achieving world-class capability, where appropriate, were deferred to a subsequent study phase.

  15. Technology Solutions Case Study: Hydronic Systems: Designing for Setback Operation

    SciTech Connect

    2014-05-01

    For years, conventional wisdom surrounding space heating has specified two points: size the mechanical systems to the heating loads, and setting the thermostat back at night will result in energy savings. The problem is these two recommendations oppose each other. A system that is properly sized to the heating load will not have the extra capacity necessary to recover from a thermostat setback, especially at design conditions. Properly designing a hydronic system for setback operation can be accomplished but depends on several factors. Determining the appropriateness of setback for a particular project is the first step. This is followed by proper sizing of the boiler and baseboard to ensure the needed capacity can be met. Finally, control settings must be chosen that result in the most efficient and responsive performance. This guide provides step-by-step instructions for heating contractors and hydronic designers for selecting the proper control settings to maximize system performance and improve response time when using a thermostat setback.

  16. Space station automation and robotics study. Operator-systems interface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    This is the final report of a Space Station Automation and Robotics Planning Study, which was a joint project of the Boeing Aerospace Company, Boeing Commercial Airplane Company, and Boeing Computer Services Company. The study is in support of the Advanced Technology Advisory Committee established by NASA in accordance with a mandate by the U.S. Congress. Boeing support complements that provided to the NASA Contractor study team by four aerospace contractors, the Stanford Research Institute (SRI), and the California Space Institute. This study identifies automation and robotics (A&R) technologies that can be advanced by requirements levied by the Space Station Program. The methodology used in the study is to establish functional requirements for the operator system interface (OSI), establish the technologies needed to meet these requirements, and to forecast the availability of these technologies. The OSI would perform path planning, tracking and control, object recognition, fault detection and correction, and plan modifications in connection with extravehicular (EV) robot operations.

  17. Analysis of remote operating systems for space-based servicing operations. Volume 2: Study results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    The developments in automation and robotics have increased the importance of applications for space based servicing using remotely operated systems. A study on three basic remote operating systems (teleoperation, telepresence and robotics) was performed in two phases. In phase one, requirements development, which consisted of one three-month task, a group of ten missions were selected. These included the servicing of user equipment on the station and the servicing of the station itself. In phase two, concepts development, which consisted of three tasks, overall system concepts were developed for the selected missions. These concepts, which include worksite servicing equipment, a carrier system, and payload handling equipment, were evaluated relative to the configurations of the overall worksite. It is found that the robotic/teleoperator concepts are appropriate for relatively simple structured tasks, while the telepresence/teleoperator concepts are applicable for missions that are complex, unstructured tasks.

  18. Acquisition of Operational Environmental Literacy in Social Studies Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fidan, Nuray Kurtdede; Ay, Tugba Selanik

    2016-01-01

    Environmental literacy can be defined as having necessary perceptions and competency of health and environmental systems and as being active in developing necessary acts about them. Individuals are expected to use their knowledge and concepts in daily life. The aim of this study is to determine students' views about operational environmental…

  19. C++ and operating systems performance - A case study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russo, Vincent F.; Madany, Peter W.; Campbell, Roy H.

    1990-01-01

    Object-oriented design and programming has many software engineering advantages. Its application to large systems, however, has previously been constrained by performance concerns. The Choices operating system, which has over 75,000 lines of code, is object-oriented and programmed in C++. This paper is a case study of the performance of Choices.

  20. 36th Annual Maintenance & Operations Cost Study: Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agron, Joe

    2007-01-01

    Colleges are focusing increased effort--and money--to improve the physical condition of existing facilities and address a huge backlog of deferred maintenance. According to "American School & University's" 36th annual Maintenance and Operations (M&O) Cost Study, the median college spends 16.4% of total college budget on M&O, up from 11% the year…

  1. Assessing the Flipped Classroom in Operations Management: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prashar, Anupama

    2015-01-01

    The author delved into the results of a flipped classroom pilot conducted for an operations management course module. It assessed students' perception of a flipped learning environment after making them experience it in real time. The classroom environment was construed using a case research approach and students' perceptions were studied using…

  2. Post-operative endophthalmitis: the application of hazard analysis critical control points (HACCP) to an infection control problem.

    PubMed

    Baird, D R; Henry, M; Liddell, K G; Mitchell, C M; Sneddon, J G

    2001-09-01

    Hazard analysis critical control points (HACCP) is a quality assurance system widely used in the food industry to ensure safety. We adopted the HACCP approach when conventional infection control measures had failed to solve an ongoing problem with an increased incidence of postoperative endophthalmitis, and our ophthalmology unit was threatened with permanent cessation of intraocular surgery. Although time-consuming, the result was an entirely new set of protocols for the care of patients undergoing intraocular surgery, the development of an integrated care pathway, and a comprehensive and robust audit programme, which enabled intraocular surgery to continue in a new spirit of confidence. HACCP methodology has so far been little used in healthcare, but it might be usefully applied to a variety of apparently intractable infection control problems.

  3. Hermitian Operators Conjugate to Two-Mode Number-Difference Operator Studied in Entangled State Representation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Xue-Fen

    2008-10-01

    In similar to the derivation of phase angle operator conjugate to the number operator by Arroyo Carrasco-Moya Cessay we deduce the Hermitian phase operators that are conjugate to the two-mode number-difference operator and the three-mode number combination operator. It is shown that these operators are on the same footing in the entangled state representation as the one of Turski in the coherent state representation.

  4. An avionics sensitivity study. Volume 1: Operational considerations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott, R. W.; Mcconkey, E. D.

    1976-01-01

    Equipment and operational concepts affecting aircraft in the terminal area are reported. Curved approach applications and modified climb and descent procedures for minimum fuel consumption are considered. The curved approach study involves the application of MLS guidance to enable execution of the current visual approach to Washington National Airport under instrument flight conditions. The operational significance and the flight path control requirements involved in the application of curved approach paths to this situation are considered. Alternative flight path control regimes are considered to achieve minimum fuel consumption subject to constraints related to air traffic control requirements, flight crew and passenger reactions, and airframe and powerplant limitations.

  5. Tender mooring for infill drilling operations: A case study

    SciTech Connect

    1997-04-01

    The Tapis-pump platform is a four-leg jacket structure located 230 ft south of the Tapis-D platform and connected to it by a walkway bridge. All crude production (360,000 B/D) from Esso Production Malaysia Inc. (EPMI) wells in the South China Sea offshore Terengganu is piped to the Tapais-pump platform for pumping to an onshore terminal. The continuous operation of this platform is essential. The Tapis-D platform is a manned production platform that also acts as a central communication center and emergency response command center for EPMI`s offshore operations in the South China Sea. A total of nine wells is planned for an infill drilling program at the Tapis-D platform. The rig selected for this infill drilling program is a self-erecting tender-assisted rig that uses an eight-point wire rope mooring system. Eleven pipelines are connected to the Tapis-pump/Tapis-D platform complex. All the pipelines were laid on the seafloor without any special external protection and were not tied down or anchored. The paper describes the planning of the mooring system for drilling.

  6. Ground Operations Aerospace Language (GOAL). Volume 1: Study overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    A series of NASA and Contractor studies sponsored by NASA/KSC resulted in a specification for the Ground Operations Aerospace Language (GOAL). The Cape Kennedy Facility of the IBM Corporation was given the responsibility, under existing contracts, to perform an analysis of the Language Specification, to design and develop a GOAL Compiler, to provide a specification for a data bank, to design and develop an interpretive code translator, and to perform associated application studies.

  7. Mission Operations Planning with Preferences: An Empirical Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bresina, John L.; Khatib, Lina; McGann, Conor

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents an empirical study of some nonexhaustive approaches to optimizing preferences within the context of constraint-based, mixed-initiative planning for mission operations. This work is motivated by the experience of deploying and operating the MAPGEN (Mixed-initiative Activity Plan GENerator) system for the Mars Exploration Rover Mission. Responsiveness to the user is one of the important requirements for MAPGEN, hence, the additional computation time needed to optimize preferences must be kept within reasonabble bounds. This was the primary motivation for studying non-exhaustive optimization approaches. The specific goals of rhe empirical study are to assess the impact on solution quality of two greedy heuristics used in MAPGEN and to assess the improvement gained by applying a linear programming optimization technique to the final solution.

  8. A quantitative study on accumulation of age mass around stagnation points in nested flow systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Xiao-Wei; Wan, Li; Ge, Shemin; Cao, Guo-Liang; Hou, Guang-Cai; Hu, Fu-Sheng; Wang, Xu-Sheng; Li, Hailong; Liang, Si-Hai

    2012-12-01

    The stagnant zones in nested flow systems have been assumed to be critical to accumulation of transported matter, such as metallic ions and hydrocarbons in drainage basins. However, little quantitative research has been devoted to prove this assumption. In this paper, the transport of age mass is used as an example to demonstrate that transported matter could accumulate around stagnation points. The spatial distribution of model age is analyzed in a series of drainage basins of different depths. We found that groundwater age has a local or regional maximum value around each stagnation point, which proves the accumulation of age mass. In basins where local, intermediate and regional flow systems are all well developed, the regional maximum groundwater age occurs at the regional stagnation point below the basin valley. This can be attributed to the long travel distances of regional flow systems as well as stagnancy of the water. However, when local flow systems dominate, the maximum groundwater age in the basin can be located around the local stagnation points due to stagnancy, which are far away from the basin valley. A case study is presented to illustrate groundwater flow and age in the Ordos Plateau, northwestern China. The accumulation of age mass around stagnation points is confirmed by tracer age determined by 14C dating in two boreholes and simulated age near local stagnation points under different dispersivities. The results will help shed light on the relationship between groundwater flow and distributions of groundwater age, hydrochemistry, mineral resources, and hydrocarbons in drainage basins.

  9. Cryogenic Propellant Storage and Transfer Technology Demonstration: Prephase A Government Point-of-Departure Concept Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mulqueen, J. A.; Addona, B. M.; Gwaltney, D. A.; Holt, K. A.; Hopkins, R. C.; Matis, J. A.; McRight, P. S.; Popp, C. G.; Sutherlin, S. G.; Thomas, H. D.; Baysinger, M. F.; Maples, C. D.; Capizzo, P. D.; Fabisinski, L. L.; Hornsby, L. S.; Percy, T. K.; Thomas, S. D.

    2012-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to define a point-of-departure prephase A mission concept for the cryogenic propellant storage and transfer technology demonstration mission to be conducted by the NASA Office of the Chief Technologist (OCT). The mission concept includes identification of the cryogenic propellant management technologies to be demonstrated, definition of a representative mission timeline, and definition of a viable flight system design concept. The resulting mission concept will serve as a point of departure for evaluating alternative mission concepts and synthesizing the results of industry- defined mission concepts developed under the OCT contracted studies

  10. Scores of extended connectivity fingerprint as descriptors in QSPR study of melting point and aqueous solubility.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Diansong; Alelyunas, Yun; Liu, Ruifeng

    2008-05-01

    QSPR studies, using scores of SciTegic's extended connectivity fingerprint as raw descriptors, were extended to the prediction of melting points and aqueous solubility of organic compounds. Robust partial least-squares models were developed that perform as well as the best published QSPR models for structurally diverse organic compounds. Satisfactory performance of the QSPR models indicates that the scores of extended connectivity fingerprint are high performance molecular descriptors for QSAR/QSPR studies. Performance of the fingerprint-based descriptors is further validated by the satisfactory prediction of aqueous solubility of nearly 1300 organic compounds (squared correlation coefficient of 0.83 and RMSE of 0.85 log unit) with Yalkowsky's general solubility equation using both calculated melting points and calculated octanol-water partition coefficients. It demonstrates for the first time that it is feasible to predict aqueous solubility of structurally diverse organic compounds with the general solubility equation using both the calculated melting points and the partition coefficients.

  11. Lithium-ion drifting: Application to the study of point defects in floating-zone silicon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walton, J. T.; Wong, Y. K.; Zulehner, W.

    1997-01-01

    The use of lithium-ion (Li(+)) drifting to study the properties of point defects in p-type Floating-Zone (FZ) silicon crystals is reported. The Li(+) drift technique is used to detect the presence of vacancy-related defects (D defects) in certain p-type FZ silicon crystals. SUPREM-IV modeling suggests that the silicon point defect diffusivities are considerably higher than those commonly accepted, but are in reasonable agreement with values recently proposed. These results demonstrate the utility of Li(+) drifting in the study of silicon point defect properties in p-type FZ crystals. Finally, a straightforward measurement of the Li(+) compensation depth is shown to yield estimates of the vacancy-related defect concentration in p-type FZ crystals.

  12. The first regularized trace of integro-differential Sturm-Liouville operator on the segment with punctured points at integral perturbation of transmission conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aimakhanova, Aizat Sh.; Shalginbayeva, Saltanat Kh.; Zhumanova, Lyazzat K.

    2016-08-01

    The paper is devoted to calculation of a first regularized trace of one integro-differential operator with the main part of the Sturm-Liouville type on a segment with punctured points at integral perturbation of "transmission" conditions. The Sturm-Liouville operator -y″(x )+q (x )y (x )+γ ∫0πy (t ) d t =λ y (x ) given on the segments π/n (k -1 )points x =π/n k are solutions. The value of jumps is expressed by the formula y'(π/k n -0 ) =y'(π/k n +0 ) -βk∫0πy (t )d t , k =1 , n -1 ¯. The basic result of the paper is the exact formula of the first regularized trace of the considered differential operator.

  13. Study on the Impurity Effect in the Realization of Silver Fixed Point

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, S. F.

    2016-03-01

    The application of a thermal analysis model to estimate the temperature depression from the ideal fixed-point temperature is important, especially when the chemical analysis of the sample in a cell is insufficient or the cell might have been contaminated during fabrication. This study extends previous work, on thermal analysis with the tin point, to an investigation of the impurity dependence of the silver-point temperature. Close agreement was found between the temperature depression (-0.36 mK) inferred from the thermal analysis of the measured fixed-point plateau and the temperature depression (-0.32 mK) inferred using the sum of individual estimates (SIE) method with an impurity analysis based on glow discharge mass spectrometry. Additionally, the results of the thermal analysis manifest no significant dependence on the rate of solidification, and the scatter of observed gradients was within 0.36 mK among five plateaux with different temperature settings of the furnace. Although the results support the application of both the SIE method and thermal analysis for the silver point, further experiments with cell-to-cell comparisons linked to thermal analysis, a study of the thermometer-furnace systematic effects, the oxygen effect, and the locus of the freezing plateau should be investigated to reach a firm conclusion.

  14. Space tug point design study. Volume 3: Design definition. Part 1: Propulsion and mechanical, avionics, thermal control and electrical power subsystems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine the configuration and performance of a space tug. Details of the space tug systems are presented to include: (1) propulsion systems, (2) avionics, (3) thermal control, and (4) electric power subsystems. The data generated include engineering drawings, schematics, subsystem operation, and component description. Various options investigated and the rational for the point design selection are analyzed.

  15. Impact of Field of Study, College and Year on Calculation of Cumulative Grade Point Average

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trail, Carla; Reiter, Harold I.; Bridge, Michelle; Stefanowska, Patricia; Schmuck, Marylou; Norman, Geoff

    2008-01-01

    A consistent finding from many reviews is that undergraduate Grade Point Average (uGPA) is a key predictor of academic success in medical school. Curiously, while uGPA has established predictive validity, little is known about its reliability. For a variety of reasons, medical schools use different weighting schemas to combine years of study.…

  16. Experimental study of electrical point shorts in laminated Terfenol-D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slaughter, Julie C.

    2002-07-01

    It is well known that laminating TERFENOL-D drivers for high frequency operation reduces eddy current losses. However, there are questions regarding the effectiveness of the lamination if there is an electrical short between two adjacent laminae. Because of the high electrical resistivity of the epoxy used for lamination, these electrical shorts are most likely caused by metal particles or other impurities penetrating the epoxy layer, referred to here as 'point shorts'. The effects of electrical point shorts between adjacent laminae in TERFENOL-D drivers have been investigated. TERFENOL-D drivers with specific configurations of point shorts were fabricated and tested. The drivers were tested in two simple configurations, the first with its resonant frequency below the eddy current critical frequency for the lamina thickness, 7 kHz, and the second with its resonance above the critical frequency, 19 kHz. A comparison of solid drivers with completely shorted drivers show that the effect of laminating the TERFENOL-D is not nullified by the presence of an electrical short. In fact, comparing a completely shorted driver with a perfectly laminated driver indicates that there is very little, if any, performance degradation due to the presence of electrical shorts.

  17. Study on the RF Set Point for the PEFP DTL by using a phase scan method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jang, Ji-Ho; Kwon, Hyeok-Jung; Cho, Yong-Sub

    2012-12-01

    The drift tube linac (DTL) is used to accelerate proton beams from 20 MeV to 100 MeV in the linear accelerator of the Proton Engineering Frontier Project (PEFP). The phase scan signature method is a common technique to determine the radio-frequency (rf) set point, including the rf amplitude and phase, in DTL tanks. In this work, we applied the phase scan method to the first tank of the PEFP's DTL in order to study the procedure for determining the rf set point by using artificial experimental data generated by using the PARMILA code.

  18. Retrospective study using MRI to measure depths of acupuncture points in neck and shoulder region

    PubMed Central

    Chou, Pei-Chi; Huang, Yu-Chuen; Hsueh, Chun-Jen; Lin, Jaung-Geng; Chu, Heng-Yi

    2015-01-01

    Objectives There are safety issues associated with acupuncture treatment. Previous studies regarding needling depth of acupuncture points revealed inconsistent results due to vague depth definition, acupuncture point localisation and measuring tools. The objective of this study is to find and compare the differences of the mean depths of 11 acupuncture points in the neck and shoulder region between subjects, with variables including gender and body mass index (BMI). Setting This study was conducted at a single medical center in Taiwan. Participants Three hundred and ninety-four participants were included in this study. Participants were grouped according to gender and BMI. Acupuncture points were localised by WHO standard and measured by MRI. Outcome measures The distance from the needle insertion point (surface of the skin) to any tissues that would cause possible/severe complications. Results Mean depths of 11 points were obtained in groups of different BMI and gender. Mean depths of all participants regardless of BMI and gender are as follows, in centimetres: GB21=5.6, SI14=5.2, SI15=8.8, GV15=4.9, GV16=4.6, GB20=5.0, ST9=1.6, SI16=1.8, SI17=2.4, TE16=3.1, LI18=1.3. Participants with higher BMI had greater measured depths in both gender groups. Male participants had larger mean depths than female participants regardless of BMI except in SI17 and LI18. When taking BMI into consideration, depths in male participants are greater than in female participants in most of the points except the following: GB21, TE16 in obesity group; ST9 in underweight and obesity group; SI16 in ideal body weight, overweight and obesity group; SI17, LI18 in each group. Conclusions Participants with higher BMI had greater measured depths and males tended to have greater depths in most of the points. Clinical practitioners are recommended to consider this information to prevent complications when applying acupuncture treatment to their patients. PMID:26224017

  19. Lunar Transportation Facilities and Operations Study, option 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    During the Option 2 period of the Lunar Transportation Facilities and Operations Study (LTFOS), a joint McDonnell Douglas Space Systems Company Kennedy Space Center (MDSSC-KSC) and National Aeronautics and Space Administration Kennedy Space Center (NASA-KSC) Study team conducted a comparison of the functional testing of the RL-10 and Space Shuttle Main Engine, a quick-look impact assessment of the Synthesis Group Report, and a detailed assessment of the Synthesis Group Report. The results of these KSC LTFOS team efforts are included. The most recent study task effort was a detailed assessment of the Synthesis Group Report. The assessment was conducted to determine the impact on planetary launch and landing facilities and operations. The result of that effort is a report entitled 'Analysis of the Synthesis Group Report, its Architectures and their Impacts on PSS Launch and Landing Operations' and is contained in Appendix A. The report is structured in a briefing format with facing pages as opposed to a narrative style. A quick-look assessment of the Synthesis Group Report was conducted to determine the impact of implementing the recommendations of the Synthesis Group on KSC launch facilities and operations. The data was documented in a presentation format as requested by Kennedy Space Center Technology and Advanced Projects Office and is included in Appendix B. Appendix C is a white paper on the comparison of the functional testing of the RL-10 and Space Shuttle Main Engine. The comparison was undertaken to provide insight regarding common test requirements that would be applicable to Lunar and Mars Excursion Vehicles (LEV and MEV).

  20. Lunar Transportation Facilities and Operations Study, option 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1992-02-01

    During the Option 2 period of the Lunar Transportation Facilities and Operations Study (LTFOS), a joint McDonnell Douglas Space Systems Company Kennedy Space Center (MDSSC-KSC) and National Aeronautics and Space Administration Kennedy Space Center (NASA-KSC) Study team conducted a comparison of the functional testing of the RL-10 and Space Shuttle Main Engine, a quick-look impact assessment of the Synthesis Group Report, and a detailed assessment of the Synthesis Group Report. The results of these KSC LTFOS team efforts are included. The most recent study task effort was a detailed assessment of the Synthesis Group Report. The assessment was conducted to determine the impact on planetary launch and landing facilities and operations. The result of that effort is a report entitled 'Analysis of the Synthesis Group Report, its Architectures and their Impacts on PSS Launch and Landing Operations' and is contained in Appendix A. The report is structured in a briefing format with facing pages as opposed to a narrative style. A quick-look assessment of the Synthesis Group Report was conducted to determine the impact of implementing the recommendations of the Synthesis Group on KSC launch facilities and operations. The data was documented in a presentation format as requested by Kennedy Space Center Technology and Advanced Projects Office and is included in Appendix B. Appendix C is a white paper on the comparison of the functional testing of the RL-10 and Space Shuttle Main Engine. The comparison was undertaken to provide insight regarding common test requirements that would be applicable to Lunar and Mars Excursion Vehicles (LEV and MEV).

  1. Environmental tipping points in random dynamical systems: a quasigeostrophic case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierini, S.

    2012-04-01

    Environmental tipping points (TPs) leading to abrupt state changes are usually considered in an autonomous dynamical systems framework, in which case early warnings may be identified in signals with increased autocorrelation and variance. An essential step toward a more realistic description of abrupt transitions in the environment and climate is to analyze TPs in random dynamical systems. In this context, a case study based on an operational definition of stochastic TPs and on a nonlinear low-order quasigeostrophic model is presented (Pierini, Phys. Rev. E, 2012). Let us suppose that in an autonomous dynamical system (DS), self-sustained relaxation oscillations emerge if (and only if) a control parameter Q is such that Q > Qo: Qo is therefore a (deterministic) TP. The same system perturbed by noise is said to be "excitable" if a range Q < Qo (depending on the noise) exists in which basically the same relaxation oscillations can be noise-induced (such mechanism is usually referred to as "coherence resonance"). In an excitable random DS (a case likely to be quite common in environmental and climate dynamics) a stochastic TP is defined here as the random variable Ro whose realizations satisfy the same conditions required for Qo in the deterministic case. The low-order model (with four degrees of freedom) used in this study describes an excitable DS driven by a stationary forcing with amplitude Q (the deterministic control parameter) plus a colored noise characterized by its amplitude A and autocorrelation time scale Ta. A 10-member ensemble is constructed by performing forward time integrations of length T, and by letting A and Ta vary within a broad parametric range. The ensemble averages and (where the random variable N is the number of relaxation oscillations emerging in T) are then computed. The results suggest that in an excitable random DS coherence resonance may be the predominant transition mechanism, in which case stochastic TPs should be considered

  2. Version changes in medical software: proposing minimal requirements for release notes and a version number convention - an operators' point of view.

    PubMed

    Ahlbrandt, Janko; Bott, Constantin; Moll, Peter; Naziyok, Tolga; Majeed, Raphael W; Röhrig, Rainer

    2015-01-01

    Medical software--like any other software--is susceptible to errors. To avoid false system behaviour or attenuate its consequences, system operators need to know about changes in the software. The goal of this proposal is to define terms and minimum requirements regarding documentation for a version change from the operator's point of view, especially in the domain of medical software or software as a medical device (SaMD). The results are a classification of version changes (Upgrade: breaks support for a rollback to a prior version, Major Update: either substantial configuration or user education needed, Minor Update: minor configuration or user information needed, Patch: collection of (small) changes that require neither configuration nor user information.). Additionally, minimal requirements for release notes are determined and a document structure recommended.

  3. Retina-on-a-chip: a microfluidic platform for point access signaling studies

    PubMed Central

    Dodson, Kirsten H.; Echevarria, Franklin D.; Li, Deyu; Sappington, Rebecca M.; Edd, Jon F.

    2016-01-01

    We report on a microfluidic platform for culture of whole organs or tissue slices with the capability of point access reagent delivery to probe the transport of signaling events. Whole mice retina were maintained for multiple days with negative pressure applied to tightly but gently bind the bottom of the retina to a thin poly-(dimethylsiloxane) membrane, through which twelve 100 μm diameter through-holes served as fluidic access points. Staining with toluidine blue, transport of locally applied cholera toxin beta, and transient response to lipopolysaccharide in the retina demonstrated the capability of the microfluidic platform. The point access fluidic delivery capability could enable new assays in the study of various kinds of excised tissues, including retina. PMID:26559199

  4. International cooperative study of aircrew layover sleep Operational summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graeber, R. Curtis; Dement, William C.; Nicholson, Anthony N.; Sasaki, Mitsuo; Wegmann, Hans M.

    1986-01-01

    The findings of this cooperative study of layover sleep have direct implications for flight operations. In the consensus view of the principal investigators, these can be divided into their relevance for eastward or westward flight. Eastward flight produced more sleep disruption than westward. Different sleep and scheduling strategies are recommended for each flight direction, and the importance of individual crewmember factors is discussed in relation to age and circadian type. Despite the limitations of this study with regard to trip simplicity and the baseline data, the results for each airline are highly consistent and should be applicable to a wide range of long-haul crewmembers and carriers.

  5. Proximity Operations Nano-Satellite Flight Demonstration (PONSFD) Rendezvous Proximity Operations Design and Trade Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griesbach, J.; Westphal, J. J.; Roscoe, C.; Hawes, D. R.; Carrico, J. P.

    2013-09-01

    The Proximity Operations Nano-Satellite Flight Demonstration (PONSFD) program is to demonstrate rendezvous proximity operations (RPO), formation flying, and docking with a pair of 3U CubeSats. The program is sponsored by NASA Ames via the Office of the Chief Technologist (OCT) in support of its Small Spacecraft Technology Program (SSTP). The goal of the mission is to demonstrate complex RPO and docking operations with a pair of low-cost 3U CubeSat satellites using passive navigation sensors. The program encompasses the entire system evolution including system design, acquisition, satellite construction, launch, mission operations, and final disposal. The satellite is scheduled for launch in Fall 2015 with a 1-year mission lifetime. This paper provides a brief mission overview but will then focus on the current design and driving trade study results for the RPO mission specific processor and relevant ground software. The current design involves multiple on-board processors, each specifically tasked with providing mission critical capabilities. These capabilities range from attitude determination and control to image processing. The RPO system processor is responsible for absolute and relative navigation, maneuver planning, attitude commanding, and abort monitoring for mission safety. A low power processor running a Linux operating system has been selected for implementation. Navigation is one of the RPO processor's key tasks. This entails processing data obtained from the on-board GPS unit as well as the on-board imaging sensors. To do this, Kalman filters will be hosted on the processor to ingest and process measurements for maintenance of position and velocity estimates with associated uncertainties. While each satellite carries a GPS unit, it will be used sparsely to conserve power. As such, absolute navigation will mainly consist of propagating past known states, and relative navigation will be considered to be of greater importance. For relative observations

  6. Feasibility study for a transportation operations system cask maintenance facility

    SciTech Connect

    Rennich, M.J.; Medley, L.G.; Attaway, C.R.

    1991-01-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) is responsible for the development of a waste management program for the disposition of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and high-level waste (HLW). The program will include a transportation system for moving the nuclear waste from the sources to a geologic repository for permanent disposal. Specially designed casks will be used to safely transport the waste. The cask systems must be operated within limits imposed by DOE, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), and the Department of Transportation (DOT). A dedicated facility for inspecting, testing, and maintaining the cask systems was recommended by the General Accounting Office (in 1979) as the best means of assuring their operational effectiveness and safety, as well as regulatory compliance. In November of 1987, OCRWM requested a feasibility study be made of a Cask Maintenance Facility (CMF) that would perform the required functions. 46 refs., 16 figs., 13 tabs.

  7. A Theoretical Study of the Two-Dimensional Point Focusing by Two Multilayer Laue Lenses.

    SciTech Connect

    Yan,H.; Maser, J.; Kang, H.C.; Macrader, A.; Stephenson, B.

    2008-08-10

    Hard x-ray point focusing by two crossed multilayer Laue lenses is studied using a full-wave modeling approach. This study shows that for a small numerical aperture, the two consecutive diffraction processes can be decoupled into two independent ones in respective directions. Using this theoretical tool, we investigated adverse effects of various misalignments on the 2D focus profile and discussed the tolerance to them. We also derived simple expressions that described the required alignment accuracy.

  8. Pain point system scale (PPSS): a method for postoperative pain estimation in retrospective studies

    PubMed Central

    Gkotsi, Anastasia; Petsas, Dimosthenis; Sakalis, Vasilios; Fotas, Asterios; Triantafyllidis, Argyrios; Vouros, Ioannis; Saridakis, Evangelos; Salpiggidis, Georgios; Papathanasiou, Athanasios

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Pain rating scales are widely used for pain assessment. Nevertheless, a new tool is required for pain assessment needs in retrospective studies. Methods The postoperative pain episodes, during the first postoperative day, of three patient groups were analyzed. Each pain episode was assessed by a visual analog scale, numerical rating scale, verbal rating scale, and a new tool – pain point system scale (PPSS) – based on the analgesics administered. The type of analgesic was defined based on the authors’ clinic protocol, patient comorbidities, pain assessment tool scores, and preadministered medications by an artificial neural network system. At each pain episode, each patient was asked to fill the three pain scales. Bartlett’s test and Kaiser–Meyer–Olkin criterion were used to evaluate sample sufficiency. The proper scoring system was defined by varimax rotation. Spearman’s and Pearson’s coefficients assessed PPSS correlation to the known pain scales. Results A total of 262 pain episodes were evaluated in 124 patients. The PPSS scored one point for each dose of paracetamol, three points for each nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug or codeine, and seven points for each dose of opioids. The correlation between the visual analog scale and PPSS was found to be strong and linear (rho: 0.715; P < 0.001 and Pearson: 0.631; P < 0.001). Conclusion PPSS correlated well with the known pain scale and could be used safely in the evaluation of postoperative pain in retrospective studies. PMID:23152699

  9. Reviving common standards in point-count surveys for broad inference across studies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Matsuoka, Steven M.; Mahon, C. Lisa; Handel, Colleen M.; Solymos, Peter; Bayne, Erin M.; Fontaine, Patricia C.; Ralph, C.J.

    2014-01-01

    We revisit the common standards recommended by Ralph et al. (1993, 1995a) for conducting point-count surveys to assess the relative abundance of landbirds breeding in North America. The standards originated from discussions among ornithologists in 1991 and were developed so that point-count survey data could be broadly compared and jointly analyzed by national data centers with the goals of monitoring populations and managing habitat. Twenty years later, we revisit these standards because (1) they have not been universally followed and (2) new methods allow estimation of absolute abundance from point counts, but these methods generally require data beyond the original standards to account for imperfect detection. Lack of standardization and the complications it introduces for analysis become apparent from aggregated data. For example, only 3% of 196,000 point counts conducted during the period 1992-2011 across Alaska and Canada followed the standards recommended for the count period and count radius. Ten-minute, unlimited-count-radius surveys increased the number of birds detected by >300% over 3-minute, 50-m-radius surveys. This effect size, which could be eliminated by standardized sampling, was ≥10 times the published effect sizes of observers, time of day, and date of the surveys. We suggest that the recommendations by Ralph et al. (1995a) continue to form the common standards when conducting point counts. This protocol is inexpensive and easy to follow but still allows the surveys to be adjusted for detection probabilities. Investigators might optionally collect additional information so that they can analyze their data with more flexible forms of removal and time-of-detection models, distance sampling, multiple-observer methods, repeated counts, or combinations of these methods. Maintaining the common standards as a base protocol, even as these study-specific modifications are added, will maximize the value of point-count data, allowing compilation and

  10. Orbit Transfer Vehicle (OTV) advanced expander cycle engine point design study. Volume 2: Study results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Detailed computer models of the engine were developed to predict both the steady state and transient operation of the engine system. Mechanical design layout drawings were prepared for the following components: thrust chamber and nozzle; extendible nozzle actuating mechanism and seal; LOX turbopump and boost pump; hydrogen turbopump and boost pump; and the propellant control valves. The necessary heat transfer, stress, fluid flow, dynamic, and performance analyses were performed to support the mechanical design.

  11. Operability assessment in CTEPH: Lessons from the CHEST-1 study.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, David P; Biederman, Andrzej; D'Armini, Andrea M; Dartevelle, Philippe G; Gan, Hui-Li; Klepetko, Walter; Lindner, Jaroslav; Mayer, Eckhard; Madani, Michael M

    2016-09-01

    Pulmonary endarterectomy is the gold standard treatment for chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension and is potentially curative, although some patients are unsuitable for pulmonary endarterectomy and require alternative management. Lack of standardized assessment of pulmonary endarterectomy eligibility risks suboptimal treatment in some patients. We discuss the implications for future clinical trials and practice of a unique operability assessment in patients who have chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension and were initially screened for inclusion in the CHEST-1 (Chronic Thromboembolic Pulmonary Hypertension Soluble Guanylate Cyclase Stimulator Trial-1) study. The CHEST-1 study evaluated riociguat for the treatment of inoperable chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) or persistent/recurrent pulmonary hypertension after pulmonary endarterectomy. Screened patients who were initially considered "inoperable" underwent central independent adjudication by a committee of experienced surgeons, or local adjudication in collaboration with an experienced surgeon. Operability decisions were based on accessibility of thrombi and the association between pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) and the extent of obstruction, using pulmonary angiography/computed tomography with ventilation/perfusion scintigraphy as the minimum diagnostic tests. Of 446 patients screened for CHEST-1, a total of 188 and 124 underwent central and local adjudication, respectively, after being initially considered to be "inoperable." After a second assessment by an experienced surgeon, 69 of these 312 "inoperable" patients were deemed operable. Rigorous measures in CHEST-1 guaranteed that only technically inoperable patients, or patients who had persistent/recurrent pulmonary hypertension, were enrolled, thus ensuring that only patients for whom surgery was not an option were enrolled. This study design sets new standards for future clinical trials and practice in CTEPH, helping

  12. Operability assessment in CTEPH: Lessons from the CHEST-1 study.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, David P; Biederman, Andrzej; D'Armini, Andrea M; Dartevelle, Philippe G; Gan, Hui-Li; Klepetko, Walter; Lindner, Jaroslav; Mayer, Eckhard; Madani, Michael M

    2016-09-01

    Pulmonary endarterectomy is the gold standard treatment for chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension and is potentially curative, although some patients are unsuitable for pulmonary endarterectomy and require alternative management. Lack of standardized assessment of pulmonary endarterectomy eligibility risks suboptimal treatment in some patients. We discuss the implications for future clinical trials and practice of a unique operability assessment in patients who have chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension and were initially screened for inclusion in the CHEST-1 (Chronic Thromboembolic Pulmonary Hypertension Soluble Guanylate Cyclase Stimulator Trial-1) study. The CHEST-1 study evaluated riociguat for the treatment of inoperable chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) or persistent/recurrent pulmonary hypertension after pulmonary endarterectomy. Screened patients who were initially considered "inoperable" underwent central independent adjudication by a committee of experienced surgeons, or local adjudication in collaboration with an experienced surgeon. Operability decisions were based on accessibility of thrombi and the association between pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) and the extent of obstruction, using pulmonary angiography/computed tomography with ventilation/perfusion scintigraphy as the minimum diagnostic tests. Of 446 patients screened for CHEST-1, a total of 188 and 124 underwent central and local adjudication, respectively, after being initially considered to be "inoperable." After a second assessment by an experienced surgeon, 69 of these 312 "inoperable" patients were deemed operable. Rigorous measures in CHEST-1 guaranteed that only technically inoperable patients, or patients who had persistent/recurrent pulmonary hypertension, were enrolled, thus ensuring that only patients for whom surgery was not an option were enrolled. This study design sets new standards for future clinical trials and practice in CTEPH, helping

  13. Clinical impact of time-of-flight and point response modeling in PET reconstructions: a lesion detection study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaefferkoetter, Joshua; Casey, Michael; Townsend, David; El Fakhri, Georges

    2013-03-01

    Time-of-flight (TOF) and point spread function (PSF) modeling have been shown to improve PET reconstructions, but the impact on physicians in the clinical setting has not been thoroughly investigated. A lesion detection and localization study was performed using simulated lesions in real patient images. Four reconstruction schemes were considered: ordinary Poisson OSEM (OP) alone and combined with TOF, PSF, and TOF + PSF. The images were presented to physicians experienced in reading PET images, and the performance of each was quantified using localization receiver operating characteristic. Numerical observers (non-prewhitening and Hotelling) were used to identify optimal reconstruction parameters, and observer SNR was compared to the performance of the physicians. The numerical models showed good agreement with human performance, and best performance was achieved by both when using TOF + PSF. These findings suggest a large potential benefit of TOF + PSF for oncology PET studies, especially in the detection of small, low-intensity, focal disease in larger patients.

  14. Feasibility Study for Operable Unit 7-13/14

    SciTech Connect

    K. Jean Holdren Thomas E. Bechtold Brian D. Preussner

    2007-05-29

    The Subsurface Disposal Area is a radioactive waste landfill located within the Radioactive Waste Management Complex at the Idaho National Laboratory Site in southeastern Idaho. This Feasibility Study for Operable Unit 7-13/14 analyzes options for mitigating risks to human health and the environment associated with the landfill. Analysis is conducted in accordance with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act, using nine evaluation criteria to develop detailed and comparative analysis of five assembled alternatives. Assembled alternatives are composed of discrete modules. Ultimately, decision-makers will select, recombine, and sum various modules into an optimized preferred alternative and final remedial decision.

  15. Vascular Fasciatherapy Danis Bois Method: a Study on Mechanism Concerning the Supporting Point Applied on Arteries

    PubMed Central

    Payrau, Bernard; Quéré, Nadine; Bois, Danis

    2011-01-01

    Background A first study on vascular fasciatherapy enabled us to observe the turning of a turbulent blood flow into a laminar one, and a questioning on the process involved in this transformation emerged. The first question was: What is the nature of artery from the point of view of fascia? And a second question was: Which is the link permitting the observed process working in our first study? So this time, we are investigating a specific aspect of the big question that polarizes the interest of many researchers: “What is fascia?” Methods Following Donald Ingber’s statement, “It is necessary to understand how tissues and organs are structured across multiple size scales”, our research methods have been established in order to collect information on what is artery and what is fascia. Concerning these two organs, we have questioned science across the scales of embryology, anatomy, histology and cytology. Beyond the knowledge on structure, the functional link between artery and fascia is the necessary complement of this study whose starting point is in fact a questioning on process. As an application of this study, vascular fasciatherapy Danis-Bois Method and mechanotransduction have been investigated in theoretical and in research aspects to improve the understanding of how they work. Results The embryological approach points out a common origin and a histofunctional community of connective tissue and artery. As organs, arteries are sheathed by the adventia-fascia, and are penetrated by connective tissue extensions in media and intima. Furthermore, the functional point of view of this study reports the knowledge on mechanotransduction involving artery, both from the connective side and from the luminal side. Functional anatomy, surgery, histology, and cytology integrating the theory of the extended cytoskeleton, underline continuity from the static and functional points of view, with tensegrity being the architectural principle linking molecules to the

  16. Study Design Implications of Death and Hospitalization as End Points in Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Kevin K.; Martinez, Fernando J.; Raghu, Ganesh; Roberts, Rhonda S.; Anstrom, Kevin J.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The feasibility of an interventional clinical trial in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) using death and hospitalization as primary end points is an area of uncertainty. Using data from a large well-characterized clinical trial population, this article aims to illustrate the impact of cohort enrichment and study duration on sample size requirements for IPF clinical trials in which death alone or death plus hospitalization serve as the primary end point. METHODS: Event rate estimates for death and hospitalization were determined from patients enrolled in National Institutes of Health-sponsored IPF Clinical Research Network clinical trials. Standard equations were applied to estimate the total sample size required for varying gender, age, and pulmonary function (GAP) stage-based cohorts. RESULTS: Risk estimates for death and hospitalization in the clinical trial cohort were substantially lower than those published. An IPF trial with death as its primary end point enrolling subjects designated as GAP stage 1 and 2 over 1 year with a minimum follow-up of 1 year would require an estimated 7,986 subjects to achieve 90% power for a hazard ratio of 0.70. Alternatively, an IPF trial with death plus hospitalization as its primary end point enrolling subjects with GAP stage 2 and 3 over 2 years with a minimum follow-up of 1 year would require an estimated 794 subjects for the same power and hazard ratio. CONCLUSIONS: Study design decisions, in particular cohort enrichment strategies, have a substantial impact on sample size requirements for IPF clinical trials using time-to-event primary end points such as death and death plus hospitalization. PMID:25144827

  17. Pre-operational radio-environmental studies of Plant Vogtle

    SciTech Connect

    Winn, W.G.; Sigg, R.A.

    1989-05-01

    This baseline study evaluates radioactivity in the environment near Plant Vogtle before initial reactor startup in 1987. These data will distinguish between any future radio-environmental effects from SRS and Plant Vogtle. Alpha, beta, and gamma-spectrometric methods analyzed river, stream, sediment, and soil samples. The study detected manmade radionuclides {sup 3}H, {sup 60}Co, {sup 134}Cs, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 239}Pu, {sup 240}Pu, and {sup 241}Pu. However, all concentration levels are extremely low and are consistent with levels expected from fallout and from SRS operations in its early years. The measurements begun in this study continue to be used to monitor Vogtle post-startup effluents. 12 refs., 6 figs., 7 tabs.

  18. Efficacy Studies of Influenza Vaccines: Effect of End Points Used and Characteristics of Vaccine Failures

    PubMed Central

    Petrie, Joshua G.; Ohmit, Suzanne E.; Johnson, Emileigh; Cross, Rachel T.

    2011-01-01

    Background. End points used to detect influenza in vaccine efficacy trials have varied. Both the inactivated and live attenuated influenza vaccines are efficacious; however, failure to protect occurs. Methods. We compared characteristics of influenza A (H3N2) and B cases from 3 years of a comparative placebo-controlled trial of inactivated and live attenuated vaccines, and we evaluated the laboratory end points used to determine efficacy. Results. Although illness duration and reported symptoms did not differ by intervention, subjects with influenza in the inactivated vaccine group were less likely than those in the placebo group to report medically attended illnesses. All influenza type A (H3N2) and B cases isolated in cell culture were also identified by real-time polymerase chain reaction (rtPCR). However, only 69% of type A (H3N2) cases identified by rtPCR also were isolated in cell culture. Isolation frequency was lowest among live attenuated vaccine failures, a reflection of lower specimen viral loads. Among cases of rtPCR identified influenza A (H3N2), 90% of placebo and 87% of live attenuated vaccine recipients but only 23% of inactivated vaccine recipients demonstrated serologic confirmation of infection. Conclusions. In influenza vaccine efficacy studies, virus identification using rtPCR is the ideal end point. Isolation in cell culture will miss cases, and a serologic end point alone will overestimate inactivated vaccine efficacy. PMID:21378375

  19. Structural Analysis of Single-Point Mutations Given an RNA Sequence: A Case Study with RNAMute

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Churkin, Alexander; Barash, Danny

    2006-12-01

    We introduce here for the first time the RNAMute package, a pattern-recognition-based utility to perform mutational analysis and detect vulnerable spots within an RNA sequence that affect structure. Mutations in these spots may lead to a structural change that directly relates to a change in functionality. Previously, the concept was tried on RNA genetic control elements called "riboswitches" and other known RNA switches, without an organized utility that analyzes all single-point mutations and can be further expanded. The RNAMute package allows a comprehensive categorization, given an RNA sequence that has functional relevance, by exploring the patterns of all single-point mutants. For illustration, we apply the RNAMute package on an RNA transcript for which individual point mutations were shown experimentally to inactivate spectinomycin resistance in Escherichia coli. Functional analysis of mutations on this case study was performed experimentally by creating a library of point mutations using PCR and screening to locate those mutations. With the availability of RNAMute, preanalysis can be performed computationally before conducting an experiment.

  20. Using GENIE to study a tipping point in the climate system.

    PubMed

    Lenton, Timothy M; Myerscough, Richard J; Marsh, Robert; Livina, Valerie N; Price, Andrew R; Cox, Simon J; Genie Team

    2009-03-13

    We have used the Grid ENabled Integrated Earth system modelling framework to study the archetypal example of a tipping point in the climate system; a threshold for the collapse of the Atlantic thermohaline circulation (THC). eScience has been invaluable in this work and we explain how we have made it work for us. Two stable states of the THC have been found to coexist, under the same boundary conditions, in a hierarchy of models. The climate forcing required to collapse the THC and the reversibility or irreversibility of such a collapse depends on uncertain model parameters. Automated methods have been used to assimilate observational data to constrain the pertinent parameters. Anthropogenic climate forcing leads to a robust weakening of the THC and increases the probability of crossing a THC tipping point, but some ensemble members collapse readily, whereas others are extremely resistant. Hence, we test general methods that have been developed to directly diagnose, from time-series data, the proximity of a 'tipping element', such as the THC to a bifurcation point. In a three-dimensional ocean-atmosphere model exhibiting THC hysteresis, despite high variability in the THC driven by the dynamical atmosphere, some early warning of an approaching tipping point appears possible.

  1. Study of Near-Neighbor Structure of Point Defects in α-FE by Displacement Cascade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Wei-Lu; Liu, Wei; Wu, Xuebang; Fang, Q. F.; Liu, C. S.; Huang, Qun-Ying; Wu, Y. C.

    2012-07-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations have been performed to study the primary damage formation in α-Fe by collision cascades in the recoil energy range 0.5-20 keV. Two near-neighbor analysis methods including the near-neighbor defect density (NPDD) analysis and cluster analysis were introduced to characterize the spatial aggregation of point defects and the morphologies of clusters, respectively. It is found that the NPDD of self-interstitial atom (SIA) and the number of Frenkel pairs show a similar variation trend, while the NPDD of vacancy exhibits a peak at shorter time than that of SIA. Furthermore, we find that the clusters of point defects exist mostly in the form of chainlike structure in the course and the end of cascades, but the proportion of chainlike clusters decreases with increasing the number of point defects included in one cluster. Therefore, the present methods are found to be effective to characterize the aggregation and the near-neighbor structure of point defects by displacement cascades at any time.

  2. Using GENIE to study a tipping point in the climate system.

    PubMed

    Lenton, Timothy M; Myerscough, Richard J; Marsh, Robert; Livina, Valerie N; Price, Andrew R; Cox, Simon J; Genie Team

    2009-03-13

    We have used the Grid ENabled Integrated Earth system modelling framework to study the archetypal example of a tipping point in the climate system; a threshold for the collapse of the Atlantic thermohaline circulation (THC). eScience has been invaluable in this work and we explain how we have made it work for us. Two stable states of the THC have been found to coexist, under the same boundary conditions, in a hierarchy of models. The climate forcing required to collapse the THC and the reversibility or irreversibility of such a collapse depends on uncertain model parameters. Automated methods have been used to assimilate observational data to constrain the pertinent parameters. Anthropogenic climate forcing leads to a robust weakening of the THC and increases the probability of crossing a THC tipping point, but some ensemble members collapse readily, whereas others are extremely resistant. Hence, we test general methods that have been developed to directly diagnose, from time-series data, the proximity of a 'tipping element', such as the THC to a bifurcation point. In a three-dimensional ocean-atmosphere model exhibiting THC hysteresis, despite high variability in the THC driven by the dynamical atmosphere, some early warning of an approaching tipping point appears possible. PMID:19087945

  3. Point defects in YBa2Cu3O7-x studied using positron annihilation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chudy, Michal; Eisterer, M.; Weber, H. W.; Veterníková, J.; Sojak, S.; Slugeň, V.

    2012-07-01

    Fast neutron irradiation is a powerful technique for introducing additional pinning centers into high temperature superconductors. The spherical defects with sizes of a few nanometers are considered to be effective pinning centers, enhancing Jc. Their morphology is well-known and has already been investigated by several authors in great detail. However, only very little is known about the nature and density of smaller and point defects, which are invisible in transmission electron microscopy. Positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy was applied to investigate the nature and the concentration of small point-like defects. In this work, the influence of small point defects, such as vacancies and vacancy clusters, on the superconducting properties of YBa2Cu3O7-x bulks was studied; these were introduced by irradiation in the TRIGA Mark II reactor in Vienna. Jc and Tc measurements were performed prior to and after each irradiation step. The samples were irradiated up to a fast neutron ( > 0.1 MeV) fluence of 6 × 1021 m-2. The two kinds of defects—the large collision cascades and the small point-like defects—contribute to the decrease of Tc as well as to the Jc enhancement in astonishingly similar ways.

  4. Parametric study of two-body floating-point wave absorber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amiri, Atena; Panahi, Roozbeh; Radfar, Soheil

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, we present a comprehensive numerical simulation of a point wave absorber in deep water. Analyses are performed in both the frequency and time domains. The converter is a two-body floating-point absorber (FPA) with one degree of freedom in the heave direction. Its two parts are connected by a linear mass-spring-damper system. The commercial ANSYS-AQWA software used in this study performs well in considering validations. The velocity potential is obtained by assuming incompressible and irrotational flow. As such, we investigated the effects of wave characteristics on energy conversion and device efficiency, including wave height and wave period, as well as the device diameter, draft, geometry, and damping coefficient. To validate the model, we compared our numerical results with those from similar experiments. Our study results can clearly help to maximize the converter's efficiency when considering specific conditions.

  5. Point prevalence of neurosis in the Lundby Study 1947-1997.

    PubMed

    Nilsson, Erik; Bogren, Mats; Mattisson, Cecilia; Nettelbladt, Per

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this article is to report and discuss the changing point prevalence rate of neurosis 1947-1997 in the Lundby cohort. The Lundby Study is a prospective longitudinal study of a geographically defined total population in the south of Sweden. Field investigations were performed in 1947, 1957, 1972 and in 1997, with psychiatrists interviewing the probands in a semi-structured way. Additional information was gathered from registers, case notes and key informants. Throughout the period of 50 years, the Lundby Study used its own diagnostic system with neurosis referring to non-psychotic mental illness in the absence of an organic brain disease. After 1957, no newcomers were included, and therefore only probands 40 years of age or older at the cross-sectional surveys are included in the present paper. For men aged 40-59 and 60 years or older, respectively, the age-specific point prevalence of neurosis increased from 2.5% and 0.5% in 1947, to 8.3% and 8.4% in 1972. The corresponding figures for women were 8.0% and 1.3% in 1947, and 24.2% and 20.1% in 1972. The increase could be seen in all degrees of impairment, but it was most pronounced in the mild and medium impairment groups. Except for a slight decrease in point prevalence in the female group 40-59 years of age, there were no significant changes from 1972 to 1997. A large increase in the point prevalence rate of neurosis could be seen 1947-1972, but not 1972-1997. Because of the many biases inherent in longitudinal psychiatric studies, our results must be interpreted with caution.

  6. Experimental identification and study of hydraulic resonance test rig with Francis turbine operating at partial load

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Favrel, A.; Landry, C.; Müller, A.; Avellan, F.

    2012-11-01

    Resonance in hydraulic systems is characterized by pressure fluctuations of high amplitude which can lead to undesirable and dangerous effects, such as noise, vibration and structural failure. For a Francis turbine operating at partial load, the cavitating vortex rope developing at the outlet of the runner induces pressure fluctuations which can excite the hydraulic system resonance, leading to undesirable large torque and power fluctuations. At resonant operating points, the prediction of amplitude pressure fluctuations by hydro-acoustic models breaks down and gives unreliable results. A more detailed knowledge of the eigenmodes and a better understanding of phenomenon occurring at resonance could allow improving the hydro-acoustic models prediction.This paper presents an experimental identification of a resonance observed in a close-looped hydraulic system with a Francis turbine reduced scale model operating at partial load. The resonance is excited matching one of the test rig eigenfrequencies with the vortex rope precession frequency. At this point, the hydro-acoustic response of the test rig is studied more precisely and used finally to reproduce the shape of the excited eigenmode.

  7. Damage states in laminated composite three-point bend specimens: An experimental-analytical correlation study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Starbuck, J. Michael; Guerdal, Zafer; Pindera, Marek-Jerzy; Poe, Clarence C.

    1990-01-01

    Damage states in laminated composites were studied by considering the model problem of a laminated beam subjected to three-point bending. A combination of experimental and theoretical research techniques was used to correlate the experimental results with the analytical stress distributions. The analytical solution procedure was based on the stress formulation approach of the mathematical theory of elasticity. The solution procedure is capable of calculating the ply-level stresses and beam displacements for any laminated beam of finite length using the generalized plane deformation or plane stress state assumption. Prior to conducting the experimental phase, the results from preliminary analyses were examined. Significant effects in the ply-level stress distributions were seen depending on the fiber orientation, aspect ratio, and whether or not a grouped or interspersed stacking sequence was used. The experimental investigation was conducted to determine the different damage modes in laminated three-point bend specimens. The test matrix consisted of three-point bend specimens of 0 deg unidirectional, cross-ply, and quasi-isotropic stacking sequences. The dependence of the damage initiation loads and ultimate failure loads were studied, and their relation to damage susceptibility and damage tolerance of the mean configuration was discussed. Damage modes were identified by visual inspection of the damaged specimens using an optical microscope. The four fundamental damage mechanisms identified were delaminations, matrix cracking, fiber breakage, and crushing. The correlation study between the experimental results and the analytical results were performed for the midspan deflection, indentation, damage modes, and damage susceptibility.

  8. Study of waveguide resonators for FEL operating at submillimeter wavelengths

    SciTech Connect

    Yakover, I.M.; Pinhasi, Y.; Gover, A.

    1995-12-31

    This paper presents theoretical results of waveguide resonator study for FEL operating at the submillimeter wavelength region. Because of increased ohmic losses it is harder to obtain high Q waveguide cavities at these wavelengths. The following unconventional multimode waveguides: metal-dielectric, corrugated and curved parallel plates, were considered. The type and structure of the operating modes were determined and their attenuation constant, effective mode area and wave impedance were calculated. On the basis of this analysis small-signal gain simulations were made. We have performed a parametric study of the various FEL oscillator cavity designs based on the parameters of the Israeli Tandem FEL experiment. It was found that an FEL utilizing unconventional waveguides has much better performance in comparison to an FEL based on conventional multimode rectangular and circular waveguides. In particular, promising design parameters for a sub-mm wavelength FEL utilizing a metal-dielectric waveguide were identified: gain of 45%/Amp and ohmic losses of 2% at frequency 300 GHz, and gain of 20%/Amp and ohmic losses 1% at frequency 675 GHz.

  9. Distributed situation awareness in complex collaborative systems: A field study of bridge operations on platform supply vessels

    PubMed Central

    Sandhåland, Hilde; Oltedal, Helle A; Hystad, Sigurd W; Eid, Jarle

    2015-01-01

    This study provides empirical data about shipboard practices in bridge operations on board a selection of platform supply vessels (PSVs). Using the theoretical concept of distributed situation awareness, the study examines how situation awareness (SA)-related information is distributed and coordinated at the bridge. This study thus favours a systems approach to studying SA, viewing it not as a phenomenon that solely happens in each individual's mind but rather as something that happens between individuals and the tools that they use in a collaborative system. Thus, this study adds to our understanding of SA as a distributed phenomenon. Data were collected in four field studies that lasted between 8 and 14 days on PSVs that operate on the Norwegian continental shelf and UK continental shelf. The study revealed pronounced variations in shipboard practices regarding how the bridge team attended to operational planning, communication procedures, and distracting/interrupting factors during operations. These findings shed new light on how SA might decrease in bridge teams during platform supply operations. The findings from this study emphasize the need to assess and establish shipboard practices that support the bridge teams' SA needs in day-to-day operations. Practitioner points Provides insights into how shipboard practices that are relevant to planning, communication and the occurrence of distracting/interrupting factors are realized in bridge operations. Notes possible areas for improvement to enhance distributed SA in bridge operations. PMID:26028823

  10. Electronic Performance Support for Operational Systems: A Case Study of the Link Monitor and Control Operator Assistant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, Randall W., Jr.; Cooper, Lynne P.

    1993-01-01

    For complex operational systems, help needs to come from the inside out. It is often not realistic to call a help desk for problems that need immediate attention, especially for tasks that put a heavy cognitive load on the system operator. This session addresses the issues associated with providing electronic performance support for operational systems, including situations where the system is already fielded and can only change through evolution rather than revolution. We present a case study based on our experiences in developing the Link Monitor and Control Operator Assistant for NASA's Deep Space Network (DSN). The goals of the Operator Assistant are to improve the operability of the system and increase the efficiency of mission operations.

  11. Ground Operations Aerospace Language (GOAL). Volume 5: Application Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The Ground Operations Aerospace Language (GOAL) was designed to be used by test oriented personnel to write procedures which would be executed in a test environment. A series of discussions between NASA LV-CAP personnel and IBM resulted in some peripheral tasks which would aid in evaluating the applicability of the language in this environment, and provide enhancement for future applications. The results of these tasks are contained within this volume. The GOAL vocabulary provides a high degree of readability and retainability. To achieve these benefits, however, the procedure writer utilizes words and phrases of considerable length. Brief form study was undertaken to determine a means of relieving this burden. The study resulted in a version of GOAL which enables the writer to develop a dialect suitable to his needs and satisfy the syntax equations. The output of the compiler would continue to provide readability by printing out the standard GOAL language. This task is described.

  12. Understanding Semiotic Technology in University Classrooms: A Social Semiotic Approach to PowerPoint-Assisted Cultural Studies Lectures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhao, Sumin; van Leeuwen, Theo

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a social semiotic approach to studying PowerPoint in university classrooms. Our approach is centred on two premises: (1) PowerPoint is a semiotic technology that can be integrated into the pedagogical discourse of classrooms, and (2) PowerPoint technology encompasses three interrelated dimensions of social semiotic…

  13. Reading Different Orthographic Structures in the Shallow-Pointed Hebrew Script: A Cross-Grade Study in Elementary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shany, Michal; Bar-On, Amalia; Katzir, Tami

    2012-01-01

    Hebrew-speaking children learn to read using a transparent, pointed writing system, but by grade three, they gradually begin using the non-pointed version of Hebrew script. The current study examined the development of reading, in the pointed script, of a nationally representative sample of children in grades two, four, and six. Rate and accuracy…

  14. Interagency study of Federal Laboratory Technology Transfer Organization and Operation

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-05-01

    This report is the result of a baseline study of technology transfer organizatin and operation in Federal laboratories, and is an analysis of responses to two information-gathering instruments: the Federal Laboratory ORTA Organizational and Operational Information survey, and the Technology Transfer Characterization, Technology Transfer Cases - ''Lessons Learned'' questionnaire. Response to these two instruments was adequate, with input provided by laboratory and agency representatives from nine agencies: the Departments of Commerce, Defense, Energy, Interior, Transportation, Agriculture, Health and Human Services; the National Aeronautics and Space Administration; and the Environmental Protection Agency. The data provided have yielded several conclusions: The Stevenson-Wydler Technology Innovation Act has led to numerous changes in how technology transfer is perceived, and in how technology transfer activities are implemented in the Federal laboratories. American industry is increasingly interested in Federal innovations, and is going to the laboratories in pursuit of these innovations. Recognition of technology transfer as an integral function of laboratory management, and recognition of the importance of technology transfer in Federal laboratories, are increasing rapidly. Efforts to transfer technology are becoming more effective. Although the process is dynamic, specific methods and processes that accomplish successful transfer of inventions can be identified. Future refinements will bring further enhancements to these transfer processes and mechanisms. Seven groups of recommendations offered by the Working Group are given below. These recommendations result from the survey findings, and are provided to enhance transfer activities. A final recommendation of the Working Group is that technology transfer operation and organization be reassessed in a few years, primarily because of the rapid changes that are occurring in transfer activities.

  15. Atomistic studies of point defect migration rates in the iron-chromium system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hetherly, Jeffrey

    Generation and migration of helium and other point defects under irradiation causes ferritic steels based on the Fe-Cr system to age and fail. This is motivation to study point defect migration and the He equation of state using atomistic simulations due to the steels' use in future reactors. A new potential for the Fe-Cr-He system developed by collaborators at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory was validated using published experimental data. The results for the He equation of state agree well with experimental data. The activation energies for the migration of He- and Fe-interstitials in varying compositions of Fe-Cr lattices agree well with prior work. This research did not find a strong correlation between lattice ordering and interstitial migration energy.

  16. Influence of working fluid evaporation temperature in the near-critical point region on the effectiveness of ORC power plant operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nowak, Władysław; Borsukiewicz-Gozdur, Aleksandra; Wiśniewski, Sławomir

    2012-09-01

    In the paper presented are definitions of specific indicators of power which characterize the operation of the organic Rankine cycle (ORC) plant. These quantities have been presented as function of evaporation temperature for selected working fluids of ORC installation. In the paper presented also is the procedure for selection of working fluid with the view of obtaining maximum power. In the procedure of selection of working fluid the mentioned above indicators are of primary importance. In order to obtain maximum power there ought to be selected such working fluids which evaporate close to critical conditions. The value of this indicator increases when evaporation enthalpy decreases and it is known that the latent heat of evaporation decreases with temperature and reaches a value of zero at the critical point.

  17. Study of short-haul aircraft operating economics, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    A short-haul air transportation operating cost model is developed. The effect is identified of such factors as level of service provided, traffic density of the market, stage length, number of flight cycles, level of automation, as well as aircraft type and other operational factors on direct and indirect operating costs.

  18. Case studies of ergonomic interventions in automotive parts distribution operations.

    PubMed

    Ulin, Sheryl S; Keyserling, W Monroe

    2004-12-01

    Ergonomic job analysis, intervention design, and intervention implementation are essential components of an ergonomics program designed to reduce worker exposure to risk factors associated with musculoskeletal disorders. As part of a 4-year study to reduce overexertion injuries in the service parts division of a major automaker, intervention case studies were identified that could be used at multiple facilities across the division. Interventions were developed and implemented. The three case studies include 1) self-elevating powered vehicle for transporting parts throughout the facility and for reaching to high bin locations; 2) lift and tilt pallet jacks for packing small parts into large bin-like containers; and 3) single-level telescoping conveyor used for delivering hand-held totes for subsequent sorting operations. Several analysis methods were used to assess worker exposure before and after intervention implementation (biomechanical analysis, posture analysis, worker interviews, and activity analysis). Following implementation, a decrease in exposure to risk factors for musculoskeletal disorders was documented. Worker interviews revealed acceptance and agreement that risk factors associated with the targeted tasks were reduced. Each case study includes a description of the implementation hurdles and can serve as both primary and secondary prevention of musculoskeletal disorders. Future work should document worker health and/or symptom changes as well as changes in risk factor exposure. PMID:15638260

  19. Case studies of ergonomic interventions in automotive parts distribution operations.

    PubMed

    Ulin, Sheryl S; Keyserling, W Monroe

    2004-12-01

    Ergonomic job analysis, intervention design, and intervention implementation are essential components of an ergonomics program designed to reduce worker exposure to risk factors associated with musculoskeletal disorders. As part of a 4-year study to reduce overexertion injuries in the service parts division of a major automaker, intervention case studies were identified that could be used at multiple facilities across the division. Interventions were developed and implemented. The three case studies include 1) self-elevating powered vehicle for transporting parts throughout the facility and for reaching to high bin locations; 2) lift and tilt pallet jacks for packing small parts into large bin-like containers; and 3) single-level telescoping conveyor used for delivering hand-held totes for subsequent sorting operations. Several analysis methods were used to assess worker exposure before and after intervention implementation (biomechanical analysis, posture analysis, worker interviews, and activity analysis). Following implementation, a decrease in exposure to risk factors for musculoskeletal disorders was documented. Worker interviews revealed acceptance and agreement that risk factors associated with the targeted tasks were reduced. Each case study includes a description of the implementation hurdles and can serve as both primary and secondary prevention of musculoskeletal disorders. Future work should document worker health and/or symptom changes as well as changes in risk factor exposure.

  20. Study of potassium DPAL operation in pulsed and CW mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhdanov, Boris V.; Rotondaro, Matthew D.; Schaffer, Michael K.; Knize, Randall J.

    2014-10-01

    This paper presents the results of our experiments on development of the efficient hydrocarbon free Diode Pumped Alkali Laser based on potassium vapor buffered by He gas at 600 Torr. We studied the performance of this laser operating in pulsed mode with pulses up to 5 ms long at different pulse energies and cell temperatures. A slope efficiency of more than 50% was demonstrated with total optical efficiency about 30% for the pump pulses with duration about 30 μs. For the longer pump pulses the DPAL efficiency degraded in time with a characteristic time in the range from 0.5 ms to 4.5 ms depending on the pump pulse energy and cell temperature. The recorded spectrum of the side fluorescence indicates that multi-photon excitation, energy pooling collisions and ionization may be strong candidates for explaining the observed performance degradation.

  1. Making adaptable systems work for mission operations: A case study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holder, Barbara E.; Levesque, Michael E.

    1993-01-01

    The Advanced Multimission Operations System (AMMOS) at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory is based on a highly adaptable multimission ground data system (MGDS) for mission operations. The goal for MGDS is to support current flight project science and engineering personnel and to meet the demands of future missions while reducing associated operations and software development costs. MGDS has become a powerful and flexible mission operations system by using a network of heterogeneous workstations, emerging open system standards, and selecting an adaptable tools-based architecture. Challenges in developing adaptable systems for mission operations and the benefits of this approach are described.

  2. A Study of Operator Performance for a Mechanical Sweet Cherry Harvester: Comparison between Manual and Remote-Controlled Operation.

    PubMed

    Larbi, P A; Vong, C N; Karkee, M

    2015-07-01

    An experimental mechanical sweet cherry harvester was upgraded by changing its rapid impact mechanism to a continuous impact mechanism, in which an end effector (impactor) is positioned on fruit-loaded branches to transfer vibrational energy for fruit removal, and by adding remote control capability. Before the upgrade, the operator was seated at the rear of the harvester to manually control its operation. Adding remote control capability allowed operator mobility while operating the machine. This mobility was aimed at improving operator performance in harvesting cherries. In this study, the performances of the manual and remote operator were compared in terms of the field of view for perceiving target branches, the accuracy of hitting a target branch, and the ease of maneuvering between tree rows. Several sets of photographs totaling 140 individual photos were taken to assess how easy perceiving target branches was in light and dense foliage from the viewpoint of a manual operator and from multiple viewpoints of a remote operator. The percentages of successful hits on the target branch on the first trial (measure of accuracy in positioning the impactor) and the time taken for each successful hit for the manual and remote operator were recorded. The time to travel approximately 126 m long tree rows was also recorded for the manual and remote operators. On average, the remote operator (rank = 6.5) had better perception of the target branch than the manual operator (rank = 3.7) and was more accurate in positioning the impactor on a target branch (93.3% success rate) than the manual operator (84.4% success rate). Similarly, the remote operator spent 19.9 s of positioning time per branch, which was significantly less than the 23.6 s spent by the manual operator. However, the manual operator had better focus and was numerically faster (1.4 km h(-1)) than the remote operator (1.1 km h(-1)), even though the difference was not statistically significant. Overall, the

  3. A Study of Operator Performance for a Mechanical Sweet Cherry Harvester: Comparison between Manual and Remote-Controlled Operation.

    PubMed

    Larbi, P A; Vong, C N; Karkee, M

    2015-07-01

    An experimental mechanical sweet cherry harvester was upgraded by changing its rapid impact mechanism to a continuous impact mechanism, in which an end effector (impactor) is positioned on fruit-loaded branches to transfer vibrational energy for fruit removal, and by adding remote control capability. Before the upgrade, the operator was seated at the rear of the harvester to manually control its operation. Adding remote control capability allowed operator mobility while operating the machine. This mobility was aimed at improving operator performance in harvesting cherries. In this study, the performances of the manual and remote operator were compared in terms of the field of view for perceiving target branches, the accuracy of hitting a target branch, and the ease of maneuvering between tree rows. Several sets of photographs totaling 140 individual photos were taken to assess how easy perceiving target branches was in light and dense foliage from the viewpoint of a manual operator and from multiple viewpoints of a remote operator. The percentages of successful hits on the target branch on the first trial (measure of accuracy in positioning the impactor) and the time taken for each successful hit for the manual and remote operator were recorded. The time to travel approximately 126 m long tree rows was also recorded for the manual and remote operators. On average, the remote operator (rank = 6.5) had better perception of the target branch than the manual operator (rank = 3.7) and was more accurate in positioning the impactor on a target branch (93.3% success rate) than the manual operator (84.4% success rate). Similarly, the remote operator spent 19.9 s of positioning time per branch, which was significantly less than the 23.6 s spent by the manual operator. However, the manual operator had better focus and was numerically faster (1.4 km h(-1)) than the remote operator (1.1 km h(-1)), even though the difference was not statistically significant. Overall, the

  4. Satisfaction with the local service point for care: results of an evaluation study

    PubMed Central

    Esslinger, Adelheid Susanne; Macco, Katrin; Schmidt, Katharina

    2009-01-01

    Purpose The market of care increases and is characterized by complexity. Therefore, service points, such as the ‘Zentrale Anlaufstelle Pflege (ZAPf)’ in Nuremberg, are helpful for clients to get orientation. The purpose of the presentation is to show the results of an evaluation study about the clients' satisfaction with the offers of ZAPf. Study Satisfaction with service may be measured with the SERVQUAL concept introduced by Parasuraman et al. (1988). They found out five dimensions of quality (tangibles, reliability, responsiveness, assurances and empathy). We took these dimensions in our study. The study focuses on the quality of service and the benefits recognized by clients. In spring 2007, we conducted 67 interviews by phone, based on a half standardized questionnaire. Statistical analysis was conducted using SPSS. Results The clients want to get information about care in general, financial and legal aspects, alternative care arrangement (e.g. ambulant, long-term care) and typical age-related diseases. They show a high satisfaction with the service provided. Their benefits are to get information and advice, to strengthen the ability of decision taking, to cope with changing situations in life, and to develop solutions. Conclusions The results show that the quality of service is on a high level. Critical success factors are the interdisciplinary cooperation at the service point, based on a regularly and open exchange of information. Every member focuses on an optimal individual solution for the client. Local professional service points act as networkers and brokers. They serve not only for the clients' needs but also support the effective and efficient provision of optimized care.

  5. Formation energies of intrinsic point defects in monoclinic VO2 studied by first-principles calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Yuanyuan; Liu, Bin; Chen, Lanli; Luo, Hongjie; Gao, Yanfeng

    2016-10-01

    VO2 is an attractive candidate for intelligent windows and thermal sensors. There are challenges for developing VO2-based devices, since the properties of monoclinic VO2 are very sensitive to its intrinsic point defects. In this work, the formation energies of the intrinsic point defects in monoclinic VO2 were studied through the first-principles calculations. Vacancies, interstitials, as well as antisites at various charge states were taken into consideration, and the finite-size supercell correction scheme was adopted as the charge correction scheme. Our calculation results show that the oxygen interstitial and oxygen vacancy are the most abundant intrinsic defects in the oxygen rich and oxygen deficient condition, respectively, indicating a consistency with the experimental results. The calculation results suggest that the oxygen interstitial or oxygen vacancy is correlated with the charge localization, which can introduce holes or electrons as free carriers and subsequently narrow the band gap of monoclinic VO2. These calculations and interpretations concerning the intrinsic point defects would be helpful for developing VO2-based devices through defect modifications.

  6. Bulb turbine operating at medium head: XIA JIANG case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loiseau, F.; Desrats, C.; Petit, P.; Liu, J.

    2012-11-01

    With lots of references for 4-blade bulb turbines, such as these of Wu Jin Xia (4 units - 36.1 MW per unit - 9.2 m rated head), Chang Zhou (15 units - 46.7 MW per unit - 9.5 m rated head) and Tong Wan (4 units - 46.2 MW per unit - 11 m rated head), ALSTOM Power Hydro is one of the major suppliers of bulb turbines operating under medium head for the Chinese market. ALSTOM Power Hydro has been awarded in November 2010 a contract by Jiang Xi Province Xia Jiang Water Control Project Headquarters to equip Xia Jiang's new hydropower plant. The power dam is located on the Gan Jiang river, at about 160 km away from Nan Chang town in South Eastern China. The supply will consist in 5 bulb units including the furniture of both the turbine and its generator, for a total capacity of 200 MW, under a rated net head of 8.6 m. The prototype turbine is a 7.8 m diameter runner, rotating at 71.4 rpm speed. For this project, ALSTOM has proposed a fully new design of 4-blade bulb runner. This paper outlines the main steps of the hydraulic development. First of all, a fine tuning of the blade geometry was performed to enhance the runner behaviour at high loads and low heads, so that to fulfill the demanding requirements of efficiencies and maximum output. The challenge was also to keep an excellent cavitation behaviour, especially at the outer blade diameter in order to avoid cavitation erosion on the prototype. The shape of the blade was optimized by using the latest tools in computational fluid dynamics. Steady state simulations of the distributor and the runner were performed, in order to simulate more accurately the pressure fields on the blade and the velocity distribution at the outlet of the runner. Moreover, draft tube computations have been performed close to the design point and at higher loads. Then, a model fully homologous with the prototype was manufactured and tested at ALSTOM's laboratory in Grenoble (France). The model test results confirmed the predicted ones: the

  7. Experimental study of the expansion dynamic of 9 mm Parabellum hollow point projectiles in ballistic gelatin.

    PubMed

    Bresson, F; Ducouret, J; Peyré, J; Maréchal, C; Delille, R; Colard, T; Demondion, X

    2012-06-10

    We study in this paper the expanding behaviour of hollow point 9 mm Parabellum projectiles (Hornady XTP(®) and Speer Gold Dot(®)). We defined a deformation rate that takes into account both the diameter increase and the length reduction. We plotted the behaviour of this parameter versus impact velocity (we refer to this curve as the expanding law). This expanding law has been plotted for different gelatin weight ratios and different gelatin block lengths. We completed our experiments with a set of high speed movies in order to correlate the deceleration to the state of expansion and size of the temporary cavity. Our results pointed out that full expansion is reached shortly after the projectile fully penetrates the gelatin. This result shows that the key point to accurately simulate human body interaction with a hollow point projectile is to accurately simulate the interface (skin, skull, clothes thoracic walls). Simulating accurately organs is only an issue if a quantitative comparison between penetration depths is required, but not if we only focus on the state of expansion of the projectile. By varying the gelatin parameters, we discovered that the expanding law exhibits a velocity threshold below which no expansion occurs, followed by a rather linear curve. The parameters of that expanding law (velocity threshold and line slope) vary with the gelatin parameters, but our quantitative results demonstrate that these parameters are not extremely critical. Finally, our experiments demonstrate that the knowledge of the expansion law can be a useful tool to investigate a gunshot in a human body with a semi-jacketed projectile, giving an estimation of the impact velocity and thus the shooting distance. PMID:22269130

  8. Application of Ultrasound-Guided Trigger Point Injection for Myofascial Trigger Points in the Subscapularis and Pectoralis Muscles to Post-Mastectomy Patients: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Hyuk Jai; Shin, Ji Cheol; Kim, Wan Sung; Chang, Won Hyuk

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the therapeutic effectiveness of ultrasound (US)-guided trigger point injection for myofascial trigger points (MTrPs) in the internal rotator muscles of the shoulder in post-mastectomy patients. Materials and Methods This pilot study was a non-controlled, prospective, clinical trial. Nineteen post-mastectomy patients with a diagnosis of at least one active MTrP in the subscapularis and/or pectoralis muscles were included. We performed trigger point injections into the subscapularis muscle deep behind the scapula as well as the pectoralis muscle for diagnostic and therapeutic purpose by the newly developed US-guided method. Results Visual analogue scale and range of motion of the shoulder for external rotation and of abduction showed significant improvement immediately after the first injection and 3 months after the last injection compared with baseline (p<0.05 for both). Duration from onset to surgery and duration of myofascial pain syndrome in the good responder group were significantly shorter than in the bad responder group (p<0.05). Patients did not report any complications related to the procedure or serious adverse events attributable to the treatment. Conclusion In post-mastectomy patients with shoulder pain, US-guided trigger point injections of the subscapularis and/or pectoralis muscles are effective for both diagnosis and treatment when the cause of shoulder pain is suspected to originate from active MTrPs in these muscles, particularly, the subscapularis. PMID:24719150

  9. From R&D to end users applications in operational oceanography: The navy's "SOAP" case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giraud Saint-Albin, S.; Jourdan, D.

    2003-04-01

    For the last ten years, the CMO/BRESM has conducted an operational program for Ocean Analysis and Prediction SOAP, whose goal has been to support sea activities with high resolution mesoscale ocean nowcast products. Successive prototypes have been generated, operated and improved in tandem with a continuous re-evaluation of Navy Needs. This strategy played a key-role in defining the concept of “real-time integrated oceanography” which relies on remote and in situ ocean observations, (a hierarchy of) ocean models and data assimilation methods. The paper focuses on the results of the latter feasability study for next SOAP prototype: the military motivation for developing new prototypes is to extend the application domain of SOAP operational products from the operative (~ a description of the synoptic scale) to the tactical ( ~ a tailored product to strategic needs) relevance. Current SOAP P2 system is as a transition system pulled by end-user’s requirements and designed by research oceanographers from existing tools and models. The development of SOAP P3 has just started and will benefit from the emergence of an increasing offer of ocean modelling results, pushed by the GODAE initiative. It will be based on MERCATOR high resolution prototypes. From that starting point future developments will have to address both issues of defense specific requirements for high resolution ocean modeling and computation of relevant acoustical products for military applications. Especially, the crucial needs for assessing the end-users’ products reliability should be explored.

  10. Studies of pointing, acquisition, and tracking of agile optical wireless transceivers for free-space optical communication networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, Tzung-Hsien; Trisno, Sugianto; Smolyaninov, Igor I.; Milner, Stuart D.; Davis, Christopher C.

    2004-02-01

    Free space, dynamic, optical wireless communications will require topology control for optimization of network performance. Such networks may need to be configured for bi- or multiple-connectedness, reliability and quality-of-service. Topology control involves the introduction of new links and/or nodes into the network to achieve such performance objectives through autonomous reconfiguration as well as precise pointing, acquisition, tracking, and steering of laser beams. Reconfiguration may be required because of link degradation resulting from obscuration or node loss. As a result, the optical transceivers may need to be re-directed to new or existing nodes within the network and tracked on moving nodes. The redirection of transceivers may require operation over a whole sphere, so that small-angle beam steering techniques cannot be applied. In this context, we are studying the performance of optical wireless links using lightweight, bi-static transceivers mounted on high-performance stepping motor driven stages. These motors provide an angular resolution of 0.00072 degree at up to 80,000 steps per second. This paper focuses on the performance characteristics of these agile transceivers for pointing, acquisition, and tracking (PAT), including the influence of acceleration/deceleration time, motor angular speed, and angular re-adjustment, on latency and packet loss in small free space optical (FSO) wireless test networks.

  11. Cohort protocol paper: The Pain and Opioids In Treatment (POINT) study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Internationally, there is concern about the increased prescribing of pharmaceutical opioids for chronic non-cancer pain (CNCP). In part, this is related to limited knowledge about the long-term benefits and outcomes of opioid use for CNCP. There has also been increased injection of some pharmaceutical opioids by people who inject drugs, and for some patients, the development of problematic and/or dependent use. To date, much of the research on the use of pharmaceutical opioids among people with CNCP, have been clinical trials that have excluded patients with complex needs, and have been of limited duration (i.e. fewer than 12 weeks). The Pain and Opioids In Treatment (POINT) study is unique study that aims to: 1) examine patterns of opioid use in a cohort of patients prescribed opioids for CNCP; 2) examine demographic and clinical predictors of adverse events, including opioid abuse or dependence, medication diversion, other drug use, and overdose; and 3) identify factors predicting poor pain relief and other outcomes. Methods/Design The POINT cohort comprises around 1,500 people across Australia prescribed pharmaceutical opioids for CNCP. Participants will be followed-up at four time points over a two year period. POINT will collect information on demographics, physical and medication use history, pain, mental health, drug and alcohol use, non-adherence, medication diversion, sleep, and quality of life. Data linkage will provide information on medications and services from Medicare (Australia’s national health care scheme). Data on those who receive opioid substitution therapy, and on mortality, will be linked. Discussion This study will rigorously examine prescription opioid use among CNCP patients, and examine its relationship to important health outcomes. The extent to which opioids for chronic pain is associated with pain reduction, quality of life, mental and physical health, aberrant medication behavior and substance use disorders will be

  12. Structural transformations from point to extended defects in silicon: A molecular dynamics study

    SciTech Connect

    Marques, Luis A.; Pelaz, Lourdes; Santos, Ivan; Lopez, Pedro; Aboy, Maria

    2008-11-15

    We use classical molecular dynamics simulation techniques to study how point defects aggregate to form extended defects in silicon. We have found that <110> chains of alternating interstitials and bond defects, a generalization of the Si di-interstitial structure, are metastable at room temperature but spontaneously transform into (311) defects when annealed at higher temperatures. Obtained atomic configurations and energetics are in good agreement with experiments and previous theoretical calculations. We have found a (311) structural unit which consists of two interstitial chains along <110> but arranged differently with respect to the known (311) units.

  13. Single-point magnetic resonance imaging study of water adsorption in pellets of zeolite 4A.

    PubMed

    Prado, P J; Balcom, B J; Jama, M

    1999-03-01

    The water uptake process in commercial type particles of zeolite 4A has been studied using a single-point MRI method. True proton density, T1, T2, and T*2 relaxation times were obtained with submillimetric resolution, overcoming the restrictions of short T*2 signals. The molecular mobility in nonequilibrium conditions has been characterized by relaxation time mapping. A clear reduction of the water sorption rate was observed by comparing MRI profiles of a loosely packed bed and gravimetric measurements of spread particles from the same sieved zeolite batch.

  14. First-principles study of point defects at a semicoherent interface

    SciTech Connect

    Metsanurk, E.; Tamm, A.; Caro, A.; Aabloo, A.; Klintenberg, M.

    2014-12-19

    Most of the atomistic modeling of semicoherent metal-metal interfaces has so far been based on the use of semiempirical interatomic potentials. Here, we show that key conclusions drawn from previous studies are in contradiction with more precise ab-initio calculations. In particular we find that single point defects do not delocalize, but remain compact near the interfacial plane in Cu-Nb multilayers. Lastly, we give a simple qualitative explanation for this difference on the basis of the well known limited transferability of empirical potentials.

  15. Cloud point, fluorimetric and 1H NMR studies of ibuprofen-polymer systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Iqrar Ahmad; Anjum, Kahkashan; Koya, P. Ajmal; Qadeer, Atiytul; Kabir-ud-Din

    2014-01-01

    Influence of six polymers viz. hydroxyethyl cellulose (HEC), hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose (HPMC), polyethylene glycol (PEG), polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP), sodium carboxy methyl cellulose (NaCMC) and dextran sulfate (DxS) on solution properties of amphiphilic drug ibuprofen (IBF) has been described in this work. As only HPMC showed the clouding behavior (among the polymers employed herein), its cloud point (CP) was studied in detail in presence of varying amounts of IBF containing different fixed concentrations of inorganic salts (NaCl, NaNO3, Na2SO4, KBr and KNO3). Presence of all these salts had CP reducing effect. By means of steady state fluorescence quenching studies, average aggregation number of IBF aggregates (Nagg) in the presence of varying amounts of the mentioned polymers were evaluated and discussed. 1H NMR studies show that the magnitude of chemical shifts (δ) varies with the nature of the polymer.

  16. Structure and energy of point defects in TiC: An ab initio study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Weiwei; Ehteshami, Hossein; Korzhavyi, Pavel A.

    2015-04-01

    We employ first-principles calculations to study the atomic and electronic structure of various point defects such as vacancies, interstitials, and antisites in the stoichiometric as well as slightly off-stoichiometric Ti1 -cCc (including both C-poor and C-rich compositions, 0.49 ≤c ≤0.51 ). The atomic structure analysis has revealed that both interstitial and antisite defects can exist in split conformations involving dumbbells. To characterize the electronic structure changes caused by a defect, we introduce differential density of states (dDOS) defined as a local perturbation of the density of states (DOS) on the defect site and its surrounding relative to the perfect TiC. This definition allows us to identify the DOS peaks characteristic of the studied defects in several conformations. So far, characteristic defect states have been discussed only in connection with carbon vacancies. Here, in particular, we have identified dDOS peaks of carbon interstitials and dumbbells, which can be used for experimental detection of such defects in TiC. The formation energies of point defects in TiC are derived in the framework of a grand-canonical formalism. Among the considered defects, carbon vacancies and interstitials are shown to have, respectively, the lowest and the second-lowest formation energies. Their formation energetics are consistent with the thermodynamic data on the phase stability of nonstoichiometric TiC. A cluster type of point defect is found to be next in energy, a titanium [100] dumbbell terminated by two carbon vacancies.

  17. Ear acupuncture and fMRI: a pilot study for assessing the specificity of auricular points.

    PubMed

    Romoli, M; Allais, G; Airola, G; Benedetto, C; Mana, O; Giacobbe, M; Pugliese, A M; Battistella, G; Fornari, E

    2014-05-01

    In recent years research explored different acupuncture stimulation techniques but interest has focused primarily on somatic acupuncture and on a limited number of acupoints. As regards ear Acupuncture (EA) there is still some criticism about the clinical specificity of auricular points/areas representing organs or structures of the body. The aim of this study was to verify through (Functional magnetic resonance imaging) fMRI the hypothesis of EA point specificity using two auricular points having different topographical locations and clinical significance. Six healthy volunteers underwent two experimental fMRI sessions: the first was dedicated to the stimulation of Thumb Auricular Acupoint (TAA) and the second to the stimulation of Brain Stem Auricular Acupoint (BSAA). The stimulation of the needle placed in the TAA of the left ear produced an increase in activation bilaterally in the parietal operculum, region of the secondary somatosensory area SII. Stimulation of the needle placed in the BSAA of the left ear showed a pattern that largely overlapped regions belonging to the pain matrix, as shown to be involved in previous somatic acupuncture studies but with local differences in the left amygdala, anterior cingulate cortex, and cerebellum. The differences in activation patterns between TAA and BSAA stimulation support the specificity of the two acupoints. Moreover, the peculiarity of the regions involved in BSAA stimulation compared to those involved in the pain matrix, is in accordance with the therapeutic indications of this acupoint that include head pain, dizziness and vertigo. Our results provide preliminary evidence on the specificity of two auricular acupoints; further research is warranted by means of fMRI both in healthy volunteers and in patients carrying neurological/psychiatric syndromes.

  18. Changes in blood flow and cellular metabolism at a myofascial trigger point with trigger point release (ischemic compression): a proof-of-principle pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Moraska, Albert F.; Hickner, Robert C.; Kohrt, Wendy M.; Brewer, Alan

    2012-01-01

    Objective To demonstrate proof-of-principle measurement for physiological change within an active myofascial trigger point (MTrP) undergoing trigger point release (ischemic compression). Design Interstitial fluid was sampled continuously at a trigger point before and after intervention. Setting A biomedical research clinic at a university hospital. Participants Two subjects from a pain clinic presenting with chronic headache pain. Interventions A single microdialysis catheter was inserted into an active MTrP of the upper trapezius to allow for continuous sampling of interstitial fluid before and after application of trigger point therapy by a massage therapist. Main Outcome Measures Procedural success, pain tolerance, feasibility of intervention during sample collection, determination of physiologically relevant values for local blood flow, as well as glucose and lactate concentrations. Results Both patients tolerated the microdialysis probe insertion into the MTrP and treatment intervention without complication. Glucose and lactate concentrations were measured in the physiological range. Following intervention, a sustained increase in lactate was noted for both subjects. Conclusions Identifying physiological constituents of MTrP’s following intervention is an important step toward understanding pathophysiology and resolution of myofascial pain. The present study forwards that aim by showing proof-of-concept for collection of interstitial fluid from an MTrP before and after intervention can be accomplished using microdialysis, thus providing methodological insight toward treatment mechanism and pain resolution. Of the biomarkers measured in this study, lactate may be the most relevant for detection and treatment of abnormalities in the MTrP. PMID:22975226

  19. Viewing another person's body as a target object: a behavioural and PET study of pointing.

    PubMed

    Cleret de Langavant, Laurent; Trinkler, Iris; Remy, Philippe; Thirioux, Bérangère; McIntyre, Joseph; Berthoz, Alain; Dupoux, Emmanuel; Bachoud-Lévi, Anne-Catherine

    2012-07-01

    Humans usually point at objects to communicate with other persons, although they generally avoid pointing at the other's body. Moreover, patients with heterotopagnosia after left parietal damage cannot point at another person's body parts, although they can point at objects and at their own body parts and although they can grasp the others' body parts. Strikingly, their performance gradually improves for figurative human body targets. Altogether, this suggests that the body of another real person holds a specific status in communicative pointing. Here, we test in healthy individuals whether performance for communicative pointing is influenced by the communicative capacity of the target. In Experiment 1, pointing at another real person's body parts was compared to pointing at objects, and in Experiment 2, the person was replaced by a manikin. While reaction times for pointing at objects were shorter compared to pointing at other person's body parts, they were similar for objects and manikin body parts. By adapting Experiment 1 to PET-scan imaging (Experiment 3), we showed that, compared to pointing at objects, the brain network for pointing at other person's body parts involves the left posterior intraparietal sulcus, lesion of which could cause heterotopagnosia. Taken together, our results indicate that the specificity of pointing at another person's body goes beyond the visuo-spatial features of the human body and might rather rely on its communicative capacity. PMID:22579967

  20. Viewing another person's body as a target object: a behavioural and PET study of pointing.

    PubMed

    Cleret de Langavant, Laurent; Trinkler, Iris; Remy, Philippe; Thirioux, Bérangère; McIntyre, Joseph; Berthoz, Alain; Dupoux, Emmanuel; Bachoud-Lévi, Anne-Catherine

    2012-07-01

    Humans usually point at objects to communicate with other persons, although they generally avoid pointing at the other's body. Moreover, patients with heterotopagnosia after left parietal damage cannot point at another person's body parts, although they can point at objects and at their own body parts and although they can grasp the others' body parts. Strikingly, their performance gradually improves for figurative human body targets. Altogether, this suggests that the body of another real person holds a specific status in communicative pointing. Here, we test in healthy individuals whether performance for communicative pointing is influenced by the communicative capacity of the target. In Experiment 1, pointing at another real person's body parts was compared to pointing at objects, and in Experiment 2, the person was replaced by a manikin. While reaction times for pointing at objects were shorter compared to pointing at other person's body parts, they were similar for objects and manikin body parts. By adapting Experiment 1 to PET-scan imaging (Experiment 3), we showed that, compared to pointing at objects, the brain network for pointing at other person's body parts involves the left posterior intraparietal sulcus, lesion of which could cause heterotopagnosia. Taken together, our results indicate that the specificity of pointing at another person's body goes beyond the visuo-spatial features of the human body and might rather rely on its communicative capacity.

  1. Study on safety operation for large hydroelectric generator unit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Z. G.; Cui, T.; Zhou, L. J.; Zhi, F. L.; Wang, Z. W.

    2012-11-01

    Hydroelectric generator unit is a complex mechanical system which is composed of hydraulic turbine and electric generator. Rotary system is supported by the bearing bracket and the reinforced concrete structures, and vibration problem can't be avoided in the process of operating. Many large-scale hydroelectric units have been damaged because of the vibration problem in recent years. As the increase of the hydraulic turbine unit capacity and water head, the safe operation of hydraulic turbine has become a focus research in many countries. The operating characteristics of the hydraulic turbine have obvious differences at different working conditions. Based on the combination of field measurement and theoretical calculation, this paper shows a deep research on the safe operation of a large-scale Francis turbine unit. Firstly, the measurements of vibration, swing, pressure fluctuation and noise were carried out at 4 different heads. And also the relationships between vibrations and pressure fluctuations at different heads and working conditions were analysed deeply. Then the scientific prediction of safe operation for the unit at high head were done based on the CFD numerical calculation. Finally, this paper shows the division of the operating zone for the hydroelectric unit. According to the experimental results (vibrations, swings, pressure fluctuations and noise) as well as the theoretical results, the operating zone of the unit has been divided into three sections: prohibited operating zone, transition operating zone and safe operating zone. After this research was applied in the hydropower station, the security and economic efficiency of unit increased greatly, and enormous economic benefits and social benefits have been obtained.

  2. Nonlinear Seismic Analysis of Morrow Point Dam: A Study for the United States Bureau of Reclamation

    SciTech Connect

    Noble, C R; Solberg, J

    2004-02-20

    This research and development project was sponsored by the United States Bureau of Reclamation (USBR), who are best known for the dams, power plants, and canals it constructed in the 17 western states. The mission statement of the USBR's Dam Safety Office, located in Denver, Colorado, is ''to ensure Reclamation dams do not present unacceptable risk to people, property, and the environment.'' The Dam Safety Office does this by quickly identifying the dams which pose an increased threat to the public, and quickly completing the related analyses in order to make decisions that will safeguard the public and associated resources. The research study described in this report constitutes one element of USBR's research and development work to advance their computational and analysis capabilities for studying the response of dams to strong earthquake motions. This project focused on the seismic response of Morrow Point Dam, which is located 263 km southwest of Denver, Colorado.

  3. Studies of Low-Current Back-Discharge in Point-Plane Geometry with Dielectric Layer

    SciTech Connect

    Jaworek, Anatol; Rajch, Eryk; Krupa, Andrzej; Czech, Tadeusz; Lackowski, Marcin

    2006-01-15

    The paper presents results of spectroscopic investigations of back-discharges generated in the point-plane electrode geometry in ambient air at atmospheric pressure, with the plane electrode covered with a dielectric layer. Fly ash from an electrostatic precipitator of a coal-fired power plant was used as the dielectric layer in these investigations. The discharges for positive and negative polarities of the needle electrode were studied by measuring optical emission spectra at two regions of the discharge: near the needle electrode and dielectric layer surface. The visual forms of the discharge were recorded and correlated with the current-voltage characteristics and optical emission spectra. The back-arc discharge was of particular interest in these studies due to its detrimental effects it causes in electrostatic precipitators.

  4. Analgesics as Reinforcers with Chronic Pain: Evidence from Operant Studies

    PubMed Central

    Ewan, Eric E.; Martin, Thomas J.

    2013-01-01

    Previously preclinical pain research has focused on simple behavioral endpoints to assess the efficacy of analgesics in acute and chronic pain models, primarily reflexive withdrawal from an applied mechanical or thermal stimulus. However recent research has been aimed at investigating other behavioral states in the presence of pain, including spontaneous, non-elicited pain. One approach is to investigate the reinforcing effects of analgesics in animals with experimental pain, which should serve as reinforcers by virtue of their ability to alleviate the relevant subjective states induced by pain. The gold standard for assessing drug reinforcement is generally accepted to be drug self-administration, and this review highlights the ability of drugs to serve as reinforcers in animals with experimental neuropathic pain, and the extent to which this behavior is altered in chronic pain states. Additionally, intracranial self-stimulation is an operant procedure that has been used extensively to study drug reinforcement mechanisms and the manner in which neuropathic pain alters the ability of drugs to serve as reinforcers in this paradigm will also be discussed. Drug self-administration and intracranial self-stimulation have promise as tools to investigate behavioral effects of analgesics in animals with chronic pain, particularly regarding the mechanisms through which these drugs motivate consumption in a chronic pain state. PMID:23973302

  5. Space science/space station attached payload pointing accommodation study: Technology assessment white paper

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Richard Y.; Mann, Kenneth E.; Laskin, Robert A.; Sirlin, Samuel W.

    1987-01-01

    Technology assessment is performed for pointing systems that accommodate payloads of large mass and large dimensions. Related technology areas are also examined. These related areas include active thermal lines or power cables across gimbals, new materials for increased passive damping, tethered pointing, and inertially reacting pointing systems. Conclusions, issues and concerns, and recommendations regarding the status and development of large pointing systems for space applications are made based on the performed assessments.

  6. Reduction of VOC emissions from metal dip coating applications -- Canam Steel Corporation Point of Rocks, MD case study

    SciTech Connect

    Monfet, J.P.

    1997-12-31

    The reduction of VOC emissions from metal dip coating applications is not an environmental constraint, it is an economic opportunity. This case study shows how the industry can reap economic benefits from VOC reductions while improving air quality. The Canam Steel Corporation plant located in Point of Rocks, MD operates dip tanks for primer application on fabricated steel joists and joist girders. This process is presently subject to a regulation that limits the paint VOC content to 3.5 pounds per gallon of coating less water. As a result of the high paint viscosity associated with that regulation, the paint thickness of the dipped steel is thicker than the customers` specifications. Most of the VOC emissions can therefore be associated with the excess of paint applied to the products rather than to the required thickness of the coating. The higher paint usage rate has more than environmental consequences, it increases the cost of the applied coating. The project is to reduce the paint usage by controlling the viscosity of the coating in the tank. Experimental results as well as actual mass balance calculations show that using a higher VOC content paint would reduce the overall VOC emissions. The author explained the project to the Maryland Department of the Environment (MDE) Air and Radiation Management Administration. First, the MDE agreed to develop a new RACT determination for fabricated steel dipping operations. The new regulation would limit the amount of VOC than can be emitted to dip coat a ton of fabricated steel. Second, the MDE agreed to allow experimentation of the higher VOC content paint as a pilot project for the new regulation. This paper demonstrates the need for a RACT determination specific to fabricated steel dipping operations.

  7. Family planning programs in industrial establishments: an operations research study.

    PubMed

    Cabigon, J; Magsino, E

    1993-01-01

    An operations research study in the Philippines sought to uncover determinants of the sustainability of employment-based family planning (FP) programs offered in industrial settings where the Philippine Center for Population and Development (PCPD) had provided assistance in implementing Responsible Parenthood/FP-Maternal Health (RP/FP-MH) Programs. Qualitative data were gathered through observations and interviews with the target population and with company management and program implementers. Based on this study, the following recommendations were made: 1) training outputs should be echoed to employees immediately; 2) RP/FP-MCH team members should be recruited from each level of the work force; 3) an appropriate IEC (information, education, and communication) strategy should be devised to respond to the short time-frame in which employees can participate; 4) team-building training should be incorporated as a regular activity early in the contract period; 5) sectoral targeting should be used within a given company; 6) training programs should be designed for each of the three types of team members and should overlap the basic topics; 7) teamwork and mutual assistance should be encouraged; 8) the work of the teams should be rewarded; 9) commendable initiative of liaison officers should be sustained; 10) representatives of the PCPD should maintain a close relationship with the teams through PCPD staff visits to the companies; 11) management requires more intensive orientation on the RP/FP-MH program; 12) PCPD support should be withdrawn gradually until the companies are able to sustain the program themselves; 13) it may be helpful to require a company to meet rigid criteria in order to take part in the PCPD project; 14) OR should be continued; and 15) the concept and practice of quality of care should be introduced to service delivery and training of staff and motivators.

  8. Acupuncture point injection treatment of primary dysmenorrhoea: a randomised, double blind, controlled study

    PubMed Central

    Wade, C; Wang, L; Zhao, W J; Cardini, F; Kronenberg, F; Gui, S Q; Ying, Z; Zhao, N Q; Chao, M T; Yu, J

    2016-01-01

    Objective To determine if injection of vitamin K3 in an acupuncture point is optimal for the treatment of primary dysmenorrhoea, when compared with 2 other injection treatments. Setting A Menstrual Disorder Centre at a public hospital in Shanghai, China. Participants Chinese women aged 14–25 years with severe primary dysmenorrhoea for at least 6 months not relieved by any other treatment were recruited. Exclusion criteria were the use of oral contraceptives, intrauterine devices or anticoagulant drugs, pregnancy, history of abdominal surgery, participation in other therapies for pain and diagnosis of secondary dysmenorrhoea. Eighty patients with primary dysmenorrhoea, as defined on a 4-grade scale, completed the study. Two patients withdrew after randomisation. Interventions A double-blind, double-dummy, randomised controlled trial compared vitamin K3 acupuncture point injection to saline acupuncture point injection and vitamin K3 deep muscle injection. Patients in each group received 3 injections at a single treatment visit. Primary and secondary outcome measures The primary outcome was the difference in subjective perception of pain as measured by an 11 unit Numeric Rating Scale (NRS). Secondary measurements were Cox Pain Intensity and Duration scales and the consumption of analgesic tablets before and after treatment and during 6 following cycles. Results Patients in all 3 groups experienced pain relief from the injection treatments. Differences in NRS measured mean pain scores between the 2 active control groups were less than 1 unit (−0.71, CI −1.37 to −0.05) and not significant, but the differences in average scores between the treatment hypothesised to be optimal and both active control groups (1.11, CI 0.45 to 1.78) and (1.82, CI 1.45 to 2.49) were statistically significant in adjusted mixed-effects models. Menstrual distress and use of analgesics were diminished for 6 months post-treatment. Conclusions Acupuncture point injection of

  9. Variation character of stagnation point heat flux for hypersonic pointed bodies from continuum to rarefied flow states and its bridge function study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhihui; Bao, Lin; Tong, Binggang

    2009-12-01

    This paper is a research on the variation character of stagnation point heat flux for hypersonic pointed bodies from continuum to rarefied flow states by using theoretical analysis and numerical simulation methods. The newly developed near space hypersonic cruise vehicles have sharp noses and wingtips, which desires exact and relatively simple methods to estimate the stagnation point heat flux. With the decrease of the curvature radius of the leading edge, the flow becomes rarefied gradually, and viscous interaction effects and rarefied gas effects come forth successively, which results in that the classical Fay-Riddell equation under continuum hypothesis will become invalid and the variation of stagnation point heat flux is characterized by a new trend. The heat flux approaches the free molecular flow limit instead of an infinite value when the curvature radius of the leading edge tends to 0. The physical mechanism behind this phenomenon remains in need of theoretical study. Firstly, due to the fact that the whole flow regime can be described by Boltzmann equation, the continuum and rarefied flow are analyzed under a uniform framework. A relationship is established between the molecular collision insufficiency in rarefied flow and the failure of Fourier’s heat conduction law along with the increasing significance of the nonlinear heat flux. Then based on an inspiration drew from Burnett approximation, control factors are grasped and a specific heat flux expression containing the nonlinear term is designed in the stagnation region of hypersonic leading edge. Together with flow pattern analysis, the ratio of nonlinear to linear heat flux W r is theoretically obtained as a parameter which reflects the influence of nonlinear factors, i.e. a criterion to classify the hypersonic rarefied flows. Ultimately, based on the characteristic parameter W r , a bridge function with physical background is constructed, which predicts comparative reasonable results in coincidence

  10. An experimental-theoretical study of free vibrations of plates on elastic point supports

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leuner, T. R.

    1972-01-01

    A theoretical and experimental study is made to investigate the effect on plate vibrations of varying the stiffness of corner elastic point supports. A theoretical model is developed using a Rayleigh-Ritz analysis which approximates the plate mode shapes as products of free-free beam modes. The elastic point supports are modelled both as massless translational springs, and springs with tip masses. The tip masses are included to better represent the experimental supports. An experiment is constructed using the bending stiffness of horizontal beams to support a square plate at its four corners. The stiffness of these supports can be varied over such a range that the plate fundamental frequency is lowered to 40% of the rigid support frequency. The variation with support stiffness of the frequencies of the first eight plate modes is measured, and compared with the theoretical results. The plate mode shapes for rigid supports are analyzed using holographic interferometry. There is excellent agreement between the theoretical and experimental results, except for high plate modes where the theoretical model is demonstrated to be inadequate.

  11. Space operations center: Shuttle interaction study extension, executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    The Space Operations Center (SOC) is conceived as a permanent facility in low Earth orbit incorporating capabilities for space systems construction; space vehicle assembly, launching, recovery and servicing; and the servicing of co-orbiting satellites. The Shuttle Transportation System is an integral element of the SOC concept. It will transport the various elements of the SOC into space and support the assembly operation. Subsequently, it will regularly service the SOC with crew rotations, crew supplies, construction materials, construction equipment and components, space vehicle elements, and propellants and spare parts. The implications to the SOC as a consequence of the Shuttle supporting operations are analyzed. Programmatic influences associated with propellant deliveries, spacecraft servicing, and total shuttle flight operations are addressed.

  12. Operations analysis (study 2.1). Volume 1: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolfe, R. R.

    1975-01-01

    Subjects related to future STS operations concepts were investigated. The majority of effort was directed at assessing the benefits of automated space servicing concepts as related to improvements in payload procurement and shuttle utilization. Another subject was directed at understanding shuttle upper stage software development and recurring costs relative to total program projections. Space serving of automated payloads is addressed by examining the broad spectrum of payload applications with the belief that shared logistic operations will be a major contributor to reduction of future program costs. However, there are certain requirements for support of payload operations, such as availability of the payload, that may place demands upon the shuttle fleet. Because future projections of the NASA Mission Model are only representative of the payload traffic, it is important to recognize that it is the general character of operations that is significant rather than service to any single payload program.

  13. Integrated operations payloads/fleet analysis study extension report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    An analysis of the factors affecting the cost effectiveness of space shuttle operations is presented. The subjects discussed are: (1)payload data bank, (2) program risk analysis, (3)navigation satellite program, and (4) reusable launch systems.

  14. A Study on the Deriving Requirements of ARGO Operation System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seo, Yoon-Kyung; Rew, Dong-Young; Lim, Hyung-Chul; Park, In-Kwan; Yim, Hong-Suh; Jo, Jung Hyun; Park, Jong-Uk

    2009-12-01

    Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute (KASI) has been developing one mobile and one stationary SLR system since 2008 named as ARGO-M and ARGO-F, respectively. KASI finished the step of deriving the system requirements of ARGO. The requirements include definitions and scopes of various software and hardware components which are necessary for developing the ARGO-M operation system. And the requirements define function, performance, and interface requirements. The operation system consisting of ARGO-M site, ARGO-F site, and Remote Operation Center (ROC) inside KASI is designed for remote access and the automatic tracking and control system which are the main operation concept of ARGO system. To accomplish remote operation, we are considering remote access to ARGO-F and ARGO-M from ROC. The mobile-phone service allows us to access the ARGO-F remotely and to control the system in an emergency. To implement fully automatic tracking and control function in ARGO-F, we have investigated and described the requirements about the automatic aircraft detection system and the various meteorological sensors. This paper addresses the requirements of ARGO Operation System.

  15. Lunar Transportation Facilities and Operations Study, option 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Throughout the Option I period of the Lunar Transportation Facilities and Operations Study (LTFOS), McDonnell Douglas Space Systems Company - Kennedy Space Center (MDSSC-KSC) provided support to both the Planetary Surface Systems (PSS) Office at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) at the Johnson Space Center and to the Flight and Ground Systems Projects Office (Payload Projects Management) at the Kennedy Space Center. The primary objective of the Option I phase of the study was to assist the above NASA centers in developing Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) concepts. MDSSC-KSC conducted three analyses which provided launch and landing detail to the proposed exploration concepts. One analysis, the Lunar Ejecta Assessment, was conducted to determine the effects of launch and landing a vehicle in a dusty environment. A second analysis, the Thermal/Micrometeoroid Protection Trade Study, was refined to determine the impacts that Reference Architecture Option 5A would have on thermal/micrometeoroid protection approaches. The third analysis, the Centaur Prelaunch Procedure Analysis, used a Centaur prelaunch test and checkout flow to identify key considerations that would be important if a Lunar Excursion Vehicle (LEV) was to use an expander cycle liquid oxygen-liquid hydrogen engine. Several 'quick look' assessments were also conducted. One quick look assessment, the Storable Propellant Quick Look Assessment, was conducted to identify design considerations that should be made if storable propellants were to be used instead of liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen. The LEV Servicer Maintenance Analysis provided an early look at the effort required to maintain an LEV Servicer on the lunar surface. Also, support was provided to the PSS Logistics Manager to develop initial LEV Servicer cost inputs. Consideration was given to the advanced development that must be provided to accomplish a lunar and/or Mars mission. MDSS-KSC also provided support to both MASE

  16. Lunar Transportation Facilities and Operations Study, option 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1991-05-01

    Throughout the Option I period of the Lunar Transportation Facilities and Operations Study (LTFOS), McDonnell Douglas Space Systems Company - Kennedy Space Center (MDSSC-KSC) provided support to both the Planetary Surface Systems (PSS) Office at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) at the Johnson Space Center and to the Flight and Ground Systems Projects Office (Payload Projects Management) at the Kennedy Space Center. The primary objective of the Option I phase of the study was to assist the above NASA centers in developing Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) concepts. MDSSC-KSC conducted three analyses which provided launch and landing detail to the proposed exploration concepts. One analysis, the Lunar Ejecta Assessment, was conducted to determine the effects of launch and landing a vehicle in a dusty environment. A second analysis, the Thermal/Micrometeoroid Protection Trade Study, was refined to determine the impacts that Reference Architecture Option 5A would have on thermal/micrometeoroid protection approaches. The third analysis, the Centaur Prelaunch Procedure Analysis, used a Centaur prelaunch test and checkout flow to identify key considerations that would be important if a Lunar Excursion Vehicle (LEV) was to use an expander cycle liquid oxygen-liquid hydrogen engine. Several 'quick look' assessments were also conducted. One quick look assessment, the Storable Propellant Quick Look Assessment, was conducted to identify design considerations that should be made if storable propellants were to be used instead of liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen. The LEV Servicer Maintenance Analysis provided an early look at the effort required to maintain an LEV Servicer on the lunar surface. Also, support was provided to the PSS Logistics Manager to develop initial LEV Servicer cost inputs. Consideration was given to the advanced development that must be provided to accomplish a lunar and/or Mars mission. MDSS-KSC also provided support to both MASE

  17. 40-MW(e) OTEC (Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion) plant at Kahe Point, Oahu, Hawaii: a case study of potential biological impacts. Technical memo

    SciTech Connect

    Harrison, J.T.

    1987-02-01

    Construction and operation of an Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) facility will affect marine, terrestrial, and atmospheric environments. The nature and degree of OTEC environmental impacts have been subjects of numerous studies and reports. The proposed 40-MWe OTEC plant at Kahe Point, Oahu, Hawaii has been the focus of much of the work. The first section provides a summary of pertinent design features of the proposed plant, including standard operating parameters. Next, salient elements of the biological oceanography in the region of the proposed development are summarized. The following sections discuss expected impacts of construction and operation of the plant, and finally, significant aspects of modeling studies conducted in support of the Kahe OTEC plant development are presented.

  18. Comparative study of the "point-by-point technique" and the "scanning technique" for laser treatment of port-wine stain.

    PubMed

    Mordon, S R; Rotteleur, G; Buys, B; Brunetaud, J M

    1989-01-01

    Photocoagulation using the argon laser has been proven to be an effective method for the treatment of port-wine stains (PWS). However, it is very difficult to reproduce the parameters of laser treatment. This leads to inaccurate energy dosages secondary to the difference in treatment patterns. The aim of this study was to compare the conventional point-by-point technique (PT) for PWS treatment against a new scanning technique (ST) using a device called "Hexascan" (PREIN & Partners, Ferney-Voltaire, France). A total of 249 patients (171 females and 78 males) using the argon laser have been studied in a retrospective study. Clinical results are presented. For each technique, blanching and hypertrophic scarring were examined. The results are classified into two groups: satisfactory and unsatisfactory. The clinical results show that the ST with the Hexascan is superior to the conventional PT. Scarring is drastically reduced because overdosage and overheating are avoided. Because of precisely controlled spot patterns, quality and homogeneity of blanching is improved. Treatment time can be reduced to 20% of that of the PT. PMID:2761335

  19. Fault tree application to the study of systems interactions at Indian Point 3

    SciTech Connect

    Youngblood, R.; Hanan, N.; Fitzpatrick, R.; Xue, D.; Bozoki, G.; Fresco, A.; Papazoglou, I.; Mitra, S.; MacDonald, G.; Mazour, T.

    1986-01-01

    This report describes an application of fault tree methods to search for systems interactions at Indian Point 3. This project was carried out in support of the resolution of Unresolved Safety Issue A-17 on Systems Interaction. Here, the methods are introduced, the findings are presented, and comments on the methods are offered. Findings are presented in the following manner. Systems interactions which may qualitatively violate regulatory requirements (regardless of their probability) are discussed; additionally, a probabilistically ranked list of system interactions is provided. This study resulted in the discovery of a previously undetected active single failure causing loss of low pressure injection. After verifying this finding, the licensee took immediate corrective actions, including a design modification to the switching logic for one of the safety buses, as well as procedural changes.

  20. Ising nematic quantum critical point in a metal: a Monte Carlo study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lederer, Samuel

    The Ising nematic quantum critical point (QCP) associated with the zero temperature transition from a symmetric to a nematic metal is an exemplar of metallic quantum criticality. We have carried out a minus sign-free quantum Monte Carlo study of this QCP for a two dimensional lattice model with sizes up to 24 × 24 sites. The system remains non-superconducting down to the lowest accessible temperatures. The results exhibit critical scaling behavior over the accessible ranges of temperature, (imaginary) time, and distance. This scaling behavior has remarkable similarities with recently measured properties of the Fe-based superconductors proximate to their putative nematic QCP. With Yoni Schattner, Steven A. Kivelson, and Erez Berg.

  1. Adhesive friction based on finite element study and n-point asperity model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahoo, Prasanta; Waghmare, Ajay K.

    2016-08-01

    The present work considers analysis of adhesive friction of rough surfaces using n- point asperity concept for statistical definition of surface roughness features, and accurate finite element analysis of elastic-plastic deformation of single asperity contact. Well defined adhesion index and plasticity index are used to study the prospective contact situations arising out of variation in material properties and surface roughness features. From the present results it is possible to locate the combinations of adhesion index and plasticity index that may yield very low coefficient of friction. Thus suitable choice of surface and material parameters for the contact of two rough surfaces can be made in order to minimize friction typically at low load and micro scale roughness situations.

  2. Genetic thinking in the study of social relationships: Five points of entry

    PubMed Central

    Reiss, David

    2014-01-01

    For nearly a generation, researchers studying human behavioral development have combined genetically informed research designs with careful measures of social relationships: parenting, sibling relationships, peer relationships, marital processes, social class stratifications and patterns of social engagement in the elderly. In what way have these genetically informed studies altered the construction and testing of social theories of human development? We consider five points where genetic thinking is taking hold. First, genetic findings suggest an alternative scenario for explaining social data. Associations between measures of the social environment and human development may be due to genes that influence both. Second, genetic studies add to other prompts to study the early developmental origins of current social phenomena in mid-life and beyond. Third, genetic analyses promise to bring to the surface understudied social systems, such as sibling relationships, that have an impact on human development independent of genotype. Fourth, genetic analyses anchor in neurobiology individual differences in resilience and sensitivity to both adverse and favorable social environments. Finally, genetic analyses increase the utility of laboratory simulations of human social processes and of animal models. PMID:25419225

  3. Operant Conditioning

    PubMed Central

    Staddon, J. E. R.; Cerutti, D. T.

    2005-01-01

    Operant behavior is behavior “controlled” by its consequences. In practice, operant conditioning is the study of reversible behavior maintained by reinforcement schedules. We review empirical studies and theoretical approaches to two large classes of operant behavior: interval timing and choice. We discuss cognitive versus behavioral approaches to timing, the “gap” experiment and its implications, proportional timing and Weber's law, temporal dynamics and linear waiting, and the problem of simple chain-interval schedules. We review the long history of research on operant choice: the matching law, its extensions and problems, concurrent chain schedules, and self-control. We point out how linear waiting may be involved in timing, choice, and reinforcement schedules generally. There are prospects for a unified approach to all these areas. PMID:12415075

  4. Operation of Packed-Bed Reactors Studied in Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Motil, Brian J.; Balakotaiah, Vemuri

    2004-01-01

    The operation of a packed bed reactor (PBR) involves gas and liquid flowing simultaneously through a fixed-bed of solid particles. Depending on the application, the particles can be various shapes and sizes but are generally designed to force the two fluid phases through a tortuous route of narrow channels connecting the interstitial space. The PBR is the most common type of reactor in industry because it provides for intimate contact and high rates of transport between the phases needed to sustain chemical or biological reactions. The packing may also serve as either a catalyst or as a support for growing biological material. Furthermore, this type of reactor is relatively compact and requires minimal power to operate. This makes it an excellent candidate for unit operations in support of long-duration human space activities.

  5. A Study of Point of View and Character in Preparation for Oral Performance of Cuttings from "The Optimist's Daughter."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snow, Nancy Hill

    In the process of perfecting oral performances of selected scenes from Eudora Welty's "The Optimist's Daughter," it is important to study point of view and character as they pertain to the play. Four aspects should be considered to understand the point of view: (1) the character's story, (2) the position from which the narrator speaks, (3) the…

  6. What is the point of the point-of-care? A case study of user resistance to an e-health system.

    PubMed

    Whittaker, Louise; Van Zyl, Jaco; Soicher, Antony S

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to explore the response of nurses to a point-of-care e-health system that was implemented in a large private hospital in South Africa, to determine why the nursing staff rejected the implementation of the system. The study examines user responses with reference to a model designed to account for the use and adoption of mobile handheld devices, having adapted the model for an e-health context. In addition to the input features of technological characteristics and individual differences identified in the model, the added features of nursing culture and group differences were found to be influential factors in fuelling the nurses' resistance to the point-of-care system. Nurses perceived a lack of cultural fit between the system and their work. Their commitment to their nursing culture meant that they were not prepared to adapt their processes to integrate the system into their work. The study shows that the model is useful for understanding adoption in an organizational context and also that the additional elements of nursing culture and group differences are important in an e-health context.

  7. Point pattern analysis with spatially varying covariate effects, applied to the study of cerebrovascular deaths.

    PubMed

    Pinto Junior, Jony Arrais; Gamerman, Dani; Paez, Marina Silva; Fonseca Alves, Regina Helena

    2015-03-30

    This article proposes a modeling approach for handling spatial heterogeneity present in the study of the geographical pattern of deaths due to cerebrovascular disease.The framework involvesa point pattern analysis with components exhibiting spatial variation. Preliminary studies indicate that mortality of this disease and the effect of relevant covariates do not exhibit uniform geographic distribution. Our model extends a previously proposed model in the literature that uses spatial and non-spatial variables by allowing for spatial variation of the effect of non-spatial covariates. A number of relative risk indicators are derived by comparing different covariate levels, different geographic locations, or both. The methodology is applied to the study of the geographical death pattern of cerebrovascular deaths in the city of Rio de Janeiro. The results compare well against existing alternatives, including fixed covariate effects. Our model is able to capture and highlight important data information that would not be noticed otherwise, providing information that is required for appropriate health decision-making.

  8. A study of void size growth in nonequilibrium stochastic systems of point defects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kharchenko, Dmitrii O.; Kharchenko, Vasyl O.; Bashtova, Anna I.

    2016-05-01

    We study properties of voids growth dynamics in a stochastic system of point defects in solids under nonequilibrium conditions (sustained irradiation). It is shown that fluctuations of defect production rate (external noise) increase the critical void radius comparing to a deterministic system. An automodel regime of void size growth in a stochastic system is studied in detail. Considering a homogeneous system, it is found that external noise does not change the universality of the void size distribution function; the mean void size evolves according to classical nucleation theory. The noise increases the mean void size and spreads the void size distribution. Studying dynamics of spatially extended systems it was shown that vacancies remaining in a matrix phase are able to organize into vacancy enriched domains due to an instability caused by an elastic lattice deformation. It is shown that dynamics of voids growth is defined by void sinks strength with void size growth exponent varying from 1/3 up to 1/2.

  9. Ray tracing to study of waxes around the cloud point by optical absorption tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreno-Alvarez, L.; Meneses-Fabian, C.; Herrera, J. N.; Rodríguez-Zurita, G.

    2011-10-01

    In optical tomography of parallel projections, the light rays that cross the slice of the object are experimentally approached to suffer minimal refraction, i.e. take refractional limits. Generally, a media is used for immersion whose refractive index rate tied the environment to study, but the geometry of the containment vessels also affects refraction and may be the case that the approach is not subject performed. In this work we make a numerical study of the refraction of a ray of light that enters a typical experimental system for studying the thermodynamic behaviour of a paraffinic wax around their cloud point. Since it has special properties in the heat capacity and refractive index near the phase transition, these results will be used to characterize the transition and is intended to give tomographic information to the study of thermal properties obtained using the T-History calorimetric technique. In this study, we simulate the behaviour of the refraction of parallel rays crossing the T-History test system to find the optimal values of the dimensions of the containment vessels and the index of refraction of the medium for immersion, considering that the optical properties of the sample under study vary with temperature. Thus, we obtain the optimum conditions of minimum refraction technique for which reconstruction of a tomographic slice parallel projection can be applied. The distribution of the linear attenuation coefficient on the slice of the object, typically, is obtained by applying the filtered backprojection algorithm to the set of projections (sinogram) obtained experimentally, which constitutes a way to detect mobile interfacial boundaries in real time. The projections are sequentially measuring the intensity of the wave emerging from the slice of the object at different angles.

  10. Exploring Pre-Operational and Concrete Operational Children's Thinking on Nutrition: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brouse, Corey H.; Chow, Tracy H. F.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: In this exploratory study, we observed the process in which children make food choices from a cognitive development perspective and the implications that these choices have on the areas of cognitive development and health and nutrition education. Design: This was a cross-sectional case study that involved an in-depth examination of the…

  11. Neurobehavioral functions in operating theatre personnel: a multicenter study.

    PubMed

    Lucchini, R; Belotti, L; Cassitto, M G; Faillace, A; Margonari, M; Micheloni, G; Scapellato, M L; Somenzi, V; Spada, T; Toffoletto, F; Gilioli, R

    1997-01-01

    The study was conducted to evaluate neuropsychological symptoms, subjective stress and response speed functions in subjects occupationally exposed to low levels of anesthetic gases. A group of 112 operating theatre personnel exposed to anesthetic gases (nitrous oxide and isoflurane), and 135 non exposed hospital workers from 10 hospitals in Northern Italy were examined before and after the shift on the first and the last day of the working week. Three different tasks were administered: a complex reaction time test (the Stroop Color Word); a questionnaire for neuropsychological symptoms (EURO-QUEST); the block design subtest (WAIS). Biological and atmospheric indicators of exposure were measured. In the exposed group, the geometric mean of urinary nitrous oxide at the end of the shift was 7.1 micrograms/l (95th percentile 12.4, range 1.5-43) on the first and 7.8 micrograms/l (95th percentile 21.5, range 1.0-73.3) on the last day of the working week. On the same days, end of shift urinary isoflurane was 0.7 microgram/l (95th percentile 2.6, range 0-4.7) on the first day and 0.8 microgram/l (95th percentile 2.0, range 0-5.6) on the last. The exposed and control subjects were comparable for both basic intellectual abilities and subjective stress levels. No statistical differences were observed between exposed and control subjects for neuropsychological tests and symptoms. No dose-effect relationships were observed between the exposure indicators and the test results. In conclusion, no early behavioral effect on the central nervous system was detectable at the exposure levels measured. The biological exposure limits of 13 micrograms/l for nitrous oxide and 1.8 micrograms/l for isoflurane corresponding respectively to the atmospheric concentrations of 25 ppm and 0.5 ppm seem to be adequately protective for the integrity of workers' neurobehavioral functions, as measured with the tests used.

  12. [The anal incontinence-- study on 20 operated cases].

    PubMed

    Iusuf, T; Sârbu, V; Grasa, C; Cristache, C; Botea, F

    2001-01-01

    The authors present 20 cases operated for anal incontinence. Two techniques were performed: direct repair (18 cases) and Musset-Cottrell procedure (2 cases). The results were excellent in 12 cases, good in 5 cases and satisfactory in 3 cases. The method of choice seems to be the direct repair of the anal sphincter after a proper local and general preparation. PMID:12731180

  13. Vestibuloplasty: a retrospective study on conventional and laser operation techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neckel, Claus P.

    1999-05-01

    40 patients with edentulous maxillary jaws were referred to our private practice limited to maxillofacial surgery, due to atrophy of the alveolar ridge. Before prosthetic renewal of the upper removable prosthesis the restorative dentist requested a sufficient vestibule. After supraperiostal preparation, soft tissue advancement and fixation with absorbable sutures. The recipient site was covered with a free gingival graft. Group I was operated on traditionally using a scalpel. In group II incision and soft tissue preparation was performed using a diode laser. Wavelength: 810 nm; Continuous wave mode; 400 micron optic fiber; Output power 1.6 Watt. All operations were performed by one surgeon experienced in both operation techniques. Every patient was followed-up 1, 4, 8 weeks, 6 and 12 months. The vestibular height directly adjacent to the nasal cavity and 2cm distal to these first measuring locations were taken. Each patient was asked to evaluate their individual discomfort and postoperative pain level. Both groups showed no significant difference in vestibular height after 1, 4, 8 weeks, 6 months and 1 year. The postoperative height of 1.28 cm was reduced to 0.84 cm after 1 year. Furthermore both groups showed uneventful healing and take of the free gingival grafts. The assessment of the pain and discomfort level by the patients brought a significant difference between both groups in favor of the laser assisted operation technique.

  14. A CMB foreground study in WMAP data: Extragalactic point sources and zodiacal light emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xi

    The Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) radiation is the remnant heat from the Big Bang. It serves as a primary tool to understand the global properties, content and evolution of the universe. Since 2001, NASA's Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) satellite has been napping the full sky anisotropy with unprecedented accuracy, precision and reliability. The CMB angular power spectrum calculated from the WMAP full sky maps not only enables accurate testing of cosmological models, but also places significant constraints on model parameters. The CMB signal in the WMAP sky maps is contaminated by microwave emission from the Milky Way and from extragalactic sources. Therefore, in order to use the maps reliably for cosmological studies, the foreground signals must be well understood and removed from the maps. This thesis focuses on the separation of two foreground contaminants from the WMAP maps: extragalactic point sources and zodiacal light emission. Extragalactic point sources constitute the most important foreground on small angular scales. Various methods have been applied to the WMAP single frequency maps to extract sources. However, due to the limited angular resolution of WMAP, it is possible to confuse positive CMB excursions with point sources or miss sources that are embedded in negative CMB fluctuations. We present a novel CMB-free source finding technique that utilizes the spectrum difference of point sources and CMB to form internal linear combinations of multifrequency maps to suppress the CMB and better reveal sources. When applied to the WMAP 41, 64 and 94 GHz maps, this technique has not only enabled detection of sources that are previously cataloged by independent methods, but also allowed disclosure of new sources. Without the noise contribution from the CMB, this method responds rapidly with the integration time. The number of detections varies as 0( t 0.72 in the two-band search and 0( t 0.70 in the three-band search from one year to five years

  15. A Simulation Study Comparison of Bayesian Estimation with Conventional Methods for Estimating Unknown Change Points

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Lijuan; McArdle, John J.

    2008-01-01

    The main purpose of this research is to evaluate the performance of a Bayesian approach for estimating unknown change points using Monte Carlo simulations. The univariate and bivariate unknown change point mixed models were presented and the basic idea of the Bayesian approach for estimating the models was discussed. The performance of Bayesian…

  16. 40 CFR 26.1603 - Operation of the Human Studies Review Board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Operation of the Human Studies Review... PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS Review of Proposed and Completed Human Research § 26.1603 Operation of the Human Studies Review Board. EPA shall establish and operate a Human Studies Review Board as follows:...

  17. 40 CFR 26.1603 - Operation of the Human Studies Review Board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Operation of the Human Studies Review... PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS Review of Proposed and Completed Human Research § 26.1603 Operation of the Human Studies Review Board. EPA shall establish and operate a Human Studies Review Board as follows:...

  18. 40 CFR 26.1603 - Operation of the Human Studies Review Board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Operation of the Human Studies Review... PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS Review of Proposed and Completed Human Research § 26.1603 Operation of the Human Studies Review Board. EPA shall establish and operate a Human Studies Review Board as follows:...

  19. 40 CFR 26.1605 - Operation of the Human Studies Review Board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Operation of the Human Studies Review... PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS Review of Proposed and Completed Human Research § 26.1605 Operation of the Human Studies Review Board. EPA shall establish and operate a Human Studies Review Board as follows:...

  20. 40 CFR 26.1605 - Operation of the Human Studies Review Board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Operation of the Human Studies Review... PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS Review of Proposed and Completed Human Research § 26.1605 Operation of the Human Studies Review Board. EPA shall establish and operate a Human Studies Review Board as follows:...

  1. Two-micron Laser Atmospheric Wind Sounder (LAWS) pointing/tracking study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manlief, Scott

    1995-01-01

    The objective of the study was to identify and model major sources of short-term pointing jitter for a free-flying, full performance 2 micron LAWS system and evaluate the impact of the short-term jitter on wind-measurement performance. A fast steering mirror controls system was designed for the short-term jitter compensation. The performance analysis showed that the short-term jitter performance of the controls system over the 5.2 msec round-trip time for a realistic spacecraft environment was = 0.3 micro rad, rms, within the specified value of less than 0.5 micro rad, rms, derived in a 2 micron LAWS System Study. Disturbance modes were defined for: (1) the Bearing and Power Transfer Assembly (BAPTA) scan bearing, (2) the spacecraft reaction wheel torques, and (3) the solar array drive torques. The scan bearing disturbance was found to be the greatest contributing noise source to the jitter performance. Disturbances from the fast steering mirror reaction torques and a boom-mounted cross-link antenna clocking were also considered but were judged to be small compared to the three principal disturbance sources above and were not included in the final controls analysis.

  2. Alternating current cloud point extraction on a microchip: a comprehensive study.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Naoki; Takemura, Azusa; Sato, Kae

    2012-11-01

    We present a comprehensive study of alternating current cloud point extraction (ACPE) on a microchip. ACPE is an extraction technique for preconcentration of membrane-associated biomolecules. To characterize and optimize ACPE, we carried out ACPE experiments under various experimental conditions including amplitude and frequency of applied voltages, flow velocity, and concentration of surfactant, analyte, and salt. We found that ACPE has an amplitude threshold (15 V(p-p)), above which the extraction was more efficient. The dependence of the extraction on frequency (>5 MHz) was insignificant. Efficient extraction was achieved when the velocity of the test solution was 0.10∼0.67 mm s⁻¹ and the concentration of surfactant was 0.10∼1.0%. In contrast, the extraction was independent of the concentration of analytes (0.20∼20 μmol dm⁻³). The technique was applicable to solutions with a salt concentration of 0.050∼0.15 mol dm⁻³ under temperature control of the devices. Solution temperature in ACPE was also studied. These results provide guidelines for use of the ACPE technique in microfluidic chemical and biochemical analyses.

  3. Effect of hole doping on the magnetism of point defects in graphene: A theoretical study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yndurain, Felix

    2014-12-01

    Using ab initio methods based on the density functional theory, we study the magnetic properties of different point defects in graphene. We consider separately, atomic hydrogen, atomic fluorine, and single vacancies. The three defects have completely different magnetic properties. A local spin one-half magnetic moment is well defined at a hydrogen impurity, while single fluorine adatoms do not induce a well-defined magnetic moment unless there is a fluorine concentration of at least of a 0.5%. In this case, the induced magnetic moment is of the order of 0.45 μB per defect. This behavior is interpreted as being due to the charge transfer between fluorine and graphene. The case of magnetic moments localized at π electrons near vacancies is different from both previous cases; the size of the induced magnetic moment decreases with the dilution of defects and it is compatible with zero in the isolated vacancy. The effect of hole doping on these magnetic behaviors is studied and compared with the available experimental data. In the three cases, hole doping inhibits the formation of π states magnetic moments.

  4. Dynamics of Double Stochastic Operators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saburov, Mansoor

    2016-03-01

    A double stochastic operator is a generalization of a double stochastic matrix. In this paper, we study the dynamics of double stochastic operators. We give a criterion for a regularity of a double stochastic operator in terms of absences of its periodic points. We provide some examples to insure that, in general, a trajectory of a double stochastic operator may converge to any interior point of the simplex.

  5. Spaceflight Operations Services Grid (SOSG) Prototype Implementation and Feasibility Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bradford, Robert N.; Thigpen, William W.; Lisotta, Anthony J.; Redman, Sandra

    2004-01-01

    Science Operations Services Grid is focusing on building a prototype grid-based environment that incorporates existing and new spaceflight services to enable current and future NASA programs with cost savings and new and evolvable methods to conduct science in a distributed environment. The Science Operations Services Grid (SOSG) will provide a distributed environment for widely disparate organizations to conduct their systems and processes in a more efficient and cost effective manner. These organizations include those that: 1) engage in space-based science and operations, 2) develop space-based systems and processes, and 3) conduct scientific research, bringing together disparate scientific disciplines like geology and oceanography to create new information. In addition educational outreach will be significantly enhanced by providing to schools the same tools used by NASA with the ability of the schools to actively participate on many levels in the science generated by NASA from space and on the ground. The services range from voice, video and telemetry processing and display to data mining, high level processing and visualization tools all accessible from a single portal. In this environment, users would not require high end systems or processes at their home locations to use these services. Also, the user would need to know minimal details about the applications in order to utilize the services. In addition, security at all levels is an underlying goal of the project. The Science Operations Services Grid will focus on four tools that are currently used by the ISS Payload community along with nine more that are new to the community. Under the prototype four Grid virtual organizations PO) will be developed to represent four types of users. They are a Payload (experimenters) VO, a Flight Controllers VO, an Engineering and Science Collaborators VO and an Education and Public Outreach VO. The User-based services will be implemented to replicate the operational voice

  6. Lightweight Floating-Point Arithmetic: Case Study of Inverse Discrete Cosine Transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Fang; Chen, Tsuhan; Rutenbar, Rob A.

    2002-12-01

    To enable floating-point (FP) signal processing applications in low-power mobile devices, we propose lightweight floating-point arithmetic. It offers a wider range of precision/power/speed/area trade-offs, but is wrapped in forms that hide the complexity of the underlying implementations from both multimedia software designers and hardware designers. Libraries implemented in C++ and Verilog provide flexible and robust floating-point units with variable bit-width formats, multiple rounding modes and other features. This solution bridges the design gap between software and hardware, and accelerates the design cycle from algorithm to chip by avoiding the translation to fixed-point arithmetic. We demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed scheme using the inverse discrete cosine transform (IDCT), in the context of video coding, as an example. Further, we implement lightweight floating-point IDCT into hardware and demonstrate the power and area reduction.

  7. Thermodynamic analysis and experimental study of the effect of atmospheric pressure on the ice point

    SciTech Connect

    Harvey, A. H.; McLinden, M. O.; Tew, W. L.

    2013-09-11

    We present a detailed thermodynamic analysis of the temperature of the ice point as a function of atmospheric pressure. This analysis makes use of accurate international standards for the properties of water and ice, and of available high-accuracy data for the Henry's constants of atmospheric gases in liquid water. The result is an ice point of 273.150 019(5) K at standard atmospheric pressure, with higher ice-point temperatures (varying nearly linearly with pressure) at lower pressures. The effect of varying ambient CO{sub 2} concentration is analyzed and found to be significant in comparison to other uncertainties in the model. The thermodynamic analysis is compared with experimental measurements of the temperature difference between the ice point and the triple point of water performed at elevations ranging from 145 m to 4302 m, with atmospheric pressures from 101 kPa to 60 kPa.

  8. Study 2.6 operations analysis mission characterization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolfe, R. R.

    1973-01-01

    An analysis of the current operations concepts of NASA and DoD is presented to determine if alternatives exist which may improve the utilization of resources. The final product is intended to show how sensitive these ground rules and design approaches are relative to the total cost of doing business. The results are comparative in nature, and assess one concept against another as opposed to establishing an absolute cost value for program requirements. An assessment of the mission characteristics is explained to clarify the intent, scope, and direction of this effort to improve the understanding of what is to be accomplished. The characterization of missions is oriented toward grouping missions which may offer potential economic benefits by reducing overall program costs. Program costs include design, development, testing, and engineering, recurring unit costs for logistic vehicles, payload costs. and direct operating costs.

  9. Study of EVA operations associated with satellite services

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nash, J. O.; Wilde, R. D.

    1982-01-01

    Extravehicular mobility unit (EMU) factors associated with satellite servicing activities are identified and the EMU improvements necessary to enhance satellite servicing operations are outlined. Areas of EMU capabilities, equipment and structural interfaces, time lines, EMU modifications for satellite servicing, environmental hazards, and crew training are vital to manned Eva/satellite services and as such are detailed. Evaluation of EMU capabilities indicates that the EMU can be used in performing near term, basic satellite servicing tasks; however, satellite servicing is greatly enhanced by incorporating key modifications into the EMU. The servicing missions involved in contamination sensitive payload repair are illustrated. EVA procedures and equipment can be standardized, reducing both crew training time and in orbit operations time. By standardizing and coordinating procedures, mission cumulative time lines fall well within the EMU capability.

  10. Study on Operating Characteristics of A House Hold Stirling Refrigerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otaka, Toshio; Sakamoto, Moriyoshi; Murakami, Kazuhiko; Ota, Masahiro

    A prototype Stirling cycle refrigerator employing helium as a working fluid has been investigated to see whether the freon free machine be a viable alternative for the current household refrigerator. The prototype is a kinematics drive, and β type Stirling cycle machine of 100W refrigeration. The performance was evaluated as a function of cooling head temperature, mean pressure, frequency, and cooling capacity. The prototype has achieved the targeted refrigeration of 100W, and the COP of 1.02 under the design operation condition; 16.7Hz frequency and 0.7MPa helium pressure. The performance data was compared with the predicted ones, which was obtained by the 3rd order computational method. It has been demonstrated that the performance is in a good agreement with the predicted in the whole range of operation condition.

  11. A full optically operated magnetometer array: an experimental study.

    PubMed

    Ijsselsteijn, R; Kielpinski, M; Woetzel, S; Scholtes, T; Kessler, E; Stolz, R; Schultze, V; Meyer, H-G

    2012-11-01

    We show the operation of an optically pumped magnetometer array in a 50 μT magnetic field. The various components for a fully optical and non-magnetic detector unit were constructed and evaluated, from which a prototype unit was assembled with fiber coupled electronics. In this unit the magnetometers were operated using the intensity modulated method and heated with an off-resonant laser. Calculations on the temperature distribution were used to design the magnetometer array. Different magnetometers in such a detector unit were characterized and showed identical performance. Without applying noise reduction schemes, the obtained magnetic field resolution is a factor 2.5 above the shot noise level down to frequencies of about 7 Hz.

  12. SELF-STUDY PROGRAM IN RETAIL STORE OPERATIONS, UNITS 1-13 AND STUDY GUIDE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quaker Oats Co., Chicago, IL.

    THE PURPOSE OF THIS SELF-STUDY PROGRAM IS TO PROVIDE A COMPREHENSIVE VIEW OF TOTAL RETAIL FOOD STORE OPERATIONS AND TO BROADEN THE KNOWLEDGE AND UNDERSTANDING OF THOSE IN OR STUDENTS AND OTHERS PREPARING TO ENTER THE FOOD INDUSTRY. IT WAS DEVELOPED BY THE QUAKER OATS COMPANY FOR ITS SALESMEN BUT WAS EXPANDED FOR USE OUTSIDE THE COMPANY. THE…

  13. Infrared cameras are potential traceable "fixed points" for future thermometry studies.

    PubMed

    Yap Kannan, R; Keresztes, K; Hussain, S; Coats, T J; Bown, M J

    2015-01-01

    The National physical laboratory (NPL) requires "fixed points" whose temperatures have been established by the International Temperature Scale of 1990 (ITS 90) be used for device calibration. In practice, "near" blackbody radiators together with the standard platinum resistance thermometer is accepted as a standard. The aim of this study was to report the correlation and limits of agreement (LOA) of the thermal infrared camera and non-contact infrared temporal thermometer against each other and the "near" blackbody radiator. Temperature readings from an infrared thermography camera (FLIR T650sc) and a non-contact infrared temporal thermometer (Hubdic FS-700) were compared to a near blackbody (Hyperion R blackbody model 982) at 0.5 °C increments between 20-40 °C. At each increment, blackbody cavity temperature was confirmed with the platinum resistance thermometer. Measurements were taken initially with the thermal infrared camera followed by the infrared thermometer, with each device mounted in turn on a stand at a fixed distance of 20 cm and 5 cm from the blackbody aperture, respectively. The platinum thermometer under-estimated the blackbody temperature by 0.015 °C (95% LOA: -0.08 °C to 0.05 °C), in contrast to the thermal infrared camera and infrared thermometer which over-estimated the blackbody temperature by 0.16 °C (95% LOA: 0.03 °C to 0.28 °C) and 0.75 °C (95% LOA: -0.30 °C to 1.79 °C), respectively. Infrared thermometer over-estimates thermal infrared camera measurements by 0.6 °C (95% LOA: -0.46 °C to 1.65 °C). In conclusion, the thermal infrared camera is a potential temperature reference "fixed point" that could substitute mercury thermometers. However, further repeatability and reproducibility studies will be required with different models of thermal infrared cameras.

  14. A Study on Amino Acids: Synthesis of Alpha-Aminophenylacetic Acid (Phenylglycine) and Determination of its Isoelectric Point.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrelle, M.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Background information and procedures are provided for an experimental study on aminophenylacetic acid (phenylglycine). These include physical chemistry (determination of isoelectric point by pH measurement) and organic chemistry (synthesis of an amino acid in racemic form) experiments. (JN)

  15. Study of characteristic point identification and preprocessing method for pulse wave signals.

    PubMed

    Sun, Wei; Tang, Ning; Jiang, Guiping

    2015-02-01

    Characteristics in pulse wave signals (PWSs) include the information of physiology and pathology of human cardiovascular system. Therefore, identification of characteristic points in PWSs plays a significant role in analyzing human cardiovascular system. Particularly, the characteristic points show personal dependent features and are easy to be affected. Acquiring a signal with high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and integrity is fundamentally important to precisely identify the characteristic points. Based on the mathematical morphology theory, we design a combined filter, which can effectively suppress the baseline drift and remove the high-frequency noise simultaneously, to preprocess the PWSs. Furthermore, the characteristic points of the preprocessed signal are extracted according to its position relations with the zero-crossing points of wavelet coefficients of the signal. In addition, the differential method is adopted to calibrate the position offset of characteristic points caused by the wavelet transform. We investigated four typical PWSs reconstructed by three Gaussian functions with tunable parameters. The numerical results suggested that the proposed method could identify the characteristic points of PWSs accurately. PMID:25997292

  16. Prospective, observational study comparing automated and visual point-of-care urinalysis in general practice

    PubMed Central

    van Delft, Sanne; Goedhart, Annelijn; Spigt, Mark; van Pinxteren, Bart; de Wit, Niek; Hopstaken, Rogier

    2016-01-01

    Objective Point-of-care testing (POCT) urinalysis might reduce errors in (subjective) reading, registration and communication of test results, and might also improve diagnostic outcome and optimise patient management. Evidence is lacking. In the present study, we have studied the analytical performance of automated urinalysis and visual urinalysis compared with a reference standard in routine general practice. Setting The study was performed in six general practitioner (GP) group practices in the Netherlands. Automated urinalysis was compared with visual urinalysis in these practices. Reference testing was performed in a primary care laboratory (Saltro, Utrecht, The Netherlands). Primary and secondary outcome measures Analytical performance of automated and visual urinalysis compared with the reference laboratory method was the primary outcome measure, analysed by calculating sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) and Cohen's κ coefficient for agreement. Secondary outcome measure was the user-friendliness of the POCT analyser. Results Automated urinalysis by experienced and routinely trained practice assistants in general practice performs as good as visual urinalysis for nitrite, leucocytes and erythrocytes. Agreement for nitrite is high for automated and visual urinalysis. κ's are 0.824 and 0.803 (ranked as very good and good, respectively). Agreement with the central laboratory reference standard for automated and visual urinalysis for leucocytes is rather poor (0.256 for POCT and 0.197 for visual, respectively, ranked as fair and poor). κ's for erythrocytes are higher: 0.517 (automated) and 0.416 (visual), both ranked as moderate. The Urisys 1100 analyser was easy to use and considered to be not prone to flaws. Conclusions Automated urinalysis performed as good as traditional visual urinalysis on reading of nitrite, leucocytes and erythrocytes in routine general practice. Implementation of automated

  17. [Exploratory study of road safety in Brazzaville and Pointe-Noire in Republic of the Congo].

    PubMed

    Batala Mpondo, Georges; Bouanga, Marianne; Saya, Yvette Marie Clarisse; Maurice, Pierre; Burigusa, Guillaume

    2014-01-01

    Although road accidents in the Congo are reaching alarming levels (2,720 accidents in 2010 and 3,126 accidents in 2011), especially with the massive arrival of "Jakarta" mopeds, no evaluation has been conducted to identify and understand the factors responsible for this problem. This article reports the results of an exploratory study conducted in Brazzaville and Pointe-Noire based on information collected from existing documents and by semidirective questionnaire of people from various sectors able to elucidate the problem of road safety. Using William Haddon's matrix, the parameters investigated were : road user behaviour ; environmental and technological factors ; characteristics of road accident victims ; quality of care ; intervention times and organization of prevention. This study demonstrated the absence of a road safety policy in Congo. It also showed that the main factors responsible for road accidents are behavioural (failure to wear safety belts, failure to comply with road signs, fatigue, use of a telephone while driving, etc.), followed by environmental and technological factors (insufficient traffic lights, absence of sidewalks, disorganized occupation of roads, general state of vehicles). This study shows that, in order to improve road safety in the Congo, it is essential to promote the development of national road safety policies and an action plan, intervention on the determinants of road accidents, and a change of road user behaviours (compulsory use of safety belts, ban on the use of a telephone and smoking while driving, etc.). Effective organization of the management of road accident victims and allocation of a budget to implement a road safety policy are also necessary.

  18. Study of the point spread function (PSF) for 123I SPECT imaging using Monte Carlo simulation.

    PubMed

    Cot, A; Sempau, J; Pareto, D; Bullich, S; Pavía, J; Calviño, F; Ros, D

    2004-07-21

    The iterative reconstruction algorithms employed in brain single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) allow some quantitative parameters of the image to be improved. These algorithms require accurate modelling of the so-called point spread function (PSF). Nowadays, most in vivo neurotransmitter SPECT studies employ pharmaceuticals radiolabelled with 123I. In addition to an intense line at 159 keV, the decay scheme of this radioisotope includes some higher energy gammas which may have a non-negligible contribution to the PSF. The aim of this work is to study this contribution for two low-energy high-resolution collimator configurations, namely, the parallel and the fan beam. The transport of radiation through the material system is simulated with the Monte Carlo code PENELOPE. We have developed a main program that deals with the intricacies associated with tracking photon trajectories through the geometry of the collimator and detection systems. The simulated PSFs are partly validated with a set of experimental measurements that use the 511 keV annihilation photons emitted by a 18F source. Sensitivity and spatial resolution have been studied, showing that a significant fraction of the detection events in the energy window centred at 159 keV (up to approximately 49% for the parallel collimator) are originated by higher energy gamma rays, which contribute to the spatial profile of the PSF mostly outside the 'geometrical' region dominated by the low-energy photons. Therefore, these high-energy counts are to be considered as noise, a fact that should be taken into account when modelling PSFs for reconstruction algorithms. We also show that the fan beam collimator gives higher signal-to-noise ratios than the parallel collimator for all the source positions analysed.

  19. Study of the point spread function (PSF) for 123I SPECT imaging using Monte Carlo simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cot, A.; Sempau, J.; Pareto, D.; Bullich, S.; Pavía, J.; Calviño, F.; Ros, D.

    2004-07-01

    The iterative reconstruction algorithms employed in brain single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) allow some quantitative parameters of the image to be improved. These algorithms require accurate modelling of the so-called point spread function (PSF). Nowadays, most in vivo neurotransmitter SPECT studies employ pharmaceuticals radiolabelled with 123I. In addition to an intense line at 159 keV, the decay scheme of this radioisotope includes some higher energy gammas which may have a non-negligible contribution to the PSF. The aim of this work is to study this contribution for two low-energy high-resolution collimator configurations, namely, the parallel and the fan beam. The transport of radiation through the material system is simulated with the Monte Carlo code PENELOPE. We have developed a main program that deals with the intricacies associated with tracking photon trajectories through the geometry of the collimator and detection systems. The simulated PSFs are partly validated with a set of experimental measurements that use the 511 keV annihilation photons emitted by a 18F source. Sensitivity and spatial resolution have been studied, showing that a significant fraction of the detection events in the energy window centred at 159 keV (up to approximately 49% for the parallel collimator) are originated by higher energy gamma rays, which contribute to the spatial profile of the PSF mostly outside the 'geometrical' region dominated by the low-energy photons. Therefore, these high-energy counts are to be considered as noise, a fact that should be taken into account when modelling PSFs for reconstruction algorithms. We also show that the fan beam collimator gives higher signal-to-noise ratios than the parallel collimator for all the source positions analysed.

  20. Do Owners Have a Clever Hans Effect on Dogs? Results of a Pointing Study

    PubMed Central

    Schmidjell, Teresa; Range, Friederike; Huber, Ludwig; Virányi, Zsófia

    2012-01-01

    Dogs are exceptionally successful at interpreting human pointing gestures to locate food hidden in one of two containers. However, it has repeatedly been questioned whether dogs rely on the pointing gesture or their success is increased by subtle cues from their human handler. In two experiments we used a standard two-way object-choice task to focus on this potential Clever Hans effect. We investigated if and how owners’ knowledge and beliefs influenced their dogs’ performance. In two experiments, as is typical in such pointing tasks, the owners sat behind their dogs, in close auditory and tactile contact with them. In Experiment 1, we systematically manipulated the owners’ knowledge of whether or not their dog should follow the pointing gesture, but at the same time instructed the owners to refrain from influencing the choice of their dog. We found no influence of subtle cues from the owners, if indeed they existed: dogs in the different groups followed the pointing uniformly. Furthermore, in the absence of pointing dogs chose randomly, even though the owners had been informed about the location of the reward. In Experiment 2, owners were instructed to actively influence the choice of their dogs, and they, indeed, succeeded in sending their dogs to the container they believed to be baited. However, their influence was significantly weaker if the experimenter had previously pointed to the other location. Overall the pointing gesture seems to have a strong effect on the choice of dogs in an object-choice task. Pointing can lead the dogs to success without help from their owners as well as it can counteract clear directional instructions provided by the owners. PMID:23272000

  1. Initial Scaling Studies and Conceptual Thermal Fluids Experiments for the Prismatic NGNP Point Design

    SciTech Connect

    D. M. McEligot; G. E. McCreery

    2004-09-01

    The objective of this report is to document the initial high temperature gas reactor scaling studies and conceptual experiment design for gas flow and heat transfer. The general approach of the project is to develop new benchmark experiments for assessment in parallel with CFD and coupled CFD/ATHENA/RELAP5-3D calculations for the same geometry. Two aspects of the complex flow in an NGNP are being addressed: (1) flow and thermal mixing in the lower plenum ("hot streaking" issue) and (2) turbulence and resulting temperature distributions in reactor cooling channels ("hot channel" issue). Current prismatic NGNP concepts are being examined to identify their proposed flow conditions and geometries over the range from normal operation to decay heat removal in a pressurized cooldown. Approximate analyses are being applied to determine key non-dimensional parameters and their magnitudes over this operating range. For normal operation, the flow in the coolant channels can be considered to be dominant forced convection with slight transverse property variation. The flow in the lower plenum can locally be considered to be a situation of multiple buoyant jets into a confined density-stratified crossflow -- with obstructions. Experiments are needed for the combined features of the lower plenum flows. Missing from the typical jet experiments are interactions with nearby circular posts and with vertical posts in the vicinity of vertical walls - with near stagnant surroundings at one extreme and significant crossflow at the other. Two heat transfer experiments are being considered. One addresses the "hot channel" problem, if necessary. The second experiment will treat heated jets entering a model plenum. Unheated MIR (Matched-Index-of-Refraction) experiments are first steps when the geometry is complicated. One does not want to use a computational technique which will not even handle constant properties properly. The MIR experiment will simulate flow features of the paths of jets

  2. GGA + U study of native point defects in ZnRh2O4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volnianska, O.; Boguslawski, P.

    2014-11-01

    ZnRh2O4 spinel is the one of the most promising transparent conducting oxides for applications in optoelectronic technology. Energy levels and formation energies of native point defects, i.e. vacancies (V), interstitials (I), and cation antisites in ZnRh2O4 were analysed. Generalized gradient approximation (GGA) was supplemented by the +U on-site corrections imposed on d(Rh) and p(O) states. The inclusion of the pronounced distortions of the anion sublattice was necessary to obtain the correct band gap. U was treated as a free parameter, which allowed for the systematic study of the U-induced changes of the defect states. A diagram of the thermodynamic phase stability of ZnRh2O4 was obtained. ZnRh is the dominant acceptor that can be responsible for the observed p-type conductivity in ZnRh2O4. The low formation energy of ZnRh can make the intentional n-doping difficult. In the O-rich conditions the second important acceptor is VZn. The two dominant donors that can compensate ZnRh in Zn-rich and O-rich conditions are VO and RhZn, respectively. Growth conditions leading to the lowest concentrations of native defects were identified. Due to the pronounced occupancy dependence of the +U term, VO and RhZn are ‘negative-Ueff’ centres.

  3. Electron spin resonance study of point defects in thermal GaAs/GaAs-oxide structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, S.; Afanas'ev, V. V.; Stesmans, A.

    2012-12-01

    In an attempt to atomically assess interface and oxide-related point defects, a first basic multifrequency low-temperature electron spin resonance study has been carried out on semi-insulating (Fe compensated) GaAs/oxide structures, implying both powders and (100)GaAs/oxide slices, thermally grown in the range Tox=350-615 °C. Various spectra are observed: As for powders, this includes the 4-line EL2 defect spectrum centered at g~2.043 and characterized by the isotropic hyperfine constant Aiso~ 910 G, ascribed to the 75AsGa+ antisite defect. Observed in freshly crushed powder, it substantially increases in density with oxidation, in line with theoretical expectation; A maximum appears reached for at Tox~440 °C. It is not observed in the parent c-GaAs wafer. A second isotropic signal is observed at g~1.937 in powders for Tox in the range 510-615 °C, but only after additional VUV irradiation; it may correspond to As clusters. In bulk (100)GaAs, we observe the 5-branch spectrum of substitutional Fe impurities (spin S=5/2) in GaAs, with inferred crystal field constant a ≈ 360 G, well in line with previous observations. The results are discussed within the framework of advanced theoretical interface and defect models and previous experimental assessment.

  4. Point-of-Care Testing of Troponin Levels Compared With Automated Laboratory Evaluation: A Reliability Study.

    PubMed

    Sardi, Adacilis Ramirez; Lamoureux, Julie A; Cohn, Tanya M; Phillip-Samuel, Shirley G

    2016-01-01

    Traditionally, troponin levels are measured in the blood using an automated laboratory protocol, but the use of a faster technology, the point-of-care (POC) testing of troponin levels, has shown promise in the effective differential diagnosis of cardiac injury. The purpose of this study was to compare the 2 methods. A total of 1567 patients were seen in the emergency department who were tested with both the POC iSTAT troponin and laboratory troponin from a secondary analysis of retrospective data collected between June 2012 and December 2012. The values for laboratory troponin varied between 0 and 30 with a mean and standard deviation of 0.060 ± 0.842 and the values for POC testing varied between 0 and 17.2 with a mean and standard deviation of 0.042 ± 0.492. The Bland-Altman analysis showed a systematic negative bias for the POC values compared with the laboratory troponin values. Lowering the POC cut-off value for troponin to 0.035 yielded 3 out of 4 better validity coefficients compared with those with the suggested manufacturer's cut-off value of 0.08 when predicting the gold standard. The POC troponin can be used to measure troponin level and similar diagnosis if the cut-off value for the POC troponin is lowered to 0.035 instead of the 0.08 suggested manufacturer's cut-off. PMID:27575797

  5. First-principles study of point defects in chalcopyrite ZnSnP2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumagai, Yu; Choi, Minseok; Nose, Yoshitaro; Oba, Fumiyasu

    2014-09-01

    Chalcopyrite ZnSnP2 is an alternative photoabsorber material for solar cells because of its controllable band gap, high absorption coefficient, and earth abundant constituents. In this study we systematically investigate its native point defects including vacancies, interstitials, and antisites using first-principles calculations with the Heyd-Scuseria-Ernzerhof hybrid functional. We evaluate the defect formation energies and defect single-particle levels at the dilute limit using finite-size image-charge corrections and compare them with those reported for CuInSe2 and CuGaSe2. The most likely donors and acceptors are cation antisites, Sn-on-Zn and Zn-on-Sn, respectively. Because of their significantly low formation energies, they lead to Fermi level pinning in the band gap under any growth condition, and constrain the carrier concentration. The Sn-on-Zn antisite in the neutral charge state becomes an intrinsic DX center, a complex of the Sn interstitial and Zn vacancy, and shows a deep donor level as reported for CuGaSe2.

  6. Ab initio study of point defects near stacking faults in 3C-SiC

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Xi, Jianqi; Liu, Bin; Zhang, Yanwen; Weber, William J.

    2016-07-02

    Interactions between point defects and stacking faults in 3C-SiC are studied using an ab initio method based on density functional theory. The results show that the discontinuity of the stacking sequence considerably affects the configurations and behavior of intrinsic defects, especially in the case of silicon interstitials. The existence of an intrinsic stacking fault (missing a C-Si bilayer) shortens the distance between the tetrahedral-center site and its second-nearest-neighboring silicon layer, making the tetrahedral silicon interstitial unstable. Instead of a tetrahedral configuration with four C neighbors, a pyramid-like interstitial structure with a defect state within the band gap becomes a stablemore » configuration. In addition, orientation rotation occurs in the split interstitials that has diverse effects on the energy landscape of silicon and carbon split interstitials in the stacking fault region. Moreover, our analyses of ionic relaxation and electronic structure of vacancies show that the built-in strain field, owing to the existence of the stacking fault, makes the local environment around vacancies more complex than that in the bulk.« less

  7. Analysis of space tug operating techniques. Volume 2: Study results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The design requirements for space tug systems and cost analysis of the refurbishment phases are discussed. The vehicle is an integral propulsion stage using liquid hydrogen and liquid oxygen as propellants and is capable of operating either as a fully or a partially autonomous vehicle. Structural features are an integral liquid hydrogen tank, a liquid oxygen tank, a meteoroid shield, an aft conical docking and structural support ring, and a staged combustion main engine. The vehicle is constructed of major modules for ease of maintenance. Line drawings and block diagrams are included to explain the maintenance requirements for the subsystems.

  8. Integrating Nuclear Energy to Oilfield Operations – Two Case Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Eric P. Robertson; Lee O. Nelson; Michael G. McKellar; Anastasia M. Gandrik; Mike W. Patterson

    2011-11-01

    Fossil fuel resources that require large energy inputs for extraction, such as the Canadian oil sands and the Green River oil shale resource in the western USA, could benefit from the use of nuclear power instead of power generated by natural gas combustion. This paper discusses the technical and economic aspects of integrating nuclear energy with oil sands operations and the development of oil shale resources. A high temperature gas reactor (HTGR) that produces heat in the form of high pressure steam (no electricity production) was selected as the nuclear power source for both fossil fuel resources. Both cases were based on 50,000 bbl/day output. The oil sands case was a steam-assisted, gravity-drainage (SAGD) operation located in the Canadian oil sands belt. The oil shale development was an in-situ oil shale retorting operation located in western Colorado, USA. The technical feasibility of the integrating nuclear power was assessed. The economic feasibility of each case was evaluated using a discounted cash flow, rate of return analysis. Integrating an HTGR to both the SAGD oil sands operation and the oil shale development was found to be technically feasible for both cases. In the oil sands case, integrating an HTGR eliminated natural gas combustion and associated CO2 emissions, although there were still some emissions associated with imported electrical power. In the in situ oil shale case, integrating an HTGR reduced CO2 emissions by 88% and increased natural gas production by 100%. Economic viabilities of both nuclear integrated cases were poorer than the non-nuclear-integrated cases when CO2 emissions were not taxed. However, taxing the CO2 emissions had a significant effect on the economics of the non-nuclear base cases, bringing them in line with the economics of the nuclear-integrated cases. As we move toward limiting CO2 emissions, integrating non-CO2-emitting energy sources to the development of energy-intense fossil fuel resources is becoming

  9. Summary of Fermilab's Recycler Electron Cooler Operation and Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Prost, L.R.; Shemyakin, A.; /Fermilab

    2012-05-15

    Fermilab's Recycler ring was used as a storage ring for accumulation and subsequent manipulations of 8 GeV antiprotons destined for the Tevatron collider. To satisfy these missions, a unique electron cooling system was designed, developed and successfully implemented. The most important features that distinguish the Recycler cooler from other existing electron coolers are its relativistic energy, 4.3 MV combined with 0.1-0.5 A DC beam current, a weak continuous longitudinal magnetic field in the cooling section, 100 G, and lumped focusing elsewhere. With the termination of the Tevatron collider operation, so did the cooler. In this article, we summarize the experience of running this unique machine.

  10. Vertical Field of View Reference Point Study for Flight Path Control and Hazard Avoidance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Comstock, J. Raymond, Jr.; Rudisill, Marianne; Kramer, Lynda J.; Busquets, Anthony M.

    2002-01-01

    Researchers within the eXternal Visibility System (XVS) element of the High-Speed Research (HSR) program developed and evaluated display concepts that will provide the flight crew of the proposed High-Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) with integrated imagery and symbology to permit path control and hazard avoidance functions while maintaining required situation awareness. The challenge of the XVS program is to develop concepts that would permit a no-nose-droop configuration of an HSCT and expanded low visibility HSCT operational capabilities. This study was one of a series of experiments exploring the 'design space' restrictions for physical placement of an XVS display. The primary experimental issues here was 'conformality' of the forward display vertical position with respect to the side window in simulated flight. 'Conformality' refers to the case such that the horizon and objects appear in the same relative positions when viewed through the forward windows or display and the side windows. This study quantified the effects of visual conformality on pilot flight path control and hazard avoidance performance. Here, conformality related to the positioning and relationship of the artificial horizon line and associated symbology presented on the forward display and the horizon and associated ground, horizon, and sky textures as they would appear in the real view through a window presented in the side window display. No significant performance consequences were found for the non-conformal conditions.

  11. Fixed-point arithmetic for mobile devices: a fingerprinting verification case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moon, Yiu S.; Luk, Franklin T.; Ho, Ho C.; Tang, T. Y.; Chan, Kit C.; Leung, C. W.

    2002-12-01

    Mobile devices use embedded processors with low computing capabilities to reduce power consumption. Since floating-point arithmetic units are power hungry, computationally intensive jobs must be accomplished with either digital signal processors or hardware co-processors. In this paper, we propose to perform fixed-point arithmetic on an integer hardware unit. We illustrate the advantages of our approach by implementing fingerprint verification on mobile devices.

  12. A radiation belt disturbance study from the space weather point of view

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rochel, S.; Boscher, D.; Benacquista, R.; Roussel, J. F.

    2016-11-01

    The radiation belts are a key region located close to the Earth, where the satellites travel. They are located in the centre of the magnetosphere and constitute a region sensitive to the variations of magnetosphere activity. The magnetosphere is in equilibrium in the solar wind. If the solar wind parameters change, then, the magnetospheric balance is upset. Using several processes, particles and energy from the solar wind can enter it, disturbing the magnetosphere and the radiation belts. In this paper, the am index has been used to define a new parameter named Cm, which is indicative of the energy level in the magnetosphere. The impact of CIRs (Corotating Interaction region) and of CMEs (Coronal Mass Ejection) on the magnetosphere has been studied from the Cm point of view, as well as the reaction of the radiation belts to a solar wind disturbance. The results show that the Cm parameter provides a new perspective in space weather studies as it clearly shows that the energy level can be higher for a CIR than for a CME. It also demonstrates that the events with several solar wind structures are much more effective to increase the energy level in the magnetosphere than single ones. Finally, Cm correlates better with the radiation belts fluxes, showing again that Cm is a good indicator of the inner magnetosphere activity. Nevertheless, the energy level in the radiation belts is maximised and the energy level in this population cannot go above a given value which depends on the altitude. The particles coming from the plasmasheet also push the particles from the highest altitudes to the lower ones, allowing the slot filling for Cm> .

  13. Methods for obtaining 3D training images for multiple-point statistics simulations: a comparative study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jha, S. K.; Comunian, A.; Mariethoz, G.; Kelly, B. F.

    2013-12-01

    In recent years, multiple-point statistics (MPS) has been used in several studies for characterizing facies heterogeneity in geological formations. MPS uses a conceptual representation of the expected facies distribution, called a Training image (TI), to generate patterns of facies heterogeneity. In two-dimensional (2D) simulations the TI can be a hand-drawn image, an analogue outcrop image, or derived from geological reconstructions using a combination of geological analogues and geophysical data. However, obtaining suitable TI in three-dimensions (3D) from geological analogues or geophysical data is harder and has limited the use of MPS for simulating facies heterogeneity in 3D. There have been attempts to generate 3D training images using object-based simulation (OBS). However, determining suitable values for the large number of parameters required by OBS is often challenging. In this study, we compare two approaches for generating three-dimensional training images to model a valley filling sequence deposited by meandering rivers. The first approach is based on deriving statistical information from two-dimensional TIs. The 3D domain is simulated with a sequence of 2D MPS simulation steps, performed along different directions on slices of the 3D domain. At each 2D simulation step, the facies simulated at the previous steps that lie on the current 2D slice are used as conditioning data. The second approach uses hand-drawn two-dimensional TIs and produces complex patterns resembling the geological structures by applying rotation and affinity transformations in the facies simulation. The two techniques are compared using transition probabilities, facies proportions, and connectivity metrics. In the presentation we discuss the benefits of each approach for generating three-dimensional facies models.

  14. An experimental study of a VVER reactor's steam generator model operating in the condensing mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morozov, A. V.; Remizov, O. V.

    2012-05-01

    Results obtained from an experimental study of a VVER reactor's steam generator model operating in the condensing mode are presented. The obtained empirical dependence for calculating the power of heat exchangers operating in the steam condensation mode is presented.

  15. Success in an Introductory Operations Research Course: A Case Study at the United Arab Emirates University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yousef, Darwish Abdulrahman

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the influence of a number of factors such as high school major, high school score, gender, Stat105, Maths I, Maths II grades, and grade point average (GPA) on students' academic performance in an introductory operations research (OR) course at the department of Business Administration--College of…

  16. Theoretical study of SET operation in carbon nanotube memory cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stopa, Michael; Rueckes, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    We present results of self-consistent electronic structure calculations for an electromechanical memory cell consisting of a carbon nanotube (CNT) fabric between titanium leads to elucidate the mechanism whereby the applied bias works to close the current gaps in the CNT fabric. We demonstrate that the asymmetry in the bias conditions required to achieve the “SET” operation of the cell (changing it from a high resistivity to low resistivity) results from the nature of a voltage drop in a compensated semiconducting material and depends sensitively on the background charge as well as on the position of the layer where the conducting gaps occur. The calculations provide insight into the behavior of the material and suggest possible fabrication strategies to modify the functionality.

  17. Orbital transfer vehicle launch operations study. Volume 2: Detailed summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    A series of Operational Design Drivers were identified. Several of these could have significant impact(s) on program costs. These recommendations, for example, include such items as: complete factory assembly and checkout prior to shipment to the ground launch site to make significant reductions in time required at the launch site as well as overall manpower required to do this work; minimize use of nonstandard equipment when orbiter provided equipment is available; and require commonality (or interchangeability) of subsystem equipment elements that are common to the space station, Orbit Maneuvering Vehicles, and/or Orbit Transfer Vehicles. Several additional items were identified that will require a significant amount of management attention (and direction) to resolve. Key elements of the space based processing plans are discussed.

  18. Weather Forecasting for Ka-band Operations: Initial Study Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morabito, D.; Wu, L.; Slobin, S.

    2016-08-01

    As lower frequency bands (e.g., 2.3 GHz and 8.4 GHz) have become oversubscribed during the past several decades, NASA has become interested in using higher frequency bands (e.g., 26 GHz and 32 GHz) for telemetry, thus making use of the available wider bandwidth. However, these bands are more susceptible to atmospheric degradation. Currently, flight projects tend to be conservative in preparing their communications links by using worst-case or conservative assumptions. Such assumptions result in nonoptimum data return. We explore the use of weather forecasting for Goldstone and Madrid for different weather condition scenarios to determine more optimal values of atmospheric attenuation and atmospheric noise temperature for use in telecommunication link design. We find that the use of weather forecasting can provide up to 2 dB or more of increased data return when more favorable conditions are forecast. Future plans involve further developing the technique for operational scenarios with interested flight projects.

  19. Space Operations Center, shuttle interaction study, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    The feasibility of the shuttle remote manipulator system (SRMS)-aided space operations center (SOC)/orbiter berthing was evaluated to determine: (1) whether the initial rates between the SOC and the orbiter can be removed by the arm; (2) what is the best strategy to be used; (3) whether the post-capture and maneuvering loads are within the capability of the SRMS; (4) can the SOC berthing port be brought in the immediate proximity of the orbiter berthing port; and (5) what is the best way to remove the residual relative motions. Various notational conventions are established and various important locations on the orbiter and SOC structures are defined. Reference frames are defined together with the mass properties of both the SOC and the orbiter.

  20. Gas mixture studies for streamer operated Resistive Plate Chambers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paoloni, A.; Longhin, A.; Mengucci, A.; Pupilli, F.; Ventura, M.

    2016-06-01

    Resistive Plate Chambers operated in streamer mode are interesting detectors in neutrino and astro-particle physics applications (like OPERA and ARGO experiments). Such experiments are typically characterized by large area apparatuses with no stringent requirements on detector aging and rate capabilities. In this paper, results of cosmic ray tests performed on a RPC prototype using different gas mixtures are presented, the principal aim being the optimization of the TetraFluoroPropene concentration in Argon-based mixtures. The introduction of TetraFluoroPropene, besides its low Global Warming Power, is helpful because it simplifies safety requirements allowing to remove also isobutane from the mixture. Results obtained with mixtures containing SF6, CF4, CO2, N2 and He are also shown, presented both in terms of detectors properties (efficiency, multiple-streamer probability and time resolution) and in terms of streamer characteristics.

  1. Study of inadvertent speed increases in transport operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pearson, Henry A

    1953-01-01

    Some factors relating to inadvertent speed and Mach number increases in transport operation are discussed with the object of indicating the manner in which they might vary with different qualities of the airplane and the minimum margins required to guard against reaching unsafe values. The speed increments and the margins required under several assumed conditions are investigated. The results indicate that, on a percentage basis, smaller margins should be required of high-speed airplanes than of low-speed airplanes to prevent overspeeding in inadvertent maneuvers. The possibility of exceeding placard speed in prolonged descents is illustrated by computations for typical transport airplanes. Equations are suggested that allow estimates to be made of the necessary speed margins.

  2. GPR study of a prehistoric archaeological site near Point Barrow, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herman, R. B.; Jensen, A. M.

    2012-12-01

    A ground penetrating radar (GPR) study was performed on the prehistoric Thule cemetery site near Point Barrow, Alaska. The goals of this study were (a) to test this technology in this type of polar environment, and (b) to search for burials and other archaeological features in a location in imminent danger from ocean erosion. The Nuvuk site is currently eroding at an average rate measured at over 6 m/year. Prior archaeological work at the site had recovered over 80 burials with nearly 100 individuals represented, all of which were less than 1 m below surface, and detectable with small test pits. In addition, the first coastal Ipiutak occupation known north of Point Hope had been recently discovered, at a depth of nearly 2m below surface, in the erosion face. The occupation appeared to have been terminated by a large storm which overwashed the site, leaving a strandline immediately superimposed on the living surface. After that, approximately 1.5 m of sterile gravels had been deposited before the surface on which the Thule people were living formed. Both occupations are of considerable scientific interest. The matrix at the site consists of unconsolidated beach gravels, which necessitates opening large surface areas or use of shoring to test even small units to the depths of the Ipiutak deposit (approximately 8m x 8m at the surface to test 1m x 1m at 2m depth). Such excavations promote erosion, and are very costly in terms of time and labor, so a means to detect features buried at depths greater than those exposed by shovel test pits was desirable. GPR seemed a likely candidate, but it had not been used in such conditions before, and thus it was necessary to test it thoroughly prior to relying on GPR to eliminate areas from physical testing. The GPR imaged the subsurface to a depth of 3 meters at a frequency of 500MHz. Meter-deep test pits were placed at 2-meter intervals in the survey area in a grid pattern since the efficacy of the technology had yet to be shown

  3. Point defects in twisted bilayer graphene: A density functional theory study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulman, Kanchan; Narasimhan, Shobhana

    2014-06-01

    We have used ab initio density functional theory, incorporating van der Waals corrections, to study twisted bilayer graphene (TBLG) where Stone-Wales defects or monovacancies are introduced in one of the layers. We compare these results to those for defects in single-layer graphene or Bernal stacked graphene. The energetics of defect formation is not very sensitive to the stacking of the layers or the specific site at which the defect is created, suggesting a weak interlayer coupling. However, signatures of the interlayer coupling are manifested clearly in the electronic band structure. For the "γγ" Stone-Wales defect in TBLG, we observe two Dirac cones that are shifted in both momentum space and energy. This up/down shift in energy results from the combined effect of a charge transfer between the two graphene layers and a chemical interaction between the layers, which mimics the effects of a transverse electric field. Charge density plots show that states near the Dirac points have significant admixture between the two layers. For Stone-Wales defects at other sites in TBLG, this basic structure is modified by the creation of minigaps at energy crossings. For a monovacancy, the Dirac cone of the pristine layer is shifted up in energy by ˜0.25 eV due to a combination of the requirement of the equilibration of Fermi energy between the two layers with different numbers of electrons, charge transfer, and chemical interactions. Both kinds of defects increase the density of states at the Fermi level. The monovacancy also results in spin polarization, with magnetic moments on the defect of 1.2-1.8 μB.

  4. Ephemeral active regions and coronal bright points: A solar maximum Mission 2 guest investigator study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harvey, K. L.; Tang, F. Y. C.; Gaizauskas, V.; Poland, A. I.

    1986-01-01

    A dominate association of coronal bright points (as seen in He wavelength 10830) was confirmed with the approach and subsequent disappearance of opposite polarity magnetic network. While coronal bright points do occur with ephemeral regions, this association is a factor of 2 to 4 less than with sites of disappearing magnetic flux. The intensity variations seen in He I wavelength 10830 are intermittent and often rapid, varying over the 3 minute time resolution of the data; their bright point counterparts in the C IV wavelength 1548 and 20 cm wavelength show similar, though not always coincident time variations. Ejecta are associated with about 1/3 of the dark points and are evident in the C IV and H alpha data. These results support the idea that the anti-correlation of X-ray bright points with the solar cycle can be explained by the correlation of these coronal emission structures with sites of cancelling flux, indicating that, in some cases, the process of magnetic flux removal results in the release of energy. That the intensity variations are rapid and variable suggests that this process works intermittently.

  5. First-principles study of point defects in an fcc Fe-10Ni-20Cr model alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piochaud, J. B.; Klaver, T. P. C.; Adjanor, G.; Olsson, P.; Domain, C.; Becquart, C. S.

    2014-01-01

    The influence of the local environment on vacancy and self-interstitial formation energies has been investigated in a face-centered-cubic (fcc) Fe-10Ni-20Cr model alloy by analyzing an extensive set of first-principle calculations based on density functional theory. Chemical disorder has been considered by designing special quasirandom structures and four different collinear magnetic structures have been investigated in order to determine a relevant reference state to perform point defect calculations at 0 K. Two different convergence methods have also been used to characterize the importance of the method on the results. Although our fcc Fe-10Ni-20Cr would be better represented in terms of applications by the paramagnetic state, we found that the antiferromagnetic single-layer magnetic structure was the most stable at 0 K and we chose it as a reference state to determine the point defect properties. Point defects have been introduced in this reference state, i.e., vacancies and Fe-Fe, Fe-Ni, Fe-Cr, Cr-Cr, Ni-Ni, and Ni-Cr dumbbell interstitials oriented either parallel or perpendicular to the single layer antiferromagnetic planes. Each point defect studied was introduced at different lattice sites to consider a sufficient variety of local environments and analyze its influence on the formation energy values. We have estimated the point defect formation energies with linear regressions using variables which describe the local environment surrounding the point defects. The number and the position of Ni and Cr first nearest neighbors to the point defects were found to drive the evolution of the formation energies. In particular, Ni is found to decrease and Cr to increase the vacancy formation energy of the model alloy, while the opposite trends are found for the dumbbell interstitials. This study suggested that, to a first approximation, the first nearest atoms to point defects can provide reliable estimates of point defect formation energies.

  6. Flood Management and Protection from the Social Point of View: Case Study from Ukraine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manukalo, V.; Gerasymenko, H.

    2012-12-01

    Defining Issue According to the statistics presented by the Ministry of Emergencies of Ukraine, river floods have imposed the most severe damages to the sectors of economy and the human communities in Ukraine. But, an adaptability and a vulnerability of Ukrainian society to floods are still poorly understood. Results Presentation In the response to increasing flood losses in the country between 1998 and 2008, the State Hydrometeorological Service of Ukraine, which is subordinate to the Ministry of Emergencies, in the cooperation with the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine have carried out the research study focusing on public views on the problem of river floods for Ukraine. Aims of this study were: a) exploring the main sources of information on water-related hazards and the level of knowledge useful in a flood crisis situation in different groups of peoples; b) learning what the various population groups think of the most significant causes and consequences of flood damages and the role of various central/governmental/ and local authorities in an elaboration and implementation of mitigation measures. Public attitudes towards various prevention and mitigation strategies, as well as sources of emerging conflict were also revealed. The results of study have given a possibility to compare points of view of population groups which: a) living in the low- and high- flood risk areas; b) living in the urban and rural areas; c) having the different levels of education. The responses from 2550 residents have been analyzed and summarized. Among the most important findings of this study can be indicated following: a) on the one hand, the level of knowledge of some aspects of flood problem (impact of climate variation and change, adaptation measures) of the general public should be improved, on the other hand, the most of peoples understand that floods are the significant economical and ecological problem; b) views of the public on the problem differ very much with regard

  7. Quartz Microbalance Study of 400-angstrom Thick Films near the lambda Point

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chan, Moses H. W.

    2003-01-01

    In a recent measurement we observed the thinning of an adsorbed helium film induced by the confinement of critical fluctuations a few millikelvin below the lambda point. A capacitor set-up was used to measure this Casimir effect. In this poster we will present our measurement of an adsorbed helium film of 400 angstroms near the lambda point with a quartz microbalance. For films this thick, we must take into account the non-linear dynamics of the shear waves in the fluid. In spite of the added complications, we were able to confirm the thinning of the film due to the Casimir effect and the onset of the superfluid transition. In addition, we observe a sharp anomaly at the bulk lambda point, most likely related to critical dissipation of the first sound. This work is carried out in collaboration with Rafael Garcia, Stephen Jordon and John Lazzaretti. This work is funded by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research under grant.

  8. Study on the data matching of ground-based radar and laser point cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Zhiwei; Wang, Chenxi; Yue, Jianping

    2016-07-01

    Due to the unique imaging approach for ground-based radar, identification and classification in observation area is very difficult. In order to improve the accuracy of the calculation and application combine with other data resource. it is necessary to implement data matching of radar images and 3D laser point cloud. First, the 3D cloud should to be transformed to orthographic maps, and then the horizontal rotation and orbit attitude angle parameters would be estimated for similarity transformation according to the characteristics such as common points and lines. Finally, the same reference point of the ground-based SAR data and cloud data is employed to accomplished in a two-dimensional coordinate system (called local common coordinate system).

  9. Theoretical study on phase coexistence in ferroelectric solid solutions near the tricritical point

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Xiaoyan E-mail: dzk@psu.edu; Li, Hui; Zheng, Limei; Cao, Wenwu

    2015-04-07

    Phase coexistence in ferroelectric solid solutions near the tricritical point has been theoretically analyzed by using the Landau-Devonshire theory. Results revealed that different phases having similar potential wells could coexist in a narrow composition range near the tricritical point in the classical Pb(Zr{sub 1−x}Ti{sub x})O{sub 3} system. The potential barrier between potential wells increases with the decrease of temperature. Coexisting phases or different domains of the same phase can produce adaptive strains to maintain atomic coherency at the interfaces or domain walls. Such compatibility strains have influence on the energy potential as well as the stability of relative phases, leading to the appearance of energetically unfavorable monoclinic phases. Those competing and coexisting phases also construct an easy phase transition path with small energy barrier in between, so that very small stimuli can produce large response in compositions near the morphotropic phase boundary, especially near the tricritical point.

  10. Direct inpatient burden caused by foot-related conditions: a multisite point-prevalence study

    PubMed Central

    Lazzarini, Peter A; Hurn, Sheree E; Kuys, Suzanne S; Kamp, Maarten C; Ng, Vanessa; Thomas, Courtney; Jen, Scott; Kinnear, Ewan M; d'Emden, Michael C; Reed, Lloyd

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aims of this point-prevalence study were to investigate a representative inpatient population to determine the prevalence of people admitted to hospital for the reason of a foot-related condition, and identify associated independent factors. Methods Participants were adult inpatients in 5 different representative hospitals, admitted for any reason on the day of data collection. Maternity, mental health and cognitively impaired inpatients were excluded. Participants were surveyed on a range of self-reported demographic, social determinant, medical history, foot disease history, self-care, footwear, past foot treatment prior to hospitalisation and reason for admission variables. Physical examinations were performed to clinically diagnose a range of foot disease and foot risk factor variables. Independent factors associated with being admitted to hospital for the primary or secondary reason of a foot-related condition were analysed using multivariate logistic regression. Results Overall, 733 participants were included; mean (SD) age 62 (19) years, male 55.8%. Foot-related conditions were the primary reason for admission in 54 participants (7.4% (95% CI 5.7% to 9.5%)); 36 for foot disease (4.9%), 15 foot trauma (2.1%). Being admitted for the primary reason of a foot-related condition was independently associated with foot infection, critical peripheral arterial disease, foot trauma and past foot treatment by a general practitioner and surgeon (p<0.01). Foot-related conditions were a secondary reason for admission in 28 participants (3.8% (2.6% to 5.6%)), and were independently associated with diabetes and current foot ulcer (p<0.01). Conclusions This study, the first in a representative inpatient population, suggests the direct inpatient burden caused by foot-related conditions is significantly higher than previously appreciated. Findings indicate 1 in every 13 inpatients was primarily admitted because of a foot-related condition with most due to foot

  11. Optimal point of insertion of the needle in neuraxial blockade using a midline approach: study in a geometrical model

    PubMed Central

    Vogt, Mark; van Gerwen, Dennis J; van den Dobbelsteen, John J; Hagenaars, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Performance of neuraxial blockade using a midline approach can be technically difficult. It is therefore important to optimize factors that are under the influence of the clinician performing the procedure. One of these factors might be the chosen point of insertion of the needle. Surprisingly few data exist on where between the tips of two adjacent spinous processes the needle should be introduced. A geometrical model was adopted to gain more insight into this issue. Spinous processes were represented by parallelograms. The length, the steepness relative to the skin, and the distance between the parallelograms were varied. The influence of the chosen point of insertion of the needle on the range of angles at which the epidural and subarachnoid space could be reached was studied. The optimal point of insertion was defined as the point where this range is the widest. The geometrical model clearly demonstrated, that the range of angles at which the epidural or subarachnoid space can be reached, is dependent on the point of insertion between the tips of the adjacent spinous processes. The steeper the spinous processes run, the more cranial the point of insertion should be. Assuming that the model is representative for patients, the performance of neuraxial blockade using a midline approach might be improved by choosing the optimal point of insertion. PMID:27570462

  12. Orbit Transfer Vehicle (OTV) advanced expander cycle engine point design study, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    The engine requirements are emphasized and include: high specific impulse within a restricted installed length constraint, long life, multiple starts, different thrust levels, and man-rated reliability. The engine operating characteristics and the major component analytical design are summarized.

  13. Hexavalent chromium emissions from aerospace operations: A case study

    SciTech Connect

    Chaurushia, A.; Bajza, C.

    1994-12-31

    Northrop Aircraft Division (NAD) is subject to several air toxic regulations such as EPA SARA Title 3, California Assembly Bill 2588 (AB2588), and Proposition 65 and is a voluntary participant in air toxic emissions reduction programs such as the EPA 33/50 and MERIT Program. To quantify emissions, NAD initially followed regulatory guidelines which recommend that emission inventories of air toxics be based on engineering assumptions and conservative emission factors in absence of specific source test data. NAD was concerned that Chromium VI emissions from NAD`s spray coating and chemical tank line operations were not representative due to these techniques. More recently, NAD has relied upon information from its ongoing source testing program to determine emission rates of Chromium VI. Based on these source test results, NAD revised emission calculations for use in Chromium VI inventories, impact assessments and control strategies. NAD has been successful in demonstrating a significant difference between emissions calculated utilizing the source test results and emissions based on the traditional mass balance using agency suggested methods.

  14. Child Nutrition Program Operations Study: First Year Report Executive Summary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    St. Pierre, Robert; And Others

    Summarizing the first year report of a multi-year study of the Food and Nutrition Service's (Department of Agriculture) Child Nutrition Programs, this report describes the programs and methods of the study. Data were collected through telephone interviews with states and School Food Authorities (SFAs) between 1987 and 1992. Findings from 1987-1988…

  15. Instrument pointing system applicability and orbiter stabilization for EVAL missions. Application studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spector, V. A.

    1977-01-01

    Related aspect of the Earth Viewing Applications Laboratory (EVAL) shuttle missions were investigated. The applicability of the gimballed Instrument Pointing System (IPS) to EVAL missions by comparing the IPS capabilities with the EVAL requirements was evaluated, and a means of stabilizing the shuttle orbiter attitude in earth viewing orientations for prolonged periods without use of the orbiter gas reaction control system was assessed.

  16. School Attendance Revisited: A Study of Urban African American Students' Grade Point Averages and Coping Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steward, Robbie J.; Steward, Astin Devine; Blair, Jonathan; Jo, Hanik; Hill, Martin F.

    2008-01-01

    Urban African American first-year high school students' absenteeism was found to be negatively related to grade point average (GPA) and avoidance as a means of coping (use of substances as a way to escape--food, alcohol, smoking, caffeine, etc.) and positively related to use of social support as a means of coping (efforts to stay emotionally…

  17. Public Internet Access Points (PIAPs) and Their Social Impact: A Case Study from Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Afacan, Gulgun; Er, Erkan; Arifoglu, Ali

    2013-01-01

    Building public Internet access points (PIAPs) is a significant contribution of governments towards achieving an information society. While many developing countries are investing great amounts to establish PIAPs today, people may not use PIAPs effectively. Yet, the successful implementation of PIAPs is the result of citizens' acceptance to use…

  18. Modification of the Two-Point Touch Cane Technique: A Pilot Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobson, William H.; Ehresman, Paul

    1983-01-01

    Four blind adults were observed to determine the extent of the natural movement of their centers of gravity in relation to arc height during the two-point touch technique for long cane travel. The Ss learned and practiced a modified technique using their center of gravity as much as possible. (Author)

  19. Blogging for the Record: A Study of Blogging from an Archival Point of View

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paulus, Michael J., Jr.

    2006-01-01

    This article examines the current phenomenon of blogging from an archival point of view. To better understand the nature of blogs, the author conducted an informal survey of bloggers at Princeton Theological Seminary. The results of this survey show that blogs represent a dynamic but ephemeral new form of electronic record and writing practice.…

  20. Status of the BATSE Enhanced Earth Occultation Analysis Package for Studying Point Sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skelton, R. T.; Ling, J. C.; Radocinski, R.; Wheaton, Wm. A.

    1993-01-01

    The compton Gama-Ray Observatory's Burst and Transient Source Experiment (BATSE) has a powerful capability to provide nearly uninterrupted monitoring in the 25keV--2MeV range of cosmic point sources using occultation by the Earth.

  1. Operation of Wastewater Treatment Plants. Volume 1. A Field Study Training Program. Third Edition. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Univ., Sacramento. Dept. of Civil Engineering.

    The purpose of this wastewater treatment field study training program is to: (1) develop new qualified wastewater treatment plant operators; (2) expand the abilities of existing operators, permitting better service both to employers and public; and (3) prepare operators for civil service and certification examinations (examinations administered by…

  2. Water Treatment Plant Operation. Volume I. A Field Study Training Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Univ., Sacramento. School of Engineering.

    The purpose of this water treatment field study training program is to: (1) develop new qualified water treatment plant operators; (2) expand the abilities of existing operators, permitting better service both to employers and public; and (3) prepare operators for civil service and certification examinations (examinations administered by…

  3. Water Treatment Plant Operation Volume 2. A Field Study Training Program. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Univ., Sacramento. School of Engineering.

    The purpose of this water treatment field study training program is to: (1) develop new qualified water treatment plant operators; (2) expand the abilities of existing operators, permitting better service both to employers and public; and (3) prepare operators for civil service and certification examinations (examinations administered by…

  4. Water Treatment Plant Operation. Volume II. A Field Study Training Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Univ., Sacramento. School of Engineering.

    The purpose of this water treatment field study training program is to: (1) develop new qualified water treatment plant operators; (2) expand the abilities of existing operators, permitting better service both to employers and public; and (3) prepare operators for civil service and certification examinations (examinations administered by…

  5. Experimental Study to Produce Multiple Focal Points of Acoustic Field for Active Path Selection of Microbubbles through Multi-bifurcation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koda, Ren; Koido, Jun; Ito, Takumi; Mochizuki, Takashi; Masuda, Kohji; Ikeda, Seiichi; Arai, Fumihito; Miyamoto, Yoshitaka; Chiba, Toshio

    2013-07-01

    We previously reported our attempt to propel microbubbles in a flow by a primary Bjerknes force, which is a physical phenomenon where an acoustic wave pushes an obstacle along its direction of propagation. However, when ultrasound was emitted from the surface of the body, controlling bubbles in an against-flow was necessary. It is unpractical to use multiple transducers to produce the same number of focal points because single-element transducers cannot produce more than two focal points. In this study, we introduced a complex artificial blood vessel according to a capillary model and a two-dimensional (2D) array transducer to produce multiple focal points for the active control of microbubbles in an against-flow. From the results, about 15% more microbubbles were led to the desired path with multiple focal points of ultrasound relative to the no-emission case.

  6. A metagenomic study of methanotrophic microorganisms in Coal Oil Point seep sediments

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Methane oxidizing prokaryotes in marine sediments are believed to function as a methane filter reducing the oceanic contribution to the global methane emission. In the anoxic parts of the sediments, oxidation of methane is accomplished by anaerobic methanotrophic archaea (ANME) living in syntrophy with sulphate reducing bacteria. This anaerobic oxidation of methane is assumed to be a coupling of reversed methanogenesis and dissimilatory sulphate reduction. Where oxygen is available aerobic methanotrophs take part in methane oxidation. In this study, we used metagenomics to characterize the taxonomic and metabolic potential for methane oxidation at the Tonya seep in the Coal Oil Point area, California. Two metagenomes from different sediment depth horizons (0-4 cm and 10-15 cm below sea floor) were sequenced by 454 technology. The metagenomes were analysed to characterize the distribution of aerobic and anaerobic methanotrophic taxa at the two sediment depths. To gain insight into the metabolic potential the metagenomes were searched for marker genes associated with methane oxidation. Results Blast searches followed by taxonomic binning in MEGAN revealed aerobic methanotrophs of the genus Methylococcus to be overrepresented in the 0-4 cm metagenome compared to the 10-15 cm metagenome. In the 10-15 cm metagenome, ANME of the ANME-1 clade, were identified as the most abundant methanotrophic taxon with 8.6% of the reads. Searches for particulate methane monooxygenase (pmoA) and methyl-coenzyme M reductase (mcrA), marker genes for aerobic and anaerobic oxidation of methane respectively, identified pmoA in the 0-4 cm metagenome as Methylococcaceae related. The mcrA reads from the 10-15 cm horizon were all classified as originating from the ANME-1 clade. Conclusions Most of the taxa detected were present in both metagenomes and differences in community structure and corresponding metabolic potential between the two samples were mainly due to abundance

  7. Modeling the operational risk in Iranian commercial banks: case study of a private bank

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Momen, Omid; Kimiagari, Alimohammad; Noorbakhsh, Eaman

    2012-08-01

    The Basel Committee on Banking Supervision from the Bank for International Settlement classifies banking risks into three main categories including credit risk, market risk, and operational risk. The focus of this study is on the operational risk measurement in Iranian banks. Therefore, issues arising when trying to implement operational risk models in Iran are discussed, and then, some solutions are recommended. Moreover, all steps of operational risk measurement based on Loss Distribution Approach with Iran's specific modifications are presented. We employed the approach of this study to model the operational risk of an Iranian private bank. The results are quite reasonable, comparing the scale of bank and other risk categories.

  8. Study of global operational needs for mine clearance equipment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blagden, Paddy M.

    2003-09-01

    The Geneva International Centre for Humanitarian Demining studied the needs of landmine clearance groups for equipment to carry out specific functions of mine clearance. This was done on a global level, and useful results were obtained, which will provide the basis for further analysis.

  9. Co-operative Education: Studies of Learning from Workplace Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munby, Hugh; Chin, Peter; Hutchinson, Nancy L.; Young, Jonathan

    Case studies were conducted of four female cooperative education (co-op) students who participated in two 4-month co-op placements in a veterinary clinic as part of a high school biology credit. Two graduate students gathered data onsite during two phases: an initial 2-month period that oriented the methods of the inquiry at the clinic to match…

  10. A comparative study of artificial intelligent-based maximum power point tracking for photovoltaic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hussain Mutlag, Ammar; Mohamed, Azah; Shareef, Hussain

    2016-03-01

    Maximum power point tracking (MPPT) is normally required to improve the performance of photovoltaic (PV) systems. This paper presents artificial intelligent-based maximum power point tracking (AI-MPPT) by considering three artificial intelligent techniques, namely, artificial neural network (ANN), adaptive neuro fuzzy inference system with seven triangular fuzzy sets (7-tri), and adaptive neuro fuzzy inference system with seven gbell fuzzy sets. The AI-MPPT is designed for the 25 SolarTIFSTF-120P6 PV panels, with the capacity of 3 kW peak. A complete PV system is modelled using 300,000 data samples and simulated in the MATLAB/SIMULINK. The AI-MPPT has been tested under real environmental conditions for two days from 8 am to 18 pm. The results showed that the ANN based MPPT gives the most accurate performance and then followed by the 7-tri-based MPPT.

  11. Statistical approach towards point sources of groundwater pollution with tetrachloroethylene: a field study.

    PubMed

    Kido, K; Magara, Y; Furuichi, T; Ikeda, M

    1989-03-01

    Tetrachloroethylene contamination of well water occurred in a primarily residential area. To search for point source(s) of tetrachloroethylene contamination, 91 water samples were collected on three separate occasions from 41 shallow wells scattered in the areas. Three methods of groundwater level analysis (limited to 30 wells), cluster analysis of water quality indicators and contour drawing of tetrachloroethylene concentrations were applied. The former two analyses showed that the pollution took place in aquifers of two terraces out of the three in the polluted area. The contour mapping demonstrated the presence of three spots of suspected pollution sources as the estimated points of highest tetrachloroethylene concentrations. The available information suggested the existence of a facility with possible use of tetrachloroethylene in the past.

  12. Operative treatment of chondroblastoma: a study of 11 cases.

    PubMed

    Hapa, Onur; Karakaşlı, Ahmet; Demirkıran, Nihat Demirhan; Akdeniz, Olcay; Havitçioğlu, Hasan

    2016-03-01

    Aim of the study was to review the radiological, clinical results of 11 chondroblastoma cases treated at our institute between 2003-2013. All patients with chondroblastoma included in this study underwent intra-lesional curettage+/-bone grafting. Follow up for healing of chondroblastoma lesions and detection of any local recurrence was assessed on clinical and radiological bases. The functional outcome was assessed by the Musculoskeletal Tumour Society scoring system. The mean follow-up period was 6.1 years. There were three recurrences (two femoral head, one proximal tibia). The mean Musculoskeletal Tumour Society functional score was 21. First line aggressive treatment seems appropriate for chondroblastoma especially when localized at lower extremities.

  13. Operative treatment of chondroblastoma: a study of 11 cases.

    PubMed

    Hapa, Onur; Karakaşlı, Ahmet; Demirkıran, Nihat Demirhan; Akdeniz, Olcay; Havitçioğlu, Hasan

    2016-03-01

    Aim of the study was to review the radiological, clinical results of 11 chondroblastoma cases treated at our institute between 2003-2013. All patients with chondroblastoma included in this study underwent intra-lesional curettage+/-bone grafting. Follow up for healing of chondroblastoma lesions and detection of any local recurrence was assessed on clinical and radiological bases. The functional outcome was assessed by the Musculoskeletal Tumour Society scoring system. The mean follow-up period was 6.1 years. There were three recurrences (two femoral head, one proximal tibia). The mean Musculoskeletal Tumour Society functional score was 21. First line aggressive treatment seems appropriate for chondroblastoma especially when localized at lower extremities. PMID:26984656

  14. Space Operations Center, shuttle interaction study, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    The implication of using the Shuttle with the SOC, including constraints that the Shuttle places upon the SOC design is studied. The considerations involved in the use of the Shuttle as a part of the SOC concept, and the constraints to the SOC imposed by the Shuttle in its interactions with the SOC, and on the design or technical solutions which allow satisfactory accomplishment of the interactions are identified.

  15. Satellite Power Systems (SPS) concept definition study. Volume 4: SPS point design definition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanley, G.

    1978-01-01

    The satellite power systems point design concept is described. The concept definition includes satellite, ground and space systems, and their relationships. Emphasis is placed on the definition of the GaAlAs photovoltaic satellite system. The major subsystems of the satellite system including power conversion, power distribution and control, microwave, attitude control and stationkeeping, thermal control, structures, and information management and control are discussed.

  16. Torsional magnetic reconnection at three dimensional null points: A phenomenological study

    SciTech Connect

    Wyper, Peter; Jain, Rekha

    2010-09-15

    Magnetic reconnection around three dimensional (3D) magnetic null points is the natural progression from X-point reconnection in two dimensions. In 3D the separator field lines of the X-point are replaced with the spine line and fan plane (the field lines which asymptotically approach or recede from the null). In this work analytical models are developed for the newly classified torsional spine and torsional fan reconnection regimes by solving the steady state, kinematic, resistive magnetohydrodynamic equations. Reconnection is localized to around the null through the use of a localized field perturbation leading to a localized current while a constant resistivity is assumed. For the torsional spine case current is found to localize around the spine leading to a spiraling slippage of the field around the spine and out along the fan. For the torsional fan case current is found to be localized to the fan plane leading again to a spiraling slippage of the field. In each case no flux is transported across either the spine or the fan. An intermediate twist is then introduced and a link is established between the two regimes. We find that for a general twist plasma flows associated with both torsional spine and fan appear in distinct regions. As such we suggest that the ''pure'' flows of each are extreme cases.

  17. Operational procedure for computer program for design point characteristics of a gas generator or a turbojet lift engine for V/STOL applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krebs, R. P.

    1972-01-01

    The computer program described calculates the design-point characteristics of a gas generator or a turbojet lift engine for V/STOL applications. The program computes the dimensions and mass, as well as the thermodynamic performance of the model engine and its components. The program was written in FORTRAN 4 language. Provision has been made so that the program accepts input values in either SI Units or U.S. Customary Units. Each engine design-point calculation requires less than 0.5 second of 7094 computer time.

  18. Petrological study of Greene Point mantle xenoliths, Northern Victoria Land, Antarctica.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pelorosso, Beatrice; Bonadiman, Costanza; Faccini, Barbara; Coltorti, Massimo; Ntaflos, Theodoros; Grégoire, Michel

    2015-04-01

    A petrological study of mantle, anhydrous spinel-bearing lherzolites and harzburgites from Greene Point (GP) (Northern Victoria Land, NVL) have been carried out. Texturally they vary from protogranular to porphyroclastic with large orthopyroxene (opx) and olivine (ol) grains. Clinopyroxene (cpx) is smaller and often associated with vermicular and lobated spinel (sp). Several types of reaction textures occur with secondary phases represented by olivine (ol2), clinopyroxene (cpx2), cpx with spongy rim, and glass. Ol in lherzolites presents lower forsteritic content (90.5-91.7) than in harzburgites (Fo: 91.6-92.3), but for three samples with an anomalously high Fo contents (92.3-92.7). Irrespective of lithology NiO contents are on the average ~0.38 wt%. Opx, equilibrated with ol1, has mg# (Mg/(Mg+Fe)*100mol) values ranging from 91.0 to 92.6 with the highest values found in harzburgites. As for Ol, however three lherzolitic samples have mg# in opx overlapping the most residual harzburgites; Al2O3 varies from 2.33 to 4.92 wt% following a residual trend. Opx is characterized by fractionated REE-chondrite normalized patterns, depleted in light REE (LREE), with the most residual character in harzburgites. Cpx1 has mg# varying from 91.5 to 93.9, with cpx in harzburgites presenting the highest values. As for the other two phases, cpx in three lherzolites presents mg# values comparable with those of harzburgites. Al2O3 contents is between 4.00 and 6.42 wt% in lherzolites and from 2.32 to 4.37 wt% in harzburgites. TiO2 never exceeds 0.66 wt%. Cpx in lherzolites are usually depleted in Th, U, Nb, and Ta with Ti, Zr and Hf negative anomalies. They present a REE patterns variable from slightly LREE-enriched (with La and Ce inflections) to LREE-depleted with a general convex-upward trend. This latter trend is related to mg# rich lherzolites. In harzburgites cpx show the lowest HREE contents (YbN 1.00-2.94), with a strong positive fractionated L-MREE and flat HREE. Sp1 show a

  19. CARES: Carbonaceous Aerosol and Radiative Effects Study Operations Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Zaveri, RA; Shaw, WJ; Cziczo, DJ

    2010-07-12

    The CARES field campaign is motivated by the scientific issues described in the CARES Science Plan. The primary objectives of this field campaign are to investigate the evolution and aging of carbonaceous aerosols and their climate-affecting properties in the urban plume of Sacramento, California, a mid-size, mid-latitude city that is located upwind of a biogenic volatile organic compound (VOC) emission region. Our basic observational strategy is to make comprehensive gas, aerosol, and meteorological measurements upwind, within, and downwind of the urban area with the DOE G-1 aircraft and at strategically located ground sites so as to study the evolution of urban aerosols as they age and mix with biogenic SOA precursors. The NASA B-200 aircraft, equipped with the High Spectral Resolution Lidar (HSRL), digital camera, and the Research Scanning Polarimeter (RSP), will be flown in coordination with the G-1 to characterize the vertical and horizontal distribution of aerosols and aerosol optical properties, and to provide the vertical context for the G-1 and ground in situ measurements.

  20. Estimating Implementation and Operational Costs of an Integrated Tiered CD4 Service including Laboratory and Point of Care Testing in a Remote Health District in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Cassim, Naseem; Coetzee, Lindi M.; Schnippel, Kathryn; Glencross, Deborah K.

    2014-01-01

    Background An integrated tiered service delivery model (ITSDM) has been proposed to provide ‘full-coverage’ of CD4 services throughout South Africa. Five tiers are described, defined by testing volumes and number of referring health-facilities. These include: (1) Tier-1/decentralized point-of-care service (POC) in a single site; Tier-2/POC-hub servicing processing <30–40 samples from 8–10 health-clinics; Tier-3/Community laboratories servicing ∼50 health-clinics, processing <150 samples/day; high-volume centralized laboratories (Tier-4 and Tier-5) processing <300 or >600 samples/day and serving >100 or >200 health-clinics, respectively. The objective of this study was to establish costs of existing and ITSDM-tiers 1, 2 and 3 in a remote, under-serviced district in South Africa. Methods Historical health-facility workload volumes from the Pixley-ka-Seme district, and the total volumes of CD4 tests performed by the adjacent district referral CD4 laboratories, linked to locations of all referring clinics and related laboratory-to-result turn-around time (LTR-TAT) data, were extracted from the NHLS Corporate-Data-Warehouse for the period April-2012 to March-2013. Tiers were costed separately (as a cost-per-result) including equipment, staffing, reagents and test consumable costs. A one-way sensitivity analyses provided for changes in reagent price, test volumes and personnel time. Results The lowest cost-per-result was noted for the existing laboratory-based Tiers- 4 and 5 ($6.24 and $5.37 respectively), but with related increased LTR-TAT of >24–48 hours. Full service coverage with TAT <6-hours could be achieved with placement of twenty-seven Tier-1/POC or eight Tier-2/POC-hubs, at a cost-per-result of $32.32 and $15.88 respectively. A single district Tier-3 laboratory also ensured ‘full service coverage’ and <24 hour LTR-TAT for the district at $7.42 per-test. Conclusion Implementing a single Tier-3/community laboratory to extend and improve delivery

  1. An Introduction to the Material Point Method using a Case Study from Gas Dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Tran, L. T.; Kim, J.; Berzins, M.

    2008-09-01

    The Material Point Method (MPM) developed by Sulsky and colleagues is currently being used to solve many challenging problems involving large deformations and/or fragementations with considerable success as part of the Uintah code created by the CSAFE project. In order to understand the properties of this method an analysis of the considerable computational properties of MPM is undertaken in the context of model problems from gas dynamics. One aspect of the MPM method in the form used here is shown to have first order accuracy. Computational experiments using particle redistribution are described and show that smooth results with first order accuracy may be obtained.

  2. Systems engineering studies of on-orbit assembly operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgenthaler, George W.

    1991-01-01

    While the practice of construction has a long history, the underlying theory of construction is relatively young. Very little has been documented as to techniques of logistic support, construction planning, construction scheduling, construction testing, and inspection. The lack of 'systems approaches' to construction processes is certainly one of the most serious roadblocks to the construction of space structures. System engineering research efforts at CSC are aimed at developing concepts and tools which contribute to a systems theory of space construction. The research is also aimed at providing means for trade-offs of design parameters for other research areas in CSC. Systems engineering activity at CSC has divided space construction into the areas of orbital assembly, lunar base construction, interplanetary transport vehicle construction, and Mars base construction. A brief summary of recent results is given. Several models for 'launch-on-time' were developed. Launch-on-time is a critical concept to the assembly of such Earth-orbiting structures as the Space Station Freedom, and to planetary orbiters such as the Mars transfer vehicle. CSC has developed a launch vehicle selection model which uses linear programming to find optimal combinations of launch vehicles of various sizes (Atlas, Titan, Shuttles, HLLV's) to support SEI missions. Recently, the Center developed a cost trade-off model for studying on orbit assembly logistics. With this model it was determined that the most effective size of the HLLV would be in the range of 120 to 200 metric tons to LEO, which is consistent with the choices of General Stafford's Synthesis Group Report. A second-generation Dynamic Construction Activities Model ('DYCAM') process model has been under development, based on our past results in interruptability and our initial DYCAM model. This second-generation model is built on the paradigm of knowledge-based expert systems. It is aimed at providing answers to two questions: (1

  3. Nanofabrication of Point Contact Junctions for Spectroscopic Studies of High-Temperature Superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Han; Mehio, Omar; Park, Wan Kyu; Eckstein, James; Greene, Laura

    Point contact spectroscopy (PCS) probes the superconducting order parameter from Andreev reflection conductance spectrum. A new method to achieve robust junctions with a precise control of the geometry of the point contact by focused ion beam (FIB) nanofabrication techniques is currently under development. Preliminary application on niobium thin films shows consistent data that is insensitive to thermal cycling. This opens the possibility to perform PCS on a series of materials as a function of external variables, including temperature, magnetic field as a function of angle, and stress. Our preliminary data as a function of junction size show the expected resistance dependence, which will help us to determine more precisely when junctions are in the ballistic, or spectroscopic regime. Our plan is to apply this newly-developed method to probe the electronic nematic state in iron-based superconductors under applied magnetic field and uniaxial stress, to further understand the origin of the nematicity. This work is carried out in part in the Materials Research Lab, University of Illinois and is supported by the Center for Emergent Superconductivity, an Energy Frontier Research Center funded by the US DOE, Office of Science, Award No. DE-AC0298CH1088.

  4. Analysis of point fabrication model for near-field photolithography with experimental study.

    PubMed

    Lin, Zone-Ching; Yang, Ching-Been

    2006-01-01

    For the Gaussian beam, the power density distribution of the aluminum-coated optical tapered fiber probe is discussed and a theoretical fixed-point fabrication model for near-field photolithography is established. The energy density theorem is used to explore the surface exposure of photoresist, which is divided into multiple grids to evaluate the changes in the concentration of photoactive compounds at specific nodes of the interior layer. The full width at half maximum (FWHM) and the contour of the photolithograph following development are then calculated. The fixed-point lithographic experiment and aperture verification of the optic fiber probe are performed to confirm the reliability of the present model, and Dill A, B, C parameters are first measured in this article. According to the experimental results, a better image of the probe aperture can be achieved by increasing the conductivity of the measured articles and reducing the electric charges during the image taken by field-emission scanning electron microscope. The FWHM measured is 166.6 nm, while the measured average probe aperture size is 317.4 nm and the FWHM simulated by the proposed model is 151.3 nm. The error between experiment and simulation is <-9.2%. It is thus concluded that the proposed theoretical model is reasonable and acceptable. PMID:16502624

  5. In-situ electron paramagnetic resonance studies of paramagnetic point defects in superconducting microwave resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Shengke; Kopas, Cameron; Wagner, Brian; Queen, Daniel; Newman, N.

    2016-09-01

    The physical nature and concentration of paramagnetic point defects in the dielectrics of superconducting planar microwave resonators have been determined using in-situ electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy. To perform this work, the quality factor of parallel plate and stripline resonators was measured as a function of the magnitude of a magnetic-field applied parallel to the electrode surfaces. YBa2Cu3O7-δ thin film electrodes proved to be a preferred choice over Nb and MgB2 because they are readily available and have a small surface resistance (Rs) up to high temperatures (˜77 K) and magnetic fields (i.e., <1 T). Stripline resonators with a widely used high performance microwave dielectric, Co2+-doped Ba(Zn1/3Nb2/3)O3, are shown to have losses dominated by d-electron spin-excitations in exchange-coupled Co2+ point-defect clusters, even in the absence of an applied magnetic field. A significant enhanced microwave loss in stripline and parallel plate resonators is found to correlate with the presence of paramagnetic Mn2+ dopants in Ba(Zn1/3Ta2/3)O3 ceramics and dangling bond states in amorphous Si thin films, although the identification of the dominant loss mechanism(s) in these dielectrics requires further investigation.

  6. Randomized trial of trigger point acupuncture treatment for chronic shoulder pain: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Itoh, Kazunori; Saito, Shingo; Sahara, Shunsaku; Naitoh, Yuki; Imai, Kenji; Kitakoji, Hiroshi

    2014-04-01

    There is evidence for the efficacy of acupuncture treatment for chronic shoulder pain, but it remains unclear which acupuncture modes are most effective. We compared the effect of trigger point acupuncture (TrP), with that of sham (SH) acupuncture treatments, on pain and shoulder function in patients with chronic shoulder pain. The participants were 18 patients (15 women, 3 men; aged 42-65 years) with nonradiating shoulder pain for at least 6 months and normal neurological findings. The participants were randomized into two groups, each receiving five treatment sessions. The TrP group received treatment at trigger points for the muscle, while the other group received SH acupuncture treatment on the same muscle. Outcome measures were pain intensity (visual analogue scale, VAS) and shoulder function (Constant-Murley Score: CMS). After treatment, pain intensity between pretreatment and 5 weeks after TrP decreased significantly (p<0.001). Shoulder function also increased significantly between pretreatment and 5 weeks after TrP (p<0.001). A comparison using the area under the outcome curves demonstrated a significant difference between groups (p=0.024). Compared with SH acupuncture therapy, TrP therapy appears more effective for chronic shoulder pain.

  7. The activation of theory of mind network differentiates between point-to-self and point-to-other verbal jokes: an fMRI study.

    PubMed

    Feng, Shengchuang; Ye, Xiang; Mao, Lihua; Yue, Xiaodong

    2014-04-01

    The mind-reading hypothesis of humor and the inner eye theory of laughter both claim that readers' mentalizing about characters in jokes is essential for perceiving humor. On the basis of this notion, we hypothesized that point-to-other verbal jokes (in which one character said funny things about the other character) induced more theory of mind (ToM) processing than point-to-self verbal jokes (in which one character said funny things about him/herself to the other character). Our hypothesis was tested by comparing percent signal changes of these two conditions in six core components of the ToM neural network. A whole-brain analysis was also conducted. Results from both the region of interest (ROI) analysis and the whole-brain analysis show that theory of mind network is more activated when subjects read point-to-other jokes than when they read point-to-self jokes. Moreover, the whole-brain results provide support for the viewpoint that the right hemisphere, especially the right frontal lobe, is important in ToM and humor processing.

  8. Evaluating the Turning Points Curriculum: A Three-Year Study to Assess Parenting Knowledge in a Sample of Incarcerated Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Urban, Lynn S.; Burton, Barb

    2015-01-01

    The current study is an evaluation of the Turning Points parenting curriculum specially designed for use with incarcerated populations. The project combines intensive parent education with supervised offender mother/child visits in special family visiting rooms as well as ongoing offender support groups to help offender mothers become more…

  9. The Impact of Providing Web-Based PowerPoint Slides as Study Guides in Undergraduate Business Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frank, Jonathan; Shaw, Lewis; Wilson, Elizabeth

    2009-01-01

    This study examines undergraduate business students' use of PowerPoint slides provided as a supplement to class attendance, textbook reading, and other traditional course resources. We survey students in 4 diverse (accounting, marketing, management, and information systems) lower-level undergraduate courses in which the instructor provided…

  10. Personal Digital Assistants as Point-of-Care Tools in Long-Term Care Facilities: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Qadri, Syeda S.; Wang, Jia; Ruiz, Jorge G.; Roos, Bernard A.

    2009-01-01

    This study used both survey and interview questionnaires. It was designed to assess the feasibility, usability, and utility of two point-of-care tools especially prepared with information relevant for dementia care by staff nurses in a small, a medium-sized, and a large nursing home in Florida. Twenty-five LPN or RN nurses were recruited for the…

  11. Drill Press Operator. Coordinator's Guide. Individualized Study Guide. General Metal Trades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dean, James W.

    This guide provides information to enable coordinators to direct learning activities for students using an individualized study guide on operating a drill press. The study material is designed for students enrolled in cooperative part-time training and employed, or desiring to be employed, as drill press operators. Contents include a sample…

  12. Milling Machine Operator. Coordinator's Guide. Individualized Study Guide. General Metal Trades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dean, James W.

    This guide provides information to enable coordinators to direct learning activities for students using an individualized study guide on operating a milling machine. The study material is designed for students enrolled in cooperative part-time training and employed, or desiring to be employed, as milling machine operators. Contents include a…

  13. Operational procedure for computer program for design point characteristics of a compressed-air generator with through-flow combustor for V/STOL applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krebs, R. P.

    1971-01-01

    The computer program described in this report calculates the design-point characteristics of a compressed-air generator for use in V/STOL applications such as systems with a tip-turbine-driven lift fan. The program computes the dimensions and mass, as well as the thermodynamic performance of a model air generator configuration which involves a straight through-flow combustor. Physical and thermodynamic characteristics of the air generator components are also given. The program was written in FORTRAN IV language. Provision has been made so that the program will accept input values in either SI units or U.S. customary units. Each air generator design-point calculation requires about 1.5 seconds of 7094 computer time for execution.

  14. A quantitative study of 3D-scanning frequency and Δd of tracking points on the tooth surface

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hong; Lyu, Peijun; Sun, Yuchun; Wang, Yong; Liang, Xiaoyue

    2015-01-01

    Micro-movement of human jaws in the resting state might influence the accuracy of direct three-dimensional (3D) measurement. Providing a reference for sampling frequency settings of intraoral scanning systems to overcome this influence is important. In this study, we measured micro-movement, or change in distance (∆d), as the change in position of a single tracking point from one sampling time point to another in five human subjects. ∆d of tracking points on incisors at 7 sampling frequencies was judged against the clinical accuracy requirement to select proper sampling frequency settings. The curve equation was then fit quantitatively between ∆d median and the sampling frequency to predict the trend of ∆d with increasing f. The difference of ∆d among the subjects and the difference between upper and lower incisor feature points of the same subject were analyzed by a non-parametric test (α = 0.05). Significant differences of incisor feature points were noted among different subjects and between upper and lower jaws of the same subject (P < 0.01). Overall, ∆d decreased with increasing frequency. When the frequency was 60 Hz, ∆d nearly reached the clinical accuracy requirement. Frequencies higher than 60 Hz did not significantly decrease Δd further. PMID:26400112

  15. Pointing and control system design study for the space infrared telescope facility (SIRTF)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lorell, K. R.; Aubrun, J. N.; Sridhar, B.; Cochran, R. W.

    1984-01-01

    The design and performance of pointing and control systems for two space infrared telescope facility vehicles were examined. The need for active compensation of image jitter using the secondary mirror or other optical elements was determined. In addition, a control system to allow the telescope to perform small angle slews, and to accomplish large angle slews at the rate of 15 deg per minute was designed. Both the 98 deg and the 28 deg inclination orbits were examined, and spacecraft designs were developed for each. The results indicate that active optical compensation of line-of-sight errors is not necessary if the system is allowed to settle for roughly ten seconds after a slew maneuver. The results are contingent on the assumption of rigid body dynamics, and a single structural mode between spacecraft and telescope. Helium slosh for a half full 4000 liter tank was analyzed, and did not represent a major control problem.

  16. Neutron scattering study of the field-induced tricritical point in MnSi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kindervater, J.; Bauer, A.; Garst, M.; Janoschek, M.; Martin, N.; Mühlbauer, S.; Häussler, W.; Böni, P.; Pfleiderer, C.

    The intermetallic compound MnSi attracts great scientific interest due to two unusual phase transitions, namely the transition from the conical phase to a skyrmion lattice in small fields and the transition from the helical to the paramagnetic phase without external magnetic field that was recently identified to be a fluctuation induced first-order transition, i.e. a so called Brazovskii-transition. Recent measurements of the specific heat provide striking evidence for a tricritical point (TCP), were the first order transition alters to second order. We report neutron spin echo measurements using the MIEZE technique. The recorded quasi elastic linewidth shows a change of the characteristic spin fluctuations at the TCP. The combination with additional SANS measurements and a generalized Brazovskii theory establishes a consistent picture of the statics and dynamics of the transition. Financial support by ERC-AdG (291079 TOPFIT) and through DFG TRR80 is greatfully acknowledged.

  17. Simulation study based on the single-point temperature monitoring system of LabVIEW

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Yongling; Yang, Na; Liu, Shuping; Pan, Xiaohui; Wang, Wenjiang

    2014-12-01

    This paper takes LabVIEW2012 as a development platform, creating a J-type thermocouple sensor and the NI USB-6229 data acquisition card and other hardware emulation circuitry which combined with the PC designed a single-point temperature monitoring system. Through simulation experiments, the system has a collection interval, the sampling rate per channel sampling on the temperature limit set by the user function and it also has the function of real-time display the current temperature, the temperature limit alarm, maximum temperature, minimum temperature display and a temperature history data query. This system can be used for temperature monitoring of life, research, industrial control, environmental monitoring, biomedical, tobacco processing, greenhouse cultivation, livestock breeding and other fields, which has important significance and practical value.

  18. Study of concrete's behavior under 4-point bending load using Coda Wave Interferometry (CWI) analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Y.; Abraham, O.; Chapeleau, X.; Cottineau, L.-M.; Tournat, V.; Le Duff, A.; Lascoup, B.; Durand, O.

    2013-01-01

    Coda Wave Interferometry (CWI) is an ultrasonic NDT method suitable for complex material such as concrete that can precisely measure small propagation velocity variation (10-2%). By measuring variation of propagation velocity in concrete caused by acoustoelasticity phenomena, CWI analysis can be used to monitor concrete's internal stress level. For the first time, CWI is used to measure propagation velocity variations due to a stress field in a concrete beam under four-points bending test, which contains simultaneously compressive and tensile stress. Embedded optical-fiber sensors, strain gauges are used in the experiment, in order to confirm and validate the CWI analysis result. Thermocouples are also embedded into concrete beams for monitoring internal temperature fluctuations.

  19. Influence of study design in receiver operating characteristics studies: sequential versus independent reading.

    PubMed

    Schalekamp, Steven; van Ginneken, Bram; Schaefer-Prokop, Cornelia M; Karssemeijer, Nico

    2014-04-01

    Observer studies to assess new image processing devices or computer-aided diagnosis techniques are often performed, but little is known about the effect of the study design on observer performance results. We investigated the effect of the sequential and independent reading design on observer study results with respect to reader performance and their statistical power. For this we performed an observer study for the detection of lung nodules with bone-suppressed images (BSIs) compared with original chest radiographs. In a fully crossed observer study, eight observers assessed a series of 300 radiographs four times, including one assessment of the original radiograph with sequential BSI and two independent reading sessions with BSI. Observer performance was compared using multireader multicase receiver operating characteristics. No significant difference between the effect of BSI in the sequential and the independent reading sessions could be found ([Formula: see text]; [Formula: see text]). Compared with the original radiographs, increased performance with BSI was significant in the sequential and one of the independent reading sessions ([Formula: see text]; [Formula: see text]), and nonsignificant in the other independent reading session ([Formula: see text]). A strong increase of uncorrelated variance components was found in the independent reading sessions, masking the ability to demonstrate differences in observer performance across modalities. Therefore, the sequential reading design is the preferred design because it is less burdensome and has more statistical power.

  20. A point prevalence cross-sectional study of healthcare-associated urinary tract infections in six Australian hospitals

    PubMed Central

    Gardner, Anne; Mitchell, Brett; Beckingham, Wendy; Fasugba, Oyebola

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Urinary tract infections (UTIs) account for over 30% of healthcare-associated infections. The aim of this study was to determine healthcare-associated UTI (HAUTI) and catheter-associated UTI (CAUTI) point prevalence in six Australian hospitals to inform a national point prevalence process and compare two internationally accepted HAUTI definitions. We also described the level and comprehensiveness of clinical record documentation, microbiology laboratory and coding data at identifying HAUTIs and CAUTIs. Setting Data were collected from three public and three private Australian hospitals over the first 6 months of 2013. Participants A total of 1109 patients were surveyed. Records of patients of all ages, hospitalised on the day of the point prevalence at the study sites, were eligible for inclusion. Outpatients, patients in adult mental health units, patients categorised as maintenance care type (ie, patients waiting to be transferred to a long-term care facility) and those in the emergency department during the duration of the survey were excluded. Outcome measures The primary outcome measures were the HAUTI and CAUTI point prevalence. Results Overall HAUTI and CAUTI prevalence was 1.4% (15/1109) and 0.9% (10/1109), respectively. Staphylococcus aureus and Candida species were the most common pathogens. One-quarter (26.3%) of patients had a urinary catheter and fewer than half had appropriate documentation. Eight of the 15 patients ascertained to have a HAUTI based on clinical records (6 being CAUTI) were coded by the medical records department with an International Classification of Diseases (ICD)-10 code for UTI diagnosis. The Health Protection Agency Surveillance definition had a positive predictive value of 91.67% (CI 64.61 to 98.51) compared against the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention definition. Conclusions These study results provide a foundation for a national Australian point prevalence study and inform the development and

  1. A Comparative Study of the College Entrance Examination Board Validity Study Service and Freshmen Cumulative Point Averages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bukowski, Joseph E.

    The success with which freshmen cumulative point averages may be predicted from a combination of a student's high school rank, Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT) score (Verbal) and SAT score (Mathematics) was investigated. A multiple regression formula developed by the College Entrance Examination Board was used to combine the three predictors into a…

  2. Orbit Transfer Vehicle (OTV) advanced expander cycle engine point design study. Task 7: Engine data summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christensen, K. L.

    1980-01-01

    A performance optimized engine system design for a man-rated advanced LOX/hydrogen expander cycle engine was investigated. The data are presented in tables, figures, and drawings. The following categories of data for the advanced expander cycle engine are presented: engine operating specification and pressure schedule; engine system layout drawing; major component layout drawings, including thrust chamber and nozzle, extendible nozzle actuating mechanism and seal, LOX turbopump, LOX boost pump, hydrogen turbopump, hydrogen boost pump, and propellant control valves; engine performance and service life prediction; engine weight; and engine envelope. The data represent updates based upon current results from the design and analyses tasks performed under contract. Futher iterations in the designs and data can be expected as the advanced expander cycle engine design matures.

  3. Infrared radiative properties of alumina up to the melting point: A first-principles study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, J. Y.; Xu, M.; Liu, L. H.

    2016-11-01

    The high thermal emission of alumina dominates the radiative heat transfer of rocket exhaust plume. Yet numerous experimental measurements on radiative properties of alumina at high temperatures vary considerably from each other and cannot provide physical insight into the underlying mechanism. In this work, the ab initio molecular dynamics (AIMD) method and ab initio parameterized Drude model are combined to predict the radiative properties of alumina for temperatures up to 2327 K (the melting point) in the spectral range 1-12 μm. Contributed by different microscopic processes, the optical absorption of alumina in the spectral range 1-4 and 4-12 μm is described by two distinct methods. In the spectral range 4-12 μm, the multi-phonon process mainly contributes to optical absorption and can be simulated by the AIMD method based on the linear response theory. While in the spectral range 1-4 μm, the optical absorption is mainly caused by intrinsic carriers and can be effectively described by the ab initio parameterized Drude model. The first-principles calculations can successfully predict the infrared radiative properties of alumina at high temperatures and well reproduce the literature experiments. Moreover, the theoretical simulations verify that alumina can retain its semiconducting character even in the liquid phase and there emerges sharp increase in the near-infrared optical absorption of alumina upon melting.

  4. A study of attitude control concepts for precision-pointing non-rigid spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Likins, P. W.

    1975-01-01

    Attitude control concepts for use onboard structurally nonrigid spacecraft that must be pointed with great precision are examined. The task of determining the eigenproperties of a system of linear time-invariant equations (in terms of hybrid coordinates) representing the attitude motion of a flexible spacecraft is discussed. Literal characteristics are developed for the associated eigenvalues and eigenvectors of the system. A method is presented for determining the poles and zeros of the transfer function describing the attitude dynamics of a flexible spacecraft characterized by hybrid coordinate equations. Alterations are made to linear regulator and observer theory to accommodate modeling errors. The results show that a model error vector, which evolves from an error system, can be added to a reduced system model, estimated by an observer, and used by the control law to render the system less sensitive to uncertain magnitudes and phase relations of truncated modes and external disturbance effects. A hybrid coordinate formulation using the provided assumed mode shapes, rather than incorporating the usual finite element approach is provided.

  5. [Comparative study of the operation of two day's Hospitals in Athens].

    PubMed

    Mantonakis, J; Karakatsanis, N; Spilioti, E; Karanikoli, I; Stentoumis, C; Stefanis, C

    2014-01-01

    The present paper describes the preparation for the commencement of services by the University Mental Health Research Institute (UMHRI) Day Hospital and Eginition Day Hospital whose operation (in 1977) signifies the beginning of the Psychiatric Reform in our country. The two units' functional characteristics and the type of offered services are mentioned. Psychotherapeutic, biological and sociotherapeutic approaches are practiced on a daily basis within a framework of Therapeutic Community services. Moreover, relations, similarities and differences among the two day hospitals are pointed out. Special mention is given to the problems and difficulties that these two units faced upon their commencement, which took place at different time periods, set 32 years apart. The lack of legislative framework with regards to the operation of Day Hospitals, the bureaucratic obstacles and the skepticism towards the new treatment approach of patients, were the basic obstacles that had to be overcome in order for the first Day Hospital to become operational in 1977. Licensing and funding were the main obstacles that the creation of UMHRI's Day Hospital faced, although these two units had already been established. Emphasis was placed on the staff's training, which mainly consisted of young professionals and at the social environment's and all those services' (health-care, community etc) attitude, in the specific catchment area (6th Mental Health Sector). The study of patients' characteristics hospitalized in Eginition's Day Hospital throughout its first year of operation (1977-1978) and of patients hospitalized at UMHRI's Day Hospital, also at its first year of operation (2009-2010), showed, among other things, that in both cases, the number of hospitalized male patients is larger than the number of female patients. This constitutes an exception compared to other countries, whereby female patients outnumber male patients in Day Hospitals. Especially at UMHRI's Day Hospital, the

  6. Operation of Wastewater Treatment Plants: A Field Study Training Program. Volume II. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Univ., Sacramento. Dept. of Civil Engineering.

    This manual was prepared by experienced wastewater collection system workers to provide a home study course to develop new qualified workers and expand the abilities of existing workers. This volume emphasizes material needed by intermediate-level operators and stresses the operation and maintenance of conventional treatment plants. This volume…

  7. Operation of Wastewater Treatment Plants: A Field Study Training Program. Volume I. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Univ., Sacramento. Dept. of Civil Engineering.

    This manual was prepared by experienced wastewater collection system workers to provide a home study course to develop new qualified workers and expand the abilities of existing workers. This volume is directed primarily towards entry-level operators and the operators of ponds, package plants, or small treatment plants. Ten chapters examine the…

  8. Experimental Study of the Convergence of Two-Point Cross-Correlation Toward the Green's Function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gouedard, P.; Roux, P.; Campillo, M.; Verdel, A.; Campman, X.

    2007-12-01

    It has been shown theoretically by several authors that cross-correlation of the seismic motion recorded at two points could yield the Green's Function (GF) between these points. Convergence of cross-correlations toward the GF depends on sources positions and/or the nature of the wavefield. Direct waves from an even distribution of sources can be used to retrieve the GF. On the other hand, in an inhomogeneous medium, recording the diffuse field (coda) is theoretically sufficient to retrieve the GF whatever the sources distribution is. Since none of these two conditions (even distribution of sources or a perfectly diffuse field) is satisfied in practice, the question of convergence toward the GF has to be investigated with real data. A 3D exploration survey with sources and receivers on a dense grid offers such an opportunity. We used a high- resolution survey recorded by Petroleum Development Oman in North Oman. The data have been obtained in a 1x1~km area covered with 1600 geophones located on a 25x25~m-cell grid. Records are 4-seconds long. A unique feature of this survey is that vibrators (working in the [8-120~Hz] frequency band), were located on a similar grid shifted with respect to the receiver grid by half a cell (12.5~m) in both directions. This allows us to compare estimated GF's with measured direct waves (GF's) between the geophones. The shallow subsurface is highly heterogeneous and records include seismic coda. From this dataset, we selected two receiver locations (Ra and Rb) distant from d=158~m. We used both different sets of source locations and time windows to compute the cross-correlation between these two receivers. Then we compared the derivatives of correlation functions with the actual GF measured in Rb (resp.~Ra) for a source close to Ra (resp.~Rb). By doing so, we show the actual influence of source locations and scattering (governed by the records' selected time window) on the Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) of the reconstructed GF. When using

  9. A national study examining closed points of dispensing (PODs): existence, preparedness, exercise participation, and training provided.

    PubMed

    Rebmann, Terri; Loux, Travis M; Swick, Zachary; Reddick, David; Dolgin, Harlan; Anthony, John; Prasad, Rohan

    2014-01-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommends using open points of dispensing (PODs) and alternative modalities, such as closed PODs, for mass dispensing of medical countermeasures. However, closed POD existence has not been assessed. In 2013 we sent an online questionnaire to US Cities Readiness Initiative (CRI) and non-CRI public health disaster planners. Chi-square tests were used to determine differences between CRIs and non-CRIs when comparing having at least 1 closed POD, and to compare having a closed POD and perceived mass dispensing preparedness. A total of 301 disaster planners participated. Almost all (89.3%, n=218) jurisdictions have considered establishing a closed POD, and three-quarters (74.2%, n=181) currently have at least one. CRIs were more likely than non-CRIs to have a closed POD (85.0% vs 58.5%, X(2)=21.3, p<.001). Those with 1 or more closed PODs were more likely to believe their jurisdiction could distribute medical countermeasures within 48 hours compared to those without a closed POD (78.5% vs 21.5%; X(2)=10.8, p=.001). Half had a written plan and/or written standing orders (59.1% and 52.5%, respectively). Almost half (42%, n=72) have done no preevent training for POD staff in the past 2 years; almost 20% (18%, n=32) do not plan to offer any just-in-time training. Nearly 40% (n=70) have conducted no exercises in the past year. Closed PODs contribute to community preparedness; their establishment should be followed by development of written plans, worker training, and exercises.

  10. A national study examining closed points of dispensing (PODs): existence, preparedness, exercise participation, and training provided.

    PubMed

    Rebmann, Terri; Loux, Travis M; Swick, Zachary; Reddick, David; Dolgin, Harlan; Anthony, John; Prasad, Rohan

    2014-01-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommends using open points of dispensing (PODs) and alternative modalities, such as closed PODs, for mass dispensing of medical countermeasures. However, closed POD existence has not been assessed. In 2013 we sent an online questionnaire to US Cities Readiness Initiative (CRI) and non-CRI public health disaster planners. Chi-square tests were used to determine differences between CRIs and non-CRIs when comparing having at least 1 closed POD, and to compare having a closed POD and perceived mass dispensing preparedness. A total of 301 disaster planners participated. Almost all (89.3%, n=218) jurisdictions have considered establishing a closed POD, and three-quarters (74.2%, n=181) currently have at least one. CRIs were more likely than non-CRIs to have a closed POD (85.0% vs 58.5%, X(2)=21.3, p<.001). Those with 1 or more closed PODs were more likely to believe their jurisdiction could distribute medical countermeasures within 48 hours compared to those without a closed POD (78.5% vs 21.5%; X(2)=10.8, p=.001). Half had a written plan and/or written standing orders (59.1% and 52.5%, respectively). Almost half (42%, n=72) have done no preevent training for POD staff in the past 2 years; almost 20% (18%, n=32) do not plan to offer any just-in-time training. Nearly 40% (n=70) have conducted no exercises in the past year. Closed PODs contribute to community preparedness; their establishment should be followed by development of written plans, worker training, and exercises. PMID:25014759

  11. Feasibility Study of a Rotorcraft Health and Usage Monitoring System (HUMS): Results of Operator's Evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Romero, Raylund; Summers, Harold; Cronkhite, James

    1996-01-01

    The objective was to evaluate the feasibility of a state-of-the-art health and usage monitoring system (HUMS) to provide monitoring of critical mechanical systems on the helicopter, including motors, drive train, engines, and life-limited components. The implementation of HUMS and cost integration with current maintenance procedures was assessed from the operator's viewpoint in order to achieve expected benefits from these systems, such as enhanced safety, reduced maintenance cost, and increased availability. An operational HUMS that was installed and operated under an independent flight trial program was used as a basis for this study. The HUMS equipment and software were commercially available. Based on the results of the feasibility study, the HUMS used in the flight trial program generally demonstrated a high level of reliability in monitoring the rotor system, engines, drive train, and life-limited components. The system acted as a sentinel to warn of impending failures. A worn tail rotor pitch bearing was detected by HUMS, which had the capability for self testing to diagnose system and sensor faults. Examples of potential payback to the operator with HUMS were identified, including reduced insurance cost through enhanced safety, lower operating costs derived from maintenance credits, increased aircraft availability, and improved operating efficiency. The interfacing of HUMS with current operational procedures was assessed to require only minimal revisions to the operator's maintenance manuals. Finally the success in realizing the potential benefits from HUMS technology was found to depend on the operator, helicopter manufacturer, regulator (FAA), and HUMS supplier working together.

  12. Ultrahigh Dimensional Variable Selection for Interpolation of Point Referenced Spatial Data: A Digital Soil Mapping Case Study

    PubMed Central

    Lamb, David W.; Mengersen, Kerrie

    2016-01-01

    Modern soil mapping is characterised by the need to interpolate point referenced (geostatistical) observations and the availability of large numbers of environmental characteristics for consideration as covariates to aid this interpolation. Modelling tasks of this nature also occur in other fields such as biogeography and environmental science. This analysis employs the Least Angle Regression (LAR) algorithm for fitting Least Absolute Shrinkage and Selection Operator (LASSO) penalized Multiple Linear Regressions models. This analysis demonstrates the efficiency of the LAR algorithm at selecting covariates to aid the interpolation of geostatistical soil carbon observations. Where an exhaustive search of the models that could be constructed from 800 potential covariate terms and 60 observations would be prohibitively demanding, LASSO variable selection is accomplished with trivial computational investment. PMID:27603135

  13. Ultrahigh Dimensional Variable Selection for Interpolation of Point Referenced Spatial Data: A Digital Soil Mapping Case Study.

    PubMed

    Fitzpatrick, Benjamin R; Lamb, David W; Mengersen, Kerrie

    2016-01-01

    Modern soil mapping is characterised by the need to interpolate point referenced (geostatistical) observations and the availability of large numbers of environmental characteristics for consideration as covariates to aid this interpolation. Modelling tasks of this nature also occur in other fields such as biogeography and environmental science. This analysis employs the Least Angle Regression (LAR) algorithm for fitting Least Absolute Shrinkage and Selection Operator (LASSO) penalized Multiple Linear Regressions models. This analysis demonstrates the efficiency of the LAR algorithm at selecting covariates to aid the interpolation of geostatistical soil carbon observations. Where an exhaustive search of the models that could be constructed from 800 potential covariate terms and 60 observations would be prohibitively demanding, LASSO variable selection is accomplished with trivial computational investment. PMID:27603135

  14. One-dimensional array of point-like light sources based on gold nanoparticles and tetracene: Preparation and possible operation mechanisms

    SciTech Connect

    Cherepanov, V. V.; Fedorovich, R. D.; Kiyayev, O. E.; Naumovets, A. G.; Nechytaylo, V. B. Tomchuk, P. M.; Viduta, L. V.

    2014-11-10

    A method of preparation of a linear close-packed array of point-like light sources based on a nanocomposite of gold nanoparticles and tetracene is proposed. Ordered system of microleads to the light sources with packing density up to 1000 mm{sup −1} consists of linear conducting chains of cobalt nanoparticles self-assembled in a magnetic field. The electroluminescence from the gold-tetracene nanocomposite occurs in the visible range typical of organic light-emitting field-effect transistors based on tetracene. A theoretical substantiation of the possibility of excitation of tetracene molecules by hot electrons emitted from the gold nanoparticles is suggested and compared with other possible physical mechanisms.

  15. Specific Correlation between the Hegu Point (LI4) and the Orofacial Part: Evidence from an fMRI Study.

    PubMed

    Kong, Su-Ping; Tan, Qi-Wen; Liu, Ying; Jing, Xiang-Hong; Zhu, Bing; Huo, Yong-Jun; Nie, Bin-Bin; Yang, Dian-Hui

    2015-01-01

    Acupoint specificity is a foundational concept in acupuncture theory. It is closely related to the function of the acupoint. In this study, we sought to probe the central mechanisms of the specific correlation between LI4 and orofacial part in Bell's palsy patients. In total, 36 patients with left Bell's palsy were divided into three groups in random order, and each group received transcutaneous electrical acupoint stimulation (TEAS) at only one of three acupoints (LI4, ST6, and a sham point). A single-block fMRI design paradigm was applied to separately detect neural activity related to different stages of TEAS (prestimulation resting state, stimulation, and poststimulation resting state). Functional magnetic resonance imaging data were acquired during TEAS. There were extensive neuronal activities in the LI4 and ST6 groups and significant differences between stimulation at real and sham points. Brain regions were activated more by real acupoint TEAS than by sham point TEAS. Brain regions that were activated with LI4 and ST6 were broadly overlapping and adjacent. Our results provide supplementary neuroimaging evidence for the existence of acupoint specificity. These results may confirm the central mechanisms of the specific correlation between the Hegu point and the orofacial part. PMID:26446439

  16. Remote effect of lower limb acupuncture on latent myofascial trigger point of upper trapezius muscle: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Chen, Kai-Hua; Hsiao, Kuang-Yu; Lin, Chu-Hsu; Chang, Wen-Ming; Hsu, Hung-Chih; Hsieh, Wei-Chi

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. To demonstrate the use of acupuncture in the lower limbs to treat myofascial pain of the upper trapezius muscles via a remote effect. Methods. Five adults with latent myofascial trigger points (MTrPs) of bilateral upper trapezius muscles received acupuncture at Weizhong (UB40) and Yanglingquan (GB34) points in the lower limbs. Modified acupuncture was applied at these points on a randomly selected ipsilateral lower limb (experimental side) versus sham needling on the contralateral lower limb (control side) in each subject. Each subject received two treatments within a one-week interval. To evaluate the remote effect of acupuncture, the range of motion (ROM) upon bending the contralateral side of the cervical spine was assessed before and after each treatment. Results. There was significant improvement in cervical ROM after the second treatment (P = 0.03) in the experimental group, and the increased ROM on the modified acupuncture side was greater compared to the sham needling side (P = 0.036). Conclusions. A remote effect of acupuncture was demonstrated in this pilot study. Using modified acupuncture needling at remote acupuncture points in the ipsilateral lower limb, our treatments released tightness due to latent MTrPs of the upper trapezius muscle.

  17. Specific Correlation between the Hegu Point (LI4) and the Orofacial Part: Evidence from an fMRI Study

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Su-ping; Tan, Qi-wen; Liu, Ying; Jing, Xiang-hong; Zhu, Bing; Huo, Yong-jun; Nie, Bin-bin; Yang, Dian-hui

    2015-01-01

    Acupoint specificity is a foundational concept in acupuncture theory. It is closely related to the function of the acupoint. In this study, we sought to probe the central mechanisms of the specific correlation between LI4 and orofacial part in Bell's palsy patients. In total, 36 patients with left Bell's palsy were divided into three groups in random order, and each group received transcutaneous electrical acupoint stimulation (TEAS) at only one of three acupoints (LI4, ST6, and a sham point). A single-block fMRI design paradigm was applied to separately detect neural activity related to different stages of TEAS (prestimulation resting state, stimulation, and poststimulation resting state). Functional magnetic resonance imaging data were acquired during TEAS. There were extensive neuronal activities in the LI4 and ST6 groups and significant differences between stimulation at real and sham points. Brain regions were activated more by real acupoint TEAS than by sham point TEAS. Brain regions that were activated with LI4 and ST6 were broadly overlapping and adjacent. Our results provide supplementary neuroimaging evidence for the existence of acupoint specificity. These results may confirm the central mechanisms of the specific correlation between the Hegu point and the orofacial part. PMID:26446439

  18. Remote Effect of Lower Limb Acupuncture on Latent Myofascial Trigger Point of Upper Trapezius Muscle: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Kai-Hua; Hsiao, Kuang-Yu; Lin, Chu-Hsu; Chang, Wen-Ming; Hsu, Hung-Chih; Hsieh, Wei-Chi

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. To demonstrate the use of acupuncture in the lower limbs to treat myofascial pain of the upper trapezius muscles via a remote effect. Methods. Five adults with latent myofascial trigger points (MTrPs) of bilateral upper trapezius muscles received acupuncture at Weizhong (UB40) and Yanglingquan (GB34) points in the lower limbs. Modified acupuncture was applied at these points on a randomly selected ipsilateral lower limb (experimental side) versus sham needling on the contralateral lower limb (control side) in each subject. Each subject received two treatments within a one-week interval. To evaluate the remote effect of acupuncture, the range of motion (ROM) upon bending the contralateral side of the cervical spine was assessed before and after each treatment. Results. There was significant improvement in cervical ROM after the second treatment (P = 0.03) in the experimental group, and the increased ROM on the modified acupuncture side was greater compared to the sham needling side (P = 0.036). Conclusions. A remote effect of acupuncture was demonstrated in this pilot study. Using modified acupuncture needling at remote acupuncture points in the ipsilateral lower limb, our treatments released tightness due to latent MTrPs of the upper trapezius muscle. PMID:23710218

  19. Contribution of Dance Studies from the Point of View of Religious Dance Teachers in Formal Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perlshtein, Talia

    2016-01-01

    This article examines perceptions of observant dance teachers on aspects related to their professional world. The study included 119 teachers, graduates of the dance department at an academic- religious college of education in Israel. The data was collected through a structure questionnaire developed specifically for the study and through…

  20. State-Based Case Studies of Assessment Initiatives in Undergraduate Education: Chronology of Critical Points.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyer, Carol M.; Ewell, Peter T.

    The Education Commission of the States (ECS) together with the American Association for Higher Education recently conducted five case studies of state-based approaches to assessment in undergraduate education in Colorado, Missouri, New Jersey, South Dakota, and Virginia. The case studies, in turn, are part of the Missouri Governor John Ashcroft's…