Science.gov

Sample records for operation greenhouse scientific

  1. Operation GREENHOUSE. Scientific Director's report. Annex 1. 1. Prompt-gamma-ray measurements. Part 4. Installation drawings. Nuclear explosions 1951

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, W.C.

    1984-10-31

    This report consists of drawings and tabular data pertinent to the various measurements performed in Operation GREENHOUSE. The drawings represent the plans for the cable installations, recorder stations, power and signal lines, and other equipment used in the measurement of prompt gamma rays, alpha, transit time, neutron intensity (Tenex), and thermal radiation.

  2. Operating and Maintaining the Greenhouse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gresser, Priscilla A.

    This learning guide is designed to assist vocational agriculture students in mastering 20 tasks involved in the operation and maintenance of a greenhouse. Addressed in the individual sections of the guide are the following topics: identification of greenhouse designs, greenhouse construction, basic greenhouse maintenance to conserve energy,…

  3. Operation GREENHOUSE-1951. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Berkhouse, L.; Davis, S.E.; Gladeck, F.R.; Hallowell, J.H.; Jones, C.B.

    1983-06-15

    GREENHOUSE was a four-detonation atmospheric nuclear weapon's test series conducted in the Marshall Islands at Enewetak Atoll in April and May 1951. This is a report of DOD personnel in GREENHOUSE with an emphasis on operational radiological safety.

  4. Potential operator exposure to procymidone in greenhouses.

    PubMed

    Capri, E; Alberici, R; Glass, C R; Minuto, G; Trevisan, M

    1999-10-01

    Recent legislation in the European Union requires regulators of member states to carry out risk assessments using data for actual or potential operator exposure, or estimates of exposure from models. However, the existing models have few datasets from studies carried out on greenhouse or indoor crops, particularly in southern Europe. In this study potential dermal and inhalatory exposures were measured in two trials in Italian greenhouses. The total potential dermal operator exposure of the applicator, measured with a whole-body passive dosimetry method, was 15.4 and 37.1 mL/h of the diluted pesticide mixture. The majority of the contamination was on the hands and on the lower part of the coverall. Approximately 0. 003% of the active ingredient (ai) applied to the crop area contaminated the coverall worn by the operator. The potential dermal exposure during the mixing and loading phase accounted for 6-8% of the total potential dermal exposure during the whole process. Inhalation exposure accounted for only 0.05-0.07% of the total potential operator exposure. Model predictions of the potential operator exposure using a modified version of the German model overestimate the mixing-loading exposure while underestimating the application exposure. These data are evidence that the estimation coefficient set for hand-held application to ornamental and horticultural crops may be inadequate for the agronomic conditions of southern Europe. PMID:10552831

  5. Operation Greenhouse. Scientific Director's report of atomic-weapon tests at Eniwetok, 1951. Annex 1. 9. Air-drop instrumentation. Part 2. Teller-alpha

    SciTech Connect

    Grier, H.E.

    1985-09-01

    It was the purpose of the Teller-Alpha experiment to measure the coefficient alpha by means of detectors placed a long distance from the bomb. The detectors are photoelectric devices that respond to visible light produced in the air surrounding the bomb by the absorbed gamma rays. A measurement of this sort was proposed by Edward Teller prior to the Sandstone Operation. The main components of the Teller-Alpha equipment were the photohead, the 200-Mc timing oscillator, and the high-speed-sensitivity recoding oscilloscope. A complete discussion of the experiment is provided.

  6. Greenhouse Management and Operations. Teacher Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gowdy, Mary Ann Schwartz

    This document is the teacher's edition of a module containing 16 instructional units covering competencies for students with career aspirations in horticulture. It is designed to provide high school students with an in-depth perspective of both the technical and the commercial aspects of running a greenhouse. The 16 units cover the following…

  7. Optimization of wastewater treatment plant operation for greenhouse gas mitigation.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dongwook; Bowen, James D; Ozelkan, Ertunga C

    2015-11-01

    This study deals with the determination of optimal operation of a wastewater treatment system for minimizing greenhouse gas emissions, operating costs, and pollution loads in the effluent. To do this, an integrated performance index that includes three objectives was established to assess system performance. The ASMN_G model was used to perform system optimization aimed at determining a set of operational parameters that can satisfy three different objectives. The complex nonlinear optimization problem was simulated using the Nelder-Mead Simplex optimization algorithm. A sensitivity analysis was performed to identify influential operational parameters on system performance. The results obtained from the optimization simulations for six scenarios demonstrated that there are apparent trade-offs among the three conflicting objectives. The best optimized system simultaneously reduced greenhouse gas emissions by 31%, reduced operating cost by 11%, and improved effluent quality by 2% compared to the base case operation.

  8. Mass Media and Global Warming: A Public Arenas Model of the Greenhouse Effect's Scientific Roots.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neuzil, Mark

    1995-01-01

    Uses the Public Arenas model to examine the historical roots of the greenhouse effect issue as communicated in scientific literature from the early 1800s to modern times. Utilizes a constructivist approach to discuss several possible explanations for the rise and fall of global warming as a social problem in the scientific arena. (PA)

  9. Mechatronic description of a laser autoguided vehicle for greenhouse operations.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Hermosilla, Julián; González, Ramón; Rodríguez, Francisco; Donaire, Julián G

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a novel approach for guiding mobile robots inside greenhouses demonstrated by promising preliminary physical experiments. It represents a comprehensive attempt to use the successful principles of AGVs (auto-guided vehicles) inside greenhouses, but avoiding the necessity of modifying the crop layout, and avoiding having to bury metallic pipes in the greenhouse floor. The designed vehicle can operate different tools, e.g., a spray system for applying plant-protection product, a lifting platform to reach the top part of the plants to perform pruning and harvesting tasks, and a trailer to transport fruits, plants, and crop waste. Regarding autonomous navigation, it follows the idea of AGVs, but now laser emitters are used to mark the desired route. The vehicle development is analyzed from a mechatronic standpoint (mechanics, electronics, and autonomous control).

  10. Mechatronic Description of a Laser Autoguided Vehicle for Greenhouse Operations

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez-Hermosilla, Julián; González, Ramón; Rodríguez, Francisco; Donaire, Julián G.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a novel approach for guiding mobile robots inside greenhouses demonstrated by promising preliminary physical experiments. It represents a comprehensive attempt to use the successful principles of AGVs (auto-guided vehicles) inside greenhouses, but avoiding the necessity of modifying the crop layout, and avoiding having to bury metallic pipes in the greenhouse floor. The designed vehicle can operate different tools, e.g., a spray system for applying plant-protection product, a lifting platform to reach the top part of the plants to perform pruning and harvesting tasks, and a trailer to transport fruits, plants, and crop waste. Regarding autonomous navigation, it follows the idea of AGVs, but now laser emitters are used to mark the desired route. The vehicle development is analyzed from a mechatronic standpoint (mechanics, electronics, and autonomous control). PMID:23299624

  11. Greenhouse Operation and Management. Instructor Guide and Student Reference. Missouri Agricultural Education. Volume 21, Number 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wells, Judith A.; And Others

    These student and instructor materials for a one-semester course intended for high school juniors and seniors teach the following 24 lessons: (1) the scope and development of greenhouse production; (2) the economic importance of greenhouse crops; (3) careers in greenhouse operation and management; (4) greenhouse parts, structures, and coverings;…

  12. Scientific and non-scientific challenges for Operational Earthquake Forecasting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marzocchi, W.

    2015-12-01

    Tracking the time evolution of seismic hazard in time windows shorter than the usual 50-years of long-term hazard models may offer additional opportunities to reduce the seismic risk. This is the target of operational earthquake forecasting (OEF). During the OEF development in Italy we identify several challenges that range from pure science to the more practical interface of science with society. From a scientific point of view, although earthquake clustering is the clearest empirical evidence about earthquake occurrence, and OEF clustering models are the most (successfully) tested hazard models in seismology, we note that some seismologists are still reluctant to accept their scientific reliability. After exploring the motivations of these scientific doubts, we also look into an issue that is often overlooked in this discussion, i.e., in any kind of hazard analysis, we do not use a model because it is the true one, but because it is the better than anything else we can think of. The non-scientific aspects are mostly related to the fact that OEF usually provides weekly probabilities of large eartquakes smaller than 1%. These probabilities are considered by some seismologists too small to be of interest or useful. However, in a recent collaboration with engineers we show that such earthquake probabilities may lead to intolerable individual risk of death. Interestingly, this debate calls for a better definition of the still fuzzy boundaries among the different expertise required for the whole risk mitigation process. The last and probably more pressing challenge is related to the communication to the public. In fact, a wrong message could be useless or even counterproductive. Here we show some progresses that we have made in this field working with communication experts in Italy.

  13. AFBC - operation of small scale demonstration for greenhouse heating

    SciTech Connect

    Ashworth, R.A.; Plessinger, D.A.; Webner, R.L.; Machamer, T.

    1996-12-31

    A 2.2 million Btu/hr unit prototype AFBC system was installed in 1995 at Cedar Lane Farms, a commercial nursery in Ohio. The AFBC is in operation and is heating hot water for greenhouse temperature control. A team consisting of the Energy and Environmental Research Corporation, the Ohio Agricultural Research and Development Center of Ohio State University and the Will-Burt Company developed this technology with funding support from the Ohio Coal Development Office and the U.S. Department of Energy. The system is fully automated with little operator attention being required. Operating experience at Cedar Lane Farms has shown that only 2 hours per day of operation attention is required for the system. The system includes flyash/sorbent reinjection and underbed coal/limestone feed. These features provide for good limestone utilization; a Ca/S (in coal) ratio of 2.5 will maintain an SO{sub 2} emissions level of 1.2 lb/10{sup 6} Btu when burning high sulfur (3.2%) Ohio coal. A baghouse is used to control particulate emissions. Based on the success of the prototype unit, a design has been recently completed for a commercial size 10 x 10{sup 6} Btu/hr capacity range. Multiple AFBC units can be used to provide larger heat outputs. Potential coal-fired AFBC users include institutions (schools, hospitals, prisons, government), light industry (agricultural, food processing), commercial users (shopping centers), and large residential users (apartment complexes). 6 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Frost-free greenhouse: design and operation considrations for commercial and community management

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-03-01

    The following design topics are discussed: a frost-free greenhouse from a kit greenhouse, solving the energy problem, the greenhouse envelope, frost-free thermal analysis, no-cost energy conservation measures, standard insulating materials and techniques, thermal mass, ventilation and cooling systems, heat retention blankets for night insulation, and warm-air destratification. The following operation topics are included: inside the frost-free greenhouse, cost consideration, vegetable crops, ornamental crops, cut flowers, environment and layout, solar specific horticulture, potted plants, pest assault, suppliers of predators and parasites, case studies, and bibliographies. (MHR)

  15. Scientific and Operational Requirements for TOMS Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krueger, Arlin J. (Editor)

    1987-01-01

    Global total ozone and sulfur dioxide data from the Nimbus 7 Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) instrument have applications in a broad range of disciplines. The presentations of 29 speakers who are using the data in research or who have operational needs for the data are summarized. Five sessions addressed topics in stratospheric processes, tropospheric dynamics and chemistry, remote sensing, volcanology, and future instrument requirements. Stratospheric and some volcanology requirements can be met by a continuation of polar orbit satellites using a slightly modified TOMS but weather related research, tropospheric sulfur budget studies, and most operational needs require the time resolution of a geostationary instrument.

  16. Greenhouse gas emissions from forestry operations: a life cycle assessment.

    PubMed

    Sonne, Edie

    2006-01-01

    Most forest carbon assessments focus only on biomass carbon and assume that greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from forestry activities are minimal. This study took an in-depth look at the direct and indirect emissions from Pacific Northwest (PNW) Douglas-fir [Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirbel) Franco] forestry activities to support or deny this claim. Greenhouse gas budgets for 408 "management regimes" were calculated using Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) methodology. These management regimes were comprised of different combinations of three types of seedlings (P + 1, 1 + 1, and large plug), two types of site preparation (pile and burn, and chemical), 17 combinations of management intensity including fertilization, herbicide treatment, pre-commercial thinning (PCT), commercial thinning (CT), and nothing, and four different rotation ages (30, 40, 50, and 60 yr). Normalized to 50 yr, average direct GHG emissions were 8.6 megagrams (Mg) carbon dioxide equivalents (CO2e) ha(-1), which accounted for 84% of total GHG emissions from the average of 408 management regimes. Harvesting (PCT, CT, and clear cutting) contributed the most to total GHG emissions (5.9 Mg CO2e per 700 m3 harvested timber), followed by pile and burn site preparation (4.0 Mg CO2e ha(-1) or 32% of total GHG emissions) and then fertilization (1.9 Mg CO2e ha(-1) or 15% of total GHG emissions). Seedling production, seedling transportation, chemical site preparation, and herbicide treatment each contributed less than 1% of total GHG emissions when assessed per hectare of planted timberland. Total emissions per 100 m3 averaged 1.6 Mg CO2e ha(-1) over all 408 management regimes. An uncertainty analysis using Monte Carlo simulations revealed that there are significant differences between most alternative management regimes. PMID:16825464

  17. The Role of the Spacecraft Operator in Scientific Exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Love, S. G.

    2011-03-01

    Pilot and flight engineer crew members can improve scientific exploration missions and effectively support field work that they may not understand by contributing leadership, teamwork, communication, and operational thinking skills.

  18. Fifteen Years of Chandra Operation: Scientific Highlights and Lessons Learned

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weisskopf, Martin C.

    2014-01-01

    NASA's Chandra X-Ray Observatory, designed for three years of operation with a goal of five years is now entering its 15-th year of operation. Thanks to its superb angular resolution, the Observatory continues to yield new and exciting results, many of which were totally unanticipated prior to launch. We will review some scientific highlights and present "lessons learned" from the experience of operating this great observatory.

  19. Remote access and operation of telescopes by the scientific users

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edwards, P. G.; Amy, S.; Brodrick, D.; Carretti, E.; Hoyle, S.; Indermuehle, B.; McConnell, D.; Mader, S.; Mirtschin, P.; Preisig, B.; Smith, M.; Stevens, J.; Wark, R.; Wieringa, M.; Wu, X.

    2014-08-01

    The Australia Telescope National Facility operates three radio telescopes: the Parkes 64m Telescope, the Australia Telescope Compact Array (ATCA), and the Mopra 22m Telescope. Scientific operation of all these is conducted by members of the investigating teams rather than by professional operators. All three can now be accessed and controlled from any location served by the internet, the telescopes themselves being unattended for part or all of the time. Here we describe the rationale, advantages, and means of implementing this operational model.

  20. Fifteen Years of Chandra Operation: Scientific Highlights and Lessons Learned

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weisskopf, Martin C.; Tananbaum, Harvey; Tucker, Wallace; Wilkes, Belinda; Baggett, Randy; Brissenden, Roger; Edmonds, Peter; Mattison, Edward

    2014-01-01

    NASA's Chandra X-Ray Observatory, designed for three years of operation with a goal of five years is now entering its 15-th year of operation. Thanks to its superb angular resolution, the Observatory continues to yield new and exciting results, many of which were totally unanticipated prior to launch. We discuss the current technical status, review recent scientific highlights, indicate a few future directions, and present what we feel is the most important lesson learned from our experience of building and operating this great observatory.

  1. Evaluation of potential dermal exposure of pesticide spray operators in greenhouses by use of visible tracers.

    PubMed

    Machera, Kyriaki; Kapetanakis, Evangelos; Charistou, Agathi; Goumenaki, Eleni; Glass, Richard Christer

    2002-03-01

    In the present study, the potential dermal and inhalation exposure of the operator was measured, following simulation of insecticide application with the dye tracer Sunset Yellow in greenhouse cucumbers and tomatoes. For the monitoring of operator exposure, the whole body technique was used. The potential inhalation exposure was measured with a personal air sampler equipped with a glass fiber filter. The potential dermal operator exposure ranged from 84.4 to 526.7 ml of spray solution (s.s.)/h for the whole body and from 18.5 to 62.5 ml s.s./h for hands in the case of greenhouse cucumbers. The respective inhalation exposure was between 0.17 and 1.0 ml s.s./h. For greenhouse tomatoes, the potential body exposure was in the range of 22.4 to 62.1 ml s.s./h. The hand exposure varied from 5.5 to 6.1 ml s.s./h. The potential inhalation exposure was in the range of 0.33 to 0.43 ml s.s./h. The potential dermal operator exposure is a highly variable parameter, with a variation factor higher than 100% in many cases. One of the most critical factors for the determination of both potential dermal and inhalation exposure is the application pressure. Other field and operational conditions, including unpredictable factors, are also important for the determination of operator exposure levels. The measured potential dermal operator exposure values were above the levels of exposure estimated with mathematical models. PMID:11990365

  2. The ESA Scientific Exploitation of Operational Missions element

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desnos, Yves-Louis; Regner, Peter; Delwart, Steven; Benveniste, Jerome; Engdahl, Marcus; Zehner, Claus; Mathieu, Pierre-Philippe; Bojkov, Bojan; Gascon, Ferran; Donlon, Craig; Davidson, Malcolm; Goryl, Philippe; Pinnock, Simon

    2015-04-01

    SEOM is a program element within the fourth period (2013-2017) of ESA's Earth Observation Envelope Programme (http://seom.esa.int/). The prime objective is to federate, support and expand the international research community that the ERS,ENVISAT and the Envelope programmes have built up over the last 25 years. It aims to further strengthen the leadership of the European Earth Observation research community by enabling them to extensively exploit future European operational EO missions. SEOM will enable the science community to address new scientific research that are opened by free and open access to data from operational EO missions. Based on community-wide recommendations for actions on key research issues, gathered through a series of international thematic workshops and scientific user consultation meetings, a work plan has been established and is approved every year by ESA Members States. The 2015 SEOM work plan is covering the organisation of three Science users consultation workshops for Sentinel1/3/5P , the launch of new R&D studies for scientific exploitation of the Sentinels, the development of open-source multi-mission scientific toolboxes, the organisation of advanced international training courses, summer schools and educational materials, as well as activities for promoting the scientific use of EO data. The first SEOM projects have been tendered since 2013 including the development of Sentinel toolboxes, advanced INSAR algorithms for Sentinel-1 TOPS data exploitation, Improved Atmospheric Spectroscopic data-base (IAS), as well as grouped studies for Sentinel-1, -2, and -3 land and ocean applications and studies for exploiting the synergy between the Sentinels. The status and first results from these SEOM projects will be presented and an outlook for upcoming SEOM studies will be given.

  3. The ESA Scientific Exploitation of Operational Missions element, first results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desnos, Yves-Louis; Regner, Peter; Delwart, Steven; Benveniste, Jerome; Engdahl, Marcus; Mathieu, Pierre-Philippe; Gascon, Ferran; Donlon, Craig; Davidson, Malcolm; Pinnock, Simon; Foumelis, Michael; Ramoino, Fabrizio

    2016-04-01

    SEOM is a program element within the fourth period (2013-2017) of ESA's Earth Observation Envelope Programme (http://seom.esa.int/). The prime objective is to federate, support and expand the international research community that the ERS, ENVISAT and the Envelope programmes have built up over the last 25 years. It aims to further strengthen the leadership of the European Earth Observation research community by enabling them to extensively exploit future European operational EO missions. SEOM will enable the science community to address new scientific research that are opened by free and open access to data from operational EO missions. Based on community-wide recommendations for actions on key research issues, gathered through a series of international thematic workshops and scientific user consultation meetings, a work plan is established and is approved every year by ESA Members States. During 2015 SEOM, Science users consultation workshops have been organized for Sentinel1/3/5P ( Fringe, S3 Symposium and Atmospheric science respectively) , new R&D studies for scientific exploitation of the Sentinels have been launched ( S3 for Science SAR Altimetry and Ocean Color , S2 for Science,) , open-source multi-mission scientific toolboxes have been launched (in particular the SNAP/S1-2-3 Toolbox). In addition two advanced international training courses have been organized in Europe to exploit the new S1-A and S2-A data for Land and Ocean remote sensing (over 120 participants from 25 countries) as well as activities for promoting the first scientific results ( e.g. Chili Earthquake) . In addition the First EO Open Science 2.0 was organised at ESA in October 2015 with 225 participants from 31 countries bringing together young EO scientists and data scientists. During the conference precursor activities in EO Open Science and Innovation were presented, while developing a Roadmap preparing for future ESA scientific exploitation activities. Within the conference, the first

  4. Recent scientific and operational achievements of D/V Chikyu

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taira, Asahiko; Toczko, Sean; Eguchi, Nobu; Kuramoto, Shin'ichi; Kubo, Yusuke; Azuma, Wataru

    2014-12-01

    The D/V Chikyu, a scientific drilling vessel, is equipped with industry-standard riser capabilities. Riser drilling technology enables remarkable drilling and downhole logging capabilities and provides unprecedented hole-stability, enabling the shipboard team to retrieve high-quality wire-line logging data as well as well-preserved core samples. The 11 March 2011 Tohoku Oki mega-earthquake and tsunami cost over 18,000 casualties in NE Japan. Chikyu, docked in the Port of Hachinohe, was damaged by the tsunami. By April 2012, the ship was back in operation; drilling the toe of the Japan Trench fault zone where topographic surveys suggested there was up to 50 m eastward motion, the largest earthquake rupture ever recorded. During Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Expeditions 343 and 343 T, Chikyu drilled 850 m below sea floor (mbsf) in 6,900+ m water depth and recovered core samples of a highly brecciated shear zone composed of pelagic claystone. A subseafloor observatory looking for temperature signatures caused by the fault friction during the earthquake, was installed and later successfully recovered. The recovered temperature loggers recorded data from which the level of friction during the mega-earthquake slip could be determined. Following Exp. 343, Chikyu began IODP Exp. 337, a riser drilling expedition into the Shimokita coal beds off Hachinohe, to study the deep subsurface biosphere in sedimentary units including Paleogene-Neogene coal beds. New records in scientific ocean drilling were achieved in deepest penetration (drilling reached 2,466 mbsf) and sample recovery. Currently Chikyu is conducting deep riser drilling at the Nankai Trough in the final stage of the NanTroSEIZE campaign. During the years 2011 to 2013, including drilling in the Okinawa Hydrothermal System, Chikyu's operational and scientific achievements have demonstrated that the ship's capabilities are vital for opening new frontiers in earth and biological sciences.

  5. 27 CFR 19.34 - Experimental or research operations by scientific institutions and colleges of learning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... operations by scientific institutions and colleges of learning. 19.34 Section 19.34 Alcohol, Tobacco Products... Experimental Operations § 19.34 Experimental or research operations by scientific institutions and colleges of learning. (a) General. The appropriate TTB officer may authorize any scientific university, college...

  6. The ESA Scientific Exploitation of Operational Missions element

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desnos, Yves-Louis; Regner, Peter; Zehner, Claus; Engdahl, Marcus; Benveniste, Jerome; Delwart, Steven; Gascon, Ferran; Mathieu, Pierre-Philippe; Bojkov, Bojan; Koetz, Benjamin; Arino, Olivier; Donlon, Craig; Davidson, Malcolm; Goryl, Philippe; Foumelis, Michael

    2014-05-01

    The objectives of the ESA Scientific Exploitation of Operational Missions (SEOM) programme element are • to federate, support and expand the research community • to strengthen the leadership of European EO research community • to enable the science community to address new scientific research As a preparation for the SEOM element a series of international science users consultation has been organized by ESA in 2012 and 2013 In particular the ESA Living Planet Symposium was successfully organized in Edinburgh September 2013 and involving 1700 participants from 60 countries. The science users recommendations have been gathered and form the basis for the 2014 SEOM work plan approved by ESA member states. The SEOM element is organized along the following action lines: 1. Developing open-source, multi-mission, scientific toolboxes : the new toolboxes for Sentinel 1/2/3 and 5P will be introduced 2. Research and development studies: the first SEOM studies are being launched such as the INSARAP studies for Sentinel 1 interferometry in orbit demonstration , the IAS study to generate an improved spectroscopic database of the trace gas species CH4, H2O, and CO in the 2.3 μm region and SO2 in the UV region for Sentinel 5 P. In addition larger Sentinels for science call will be tendered in 2014 covering grouped studies for Sentinel 1 Land , Sentinel 1 Ocean , Sentinel 2 Land, Sentinel 3 SAR Altimetry ,Sentinel 3 Ocean color, Sentinel 3 Land and Sentinels Synergy . 3. Science users consultation : the Sentinel 2 for Science workshop is planned from 20 to 22 may 2014 at ESRIN to prepare for scientific exploitation of the Sentinel-2 mission (http://seom.esa.int/S2forScience2014 ) . In addition the FRINGE workshop focusing on scientific explotation of Sentinel1 using SAR interferometry is planned to be held at ESA ESRIN in Q2 2015 4. Training the next generation of European EO scientists on the scientific exploitation of Sentinels data: the Advanced Training course Land

  7. Operating a production pilot factory serving several scientific domains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sfiligoi, I.; Würthwein, F.; Andrews, W.; Dost, J. M.; MacNeill, I.; McCrea, A.; Sheripon, E.; Murphy, C. W.

    2011-12-01

    Pilot infrastructures are becoming prominent players in the Grid environment. One of the major advantages is represented by the reduced effort required by the user communities (also known as Virtual Organizations or VOs) due to the outsourcing of the Grid interfacing services, i.e. the pilot factory, to Grid experts. One such pilot factory, based on the glideinWMS pilot infrastructure, is being operated by the Open Science Grid at University of California San Diego (UCSD). This pilot factory is serving multiple VOs from several scientific domains. Currently the three major clients are the analysis operations of the HEP experiment CMS, the community VO HCC, which serves mostly math, biology and computer science users, and the structural biology VO NEBioGrid. The UCSD glidein factory allows the served VOs to use Grid resources distributed over 150 sites in North and South America, in Europe, and in Asia. This paper presents the steps taken to create a production quality pilot factory, together with the challenges encountered along the road.

  8. Cluster ready to begin the scientific commissioning and operation phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2000-08-01

    The final activity ushering in the new phase of the existence of Cluster was performed last week, with the successful deployment of the antenna and experiment booms, three altogether on each spacecraft. This was done through careful manoeuvring, under the control of the ESOC operations team in Darmstadt. Over the next few months all scientific instruments onboard the spacecraft will be gradually brought to life. The same instrument on each spacecraft will be switched on, one after another. Over a period of three months the instruments will undergo a series of health and calibration checks. By early December all 44 instruments on the four spacecraft will be operational and ready to start the scientific mission. The four Cluster spacecraft were launched in two pairs from the Baikonur cosmodrome in Kazakhstan - Salsa and Samba on 16 July and Rumba and Tango on 9 August. Their current highly elliptical orbits vary from 17.200 km at perigee to 120.600 km at apogee. By making simultaneous measurements in a tetrahedral formation, the Cluster quartet will be able to make the most detailed three-dimensional study yet of the Sun-Earth connection and of the changes and processes taking place in near-Earth space. For the first time ever in space history, four identical spacecraft are operated simultaneously in orbit, opening new horizons for future multi-spacecraft missions. The Cluster project involves more than 70 laboratories and over 250 scientists from many countries, including Europe, the United States, Russia, China, Japan, India, Israel, Hungary, Poland and the Czech Republic. Cluster II is part of an international programme to investigate how the Sun and Earth interact. The four satellites will join an armada of spacecraft from many countries (including ESA's SOHO satellite) which are already studying the Sun and the high-speed wind of charged particles - mainly electrons and protons - which it continually blasts into space. For regular updates on the Cluster mission

  9. Calculators for Estimating Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Public Transit Agency Vehicle Fleet Operations

    SciTech Connect

    Weigel, Brent; Southworth, Frank; Meyer, Michael D

    2010-01-01

    This paper reviews calculation tools available for quantifying the greenhouse gas emissions associated with different types of public transit service, and their usefulness in helping a transit agency to reduce its carbon footprint through informed vehicle and fuel procurement decisions. Available calculators fall into two categories: registry/inventory based calculators most suitable for standardized voluntary reporting, carbon trading, and regulatory compliance; and multi-modal life cycle analysis calculators that seek comprehensive coverage of all direct and indirect emissions. Despite significant progress in calculator development, no single calculator as yet contains all of the information needed by transit agencies to develop a truly comprehensive, life cycle analysis-based accounting of the emissions produced by its vehicle fleet operations, and for a wide range of vehicle/fuel technology options.

  10. Greenhouse gas emissions from building and operating electric power plants in the Upper Colorado River Basin.

    PubMed

    Pacca, Sergio; Horvath, Arpad

    2002-07-15

    As demand for electricity increases, investments into new generation capacity from renewable and nonrenewable sources should include assessment of global (climate) change consequences not just of the operational phase of the power plants but construction effects as well. In this paper, the global warming effect (GWE) associated with construction and operation of comparable hydroelectric, wind, solar, coal, and natural gas power plants is estimated for four time periods after construction. The assessment includes greenhouse gas emissions from construction, burning of fuels, flooded biomass decay in the reservoir, loss of net ecosystem production, and land use. The results indicate that a wind farm and a hydroelectric plant in an arid zone (such as the Glen Canyon in the Upper Colorado River Basin) appear to have lower GWE than other power plants. For the Glen Canyon hydroelectric plant, the upgrade 20 yr after the beginning of operation increased power capacity by 39% but resulted in a mere 1% of the CO2 emissions from the initial construction and came with no additional emissions from the reservoir, which accounts for the majority of the GWE.

  11. Greenhouse gas emissions from building and operating electric power plants in the Upper Colorado River Basin.

    PubMed

    Pacca, Sergio; Horvath, Arpad

    2002-07-15

    As demand for electricity increases, investments into new generation capacity from renewable and nonrenewable sources should include assessment of global (climate) change consequences not just of the operational phase of the power plants but construction effects as well. In this paper, the global warming effect (GWE) associated with construction and operation of comparable hydroelectric, wind, solar, coal, and natural gas power plants is estimated for four time periods after construction. The assessment includes greenhouse gas emissions from construction, burning of fuels, flooded biomass decay in the reservoir, loss of net ecosystem production, and land use. The results indicate that a wind farm and a hydroelectric plant in an arid zone (such as the Glen Canyon in the Upper Colorado River Basin) appear to have lower GWE than other power plants. For the Glen Canyon hydroelectric plant, the upgrade 20 yr after the beginning of operation increased power capacity by 39% but resulted in a mere 1% of the CO2 emissions from the initial construction and came with no additional emissions from the reservoir, which accounts for the majority of the GWE. PMID:12141503

  12. Perspectives on greenhouse gas emission estimates based on Australian wastewater treatment plant operating data.

    PubMed

    de Haas, D W; Pepperell, C; Foley, J

    2014-01-01

    Primary operating data were collected from forty-six wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) located across three states within Australia. The size range of plants was indicatively from 500 to 900,000 person equivalents. Direct and indirect greenhouse gas emissions were calculated using a mass balance approach and default emission factors, based on Australia's National Greenhouse Energy Reporting (NGER) scheme and IPCC guidelines. A Monte Carlo-type combined uncertainty analysis was applied to the some of the key emission factors in order to study sensitivity. The results suggest that Scope 2 (indirect emissions due to electrical power purchased from the grid) dominate the emissions profile for most of the plants (indicatively half to three quarters of the average estimated total emissions). This is only offset for the relatively small number of plants (in this study) that have significant on-site power generation from biogas, or where the water utility purchases grid electricity generated from renewable sources. For plants with anaerobic digestion, inventory data issues around theoretical biogas generation, capture and measurement were sometimes encountered that can skew reportable emissions using the NGER methodology. Typically, nitrous oxide (N(2)O) emissions dominated the Scope 1 (direct) emissions. However, N(2)O still only accounted for approximately 10 to 37% of total emissions. This conservative estimate is based on the 'default' NGER steady-state emission factor, which amounts to 1% of nitrogen removed through biological nitrification-denitrification processing in the plant (or indicatively 0.7 to 0.8% of plant influent total nitrogen). Current research suggests that true N(2)O emissions may be much lower and certainly not steady-state. The results of this study help to place in context research work that is focused on direct emissions from WWTPs (including N(2)O, methane and carbon dioxide of non-biogenic origin). For example, whereas non-biogenic CO(2

  13. 27 CFR 19.34 - Experimental or research operations by scientific institutions and colleges of learning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... operations by scientific institutions and colleges of learning. 19.34 Section 19.34 Alcohol, Tobacco Products... SPIRITS PLANTS Administrative and Miscellaneous Provisions Alternate Methods Or Procedures and Experimental Operations § 19.34 Experimental or research operations by scientific institutions and colleges...

  14. Quantifying the Sources and Sinks of Greenhouse Gases: What Does It Take to Satisfy Scientific and Decision-Making Needs?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, K. J.; Keller, K.; Ogle, S. M.; Smith, S.

    2014-12-01

    Changes in the sources and sinks of greenhouse gases (GHGs) are key drivers of anthropogenic climate change. It is hence not surprising that current and emerging U.S. governmental science priorities and programs focused on climate change (e.g. a U.S. Carbon Cycle Science Plan; the U.S. Carbon Cycle Science Program, the U.S. Global Change Research Program, Executive Order 13653 'Preparing the U.S. for the Impacts of Climate Change') all call for an improved understanding of these sources and sinks.. Measurements of the total atmospheric burden of these gases are well established, but measurements of their sources and sinks are difficult to make over spatial and temporal scales that are relevant for scientific and decisionmaking needs. Quantifying the uncertainty in these measurements is particularly challenging. This talk reviews the intersection of the state of knowledge of GHG sources and sinks, focusing in particular on CO2 and CH4, and science and decision-making needs for this information. Different science and decision-making needs require differing levels of uncertainty. A number of high-priority needs (early detection of changes in the Earth system, projections of future climate, support of markets or regulations) often require a high degree of accuracy and/or precision. We will critically evaluate current U.S. planning to documents to infer current perceived needs for GHG source/sink quantification, attempting to translate these needs into quantitative uncertainty metrics. We will compare these perceived needs with the current state of the art of GHG source/sink quantification, including the apparent pattern of systematic differences between so-called "top down" and "bottom-up" flux estimates. This comparison will enable us to identify where needs can be readily satisfied, and where gaps in technology exist. Finally, we will examine what steps could be taken to close existing gaps.

  15. Greenhouse gas emissions from operating reserves used to backup large-scale wind power.

    PubMed

    Fripp, Matthias

    2011-11-01

    Wind farms provide electricity with no direct emissions. However, their output cannot be forecasted perfectly, even a short time ahead. Consequently, power systems with large amounts of wind power may need to keep extra fossil-fired generators turned on and ready to provide power if wind farm output drops unexpectedly. In this work, I introduce a new model for estimating the uncertainty in short-term wind power forecasts, and how this uncertainty varies as wind power is aggregated over larger regions. I then use this model to estimate the reserve requirements in order to compensate for wind forecast errors to a 99.999% level of reliability, and an upper limit on the amount of carbon dioxide that would be emitted if natural gas power plants are used for this purpose. I find that for regions larger than 500 km across, operating reserves will undo 6% or less of the greenhouse gas emission savings that would otherwise be expected from wind power.

  16. 27 CFR 19.34 - Experimental or research operations by scientific institutions and colleges of learning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... operations by scientific institutions and colleges of learning. 19.34 Section 19.34 Alcohol, Tobacco Products... learning. (a) General. The appropriate TTB officer may authorize any scientific university, college of learning, or institution of scientific research to produce, receive, blend, treat, test, and store...

  17. Effect of enhanced leachate recirculated (ELR) landfill operation and gas extraction on greenhouse gas emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samir, Sonia

    The bioreactor/ enhanced leachate recirculated (ELR) landfill operation with the addition of moisture/ leachate to the landfill, accelerate the process of landfill waste decomposition; and increase the generation of LFG over a shorter period of time. Since emissions from the landfills are directly related to the gas generation, the increase in gas generation might also increase the emission from the landfill. On the contrary, the presence of gas extraction is suggested to mitigate the fugitive emissions from the landfills. Therefore, the motivation of the current study was to evaluate the effect of ELR operation as well as the gas extraction on the greenhouse gas emissions from the landfill. The current study was conducted in the City of Denton Landfill, Texas. Methane emission was investigated using a portable FID and static flux chamber technique from the landfill surface. Emission was measured from an ELR operated cell (cell 2) as well as a conventional cell (cell 0) in the City of Denton Landfill. Methane emission for cell 2 varied from 9544.3 ppm to 0 ppm while for cell 0, it varied from 0 ppm to 47 ppm. High spatial variations were observed during monitoring from both cells 0 and cell 2 which could be recognized as the variation of gas generation below the cover soil. The comparison between emissions from the slope and surface of the landfill showed that more methane emission occurred from the slopes than the top surface. In addition, the average landfill emission showed an increasing trend with increase in temperature and decreasing trend with increasing precipitation. The effect of ELR operation near the recirculation pipes showed a lag period between the recirculation and the maximum emission near the pipe. The emission near the pipe decreased after 1 day of recirculation and after the initial decrease, the emission started to increase and continued to increase up to 7 days after the recirculation. However, approximately after 10 days of recirculation, the

  18. Design of mission operations systems for scientific remote sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wall, Stephen D.; Ledbetter, Kenneth W.

    1991-01-01

    The present work describes the mission operations system (MOS) design process for remote-sensing missions. A MOS is defined as the system required to perform, monitor, and control an operation, encompassing personnel, hardware, software and/or documentation. Attention is given to telecommunications and remote-sensing instrumentation, MOS definition program phases and reviews, and MOS organization, management, and staffing. Also treated are the uplink and downlink processes, anomalies and contingency plans, the illustrative case of the MOS for the Magellan radar sensing mission, and a projection of future MOSs incorporating AI.

  19. Operation ARA: A Computerized Learning Game that Teaches Critical Thinking and Scientific Reasoning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halpern, Diane F.; Millis, Keith; Graesser, Arthur C.; Butler, Heather; Forsyth, Carol; Cai, Zhiqiang

    2012-01-01

    Operation ARA (Acquiring Research Acumen) is a computerized learning game that teaches critical thinking and scientific reasoning. It is a valuable learning tool that utilizes principles from the science of learning and serious computer games. Students learn the skills of scientific reasoning by engaging in interactive dialogs with avatars. They…

  20. 27 CFR 19.71 - Experimental or research operations by scientific institutions and colleges of learning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Experimental or research operations by scientific institutions and colleges of learning. (a) General. The... scientific research to produce, receive, blend, treat, test, and store spirits, without payment of tax, for... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Experimental or...

  1. Analyses of operational times and technical aspects of the Salton Sea scientific drilling project: (Final report)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-12-01

    The Deep Salton Sea Scientific Drilling Program (DSSSDP) was conducted in Imperial County of California at the Southeastern edge of the Salton Sea. Emphasis was on the acquisition of scientific data for the evaluation of the geological environment encountered during the drilling of the well. The scientific data acquisition activities consisted of coring, running of numerous downhole logs and tools in support of defining the geologic environment and conducting two full scale flow tests primarily to obtain pristine fluid samples. In addition, drill cuttings, gases and drilling fluid chemistry measurements were obtained from the drilling fluid returns concurrent with drilling and coring operations. The well was drilled to 10,564 feet. This report describes the field portions of the project and presents an analysis of the time spent on the various activities associated with the normal drilling operations, scientific data gathering operations and the three major downhole problem activities - lost circulation, directional control and fishing.

  2. Scientific substantiation of safe operation of the Earthen Dams at the Votkinsk HPP

    SciTech Connect

    Deev, A. P.; Fisenko, V. F.; Sol'skii, S. V.; Lopatina, M. G.; Gints, A. V.; Aref'eva, A. N.

    2012-11-15

    Over a period of 15 years, coworkers of the B. E. Vedeneev Scientific-Research Institute of Hydraulic Engineering have conducted scientific accompaniment of the operation of the earthen dams at the Votkinsk HPP. During that time, basic performance characteristics associated with complex hydrogeologic and hydrochemical conditions, and the forms of their unfavorable manifestations influencing the reliability and safety of the structures were revealed, and, recommendations and measures were developed for their elimination.

  3. Residential and commercial space heating and cooling with possible greenhouse operation; Baca Grande development, San Luis Valley, Colorado. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Goering, S.W.; Garing, K.L.; Coury, G.E.; Fritzler, E.A.

    1980-05-01

    A feasibility study was performed to evaluate the potential of multipurpose applications of moderate-temperature geothermal waters in the vicinity of the Baca Grande community development in the San Luis Valley, Colorado. The project resource assessment, based on a thorough review of existing data, indicates that a substantial resource likely exists in the Baca Grande region capable of supporting residential and light industrial activity. Engineering designs were developed for geothermal district heating systems for space heating and domestic hot water heating for residences, including a mobile home park, an existing motel, a greenhouse complex, and other small commercial uses such as aquaculture. In addition, a thorough institutional analysis of the study area was performed to highlight factors which might pose barriers to the ultimate commercial development of the resource. Finally, an environmental evaluation of the possible impacts of the proposed action was also performed. The feasibility evaluation indicates the economics of the residential areas are dependent on the continued rate of housing construction. If essentially complete development could occur over a 30-year period, the economics are favorable as compared to existing alternatives. For the commercial area, the economics are good as compared to existing conventional energy sources. This is especially true as related to proposed greenhouse operations. The institutional and environmental analyses indicates that no significant barriers to development are apparent.

  4. 27 CFR 19.34 - Experimental or research operations by scientific institutions and colleges of learning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Experimental or research operations by scientific institutions and colleges of learning. 19.34 Section 19.34 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Administrative...

  5. Personal property at the Oak Ridge Operations Office and the Office of Scientific and Technical Information

    SciTech Connect

    1998-04-01

    The Oak Ridge Operations Office (Operations Office) and the Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI) are responsible for safeguarding and controlling personal property in their possession and in the possession of their contractors. Categories of personal property include vehicles, heavy mobile equipment, computers and software, office furniture and equipment, laboratory equipment, security and protection equipment, and shop equipment. The objective of this audit was to determine whether the Operations Office and OSTI adequately safeguarded and properly accounted for personal property in their possession and in the possession of their non-integrated contractors.

  6. Greenhouse gas emissions from swine operations: evaluation of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change approaches through meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Z; Powers, W; Liu, H

    2013-08-01

    The objective was to provide a systematic review of the literature on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from swine operations, with a meta-analysis that integrates results of independent studies. A total of 53 studies that measured GHG emissions from swine operations were included in the analyses. Results showed that the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) approaches were effective in estimating the overall CH4 and N2O emission levels from swine operations, but the variation of the measured emissions is not adequately captured. An overestimation by the IPCC approaches for CH4 emissions was observed for swine buildings with pit systems in European studies and the average percentage relative difference (PRD) between the measured and the IPCC values is -21.1%. The observed CH4 emissions from lagoons were lower than the IPCC estimated values and the average PRD is -33.9%. In North American studies the observed N2O emission factors for swine buildings with pit systems were significantly lower than the IPCC default values whereas in European studies they were significantly greater than the IPCC default values. The measured CH4 and N2O emissions were significantly affected by stage of production (P = 0.05 and <0.01, respectively) and geographic regions (P = 0.04 and 0.02, respectively). The IPCC approaches were effective in simulating the effect of temperature on CH4 emissions from outdoor slurry storage facilities whereas they could overestimate CH4 emissions from lagoons at low temperatures. The CH4 emissions from pits inside swine buildings were not significantly affected by average ambient temperatures. A positive relationship between diet CP content and CH4 emissions was confirmed in the meta-analysis. The obtained knowledge can be helpful in efforts to improve estimation of GHG emissions from swine operations.

  7. Addressing the unique safety and design concerns for operating tower-based scientific field campaigns.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steele, A. C.

    2006-12-01

    Scientific field campaigns often require specialized technical infrastructure for data collection. NASA's LBA- ECO Science Team needed a network of towers, up to 65 meters in height, to be constructed in the Amazon forest to serve as platforms for instrumentation used to estimate carbon dioxide and trace gas fluxes between the forest and the atmosphere. The design, construction, and operation of these scientific towers represented unique challenges to the construction crews, the logistics support staff, and the scientists due to operational requirements beyond tower site norms. These included selection of safe sites at remote locations within a dense forest; building towers without damaging the natural environment; locating diesel generators so that exhaust would not contaminate the measurement area; performing maintenance on continuously energized towers so as not to interrupt data collection; training inexperienced climbers needing safe access to towers; and addressing unique safety concerns (e.g. venomous animal response, chainsaw safety, off road driving). To meet the challenges of the complex field site, a comprehensive safety and site operation model was designed to ensure that NASA field safety standards were met, even under extreme conditions in the remote forests of the Amazon. The model includes all phases of field site safety and operation, including site design, construction, operational practices and policies, and personnel safety training. This operational model was employed over eight years, supporting a team of nearly 400 scientists, making several thousand site visits, without loss of life or major injury. The presentation will explore these concerns and present a model for comprehensive safety plans for NASA field missions.

  8. The Greenhouse Effect: Science and Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneider, Stephen H.

    1989-01-01

    Discusses many of the scientific questions surrounding the greenhouse effect debate and the issue of plausible responses. Discussion includes topics concerning projecting emissions and greenhouse gas concentrations, estimating global climatic response, economic, social, and political impacts, and policy responses. (RT)

  9. Operation redwing: Report to the scientific director. Timing and firing (sanitized version)

    SciTech Connect

    1996-10-29

    Task Unit 5 (YU-5) was organized to accomplish the following tasks during Operation Redwing (May - June 1956): (1) To supply timing signals and voice count-down to meet the principal requirements of the experimental programs; (2) To supply the arming and firing pulses to the devices tested; (3) To furnish personnel as members of the arming and firing parties; (4) To provide and maintain the Task Group 7.1 (TG 7.1) short-range commercial radio communications at Bikini and Eniwetok atolls; and (5) To perform such scientific measurements and photography as provided for under existing contractual agreements.

  10. Passive-solar greenhouse

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-01-01

    Our project objective was to design, construct, and operate a commercialized (16' x 50') passive, solar greenhouse. The structure was originally intended as a vegetable forcing facility to produce vegetable crops in the off-season. Building and size constraints and economic considerations convinced us to use the greenhouse for producing bedding plants and vegetable starts in the spring, high value vegetables (tomatoes, cucumbers) in the fall and forced bulbs in the winter. This crop sequence allows us to use the greenhouse all year without additional heat as the crops are adopted to the temperature regime of the greenhouse during each particular season. In our first season, the greenhouse performed beautifully. The lowest temperature recorded was 38/sup 0/F after 4 cold, cloudy days in February. The production of bedding plants has allowed us to diversify our products and the early transplants we produced were a great asset to our vegetable farming operation. Although construction cost (4.57 sq. ft.) is higher than that of a conventional polyethylene-covered, quonset-type greenhouse (approx. $1.92 sq. ft.), our annual operating cost is cheaper than that of a conventional greenhouse (0.49 cents sq. ft. versus 0.67 cents sq. ft.) due to a longer usable lifetime of the structure and the elimination of heating costs. Our structure has been toured by interested individuals, school and farm groups. We plan to publicize the structure and its advantages by promoting more visits to the site.

  11. DOE High Performance Computing Operational Review (HPCOR): Enabling Data-Driven Scientific Discovery at HPC Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Gerber, Richard; Allcock, William; Beggio, Chris; Campbell, Stuart; Cherry, Andrew; Cholia, Shreyas; Dart, Eli; England, Clay; Fahey, Tim; Foertter, Fernanda; Goldstone, Robin; Hick, Jason; Karelitz, David; Kelly, Kaki; Monroe, Laura; Prabhat,; Skinner, David; White, Julia

    2014-10-17

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) High Performance Computing (HPC) facilities are on the verge of a paradigm shift in the way they deliver systems and services to science and engineering teams. Research projects are producing a wide variety of data at unprecedented scale and level of complexity, with community-specific services that are part of the data collection and analysis workflow. On June 18-19, 2014 representatives from six DOE HPC centers met in Oakland, CA at the DOE High Performance Operational Review (HPCOR) to discuss how they can best provide facilities and services to enable large-scale data-driven scientific discovery at the DOE national laboratories. The report contains findings from that review.

  12. Engineering concepts for inflatable Mars surface greenhouses.

    PubMed

    Hublitz, I; Henninger, D L; Drake, B G; Eckart, P

    2004-01-01

    A major challenge of designing a bioregenerative life support system for Mars is the reduction of the mass, volume, power, thermal and crew-time requirements. Structural mass of the greenhouse could be saved by operating the greenhouse at low atmospheric pressure. This paper investigates the feasibility of this concept. The method of equivalent system mass is used to compare greenhouses operated at high atmospheric pressure to greenhouses operated at low pressure for three different lighting methods: natural, artificial and hybrid lighting.

  13. Residential and commercial space heating and cooling with possible greenhouse operation: Baca Grande development, San Luis Valley, Colorado

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goering, S. W.; Garing, K. L.; Coury, G. E.; Fritzler, E. A.

    1980-05-01

    A feasibility study was performed to evaluate the potential of multipurpose applications of moderate temperature geothermal waters in the vicinity of the Baca Grande community development in the San Luis Valley, Colorado. Engineering designs were developed for geothermal district heating systems for space heating and domestic hot water heating for residences, including a mobile home park, an existing motel, a greenhouse complex, and other small commercial uses such as aquaculture. In addition, a thorough institutional analysis of the study area was performed to highlight factors which might pose barriers to the ultimate commercial development of the resource. Finally, an environmental evaluation of the possible impacts of the proposed action was also performed. The institutional and environmental analyses indicate that no significant barriers to development are apparent.

  14. The Operation of a Specialized Scientific Information and Data Analysis Center With Computer Base and Associated Communications Network.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cottrell, William B.; And Others

    The Nuclear Safety Information Center (NSIC) is a highly sophisticated scientific information center operated at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) for the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission. Its information file, which consists of both data and bibliographic information, is computer stored and numerous programs have been developed to facilitate the…

  15. Greenhouse Gases

    MedlinePlus

    ... Greenhouse Gases Come From Outlook for Future Emissions Recycling and Energy Nonrenewable Sources Oil and Petroleum Products ... Power Wave Power Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion Biomass Wood and Wood Waste Waste-to-Energy (MSW) Landfill ...

  16. Solar greenhouse

    SciTech Connect

    Baldwin, R.E.

    1980-04-01

    A solar greenhouse is disclosed wherein plants are grown and utilized as collectors to absorb solar radiation and produce heat laden humidified air through the process of evapotranspiration. This humidified air is then further heated by solar energy. Energy is then extracted from the humidified air by cooling the air and condensing the water vapor within the air. The extracted heat can then be stored and utilized as required to heat the greenhouse and plants.

  17. Balancing effluent quality, economic cost and greenhouse gas emissions during the evaluation of (plant-wide) control/operational strategies in WWTPs.

    PubMed

    Flores-Alsina, Xavier; Arnell, Magnus; Amerlinck, Youri; Corominas, Lluís; Gernaey, Krist V; Guo, Lisha; Lindblom, Erik; Nopens, Ingmar; Porro, Jose; Shaw, Andy; Snip, Laura; Vanrolleghem, Peter A; Jeppsson, Ulf

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this paper was to show the potential additional insight that result from adding greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions to plant performance evaluation criteria, such as effluent quality (EQI) and operational cost (OCI) indices, when evaluating (plant-wide) control/operational strategies in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). The proposed GHG evaluation is based on a set of comprehensive dynamic models that estimate the most significant potential on-site and off-site sources of CO₂, CH₄ and N₂O. The study calculates and discusses the changes in EQI, OCI and the emission of GHGs as a consequence of varying the following four process variables: (i) the set point of aeration control in the activated sludge section; (ii) the removal efficiency of total suspended solids (TSS) in the primary clarifier; (iii) the temperature in the anaerobic digester; and (iv) the control of the flow of anaerobic digester supernatants coming from sludge treatment. Based upon the assumptions built into the model structures, simulation results highlight the potential undesirable effects of increased GHG production when carrying out local energy optimization of the aeration system in the activated sludge section and energy recovery from the AD. Although off-site CO₂ emissions may decrease, the effect is counterbalanced by increased N₂O emissions, especially since N₂O has a 300-fold stronger greenhouse effect than CO₂. The reported results emphasize the importance and usefulness of using multiple evaluation criteria to compare and evaluate (plant-wide) control strategies in a WWTP for more informed operational decision making.

  18. Balancing effluent quality, economic cost and greenhouse gas emissions during the evaluation of (plant-wide) control/operational strategies in WWTPs.

    PubMed

    Flores-Alsina, Xavier; Arnell, Magnus; Amerlinck, Youri; Corominas, Lluís; Gernaey, Krist V; Guo, Lisha; Lindblom, Erik; Nopens, Ingmar; Porro, Jose; Shaw, Andy; Snip, Laura; Vanrolleghem, Peter A; Jeppsson, Ulf

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this paper was to show the potential additional insight that result from adding greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions to plant performance evaluation criteria, such as effluent quality (EQI) and operational cost (OCI) indices, when evaluating (plant-wide) control/operational strategies in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). The proposed GHG evaluation is based on a set of comprehensive dynamic models that estimate the most significant potential on-site and off-site sources of CO₂, CH₄ and N₂O. The study calculates and discusses the changes in EQI, OCI and the emission of GHGs as a consequence of varying the following four process variables: (i) the set point of aeration control in the activated sludge section; (ii) the removal efficiency of total suspended solids (TSS) in the primary clarifier; (iii) the temperature in the anaerobic digester; and (iv) the control of the flow of anaerobic digester supernatants coming from sludge treatment. Based upon the assumptions built into the model structures, simulation results highlight the potential undesirable effects of increased GHG production when carrying out local energy optimization of the aeration system in the activated sludge section and energy recovery from the AD. Although off-site CO₂ emissions may decrease, the effect is counterbalanced by increased N₂O emissions, especially since N₂O has a 300-fold stronger greenhouse effect than CO₂. The reported results emphasize the importance and usefulness of using multiple evaluation criteria to compare and evaluate (plant-wide) control strategies in a WWTP for more informed operational decision making. PMID:23959217

  19. First Riser Logging in Scientific Ocean Drilling: Operational Planning and results/reality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanada, Yoshinori; Kyaw Thu, Moe; Kido, Yukari; Kawamura, Yoshihisa; Hino, Ryota; Eguchi, Nabuhisa; Toczko, Sean; Takahashi, Kyoma; 319 Science Party, Iodp

    2010-05-01

    distribution. The 16 sets of the no planned 3-C geophone are clumped with 15m spacing at ~1300-1600mbsf in the cased C0009 hole by Chikyu. Eight OBS (Ocean Bottom Seismometer)s deployed at the seafloor. JAMSTEC R/V Kairei shot along 53km line (maximum offset from the hole is ~30km) and round 3.5km circle with 16-array tuned air-gun. Zero-offset VSP was conducted to measure velocity and create seismogram along the well as well. Using high resolution data obtained from the equipment, detailed structural interpretation, anisotropy analysis, and shear velocity analysis are being carried out. Riser drilling takes not only operational advantages such as deeper and safety hole, but also scientific advantage such as increasing measurement items which has never done in riserless drilling and improving data quality. It enlarge the options to approach new discovery and Science.

  20. Sentinel-3 SAR Altimetry Toolbox - Scientific Exploitation of Operational Missions (SEOM) Program Element

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benveniste, Jérôme; Lucas, Bruno; Dinardo, Salvatore

    2014-05-01

    The prime objective of the SEOM (Scientific Exploitation of Operational Missions) element is to federate, support and expand the large international research community that the ERS, ENVISAT and the Envelope programmes have build up over the last 20 years for the future European operational Earth Observation missions, the Sentinels. Sentinel-3 builds directly on a proven heritage pioneered by ERS-1, ERS-2, Envisat and CryoSat-2, with a dual-frequency (Ku and C band) advanced Synthetic Aperture Radar Altimeter (SRAL) that provides measurements at a resolution of ~300m in SAR mode along track. Sentinel-3 will provide exact measurements of sea-surface height along with accurate topography measurements over sea ice, ice sheets, rivers and lakes. The first of the Sentinel-3 series is planned for launch in early 2015. The current universal altimetry toolbox is BRAT (Basic Radar Altimetry Toolbox) which can read all previous and current altimetry mission's data, but it does not have the capabilities to read the upcoming Sentinel-3 L1 and L2 products. ESA will endeavour to develop and supply this capability to support the users of the future Sentinel-3 SAR Altimetry Mission. BRAT is a collection of tools and tutorial documents designed to facilitate the processing of radar altimetry data. This project started in 2005 from the joint efforts of ESA (European Space Agency) and CNES (Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales, the French Space Agency), and it is freely available at http://earth.esa.int/brat. The tools enable users to interact with the most common altimetry data formats, the BratGUI is the front-end for the powerful command line tools that are part of the BRAT suite. BRAT can also be used in conjunction with Matlab/IDL (via reading routines) or in C/C++/Fortran via a programming API, allowing the user to obtain desired data, bypassing the data-formatting hassle. BRAT can be used simply to visualise data quickly, or to translate the data into other formats such as net

  1. Sentinel-3 SAR Altimetry Toolbox - Scientific Exploitation of Operational Missions (SEOM) Program Element

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benveniste, Jérôme; Dinardo, Salvatore; Lucas, Bruno Manuel

    The prime objective of the SEOM (Scientific Exploitation of Operational Missions) element is to federate, support and expand the large international research community that the ERS, ENVISAT and the Envelope programmes have build up over the last 20 years for the future European operational Earth Observation missions, the Sentinels. Sentinel-3 builds directly on a proven heritage pioneered by ERS-1, ERS-2, Envisat and CryoSat-2, with a dual-frequency (Ku and C band) advanced Synthetic Aperture Radar Altimeter (SRAL) that provides measurements at a resolution of ~300m in SAR mode along track. Sentinel-3 will provide exact measurements of sea-surface height along with accurate topography measurements over sea ice, ice sheets, rivers and lakes. The first of the Sentinel-3 series is planned for launch in early 2015. The current universal altimetry toolbox is BRAT (Basic Radar Altimetry Toolbox) which can read all previous and current altimetry mission’s data, but it does not have the capabilities to read the upcoming Sentinel-3 L1 and L2 products. ESA will endeavour to develop and supply this capability to support the users of the future Sentinel-3 SAR Altimetry Mission. BRAT is a collection of tools and tutorial documents designed to facilitate the processing of radar altimetry data. This project started in 2005 from the joint efforts of ESA (European Space Agency) and CNES (Centre National d’Etudes Spatiales, the French Space Agency), and it is freely available at http://earth.esa.int/brat. The tools enable users to interact with the most common altimetry data formats, the BratGUI is the front-end for the powerful command line tools that are part of the BRAT suite. BRAT can also be used in conjunction with Matlab/IDL (via reading routines) or in C/C++/Fortran via a programming API, allowing the user to obtain desired data, bypassing the data-formatting hassle. BRAT can be used simply to visualise data quickly, or to translate the data into other formats such as

  2. [August Gottlieb Richter: urological aspects of his comprehensive operative and scientific work].

    PubMed

    Seifert, D

    2013-06-01

    August Gottlieb Richter (1742-1812) was one of the most distinguished surgeons in the second half of the eighteenth century. In this article his life and scientific career during an age shaken by wars and radical changes are described. Particular attention is paid to his achievements as a doctor, teacher and scientific author. The latter activity finds its foremost expression in the"Chirurgische Bibliothek" ("Surgical library"), a practice-oriented scientific journal, as well as in his later work"Anfangsgründe der Wundarzneykunst" ("Elements of wound surgery"). This article concentrates on the urological aspects of his work and compares these aspects with contemporary publications. Particular emphasis is placed on Richter's dispute about fashionable medical trends typical for that era as well as his culture of criticism and self-criticism.

  3. Deployment of precise and robust sensors on board ISS-for scientific experiments and for operation of the station.

    PubMed

    Stenzel, Christian

    2016-09-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) is the largest technical vehicle ever built by mankind. It provides a living area for six astronauts and also represents a laboratory in which scientific experiments are conducted in an extraordinary environment. The deployed sensor technology contributes significantly to the operational and scientific success of the station. The sensors on board the ISS can be thereby classified into two categories which differ significantly in their key features: (1) sensors related to crew and station health, and (2) sensors to provide specific measurements in research facilities. The operation of the station requires robust, long-term stable and reliable sensors, since they assure the survival of the astronauts and the intactness of the station. Recently, a wireless sensor network for measuring environmental parameters like temperature, pressure, and humidity was established and its function could be successfully verified over several months. Such a network enhances the operational reliability and stability for monitoring these critical parameters compared to single sensors. The sensors which are implemented into the research facilities have to fulfil other objectives. The high performance of the scientific experiments that are conducted in different research facilities on-board demands the perfect embedding of the sensor in the respective instrumental setup which forms the complete measurement chain. It is shown that the performance of the single sensor alone does not determine the success of the measurement task; moreover, the synergy between different sensors and actuators as well as appropriate sample taking, followed by an appropriate sample preparation play an essential role. The application in a space environment adds additional challenges to the sensor technology, for example the necessity for miniaturisation, automation, reliability, and long-term operation. An alternative is the repetitive calibration of the sensors. This approach

  4. Deployment of precise and robust sensors on board ISS-for scientific experiments and for operation of the station.

    PubMed

    Stenzel, Christian

    2016-09-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) is the largest technical vehicle ever built by mankind. It provides a living area for six astronauts and also represents a laboratory in which scientific experiments are conducted in an extraordinary environment. The deployed sensor technology contributes significantly to the operational and scientific success of the station. The sensors on board the ISS can be thereby classified into two categories which differ significantly in their key features: (1) sensors related to crew and station health, and (2) sensors to provide specific measurements in research facilities. The operation of the station requires robust, long-term stable and reliable sensors, since they assure the survival of the astronauts and the intactness of the station. Recently, a wireless sensor network for measuring environmental parameters like temperature, pressure, and humidity was established and its function could be successfully verified over several months. Such a network enhances the operational reliability and stability for monitoring these critical parameters compared to single sensors. The sensors which are implemented into the research facilities have to fulfil other objectives. The high performance of the scientific experiments that are conducted in different research facilities on-board demands the perfect embedding of the sensor in the respective instrumental setup which forms the complete measurement chain. It is shown that the performance of the single sensor alone does not determine the success of the measurement task; moreover, the synergy between different sensors and actuators as well as appropriate sample taking, followed by an appropriate sample preparation play an essential role. The application in a space environment adds additional challenges to the sensor technology, for example the necessity for miniaturisation, automation, reliability, and long-term operation. An alternative is the repetitive calibration of the sensors. This approach

  5. Epistemic Operations and Formalized Epistemology: Contribution to the Study of the Role of Epistemic Operations in Scientific Theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paty, Michel

    We ponder the kind of problems and perspectives of a "formalized epistemology", by considering the advantages than one get from a concern with the "formal", with its structural orientation, that would favour comprehensive, unifying and synthetic, intelligibility. We confront this perspective with that of the changes in knowledge, considering the relation between form and meaning for knowledge contents, and examine the notion of "epistemic operation" as instrumental for creating new forms, at the theoretical and meta-theoretical levels. Actually, the notions of form, of formal and of object are not independent of the problem of a subject that decides on conventions and choices. "Epistemic operations" might suggest a link with "algorithmic functions" for knowledge statements, that themselves entail the risk of reductionism in a naturalistic conception of representation.

  6. A scientific operations plan for the NASA space telescope. [ground support systems, project planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    West, D. K.; Costa, S. R.

    1975-01-01

    A ground system is described which is compatible with the operational requirements of the space telescope. The goal of the ground system is to minimize the cost of post launch operations without seriously compromising the quality and total throughput of space telescope science, or jeopardizing the safety of the space telescope in orbit. The resulting system is able to accomplish this goal through optimum use of existing and planned resources and institutional facilities. Cost is also reduced and efficiency in operation increased by drawing on existing experience in interfacing guest astronomers with spacecraft as well as mission control experience obtained in the operation of present astronomical spacecraft.

  7. From scientific understanding to operational utility: New concepts and tools for monitoring space weather effects on satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, J. C.; Rodriguez, J. V.; Denig, W. F.; Redmon, R. J.; Blake, J. B.; Mazur, J. E.; Fennell, J. F.; O'Brien, T. P.; Guild, T. B.; Claudepierre, S. G.; Singer, H. J.; Onsager, T. G.; Wilkinson, D. C.

    2013-12-01

    NOAA space weather sensors have monitored the near Earth space radiation environment for more than three decades providing one of the only long-term records of these energetic particles that can disable satellites and pose a threat to astronauts. These data have demonstrated their value for operations for decades, but they are also invaluable for scientific discovery. Here we describe the development of new NOAA tools for assessing radiation impacts to satellites and astronauts working in space. In particular, we discuss the new system implemented for processing and delivering near real time particle radiation data from the POES/MetOp satellites. We also describe the development of new radiation belt indices from the POES/MetOp data that capture significant global changes in the environment needed for operational decision making. Lastly, we investigate the physical processes responsible for dramatic changes of the inner proton belt region and the potential consequences these new belts may have for satellite operations.

  8. Overview of global greenhouse effects

    SciTech Connect

    Reck, R.A.

    1993-09-01

    This report reviews the factors that influence the evolution of climate and climate change. Recent studies have confirmed that CO{sub 2}, O{sub 3}, N{sub 2}O, CH{sub 4}, and chlorofluorocarbos are increasing in abundance in the atmosphere and can alter the radiation balance by means of the so-called greenhouse effect. The greenhouse effect is as well-accepted phenomenon, but the prediction of its consequences is much less certain. Attempts to detect a human-caused temperature change are still inconclusive. This report presents a discussion of the scientific basis for the greenhouse effect, its relationship to the abundances of greenhouse gases, and the evidence confirming the increases in the abundances. The basis for climate modeling is presented together with an example of the model outputs from one of the most sophisticated modeling efforts. Uncertainties in the present understanding of climate are outlined.

  9. Scientific management of Mediterranean coastal zone: a hybrid ocean forecasting system for oil spill and search and rescue operations.

    PubMed

    Jordi, A; Ferrer, M I; Vizoso, G; Orfila, A; Basterretxea, G; Casas, B; Alvarez, A; Roig, D; Garau, B; Martínez, M; Fernández, V; Fornés, A; Ruiz, M; Fornós, J J; Balaguer, P; Duarte, C M; Rodríguez, I; Alvarez, E; Onken, R; Orfila, P; Tintoré, J

    2006-01-01

    The oil spill from Prestige tanker showed the importance of scientifically based protocols to minimize the impacts on the environment. In this work, we describe a new forecasting system to predict oil spill trajectories and their potential impacts on the coastal zone. The system is formed of three main interconnected modules that address different capabilities: (1) an operational circulation sub-system that includes nested models at different scales, data collection with near-real time assimilation, new tools for initialization or assimilation based on genetic algorithms and feature-oriented strategic sampling; (2) an oil spill coastal sub-system that allows simulation of the trajectories and fate of spilled oil together with evaluation of coastal zone vulnerability using environmental sensitivity indexes; (3) a risk management sub-system for decision support based on GIS technology. The system is applied to the Mediterranean Sea where surface currents are highly variable in space and time, and interactions between local, sub-basin and basin scale increase the non-linear interactions effects which need to be adequately resolved at each one of the intervening scales. Besides the Mediterranean Sea is a complex reduced scale ocean representing a real scientific and technological challenge for operational oceanography and particularly for oil spill response and search and rescue operations.

  10. The Virtual Geophysics Laboratory (VGL): Scientific Workflows Operating Across Organizations and Across Infrastructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cox, S. J.; Wyborn, L. A.; Fraser, R.; Rankine, T.; Woodcock, R.; Vote, J.; Evans, B.

    2012-12-01

    The Virtual Geophysics Laboratory (VGL) is web portal that provides geoscientists with an integrated online environment that: seamlessly accesses geophysical and geoscience data services from the AuScope national geoscience information infrastructure; loosely couples these data to a variety of gesocience software tools; and provides large scale processing facilities via cloud computing. VGL is a collaboration between CSIRO, Geoscience Australia, National Computational Infrastructure, Monash University, Australian National University and the University of Queensland. The VGL provides a distributed system whereby a user can enter an online virtual laboratory to seamlessly connect to OGC web services for geoscience data. The data is supplied in open standards formats using international standards like GeoSciML. A VGL user uses a web mapping interface to discover and filter the data sources using spatial and attribute filters to define a subset. Once the data is selected the user is not required to download the data. VGL collates the service query information for later in the processing workflow where it will be staged directly to the computing facilities. The combination of deferring data download and access to Cloud computing enables VGL users to access their data at higher resolutions and to undertake larger scale inversions, more complex models and simulations than their own local computing facilities might allow. Inside the Virtual Geophysics Laboratory, the user has access to a library of existing models, complete with exemplar workflows for specific scientific problems based on those models. For example, the user can load a geological model published by Geoscience Australia, apply a basic deformation workflow provided by a CSIRO scientist, and have it run in a scientific code from Monash. Finally the user can publish these results to share with a colleague or cite in a paper. This opens new opportunities for access and collaboration as all the resources (models

  11. Operational Philosophy for the Advanced Test Reactor National Scientific User Facility

    SciTech Connect

    J. Benson; J. Cole; J. Jackson; F. Marshall; D. Ogden; J. Rempe; M. C. Thelen

    2013-02-01

    In 2007, the Department of Energy (DOE) designated the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) as a National Scientific User Facility (NSUF). At its core, the ATR NSUF Program combines access to a portion of the available ATR radiation capability, the associated required examination and analysis facilities at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL), and INL staff expertise with novel ideas provided by external contributors (universities, laboratories, and industry). These collaborations define the cutting edge of nuclear technology research in high-temperature and radiation environments, contribute to improved industry performance of current and future light-water reactors (LWRs), and stimulate cooperative research between user groups conducting basic and applied research. To make possible the broadest access to key national capability, the ATR NSUF formed a partnership program that also makes available access to critical facilities outside of the INL. Finally, the ATR NSUF has established a sample library that allows access to pre-irradiated samples as needed by national research teams.

  12. ``The ESA XMM-Newton Science Operations Centre: Making Basic Space Science Available to the Whole Scientific World''

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabriel, Carlos; Guainazzi, Matteo; Metcalfe, Leo

    2006-12-01

    XMM-Newton is a major X-ray observatory of the European Space Agency (ESA). Its observing time is open to astronomers from the whole scientific community on a peer reviewed competitive basis. The Science Operations Centre, located at ESA’s premises in Villafranca del Castillo, Spain, is responsible for the instrument operations, as well as for all the tasks related to facilitating the scientific exploitation of the data which the mission has been producing since its launch in December 1999. Among them, one may list: distribution of scientific data in different formats, from raw telemetry, up to processed and calibrated high-level science products, such as images, spectra, source lists, etc; development and distribution of dedicated science analysis software, as well as of continuously updated instrument calibration; regular organisation of training workshops (free of cost), for potential users of XMM-Newton data, where the procedures and techniques to successfully reduce and analyze XMM-Newton data are introduced; access to the data through state-of-the-art, in-house-developed archival facilities, either through the Internet or via CD-ROM; continuously updated documentation on all aspects of spacecraft and instrument operations, data reduction and analysis; maintenance of a comprehensive set of project web pages; a competent and responsive HelpDesk, providing dedicated support to individual XMM-Newton users. Everyone can be an XMM-Newton observer. So far, astronomers from 36 countries submitted observing programs. Public data can be accessed by every scientist in the world through the XMM-Newton Science Archive (XSA). Despite

  13. [Evaluation indices of greenhouse gas mitigation technologies in cropland ecosystem].

    PubMed

    Li, Jian-zheng; Wang, Ying-chun; Wang, Li-gang; Li, Hu; Qiu, Jian-jun; Wang, Dao-long

    2015-01-01

    In spite of the increasing studies on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions mitigation technologies, there is still a lack of systematic indices for evaluation of their overall impacts in croplands. In this study, we collected all the indices relating to greenhouse gas emissions and analyzed each index following the principles of representativeness, objectivity, completeness, dominance and operability. Finally, we proposed evaluation indices for mitigation technologies based on the current situation of China. Crop yield per unit area was proposed as a constrained index, and greenhouse gas emissions intensity, defined as GHG emissions per unit of produced yield, was proposed as comprehensive index to evaluate the greenhouse effect of various croplands mitigation technologies. Calculation of GHG emissions intensity involved yield, change of soil organic carbon, direct N2O emissions, paddy CH4 emissions and direct and indirect emissions from inputs into croplands. By following these evaluation indices, the greenhouse effect of the technologies could be well evaluated, which could provide scientific basis for their further adoption.

  14. [Evaluation indices of greenhouse gas mitigation technologies in cropland ecosystem].

    PubMed

    Li, Jian-zheng; Wang, Ying-chun; Wang, Li-gang; Li, Hu; Qiu, Jian-jun; Wang, Dao-long

    2015-01-01

    In spite of the increasing studies on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions mitigation technologies, there is still a lack of systematic indices for evaluation of their overall impacts in croplands. In this study, we collected all the indices relating to greenhouse gas emissions and analyzed each index following the principles of representativeness, objectivity, completeness, dominance and operability. Finally, we proposed evaluation indices for mitigation technologies based on the current situation of China. Crop yield per unit area was proposed as a constrained index, and greenhouse gas emissions intensity, defined as GHG emissions per unit of produced yield, was proposed as comprehensive index to evaluate the greenhouse effect of various croplands mitigation technologies. Calculation of GHG emissions intensity involved yield, change of soil organic carbon, direct N2O emissions, paddy CH4 emissions and direct and indirect emissions from inputs into croplands. By following these evaluation indices, the greenhouse effect of the technologies could be well evaluated, which could provide scientific basis for their further adoption. PMID:25985682

  15. Mission operation center of the Lavochkin scientific production association: Work with the interorbital space booster "Fregat"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kazakevich, Yu. V.; Zefirov, I. V.

    2015-12-01

    This article reviews the history of the Lavochkin Association Mission Operation Center (Laspace MOC), the reasons for its building, purposes and objectives to support Fregat multipurpose rocket booster (FMRB) launch tracking, as well as the basic principles of information exchange. Hardware and software are described in detail.

  16. An operational near-space ballooncraft constellation for scientific and commercial use

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frische, E.

    The long lead times and high costs of placing satellites in orbit has led both the commercial industry and researchers to look for alternative platforms for their payloads For missions where the primary requirement is a wide geographical view or where placement above most of the earth s atmosphere is critical an alternative exists Lighter than air LTA systems operating in the near space or stratospheric environment can fill these requirements at a fraction of the cost of traditional space-borne systems Stratospheric LTA systems provide the additional benefits of payload recovery improved link budget adjustable altitudes and significantly reduced launch schedules In order to exploit these advantages Space Data Corporation has developed and placed in operation a stratospheric LTA constellation of free drifting ballooncraft This operational commercial system utilizes weather balloons to carry small telecommunications packages at controlled altitudes of 20 to 38 km The ballooncraft called SkySite mbox textregistered Platforms operate as a controlled constellation to provide wireless telecommunications coverage in remote regions currently not covered by terrestrial wireless systems Over 8000 SkySite mbox textregistered Platforms have been launched in support of this mission to date The SkySite mbox textregistered Constellation is designed to be extremely mission flexible and has been used for missions including earth imagery weather data collection and military communications The

  17. Children's Scientific Curiosity: In Search of an Operational Definition of an Elusive Concept

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jirout, Jamie; Klahr, David

    2012-01-01

    Although curiosity is an undeniably important aspect of children's cognitive development, a universally accepted operational definition of children's curiosity does not exist. Almost all of the research on measuring curiosity has focused on adults, and has used predominately questionnaire-type measures that are not appropriate for young children.…

  18. Engineering concepts for inflatable Mars surface greenhouses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hublitz, I.; Henninger, D. L.; Drake, B. G.; Eckart, P.

    2004-01-01

    A major challenge of designing a bioregenerative life support system for Mars is the reduction of the mass, volume, power, thermal and crew-time requirements. Structural mass of the greenhouse could be saved by operating the greenhouse at low atmospheric pressure. This paper investigates the feasibility of this concept. The method of equivalent system mass is used to compare greenhouses operated at high atmospheric pressure to greenhouses operated at low pressure for three different lighting methods: natural, artificial and hybrid lighting. c2004 COSPAR. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Engineering concepts for inflatable Mars surface greenhouses.

    PubMed

    Hublitz, I; Henninger, D L; Drake, B G; Eckart, P

    2004-01-01

    A major challenge of designing a bioregenerative life support system for Mars is the reduction of the mass, volume, power, thermal and crew-time requirements. Structural mass of the greenhouse could be saved by operating the greenhouse at low atmospheric pressure. This paper investigates the feasibility of this concept. The method of equivalent system mass is used to compare greenhouses operated at high atmospheric pressure to greenhouses operated at low pressure for three different lighting methods: natural, artificial and hybrid lighting. PMID:15846884

  20. From Arctic greenhouse to icehouse: the Cenozoic development of the West Greenland-Baffin Bay margin and the case for scientific drilling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knutz, Paul; Gregersen, Ulrik; Hopper, John R.; Dybkjær, Karen; Nøhr-Hansen, Henrik; Sheldon, Emma; Huuse, Mads

    2016-04-01

    of Baffin Bay was drilled in 1985 during ODP leg 105 (site 645) and remains the only cored section of the upper Cenozoic in the region. Scientific drilling of the sedimentary units on the NW Greenland margin would provide new insights into the climatic evolution of the Arctic region and, specifically, the factors that influence the growth and variability of the Greenland Ice Sheet. In favour of an IODP drilling campaign is the near-seabed position of the slightly dipping Neogene strata (a result of ice-scouring and tectonics), meaning that an overlapping stratigraphy could be achieved by drilling to limited depths, e.g. 200-400 m.

  1. Does attainment of Piaget's formal operational level of cognitive development predict student understanding of scientific models?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lahti, Richard Dennis, II

    Knowledge of scientific models and their uses is a concept that has become a key benchmark in many of the science standards of the past 30 years, including the proposed Next Generation Science Standards. Knowledge of models is linked to other important nature of science concepts such as theory change which are also rising in prominence in newer standards. Effective methods of instruction will need to be developed to enable students to achieve these standards. The literature reveals an inconsistent history of success with modeling education. These same studies point to a possible cognitive development component which might explain why some students succeeded and others failed. An environmental science course, rich in modeling experiences, was used to test both the extent to which knowledge of models and modeling could be improved over the course of one semester, and more importantly, to identify if cognitive ability was related to this improvement. In addition, nature of science knowledge, particularly related to theories and theory change, was also examined. Pretest and posttest results on modeling (SUMS) and nature of science (SUSSI), as well as data from the modeling activities themselves, was collected. Cognitive ability was measured (CTSR) as a covariate. Students' gain in six of seven categories of modeling knowledge was at least medium (Cohen's d >.5) and moderately correlated to CTSR for two of seven categories. Nature of science gains were smaller, although more strongly correlated with CTSR. Student success at creating a model was related to CTSR, significantly in three of five sub-categories. These results suggest that explicit, reflective experience with models can increase student knowledge of models and modeling (although higher cognitive ability students may have more success), but successfully creating models may depend more heavily on cognitive ability. This finding in particular has implications in the grade placement of modeling standards and

  2. WISSARD at Subglacial Lake Whillans, West Antarctica:scientific operations and initial observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tulaczyk, S. M.; Mikucki, J.; Siegfried, M. R.; Priscu, J. C.; Barcheck, C. G.; Beem, L.; Behar, A.; Burnett, J.; Christner, B. C.; Fisher, A. T.; Fricker, H. A.; Mankoff, K. D.; Powell, R. D.; Rack, F. R.; Sampson, D.; Scherer, R. P.; Schwartz, S. Y.

    2014-12-01

    Subglacial Lake Whillans (SLW) is a shallow subglacial water reservoir covered by 800m of ice. A custom-built hot-water drill was used to access SLW in a microbiologically clean way in late January 2013. Lake access for sampling and in-situ measurements was maintained for a total of 3 days. We deployed an array of scientific tools through a large diameter borehole: a downhole camera, a conductivity-temperature-depth (CTD) probe, a Niskin water sampler, an in situ filtration unit, three different sediment corers, a geothermal probe and a geophysical sensor string. We confirm the existence of a subglacial water body whose presence was inferred from satellite altimetry and surface geophysics. Subglacial water is about two orders of magnitude less saline than sea water (0.37-0.41 psu vs 35 psu) and two orders of magnitude more saline than pure drill meltwater (<0.002 psu). It reaches a minimum temperature of -0.55 degrees C, consistent with depression of the freezing point by pressure from ca. 800m of ice. Subglacial remained turbid throughout the observation period. The recovered sediment cores contained a macroscopically structureless diamicton with shear strength between 2 and 6 kPa. Our recommendation for future subglacial access through water-filled boreholes in cold ice is to supply heat to the top of the borehole to keep it from freezing. Development of a centimeters-thick ice layer on top of the borehole water column prevented deployment of some light borehole tools.

  3. Climate Change and Greenhouse Gases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ledley, Tamara S.; Sundquist, Eric; Schwartz, Stephen; Hall, Dorothy K.; Fellows, Jack; Killeen, Timothy

    1999-01-01

    The American Geophysical Union (AGU), as a scientific organization devoted to research on the Earth and space sciences, provides current scientific information to the public on issues pertinent to geophysics. The Council of the AGU approved a position statement on Climate Change and Greenhouse Gases in December 1998. The statement, together with a short summary of the procedures that were followed in its preparation, review, and adoption were published in the February 2, 1999 issue of Eos ([AGU, 1999]. The present article reviews scientific understanding of this issue as presented in peer-reviewed publications that serves as the underlying basis of the position statement.

  4. Greenhouse Earth: A Traveling Exhibition

    SciTech Connect

    Booth, W.H.; Caesar, S.

    1992-09-01

    The Franklin Institute Science Museum provided an exhibit entitled the Greenhouse Earth: A Traveling Exhibition. This 3500 square-foot exhibit on global climate change was developed in collaboration with the Association of Science-Technology Centers. The exhibit opened at The Franklin Institute on February 14, 1992, welcoming 291,000 visitors over its three-month stay. During its three-year tour, Greenhouse Earth will travel to ten US cities, reaching two million visitors. Greenhouse Earth aims to deepen public understanding of the scientific issues of global warming and the conservation measures that can be taken to slow its effects. The exhibit features hands-on exhibitry, interactive computer programs and videos, a theater production, a demonstration cart,'' guided tours, and lectures. supplemental educational programs at the Institute included a teachers preview, a symposium on climate change, and a satellite field trip.'' The development of Greenhouse Earth included front-end and formative evaluation procedures. Evaluation includes interviews with visitors, prototypes, and summative surveys for participating museums. During its stay in Philadelphia, Greenhouse Earth was covered by the local and national press, with reviews in print and broadcast media. Greenhouse Earth is the first large-scale museum exhibit to address global climate change.

  5. A Critical Review of Sentinel-3 Metadata for Scientific and Operational Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pons Fernandez, Xavier; Zabala Torres, Alaitz; Domingo Marimon, Cristina

    2015-12-01

    Sentinel-3 is a mission designed for Copernicus/GMES to ensure long term collection of data of uniform quality, generated and delivered in an operational manner for several sea and land applications. This paper considers and makes a critical review of the data and metadata which will be distributed as Sentinel-3 OLCI, SLSTR and SYN products, evaluating this information according to the specifications, guidelines and characteristics described by the International Organization of Standardization, ISO. The paper reviews the data and metadata currently included on the Test Data Set, provided by ESA and points out recommendations both to increase metadata usability and to avoid metadata misunderstanding. Moreover, some recommendation of how this data and metadata should be encoded are included on the paper, making special emphasis on “ISO-19115-1: Fundamentals” and “ISO-19115-2: Extensions for imagery and gridded data”, “ISO-19139: XML schema implementation” and “ISO-19157: Data quality” (quality elements). Proposals related to quality derived from the GeoViQua FP7 project are also indicated.

  6. Diffusion and adoption of an efficient, integrated alternative energy system: a producer gas-solar greenhouse for farmstead operation. Final technical report, September 1, 1980-October 1983

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, G.T.

    1983-10-10

    The Department of Energy awarded College of the Siskiyous a grant to provide a demonstration project that coordinated a variety of energy-related technologies: a 100-foot, two-podded solar greenhouse, a producer gas generator fired by wood chips, thermal storage devices (fish tanks, water filled drums, hydroponic reservoirs), and a group of related activities: alcohol fuels production with the carbon dioxide by-product being used in one pod of the greenhouse; growing small meat animals who would eat greens from the facility, would provide manure for the gardens, and would put off some heat for the facility; tank fish farming; an eleven acre appropriate technology homestead which would surround the greenhouse. At the time of this report, the greenhouse has been completed though devices (fans, stoves, louvers, shades)to minimize temperature shifts continue to be developed. The producer gas generator has had problems with tar buildup which gum up engines. Rather than running a motor off the unit to produce electricity for the greenhouse, the unit is being used to demonstrate how wood gasification can be used to run motors which in turn can be used to run generators, automobiles, etc. The facility is being used to experiment with a variety of growing periods, conditions, and materials.

  7. Greenhouse gases and greenhouse effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chilingar, G. V.; Sorokhtin, O. G.; Khilyuk, L.; Gorfunkel, M. V.

    2009-09-01

    Conventional theory of global warming states that heating of atmosphere occurs as a result of accumulation of CO2 and CH4 in atmosphere. The writers show that rising concentration of CO2 should result in the cooling of climate. The methane accumulation has no essential effect on the Earth’s climate. Even significant releases of the anthropogenic carbon dioxide into the atmosphere do not change average parameters of the Earth’s heat regime and the atmospheric greenhouse effect. Moreover, CO2 concentration increase in the atmosphere results in rising agricultural productivity and improves the conditions for reforestation. Thus, accumulation of small additional amounts of carbon dioxide and methane in the atmosphere as a result of anthropogenic activities has practically no effect on the Earth’s climate.

  8. The greenhouse gambit

    SciTech Connect

    Dogan, D. . Environmental Information Service)

    1992-01-01

    While forecasts of the economic costs and benefits of ameliorating global warming remain speculative, so, too, are the climate change projections that gird the debate. The consensus among most of the scientific community is that a doubling of atmospheric carbon dioxide is likely to raise the mean global temperature of the Earth 3 to 8 degrees Fahrenheit by 2050. To put this forecast in some perspective, the planet was about 10 degrees cooler during the last Great Ice Age and about 10 degrees warmer dozing the Age of the Dinsosaurs. Accordingly, the warming could bring about dramatic changes in climate. But a prudent investor must be careful not to invest too much in pat assumptions about the greenhouse effect. The climate may have many surprises in store. Indeed, it has surprised climate forecasters already by not warming nearly as fast as their general circulation models have suggested it would. This book examines four industries with the most at stake in the greenhouse debate: agriculture, forest products, automobiles and electric power. All of these industries essentially face two choices: Act now to blunt the possible momentum of climate change, or wait and see if the basic forecast is correct, accommodating any change as it occurs. These choices involve a trade-off between further information-gathering to ensure a proper course of action and implementing a strategy, quickly to its intended effect. Such a trade-off is the essence of risk, the stuff of investing. For the purposes of this book, it defines the greenhouse gambit.''

  9. Towards a Global Greenhouse Gas Information System (GHGIS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duren, Riley; Butler, James; Rotman, Doug; Miller, Charles; Decola, Phil; Sheffner, Edwin; Tucker, Compton; Mitchiner, John; Jonietz, Karl; Dimotakis, Paul

    2010-05-01

    Over the next few years, an increasing number of entities ranging from international, national, and regional governments, to businesses and private land-owners, are likely to become more involved in efforts to limit atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases. In such a world, geospatially resolved information about the location, amount, and rate of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions will be needed, as well as the stocks and flows of all forms of carbon through terrestrial ecosystems and in the oceans. The ability to implement policies that limit GHG concentrations would be enhanced by a global, open, and transparent greenhouse gas information system (GHGIS). An operational and scientifically robust GHGIS would combine ground-based and space-based observations, carbon-cycle modeling, GHG inventories, meta-analysis, and an extensive data integration and distribution system, to provide information about sources, sinks, and fluxes of greenhouse gases at policy-relevant temporal and spatial scales. The GHGIS effort was initiated in 2008 as a grassroots inter-agency collaboration intended to rigorously identify the needs for such a system, assess the capabilities of current assets, and suggest priorities for future research and development. We will present a status of the GHGIS effort including our latest analysis and ideas for potential near-term pilot projects with potential relevance to European initiatives including the Global Monitoring for Environment and Security (GMES) and the Integrated Carbon Observing System (ICOS).

  10. Gardening with Greenhouses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keeler, Rusty

    2010-01-01

    Greenhouses come in all shapes, sizes, and price ranges: from simple hand-built plastic-covered frames to dazzling geodesic domes. Some child care centers install greenhouses as a part of their outdoor garden space. Other centers have incorporated a greenhouse into the building itself. Greenhouses provide a great opportunity for children to grow…

  11. Developing strategies for automated remote plant production systems: Environmental control and monitoring of the Arthur Clarke Mars Greenhouse in the Canadian High Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bamsey, M.; Berinstain, A.; Graham, T.; Neron, P.; Giroux, R.; Braham, S.; Ferl, R.; Paul, A.-L.; Dixon, M.

    2009-12-01

    The Arthur Clarke Mars Greenhouse is a unique research facility dedicated to the study of greenhouse engineering and autonomous functionality under extreme operational conditions, in preparation for extraterrestrial biologically-based life support systems. The Arthur Clarke Mars Greenhouse is located at the Haughton Mars Project Research Station on Devon Island in the Canadian High Arctic. The greenhouse has been operational since 2002. Over recent years the greenhouse has served as a controlled environment facility for conducting scientific and operationally relevant plant growth investigations in an extreme environment. Since 2005 the greenhouse has seen the deployment of a refined nutrient control system, an improved imaging system capable of remote assessment of basic plant health parameters, more robust communication and power systems as well as the implementation of a distributed data acquisition system. Though several other Arctic greenhouses exist, the Arthur Clarke Mars Greenhouse is distinct in that the focus is on autonomous operation as opposed to strictly plant production. Remote control and autonomous operational experience has applications both terrestrially in production greenhouses and extraterrestrially where future long duration Moon/Mars missions will utilize biological life support systems to close the air, food and water loops. Minimizing crew time is an important goal for any space-based system. The experience gained through the remote operation of the Arthur Clarke Mars Greenhouse is providing the experience necessary to optimize future plant production systems and minimize crew time requirements. Internal greenhouse environmental data shows that the fall growth season (July-September) provides an average photosynthetic photon flux of 161.09 μmol m -2 s -1 (August) and 76.76 μmol m -2 s -1 (September) with approximately a 24 h photoperiod. The spring growth season provides an average of 327.51 μmol m -2 s -1 (May) and 339.32 μmol m -2 s

  12. Operation Greenhouse. Scientific Director's report. Annex 1. 6. Blast measurements. Part 2. Free-air peak-pressure measurements. Section 1. Nuclear explosions, 1951

    SciTech Connect

    Moulton, J.F.; Simonds, B.T.

    1984-10-31

    The primary objective of this experiment was to obtain accurate information on the pressure in the shock wave in the free-air region. In particular, it was desired to know the peak pressure as a function of distance in this region. Secondary objectives were to determine the path of the triple point and to determine the peak pressure in the Mach-stem region.

  13. Solar Greenhouses and Sunspaces: Lessons Learned.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Stephen G.; And Others

    Solar technology systems are being studied, managed, built and offered as an effective alternative energy option. This publication presents background material for the building and operation of better sunspaces and greenhouses. Recent developments in solar technology are explained and information on solar greenhouse and sunspace is provided (in…

  14. (Limiting the greenhouse effect)

    SciTech Connect

    Rayner, S.

    1991-01-07

    Traveler attended the Dahlem Research Conference organized by the Freien Universitat, Berlin. The subject of the conference was Limiting the Greenhouse Effect: Options for Controlling Atmospheric CO{sub 2} Accumulation. Like all Dahlem workshops, this was a meeting of scientific experts, although the disciplines represented were broader than usual, ranging across anthropology, economics, international relations, forestry, engineering, and atmospheric chemistry. Participation by scientists from developing countries was limited. The conference was divided into four multidisciplinary working groups. Traveler acted as moderator for Group 3 which examined the question What knowledge is required to tackle the principal social and institutional barriers to reducing CO{sub 2} emissions'' The working rapporteur was Jesse Ausubel of Rockefeller University. Other working groups examined the economic costs, benefits, and technical feasibility of options to reduce emissions per unit of energy service; the options for reducing energy use per unit of GNP; and the significant of linkage between strategies to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions and other goals. Draft reports of the working groups are appended. Overall, the conference identified a number of important research needs in all four areas. It may prove particularly important in bringing the social and institutional research needs relevant to climate change closer to the forefront of the scientific and policy communities than hitherto.

  15. The Dynamic Greenhouse Challenge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roman, Harry T.

    2010-01-01

    Greenhouses are marvelous devices, allowing one to enjoy the flower spectacle of summer all year round. At night, greenhouses use supplemental heat to keep the fragile plants warm. Over the last 30 years, greenhouse technology has undergone many changes, with the structures being automated and monitored and low-cost plastic structures emerging as…

  16. Build a Solar Greenhouse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conservation and Renewable Energy Inquiry and Referral Service (DOE), Silver Spring, MD.

    Attached solar greenhouses are relatively inexpensive and easy to build; they can provide additional heat to homes all winter as well as fresh vegetables and flowers. This bulletin: (1) describes the characteristics of a solar greenhouse; (2) provides a checklist of five items to consider before building a solar greenhouse; (3) describes the four…

  17. Mars inflatable greenhouse analog.

    PubMed

    Sadler, Philip D; Giacomelli, Gene A

    2002-01-01

    Light intensities on the Martian surface can possibly support a bioregenerative life support system (BLSS) utilizing natural sunlight for hydroponic crop production, if a suitable controlled environment can be provided. Inflatable clear membrane structures offer low mass, are more easily transported than a rigid structure, and are good candidates for providing a suitable controlled environment for crop production. Cable culture is one hydroponic growing system that can take advantage of the beneficial attributes of the inflatable structure. An analog of a Mars inflatable greenhouse can provide researchers data on issues such as crew time requirements for operation, productivity for BLSS, human factors, and much more at a reasonable cost. This is a description of one such design.

  18. Mars inflatable greenhouse analog.

    PubMed

    Sadler, Philip D; Giacomelli, Gene A

    2002-01-01

    Light intensities on the Martian surface can possibly support a bioregenerative life support system (BLSS) utilizing natural sunlight for hydroponic crop production, if a suitable controlled environment can be provided. Inflatable clear membrane structures offer low mass, are more easily transported than a rigid structure, and are good candidates for providing a suitable controlled environment for crop production. Cable culture is one hydroponic growing system that can take advantage of the beneficial attributes of the inflatable structure. An analog of a Mars inflatable greenhouse can provide researchers data on issues such as crew time requirements for operation, productivity for BLSS, human factors, and much more at a reasonable cost. This is a description of one such design. PMID:11987303

  19. Scientists' internal models of the greenhouse effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Libarkin, J. C.; Miller, H.; Thomas, S. R.

    2013-12-01

    A prior study utilized exploratory factor analysis to identify models underlying drawings of the greenhouse effect made by entering university freshmen. This analysis identified four archetype models of the greenhouse effect that appear within the college enrolling population. The current study collected drawings made by 144 geoscientists, from undergraduate geoscience majors through professionals. These participants scored highly on a standardized assessment of climate change understanding and expressed confidence in their understanding; many also indicated that they teach climate change in their courses. Although geoscientists held slightly more sophisticated greenhouse effect models than entering freshmen, very few held complete, explanatory models. As with freshmen, many scientists (44%) depict greenhouse gases in a layer in the atmosphere; 52% of participants depicted this or another layer as a physical barrier to escaping energy. In addition, 32% of participants indicated that incoming light from the Sun remains unchanged at Earth's surface, in alignment with a common model held by students. Finally, 3-20% of scientists depicted physical greenhouses, ozone, or holes in the atmosphere, all of which correspond to non-explanatory models commonly seen within students and represented in popular literature. For many scientists, incomplete models of the greenhouse effect are clearly enough to allow for reasoning about climate change. These data suggest that: 1) better representations about interdisciplinary concepts, such as the greenhouse effect, are needed for both scientist and public understanding; and 2) the scientific community needs to carefully consider how much understanding of a model is needed before necessary reasoning can occur.

  20. [The scientific bases of the document "Health Standards and Regulations for the Design and Operation of Centralized Hot Water Supply Systems"].

    PubMed

    Krasovskiĭ, G N; Dergacheva, T S; Kudriavitseva, B M

    1990-10-01

    Scientific substantiation of the choice of a heat supply system, of temperature regimen for the hot water, of the scale of laboratory-production control over the hot water quality, conditions for the hydrochemical washing out of the tubes depending on the heat supply system is given in the article. Requirements to accumulating tanks which, in case of disturbances in the operational regimen, may produce unfavourable effects on the hot water quality. PMID:2074035

  1. A scientific program for infrared, submillimeter and radio astronomy from space: A report by the Management Operations Working Group

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    Important and fundamental scientific progress can be attained through space observations in the wavelengths longward of 1 micron. The formation of galaxies, stars, and planets, the origin of quasars and the nature of active galactic nuclei, the large scale structure of the Universe, and the problem of the missing mass, are among the major scientific issues that can be addressed by these observations. Significant advances in many areas of astrophysics can be made over the next 20 years by implementing the outlined program. This program combines large observatories with smaller projects to create an overall scheme that emphasized complementarity and synergy, advanced technology, community support and development, and the training of the next generation of scientists. Key aspects of the program include: the Space Infrared Telescope Facility; the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy; a robust program of small missions; and the creation of the technology base for future major observatories.

  2. Global Warming: Understanding and Teaching the Forecast. Part A The Greenhouse Effect.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrews, Bill

    1993-01-01

    Provides information necessary for an interdisciplinary analysis of the greenhouse effect, enhanced greenhouse effect, global warming, global climate change, greenhouse gases, carbon dioxide, and scientific study of global warming for students grades 4-12. Several activity ideas accompany the information. (LZ)

  3. 4. Perspective view, greenhouse, from the southwest. The greenhouse is ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Perspective view, greenhouse, from the southwest. The greenhouse is the portion of the seed house to the right (south) of the double doors. - John Bartram House & Garden, Greenhouse, 54th Street & LIndbergh Boulevard, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  4. Thoughts from the Greenhouse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sonstrom, Wendy Jean

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the author compares the functions of a graduate adult education program and a greenhouse. A graduate adult education program is a place where, like in a greenhouse, exciting new hybrids can be developed--working with people outside the school of education, in different disciplines and beyond the university's walls, sharing what…

  5. Noxious gases in greenhouses.

    PubMed

    Likas, C; Exarchou, V; Gourgoulianis, K; Giaglaras, P; Gemptos, T; Kittas, K; Molyvdas, P A

    2001-01-01

    The concentration of NO(2) and SO(2) was measured in a commercial greenhouse from 23/9/1999 25/01/2000. The measurements showed that the level of the two gases is very high in the greenhouse atmosphere. Lung function tests in 42 workers showed that temporary work did not influence significantly the respiratory health status. PMID:11426932

  6. Climate change: The IPCC scientific assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Houghton, J.T.; Jenkins, G.J.; Ephraums, J.J.

    1990-01-01

    Book review of the intergovernmental panel on climate change report on global warming and the greenhouse effect. Covers the scientific basis for knowledge of the future climate. Presents chemistry of greenhouse gases and mathematical modelling of the climate system. The book is primarily for government policy makers.

  7. Reservoir Greenhouse Gas Emissions at Russian HPP

    SciTech Connect

    Fedorov, M. P.; Elistratov, V. V.; Maslikov, V. I.; Sidorenko, G. I.; Chusov, A. N.; Atrashenok, V. P.; Molodtsov, D. V.; Savvichev, A. S.; Zinchenko, A. V.

    2015-05-15

    Studies of greenhouse-gas emissions from the surfaces of the world’s reservoirs, which has demonstrated ambiguity of assessments of the effect of reservoirs on greenhouse-gas emissions to the atmosphere, is analyzed. It is recommended that greenhouse- gas emissions from various reservoirs be assessed by the procedure “GHG Measurement Guidelines for Fresh Water Reservoirs” (2010) for the purpose of creating a data base with results of standardized measurements. Aprogram for research into greenhouse-gas emissions is being developed at the St. Petersburg Polytechnic University in conformity with the IHA procedure at the reservoirs impounded by the Sayano-Shushenskaya and Mainskaya HPP operated by the RusHydro Co.

  8. The passenger car and the greenhouse effect

    SciTech Connect

    Amann, C.A.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports that concern is mounting over the possibility of global warming from the greenhouse effect. Carbon dioxide from the combustion of fossil fuel is a major greenhouse gas, and automobile exhaust is one of the contributors. The only way to decrease carbon dioxide emissions from a car consuming carbonaceous fuel is to decrease its fuel consumption. The best alternative fossil fuels offer a carbon dioxide reduction of about 20%. Without introducing any new greenhouse-gas controls, it is projected that the total greenhouse-gas contribution of the average car will be halved from recent levels just through fleet turnover and already planned elimination of the current air-conditioning refrigerant. If global warming develops into a serious problem, cars can be operated without fossil fuel. Leading options include battery-electric cars using nuclear power and engine-propelled cars burning biomass-derived alcohol or hydrogen extracted from water with solar cells or nuclear power.

  9. Potential scientific objectives for a 2018 2-rover mission to Mars and implications for the landing site and landed operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grant, J. A.; Westall, F.; Beaty, D.; Cady, S. L.; Carr, M. H.; Ciarletti, V.; Coradini, A.; Elfving, A.; Glavin, D.; Goesmann, F.; Hurowitz, J. A.; Ori, G. G.; Phillips, R. J.; Salvo, C.; Sephton, M.; Syvertson, M.; Vago, J. L.

    2010-12-01

    A study sponsored by MEPAG has defined the possibilities for cooperative science using two rovers under consideration for launch to Mars in 2018 (ESA’s ExoMars, and a NASA-sourced rover concept for which we use the working name of MAX-C). The group considered collaborative science opportunities both without change to either proposed rover, as well as with some change allowed. Planning focused on analysis of shared and separate objectives, with concurrence on two high priority shared objectives that could form the basis of highly significant collaborative exploration activity. The first shared objective relates to sending the proposed rovers to a site interpreted to contain evidence of past environments with high habitability potential, and with high preservation potential for physical and chemical biosignatures where they would evaluate paleoenvironmental conditions, assess the potential for preservation of biotic and/or prebiotic signatures, and search for possible evidence of past life and prebiotic chemistry. The second shared objective relates to the collection, documentation, and suitable packaging of a set of samples by the rovers that would be sufficient to achieve the scientific objectives of a possible future sample return mission. Achieving cooperative science with the two proposed rovers implies certain compromises that might include less time available for pursuing each rover’s independent objectives, implementation of some hardware modifications, and the need to share a landing site that may not be optimized for either rover. Sharing a landing site has multiple implications, including accepting a common latitude restriction, accepting the geological attributes of the common landing site, and creation of a potential telecommunications bottleneck. Moreover, ensuring a safe landing with the sky crane and pallet system envisioned for the mission would likely result in landing terrain engineering requirements more constraining than those for MSL

  10. Development and on-orbit operation of lithium-ion pouch battery for small scientific satellite “REIMEI”

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uno, Masatoshi; Ogawa, Keita; Takeda, Yasuo; Sone, Yoshitsugu; Tanaka, Koji; Mita, Makoto; Saito, Hirobumi

    2011-10-01

    A lithium-ion battery was developed using off-the-shelf pouch cells and launched with a small scientific satellite "REIMEI." The cells were potted with polyurethane or epoxy resin to protect the battery from vacuum in space. Preliminary experimental test results of pouch cells potted in a soft aluminum cap suggested that the cells tended to swell in vacuum, although they had been reinforced with the resins. Bread board models (BBMs), in which pouch cells were potted with resins in a hard aluminum case, were fabricated for cycle life performance tests in the laboratory. The test results indicated that the performance of epoxy-potted BBM was superior to that of the polyurethane-potted BBM. The measured cell resistance implied that the electrolyte solution leaked through the polyurethane resin, resulting in premature deterioration. The epoxy resin was used for the flight battery. The end-of-discharge-voltage (EoDV) trend of the flight battery on orbit was compared with the laboratory test results corrected based on a post-launch cycle test using a fresh cell. The corrected EoDV trend in the laboratory was in good agreement with the on-orbit trend for the early cycle period, indicating that the on-orbit battery was not inadvertently affected by conditions in space.

  11. Browns Ferry waste heat greenhouse environmental control system design

    SciTech Connect

    Olszewski, M.; Stovall, T.K.; Hicks, N.G.; Pile, R.S.; Burns, E.R.; Waddell, E.L. Jr.

    1980-03-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Tennessee Valley Authority and the Environmental Research Laboratory at the University of Arizona cooperated on the design of an experimental greenhouse located at TVA's Browns Ferry Nuclear Generating Station. Two greenhouse zones are heated by waste heat from the plant's condenser effluent. For comparison, a third greenhouse zone is heated conventionally (fossil-fueled burners) as a control. Design specifics for each of the three zones and a qualitative operating evaluation are presented.

  12. Solar greenhouses in Minnesota

    SciTech Connect

    Polich, M.

    1981-12-01

    After a discussion of solar greenhouse phenomena and the potential for heat collection and food production, design recommendations are provided for attached heat collecting solar sunspaces and for attached food producing solar greenhouses. Also, design of a single solar structure to maximize heat collection and food production is considered. A method of predicting the performance for attached heat collecting solar sunspaces is given in which the solar savings fraction is calculated. (LEW)

  13. The Mercator Océan operational and reanalysis systems: overview of recent improvements and scientific key issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernandez, F.; Benkiran, M.; Bourdalle-Badie, R.; Bricaud, C.; Cailleau, S.; Chanut, J.; Desportes, C.; Dombrowsky, E.; drevillon, M.; Drillet, Y.; Elmoussaoui, A.; Ferry, N.; Garric, G.; Greiner, E.; Le Galloudec, O.; Lellouche, J.; Levier, B.; Parent, L.; Perruche, C.; Reffray, G.; Regnier, C.; Rémy, E.; Testut, C.; Tranchant, B.

    2011-12-01

    In the framework of the European project GMES/MyOcean, Mercator Océan has designed a hierarchy of ocean analysis, forecasting and reanalysis systems based on numerical models of the ocean/sea-ice, data assimilation methods and biogeochemistry model. Operational weekly analysis provide initial conditions for daily predictions. All ocean model configurations are based on NEMO. The 1/4° global and 1/12° Atlantic and Mediterranean configurations are improved with (i) the use of high frequency (3h) atmospheric forcings including the diurnal cycle, (ii) the use of the CORE bulk formulation, (iii) the use of a new TKE vertical mixing scheme, (iv) the use of the LIM2-EVP ice model. Leading to a better representation of the diurnal cycle, the stratification in upper layers, the sea-ice interannual extensions, or mesoscale features and WBC in the 1/12°. The 1/36° IBI regional configuration, adds non linear free surface, atmospheric pressure and tidal forcing, barotropic/baroclinic time splitting, and specific boundary conditions for operational nesting with the global system. At regional scale, a number of improvements (bathymetry and bottom friction) make it suitable for coastal modelling, validated state-of-art coastal ocean models. Data assimilation is based on reduced order Kalman filter using 3D multivariate modal decomposition of the forecast error. It assimilates jointly satellite altimetry, SST and in situ observations (temperature and salinity profiles, including ARGO data). Among difficulties, the assimilation has to be operated in real time, with limited and less accurate set of observations. Recent improvements in the global systems include (v) the insertion of the zonal/meridional velocity components into the control vector, (vi) the use of the IAU procedure, (vii) the insertion of new observational operators, (viii) the use of a new MDT, (ix) the introduction of pseudo-observations, (x) the use of a bias correction method based on a variational approach to

  14. 75 FR 63823 - Final Guidance, “Federal Greenhouse Gas Accounting and Reporting”

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-18

    ... Leadership in Environmental, Energy, and Economic Performance.'' 74 FR 52117, Oct. 8, 2009. The purpose of... QUALITY Final Guidance, ``Federal Greenhouse Gas Accounting and Reporting'' AGENCY: Council on... agency operations. This Final Guidance, ``Federal Greenhouse Gas Accounting and Reporting,'' is...

  15. A comparative analysis of well-to-wheel primary energy demand and greenhouse gas emissions for the operation of alternative and conventional vehicles in Switzerland, considering various energy carrier production pathways

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yazdanie, Mashael; Noembrini, Fabrizio; Dossetto, Lionel; Boulouchos, Konstantinos

    2014-03-01

    This study provides a comprehensive analysis of well-to-wheel (WTW) primary energy demand and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions for the operation of conventional and alternative passenger vehicle drivetrains. Results are determined based on a reference vehicle, drivetrain/production process efficiencies, and lifecycle inventory data specific to Switzerland. WTW performance is compared to a gasoline internal combustion engine vehicle (ICEV). Both industrialized and novel hydrogen and electricity production pathways are evaluated. A strong case is presented for pluggable electric vehicles (PEVs) due to their high drivetrain efficiency. However, WTW performance strongly depends on the electricity source. A critical electricity mix can be identified which divides optimal drivetrain performance between the EV, ICEV, and plug-in hybrid vehicle. Alternative drivetrain and energy carrier production pathways are also compared by natural resource. Fuel cell vehicle (FCV) performance proves to be on par with PEVs for energy carrier (EC) production via biomass and natural gas resources. However, PEVs outperform FCVs via solar energy EC production pathways. ICE drivetrains using alternative fuels, particularly biogas and CNG, yield remarkable WTW energy and emission reductions as well, indicating that alternative fuels, and not only alternative drivetrains, play an important role in the transition towards low-emission vehicles in Switzerland.

  16. Microtrap assembly for greenhouse gas and air pollution monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Mitra, Somenath; Saridara, Chutarat

    2015-08-25

    A microtrap assembly includes a carbon nanotube sorbent. The microtrap assembly may be employed as a preconcentrator operable to deliver a sample to an analytical device to measure the concentrations of greenhouse gases. A system includes a microtrap having a carbon nanotube sorbent for measuring the concentrations of greenhouse gases in a sample.

  17. The greenhouse effect: science and policy.

    PubMed

    Schneider, S H

    1989-02-10

    Global warming from the increase in greenhouse gases has become a major scientific and political issue during the past decade. That infrared radiation is trapped by greenhouse gases and particles in a planetary atmosphere and that the atmospheric CO(2) level has increased by some 25 percent since 1850 because of fossil fuel combustion and land use (largely deforestation) are not controversial; levels of other trace greenhouse gases such as methane and chlorofluorocarbons have increased by even larger factors. Estimates of present and future effects, however, have significant uncertainties. There have also recently been controversial claims that a global warming signal has been detected. Results from most recent climatic models suggest that global average surface temperatures will increase by some 2 degrees to 6 degrees C during the next century, but future changes in greenhouse gas concentrations and feedback processes not properly accounted for in the models could produce greater or smaller increases. Sea level rises of 0.5 to 1.5 meters are typically projected for the next century, but there is a small probability of greater or even negative change. Forecasts of the distribution of variables such as soil moisture or precipitation patterns have even greater uncertainties. Policy responses range from engineering countermeasures to passive adaptation to prevention and a "law of the atmosphere." One approach is to implement those policies now that will reduce emissions of greenhouse gases and have additional societal benefits. Whether the uncertainties are large enough to suggest delaying policy responses is not a scientific question per se, but a value judgment.

  18. Solar energy utilization in a greenhouse/animal shelter combination

    SciTech Connect

    Spillman, C.K.; Greig, J.K.; Johnson, G.A.; Hartford, J.R.; Koch, B.A.; Hines, R.H.

    1981-01-01

    Two greenhouses are being used at Kansas State Univesity to evaluate use of exhaust air from an animal shelter and its effect on greenhouse production. The control greenhouse is attached to the headquarters building and operated conventionally. The experimental house is attached to a swine finishing building and has air handling equipment to introduce hoghouse air to the greenhouse at 680 m/sup 3//h (400 cfm) or 1200 m/sup 3//h (700 cfm) and has a rock storage system with about 1 m/sup 3/ of rock for each 2 m/sup 2/ of greenhouse floor space. Cucumber, tomato, and broccoli plants in the experimental greenhouse have darker green foliage than plants in the control house regardless of nitrogen levels. The fall cucumber study indicated a 31 percent increase in number of marketable fruits from the experimental house. Marketable fruits from the experimental house weighed 40 percent more than those from the control house.

  19. Open-source LCA tool for estimating greenhouse gas emissions from crude oil production using field characteristics.

    PubMed

    El-Houjeiri, Hassan M; Brandt, Adam R; Duffy, James E

    2013-06-01

    Existing transportation fuel cycle emissions models are either general and calculate nonspecific values of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from crude oil production, or are not available for public review and auditing. We have developed the Oil Production Greenhouse Gas Emissions Estimator (OPGEE) to provide open-source, transparent, rigorous GHG assessments for use in scientific assessment, regulatory processes, and analysis of GHG mitigation options by producers. OPGEE uses petroleum engineering fundamentals to model emissions from oil and gas production operations. We introduce OPGEE and explain the methods and assumptions used in its construction. We run OPGEE on a small set of fictional oil fields and explore model sensitivity to selected input parameters. Results show that upstream emissions from petroleum production operations can vary from 3 gCO2/MJ to over 30 gCO2/MJ using realistic ranges of input parameters. Significant drivers of emissions variation are steam injection rates, water handling requirements, and rates of flaring of associated gas.

  20. Scientific Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abelson, Philip H.

    1980-01-01

    The value of communication in the preservation of scientific knowledge is described as it relates to the specialized scientific journals. The discipline of peer review is described as the major factor in keeping the scientific enterprise relatively honest. (SA)

  1. Greenhouse of the future. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Cavin, B. III

    1998-07-03

    This greenhouse of the future is located at the Center for Regenerative Studies (CRS) at Cal Poly Pomona. The building design was driven by desired environmental conditions. The primary objective was to keep the interior space warm during winter for the breeding of fish and other greenhouse activities, especially in the winter. To do this, a highly insulating envelope was needed. Straw bales provide excellent insulation with an R-value of approximately 50 and also help solve the environmental problems associated with this agricultural waste product. A summary of the construction progress, construction costs and operating costs are included.

  2. 15. Interior view, greenhouse, from the northwest. The greenhouse interior ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. Interior view, greenhouse, from the northwest. The greenhouse interior was quite modest, the space between the floor of the lower level and the joists carrying the loft floor is only five-and-one-half feet. - John Bartram House & Garden, Greenhouse, 54th Street & LIndbergh Boulevard, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  3. Animated simulation of greenhouse internal transport using Siman/Cinema

    SciTech Connect

    Fang, W.; Ting, K.C.; Giacomelli, G.A. . Dept. of Biological and Agricultural Engineering)

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on an animated computer model developed using a simulation language Sinman/Cinema to simulate greenhouse internal transport systems. The model can be used as a tool to study the performance of materials handling operations within a greenhouse. The potential bottleneck of a transport system can be visually detected on the computer monitor. Statistical analyses on the system parameters, such as the status and utilization of machines, workers and waiting lines, and throughput time of an operation, are performed during the simulation. From these data, the interaction between machines and workers within a greenhouse system can be studied.

  4. The greenhouse trap

    SciTech Connect

    Lyman, F.; Mintzer, I.; Courrier, K.; MacKenzie, J.

    1990-01-01

    This book describes evidence of global warming and the contributions of man's activities to the process. The impacts of greenhouse gases on climate and health are discussed and recommendations are made for mitigation of these effects. Changes in fuel use, expansion of carbon sinks through planting of trees, and personal commitments to energy conservation are among these recommendations. Individual chapters were indexed separately for the data base.

  5. An Introduction to Greenhouse Production. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMahon, Robert W.

    This student manual is presented in its first revision, providing a current, basic text for those preparing for greenhouse and floriculture work. Its fourteen chapters are: Overview of the Greenhouse Industry; Greenhouse Structures; Controlling the Greenhouse Environment; Greenhouse Equipment and Lighting; Greenhouse Irrigation Systems; Root Media…

  6. Pondering greenhouse policy

    SciTech Connect

    Schneider, S.H. Stanford Univ., CA )

    1993-03-05

    In his article An optimal transition path for controlling greenhouse gases', William D Nordhaus takes a giant methodological step forward. His dynamic integrated climate-economy (DCIE) model couples my and Starley Thompson's globally averaged climate model with economic dynamics in order to evaluate the economic efficiency of different carbon tax scenarios. Nordhaus is one of the few economists who appropriately tries to balance the potential costs of CO[sub 2] emission controls with the external costs of unmitigated climate change - those that would occur in the absence of such controls.

  7. Scientific Misconduct.

    PubMed

    Gross, Charles

    2016-01-01

    Scientific misconduct has been defined as fabrication, falsification, and plagiarism. Scientific misconduct has occurred throughout the history of science. The US government began to take systematic interest in such misconduct in the 1980s. Since then, a number of studies have examined how frequently individual scientists have observed scientific misconduct or were involved in it. Although the studies vary considerably in their methodology and in the nature and size of their samples, in most studies at least 10% of the scientists sampled reported having observed scientific misconduct. In addition to studies of the incidence of scientific misconduct, this review considers the recent increase in paper retractions, the role of social media in scientific ethics, several instructional examples of egregious scientific misconduct, and potential methods to reduce research misconduct. PMID:26273897

  8. Scientific Misconduct.

    PubMed

    Gross, Charles

    2016-01-01

    Scientific misconduct has been defined as fabrication, falsification, and plagiarism. Scientific misconduct has occurred throughout the history of science. The US government began to take systematic interest in such misconduct in the 1980s. Since then, a number of studies have examined how frequently individual scientists have observed scientific misconduct or were involved in it. Although the studies vary considerably in their methodology and in the nature and size of their samples, in most studies at least 10% of the scientists sampled reported having observed scientific misconduct. In addition to studies of the incidence of scientific misconduct, this review considers the recent increase in paper retractions, the role of social media in scientific ethics, several instructional examples of egregious scientific misconduct, and potential methods to reduce research misconduct.

  9. A Greenhouse-Gas Information System: Monitoring and Validating Emissions Reporting and Mitigation

    SciTech Connect

    Jonietz, Karl K.; Dimotakis, Paul E.; Walker, Bruce C.

    2011-09-26

    This study and report focus on attributes of a greenhouse-gas information system (GHGIS) needed to support MRV&V needs. These needs set the function of such a system apart from scientific/research monitoring of GHGs and carbon-cycle systems, and include (not exclusively): the need for a GHGIS that is operational, as required for decision-support; the need for a system that meets specifications derived from imposed requirements; the need for rigorous calibration, verification, and validation (CV&V) standards, processes, and records for all measurement and modeling/data-inversion data; the need to develop and adopt an uncertainty-quantification (UQ) regimen for all measurement and modeling data; and the requirement that GHGIS products can be subjected to third-party questioning and scientific scrutiny. This report examines and assesses presently available capabilities that could contribute to a future GHGIS. These capabilities include sensors and measurement technologies; data analysis and data uncertainty quantification (UQ) practices and methods; and model-based data-inversion practices, methods, and their associated UQ. The report further examines the need for traceable calibration, verification, and validation processes and attached metadata; differences between present science-/research-oriented needs and those that would be required for an operational GHGIS; the development, operation, and maintenance of a GHGIS missions-operations center (GMOC); and the complex systems engineering and integration that would be required to develop, operate, and evolve a future GHGIS.

  10. Passive solar renovation of an existing commercial greenhouse

    SciTech Connect

    McGinnis, J.W.; Whitehead, N.

    1980-01-01

    The renovation of an existing 1800 square foot commercial greenhouse to incorporate passive solar reliant and energy conserving features is detailed. The Aquatic-Agriculture Institute for Research, a non-profit group, sponsored the project to develop efficient production methods to raise vegetables and fish at the community level. The performance of the remodeled greenhouse will be compared to the performance of the same greenhouse as it was originally designed. The restored greenhouse began operation in September 1979. Accurate fuel and temperature records maintained through-out the past winter, show the cost of back-up heating under operating conditions to be approximately $150.00. Old fuel receipts dating back into the 1940's show an average use of 2000 gallons of heating fuel each winter prior to remodeling. This would indicate a yearly fuel savings of better than 90% through the use of passive solar techniques.

  11. The greenhouse of Titan.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sagan, C.

    1973-01-01

    Analysis of non-gray radiative equilibrium and gray convective equilibrium on Titan suggests that a massive molecular-hydrogen greenhouse effect may be responsible for the disagreement between the observed IR temperatures and the equilibrium temperature of an atmosphereless Titan. Calculations of convection indicate a probable minimum optical depth of 14 which corresponds to a molecular hydrogen shell of substantial thickness with total pressures of about 0.1 bar. It is suggested that there is an equilibrium between outgassing and blow-off on the one hand and accretion from the protons trapped in a hypothetical Saturnian magnetic field on the other, in the present atmosphere of Titan. It is believed that an outgassing equivalent to the volatilization of a few kilometers of subsurface ice is required to maintain the present blow-off rate without compensation for all geological time. The presence of an extensive hydrogen corona around Titan is postulated, with surface temperatures up to 200 K.

  12. Description of the Use of Greenhouse Facilities by Secondary Agricultural Education Instructors in Arizona

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franklin, Edward A.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the status and use of greenhouse laboratory facilities by secondary agricultural education instructors in Arizona. Specific objectives were to determine the number of programs with operating greenhouses, types of operating systems, how the facilities are used in the local program, level of preparation of…

  13. Has your greenhouse gone virtual?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Virtual Grower is a free decision-support software program available from USDA-ARS that allows growers to build a virtual greenhouse. It was initially designed to help greenhouse growers estimate heating costs and conduct simple simulations to figure out where heat savings could be achieved. Featu...

  14. (Solar greenhouse and barn collector)

    SciTech Connect

    Woodward, M.V.

    1981-08-04

    Use of a solar greenhouse and solar collectors to provide heat on a farm is briefly discussed. The greenhouse was used to heat the home, and the solar collectors provided hot water and heat for the barn. About $1500 was saved in oil bills from the previous year. (BCS)

  15. Operation Greenhouse. Scientific Director's report of atomic weapon tests at Eniwetok, 1951. Annex 1. 6, blast measurements. Part 3. Pressure near ground level. Section 4. Blast asymmetry from aerial photographs. Section 5. Ball-crusher-gauge measurements of peak pressure

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-04-01

    Aerial motion pictures from manned aircraft were taken of the Dog, Easy, and George Shots and from a drone aircraft on Dog Shot to determine whether asymmetries in the blast waves could be detected and measured. Only one film, that taken of Dog Shot from a drone, was considered good enough to warrant detailed analysis, but this failed to yield any positive information on asymmetries. The analysis showed that failure to obtain good arrival-time data arose from a number of cases, but primarily from uncertainities in magnification and timing. Results could only be matched with reliable data from blast-velocity switches by use of large corrections. Asymnetries, if present, were judged to have been too small or to have occurred too early to be detected with the slow-frame speed used. Recommendations for better results include locating the aircraft directly overhead at the time of burst and using a camera having greater frame speed and provided with timing marks.

  16. Greenhouse gas trading starts up

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    While nations decide on whether to sign on to the Kyoto Protocol on climate change, some countries and private companies are moving forward with greenhouse gas emissions trading.A 19 March report, "The Emerging International Greenhouse Gas Market," by the Pew Center on Global Climate Change, reports that about 65 greenhouse gas emissions trades for quantities above 1,000 metric tons of carbon dioxideequivalent already have occurred worldwide since 1996. Many of these trades have taken place under a voluntary, ad hoc framework, though the United Kingdom and Denmark have established their own domestic emissions trading programs.

  17. Scientific Misconduct.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodstein, David

    2002-01-01

    Explores scientific fraud, asserting that while few scientists actually falsify results, the field has become so competitive that many are misbehaving in other ways; an example would be unreasonable criticism by anonymous peer reviewers. (EV)

  18. Plastic and Glass Greenhouses Detection and Delineation from WORLDVIEW-2 Satellite Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koc-San, D.; Sonmez, N. K.

    2016-06-01

    Greenhouse detection using remote sensing technologies is an important research area for yield estimation, sustainable development, urban and rural planning and management. An approach was developed in this study for the detection and delineation of greenhouse areas from high resolution satellite imagery. Initially, the candidate greenhouse patches were detected using supervised classification techniques. For this purpose, Maximum Likelihood (ML), Random Forest (RF), and Support Vector Machines (SVM) classification techniques were applied and compared. Then, sieve filter and morphological operations were performed for improving the classification results. Finally, the obtained candidate plastic and glass greenhouse areas were delineated using boundary tracing and Douglas Peucker line simplification algorithms. The proposed approach was implemented in the Kumluca district of Antalya, Turkey utilizing pan-sharpened WorldView-2 satellite imageries. Kumluca is the prominent district of Antalya with greenhouse cultivation and includes both plastic and glass greenhouses intensively. When the greenhouse classification results were analysed, it can be stated that the SVM classification provides most accurate results and RF classification follows this. The SVM classification overall accuracy was obtained as 90.28%. When the greenhouse boundary delineation results were considered, the plastic greenhouses were delineated with 92.11% accuracy, while glass greenhouses were delineated with 80.67% accuracy. The obtained results indicate that, generally plastic and glass greenhouses can be detected and delineated successfully from WorldView-2 satellite imagery.

  19. Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions with Carbon Dioxide Capture and Sequestration in Deep Geological Formations

    SciTech Connect

    Benson, Dr. Sally; Cole, David R

    2008-01-01

    Carbon dioxide capture and sequestration (CCS) in deep geological formations has quickly emerged as an important option for reducing greenhouse emissions. If CCS is implemented on the scale needed for large reductions in CO2 emissions, a billion of tonnes or more of CO2 will be sequestered annually a 250 fold increase over the amount sequestered annually today. Sequestering these large volumes will require a strong scientific foundation of the coupled hydrological-geochemical-geomechanical processes that govern the long term fate of CO2 in the subsurface. Methods to characterize and select sequestration sites, subsurface engineering to optimize performance and cost, safe operations, monitoring technology, remediation methods, regulatory oversight, and an institutional approach for managing long term liability are also needed.

  20. Geothermal greenhouses in Kyushu, Japan

    SciTech Connect

    Lienau, P.J.

    1996-05-01

    The New Energy Foundation (NEF) invited two members of the Geo-Heat Center staff of Tokyo to present two workshops on the direct uses of geothermal energy in the United States. Prior to the meetings, a field trip was arranged by NEF to visit geothermal power plants and direct use sites on Kyushu. Seven areas were toured on February 27 and 28th, including the Sensui Rose Garden greenhouse, a demonstration greenhouse at the Hatchobaru power station and the Kokonoe Bio Center.

  1. Greenhouses and their humanizing synergies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haeuplik-Meusburger, Sandra; Paterson, Carrie; Schubert, Daniel; Zabel, Paul

    2014-03-01

    Greenhouses in space will require advanced technical systems of automatic watering, soil-less cultivation, artificial lighting, and computerized observation of plants. Functions discussed for plants in space habitats include physical/health requirements and human psychology, social cohesion, as well as the complex sensorial benefits of plants for humans. The authors consider the role of plants in long-term space missions historically since 1971 (Salyut 1) and propose a set of priorities to be considered within the design requirements for greenhouses and constructed environments given a range of benefits associated with plant-human relationships. They cite recent research into the use of greenhouses in extreme environments to reveal the relative importance of greenhouses for people living in isolated locations. Additionally, they put forward hypotheses about where greenhouses might factor into several strata of human health. In a recent design-in-use study of astronauts' experiences in space habitats discussed in Architecture for Astronauts (Springer Press 2011) it was found that besides the basic advantages for life support there are clearly additional "side benefits" for habitability and physical wellbeing, and thus long-term mission success. The authors have composed several key theses regarding the need to promote plant-human relationships in space, including areas where synergy and symbiosis occur. They cite new comprehensive research into the early US Space Program to reveal where programmatic requirements could be added to space architecture to increase the less quantifiable benefits to astronauts of art, recreation, and poetic engagement with their existential condition of estrangement from the planet. Specifically in terms of the technological requirements, the authors propose the integration of a new greenhouse subsystem component into space greenhouses—the Mobile Plant Cultivation Subsystem—a portable, personal greenhouse that can be integrated

  2. Advancing agricultural greenhouse gas quantification*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olander, Lydia; Wollenberg, Eva; Tubiello, Francesco; Herold, Martin

    2013-03-01

    Foundation for their support of this initiative. The project has been developed with guidance from an esteemed steering group of experts and users of mitigation information (http://nicholasinstitute.duke.edu/ecosystem/t-agg/international-project). Many of the papers in this issue were commissioned. Authors of each of the commissioned papers met with guest editors at FAO in Rome in April 2012 to further develop their ideas, synthesize state of the art knowledge and generate new ideas (http://nicholasinstitute.duke.edu/ecosystem/t-agg/events-and-presentations). Additional interesting and important research has come forward through the general call for papers and has been incorporated into this issue. References CCAFS (Climate Change, Agriculture and Food Security) 2011 Victories for food and farming in Durban climate deals Press Release 13 December 2011 (http://ccafs.cgiar.org/news/press-releases/victories-food-and-farming-durban-climate-deals) FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations) 2009 Expert consultation on GHG emissions and mitigation potentials in the agricultural, forestry and fisheries sectors (Rome: FAO) FAO 2011 Linking Sustainability and Climate Financing: Implications for Agriculture (Rome: FAO) FAO 2012 FAOSTAT online database (http://faostat.fao.org/) Global Research Alliance on Agricultural Greenhouse Gases 2012 www.globalresearchalliance.org/ Herold M and Skutsch M 2011 Monitoring, reporting and verification for national REDD+ programmes: two proposals Environ. Res. Lett. 6 014002 Hosonuma N, Herold M, De Sy V, De Fries R S, Brockhaus M, Verchot L, Angelsen A and Romijn E 2012 An assessment of deforestation and forest degradation drivers in developing countries Environ. Res. Lett. 7 044009 IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) 1996 Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories (Paris: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development) IPCC 2003 Good Practice Guidance for Land Use, Land-Use Change and Forestry (Hayama

  3. Scientific millenarianism

    SciTech Connect

    Weinberg, A.M.

    1997-12-01

    Today, for the first time, scientific concerns are seriously being addressed that span future times--hundreds, even thousands, or more years in the future. One is witnessing what the author calls scientific millenarianism. Are such concerns for the distant future exercises in futility, or are they real issues that, to the everlasting gratitude of future generations, this generation has identified, warned about and even suggested how to cope with in the distant future? Can the four potential catastrophes--bolide impact, CO{sub 2} warming, radioactive wastes and thermonuclear war--be avoided by technical fixes, institutional responses, religion, or by doing nothing? These are the questions addressed in this paper.

  4. Primary Student-Teachers' Conceptual Understanding of the Greenhouse Effect: A mixed method study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ratinen, Ilkka Johannes

    2013-04-01

    The greenhouse effect is a reasonably complex scientific phenomenon which can be used as a model to examine students' conceptual understanding in science. Primary student-teachers' understanding of global environmental problems, such as climate change and ozone depletion, indicates that they have many misconceptions. The present mixed method study examines Finnish primary student-teachers' understanding of the greenhouse effect based on the results obtained via open-ended and closed-form questionnaires. The open-ended questionnaire considers primary student-teachers' spontaneous ideas about the greenhouse effect depicted by concept maps. The present study also uses statistical analysis to reveal respondents' conceptualization of the greenhouse effect. The concept maps and statistical analysis reveal that the primary student-teachers' factual knowledge and their conceptual understanding of the greenhouse effect are incomplete and even misleading. In the light of the results of the present study, proposals for modifying the instruction of climate change in science, especially in geography, are presented.

  5. Speaking Scientific

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Peter

    1971-01-01

    Suggests changes for science curricula which will improve the understanding...of the scientific language in which the ideas of science and technology are expressed," including increasing the students' facility with numbers, and in the future, an interdisciplinary course demonstrating the approach of physical, biological and behavioral scientists,…

  6. Greenhouse gas variations observed from the surface over the past 25 years: groundtruthing future satellite instruments.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofmann, D.

    The perturbation to radiative climate forcing which has the largest magnitude and the least scientific uncertainty is the forcing related to changes in those greenhouse gases that are long-lived and well mixed in the atmosphere, in particular carbon dioxide (CO_2), methane (CH_4), nitrous oxide (N_2O) and the halocarbons (mainly CFCs). All of these long-lived greenhouse gases have been monitored around the world since the 1970's mainly by NOAA's Climate Monitoring and Diagnostics Laboratory (CMDL), in Boulder, Colorado, and its forerunner, the Geophysical Monitoring for Climatic Change (GMCC) program. CMDL operates four fully instrumented baseline climate observatories at Pt. Barrow, Alaska; Mauna Loa, Hawaii; American Samoa; and South Pole Station, Antarctica, where the concentrations of the greenhouse gases are measured continuously as well as by flask sample. In a cooperative program CMDL collects air samples in flasks from over 50 global sites. All flask air samples are analyzed for carbon gas concentrations and isotopic ratios in Boulder. The global cooperative sites are in clean, unpolluted regions such as on seacoasts where the measurements are generally representative of large-scale maritime regions. These data will be presented here and analyzed in terms of their changes and the changes in radiative forcing during the 25-year period encompassing 1978 through 2003. The most notable change in the past several years is that because the forcing by CFCs is declining and that due to methane has stopped increasing, the fraction related to carbon dioxide has increased from about 59% to 62%. The measurements reported here will form the basis for ground-truthing future efforts to detect carbon dioxide from space with new satellite instruments.

  7. The Greenhouse and Anti-Greenhouse Effects on Titan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McKay, C. P.; Cuzzi, Jeffrey N. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    Titan is the largest moon of Saturn and is the only moon in the solar system with a substantial atmosphere. Its atmosphere is mostly made of nitrogen, with a few percent CH4, 0.1% H2 and an uncertain level of Ar (less than 10%). The surface pressure is 1.5 atms and the surface temperature is 95 K, decreasing to 71 at the tropopause before rising to stratospheric temperatures of 180 K. In pressure and composition Titan's atmosphere is the closest twin to Earth's. The surface of Titan remains unknown, hidden by the thick smog layer, but it may be an ocean of liquid methane and ethane. Titan's atmosphere has a greenhouse effect which is much stronger than the Earth's - 92% of the surface warming is due to greenhouse radiation. However an organic smog layer in the upper atmosphere produces an anti-greenhouse effect that cuts the greenhouse warming in half - removing 35% of the incoming solar radiation. Models suggest that during its formation Titan's atmosphere was heated to high temperatures due to accretional energy. This was followed by a cold Triton-like period which gradually warmed to the present conditions. The coupled greenhouse and haze anti-greenhouse may be relevant to recent suggestions for haze shielding of a CH4 - NH3 early atmosphere on Earth or Mars. When the NASA/ESA mission to the Saturn System, Cassini, launches in a few years it will carry a probe that will be sent to the surface of Titan and show us this world that is strange and yet in many ways similar to our own.

  8. A "Greenhouse Gas" Experiment for the Undergraduate Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gomez, Elaine; Paul, Melissa; Como, Charles; Barat, Robert

    2014-01-01

    This experiment and analysis offer an effective experience in greenhouse gas reduction. Ammoniated water is flowed counter-current to a simulated flue gas of air and CO2 in a packed column. The gaseous CO2 concentrations are measured with an on-line, non- dispersive, infrared analyzer. Column operating parameters include total gas flux, dissolved…

  9. Designing advanced biochar products for maximizing greenhouse gas mitigation potential

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from agricultural operations continue to increase. Carbon enriched char materials like biochar have been described as a mitigation strategy. Utilization of biochar material as a soil amendment has been demonstrated to provide potentially further soil GHG suppression du...

  10. Scientific Claims versus Scientific Knowledge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramsey, John

    1991-01-01

    Provides activities that help students to understand the importance of the scientific method. The activities include the science of fusion and cold fusion; a group activity that analyzes and interprets the events surrounding cold fusion; and an application research project concerning a current science issue. (ZWH)

  11. Spacelab program's scientific benefits to mankind

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Craft, H. G. Jr; Marmann, R. A.

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes the Spacelab program's scientific accomplishments during the past 10 years, highlighting major scientific accomplishments. An overview of Spacelab systems performance, significant issues, and utilization and operations activities applicable to the space station era is presented.

  12. Greenhouse gases mitigation options and strategies for Tanzania

    SciTech Connect

    Mwandosya, M.J.; Meena, H.E.

    1996-12-31

    Tanzania became a party to the United Nations Framework on Climate Change (UN FCCC) when she ratified the Convention in March, 1996. Now that Tanzania and other developing countries are Parties to the UN FCCC, compliance with its provisions is mandatory. The legal requirements therefore provide a basis for their participation in climate change studies and policy formulation. All parties to the Convention are required by Article 4.1 of the United Nations Convention on Climate Change (UN FCCC) to develop, periodically update, publish, and make available national inventories of anthropogenic emissions and removal of greenhouse gases that are not controlled by the Montreal Protocol. This study on possible options for the mitigation of greenhouse gases in Tanzania is a preliminary effort towards the fulfilment of the obligation. In order to fulfil their obligations under the UN FCCC and have a meaningful mitigation assessment, identification and quantification of anthropogenic sources of atmospheric emissions of greenhouse gases in the country was undertaken. In this respect, the study of anthropogenic emissions by source and removals by sink of GHGs in Tanzania was done with the main objective of increasing the quantity and quality of base-line data available in order to further scientific understanding of the relationship of greenhouse gas emissions to climate change. Furthermore, the study facilitated identification of national policy and technological options that could reduce the level of emissions in the country.

  13. Physics in the Global Greenhouse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Shelagh

    1991-01-01

    Several ways of exploring the subject of global warming within the context of a conventional physics syllabus are suggested. The physics underlying greenhouse phenomena, the process of modelling (especially computers), possible future climatic scenarios, and the differing nature of the uncertainties associated with the many fields of study that…

  14. Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Pasture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, and methane are the primary greenhouse gases associated with global climate change. Livestock production’s contribution to carbon dioxide emissions is minimal, but it is a substantial contributor to both nitrous oxide and methane emissions. In both grazing and confin...

  15. An Introduction to Greenhouse Production.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMahon, Robert W.

    This student manual provides a basic text for those preparing for greenhouse and floriculture work. At the beginning of each chapter, competencies are listed, along with related math and science concepts, and a list of "terms to know"; figures, tables, and photographs may be included. At the end of each chapter, a self-check can be made of the…

  16. Building and using the solar greenhouse

    SciTech Connect

    1983-01-01

    Thorough directions are given for planning, constructing and using a solar greenhouse attached to a house. Included is a method of calculating the savings accruing from the use of the greenhouse. (LEW)

  17. EPA GROUP VERIFIES PERFORMANCE OF GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS-MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Greenhouse Gas Technology Verification Center (the Center) is one of 12 independently operated environmental technology verification organizations established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The Center provides third-party performance data to industry and o...

  18. COCONet (Continuously Operating Caribbean GPS Observational Network) - A multihazard GPS/Met observatory: Enhancing geodetic infrastructure and the scientific community in the Caribbean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feaux, K.; Braun, J. J.; Calais, E.; Mattioli, G. S.; Miller, M. M.; Normandeau, J.; Sandru, J.; Wang, G.

    2013-05-01

    The COCONet (Continuously Operating Caribbean GPS Observational Network) project was funded by the National Science Foundation (NSF) with the aim of developing a large-scale geodetic and atmospheric infrastructure in the Caribbean that will form the backbone for a broad range of geoscience, atmospheric, and sea-level investigations and enable research on process-oriented science questions with direct relevance to geohazards. The current COCONet network construction plan consists of the installation of 47 new GPS and meteorological stations throughout the Caribbean region, 21 existing stations refurbished with new receivers, antennas, and meteorological instruments, and will also incorporate data from at least 61 existing operational GPS stations. COCONet engineers will also install 2 new collocated GPS and tide gauge sites and GPS instruments at two existing tide gauge sites in the Caribbean region. In October 2012, the third COCONet workshop was held in Tulum, Mexico in which a number of recommendations were made concerning capacity building in the region, network sustainability, high-rate data, and developing a data center in the Caribbean region. We present the status of the construction phase of the project to date, as well as the status of some of the recommendations from the third COCONet workshop focusing on capacity building and outreach elements of the project.

  19. Greenhouse gas emissions in Canada and Japan: sector-specific estimates and managerial and economic implications.

    PubMed

    Hayami, Hitoshi; Nakamura, Masao

    2007-10-01

    Many firms generate large amounts of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases when they burn fossil fuels in their production processes. In addition, production of raw materials and other inputs the firms procure for their operations also generates greenhouse gases indirectly. These direct and indirect greenhouse gas emissions occur in many sectors of our economies. In this paper, we first present sector-specific estimates for such greenhouse gas emissions. We then show that estimates for such sector-specific greenhouse gas emissions are often required for various types of corporate as well as public policy analyses in both domestic and international contexts. Measuring greenhouse gas emissions resulting from firms' multi-stage production processes in a multi-sector context is relevant for policies related to the Kyoto protocol, an international agreement to limit global greenhouse gas emissions. For example, since the protocol allows firms to engage in trading and offsetting of their greenhouse gas emissions across national borders, provided that emissions are correctly measured, the firms can take advantage of such trading schemes by placing their energy-intensive production facilities globally and strategically. We present several case studies which illustrate the importance of this and other aspects of greenhouse gas emissions in firms' environmental management. We also argue that our modeling and estimation methods based on input-output analyses are suitable for the types of research goals we have in this paper. Our methods are applied to data for Canada and Japan in a variety of environmental management circumstances.

  20. Direct Demonstration of the Greenhouse Effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaffe, D. A.; Malashanka, S.; Call, K.; Bernays, N.

    2012-12-01

    other science classes. Both of the above experiments should lead to a greater understanding of the scientific basis for the greenhouse effect.

  1. The Greenhouse Effect and Built Environment Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenall Gough, Annette; Gough, Noel

    The greenhouse effect has always existed. Without the greenhouse effect, Earth could well have the oven-like environment of Venus or the deep-freeze environment of Mars. There is some debate about how much the Earth's surface temperature will rise given a certain amount of increase in the amount of greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide, nitrous…

  2. Limiting net greenhouse gas emissions in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Bradley, R A; Watts, E C; Williams, E R

    1991-09-01

    In 2988 the Congress requested DOE produce a study on carbon dioxide inventory and policy to provide an inventory of emissions sources and to analyze policies to achieve a 20% reduction in carbon dioxide emissions in 5 to 10 years and a 50% reduction in 15 to 20 years. This report presents the results of that study. Energy and environmental technology data were analyzed using computational analysis models. This information was then evaluated, drawing on current scientific understanding of global climate change, the possible consequences of anthropogenic climate change (change caused by human activity), and the relationship between energy production and use and the emission of radiactively important gases. Topics discussed include: energy and environmental technology to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, fossil energy production and electricity generation technologies, nuclear energy technology, renewable energy technologies, energy storage, transmission, and distribution technology, transportation, technology, industrial technology, residential and commercial building technology, greenhouse gas removal technology, approaches to restructuring the demand for energy.

  3. European Crew Personal Active Dosimeter (EuCPAD), a novel dosimetry system utilizing operational and scientific synergies for the benefit of humans in space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Straube, Ulrich; Berger, Thomas

    A significant expansion of Human presence in space can be recognized over the last decade. Not only the frequency of human space mission did rise, but also time in space, mission duration with extended flights lasting half a year or more are becoming "standard". Despite the challenges to human health and well-being are still significant, or may even increase with mission length and work density. Also radiation exposure in space remains one of the inevitable and dominating factors relevant to crew- health, -safety and therefore mission success. The radiation environment that the space crews are exposed to differs significantly as compared to earth. Exposure in flight exceed doses that are usually received by terrestrial radiation workers on ground. Expanding "medical" demands are not a solely characteristics of current and current and upcoming mission scenarios. Likewise the margins for what is understood as "efficient utilization" for the fully operational science platform ISS, are immense. Understanding, accepting and approaching these challenges ESA-HSO did choose a particular pass of implementation for one of their current developments. Exploiting synergies of research, science and medical operational aspects, the "European Crew Personal Active Dosimeter for Astronauts (EuCPAD)" development exactly addresses these circumstances. It becomes novel part of ESA Radiation Protection Initiative for astronauts. The EuCPAD project aims at the development and manufacturing of an active (powered) dosimeter system to measure astronaut's exposures, support risk assessment dose management by providing a differentiated data set. Final goal is the verification of the system capabilities for medical monitoring at highest standards. The EuCPAD consists of several small portable Personal Active Dosimeters (MU = Mobile Unitas) and a rack mounted docking station “Personal Storage Device (PSD)” for MU storage, data read out and telemetry. The PSD furthermore contains a Tissue

  4. Scientific and Regulatory Policy Committee Review: Review of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) Guidance on the GLP Requirements for Peer Review of Histopathology.

    PubMed

    Fikes, James D; Patrick, Daniel J; Francke, Sabine; Frazier, Kendall S; Reindel, James F; Romeike, Annette; Spaet, Robert H; Tomlinson, Lindsay; Schafer, Kenneth A

    2015-10-01

    In 2014, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) issued guidance no. 16, Guidance on the GLP Requirements for Peer Review of Histopathology. The stated purpose of the guidance document is "to provide guidance to pathologists, test facility management, study directors and quality assurance personnel on how the peer review of histopathology should be planned, managed, documented, and reported in order to meet Good Laboratory Practice (GLP) expectations and requirements." On behalf of and in collaboration with the global societies of toxicologic pathology, the Society of Toxicologic Pathology initiated a review of OECD guidance no. 16. The objectives of this review are to provide a unified interpretation of the guidance, to recommend compliant processes for organizations to implement, and to avoid inconsistent process adaptations across the industry. This review of the guidance document is the product of a global collaboration with other societies of toxicologic pathology and provides a section-by-section international consensus view and interpretation of the OECD guidance on peer review.

  5. Utilization of treated swine wastewater for greenhouse tomato production.

    PubMed

    Cheng, J; Shearin, T E; Peet, M M; Willits, D H

    2004-01-01

    An integrated system has been developed to recycle waste organics and treated wastewater from a swine farm to make value-added products and to protect the environment from potential contamination. The farm is a farrow-to-wean swine operation with approximately 4,000 sows. A high-strength wastewater (chemical oxygen demand, 18,000 mg/l; total Khejdal nitrogen, 1,600 mg/l; total phosphorus, 360 mg/l) is produced from the swine operation. An ambient-temperature anaerobic digester has been used to treat the swine wastewater and to produce biogas (from an average 475 m3/day in winter to 950 m3/day in summer). The biogas is combusted in an engine to produce electricity (around 900 kW-hr/day). The digester effluent that is rich in nutrients (N, P, and minerals) is then utilized for fertigation for greenhouse tomato production. A trickling nitrification biofilter has been developed to convert ammonium in the effluent into nitrate. The nitrified anaerobic effluent is used as both fertilizer and irrigation water for approximately 14,400 tomato plants in greenhouses. Experimental data indicate that the tomato greenhouses have used approximately 12 m3 of the effluent and 3.84 kg nitrogen per day. At the same time, the greenhouses have a daily yield of 520 kg (37 g/plant) of marketable fruit. PMID:15344776

  6. Greenhouse Gas Reductions: SF6

    ScienceCinema

    Anderson, Diana

    2016-07-12

    Argonne National Laboratory is leading the way in greenhouse gas reductions, particularly with the recapture and recycling of sulfur hexafluoride (SF6). SF6 is a gas used in industry as an anti-arcing agent. It is an extremely potent greenhouse gas — one pound of SF6 is equivalent to 12 tons of carbon dioxide. While the U.S. does not currently regulate SF6 emissions, Argonne is proactively and voluntarily recovering and recycling to reduce SF6 emissions. Argonne saves over 16,000 tons of SF6 from being emitted into the atmosphere each year, and by recycling the gas rather than purchasing it new, we save taxpayers over $208,000 each year.

  7. Volcanoes can muddle the greenhouse

    SciTech Connect

    Kerr, R.A.

    1990-01-01

    As scientists and politicians anxiously eye signs of global greenhouse warming, climatologists are finding the best evidence yet that a massive volcanic eruption can temporarily bring the temperature down a notch or two. Such a cooling could be enough to set the current global warming back more than a decade, confusing any efforts to link it to the greenhouse effect. By effectively eliminating some nonvolcanic climate changes from the record of the past 100 years, researchers have detected drops in global temperature of several tenths of a degree within 1 to 2 years of volcanic eruptions. Apparently, the debris spewed into the stratosphere blocked sunlight and caused the temperature drops. For all their potential social significance, the climate effects of volcanoes have been hard to detect. The problem has been in identifying a volcanic cooling among the nearly continuous climate warmings and coolings of a similar size that fill the record. The paper reviews how this was done.

  8. Greenhouse Gas Reductions: SF6

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Diana

    2012-01-01

    Argonne National Laboratory is leading the way in greenhouse gas reductions, particularly with the recapture and recycling of sulfur hexafluoride (SF6). SF6 is a gas used in industry as an anti-arcing agent. It is an extremely potent greenhouse gas — one pound of SF6 is equivalent to 12 tons of carbon dioxide. While the U.S. does not currently regulate SF6 emissions, Argonne is proactively and voluntarily recovering and recycling to reduce SF6 emissions. Argonne saves over 16,000 tons of SF6 from being emitted into the atmosphere each year, and by recycling the gas rather than purchasing it new, we save taxpayers over $208,000 each year.

  9. The role of forestry development in China in alleviating greenhouse effects

    SciTech Connect

    Liu Hong

    1996-12-31

    Forestry development in China has gained great achievements and made great progress in realizing sustainable forest management and alleviating global climate change. The main measures to mitigate greenhouse effects through the means of forestry development include afforestation to increase the forested area, fuel wood forest development, management improvement, wise utilization, international cooperation, investment increase, forest related scientific research, strengthening the forest law enforcement system. Climate change as well as how to alleviate the greenhouse effects is a hot topic at present. This paper describes the achievements of China`s forestry development and its role to alleviate the greenhouse effects, and puts forward the measures to mitigate greenhouse effects through the means of forestry development.

  10. 50 CFR 660.519 - Scientific observers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Scientific observers. 660.519 Section 660... § 660.519 Scientific observers. All fishing vessels operating in the coastal pelagic species fishery... collect scientific data. An observer program will be considered only for circumstances where other...

  11. 50 CFR 660.519 - Scientific observers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Scientific observers. 660.519 Section 660... § 660.519 Scientific observers. All fishing vessels operating in the coastal pelagic species fishery... collect scientific data. An observer program will be considered only for circumstances where other...

  12. 50 CFR 660.519 - Scientific observers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Scientific observers. 660.519 Section 660... § 660.519 Scientific observers. All fishing vessels operating in the coastal pelagic species fishery... collect scientific data. An observer program will be considered only for circumstances where other...

  13. Heating and cooling applications of atriums and attached greenhouses. A state-of-the-art report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-12-01

    The objective of the project is to collect experimental data to be used in correlating algorithms on volumetric airflow rates and heat transfer rates in atrium design. This initial report descirbes the current-state-of-the-art in atrium designs and reports its deployment status throughout the US. Individual and computer subject searches of atriums and greenhouse were completed. An annotated bibliography of each reference reviewed was prepared and are listed in three categories: system characteristics; existing attached greenhouses and atriums, and current greenhouse design criteria. Atriums are defined; a classification scheme is developed; and operating modes are discussed. Atrium locations are identified by region. The sites are plotted in Section 5. Section 6 discusses simplified approaches to sizing atrium elements, emphasizing greenhouse materials. Appendix A presents system details on a representative cross-section of the various greenhouse system types currently used in the US. (MCW)

  14. Discussing the Greenhouse Effect: Children's Collaborative Discourse Reasoning and Conceptual Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Lucia; Santi, Marina

    1998-01-01

    Investigates fifth-grade students' conceptual changes toward the greenhouse effect and global warming due to sociocognitive interaction developed in small and large group discussion in an authentic classroom context during an environmental education unit. Classroom discussions led the children to integrate new scientific knowledge into their…

  15. Australian Students' Appreciation of the Greenhouse Effect and the Ozone Hole.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Brian

    1998-01-01

    Examines students' explanations of the greenhouse effect and the hole in the ozone layer, using a life-world and scientific dichotomy. Illuminates ideas often expressed in classrooms and sheds light on the progression in students' developing powers of explanation. Contains 17 references. (DDR)

  16. EDITORIAL: Tropical deforestation and greenhouse gas emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibbs, Holly K.; Herold, Martin

    2007-10-01

    Carbon emissions from tropical deforestation have long been recognized as a key component of the global carbon budget, and more recently of our global climate system. Tropical forest clearing accounts for roughly 20% of anthropogenic carbon emissions and destroys globally significant carbon sinks (IPCC 2007). Global climate policy initiatives are now being proposed to address these emissions and to more actively include developing countries in greenhouse gas mitigation (e.g. Santilli et al 2005, Gullison et al 2007). In 2005, at the Conference of the Parties (COP) in Montreal, the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) launched a new initiative to assess the scientific and technical methods and issues for developing policy approaches and incentives to reduce emissions from deforestation and degradation (REDD) in developing countries (Gullison et al 2007). Over the last two years the methods and tools needed to estimate reductions in greenhouse gas emissions from deforestation have quickly evolved, as the scientific community responded to the UNFCCC policy needs. This focus issue highlights those advancements, covering some of the most important technical issues for measuring and monitoring emissions from deforestation and forest degradation and emphasizing immediately available methods and data, as well as future challenges. Elements for effective long-term implementation of a REDD mechanism related to both environmental and political concerns are discussed in Mollicone et al. Herold and Johns synthesize viewpoints of national parties to the UNFCCC on REDD and expand upon key issues for linking policy requirements and forest monitoring capabilities. In response to these expressed policy needs, they discuss a remote-sensing-based observation framework to start REDD implementation activities and build historical deforestation databases on the national level. Achard et al offer an assessment of remote sensing measurements across the world

  17. The challenge of identifying greenhouse gas-induced climatic change

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maccracken, Michael C.

    1992-01-01

    Meeting the challenge of identifying greenhouse gas-induced climatic change involves three steps. First, observations of critical variables must be assembled, evaluated, and analyzed to determine that there has been a statistically significant change. Second, reliable theoretical (model) calculations must be conducted to provide a definitive set of changes for which to search. Third, a quantitative and statistically significant association must be made between the projected and observed changes to exclude the possibility that the changes are due to natural variability or other factors. This paper provides a qualitative overview of scientific progress in successfully fulfilling these three steps.

  18. Embodied greenhouse gas emissions in diets.

    PubMed

    Pradhan, Prajal; Reusser, Dominik E; Kropp, Juergen P

    2013-01-01

    Changing food consumption patterns and associated greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions have been a matter of scientific debate for decades. The agricultural sector is one of the major GHG emitters and thus holds a large potential for climate change mitigation through optimal management and dietary changes. We assess this potential, project emissions, and investigate dietary patterns and their changes globally on a per country basis between 1961 and 2007. Sixteen representative and spatially differentiated patterns with a per capita calorie intake ranging from 1,870 to >3,400 kcal/day were derived. Detailed analyses show that low calorie diets are decreasing worldwide, while in parallel diet composition is changing as well: a discernable shift towards more balanced diets in developing countries can be observed and steps towards more meat rich diets as a typical characteristics in developed countries. Low calorie diets which are mainly observable in developing countries show a similar emission burden than moderate and high calorie diets. This can be explained by a less efficient calorie production per unit of GHG emissions in developing countries. Very high calorie diets are common in the developed world and exhibit high total per capita emissions of 3.7-6.1 kg CO(2eq.)/day due to high carbon intensity and high intake of animal products. In case of an unbridled demographic growth and changing dietary patterns the projected emissions from agriculture will approach 20 Gt CO(2eq.)/yr by 2050. PMID:23700408

  19. Greenhouse effects: earth's climate in transition

    SciTech Connect

    Shepard, M.; Hakkarinen, C.; Hansen, A.; Spencer, D.

    1986-06-01

    Many experts are predicting significant change in the earth's climate during the next 50 years as theories of global warming gain broad acceptance in the scientific community. The consequences of accumulating greenhouse gases in the atmosphere may turn out to be the greatest environmental problem of modern times. One of the key uncertainties in projecting temperature change centers on the question of how much of the carbon dioxide (CO/sub 2/) released to the atmosphere will remain there. Scientists do not yet agree on how the CO/sub 2/ is apportioned among the plants and oceans, how much CO/sub 2/ these reservoirs can hold, or how long they can hold it. Climatologists link hundreds of mathematical equations and temperature measurements to develop their climate models, which are limited by their ability to predict regional changes accurately. There is no consensus on whether there is a need to focus on research or on developing an appropriate response. 12 references, 6 figures.

  20. Removal of phosphate from greenhouse wastewater using hydrated lime.

    PubMed

    Dunets, C Siobhan; Zheng, Youbin

    2014-01-01

    Phosphate (P) contamination in nutrient-laden wastewater is currently a major topic of discussion in the North American greenhouse industry. Precipitation of P as calcium phosphate minerals using hydrated lime could provide a simple, inexpensive method for retrieval. A combination of batch experiments and chemical equilibrium modelling was used to confirm the viability of this P removal method and determine lime addition rates and pH requirements for greenhouse wastewater of varying nutrient compositions. Lime: P ratio (molar ratio of CaMg(OH)₄: PO₄‒P) provided a consistent parameter for estimating lime addition requirements regardless of initial P concentration, with a ratio of 1.5 providing around 99% removal of dissolved P. Optimal P removal occurred when lime addition increased the pH from 8.6 to 9.0, suggesting that pH monitoring during the P removal process could provide a simple method for ensuring consistent adherence to P removal standards. A Visual MINTEQ model, validated using experimental data, provided a means of predicting lime addition and pH requirements as influenced by changes in other parameters of the lime-wastewater system (e.g. calcium concentration, temperature, and initial wastewater pH). Hydrated lime addition did not contribute to the removal of macronutrient elements such as nitrate and ammonium, but did decrease the concentration of some micronutrients. This study provides basic guidance for greenhouse operators to use hydrated lime for phosphate removal from greenhouse wastewater. PMID:25176490

  1. Removal of phosphate from greenhouse wastewater using hydrated lime.

    PubMed

    Dunets, C Siobhan; Zheng, Youbin

    2014-01-01

    Phosphate (P) contamination in nutrient-laden wastewater is currently a major topic of discussion in the North American greenhouse industry. Precipitation of P as calcium phosphate minerals using hydrated lime could provide a simple, inexpensive method for retrieval. A combination of batch experiments and chemical equilibrium modelling was used to confirm the viability of this P removal method and determine lime addition rates and pH requirements for greenhouse wastewater of varying nutrient compositions. Lime: P ratio (molar ratio of CaMg(OH)₄: PO₄‒P) provided a consistent parameter for estimating lime addition requirements regardless of initial P concentration, with a ratio of 1.5 providing around 99% removal of dissolved P. Optimal P removal occurred when lime addition increased the pH from 8.6 to 9.0, suggesting that pH monitoring during the P removal process could provide a simple method for ensuring consistent adherence to P removal standards. A Visual MINTEQ model, validated using experimental data, provided a means of predicting lime addition and pH requirements as influenced by changes in other parameters of the lime-wastewater system (e.g. calcium concentration, temperature, and initial wastewater pH). Hydrated lime addition did not contribute to the removal of macronutrient elements such as nitrate and ammonium, but did decrease the concentration of some micronutrients. This study provides basic guidance for greenhouse operators to use hydrated lime for phosphate removal from greenhouse wastewater.

  2. False advertising in the greenhouse?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banse, K.

    1991-12-01

    Most scientists are convinced of the importance of their own research subjects. Broecker [1991] has deplored the temptation, if not the tendency, to go overboard and exaggerate this importance once funding enters the mind. In particular, he alleges inflated or even false claims by biological (and other) oceanographers regarding the relevance of their research to the "greenhouse effect," caused by the anthropogenic enhancement of the atmospheric CO2 content. He writes [Broecker, 1991, p. 191]: "In my estimation, on any list of subjects requiring intense study with regard to the prediction of the consequences of CO2 buildup in the atmosphere, I would place marine biological cycles near the bottom."

  3. Pesticide exposure and sprayer's task goals: comparison between vineyards and greenhouses.

    PubMed

    Lambert, Mandy; Richardson, James; Grimbuhler, Sonia

    2012-01-01

    Plant protection products are used in agriculture to improve yields, but this use can cause contamination of the environment and is also likely to have adverse short and long term effects on agricultural workers. The field study took place in greenhouses and vineyards where operators are involved in high levels of pesticide spraying. The objective of this intervention was to identify factors explaining the influence of task factors on the exposure of greenhouse growers and vineyard workers. Thirteen operators were selected for detailed observations during one session of spraying. Video recordings provide counts of physical contacts between the operator and all the surrounding surfaces during the spraying operation. Both in vineyards and in greenhouses, physical and temporal constraints are the predominant factors in establishing a specific spraying procedure. Every action taken by the operator is a result of a compromise between safety, task performance and quality.

  4. Greenhouse gas source identification and flux measurements using an optical remote sensing method and a photoacoustic multi-gas analyzer

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil properties such as particle size, soil organic carbon (SOC) and moisture contents, tillage operations and crop management practices influence greenhouse gas emission or consumption patterns from agricultural lands. Greenhouse gas (GG) emissions have been measured on small field plots, although ...

  5. Thermal and near infrared sensor for carbon observation Fourier-transform spectrometer on the Greenhouse Gases Observing Satellite for greenhouse gases monitoring.

    PubMed

    Kuze, Akihiko; Suto, Hiroshi; Nakajima, Masakatsu; Hamazaki, Takashi

    2009-12-10

    The Greenhouse Gases Observing Satellite (GOSAT) monitors carbon dioxide (CO(2)) and methane (CH(4)) globally from space using two instruments. The Thermal and Near Infrared Sensor for Carbon Observation Fourier-Transform Spectrometer (TANSO-FTS) detects gas absorption spectra of the solar short wave infrared (SWIR) reflected on the Earth's surface as well as of the thermal infrared radiated from the ground and the atmosphere. TANSO-FTS is capable of detecting three narrow bands (0.76, 1.6, and 2.0 microm) and a wide band (5.5-14.3 microm) with 0.2 cm(-1) spectral resolution (interval). The TANSO Cloud and Aerosol Imager (TANSO-CAI) is an ultraviolet (UV), visible, near infrared, and SWIR radiometer designed to detect cloud and aerosol interference and to provide the data for their correction. GOSAT is placed in a sun-synchronous orbit 666 km at 13:00 local time, with an inclination angle of 98 degrees . A brief overview of the GOSAT project, scientific requirements, instrument designs, hardware performance, on-orbit operation, and data processing is provided. PMID:20011012

  6. Are there pre-Quaternary geological analogues for a future greenhouse warming?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haywood, A.M.; Ridgwell, A.; Lunt, D.J.; Hill, D.J.; Pound, M.J.; Dowsett, H.J.; Dolan, A.M.; Francis, J.E.; Williams, M.

    2011-01-01

    Given the inherent uncertainties in predicting how climate and environments will respond to anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases, it would be beneficial to society if science could identify geological analogues to the human race's current grand climate experiment. This has been a focus of the geological and palaeoclimate communities over the last 30 years, with many scientific papers claiming that intervals in Earth history can be used as an analogue for future climate change. Using a coupled ocean-atmosphere modelling approach, we test this assertion for the most probable pre-Quaternary candidates of the last 100 million years: the Mid- and Late Cretaceous, the Palaeocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM), the Early Eocene, as well as warm intervals within the Miocene and Pliocene epochs. These intervals fail as true direct analogues since they either represent equilibrium climate states to a long-term CO2 forcing-whereas anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases provide a progressive (transient) forcing on climate-or the sensitivity of the climate system itself to CO2 was different. While no close geological analogue exists, past warm intervals in Earth history provide a unique opportunity to investigate processes that operated during warm (high CO2) climate states. Palaeoclimate and environmental reconstruction/modelling are facilitating the assessment and calculation of the response of global temperatures to increasing CO2 concentrations in the longer term (multiple centuries); this is now referred to as the Earth System Sensitivity, which is critical in identifying CO2 thresholds in the atmosphere that must not be crossed to avoid dangerous levels of climate change in the long term. Palaeoclimatology also provides a unique and independent way to evaluate the qualities of climate and Earth system models used to predict future climate. ?? 2011 The Royal Society.

  7. Observational determination of the greenhouse effect

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raval, A.; Ramanathan, V.

    1989-01-01

    Satellite measurements are used to quantify the atmospheric greenhouse effect, defined here as the infrared radiation energy trapped by atmospheric gases and clouds. The greenhouse effect is found to increase significantly with sea surface temperature. The rate of increase gives compelling evidence for the positive feedback between surface temperature, water vapor and the greenhouse effect; the magnitude of the feedback is consistent with that predicted by climate models. This study demonstrates an effective method for directly monitoring, from space, future changes in the greenhouse effect.

  8. Greenhouse as pert of a life support system for a martian crew

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sychev, V. N.; Levinskikh, M. A.; Grigorie, A. I.

    One of the most important problems in space exploration is the biomedical support of humans in a hostile environment that cannot sustain their life and development. An integral part of biomedical support is an adequate life support systems (LSS). In the visible future a manned flight to Mars can become a reality. When designing a LSS for a Martian Expedition, we assume that over the next 15-20 years we will be able to support the Martian crew using systems and hardware that have been in operation on the International Space Station (ISS). Their extended use on MIR and ISS has demonstrated their high reliability and provided detailed information about their operation in space. Today it is recognized that integration of a biological subsystem (at least, a greenhouse) in a LSS will enrich the Martian spacecraft environment and mitigate potential adverse effects of a long-term exposure to a man-made (abiogenic) environment. Our estimates show that an adequate amount of wet biomass of lettuce cultures can be produced in a greenhouse with a planting area of 10 m2. This means that a greenhouse of a sufficient size can be housed in 5 standard Space Shuttle racks. A greenhouse made of modules can be installed as a single unit in one area or as several subunits in different areas of the Martian vehicle. According to our calculations, a greenhouse of this capacity can provide a 6-member crew with adequate amounts of vitamins and minerals, as well as regenerate about 5% of oxygen, 3.6% of water and over 1% of food components. Incorporation of a greenhouse will make it necessary to redesign current LSSs by changing material flows and upgrading their components. Prior to this, we have to investigate operational characteristics of greenhouses on space vehicles, design systems capable of supporting continuous and prolonged operation of greenhouses, and select plants that can provide crews with required vitamins and minerals.

  9. The greenhouse effect: Its implications for industrial and government policy

    SciTech Connect

    Jarrett, J.; Coates, J.F.

    1985-01-01

    Discussions of policy, and scientific investigation also, could benefit from better information on sources and rates of emissions of the other greenhouse gases. Considerable information is available from the chemical industry on the chloroflurocarbons. Thinking about measures to prevent or control effects of climate change has barely begun. Without being impetuous in seeking much less in declaring solutions, there is room for the generation and exploration of fresh ideas. For example, virtually nothing has been done in conceptualizing means to prevent or retard the melting of the polar ice caps, by altering the albedo, or manipulating the circumpolar ocean currents. There is a need to brighten and broaden the future of public debate on the issue, which has been gloomy, at best. The potential for misinformation and misunderstanding on a complex issue is high. However the evolution of educational and participatory tools for the purpose of teaching complex concepts, in the imagining of strategies for managing future issues, for an understanding of the benefits and costs, and in planning for action, make developing a program of public information on atmospheric issues more attractive. At the same time, there is increasing interest in scientific information of all kinds. The trace gas contribution to the greenhouse effect is an especially interesting public policy topic with important consequences for us and our descendants. With positive action it is capable of becoming a model for the global discussion of slow building environmental developments.

  10. Emissions of greenhouse gases in the United States, 1985--1990

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-11-10

    The Earth`s capacity to support life depends on the moderating influences of gases that envelop the planet and warm its surface and protect it from harmful radiation. These gases are referred to as ``greenhouse gases.`` Their warming capacity, called ``the greenhouse effect,`` is essential to maintaining a climate hospitable to all plant, animal, and human life. In recent years, however, there has been increasing concern that human activity may be affecting the intricate balance between the Earth`s absorption of heat from the sun and its capacity to reradiate excess heat back into space. Emissions of greenhouse gases from human activities may be an important mechanism that affects global climate. Thus, research is intensifying to improve our understanding of the role human activities might play in influencing atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases. On the basis of scientific findings of the past few decades, the US Government and the international community at large are now taking steps toward stabilizing greenhouse gas emissions. This report contributes to that process. Mandated by Congress this report provides estimates of US emissions of the principal greenhouse gases--carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, chlorofluorcarbons, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, and nonmethane volatile organic compounds. Estimates are for the period 1985 to 1990. Preliminary estimates for 1991 have also been included, whenever data were available.

  11. Greenhouse Earth: A Traveling Exhibition. Final report, September 1, 1991--August 31, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Booth, W.H.; Caesar, S.

    1992-09-01

    The Franklin Institute Science Museum provided an exhibit entitled the Greenhouse Earth: A Traveling Exhibition. This 3500 square-foot exhibit on global climate change was developed in collaboration with the Association of Science-Technology Centers. The exhibit opened at The Franklin Institute on February 14, 1992, welcoming 291,000 visitors over its three-month stay. During its three-year tour, Greenhouse Earth will travel to ten US cities, reaching two million visitors. Greenhouse Earth aims to deepen public understanding of the scientific issues of global warming and the conservation measures that can be taken to slow its effects. The exhibit features hands-on exhibitry, interactive computer programs and videos, a theater production, a ``demonstration cart,`` guided tours, and lectures. supplemental educational programs at the Institute included a teachers preview, a symposium on climate change, and a ``satellite field trip.`` The development of Greenhouse Earth included front-end and formative evaluation procedures. Evaluation includes interviews with visitors, prototypes, and summative surveys for participating museums. During its stay in Philadelphia, Greenhouse Earth was covered by the local and national press, with reviews in print and broadcast media. Greenhouse Earth is the first large-scale museum exhibit to address global climate change.

  12. Towards European organisation for integrated greenhouse gas observation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaukolehto, Marjut; Vesala, Timo; Sorvari, Sanna; Juurola, Eija; Paris, Jean-Daniel

    2013-04-01

    Climate change is one the most challenging problems that humanity will have to cope with in the coming decades. The perturbed global biogeochemical cycles of the greenhouse gases (carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxide) are a major driving force of current and future climate change. Deeper understanding of the driving forces of climate change requires full quantification of the greenhouse gas emissions and sinks and their evolution. Regional greenhouse gas budgets, tipping-points, vulnerabilities and the controlling mechanisms can be assessed by long term, high precision observations in the atmosphere and at the ocean and land surface. ICOS RI is a distributed infrastructure for on-line, in-situ monitoring of greenhouse gases (GHG) necessary to understand their present-state and future sinks and sources. ICOS RI provides the long-term observations required to understand the present state and predict future behaviour of the global carbon cycle and greenhouse gas emissions. Linking research, education and innovation promotes technological development and demonstrations related to greenhouse gases. The first objective of ICOS RI is to provide effective access to coherent and precise data and to provide assessments of GHG inventories with high temporal and spatial resolution. The second objective is to provide profound information for research and understanding of regional budgets of greenhouse gas sources and sinks, their human and natural drivers, and the controlling mechanisms. ICOS is one of several ESFRI initiatives in the environmental science domain. There is significant potential for structural and synergetic interaction with several other ESFRI initiatives. ICOS RI is relevant for Joint Programming by providing the data access for the researchers and acting as a contact point for developing joint strategic research agendas among European member states. The preparatory phase ends in March 2013 and there will be an interim period before the legal entity will

  13. Geothermal heating for the Arizona Environmental Research Laboratory greenhouses

    SciTech Connect

    White, D.H.; Goldstone, L.A.

    1982-08-01

    A preliminary study of the technical and economic feasibility of installing a retrofit geothermal heating system is analyzed for the Environmental Research Laboratory Farms greenhouse facility located in Tucson, Arizona. The facility consists of 10.6 acres of greenhouse area, of which 7.4 acres are currently operational. Natural gas or diesel fuel are presently used for heating. The maximum heating load is estimated to be 28,620,000 Btu/hr. Average annual heating energy consumption between 1974 and 1979 was 35,684 million But/year for 7.4 acres of greenhouse, costing an estimated $96,703 at 1981 natural gas prices. Two 2500 foot geothermal production wells are required, each capable of producing 1500 gpm of 130{sup 0}F water. The geothermal water is expected to contain 500 ppM total dissolved solids. Total estimated capital cost for installing the system is $902,946. The expected first year geothermal energy cost savigs are estimated to be $58,920. A simple payback of 9.1 years is calculated and the project has a net present value of $961,751. Geothermal heat could be supplied at a cost of $5.39 per million Btu in the first year of operation. The project as herein presented is marginally economic. However, it became clear after the study that an attractive economic case could be made for providing about 50 to 60 percent of the required heating load as a base load using geothermal energy.

  14. The martial art of scientific publication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parker, E. N.

    Publication of scientific results in refereed journals is an essential part of the scientific process. It is the final payoff for the obscure labors that compose scientific research. Unfortunately, effective operation of the publication procedure requires simultaneous rational scientific judgment on the part of the author, the referee, and the editor, and the coincidence of all of these cannot be taken for granted on every given occasion. There are times when the working definition of truth is taken to be the consensus of one's scientific intimates: the “good old boys.” Anything outside that limited horizon is discomforting and improper and is to be barred from consideration.

  15. Titan's greenhouse and antigreenhouse effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mckay, Christopher P.; Pollack, James B.; Courtin, Regis

    1992-01-01

    Thermal mechanisms active in Titan's atmosphere are discussed in a brief review of data obtained during the Voyager I flyby in 1980. Particular attention is given to the greenhouse effect (GHE) produced by atmospheric H2, N2, and CH4; this GHE is stronger than that on earth, with CH4 and H2 playing roles similar to those of H2O and CO2 on earth. Also active on Titan is an antigreenhouse effect, in which dark-brown and orange organic aerosols block incoming solar light while allowing IR radiation from the Titan surface to escape. The combination of GHE and anti-GHE leads to a surface temperature about 12 C higher than it would be if Titan had no atmosphere.

  16. A Hiatus of the Greenhouse Effect.

    PubMed

    Song, Jinjie; Wang, Yuan; Tang, Jianping

    2016-01-01

    The rate at which the global average surface temperature is increasing has slowed down since the end of the last century. This study investigates whether this warming hiatus results from a change in the well-known greenhouse effect. Using long-term, reliable, and consistent observational data from the Earth's surface and the top of the atmosphere (TOA), two monthly gridded atmospheric and surface greenhouse effect parameters (Ga and Gs) are estimated to represent the radiative warming effects of the atmosphere and the surface in the infrared range from 1979 to 2014. The atmospheric and surface greenhouse effect over the tropical monsoon-prone regions is found to contribute substantially to the global total. Furthermore, the downward tendency of cloud activity leads to a greenhouse effect hiatus after the early 1990 s, prior to the warming pause. Additionally, this pause in the greenhouse effect is mostly caused by the high number of La Niña events between 1991 and 2014. A strong La Niña indicates suppressed convection in the tropical central Pacific that reduces atmospheric water vapor content and cloud volume. This significantly weakened regional greenhouse effect offsets the enhanced warming influence in other places and decelerates the rising global greenhouse effect. This work suggests that the greenhouse effect hiatus can be served as an additional factor to cause the recent global warming slowdown. PMID:27616203

  17. A Hiatus of the Greenhouse Effect.

    PubMed

    Song, Jinjie; Wang, Yuan; Tang, Jianping

    2016-09-12

    The rate at which the global average surface temperature is increasing has slowed down since the end of the last century. This study investigates whether this warming hiatus results from a change in the well-known greenhouse effect. Using long-term, reliable, and consistent observational data from the Earth's surface and the top of the atmosphere (TOA), two monthly gridded atmospheric and surface greenhouse effect parameters (Ga and Gs) are estimated to represent the radiative warming effects of the atmosphere and the surface in the infrared range from 1979 to 2014. The atmospheric and surface greenhouse effect over the tropical monsoon-prone regions is found to contribute substantially to the global total. Furthermore, the downward tendency of cloud activity leads to a greenhouse effect hiatus after the early 1990 s, prior to the warming pause. Additionally, this pause in the greenhouse effect is mostly caused by the high number of La Niña events between 1991 and 2014. A strong La Niña indicates suppressed convection in the tropical central Pacific that reduces atmospheric water vapor content and cloud volume. This significantly weakened regional greenhouse effect offsets the enhanced warming influence in other places and decelerates the rising global greenhouse effect. This work suggests that the greenhouse effect hiatus can be served as an additional factor to cause the recent global warming slowdown.

  18. A Hiatus of the Greenhouse Effect

    PubMed Central

    Song, Jinjie; Wang, Yuan; Tang, Jianping

    2016-01-01

    The rate at which the global average surface temperature is increasing has slowed down since the end of the last century. This study investigates whether this warming hiatus results from a change in the well-known greenhouse effect. Using long-term, reliable, and consistent observational data from the Earth’s surface and the top of the atmosphere (TOA), two monthly gridded atmospheric and surface greenhouse effect parameters (Ga and Gs) are estimated to represent the radiative warming effects of the atmosphere and the surface in the infrared range from 1979 to 2014. The atmospheric and surface greenhouse effect over the tropical monsoon-prone regions is found to contribute substantially to the global total. Furthermore, the downward tendency of cloud activity leads to a greenhouse effect hiatus after the early 1990 s, prior to the warming pause. Additionally, this pause in the greenhouse effect is mostly caused by the high number of La Niña events between 1991 and 2014. A strong La Niña indicates suppressed convection in the tropical central Pacific that reduces atmospheric water vapor content and cloud volume. This significantly weakened regional greenhouse effect offsets the enhanced warming influence in other places and decelerates the rising global greenhouse effect. This work suggests that the greenhouse effect hiatus can be served as an additional factor to cause the recent global warming slowdown. PMID:27616203

  19. A Hiatus of the Greenhouse Effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Jinjie; Wang, Yuan; Tang, Jianping

    2016-09-01

    The rate at which the global average surface temperature is increasing has slowed down since the end of the last century. This study investigates whether this warming hiatus results from a change in the well-known greenhouse effect. Using long-term, reliable, and consistent observational data from the Earth’s surface and the top of the atmosphere (TOA), two monthly gridded atmospheric and surface greenhouse effect parameters (Ga and Gs) are estimated to represent the radiative warming effects of the atmosphere and the surface in the infrared range from 1979 to 2014. The atmospheric and surface greenhouse effect over the tropical monsoon-prone regions is found to contribute substantially to the global total. Furthermore, the downward tendency of cloud activity leads to a greenhouse effect hiatus after the early 1990 s, prior to the warming pause. Additionally, this pause in the greenhouse effect is mostly caused by the high number of La Niña events between 1991 and 2014. A strong La Niña indicates suppressed convection in the tropical central Pacific that reduces atmospheric water vapor content and cloud volume. This significantly weakened regional greenhouse effect offsets the enhanced warming influence in other places and decelerates the rising global greenhouse effect. This work suggests that the greenhouse effect hiatus can be served as an additional factor to cause the recent global warming slowdown.

  20. Solar energy utilization and microcomputer control in the greenhouse builk curing and drying solar system

    SciTech Connect

    Nassar, A.N.H.

    1987-01-01

    Three agricultural applications in a specially designed greenhouse solar system functioning as a multi-purpose solar air collector for crop production and curing/drying processes are examined. An automated hydroponic crop production system is proposed for the greenhouse solar system. Design criteria of the proposed system and its utilization of solar energy for root-zone warming are presented and discussed. Based upon limited testing of the hydroponic system considered, hydroponic production of greenhouse crops is believed reasonable to complement the year-round use of the greenhouse solar system. The hardware/software design features of a microcomputer-based control system applied in the greenhouse solar barn are presented and discussed. On-line management and utilization of incident solar energy by the microcomputer system are investigated for both the greenhouse and tobacco curing/drying modes of operation. The design approach considered for the microcomputer control system is believed suitable for regulating solar energy collection and utilization for crop production applications in greenhouse systems.

  1. Where do California's greenhouse gases come from?

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, Marc

    2009-01-01

    Last March, more than two years after California passed legislation to slash greenhouse gas emissions 25 percent by 2020, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory scientist Marc Fischer boarded a Cessna loaded with air monitoring equipment and crisscrossed the skies above Sacramento and the Bay Area. Instruments aboard the aircraft measured a cocktail of greenhouse gases: carbon dioxide from fossil fuel use, methane from livestock and landfills, CO2 from refineries and power plants, traces of nitrous oxide from agriculture and fuel use, and industrially produced other gases like refrigerants. The flight was part of the Airborne Greenhouse Gas Emissions Survey, a collaboration between Berkeley Lab, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, and the University of California, and UC Davis to pinpoint the sources of greenhouse gases in central California. The survey is intended to improve inventories of the states greenhouse gas emissions, which in turn will help scientists verify the emission reductions mandated by AB-32, the legislation enacted by California in 2006.

  2. Where do California's greenhouse gases come from?

    ScienceCinema

    Fischer, Marc

    2016-07-12

    Last March, more than two years after California passed legislation to slash greenhouse gas emissions 25 percent by 2020, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory scientist Marc Fischer boarded a Cessna loaded with air monitoring equipment and crisscrossed the skies above Sacramento and the Bay Area. Instruments aboard the aircraft measured a cocktail of greenhouse gases: carbon dioxide from fossil fuel use, methane from livestock and landfills, CO2 from refineries and power plants, traces of nitrous oxide from agriculture and fuel use, and industrially produced other gases like refrigerants. The flight was part of the Airborne Greenhouse Gas Emissions Survey, a collaboration between Berkeley Lab, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, and the University of California, and UC Davis to pinpoint the sources of greenhouse gases in central California. The survey is intended to improve inventories of the states greenhouse gas emissions, which in turn will help scientists verify the emission reductions mandated by AB-32, the legislation enacted by California in 2006.

  3. 13. Greenhouse, east elevation. The boardandbatten wall covers an opening ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. Greenhouse, east elevation. The board-and-batten wall covers an opening that was originally fitted with windows which allowed sunlight into the greenhouse. - John Bartram House & Garden, Greenhouse, 54th Street & LIndbergh Boulevard, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  4. Greenhouse gas accounting and waste management.

    PubMed

    Gentil, Emmanuel; Christensen, Thomas H; Aoustin, Emmanuelle

    2009-11-01

    Accounting of emissions of greenhouse gas (GHG) is a major focus within waste management. This paper analyses and compares the four main types of GHG accounting in waste management including their special features and approaches: the national accounting, with reference to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), the corporate level, as part of the annual reporting on environmental issues and social responsibility, life-cycle assessment (LCA), as an environmental basis for assessing waste management systems and technologies, and finally, the carbon trading methodology, and more specifically, the clean development mechanism (CDM) methodology, introduced to support cost-effective reduction in GHG emissions. These types of GHG accounting, in principle, have a common starting point in technical data on GHG emissions from specific waste technologies and plants, but the limited availability of data and, moreover, the different scopes of the accounting lead to many ways of quantifying emissions and producing the accounts. The importance of transparency in GHG accounting is emphasised regarding waste type, waste composition, time period considered, GHGs included, global warming potential (GWP) assigned to the GHGs, counting of biogenic carbon dioxide, choice of system boundaries, interactions with the energy system, and generic emissions factors. In order to enhance transparency and consistency, a format called the upstream-operating-downstream framework (UOD) is proposed for reporting basic technology-related data regarding GHG issues including a clear distinction between direct emissions from waste management technologies, indirect upstream (use of energy and materials) and indirect downstream (production of energy, delivery of secondary materials) activities.

  5. Advancing agricultural greenhouse gas quantification*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olander, Lydia; Wollenberg, Eva; Tubiello, Francesco; Herold, Martin

    2013-03-01

    1. Introduction Better information on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and mitigation potential in the agricultural sector is necessary to manage these emissions and identify responses that are consistent with the food security and economic development priorities of countries. Critical activity data (what crops or livestock are managed in what way) are poor or lacking for many agricultural systems, especially in developing countries. In addition, the currently available methods for quantifying emissions and mitigation are often too expensive or complex or not sufficiently user friendly for widespread use. The purpose of this focus issue is to capture the state of the art in quantifying greenhouse gases from agricultural systems, with the goal of better understanding our current capabilities and near-term potential for improvement, with particular attention to quantification issues relevant to smallholders in developing countries. This work is timely in light of international discussions and negotiations around how agriculture should be included in efforts to reduce and adapt to climate change impacts, and considering that significant climate financing to developing countries in post-2012 agreements may be linked to their increased ability to identify and report GHG emissions (Murphy et al 2010, CCAFS 2011, FAO 2011). 2. Agriculture and climate change mitigation The main agricultural GHGs—methane and nitrous oxide—account for 10%-12% of anthropogenic emissions globally (Smith et al 2008), or around 50% and 60% of total anthropogenic methane and nitrous oxide emissions, respectively, in 2005. Net carbon dioxide fluxes between agricultural land and the atmosphere linked to food production are relatively small, although significant carbon emissions are associated with degradation of organic soils for plantations in tropical regions (Smith et al 2007, FAO 2012). Population growth and shifts in dietary patterns toward more meat and dairy consumption will lead to

  6. Multi-objective optimisation of wastewater treatment plant control to reduce greenhouse gas emissions.

    PubMed

    Sweetapple, Christine; Fu, Guangtao; Butler, David

    2014-05-15

    This study investigates the potential of control strategy optimisation for the reduction of operational greenhouse gas emissions from wastewater treatment in a cost-effective manner, and demonstrates that significant improvements can be realised. A multi-objective evolutionary algorithm, NSGA-II, is used to derive sets of Pareto optimal operational and control parameter values for an activated sludge wastewater treatment plant, with objectives including minimisation of greenhouse gas emissions, operational costs and effluent pollutant concentrations, subject to legislative compliance. Different problem formulations are explored, to identify the most effective approach to emissions reduction, and the sets of optimal solutions enable identification of trade-offs between conflicting objectives. It is found that multi-objective optimisation can facilitate a significant reduction in greenhouse gas emissions without the need for plant redesign or modification of the control strategy layout, but there are trade-offs to consider: most importantly, if operational costs are not to be increased, reduction of greenhouse gas emissions is likely to incur an increase in effluent ammonia and total nitrogen concentrations. Design of control strategies for a high effluent quality and low costs alone is likely to result in an inadvertent increase in greenhouse gas emissions, so it is of key importance that effects on emissions are considered in control strategy development and optimisation.

  7. Greenhouse gas mitigation options for Washington State

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia, N.

    1996-04-01

    President Clinton, in 1993, established a goal for the United States to return emissions of greenhouse gases to 1990 levels by the year 2000. One effort established to help meet this goal was a three part Environmental Protection Agency state grant program. Washington State completed part one of this program with the release of the 1990 greenhouse gas emissions inventory and 2010 projected inventory. This document completes part two by detailing alternative greenhouse gas mitigation options. In part three of the program EPA, working in partnership with the States, may help fund innovative greenhouse gas reduction strategies. The greenhouse gas control options analyzed in this report have a wide range of greenhouse gas reductions, costs, and implementation requirements. In order to select and implement a prudent mix of control strategies, policy makers need to have some notion of the potential change in climate, the consequences of that change and the uncertainties contained therein. By understanding the risks of climate change, policy makers can better balance the use of scarce public resources for concerns that are immediate and present against those that affect future generations. Therefore, prior to analyzing alternative greenhouse gas control measures, this report briefly describes the phenomenon and uncertainties of global climate change, and then projects the likely consequences for Washington state.

  8. A Greenhouse for Mars and Beyond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahaim, Christopher P.; Czysz, Paul A.

    2008-01-01

    A detailed design study for a deployable greenhouse for Mars mission is has been completed. The greenhouse has been designed so that it has a life span of at least 20 years, a leakage rate of no more that 1% of the total volume per day at the target working pressure of 50 kPa and provides at least six crewmembers with approximately twenty five percent of their food supply. Artificial light is provided by high intensity red and blue light emitting diodes, but sunlight is also used by installing small Lexan windows on the rooftop. The greenhouse structure is a rigid IM7/977-3 graphite/epoxy sandwich structure with a footprint of 38 m2. Radioisotope thermal electric generators are used to produce power for the greenhouse and its subsystems and the plants are grown in nested pockets located on vertical cylinders which allows for a growth area of 48 m2. An aeroponic water and nutrient delivery system is used in order to reduce the greenhouse water usage. Harvesting and planting is achieved through the use of robotics specifically designed for this mission. The greenhouse structure and subsystems have a total weight of less than 10 metric tons. In this paper the design highlights of several of the subsystems of the greenhouse design will be summarized.

  9. Compendium of Scientific Linacs

    SciTech Connect

    Clendenin, James E

    2003-05-16

    The International Committee supported the proposal of the Chairman of the XVIII International Linac Conference to issue a new Compendium of linear accelerators. The last one was published in 1976. The Local Organizing Committee of Linac96 decided to set up a sub-committee for this purpose. Contrary to the catalogues of the High Energy Accelerators which compile accelerators with energies above 1 GeV, we have not defined a specific limit in energy. Microtrons and cyclotrons are not in this compendium. Also data from thousands of medical and industrial linacs has not been collected. Therefore, only scientific linacs are listed in the present compendium. Each linac found in this research and involved in a physics context was considered. It could be used, for example, either as an injector for high energy accelerators, or in nuclear physics, materials physics, free electron lasers or synchrotron light machines. Linear accelerators are developed in three continents only: America, Asia, and Europe. This geographical distribution is kept as a basis. The compendium contains the parameters and status of scientific linacs. Most of these linacs are operational. However, many facilities under construction or design studies are also included. A special mention has been made at the end for the studies of future linear colliders.

  10. Assessment of US, Indian and Chinese Middle School Students' Outlook on the Greenhouse Effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niyogi, D.; Ganesh, N.; Singh, D.; Liu, X.; Shepardson, D. P.; Roychoudhury, A.; Hirsch, A.; Halversen, C.

    2012-12-01

    When you think of the greenhouse effect and climate change what images and concepts come to mind? Answers to these questions are important to educators and policy makers as they wrestle with the issue of educating and conveying these concepts in class rooms and to the general public. The greenhouse effect (GHE) sustains life on the earth through regulating the temperatures on the planet. Well-mixed greenhouse gases (GHGs) such as water vapor, carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide absorb outgoing (long wave) radiation from the Earth's surface while allowing passage without absorption of the incoming solar (shortwave) radiation. Increasing the GHG concentration in the atmosphere increases the absorption of long wavelength radiation thereby increasing global temperatures that result in changes in the atmospheric states consistently over multiple decades.The concept of the greenhouse effect is critical to the discussions underway pertaining to climate change and the controls on greenhouse emissions being proposed in different forums. This study sought to (1) investigate students' conceptions about the greenhouse effect, global warming and climate change; (2) determine if there are differences between perceptions for students in US, India and China (Asia)- where there are known differences in the political and scientific approaches; and (3) determine if there any differences, contextual or otherwise, in the way the greenhouse effect is taught in these countries. This study was conducted in select schools in the Midwest US, India and China that volunteered to work with this project. -For US, data from 51 secondary students from three different schools were analyzed, for India the number was 71 from 3 schools, while for China the number is over 100 (and being analyzed) from different classes within a school. Study Hypotheses: 1.Middle school students have a good scientific understanding of greenhouse gases. 2.The U.S and Asian students have the same outlook. Teachers

  11. The greenhouse and antigreenhouse effects on Titan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mckay, Christopher P.; Pollack, James B.; Courtin, Regis

    1991-01-01

    The parallels between the atmospheric thermal structure of the Saturnian satellite Titan and the hypothesized terrestrial greenhouse effect can serve as bases for the evaluation of competing greenhouse theories. Attention is presently drawn to the similarity between the roles of H2 and CH4 on Titan and CO2 and H2O on earth. Titan also has an antigreenhouse effect due to a high-altitude haze layer which absorbs at solar wavelengths, while remaining transparent in the thermal IR; if this haze layer were removed, the antigreenhouse effect would be greatly reduced, exacerbating the greenhouse effect and raising surface temperature by over 20 K.

  12. Greenhouse Trace Gases in Deadwood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Covey, Kristofer; Bueno de Mesquita, Cliff; Oberle, Brad; Maynard, Dan; Bettigole, Charles; Crowther, Thomas; Duguid, Marlyse; Steven, Blaire; Zanne, Amy; Lapin, Marc; Ashton, Mark; Oliver, Chad; Lee, Xuhui; Bradford, Mark

    2016-04-01

    Deadwood, long recognized as playing an important role in carbon cycling in forest ecosystems, is more recently drawing attention for its potential role in the cycling of other greenhouse trace gases. We report data from four independent studies measuring internal gas concentrations in deadwood in in three Quercus dominated upland forest systems in the Northeastern and Central United States. Mean methane concentrations in deadwood were 23 times atmospheric levels, indicating a lower bound, mean radial wood surface area flux of ~6 x 10-4 μmol CH4 m-2 s-1. Site, decay class, diameter, and species were all highly significant predictors of methane abundance in deadwood, and log diameter and decay stage interacted as important controls limiting methane concentrations in the smallest and most decayed logs. Nitrous oxide concentrations were negatively correlated with methane and on average ~25% lower than ambient, indicating net consumption of nitrous oxide. These data suggest nonstructural carbohydrates fuel archaeal methanogens and confirm the potential for widespread in situ methanogenesis in both living and deadwood. Applying this understanding to estimate methane emissions from microbial activity in living trees implies a potential global flux of 65.6±12.0 Tg CH4 yr-1, more than 20 times greater than currently considered.

  13. Methane Greenhouses and Anti-Greenhouses During the Archean Era

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasting, J. F.; Pavlov, A. A.

    2002-12-01

    Climate and life are coupled today through the biogeochemical carbon cycle, but they may have been even more tightly coupled in the distant past when atmospheric O2 levels were lower. The finding of mass-independently fractionated S isotopes in Archean rocks confirms that pO2 was very low, probably <10-13 times the present level, prior to 2.3 Ga (1). The Sun was also some 20 percent less luminous at this time (2). High CO2 levels were initially proposed to solve this `faint young Sun problem' (3); however, these levels are in conflict in data from paleosols (4). CH4 is an alternative greenhouse gas which could have kept the Archean climate warm if present at concentrations of 0.01-0.1 percent by volume (5). The primary source of methane is biological. CH4 is produced by methanogenic bacteria that today live in anaerobic environments such as the intestines of ruminants and the water-logged soils underlying rice paddies. During the Archean, however, methanogens should have been widespread, and the methane they produced would have had a long photochemical lifetimes, around 10,000 years (6). Most methanogens are thermophiles or hyperthermophiles, and those which are more thermophilic have shorter doubling times than those that prefer cooler temperatures. This suggests that a positive feedback loop may have existed, whereby methanogens warmed the climate by releasing CH4, which in turn promoted the proliferation of faster-growing methanogens. This positive feedback would have been halted, however, once the ratio of CH4 to CO2 in the atmosphere exceeded unity. At this point, polymerization of CH4 by solar UV radiation would have caused the formation of an organic haze layer similar to that observed today on Titan. Such a haze layer would have cooled the climate by creating an `anti-greenhouse effect.' This creates an overall negative feedback loop that may have been responsible for maintaining a stable Archean climate. The rise of O2 at 2.3 Ga disrupted this equilibrium

  14. Greenhouse gas dynamics of municipal solid waste alternatives.

    PubMed

    Eschenroeder, A

    2001-10-01

    Previous greenhouse gas studies comparing landfilling with combustion of municipal solid waste (MSW) are limited to examinations of the emissions weighted by their relative radiative activity. This paper adds another dimension by analyzing the atmospheric response to these emissions. The heart of the analysis is a time-dependent model using a perturbation analysis of the IS92a results of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). Using as inputs the emissions from the two technologies, the model calculates atmospheric concentration histories. Scenarios for a landfill and a combustor envision each accepting 1000 Mg refuse/day for a 30-year operating period followed by a 70-year postclosure period. The baseline scenario examines the basic greenhouse impact of each technology. The other scenario adds active gas collection at the landfill and energy offset credits for avoided power plant carbon emissions. For both scenarios, CH4 and trace gases from the landfill persist in the atmosphere, and they are relatively potent at forcing IR heating. The combination of these features place the landfill much higher than previously expected on the greenhouse impact scale. For the baseline scenario, the time-integrated radiative forcing from landfilling is 115 times that of combustion, and this ratio is 45 for the second scenario. PMID:11686246

  15. Greenhouse gas dynamics of municipal solid waste alternatives.

    PubMed

    Eschenroeder, A

    2001-10-01

    Previous greenhouse gas studies comparing landfilling with combustion of municipal solid waste (MSW) are limited to examinations of the emissions weighted by their relative radiative activity. This paper adds another dimension by analyzing the atmospheric response to these emissions. The heart of the analysis is a time-dependent model using a perturbation analysis of the IS92a results of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). Using as inputs the emissions from the two technologies, the model calculates atmospheric concentration histories. Scenarios for a landfill and a combustor envision each accepting 1000 Mg refuse/day for a 30-year operating period followed by a 70-year postclosure period. The baseline scenario examines the basic greenhouse impact of each technology. The other scenario adds active gas collection at the landfill and energy offset credits for avoided power plant carbon emissions. For both scenarios, CH4 and trace gases from the landfill persist in the atmosphere, and they are relatively potent at forcing IR heating. The combination of these features place the landfill much higher than previously expected on the greenhouse impact scale. For the baseline scenario, the time-integrated radiative forcing from landfilling is 115 times that of combustion, and this ratio is 45 for the second scenario.

  16. Impact of greenhouse gas emissions reduction in Indonesia: NO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Susandi, A.

    2004-12-01

    In this study, we develop scenarios of total air pollution from fossil fuel consumption and its impacts for the 21st century, using an inter-temporal general equilibrium model MERGE. The Model for Evaluating the Regional and Global Effects of greenhouse gas reduction policies (MERGE) is used to project energy consumption and production. We use the base scenarios from IPCC (2000). These scenarios assume that no measures are undertaken to control greenhouse gas emissions. We extend the IPCC scenarios with mitigation scenarios, estimating the air pollution impacts of greenhouse gas emission reduction. The MERGE model was extended to analyze emissions of nitrogen dioxide (NO2), their concentrations, impacts on human health, and economic valuation. To estimate of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) impacts on respiratory symptoms, we calculated the NO2 concentration as derived from nitrogen oxide (NOx). In the baseline scenario, the concentrations of NO2 are rising to 2,263 μg/m3 in 2100. If the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries reduce their emissions, respiratory symptoms among adult's associated with NO2 case would reach the highest to 65,741% of adult population cases by the end of century. If all countries reduce their emission in the future, the total health problem cost associated with NO2 will lower 35% of GDP than in the baseline scenario during the century.

  17. Scientific Inquiry: A Model for Online Searching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harter, Stephen P.

    1984-01-01

    Explores scientific inquiry as philosophical and behavioral model for online search specialist and information retrieval process. Nature of scientific research is described and online analogs to research concepts of variable, hypothesis formulation and testing, operational definition, validity, reliability, assumption, and cyclical nature of…

  18. Heat and mass transfer of a low-pressure Mars greenhouse: Simulation and experimental analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hublitz, Inka

    Biological life support systems based on plant growth offer the advantage of producing fresh food for the crew during a long surface stay on Mars. Greenhouses on Mars are also used for air and water regeneration and waste treatment. A major challenge in developing a Mars greenhouse is its interaction with the thin and cold Mars environment. Operating a Mars greenhouse at low interior pressure reduces the pressure differential across the structure and therefore saves structural mass as well as reduces leakage. Experiments were conducted to analyze the heating requirements as well as the temperature and humidity distribution within a small-scale greenhouse that was placed in a chamber simulating the temperatures, pressure and light conditions on Mars. Lettuce plants were successfully grown inside of the Mars greenhouse for up to seven days. The greenhouse atmosphere parameters, including temperature, total pressure, oxygen and carbon dioxide concentration were controlled tightly; radiation level, relative humidity and plant evapo-transpiration rates were measured. A vertical stratification of temperature and humidity across the greenhouse atmosphere was observed. Condensation formed on the inside of the greenhouse when the shell temperature dropped below the dew-point. During the night cycles frost built up on the greenhouse base plate and the lower part of the shell. Heat loss increased significantly during the night cycle. Due to the placement of the heating system and the fan blowing warm air directly on the upper greenhouse shell, condensation above the plants was avoided and therefore the photosynthetically active radiation at plant level was kept constant. Plant growth was not affected by the temperature stratification due to the tight temperature control of the warmer upper section of the greenhouse, where the lettuce plants were placed. A steady state and a transient heat transfer model of the low pressure greenhouse were developed for the day and the night

  19. Is working in greenhouses healthy? Evidence concerning the toxic risks that might affect greenhouse workers.

    PubMed

    Illing, H P

    1997-07-01

    Greenhouses are essentially microcosms aimed at providing physical environments suitable for the survival and growth of plants. Crops grown intensively in greenhouses in Great Britain include cut flowers, pot plants and edible crops such as tomato, lettuce cucumber and celery. The enclosed conditions mean that greenhouse workers are more likely to be exposed to higher levels of plant material, plant pests and plant protection products than general horticulture workers. The potential for ill-health in greenhouse workers is examined with particular reference to Great Britain. The principal potential effects expected include irritancy, asthma, allergic aleveolitis and dermatitis. Although biological control agents are widely used, there were no reports of their having caused ill-health in greenhouse workers. About two people per year are found to have suffered ill-health as a consequence of greenhouse exposure to chemical pesticides in reported pesticides incidents in Great Britain.

  20. Solar-heated commercial-greenhouse demonstration. Final performance report

    SciTech Connect

    1983-01-01

    Poly Solar Company was formed to design and fabricate a demonstration of a solar heating system for commercial greenhouses in moderate climates. This system is built of readily available materials, and can be constructed using conventional techniques available to most builders and farmers. Construction began on the demonstration project in August 1981 and the system was placed into operation that winter. Energy savings were calculated by monitoring the running time on an oil furnace in a duplicate greenhouse with the same crop as the solar heated greenhouse with an oil backup furnace. The first monitoring period was before the Christmas season with poinsettias used as the comparison crop with 60/sup 0/ to 64/sup 0/F. During this period the 126 ton mass storage and waste heat recovery sections of the system were used. These trials showed energy savings over the 100% oil heated structure to be 23.4%. After the crops were removed from the greenhouse trials were ran which showed this portion of the system could maintain night time temperatures as high as 56/sup 0/F with no other heat source and an outside temperature of 26/sup 0/F. The 1860 sq ft solar collector/storage system was monitored with a winter-spring crop of geraniums at a night time temperature of 60/sup 0/ to 64/sup 0/F. In April 1982 a severe storm with wind gusts in excess of 50 mph destroyed a section of duct that feeds heated air from the collector to the rock storage bed and caused light damage to the collector itself.

  1. SALTON SEA SCIENTIFIC DRILLING PROJECT: SCIENTIFIC PROGRAM.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sass, J.H.; Elders, W.A.

    1986-01-01

    The Salton Sea Scientific Drilling Project, was spudded on 24 October 1985, and reached a total depth of 10,564 ft. (3. 2 km) on 17 March 1986. There followed a period of logging, a flow test, and downhole scientific measurements. The scientific goals were integrated smoothly with the engineering and economic objectives of the program and the ideal of 'science driving the drill' in continental scientific drilling projects was achieved in large measure. The principal scientific goals of the project were to study the physical and chemical processes involved in an active, magmatically driven hydrothermal system. To facilitate these studies, high priority was attached to four areas of sample and data collection, namely: (1) core and cuttings, (2) formation fluids, (3) geophysical logging, and (4) downhole physical measurements, particularly temperatures and pressures.

  2. The Greenhouse Effect and Climate Feedbacks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Covey, C.; Haberle, R. M.; McKay, C. P.; Titov, D. V.

    2012-06-01

    We review the theory of the greenhouse effect and climate feedback. We also compare the theory with observations, using examples taken from all four known terrestrial worlds with substantial atmospheres: Venus, Earth, Mars, and Titan.

  3. The Greenhouse Effect in a Vial.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golden, Richard; Sneider, Cary

    1989-01-01

    Presents an example of a greenhouse-effect experiment from the Climate Protection Institute. Analyzes the amount of carbon dioxide in ambient air, human exhalation, automobile exhaust, and nearly pure carbon dioxide by titrating with ammonia and bromthymol blue. (MVL)

  4. Arctic climate change: Greenhouse warming unleashed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mauritsen, Thorsten

    2016-04-01

    Human activity alters the atmospheric composition, which leads to global warming. Model simulations suggest that reductions in emission of sulfur dioxide from Europe since the 1970s could have unveiled rapid Arctic greenhouse gas warming.

  5. Voluntary reporting of greenhouse gases, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1996-07-01

    The Voluntary Reporting Program for greenhouse gases is part of an attempt by the U.S. Government to develop innovative, low-cost, and nonregulatory approaches to limit emissions of greenhouse gases. It is one element in an array of such programs introduced in recent years as part of the effort being made by the United States to comply with its national commitment to stabilize emissions of greenhouse gases under the Framework Convention on Climate Change. The Voluntary Reporting Program, developed pursuant to Section 1605(b) of the Energy Policy Act of 1992, permits corporations, government agencies, households, and voluntary organizations to report to the Energy Information Administration (EIA) on actions taken that have reduced or avoided emissions of greenhouse gases.

  6. Bibliography of greenhouse-gas reduction strategies

    SciTech Connect

    Tompkins, M.M.; Mintz, M.M.

    1995-03-01

    A bibliography of greenhouse-gas reduction strategies has been compiled to assist the Climate change Action Plan Task Force in their consideration of strategies to reduce greenhouse-gas emissions from personal motor vehicles. The document contains a summary of the literature, including it major directions and implications; and annotated listing of 32 recent pertinent documents; and a listing of a larger group of related reports.

  7. Limiting net greenhouse gas emissions in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Bradley, R A; Watts, E C; Williams, E R

    1991-09-01

    In 1988, Congress requested that DOE produce a study on carbon dioxide inventory and policy to provide an inventory of emissions sources and to analyze policies to achieve a 20% reduction in carbon dioxide emissions in 5 to 10 years and a 50% reduction in 15 to 20 years. Energy and environmental technology data were analyzed using computational analysis models. This information was then evaluated, drawing on current scientific understanding of global climate change, the possible consequences of anthropogenic climate change (change caused by human activity) and the relationship between energy production and use and the emission of radiatively important gases. Topics discussed include: state of the science in estimating atmosphere/climate change relationships, the potential consequences of atmosphere/climate change, us greenhouse emissions past and present, an approach to analyzing the technical potential and cost of reducing US energy-related greenhouse gas emissions, current policy base and National Energy Strategy actions, fiscal instruments, regulatory instruments, combined strategies and instruments, macroeconomic impacts, carbon taxation and international trade, a comparison to other studies.

  8. Global Warming & the Greenhouse Effect. Grades 7-10. Teacher's Guide. Great Explorations in Math and Science (GEMS).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hocking, Colin; And Others

    This series of educational activities is intended to help teachers communicate basic scientific concepts related to global warming and the greenhouse effect to students grades 7-10. Seven sessions provide laboratory activities, simulations, and discussions that can be used to improve student understanding of a number of important scientific…

  9. Optimal greenhouse-gas reductions and tax policy in the [open quotes]DICE[close quotes] model

    SciTech Connect

    Nordhaus, W.D. )

    1993-05-01

    This new model DICE, (dynamic integrated climate-economy), extends earlier studies by integrating the economic costs and benefits of greenhouse gas reductions with a simple dynamic representation of the scientific links of emissions, concentrations, and climate change. This paper sketches the DICE model, presents the major results, and inquires into alternative approaches to recycling carbon-tax revenues.

  10. Demonstration of a commercial solar greenhouse. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Figueras, A.

    1982-03-31

    The greenhouse is located in the town of Russell, in St. Lawrence County, New York. It was built to demonstrate the economics of using the solar greenhouse design as a commercial greenhouse growing vegetables for local sale. The design and construction of the greenhouse are briefly described. Records of temperatures monitored and produce grown and sold are included. (BCS)

  11. The impact of landfilling and composting on greenhouse gas emissions--a review.

    PubMed

    Lou, X F; Nair, J

    2009-08-01

    Municipal solid waste is a significant contributor to greenhouse gas emissions through decomposition and life-cycle activities processes. The majority of these emissions are a result of landfilling, which remains the primary waste disposal strategy internationally. As a result, countries have been incorporating alternative forms of waste management strategies such as energy recovery from landfill gas capture, aerobic landfilling (aerox landfills), pre-composting of waste prior to landfilling, landfill capping and composting of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste. As the changing global climate has been one of the major environmental challenges facing the world today, there is an increasing need to understand the impact of waste management on greenhouse gas emissions. This review paper serves to provide an overview on the impact of landfilling (and its various alternatives) and composting on greenhouse gas emissions taking into account streamlined life cycle activities and the decomposition process. The review suggests greenhouse gas emissions from waste decomposition are considerably higher for landfills than composting. However, mixed results were found for greenhouse gas emissions for landfill and composting operational activities. Nonetheless, in general, net greenhouse gas emissions for landfills tend to be higher than that for composting facilities.

  12. Greenhouse gas accounting and waste management.

    PubMed

    Gentil, Emmanuel; Christensen, Thomas H; Aoustin, Emmanuelle

    2009-11-01

    Accounting of emissions of greenhouse gas (GHG) is a major focus within waste management. This paper analyses and compares the four main types of GHG accounting in waste management including their special features and approaches: the national accounting, with reference to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), the corporate level, as part of the annual reporting on environmental issues and social responsibility, life-cycle assessment (LCA), as an environmental basis for assessing waste management systems and technologies, and finally, the carbon trading methodology, and more specifically, the clean development mechanism (CDM) methodology, introduced to support cost-effective reduction in GHG emissions. These types of GHG accounting, in principle, have a common starting point in technical data on GHG emissions from specific waste technologies and plants, but the limited availability of data and, moreover, the different scopes of the accounting lead to many ways of quantifying emissions and producing the accounts. The importance of transparency in GHG accounting is emphasised regarding waste type, waste composition, time period considered, GHGs included, global warming potential (GWP) assigned to the GHGs, counting of biogenic carbon dioxide, choice of system boundaries, interactions with the energy system, and generic emissions factors. In order to enhance transparency and consistency, a format called the upstream-operating-downstream framework (UOD) is proposed for reporting basic technology-related data regarding GHG issues including a clear distinction between direct emissions from waste management technologies, indirect upstream (use of energy and materials) and indirect downstream (production of energy, delivery of secondary materials) activities. PMID:19808731

  13. Overview of ARB's Greenhouse Gas Research Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falk, M.; Chen, Y.; Kuwayama, T.; Vijayan, A.; Herner, J.; Croes, B.

    2015-12-01

    Since the passage of the California Global Warming Solutions Act (or AB32) in 2006, California Air Resources Board (ARB) has established and implemented a comprehensive plan to understand, quantify, and mitigate the various greenhouse gas (GHG) emission source sectors in the state. ARB has also developed a robust and multi-tiered in-house research effort to investigate methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O) and fluorinated gas emission sources. This presentation will provide an overview of ARB's monitoring and measurement research efforts to study the regional and local emission sources of these pollutants in California. ARB initiated the first subnational GHG Research Monitoring Network in 2010 to study the regional GHG emissions throughout the state. The network operates several high precision analyzers to study CH4, N2O, CO and CO2 emissions at strategically selected regional sites throughout California, and the resulting data are used to study the statewide emission trends and evaluate regional sources using statistical analyses and inverse modeling efforts. ARB is also collaborating with leading scientists to study important emission sources including agriculture, waste, and oil and gas sectors, and to identify "hot spot" methane sources through aerial surveys of high methane emitters in California. At the source level, ARB deploys Mobile Measurement Platforms (MMP) and flux chambers to measure local and source specific emissions, and uses the information to understand source characteristics and inform emissions inventories. Collectively, all these efforts are offering a comprehensive view of regional and local emission sources, and are expected to help in developing effective mitigation strategies to reduce GHG emissions in California.

  14. Greenhouse-gas-trading markets.

    PubMed

    Sandor, Richard; Walsh, Michael; Marques, Rafael

    2002-08-15

    This paper summarizes the extension of new market mechanisms for environmental services, explains of the importance of generating price information indicative of the cost of mitigating greenhouse gases (GHGs) and presents the rationale and objectives for pilot GHG-trading markets. It also describes the steps being taken to define and launch pilot carbon markets in North America and Europe and reviews the key issues related to incorporating carbon sequestration into an emissions-trading market. There is an emerging consensus to employ market mechanisms to help address the threat of human-induced climate changes. Carbon-trading markets are now in development around the world. A UK market is set to launch in 2002, and the European Commission has called for a 2005 launch of an European Union (EU)-wide market, and a voluntary carbon market is now in formation in North America. These markets represent an initial step in resolving a fundamental problem in defining and implementing appropriate policy actions to address climate change. Policymakers currently suffer from two major information gaps: the economic value of potential damages arising from climate changes are highly uncertain, and there is a lack of reliable information on the cost of mitigating GHGs. These twin gaps significantly reduce the quality of the climate policy debate. The Chicago Climate Exchange, for which the authors serve as lead designers, is intended to provide an organized carbon-trading market involving energy, industry and carbon sequestration in forests and farms. Trading among these diverse sectors will provide price discovery that will help clarify the cost of combating climate change when a wide range of mitigation options is employed. By closing the information gap on mitigation costs, society and policymakers will be far better prepared to identify and implement optimal policies for managing the risks associated with climate change. Establishment of practical experience in providing

  15. WWW: The Scientific Method

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blystone, Robert V.; Blodgett, Kevin

    2006-01-01

    The scientific method is the principal methodology by which biological knowledge is gained and disseminated. As fundamental as the scientific method may be, its historical development is poorly understood, its definition is variable, and its deployment is uneven. Scientific progress may occur without the strictures imposed by the formal…

  16. Redefining the "Scientific Method".

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spiece, Kelly R.; Colosi, Joseph

    2000-01-01

    Surveys 15 introductory biology textbooks for their presentation of the scientific method. Teaching the scientific method involves more than simplified steps and subjectivity--human politics, cultural influences, and chance are all a part of science. Presents an activity for students to experience the scientific method. (Contains 34 references.)…

  17. Gardener's solar greenhouse: how to build and use a solar greenhouse for year-round gardening

    SciTech Connect

    Wolf, R.

    1984-01-01

    The design of a solar greenhouse is presented. Subtleties of its use are discussed, and site selection criteria for it are discussed. Rather complete instructions for construction are presented in sections. Separate sections are included for foundation, framing, glazing and trim, and movable insulation. Recipes for using the goodies grown in the greenhouse are also included. 92 figures.

  18. Physics of greenhouse effect and convection in warm oceans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Inamdar, A. K.; Ramanathan, V.

    1994-01-01

    Sea surface temperature (SST) in roughly 50% of the tropical Pacific Ocean is warm enough (SST greater than 300 K) to permit deep convection. This paper examines the effects of deep convection on the climatological mean vertical distributions of water vapor and its greenhouse effect over such warm oceans. The study, which uses a combination of satellite radiation budget observations, atmospheric soundings deployed from ships, and radiation model calculations, also examines the link between SST, vertical distribution of water vapor, and its greenhouse effect in the tropical oceans. Since the focus of the study is on the radiative effects of water vapor, the radiation model calculations do not include the effects of clouds. The data are grouped into nonconvective and convective categories using SST as an index for convective activity. On average, convective regions are more humid, trap significantly more longwave radiation, and emit more radiation to the sea surface. The greenhouse effect in regions of convection operates as per classical ideas, that is, as the SST increases, the atmosphere traps the excess longwave energy emitted by the surface and reradiates it locally back to the ocean surface. The important departure from the classical picture is that the net (up minus down) fluxes at the surface and at the top of the atmosphere decrease with an increase in SST; that is, the surface and the surface-troposphere column lose the ability to radiate the excess energy to space. The cause of this super greenhouse effect at the surface is the rapid increase in the lower-troposphere humidity with SST; that of the column is due to a combination of increase in humidity in the entire column and increase in the lapse rate within the lower troposphere. The increase in the vertical distribution of humidity far exceeds that which can be attributed to the temperature dependence of saturation vapor pressure; that is, the tropospheric relative humidity is larger in convective

  19. Nutrient removal and greenhouse gas emissions in duckweed treatment ponds.

    PubMed

    Sims, Atreyee; Gajaraj, Shashikanth; Hu, Zhiqiang

    2013-03-01

    Stormwater treatment ponds provide a variety of functions including sediment retention, organic and nutrient removal, and habitat restoration. The treatment ponds are, however, also a source of greenhouse gases. The objectives of this study were to assess greenhouse gas (CH(4), CO(2) and N(2)O) emissions in duckweed treatment ponds (DWPs) treating simulated stormwater and to determine the role of ammonia-oxidizing organisms in nutrient removal and methanogens in greenhouse gas emissions. Two replicated DWPs operated at a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 10 days were able to remove 84% (± 4% [standard deviation]) chemical oxygen demand (COD), 79% (± 3%) NH(4)(+)-N, 86% (± 2%) NO(3)(-)-N and 56% (± 7%) orthophosphate. CH(4) emission rates in the DWPs ranged from 502 to 1900 mg CH(4) m(-2) d(-1) while those of nitrous oxide (N(2)O) ranged from 0.63 to 4 mg N(2)O m(-2) d(-1). The CO(2) emission rates ranged from 1700 to 3300 mg CO(2) m(-2) day(-1). Duckweed coverage on water surface along with the continued deposit of duckweed debris in the DWPs and low-nutrient influent water created a low dissolved oxygen environment for the growth of unique ammonia-oxidizing organisms and methanogens. Archaeal and bacterial amoA abundance in the DWPs ranged from (1.5 ± 0.2) × 10(7) to (1.7 ± 0.2) × 10(8) copies/g dry soil and from (1.0 ± 0.3) × 10(3) to (1.5 ± 0.4) × 10(6) copies/g dry soil, respectively. The 16S rRNA acetoclastic and hydrogenotrophic methanogens ranged from (5.2 ± 0.2) × 10(5) to (9.0 ± 0.3) × 10(6) copies/g dry soil and from (1.0 ± 0.1) × 10(2) to (5.5 ± 0.4) × 10(3) copies/g dry soil, respectively. Ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) appeared to be the dominant nitrifiers and acetoclastic Methanosaeta was the major methanogenic genus. The results suggest that methane is the predominant (>90%) greenhouse gas in the DWPs, where the relatively low stormwater nutrient inputs facilitate the growth of K-strategists such as AOA and Methanosaeta that may

  20. Emissions of greenhouse gases from the use of transportation fuels and electricity. Volume 2: Appendixes A--S

    SciTech Connect

    DeLuchi, M.A. |

    1993-11-01

    This volume contains the appendices to the report on Emission of Greenhouse Gases from the Use of Transportation Fuels and Electricity. Emissions of methane, nitrous oxide, carbon monoxide, and other greenhouse gases are discussed. Sources of emission including vehicles, natural gas operations, oil production, coal mines, and power plants are covered. The various energy industries are examined in terms of greenhouse gas production and emissions. Those industries include electricity generation, transport of goods via trains, trucks, ships and pipelines, coal, natural gas and natural gas liquids, petroleum, nuclear energy, and biofuels.

  1. Improving greenhouse gas reduction calculations for bioenergy systems: Incremental life cycle analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ney, Richard A.

    There are many scales that can be employed to calculate net greenhouse gas emissions from bioenergy systems, ranging from single point source (stack gas) measurement, to full, multi-layered life cycle analyses considering all of the inputs and outputs throughout the economy. At an appropriate scale within these extremes, a method can be selected to support verification activities related to project-based trading of greenhouse gas emissions. The boundaries of the analysis must be carefully selected in order to meet the twin goals of the verification activity: (1) to meet scientific standards for emission balance quantification; and (2) to meet cost-effectiveness criteria of the emission trading community. The Incremental Life Cycle Analysis (ILCA) methodology is proposed and implemented for the quantification of greenhouse gas emission reductions arising from substitution of switchgrass for coal in electricity generation. The method utilizes an incremental progression through the fuel life cycle, evaluating each level of the life cycle for the quality the emission estimate produced. The method also reviews the scientific uncertainty underlying emission estimation procedures so that areas of relative weakness can be targeted and improved. The ILCA methodology is applied to the Chariton Valley Biomass Project (CVBP) for case study and evaluation. The CVBP is seeking to replace coal combustion in an existing 650-MW generation facility with switchgrass, cofired at a rate of 5 percent switchgrass to 95 percent coal. When the project reaches full capacity, the ILCA estimates that 239 pounds of carbon dioxide-equivalent (CO2-eq) emissions will be reduced and/or removed from the atmosphere for every million Btu of switchgrass utilized, generating annual greenhouse gas reductions of 305,000 tons CO2-eq, leading to revenue for the project totaling over $1.5 million annually through trading of greenhouse gas emission reduction credits.

  2. Greenhouse gases in the corn-to-fuel ethanol pathway.

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, M. Q.

    1998-06-18

    Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) has applied its Greenhouse gas, Regulated Emissions and Energy in Transportation (GREET) full-fuel-cycle analysis model to examine greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of corn-feedstock ethanol, given present and near-future production technology and practice. On the basis of updated information appropriate to corn farming and processing operations in the four principal corn- and ethanol-producing states (Illinois, Iowa, Minnesota, and Nebraska), the model was used to estimate energy requirements and GHG emissions of corn farming; the manufacture, transportation to farms, and field application of fertilizer and pesticide; transportation of harvested corn to ethanol plants; nitrous oxide emissions from cultivated cornfields; ethanol production in current average and future technology wet and dry mills; and operation of cars and light trucks using ethanol fuels. For all cases examined on the basis of mass emissions per travel mile, the corn-to-ethanol fuel cycle for Midwest-produced ethanol used in both E85 and E10 blends with gasoline outperforms conventional (current) and reformulated (future) gasoline with respect to energy use and GHG production. Also, GHG reductions (but not energy use) appear surprisingly sensitive to the value chosen for combined soil and leached N-fertilizer conversion to nitrous oxide. Co-product energy-use attribution remains the single key factor in estimating ethanol's relative benefits because this value can range from 0 to 50%, depending on the attribution method chosen.

  3. 78 FR 11619 - Greenhouse Gas Reporting Rule: Revision to Best Available Monitoring Method Request Submission...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-19

    ... Method Request Submission Deadline for Petroleum and Natural Gas Systems Source Category AGENCY... deadline by which owners or operators of facilities subject to the petroleum and natural gas systems source... facilities subject to the petroleum and natural gas systems source category, subpart W, of the Greenhouse...

  4. The Greenhouse Effect and Climate Feedbacks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Covey, C.; Haberle, R. M.; McKay, C. P.; Titov, D. V.

    This chapter reviews the theory of the greenhouse effect and climate feedback. It also compares the theory with observations, using examples taken from all four known terrestrial worlds with substantial atmospheres: Venus, Earth, Mars, and Titan. The greenhouse effect traps infrared radiation in the atmosphere, thereby increasing surface temperature. It is one of many factors that affect a world's climate. (Others include solar luminosity and the atmospheric scattering and absorption of solar radiation.) A change in these factors — defined as climate forcing — may change the climate in a way that brings other processes — defined as feedbacks — into play. For example, when Earth's atmospheric carbon dioxide increases, warming the surface, the water vapor content of the atmosphere increases. This is a positive feedback on global warming because water vapor is itself a potent greenhouse gas. Many positive and negative feedback processes are significant in determining Earth's climate, and probably the climates of our terrestrial neighbors.

  5. Voluntary reporting of greenhouse gases 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1999-05-01

    The Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program, required by Section 1605(b) of the Energy Policy Act of 1992, records the results of voluntary measures to reduce, avoid, or sequester greenhouse gas emissions. In 1998, 156 US companies and other organizations reported to the Energy information Administration that, during 1997, they had achieved greenhouse gas emission reductions and carbon sequestration equivalent to 166 million tons of carbon dioxide, or about 2.5% of total US emissions for the year. For the 1,229 emission reduction projects reported, reductions usually were measured by comparing an estimate of actual emissions with an estimate of what emissions would have been had the project not been implemented.

  6. FETC Programs for Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Ruether, J.A.

    1998-02-01

    Mark Twain once quipped that everyone talks about the weather but no one does anything about it. With interest in global climate change on the rise, researchers in the fossil-energy sector are feeling the heat to provide new technology to permit continued use of fossil fuels but with reduced emissions of so-called `greenhouse gases.` Three important greenhouse gases, carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide, are released to the atmosphere in the course of recovering and combusting fossil fuels. Their importance for trapping radiation, called forcing, is in the order given. In this report, we briefly review how greenhouse gases cause forcing and why this has a warming effect on the Earth`s atmosphere. Then we discuss programs underway at FETC that are aimed at reducing emissions of methane and carbon dioxide.

  7. Greenhouse Gas Analysis by GC/MS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bock, E. M.; Easton, Z. M.; Macek, P.

    2015-12-01

    Current methods to analyze greenhouse gases rely on designated complex, multiple-column, multiple-detector gas chromatographs. A novel method was developed in partnership with Shimadzu for simultaneous quantification of carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), and nitrous oxide (N2O) in environmental gas samples. Gas bulbs were used to make custom standard mixtures by injecting small volumes of pure analyte into the nitrogen-filled bulb. Resulting calibration curves were validated using a certified gas standard. The use of GC/MS systems to perform this analysis has the potential to move the analysis of greenhouse gasses from expensive, custom GC systems to standard single-quadrupole GC/MS systems that are available in most laboratories, which wide variety of applications beyond greenhouse gas analysis. Additionally, use of mass spectrometry can provide confirmation of identity of target analytes, and will assist in the identification of unknown peaks should they be present in the chromatogram.

  8. Advanced Scientific Computing Environment Team new scientific database management task

    SciTech Connect

    Church, J.P.; Roberts, J.C.; Sims, R.N.; Smetana, A.O.; Westmoreland, B.W.

    1991-06-01

    The mission of the ASCENT Team is to continually keep pace with, evaluate, and select emerging computing technologies to define and implement prototypic scientific environments that maximize the ability of scientists and engineers to manage scientific data. These environments are to be implemented in a manner consistent with the site computing architecture and standards and NRTSC/SCS strategic plans for scientific computing. The major trends in computing hardware and software technology clearly indicate that the future computer'' will be a network environment that comprises supercomputers, graphics boxes, mainframes, clusters, workstations, terminals, and microcomputers. This network computer'' will have an architecturally transparent operating system allowing the applications code to run on any box supplying the required computing resources. The environment will include a distributed database and database managing system(s) that permits use of relational, hierarchical, object oriented, GIS, et al, databases. To reach this goal requires a stepwise progression from the present assemblage of monolithic applications codes running on disparate hardware platforms and operating systems. The first steps include converting from the existing JOSHUA system to a new J80 system that complies with modern language standards, development of a new J90 prototype to provide JOSHUA capabilities on Unix platforms, development of portable graphics tools to greatly facilitate preparation of input and interpretation of output; and extension of Jvv'' concepts and capabilities to distributed and/or parallel computing environments.

  9. Scientific balloons: historical remarks.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ubertini, P.

    The paper is an overview of the Human attempt to fly, from the myth of Daedalus and his son Icarus to the first "aerostatic" experiment by Joseph-Michel and Jaques-Etienne Montgolfier. Then, via a jump of about 200 years, we arrive to the era of the modern stratospheric ballooning that, from the beginning of the last century, have provided a unique flight opportunity for aerospace experiments. In particular, the Italian scientific community has employed stratospheric balloons since the '50s for cosmic rays and high energy astrophysical experiments with initial launches performed from Cagliari Helmas Airport (Sardinia). More recently an almost ideal location was found in the area of Trapani-Milo (Sicily, Italy), were an old abandoned airport was refurbished to be used as a new launch site that became operative at the beginning of the '70s. Finally, we suggest a short reminiscence of the first transatlantic experiment carried out on August 1975 in collaboration between SAS-CNR (Italy) and NSBF-NASA (USA). The reason why the Long Duration Balloon has been recently re-oriented in a different direction is analysed and future perspectives discussed. Finally, the spirit of the balloon launch performed by the Groups lead by Edoardo Amaldi, Livio Scarsi and other Italian pioneers, with payloads looking like "refrigerators" weighting a few tens of kg is intact and the wide participation to the present Workshop is the clear demonstration.

  10. Design requirements for a Mars base greenhouse

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwartzkopf, Steven H.; Mancinelli, Rocco

    1988-01-01

    One potential method of supplying life support to a manned base on Mars utilizes a Controlled Ecological Life Support Systems (CELSS). A major component of the CELSS is a plant growth unit to produce food. This paper describes the results of several experiments conducted to determine whether or not a low atmospheric pressure greenhouse could be used to grow crop plants on the Martian surface. The results of these experiments are described and integrated with other information to produce a set of design requirements and a conceptual design for such a greenhouse.

  11. Feasibility study for solar greenhouse at Columbus Zoo. Final report, September 14, 1981-September 14, 1982

    SciTech Connect

    Beard, S.J.

    1982-12-07

    The results of an engineering analysis of the heating and ventilating requirements of various greenhouse designs are reported. The objective of the study was to identify the major design trade-offs in order to arrive at the most energy efficient design consistent with performance and reliability requirements. The glazing type, roof design and orientation, insulation, and heat storage have been used to guide the overall design to optimize the cost effectiveness of the proposed greenhouse. Appended is an overview of methane digestion and bio-gas production and information on operating digesters around the country. General information on the growing of hydroponic crops and the benefits received is included. (LEW)

  12. 'SVET' space greenhouse onboard experiment data received from 'MIR' station and future prospects.

    PubMed

    Ivanova, T; Sapunova, S; Dandolov, I; Ivanov, Y; Meleshko, G; Mashinsky, A; Berkovich, Y

    1994-11-01

    The paper describes operation of 'SVET' space greenhouse onboard the 'MIR' orbital station since 15 June 1990 and the adopted biotechnological principles. The microprocessor and measuring systems for monitoring and control of the environmental parameters in the Plants growth chamber are presented. Information about the dynamic of these parameters in the course of the first space experiments with vegetables, obtained by means of telemetric data processing, is given. A draft program for the development of next generations of greenhouses of the same type as 'SVET', but with a larger area and capabilities, is worked out.

  13. Greenhouse soil heating for improved production and energy conservation. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Roller, W.L.; Elwell, D.L.

    1981-09-01

    A three-year study of the beneficial use of simulated power plant reject heat for soil heating in greenhouses is described. The effect of 25, 30, 35, and 40/sup 0/C warm water on the temperature of and moisture distribution in three diverse, greenhouse soils was studied, and the growth response of variety HR-5 lettuce in this environment was determined. Detailed information on soil temperature and moisture distribution, heat transfer rates, and lettuce production yield under various operating conditions was obtained.

  14. Scientific integrity memorandum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2009-03-01

    U.S. President Barack Obama signed a presidential memorandum on 9 March to help restore scientific integrity in government decision making. The memorandum directs the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy to develop a strategy within 120 days that ensures that "the selection of scientists and technology professionals for science and technology positions in the executive branch is based on those individuals' scientific and technological knowledge, credentials, and experience; agencies make available to the public the scientific or technological findings or conclusions considered or relied upon in policy decisions; agencies use scientific and technological information that has been subject to well-established scientific processes such as peer review; and agencies have appropriate rules and procedures to ensure the integrity of the scientific process within the agency, including whistleblower protection."

  15. Scientific Journalism in Armenia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farmanyan, S. V.; Mickaelian, A. M.

    2015-07-01

    In the present study, the problems of scientific journalism and activities of Armenian science journalists are presented. Scientific journalism in the world, forms of its activities, Armenian Astronomical Society (ArAS) press-releases and their subjects, ArAS website "Mass Media News" section, annual and monthly calendars of astronomical events, and "Astghagitak" online journal are described. Most interesting astronomical subjects involved in scientific journalism, reasons for non-satisfactory science outreach and possible solutions are discussed.

  16. The state of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere using global observations through 2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarasova, Oksana; Koide, Hiroshi; Dlugokencky, Ed

    2016-04-01

    We present results from the eleventh annual Greenhouse Gas Bulletin (http://www.wmo.int/pages/prog/arep/gaw/ghg/GHGbulletin.html) of the World Meteorological Organization (WMO). The results are based on research and observations performed by laboratories contributing to the WMO Global Atmosphere Watch (GAW) Programme (www.wmo.int/gaw). The Bulletin presents results of global analyses of observational data collected according to GAW recommended practices and submitted to the World Data Center for Greenhouse Gases (WDCGG). Bulletins are prepared by the WMO/GAW Scientific Advisory Group for Greenhouse Gases (http://www.wmo.int/pages/prog/arep/gaw/ScientificAdvisoryGroups.html) in collaboration with WDCGG. Observations used for global analysis are collected at more than 100 marine and terrestrial sites worldwide for CO2 and CH4 and at a smaller number of sites for other greenhouse gases. Globally averaged dry-air mole fractions of CO2, CH4 and N2O derived from this network reached new highs in 2014, at 397.7±0.1 ppm, 1833±1 ppb and 327.1±0.1 ppb respectively. These values constitute 143%, 254% and 121% of pre-industrial (before 1750) levels. The atmospheric increase of CO2 from 2013 to 2014 was 1.9 ppm, which is smaller than the increase from 2012 to 2013 and the average growth rate for the past decade (˜2.06 ppm per year), but larger than the average growth rate for the 1990s (˜1.5 ppm per year). Smaller growth in 2014 compared with other recent years is most likely related to a relatively small net change in large fluxes between the atmosphere and terrestrial biosphere. The rise of atmospheric CO2 has been only about a half of what is expected if all excess CO2 from burning fossil-fuels stayed in the air. The other half has been absorbed by the land biosphere and the oceans, leading to ocean acidification. For both CH4 and N2O the increases from 2013 to 2014 were larger than those observed from 2012 to 2013 and the mean rates over the past 10 years. The National

  17. Anaerobic digestion: impact of future greenhouse gases mitigation policies on methane generation and usage.

    PubMed

    Greenfield, P F; Batstone, D J

    2005-01-01

    The debate as to whether carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide and other greenhouse gas emissions will become subject to increasing regulation, increased restrictions, and probably to some form of carbon tax, has moved from a simple "yes" or "no" to "when". Wastewater treatment plants will be significantly impacted by increased energy costs and by specific regulations and/or penalties associated with emissions of methane and nitrous oxide. In this paper, the greenhouse gases emissions of different wastewater process options are estimated. The paper outlines the increasing need for wastewater treatment plants to factor greenhouse gas mitigation issues into their medium- as and long-term strategies, and identifies anaerobic enhouse as processes as being at the core of such strategies. Further, the paper identifies a number of key research challenges to be addressed if such strategies are to play a larger role in attenuating the likely impacts of GHG mitigation requirements on wastewater treatment plant design and operation. PMID:16180407

  18. Anaerobic digestion: impact of future greenhouse gases mitigation policies on methane generation and usage.

    PubMed

    Greenfield, P F; Batstone, D J

    2005-01-01

    The debate as to whether carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide and other greenhouse gas emissions will become subject to increasing regulation, increased restrictions, and probably to some form of carbon tax, has moved from a simple "yes" or "no" to "when". Wastewater treatment plants will be significantly impacted by increased energy costs and by specific regulations and/or penalties associated with emissions of methane and nitrous oxide. In this paper, the greenhouse gases emissions of different wastewater process options are estimated. The paper outlines the increasing need for wastewater treatment plants to factor greenhouse gas mitigation issues into their medium- as and long-term strategies, and identifies anaerobic enhouse as processes as being at the core of such strategies. Further, the paper identifies a number of key research challenges to be addressed if such strategies are to play a larger role in attenuating the likely impacts of GHG mitigation requirements on wastewater treatment plant design and operation.

  19. Greenhouse effect due to chlorofluorocarbons - Climatic implications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramanathan, V.

    1975-01-01

    The infrared bands of chlorofluorocarbons and chlorocarbons enhance the atmospheric greenhouse effect. This enhancement may lead to an appreciable increase in the global surface temperature if the atmospheric concentrations of these compounds reach values of the order of 2 parts per billion.

  20. 78 FR 23149 - Mandatory Greenhouse Gas Reporting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-18

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 98 Mandatory Greenhouse Gas Reporting CFR Correction In Title 40 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Parts 96 to 99, revised as of July 1, 2012, on page 768, in Sec. 98.226, in...

  1. Studying the Greenhouse Effect: A Simple Demonstration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papageorgiou, G.; Ouzounis, K.

    2000-01-01

    Studies the parameters involved in a presentation of the greenhouse effect and describes a simple demonstration of this effect. Required equipment includes a 100-120 watt lamp, a 250mL beaker, and a thermometer capable of recording 0-750 degrees Celsius together with a small amount of chloroform. (Author/SAH)

  2. Measuring and managing reservoir greenhouse gas emissions

    EPA Science Inventory

    Methane (CH4) is the second most important anthropogenic greenhouse gas with a heat trapping capacity 34 times greater than that of carbon dioxide on a 100 year time scale. Known anthropogenic CH4 sources include livestock production, rice agriculture, landfills, and natural gas...

  3. Geological assessment of the greenhouse effect

    SciTech Connect

    Crowley, T.J. )

    1993-12-01

    Geologic studies provide a valuable perspective on the importance of greenhouse forcing for climate change. On both Pleistocene and tectonic time scales, changes in climate are positively correlated with greenhouse gas variations. However, the sensitivity of the system to greenhouse gas changes cannot yet be constrained by paleoclimate data below its present large range. Geologic records do not support one of the major predictions of greenhouse models-namely, that tropical sea surface temperatures will increase. Geologic data also suggest that winter cooling in high-latitude land areas is less than predicted by models. As the above-mentioned predictions appear to be systemic features of the present generation of climate models, some significant changes in model design may be required to reconcile models and geologic data. However, full acceptance of this conclusion requires more measurements and more systematic compilations of existing geologic data. Since progress in data collection in this area has been quite slow, uncertainties associated with these conclusions may persist for some time. 106 refs., 6 figs.

  4. Broader perspectives for comparing different greenhouse gases.

    PubMed

    Manning, Martin; Reisinger, Andy

    2011-05-28

    Over the last 20 years, different greenhouse gases have been compared, in the context of climate change, primarily through the concept of global warming potentials (GWPs). This considers the climate forcing caused by pulse emissions and integrated over a fixed time horizon. Recent studies have shown that uncertainties in GWP values are significantly larger than previously thought and, while past literature in this area has raised alternative means of comparison, there is not yet any clear alternative. We propose that a broader framework for comparing greenhouse gases has become necessary and that this cannot be addressed by using simple fixed exchange rates. From a policy perspective, the framework needs to be clearly aligned with the goal of climate stabilization, and we show that comparisons between gases can be better addressed in this context by the forcing equivalence index (FEI). From a science perspective, a framework for comparing greenhouse gases should also consider the full range of processes that affect atmospheric composition and how these may alter for climate stabilization at different levels. We cover a basis for a broader approach to comparing greenhouse gases by summarizing the uncertainties in GWPs, linking those to uncertainties in the FEIs consistent with stabilization, and then to a framework for addressing uncertainties in the corresponding biogeochemical processes.

  5. Technologies for a greenhouse-constrained society

    SciTech Connect

    Kuliasha, M.A.; Zucker, A.; Ballew, K.J.

    1992-05-01

    This conference explored how three technologies might help society adjust to life in a greenhouse-constrained environment. Technology experts and policy makers from around the world met June 11--13, 1991, in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, to address questions about how energy efficiency, biomass, and nuclear technologies can mitigate the greenhouse effect and to explore energy production and use in countries in various stages of development. The conference was organized by Oak Ridge National Laboratory and sponsored by the US Department of Energy. Energy efficiency biomass, and nuclear energy are potential substitutes for fossil fuels that might help slow or even reverse the global warming changes that may result from mankind`s thirst for energy. Many other conferences have questioned whether the greenhouse effect is real and what reductions in greenhouse gas emissions might be necessary to avoid serious ecological consequences; this conference studied how these reductions might actually be achieved. For these conference proceedings, individuals papers are processed separately for the Energy Data Base.

  6. Assessing Greenhouse Gas Emissions from University Purchases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thurston, Matthew; Eckelman, Matthew J.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: A greenhouse gas (GHG) inventory was conducted for Yale University's procurement of goods and services over a one-year period. The goal of the inventory was to identify the financial expenditures resulting in the greatest "indirect" GHG emissions. This project is part of an ongoing effort to quantify and reduce the university's…

  7. Mitigating Greenhouse Gas Emissions: Voluntary Reporting 1996

    EIA Publications

    1997-01-01

    Presents information on voluntary actions to reduce greenhouse gases or remove such gases from the atmosphere in 1995. It provides an overview of participation in the Voluntary Reporting Program, a perspective on the composition of activities reported, and a review of some key issues in interpreting and evaluating achievements associated with reported emissions mitigation initiatives.

  8. Robotic System For Greenhouse Or Nursery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gill, Paul; Montgomery, Jim; Silver, John; Heffelfinger, Neil; Simonton, Ward; Pease, Jim

    1993-01-01

    Report presents additional information about robotic system described in "Robotic Gripper With Force Control And Optical Sensors" (MFS-28537). "Flexible Agricultural Robotics Manipulator System" (FARMS) serves as prototype of robotic systems intended to enhance productivities of agricultural assembly-line-type facilities in large commercial greenhouses and nurseries.

  9. Guide to School Greenhouses: Growing Ideas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beliveau, Victoria

    This booklet is part of the Growing Ideas series for educators which supports teachers by enabling them to expand their own skills as they help students use plants and gardens as contexts for developing a deeper, richer understanding of the world around them. This booklet, on school greenhouses, gives an overview of key issues relevant to…

  10. An Introduction to Scientific Masculinities.

    PubMed

    Milam, Erika Lorraine; Nye, Robert A

    2015-01-01

    This volume seeks to integrate gender analysis into the global history of science and medicine from the late Middle Ages to the present by focusing on masculinity, the part of the gender equation that has received the least attention from scholars. The premise of the volume is that social constructions of masculinity function simultaneously as foils for femininity and as methods of differentiating between "kinds" of men. In exploring scientific masculinities without taking the dominance of men and masculinity in the sciences for granted, we ask, What is masculinity and how does it operate in science? Our answers remind us that gender is at once an analytical category and a historical object. The essays are divided into three sections that in turn emphasize the importance of gender to the professionalization of scientific, technological, and medical practices, the spaces in which such labor is performed, and the ways that sex, gender, and sexual orientation are measured and serve as metaphors in society and culture.

  11. Parallel processing for scientific computations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alkhatib, Hasan S.

    1991-01-01

    The main contribution of the effort in the last two years is the introduction of the MOPPS system. After doing extensive literature search, we introduced the system which is described next. MOPPS employs a new solution to the problem of managing programs which solve scientific and engineering applications on a distributed processing environment. Autonomous computers cooperate efficiently in solving large scientific problems with this solution. MOPPS has the advantage of not assuming the presence of any particular network topology or configuration, computer architecture, or operating system. It imposes little overhead on network and processor resources while efficiently managing programs concurrently. The core of MOPPS is an intelligent program manager that builds a knowledge base of the execution performance of the parallel programs it is managing under various conditions. The manager applies this knowledge to improve the performance of future runs. The program manager learns from experience.

  12. Spacelab program's scientific benefits to mankind

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graft, Harry G., Jr.; Marmann, Richard A.

    1993-01-01

    The paper describes the important scientific discoveries and accomplishments achieved by the Spacelab program during the ten years of its operation starting with the first flight in 1983, with emphasis on the discoveries and accomplishments in the fields of astronomy and astrophysics, atmospheric science, life sciences, microgravity science, plasma physics, and earth observations. The Spacelab systems performance and operations are discussed with particular attention given to the operations applicable to the Space Station era.

  13. Solar energy collection/storage system for greenhouses: observed and simulated performance

    SciTech Connect

    Willits, D.H.; Chandra, P.; Miller, C.H.

    1981-01-01

    Performance data are pesented and some operating characteristics of a solar energy collection/storage system for greenhouses are examined. The system uses an external rock storage connected to a 6.7 x 12.2 m, fiberglass-covered greenhouse to hold excess energy collected with the greenhouse during the day for use in supplementing heating requirements during periods of deficit. Fuel consumption in the test house is compared to that in an identical, unmodified control house for three growing seasons over 1 1/2 years. Tomatoes were grown for two of the three seasons (Fall 78 and Spring 79) and lettuce was grown during the third (Fall 79). The data indicate that a savings of 31.1% was achieved for the Fall 79 season as compared to 16.9% for the same period of the previous year. This improvement is attributed to the reduced operating temperature and evapotranspiration load of the lettuce crop as well as to some improvements made to the system during the summer of 1979. Increased electrical consumption required to pump the air through the rock storage was observed to be a small percentage of the total energy saved. Yield data for the three growing seasons are pesented but no conclusions are drawn. Simulation studies performed in an effort to answer some pertinent questions about the performance of the system indicate that: (1) the uncontrolled release of heat from internal storages can be detrimental during periods when little or no heating is required resulting in higher greenhouse temperatures, and therefore higher plant respiration rates, than houses using external storages; and (2) better performance can be expected with double polyethylene-covered greenhouses than with fiberglass greenhouses owing to reduced nighttime heating load and increased solar energy collection.

  14. Mars Greenhouses: Concepts and Challenges. Proceedings from a 1999 Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wheeler, Ray M. (Editor); Martin-Brennan, Cindy (Editor)

    2000-01-01

    Topic covered include :Plants on Mars: On the Next Mission and in the Long Term Future; Bubbles in the Rocks: Natural and Artificial Caves and Cavities as Like Support Structures; Challenges for Bioregenerative Life Support on Mars; Cost Effectiveness Issues; Low Pressure Systems for Plant Growth; Plant Responses to Rarified Atmospheres; Can CO2 be Used as a Pressurizing Gas for Mars Greenhouses?; Inflatable Habitats Technology Development; Development of an Inflatable Greenhouse for a Modular Crop Production System; Mars Inflatable Greenhouse Workshop; Design Needs for Mars Deployable Greenhouse; Preliminary Estimates of the Possibilities for Developing a Deployable Greenhouse for a Planetary Surface Mars; Low Pressure Greenhouse Concepts for Mars; Mars Greenhouse Study: Natural vs. Artificial Lighting; and Wire Culture for an Inflatable Mars Greenhouse and Other Future Inflatable Space Growth Chambers.

  15. 22. Greenhouse, south elevation. This winter 2002 view was taken ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. Greenhouse, south elevation. This winter 2002 view was taken by Joseph Elliot while conducting photographic documentation of the landscape. - John Bartram House & Garden, Greenhouse, 54th Street & LIndbergh Boulevard, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  16. Stuccoed building within greenhouse complex, north and west (front) sides, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Stuccoed building within greenhouse complex, north and west (front) sides, looking south towards building no. 121 (tennis courts) across W. Pennington Ave. - Fitzsimons General Hospital, Greenhouse, West Pennington Avenue, East of Building No. 139, Aurora, Adams County, CO

  17. Scientifically Based Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beghetto, Ron

    2003-01-01

    Most principals are aware that the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 makes it mandatory for school leaders who depend on federal funding to select and implement programs that are based on scientific research. This publication reviews five documents that offer insights into what is meant by scientifically based research and help school leaders…

  18. Scientific rigor through videogames.

    PubMed

    Treuille, Adrien; Das, Rhiju

    2014-11-01

    Hypothesis-driven experimentation - the scientific method - can be subverted by fraud, irreproducibility, and lack of rigorous predictive tests. A robust solution to these problems may be the 'massive open laboratory' model, recently embodied in the internet-scale videogame EteRNA. Deploying similar platforms throughout biology could enforce the scientific method more broadly.

  19. 3 CFR - Scientific Integrity

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Departments and Agencies Science and the scientific process must inform and guide decisions of my..., and protection of national security. The public must be able to trust the science and scientific..., and integrity. By this memorandum, I assign to the Director of the Office of Science and...

  20. Scientific Ability and Creativity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heller, Kurt A.

    2007-01-01

    Following an introductory definition of "scientific ability and creativity", product-oriented, personality and social psychological approaches to studying scientific ability are examined with reference to competence and performance. Studies in the psychometric versus cognitive psychological paradigms are dealt with in more detail. These two…

  1. Rekindling Scientific Curiosity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coble, Charles R.; Rice, Dale R.

    1983-01-01

    Active involvement in society-related issues can elevate junior high school students' interest not only in the problem being solved but also in related scientific concepts. Examples of how scientific concepts and society-related issues can be taught in the same class are presented, focusing on genetic engineering, water shortage, and others.…

  2. Scientific computing environment for the 1980s

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, F. R.

    1986-01-01

    An emerging scientific computing environment in which computers are used not only to solve large-scale models, but are also integrated into the daily activities of scientists and engineers, is discussed. The requirements of the scientific user in this environment are reviewed, and the hardware environment is described, including supercomputers, work stations, mass storage, and communications. Significant increases in memory capacity to keep pace with performance increases, the introduction of powerful graphics displays into the work station, and networking to integrate many computers are stressed. The emerging system software environment is considered, including the operating systems, communications software, and languages. New scientific user tools and utilities that will become available are described.

  3. Adapting a weather forecast model for greenhouse gas simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polavarapu, S. M.; Neish, M.; Tanguay, M.; Girard, C.; de Grandpré, J.; Gravel, S.; Semeniuk, K.; Chan, D.

    2015-12-01

    The ability to simulate greenhouse gases on the global domain is useful for providing boundary conditions for regional flux inversions, as well as for providing reference data for bias correction of satellite measurements. Given the existence of operational weather and environmental prediction models and assimilation systems at Environment Canada, it makes sense to use these tools for greenhouse gas simulations. In this work, we describe the adaptations needed to reasonably simulate CO2 with a weather forecast model. The main challenges were the implementation of a mass conserving advection scheme, and the careful implementation of a mixing ratio defined with respect to dry air. The transport of tracers through convection was also added, and the vertical mixing through the boundary layer was slightly modified. With all these changes, the model conserves CO2 mass well on the annual time scale, and the high resolution (0.9 degree grid spacing) permits a good description of synoptic scale transport. The use of a coupled meteorological/tracer transport model also permits an assessment of approximations needed in offline transport model approaches, such as the neglect of water vapour mass when computing a tracer mixing ratio with respect to dry air.

  4. Fluxes of Greenhouse Gases from the Baltimore-Washington Area: Results from WINTER 2015 Aircraft Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dickerson, R. R.; Ren, X.; Shepson, P. B.; Salmon, O. E.; Brown, S. S.; Thornton, J. A.; Whetstone, J. R.; Salawitch, R. J.; Sahu, S.; Hall, D.; Grimes, C.; Wong, T. M.

    2015-12-01

    Urban areas are responsible for a major component of the anthropogenic greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Quantification of urban GHG fluxes is important for establishing scientifically sound and cost-effective policies for mitigating GHGs. Discrepancies between observations and model simulations of GHGs suggest uncharacterized sources in urban environments. In this work, we analyze and quantify fluxes of CO2, CH4, CO (and other trace species) from the Baltimore-Washington area based on the mass balance approach using the two-aircraft observations conducted in February-March 2015. Estimated fluxes from this area were 110,000±20,000 moles s-1 for CO2, 700±330 moles s-1 for CH4, and 535±188 moles s-1 for CO. This implies that methane is responsible for ~20% of the climate forcing from these cities. Point sources of CO2 from four regional power plants and one point source of CH4 from a landfill were identified and the emissions from these point sources were quantified based on the aircraft observation and compared to the emission inventory data. Methane fluxes from the Washington area were larger than from the Baltimore area, indicating a larger leakage rate in the Washington area. The ethane-to-methane ratios, with a mean of 3.3%, in the limited canister samples collected during the flights indicate that natural gas leaks and the upwind oil and natural gas operations are responsible for a substantial fraction of the CH4 flux. These observations will be compared to models using Ensemble Kalman Filter Assimilation techniques.

  5. The state of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere using global observations through 2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarasova, Oksana; Koide, Hiroshi; Dlugokencky, Edward; Montzka, Stephen A.; Butler, James H.

    2014-05-01

    The Global Atmosphere Watch (GAW) Programme of the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) provides a framework for global observations and assessment of the state and development of atmospheric composition, including greenhouse gases. It puts stringent requirements on the quality of the observations. These requirements are reviewed by the greenhouse gas science and measurement community at biennial WMO/IAEA Meetings on Carbon Dioxide, Other Greenhouse Gases, and Related Tracer Measurement Techniques. The 17th meeting was held in Beijing, China, on 10 - 14 June 2013 (http://ggmt-2013.cma.gov.cn/dct/page/1). Results of global analysis of the observational data are reported annually in the WMO/GAW Annual Greenhouse Gas Bulletin. Bulletin No. 9 represents an update of the results for the year 2012 (extended version is available at http://www.wmo.int/pages/prog/arep/gaw/ghg/ghg9-en-online.html). The cover story of this bulletin presents the attribution of methane sources in the context of the renewed growth of the global average methane mole fraction in 2007. The bulletin is prepared by the WMO/GAW Scientific Advisory Group for Greenhouse Gases (http://www.wmo.int/pages/prog/www/CBS/Lists_WorkGroups/CAS/opag-epac/gaw%20sag%20ghg) in collaboration with the World Data Center for Greenhouse Gases. Observations used for global analysis are collected at more than 100 marine and terrestrial sites worldwide for CO2 and CH4 and at a smaller number of sites for other greenhouse gases. Globally averaged dry-air mole fractions of carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) derived from this network reached new highs in 2012, with CO2 at 393.1±0.1 ppm, CH4 at 1819±1 ppb and N2O at 325.1±0.1 ppb. These values constitute 141%, 260% and 120% of pre-industrial (before 1750) levels, respectively. The increase of the annual mean CO2 mole fraction from 2011 to 2012 amounted to 2.2 ppm, which is greater than the average growth rate for the 1990s (~1.5 ppm yr-1) and for

  6. 10. Detail view, greenhouse, south wall. These groundlevel openings were ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Detail view, greenhouse, south wall. These ground-level openings were part of the original heating system used to warm the greenhouse. The openings were likely related to the flues, while a larger opening to the west (not in photograph) contained an exterior-fed iron stove. - John Bartram House & Garden, Greenhouse, 54th Street & LIndbergh Boulevard, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  7. 5. Greenhouse and storeroom, west elevation. Portions of the storeroom ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Greenhouse and storeroom, west elevation. Portions of the storeroom might predate the greenhouse construction (1760-1761), however the two structures were not linked until late in the eighteenth century or early in the nineteenth century. - John Bartram House & Garden, Greenhouse, 54th Street & LIndbergh Boulevard, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  8. Introduction to solar greenhouses: using the sun for home heating

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-01-01

    The pictures and captions in this photographic essay are not a step-by-step plan to build a greenhouse, but are simply examples of major construction points in most solar greenhouses. A list of publications covering all aspects of solar greenhouses is included.

  9. Urban Options Solar Greenhouse Demonstration Project. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Cipparone, L.

    1980-10-15

    The following are included: the design process, construction, thermal performance, horticulture, educational activities, and future plans. Included in appendices are: greenhouse blueprints, insulating curtain details, workshop schedules, sample data forms, summary of performance calculations on the Urban Options Solar Greenhouse, data on vegetable production, publications, news articles on th Solar Greenhouse Project, and the financial statement. (MHR)

  10. Runaway greenhouse atmospheres: Applications to Earth and Venus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kasting, James F.

    1991-01-01

    Runaway greenhouse atmospheres are discussed from a theoretical standpoint and with respect to various practical situation in which they might occur. The following subject areas are covered: (1) runaway greenhouse atmospheres; (2) moist greenhouse atmospheres; (3) loss of water from Venus; (4) steam atmosphere during accretion; and (5) the continuously habitable zone.

  11. The greenhouse of the future: Using a sponsored competition in a capstone course

    SciTech Connect

    Bates, R.M.; Baumbauer, D.

    1998-02-18

    Educational objectives of capstone courses such as critical-thinking and problem-solving skills are among the most cited needs in curriculum revitalization efforts. Sponsored competitions present an important vehicle for achieving these educational objectives. Opportunities such as the Greenhouse of the Future Competition provide students a diverse range of critical experiences not easily simulated in traditional classroom settings. The objective of the competition was to provide an opportunity for US university students to conceptualize, design, integrate, fabricate, and demonstrate innovative greenhouse or controlled environment ideas. The students achieved a great sense of accomplishment and satisfaction by converting their ideas into proposals, developing proposals into experiments, tracking the data generated by the experiments and translating that data into a meaningful communication locally and to the scientific community at large. Most of these important learning experiences would have remained as components of the project even if the team had not advanced as the winning entry.

  12. Greenhouse Gas Management Program Overview (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2011-11-01

    Program fact sheet highlighting federal requirements for GHG emissions management, FEMP services to help agencies reduce emissions, and additional resources. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) assists Federal agencies with managing their greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. GHG management entails measuring emissions and understanding their sources, setting a goal for reducing emissions, developing a plan to meet this goal, and implementing the plan to achieve reductions in emissions. FEMP provides the following services to help Federal agencies meet the requirements of inventorying and reducing their GHG emissions: (1) FEMP offers one-on-one technical assistance to help agencies understand and implement the Federal Greenhouse Gas Accounting and Reporting Guidance and fulfill their inventory reporting requirements. (2) FEMP provides training, tools, and resources on FedCenter to help agencies complete their annual inventories. (3) FEMP serves a leadership role in the interagency Federal Working Group on Greenhouse Gas Accounting and Reporting that develops recommendations to the Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ) for the Federal Greenhouse Gas Accounting and Reporting Guidance. (4) As the focus continues to shift from measuring emissions (completing inventories) to mitigating emissions (achieving reductions), FEMP is developing a strategic planning framework and resources for agencies to prioritize among a variety of options for mitigating their GHG emissions, so that they achieve their reduction goals in the most cost-effective manner. These resources will help agencies analyze their high-quality inventories to make strategic decisions about where to use limited resources to have the greatest impact on reducing emissions. Greenhouse gases trap heat in the lower atmosphere, warming the earth's surface temperature in a natural process known as the 'greenhouse effect.' GHGs include carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), methane (CH{sub 4

  13. 40 CFR 70.12 - Enforceable commitments for further actions addressing greenhouse gases (GHGs).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... actions addressing greenhouse gases (GHGs). 70.12 Section 70.12 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... commitments for further actions addressing greenhouse gases (GHGs). (a) Definitions. (1) Greenhouse Gases... six greenhouse gases: carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, methane, hydrofluorocarbons,...

  14. 40 CFR 70.12 - Enforceable commitments for further actions addressing greenhouse gases (GHGs).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... actions addressing greenhouse gases (GHGs). 70.12 Section 70.12 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... commitments for further actions addressing greenhouse gases (GHGs). (a) Definitions. (1) Greenhouse Gases... six greenhouse gases: carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, methane, hydrofluorocarbons,...

  15. 40 CFR 70.12 - Enforceable commitments for further actions addressing greenhouse gases (GHGs).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... actions addressing greenhouse gases (GHGs). 70.12 Section 70.12 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... commitments for further actions addressing greenhouse gases (GHGs). (a) Definitions. (1) Greenhouse Gases... six greenhouse gases: carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, methane, hydrofluorocarbons,...

  16. 40 CFR 70.12 - Enforceable commitments for further actions addressing greenhouse gases (GHGs).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... actions addressing greenhouse gases (GHGs). 70.12 Section 70.12 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... commitments for further actions addressing greenhouse gases (GHGs). (a) Definitions. (1) Greenhouse Gases... six greenhouse gases: carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, methane, hydrofluorocarbons,...

  17. 40 CFR 70.12 - Enforceable commitments for further actions addressing greenhouse gases (GHGs).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... actions addressing greenhouse gases (GHGs). 70.12 Section 70.12 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... commitments for further actions addressing greenhouse gases (GHGs). (a) Definitions. (1) Greenhouse Gases... six greenhouse gases: carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, methane, hydrofluorocarbons,...

  18. Generalized Software Architecture Applied to the Continuous Lunar Water Separation Process and the Lunar Greenhouse Amplifier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perusich, Stephen; Moos, Thomas; Muscatello, Anthony

    2011-01-01

    This innovation provides the user with autonomous on-screen monitoring, embedded computations, and tabulated output for two new processes. The software was originally written for the Continuous Lunar Water Separation Process (CLWSP), but was found to be general enough to be applicable to the Lunar Greenhouse Amplifier (LGA) as well, with minor alterations. The resultant program should have general applicability to many laboratory processes (see figure). The objective for these programs was to create a software application that would provide both autonomous monitoring and data storage, along with manual manipulation. The software also allows operators the ability to input experimental changes and comments in real time without modifying the code itself. Common process elements, such as thermocouples, pressure transducers, and relative humidity sensors, are easily incorporated into the program in various configurations, along with specialized devices such as photodiode sensors. The goal of the CLWSP research project is to design, build, and test a new method to continuously separate, capture, and quantify water from a gas stream. The application is any In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) process that desires to extract or produce water from lunar or planetary regolith. The present work is aimed at circumventing current problems and ultimately producing a system capable of continuous operation at moderate temperatures that can be scaled over a large capacity range depending on the ISRU process. The goal of the LGA research project is to design, build, and test a new type of greenhouse that could be used on the moon or Mars. The LGA uses super greenhouse gases (SGGs) to absorb long-wavelength radiation, thus creating a highly efficient greenhouse at a future lunar or Mars outpost. Silica-based glass, although highly efficient at trapping heat, is heavy, fragile, and not suitable for space greenhouse applications. Plastics are much lighter and resilient, but are not

  19. Greenhouse-gas emissions from soils increased by earthworms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lubbers, Ingrid M.; van Groenigen, Kees Jan; Fonte, Steven J.; Six, Johan; Brussaard, Lijbert; van Groenigen, Jan Willem

    2013-03-01

    Earthworms play an essential part in determining the greenhouse-gas balance of soils worldwide, and their influence is expected to grow over the next decades. They are thought to stimulate carbon sequestration in soil aggregates, but also to increase emissions of the main greenhouse gases carbon dioxide and nitrous oxide. Hence, it remains highly controversial whether earthworms predominantly affect soils to act as a net source or sink of greenhouse gases. Here, we provide a quantitative review of the overall effect of earthworms on the soil greenhouse-gas balance. Our results suggest that although earthworms are largely beneficial to soil fertility, they increase net soil greenhouse-gas emissions.

  20. Greenhouse role in reef stress unproven

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, L.

    1991-07-19

    In the late 1980s, as coral reefs throughout the Caribbean and elsewhere fell victim to a phenomenon known as bleaching, a few scientists stated that greenhouse warming is upon us and that the exquisitely sensitive corals, reacting to elevated water temperatures, are serving as biological sentinels. This stirred up so much concern that Congress assigned the National Science Foundation (NSF) to investigate the connection between coral bleaching and global warming. Late last month investigators at an NSF-sponsored meeting rendered their verdict. Following the Miami meeting, which brought together, for the first time, climatologists, oceanographers, and meteorologists with marine biologists, ecologists, and other reef experts, the participants issued a statement saying essentially that, yes, higher temperatures seem to be at least partly at fault but, no, greenhouse warming cannot be blamed.

  1. Greenhouse models of the atmosphere of Titan.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pollack, J. B.

    1973-01-01

    The greenhouse effect is calculated for a series of Titanian atmosphere models with different proportions of methane, hydrogen, helium, and ammonia. A computer program is used in temperature-structure calculations based on radiative-convective thermal transfer considerations. A brightness temperature spectrum is derived for Titan and is compared with available observational data. It is concluded that the greenhouse effect on Titan is generated by pressure-induced transitions of methane and hydrogen. The helium-to-hydrogen ratio is found to have a maximum of about 1.5. The surface pressure is estimated to be at least 0.4 atm, with a daytime temperature of about 155 K at the surface. The presence of methane clouds in the upper troposphere is indicated. The clouds have a significant optical depth in the visible, but not in the thermal, infrared.

  2. A proposal for climate stability on H2-greenhouse planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbot, D. S.

    2015-12-01

    A terrestrial planet in an orbit far outside of the standard habitable zone could maintain surface liquid water as a result of H2-H2 collision-induced absorption by a thick H2 atmosphere. Without a stabilizing climate feedback, however, habitability would be accidental and likely brief. We propose a stabilizing climate feedback for such a planet that requires only biological production of H2 to balance net loss to space that has some optimal temperature, and operates less efficiently at higher temperatures. A stable feedback is possible on such a planet through which a perturbation increasing temperature decreases H2 production, which decreases H2 greenhouse warming and therefore temperature. The potential of such a feedback makes H2-warmed planets more attractive astrobiological targets.

  3. Greenhouse effect due to atmospheric nitrous oxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yung, Y. L.; Wang, W. C.; Lacis, A. A.

    1976-01-01

    The greenhouse effect due to nitrous oxide in the present atmosphere is about 0.8 K. Increase in atmospheric N2O due to perturbation of the nitrogen cycle by man may lead to an increase in surface temperature as large as 0.5 K by 2025, or 1.0 K by 2100. Other climatic effects of N2O are briefly discussed.

  4. Effect of Greenhouse Gases Dissolved in Seawater.

    PubMed

    Matsunaga, Shigeki

    2015-12-30

    A molecular dynamics simulation has been performed on the greenhouse gases carbon dioxide and methane dissolved in a sodium chloride aqueous solution, as a simple model of seawater. A carbon dioxide molecule is also treated as a hydrogen carbonate ion. The structure, coordination number, diffusion coefficient, shear viscosity, specific heat, and thermal conductivity of the solutions have been discussed. The anomalous behaviors of these properties, especially the negative pressure dependence of thermal conductivity, have been observed in the higher-pressure region.

  5. Ethics of scientific publication

    PubMed Central

    Mandal, Jharna; Ponnambath, Dinoop Korol; Parija, Subhash Chandra

    2016-01-01

    Published scientific research breeds the development of clinical management guidelines and pathways. Currently, scholarly proficiency is assessed using numerous primitive metrics for incentives that can kindle publication of hoax or flawed research content. Such flawed data can lead to wastage of resources, time, and most importantly harm to the society. Authors, editors, and peer reviewers need to be genuine in conducting, analyzing, and publication of scientific research. Institutions need to be aware and utilize advanced metrics to assess the scientific reputation of researchers. This short review discusses in brief the common authorship and editorial ethical issues encountered in scientific publication and the newer metrics available for the assessment of scholarly excellence. Editors and peer reviewers need to be acquainted with the common ethical issues and follow consensus international guidelines on publication ethics to tackle them appropriately. PMID:27722097

  6. Report: Scientific Software.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borman, Stuart A.

    1985-01-01

    Discusses various aspects of scientific software, including evaluation and selection of commercial software products; program exchanges, catalogs, and other information sources; major data analysis packages; statistics and chemometrics software; and artificial intelligence. (JN)

  7. Anatomy of Scientific Evolution

    PubMed Central

    Yun, Jinhyuk; Kim, Pan-Jun; Jeong, Hawoong

    2015-01-01

    The quest for historically impactful science and technology provides invaluable insight into the innovation dynamics of human society, yet many studies are limited to qualitative and small-scale approaches. Here, we investigate scientific evolution through systematic analysis of a massive corpus of digitized English texts between 1800 and 2008. Our analysis reveals great predictability for long-prevailing scientific concepts based on the levels of their prior usage. Interestingly, once a threshold of early adoption rates is passed even slightly, scientific concepts can exhibit sudden leaps in their eventual lifetimes. We developed a mechanistic model to account for such results, indicating that slowly-but-commonly adopted science and technology surprisingly tend to have higher innate strength than fast-and-commonly adopted ones. The model prediction for disciplines other than science was also well verified. Our approach sheds light on unbiased and quantitative analysis of scientific evolution in society, and may provide a useful basis for policy-making. PMID:25671617

  8. STARPROBE: Scientific rationale

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Underwood, J. H. (Editor); Randolph, J. E. (Editor)

    1982-01-01

    The scientific rationale and instrumentation problems in the areas of solar internal dynamics and relativity, solar plasma and particle dynamics, and solar atmosphere structure were studied. Current STARPROBE mission and system design concepts are summarized.

  9. [Challenge in scientific publication].

    PubMed

    Volpato, Gilson Luiz; de Freitas, Eliane Gonçalves

    2003-05-01

    We discuss the main problems which make a scientific text difficult to find, to be read or to be accepted by readers. A scientific text is considered a logical argument. Therefore, methods, results and data from literature are premises supporting the conclusions of the work; and in the "Introduction" session, the justification corroborates the objective of the study. This conception makes the text a hermetically coherent structure where only the necessary data should be included (some controversy is still pertinent). In a second step, we show formal mistakes in scientific writing which make texts less attractive. Thus, we give examples of errors or inadequacy of formal aspects of presenting titles, abstracts, results (figures and tables), and grammar mistakes in Portuguese (but also valid for English grammar). After that, we emphasize the need for writing in international language (English) and for publication in periodicals with international impact on the scientific community. Finally, considerations to improve the Brazilian periodicals in the biological area are presented.

  10. Long-term greenhouse gas measurements from aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karion, A.; Sweeney, C.; Wolter, S.; Newberger, T.; Chen, H.; Andrews, A.; Kofler, J.; Neff, D.; Tans, P.

    2012-10-01

    In March 2009 the NOAA/ESRL/GMD Carbon Cycle and Greenhouse Gases Group collaborated with the US Coast Guard (USCG) to establish the Alaska Coast Guard (ACG) sampling site, a unique addition to NOAA's atmospheric monitoring network. This collaboration takes advantage of USCG bi-weekly Arctic Domain Awareness (ADA) flights, conducted with Hercules C-130 aircraft from March to November each year. NOAA has installed window-replacement inlet plates on two USCG C-130 aircraft and deploys a pallet with NOAA instrumentation on each ADA flight. Flights typically last 8 h and cover a very large area, traveling from Kodiak, AK in the south up to Barrow, AK in the north, and making altitude profiles near the coast as well as in the interior. NOAA instrumentation on each flight includes: a flask sampling system, a continuous CO2/CH4/CO/H2O analyzer, a continuous ozone analyzer, and an ambient temperature and humidity sensor. GPS time and location from the aircraft's navigation system are also collected. Air samples collected in flight are analyzed at NOAA/ESRL for the major greenhouse gases and a variety of halocarbons and hydrocarbons that influence climate, stratospheric ozone, and air quality. Instruments on this aircraft are designed and deployed to be able to collect air samples and data autonomously, so that NOAA personnel visit the site only for installation at the beginning of each season. We present an assessment of the cavity ring-down spectroscopy (CRDS) CO2/CH4/CO/H2O analyzer performance operating on an aircraft over a three-year period. We describe the overall system for making accurate greenhouse gas measurements using a CRDS analyzer on an aircraft with minimal operator interaction. Short and long-term stability of the CRDS analyzer over a seven-month deployment period is better than 0.15 ppm, 2 ppb, and 5 ppb for CO2, CH4, CO respectively, considering differences of on-board reference tank measurements from a laboratory calibration performed prior to

  11. Joint implementation: Biodiversity and greenhouse gas offsets

    SciTech Connect

    Cutright, N.J.

    1996-11-01

    One of the most pressing environmental issues today is the possibility that projected increases in global emissions of greenhouse gases form increased deforestation, development, and fossil-fuel combustion could significantly alter global climate patterns. Under the terms of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, signed in Rio de janeiro during the June 19923 Earth Summit, the United States and other industrialized countries committed to balancing greenhouse gas emissions at 1990 levels in the year 2000. Included in the treaty is a provision titled {open_quotes}Joint Implementation,{close_quotes} whereby industrialized countries assist developing countries in jointly modifying long-term emission trends, either through emission reductions or by protecting and enhancing greenhouse gas sinks (carbon sequestration). The US Climate Action Plan, signed by President Clinton in 1993, calls for voluntary climate change mitigation measures by various sectors, and the action plan included a new program, the US Initiative on Joint Implementation. Wisconsin Electric decided to invest in a JI project because its concept encourages creative, cost-effective solutions to environmental problems through partnering, international cooperation, and innovation. The project chosen, a forest preservation and management effort in Belize, will sequester more than five million tons of carbon dioxide over a 40-year period, will become economically self-sustaining after ten years, and will have substantial biodiversity benefits. 6 refs., 1 tab.

  12. Supplemental photosynthetic lighting for greenhouse tomato production

    SciTech Connect

    Godfriaux, B.L.; Wittman, W.K. ); Janes, H.W.; McAvoy, R.J.; Putman, J.; Logendra, S. . Dept. of Horticulture and Forestry); Mears, D.R.; Giacommelli, G.; Giniger, M. . Dept. of Biological and Agricultural Engineering)

    1989-12-01

    The influence of supplemental light on the growth and productivity of greenhouse tomatoes grown to a single cluster on movable benches is examined, and the economic feasibility of such a system is evaluated. Experiments were conducted to quantify the tomato plants' response to various levels of supplemental light in terms of growth rate and yield at various stages in their development (e.g., seedling, flowering plant, etc.). The 1984--85 experiments showed that supplemental photosynthetic lighting nearly doubled tomato yields, from 0.48 to 0.86 lbs/plant. Subsequent experiments in 1985--86 identified the best tomato varieties for this treatment and further increased yields to 1.3 lbs/plant. In addition, the use of supplemental lighting was found to hasten tomato crop maturity. An economic analysis was performed on the 1985--86 empirical data using the tax rates and provisions then in force. It indicated that a 10-acre greenhouse could provide an after-tax internal rate of return of 10% to 12% using only equity financing. This return could likely be increased to 15--18% with the use of combined debt/equity financing. Using supplemental lighting on 10,000 acres of greenhouse production would require an estimated 7.5 billion kWh of additional electricity per year and, at 4.7 cents/kWh, generate an estimated $350 million in additional utility revenues. 48 refs., 34 figs., 24 tabs.

  13. [Greenhouse gas emission from reservoir and its influence factors].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xiao-jie; Zhao, Tong-qian; Zheng, Hua; Duan, Xiao-nan; Chen, Fa-lin; Ouyang, Zhi-yun; Wang, Xiao-ke

    2008-08-01

    Reservoirs are significant sources of emissions of the greenhouse gases. Discussing greenhouse gas emission from the reservoirs and its influence factors are propitious to evaluate emission of the greenhouse gas accurately, reduce gas emission under hydraulic engineering and hydropower development. This paper expatiates the mechanism of the greenhouse gas production, sums three approaches of the greenhouse gas emission, which are emissions from nature emission of the reservoirs, turbines and spillways and downstream of the dam, respectively. Effects of greenhouse gas emission were discussed from character of the reservoirs, climate, pH of the water, vegetation growing in the reservoirs and so on. Finally, it has analyzed the heterogeneity of the greenhouse gas emission as well as the root of the uncertainty and carried on the forecast with emphasis to the next research.

  14. Greenhouse gas emissions from alternative water supply processes in southern California, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, A.; Townsend-Small, A.

    2012-12-01

    Burgeoning population centers and declining hydrological resources have encouraged the development of alternative water treatment systems, including desalination and wastewater recycling. These processes currently provide potable water for millions of people and assist in satisfying agricultural and landscaping irrigation demands. There are a variety of alternative water production methods in place, and while they help to reduce the demands placed on aquifers, during their operation they are also significant sources of greenhouse gases. The environmental advantages of these alternative water production methods need to be carefully weighed against their energy footprints and greenhouse gas emissions profiles. This study measured the greenhouse gas emissions of a wastewater treatment and recycling facility in Orange County, California to get a more complete picture of the carbon footprint of the plant. We measured atmospheric emissions of CO2, CH4, and N2O throughout the water recycling process and at various times of the day and week. This allowed us to assemble a thorough, cross-sectional profile of greenhouse gas emissions from the facility. We then compared the measured emissions of the treatment plant to the modeled emissions of desalination plants in order to assess the relative carbon footprints of the two water production methods. Other water supply alternatives, including regional water importation, were also included in the comparison in order to provide a more complete understanding of the potential greenhouse gas emissions. Finally, we assessed the significance of wastewater treatment as an urban greenhouse gas source when compared to other known emissions in the region. This research offers a valuable tool for sustainable urban and regional development by providing planners with a quantified comparison of the carbon footprints of several water production options.

  15. Astrium spaceplane for scientific missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chavagnac, Christophe; Gai, Frédéric; Gharib, Thierry; Mora, Christophe

    2013-12-01

    Since years Novespace and Astrium are discussing mutual interest in cooperating together when considering Novespace well established capabilities and the ongoing development of the Astrium Spaceplane and its unique features. Indeed both companies are proposing service for non-public missions which require microgravity environment especially. It relies on assets of both parties: Novespace in operating 0-G aircraft platforms for the sake of the European scientific community for decades; Astrium and its Spaceplane currently in pre-development phase. Novespace and its Airbus A300 Zero-G exhibit a unique know-how in Europe for operating scientific payload on aeronautic platform(s). Moreover Astrium is preparing the development of a safe and passenger friendly Spaceplane, taking off and landing from a standard airport runway powered by turbofans and using a rocket engine of proven design to reach 100 km altitude. The paper details the joint service offered and the added value of the partnership of Novespace and Astrium for various end-users. In addition longer duration of on-board microgravity periods and ultra high altitude features of the Astrium Spaceplane mission expand the scope of possible non-public applications which includes e.g.: Earth system science and probing of uncharted layers of Earth atmosphere on a regular basis and in various locations worldwide; Spaceflight crew training.

  16. The Interplanetary Pioneers. Volume 3: Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corliss, W. R.

    1972-01-01

    The operational aspects of the Pioneer program are described. The phases of the program discussed include: prelaunch operations, launch to DSS acquisition, near-earth operations, nominal and extended cruise, and scientific results.

  17. Fuel-Cycle Fossil Energy Use and Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Fuel Ethanol Produced from U.S. Midwest Corn

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Michael; Saricks, Christoper; Wu, May

    1997-12-19

    This study addresses two issues: (1) data and information essential to an informed choice about the corn-to-ethanol cycle are in need of updating, thanks to scientific and technological advances in both corn farming and ethanol production; and (2) generalized national estimates of energy intensities and greenhouse gas (GHG) production are of less relevance than estimates based specifically on activities and practices in the principal domestic corn production and milling region -- the upper Midwest.

  18. Use of phosphorus-sorbing materials to remove phosphate from greenhouse wastewater.

    PubMed

    Dunets, C Siobhan; Zheng, Youbin; Dixon, Mike

    2015-01-01

    High phosphate content in wastewater is currently a major issue faced by the North American greenhouse industry. Phosphate-sorbing material filters could provide a means of removing phosphate from wastewater prior to discharge to the environment, but the characterization of economically viable materials and specific recommendations for greenhouse wastewater are not available. Batch and column experiments were used to examine the capacity of two calcium-based waste materials, basic oxygen furnace slag and a concrete waste material, to remove phosphate from greenhouse nutrient solution at varied operating conditions. Material columns operating at a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 3 h consistently removed >99% of influent phosphate at a concentration of 60 mg/L over repeated applications and demonstrated high phosphate retention capacity (PRC) of 8.8 and 5.1 g P/kg for slag and concrete waste, respectively. Both materials also provided some removal of the micronutrients Fe, Mn and Zn. Increasing HRT to 24 h increased P retention capacity of slag to >10.5 g P/kg but did not improve retention by concrete waste. Decreasing influent phosphate concentration to 20 mg/L decreased PRC to 1.64 g P/kg in concrete waste columns, suggesting fluctuations in greenhouse wastewater composition will affect filter performance. The pH of filter effluent was closely correlated to final P concentration and can likely be used to monitor treatment effectiveness. This study demonstrated that calcium-based materials are promising for the removal of phosphate from greenhouse wastewater, and worthy of further research on scaling up the application to a full-sized system.

  19. Apollo scientific exploration of the moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Compton, W. D.

    1987-01-01

    The fundamental dichotomy of space exploration, unmanned versus manned projects, is discussed from an historical perspective. The integration of science into Apollo operations is examined with attention given to landing sites, extending the missions, and crew selection. A Science Working Group composed of scientists and Manned Spacecraft Center flight planners was formed in an attempt to produce the most scientific information possible within those operational limits that were considered absolutely inviolable.

  20. Scientific/Techical Report

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Chris Leighton, Neutron Scattering Society of American; Mr. J. Ardie Dillen, MRS Director of Finance and Administration

    2012-11-07

    The ACNS provides a focal point for the North American neutron user community, strengthening ties within this diverse group, and promoting neutron research in related disciplines. The conference thus serves a dual role as both a national user meeting and a scientific meeting. As a venue for scientific exchange, the ACNS showcases recent results and provides a forum for scientific discussion of neutron-enabled research in fields as diverse as hard and soft condensed matter, liquids, biology, magnetism, engineering materials, chemical spectroscopy, crystal structure, elementary excitations, fundamental physics, and development of neutron instrumentation. This is achieved through a combination of invited oral presentations, contributed oral presentations, and poster sessions. Adequate opportunity for spontaneous discussion and collaboration is also built into the ACNS program in order to foster free exchange of new scientific ideas and the potential for use of powerful neutron scattering methods beyond the current realms of application. The sixth American Conference on Neutron Scattering (ACNS 2012) provided essential information on the breadth and depth of current neutron-related research worldwide. A strong program of plenary, invited and contributed talks showcased recent scientific results in neutron science in a wide range of fields, including soft and hard condensed matter, biology, chemistry, energy and engineering applications, and neutron physics.

  1. Solar heating of integrated greenhouse-animal shelter systems

    SciTech Connect

    Ben-Abdallah, N.

    1983-01-01

    An analytical procedure to determine the effectiveness of greenhouses as solar collectors was presented. This procedure was used to predict the effect of several construction parameters on solar radiation input to greenhouses. The orientation of the greenhouse was found to be the most effective construction parameter controlling solar radiation input to greenhouses. The effective albedo of the plant canopy was also found to be a significant factor. A new solar greenhouse design, suitable for high latitude regions was developed. The results showed that an internal solar collector could be incorporated as an integral part of the greenhouse design. The concept developed could be used as a free-standing greenhouse or in a combination with livestock building. The efficiency of the solar input was investigated for the conventional and the shed greenhouses, both as a free-standing unit and a greenhouse-animal shelter system, using computer simulation analyses. The results indicated that the efficiency of solar input is highly dependent on location; the effect of location on the shed type design is more profound. A typical case of a greenhouse-hog barn production system was investigated using computer simulation analyses. The results showed that such a food production system achieves a significant reduction in conventional fuel consumption due to both animal waste heat recovery and solar energy utilization.

  2. How can research on anthropogenic greenhouse gas flux quantification be better aligned with US climate change policy needs?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurney, K. R.

    2014-12-01

    Scientific research on quantification of anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions at national and sub-national scales within the US has advanced considerably in the last decade. Large investment has been made in building systems capable of observing greenhouse gases in the atmosphere at multiple scales, measuring direct anthropogenic fluxes near sources and modeling the linkages between fluxes and observed concentrations. Much of this research has been focused at improving the "verification" component of "monitoring, reporting, and verification" and indeed, has achieved successes in recent years. However, there are opportunities for ongoing scientific research to contribute critical new information to policymakers. In order to realize this contribution, additional but complementary, research foci must be emphasized. Examples include more focus on anthropogenic emission drivers, quantification at scales relevant to human decision-making, and exploration of cost versus uncertainty in observing/modeling systems. I will review what I think are the opportunities to better align scientific research with current and emerging US climate change policymaking. I will then explore a few examples of where expansion or alteration of greenhouse gas flux quantification research focus could better align with current and emerging US climate change policymaking such as embodied in the proposed EPA rule aimed at reducing emissions from US power plants, California's ongoing emissions reduction policymaking and aspirational emission reduction efforts in multiple US cities.

  3. Selected Mechanized Scientific and Technical Information Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ackerman, Lynn, Ed.; And Others

    The publication describes the following thirteen computer-based, operational systems designed primarily for the announcement, storage, retrieval and secondary distribution of scientific and technical reports: Defense Documentation Center; Highway Research Board; National Aeronautics and Space Administration; National Library of Medicine; U.S.…

  4. Towards a comprehensive greenhouse gas emissions inventory for biosolids.

    PubMed

    Alvarez-Gaitan, J P; Short, Michael D; Lundie, Sven; Stuetz, Richard

    2016-06-01

    Effective handling and treatment of the solids fraction from advanced wastewater treatment operations carries a substantial burden for water utilities relative to the total economic and environmental impacts from modern day wastewater treatment. While good process-level data for a range of wastewater treatment operations are becoming more readily available, there remains a dearth of high quality operational data for solids line processes in particular. This study seeks to address this data gap by presenting a suite of high quality, process-level life cycle inventory data covering a range of solids line wastewater treatment processes, extending from primary treatment through to biosolids reuse in agriculture. Within the study, the impacts of secondary treatment technology and key parameters such as sludge retention time, activated sludge age and primary-to-waste activated sludge ratio (PS:WAS) on the life cycle inventory data of solids processing trains for five model wastewater treatment plant configurations are presented. BioWin(®) models are calibrated with real operational plant data and estimated electricity consumption values were reconciled against overall plant energy consumption. The concept of "representative crop" is also introduced in order to reduce the uncertainty associated with nitrous oxide emissions and soil carbon sequestration offsets under biosolids land application scenarios. Results indicate that both the treatment plant biogas electricity offset and the soil carbon sequestration offset from land-applied biosolids, represent the main greenhouse gas mitigation opportunities. In contrast, fertiliser offsets are of relatively minor importance in terms of the overall life cycle emissions impacts. Results also show that fugitive methane emissions at the plant, as well as nitrous oxide emissions both at the plant and following agricultural application of biosolids, are significant contributors to the overall greenhouse gas balance and combined are

  5. Towards a comprehensive greenhouse gas emissions inventory for biosolids.

    PubMed

    Alvarez-Gaitan, J P; Short, Michael D; Lundie, Sven; Stuetz, Richard

    2016-06-01

    Effective handling and treatment of the solids fraction from advanced wastewater treatment operations carries a substantial burden for water utilities relative to the total economic and environmental impacts from modern day wastewater treatment. While good process-level data for a range of wastewater treatment operations are becoming more readily available, there remains a dearth of high quality operational data for solids line processes in particular. This study seeks to address this data gap by presenting a suite of high quality, process-level life cycle inventory data covering a range of solids line wastewater treatment processes, extending from primary treatment through to biosolids reuse in agriculture. Within the study, the impacts of secondary treatment technology and key parameters such as sludge retention time, activated sludge age and primary-to-waste activated sludge ratio (PS:WAS) on the life cycle inventory data of solids processing trains for five model wastewater treatment plant configurations are presented. BioWin(®) models are calibrated with real operational plant data and estimated electricity consumption values were reconciled against overall plant energy consumption. The concept of "representative crop" is also introduced in order to reduce the uncertainty associated with nitrous oxide emissions and soil carbon sequestration offsets under biosolids land application scenarios. Results indicate that both the treatment plant biogas electricity offset and the soil carbon sequestration offset from land-applied biosolids, represent the main greenhouse gas mitigation opportunities. In contrast, fertiliser offsets are of relatively minor importance in terms of the overall life cycle emissions impacts. Results also show that fugitive methane emissions at the plant, as well as nitrous oxide emissions both at the plant and following agricultural application of biosolids, are significant contributors to the overall greenhouse gas balance and combined are

  6. PLAGIARISM IN SCIENTIFIC PUBLISHING

    PubMed Central

    Masic, Izet

    2012-01-01

    Scientific publishing is the ultimate product of scientist work. Number of publications and their quoting are measures of scientist success while unpublished researches are invisible to the scientific community, and as such nonexistent. Researchers in their work rely on their predecessors, while the extent of use of one scientist work, as a source for the work of other authors is the verification of its contributions to the growth of human knowledge. If the author has published an article in a scientific journal it cannot publish the article in any other journal h with a few minor adjustments or without quoting parts of the first article, which are used in another article. Copyright infringement occurs when the author of a new article with or without the mentioning the author used substantial portions of previously published articles, including tables and figures. Scientific institutions and universities should,in accordance with the principles of Good Scientific Practice (GSP) and Good Laboratory Practices (GLP) have a center for monitoring,security, promotion and development of quality research. Establish rules and compliance to rules of good scientific practice are the obligations of each research institutions,universities and every individual-researchers,regardless of which area of science is investigated. In this way, internal quality control ensures that a research institution such as a university, assume responsibility for creating an environment that promotes standards of excellence, intellectual honesty and legality. Although the truth should be the aim of scientific research, it is not guiding fact for all scientists. The best way to reach the truth in its study and to avoid the methodological and ethical mistakes is to consistently apply scientific methods and ethical standards in research. Although variously defined plagiarism is basically intended to deceive the reader’s own scientific contribution. There is no general regulation of control of

  7. The future scientific CCD

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Janesick, J. R.; Elliott, T.; Collins, S.; Marsh, H.; Blouke, M. M.

    1984-01-01

    Since the first introduction of charge-coupled devices (CCDs) in 1970, CCDs have been considered for applications related to memories, logic circuits, and the detection of visible radiation. It is pointed out, however, that the mass market orientation of CCD development has left largely untapped the enormous potential of these devices for advanced scientific instrumentation. The present paper has, therefore, the objective to introduce the CCD characteristics to the scientific community, taking into account prospects for further improvement. Attention is given to evaluation criteria, a summary of current CCDs, CCD performance characteristics, absolute calibration tools, quantum efficiency, aspects of charge collection, charge transfer efficiency, read noise, and predictions regarding the characteristics of the next generation of silicon scientific CCD imagers.

  8. Scientific ballooning in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makino, Fumiyoshi

    Activities in scientific ballooning in Japan during 1998-1999 are reported. The total number of scientific balloons flown in Japan in 1998 and 1999 was sixteen, eight flights in each year. The scientific objectives were observations of high energy cosmic electrons, air samplings at various altitudes, monitoring of atmospheric ozone density, Galactic infrared observations, and test flights of new type balloons. Balloon expeditions were conducted in Antarctica by the National Institute of Polar Research, in Russia, in Canada and in India in collaboration with foreign countries' institutes to investigate cosmic rays, Galactic infrared radiation, and Earth's atmosphere. There were three flights in Antarctica, four flights in Russia, three flights in Canada and two flights in India. Four test balloons were flown for balloon technology, which included pumpkin-type super-pressure balloon and a balloon made with ultra-thin polyethylene film of 3.4 μm thickness.

  9. Etiquette in scientific publishing.

    PubMed

    Krishnan, Vinod

    2013-10-01

    Publishing a scientific article in a journal with a high impact factor and a good reputation is considered prestigious among one's peer group and an essential achievement for career progression. In the drive to get their work published, researchers can forget, either intentionally or unintentionally, the ethics that should be followed in scientific publishing. In an environment where "publish or perish" rules the day, some authors might be tempted to bend or break rules. This special article is intended to raise awareness among orthodontic journal editors, authors, and readers about the types of scientific misconduct in the current publishing scenario and to provide insight into the ways these misconducts are managed by the Committee of Publishing Ethics. Case studies are presented, and various plagiarism detection software programs used by publishing companies are briefly described.

  10. Plagiarism in scientific publishing.

    PubMed

    Masic, Izet

    2012-12-01

    Scientific publishing is the ultimate product of scientist work. Number of publications and their quoting are measures of scientist success while unpublished researches are invisible to the scientific community, and as such nonexistent. Researchers in their work rely on their predecessors, while the extent of use of one scientist work, as a source for the work of other authors is the verification of its contributions to the growth of human knowledge. If the author has published an article in a scientific journal it cannot publish the article in any other journal h with a few minor adjustments or without quoting parts of the first article, which are used in another article. Copyright infringement occurs when the author of a new article with or without the mentioning the author used substantial portions of previously published articles, including tables and figures. Scientific institutions and universities should,in accordance with the principles of Good Scientific Practice (GSP) and Good Laboratory Practices (GLP) have a center for monitoring,security, promotion and development of quality research. Establish rules and compliance to rules of good scientific practice are the obligations of each research institutions,universities and every individual-researchers,regardless of which area of science is investigated. In this way, internal quality control ensures that a research institution such as a university, assume responsibility for creating an environment that promotes standards of excellence, intellectual honesty and legality. Although the truth should be the aim of scientific research, it is not guiding fact for all scientists. The best way to reach the truth in its study and to avoid the methodological and ethical mistakes is to consistently apply scientific methods and ethical standards in research. Although variously defined plagiarism is basically intended to deceive the reader's own scientific contribution. There is no general regulation of control of

  11. Making better scientific figures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hawkins, Ed; McNeall, Doug

    2016-04-01

    In the words of the UK government chief scientific adviser "Science is not finished until it's communicated" (Walport 2013). The tools to produce good visual communication have never been so easily accessible to scientists as at the present. Correspondingly, it has never been easier to produce and disseminate poor graphics. In this presentation, we highlight some good practice and offer some practical advice in preparing scientific figures for presentation to peers or to the public. We identify common mistakes in visualisation, including some made by the authors, and offer some good reasons not to trust defaults in graphics software. In particular, we discuss the use of colour scales and share our experiences in running a social media campaign (http://tiny.cc/endrainbow) to replace the "rainbow" (also "jet", or "spectral") colour scale as the default in (climate) scientific visualisation.

  12. Long-term greenhouse gas measurements from aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karion, A.; Sweeney, C.; Wolter, S.; Newberger, T.; Chen, H.; Andrews, A.; Kofler, J.; Neff, D.; Tans, P.

    2013-03-01

    In March 2009 the NOAA/ESRL/GMD Carbon Cycle and Greenhouse Gases Group collaborated with the US Coast Guard (USCG) to establish the Alaska Coast Guard (ACG) sampling site, a unique addition to NOAA's atmospheric monitoring network. This collaboration takes advantage of USCG bi-weekly Arctic Domain Awareness (ADA) flights, conducted with Hercules C-130 aircraft from March to November each year. Flights typically last 8 h and cover a large area, traveling from Kodiak up to Barrow, Alaska, with altitude profiles near the coast and in the interior. NOAA instrumentation on each flight includes a flask sampling system, a continuous cavity ring-down spectroscopy (CRDS) carbon dioxide (CO2)/methane (CH4)/carbon monoxide (CO)/water vapor (H2O) analyzer, a continuous ozone analyzer, and an ambient temperature and humidity sensor. Air samples collected in flight are analyzed at NOAA/ESRL for the major greenhouse gases and a variety of halocarbons and hydrocarbons that influence climate, stratospheric ozone, and air quality. We describe the overall system for making accurate greenhouse gas measurements using a CRDS analyzer on an aircraft with minimal operator interaction and present an assessment of analyzer performance over a three-year period. Overall analytical uncertainty of CRDS measurements in 2011 is estimated to be 0.15 ppm, 1.4 ppb, and 5 ppb for CO2, CH4, and CO, respectively, considering short-term precision, calibration uncertainties, and water vapor correction uncertainty. The stability of the CRDS analyzer over a seven-month deployment period is better than 0.15 ppm, 2 ppb, and 4 ppb for CO2, CH4, and CO, respectively, based on differences of on-board reference tank measurements from a laboratory calibration performed prior to deployment. This stability is not affected by variation in pressure or temperature during flight. We conclude that the uncertainty reported for our measurements would not be significantly affected if the measurements were made without in

  13. [Prototype of space vitamin greenhouse "Phytoconveyor"].

    PubMed

    Berkovich, Iu A; Erokhin, A N; Krivobok, N M; Smolianina, S O; Baranov, A V; Shanturin, N A; Droniaev, V P; Radostin, A V; Trofimov, Iu V; Sivenkov, V K

    2007-01-01

    Installation of a greens production system on the International space station will mean a leap toward biological regeneration of food in long-duration space mission. Today, priority is given to green cultures as supplements of space rations and a psychological support to crews in exploration missions to Mars, and also as least resource-intensive. Cylindrical salad greenhouse "Phytoconveyor" designed at the Institute for Biomedical Problems is highly productive, energy-efficient, and requires minimum of crew time for. Dimensions of the greenhouse are 540 x 590 x 400 mm, power demand is 0.25 kW, and the Plant chamber volume is about 0.09 m3. 'Phytoconveyor" has a planting unit with six cylindrical root modules. The total illuminated crop area is about 0.4 m2. The lighting unit consists of red (660 nm) and blue (470 nm) light-emitting diodes on the inner surface of a spiral cylinder coaxial with the roots module unit that generate the photon flux density 350 micromol x M(-2) x s(-1) at a distance of 4 cm. Each root module has a porous tube wrapped up in a fiber substrate with ion-exchange resins and is covered with a lightproof plastic with seed slits. The "Phytoconveyor" design includes a programmable reverse watering system. Given the 24-hr light period, the laboratory model of "Phytoconveyor" can produce up to 300 gram of fresh greens every 4-5 days. The greenhouse was designed with due account of resource limitations on the ISS Russian orbital segment.

  14. [Prototype of space vitamin greenhouse "Phytoconveyor"].

    PubMed

    Berkovich, Iu A; Erokhin, A N; Krivobok, N M; Smolianina, S O; Baranov, A V; Shanturin, N A; Droniaev, V P; Radostin, A V; Trofimov, Iu V; Sivenkov, V K

    2007-01-01

    Installation of a greens production system on the International space station will mean a leap toward biological regeneration of food in long-duration space mission. Today, priority is given to green cultures as supplements of space rations and a psychological support to crews in exploration missions to Mars, and also as least resource-intensive. Cylindrical salad greenhouse "Phytoconveyor" designed at the Institute for Biomedical Problems is highly productive, energy-efficient, and requires minimum of crew time for. Dimensions of the greenhouse are 540 x 590 x 400 mm, power demand is 0.25 kW, and the Plant chamber volume is about 0.09 m3. 'Phytoconveyor" has a planting unit with six cylindrical root modules. The total illuminated crop area is about 0.4 m2. The lighting unit consists of red (660 nm) and blue (470 nm) light-emitting diodes on the inner surface of a spiral cylinder coaxial with the roots module unit that generate the photon flux density 350 micromol x M(-2) x s(-1) at a distance of 4 cm. Each root module has a porous tube wrapped up in a fiber substrate with ion-exchange resins and is covered with a lightproof plastic with seed slits. The "Phytoconveyor" design includes a programmable reverse watering system. Given the 24-hr light period, the laboratory model of "Phytoconveyor" can produce up to 300 gram of fresh greens every 4-5 days. The greenhouse was designed with due account of resource limitations on the ISS Russian orbital segment. PMID:18672522

  15. Recording Scientific Knowledge

    SciTech Connect

    Bowker, Geof

    2006-01-09

    The way we record knowledge, and the web of technical, formal, and social practices that surrounds it, inevitably affects the knowledge that we record. The ways we hold knowledge about the past - in handwritten manuscripts, in printed books, in file folders, in databases - shape the kind of stories we tell about that past. In this talk, I look at how over the past two hundred years, information technology has affected the nature and production of scientific knowledge. Further, I explore ways in which the emergent new cyberinfrastructure is changing our relationship to scientific practice.

  16. Awe and scientific explanation.

    PubMed

    Valdesolo, Piercarlo; Park, Jun; Gottlieb, Sara

    2016-10-01

    Past research has established a relationship between awe and explanatory frameworks, such as religion. We extend this work, showing (a) the effects of awe on a separate source of explanation: attitudes toward science, and (b) how the effects of awe on attitudes toward scientific explanations depend on individual differences in theism. Across 3 studies, we find consistent support that awe decreases the perceived explanatory power of science for the theistic (Study 1 and 2) and mixed support that awe affects attitudes toward scientific explanations for the nontheistic (Study 3). (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27685153

  17. USGS Scientific Visualization Laboratory

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1995-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) Scientific Visualization Laboratory at the National Center in Reston, Va., provides a central facility where USGS employees can use state-of-the-art equipment for projects ranging from presentation graphics preparation to complex visual representations of scientific data. Equipment including color printers, black-and-white and color scanners, film recorders, video equipment, and DOS, Apple Macintosh, and UNIX platforms with software are available for both technical and nontechnical users. The laboratory staff provides assistance and demonstrations in the use of the hardware and software products.

  18. The first "space" vegetables have been grown in the "SVET" greenhouse using controlled environmental conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanova, T. N.; Bercovich, Yu. A.; Mashinskiy, A. L.; Meleshko, G. I.

    The paper describes the "SVET" project—a new generation of space greenhouse with small dimensions. Through the use of a minicomputer, "SVET" is fully capable of automatically operating and controlling environmental systems for higher plant growth. A number of preliminary studies have shown the radish and cabbage to be potentially important crops for CELSS (Closed Environmental Life Support System). The "SVET" space greenhouse was mounted on the "CRYSTAL" technological module docked to the Mir orbital space station on 10 June 1990. Soviet cosmonauts Balandin and Solovyov started the first experiments with the greenhouse on 15 June 1990. Preliminary results of seed cultivation over an initial 54-day period in "SVET" are presented. Morphometrical characteristics of plants brought back to Earth are given. Alteration in plant characteristics, such as growth and developmental changes, or morphological contents were noted. A crop of radish plants was harvested under microgravity conditions. Characteristics of plant environmental control parameters and an estimation of functional properties of control and regulation systems of the "SVET" greenhouse in space flight as received via telemetry data is reported.

  19. Computer Controlled Portable Greenhouse Climate Control System for Enhanced Energy Efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Datsenko, Anthony; Myer, Steve; Petties, Albert; Hustek, Ryan; Thompson, Mark

    2010-04-01

    This paper discusses a student project at Kettering University focusing on the design and construction of an energy efficient greenhouse climate control system. In order to maintain acceptable temperatures and stabilize temperature fluctuations in a portable plastic greenhouse economically, a computer controlled climate control system was developed to capture and store thermal energy incident on the structure during daylight periods and release the stored thermal energy during dark periods. The thermal storage mass for the greenhouse system consisted of a water filled base unit. The heat exchanger consisted of a system of PVC tubing. The control system used a programmable LabView computer interface to meet functional specifications that minimized temperature fluctuations and recorded data during operation. The greenhouse was a portable sized unit with a 5' x 5' footprint. Control input sensors were temperature, water level, and humidity sensors and output control devices were fan actuating relays and water fill solenoid valves. A Graphical User Interface was developed to monitor the system, set control parameters, and to provide programmable data recording times and intervals.

  20. Energy production, nutrient recovery and greenhouse gas emission potentials from integrated pig manure management systems.

    PubMed

    Prapaspongsa, T; Poulsen, T G; Hansen, J A; Christensen, P

    2010-05-01

    Improper management of pig manure has resulted in environmental problems such as surface water eutrophication, ground water pollution, and greenhouse gas emissions. This study develops and compares 14 alternative manure management scenarios aiming at energy and nutrient extraction. The scenarios based on combinations of thermal pretreatment, anaerobic digestion, anaerobic co-digestion, liquid/solid separation, drying, incineration, and thermal gasification were compared with respect to their energy, nutrient and greenhouse gas balances. Both sole pig manure and pig manure mixed with other types of waste materials were considered. Data for the analyses were obtained from existing waste treatment facilities, experimental plants, laboratory measurements and literature. The assessment reveals that incineration combined with liquid/solid separation and drying of the solids is a promising management option yielding a high potential energy utilization rate and greenhouse gas savings. If maximum electricity production is desired, anaerobic digestion is advantageous as the biogas can be converted to electricity at high efficiency in a gas engine while allowing production of heat for operation of the digestion process. In conclusion, this study shows that the choice of technology has a strong influence on energy, nutrient and greenhouse gas balances. Thus, to get the most reliable results, it is important to consider the most representative (and up-to-date) technology combined with data representing the area or region in question.

  1. On greenhouse gas signal detection strategies

    SciTech Connect

    Schlesinger, M.E.; Barnett, T.P.

    1989-02-24

    The indisputable detection of a greenhouse gas signal in the global climate system will be a true decision point for mankind. Yet, at this stage of knowledge, the details of an appropriate detection strategy are only beginning to be developed. Two key elements in the eventual strategy are the subject of this report: (1) what variables should be monitored in a detection program, and (2) the comparison of the equilibrium versus transient climate system response. Subsequent sections consider these items in turn while a final section summarizes the main conclusion of the study. 10 refs., 14 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. Managing biogeochemical cycles to reduce greenhouse gases

    SciTech Connect

    Post, Wilfred M; Venterea, Rodney

    2012-01-01

    This special issue focuses on terrestrial biogeochemical cycles as they relate to North America-wide budgeting and future projection of biogenic greenhouse gases (GHGs). Understanding the current magnitude and providing guidance on the future trajectories of atmospheric concentrations of these gases requires investigation of their (i) biogeochemical origins, (ii) response to climate feedbacks and other environmental factors, and (iii) susceptibility to management practices. This special issue provides a group of articles that present the current state of continental scale sources and sinks of biogenic GHGs and the potential to better manage them in the future.

  3. Environmental impacts of food trade via resource use and greenhouse gas emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalin, Carole; Rodríguez-Iturbe, Ignacio

    2016-03-01

    Agriculture will need to significantly intensify in the next decades to continue providing essential nutritive food to a growing global population. However, it can have harmful environmental impacts, due to the use of natural and synthetic resources and the emission of greenhouse gases, which alter the water, carbon and nitrogen cycles, and threaten the fertility, health and biodiversity of landscapes. Because of the spatial heterogeneity of resource productivity, farming practices, climate, and land and water availability, the environmental impact of producing food is highly dependent on its origin. For this reason, food trade can either increase or reduce the overall environmental impacts of agriculture, depending on whether or not the impact is greater in the exporting region. Here, we review current scientific understanding of the environmental impacts of food trade, focusing on water and land use, pollution and greenhouse gas emissions. In the case of water, these impacts are mainly beneficial. However, in the cases of pollution and greenhouse gas emissions, this conclusion is not as clear. Overall, there is an urgent need for a more comprehensive, integrated approach to estimate the global impacts of food trade on the environment. Second, research is needed to improve the evaluation of some key aspects of the relative value of each resource depending on the local and regional biophysical and socio-economic context. Finally, to enhance the impact of such evaluations and their applicability in decision-making, scenario analyses and accounting of key issues like deforestation and groundwater exhaustion will be required.

  4. [Cytoembryologic studies of super dwarf wheat grown in "Svet" greenhouse in the ground-based experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levinskikh, M. A.; Veselova, T. D.; Il'ina, G. M.; Dzhalilova, Kh Kh; Sychev, V. N.; Derendiaeva, T. A.; Salisbury, F.; Cambell, W.; Bubenheim, D.; Campbell, W. (Principal Investigator)

    1998-01-01

    The Project of scientific programs MIR/SHUTTLE and MIR/NASA was allowed for studying the productional, cytoembryological, morphological, biomechanical and other characteristics of superclub wheat on cultivation in the Svet greenhouse on-board orbital complex. This work was aimed at studying the duration of the complete cycle of ontogenesis of wheat and its individual stages, the peculiarities of forming the reproductive organs, processes, fertilization and formation of the seed production while cultivating in the Svet greenhouse under terrestrial conditions. Superclub wheat has been the object of experimentation. On cultivation of superclub wheat in the Svet greenhouse at designated conditions it was found that the cycle duration "from seed to seed" was 90-97 days. The number of granules in the wheat-ears studied was quite low and ranged from 15 to 30%. Performed studies with applying the light microscopy have indicated that in superclub wheat the embryological processes occur in compliance with those regularities which are described for the other forms of soft wheat.

  5. Falsification of the Atmospheric CO2 Greenhouse Effects Within the Frame of Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerlich, Gerhard; Tscheuschner, Ralf D.

    The atmospheric greenhouse effect, an idea that many authors trace back to the traditional works of Fourier (1824), Tyndall (1861), and Arrhenius (1896), and which is still supported in global climatology, essentially describes a fictitious mechanism, in which a planetary atmosphere acts as a heat pump driven by an environment that is radiatively interacting with but radiatively equilibrated to the atmospheric system. According to the second law of thermodynamics, such a planetary machine can never exist. Nevertheless, in almost all texts of global climatology and in a widespread secondary literature, it is taken for granted that such a mechanism is real and stands on a firm scientific foundation. In this paper, the popular conjecture is analyzed and the underlying physical principles are clarified. By showing that (a) there are no common physical laws between the warming phenomenon in glass houses and the fictitious atmospheric greenhouse effects, (b) there are no calculations to determine an average surface temperature of a planet, (c) the frequently mentioned difference of 33° is a meaningless number calculated wrongly, (d) the formulas of cavity radiation are used inappropriately, (e) the assumption of a radiative balance is unphysical, (f) thermal conductivity and friction must not be set to zero, the atmospheric greenhouse conjecture is falsified.

  6. International Ultraviolet Explorer Observatory operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    This volume contains the final report for the International Ultraviolet Explorer IUE Observatory Operations contract. The fundamental operational objective of the International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE) program is to translate competitively selected observing programs into IUE observations, to reduce these observations into meaningful scientific data, and then to present these data to the Guest Observer in a form amenable to the pursuit of scientific research. The IUE Observatory is the key to this objective since it is the central control and support facility for all science operations functions within the IUE Project. In carrying out the operation of this facility, a number of complex functions were provided beginning with telescope scheduling and operation, proceeding to data processing, and ending with data distribution and scientific data analysis. In support of these critical-path functions, a number of other significant activities were also provided, including scientific instrument calibration, systems analysis, and software support. Routine activities have been summarized briefly whenever possible.

  7. Professional Scientific Societies, 1968.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frye, Robert E.; And Others

    Reported are the findings of a study of scientific societies in the United States. Some 449 professional organizations were considered of which 284 conformed to the validation criteria for inclusion. Data gathering was most successful on membership, current dues, society history, and purpose and less successful on topics related to society income…

  8. Professional Scientific Blog

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beke, Tamás

    2009-01-01

    The professional blog is a weblog that on the whole meets the requirements of scientific publication. In my opinion it bears a resemblance to digital notice boards, where the competent specialists of the given branch of science can place their ideas, questions, possible solutions and can raise problems. Its most important function can be…

  9. Nursing's Scientific Quest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Jean

    1981-01-01

    Examines nursing's changing research practices. Discusses changes in the philosophy of science, dichotomies within nursing, and nursing's changing research tradition. Concludes that a new research tradition can provide nursing with the scientific and social freedom and openness to solve both conceptual and empirical problems. (CT)

  10. Computers in Scientific Instrumentation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Enke, C. G.

    1982-01-01

    Computer applications in scientific instrumentation are traced from early data processing to modern computer-based instruments. Probable pathways toward instruments with increased "intelligence" include, among others, implementation of hierarchical computer networks and microprocessor controllers and the simplification of programing. The…

  11. Program Supports Scientific Visualization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keith, Stephan

    1994-01-01

    Primary purpose of General Visualization System (GVS) computer program is to support scientific visualization of data generated by panel-method computer program PMARC_12 (inventory number ARC-13362) on Silicon Graphics Iris workstation. Enables user to view PMARC geometries and wakes as wire frames or as light shaded objects. GVS is written in C language.

  12. Projecting the Scientific Method.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uthe, R. E.

    2000-01-01

    Describes how the gas laws are an excellent vehicle for introducing the steps of the scientific method. Students can use balloons and a simple apparatus to observe changes in various gas parameters, develop ideas about the changes they see, collect numerical data, test their ideas, derive simple equations for the relationships, and use the…

  13. Is risk analysis scientific?

    PubMed

    Hansson, Sven Ove; Aven, Terje

    2014-07-01

    This article discusses to what extent risk analysis is scientific in view of a set of commonly used definitions and criteria. We consider scientific knowledge to be characterized by its subject matter, its success in developing the best available knowledge in its fields of study, and the epistemic norms and values that guide scientific investigations. We proceed to assess the field of risk analysis according to these criteria. For this purpose, we use a model for risk analysis in which science is used as a base for decision making on risks, which covers the five elements evidence, knowledge base, broad risk evaluation, managerial review and judgment, and the decision; and that relates these elements to the domains experts and decisionmakers, and to the domains fact-based or value-based. We conclude that risk analysis is a scientific field of study, when understood as consisting primarily of (i) knowledge about risk-related phenomena, processes, events, etc., and (ii) concepts, theories, frameworks, approaches, principles, methods and models to understand, assess, characterize, communicate, and manage risk, in general and for specific applications (the instrumental part).

  14. Scientific Component Technology Initiative

    SciTech Connect

    Kohn, S; Bosl, B; Dahlgren, T; Kumfert, G; Smith, S

    2003-02-07

    The laboratory has invested a significant amount of resources towards the development of high-performance scientific simulation software, including numerical libraries, visualization, steering, software frameworks, and physics packages. Unfortunately, because this software was not designed for interoperability and re-use, it is often difficult to share these sophisticated software packages among applications due to differences in implementation language, programming style, or calling interfaces. This LDRD Strategic Initiative investigated and developed software component technology for high-performance parallel scientific computing to address problems of complexity, re-use, and interoperability for laboratory software. Component technology is an extension of scripting and object-oriented software development techniques that specifically focuses on the needs of software interoperability. Component approaches based on CORBA, COM, and Java technologies are widely used in industry; however, they do not support massively parallel applications in science and engineering. Our research focused on the unique requirements of scientific computing on ASCI-class machines, such as fast in-process connections among components, language interoperability for scientific languages, and data distribution support for massively parallel SPMD components.

  15. Serendipity and Scientific Discovery.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenman, Martin F.

    1988-01-01

    The discovery of penicillin is cited in a discussion of the role of serendipity as it relates to scientific discovery. The importance of sagacity as a personality trait is noted. Successful researchers have questioning minds, are willing to view data from several perspectives, and recognize and appreciate the unexpected. (JW)

  16. Scientific and Artistic Authority

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eriksson, S. C.

    2012-12-01

    The differences and similarities between science and art are commonly discussed in various disciplines, e.g. collective versus individual, truth versus imagination, fact versus fiction, and more. Both art and science involve communication. Both artists and scientists have responsibilities of integrity in the arena of intellectual property. However, an artist has a primary responsibility to his/her personal artistic vision and craft. A scientist has a very clearly defined responsibility to scientific method as a collective practice, i.e. generally accepted scientific knowledge, norms of data collection and analysis as well as norms of communication. In presenting a work of art to an audience, it is accepted that different people will interpret the art through different lens. In science communication, we hope that the audience's understanding is in line with scientific interpretation. When science and art meet, how do we come to an understanding of what the intended message should be and how it should or must be received. Accuracy in fact is important in science, as is accuracy of the message whether it is a process, model, image or story. How do we mediate this tension in collaborative projects? How do we celebrate the artistic nature of an artwork based on science when there is tension between the artistic merit and the scientific content? Authority of the artist, scientist, and organization must be satisfied.

  17. Scientific Inquiry 'R' Us.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bourdeau, Virginia D.

    2002-01-01

    Describes the role that informal interpretative programs and facilities can play in providing inquiry-oriented science experiences. Presents two examples of scientific inquiry programs: investigating wetlands and investigating density. In both examples, participants formulate questions, collect data, and attempt to answer their own questions. (DLH)

  18. Scientific Imagination in Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stableford, Brian M.

    1978-01-01

    Discusses the conflict between the religious and scientific imaginations as existing between the intellectual realms of unquestioning faith and constant questioning. Relates this conflict to writers of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, e.g., Bacon, Kepler, Wilkins, Godwin, Harrington, Campanella, Cyrano, Le Bret, Defoe, Swift, Voltiare,…

  19. Assessing Scientific Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiner, John M.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    A method for assessing scientific performance based on relationships displayed numerically in published documents is proposed and illustrated using published documents in pediatric oncology for the period 1979-1982. Contributions of a major clinical investigations group, the Childrens Cancer Study Group, are analyzed. Twenty-nine references are…

  20. Mario Bunge's Scientific Realism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cordero, Alberto

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents and comments on Mario Bunge's scientific realism. After a brief introduction in Sects. 1 and 2 outlines Bunge's conception of realism. Focusing on the case of quantum mechanics, Sect. 3 explores how his approach plays out for problematic theories. Section 4 comments on Bunge's project against the background of the current…

  1. Scientific Discovery for All

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zaikowski, Lori; Lichtman, Paul; Quarless, Duncan

    2007-01-01

    The scientific discovery process comes alive for 70 minority students each year at Uniondale High School in New York where students have won top awards for "in-house" projects. Uniondale High School is in a middle-income school district where over 95% of students are from minority groups. Founded in 2000, the Uniondale High School Research Program…

  2. Scientific authorship and recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    ASIWEL; altenber

    2015-11-01

    In reply to Sahal Yacoob's article “Individual recognition” (Forum, October p15, http://ow.ly/T7QsQ), which described how he was penalized by his previous university in South Africa because his scientific papers had too many authors to qualify for a government subsidy.

  3. Ethics and Scientific Publication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benos, Dale J.; Fabres, Jorge; Farmer, John; Gutierrez, Jessica P.; Hennessy, Kristin; Kosek, David; Lee, Joo Hyoung; Olteanu, Dragos; Russell, Tara; Wang, Kai

    2005-01-01

    This article summarizes the major categories of ethical violations encountered during submission, review, and publication of scientific articles. We discuss data fabrication and falsification, plagiarism, redundant and duplicate publication, conflict of interest, authorship, animal and human welfare, and reviewer responsibility. In each section,…

  4. Mario Bunge's Scientific Realism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cordero, Alberto

    2012-10-01

    This paper presents and comments on Mario Bunge's scientific realism. After a brief introduction in Sects. 1 and 2 outlines Bunge's conception of realism. Focusing on the case of quantum mechanics, Sect. 3 explores how his approach plays out for problematic theories. Section 4 comments on Bunge's project against the background of the current debate on realism in contemporary analytic philosophy.

  5. Scientific Workflows in Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaaff, A.; Verdes-Montenegro, L.; Ruiz, J. E.; Santander-Vela, J.

    2012-09-01

    We will soon be facing a new generation of facilities and archives dealing with huge amounts of data (ALMA, LSST, Pan-Starrs, LOFAR, SKA pathfinders,…) where scientific workflows will play an important role in the working methodology of astronomers. While the traditional pipelines tend to produce exploitable products, scientific workflows are aimed at producing scientific insight. Virtual Observatory standards provide the tools to design reproducible scientific workflows. A detailed analysis about the state of the art of workflows involves languages, design tools, execution engines, use cases, etc. A major topic is also the preservation of the workflows and the capability to replay a workflow several years after its design and implementation. Discussions on these topics are being held recently in IVOA forums and are part of the work that is being done in the Wf4Ever project. The purpose of the BoF was to present to the community the work in progress at the IVOA, collect ideas and identify needs not yet addressed.

  6. Scientific and Technical English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaclavik, Jaroslav

    Technical English differs from everyday English because of the specialized contexts in which it is used and because of the specialized interests of scientists and engineers. This text provides exercises in technical and scientific exposition in the following fields: mathematics, physics, temperature effects, mechanics, dynamics, conservation of…

  7. Energy, greenhouse gas, and cost reductions for municipal recycling systems.

    PubMed

    Chester, Mikhail; Martin, Elliot; Sathaye, Nakul

    2008-03-15

    Curbside recycling programs can be more cost-effective than landfilling and lead to environmental benefits from the recovery of materials. Significant reductions in energy and emissions are derived from the decrease of energy-intensive production with virgin materials. In many cities, competing priorities can lead to limited consideration given to system optimal collection and processing strategies that can drive down costs and increase revenue while simultaneously reducing system energy consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. We evaluate three alterations to a hypothetical California city's recycling network to discern the conditions under which the changes.constitute system improvements to cost, energy, and emissions. The system initially operates with a collection zoning scheme that does not mitigate the impact of seasonal variations in consumer tonnage. In addition, two collection organizations operate redundantly, collecting recyclables from different customer types on the same street network. Finally, the system is dual stream, meaning recyclables are separated at the curbside. In some scenarios, this practice can limit the consumer participation rate leading to lower collection quantities. First, we evaluate a "business as usual" (BAU) scenario and find that the system operates at a $1.7 M/yr loss but still avoids a net 18.7 GJ and 1700 kg of greenhouse gas equivalent (GGE) per ton of material recycled. Second, we apply an alternative zoning scheme for collection that creates a uniform daily pickup demand throughout the year reducing costs by $0.2 M/yr, energy by 30 MJ/ton, and GHG emissions by 2 kg GGE/ton. Next, the two collection organizations are consolidated into a single entity further reducing vehicle fleet size and weekly vehicle miles traveled resulting in savings from BAU of $0.3 M/yr, 100 MJ/ton, and 8 kg GGE/ton. Lastly, we evaluate a switch to a single-stream system (where recyclables are commingled). We showthat single-stream recycling

  8. Turning Scientific Presentations into Stories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aruffo, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    To increase students' confidence in giving scientific presentations, students were shown how to present scientific findings as a narrative story. Students who were preparing to give a scientific talk attended a workshop in which they were encouraged to experience the similarities between telling a personal anecdote and presenting scientific data.…

  9. The greenhouse effect in a gray planetary atmosphere.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wildt, R.

    1966-01-01

    Hopf analytical solution for values of ratio of gray absorption coefficients for insolating and escaping radiation /greenhouse parameter/ assumed constant at all depths, presenting temperature distribution graphs

  10. On strategies for reducing greenhouse gas emissions

    PubMed Central

    Bolin, Bert; Kheshgi, Haroon S.

    2001-01-01

    Equity is of fundamental concern in the quest for international cooperation to stabilize greenhouse gas concentrations by the reduction of emissions. By modeling the carbon cycle, we estimate the global CO2 emissions that would be required to stabilize the atmospheric concentration of CO2 at levels ranging from 450 to 1,000 ppm. These are compared, on both an absolute and a per-capita basis, to scenarios for emissions from the developed and developing worlds generated by socio-economic models under the assumption that actions to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions are not taken. Need and equity have provided strong arguments for developing countries to request that the developed world takes the lead in controlling its emissions, while permitting the developing countries in the meantime to use primarily fossil fuels for their development. Even with major and early control of CO2 emissions by the developed world, limiting concentration to 450 ppm implies that the developing world also would need to control its emissions within decades, given that we expect developing world emissions would otherwise double over this time. Scenarios leading to CO2 concentrations of 550 ppm exhibit a reduction of the developed world's per-capita emission by about 50% over the next 50 years. Even for the higher stabilization levels considered, the developing world would not be able to use fossil fuels for their development in the manner that the developed world has used them. PMID:11296250

  11. On strategies for reducing greenhouse gas emissions.

    PubMed

    Bolin, B; Kheshgi, H S

    2001-04-24

    Equity is of fundamental concern in the quest for international cooperation to stabilize greenhouse gas concentrations by the reduction of emissions. By modeling the carbon cycle, we estimate the global CO(2) emissions that would be required to stabilize the atmospheric concentration of CO(2) at levels ranging from 450 to 1,000 ppm. These are compared, on both an absolute and a per-capita basis, to scenarios for emissions from the developed and developing worlds generated by socio-economic models under the assumption that actions to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions are not taken. Need and equity have provided strong arguments for developing countries to request that the developed world takes the lead in controlling its emissions, while permitting the developing countries in the meantime to use primarily fossil fuels for their development. Even with major and early control of CO(2) emissions by the developed world, limiting concentration to 450 ppm implies that the developing world also would need to control its emissions within decades, given that we expect developing world emissions would otherwise double over this time. Scenarios leading to CO(2) concentrations of 550 ppm exhibit a reduction of the developed world's per-capita emission by about 50% over the next 50 years. Even for the higher stabilization levels considered, the developing world would not be able to use fossil fuels for their development in the manner that the developed world has used them.

  12. HYDROGEN GREENHOUSE PLANETS BEYOND THE HABITABLE ZONE

    SciTech Connect

    Pierrehumbert, Raymond; Gaidos, Eric E-mail: gaidos@hawaii.edu

    2011-06-10

    We show that collision-induced absorption allows molecular hydrogen to act as an incondensible greenhouse gas and that bars or tens of bars of primordial H{sub 2}-He mixtures can maintain surface temperatures above the freezing point of water well beyond the 'classical' habitable zone defined for CO{sub 2} greenhouse atmospheres. Using a one-dimensional radiative-convective model, we find that 40 bars of pure H{sub 2} on a three Earth-mass planet can maintain a surface temperature of 280 K out to 1.5 AU from an early-type M dwarf star and 10 AU from a G-type star. Neglecting the effects of clouds and of gaseous absorbers besides H{sub 2}, the flux at the surface would be sufficient for photosynthesis by cyanobacteria (in the G star case) or anoxygenic phototrophs (in the M star case). We argue that primordial atmospheres of one to several hundred bars of H{sub 2}-He are possible and use a model of hydrogen escape to show that such atmospheres are likely to persist further than 1.5 AU from M stars, and 2 AU from G stars, assuming these planets have protecting magnetic fields. We predict that the microlensing planet OGLE-05-390Lb could have retained an H{sub 2}-He atmosphere and be habitable at {approx}2.6 AU from its host M star.

  13. Evolving Views on a Dynamic Greenhouse Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hollis, Chris; Huber, Matthew

    2009-06-01

    Climatic and Biotic Events of the Paleogene (CBEP 2009) Conference; Wellington, New Zealand, 12-15 January 2009; The Paleogene (65-24 million years ago) was a dynamic period in Earth's history in which major mammal groups became established and diversified, rapid and repeated extreme global warming events occurred, and climate began its stuttering progression from a greenhouse to an icehouse climate state. With atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations in the range projected to occur over the next several centuries (>1000 parts per million), the Paleogene is also a window into our future (see J. C. Zachos et al., Nature, 451, 279-283, 2008). Long-standing interest in understanding the causes and consequences of global change in the Paleogene and the current timeliness of greenhouse climate research explain why conferences are periodically devoted to the climatic and biotic events of the Paleogene. The 2009 conference, held in New Zealand, attracted 130 participants from 20 countries. Presentations demonstrated substantial progress in new climate proxy development, new multiproxy approaches, and closer integration of paleoclimate records with climate models, consolidating around three main issues.

  14. Mitigating greenhouse gas emissions: Voluntary reporting

    SciTech Connect

    1997-10-01

    The Voluntary Reporting Program, developed pursuant to Section 1605(b) of the Energy Policy Act of 1992, permits corporations, government agencies, households, and voluntary organizations to report on their emissions of greenhouse gases, and on actions taken that have reduced or avoided emissions or sequestered carbon, to the Energy Information Administration (EIA). This, the second annual report of the Voluntary Reporting Program, describes information provided by the participating organizations on their aggregate emissions and emissions reductions, as well as their emissions reduction or avoidance projects, through 1995. This information has been compiled into a database that includes reports from 142 organizations and descriptions of 967 projects that either reduced greenhouse gas emissions or sequestered carbon. Fifty-one reporters also provided estimates of emissions, and emissions reductions achieved, for their entire organizations. The projects described actions taken to reduce emissions of carbon dioxide from energy production and use; to reduce methane and nitrous oxide emissions from energy use, waste management, and agricultural processes; to reduce emissions of halocarbons, such as CFCs and their replacements; and to increase carbon sequestration.

  15. On strategies for reducing greenhouse gas emissions.

    PubMed

    Bolin, B; Kheshgi, H S

    2001-04-24

    Equity is of fundamental concern in the quest for international cooperation to stabilize greenhouse gas concentrations by the reduction of emissions. By modeling the carbon cycle, we estimate the global CO(2) emissions that would be required to stabilize the atmospheric concentration of CO(2) at levels ranging from 450 to 1,000 ppm. These are compared, on both an absolute and a per-capita basis, to scenarios for emissions from the developed and developing worlds generated by socio-economic models under the assumption that actions to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions are not taken. Need and equity have provided strong arguments for developing countries to request that the developed world takes the lead in controlling its emissions, while permitting the developing countries in the meantime to use primarily fossil fuels for their development. Even with major and early control of CO(2) emissions by the developed world, limiting concentration to 450 ppm implies that the developing world also would need to control its emissions within decades, given that we expect developing world emissions would otherwise double over this time. Scenarios leading to CO(2) concentrations of 550 ppm exhibit a reduction of the developed world's per-capita emission by about 50% over the next 50 years. Even for the higher stabilization levels considered, the developing world would not be able to use fossil fuels for their development in the manner that the developed world has used them. PMID:11296250

  16. Greenhouse gas exchange over grazed systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Felber, R.; Ammann, C.; Neftel, A.

    2012-04-01

    Grasslands act as sinks and sources of greenhouse gases (GHG) and are, in conjunction with livestock production systems, responsible for a large share of GHG emissions. Whereas ecosystem scale flux measurements (eddy covariance) are commonly used to investigate CO2 exchange (and is becoming state-of-the-art for other GHGs, too), GHG emissions from agricultural animals are usually investigated on the scale of individual animals. Therefore eddy covariance technique has to be tested for combined systems (i.e. grazed systems). Our project investigates the ability of field scale flux measurements to reliably quantify the contribution of grazing dairy cows to the net exchange of CO2 and CH4. To quantify the contribution of the animals to the net flux the position, movement, and grazing/rumination activity of each cow are recorded. In combination with a detailed footprint analysis of the eddy covariance fluxes, the animal related CO2 and CH4 emissions are derived and compared to standard emission values derived from respiration chambers. The aim of the project is to test the assumption whether field scale CO2 flux measurements adequately include the respiration of grazing cows and to identify potential errors in ecosystem Greenhouse gas budgets.

  17. Environment resistant windows for space greenhouses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gan, B. K.; Kondyurin, A.; Bilek, M.; Latella, B. A.

    One of the ways of providing a self-sustainable environment in space is to provide food and life support systems through bio-regenerative power i e a greenhouse It is an essential structure because it provides oxygen and food in a controlled environment The windows and frames of a greenhouse are generally made from glass or polymer panels which allow sunlight to enter Polymers are useful because they are lightweight transparent corrosion resistant and inexpensive However windows which are made from polymeric materials or polymer-based composites suffer from accelerated erosion due to the presence of atomic oxygen in space environment A metal oxide deposited on the surface of the polymer will aid in the resistance of these polymers to chemical attack as well as improving surface hardness and wear resistance characteristics In this study we modified the surfaces of polycarbonate PC by deposition and implantation of thin and transparent aluminium oxide Al 2 O 3 coatings The Al 2 O 3 plasma was produced using a cathodic arc deposition system with a combination of plasma immersion ion implantation PIII The coatings were then tested for resistance to atomic oxygen environment These were carried out by monitoring the mass loss of the deposited samples exposed to an rf oxygen plasma The morphology and optical properties of the coatings before and after exposure to oxygen plasma were then examined using electron microscopy profilometry and ellipsometry Mechanical properties and adhesion characteristics of the coatings

  18. Optimization of Wastewater Lift Stations for Reduction of Energy Usage and Greenhouse Gas Emissions (WERF Report INFR3R11)

    EPA Science Inventory

    One of the major contributions of Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions from water resource recovery facilities results from the energy used by the pumping regime of the lift stations. This project demonstrated an energy-efficient control method of lift station system operation that uti...

  19. Greenhouse Gases Emission from Land Application of Swine Waste Water: A Comparison of Three Different Swine Slurry Application Methods

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agricultural activities (including land application of animal manures) account for about 20% of the total human induced global warming budget due to emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG). Recently, there has been an increasing emphasis on controlling these emissions from livestock operations. One of...

  20. Evaluation of photo-acoustic infrared multigas analyzer in measuring concentrations of greenhouse gases emitted from feedlot soil/manure

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Photo-acoustic infrared multigas analyzers (PIMAs) are being increasingly utilized to measure concentrations and fluxes of greenhouse gases (i.e., N2O, CO2, and CH4) at the soil surface because of their low cost, portability, and ease of operation. This research evaluated a PIMA in combination with ...

  1. Prioritizing Scientific Data for Transmission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Castano, Rebecca; Anderson, Robert; Estlin, Tara; DeCoste, Dennis; Gaines, Daniel; Mazzoni, Dominic; Fisher, Forest; Judd, Michele

    2004-01-01

    A software system has been developed for prioritizing newly acquired geological data onboard a planetary rover. The system has been designed to enable efficient use of limited communication resources by transmitting the data likely to have the most scientific value. This software operates onboard a rover by analyzing collected data, identifying potential scientific targets, and then using that information to prioritize data for transmission to Earth. Currently, the system is focused on the analysis of acquired images, although the general techniques are applicable to a wide range of data modalities. Image prioritization is performed using two main steps. In the first step, the software detects features of interest from each image. In its current application, the system is focused on visual properties of rocks. Thus, rocks are located in each image and rock properties, such as shape, texture, and albedo, are extracted from the identified rocks. In the second step, the features extracted from a group of images are used to prioritize the images using three different methods: (1) identification of key target signature (finding specific rock features the scientist has identified as important), (2) novelty detection (finding rocks we haven t seen before), and (3) representative rock sampling (finding the most average sample of each rock type). These methods use techniques such as K-means unsupervised clustering and a discrimination-based kernel classifier to rank images based on their interest level.

  2. An Introduction to Scientific Masculinities.

    PubMed

    Milam, Erika Lorraine; Nye, Robert A

    2015-01-01

    This volume seeks to integrate gender analysis into the global history of science and medicine from the late Middle Ages to the present by focusing on masculinity, the part of the gender equation that has received the least attention from scholars. The premise of the volume is that social constructions of masculinity function simultaneously as foils for femininity and as methods of differentiating between "kinds" of men. In exploring scientific masculinities without taking the dominance of men and masculinity in the sciences for granted, we ask, What is masculinity and how does it operate in science? Our answers remind us that gender is at once an analytical category and a historical object. The essays are divided into three sections that in turn emphasize the importance of gender to the professionalization of scientific, technological, and medical practices, the spaces in which such labor is performed, and the ways that sex, gender, and sexual orientation are measured and serve as metaphors in society and culture. PMID:27066616

  3. The Gaia scientific exploitation networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Figueras, F.; Jordi, C.

    2015-05-01

    On July 2014 the Gaia satellite, placed at L2 since January 2014, finished their commissioning phase and started collecting high accurate scientific data. New and more realistic estimations of the astrometric, photometric and spectroscopic accuracy expected after five years mission operation (2014-2019) have been recently published in the Gaia Science Performance Web page. Here we present the coordination efforts and the activities being conducted through the two GREAT (Gaia Research for European Astronomy Training) European Networks, the GREAT-ESF, a programme supported by the European Science Foundation (2010-2015), and the GREAT-ITN network, from the European Union's Seventh Framework Programme (2011-2015). The main research theme of these networks is to unravel the origin and history of our home galaxy. Emphasis is placed on the research projects being conducted by the Spanish Researchers through these networks, well coordinated by the Red Española de Explotación Científica de Gaia (REG network, with more than 140 participants). Members of the REG play an important role on the collection of complementary spectroscopic data from ground based telescopes, on the development of new tools for an optimal scientific exploitation of Gaia data and on the preparation task to create the Gaia archive.

  4. Apollo scientific experiments data handbook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eichelman, W. F. (Editor); Lauderdale, W. W. (Editor)

    1974-01-01

    A brief description of each of the Apollo scientific experiments was described, together with its operational history, the data content and formats, and the availability of the data. The lunar surface experiments described are the passive seismic, active seismic, lunar surface magnetometer, solar wind spectrometer, suprathermal ion detector, heat flow, charged particle, cold cathode gage, lunar geology, laser ranging retroreflector, cosmic ray detector, lunar portable magnetometer, traverse gravimeter, soil mechanics, far UV camera (lunar surface), lunar ejecta and meteorites, surface electrical properties, lunar atmospheric composition, lunar surface gravimeter, lunar seismic profiling, neutron flux, and dust detector. The orbital experiments described are the gamma-ray spectrometer, X-ray fluorescence, alpha-particle spectrometer, S-band transponder, mass spectrometer, far UV spectrometer, bistatic radar, IR scanning radiometer, particle shadows, magnetometer, lunar sounder, and laser altimeter. A brief listing of the mapping products available and information on the sample program were also included.

  5. Computer simulation and scientific visualization

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, D.P.; Moszur, F.M.

    1990-01-01

    The simulation of processes in engineering and the physical sciences has progressed rapidly over the last several years. With rapid developments in supercomputers, parallel processing, numerical algorithms and software, scientists and engineers are now positioned to quantitatively simulate systems requiring many billions of arithmetic operations. The need to understand and assimilate such massive amounts of data has been a driving force in the development of both hardware and software to create visual representations of the underling physical systems. In this paper, and the accompanying videotape, the evolution and development of the visualization process in scientific computing will be reviewed. Specific applications and associated imaging hardware and software technology illustrate both the computational needs and the evolving trends. 6 refs.

  6. Scientific Opinion on Risk Assessment of Synthetic Biology.

    PubMed

    Epstein, Michelle M; Vermeire, Theo

    2016-08-01

    In 2013, three Scientific Committees of the European Commission (EC) drafted Scientific Opinions on synthetic biology that provide an operational definition and address risk assessment methodology, safety aspects, environmental risks, knowledge gaps, and research priorities. These Opinions contribute to the international discussions on the risk governance for synthetic biology developments. PMID:27234301

  7. Scientific Opinion on Risk Assessment of Synthetic Biology.

    PubMed

    Epstein, Michelle M; Vermeire, Theo

    2016-08-01

    In 2013, three Scientific Committees of the European Commission (EC) drafted Scientific Opinions on synthetic biology that provide an operational definition and address risk assessment methodology, safety aspects, environmental risks, knowledge gaps, and research priorities. These Opinions contribute to the international discussions on the risk governance for synthetic biology developments.

  8. Demonstration of the greenhouse effect for elementary school students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radovanovic, Jelena

    2014-05-01

    The school where I work is part of the "Step by step towards the sustainable development school" project. Project activities are partly directed towards the popularization of science. As a physics teacher, I have had the opportunity to engage in designing interactive workshops, aiming to introduce younger students to simple experiments which illustrate different natural phenomena, and also in organization, preparation and implementation of school and city science festival (in 2012 and 2013). Numerous displays, workshops and experiments served to introduce a large number of visitors to different topics in the area of science and technology. One of the subjects of forthcoming science festival, planned for May of 2014, is the climate change. To that effect, eight grade students will hold a demonstration and explanation of the greenhouse effect. Although the terms greenhouse effect and global warming are widely used in media, most of the elementary school students in Serbia have poor understanding of the underlying scientific concepts. The experiment with analysis and discussion will first be implemented in one eight-grade class (14 years of age). After that, a group of students from this class will present their newly-acquired knowledge to their peers and younger students at the science fair. Activity objectives: • Explain how atmosphere affects the surface temperature of Earth • Conduct an experiment to demonstrate the greenhouse effect • Analyze the consequences of climate changes Experiment description: Take two empty, transparent containers and add a layer of garden soil. Use cardboard or similar material to make housings for the thermometers. Hang them in the containers, so that they don't touch the soil. Cover one container with a glass panel, and leave the other one open. Place identical incandescent light bulbs at the same distance above each container. Turn the light bulbs on. The students should mark the thermometer readings every 2 minutes, for 20

  9. Sherlock Holmes: scientific detective.

    PubMed

    Snyder, Laura J

    2004-09-01

    Sherlock Holmes was intended by his creator, Arthur Conan Doyle, to be a 'scientific detective'. Conan Doyle criticized his predecessor Edgar Allan Poe for giving his creation - Inspector Dupin - only the 'illusion' of scientific method. Conan Doyle believed that he had succeeded where Poe had failed; thus, he has Watson remark that Holmes has 'brought detection as near an exact science as it will ever be brought into the world.' By examining Holmes' methods, it becomes clear that Conan Doyle modelled them on certain images of science that were popular in mid- to late-19th century Britain. Contrary to a common view, it is also evident that rather than being responsible for the invention of forensic science, the creation of Holmes was influenced by the early development of it.

  10. Toward Scientific Numerical Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kleb, Bil

    2007-01-01

    Ultimately, scientific numerical models need quantified output uncertainties so that modeling can evolve to better match reality. Documenting model input uncertainties and verifying that numerical models are translated into code correctly, however, are necessary first steps toward that goal. Without known input parameter uncertainties, model sensitivities are all one can determine, and without code verification, output uncertainties are simply not reliable. To address these two shortcomings, two proposals are offered: (1) an unobtrusive mechanism to document input parameter uncertainties in situ and (2) an adaptation of the Scientific Method to numerical model development and deployment. Because these two steps require changes in the computational simulation community to bear fruit, they are presented in terms of the Beckhard-Harris-Gleicher change model.

  11. Trust in scientific publishing.

    PubMed

    Hummels, H; Roosendaal, H E

    2001-11-01

    Trust is an important phenomenon to reduce organizational complexity and uncertainty. In the literature many types of trust are distinguished. An important framework to understand the variety and development of trust in organisations is provided by Zucker. She distinguishes three types of trust: process-based trust, institutional-based trust, characteristic-based trust. In this article we will add a fourth type: values-based trust. Similarly, it is customary in scientific communication to distinguish four main communication functions: registration, archiving, certification, awareness. These types of trust and communication functions offer somewhat similar classification schemes. In this paper we will elaborate on these classification schemes with the aim to analyse possible similarities or even mapping. Such similarities will allow drawing conclusions on the development of trust in a (virtual) organisation in general and the process of scientific communication as a special kind of a (virtual) organisation in particular.

  12. Rethinking scientific responsibility

    PubMed Central

    Meland, Eivind; Hetlevik, Irene; Strand, Roger

    2011-01-01

    Researchers should be made co-responsible for the wider consequences of their research focus and the application of their findings. This paper describes a meta-reflection procedure that can be used as a tool to enhance scientific responsibility and reflective practice. The point of departure is that scientific practice is situated in power relations, has direction and, consequently, power implications. The contextual preconditions and implications of research should be stated and discussed openly. The reflection method aims at revealing both upstream elements, such as for instance preconceptions, and downstream elements, for example, public consequences of research. The validity of research might improve from such discussions. Validity should preferably be understood as a broader concept than the methodological concerns in science. PMID:21266389

  13. [Communication of scientific fraud].

    PubMed

    Zeitoun, Jean-David; Rouquette, Sébastien

    2012-09-01

    There is for a scientific journal several levels of communication depending of the degree of suspicion or certainty of a case of error or fraud. The task is increasingly difficult for journal editors as disclosed cases of fraud are more common and scientific communication on this topic is growing. Biomedical fraud is fairly little reported by the mainstream press and causes of this low interest are not currently well understood. The difficulty of processing this type of news for journalists appears to be one possible reason. The potentially numerous and significant consequences of fraud on health professionals are poorly documented. Though it is likely to cause a feeling of distrust and create controversy, the impact of fraud on the general public is poorly studied and appears multifactorial.

  14. Scientific Resource EXplorer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xing, Z.; Wormuth, A.; Smith, A.; Arca, J.; Lu, Y.; Sayfi, E.

    2014-12-01

    Inquisitive minds in our society are never satisfied with curatedimages released by a typical public affairs office. They always want tolook deeper and play directly on original data. However, most scientificdata products are notoriously hard to use. They are immensely large,highly distributed and diverse in format. In this presentation,we will demonstrate Resource EXplorer (REX), a novel webtop applicationthat allows anyone to conveniently explore and visualize rich scientificdata repositories, using only a standard web browser. This tool leverageson the power of Webification Science (w10n-sci), a powerful enabling technologythat simplifies the use of scientific data on the web platform.W10n-sci is now being deployed at an increasing number of NASA data centers,some of which are the largest digital treasure troves in our nation.With REX, these wonderful scientific resources are open for teachers andstudents to learn and play.

  15. Scientific Computing with Python

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beazley, D. M.

    Scripting languages have become a powerful tool for the construction of flexible scientific software because they provide scientists with an interpreted programming environment, can be easily interfaced with existing software written in C, C++, and Fortran, and can serve as a framework for modular software construction. In this paper, I describe the process of adding a scripting language to a scientific computing project by focusing on the use of Python with a large-scale molecular dynamics code developed for materials science research at Los Alamos National Laboratory. Although this application is not related to astronomical data analysis, the problems, solutions, and lessons learned may be of interest to researchers who are considering the use of scripting languages with their own projects.

  16. Publishing Platform for Scientific Software - Lessons Learned

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammitzsch, Martin; Fritzsch, Bernadette; Reusser, Dominik; Brembs, Björn; Deinzer, Gernot; Loewe, Peter; Fenner, Martin; van Edig, Xenia; Bertelmann, Roland; Pampel, Heinz; Klump, Jens; Wächter, Joachim

    2015-04-01

    Scientific software has become an indispensable commodity for the production, processing and analysis of empirical data but also for modelling and simulation of complex processes. Software has a significant influence on the quality of research results. For strengthening the recognition of the academic performance of scientific software development, for increasing its visibility and for promoting the reproducibility of research results, concepts for the publication of scientific software have to be developed, tested, evaluated, and then transferred into operations. For this, the publication and citability of scientific software have to fulfil scientific criteria by means of defined processes and the use of persistent identifiers, similar to data publications. The SciForge project is addressing these challenges. Based on interviews a blueprint for a scientific software publishing platform and a systematic implementation plan has been designed. In addition, the potential of journals, software repositories and persistent identifiers have been evaluated to improve the publication and dissemination of reusable software solutions. It is important that procedures for publishing software as well as methods and tools for software engineering are reflected in the architecture of the platform, in order to improve the quality of the software and the results of research. In addition, it is necessary to work continuously on improving specific conditions that promote the adoption and sustainable utilization of scientific software publications. Among others, this would include policies for the development and publication of scientific software in the institutions but also policies for establishing the necessary competencies and skills of scientists and IT personnel. To implement the concepts developed in SciForge a combined bottom-up / top-down approach is considered that will be implemented in parallel in different scientific domains, e.g. in earth sciences, climate research and

  17. [Scientific periodicals: quality criteria].

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Maria Cecilia Gonzaga; Krzyzanowski, Rosaly Favero

    2003-05-01

    This paper presents a historical literature review on the evaluation of periodicals and the methodology employed for their evaluation. It emphasizes the attention that should be given to the contents of the periodicals and their format based on technical standards in order to reach a global quality of the publications. This paper includes a summary of the most important aspects of the technical standards for periodicals and scientific articles.

  18. Scientific Software Component Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Kohn, S.; Dykman, N.; Kumfert, G.; Smolinski, B.

    2000-02-16

    We are developing new software component technology for high-performance parallel scientific computing to address issues of complexity, re-use, and interoperability for laboratory software. Component technology enables cross-project code re-use, reduces software development costs, and provides additional simulation capabilities for massively parallel laboratory application codes. The success of our approach will be measured by its impact on DOE mathematical and scientific software efforts. Thus, we are collaborating closely with library developers and application scientists in the Common Component Architecture forum, the Equation Solver Interface forum, and other DOE mathematical software groups to gather requirements, write and adopt a variety of design specifications, and develop demonstration projects to validate our approach. Numerical simulation is essential to the science mission at the laboratory. However, it is becoming increasingly difficult to manage the complexity of modern simulation software. Computational scientists develop complex, three-dimensional, massively parallel, full-physics simulations that require the integration of diverse software packages written by outside development teams. Currently, the integration of a new software package, such as a new linear solver library, can require several months of effort. Current industry component technologies such as CORBA, JavaBeans, and COM have all been used successfully in the business domain to reduce software development costs and increase software quality. However, these existing industry component infrastructures will not scale to support massively parallel applications in science and engineering. In particular, they do not address issues related to high-performance parallel computing on ASCI-class machines, such as fast in-process connections between components, language interoperability for scientific languages such as Fortran, parallel data redistribution between components, and massively

  19. [Plagiarism in scientific publications].

    PubMed

    Reyes B, Humberto

    2009-01-01

    Similar to what occurs in literature, art and other human endeavours, every scientific report is based in previous work done by others. The new paper should add something original but a basic law of scientific honesty demands that any mention ideas, observations or thinking that has been previously proposed or published by others, should be acknowledged properly in the text and in the references. Plagiarism is identified when the authors of a scientific report use ideas or text that belong to others and present them as original, the previous source is concealed or it is referred to in a different context. The authors of a paper that contains plagiarism have the intention to mislead the readers, pretending to be the original authors of an idea that was expressed previously by others, or to be the owners of results shown by them. Plagiarism is a dishonest behaviour and, when discovered, may have dangerous consequences because the editors of the journal may publish a notice of retraction that will be inserted by Medline in both papers: the plagiarized and the plagiarizer, to be noticed by everyone who accesses to either of them in the Internet. PMID:19399315

  20. NASA scientific integrity policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    On 16 December, NASA became the latest U.S. federal agency to issue a scientific integrity policy. It was issued less than 10 days after the U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) issued its policy on the same topic (see "NOAA issues scientific integrity policy," Eos Trans. AGU, 92(50), 467, doi:10.1029/2011EO500004, 2011). The agency policies respond to earlier White House memos on the topic issued in 2009 and 2010. NASA is the fifth federal department or agency that has finalized a scientific integrity policy; the Department of the Interior and the National Science Foundation also have finalized their policies. As Eos went to press, 13 other policies were in near-final draft form, including those from the departments of Agriculture and Energy; the Environmental Protection Agency and the Department of Labor had indicated that they expected to submit their policies to the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy (OSTP) soon, OSTP director John Holdren wrote in a 21 December note on the office's Web site.

  1. Hyper-spectral observations of greenhouse gases in Three Gorges Reservoir Region, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ding Yi; Zhang, Chun-ming; Qin, Lin; Zhang, Lu; Wang, Xiang-hong; Li, Hong-qun; Yang, Fu-Mo; Chen, Gang-Cai; Wang, Shu-peng; Zhang, Xing-ying; Zhang, Peng

    The Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR) is the most ambitious hydroelectric and flood control project in human history. Its riparian zone has areas of ~300 km2 with water levels fluctuating between 175m above the sea in winter and 145m in summer, and is a special type of wetlands at the low water levels. These wetlands may release CO2 and CH4 with significantly spatial and temporal variations, and have been misleadingly described as a “methane menace” and caused a worldwide concern. A joint research program for TGR greenhouse gases monitoring is operated by several institutions and based at Yangtze Normal Univ. in Fuling of Chongqing. It is characterized by the combined satellite, airship, and ground-based hyper-spectral observations, which serve to simultaneously measure various eco-environmental parameters in a large area with high spatial and spectral resolutions, and to model the status and key dynamic processes of the TGR greenhouse gases. In this talk, the retrieval algorithm of the gas species from satellite near-infrared observations is discussed with special attentions paid to the mountainous and foggy TGR region. The distributions and variations of TGR greenhouse gases are studied by using the AIRS and SCIAMACHY monthly means of multiple years. The airship and ground-based observation system is outlined and expected to provide unique data needed to address the TGR environmental issues, and to evolve towards operational service.

  2. Materials for luminescent greenhouse solar collectors.

    PubMed

    Levitt, J A; Weber, W H

    1977-10-01

    Luminescent greenhouse solar collectors are potentially useful for concentrating sunlight onto photovoltaic power cells. Measurements of the performance of small-scale collectors made of two commercially available materials (Owens-Illinois ED2 neodymium-doped laser glass and rhodamine 6G-doped plastic) are presented. The results are encouraging, but they indicate a need for further spectral sensitization and for reduced matrix loss coefficient. The measurements with monochromatic illumination agree with the predictions of a mathematical model developed to take account of reemission following the absorption of luminescence. Under solar illumination, the model predicts photon flux concentrations of about 15 for optimized full-scale collectors made of the materials studied and concentrations of 110 for reasonably improved glass.

  3. Revised projection of future greenhouse warming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlesinger, Michael E.; Jiang, Xingjian

    1991-03-01

    Recent projections of greenhouse warming to 2100 are broadened here to include a recently suggested lower temperature sensitivity Delta T(2x) = 0.5 C. All projections are also revised by prescribing a lower value for a key parameter of the simple ocean model Pi which indicates the warming of the polar ocean relative to the warming of the nonpolar ocean. It is found that, for any value of Delta T(2x), the atmospheric temperature increases more rapidly with time as a consequence of the reduction in Pi. It is also found that a delay of 10 yrs in initiating a 20-year transition from the IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) 'business as usual' scenario to any other IPCC scenario has only a small effect on the projected warming in 2100, regardless of the value of Delta T(2x). This indicates that the penalty for a 10-yr delay is small.

  4. Agricultural opportunities to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Jane M-F; Franzluebbers, Alan J; Weyers, Sharon Lachnicht; Reicosky, Donald C

    2007-11-01

    Agriculture is a source for three primary greenhouse gases (GHGs): CO(2), CH(4), and N(2)O. It can also be a sink for CO(2) through C sequestration into biomass products and soil organic matter. We summarized the literature on GHG emissions and C sequestration, providing a perspective on how agriculture can reduce its GHG burden and how it can help to mitigate GHG emissions through conservation measures. Impacts of agricultural practices and systems on GHG emission are reviewed and potential trade-offs among potential mitigation options are discussed. Conservation practices that help prevent soil erosion, may also sequester soil C and enhance CH(4) consumption. Managing N to match crop needs can reduce N(2)O emission and avoid adverse impacts on water quality. Manipulating animal diet and manure management can reduce CH(4) and N(2)O emission from animal agriculture. All segments of agriculture have management options that can reduce agriculture's environmental footprint.

  5. Greenhouse effect may not be all bad

    SciTech Connect

    Senft, D.

    1990-10-01

    Evidence is presented that indicates US temperatures decreased by a fraction of a degree during the past 70 years contrary to the estimates of some researchers concerned with the greenhouse effect. There is general agreement that the carbon dioxide concentrations in the atmosphere will double by the late or mid 21st century. Experiments on cotton growth under increased temperature and carbon dioxide concentrations indicate sizeable gains in yield. This increased yield is exhibited by citrus trees and is projected for other crops. There is a concomitant need for more water and fertilizer. Increased populations of parasitic mites and insects also occur. Climatic changes are seen as being more gradual than previously thought. The possible increases in food production under these changes in climate are one positive element in the emerging scenario.

  6. The enduring scientific contributions of Sigmund Freud.

    PubMed

    Gedo, John E

    2002-01-01

    Through the development of a novel observational method, Sigmund Freud made possible the collection of reliable data about man's inner life. The scientific hypotheses he formulated about these formed the initial version of psychoanalysis. Many of these first thoughts have had to be revised in the light of subsequent scientific findings about the operations of the central nervous system, but even these refuted propositions often had much heuristic value. Despite the passage of a whole century, many Freudian hypotheses have retained their scientific standing. Most important among these was Freud's realization that human thought is usually unconscious. His understanding of the role of the automatic repetition of basic patterns of behavior, of the fateful consequences of early childhood emotional vicissitudes in structuring enduring mental dispositions, and of the distinction between two distinct modes of thinking are the most significant among his many contributions.

  7. 76 FR 73885 - Mandatory Reporting of Greenhouse Gases

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-29

    .... Environmental Protection Agency FR Federal Register GHG greenhouse gas GHGRP Greenhouse Gas Reporting Program... September 22, 2009 and published in the Federal Register on October 30, 2009 (74 FR 56260, October 30, 2009... notices were published in 2010 promulgating the requirements for subparts FF, II, and TT (75 FR...

  8. 16. Interior view, greenhouse, south wall taken from the ground. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. Interior view, greenhouse, south wall taken from the ground. The original floor height is indicated by the joists on the left. The large opening on the right was formerly fitted with an exterior-fed iron stove used to heat the space on particularly cold days. - John Bartram House & Garden, Greenhouse, 54th Street & LIndbergh Boulevard, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  9. 18. Detail view, greenhouse, north wall (Note the type of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. Detail view, greenhouse, north wall (Note the type of stone used in the wall construction, the degradation of the interior stucco, and one of the pockets for a former floor joist). - John Bartram House & Garden, Greenhouse, 54th Street & LIndbergh Boulevard, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  10. 9. Detail view, greenhouse, fragment of Doric frieze located in ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Detail view, greenhouse, fragment of Doric frieze located in the south wall (Note the decorative mortar work known as galleting in which small stones are imbedded on the surface of the mortar. - John Bartram House & Garden, Greenhouse, 54th Street & LIndbergh Boulevard, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  11. 14. Interior view, greenhouse, from the door in the west ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. Interior view, greenhouse, from the door in the west wall. The timbers extending horizontally across the east wall and pocketed into the stone north and south walls would have originally supported the window sash. - John Bartram House & Garden, Greenhouse, 54th Street & LIndbergh Boulevard, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  12. Greenhouse Effect Detection Experiment (GEDEX). Selected data sets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olsen, Lola M.; Warnock, Archibald, III

    1992-01-01

    This CD-ROM contains selected data sets compiled by the participants of the Greenhouse Effect Detection Experiment (GEDEX) workshop on atmospheric temperature. The data sets include surface, upper air, and/or satellite-derived measurements of temperature, solar irradiance, clouds, greenhouse gases, fluxes, albedo, aerosols, ozone, and water vapor, along with Southern Oscillation Indices and Quasi-Biennial Oscillation statistics.

  13. A Simple Experiment to Demonstrate the Effects of Greenhouse Gases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keating, C. F.

    2007-01-01

    The role of greenhouse gases in our atmosphere is the subject of considerable discussion and debate. Global warming is well-documented, as is the continually increasing amount of greenhouse gases that human activity puts in the air. Is there a relationship between the two? The simple experiment described in this paper provides a good demonstration…

  14. Greenhouse gas emissions related to ethanol produced from corn

    SciTech Connect

    Marland, G.

    1994-04-01

    This report confers the details of a panel meeting discussion on greenhouse gases. The topic of this discussion was ethanol. Members discussed all aspects of growing corn and producing ethanol. Then the question was raised as to whether or not this is a suitable substitute to fossil fuel usage in the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions.

  15. Greenhouse Gas Emissions Calculator for Grain and Biofuel Farming Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McSwiney, Claire P.; Bohm, Sven; Grace, Peter R.; Robertson, G. Philip

    2010-01-01

    Opportunities for farmers to participate in greenhouse gas (GHG) credit markets require that growers, students, extension educators, offset aggregators, and other stakeholders understand the impact of agricultural practices on GHG emissions. The Farming Systems Greenhouse Gas Emissions Calculator, a web-based tool linked to the SOCRATES soil…

  16. Ideas of Elementary Students about Reducing the "Greenhouse Effect."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Francis, Claire; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Presents the results of a questionnaire given to 563 elementary students to study their ideas of actions that would reduce the greenhouse effect. Most of the children (87%) appreciated that planting trees would help reduce global warming. During interviews it was discovered that children were confused between the greenhouse effect and ozone layer…

  17. Valuation of carbon capture and sequestration under Greenhouse gas regulations

    SciTech Connect

    Lokey, Elizabeth

    2009-05-15

    The value assigned to CCS depends on the type of greenhouse gas regulation chosen and details of how the market is implemented. This article describes some ways in which CCS can be incorporated into greenhouse gas regulations, together with their implications, and how CCS is treated in current regulations for regulated entities. (author)

  18. 40 CFR 1036.530 - Calculating greenhouse gas emission rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Calculating greenhouse gas emission... Procedures § 1036.530 Calculating greenhouse gas emission rates. This section describes how to calculate... applicable duty cycle as specified in 40 CFR 1065.650. Do not apply infrequent regeneration...

  19. 75 FR 79091 - Mandatory Reporting of Greenhouse Gases

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-17

    ... -equivalent CWPB center worked prebake FR Federal Register FTIR Fourier transform infrared GC gas... Protection Agency 40 CFR Part 98 Mandatory Reporting of Greenhouse Gases; Final Rule #0;#0;Federal Register... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 98 RIN 2060-AQ33 Mandatory Reporting of Greenhouse Gases AGENCY:...

  20. Nursery and Greenhouse Worker. Student Material. Competency Based Education Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Long, Diana

    This secondary-level, competency-based curriculum contains 11 modules for Nursery and Greenhouse Worker. A companion teacher's guide is available separately--see note. Each module contains a number of West Virginia-validated Nursery and Greenhouse Worker tasks/competencies with a performance guide listing the steps needed to perform each task,…

  1. Greenhouse gas emissions from soil under changing environmental conditions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This manuscript is the Guest Editors’ Introduction to a special issue on greenhouse gas emissions from agriculture. The papers were assembled following presentation at EuroSoil 2012. Exchange of greenhouse gases between soils and the atmosphere is a natural consequence of several ecosystem process...

  2. 17. Interior view, greenhouse, north wall taken from the ground. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. Interior view, greenhouse, north wall taken from the ground. Stucco-painted white-covered the interior walls in order to seal-off any drafts and to reflect the sunlight entering through the east-facing windows. - John Bartram House & Garden, Greenhouse, 54th Street & LIndbergh Boulevard, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  3. An Impact Triggered Runaway Greenhouse on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Segura, T. L.; McKay, C. P.; Toon, O. B.

    2004-01-01

    When a planet is in radiative equilibrium, the incoming solar flux balances the outgoing longwave flux. If something were to perturb the system slightly, say the incoming solar flux increased, the planet would respond by radiating at a higher surface temperature. Since any radiation that comes in must go out, if the incoming is increased, the outgoing must also increase, and this increase manifests itself as a warmer equilibrium temperature. The increase in solar flux would correspond to an increase in temperature, which would increase the amount of water vapor in the atmosphere due to increased evaporation. Since water vapor is a greenhouse gas, it would absorb more radiation in the atmosphere leading to a yet warmer equilibrium temperature. The planet would reach radiative equilibrium at this new temperature. There exists a point, however, past which this positive feedback leads to a "runaway" situation. In this case, the planet does not simply evaporate a little more water and eventually come to a slightly higher equilibrium temperature. Instead, the planet keeps evaporating more and more water until all of the planet's available liquid and solid water is in the atmosphere. The reason for this is generally understood. If the planet's temperature increases, evaporation of water increases, and the absorption of radiation increases. This increases the temperature and the feedback continues until all water is in the atmosphere. The resulting equilibrium temperature is very high, much higher than the equilibrium temperature of a point with slightly lower solar flux. One can picture that as solar flux increases, planetary temperature also increases until the runaway point where temperature suddenly "jumps" to a higher value, in response to all the available water now residing in the atmosphere. This new equilibrium is called a "runaway greenhouse" and it has been theorized that this is what happened to the planet Venus, where the surface temperature is more than 700 K

  4. Carbon dioxide separation from flue gases: a technological review emphasizing reduction in greenhouse gas emissions.

    PubMed

    Songolzadeh, Mohammad; Soleimani, Mansooreh; Takht Ravanchi, Maryam; Songolzadeh, Reza

    2014-01-01

    Increasing concentrations of greenhouse gases (GHGs) such as CO2 in the atmosphere is a global warming. Human activities are a major cause of increased CO2 concentration in atmosphere, as in recent decade, two-third of greenhouse effect was caused by human activities. Carbon capture and storage (CCS) is a major strategy that can be used to reduce GHGs emission. There are three methods for CCS: pre-combustion capture, oxy-fuel process, and post-combustion capture. Among them, post-combustion capture is the most important one because it offers flexibility and it can be easily added to the operational units. Various technologies are used for CO2 capture, some of them include: absorption, adsorption, cryogenic distillation, and membrane separation. In this paper, various technologies for post-combustion are compared and the best condition for using each technology is identified. PMID:24696663

  5. Carbon Dioxide Separation from Flue Gases: A Technological Review Emphasizing Reduction in Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    PubMed Central

    Songolzadeh, Mohammad; Soleimani, Mansooreh; Takht Ravanchi, Maryam; Songolzadeh, Reza

    2014-01-01

    Increasing concentrations of greenhouse gases (GHGs) such as CO2 in the atmosphere is a global warming. Human activities are a major cause of increased CO2 concentration in atmosphere, as in recent decade, two-third of greenhouse effect was caused by human activities. Carbon capture and storage (CCS) is a major strategy that can be used to reduce GHGs emission. There are three methods for CCS: pre-combustion capture, oxy-fuel process, and post-combustion capture. Among them, post-combustion capture is the most important one because it offers flexibility and it can be easily added to the operational units. Various technologies are used for CO2 capture, some of them include: absorption, adsorption, cryogenic distillation, and membrane separation. In this paper, various technologies for post-combustion are compared and the best condition for using each technology is identified. PMID:24696663

  6. Carbon dioxide separation from flue gases: a technological review emphasizing reduction in greenhouse gas emissions.

    PubMed

    Songolzadeh, Mohammad; Soleimani, Mansooreh; Takht Ravanchi, Maryam; Songolzadeh, Reza

    2014-01-01

    Increasing concentrations of greenhouse gases (GHGs) such as CO2 in the atmosphere is a global warming. Human activities are a major cause of increased CO2 concentration in atmosphere, as in recent decade, two-third of greenhouse effect was caused by human activities. Carbon capture and storage (CCS) is a major strategy that can be used to reduce GHGs emission. There are three methods for CCS: pre-combustion capture, oxy-fuel process, and post-combustion capture. Among them, post-combustion capture is the most important one because it offers flexibility and it can be easily added to the operational units. Various technologies are used for CO2 capture, some of them include: absorption, adsorption, cryogenic distillation, and membrane separation. In this paper, various technologies for post-combustion are compared and the best condition for using each technology is identified.

  7. a Review of Hydropower Reservoir and Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosa, L. P.; Dos Santos, M. A.

    2013-05-01

    Like most manmade projects, hydropower dams have multiple effects on the environment that have been studied in some depth over the past two decades. Among their most important effects are potential changes in water movement, flowing much slower than in the original river. This favors the appearance of phytoplankton as nutrients increase, with methanogenesis replacing oxidative water and generating anaerobic conditions. Although research during the late 1990s highlighted the problems caused by hydropower dams emitting greenhouse gases, crucial aspects of this issue still remain unresolved. Similar to natural water bodies, hydropower reservoirs have ample biota ranging from microorganisms to aquatic vertebrates. Microorganisms (bacteria) decompose organic matter producing biogenic gases under water. Some of these biogenic gases cause global warming, including methane, carbon dioxide and nitrous oxide. The levels of GHG emissions from hydropower dams are a strategic matter of the utmost importance, and comparisons with other power generation options such as thermo-power are required. In order to draw up an accurate assessment of the net emissions caused by hydropower dams, significant improvements are needed in carbon budgets and studies of representative hydropower dams. To determine accurately the net emissions caused by hydro reservoir formation is required significant improvement of carbon budgets studies on different representatives' hydro reservoirs at tropical, boreal, arid, semi arid and temperate climate. Comparisons must be drawn with emissions by equivalent thermo power plants, calculated and characterized as generating the same amount of energy each year as the hydropower dams, burning different fuels and with varying technology efficiency levels for steam turbines as well as coal, fuel oil and natural gas turbines and combined cycle plants. This paper brings to the scientific community important aspects of the development of methods and techniques applied

  8. Non-CO2 greenhouse gases and climate change.

    PubMed

    Montzka, S A; Dlugokencky, E J; Butler, J H

    2011-08-03

    Earth's climate is warming as a result of anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases, particularly carbon dioxide (CO(2)) from fossil fuel combustion. Anthropogenic emissions of non-CO(2) greenhouse gases, such as methane, nitrous oxide and ozone-depleting substances (largely from sources other than fossil fuels), also contribute significantly to warming. Some non-CO(2) greenhouse gases have much shorter lifetimes than CO(2), so reducing their emissions offers an additional opportunity to lessen future climate change. Although it is clear that sustainably reducing the warming influence of greenhouse gases will be possible only with substantial cuts in emissions of CO(2), reducing non-CO(2) greenhouse gas emissions would be a relatively quick way of contributing to this goal.

  9. Deployment of a Fully-Automated Green Fluorescent Protein Imaging System in a High Arctic Autonomous Greenhouse

    PubMed Central

    Abboud, Talal; Bamsey, Matthew; Paul, Anna-Lisa; Graham, Thomas; Braham, Stephen; Noumeir, Rita; Berinstain, Alain; Ferl, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Higher plants are an integral part of strategies for sustained human presence in space. Space-based greenhouses have the potential to provide closed-loop recycling of oxygen, water and food. Plant monitoring systems with the capacity to remotely observe the condition of crops in real-time within these systems would permit operators to take immediate action to ensure optimum system yield and reliability. One such plant health monitoring technique involves the use of reporter genes driving fluorescent proteins as biological sensors of plant stress. In 2006 an initial prototype green fluorescent protein imager system was deployed at the Arthur Clarke Mars Greenhouse located in the Canadian High Arctic. This prototype demonstrated the advantageous of this biosensor technology and underscored the challenges in collecting and managing telemetric data from exigent environments. We present here the design and deployment of a second prototype imaging system deployed within and connected to the infrastructure of the Arthur Clarke Mars Greenhouse. This is the first imager to run autonomously for one year in the un-crewed greenhouse with command and control conducted through the greenhouse satellite control system. Images were saved locally in high resolution and sent telemetrically in low resolution. Imager hardware is described, including the custom designed LED growth light and fluorescent excitation light boards, filters, data acquisition and control system, and basic sensing and environmental control. Several critical lessons learned related to the hardware of small plant growth payloads are also elaborated. PMID:23486220

  10. Deployment of a fully-automated green fluorescent protein imaging system in a high arctic autonomous greenhouse.

    PubMed

    Abboud, Talal; Bamsey, Matthew; Paul, Anna-Lisa; Graham, Thomas; Braham, Stephen; Noumeir, Rita; Berinstain, Alain; Ferl, Robert

    2013-03-13

    Higher plants are an integral part of strategies for sustained human presence in space. Space-based greenhouses have the potential to provide closed-loop recycling of oxygen, water and food. Plant monitoring systems with the capacity to remotely observe the condition of crops in real-time within these systems would permit operators to take immediate action to ensure optimum system yield and reliability. One such plant health monitoring technique involves the use of reporter genes driving fluorescent proteins as biological sensors of plant stress. In 2006 an initial prototype green fluorescent protein imager system was deployed at the Arthur Clarke Mars Greenhouse located in the Canadian High Arctic. This prototype demonstrated the advantageous of this biosensor technology and underscored the challenges in collecting and managing telemetric data from exigent environments. We present here the design and deployment of a second prototype imaging system deployed within and connected to the infrastructure of the Arthur Clarke Mars Greenhouse. This is the first imager to run autonomously for one year in the un-crewed greenhouse with command and control conducted through the greenhouse satellite control system. Images were saved locally in high resolution and sent telemetrically in low resolution. Imager hardware is described, including the custom designed LED growth light and fluorescent excitation light boards, filters, data acquisition and control system, and basic sensing and environmental control. Several critical lessons learned related to the hardware of small plant growth payloads are also elaborated.

  11. Deployment of a fully-automated green fluorescent protein imaging system in a high arctic autonomous greenhouse.

    PubMed

    Abboud, Talal; Bamsey, Matthew; Paul, Anna-Lisa; Graham, Thomas; Braham, Stephen; Noumeir, Rita; Berinstain, Alain; Ferl, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Higher plants are an integral part of strategies for sustained human presence in space. Space-based greenhouses have the potential to provide closed-loop recycling of oxygen, water and food. Plant monitoring systems with the capacity to remotely observe the condition of crops in real-time within these systems would permit operators to take immediate action to ensure optimum system yield and reliability. One such plant health monitoring technique involves the use of reporter genes driving fluorescent proteins as biological sensors of plant stress. In 2006 an initial prototype green fluorescent protein imager system was deployed at the Arthur Clarke Mars Greenhouse located in the Canadian High Arctic. This prototype demonstrated the advantageous of this biosensor technology and underscored the challenges in collecting and managing telemetric data from exigent environments. We present here the design and deployment of a second prototype imaging system deployed within and connected to the infrastructure of the Arthur Clarke Mars Greenhouse. This is the first imager to run autonomously for one year in the un-crewed greenhouse with command and control conducted through the greenhouse satellite control system. Images were saved locally in high resolution and sent telemetrically in low resolution. Imager hardware is described, including the custom designed LED growth light and fluorescent excitation light boards, filters, data acquisition and control system, and basic sensing and environmental control. Several critical lessons learned related to the hardware of small plant growth payloads are also elaborated. PMID:23486220

  12. Greenhouse gas emissions from municipal wastewater treatment plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parravicini, Vanessa; Svardal, Karl

    2016-04-01

    Operating wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) represent a source of greenhouse gases (GHG). Direct GHG emissions include emissions of methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) that can be biologically produced during wastewater and sewage sludge treatment. This is also highlighted in the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC 2006) guidelines used for national GHG inventories. Indirect GHG emissions occur at WWTPs mainly by the consumption of electricity, fossil fuel for transportation and by the use of chemicals (e.g. coagulants). In this study, the impact of direct and indirect GHG emissions was quantified for two model WWTPs of 50.000 person equivalents (p.e.) using carbon footprint analyses. It was assumed that at one WWTP sewage sludge is digested anaerobically, at the other one it is aerobically stabilised in the activated sludge tank. The carbon footprint analyses were performed using literature emission factors. A new estimation model based on measurements at eight Austrian WWTPs was used for the assessment of N2O direct emissions (Parravicini et al., 2015). The results of the calculations show that, under the selected assumptions, the direct N2O emission from the activated sludge tank can dominate the carbon footprint of WWTP with a poor nitrogen removal efficiency. Through an improved operation of nitrogen removal several advantages can be gained: direct N2O emissions can be reduced, the energy demand for aeration can be decreased and a higher effluent quality can be achieved. Anaerobic digesters and anaerobic sludge storage tanks can become a relevant source of direct CH4 emissions. Minimising of CH4 losses from these sources improves the carbon footprint of the WWTP also increasing the energy yield achievable by combusting this renewable energy carrier in a combined heat and power unit. The estimated carbon footprint of the model WWTPs lies between 20 and 40 kg CO2e/p.e./a. This corresponds to 0.2 to 0.4% of the CO2e average emission caused yearly

  13. Ontolology Negotiation Between Scientific Archives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailin, Sidney C.; Truszkowski, Walt; Obenschain, Arthur F. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes an approach to ontology negotiation between information agents. Ontologies are declarative (data driven) expressions of an agent's "world": the objects, operations, facts, and rules that constitute the logical space within which an agent performs. Ontology negotiation enables agents to cooperate in performing a task, even if they are based on different ontologies. 'Me process allows agents to discover ontology conflicts and then, though incremental interpretation, clarification, and explanation, establish a common basis for communicating with each other. The need for ontology negotiation stems from the proliferation of information sources and of agents with widely varying specialty expertise. The unmanageability of massive amounts of web-based information is already becoming apparent. It is starting to have an impact on professions that rely on distributed archived information. If the expansion continues at its present rate without an ontology negotiation process being introduced, there will soon be no way to ensure the accuracy and completeness of information that scientists obtain from sources other than their own experiments. Ontology negotiation is becoming increasingly recognized as a crucial element of scalable agent technology. This is because agents, by their very nature, are supposed to operate with a fair amount of autonomy and independence from their end-users. Part of this independence is the ability to enlist other agents for help in performing a task (such as locating information on the web). The agents enlisted for help may be "owned" by a different end-user or organization (such as a document archive), and there is no guarantee that they will use the same terminology or understand the same concepts (objects, operators, theorems, rules) as the recruiting agent. For NASA, the need for ontology negotiation arises at the boundaries between scientific disciplines. For example: modeling the effects of global warming might involve

  14. Module greenhouse with high efficiency of transformation of solar energy, utilizing active and passive glass optical rasters

    SciTech Connect

    Korecko, J.; Jirka, V.; Sourek, B.; Cerveny, J.

    2010-10-15

    Since the eighties of the 20th century, various types of linear glass rasters for architectural usage have been developed in the Czech Republic made by the continuous melting technology. The development was focused on two main groups of rasters - active rasters with linear Fresnel lenses in fixed installation and with movable photo-thermal and/or photo-thermal/photo-voltaic absorbers. The second group are passive rasters based on total reflection of rays on an optical prism. During the last years we have been working on their standardization, exact measuring of their optical and thermal-technical characteristics and on creation of a final product that could be applied in solar architecture. With the project supported by the Ministry of Environment of the Czech Republic we were able to build an experimental greenhouse using these active and passive optical glass rasters. The project followed the growing number of technical objectives. The concept of the greenhouse consisted of interdependence construction - structural design of the greenhouse with its technological equipment securing the required temperature and humidity conditions in the interior of the greenhouse. This article aims to show the merits of the proposed scheme and presents the results of the mathematical model in the TRNSYS environment through which we could predict the future energy balance carried out similar works, thus optimizing the investment and operating costs. In this article description of various technology applications for passive and active utilization of solar radiation is presented, as well as some results of short-term and long-term experiments, including evaluation of 1-year operation of the greenhouse from the energy and interior temperature viewpoints. A comparison of the calculated energy flows in the greenhouse to real measured values, for verification of the installed model is also involved. (author)

  15. 77 FR 69585 - Greenhouse Gas Reporting Program: Proposed Amendments and Confidentiality Determinations for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-20

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 98 Greenhouse Gas Reporting Program: Proposed Amendments and Confidentiality... rule titled ``Greenhouse Gas Reporting Program: Proposed Amendments and Confidentiality Determinations....gov . For technical questions, please see the ] Greenhouse Gas Reporting Program Web site...

  16. 75 FR 57275 - Information Collection; Supplier Greenhouse Gas Emissions Inventory Pilot

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-20

    ... ADMINISTRATION Information Collection; Supplier Greenhouse Gas Emissions Inventory Pilot AGENCY: Federal... Supplier Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Emissions Inventory pilot. Public comments are particularly invited on... Information Collection 3090- 00XX; Supplier Greenhouse Gas Emissions Inventory Pilot, by any of the...

  17. Maxwell's Scientific Papers.

    PubMed

    Everitt, C W

    1967-04-01

    This article is a review of a reprint of the 1890 commemoration edition of The Scientific Papers of James Clerk Maxwell (Dover Publications, Inc., New York), $12.50. Vol. 1, 607 pp.; Vol.2, 806 pp. One hundred and one of Maxwell's shorter papers, articles, speeches, and reviews on electricity and magnetism, the dynamical theory of gases, theory of light, color vision and other optical problems, elastic solids, molecular physics, etc., are in this reprint; his longer treatises on electricity and magnetism, heat, and matter and motion are not included. This review is illustrated with photographs from the Maxwell family archives which have not been published before.

  18. Scientific Grid computing.

    PubMed

    Coveney, Peter V

    2005-08-15

    We introduce a definition of Grid computing which is adhered to throughout this Theme Issue. We compare the evolution of the World Wide Web with current aspirations for Grid computing and indicate areas that need further research and development before a generally usable Grid infrastructure becomes available. We discuss work that has been done in order to make scientific Grid computing a viable proposition, including the building of Grids, middleware developments, computational steering and visualization. We review science that has been enabled by contemporary computational Grids, and associated progress made through the widening availability of high performance computing.

  19. The Scientific Case against Astrology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Ivan

    1980-01-01

    Discussed is the lack of a scientific foundation and scientific evidence favoring astrology. Included are several research studies conducted to examine astrological tenets which yield generally negative results. (Author/DS)

  20. The Scientific Competitiveness of Nations

    PubMed Central

    Cimini, Giulio; Gabrielli, Andrea; Sylos Labini, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    We use citation data of scientific articles produced by individual nations in different scientific domains to determine the structure and efficiency of national research systems. We characterize the scientific fitness of each nation—that is, the competitiveness of its research system—and the complexity of each scientific domain by means of a non-linear iterative algorithm able to assess quantitatively the advantage of scientific diversification. We find that technological leading nations, beyond having the largest production of scientific papers and the largest number of citations, do not specialize in a few scientific domains. Rather, they diversify as much as possible their research system. On the other side, less developed nations are competitive only in scientific domains where also many other nations are present. Diversification thus represents the key element that correlates with scientific and technological competitiveness. A remarkable implication of this structure of the scientific competition is that the scientific domains playing the role of “markers” of national scientific competitiveness are those not necessarily of high technological requirements, but rather addressing the most “sophisticated” needs of the society. PMID:25493626

  1. Agricultural Information and Scientific Information.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, J. Stephen, Ed.

    1991-01-01

    Six articles discuss the need for increased access to information for agricultural and scientific research in the countries of Zambia, Kenya, Ghana, Turkey, India, and Nigeria. Discussions focus on each country's current scientific and agricultural development and the demand for scientific materials and greater information dissemination. (MAB)

  2. Advancing Scientific Research in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Towne, Lisa, Ed.; Wise, Lauress L., Ed.; Winters, Tina M., Ed.

    2004-01-01

    Transforming education into an evidence-based field depends in no small part on a strong base of scientific knowledge to inform educational policy and practice. Advancing Scientific Research in Education makes select recommendations for strengthening scientific education research and targets federal agencies, professional associations, and…

  3. Greenhouse gases from wastewater treatment - A review of modelling tools.

    PubMed

    Mannina, Giorgio; Ekama, George; Caniani, Donatella; Cosenza, Alida; Esposito, Giovanni; Gori, Riccardo; Garrido-Baserba, Manel; Rosso, Diego; Olsson, Gustaf

    2016-05-01

    Nitrous oxide, carbon dioxide and methane are greenhouse gases (GHG) emitted from wastewater treatment that contribute to its carbon footprint. As a result of the increasing awareness of GHG emissions from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), new modelling, design, and operational tools have been developed to address and reduce GHG emissions at the plant-wide scale and beyond. This paper reviews the state-of-the-art and the recently developed tools used to understand and manage GHG emissions from WWTPs, and discusses open problems and research gaps. The literature review reveals that knowledge on the processes related to N2O formation, especially due to autotrophic biomass, is still incomplete. The literature review shows also that a plant-wide modelling approach that includes GHG is the best option for the understanding how to reduce the carbon footprint of WWTPs. Indeed, several studies have confirmed that a wide vision of the WWPTs has to be considered in order to make them more sustainable as possible. Mechanistic dynamic models were demonstrated as the most comprehensive and reliable tools for GHG assessment. Very few plant-wide GHG modelling studies have been applied to real WWTPs due to the huge difficulties related to data availability and the model complexity. For further improvement in GHG plant-wide modelling and to favour its use at large real scale, knowledge of the mechanisms involved in GHG formation and release, and data acquisition must be enhanced. PMID:26878638

  4. Greenhouse gas emissions from septic systems in New York State

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Truhlar, A. M.; Rahm, B. G.; Brooks, R. A.; Nadeau, S. A.; Walter, M. T.

    2015-12-01

    Onsite septic systems are a practical way to treat wastewater in rural or less-densely populated areas. Septic systems utilize microbial processes to eliminate organic wastes and nutrients such as nitrogen; these processes can contribute to air pollution through the release of greenhouse gases (GHGs). At each of nine septic systems, we measured fluxes of CH4, CO2, and N2O from the soil over the leach field and sand filter, and from the roof outlet vent. These are the most likely locations for gas emissions during normal operation of the septic system. The majority of all septic system gas emissions were released from the roof vent. However, our comparisons of the gas fluxes from these locations suggest that biological processes in the soil, especially the soil over the leach field, can influence the type and quantity of gas that is released from the system. The total vent, sand filter, and leach field GHG emissions were 0.12, 0.045, and 0.046 tonne CO2e capita-1 year-1, respectively. In total, this represents about 1.5% of the annual carbon footprint of an individual living in the US.

  5. Greenhouse gases from wastewater treatment - A review of modelling tools.

    PubMed

    Mannina, Giorgio; Ekama, George; Caniani, Donatella; Cosenza, Alida; Esposito, Giovanni; Gori, Riccardo; Garrido-Baserba, Manel; Rosso, Diego; Olsson, Gustaf

    2016-05-01

    Nitrous oxide, carbon dioxide and methane are greenhouse gases (GHG) emitted from wastewater treatment that contribute to its carbon footprint. As a result of the increasing awareness of GHG emissions from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), new modelling, design, and operational tools have been developed to address and reduce GHG emissions at the plant-wide scale and beyond. This paper reviews the state-of-the-art and the recently developed tools used to understand and manage GHG emissions from WWTPs, and discusses open problems and research gaps. The literature review reveals that knowledge on the processes related to N2O formation, especially due to autotrophic biomass, is still incomplete. The literature review shows also that a plant-wide modelling approach that includes GHG is the best option for the understanding how to reduce the carbon footprint of WWTPs. Indeed, several studies have confirmed that a wide vision of the WWPTs has to be considered in order to make them more sustainable as possible. Mechanistic dynamic models were demonstrated as the most comprehensive and reliable tools for GHG assessment. Very few plant-wide GHG modelling studies have been applied to real WWTPs due to the huge difficulties related to data availability and the model complexity. For further improvement in GHG plant-wide modelling and to favour its use at large real scale, knowledge of the mechanisms involved in GHG formation and release, and data acquisition must be enhanced.

  6. An integrated control of Pythium root rot of greenhouse tomato.

    PubMed

    Tu, J C

    2002-01-01

    Pythium root rot caused by Pythium aphanidermatum is one of the most important diseases of greenhouse tomatoes. Hydroponic culture exacerbates the problem. Both nutrient film technique (NFT) and recirculating growing systems pose a challenge in the control of this disease, because the pathogen, especially the zoospores, can spread easily in the recirculating solution to the whole growing system. Fortunately, hydroponically grown plants are easier to manipulate than soil grown plants, proper manipulation of root environments can lead to excellent disease control. This paper reports the development of an effective integrated control measure for pythium root rot of tomato by integrating pH, bioagent, and ultra-violet irradiation in a specific manner. This integrated control consists of three operations: a) before transplanting, the UV system is connected to sterilize the recirculating solution using 100 mJcm-2; b) after transplanting, the nutrient solution is delivered at pH 5.0 regime for five weeks followed by adjusting pH to 5.8 to 6.2 regime for one week; and c) bacterial bioagent, such as Pseudomonas is introduced into the root zone at 100 mL per plant at 10(8) bacteria mL-1 or added to the nutrient solution to arrive at 10(6) bacteria mL-1 in the solution. This report also discusses the advantages and limitations of this measure in the control of pythium root rot. PMID:12701425

  7. Idaho National Laboratory's FY13 Greenhouse Gas Report

    SciTech Connect

    Kimberly Frerichs

    2014-03-01

    A greenhouse gas (GHG) inventory is a systematic approach to account for the production and release of certain gases generated by an institution from various emission sources. The gases of interest are those that climate science has identified as related to anthropogenic global climate change. This document presents an inventory of GHGs generated during Fiscal Year (FY) 2013 by Idaho National Laboratory (INL), a Department of Energy (DOE) sponsored entity, located in southeastern Idaho. This report details the methods behind quantifying INL’s GHG inventory and discusses lessons learned on better practices by which information important to tracking GHGs can be tracked and recorded. It is important to note that because this report differentiates between those portions of INL that are managed and operated by Battelle Energy Alliance (BEA) and those managed by other contractors, it includes only the large proportion of Laboratory activities overseen by BEA. It is assumed that other contractors will provide similar reporting for those activities they manage, where appropriate.

  8. The 9th INS scientific computational programs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1993-06-01

    Twelve groups were accepted as the 9-th INS scientific Computational Programs (ISCP). This ISCP can use full resources of the INS central computer without an operational limitation. The 9-th ISCP started on June/1/92 and ended on March/30/93. Some results were already published in journals or appeared in physical meetings. This is a sum of the used statistics of the 9-th ISCP and reports presented by groups at the 9-th ISCP.

  9. IAHS Third Scientific Assembly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The International Association of Hydrological Sciences (IAHS) convened its Third Scientific Assembly in Baltimore, Md., May 10-19, 1989. The Assembly was attended by about 450 scientists and engineers. The attendance was highest from the U.S., as could be expected; 37 were from Canada; 22 each, Netherlands and United Kingdom; 14, Italy; 12, China; 10, Federal Republic of Germany; 8 each from France, the Republic of South Africa, and Switzerland; 7, Austria; 6 each, Finland and Japan; others were scattered among the remainder of 48 countries total.one of the cosponsors and also handled business matters for the Assembly. Other cosponsors included the International Association of Meteorology and Atmospheric Physics (IAMAP), United Nations Environmental Program (UNEP), United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), World Meteorological Organization (WMO), and U.K. Overseas Development Authority (ODA). U.S. federal agencies serving as cosponsors included the Environmental Protection Agency, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, National Science Foundation, National Weather Service, Department of Agriculture, Department of State, and U.S. Geological Survey.

  10. Metadata in Scientific Dialects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habermann, T.

    2011-12-01

    Discussions of standards in the scientific community have been compared to religious wars for many years. The only things scientists agree on in these battles are either "standards are not useful" or "everyone can benefit from using my standard". Instead of achieving the goal of facilitating interoperable communities, in many cases the standards have served to build yet another barrier between communities. Some important progress towards diminishing these obstacles has been made in the data layer with the merger of the NetCDF and HDF scientific data formats. The universal adoption of XML as the standard for representing metadata and the recent adoption of ISO metadata standards by many groups around the world suggests that similar convergence is underway in the metadata layer. At the same time, scientists and tools will likely need support for native tongues for some time. I will describe an approach that combines re-usable metadata "components" and restful web services that provide those components in many dialects. This approach uses advanced XML concepts of referencing and linking to construct complete records that include reusable components and builds on the ISO Standards as the "unabridged dictionary" that encompasses the content of many other dialects.

  11. 40 CFR 52.1233 - Operating permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... threshold provisions in Chapter 7007 rules concern the treatment of sources of greenhouse gas emissions as major sources for purposes of title V operating permits, EPA approves such provisions only to the extent they require permits for such sources where the source emits or has the potential to emit at least...

  12. 40 CFR 52.1233 - Operating permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... threshold provisions in Chapter 7007 rules concern the treatment of sources of greenhouse gas emissions as major sources for purposes of title V operating permits, EPA approves such provisions only to the extent they require permits for such sources where the source emits or has the potential to emit at least...

  13. Sectoral roles in greenhouse gas emissions and policy implications for energy utilization and carbon emissions trading: a case study of Beijing, China.

    PubMed

    Ge, Jianping; Lei, Yalin; Xu, Qun; Wang, Xibo

    2016-01-01

    In this study, a decomposition and emissions matrix is developed to identify the roles (giver or taker) played by the sectors in the greenhouse gas emissions for the economy of Beijing in China. Our results indicate that services were the most important emitter if we consider the total (direct and indirect) emissions. In addition to Construction, Scientific studies and technical services and Finance sectors of services were the largest takers. They have a large role in boosting greenhouse gas emissions throughout the economy of Beijing. As the basis and supporter of production activities, the electricity production and the transportation sectors were the greatest givers. More emphasis should be placed on using clean energy and carbon capture and storage technologies to reduce emissions within these sectors. Based on the roles played by these sectors in greenhouse gas emissions, some policy implications were proposed for energy utilization and carbon emissions trading. PMID:27547661

  14. Sectoral roles in greenhouse gas emissions and policy implications for energy utilization and carbon emissions trading: a case study of Beijing, China.

    PubMed

    Ge, Jianping; Lei, Yalin; Xu, Qun; Wang, Xibo

    2016-01-01

    In this study, a decomposition and emissions matrix is developed to identify the roles (giver or taker) played by the sectors in the greenhouse gas emissions for the economy of Beijing in China. Our results indicate that services were the most important emitter if we consider the total (direct and indirect) emissions. In addition to Construction, Scientific studies and technical services and Finance sectors of services were the largest takers. They have a large role in boosting greenhouse gas emissions throughout the economy of Beijing. As the basis and supporter of production activities, the electricity production and the transportation sectors were the greatest givers. More emphasis should be placed on using clean energy and carbon capture and storage technologies to reduce emissions within these sectors. Based on the roles played by these sectors in greenhouse gas emissions, some policy implications were proposed for energy utilization and carbon emissions trading.

  15. Population dynamics and the economics of invasive species management: the greenhouse whitefly in California-grown strawberries.

    PubMed

    McKee, Gregory J; Goodhue, Rachael E; Zalom, Frank G; Carter, Colin A; Chalfant, James A

    2009-01-01

    In agriculture, relatively few efficacious control measures may be available for an invasive pest. In the case of a new insect pest, insecticide use decisions are affected by regulations associated with its registration, insect population dynamics, and seasonal market price cycles. We assess the costs and benefits of environmental regulations designed to regulate insecticide applications on an invasive species. We construct a bioeconomic model, based on detailed scientific data, of management decisions for a specific invasion: greenhouse whiteflies in California-grown strawberries. The empirical model integrates whitefly population dynamics, the effect of whitefly feeding on strawberry yields, and weekly strawberry price. We use the model to assess the optimality of alternative treatment programs on a simulated greenhouse whitefly population. Our results show that regulations may lead growers to "under-spray" when placed in an economic context, and provide some general lessons about the design of optimal invasive species control policies.

  16. Greenhouse gases: What is their role in climate change

    SciTech Connect

    Edmonds, J.A.; Chandler, W.U. ); Wuebbles, D. )

    1990-12-01

    This paper summarizes information relevant to understanding the role of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. It examines the nature of the greenhouse effect, the Earth's radiation budget, the concentrations of these gases in the atmosphere, how these concentrations have been changing, natural processes which regulate these concentrations of greenhouse gases, residence times of these gases in the atmosphere, and the rate of release of gases affecting atmospheric composition by human activities. We address the issue of the greenhouse effect itself in the first section. In the second section we examine trends in atmospheric concentration of greenhouse gases and emissions sources. In the third section, we examine the natural carbon cycle and its role in determining the atmospheric residence time of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}). In the fourth section, we examine the role atmospheric chemistry plays in the determining the concentrations of greenhouse gases. This paper is not intended to be an exhaustive treatment of these issues. Exhaustive treatments can be found in other volumes, many of which are cited throughout this paper. Rather, this paper is intended to summarize some of the major findings, unknowns, and uncertainties associated with the current state of knowledge regarding the role of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. 57 refs., 11 figs., 11 tabs.

  17. Low Simulated Radiation Limit for Runaway Greenhouse Climates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldblatt, Colin; Robinson, Tyler D.; Zahnle, Kevin J.; Crisp, David

    2013-01-01

    Terrestrial planet atmospheres must be in long-term radiation balance, with solar radiation absorbed matched by thermal radiation emitted. For hot moist atmospheres, however, there is an upper limit on the thermal emission which is decoupled from the surface temperature. If net absorbed solar radiation exceeds this limit the planet will heat uncontrollably, the so-called \\runaway greenhouse". Here we show that a runaway greenhouse induced steam atmosphere may be a stable state for a planet with the same amount of incident solar radiation as Earth has today, contrary to previous results. We have calculated the clear-sky radiation limits at line-by-line spectral resolution for the first time. The thermal radiation limit is lower than previously reported (282 W/sq m rather than 310W/sq m) and much more solar radiation would be absorbed (294W/sq m rather than 222W/sq m). Avoiding a runaway greenhouse under the present solar constant requires that the atmosphere is subsaturated with water, and that cloud albedo forcing exceeds cloud greenhouse forcing. Greenhouse warming could in theory trigger a runaway greenhouse but palaeoclimate comparisons suggest that foreseeable increases in greenhouse gases will be insufficient to do this.

  18. An example of fingerprint detection of greenhouse climate changes

    SciTech Connect

    Karoly, D.J.; Cohen, J.A.; Meehl, G.A.

    1994-07-01

    As an example of the technique of fingerprint detection of greenhouse climate change, a multivariate signal or fingerprint of the enhanced greenhouse effect is defined using the zonal mean atmospheric temperature change as a function of height and latitude between equilibrium climate model simulations with control and doubled CO{sub 2} concentrations. This signal is compared with observed atmospheric temperature variations over the period 1963 to 1988 from radiosonde-based global analyses. There is a signiificant increase of this greenhouse signal in the observational data over this period. These results must be treated with caution. Upper air data are available for a short period only, possibly, to be able to resolve any real greenhouse climate change. The greenhouse fingerprint used in this study may not be unique to the enhanced greenhouse effect and may be due to other forcing mechanisms. However, it is shown that the patterns of atmospheric temperature change associated with uniform global increases of sea surface temperature, with El Nino-Southern Oscillation events and with decreases of stratospheric ozone concentrations individually are different from the greenhouse fingerprint used here. 30 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  19. [Effects of solar greenhouse vegetable cultivation on soil physical quality].

    PubMed

    Sun, Yan; Wang, Yi-quan; Liu, Jun; Xia, Fa-sheng; Wang, Jin-gui; Li, Jian-bo

    2011-08-01

    Taking the solar greenhouse heavy loam soil having been planted vegetables for different years at Yunyang Town in Jingyang County of Shaanxi Province as test objects, and with the uncovered vegetable soil adjacent to the greenhouse as the control, this paper studied the effects of solar greenhouse vegetable cultivation on soil physical quality. Solar greenhouse vegetable cultivation had greater effects on the bulk density of 0-30 cm soil layer (an increase in 0-10 cm soil layer and a decrease in 10-30 cm soil layer), but little effects on that of 30-40 cm soil layer. In 0-40 cm solar greenhouse soil profile, the contents of < 0.01 mm physical clay and < 0.001 mm clay were lower in upper layer than in deeper layer, indicating their downward movement, and this phenomenon was more obvious with increasing year of solar greenhouse vegetable cultivation. Within the first 5 years of solar greenhouse vegetable cultivation, soil field water capacity decreased significantly, with a decrement of 13.8%, but remained relatively stable after then.

  20. Application Problem of Biomass Combustion in Greenhouses for Crop Production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawamura, Atsuhiro; Akisawa, Atsushi; Kashiwagi, Takao

    It is consumed much energy in fossil fuels to production crops in greenhouses in Japan. And fl ue gas as CO2 fertilization is used for growing crops in modern greenhouses. If biomass as renewable energy can use for production vegetables in greenhouses, more than 800,000 kl of energy a year (in crude oil equivalent) will be saved. In this study, at fi rst, we made the biomass combustion equipment, and performed fundamental examination for various pellet fuel. We performed the examination that considered an application to a real greenhouse next. We considered biomass as both a source of energy and CO2 gas for greenhouses, and the following fi ndings were obtained: 1) Based on the standard of CO2 gas fertilization to greenhouses, it is diffi cult to apply biomass as a CO2 fertilizer, so that biomass should be applied to energy use only, at least for the time being. 2) Practical biomass energy machinery for economy, high reliability and greenhouses satisfying the conservatism that it is easy is necessary. 3) It is necessary to develop crop varieties and cultivation systems requiring less strict environmental control. 4) Disposal of combustion ash occurring abundantly, effective practical use is necessary.

  1. Sonic Anemometry to Measure Natural Ventilation in Greenhouses

    PubMed Central

    López, Alejandro; Valera, Diego Luis; Molina-Aiz, Francisco

    2011-01-01

    The present work has developed a methodology for studying natural ventilation in Mediterranean greenhouses by means of sonic anemometry. In addition, specific calculation programmes have been designed to enable processing and analysis of the data recorded during the experiments. Sonic anemometry allows us to study the direction of the airflow at all the greenhouse vents. Knowing through which vents the air enters and leaves the greenhouse enables us to establish the airflow pattern of the greenhouse under natural ventilation conditions. In the greenhouse analysed in this work for Poniente wind (from the southwest), a roof vent designed to open towards the North (leeward) could allow a positive interaction between the wind and stack effects, improving the ventilation capacity of the greenhouse. The cooling effect produced by the mass of turbulent air oscillating between inside and outside the greenhouse at the side vents was limited to 2% (for high wind speed, uo ≥ 4 m s−1) reaching 36.3% when wind speed was lower (uo = 2 m s−1). PMID:22163728

  2. Greenhouse gas emissions from a managed grassland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, S. K.; Rees, R. M.; Skiba, U. M.; Ball, B. C.

    2005-07-01

    Managed grasslands contribute to global warming by the exchange of the greenhouse gases carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide and methane. To reduce uncertainties of the global warming potential of European grasslands and to assess potential mitigation options, an integrated approach quantifying fluxes from all three gases is needed. Greenhouse gas emissions from a grassland site in the SE of Scotland were measured in 2002 and 2003. Closed static chambers were used for N 2O and CH 4 flux measurements, and samples were analysed by gas chromatography. Closed dynamic chambers were used for soil respiration measurements, using infrared gas analysis. Three organic manures and two inorganic fertilizers were applied at a rate of 300 kg N ha -1 a -1 (available N) and compared with a zero-N control on grassland plots in a replicated experimental design. Soil respiration from plots receiving manure was up to 1.6 times larger than CO 2 release from control plots and up to 1.7 times larger compared to inorganic treatments ( p<0.05). A highly significant ( p<0.001) effect of fertilizer and manure treatments on N 2O release was observed. Release of N 2O from plots receiving inorganic fertilizers resulted in short term peaks of up to 388 g N 2O-N ha -1 day -1. However losses from plots receiving organic manures were both longer lasting and greater in magnitude, with an emission of up to 3488 g N 2O-N ha -1 day -1 from the sewage sludge treatments. During the 2002 growing season the cumulative total N 2O flux from manure treatments was 25 times larger than that from mineral fertilizers. CH 4 emissions were only significantly increased ( p<0.001) for a short period following applications of cattle slurry. Although soil respiration in manure plots was high, model predictions and micrometeorological flux measurements at an adjacent site suggest that all plots receiving fertilizer or manure acted as a sink for CO 2. Therefore in terms of global warming potentials the contribution of N 2O from

  3. Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Brazilian Sugarcane Soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carmo, J.; Pitombo, L.; Cantarella, H.; Rosseto, R.; Andrade, C.; Martinelli, L.; Gava, G.; Vargas, V.; Sousa-Neto, E.; Zotelli, L.; Filoso, S.; Neto, A. E.

    2012-04-01

    Bioethanol from sugarcane is increasingly seen as a sustainable alternative energy source. Besides having high photosynthetic efficiency, sugarcane is a perennial tropical grass crop that can re-grow up to five or more years after being planted. Brazil is the largest producer of sugarcane in the world and management practices commonly used in the country lead to lower rates of inorganic N fertilizer application than sugarcane grown elsewhere, or in comparison to other feedstocks such as corn. Therefore, Brazilian sugarcane ethanol potentially promotes greenhouse gas savings. For that reason, several recent studies have attempted to assess emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG) during sugarcane production in the tropics. However, estimates have been mainly based on models due to a general lack of field data. In this study, we present data from in situ experiments on emission of three GHG (CO2, N2O, and CH4) in sugarcane fields in Brazil. Emissions are provided for sugarcane in different phases of the crop life cycle and under different management practices. Our results show that the use of nitrogen fertilizer in sugarcane crops resulted in an emission factor for N2O similar to those predicted by IPCC (1%), ranging from 0.59% in ratoon cane to 1.11% in plant cane. However, when vinasse was applied in addition to mineralN fertilizer, emissions of GHG increased in comparison to those from the use of mineral N fertilizer alone. Emissions increased significantly when experiments mimicked the accumulation of cane trash on the soil surface with 14 tons ha-1and 21 tons ha-1, which emission factor were 1.89% and 3.03%, respectively. This study is representative of Brazilian sugarcane systems under specific conditions for key factors affecting GHG emissions from soils. Nevertheless, the data provided will improve estimates of GHG from Brazilian sugarcane, and efforts to assess sugarcane ethanol sustainability and energy balance. Funding provided by the São Paulo Research

  4. Lessons learned from three-years operation of TANSO-FTS on GOSAT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suto, Hiroshi; Kuze, Akihiko; Shiomi, Kei; Nakajima, Masakatsu

    2012-10-01

    To observe the global column concentration of carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) from space, the Greenhouse gases Observing SATellite (GOSAT) was launched on January 23, 2009, and has started the operational observation. Thermal and Near Infrared Sensor for Carbon Observation- Fourier Transform Spectrometer (TANSO-FTS) has been continuously measuring CO2 and CH4 distributions globally, and the retrieved column CO2 and CH4 data have been distributed to the public. Over three-years operational periods, the useful scientific data sets and interesting articles for carbon source/sink evaluation were produced and published, and these results have been supporting to well understanding of carbon cycle. Currently, the importance of space-based carbon observation has been approved and desired the continuous observation in toward. Through the TANSO-FTS operation with the radiometric, geometric and spectroscopic characterizations, we learned how to improve the accuracy of XCO2 and XCH4 based on short-wavelength FTS. The correction procedures for micro-vibration from companion components, non-linear response of analogue and digitizing circuit are key role on the current on-board operating TANSO-FTS. On instrumental aspects, the robustness and improvements will be required on the future mission. To elucidate the carbon cycle more precisely, our experiences have to be summarized and applied in the future missions. In this presentation, the detail of lessons and learned from TANSO-FTS operation will be presented.

  5. Tradeoffs between costs and greenhouse gas emissions in the design of urban transit systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griswold, Julia B.; Madanat, Samer; Horvath, Arpad

    2013-12-01

    Recent investments in the transit sector to address greenhouse gas emissions have concentrated on purchasing efficient replacement vehicles and inducing mode shift from the private automobile. There has been little focus on the potential of network and operational improvements, such as changes in headways, route spacing, and stop spacing, to reduce transit emissions. Most models of transit system design consider user and agency cost while ignoring emissions and the potential environmental benefit of operational improvements. We use a model to evaluate the user and agency costs as well as greenhouse gas benefit of design and operational improvements to transit systems. We examine how the operational characteristics of urban transit systems affect both costs and greenhouse gas emissions. The research identifies the Pareto frontier for designing an idealized transit network. Modes considered include bus, bus rapid transit (BRT), light rail transit (LRT), and metro (heavy) rail, with cost and emissions parameters appropriate for the United States. Passenger demand follows a many-to-many travel pattern with uniformly distributed origins and destinations. The approaches described could be used to optimize the network design of existing bus service or help to select a mode and design attributes for a new transit system. The results show that BRT provides the lowest cost but not the lowest emissions for our large city scenarios. Bus and LRT systems have low costs and the lowest emissions for our small city scenarios. Relatively large reductions in emissions from the cost-optimal system can be achieved with only minor increases in user travel time.

  6. Greenhouse Gas Abatement with Distributed Generation in California's Commercial Buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Stadler, Michael; Marnay, Chris; Cardoso, Goncalo; Megel, Olivier; Siddiqui, Afzal; Lai, Judy

    2009-08-15

    Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBL) is working with the California Energy Commission (CEC) to determine the role of distributed generation (DG) in greenhouse gas reductions. The impact of DG on large industrial sites is well known, and mostly, the potentials are already harvested. In contrast, little is known about the impact of DG on commercial buildings with peak electric loads ranging from 100 kW to 5 MW. We examine how DG with combined heat and power (CHP) may be implemented within the context of a cost minimizing microgrid that is able to adopt and operate various smart energy technologies, such as thermal and photovoltaic (PV) on-site generation, heat exchangers, solar thermal collectors, absorption chillers, and storage systems. We use a mixed-integer linear program (MILP) that has the minimization of a site's annual energy costs as objective. Using 138 representative commercial sites in California (CA) with existing tariff rates and technology data, we find the greenhouse gas reduction potential for California's commercial sector. This paper shows results from the ongoing research project and finished work from a two year U.S. Department of Energy research project. To show the impact of the different technologies on CO2 emissions, several sensitivity runs for different climate zones within CA with different technology performance expectations for 2020 were performed. The considered sites can contribute between 1 Mt/a and 1.8 Mt/a to the California Air Resources Board (CARB) goal of 6.7Mt/a CO2 abatement potential in 2020. Also, with lower PV and storage costs as well as consideration of a CO2 pricing scheme, our results indicate that PV and electric storage adoption can compete rather than supplement each other when the tariff structure and costs of electricity supply have been taken into consideration. To satisfy the site's objective of minimizing energy costs, the batteries will be charged also by CHP systems during off-peak and mid-peak hours and

  7. A greenhouse-gas information system monitoring and validating emissions reporting and mitigation

    SciTech Connect

    Jonietz, Karl K; Dimotakis, Paul E; Walker, Bruce C

    2011-09-26

    Current GHG-mitigating regimes, whether internationally agreed or self-imposed, rely on the aggregation of self-reported data, with limited checks for consistency and accuracy, for monitoring. As nations commit to more stringent GHG emissions-mitigation actions and as economic rewards or penalties are attached to emission levels, self-reported data will require independent confirmation that they are accurate and reliable, if they are to provide the basis for critical choices and actions that may be required. Supporting emissions-mitigation efforts and agreements, as well as monitoring energy- and fossil-fuel intensive national and global activities would be best achieved by a process of: (1) monitoring of emissions and emission-mitigation actions, based, in part, on, (2) (self-) reporting of pertinent bottom-up inventory data, (3) verification that reported data derive from and are consistent with agreed-upon processes and procedures, and (4) validation that reported emissions and emissions-mitigation action data are correct, based on independent measurements (top-down) derived from a suite of sensors in space, air, land, and, possibly, sea, used to deduce and attribute anthropogenic emissions. These data would be assessed and used to deduce and attribute measured GHG concentrations to anthropogenic emissions, attributed geographically and, to the extent possible, by economic sector. The validation element is needed to provide independent assurance that emissions are in accord with reported values, and should be considered as an important addition to the accepted MRV process, leading to a MRV&V process. This study and report focus on attributes of a greenhouse-gas information system (GHGIS) needed to support MRV&V needs. These needs set the function of such a system apart from scientific/research monitoring of GHGs and carbon-cycle systems, and include (not exclusively): the need for a GHGIS that is operational, as required for decision-support; the need for a

  8. Energy direct inputs and greenhouse gas emissions of the main industrial trawl fishery of Brazil.

    PubMed

    Port, Dagoberto; Perez, Jose Angel Alvarez; de Menezes, João Thadeu

    2014-11-15

    This study provides first-time estimates of direct fuel inputs and greenhouse gas emissions produced by the trawl fishing fleet operating off southeastern and southern Brazil. Analyzed data comprised vessel characteristics, landings, fishing areas and trawling duration of 10,144 fishing operations monitored in Santa Catarina State from 2003 to 2011. Three main fishing strategies were differentiated: 'shrimp trawling', 'slope trawling' and 'pair trawling'. Jointly these operations burned over 9.1 million liters of diesel to land 342.3 million kilograms of fish and shellfish. Annually, 0.023-0.031 l were consumed for every kg of catch landed. Because all fishing strategies relied on multispecific catches to raise total incomes, estimates of fuel use intensity were generally low but increased 200-900% if only nominal targets were considered. In nine years, trawling operations emitted 6.69 GgC to the atmosphere, between 2300 and 3300 tons CO2 per year.

  9. Energy direct inputs and greenhouse gas emissions of the main industrial trawl fishery of Brazil.

    PubMed

    Port, Dagoberto; Perez, Jose Angel Alvarez; de Menezes, João Thadeu

    2016-06-15

    This study provides first-time estimates of direct fuel inputs and greenhouse gas emissions produced by the trawl fishing fleet operating off southeastern and southern Brazil. Analyzed data comprised vessel characteristics, landings, fishing areas and trawling duration of 10,144 fishing operations monitored in Santa Catarina State from 2003 to 2011. Three main fishing strategies were differentiated: 'shrimp trawling', 'slope trawling' and 'pair trawling'. Jointly these operations burned over 141.5millionl of diesel to land 342.3millionkg of fish and shellfish. Annually, 0.36-0.48l were consumed for every kg of catch landed. Because all fishing strategies relied on multispecific catches to raise total incomes, estimates of fuel use intensity were generally low but increased 316-1025% if only nominal targets were considered. In nine years, trawling operations emitted 104.07GgC to the atmosphere, between 36,800-49,500tons CO2 per year.

  10. Energy direct inputs and greenhouse gas emissions of the main industrial trawl fishery of Brazil.

    PubMed

    Port, Dagoberto; Perez, Jose Angel Alvarez; de Menezes, João Thadeu

    2016-06-15

    This study provides first-time estimates of direct fuel inputs and greenhouse gas emissions produced by the trawl fishing fleet operating off southeastern and southern Brazil. Analyzed data comprised vessel characteristics, landings, fishing areas and trawling duration of 10,144 fishing operations monitored in Santa Catarina State from 2003 to 2011. Three main fishing strategies were differentiated: 'shrimp trawling', 'slope trawling' and 'pair trawling'. Jointly these operations burned over 141.5millionl of diesel to land 342.3millionkg of fish and shellfish. Annually, 0.36-0.48l were consumed for every kg of catch landed. Because all fishing strategies relied on multispecific catches to raise total incomes, estimates of fuel use intensity were generally low but increased 316-1025% if only nominal targets were considered. In nine years, trawling operations emitted 104.07GgC to the atmosphere, between 36,800-49,500tons CO2 per year. PMID:27068561

  11. Salton Sea Scientific Drilling Project: A summary of drilling and engineering activities and scientific results

    SciTech Connect

    Ross, H.P.; Forsgren, C.K.

    1992-04-01

    The Salton Sea Scientific g Project (SSSDP) completed the first major well in the United States Continental Scientific Drilling Program. The well (State 2-14) was drilled to 10,W ft (3,220 m) in the Salton Sea Geothermal Field in California's Imperial Valley, to permit scientific study of a deep, high-temperature portion of an active geothermal system. The program was designed to investigate, through drilling and testing, the subsurface thermal, chemical, and mineralogical environments of this geothermal area. Extensive samples and data, including cores, cuttings, geothermal fluids and gases, and geophysical logs, were collected for future scientific analysis, interpretation, and publication. Short duration flow tests were conducted on reservoirs at a depth of approximately 6,120 ft (1,865 m) and at 10,136 ft (3,089 m). This report summarizes all major activities of the SSSDP, from project inception in the fall of 1984 through brine-pond cleanup and site restoration, ending in February 1989. This report presents a balanced summary of drilling, coring, logging, and flow-test operations, and a brief summary of technical and scientific results. Frequent reference is made to original records, data, and publication of results. The report also reviews the proposed versus the final well design, and operational summaries, such as the bit record, the casing and cementing program, and the coring program. Summaries are and the results of three flow tests. Several teamed during the project.

  12. Global warming description using Daisyworld model with greenhouse gases.

    PubMed

    Paiva, Susana L D; Savi, Marcelo A; Viola, Flavio M; Leiroz, Albino J K

    2014-11-01

    Daisyworld is an archetypal model of the earth that is able to describe the global regulation that can emerge from the interaction between life and environment. This article proposes a model based on the original Daisyworld considering greenhouse gases emission and absorption, allowing the description of the global warming phenomenon. Global and local analyses are discussed evaluating the influence of greenhouse gases in the planet dynamics. Numerical simulations are carried out showing the general qualitative behavior of the Daisyworld for different scenarios that includes solar luminosity variations and greenhouse gases effect. Nonlinear dynamics perspective is of concern discussing a way that helps the comprehension of the global warming phenomenon.

  13. Estimation of greenhouse impacts of continuous regional emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Sinisalo, J.

    1998-03-27

    In this thesis, a method to calculate the greenhouse impact of continuous, time-dependent, non-global greenhouse gas emissions is used to estimate the impact of estimated anthropogenic pre-1990 and future (post 1990) emissions of CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O of Finland and Nordic countries. Estimates for the impact of Finnish CFCs and their substitutes and the significance of Finnnish forests as carbon sink are also calculated. The method is also used to compare several different wood and peat energy production schemes with fossil fuel use, in terms of caused greenhouse impact. The uncertainty of the results is examined.

  14. Evolution of the scientific paper

    SciTech Connect

    Harmon, J.E.

    1992-09-01

    The first papers reporting original research results in technical periodicals and proceedings appeared in the late 17th century. Since that time, the typical scientific paper has evolved from a fairly simple document, accessible to a general audience, to a much more complex one, aimed at a specialized audience. The purpose of this article is to give an overview of what the first scientific papers were like and how they evolved to their present form and style. To facilitate this discussion, the scientific paper`s development has arbitrarily been divided into four stages: the origin and formative years of the scientific paper (1665-1765), emergence of scientific papers written for specialized publications (1765-1865), development of the modem scientific paper (1865-1965), and hyperspecialization and computerization of the modem scientific paper (1965-?).

  15. Evolution of the scientific paper

    SciTech Connect

    Harmon, J.E.

    1992-01-01

    The first papers reporting original research results in technical periodicals and proceedings appeared in the late 17th century. Since that time, the typical scientific paper has evolved from a fairly simple document, accessible to a general audience, to a much more complex one, aimed at a specialized audience. The purpose of this article is to give an overview of what the first scientific papers were like and how they evolved to their present form and style. To facilitate this discussion, the scientific paper's development has arbitrarily been divided into four stages: the origin and formative years of the scientific paper (1665-1765), emergence of scientific papers written for specialized publications (1765-1865), development of the modem scientific paper (1865-1965), and hyperspecialization and computerization of the modem scientific paper (1965- ).

  16. Greenhouse gas mitigation by agricultural intensification

    PubMed Central

    Burney, Jennifer A.; Davis, Steven J.; Lobell, David B.

    2010-01-01

    As efforts to mitigate climate change increase, there is a need to identify cost-effective ways to avoid emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs). Agriculture is rightly recognized as a source of considerable emissions, with concomitant opportunities for mitigation. Although future agricultural productivity is critical, as it will shape emissions from conversion of native landscapes to food and biofuel crops, investment in agricultural research is rarely mentioned as a mitigation strategy. Here we estimate the net effect on GHG emissions of historical agricultural intensification between 1961 and 2005. We find that while emissions from factors such as fertilizer production and application have increased, the net effect of higher yields has avoided emissions of up to 161 gigatons of carbon (GtC) (590 GtCO2e) since 1961. We estimate that each dollar invested in agricultural yields has resulted in 68 fewer kgC (249 kgCO2e) emissions relative to 1961 technology ($14.74/tC, or ∼$4/tCO2e), avoiding 3.6 GtC (13.1 GtCO2e) per year. Our analysis indicates that investment in yield improvements compares favorably with other commonly proposed mitigation strategies. Further yield improvements should therefore be prominent among efforts to reduce future GHG emissions. PMID:20551223

  17. California's new mandatory greenhouse gas reporting regulation

    SciTech Connect

    Patrick Gaffney; Doug Thompson; Richard Bode

    2008-11-15

    Beginning in early 2009, approximately 1000 California businesses will begin reporting their greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions based on the requirements of a new regulation adopted by the California Air Resources Board (CARB) in December 2007. California's mandatory GHG reporting regulation is the first rule adopted as a requirement of the Global Warming Solutions Act of 2006, passed by the California Legislature as Assembly Bill 32 (AB 32; Nunez, Chapter 488, Statutes of 2006) and signed by Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger in September 2006. The regulation is the first of its kind in the United States to require facilities to report annual GHG emissions. In general, all facilities subject to reporting are required to report their on-site stationary source combustion emissions of CO{sub 2}, nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O), and methane (CH{sub 4}). Some industrial sectors, such as cement producers and oil refineries, also must report their process emissions, which occur from chemical or other noncombustion activities. Fugitive emissions from facilities are required to be reported when specified in the regulation. Sulfur hexafluoride (SF{sub 6}) and hydrofluorocarbon (HFC) use is prevalent in electricity facilities and must be reported. CO{sub 2} emissions from biomass-derived fuels must be separately identified during reporting, and reporters must also provide their consumption of purchased or acquired electricity and thermal energy; these requirements will assist facilities in evaluating changes in their fossil fuel carbon footprints. 1 tab.

  18. Wind pumps for irrigating greenhouse crops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peillón, M.; Sánchez, R.; Tarquis, A. M.; García, J. L.

    2012-04-01

    Agriculture is a major consumer of energy in many countries of the world. Only a few of these countries are self-sufficient in conventional energy sources, which are also exhaustible. Fortunately, there are other sources of energy, such as wind, which has experienced recent developments in the area of wind power generation. From irrigation projects to power supply in remote farms, wind power generation can play a vital role. A simple methodology for technical evaluation of windmills for irrigation water pumping has been developed in this study to determine the feasibility per unit amount of water supplied and the levels of daily irrigation demand satisfied by windmill irrigation system at various levels of risk (probability of failure). For this purpose, a series of three hourly wind-speed data over a period of 38 years at Ciego de Ávila, Cuba, were analyzed to compute the diurnal wind pump discharge at varying levels of risk. The sizes of reservoirs required to modulate fluctuating discharge and to satisfy the levels of irrigation demand, on function of crop development dates, cultivated area and water elevation height, were computed by cumulative deficit water budgeting. An example is given illustrating the use of the methodology on tomato crop (Licopersicon esculentum Mill) under greenhouse.

  19. Inhomogeneous radiative forcing of homogeneous greenhouse gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Yi; Tan, Xiaoxiao; Xia, Yan

    2016-03-01

    Radiative forcing of a homogeneous greenhouse gas (HGG) can be very inhomogeneous because the forcing is dependent on other atmospheric and surface variables. In the case of doubling CO2, the monthly mean instantaneous forcing at the top of the atmosphere is found to vary geographically and temporally from positive to negative values, with the range (-2.5-5.1 W m-2) being more than 3 times the magnitude of the global mean value (2.3 W m-2). The vertical temperature change across the atmospheric column (temperature lapse rate) is found to be the best single predictor for explaining forcing variation. In addition, the masking effects of clouds and water vapor also contribute to forcing inhomogeneity. A regression model that predicts forcing from geophysical variables is constructed. This model can explain more than 90% of the variance of the forcing. Applying this model to analyzing the forcing variation in the Climate Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 models, we find that intermodel discrepancy in CO2 forcing caused by model climatology leads to considerable discrepancy in their projected change in poleward energy transport.

  20. Estonian greenhouse gas emissions inventory report

    SciTech Connect

    Punning, J.M.; Ilomets, M.; Karindi, A.; Mandre, M.; Reisner, V.; Martins, A.; Pesur, A.; Roostalu, H.; Tullus, H.

    1996-07-01

    It is widely accepted that the increase of greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere due to human activities would result in warming of the Earth`s surface. To examine this effect and better understand how the GHG increase in the atmosphere might change the climate in the future, how ecosystems and societies in different regions of the World should adapt to these changes, what must policymakers do for the mitigation of that effect, the worldwide project within the Framework Convention on Climate Change was generated by the initiative of United Nations. Estonia is one of more than 150 countries, which signed the Framework Convention on Climate Change at the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development held in Rio de Janeiro in June 1992. In 1994 a new project, Estonian Country Study was initiated within the US Country Studies Program. The project will help to compile the GHG inventory for Estonia, find contemporary trends to investigate the impact of climate change on the Estonian ecosystems and economy and to formulate national strategies for Estonia addressing to global climate change.

  1. The greenhouse effect: Physiological changes in plants

    SciTech Connect

    Beard, R.; Harrison, M. )

    1990-05-01

    Elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide is timely topic of study for all biology students at all levels. The stimulatory effect of elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide (700 {mu}l/l) on plant growth, flower induction, protein production and the Calvin-Benson cycle can be easily demonstrated in seedlings in student laboratories. In our lab, the shoot growth of rapid cycling brassicas (Wisconsin fast plants) was measured under ambient and elevated CO{sub 2} conditions for three weeks. Plants grown under elevated CO{sub 2} conditions were significantly taller and showed earlier flower development. These plants also contained greater protein content per gram fresh weight. Crude leaf extracts was used as a source of pentose-5-isomerase which controls the conversion of ribose-5-phosphate to ribulose-5-phosphate in carbon fixation. The activity of this enzyme was measured spectrophotometrically and found to be somewhat greater in plants grown under the higher CO{sub 2} conditions. These physiological changes associated with elevated CO{sub 2} can be used as an introduction to the greenhouse effect as well as to study the regulation of carbon fixation.

  2. [The greenhouse effect and human health].

    PubMed

    Berger, A

    1991-01-01

    Numerous scenarios describing the potential evolution of man's activities during the next few decades enable to predict the components of the future environmental system. On this basis and using the most reliable models, it may be predicted that, unless we alter our developmental policy, the Earth system will be significantly perturbed during the course of the 21st century. In particular, the greenhouse warming will cause profound changes in climatic zones as we know them to-day and, consequently, in regional climates and in the agricultural, economic, social and health infrastructures associated with them. According to the Intergovernmental Panel of Climate Change, the Business-as-Usual scenario of emission would lead to a warming of about 3 degrees C above the 1990 level by the end of the next century. Sea level will rise due to the thermal expansion of the warmer oceans and potential melting of glaciers with a "best" estimate of 60 cm for the end of the XXIst century. Much more needs to be known about man-made effects on his surroundings, but action must be taken rapidly and effectively to ensure that instead of destroying the basis for human life on Earth, man's ingenuity is applied to saving and improving it.

  3. Hydrological modelling as a basis for the assessment of greenhouse gas emissions from organic soils in Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiemeyer, Bärbel; Frahm, Enrico; Dechow, Rene; Freibauer, Annette

    2010-05-01

    Although covering only around 5 % of the country, peatlands are the largest single source of greenhouse gas emissions besides the energy sector in Germany. Thus, the compilation of the national greenhouse gas inventory according to the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change requires the application of country-specific emission factors depending on climate region, soil type and land use as well as a complete set of activity data (e.g. management, soil type or groundwater level). To develop scaling methods and emission factors for greenhouse gas emissions, hydrological models specifically designed for peatlands and other organic soils (Histosols) are required to deliver input data for gas exchange modelling. The implementation of both a hydrological monitoring programme and an adequate model is part of a large project with 11 catchments with more than 60 gas flux measurement sites all over Germany aiming at the improvement of the greenhouse gas inventory. Greenhouse gas emissions from peatlands are very sensitive to changes in the - usually very shallow - groundwater level and soil moisture, which poses an enormous challenge when attempting to upscale hydrological and gas exchange models to the national scale. At the catchment scale, geohydrological models are used to develop modelling approaches for different peatlands types (bottom-up approach). At the same time, a conceptual model is developed for the national scale, which is based on a newly compiled Histosol map, official survey data, a digital elevation model and regional information from peatland inventories. Using this data, a rule-base system will be developed to identify hydrological peatland types and boundary conditions for which specific modelling approaches - e.g. for rain-fed bogs - will be applied (top-down approach). Monitoring data from the test sites as well as from conservation programmes will be used for calibration and uncertainty analysis. Finally, management scenarios will be implemented to

  4. Harmful potential toxic elements in greenhouse soils under long-term cultivation in Almería (Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joaquin Ramos-Miras, Jose; Rodríguez Martín, Jose Antonio; Boluda, Rafael; Bech, Jaume; Gil, Carlos

    2014-05-01

    Heavy metals (HM) are considered highly significant environmental contaminants and are the object of many scientific research works into the soil environment. Activities like agriculture or industry can increase the concentration of these contaminants in soils and waters, which can affect the food chain. Intensification of certain agricultural practices, constant and excessive use of fertilizers and phytosanitary products, and using machinery, increase the HM content in agricultural soils. Many studies have dealt with HM accumulation over time. Despite these works, the influence of long periods of time on these contents, the dynamics and evolution of these elements in agricultural soils, especially soils used for intensive farming purposes under greenhouse conditions, remain unknown to a certain extent. The western Almería region (Spain) is a very important area from both the socio-economic and agricultural viewpoints. A common practice in greenhouse agriculture is the addition of agrochemicals to soils and crops to improve nutrient supply or crop protection and disease control. Such intense agricultural activity has a strong impact, which may have negative repercussions on both these greenhouse soils and the environment. A research has been carried out to determine the total and available levels of six harmful potentially toxic elements (Cd, Cu, Pb, Ni, Zn and Co), and to assess long-term variations in the greenhouse soils of western Almeria. The results indicate that managing soils in the greenhouse preparation stage determines major changes in total and available HM contents. Furthermore, Cd, Cu and Pb enrichment in soil was observed depending on the element and years of growth.

  5. Final Scientific EFNUDAT Workshop

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    The Final Scientific EFNUDAT Workshop - organized by the CERN/EN-STI group on behalf of n_TOF Collaboration - will be held at CERN, Geneva (Switzerland) from 30 August to 2 September 2010 inclusive.EFNUDAT website: http://www.efnudat.euTopics of interest include: Data evaluationCross section measurementsExperimental techniquesUncertainties and covariancesFission propertiesCurrent and future facilities  International Advisory Committee: C. Barreau (CENBG, France)T. Belgya (IKI KFKI, Hungary)E. Gonzalez (CIEMAT, Spain)F. Gunsing (CEA, France)F.-J. Hambsch (IRMM, Belgium)A. Junghans (FZD, Germany)R. Nolte (PTB, Germany)S. Pomp (TSL UU, Sweden) Workshop Organizing Committee: Enrico Chiaveri (Chairman)Marco CalvianiSamuel AndriamonjeEric BerthoumieuxCarlos GuerreroRoberto LositoVasilis Vlachoudis Workshop Assistant: Géraldine Jean

  6. Dishonesty in scientific research.

    PubMed

    Mazar, Nina; Ariely, Dan

    2015-11-01

    Fraudulent business practices, such as those leading to the Enron scandal and the conviction of Bernard Madoff, evoke a strong sense of public outrage. But fraudulent or dishonest actions are not exclusive to the realm of big corporations or to evil individuals without consciences. Dishonest actions are all too prevalent in everyone's daily lives, because people are constantly encountering situations in which they can gain advantages by cutting corners. Whether it's adding a few dollars in value to the stolen items reported on an insurance claim form or dropping outlier data points from a figure to make a paper sound more interesting, dishonesty is part of the human condition. Here, we explore how people rationalize dishonesty, the implications for scientific research, and what can be done to foster a culture of research integrity. PMID:26524587

  7. Scientific developments ISFD3

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schropp, M.H.I.; Soong, T.W.

    2006-01-01

    Highlights, trends, and consensus from the 63 papers submitted to the Scientific Developments theme of the Third International Symposium on Flood Defence (ISFD) are presented. Realizing that absolute protection against flooding can never be guaranteed, trends in flood management have shifted: (1) from flood protection to flood-risk management, (2) from reinforcing structural protection to lowering flood levels, and (3) to sustainable management through integrated problem solving. Improved understanding of watershed responses, climate changes, applications of GIS and remote-sensing technologies, and advanced analytical tools appeared to be the driving forces for renewing flood-risk management strategies. Technical competence in integrating analytical tools to form the basin wide management systems are demonstrated by several large, transnation models. However, analyses from social-economic-environmental points of view are found lag in general. ?? 2006 Taylor & Francis Group.

  8. Ethics in Scientific Publishing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sage, Leslie J.

    2012-08-01

    We all learn in elementary school not turn in other people's writing as if it were our own (plagiarism), and in high school science labs not to fake our data. But there are many other practices in scientific publishing that are depressingly common and almost as unethical. At about the 20 percent level authors are deliberately hiding recent work -- by themselves as well as by others -- so as to enhance the apparent novelty of their most recent paper. Some people lie about the dates the data were obtained, to cover up conflicts of interest, or inappropriate use of privileged information. Others will publish the same conference proceeding in multiple volumes, or publish the same result in multiple journals with only trivial additions of data or analysis (self-plagiarism). These shady practices should be roundly condemned and stopped. I will discuss these and other unethical actions I have seen over the years, and steps editors are taking to stop them.

  9. Ben Franklin's Scientific Amusements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herschbach, Dudley

    2003-04-01

    As an American icon, Benjamin Franklin is often portrayed as wise and canny in business and politics, earnestly pursuing and extolling diligence, sensible conduct, pragmatism, and good works. Also legendary are some of his inventions, particularly the lightning rod, bifocals, and an efficient wood-burning stove. The iconic image is misleading in major respects. Today, surprisingly few people appreciate that, in the 18th century, Franklin was greatly esteemed throughout Europe as a scientist (termed then a "natural philosopher.") He was hailed as the "Newton of Electricity." Indeed, until Franklin, electricity seemed more mysterious than had gravity in Newton's time, and lightning was considered the wrath of God. By his own account, Franklin's studies of electricity and many other phenomena were prompted not by practical aims, but by his playful curiosity--which often became obsessive. Also not generally appreciated is the importance of Franklin's scientific reputation in enhancing his efforts to obtain French support for the American Revolution.

  10. Final Scientific EFNUDAT Workshop

    SciTech Connect

    2010-11-09

    The Final Scientific EFNUDAT Workshop - organized by the CERN/EN-STI group on behalf of n_TOF Collaboration - will be held at CERN, Geneva (Switzerland) from 30 August to 2 September 2010 inclusive.EFNUDAT website: http://www.efnudat.euTopics of interest include: Data evaluationCross section measurementsExperimental techniquesUncertainties and covariancesFission propertiesCurrent and future facilities  International Advisory Committee: C. Barreau (CENBG, France)T. Belgya (IKI KFKI, Hungary)E. Gonzalez (CIEMAT, Spain)F. Gunsing (CEA, France)F.-J. Hambsch (IRMM, Belgium)A. Junghans (FZD, Germany)R. Nolte (PTB, Germany)S. Pomp (TSL UU, Sweden) Workshop Organizing Committee: Enrico Chiaveri (Chairman)Marco CalvianiSamuel AndriamonjeEric BerthoumieuxCarlos GuerreroRoberto LositoVasilis Vlachoudis Workshop Assistant: Géraldine Jean

  11. The LIGO Scientific Collaboration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez, Gabriela

    2015-04-01

    The LIGO Scientific Collaboration (LSC) is a self-governing collaboration seeking to detect gravitational waves, use them to explore the fundamental physics of gravity, and develop gravitational wave observations as a tool of astronomical discovery. The LSC works toward this goal through research on, and development of techniques for, gravitational wave detection; and the development, commissioning and exploitation of gravitational wave detectors. The LSC, funded in 1997, has now many hundreds of scientists in 16 countries, with a diverse range of skills and background. The LSC is preparing for a discovery era with Advanced LIGO detectors starting in the next few years; we will describe the features and challenges of the LSC organization in such an exciting time.

  12. Identifying key sources of uncertainty in the modelling of greenhouse gas emissions from wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Sweetapple, Christine; Fu, Guangtao; Butler, David

    2013-09-01

    This study investigates sources of uncertainty in the modelling of greenhouse gas emissions from wastewater treatment, through the use of local and global sensitivity analysis tools, and contributes to an in-depth understanding of wastewater treatment modelling by revealing critical parameters and parameter interactions. One-factor-at-a-time sensitivity analysis is used to screen model parameters and identify those with significant individual effects on three performance indicators: total greenhouse gas emissions, effluent quality and operational cost. Sobol's method enables identification of parameters with significant higher order effects and of particular parameter pairs to which model outputs are sensitive. Use of a variance-based global sensitivity analysis tool to investigate parameter interactions enables identification of important parameters not revealed in one-factor-at-a-time sensitivity analysis. These interaction effects have not been considered in previous studies and thus provide a better understanding wastewater treatment plant model characterisation. It was found that uncertainty in modelled nitrous oxide emissions is the primary contributor to uncertainty in total greenhouse gas emissions, due largely to the interaction effects of three nitrogen conversion modelling parameters. The higher order effects of these parameters are also shown to be a key source of uncertainty in effluent quality. PMID:23770480

  13. Climatic consequences of observed ozone loss in the 1980s: Relevance to the greenhouse problem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Molnar, G. I.; Ko, M. K. W.; Zhou, S.; Sze, N. D.

    1994-01-01

    Recently published findings using satellite and ground-based observations indicate a large winter and summertime decrease in the column abundance of ozone at high and middle latitudes during the last decade. Using a simple ozone depletion profile reflecting the observed decrease in ozone column abundance, Ramaswamy et al. (1992) showed that the negative radiative forcing that results from the ozone decrease between 1979 and 1990 approximately balanced the greenhouse climate forcing due to the chlorofluorocarbons emitted during the same period. Here, we extend the forcing analyses by calculating the equilibrium surface temperature response explicitly, using an updated version of the Atmospheric and Environmental Research two-dimensional radiative-dynamical seasonal model. The calculated steady state responses suggest that the surface cooling due to the ozone depletion in the lower stratosphere offsets about 30% of the surface warming due to greenhouse gases emitted during the same decade. The temperature offset is roughly a factor of 2 larger than the corresponding offset obtained from forcing intercomparisons. This result appears to be related to the climate feedback mechanisms operating in the model troposphere, most notably that associated with atmospheric meridional heat transport. Thus a comprehensive assessment of ozone change effects on the predicted greenhouse warming cannot be accomplished based on forcing evaluations alone. Our results also show that calculations adopting a seasonally and latitudinally dependent ozone depletion profile produce a negative forcing about 50% smaller than that calculated for the depletion profile used by Ramaswamy et al. (1992).

  14. Identifying key sources of uncertainty in the modelling of greenhouse gas emissions from wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Sweetapple, Christine; Fu, Guangtao; Butler, David

    2013-09-01

    This study investigates sources of uncertainty in the modelling of greenhouse gas emissions from wastewater treatment, through the use of local and global sensitivity analysis tools, and contributes to an in-depth understanding of wastewater treatment modelling by revealing critical parameters and parameter interactions. One-factor-at-a-time sensitivity analysis is used to screen model parameters and identify those with significant individual effects on three performance indicators: total greenhouse gas emissions, effluent quality and operational cost. Sobol's method enables identification of parameters with significant higher order effects and of particular parameter pairs to which model outputs are sensitive. Use of a variance-based global sensitivity analysis tool to investigate parameter interactions enables identification of important parameters not revealed in one-factor-at-a-time sensitivity analysis. These interaction effects have not been considered in previous studies and thus provide a better understanding wastewater treatment plant model characterisation. It was found that uncertainty in modelled nitrous oxide emissions is the primary contributor to uncertainty in total greenhouse gas emissions, due largely to the interaction effects of three nitrogen conversion modelling parameters. The higher order effects of these parameters are also shown to be a key source of uncertainty in effluent quality.

  15. The effect of low ancient greenhouse climate temperature gradients on the ocean's overturning circulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sijp, Willem P.; England, Matthew H.

    2016-02-01

    We examine whether the reduced meridional temperature gradients of past greenhouse climates might have reduced oceanic overturning, leading to a more quiescent subsurface ocean. A substantial reduction of the pole-to-Equator temperature difference is achieved in a coupled climate model via an altered radiative balance in the atmosphere. Contrary to expectations, we find that the meridional overturning circulation and deep ocean kinetic energy remain relatively unaffected. Reducing the wind strength also has remarkably little effect on the overturning. Instead, overturning strength depends on deep ocean density gradients, which remain relatively unaffected by the surface changes, despite an overall decrease in ocean density. Ocean poleward heat transport is significantly reduced only in the Northern Hemisphere, as now the circulation operates across a reduced temperature gradient, suggesting a sensitivity of Northern Hemisphere heat transport in greenhouse climates to the overturning circulation. These results indicate that climate models of the greenhouse climate during the Cretaceous and early Paleogene may yield a reasonable overturning circulation, despite failing to fully reproduce the extremely reduced temperature gradients of those time periods.

  16. Intelligent Bioreactor Management Information System (IBM-IS) for Mitigation of Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Paul Imhoff; Ramin Yazdani; Don Augenstein; Harold Bentley; Pei Chiu

    2010-04-30

    Methane is an important contributor to global warming with a total climate forcing estimated to be close to 20% that of carbon dioxide (CO2) over the past two decades. The largest anthropogenic source of methane in the US is 'conventional' landfills, which account for over 30% of anthropogenic emissions. While controlling greenhouse gas emissions must necessarily focus on large CO2 sources, attention to reducing CH4 emissions from landfills can result in significant reductions in greenhouse gas emissions at low cost. For example, the use of 'controlled' or bioreactor landfilling has been estimated to reduce annual US greenhouse emissions by about 15-30 million tons of CO2 carbon (equivalent) at costs between $3-13/ton carbon. In this project we developed or advanced new management approaches, landfill designs, and landfill operating procedures for bioreactor landfills. These advances are needed to address lingering concerns about bioreactor landfills (e.g., efficient collection of increased CH4 generation) in the waste management industry, concerns that hamper bioreactor implementation and the consequent reductions in CH4 emissions. Collectively, the advances described in this report should result in better control of bioreactor landfills and reductions in CH4 emissions. Several advances are important components of an Intelligent Bioreactor Management Information System (IBM-IS).

  17. The DOE Bioenergy Research Centers: History, Operations, and Scientific Output

    SciTech Connect

    Slater, Steven C.; Simmons, Blake A.; Rogers, Tamara S.; Phillips, Margaret F.; Nordahl, Kristy; Davison, Brian H.

    2015-08-20

    Over the past 7 years, the US Department of Energy's Office of Biological and Environmental Research has funded three Bioenergy Research Centers (BRCs). These centers have developed complementary and collaborative research portfolios that address the key technical and economic challenges in biofuel production from lignocellulosic biomass. All three centers have established a close, productive relationship with DOE's Joint Genome Institute (JGI). This special issue of Bioenergy Research samples the breadth of basic science and engineering work required to underpin a diverse, sustainable, and robust biofuel industry. In this report, which was collaboratively produced by all three BRCs, we discuss the BRC contributions over their first 7 years to the development of renewable transportation fuels. In additon, we also highlight the BRC research published in the current issue and discuss technical challenges in light of recent progress.

  18. The DOE Bioenergy Research Centers: History, Operations, and Scientific Output

    DOE PAGES

    Slater, Steven C.; Simmons, Blake A.; Rogers, Tamara S.; Phillips, Margaret F.; Nordahl, Kristy; Davison, Brian H.

    2015-08-20

    Over the past 7 years, the US Department of Energy's Office of Biological and Environmental Research has funded three Bioenergy Research Centers (BRCs). These centers have developed complementary and collaborative research portfolios that address the key technical and economic challenges in biofuel production from lignocellulosic biomass. All three centers have established a close, productive relationship with DOE's Joint Genome Institute (JGI). This special issue of Bioenergy Research samples the breadth of basic science and engineering work required to underpin a diverse, sustainable, and robust biofuel industry. In this report, which was collaboratively produced by all three BRCs, we discuss themore » BRC contributions over their first 7 years to the development of renewable transportation fuels. In additon, we also highlight the BRC research published in the current issue and discuss technical challenges in light of recent progress.« less

  19. Organic Amendment Effects on Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Long-Term Stockpiled Soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zvomuya, F.; Laskosky, J.

    2014-12-01

    In oil sands projects in Alberta, Canada, salvaged soils are often placed in large stockpiles where they are stored for the duration of the project, typically 20-30 years. Alberta regulations require that topsoil and subsoil are salvaged in two distinct operations - a process known as two-lifting. Reclamation using long-term stockpiled soils often gives poor results, characterized by lower soil organic carbon and nitrogen concentrations compared with equivalent natural, undisturbed soils. It is thought that the change from an aerobic to an anaerobic environment during soil stockpiling and back again to aerobic during placement are largely responsible for the low carbon and nitrogen due to microbial activity transforming C and N in the soil into CO2, CH4 and N2O and releasing them to the atmosphere. Evidence from recent studies indicates that biochar improves soil physical, chemical and biological properties, and hence could mitigate C and N losses due to greenhouse gas emissions from the soil indirectly. We postulate that documented improvements in soil physical, chemical, and biological properties in soils treated with amendments such as biochar may help mitigate C and N losses due to greenhouse gas emissions from the soil indirectly. This laboratory incubation experiment tested the effects of differential rates (0, 10, 20, and 40 g biochar carbon equivalents kg-1 dry soil) of biochar, peat, and humalite on greenhouse gas emissions from a 25-year old two-lift stockpiled soil. The soils were fertilized according to standard practice, placed in 120-mL plastic containers, and incubated at 25°C for 45 days. Gas samples were taken at 1- to 7-day intervals and analyzed for CO2, CH4, and N2O. Data on treatment differences in emissions will be presented. Results from this experiment will provide an insight into the potential for organic amendments to mitigate greenhouse gas emission during reclamation using degraded soils.

  20. Sustainability assessment of greenhouse vegetable farming practices from environmental, economic, and socio-institutional perspectives in China.

    PubMed

    Yang, Lanqin; Huang, Biao; Mao, Mingcui; Yao, Lipeng; Niedermann, Silvana; Hu, Wenyou; Chen, Yong

    2016-09-01

    To provide growing population with sufficient food, greenhouse vegetable production has expanded rapidly in recent years in China and sustainability of its farming practices is a major concern. Therefore, this study assessed the sustainability of greenhouse vegetable farming practices from environmental, economic, and socio-institutional perspectives in China based on selected indicators. The empirical data were collected through a survey of 91 farm households from six typical greenhouse vegetable production bases and analysis of environmental material samples. The results showed that heavy fertilization in greenhouse vegetable bases of China resulted in an accumulation of N, P, Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn in soil, nutrient eutrophication in irrigation water, and high Cd in some leaf vegetables cultivated in acidic soil. Economic factors including decreased crop yield in conventional farming bases, limited and site-dependent farmers' income, and lack of complete implementation of subsidy policies contributed a lot to adoption of heavy fertilization by farmers. Also, socio-institutional factors such as lack of unified management of agricultural supplies in the bases operated in cooperative and small family business models and low agricultural extension service efficiency intensified the unreasonable fertilization. The selection of cultivated vegetables was mainly based on farmers' own experience rather than site-dependent soil conditions. Thus, for sustainable development of greenhouse vegetable production systems in China, there are two key aspects. First, it is imperative to reduce environmental pollution and subsequent health risks through integrated nutrient management and the planting strategy of selected low metal accumulation vegetable species especially in acidic soil. Second, a conversion of cooperative and small family business models of greenhouse vegetable bases to enterprises should be extensively advocated in future for the unified agricultural supplies