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Sample records for operation iraqi freedom

  1. 76 FR 58565 - Proposed Information Collection (Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom Seriously...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-21

    ... techniques or the use of other forms of information technology. Title: Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom Seriously Injured/Ill Service Member Veteran Worksheet, VA Form 21-0773. OMB Control... Service Representatives used VA Form 21-0773 as a checklist to ensure they provided Operation Enduring...

  2. 76 FR 72243 - Proposed Information Collection (Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom Veterans...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-22

    ... Health Needs Assessment) Activity; Comment Request AGENCY: Veterans Health Administration, Department of.... Title: Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom Veterans Health Needs Assessment, VA Form 10.... Abstract: VA Form 10-21091 is used to gather input from returning war zone veterans to identify their...

  3. 76 FR 73022 - Agency Information Collection (Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom Seriously...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-28

    ... Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom Seriously Injured/Ill Service Member Veteran Worksheet, VA Form 21.... Abstract: Veterans Service Representatives used VA Form 21-0773 as a checklist to ensure they provided... on active duty and may have suffered a serious injury or illness, with information, applications, and...

  4. Maintaining Discrimination in Operation Iraqi Freedom

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-12-01

    pregnancy .  Not only have the insurgents used women in attacks and operations to rout  American forces, but they have disguised these women to appear...the increased use of children within the  insurgency, in this month, six  teenage  boys, ages 14 to 16, were detained and claimed  they were being trained

  5. Concomitant cranial and ocular combat injuries during Operation Iraqi Freedom.

    PubMed

    Cho, Raymond I; Bakken, Hans E; Reynolds, Mark E; Schlifka, Brett A; Powers, David B

    2009-09-01

    Concomitant cranial and ocular injuries were frequently seen in combat casualties during Operation Iraqi Freedom. The incidence of these injuries is reported along with an interventional case series. A retrospective review was conducted of all surgical patients treated by U.S. Army neurosurgeons and ophthalmologists in Iraq from December 2005 to April 2006. Out of 104 patients with cranial trauma and 158 patients with ocular trauma, 34 had both cranial and ocular injuries (32.7 and 21.5% of patients with cranial and ocular injuries, respectively). Neurosurgical procedures included exploratory craniotomy, decompressive craniectomy, and frontal sinus surgery. Ophthalmologic surgical procedures included globe exploration, open globe repair, primary enucleation, orbital fracture repair, lateral canthotomy and cantholysis, and repair of lid and periocular lacerations. Patients with cranial trauma had a higher incidence of orbital fracture, orbital compartment syndrome, and multiple ocular injuries compared with patients without cranial trauma (odds ratio 6.4, 3.9, and 3.3, respectively). A strong association exists between cranial and ocular trauma in combat casualties treated during Operation Iraqi Freedom. Combat health support personnel should maintain a high level of suspicion for one of these injuries when the other is present. Co-locating neurosurgeons and ophthalmologists in support of combat operations facilitates the optimal treatment of patients with these combined injuries.

  6. Infections Complicating the Care of Combat Casualties during Operations Iraqi Freedom and Enduring Freedom

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-27

    during Operations Iraqi Freedom and Enduring Freedom 27 January 2011 Clinton K. Murray, LTC, MC, USA 1 Military Health System Conference Brooke Army...burden for the collection of information is estimated to average 1 hour per response, including the time for reviewing instructions, searching...it does not display a currently valid OMB control number. 1 . REPORT DATE 27 JAN 2011 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2011 to 00-00-2011 4

  7. AH-64 IHADSS aviator vision experiences in Operation Iraqi Freedom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiatt, Keith L.; Rash, Clarence E.; Harris, Eric S.; McGilberry, William H.

    2004-09-01

    Forty AH-64 Apache aviators representing a total of 8564 flight hours and 2260 combat hours during Operation Iraqi Freedom and its aftermath were surveyed for their visual experiences with the AH-64's monocular Integrated Helmet and Display Sighting System (IHADSS) helmet-mounted display in a combat environment. A major objective of this study was to determine if the frequencies of reports of visual complaints and illusions reported in the previous studies, addressing mostly benign training environments, differ in the more stressful combat environments. The most frequently reported visual complaints, both while and after flying, were visual discomfort and headache, which is consistent with previous studies. Frequencies of complaints after flying in the current study were numerically lower for all complaint types, but differences from previous studies are statistically significant only for visual discomfort and disorientation (vertigo). With the exception of "brownout/whiteout," reports of degraded visual cues in the current study were numerically lower for all types, but statistically significant only for impaired depth perception, decreased field of view, and inadvertent instrumental meteorological conditions. This study also found statistically lower reports of all static and dynamic illusions (with one exception, disorientation). This important finding is attributed to the generally flat and featureless geography present in a large portion of the Iraqi theater and to the shift in the way that the aviators use the two disparate visual inputs presented by the IHADSS monocular design (i.e., greater use of both eyes as opposed to concentrating primarily on display imagery).

  8. Problems with veteran-family communication during operation enduring freedom/operation Iraqi freedom military deployment.

    PubMed

    Hinojosa, Ramon; Hinojosa, Melanie Sberna; Högnäs, Robin S

    2012-02-01

    Twenty Reserve component (Army and Marines) and Army National Guard male veterans of Operational Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom discuss their deployment and postdeployment family reintegration experiences. A Grounded Theory approach is used to highlight some of the ways in which family miscommunication during deployment can occur. Communication with civilian family members is affected by the needs of operational security, technical problems with communication tools, miscommunication between family members, or because veterans have "nothing new to say" to family back home. These communication difficulties may lead to an initial gulf of understanding between veterans and family members that can cause family strain during postdeployment family reintegration. We end with a discussion of veteran family reintegration difficulties.

  9. Operation Iraqi Freedom/Operation Enduring Freedom: exploring wartime death and bereavement.

    PubMed

    Harrington Lamorie, Jill

    2011-01-01

    Military deaths are often sudden, unanticipated, traumatic, and/or violent in nature and involve the death of a young adult. More than 5,500 service members have died as a result of their service in the wars in Afghanistan (2001) and Iraq (2003) in combat- or non-combat- related incidences. As the death toll continues to rise, service members and their families struggle with the visible and invisible wounds of war. This article explores wartime death, trauma, and bereavement experienced by those survivors affected by service members who have died as a result of their military service in Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF) and Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF). It recognizes the circumstantial and cultural factors of the death as well as the grief and trauma experiences of survivors. Resources and suggested interventions of support are highlighted.

  10. Challenges and Opportunities of Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom Veterans with Disabilities Transitioning into Learning and Workplace Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ostovary, Fariba; Dapprich, Janet

    2011-01-01

    This article presents issues related to disabled military servicemen and women who are transitioning to civilian life. The emphasis is on the experience of veterans serving in the Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF) and Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF) as they reintegrate into civilian workplace and learning environments. The authors begin with an…

  11. Challenges and Opportunities of Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom Veterans with Disabilities Transitioning into Learning and Workplace Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ostovary, Fariba; Dapprich, Janet

    2011-01-01

    This article presents issues related to disabled military servicemen and women who are transitioning to civilian life. The emphasis is on the experience of veterans serving in the Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF) and Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF) as they reintegrate into civilian workplace and learning environments. The authors begin with an…

  12. 77 FR 7243 - Proposed Information Collection (Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom Veterans...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-10

    ... Health Needs Assessment) Activities Under OMB Review AGENCY: Veterans Health Administration, Department... Iraqi Freedom Veterans Health Needs Assessment, VA Form 10-21091. OMB Control Number: 2900-0728. Type of... from returning war zone veterans to identify their needs, concerns and health care preferences....

  13. Epidemiology of combat wounds in Operation Iraqi Freedom and Operation Enduring Freedom: orthopaedic burden of disease.

    PubMed

    Belmont, Philip J; Schoenfeld, Andrew J; Goodman, Gens

    2010-01-01

    The United States forces in Operation Iraqi Freedom/Operation Enduring Freedom (OIF/OEF) are primarily engaged in counterinsurgency operations within an irregular war. The US combat medical experience has reported new injury patterns secondary to the enemy's reliance on explosive mechanisms, particularly improvised explosive devices (IEDs), and the widespread use of individual and vehicular body armor. Musculoskeletal extremity injuries have been reported to comprise approximately 50% of all combat wounds for OIF/OEF. Utilization of individual body armor has dramatically reduced thoracic injuries and has decreased the lethality of gunshot wounds, as measured by the percent killed in action, which in conflicts prior to OIF/OEF was estimated at 33% but is now 4.6%. Explosive mechanisms of injury, with IEDs being the most common, account for over 75% of all combat casualties. The lethality of IEDs coupled with the protection of the thorax and abdomen provided by individual body armor has resulted in increasingly severe orthopaedic injuries. Collection and careful examination of orthopaedic combat casualties will allow for improved military personnel protective measures and treatment of injured soldiers.

  14. The Medical Symptom Validity Test in the evaluation of Operation Iraqi Freedom/Operation Enduring Freedom soldiers: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Whitney, Kriscinda A; Shepard, Polly H; Williams, Amanda L; Davis, Jeremy J; Adams, Kenneth M

    2009-03-01

    The clinical utility of the Medical Symptom Validity Test (MSVT) for soldiers returning from service in Operation Iraqi Freedom or Operation Enduring Freedom was preliminarily investigated through retrospective chart review. Results showed that 17%, or 4 of 23, Operation Iraqi Freedom/Operation Enduring Freedom patients at a Polytrauma Network Site (Level 2), performed below cut-offs on the MSVT. On "easy" subtests of the MSVT, the group of individuals who failed the MSVT performed significantly worse than the group of individuals who passed. However, there were no significant group differences on the "hard" subtests of the MSVT. When the profiles of individuals who failed the MSVT were examined, none of them met the criteria for the Dementia Profile. These preliminary findings and additional test data supported the conclusion that participants who failed the MSVT were exhibiting diminished symptom validity, suggesting that the specificity of the MSVT was 100%.

  15. Medical Logistics Lessons Observed During Operations Enduring Freedom and Iraqi Freedom.

    PubMed

    Dole, Mark J; Kissane, Jonathan M

    2016-01-01

    Medical Logistics (MEDLOG) is a function of the Army's integrated System for Health that provides the medical products and specialized logistics services required to deliver health protection and care under all operational conditions. In unified land operations, MEDLOG is an inherent function of Health Service Support (HSS), which also includes casualty care and medical evacuation. This paper focuses on a few key lessons observed during Operations Enduring Freedom and Iraqi Freedom with direct implications for the support of HSS in future operations as envisioned in the Army Operating Concept and the Joint Concept for Health Services. It also examines a few key enablers that helped mitigate these challenges that are not yet fully acknowledged in Army Medical Department doctrine, policy, and planning.

  16. War-related illness symptoms among Operation Iraqi Freedom/ Operation Enduring Freedom returnees.

    PubMed

    Amin, Mohammad M; Parisi, Joseph Anthony; Gold, Morris S; Gold, Avram R

    2010-03-01

    Our objective was to determine the pattern of war-related illness (WRI) symptoms among returnees of Operation Iraqi Freedom/Operation Enduring Freedom (OIF/OEF) living on Long Island, NY. We conducted an anonymous mail survey of WRI symptoms of a random cohort of 786 returnees (718 male, 68 female) living on Long Island from among 5,500 who registered with the OIF/OEF Registry. From among the 786 returnees whom we surveyed, we subsequently excluded 111 whose surveys were either returned unopened or who changed address. Two hundred seventy-four of the remaining 675 returnees responded to the survey (a 41% response rate). Disabling WRI symptoms were documented in approximately 2/3 of the responders and 75% of these responders had two or more symptoms. War-related illness symptoms are very common among OIF/OEF returnees suggesting the need for management strategies targeting their symptoms. Military conflicts have produced war-related illness (WRI) among our troops and veterans since the Civil War. Common to all these WRIs are a group of symptoms including body pain, fatigue, headache, sleep disturbance, diarrhea, forgetfulness, and impaired concentration. Also common to them is the absence of a discernable pathophysiology. Because WRI is poorly understood, we cannot prevent new occurrences with each new engagement of our armed forces.

  17. Managing Transitions: Examining the Institutional Army’s Transformation Following the Vietnam War and Operation Iraqi Freedom

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-05-23

    Vietnam War and Operation Iraqi Freedom A Monograph By COL Charles T. Lombardo US Army School of Advanced Military Studies United States Army...Monograph Title: Managing Transitions: Examining the Institutional Army’s Transformation following the Vietnam War and Operation Iraqi Freedom Approved...Iraqi Freedom , by Colonel Charles T. Lombardo, US Army, 67 pages. This study provides a comparative analysis of the US Army’s post-Vietnam transformation

  18. The quality of mental health care for veterans of Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom.

    PubMed

    Paddock, Susan M; Woodroffe, Abigail; Watkins, Katherine E; Sorbero, Melony E; Smith, Brad; Mannle, Thomas E; Solomon, Jacob; Pincus, Harold A

    2013-01-01

    Some Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom (OEF/OIF) veterans experience serious mental health (MH) problems. As OEF/OIF soldiers leave active military duty, their growing numbers pose a challenge to the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) in delivering high-quality mental health/substance-use disorder (MH/SUD) care. To determine whether the quality of MH/SUD care provided by the VA differs by OEF/OIF veteran status. Veterans with selected MH/SUDs were identified from administrative records using diagnostic codes. OEF/OIF service was determined based on Defense Manpower Data Center separation files. Eleven processes of care and 7 utilization performance indicators were examined. Regression analyses were adjusted for veteran demographic and clinical characteristics to test for differences in care by OEF/OIF status. Of the 836,699 veterans with selected diagnoses who received MH/SUD treatment in FY2007, 52,870 (6.3%) were OEF/OIF veterans. In unadjusted analyses, OEF/OIF veterans were more likely to receive evidence-based care processes captured by 6 of the 11 dichotomous performance indicators examined; however, among those receiving psychotherapy encounters, OEF/OIF veterans received significantly fewer visits (6.9 vs. 9.7, P<0.0001). In adjusted analyses, only postdischarge follow-up remained meaningfully higher for OEF/OIF veterans. Efforts to maintain and/or increase OEF/OIF veteran participation in VA MH/SUD services should be informed by their characteristics, such as younger age and better physical health relative to other veterans.

  19. Ocular Surface Symptoms in Veterans Returning From Operation Iraqi Freedom and Operation Enduring Freedom

    PubMed Central

    Modi, Yasha S.; Qurban, Qirat; Zlotcavitch, Leonid; Echeverri, Roberto J.; Feuer, William; Florez, Hermes; Galor, Anat

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. To correlate situational exposures and psychiatric disease with self-reported ocular surface symptoms in a younger veteran population involved in Operation Iraqi Freedom and Operation Enduring Freedom (OIF/OEF). Methods. Cross-sectional study of all veterans evaluated in the OIF/OEF clinic between December 2012 and April 2013 who completed the dry eye questionnaire and screening evaluations for environmental exposures, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and depression. The main outcome measures were the influence of environmental exposure and psychiatric disease on ocular surface symptoms. Results. Of 115 participants, the average age was 33 years. While overseas, exposure to incinerated waste (odds ratio [OR] 2.67, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.23–5.81, P = 0.02) and PTSD (OR 2.68, 95% CI 1.23–5.85, P = 0.02) were associated with self-reported ocular surface symptoms. On return to the United States, older age (OR per decade 2.66, 95% CI 1.65–4.31, P = 0.04) was associated with persistent symptoms and incinerated waste was associated with resolution of symptoms (OR 0.25, 95% CI 0.07–0.90, P = 0.04). When evaluating symptom severity, 26% of the responders complained of severe ocular surface symptoms, with PTSD (OR 3.10, 95% CI 1.22–7.88, P = 0.02) and depression (OR 4.28, 95% CI 1.71–10.68, P = 0.002) being significant risk factors for their presence. Conclusions. PTSD was significantly associated with ocular surface symptoms both abroad and on return to the United States, whereas air pollution in the form of incinerated waste, was correlated with reversible symptoms. PMID:24408975

  20. Sustainment of Army Forces in Operation Iraqi Freedom. Battlefield Logistics and Effects on Operations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-01-01

    prepare and format the document. Rick Eden and John Dumond provided excellent comments to help with the organization of the report. LTG (retired...the problems or symptoms should be determined. Thus, this ____________ 8 Eric Peltz, Marc L. Robbins, Kenneth J. Girardini, Rick Eden , John M...Memorandum for Record, Subject: Operation Iraqi Freedom AAR, 19 May 2003. Interviews at 3rd ID Division Support Com- mand with LTC Bobby Towery (3rd FSB

  1. Operation Iraqi Freedom: Strategies, Approaches, Results, and Issues for Congress

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-04-02

    fruit and vegetable stands, and shops selling convenience foods like bottles of soda. To facilitate that process, commanders sometimes sought a...including ethnically based Iraqi political parties, and Turkey-based supporters of Iraqi Turkmen, sometimes use inflammatory language to stir up...and April 2008, and see Donna Miles, “ Anti -Insurgency Tactics Succeeding in Iraqi Detention Facilities,” American Forces Press Service, March 12, 2008

  2. Posttraumatic growth among operation enduring freedom and operation Iraqi freedom amputees.

    PubMed

    Benetato, Bonnie B

    2011-12-01

    Posttraumatic growth (PTG) is a positive psychological change experienced as a result of struggle with highly challenging life circumstances. This study tested the PTG Model in Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF) and Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF) veterans following a major combat-related amputation. Specifically, the relationships among social support, rumination, length of time since amputation, and PTG among these veterans were examined. This was a descriptive correlational design using a mailed survey. Data were collected from OEF and OIF veterans with a major traumatic amputation (excluding digit-only loss). A nationwide postal survey was conducted in 2007 of veterans with a major combat-related traumatic amputation. 210 veterans registered at the Department of Veterans Affairs were sent a survey packet containing a letter of introduction, informed consent form, stamped return envelope, and four surveys: a study-specific demographic questionnaire, the Posttraumatic Growth Inventory (PTGI), Postdeployment Social Support scale, and a Rumination scale. The mean PTGI score among OEF and OIF amputees (N= 56) was 59.1 (SD= 23). Rumination showed the strongest correlation with PTG: r= .43, p= .001. There was a small positive relationship between postdeployment social support and PTG: r= .24, p= .039. No statistically significant correlation between PTG and time since amputation was found in this sample. As proposed in the PTG model, the findings of this study support the benefit of rumination or cognitive processing of the traumatic event and postdeployment social support in the process of developing PTG following a major combat-related amputation. Following a life-threatening war injury, the patient's worldview is dramatically altered or shattered. Old assumptions and belief systems are rebuilt in the acute phase, rehabilitation, and reintegration into the community. The struggle in the aftermath of the traumatic event that results in personal transformation is known as

  3. Delayed intraocular foreign body removal without endophthalmitis during Operations Iraqi Freedom and Enduring Freedom.

    PubMed

    Colyer, Marcus H; Weber, Eric D; Weichel, Eric D; Dick, John S B; Bower, Kraig S; Ward, Thomas P; Haller, Julia A

    2007-08-01

    To report the long-term follow-up results of intraocular foreign body (IOFB) removal at Walter Reed Army Medical Center during Operation Iraqi Freedom and Operation Enduring Freedom from February 2003 through November 2005 and to determine the prognostic factors for visual outcome in this patient population. Retrospective, noncomparative, interventional case series. Seventy-nine eyes of 70 United States military soldiers deployed in support of operations Iraqi Freedom and Enduring Freedom sustained IOFB injuries and subsequently were treated at the Walter Reed Army Medical Center with a minimum of 6 months of follow-up. The principal procedure performed was 20-gauge 3-port vitrectomy with IOFB removal through limbal or pars plana incision. Final visual acuity, rate of proliferative vitreoretinopathy, rate of endophthalmitis. Average patient age was 27 years, with an average of 331 days of postoperative follow-up. Average IOFB size was 3.7 mm (range, 0.1-20 mm). Median time to IOFB removal was 21 days (mean, 38 days; range, 2-661 days). Mean preoperative visual acuity was 20/400 (1.36 logarithm of mean angle of resolution [logMAR] units) and mean final visual acuity was 20/120 (0.75 logMAR). Of the patients, 53.4% achieved visual acuity of 20/40 or better, whereas 77.5% achieved visual acuity of better than 20/200. There were no cases of endophthalmitis (0/79 eyes; 95% confidence interval, 0%-3.1%), siderosis bulbi, or sympathetic ophthalmia. Among the eyes, 10.3% evolved to no light perception or had been enucleated by the 6-month follow-up visit. Poor visual outcome correlated with extensive intraocular injury (P<0.032). Seventeen of 79 eyes (21%) experienced proliferative vitreoretinopathy. Proliferative vitreoretinopathy correlated with poor initial vision (hand movements or worse; P = 0.035) and extensive intraocular injury (P<0.001). Timing of vitrectomy did not correlate with visual outcome. The most common systemic antibiotic administered was levofloxacin

  4. Mortality in Female War Veterans of Operations Enduring Freedom and Iraqi Freedom

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-10

    and Iraqi Freedom Jessica D. Cross MD, Anthony E. Johnson MD, Joseph C. Wenke PhD, Michael J. Bosse MD, James R. Ficke MD Published online: 10 March...Transfusion Medicine. 2008;18:143–150. 10. Holcomb J. The 2004 Fitts Lecture: current perspectives on combat casualty care. J Trauma. 2005;59:990–1002. 11

  5. Defensive Operations in the Media Battlespace: Operation Iraqi Freedom

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-12-15

    and data from the event. The other half of this calculation is grimmer . If the main interest of media outlets is cost versus entertainment value...instructions, searching existing data sources, gathering and maintaining the data needed, and completing and reviewing the collection of information. Send...collection level of the media system, producing pictures and data , generating events, and controlling access to influence news stories about the operational

  6. Operation Iraqi Freedom: Strategies, Approaches, Results, and Issues for Congress

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-10-28

    first shops to reopen in a neighborhood, as security improves, typically included fruit and vegetable stands, and shops selling convenience foods like...political parties and supporters of Iraqi Turkmen in Iraq’s neighboring state Turkey, sometimes use inflammatory language to stir up tensions in the...Miles, “ Anti - Insurgency Tactics Succeeding in Iraqi Detention Facilities,” American Forces Press Service, March 12, 2008. 583 Information from Task

  7. US Army Physical Therapist Roles and Contributions in Operations Enduring Freedom and Iraqi Freedom.

    PubMed

    Shaffer, Scott W; Moore, Josef H

    2016-01-01

    Musculoskeletal injuries are a leading cause of health care utilization, medical evacuation, and disability. US Army physical therapists (PTs) have served as physician extenders for the management of nonsurgical neuromusculoskeletal injuries since the Vietnam conflict. The roles and evidence supporting US Army physical therapy continue to evolve. This article discusses the different levels of care and roles of US Army PTs, the contributions and evidence regarding US Army physical therapy, and physical therapy lessons learned during Operations Enduring Freedom and Iraqi Freedom. Since 2001, US Army PTs and enlisted physical therapy technicians have provided care from Levels 1 to 5 and assignments have expanded to special operations and brigade combat teams. Evidence suggests US Army PTs serving both in referral and direct access roles provided safe and definitive care that maximized readiness while reducing evacuation. Key physical therapy lessons learned include: (1) a continued focus on a Soldier sports medicine forward care model, (2) a need for injury risk assessment, physical performance screenings, and reconditioning programs that optimize readiness, and (3) continued support for physical therapy structure, training, and research that maximizes Soldier readiness and health.

  8. Strategic Calculation in Estonia’s Decision to Enter the Coalition of the Willing for Operation Iraqi Freedom in 2003

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-05-21

    Strategic Calculation in Estonia’s Decision to Enter the Coalition of the Willing for Operation Iraqi Freedom in 2003 A... Freedom in 2003 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) LTC Janno Märk 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e...study concerns itself with Estonia’s security policy and decision to enter the Coalition of the Willing for Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF) in 2003

  9. Sleep disturbance is common among servicemembers and veterans of Operations Enduring Freedom and Iraqi Freedom.

    PubMed

    Plumb, Taylor R; Peachey, John T; Zelman, Diane C

    2014-05-01

    Sleep routines that develop as an adaptation or reaction to deployment can persist upon return stateside. Sleep problems intensify and are intensified by psychiatric distress. This research presents the findings of a comprehensive survey of sleep impairment in relation to demographic data, military history, combat exposure, and mental illness symptoms among a general sample of 375 servicemembers and veterans of Operations Enduring Freedom and Iraqi Freedom (OEF/OIF) at a wide range of times postdeployment. Sleep impairment was assessed with the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and the Addendum for PTSD. Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, and anxiety symptoms were evaluated, with the PTSD Checklist-Military, the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 and the Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7. Sleep problems were common across the sample, with 45.4% of participants reporting sleep onset greater than 30 minutes, 21.4% typically achieving less than 4.5 hours of total sleep time, and 56% reporting being awake in bed more than 15% of the night. Global PSQI scores classified 89% of the sample as "poor sleepers." Sleep problems were more severe among servicemembers with less education, from lower ranks (E1-E3), with greater combat exposure, and greater depression, anxiety, and PTSD symptoms. These findings suggest the need for routine screening of sleep problems among veterans and increased professional training in interventions for insomnia and nightmares. For individuals experiencing sleep problems with concurrent psychiatric symptoms, addressing sleep concerns may be one less-stigmatizing way to transition servicemembers and veterans into needed mental health services. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  10. Posttraumatic growth in Veterans of Operations Enduring Freedom and Iraqi Freedom.

    PubMed

    Pietrzak, Robert H; Goldstein, Marc B; Malley, James C; Rivers, Alison J; Johnson, Douglas C; Morgan, Charles A; Southwick, Steven M

    2010-10-01

    A growing body of research has examined the prevalence and correlates of psychopathology, mild traumatic brain injury, and related problems in Veterans of Operations Enduring Freedom and Iraqi Freedom (OEF-OIF). While these studies help characterize the deleterious effects of combat, no known study has examined factors that may enhance posttraumatic growth or positive changes experienced as a result of combat in this population. A total of 272 predominantly older Reservist/National Guard OEF-OIF Veterans completed an anonymous mail survey that assessed combat exposure, psychopathology, psychosocial functioning, social support, and posttraumatic growth. Seventy-two percent of the sample endorsed a significant degree of posttraumatic growth in at least one of the areas assessed, the most common of which were changing priorities about what is important in life (52.2%), being able to better appreciate each day (51.1%), and being better able to handle difficulties (48.5%). Hierarchical regression analysis revealed that younger age, greater posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, and increased perceptions of unit member support and effort/perseverance were significantly associated with posttraumatic growth. Respondents with PTSD scored higher on an overall measure of posttraumatic growth and on items reflecting appreciation of life and personal strength. This study is limited by a relatively low survey return rate and employment of an abbreviated measure of posttraumatic growth. Results of this study suggest that interventions to bolster unit member support and to enhance perceptions of effort and perseverance may help promote posttraumatic growth in OEF-OIF Veterans. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Prevalence of environmental and other military exposure concerns in Operation Enduring Freedom and Operation Iraqi Freedom veterans.

    PubMed

    Quigley, Karen S; McAndrew, Lisa M; Almeida, Liliana; D'Andrea, Elizabeth A; Engel, Charles C; Hamtil, Heather; Ackerman, Adam J

    2012-06-01

    This study examined the prevalence of self-reported exposures in returning Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF)/Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF) veterans and the relationship of exposure reports to current physical symptoms. Using self-reports obtained immediately after return from deployment in a cohort of 760 enlisted Army reserve component military personnel, we assessed prevalence rates of environmental and other exposures and the association of these exposures to severity of physical symptoms. Reporting of environmental exposures was relatively low in veterans of OEF/OIF, but reporting more environmental and other exposures, in particular screening positive for a traumatic brain injury, was related to greater physical symptom severity immediately after deployment. Non-treatment-seeking, enlisted Army reserve component personnel reported relatively few exposures immediately after return from deployment; however, more exposures was modestly associated with greater severity of physical symptoms when controlling for predeployment symptoms, gender, and other deployment-related exposures.

  12. Postdeployment driving stress and related occupational limitations among veterans of Operation Iraqi Freedom and Operation Enduring Freedom.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Eric J; Peyton, Claudia G; Kim, David K; Nakama-Sato, Kristine K; Noble, Amy E

    2014-01-01

    Difficulty in driving after deployment has emerged as an impediment for servicemembers returning from Operation Iraqi Freedom and Operation Enduring Freedom (OIF-OEF). This study explored postdeployment driving stress and related occupational limitations using two self-report instruments: the Driver's Stress Profile and the Driving and Occupational Limitations questionnaire. Data gathered from 103 OIF-OEF returnees confirmed that driving and related occupational issues occur postdeployment. Significant low to moderate correlations were found between postdeployment driving stress and limitations in community mobility, leisure, and social participation. The returnees who drove off base more frequently during deployment showed significantly higher levels of postdeployment driving stress than the returnees who drove off base less frequently. Moreover, the returnees who demonstrated higher levels of driving stress and occupational limitations required more time to resume normal driving postdeployment. Findings raise awareness about the need to design effective driver rehabilitation and community reintegration programs for this population.

  13. Injury-Specific Correlates of Combat-Related Traumatic Brain Injury in Operation Iraqi Freedom

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    previous conflicts.4 One study found that among combat casualties of Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF), more than 50% sustained an injury to the head, neck ...al7 found that 64% of head, neck , and face injuries were caused by IEDs compared with 41% of extremity injuries. Of all patients admitted to Walter...head or neck .7 The present study aimed to elucidate the demographic and injury-specific characteristics of combat-related TBI across all levels of

  14. Gunshot wounds in military working dogs in Operation Enduring Freedom and Operation Iraqi Freedom: 29 cases (2003-2009).

    PubMed

    Baker, Janice L; Havas, Karyn A; Miller, Laura A; Lacy, Ward A; Schlanser, Justin

    2013-01-01

    To describe the patient population, injuries, and treatment received on the battlefield, and ultimate outcome of U.S. military working dogs that incurred gunshot wound (GSW) injury in Operation Enduring Freedom (Afghanistan) or Operation Iraqi Freedom (Iraq). Retrospective study between January 2003 and December 2009. Twenty-nine military working dogs from the U.S. military with confirmed GSW injuries incurred in combat in Operation Enduring Freedom or Operation Iraqi Freedom. None. Clinical data from battlefield treatment, which includes care from the point of injury through arrival to, but not including, a designated veterinary treatment facility. Twenty-nine dogs were injured between 2003 and 2009. All but one of the injuries were from high caliber, high velocity weapons. Of the 29 injured dogs, 11 survived the injuries and 18 died (38% survival rate). Of the dogs that died, all but 1 died from catastrophic nonsurvivable injuries before treatment or evacuation could be instituted. The thorax was the most common site of injury (50%) followed by extremity wounds (46%). The leading cause of death from GSWs was from thoracic wounds, followed by head wounds. Dogs with extremity wounds as their only injury were most likely to survive, and dogs with multiple injuries were least likely to survive. All surviving dogs received treatment at the point of injury by military medics and dog handlers consistent with Tactical Combat Casualty Care guidelines for combat injuries in human service members. Of the 11 that survived, all dogs returned to full duty with subsequent deployment to combat zones. Location of wounds and injury severity at the time of presentation to veterinary care was not correlated with length of time until return to duty. © Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care Society 2012.

  15. 75 FR 1120 - Agency Information Collection (Health-Care Use Survey for Enduring Freedom and Operation Iraqi...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-08

    ... Collection (Health-Care Use Survey for Enduring Freedom and Operation Iraqi Freedom (OEF/OIF) Veterans...-New (10-0478).'' SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title: Health-Care Use Survey for Enduring Freedom and... VA health care; (2) document unique barriers to VA care for women and men; and (3) provide reliable...

  16. Operation Iraqi Freedom: Preliminary Observations on Iraqi Security Forces’ Logistical Capabilities

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-03-09

    07-582T come from a national depot, five Regional Support Units ( RSU ), and numerous Garrison Support Units (GSU). The national depot...maintenance capability to overhaul vehicles and other equipment. RSUs are to provide regionally focused supply, maintenance, and contract support...of the national depot and RSUs , while the Iraqi Joint Headquarters logistics staff section provides logistics input to plans and orders. Finally

  17. Operation Iraqi Freedom: Preliminary Observations on Iraqi Security Forces’ Logistics and Command and Control Capabilities

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-03-28

    come from a National Depot, five Regional Support Units ( RSU ), and numerous Garrison Support Units (GSU). The National Depot, located at Taji...as the maintenance capability to overhaul vehicles and other equipment. The RSUs are to provide regionally focused supply, maintenance, and contract...and control of the National Depot and RSUs while the Iraqi Joint Headquarters logistics staff section (M-4) is to provide logistics input to plans

  18. Decisionmaking in Operation Iraqi Freedom: Removing Saddam Hussein by Force

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-02-01

    forces; • Regional strategic appraisals; • The nature of land warfare; • Matters affecting the Army’s future; • The concepts, philosophy, and theory of...program, and providing language training. While in the Army, Professor Martin was operationally deployed to Guam (1975: Operation NEW LIFE), Kosovo...This was strong language but even Russia and Syria went along. Along with other Security Council members, these long-time friends of Saddam Hussein

  19. On Point: The United States Army in Operation Iraqi Freedom

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-01-01

    colleagues in the other services, and others may find useful or interesting. On Point will not be the last word or the definitive history of this operation...has, by definition , no secure areas. Every unit in the theater must be prepared to fight to accomplish its mission. OIF drove this idea home and...The Darkest Day By any definition , 23 March 2003 proved a dark day for the coalition forces fi ghting in Iraq. CFLCC’s maneuver units fought from As

  20. Civil-Military Relations: From Vietnam to Operation Iraqi Freedom

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-05-01

    perceptions on the war in Iraq have at times been like riding a roller coaster . The publics view on Iraq started out very high, regardless of party...cornered and killed by a U.S. operation on June 7, 2006.36 Zarqawi’s stated purpose, other than causing coalition troops to leave Iraq, was as Finer...within DOD feared that if they gave any real power to the CJCS that a Czar like position would be created and the advice given would be degraded

  1. The Role of Social Support in Exposure Therapy for Operation Iraqi Freedom/Operation Enduring Freedom Veterans: A Preliminary Investigation

    PubMed Central

    Price, Matthew; Gros, Daniel F.; Strachan, Martha; Ruggiero, Kenneth J.; Acierno, Ron

    2012-01-01

    The lack of social support has consistently been identified as a relevant factor in the development, maintenance, and treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Prospective studies with combat veterans have supported the erosion model of social support in the development of PTSD. This model posits that increased PTSD symptoms lead to diminished social support over time. Additional epidemiological work that has investigated mental health and functional impairment in recently returning Operation Iraqi Freedom and Operation Enduring Freedom (OIF/OEF) veterans has suggested that interpersonal problems coincide with the onset of PTSD. Despite research that suggests OIF/OEF veterans experience high rates of PTSD and associated interpersonal problems, no studies have examined social support in relation to treatment response in this group. The current study examined the role of four theorized functional aspects of social support— emotional/informational support, positive social interactions, affectionate support, and tangible support— on pretreatment PTSD symptom severity and treatment response in a sample of OIF/OEF veterans receiving exposure-based psychotherapy. Findings showed that positive social interactions were negatively correlated with pretreatment symptom severity, and emotional/informational support was positively related to increased treatment response. Together, these findings suggest that specific types of social support may have an important influence on the course of exposure treatment. PMID:23869250

  2. Spouse abuse among United States Air Force personnel who deployed in support of Operation Iraqi Freedom/Operation Enduring Freedom.

    PubMed

    Rabenhorst, Mandy M; McCarthy, Randy J; Thomsen, Cynthia J; Milner, Joel S; Travis, Wendy J; Foster, Rachel E; Copeland, Carol W

    2013-10-01

    The authors examined spouse abuse perpetration among all married U.S. Air Force personnel who deployed in support of Operation Iraqi Freedom/Operation Enduring Freedom. Using Poisson and conditional Poisson regression, they compared rates of spouse abuse perpetration predeployment and postdeployment in the population of married U.S. Air Force personnel who had a combat-related deployment between October 1, 2001 and October 31, 2008 (N = 156,296). Just over 2% (n = 3,524) of deployers perpetrated at least one substantiated incident of spouse physical or emotional abuse within the 308,197,653 days at risk for abuse during the study period. Male deployers perpetrated spouse abuse at approximately twice the rate of female deployers. Regarding changes in rates of spouse abuse perpetration postdeployment versus predeployment among all deployers, the authors found no differences overall; however, several deployer and incident-related characteristics moderated this effect. Rates of emotional abuse, mild abuse, and abuse not involving alcohol were significantly lower postdeployment, whereas rates of moderate/severe abuse and abuse involving alcohol were significantly higher postdeployment. Although the majority of U.S. Air Force deployers did not perpetrate any substantiated incidents of spouse abuse, there was variability in the impact of deployment on spouse abuse rates before versus after deployment. The finding that rates of moderate/severe spouse abuse incidents involving alcohol were higher postdeployment suggests a need for focused prevention/intervention efforts.

  3. Associations Between Traumatic Brain Injury, Suspected Psychiatric Conditions, and Unemployment in Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom Veterans.

    PubMed

    Pogoda, Terri K; Stolzmann, Kelly L; Iverson, Katherine M; Baker, Errol; Krengel, Maxine; Lew, Henry L; Amara, Jomana H; Meterko, Mark

    2016-01-01

    To examine the relations among demographic characteristics, traumatic brain injury (TBI) history, suspected psychiatric conditions, current neurobehavioral health symptoms, and employment status in Veterans evaluated for TBI in the Department of Veterans Affairs. Retrospective cross-sectional database review of comprehensive TBI evaluations documented between October 2007 and June 2009. Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom Veterans (n = 11 683) who completed a comprehensive TBI evaluation. Veterans Affairs clinicians use the comprehensive TBI evaluations to obtain information about TBI-related experiences, current neurobehavioral symptoms, and to identify suspected psychiatric conditions. Approximately one-third of Veterans in this sample were unemployed, and of these, the majority were looking for work. After simultaneously adjusting for health and deployment-related variables, significant factors associated with unemployment included one or more suspected psychiatric conditions (eg, posttraumatic stress disorder, anxiety, depression), neurobehavioral symptom severity (ie, affective, cognitive, vestibular), former active duty status, injury etiology, age, lower education, and marital status. The associations of these factors with employment status varied by deployment-related TBI severity. Simultaneously addressing health-related, educational, and/or vocational needs may fill a critical gap for helping Veterans readjust to civilian life and achieve their academic and vocational potential.

  4. Ten-Year Analysis of Transfusion in Operation Iraqi Freedom and Operation Enduring Freedom: Increased Plasma and Platelet Use Correlates with Improved Survival

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-01-01

    evaluation of the impact of apheresis platelets used in the setting of massively transfused trauma patients. J Trauma. 2009;66(suppl 4):S77 S84...Ten-year analysis of transfusion in Operation Iraqi Freedom and Operation Enduring Freedom: Increased plasma and platelet use correlates with...coagulopathy, evaluates the effect of increased plasma and platelet (PLT) to red blood cell ratios, and analyzes other recent changes in practice

  5. Warrior Resilience Training in Operation Iraqi Freedom: combining rational emotive behavior therapy, resiliency, and positive psychology.

    PubMed

    Jarrett, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Warrior Resilience Training (WRT) is an educational class designed to enhance Warrior resilience, thriving, and posttraumatic growth for Soldiers deployed in Operation Iraqi Freedom. Warrior Resilience Training uses rational emotive behavior therapy (REBT), Army leadership principles, and positive psychology as a vehicle for students to apply resilient philosophies derived from Army Warrior Ethos, Stoic philosophy, and the survivor and resiliency literature. Students in WRT are trained to focus upon virtue, character, and emotional self-regulation by constructing and maintaining a personal resiliency philosophy that emphasizes critical thinking, rationality, virtue, and Warrior Ethos. The author, an Army licensed clinical social worker, executive coach, REBT doctoral fellow, and former Special Forces noncommissioned officer, describes his initial experience teaching WRT during Operation Iraqi Freedom to combat medics and Soldiers from 2005 to 2006, and his experience as a leader of a combat stress control prevention team currently in Iraq offering mobile WRT classes in-theater. Warrior Resilience Training rationale, curriculum, variants (like Warrior Family Resilience Training), and feedback are included, with suggestions as to how behavioral health providers and combat stress control teams might better integrate their services with leaders, chaplains, and commands to better market combat stress resiliency, reduce barriers to care, and promote force preservation. Informal analysis of class feedback from 1168 respondents regarding WRT reception and utilization is examined.

  6. Dental emergency rates at two expeditionary medical support facilities supporting operations enduring and Iraqi Freedom.

    PubMed

    Dunn, William J; Langsten, Robert E; Flores, Salvador; Fandell, Jay E

    2004-07-01

    This study reports dental emergency rates and distribution of causes of dental emergencies at two expeditionary medical support facilities supporting operations Enduring Freedom/ Iraqi Freedom. A retrospective cohort analysis of 9948 soldiers deployed to Prince Sultan Air Base, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, and 1467 soldiers at Baghdad International Airport, Iraq, was accomplished from a phased deployment from January 2003 to September 2003. Procedures were divided into 11 categories: endodontic, extraction of teeth other than third molars, extraction of third molar teeth, restoration of teeth (caries), restoration of broken teeth (not caries), orthodontic bracket/wire problem, sensitive teeth, temperomandibular pain, periodontal, oral pathology, and prosthodontic. The dental emergency rates for Prince Sultan Air Base and Baghdad International Airport were 153 and 145 dental emergencies per 1000 soldiers per year, respectively. Most of the emergencies were because of dental caries. Pain from third molars was the second most common reason for visiting the dental clinic.

  7. Renal replacement therapy in support of Operation Iraqi Freedom: a tri-service perspective.

    PubMed

    Perkins, Robert; Simon, James; Jayakumar, Arun; Neff, Robert; Cohen, Irving; Bohen, Erin; Oliver, James; Kumke, Kevin; Older, Steven; Perkins, Jeremy; Grathwohl, Kurt; Yuan, Christina; Abbott, Kevin

    2008-11-01

    Experience with delivery of renal replacement therapy (RRT) in support of combat operations by the U.S. military has not been reported since the 1970s. We describe the tri-service military medical experience with RRT in support of Operation Iraqi Freedom. Through December 31, 2006, RRT was provided to 12 individuals inside the theater of operations. Navy medical personnel provided RRT to three patients (two U.S. active duty service members and one host nation individual) aboard the USNS Comfort, a mobile level 4 hospital. Dialysis was performed using conventional single-pass hemodialysis machines equipped with portable reverse osmosis systems. Army and Air Force medical personnel provided RRT to nine patients in theater (eight host nation patients and one U.S. active duty service member), using peritoneal dialysis and continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT), not requiring trained renal nurses or technicians. Originally, U.S. military personnel with acute kidney injury (AKI) who were evacuated from theater to Landstuhl Regional Medical Center (LRMC), or those who developed AKI at LRMC were transferred to the German civilian medical system, if RRT was required. After creation of a rapid-response dialysis team and, later, positioning of a full-time active duty reserve nephrologist at LRMC, 16 patients received RRT at LRMC. None had required RRT in theater. Renal failure requiring RRT during combat operations remains an unusual but serious event, calling for flexibility in the provision of care. Notably, the Operation Iraqi Freedom experience has highlighted the needs of injured host nation patients with AKI and future military medical planning will need to account for their intratheater renal care.

  8. Lessons learned from smallpox vaccination of U.S. Navy forces before Operation Iraqi Freedom.

    PubMed

    Savitz, Scott; Stewart, Jessica

    2007-04-01

    Our objectives were to document and to analyze the U.S. Navy's smallpox vaccination program before Operation Iraqi Freedom, discerning lessons for future mass vaccination programs. This research scrutinized the challenges inherent in vaccinating approximately 40,000 personnel at diverse locations within a few weeks. We interviewed and observed participants at multiple locations throughout the vaccination process, while also collecting documentation. Subsequently, we analyzed how the Navy addressed the challenges of mass vaccination on a compressed timeline. We found that the population was vaccinated with no significant logistical challenges, few medical complications, almost no refusals, and minimal operational impact. Our analysis led us to conclude that two primary factors contributed to the vaccination program's success; both of these can be replicated in future mass vaccination programs. The first factor was a strong educational program, which repeated consistent messages via multiple communications channels. The second factor was vocal, demonstrative, high-level support for vaccination.

  9. Iraqi Perspectives Project. A View of Operation Iraqi Freedom from Saddam’s Senior Leadership

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-01-01

    described Saddam as a deep thinker who would remain awake at night, pondering problems at length before inspiration came in dreams .60 These dreams ...commanders who possessed a lucid understanding of the capabilities of the Coalition and the qualitative gulf between forces on the eve of OPERATION

  10. Injuries sustained in noncombat motor vehicle accidents during Operation Iraqi Freedom.

    PubMed

    MacGregor, Andrew J; Mayo, Jonathan A; Dougherty, Amber L; Girard, Paul J; Galarneau, Michael R

    2012-09-01

    To examine injuries sustained in noncombat motor vehicle accidents (MVAs) during Operation Iraqi Freedom by injury type, site, and severity. Three hundred and forty-eight military personnel injured in noncombat MVAs from March 2004-June 2007 were identified from clinical records completed near the point of injury. On average, personnel suffered two injuries per accident. The most frequent MVA mechanism was non-collision due to loss of control (30%). Overall, 16% were injured in a collision accident and 19% in a rollover accident. Rollovers were associated with more severe injuries. A greater proportion of drivers sustained head/neck/face injuries, whereas gunners and pedestrians had higher percents of extremity injuries. This analysis provides a thorough overview of injuries incurred in nonbattle MVAs in the combat environment. Future research should combine injury data with accident reports to elucidate areas for improvements in vehicle safety. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Prolonged Exposure for Guilt and Shame in a Veteran of Operation Iraqi Freedom

    PubMed Central

    Paul, Lisa A.; Gros, Daniel F.; Strachan, Martha; Worsham, Glenna; Foa, Edna B.; Acierno, Ron

    2014-01-01

    Morally injurious events appear capable of producing posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), even though they may not involve actual or perceived life-threat or a response of fear, horror, or helplessness. Researchers have questioned whether exposure therapies can address these events. The current report presents evidence of the effectiveness of this treatment approach for addressing posttraumatic symptoms related to a morally injurious event through an illustrative case of an Operation Iraqi Freedom veteran with PTSD characterized by symptoms of guilt and shame. The veteran was successfully treated with nine sessions of prolonged exposure therapy, reporting minimal PTSD symptoms one week post-treatment and at a six-month follow-up assessment. Implications for the treatment of veterans with significant guilt and shame using exposure-based therapies, and with respect to the recent changes to the diagnostic criteria for PTSD, are discussed. PMID:25505798

  12. Combat musculoskeletal wounds in a US Army Brigade Combat Team during operation Iraqi Freedom.

    PubMed

    Belmont, Philip J; Thomas, Dimitri; Goodman, Gens P; Schoenfeld, Andrew J; Zacchilli, Michael; Burks, Rob; Owens, Brett D

    2011-07-01

    A prospective, longitudinal analysis of musculoskeletal combat injuries sustained by a large combat-deployed maneuver unit has not previously been performed. A detailed description of the musculoskeletal combat casualty care statistics, distribution of wounds, and mechanisms of injury incurred by a US Army Brigade Combat Team during "The Surge" phase of Operation Iraqi Freedom was performed using a centralized casualty database and an electronic medical record system. Among the 4,122 soldiers deployed, there were 242 musculoskeletal combat wounds in 176 combat casualties. The musculoskeletal combat casualty rate for the Brigade Combat Team was 34.2 per 1,000 soldier combat-years. Spine, pelvis, and long bone fractures comprised 55.9% (33 of 59) of the total fractures sustained in combat. Explosions accounted for 80.7% (142 of 176) of all musculoskeletal combat casualties. Musculoskeletal combat casualty wound incidence rates per 1,000 combat-years were as follows: major amputation, 2.1; minor amputation, 0.6; open fracture, 5.0; closed fracture, 6.4; and soft-tissue/neurovascular injury, 32.8. Among musculoskeletal combat casualties, the likelihood of a gunshot wound causing an open fracture was significantly greater (45.8% [11 of 24]) when compared with explosions (10.6% [15 of 142]) (p = 0.0006). Long bone amputations were more often caused by explosive mechanisms than gunshot wounds. A large burden of complex orthopedic injuries has resulted from the combat experience in Operation Iraqi Freedom. This is because of increased enemy reliance on explosive devices, the use of individual and vehicular body armor, and improved survivability of combat-injured soldiers.

  13. Combat surgical workload in Operation Iraqi Freedom and Operation Enduring Freedom: The definitive analysis.

    PubMed

    Turner, Caryn A; Stockinger, Zsolt T; Gurney, Jennifer M

    2017-07-01

    Relatively few publications exist on surgical workload in the deployed military setting. This study analyzes US military combat surgical workload in Iraq and Afghanistan to gain a more thorough understanding of surgical training gaps and personnel requirements. A retrospective analysis of the Department of Defense Trauma Registry was performed for all Role 2 (R2) and Role 3 (R3) military treatment facilities from January 2001 to May 2016. International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification procedure codes were grouped into 18 categories based on functional surgical skill sets. The 189,167 surgical procedures identified were stratified by role of care, month, and year. Percentiles were calculated for the number of procedures for each skill set. A literature search was performed for publications documenting combat surgical workload during the same period. A total of 23,548 surgical procedures were performed at R2 facilities, while 165,619 surgical procedures were performed at R3 facilities. The most common surgical procedures performed overall were soft tissue (37.5%), orthopedic (13.84%), abdominal (13.01%), and vascular (6.53%). The least common surgical procedures performed overall were cardiac (0.23%), peripheral nervous system (0.53%), and spine (0.34%).Mean surgical workload at any point in time clearly underrepresented those units in highly kinetic areas, at times by an order of magnitude or more. The published literature always demonstrated workloads well in excess of the 50th percentile for the relevant time period. The published literature on combat surgical workload represents the high end of the spectrum of deployed surgical experience. These trends in surgical workload provide vital information that can be used to determine the manpower needs of future conflicts in ever-changing operational tempo environments. Our findings provide surgical types and surgical workload requirements that will be useful in surgical training and

  14. Comparison Between Civilian Burns and Combat Burns From Operation Iraqi Freedom and Operation Enduring Freedom

    PubMed Central

    Wolf, Steven E.; Kauvar, David S.; Wade, Charles E.; Cancio, Leopoldo C.; Renz, Evan P.; Horvath, Edward E.; White, Christopher E.; Park, Myung S.; Wanek, Sandra; Albrecht, Michael A.; Blackbourne, Lorne H.; Barillo, David J.; Holcomb, John B.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To assess outcome differences between locally burned civilians and military personnel burned in a distant combat zone treated in the same facility. Summary Background Data: The United States Army Institute of Surgical Research (USAISR) Burn Center serves as a referral center for civilians and is the sole center for significant burns in military personnel. We made the hypothesis that outcomes for military personnel burned in the current conflict in Iraq and Afghanistan would be poorer because of delays to definitive treatment, other associated injury, and distance of evacuation. Methods: We reviewed the civilian and military records of patients treated at the USAISR from the outset of hostilities in Iraq in April 2003 to May 2005. Demographics, injury data, mortality, and clinical outcomes were compared. Results: We cared for 751 patients during this time period, 273 of whom were military (36%). Military injuries occurred in a younger population (41 ± 19 vs. 26 ± 7 years for civilian and military respectively, P < 0.0001) with a longer time from injury to burn center arrival (1 ± 5 days vs. 6 ± 5, P < 0.0001), a higher Injury Severity Score (ISS 5 ± 8 vs. 9 ± 11, P < 0.0001), and a higher incidence of inhalation injury (8% vs. 13%, P = 0.024). Total burn size did not differ. Mortality was 7.1% in the civilian and 3.8% in the military group (P = 0.076). When civilians outside the age range of the military cohort were excluded, civilian mortality was 5.0%, which did not differ from the military group (P = 0.57). Total body surface area (TBSA) burned, age ≥40 years, presence of inhalation injury, and ventilator days were found to be important predictors of mortality by stepwise regression, and were used in a final predictive model with the area under receiver operator characteristic curve of 0.97 for both populations considered together. No significant effect of either group was identified during development. Conclusions: Mortality does not differ

  15. Attitudes toward predeployment and experimental vaccinations among troops deployed to Operation Iraqi Freedom and Operation Enduring Freedom.

    PubMed

    Riddle, Mark S; Patel, Shimul S; Sanders, John W; Armstrong, Adam W; Putnam, Shannon D; Schlett, Carey D; Tribble, David R

    2008-01-01

    The Department of Defense is actively engaged in the research and development of vaccine(s) to mitigate the burden of disease associated with diarrhea among deployed troops. Soldiers' attitudes and beliefs toward predeployment vaccines and participation in experimental research with vaccines are unknown. To assess these attitudes, a survey was distributed among soldiers who had been and were currently deployed to Operations Iraqi and Enduring Freedom. Sixty-one percent of soldiers believe that predeployment vaccines are important, and 21% are hesitant to receive these vaccinations. Fifteen percent of soldiers stated that they would be willing to enroll in a study evaluating experimental vaccines, and 14% stated that they would participate in military research for vaccine development. Both male and female soldiers agreed that predeployment vaccines were important (86 and 92%, respectively); however, compared to their male counterparts, females were more hesitant to receive routine vaccinations (45% vs 37%) and less likely to volunteer for an experimental vaccine study (12% vs 20%). Officers and Air Force personnel were less hesitant to receive routine vaccinations compared to enlisted and other service personnel, respectively. Furthermore, if a soldier experienced three or more episodes of diarrhea, he or she was more likely to try an experimental vaccine to prevent diarrhea (23% vs 13%, p < 0.0001). A disconnect exists between the belief that immunizations are important and the hesitancy to receive them. Future studies should be directed to understand this gap and emphasize the critical importance of vaccines for health of US personnel in garrison and on deployment.

  16. Cigarette Smoking and Sociodemographic, Military, and Health Characteristics of Operation Enduring Freedom and Operation Iraqi Freedom Veterans

    PubMed Central

    Hamlett-Berry, Kim; Barth, Shannon K.; Christofferson, Dana E.; Davey, Victoria J.; Eber, Stephanie; Schneiderman, Aaron I.; Bossarte, Robert M.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: We examined the sociodemographic, military, and health characteristics of current cigarette smokers, former smokers, and nonsmokers among Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF) / Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF) veterans and estimated smoking prevalence to better understand cigarette use in this population. Methods: We analyzed data from the US Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) 2009-2011 National Health Study for a New Generation of US Veterans. On the basis of a stratified random sample of 60 000 OEF/OIF veterans, we sought responses to a 72-item questionnaire via mail, telephone, or Internet. Cigarette smoking status was based on self-reported cigarette use in the past year. We used multinomial logistic regression to evaluate associations between smoking status and sociodemographic, military, and health characteristics. Results: Among 19 911 veterans who provided information on cigarette smoking, 5581 were current smokers (weighted percentage: 32.5%, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 31.7-33.2). Current smokers were more likely than nonsmokers or former smokers to be younger, to have less education or income, to be separated/divorced or never married/single, and to have served on active duty or in the army. Comparing current smokers and nonsmokers, some significant associations from adjusted analyses included the following: having a Mental Component Summary score (a measure of overall mental health) above the mean of the US population relative to below the mean (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 0.81, 95% CI: 0.73-0.90); having physician-diagnosed depression (aOR = 1.52, 95% CI: 1.33-1.74), respiratory conditions (aOR = 1.16, 95% CI: 1.04-1.30), or repeated seizures/blackouts/convulsions (aOR = 1.80, 95% CI: 1.22-2.67); heavy alcohol use vs never use (aOR = 5.49, 95% CI: 4.57-6.59); a poor vs excellent perception of overall health (aOR = 3.79, 95% CI: 2.60-5.52); and being deployed vs nondeployed (aOR = 0.87, 95% CI: 0.78-0.96). Using health care services from the VA

  17. Sexuality among wounded veterans of Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF), Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF), and Operation New Dawn (OND): Implications for rehabilitation psychologists.

    PubMed

    Cameron, Rebecca P; Mona, Linda R; Syme, Maggie L; Cordes, Colleen Clemency; Fraley, Sarah S; Chen, Suzie S; Klein, Leslie S; Welsh, Elizabeth; Smith, Kimberly; Lemos, Larry

    2011-11-01

    The sexual lives of returning Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF), Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF), and Operation New Dawn (OND) veterans have only been discussed minimally in the psychological literature. Given the nature of military social and cultural contexts, the potential for exposure to combat-related stressors that may lead to posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and the risk of traumatic brain injury secondary to physical injury, the potential for significant psychological and relational ramifications exists. This article focuses on the intimate relationships and sexuality of returning OIF/OEF/OND veterans within the context of their personal cultural variables and the diverse experience of being a part of military life. Culturally competent assessment and evidenced-based treatment approaches are highlighted to offer clinicians initial strategies to begin treatment of sexuality issues within the returning Veteran population. These clinical tools are discussed within a positive psychology approach that emphasizes healthy sexuality as a part of overall satisfactory quality of life.

  18. Deployment Surveillance Summary, U.S. Army Operation Iraqi Freedom/Operation New Dawn/Operation Enduring Freedom, 2010

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-12-10

    Injury Prevention Report No. S.0000614-10, 10 December...Operation Enduring Freedom, 2010 Prepared by: Bonnie Taylor, Avni Patel, Keith Hauret, Bruce Jones, and the Injury Prevention Program General...public release; distribution unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT The aims of this report on injuries to Soldiers engaged in Operation

  19. Risk and protective factors associated with suicidal ideation in veterans of Operations Enduring Freedom and Iraqi Freedom.

    PubMed

    Pietrzak, Robert H; Goldstein, Marc B; Malley, James C; Rivers, Alison J; Johnson, Douglas C; Southwick, Steven M

    2010-06-01

    Little is known about variables associated with suicidality in veterans of Operations Enduring Freedom and Iraqi Freedom (OEF/OIF). A total of 272 OEF/OIF veterans completed a survey containing measures of psychopathology, resilience, and social support. Thirty-four respondents (12.5%) reported contemplating suicide in the two weeks prior to completing the survey. Suicide contemplators were more likely to screen positive for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, and an alcohol problem, and scored higher on measures of psychosocial difficulties, stigma, and barriers to care, and lower on measures of resilience and social support. Logistic regression analysis revealed that positive PTSD and depression screens, and increased psychosocial difficulties were associated with suicidal ideation, and that increased postdeployment social support and sense of purpose and control were negatively associated with suicidal ideation. Interventions for PTSD, depression, and psychosocial difficulties, and to bolster postdeployment social support and resilience may be helpful in preventing suicidal ideation in OEF/OIF veterans. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Incidence of Mental Health Diagnoses in Veterans of Operations Iraqi Freedom, Enduring Freedom, and New Dawn, 2001-2014.

    PubMed

    Ramsey, Christine; Dziura, James; Justice, Amy C; Altalib, Hamada Hamid; Bathulapalli, Harini; Burg, Matthew; Decker, Suzanne; Driscoll, Mary; Goulet, Joseph; Haskell, Sally; Kulas, Joseph; Wang, Karen H; Mattocks, Kristen; Brandt, Cynthia

    2017-02-01

    To evaluate gender, age, and race/ethnicity as predictors of incident mental health diagnoses among Operations Iraqi Freedom, Enduring Freedom, and New Dawn veterans. We used US Veterans Health Administration (VHA) electronic health records from 2001 to 2014 to examine incidence rates and sociodemographic risk factors for mental health diagnoses among 888 142 veterans. Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) was the most frequently diagnosed mental health condition across gender and age groups. Incidence rates for all mental health diagnoses were highest at ages 18 to 29 years and declined thereafter, with the exceptions of major depressive disorder (MDD) in both genders, and PTSD among women. Risk of incident bipolar disorder and MDD diagnoses were greater among women; risk of incident schizophrenia, and alcohol- and drug-use disorders diagnoses were greater in men. Compared with Whites, risk incident PTSD, MDD, and alcohol-use disorder diagnoses were lower at ages 18 to 29 years and higher at ages 45 to 64 years for both Hispanics and African Americans. Differentiating high-risk demographic and gender groups can lead to improved diagnosis and treatment of mental health diagnoses among veterans and other high-risk groups.

  1. Ten years of war: a characterization of craniomaxillofacial injuries incurred during operations Enduring Freedom and Iraqi Freedom.

    PubMed

    Chan, Rodney K; Siller-Jackson, Arlene; Verrett, Adam J; Wu, Jesse; Hale, Robert G

    2012-12-01

    Improved armor and battlefield medicine have led to better survival in the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan than any previous ones. Increased frequency and severity of craniomaxillofacial injuries have been proposed. A comprehensive characterization of the injury pattern sustained during this 10-year period to the craniomaxillofacial region is needed to improve our understanding of these unique injuries, to optimize the treatment for these patients, and to potentially direct strategic development of protective equipment in the future. The Joint Theater Trauma Registry was queried from October 19, 2001, to March 27, 2011, covering operations Enduring Freedom and Iraqi Freedom for battle injuries to the craniomaxillofacial region, including patient demographics and mechanism of injury. Injuries were classified according to type (wounds, fractures, burns, vascular injuries, and nerve injuries) using DRG International Classification of Diseases-9th Rev. diagnosis codes. In this 10-year period, craniomaxillofacial battle injuries to the head and neck were found in 42.2% of patients evacuated out of theater. There is a high preponderance of multiple wounds and open fractures in this region. The primary mechanism of injury involved explosive devices, followed by ballistic trauma. Modern combat, characterized by blast injuries, results in higher than previously reported incidence of injury to the craniomaxillofacial region. Epidemiologic study, level IV.

  2. Perceived Stress, Heart Rate, and Blood Pressure among Adolescents with Family Members Deployed in Operation Iraqi Freedom

    PubMed Central

    Barnes, Vernon A.; Davis, Harry; Treiber, Frank A.

    2012-01-01

    This study compared the impact of the 2003 Operation Iraqi Freedom on heart rate (HR) and blood pressure (BP) and self-reported stress levels among three groups of self-categorized adolescents: 1) military dependents with family members deployed; 2) military dependents with no family members deployed; 3) civilian dependents. At the onset and end of the “major hostilities” of Operation Iraqi Freedom, 121 adolescents (mean age = 15.8 ± 1.1 years) completed questionnaires evaluating the psychological impact of the war and were evaluated for HR and BP. The military deployed dependents exhibited significantly higher HR than other groups at both evaluations (both p < 0.04). Ethnicity by group interactions indicated that European American-deployed dependents had higher stress scores at both time points (p < 0.02). Military dependent European Americans exhibited higher systolic BP compared to the other groups on the second evaluation (p < 0.03). PMID:17274264

  3. Perceived stress, heart rate, and blood pressure among adolescents with family members deployed in Operation Iraqi Freedom.

    PubMed

    Barnes, Vernon A; Davis, Harry; Treiber, Frank A

    2007-01-01

    This study compared the impact of the 2003 Operation Iraqi Freedom on heart rate (HR) and blood pressure (BP) and self-reported stress levels among three groups of self-categorized adolescents: (1) military dependents with family members deployed; (2) military dependents with no family members deployed; (3) civilian dependents. At the onset and end of the "major hostilities" of Operation Iraqi Freedom, 121 adolescents (mean age = 15.8 +/- 1.1 years) completed questionnaires evaluating the psychological impact of the war and were evaluated for HR and BP. The military deployed dependents exhibited significantly higher HR than other groups at both evaluations (both p < 0.04). Ethnicity by group interactions indicated that European American-deployed dependents had higher stress scores at both time points (p < 0.02). Military dependent European Americans exhibited higher systolic BP compared to the other groups on the second evaluation (p < 0.03).

  4. Repeated concussion among U.S. military personnel during Operation Iraqi Freedom.

    PubMed

    MacGregor, Andrew J; Dougherty, Amber L; Morrison, Rosemary H; Quinn, Kimberly H; Galarneau, Michael R

    2011-01-01

    Concussions are a predominant injury of the conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan. The aims of this study were to describe repeated concussive events among U.S. military personnel injured in Operation Iraqi Freedom and examine subsequent healthcare utilization. We reviewed clinical records from the Expeditionary Medical Encounter Database to identify service members with repeat concussions. We abstracted demographic and injury-specific variables, calculated time between events, and identified healthcare utilization from electronic medical databases. Overall, 113 personnel experienced more than one concussion between 2004 and 2008. A majority of these incidents were blast related. The median time between events was 40 days, with 20% experiencing a second event within 2 weeks of the first and 87% within 3 months. Time between events was not associated with severity of the second event. Greater severity of the second concussive event was associated with higher postinjury utilization of mental health and neurology services. This study is one of the first to describe repeated concussions in a combat setting. We found that repeated concussions occur within a short interval among deployed personnel, although the effects of the first event are unclear. Further research is needed to define the effect of repeated concussions on the health of combat veterans.

  5. U.S. Army Reserve (Medical) soldier prescription challenges during Operation Iraqi Freedom.

    PubMed

    Savitala, Murty; Dydek, George J

    2004-12-01

    The continuous requirement to mobilize and deploy reserve soldiers presents numerous challenges for the Army Medical Department. One of the challenges in the preparation for deployment of reserve soldiers is the assessment of chronic prescription medication requirements and the eventual filling of these requirements during deployment. The assigned unit pharmacy officer can provide a value-added service through the identification and coordination of the pharmaceutical needs of an activated deploying unit. A unit pharmacy officer conducted a prescription medication use analysis on an activated Army Reserve Medical Unit before deployment in support of Operation Iraqi Freedom. The study population consisted of 181 soldiers identified through a volunteer survey administered by the assigned pharmacy officer. The prescription medication requirements for the unit were identified in a predeployment status and an evaluation was conducted to determine the ability to sustain the medication requirements once the unit was to be deployed. Gaps in the availability of prescription medication requirements in a predeployed status were identified indicating potential deficiencies in the capability to replenish prescription medication requirements during deployment.

  6. AH-64 monocular HMD visual assessment during urban combat in operation Iraqi freedom (OIF)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rash, Clarence E.; Heinecke, J. Kevin; Hiatt, Keith L.

    2007-04-01

    In the first two decades of the fielding of the monocular helmet-mounted display (HMD) flown in the U.S. Army's AH-64 Apache attack helicopter, a number of studies reported a significant incidence of physical visual symptoms and illusions. In 2004, a similar study looked at the presence of these complaints during the first combat phase of Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF). The study found a general trend of a reduced frequency of complaints associated with the AH-64's HMD. A follow-up study has been conducted to validate this downward trend and to investigate the impact the shift in mission role of the AH-64 from one of open-field tank hunter to one of close-quarter urban combat. Thirty-eight AH-64D pilots were asked to complete a survey questionnaire that solicited data about the presence and frequency of the visual complaints reported in previous studies. Data for physical visual symptoms and static and dynamic illusions were found not to be significantly different from frequencies reported in the previous OIF study. Both OIF studies reported headache as the prominent physical complaint with height judgment and slope estimation as the most frequently reported static illusions and with undetected drift and faulty closure judgment as the two most frequently reported dynamic illusions.

  7. Lessons from operation Iraqi freedom: successful subacute reconstruction of complex lower extremity battle injuries.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Anand R; Grewal, Navanjun S; Chung, Thomas L; Bradley, James P

    2009-01-01

    War wounds associated with Operation Iraqi Freedom have created a unique reconstructive challenge. The objective of this study was to report and analyze the timing and success rates of lower extremity reconstruction associated with devastating war wounds. A retrospective review was conducted of injured personnel requiring extremity flap reconstruction at the National Naval Medical Center over a 30-month period. Collected data included mechanism of injury, time from initial injury to closure, number of prereconstruction wound washouts, types of flap, flap failures, associated injuries, and wound culture characteristics. From September of 2004 to February of 2007, 46 (36 pedicled and 10 free flaps) lower extremity flap reconstructions (10 fasciocutaneous, 34 musculocutaneous, and two adipofascial) were performed on 43 patients. Patient age ranged from 19 to 37 years. Time to reconstruction ranged from 7 to 82 days (average, 21 days). Seventy-six percent of all injuries were associated with an improvised explosive device blast. Mean number of prereconstructive washouts was five (range, two to 13). Fifty percent of all wounds cultured at admission revealed positive results, of which 57 percent were associated with Acinetobacter species. Total flap loss occurred in one flap and partial flap loss occurred in two flaps. Despite reconstruction in the subacute period, the high rate of antimicrobial colonization before wound closure, and the devastating nature of improvised explosive device blast injuries, early analysis of the National Naval Medical Center war extremity reconstruction cohort demonstrates low total and partial flap loss rates and acceptable infection rates.

  8. Transforming an academic military treatment facility into a trauma center: lessons learned from Operation Iraqi Freedom.

    PubMed

    Elster, Eric A; Pearl, Jonathan P; DeNobile, John W; Perdue, Philip W; Stojadinovic, Alexander; Liston, William A; Dunne, James R

    2009-07-24

    To manage the influx of patients with predominately extremity injuries from Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF), our center was required to transform from a nontrauma academic hospital to a trauma hospital by using a multidisciplinary approach. A retrospective chart review was performed of casualties from OIF who were received over 14 months. A total of 313 casualties were received. The average number of admissions was 16 per month, except during November 2004, when there were 88 admissions over 7 days. The mean ISS for all patients was 14.1 +/- 10.3. A total of 113 patients (36%) required admission to the intensive care unit for an average of 7.5 +/- 5.2 days. The mean interval between injury and arrival in the continental United States was 6.5 +/- 4.6 days. Most casualties suffered multisystem trauma, with extremity injuries predominating. The multidisciplinary approach to casualty care consisted of several meetings a week and included everyone involved in caring for these combat casualties. A multidisciplinary approach transformed an existing medical center into a trauma receiving hospital capable of managing and maintaining a surge in patient admissions resulting in minimal morbidity and mortality. This model further supports a multidisciplinary approach to trauma care and could serve as a guideline for transforming existing medical centers into trauma receiving hospitals to deal with patient overflow in the event of future civilian mass casualties.

  9. Genitourinary trauma at a combat support hospital during Operation Iraqi Freedom: the impact of body armor.

    PubMed

    Paquette, Edmond L

    2007-06-01

    This report details the occurrences of genitourinary trauma experienced during Operation Iraqi Freedom at a United States Army Combat Support Hospital, and determines if wearing body armor decreases the frequency of genitourinary and specifically kidney trauma. The Joint Theater Trauma Registry was used to conduct a retrospective study of 2,712 trauma admissions to a United States Army Combat Support Hospital in Baghdad, Iraq from April 1, 2005 to February 28, 2006. There were 1,216 casualties who were wearing body armor and 1,496 casualties not wearing body armor. Of the 2,712 trauma admissions 76 (2.8%) had 1 or more genitourinary injuries for a total of 98 genitourinary injuries. Of the 29 kidney injuries 2 (6.9%) were explored without any treatment, 7 (24.1%) were observed, 1 (3.4%) was repaired and 19 (65.5%) casualties required nephrectomy. Casualties wearing body armor had a 2.1% rate of genitourinary injury versus 3.4% not wearing body armor (p = 0.037). Casualties wearing body armor had a 0.5% rate of kidney injury compared to 1.4% not wearing body armor (p = 0.017). The percentage of casualties with genitourinary injuries and the distribution of these injuries appear similar to previous conflicts. The percentage of casualties undergoing nephrectomy appears to be greater than that observed in other recent conflicts. There was a significant reduction in overall genitourinary injuries and specifically kidney injuries in those casualties wearing body armor.

  10. A review of 41 upper extremity war injuries and the protective gear worn during Operation Enduring Freedom and Operation Iraqi Freedom.

    PubMed

    Greer, Michelle A; Miklos-Essenberg, M Elizabeth; Harrison-Weaver, Sandra

    2006-07-01

    Forty-one patients with upper extremity war injuries sustained during combat operations Operation Enduring Freedom and Operation Iraqi Freedom were reviewed to report on protective gear availability and usage at the time of injury. Participants treated at the Madigan Army Medical Center occupational therapy clinic from August 2004 until February 2005 completed a questionnaire regarding injuries sustained during deployment. Overall, 6 injuries were to upper extremity regions that were covered with issued protective gear; 21 injuries were to areas not covered with issued protective gear (i.e., participant was not wearing issued gear), and 22 injuries were to regions that were not covered because no protective gear was issued for that body area. Although this study is limited, future research would provide valuable insights about the efficacy of current body armor and the need for additional or modified gear.

  11. Invasion vs insurgency: US Navy/Marine Corps forward surgical care during Operation Iraqi Freedom.

    PubMed

    Brethauer, Stacy A; Chao, Alex; Chambers, Lowell W; Green, Donald J; Brown, Carlos; Rhee, Peter; Bohman, Harold R

    2008-06-01

    The transition from maneuver warfare to insurgency warfare has changed the mechanism and severity of combat wounds treated by US Marine Corps forward surgical units in Iraq. Case series comparison. Forward Resuscitative Surgical System units in Iraq. Three hundred thirty-eight casualties treated during the invasion of Iraq in 2003 (Operation Iraqi Freedom I [OIF I]) and 895 casualties treated between March 2004 and February 2005 (OIF II). Definitive and damage control procedures for acute combat casualties. Mechanism of injury, procedures performed, time to presentation, and killed in action (KIA) and died of wounds (DOW) rates. More major injuries occurred per patient (2.4 vs 1.6) during OIF II. There were more casualties with fragment wounds (61% vs 48%; P = .03) and a trend toward fewer gunshot wounds (33% vs 43%; P = .15) during OIF II. More damage control laparotomies (P = .04) and more soft tissue debridements (P < .001) were performed during OIF II. The median time to presentation for critically injured US casualties during OIF I and OIF II were 30 and 59 minutes, respectively. The KIA rate increased from 13.5% to 20.2% and the DOW rate increased from 0.88% to 5.5% for US personnel in the First Marine Expeditionary Force area of responsibility. The transition from maneuver to insurgency warfare has changed the type and severity of casualties treated by US Marine Corps forward surgical units in Iraq. Improvised explosive devices, severity and number of injuries per casualty, longer transport times, and higher KIA and DOW rates represent major differences between periods. Further data collection is necessary to determine the association between transport times and mortality rates.

  12. Compensatory Cognitive Training for Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom/Operation New Dawn Veterans With Mild Traumatic Brain Injury.

    PubMed

    Storzbach, Daniel; Twamley, Elizabeth W; Roost, Mai S; Golshan, Shahrokh; Williams, Rhonda M; OʼNeil, Maya; Jak, Amy J; Turner, Aaron P; Kowalski, Halina M; Pagulayan, Kathleen F; Huckans, Marilyn

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate the efficacy of group-based compensatory cognitive training (CCT) for Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF)/Operation Iraqi Freedom(OIF)/Operation New Dawn (OND) Veterans with a history of mild traumatic brain injury. One hundred nineteen OEF/OIF/OND Veterans with history of mild traumatic brain injury participated at 3 sites, and 50 of the Veterans were randomized to CCT group, while 69 Veterans were randomized to the usual care control group. The CCT group participated in 10 weeks of CCT. Both CCT and usual care groups were assessed at baseline, 5 weeks (midway through CCT), 10 weeks (immediately following CCT), and 15 weeks (5-week follow-up) on measures of subjective cognitive complaints, use of cognitive strategies, psychological functioning, and objective cognitive performance. Veterans who participated in CCT reported significantly fewer cognitive and memory difficulties and greater use of cognitive strategies. They also demonstrated significant improvements on neurocognitive tests of attention, learning, and executive functioning, which were 3 of the cognitive domains targeted in CCT. Findings indicate that training in compensatory cognitive strategies facilitates behavioral change (ie, use of cognitive strategies) as well as both subjective and objective improvements in targeted cognitive domains.

  13. Operation Iraqi Freedom: An Operational Opportunity to Complete the Strategic Objectives of Desert Storm

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-05-31

    Likely anticipating a repeat of Desert Storm, Iraqi leadership expected time to further work diplomatic initiatives. Given the vocal international and...made the House of Saud a “house of cards.” The same is true for many of its neighbors. Building an independent and strong pro- Western region not only

  14. There Are No New Lessons Learned, Just Old Lessons Relearned: A Case Study of Operation Iraqi Freedom Through the Eyes of Maslow

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-04-05

    hierarchy of needs as a way to examine key decisions made by the Coalition Provision Authority (CPA) and the impacts those decisions had on the Iraqi...Operation Iraqi Freedom, Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs , Iraq 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF 18. NUMBER ABSTRACT OF PAGES uu 40 a...Conclusion Limitations and Future Research EndNotes Chronology of Events Appendix A: Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Diagram Appendix B: Polling Data

  15. Sensory sensitivity in operation enduring freedom/operation Iraqi freedom veterans with and without blast exposure and mild traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Callahan, Megan L; Binder, Laurence M; O'Neil, Maya E; Zaccari, Belle; Roost, Mai S; Golshan, Shahrokh; Huckans, Marilyn; Fann, Jesse R; Storzbach, Daniel

    2016-12-08

    To examine factors associated with noise and light sensitivity among returning Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom (OEF/OIF) Veterans with a self-reported history of mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) due to blast exposure, we compared the self-report of noise and light sensitivity of 42 OEF/OIF Veterans diagnosed with mTBI resulting from combat blast-exposure to that of 36 blast-exposed OEF/OIF Veterans without a history of mTBI. Results suggest a statistically significant difference between Veterans with and without a history of mTBI in the experience of noise and light sensitivity, with sensory symptoms reported most frequently in the mTBI group. The difference remains significant even after controlling for symptoms of PTSD, depression, and somatization. These data suggest that while psychological distress is significantly associated with the complaints of noise and light sensitivity, it may not fully account for the experience of sensory sensitivity in a population with mTBI history.

  16. Family support, family stress, and suicidal ideation in a combat-exposed sample of Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom veterans.

    PubMed

    Gradus, Jaimie L; Smith, Brian N; Vogt, Dawne

    2015-01-01

    Deployment-related risk factors for suicidal ideation among Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF) and Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF) veterans have received a great deal of attention. Studies show that mental health symptoms mediate the association between most deployment stressors and suicidal ideation; however, family-related factors during deployment are largely unexplored. We examined posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression symptoms as mediators of the associations between deployment family support and stress and post-deployment suicidal ideation in combat-exposed OEF/OIF veterans. National cross-sectional mail survey. 1046 veterans responded to the survey. The sample for this study was 978 veterans who experienced combat. Regression-based path analyses were conducted. Family support and stress had direct associations with suicidal ideation. When PTSD and depression symptoms were examined as mediators of these associations, results revealed significant indirect paths through these symptoms. This study contributes to the literature on suicidal ideation risk factors among OEF/OIF veterans. Deployment family support and family stress are associated with suicidal ideation; however these associations occur primarily through mental health symptomatology, consistent with findings observed for other deployment factors. This research supports ongoing efforts to treat mental health symptomatology as a means of suicide prevention.

  17. Traumatic Brain Injury in United States Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom (OEF/OIF) Hispanic Veterans—A Review Using the PRISMA Method

    PubMed Central

    Arriola, Vanessa D.; Rozelle, Jeffrey W.

    2016-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is commonly defined by Menon et al. as an “alteration of the brain function, or other evidence of brain pathology, caused by an external force.” TBI can be caused by penetrating trauma to the head in which the magnitude of the injury is dependent on the magnitude of the forces that are applied to the head. The consequences of TBI can range from minimal to severe disability and even death. The major objectives of this systematic review are to survey the current literature on Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF) and Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF) Hispanic veterans with TBI. To complete this analysis, the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and MetaAnalysis (PRISMA) identified 875 articles in common and retrieved a total of 34 articles that met the inclusion criteria, consisted of OEF/OIF Hispanic veterans, reported quantitative data, and were conducted with adult U.S. veterans living in the United States. Since TBI diagnosis was unclear in most articles, only five articles that used the VATBIST instrument were analyzed. The results suggested that there is a lack of research on OEF/OIF Hispanic veterans and Hispanic subgroups. Future studies need to be conducted to consider minority groups while analyzing data involving TBI. PMID:26771647

  18. Combat experiences, pre-deployment training, and outcome of exposure therapy for post-traumatic stress disorder in Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom veterans.

    PubMed

    Price, Matthew; Gros, Daniel F; Strachan, Martha; Ruggiero, Kenneth J; Acierno, Ron

    2013-01-01

    The association between exposure to multiple potentially traumatic events (PTEs) and subsequent increased risk of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is well established. However, less is known about the relation between exposure to numerous PTEs, as is typical with military service, and treatment outcome. Furthermore, there has been little research examining military specific protective factors, such as pre-deployment preparedness, on PTSD treatment response. The current study investigated combat exposure and potential moderators of treatment outcome for exposure therapy in Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom (OEF/OIF) veterans with PTSD. One hundred and eleven OEF/OIF veterans diagnosed with PTSD participated in 8 weeks of exposure therapy. Results indicated that increased combat exposure was associated with a reduced rate of change in PTSD symptoms but not depression symptoms. These findings were consistent across two measures of combat exposure. There was preliminary support for the moderating effect of pre-deployment preparedness on the association between combat exposure and treatment response. Together, these findings suggest that increased combat exposure is associated with poor treatment response in veterans with PTSD; however, this can be reduced by elevated pre-deployment preparedness.

  19. Traumatic Brain Injury in United States Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom (OEF/OIF) Hispanic Veterans-A Review Using the PRISMA Method.

    PubMed

    Arriola, Vanessa D; Rozelle, Jeffrey W

    2016-01-12

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is commonly defined by Menon et al. as an "alteration of the brain function, or other evidence of brain pathology, caused by an external force." TBI can be caused by penetrating trauma to the head in which the magnitude of the injury is dependent on the magnitude of the forces that are applied to the head. The consequences of TBI can range from minimal to severe disability and even death. The major objectives of this systematic review are to survey the current literature on Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF) and Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF) Hispanic veterans with TBI. To complete this analysis, the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and MetaAnalysis (PRISMA) identified 875 articles in common and retrieved a total of 34 articles that met the inclusion criteria, consisted of OEF/OIF Hispanic veterans, reported quantitative data, and were conducted with adult U.S. veterans living in the United States. Since TBI diagnosis was unclear in most articles, only five articles that used the VATBIST instrument were analyzed. The results suggested that there is a lack of research on OEF/OIF Hispanic veterans and Hispanic subgroups. Future studies need to be conducted to consider minority groups while analyzing data involving TBI.

  20. Combat Experiences, Pre-Deployment Training, and Outcome of Exposure Therapy for Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder in Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom Veterans

    PubMed Central

    Price, Matthew; Gros, Daniel F.; Strachan, Martha; Ruggiero, Kenneth J.; Acierno, Ron

    2012-01-01

    The association between exposure to multiple potentially traumatic events (PTEs) and subsequent increased risk of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is well established. However, less is known about the relation between exposure to numerous PTEs, as is typical with military service, and treatment outcome. Furthermore, there has been little research examining military specific protective factors, such as pre-deployment preparedness, on PTSD treatment response. The current study investigated combat exposure and potential moderators of treatment outcome for exposure therapy in Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom (OEF/OIF) veterans with PTSD. One hundred and eleven OEF/OIF veterans diagnosed with PTSD participated in 8 weeks of exposure therapy. Results indicated that increased combat exposure was associated with a reduced rate of change in PTSD symptoms but not depression symptoms. These findings were consistent across two measures of combat exposure. There was preliminary support for the moderating effect of pre-deployment preparedness on the association between combat exposure and treatment response. Together, these findings suggest that increased combat exposure is associated with poor treatment response in veterans with PTSD; however, this can be reduced by elevated pre-deployment preparedness. PMID:22253233

  1. Posttraumatic stress disorder treatment for Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom combat veterans through a civilian community-based telemedicine network.

    PubMed

    Ziemba, Steven J; Bradley, Nicola S; Landry, Lori-Ann P; Roth, Claire H; Porter, Linda S; Cuyler, Robert N

    2014-05-01

    Telemedicine holds great potential to improve access to care and to reduce barriers to treatment for military populations with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). This study sought to integrate the use of telemedicine mental health treatment services by a community healthcare provider to military populations residing in a rural location and to compare the equivalency of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) administered via telemedicine and traditional face-to-face therapy. Study subjects were men or women 18 years of age or older who had served in Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF) and/or Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF) and were diagnosed with PTSD. The 18 study subjects were randomized and provided 10 weekly therapy sessions of CBT. Pre- and post-intervention assessments were conducted using the Clinician Administered PTSD Scale (CAPS), Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (HAM-A), Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS), Life Events Checklist, and SF-36v2® (QualityMetric, Lincoln, RI) Health Survey. The CAPS, HAM-A, and MADRS each demonstrated lower scores, signifying improvement, and 69% of subjects experienced a clinically significant change in the CAPS. Patient satisfaction results indicated greater satisfaction for telemedicine as opposed to traditional face-to-face treatment. Findings reveal a trend expressing the equivalence of telemedicine and face-to-face therapy when treating OEF/OIF veterans with PTSD among rural populations by a community provider. It further demonstrates the successful collaboration between a community healthcare provider and the military healthcare system.

  2. Showtime: An Analysis of the Embedded News Media Program During the Pre-Combat and the Combat Phases of Operation Iraqi Freedom

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-05-26

    Network . 50 Margaret Belknap, The CNN Effect, p. 7. 51 General (Ret) Colin Powell with Joseph Perisco, My American Journey (New York: Random House...Enduring Freedom, helped blaze the path for a large-scale, embedded media program in Operation Iraqi Freedom. Reeder inferred that when journalists were...that needs an answer. Did the networks and publics from countries other than the United States welcome the reports of embedded media? And, were the

  3. Neuropsychological performance in treatment-seeking Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom Veterans with a history of mild traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Jak, Amy J; Gregory, Amber; Orff, Henry J; Colón, Candice; Steele, Norma; Schiehser, Dawn M; Delano-Wood, Lisa; Jurick, Sarah M; Twamley, Elizabeth W

    2015-01-01

    Clinical neuropsychological presentation of treatment-seeking Veterans with a remote history of mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) is widely variable. This manuscript seeks to better characterize cognitive concerns in the post-acute phase following mTBI and to identify the neuropsychological profiles of a large sample of clinically referred Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom/Operation New Dawn (OEF/OIF/OND) Veterans with a history of mTBI and current cognitive complaints. We hypothesized that a minority of cases would exhibit valid and widespread neuropsychological deficits. Retrospective chart reviews of neuropsychological testing and mental health symptoms and diagnoses were conducted on 411 clinically referred OEF/OIF/OND Veterans with a history of mTBI. Groups were created based on scores on performance validity measures and based on overall neuropsychological performance. A total of 29.9% of the sample performed below normative expectations on at least one performance validity test (PVT). Of those Veterans performing adequately on PVTs, 60% performed within normal limits on virtually all neuropsychological measures administered, leaving only 40% performing below expectations on two or more measures. Mood and neurobehavioral symptoms were significantly elevated in Veterans performing below cutoff on PVTs compared to Veterans who performed within normative expectations or those with valid deficits. Neurobehavioral symptoms were significantly correlated with mental health symptom reports but not with injury variables. In summary, in a large sample of clinically referred Veterans with persistent cognitive complaints after mild TBI, a third demonstrated invalid clinical neuropsychological testing, and, of those performing at or above cutoff on PVTs, over half performed within normative expectations across most neuropsychological tests administered. Results highlight the importance of objective assessment of cognitive functioning in this population

  4. Stigma, career worry, and mental illness symptomatology: Factors influencing treatment-seeking for Operation Enduring Freedom and Operation Iraqi Freedom soldiers and veterans.

    PubMed

    Brown, Nicholas B; Bruce, Steven E

    2016-05-01

    Mental health related stigma, as well as mental illness symptomatology, have been shown to negatively impact treatment-seeking within military populations. However, few studies have delineated the 2 forms of stigma (self-stigma and public stigma), and none have differentiated between stigma and career-related consequences (career worry). The aim of this study was to increase our understanding of low treatment-seeking rates among soldiers and veterans by expanding upon previous measurements of the stigma construct and examining factors influencing willingness to seek treatment. The sample consisted of 276 Operation Enduring Freedom and Operation Iraqi Freedom (OEF/OIF) soldiers and veterans. Individual levels of self-stigma, public stigma, and career worry were measured, as were levels of willingness to seek treatment. Symptoms of PTSD, depression, and substance abuse were also evaluated to account for the influence of mental illness on treatment-seeking. A confirmatory factor analysis indicated that a 3-factor model including self-stigma, public stigma, and career worry fit the data significantly better than a 1- or 2- factor model. A multiple regression analysis also revealed that these 3 factors, combined with mental illness symptomatology, significantly predicted individual levels of willingness to seek treatment. Career worry was the strongest predictor, particularly for individuals with no treatment history. This study confirmed that career worry is a factor independent of self-stigma and public stigma. Findings indicate that a fear of negatively affecting one's career is the most influential factor in determining willingness to seek mental health treatment for the military population. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. Deployment-related traumatic brain injury among Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom veterans: associations with mental and physical health by gender.

    PubMed

    Iverson, Katherine M; Pogoda, Terri K; Gradus, Jaimie L; Street, Amy E

    2013-03-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) research among Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF) and Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF) veterans has focused primarily on men. We examine associations between probable deployment-related TBI and postdeployment mental and physical health symptoms separately by gender. To identify unique associations of probable TBI with health symptoms, analyses were also conducted separately for veterans with and without probable posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). A mail survey, including self-report measures of probable deployment-related TBI and mental and physical health symptoms, was completed by 2348 OEF/OIF veterans (51% female), sampled randomly within gender from a national roster. We conducted logistic regressions stratified by gender and probable PTSD status to evaluate associations between probable TBI and health symptoms. Of the respondents, 10.7% of women and 19.7% of men screened positive for probable deployment-related TBI. Probable TBI was significantly associated with increased risk of mental and physical health symptoms for both genders, even after adjusting for potential confounders. Odds ratios for the associations of probable TBI with health symptoms ranged between 2.63 and 9.20 for women and between 1.94 and 7.44 for men. Among veterans with probable PTSD, symptomatic anxiety and symptomatic physical health remained associated with probable TBI. Among veterans without probable PTSD, TBI remained strongly associated with all health symptoms for women and symptomatic anxiety and physical health for men, suggesting an association between TBI and some health symptoms independent of PTSD. Strong associations between probable TBI and health symptoms for women and men confirm the importance of screening for TBI and treatment of associated health symptoms for all OEF/OIF veterans.

  6. Sharing the Burden and Risk: An Operational Assessment of the Reserve Components in Operation Iraqi Freedom

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-10-01

    Department of Defense (DOD) tracks the individuals deployed in various databases, while history offices, lessons learned organizations, and numerous...analysis: Significant Activities (SIGACTs) database; Theater History of Operations Reports (THOR)/Mission Report (MISREP) Analysis Tool; mobility...databases; DMDC’s Defense Casualty Analysis System; accidental injury data from the Services; archived histories , testimonies, interviews, after action

  7. Combined PTSD and Depressive Symptoms Interact with Post-Deployment Social Support to Predict Suicidal Ideation in Operation Enduring Freedom and Operation Iraqi Freedom Veterans

    PubMed Central

    DeBeer, Bryann B.; Kimbrel, Nathan A.; Meyer, Eric C.; Gulliver, Suzy B.; Morissette, Sandra B.

    2016-01-01

    Rates of suicide are alarmingly high in military and veteran samples. Suicide rates are particularly elevated among those with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression, which share overlapping symptoms and frequently co-occur. Identifying and confirming factors that reduce suicide risk among veterans with PTSD and depression is imperative. The proposed study evaluated whether post-deployment social support moderated the influence of PTSD-depression symptoms on suicidal ideation among veterans returning from Iraq and Afghanistan using state of the art clinical diagnostic interviews and self-report measures. Operations Enduring and Iraqi Freedom (OEF/OIF) veterans (n=145) were invited to participate in a study evaluation returning veterans’ experiences. As predicted, PTSD-depression symptoms had almost no effect on suicidal ideation (SI) when post-deployment social support was high; however, when post-deployment social support was low, PTSD-depression symptoms were positively associated with SI. Thus, social support may be an important factor for clinicians to assess in the context of PTSD and depressive symptoms. Future research is needed to prospectively examine the interrelationship between PTSD/depression and social support on suicidal risk, as well as whether interventions to improve social support result in decreased suicidality. PMID:24612971

  8. Combined PTSD and depressive symptoms interact with post-deployment social support to predict suicidal ideation in Operation Enduring Freedom and Operation Iraqi Freedom veterans.

    PubMed

    Debeer, Bryann B; Kimbrel, Nathan A; Meyer, Eric C; Gulliver, Suzy B; Morissette, Sandra B

    2014-05-30

    Rates of suicide are alarmingly high in military and veteran samples. Suicide rates are particularly elevated among those with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression, which share overlapping symptoms and frequently co-occur. Identifying and confirming factors that reduce, suicide risk among veterans with PTSD and depression is imperative. The proposed study evaluated, whether post-deployment social support moderated the influence of PTSD-depression symptoms on, suicidal ideation among Veterans returning from Iraq and Afghanistan using state of the art clinical, diagnostic interviews and self-report measures. Operations Enduring and Iraqi Freedom (OEF/OIF) Veterans (n=145) were invited to, participate in a study evaluating returning Veterans׳ experiences. As predicted, PTSD-depression, symptoms had almost no effect on suicidal ideation (SI) when post-deployment social support was high; however, when, post-deployment social support was low, PTSD-depression symptoms were positively associated with, SI. Thus, social support may be an important factor for clinicians to assess in the context of PTSD and, depressive symptoms. Future research is needed to prospectively examine the inter-relationship, between PTSD/depression and social support on suicidal risk, as well as whether interventions to, improve social support result in decreased suicidality.

  9. Effectiveness of Stability Operations During the Initial Implementation of the Transition Phase for Operation Iraqi Freedom

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-05-31

    www.ceto.quantico.usmc.mil/studies/Post-SaddamIraq.pdf; Internet; accessed 15 November 2003. 17 Eric Schmitt and Joel Brinkley , “Study Foresaw Trouble Now Plaguing...LTG (Ret) Jay M. Garner, news briefing, ABC News, 26 November 2003. 60 Schmitt and Brinkley . 61 Elliott. 62 William Booth, “In Najaf, New Mayor is...68 Schmitt and Brinkley . 69 Field Manual 3-0, 5-4. 70 Joint Pub 3-07.3, I-8 to I-9. 71 Joint Task Force Commander’s Handbook For Peace Operations

  10. Expanding a professional dental care system: experiences of Task Force 261 Multifunctional Medical Battalion during Operation Iraqi Freedom 07-09.

    PubMed

    Christopher, Frank L; Smith, Gregory M; Cobb, James W; Patterson, Craig G; Smith, Mark A; Pollard, Jennifer A

    2008-01-01

    During Operation Iraqi Freedom 07-09, Task Force 261 Multifunctional Medical Battalion managed an extensive dental care system stretching throughout the Iraq theater of operations. We illustrate several of the unique challenges faced by Task Force 261's headquarters and its dental and area support companies, and describe the remedies emplaced by the Task Force. Personnel structure, the evacuation chain, supply and facility management, dental civil-military operations, detainee care, information technology applications, and public health initiatives are discussed in detail.

  11. Now and Then: Combat Casualty Care Policies for Operation Iraqi Freedom and Operation Enduring Freedom Compared With Those of Vietnam

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-02-01

    Hemostatic Dressing In September 2005, in a policy entitled “Individual Sol- dier Hemostatic Dressing ”, the OTSG approved the chitosan hemostatic dressing ... chitosan -based hemostatic dressing : experience in current combat operations. J Trauma. 2006;60:655–658. 27. McManus J, Hurtado T, Pusateri A, Knoop KJ. A...to document lessons learned, and to study the impact of new wounding mechanisms, whether it be the Pungi sticks and mines of Vietnam or the types of

  12. Injury Severity and Causes of Death from Operation Iraqi Freedom and Operation Enduring Freedom: 2003-2004 Versus 2006

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-02-01

    on the chitosan -based hemostatic dressing : experience in current combat operations. J Trauma. 2006;60:655–658. 5. Holcomb JB. The 2004 Fitts Lecture...Defense has enacted numerous evidence-based pol- icies and clinical practice guidelines. We hypothesized that the severity of wounds has increased over...injury severity and number of wounds per casualty. Truncal hemorrhage is the leading cause of poten- tially survivable deaths. Arguably, the suc- cess of

  13. Deployment Injury Surveillance Summary, U.S. Army Operation Iraqi Freedom/Operation Enduring Freedom Calendar Year 2009

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-01

    Injuries are the biggest health problem confronting U.S. military forces in garrison and combat operations.(1,2) For past conflicts, data on injuries...Other & Unspec. 0 0 0 3 1 0 1 19 0 24 2.2 Hip 4 4 3 0 0 11 1.0 Upper leg, Thigh 3 0 1 0 0 4 0.4 Knee 6 113 42 4 1 0 166 14.9 Lower leg, Ankle 116 4 21...Leading specific reasons for medical air evacuation included fractures of the lower leg and/or ankle (10 percent), dislocation of the knee (10 percent

  14. Tympanic membrane perforation and hearing loss from blast overpressure in Operation Enduring Freedom and Operation Iraqi Freedom wounded.

    PubMed

    Ritenour, Amber E; Wickley, Aaron; Ritenour, Joshua S; Kriete, Brian R; Blackbourne, Lorne H; Holcomb, John B; Wade, Charles E

    2008-02-01

    Tympanic membrane perforation is the most common primary blast injury in the current conflicts and occurs in approximately one tenth of service members wounded by combat explosions. We wanted to determine the severity of perforation and its effect on hearing and combat readiness. This analysis is a retrospective study of US service members injured in combat explosions in Afghanistan or Iraq and treated at our institution between March 2003 and July 2006. Data captured included location and grade of perforation, symptoms, healing rates, audiogram results, need for hearing aids, and loss of eligibility for military service. Of 436 explosion-wounded patients admitted to our facility, 65 (15%) patients had tympanic membrane perforation diagnosed by the otolaryngology service. A total of 97 tympanic membrane perforations occurred among 65 patients. The average surface area involved was 41% +/- 32% (right) and 35% +/- 34% (left). More than one third of perforations were grade 4. The most common locations were central and anterior-inferior. Most (83%) patients reported symptoms, most commonly diminished hearing (77%) and tinnitus (50%). Outcome data were available for 77% of perforations. Spontaneous healing occurred in 48%. The remainder (52%) had surgical intervention. The most common audiogram abnormality was mild high frequency hearing loss. Ultimately, three patients (5%) required hearing aids and one discharge from military service. Tympanic membrane perforation occurs in 16% of explosion-injured patients. Most patients are symptomatic and many have large perforations requiring operative intervention. Long-term hearing loss is uncommon but does impact ability to continue military service.

  15. A review of the first 10 years of critical care aeromedical transport during operation iraqi freedom and operation enduring freedom: the importance of evacuation timing.

    PubMed

    Ingalls, Nichole; Zonies, David; Bailey, Jeffrey A; Martin, Kathleen D; Iddins, Bart O; Carlton, Paul K; Hanseman, Dennis; Branson, Richard; Dorlac, Warren; Johannigman, Jay

    2014-08-01

    Advances in the care of the injured patient are perhaps the only benefit of military conflict. One of the unique aspects of the military medical care system that emerged during Operation Iraqi Freedom and Operation Enduring Freedom has been the opportunity to apply existing civilian trauma system standards to the provision of combat casualty care across an evolving theater of operations. To identify differences in mortality for soldiers undergoing early and rapid evacuation from the combat theater and to evaluate the capabilities of the Critical Care Air Transport Team (CCATT) and Joint Theater Trauma Registry databases to provide adequate data to support future initiatives for improvement of performance. Retrospective review of CCATT records and the Joint Theater Trauma Registry from September 11, 2001, to December 31, 2010, for the in-theater military medicine health system, including centers in Iraq, Afghanistan, and Germany. Of 2899 CCATT transport records, those for 975 individuals had all the required data elements. Rapid evacuation by the CCATT. Survival as a function of time from injury to arrival at the role IV facility at Landstuhl Regional Medical Center. The patient cohort demonstrated a mean Injury Severity Score of 23.7 and an overall 30-day mortality of 2.1%. Mortality en route was less than 0.02%. Statistically significant differences between survivors and decedents with respect to the Injury Severity Score (mean [SD], 23.4 [12.4] vs 37.7 [16.5]; P < .001), cumulative volume of blood transfused among the patients in each group who received a transfusion (P < .001), worst base deficit (mean [SD], -3.4 [5.0] vs -7.8 [6.9]; P = .02), and worst international normalized ratio (median [interquartile range], 1.2 [1.0-1.4] vs 1.4 [1.1-2.2]; P = .03) were observed. We found no statistically significant difference between survivors and decedents with respect to time from injury to arrival at definitive care. Rapid movement of critically

  16. Injury and illness casualty distributions among U.S. Army and Marine Corps personnel during Operation Iraqi Freedom.

    PubMed

    Zouris, James M; Wade, Amber L; Magno, Cheryl P

    2008-03-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the distributions of U.S. Marine Corps and Army wounded in action (WIA) and disease and nonbattle injury (DNBI) casualties during Operation Iraqi Freedom Major Combat Phase (OIF-1) and Support and Stability Phase (OIF-2). A retrospective review of hospitalization data was conducted. chi2 tests were used to assess the Primary International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision (ICD-9), diagnostic category distributions by phase of operation, casualty type, and gender. Of the 13,071 casualties identified for analysis, 3,263 were WIA and 9,808 were DNBI. Overall, the proportion of WIA was higher during OIF-1 (36.6%) than OIF-2 (23.6%). Marines had a higher proportion of WIA and nonbattle injuries than soldiers. Although overall DNBI distributions for men and women were statistically different, their distributions of types of nonbattle injuries were similar. Identifying differences in injury and illness distributions by characteristics of the casualty population is necessary for military medical readiness planning.

  17. Over-reporting bias and the modified Stroop effect in Operation Enduring and Iraqi Freedom veterans with and without PTSD.

    PubMed

    Constans, Joseph I; Kimbrell, Timothy A; Nanney, John T; Marx, Brian P; Jegley, Susan; Pyne, Jeffrey M

    2014-02-01

    The current study investigated in a sample of Operation Enduring and Iraqi Freedom (OEF/OIF) veterans how a symptom overreporting response style might influence the association between PTSD diagnostic status and color-naming response latency for trauma-related stimuli during the Modified Stroop Task (i.e., the Modified Stroop Task effect, MST effect). It was hypothesized that, if an overreporting response style reflected feigning or exaggerating PTSD symptoms, an attenuated MST effect would be expected in overreporters with PTSD as compared with PTSD-diagnosed veterans without an overreporting style. If, however, overreporting stemmed from high levels of distress, the MST effect might be greater in overreporters compared with those with a neutral response style. The results showed that veterans with PTSD and an overreporting response style demonstrated an augmented MST effect in comparison with those with a more neutral style of response. Overreporters also reported greater levels of psychopathology, including markedly elevated reports of dissociative experiences. We suggest that dissociation-prone overreporters may misattribute emotional distress to combat experiences leading to the enhanced MST effect. Other possible explanations for these results are also discussed. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  18. Association of parental status and diagnosis of posttraumatic stress disorder among veterans of Operations Iraqi and Enduring Freedom.

    PubMed

    Janke-Stedronsky, Shonda R; Greenawalt, David S; Stock, Eileen M; Tsan, Jack Y; MacCarthy, Andrea A; MacCarthy, Daniel J; Copeland, Laurel A

    2016-01-01

    Research indicates that concerns about disruption of family relationships during military service may be associated with greater posttraumatic stress symptomatology. The current study sought to extend previous findings by examining the relative odds of a posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) diagnosis among Operations Enduring and Iraqi Freedom (OEF/OIF) veterans with dependent children versus veterans without dependent children. Administrative databases were queried to identify 36,334 OEF/OIF veterans with dependent children seeking care in the Veterans Health Administration (VA) during fiscal years 2006-2009. These veterans were matched 1:1 on age, gender, and demobilization date to veterans without dependent children (N = 72,668). In unconditional analyses, OEF/OIF veterans with dependent children versus those without were significantly more likely to incur a PTSD diagnosis (44% vs. 28%). After controlling for demographic variables, mental health utilization, and other serious mental illness, OEF/OIF veterans with dependent children were about 40% more likely to carry a diagnosis of PTSD. The association was stronger for men than for women. It may be of value for clinicians to consider parental status when assessing and treating veterans with PTSD. In-depth study of OEF/OIF veterans is needed to determine whether disruption of family relationships leads to increased psychological stress or parents are more likely than nonparents to seek VA mental health services for PTSD symptoms.

  19. Perceived burden in spouses of National Guard/Reserve service members deployed during Operations Enduring and Iraqi Freedom.

    PubMed

    Caska, Catherine M; Renshaw, Keith D

    2011-04-01

    Spouses of combat veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) experience elevated psychological distress. Recent research indicates that spouses' perceptions of burden may be one mechanism of such distress, but there are several gaps in this literature. No research has examined perceived burden in relation to symptoms other than PTSD or subclinical levels of psychological distress, and very little research has focused on characteristics of spouses that may be related to their perceptions of burden. The current study examined these variables in 130 spouses of reserve component troops deployed during Operations Enduring/Iraqi Freedom. Spouses' burden was positively associated with symptoms of PTSD, depression, and anxiety in service members, regardless of clinical severity. Moreover, burden fully mediated the relation between each type of symptom and spouses' own psychological distress. Furthermore, levels of burden were significantly related to spouses' neuroticism, avoidant coping, and self-efficacy, but only avoidant coping remained a significant predictor of burden when accounting for service members' distress. These results suggest that a broad range of service members' symptoms are related to spouses' burden and distress, and although individual characteristics of spouses may be related to their perceptions of burden, service members' symptoms play a primary role.

  20. The Joint Medical Workstation (JMeWS) database in 2003: intradeployment health encounters of military personnel supporting Operations Enduring Freedom and Iraqi Freedom.

    PubMed

    Hooper, Tomoko I; DeBakey, Samar F; Bellis, Kimberly S; Cox, Kenneth L; Gackstetter, Gary D

    2008-02-01

    The Joint Medical Work Station (JMeWS) is a theater medical surveillance system that integrates information from three separate health data collection systems for the Army, Navy, Air Force, and Marines. Our objective was to characterize JMeWS data during its first year of implementation in 2003. We conducted a descriptive analysis of health events documented in JMeWS among military personnel deployed to Operations Enduring Freedom and Iraqi Freedom. Among the 38,498 individuals (7.8%) with a JMeWS record, women, college-educated, older individuals, and Reserve/Guard personnel were over-represented. There was wide variability by service (Air Force, 25%; Army, 5.5%; Marine Corps, 1.2%; and Navy, 0.6%). The most common diagnoses were in the categories of injury and poisoning, respiratory conditions, and musculoskeletal disorders. Differences in distribution of the various patient encounter modules in theater likely resulted in variable data capture across services. System enhancements should improve future applications.

  1. Effects of Escitalopram on Autonomic Function in Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Among Veterans of Operations Enduring Freedom and Iraqi Freedom (OEF/OIF)

    PubMed Central

    Selvaraj, Vithyalakshmi; Driscoll, David; Madabushi, Jayakrishna S.; Bhatia, Subhash C.; Yeragani, Vikram

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Posttraumatic stress disorder is a chronic, debilitating condition that has become a growing concern among combat veterans. Previous research suggests that posttraumatic stress disorder disrupts normal autonomic responding and may increase the risk of cardiovascular disease and mortality. Measures of heart rate variability and QT interval variability have been used extensively to characterize sympathetic and parasympathetic influences on heart rate in a variety of psychiatric populations. The objective of this study was to better understand the effects of pharmacological treatment on autonomic reactivity in posttraumatic stress disorder. Design: A 12-week, Phase IV, prospective, open-label trial of escitalopram in veterans with combat-related posttraumatic stress disorder and comorbid depression. Setting: An outpatient mental health clinic at a Veterans Affairs Medical Center. Participants: Eleven male veterans of Operations Enduring Freedom and Iraqi Freedom diagnosed with posttraumatic stress disorder and comorbid depression. Measurements: Autonomic reactivity was measured by examining heart rate variability and QT interval variability. Treatment safety and efficacy were also evaluated pre- and post-treatment. Results: We observed a reduction in posttraumatic stress disorder and depression symptoms from pre- to post-treatment, and escitalopram was generally well tolerated in our sample. In addition, we observed a decrease in high frequency heart rate variability and an increase in QT variability, indicating a reduction in cardiac vagal function and heightened sympathetic activation. Conclusion: These findings suggest that escitalopram treatment in patients with posttraumatic stress disorder and depression can trigger changes in autonomic reactivity that may adversely impact cardiovascular health. PMID:26155373

  2. Effects of Escitalopram on Autonomic Function in Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Among Veterans of Operations Enduring Freedom and Iraqi Freedom (OEF/OIF).

    PubMed

    Ramaswamy, Sriram; Selvaraj, Vithyalakshmi; Driscoll, David; Madabushi, Jayakrishna S; Bhatia, Subhash C; Yeragani, Vikram

    2015-01-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder is a chronic, debilitating condition that has become a growing concern among combat veterans. Previous research suggests that posttraumatic stress disorder disrupts normal autonomic responding and may increase the risk of cardiovascular disease and mortality. Measures of heart rate variability and QT interval variability have been used extensively to characterize sympathetic and parasympathetic influences on heart rate in a variety of psychiatric populations. The objective of this study was to better understand the effects of pharmacological treatment on autonomic reactivity in posttraumatic stress disorder. A 12-week, Phase IV, prospective, open-label trial of escitalopram in veterans with combat-related posttraumatic stress disorder and comorbid depression. An outpatient mental health clinic at a Veterans Affairs Medical Center. Eleven male veterans of Operations Enduring Freedom and Iraqi Freedom diagnosed with posttraumatic stress disorder and comorbid depression. Autonomic reactivity was measured by examining heart rate variability and QT interval variability. Treatment safety and efficacy were also evaluated pre- and post-treatment. We observed a reduction in posttraumatic stress disorder and depression symptoms from pre- to post-treatment, and escitalopram was generally well tolerated in our sample. In addition, we observed a decrease in high frequency heart rate variability and an increase in QT variability, indicating a reduction in cardiac vagal function and heightened sympathetic activation. These findings suggest that escitalopram treatment in patients with posttraumatic stress disorder and depression can trigger changes in autonomic reactivity that may adversely impact cardiovascular health.

  3. Homecoming of soldiers who are citizens: Re-employment and financial status of returning Army National Guard soldiers from Operations Iraqi Freedom (OIF) and Enduring Freedom (OEF).

    PubMed

    Griffith, James

    2015-01-01

    This study examined civilian employment among Army National Guard soldiers who had recently returned from Operations Iraqi Freedom (OIF) and Enduring Freedom (OEF). Of specific interest were relationships of re-employment and financial difficulties to several conditions, such as amount of social support during and after deployment, combat exposure, negative feelings during and after deployment, and postdeployment adjustment symptoms. Survey data from the Army's Reintegration Unit Risk Inventory were used (4,546 soldiers in 50 units who were deployed during 2010). Few soldiers reported financial difficulties during deployment (7.1% of the sample) and after having returned (11.8%). Of those who reported postdeployment financial difficulties, nearly one-half had reported such difficulties during deployment, and not having resumed the predeployment job was associated with more postdeployment financial difficulties. Logistic regression analyses showed the relative contribution of the study variables to changed financial status, from deployment to postdeployment. Reported deployment support (e.g., trust in the unit chain-of-command and available support) was associated with decreased financial difficulties. In contrast, increased financial difficulties were associated with having seen others wounded or killed in combat. Other postdeployment experiences, such as feelings of anger and frustration and available support, were associated with increased financial difficulties, in addition to alcohol use, trouble sleeping and suicidal thoughts. Implications of results for policy and practice to lessen financial hardships and job loss associated with deployment are discussed.

  4. Longitudinal Changes in Combat-Related Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Among Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom/Operation New Dawn Veterans With Hazardous Alcohol Use: The Role of Avoidance Coping.

    PubMed

    Lee, Joohyun; Possemato, Kyle; Ouimette, Paige C

    2017-10-01

    Military personnel who have experienced combat trauma are at risk for developing posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). A greater recognition of the complex array of vulnerability factors that contribute to PTSD severity has led researchers to examine other non-combat-related factors. This longitudinal study examined a number of pre-, peri-, and postdeployment factors hypothesized to contribute to PTSD symptomatology among returning Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom/Operation New Dawn veterans presenting with at least subthreshold PTSD symptoms and hazardous alcohol use in a primary care setting. Purported risk factors included childhood family environment, severity of combat exposure, postdeployment social support, alcohol dependence severity, and an avoidant coping style. At baseline, postdeployment social support and avoidant coping contributed to PTSD severity. Only avoidant coping was associated with changes in PTSD symptom at 1-year follow-up. Reducing avoidant coping may deter the maintenance of PTSD among veterans with PTSD symptoms and hazardous alcohol use.

  5. Deployment Surveillance Summary, U.S. Army Operation Iraqi Freedom/Operation New Dawn/Operation Enduring Freedom, 2011. Injury Prevention Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-12-10

    Injury Prevention Report No. S.0000614-10, 10 December 2012...Enduring Freedom, 2011 Prepared by: Avni Patel, Bonnie Taylor, Keith Hauret, Bruce Jones, and the Injury Prevention Program General Medicine...release; distribution unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT The aims of this report on injuries to Soldiers engaged in Operation Enduring

  6. Traumatic brain injury during Operation Iraqi Freedom: findings from the United States Navy-Marine Corps Combat Trauma Registry.

    PubMed

    Galarneau, Michael R; Woodruff, Susan I; Dye, Judy L; Mohrle, Charlene R; Wade, Amber L

    2008-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to characterize traumatic brain injuries (TBIs) among military personnel (primarily Marines) during the second phase of Operation Iraqi Freedom from early in the medical care chain of evacuation through Landstuhl Regional Medical Center, a Level 4 American hospital in Germany. Data were obtained from the Navy-Marine Corps Combat Trauma Registry (CTR) and included both battle and nonbattle injuries. Follow-up of patients with TBI was conducted to examine the short-term medical and personnel-related effects of TBI among those surviving. Those injured in battle were more likely than those not injured in battle to have multiple TBI diagnoses, a greater number of all diagnoses, more severe TBIs, and to be medically evacuated. Intracranial injuries (for example, concussions) were the predominant type of TBI, although skull fractures and open head wounds were also seen. Improvised explosive devices were the most common cause of TBIs among battle injuries; blunt trauma and motor vehicle crashes were the most common causes among nonbattle injuries. Short-term follow-up of surviving patients with TBI indicated higher morbidity and medical utilization among the patients with more severe TBI, although mental conditions were higher among patients with milder TBI. Data from the Navy-Marine Corps CTR provide useful information about combatants' TBIs identified early in the combat casualty process. Results may improve clinical care for those affected and suggest strategies for primary prevention. The CTR staff plans to conduct additional follow-up studies of this group of patients with TBI.

  7. Sleep quality in treatment-seeking veterans of Operations Enduring Freedom and Iraqi Freedom: the role of cognitive coping strategies and unit cohesion.

    PubMed

    Pietrzak, Robert H; Morgan, Charles A; Southwick, Steven M

    2010-11-01

    Sleep difficulties are common in individuals exposed to stress or trauma, and maladaptive cognitive coping strategies, such as worry and fear of losing vigilance, as well as low social support, may further impair sleep quality. This study examined the severity and correlates of sleep difficulties in a sample of treatment-seeking veterans of Operations Enduring Freedom and Iraqi Freedom (OEF-OIF). A total of 167 OEF-OIF veterans seeking behavioral or primary care services completed a questionnaire containing measures of sleep quality, combat exposure, psychopathology, fear of loss of vigilance, cognitive coping strategies, and unit and postdeployment social support within 1 year of returning from deployment. Mean Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Inventory scores in the full sample were indicative of severely impaired sleep. Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) was associated with increased sleep difficulties, most notably sleep disturbances, daytime dysfunction, and sleep quality. Hierarchical regression analysis in the full sample revealed that PTSD symptoms and scores on measures of worry and fear of loss of vigilance were positively associated with sleep difficulties and that scores on a measure of unit member support were negatively associated with sleep difficulties. Among veterans with PTSD, fear of loss of vigilance was positively associated with sleep difficulties and cognitive distraction and unit member support were negatively associated with sleep difficulties. Treatment-seeking OEF-OIF veterans report severe sleep difficulties, with more pronounced impairment in veterans with PTSD. The results of this study suggest that interventions to mitigate worry and fear of loss of vigilance and to enhance perceived unit member support may be helpful in reducing sleep difficulties following return from deployment in this population. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Characterization of combat-related spinal injuries sustained by a US Army Brigade Combat Team during Operation Iraqi Freedom.

    PubMed

    Schoenfeld, Andrew J; Goodman, Gens P; Belmont, Philip J

    2012-09-01

    The United States is presently engaged in the largest scale armed conflict since Vietnam. Despite recent investigations into the scope of injuries sustained by soldiers in Iraq and Afghanistan, little information is available regarding the incidence and epidemiology of spine trauma in this population. Characterize the incidence and epidemiology of spinal injuries sustained during combat by soldiers of a US Army Brigade Combat Team (BCT) that participated in Operation Iraqi Freedom. Descriptive epidemiologic study. A total of 4,122 soldiers who served in Iraq with an Army BCT during "The Surge" operation. Spine injury epidemiology was calculated for the BCT, including the spine combat casualty rate, and percent medically evacuated (MEDEVAC). Unit rosters were obtained, and a comprehensive database identifying all combat-related spine injuries was created by querying each soldiers' electronic medical record and the unit's casualty rosters. Demographic information was recorded including age, sex, rank, injury mechanism, presence of polytrauma, and injury outcome. Injury outcomes were classified as killed in action, died of wounds, MEDEVAC, or returned to duty. The incidence of spine injuries was determined, and epidemiology was characterized using calculations of the spine combat casualty rate and percent MEDEVAC. Comparisons were made to published reports from previous conflicts. A total of 29 soldiers sustained 31 combat-related spine injuries. These accounted for 7.4% (29 out of 390) of all casualties sustained during combat. Blunt trauma to the spine, often resulting from an explosive mechanism, was encountered in 65% of cases. Closed fractures of the spine occurred in 21% of casualties and open injuries occurred in 7%. The spine combat casualty rate was 5.6 out of 1,000 soldier combat-years, and the percent MEDEVAC was 19%. This investigation is the first of its kind, documenting the nature of spine trauma in a major American conflict. The incidence of spine

  9. Arthritis, comorbidities, and care utilization in veterans of operations enduring and Iraqi Freedom.

    PubMed

    Rivera, Jessica C; Amuan, Megan E; Morris, Ruth M; Johnson, Anthony E; Pugh, Mary Jo

    2017-03-01

    Veteran populations are known to have frequencies of arthritis higher than civilian populations. The aim of this study is to define the prevalence of arthritis among a cohort of veterans from ongoing U.S. military operations. A retrospective cohort study using Veterans Administration data sources for service connected disability, comorbidities, clinic utilization, and pharmacy utilization was conducted including veterans who deployed in service to operations in Afghanistan or Iraq, comparing veterans with a diagnosis of arthritis, arthritis plus back pain, and veterans with no pain diagnoses. The frequency of arthritis was 11.8%. Veterans with arthritis and arthritis plus back pain had greater frequencies of diabetes, hyperlipidemia, hypertension, and obesity compare to veterans with no pain diagnosis. Veterans with arthritis plus back pain had the highest pain clinic utilization and prescription use of opioids and anti-inflammatories. Veterans with no pain diagnosis had higher frequencies of diagnosis and clinic utilization for mental health disorders. Arthritis is prevalent among the latest generation of combat veterans and is associated with diabetes, obesity, and cardiovascular comorbidities. The need for arthritis care and associated comorbidities is expected to increase as the Veterans Administration and the civilian health care sector assumes care of these veterans. © 2016 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 35:682-687, 2017. © 2016 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Operation Iraqi Freedom: DOD Assessment of Iraqi Security Forces’ Units as Independent Not Clear Because ISF Support Capabilities Are Not Fully Developed

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-30

    the Iraqi Army’s infantry divisions. Mid-level logistics support is expected to come from a National Depot, five Regional Support Units ( RSU ), and...and RSUs , while the Iraqi Joint Headquarters logistics staff (M-4) is to provide logistics input to plans and orders. Finally, atop the logistics

  11. Preventive medicine in Task Force 1st Armored Division during Operation Iraqi Freedom.

    PubMed

    Harris, Mark D; Johnson, Christopher R

    2006-09-01

    Task Force 1st Armored Division (TF1AD) deployed to Baghdad and South Central Iraq from April 2003 through July 2004. TF1AD preventive medicine had responsibility for ensuring divisional force health protection, including soldier health, disease and nonbattle injury mitigation, health promotion, and civil affairs operations. Heat injury, diarrheal disease, skin and respiratory disease, and eye and musculoskeletal injury rates were high. Command emphasis and preventive medicine action resulted in better living conditions and personal sanitation. To counter the threat, the TF1AD preventive medicine/ division surgeon team used a "spiraling out" approach that focused attention first on hand-washing, potable water, vector control, waste disposal, and food sanitation and later on noise, asbestos, environmental contamination, and radiation. In April 2004, TF1AD shifted focus to the Multinational Division Central-South region of Iraq and many similar problems occurred as in May 2003, although they were less severe, in part because of the lessons learned in Baghdad.

  12. Estimation of the Joint Patient Condition Occurrence Frequencies from Operation Iraqi Freedom and Operation Enduring Freedom. Volume I: Development of Methodology

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-28

    Freedom Volume 1: Development of Methodology James Zouris Edwin D’Souza Trevor Elkins Jay Walker Vern Wing Carrie Brown Document No. 11-9I...and Operation Enduring Freedom Volume I: Development of Methodology James Zouris Edwin D’Souza Trevor Elkins Jay Walker Vern Wing ...Closed FRAC CL SHOULDER & UPPER ARM 811 Fracture of Scapula , Closed FRAC CL SHOULDER & UPPER ARM 812 Fracture of Unspecified Part of Upper End of

  13. Genitourinary injuries and extremity amputation in Operations Enduring Freedom and Iraqi Freedom: Early findings from the Trauma Outcomes and Urogenital Health (TOUGH) project.

    PubMed

    Nnamani, Nina S; Janak, Judson C; Hudak, Steven J; Rivera, Jessica C; Lewis, Eluned A; Soderdahl, Douglas W; Orman, Jean A

    2016-11-01

    In Operation Enduring Freedom and Operation Iraqi Freedom (OEF/OIF), genitourinary (GU) wounds have occurred in unprecedented numbers. Severe concomitant injuries, including extremity amputations, are common. The epidemiology of GU injury and extremity amputation in OEF/OIF has not been described. The Department of Defense Trauma Registry was queried from October 2001 through August 2013 to identify all surviving US male service members with GU injuries sustained in OEF/OIF. Genitourinary injury was defined as sustaining one or more injuries to any organ or structure within the genitourinary and/or reproductive system(s) based on International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification diagnosis codes. Injury severity was quantified based on Abbreviated Injury Scale scores and overall Injury Severity Scores. The incidence, nature, and severity of GU injuries and extremity amputations are described. Of the 1,367 service members with GU injury included in this analysis, 433 (31.7%) had one or more extremity amputations. Most GU injuries were to the external genitalia [scrotum (55.6%), testes (33.0%), penis (31.0%), and urethra (9.1%)] vs. the kidneys (21.1%). Those with amputation(s) had greater GU injury severity (Abbreviated Injury Scale score ≥ 3) than those without amputations (50.1% vs. 30.5%, respectively; p < 0.0001). Approximately 3.4% of male service members with GU injury had an upper extremity amputation only, 8.9% had both lower and upper extremity amputation(s), and 19.4% had lower extremity amputation(s) only. Of the 387 patients with GU injury and lower extremity amputations, 87 (22.5%) had amputations below the knee and 300 (77.5%) had amputation(s) at/above the knee. In OEF/OIF, concomitant GU injury and extremity amputation are common and have serious implications for health and quality of life. This wounding pattern presents new challenges to the military medical and research and development communities to prevent, mitigate

  14. A Network-Centric Operations Case Study: US/UK Coalition Combat Operations During Operation Iraqi Freedom

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-03-02

    correlate well with the physical elements of the joint operational picture ( JOP )13 that includes other elements of situational awareness such as NBC...fires, logistics and meteorology. Command intent is included to set the context for the need for situational awareness. The layers of the JOP are...highlighted in Figure 3.6.2-1. METOC Enemy / Intel Friendly Fires Coord NBC Logistics Neutrals Geospatial Framework JOP Figure 3.6.2-1, The UK Joint

  15. Capability enhancement and amputee care in Operation Iraqi Freedom: The role of a rehabilitation and prosthetics assistance team in reconstruction operations.

    PubMed

    Scherer, Matthew

    2009-05-01

    Defining the role of the U.S. Army Rehabilitation and Prosthetic Assistance Team in reconstruction operations was a key component of this first of its kind Army Medical Department (AMEDD) mission in a combat theater of operations. In the tradition of civil-military operations, a five-man team trained 11 Iraqi rehabilitation and prosthetic providers on best clinical, technical, and business practices to manage the nation's growing amputee population. The team instructed, assisted, and supervised Iraqi clinicians in the delivery of prosthetic and rehabilitation services to 124 patients over 350 patient clinical visits. After a successful transition from Multi-National Force-Iraq oversight to the Iraqi Ministry of Defense (MoD), the premier prosthetics and rehabilitation clinic in Iraq now provides services to patients from current and past conflicts, including civilians and pediatric patients.

  16. The experience of the US Marine Corps' Surgical Shock Trauma Platoon with 417 operative combat casualties during a 12 month period of operation Iraqi Freedom.

    PubMed

    Chambers, Lowell W; Green, D J; Gillingham, Bruce L; Sample, Kenneth; Rhee, Peter; Brown, Carlos; Brethauer, Stacy; Nelson, Thomas; Narine, Nalan; Baker, Bruce; Bohman, H R

    2006-06-01

    The Forward Resuscitative Surgical System (FRSS) is a small, mobile trauma surgical unit designed to support modern US Marine Corps combat operations. The experience of two co-located FRSS teams during 1 year of service in Operation Iraqi Freedom is reviewed to evaluate the system's efficacy. Between March 1, 2004, and February 28, 2005, two FRSS teams and a shock trauma platoon were co-located in a unit designated the Surgical Shock Trauma Platoon (SSTP). Data concerning patient care before and during treatment at the SSTP was maintained prospectively. Prospective determination of outcomes was obtained by e-mail correspondence with surgeons caring for the patients at higher echelons. The Los Angeles County medical center (LAC) trauma registry was queried to obtain a comparable data-base with which to compare outcomes. During the year reviewed there were 895 trauma admissions to the SSTP. Excluding 25 patients pulseless on arrival and 291 minimally injured patients, 559 of 579 (97%) combat casualties survived; 417 casualties underwent 981 operative procedures in the two SSTP operating shelters. There were 79 operative patients with a mean injury severity score of 26 (range, 16-59) and mean revised trauma score of 6.963 (range, 4.21-7.841) who had sustained severe injuries. Ten (12.7%) of these casualties died while 43 of 337 (12.8%) deaths were seen with comparable cases treated at LAC. Small task-oriented surgical units are capable of providing effective trauma surgical care to combat casualties. Further experience is needed to better delineate the balance between early, forward-based surgical intervention and more prolonged initial casualty evacuation to reach more robust surgical facilities.

  17. Bacterial species diversity in cigarettes linked to an investigation of severe pneumonitis in U.S. Military personnel deployed in operation iraqi freedom.

    PubMed

    Rooney, Alejandro P; Swezey, James L; Wicklow, Donald T; McAtee, Matthew J

    2005-07-01

    This report presents results from a study on the bacterial diversity of cigarette brands collected from military personnel during the U.S. Army's investigation of a series of cases of acute eosinophilic pneumonitis in military personnel deployed in Operation Iraqi Freedom. Eight species of Bacillus, including five new species, and one new species of Kurthia were isolated from the cigarettes. Some of these species have been identified elsewhere as causes of hypersensitivity pneumonitis and other respiratory syndromes. All of the isolates were facultative anaerobes, and many displayed mucoid growth under anaerobic conditions. In addition, many isolates also displayed the ability to form surface biofilms under liquid culture. Although biofilm formation and mucoid growth were not correlated, the former was found to be much more pronounced under anaerobic conditions as opposed to aerobic ones. The implications of these findings are discussed.

  18. Comparing the Neuropsychological Test Performance of Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom (OEF/OIF) Veterans with and without Blast Exposure, Mild Traumatic Brain Injury, and Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms.

    PubMed

    Storzbach, Daniel; O'Neil, Maya Elin; Roost, Saw-Myo; Kowalski, Halina; Iverson, Grant L; Binder, Laurence M; Fann, Jesse R; Huckans, Marilyn

    2015-05-01

    To compare neuropsychological test performance of Veterans with and without mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI), blast exposure, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. We compared the neuropsychological test performance of 49 Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom (OEF/OIF) Veterans diagnosed with MTBI resulting from combat blast-exposure to that of 20 blast-exposed OEF/OIF Veterans without history of MTBI, 23 OEF/OIF Veterans with no blast exposure or MTBI history, and 40 matched civilian controls. Comparison of neuropsychological test performance across all four participant groups showed a complex pattern of mixed significant and mostly nonsignificant results, with omnibus tests significant for measures of attention, spatial abilities, and executive function. The most consistent pattern was the absence of significant differences between blast-exposed Veterans with MTBI history and blast-exposed Veterans without MTBI history. When blast-exposed Veteran groups with and without MTBI history were aggregated and compared to non-blast-exposed Veterans, there were significant differences for some measures of learning and memory, spatial abilities, and executive function. However, covariation for severity of PTSD symptoms eliminated all significant omnibus neuropsychological differences between Veteran groups. Our results suggest that, although some mild neurocognitive effects were associated with blast exposure, these neurocognitive effects might be better explained by PTSD symptom severity rather than blast exposure or MTBI history alone.

  19. Sexual assault in the US military: A comparison of risk in deployed and non-deployed locations among Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom active component and Reserve/National Guard servicewomen.

    PubMed

    Sadler, Anne G; Booth, Brenda M; Torner, James C; Mengeling, Michelle A

    2017-08-30

    To determine whether sexual assault in the military (SAIM) among active component and Reserve/National Guard servicewomen is more likely to occur in deployed or non-deployed locations; and which location poses greater risk for SAIM when time spent in-location is considered. A total of 1337 Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom era servicewomen completed telephone interviews eliciting socio-demographics, military and sexual assault histories, including attempted and completed sexual assault. Half of the sample had been deployed (58%). Overall 16% (N = 245) experienced SAIM; a higher proportion while not deployed (15%; n = 208) than while deployed (4%; n = 52). However, the incidence of SAIM per 100 person-years was higher in deployed than in non-deployed locations: 3.5 vs 2.4. Active component and Reserve/National Guard had similar deployment lengths, but Reserve/National Guard had higher SAIM incidence rates/100 person-years (2.8 vs 4.0). A higher proportion of servicewomen experienced SAIM while not deployed; however, adjusting for time in each location, servicewomen were at greater risk during deployment. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. The Saratoga WarHorse project: a case study of the treatment of psychological distress in a veteran of Operation Iraqi Freedom.

    PubMed

    Nevins, Robert; Finch, Sharon; Hickling, Edward J; Barnett, Scott D

    2013-01-01

    We theorized that ability to direct and control a horse will lead to a sense of empowerment, facilitate a relationship between horse and veteran, lead to a decrease in anxiety, and improve physical and social functioning. This case study utilizes the Connection methodology: nonverbal language of the horse in a predictable, sequential, and repeatable method. Psychological testing occurred immediately pre- and post-Connection with follow-up occurring at 2, 4, 6, and 12 wks post-Connection. Twice-deployed combat medic who served in Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF). Saratoga Springs, New York. Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II); Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist (PCL-C); the Response to Stressful Experiences Scale (RSES); the Quality of Life Inventory (QOLI); and the Modified Social Support Survey (MSSS). The participant demonstrated significant improvement in measures of psychological functioning (eg, over 12 wks); both PCL-C and RSES scores decreased 58% and 44%, respectively. Participant further reported an increase in sleep quality. The results of this case study strongly support the potential for the intervention and indicate the need for a controlled, randomized study that might more stringently investigate the impact of the intervention.

  1. Head, face, and neck injuries during Operation Iraqi Freedom II: results from the US Navy-Marine Corps Combat Trauma Registry.

    PubMed

    Wade, Amber L; Dye, Judy L; Mohrle, Charlene R; Galarneau, Michael R

    2007-10-01

    Head, face, and neck injuries (HFNIs) are an important source of combat mortality and morbidity. The objective of this study was to document the characteristics and causes of HFNIs during Operation Iraqi Freedom II. A retrospective review of HFNIs sustained by US military casualties between March 1, 2004 and September 30, 2004 was performed. Data were collected from the Navy-Marine Corps Combat Trauma Registry. During the study period, 39% of all injury casualties in the registry had HFNIs. Of the 445 HFNI patients, one-third presented with multiple wounds to the head, face, and neck. Four percent of battle HFNI patients died from wounds, and nearly 40% of the surviving wounded were evacuated for treatment. Improvised explosive devices (IEDs) were the most frequent cause of battle HFNIs. Nonbattle HFNIs were most often the result of motor vehicle crashes. The majority (65%) of all HFNIs were to the face. Head injuries, overall, were more severe than face or neck wounds according to the Abbreviated Injury Scale. The proportion of combat-related HFNIs is increasing and is primarily caused by IEDs. Improved protection for the vulnerable facial region is needed. Continued research on the changing nature of warfare and distribution of HFNIs is necessary to enhance the planning and delivery of combat casualty medical care.

  2. Fatal and Non-Fatal Electrocution Injuries at U.S. Marine Corps Forward Medical Facilities During Operation Enduring Freedom and Operation Iraqi Freedom.

    PubMed

    Williams, Bradley; Deaton, Travis; Galarneau, Mike; Dye, Judy; Zieber, Tara; Auten, Jonathan

    2017-09-01

    Death from electrocution is rare and generally an accidental occurrence. In contrast to civilian patterns of electrocution injury, the military work environment suffers from a greater percentage of fatal high-voltage electrocutions. This study compared U.S. and international electrocution case fatality rates to rates among deployed military personnel presenting for care at expeditionary medical care facilities. We also sought to identify potential risk factors for fatal electrocution injury among deployed military personnel. A retrospective analysis was performed on electrocution injuries presenting to U.S. Marine Corps forward deployed medical facilities in Iraq and Afghanistan between January 2004 and December 2012. Descriptive statistics were used to describe the study population and compare fatal and nonfatal electrocutions. Fatality rates were reported in cases per 1,000,000 people per year. A total of 38 patients were identified; all were males with a mean (SD) age of 25.3 (5.3) years. Most electrocutions occurred on base (68%), whereas a smaller number (21%) occurred while conducting operations outside of the base. A majority of fatal cases (80%) occurred while outside of base on foot or vehicle mounted patrol. The rate of fatal electrocutions among U.S. Marine Corps personnel during this period was 37 per 1,000,000 people per year, 7-fold higher than the international electrocution fatality rate of 5.4 per 1,000,000 people per year and nearly three-fold above the U.S. utility and construction worker's fatality rate of 14 per 1,000,000 people per year. Electrocution injuries occurring during foot or vehicle mounted patrols seem to account for findings of higher case fatality rates among deployed military personnel than those found in international or high risk civilian occupational settings. Basic life support training for medical and nonmedical military personnel is critical to optimizing care delivered at the scene of these injuries. Reprint & Copyright

  3. Psychosocial buffers of traumatic stress, depressive symptoms, and psychosocial difficulties in veterans of Operations Enduring Freedom and Iraqi Freedom: the role of resilience, unit support, and postdeployment social support.

    PubMed

    Pietrzak, Robert H; Johnson, Douglas C; Goldstein, Marc B; Malley, James C; Rivers, Alison J; Morgan, Charles A; Southwick, Steven M

    2009-01-01

    Little research has examined the role of protective factors such as psychological resilience, unit support, and postdeployment social support in buffering against PTSD and depressive symptoms, and psychosocial difficulties in veterans of Operations Enduring Freedom (OEF) and Iraqi Freedom (OIF). A total of 272 OEF/OIF veterans completed a survey containing PTSD and depression screening measures, and questionnaires assessing resilience, social support, and psychosocial functioning. Lower unit support and postdeployment social support were associated with increased PTSD and depressive symptoms, and decreased resilience and psychosocial functioning. Path analyses suggested that resilience fully mediated the association between unit support and PTSD and depressive symptoms, and that postdeployment social support partially mediated the association between PTSD and depressive symptoms and psychosocial functioning. Generalizability of results is limited by the relatively low response rate and predominantly older and reserve/National Guard sample. These results suggest that interventions designed to bolster unit support, resilience, and postdeployment support may help protect against traumatic stress and depressive symptoms, and improve psychosocial functioning in veterans.

  4. Psychosocial buffers of traumatic stress, depressive symptoms, and psychosocial difficulties in veterans of Operations Enduring Freedom and Iraqi Freedom: the role of resilience, unit support, and postdeployment social support.

    PubMed

    Pietrzak, Robert H; Johnson, Douglas C; Goldstein, Marc B; Malley, James C; Rivers, Alison J; Morgan, Charles A; Southwick, Steven M

    2010-01-01

    Little research has examined the role of protective factors such as psychological resilience, unit support, and postdeployment social support in buffering against PTSD and depressive symptoms, and psychosocial difficulties in veterans of Operations Enduring Freedom (OEF) and Iraqi Freedom (OIF). A total of 272 OEF/OIF veterans completed a survey containing PTSD and depression screening measures, and questionnaires assessing resilience, social support, and psychosocial functioning. Lower unit support and postdeployment social support were associated with increased PTSD and depressive symptoms, and decreased resilience and psychosocial functioning. Path analyses suggested that resilience fully mediated the association between unit support and PTSD and depressive symptoms, and that postdeployment social support partially mediated the association between PTSD and depressive symptoms and psychosocial functioning. Generalizability of results is limited by the relatively low response rate and predominantly older and reserve/National Guard sample. These results suggest that interventions designed to bolster unit support, resilience, and postdeployment support may help protect against traumatic stress and depressive symptoms, and improve psychosocial functioning in veterans.

  5. A cross-sectional analysis of clinical presentations of and risk factors for enteric protozoan Infections in an Active Duty Population during Operation Iraqi Freedom.

    PubMed

    Downs, John W; Putnam, Shannon D; Rockabrand, David M; El Okla, Gamal; Mostafa, Manal; Monteville, Marshal R; Antosek, Louis E; Herbst, James; Tribble, David R; Riddle, Mark S; Sanders, John W

    2015-01-01

    Infectious travelers' diarrhea (TD) is a well-appreciated problem among service members serving abroad, particularly where infrastructure is limited due to ongoing combat operations, and efforts at sanitation and hygiene may not be considered an immediate priority. Bacterial and viral causes of travelers' diarrhea are well-described among deployed service members, however, gastrointestinal protozoan infections among deployed service members are less well documented. This study's purpose was to identify potential risk factors for, and clinical presentations of, enteric protozoan infections in an active duty military population deployed to combat operations in the Southwest Asia. A cross-sectional study of enteric protozoan infections among US service members deployed in Al-Asad Air Base, Iraq in support of Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF) was conducted in summer 2004. Subjects were obtained through a randomized sector sampling scheme, and through presentations for care at the air base medical facilities. All study participants provided a stool sample, either diarrhea or solid, upon study entry and completed a questionnaire documenting demographic information, clinical symptoms of any prior diarrheal episodes, and health risk behaviors. Basic diagnostic microscopy for protozoa was conducted to include acid-fast and modified trichrome staining. Four hundred thirty-seven subjects were included in the analysis, and 75 (17.1 %) subjects were found to have enteric protozoan infections as identified by diagnostic stool microscopy. Blastocystis hominis (n = 36), Entamoeba coli (n = 25), Endolimax nana (n = 20), and Entamoeba histolytica (n = 5) were the predominant organisms isolated. Crude incidence of prior episodes of diarrhea was greater among subjects from whom enteric protozoa were isolated compared to those without (IRR 1.66, 95 % CI 1.47-1.87). Bivariate analysis of health risk and hygiene behaviors found increased odds for presence of Blastocystis

  6. Distribution Synergy in Multi-National Division-Baghdad during Operation Iraqi Freedom Rotation 07-09

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-06-10

    Sustainment Brigade SPO Support Operations Officer SSA Supply Support Activity TAC 2 Freight Shipping Address TMR Transportation Movement Release...Consolidated TMR and CRSP Database Program......................73 Figure 28. 1st Sustainment Brigade Average CRSP Cargo Transit Time .......................75...Sustainment Brigade Operational Overview The 1st SB conducted a mission rehearsal exercise at Fort Bragg in April 2007 and a pre-deployment site

  7. Iraqi Resistance to Freedom: A Frommian Perspective

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-01-01

    psychoanalyst and philosopher Erich Fromm re- ported a phenomenon he called “fear of freedom” over 60 years ago. When Fromm published his theory (Escape from... Erich Fromm , Escape from Freedom (rpt.; New York: Henry Holt and Company, 1969 [original pub- lished in 1941]). 13. Individuation was defined by Fromm ...In analyzing socioeconomic and sociopolitical problems of Europe during the emergence of fascism, Fromm came to the conclusion that individu- als

  8. Hospitalization and Medical Evacuation of Army Personnel Due to Toxic Inhalational Exposure-Operations Iraqi Freedom and Enduring Freedom, 2001 Through Mid 2011

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-01-01

    prevalence of self- reported exposure to the smoke and self-reported symp- toms of asthma and bronchitis . That association did not hold when modeled...exposures during military operations is not new, how- ever. In fact, some personnel have received treatment due to environ- mental exposures during...asthma and bronchitis among gulf war veterans. Environ Health Perspect. 2002;110(11):1141-1146. Petruccelli BP, Goldenbaum M, Scott B, et al. 11

  9. Capability Enhancement and Amputee Care in Operation Iraqi Freedom: The Role of a Rehabilitation and Prosthetics Assistance Team in Reconstruction Operations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-05-01

    therapists (FTs) work within a scope of practice with a limited ability to independently evaluate, diagnose, and prescribe therapeutic interventions...clinical, technical, and busines,s practices to manage the nation’s growing amputee population. The leam instrticted. assisted, and supervised Iraqi...Baghdad. Additional clinics were al.so opened in BrbÜ and at the Ibn Department of Physical Therapy and Rehabilitation Science. University of Maryland

  10. Naval Coastal Warfare Operations from 2000 to Operation Iraqi Freedom and the Deficiencies that Prompted their Addition to the Naval Expeditionary Combat Command

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-11-02

    the historical information will be drawn from personal recollection, personal journals and live interviews. In addition, written transcripts taken from...and troubleshoot problems in live operations during a short two week period of time. Two weeks per year is not much time, especially when one considers...51 Admiral W.C. Marsh.13 The living area we were initially assigned to was located at Camp Arifjan, a U.S. Army staging area several miles inland

  11. Naval Coastal Warfare Operations from 2000 to Operation Iraqi Freedom and the Deficiencies that Prompted their Addition to the Naval Expeditionary Combat Command

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-12-03

    and live interviews. In addition, written transcripts taken from interviews that were conducted during the first few months of OIF will also be...coordinate, cooperate and troubleshoot problems in live operations during a short two week period of time. Two weeks per year is not much time...as Commander Task Group 51.9 (CTG 51.9) who worked directly for Commander Task Force 51 Admiral W.C. Marsh.13 The living area we were initially

  12. Experience with the use of close-relative allograft for the management of extensive thermal injury in local national casualties during Operation Iraqi Freedom.

    PubMed

    Lundy, Jonathan B; Cancio, Leopoldo C; King, Booker T; Wolf, Steven E; Renz, Evan M; Blackbourne, Lorne H

    2011-01-01

    The care of host nation burn victims in Iraq and Afghanistan has been a significant challenge to US military healthcare providers. To provide burn care in an austere environment is more challenging by limitations in resources such as inadequate medical supplies, infection control issues, and a lack of blood or tissue banking capabilities. Large full thickness burns pose a significant obstacle due to limitations in the casualties' available donor skin, which can be used to achieve wound coverage. In US burn centers, allograft stored in skin banks provides temporary coverage during donor site healing in the management of large total body surface area burns. This report is a study of two severely burned Iraqi children with inadequate donor site surface area to achieve wound coverage that were managed with close-relative allograft harvested from their fathers to achieve temporary wound closure. A brief literature review and future recommendations are included.

  13. The Fight for the High Ground: The U.S. Army and Interrogation during Operation Iraqi Freedom I, May 2003-April 2004

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-06-12

    news reports, this Joint Special Operations Command task force included members of "the Army unit Delta Force , Navy’s Seal Team 6 and the 75th Ranger...Lieutenant Colonel Nathan Hoepner J2, Plans and Exercises NATO Joint Force Command Naples PSC 813 Box 134 FPO AE 09620 Lieutenant Colonel Russell...interrogation operations within the largest division task force and brigade combat team of OIF I are explored to explain why most interrogators

  14. A Pilot Study of the Effects of Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction on Post-traumatic Stress Disorder Symptoms and Brain Response to Traumatic Reminders of Combat in Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom Combat Veterans with Post-traumatic Stress Disorder.

    PubMed

    Bremner, James Douglas; Mishra, Sanskriti; Campanella, Carolina; Shah, Majid; Kasher, Nicole; Evans, Sarah; Fani, Negar; Shah, Amit Jasvant; Reiff, Collin; Davis, Lori L; Vaccarino, Viola; Carmody, James

    2017-01-01

    Brain imaging studies in patients with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) have implicated a circuitry of brain regions including the medial prefrontal cortex, amygdala, hippocampus, parietal cortex, and insula. Pharmacological treatment studies have shown a reversal of medial prefrontal deficits in response to traumatic reminders. Mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) is a promising non-pharmacologic approach to the treatment of anxiety and pain disorders. The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of MBSR on PTSD symptoms and brain response to traumatic reminders measured with positron-emission tomography (PET) in Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom (OEF/OIF) combat veterans with PTSD. We hypothesized that MBSR would show increased prefrontal response to stress and improved PTSD symptoms in veterans with PTSD. Twenty-six OEF/OIF combat veterans with PTSD who had recently returned from a combat zone were block randomized to receive eight sessions of MBSR or present-centered group therapy (PCGT). PTSD patients underwent assessment of PTSD symptoms with the Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale (CAPS), mindfulness with the Five Factor Mindfulness Questionnaire (FFMQ) and brain imaging using PET in conjunction with exposure to neutral and Iraq combat-related slides and sound before and after treatment. Nine patients in the MBSR group and 8 in the PCGT group completed all study procedures. Post-traumatic stress disorder patients treated with MBSR (but not PCGT) had an improvement in PTSD symptoms measured with the CAPS that persisted for 6 months after treatment. MBSR also resulted in an increase in mindfulness measured with the FFMQ. MBSR-treated patients had increased anterior cingulate and inferior parietal lobule and decreased insula and precuneus function in response to traumatic reminders compared to the PCGT group. This study shows that MBSR is a safe and effective treatment for PTSD. Furthermore, MBSR treatment is associated with

  15. Battlefield Extremity Injuries in Operation Iraqi Freedom

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-01

    the Institutional Review Board of the Naval Health Research Center, San Diego, CA, United States ( Protocol NHRC.2003.0025). Patients and methods A...and thigh 821, 897(.2–.3), 924.00, 928.00, 945.x6 Knee 822, 836, 844.0–.3, 924.11, 928.11, 945.x Lower leg and ankle 823–824, 837, 845.0, 897(.0–.1...n = 827) P value Nature of injury <.001a Fracture 316 (19.1) 150 (18.1) 166 (20.1) Dislocation 27 (1.6) 16 (1.9) 11 (1.3) Sprains and strains 31 (1.9

  16. Task Force Able Supporting Operation Iraqi Freedom

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-09-01

    standoff—was particularly useful. Figure 4, page 16, shows the Buffalo and the Meerkat mine detection systems. UXO and Captured Enemy Ammunition Iraq is...Protection Measures Used by Task Force Able 16 Engineer July-September 2004 Figure 4. Buffalo (left) and Meerkat (right) Mine Detection Systems

  17. Operation Iraqi Freedom 06-08

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-02-14

    injury or death. 43.5% 37.0% 0 0 0 IEDlBooby trap exploded near you. 70.2% 52.3% 0 0 0 Working in areas that were mined or had IEDs. 75.8% 64.5% 0 0...2006, 61 . I %] 4. Seeing dead bodies or human remains [2007, 60.2%; 2006, 57.4%] 5. Working in areas that were mined or had lEDs [2007, 59.8...FRGs vary, mine sucks and probably is more of a problem than a help. There is a lot of gossip." With regards to Soldier mental health training

  18. Consistency of Self-Reported Neurocognitive Symptoms, Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Symptoms, and Concussive Events From End of First Deployment to Veteran Health Administration Comprehensive Traumatic Brain Injury Evaluation by Operations Enduring Freedom/Iraqi Freedom/New Dawn Veterans.

    PubMed

    Russo, Arthur C; Fingerhut, Esther C

    2017-03-01

    This study examined the consistency of self-reported symptoms and concussive events in combat veterans who reported experiencing concussive events. One hundred and forty, single deployed, Operation Enduring Freedom, Operation Iraqi Freedom and Operation New Dawn combat veterans with Veteran Health Administration (VHA) Comprehensive Traumatic Brain Injury Evaluations (CTBIE) and no post-deployment head injury were examined to assess consistency of self-reported (a) traumatic brain injury (TBI)-related symptoms, (b) post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)-related symptoms, and (c) TBI-related concussive events from soon after deployment to time of VHA CTBIE. Compared to their self-report of symptoms and traumatic events at the time of their Post-Deployment Health Assessment, at the time of their comprehensive VHA evaluation, subjects reported significantly greater impairment in concentration, decision making, memory, headache, and sleep. In addition, although half the subjects denied any PTSD symptoms post-deployment, approximately three quarters reported experiencing all four PTSD screening symptoms near the time of the VHA CTBIEs. At the latter time, subjects also reported significantly more TBI-related concussive events, as well as more post-concussive sequelae such as loss of consciousness immediately following these concussive events. Finally, although 84% reported a level of impairment so severe as to render all but the simplest activity doable, the vast majority simultaneously reported working and/or attending college. These findings raise questions regarding the accuracy of veteran self-report of both near and distant traumatic events, and argue for the inclusion of contemporaneous Department of Defense (DOD) records in veteran assessment and treatment planning.

  19. Optical and physical characterization of "Iraqi freedom" dust storm, a case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saeed, Thuraya M.; Al-Dashti, Hassan

    2011-05-01

    Kuwait was exposed to a severe dust storm on 19 March 2003, the eve of operation "Iraqi Freedom". Three days of dust events (19, 26, 27 March) were analyzed for their aerosol optical and physical properties using ground-based and satellite-retrieved measurements. Ground-based measurements of aerosol optical depth (or thickness; AOD or AOT) at 675 nm, τ 657, Ångstrom coefficient α 936/657, particulate matter of diameter 10 μm or less, PM10 (μg/m3), and meteorological parameters were analyzed for March 2003. AOT exceeded 3 for the 3 days of interest and PM10 concentrations reached as high value as 2,457 μg/m3 on 19 March dust storm day. Retrieved aerosol characteristics from space using Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) on board Terra and Aqua satellite were examined against ground-based measurements. A strong correlation was found between ground-based measurements of τ 675 and the Terra-MODIS retrieved AOD550. The synoptic of the dust storm were analyzed and source regions were identified using back trajectory analysis and Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer Aerosol Index.

  20. Force XXI Battle Command Brigade and Below-Blue Force Tracking (FBCB2-BFT). A Case Study in the Accelerated Acquisition of a Digital Command and Control System during Operations Enduring Freedom and Iraqi Freedom

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-12-01

    Command CIB Controlled Image Base COA Course of Action COTS Commercial off the Shelf CP Command Post CPX Command Post Exercise CTIS Combat Terrain...Command Brigade and Below FCS Future Combat System FRP Full Rate Production FY Fiscal Year G3 Deputy Chief of Staff for Operations and Training...Graphic User Interface HTI Horizontal Technology Insertion IMETS Integrated Meteorological System IMTF Information Management Task Force IOT &E

  1. Network Centric Warfare Case Study: U.S. V Corps and 3rd Infantry Division (Mechanized) During Operation Iraqi Freedom Combat Operations (Mar-Apr 2003). Volume 2: Command, Control, Communications and Computer Architectures

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-01-01

    bandwidth, network, wireless, router, mouse, click, dotcom , nanosecond, and more) invaded the vernacular and began to shape the way we think. Visions of...Command TRI-TAC Tri-service Tactical Communications System TROPO Tropospheric scatter radio TS/SCI top secret /sensitive compartmented information TTP...DSVT can operate in both a secure and nonsecure mode. In the secure mode, the DSVT receives its crypto key from the circuit switch up to the secret

  2. Projects to Develop the Iraqi Special Operations Forces

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-25

    coordination centers, 18 Broadband Global Area Network ( BGAN ) kits were provided to the Iraqis. However, according to an INCTF-TT official, these...the 18 BGAN kits cannot be located. Each BGAN system costs $54,000, and together the 18 kits comprise nearly $1 million dollars worth of equipment...that is not being used or has been lost. Overall, INCTF-TT officials believe that the Iraqis may not be using the BGAN systems because of the high

  3. Space Station Freedom operations planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Accola, Anne L.; Keith, Bryant

    1989-01-01

    The Space Station Freedom program is developing an operations planning structure which assigns responsibility for planning activities to three tiers of management. The strategic level develops the policy, goals and requirements for the program over a five-year horizon. Planning at the tactical level emphasizes program integration and planning for a two-year horizon. The tactical planning process, architecture, and products have been documented and discussed with the international partners. Tactical planning includes the assignment of user and system hardware as well as significant operational events to a time increment (the period of time from the arrival of one Shuttle to the manned base to the arrival of the next). Execution-level planning emphasizes implementation, and each organization produces detailed plans, by increment, that are specific to its function.

  4. Space Station Freedom operations planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Accola, Anne L.; Keith, Bryant

    1989-01-01

    The Space Station Freedom program is developing an operations planning structure which assigns responsibility for planning activities to three tiers of management. The strategic level develops the policy, goals and requirements for the program over a five-year horizon. Planning at the tactical level emphasizes program integration and planning for a two-year horizon. The tactical planning process, architecture, and products have been documented and discussed with the international partners. Tactical planning includes the assignment of user and system hardware as well as significant operational events to a time increment (the period of time from the arrival of one Shuttle to the manned base to the arrival of the next). Execution-level planning emphasizes implementation, and each organization produces detailed plans, by increment, that are specific to its function.

  5. Operation Iraqi Freedom: Strategies, Approaches, Results, and Issues for Congress

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-03-28

    including logistics and communications. The Marines were assigned the eastern route up to Baghdad — with more urban areas than the Army’s western route...members of the paramilitary force Saddam Fedayeen and others still loyal to the Ba’ath Party. To limit casualties in the large urban area, rather than...allowing the 3ID to move as quickly as possible. Soldiers from the 101st faced fighting in key urban areas — Hillah, Najaf, Karbala. Just after mid

  6. Operation Iraqi Freedom: Strategies, Approaches, Results, and Issues for Congress

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-09-22

    district and local levels, compared with the limited number of U.S. civilian experts, means that in practice, the military continues to play a strong...MNC-I officials, Baghdad, August 2008. 21 Interviews with U.S. civilian and military officials, Baghdad, August 2008. See for example Stephen Biddle...personnel and equipment from Iraq, and both the willingness and capacity of neighboring states to provide access and transit. Troop Drawdown Schools of

  7. Operation Iraqi Freedom: Strategies, Approaches, Results, and Issues for Congress

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-02-22

    capabilities including logistics and communications. The Marines were assigned the eastern route up to Baghdad — with more urban areas than the Army’s western...from members of the paramilitary force Saddam Fedayeen and others still loyal to the Ba’ath Party. To limit casualties in the large urban area, rather...to move as quickly as possible. Soldiers from the 101st faced fighting in key urban areas — Hillah, Najaf, Karbala. Just after mid-April, the division

  8. Decisionmaking in Operation Iraqi Freedom: The Strategic Shift of 2007

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-05-01

    them and will exist after them, they are less consumed with leaving their personal mark on history than on being the steward of their Service. The...enemies and allies. Lesser powers, which play a smaller role in determining the rules of behavior for regional or global security systems, are less...the Surge,” Commentary, April 2008, p. 25. 17. Letter to President Bush signed by Harry Reid, Nancy Pelosi, Dick Durbin, Steny Hoyer , Carl Levin, Ike

  9. Infections in Combat Casualties During Operations Iraqi and Enduring Freedom

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-04-01

    Other specified diphtheria 1 041.82 Bacteroides fragilis infection 2 041.83 Clostridium perfringens infection 1 041.84 Infection anaerobe 9 041.89...Staphylococcus aureus 70 041.19 Infection Staphylococcus other 27 481 Pneumococcal pneumonia 2 Other bacteria 008.45 Clostridium difficile enteritis 8 032.89

  10. Analyzing Contingency Contracting Purchases for Operation Iraqi Freedom (Unrestricted Version)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-01-01

    Planning and Execution Capa- bilities Within the Joint Expeditionary Movement System, Robert S. Tripp , Kristin F. Lynch, Charles Robert Roll, Jr., John G...Drew, and Patrick Mills (MG-377-AF). Strategic Analysis of Air National Guard Combat Support and Reachback Functions, Robert S. Tripp , Kristin F...to-End Support Considerations, John G. Drew, Russell D . Shaver, Kristin F. Lynch, Mahyar A. Amouzegar, and Don Snyder (MG-350-AF). Supporting Air

  11. A Comparison of Operation Iraqi Freedom and The Algerian War

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-04-23

    French and the US were able to apply principles of the war to their perspective “ wicked problem.” The specific principles that will be focused on are...wanted to remain linked to France. French authorities’ attempt at pacifying the two mutually exclusive populations was akin to burning a candle

  12. Analyzing Contingency Contracting Purchases for Operation Iraqi Freedom (Unrestricted Version)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-01-01

    AND HEALTH CARE INTERNATIONAL AFFAIRS NATIONAL SECURITY POPULATION AND AGING PUBLIC SAFETY SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY SUBSTANCE ABUSE TERRORISM AND... care of cavalry horses for the Continental Army during the Revolutionary War (Cahlink, 2003). While the history of contracted support to U.S. military...and correcting errors can be time-consuming, and researchers must be careful to weigh the value added against the resources required to correct the

  13. Epidemiology of Nephrolithiasis in Personnel Returning from Operation Iraqi Freedom

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-01

    16 A study of twins determined that urine char- cteristics, such as urinary calcium , oxalate , citrate, and uric cid, were highly heritable.15 The...revalence or incidence. An increase in urine calcium as reported in a small group of British naval personnel eployed to the Gulf Region during the summer...Urol. 1993;150:1757-1760. 4. Robertson WG, Peacock M, Heyburn PJ, et al. Epidemiological risk factors in calcium stone disease. Scand J Urol Nephrol

  14. Hired Guns: Views about Armed Contractors in Operation Iraqi Freedom

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    AM References 113 Lynch , Tony , and A. J. Walsh. (2000) “Th e Good Mercenary?” Journal of Political Philosophy 8: 133–153. McGrath, John J. (2006...Privatizing Security. New York: Cambridge University Press. Bianco, Anthony, and Stephanie Anderson Forest. (15 September 2003) “Outsourcing War an

  15. Operation Iraqi Freedom: Strategies, Approaches, Results, and Issues for Congress

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-12-15

    clear picture of the extent of their assigned post-war responsibilities.106 103 Information from V...under CFLCC, but ORHA resisted that arrangement.123 Shortly after the founding conference at NDU, ORHA deployed to Kuwait with a skeleton staff and...25, 2006. 195 To be clear, as human rights groups stress, displacement is not a “solution.” As a rule, in most situations, people are far more

  16. Developing Adaptive Leaders: The Crucible Experience of Operation Iraqi Freedom

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-07-01

    must learn it all over again in a different way every 24 hours.15 Mark Twain Life on the Mississippi Complex Roles. Complexity for a junior leader in...this monograph a reality. 15. Mark Twain , Life on the Mississippi, Cambridge, MA: University Press, 1883, p. 105. 16. Unless otherwise noted

  17. Ammunition Shortages Experienced in Operation Iraqi Freedom -- Causes and Solutions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    warfighting and Defense Planning Guidance mandated responsibilities throughout the world. When the training and testing requirement is added to this number...soldiers were not training to standard or the training ammunition was coming from somewhere else. According to the Army G4 and others, the training...t . it iliti ti . I t r t r ( iliti ti Capacity W/ Facilitization 4 C tg s in B C tg s in B Lake City 12 The reason for the 2

  18. Strategic Reflections: Operation Iraqi Freedom, July 2004-February 2007

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-10-01

    only four of Iraq’s provinces (Anbar, Baghdad, Saladin , and Diyala) had averaged more than 10 reported attacks per day in the 6-month period from May...113 safe haven elimination Fallujah, 42 Najaf, 40 Saladin Province, 140 Samarra bombing, 89–96 Sanchez, Ricardo, LTG USA, 20, 22 Schoomaker, Peter J

  19. The Impact of Operation Iraqi Freedom on Building Future Coalitions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-02-11

    illenniumgoals/, accessed 2 Oct 07. 10 United Nations. Statement by the President of the Security Council, 28 Aug 07. 11 Buzan, Barry & Gonzalez- Pelaez ...Barracks:Winter 2003/2004. Vol. 33, Iss. 4, Pp. 67. 33 Buzan, Barry & Gonzalez- Pelaez , Ana. “International community’ after Iraq

  20. Evolution of Burn Resuscitation in Operation Iraqi Freedom

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-10-01

    and weather conditions, which hamper both air and ground evacuation. Burned soldiers re- quiring intravenous fluid ( IVF ) resuscitation pose a logistic...problem for medical personnel accompanying them. Carrying adequate quantities of IVF without compromising unit mobility has been continuing challenge...clinical end- points, such as mentation and palpable radial pulse to decrease or stop infusion of IVF .23 Although a stan- dardized prehospital guideline

  1. Preparing for the Chemical, Biological, Radiological and Nuclear (CBRN) Threat Within the Contemporary Operating Environment (COE)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    20 Chapter 3: CBRN Support for OPERATIONS ENDURING FREEDOM, NOBLE EAGLE...structure, the monograph assesses the impact and effectiveness of the CBRN organizations that supported OPERATION ENDURING FREEDOM and OPERATION IRAQI...2) What assets were deployed in support of OPERATION ENDURING FREEDOM and OPERATION IRAQI FREEDOM? What was their impact? (3) What were the

  2. Characteristics of genitourinary injuries associated with pelvic fractures during operation Iraqi Freedom and operation Enduring Freedom.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, Aasta; Stinner, Daniel J; McLaughlin, H Cathy; Bailey, James R; Walter, Jack R; Hsu, Joseph R

    2015-03-01

    Pelvic fractures are markers of severe injury and are often associated with lower genitourinary injuries. The purpose of this study was to investigate the incidence of lower genitourinary injuries and complaints associated with pelvic fractures sustained in combat among nonsurvivors and survivors. The Armed Forces Medical Examiner System and The Joint Theater Trauma Registry databases were searched to identify survivors and nonsurvivors who sustained a pelvic fracture in combat in 2008. Survivor and autopsy data consisted of injury mode and mechanism and associated organ and extremity injuries. Pelvic fractures were classified using the Tile system. The database search yielded 91 nonsurvivors and 10 survivors with pelvic fractures. Forty-one patients (40%) sustained 61 genitourinary injuries. The majority of genitourinary injuries in nonsurvivors were associated with Tile C pelvic fractures (70%). Twenty percent of survivors had genitourinary injuries, all of which were associated with Tile A fractures. A higher incidence of genitourinary injuries in patients with combat-related pelvic fractures (60%) was found than that of their civilian counterparts. Of the survivors, 100% of those with genitourinary injuries were being treated for erectile dysfunction at their last follow-up. Continued collaboration between orthopaedic surgeons and urologist is needed to address these concurrent injuries. Reprint & Copyright © 2015 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  3. Characteristics of Genitourinary Injuries Associated With Pelvic Fractures During Operation Iraqi Freedom and Operation Enduring Freedom

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-03-01

    female genitourinary, sexual , and reproductive func- tion. J Orthop Trauma 1997; 11(2): 73–81. MILITARY MEDICINE, Vol. 180, March Supplement 2015 67...energy pelvic ring injury. J Orthop Trauma 2012; 26(5): 296–301. 14. Vallier HA, Cureton BA, Schubeck D: Pelvic ring injury is associ- ated with sexual

  4. Fatal airway injuries during Operation Enduring Freedom and Operation Iraqi Freedom.

    PubMed

    Mabry, Robert L; Edens, Jason W; Pearse, Lisa; Kelly, Joseph F; Harke, Howard

    2010-01-01

    Airway compromise is the third leading cause of potentially preventable death on the battlefield. An understanding of the injuries associated with fatal airway compromise is necessary to develop improvements in equipment, training, and prehospital management strategies in order to maximize survival. To determine injury patters resulting in airway compromise in the combat setting. This was a subgroup analysis of cases previously examined by Kelly and colleagues, who reviewed autopsies of military personnel who died in combat in Iraq and Afghanistan between 2003 and 2006. Casualties with potentially survivable (PS) injuries and deaths related to airway compromise previously identified by Kelly et al. were reviewed in depth by a second panel of military physicians. There were 982 cases that met the inclusion criteria. Of these, 232 cases had PS injuries. Eighteen (1.8%) cases were found to have airway compromise as the likely cause of primary death. All had penetrating injuries to the face or neck. Twelve deaths (67%) were caused by gunshot wounds, while six deaths (33%) were caused by explosions. Nine cases had concomitant injury to major vascular structures, and eight had significant airway hemorrhage. Cricothyroidotomy was attempted in five cases; all were unsuccessful. Airway compromise from battlefield trauma results in a small number of PS fatalities. Penetrating trauma to the face or neck may be accompanied by significant hemorrhage, severe and multiple facial fractures, and airway disruption, leading to death from airway compromise. Cricothyroidotomy may be required to salvage these patients, but the procedure failed in all instances in this series of cases. Further studies are warranted to determine the appropriate algorithm of airway management in combat casualties sustaining traumatic airway injuries.

  5. Operation Iraqi Freedom 06-08: Iraq. Operation Enduring Freedom 8: Afghanistan

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-02-14

    exploded near you. 70.2% 52.3% 0 0 0 Working in areas that were mined or had IEDs. 75.8% 64.5% 0 0 0 Having hostile reactions from civilians. 56.2...remains [2007, 60.2%; 2006, 57.4%] 5. Working in areas that were mined or had lEDs [2007, 59.8%; 2006, 67.7%] Notice in particular the high reported...divorces in my company. Give help to the families back home ... make it easier for them to get help ... FRGs vary, mine sucks and probably is more of a

  6. Vascular Injuries in Combat-Specific Soldiers during Operation Iraqi Freedom and Operation Enduring Freedom.

    PubMed

    Dunn, John C; Kusnezov, Nicholas; Schoenfeld, Andrew J; Orr, Justin D; Cook, Patrick J; Belmont, Philip J

    2016-08-01

    This study sought to identify vascular injury patterns among combat-specific cavalry scout personnel within the Iraq and Afghanistan Wars. The Armed Forces Medical Examiner System and Joint Theater Trauma Registry were queried for all injuries with the cavalry scout designation from 2003 to 2011, including those both wounded in action (WIA) and killed in action (KIA). A description of vascular injury, combat causality care statistics, mechanism of injury, and demographic data were recorded. Sixteen percent (n = 111) of the 701 cavalry scouts with a combat wound sustained a vascular injury. Among cavalry scouts sustaining vascular injuries, 69% were caused by an explosive mechanism of injury, 63% were KIA, and 29% had a major extremity amputation. Cavalry scout soldiers with a vascular injury were significantly more likely to result from explosion (P < 0.0001), be KIA (P < 0.0001), and occur in Iraq (P < 0.0001). The rate of noncompressible arterial injury was 65%. WIA cavalry scout soldiers with a compressible vascular injury with clear documentation of prehospital tourniquet utilization arrived at a Medical Treatment Facility in 67% of cases with a tourniquet in place. Of these transported with a prehospital tourniquet 83% survived. The high rates of KIA and extremity amputation among cavalry scout soldiers with a vascular injury denotes the lethality of these combat injuries. Uniformly equipping soldiers with battlefield tourniquets and educating them on their prehospital use might improve the survivorship of those servicemembers sustaining a compressible vascular injury. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. Fixed-wing Aircraft Combat Survivability Analysis for Operation Enduring Freedom and Operation Iraqi Freedom

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-01

    time required a large internal fuel capacity inside a relatively lightweight airframe. The solution involved a semimonocoque structure with a large...For the sledgehammer to be a threat, it must be active; able to detect the fly; track the fly; initiate a swing toward the fly; and finally...L PcH│I PcK│H The active weapon searches for aircraft. The weapon’s target detection sensors detect an aircraft. The detected aircraft is tracked

  8. Traumatic Brain Injury: Care and Treatment of Operation Enduring Freedom and Operation Iraqi Freedom Veterans

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-11-25

    addition to physical symptoms , mental health diagnoses such as PTSD, depression , and anxiety are common for TBI patients, as is substance abuse.8 These... individuals who have sustained a mild TBI may include increased rest, refraining from certain physical activities, management of symptoms , and education... symptoms , among other health conditions. However, DOD post- deployment discharge screening of servicemembers may not identify individuals with latent

  9. Space Station Freedom baseline operations concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paules, Granville

    1991-01-01

    The Baseline Operations Concept is designed to support the multiflight-multistage assembly sequence and post-Permanent Manned Configuration (PMC) era for the Space Station Freedom (SSF). Initial implementation of procedures and systems are consistent with experience gained during the operation of the Shuttle and Spacelab.

  10. Infections Complicating the Care of Combat Casualties During Operations Iraqi Freedom and Enduring Freedom

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-07-01

    bacteria 7 32.89 Other specified diphtheria 1 41.82 Bacteroides fragilis infection 2 41.83 Clostridium perfringens infection 1 41.84 Other anaerobes 9...41.89 Other specified bacteria 133 41.9 Bacterial infection nos 20 795.39 Other nonspecified positive culture 10 8.45 Clostridium difficile enteritis 11

  11. Corneal and Corneoscleral Injury in Combat Ocular Trauma from Operations Iraqi Freedom and Enduring Freedom.

    PubMed

    Vlasov, Anton; Ryan, Denise S; Ludlow, Spencer; Coggin, Andrew; Weichel, Eric D; Stutzman, Richard D; Bower, Kraig S; Colyer, Marcus H

    2017-03-01

    To examine the incidence and the etiology of corneal and corneoscleral injuries in the setting of combat ocular trauma, and to determine what effect these injuries have on overall visual impairment from combat ocular trauma. Retrospective, noncomparative, interventional case series, analyzing U.S. service members who were evacuated to the former Walter Reed Army Medical Center (WRAMC). Primary outcome measures were types of corneal injuries, length of follow-up at WRAMC, globe survival, and anatomical causes of blindness. Secondary outcome measures included surgical procedures performed, use of eye protection, source of injury, and visual outcomes. Between 2001 and 2011, there were 184 eyes of 134 patients with corneal or corneoscleral injuries. The average age was 26 years (range, 18-50); 99.3% were male, 31.9% had documented use of eye protection. The average follow-up was 428.2 days (3-2,421). There were 98 right-eye and 86 left-eye injuries. There were 169 open-globe and 15 closed-globe injuries with corneal lacerations occurring in 73 eyes with injuries to Zone I. Most injuries were attributable to an intraocular foreign body (IOFB; 48%), followed by penetrating (19.6%) and perforating (16.3%) injuries. The most common presenting visual acuity was hand motion/light perception (45.7%), yet, at the end of the study, visual acuity improved to 20/40 or better (40.8%). The majority of injuries in eyes with visual acuity worse than 20/200 involved the cornea and retina (58%). Injuries solely to the cornea accounted for only 19% of all injuries sustained. Ocular injuries in military combat have led to significant damage to ocular structures with a wide range of visual outcomes. The authors describe corneal and corneoscleral injuries in combat ocular trauma by classifying injuries by the anatomical site involved and identifying the main source of decreased visual acuity. In combat ocular trauma, corneal or corneoscleral injuries are not the sole etiology for poor vision. A cohesive approach among multiple ophthalmic subspecialties is needed when treating combat ocular trauma. Reprint & Copyright © 2017 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  12. Fasciotomy Rates in Operations Enduring Freedom and Iraqi Freedom: Association with Injury Severity and Tourniquet Use

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-01

    Elevation in compartment pressure following hypovolemic shock and fluid resuscitation: a canine model. Orthopedics. 2006;29:443–445. 16. Madigan MC, Kemp CD... treatment of open femur fractures. The case fatality rate of open femur fractures dropped precipitously from 80% to approximately 8% as a result and led to...the need for new 1000-bed specialty hospitals for the treatment of survivors.20,21 One of the unforeseen consequences of this lifesaving device was the

  13. Impact of Illness and Non-Combat Injury During Operations Iraqi Freedom and Enduring Freedom (Afghanistan)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-05-25

    reported, with the back being the most common single site of injury. A diagnosis of leishmaniasis was reported by 2.1% of the respondents (95% CI 1.1–3.5... visceral leishmaniasis in U.S. military person- nel – Afghanistan, 2002–2004. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 53: 265–268. 13. Schlagenhauf P, 2003. Malaria in... leishmaniasis (2.1%) were commonly reported. For all causes, 25.2% reported that they required intravenous fluids, 10.4% required hospi- talization, and 5.2

  14. Recent Human Factors Contributions to Improve Military Operations (Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Bulletin. Volume 46, Number 12, December 2003)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-12-01

    operations run the full gamut from large-scale, theater-wide combat, as witnessed in Operation Iraqi Freedom, to small-scale operations against terrorists, to... gamut from large-scale, theater-wide combat, as witnessed in Operation Iraqi Freedom, to small-scale operations against terror- ists, to operations

  15. Liberation or Occupation? How Failure to Apply Occupation Law During Iraqi Freedom Threatened U.S. Strategic Interests

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-05-03

    experts predicted mass hysteria and warned that the military needed to be prepared to provide strong leadership and security until rational behavior ...and warned that the military had to provide strong leadership and security until rational behavior returned. See Phyllis McIntosh, “Protecting Iraqi...in Iraq will Begin Now,” 24 April 2003; available from <http://www. unhchr.ch/ huricane /huricane.nsf/0/975E2E36F2593DCAC1256D12002DDDBF?opendocument

  16. The Effects of Military Tactics, Techniques and Procedures on Peace Support Election Operations in Representative Iraqi Towns

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-12-01

    total of six ROE sets will be analyzed. 2. Distribution of Crowd Effect According to French sociologist Gustave Le Bon , “contagion theory says... Bon , 1895]. Therefore, the peacekeeping force must prevent such crowds from forming within the area of operation. Measures such as the deployment...Representative Iraqi Town, Master’s Thesis, Operations Research Department, Naval Postgraduate School, September 2005. Gustave , L. B., The Crowd: A

  17. Detainee Medical Operations during Operation Iraqi Freedom: Determination of a Transition Plan

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-06-15

    of the U.S. Army Command and General Staff College in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree MASTER OF MILITARY ART AND SCIENCE...apparatus necessary for the maintenance of good health, particularly dentures , eye glasses and prosthetics, will be absorbed by the Detaining Power...Jeffrey J. 1988. Advice and support: the final years, 1965-1973. Washington DC: Center of Military History . Department of the Army. 1991. Medical

  18. Medical Logistics in a New Threater of Operations: An Operation Iraqi Freedom Case Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-05-25

    Departments and with the field armies. These depots supplied various items such as stretchers, chloroform, quinine , tourniquets, scissors, and...Qatar for the first month of the war. This problem was not solved until the units stabilized in specific sites in Iraq and regular connectivity...May when the full compliment of medical logistics units were in the theater and the medical units had stabilized in long term locations in Iraq, which

  19. Operational cost analysis of dental emergencies for deployed US Army personnel during operation Iraqi freedom.

    PubMed

    Colthirst, Paul M; Berg, Rosann G; Denicolo, Philip; Simecek, John W

    2013-04-01

    The documentation of dental emergency (DE) rates in past global conflicts has been well established; however, little is known about wartime DE costs on the battlefield. Using DEs as an example for decreased combat effectiveness, this article analyzes the cost of treating DEs in theater, both in terms of fixed and variable costs, and also highlighted the difficulties that military units experience when faced with degradation of combat manpower because of DEs. The study found that Dental-Disease and Non-Battle Injury cost the U.S. Army a total of $21.4M between July 1, 2009 and June 30, 2010, and $21.9M between July 1, 2010 and June 30, 2011. The results also revealed that approximately 32% of DE required follow-up treatment over the 2-year period, which increased the costs associated with a DE over time. Understanding the etiology and cost of DE cases, military dental practitioners will be better equipped to provide oral health instructions and preventive measures before worldwide deployments.

  20. Interim Report on Projects to Develop the Iraqi Special Operations Forces

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-25

    coordination centers, 18 Broadband Global Area Network ( BGAN ) kits were provided to the Iraqis. However, according to an INCTF-TT official, these satellite... BGAN kits cannot be located. Each BGAN system costs $54,000, and together the 18 kits comprise nearly $1 million dollars worth of equipment that is...not being used or has been lost. Overall, INCTF-TT officials believe that the Iraqis may not be using the BGAN systems because of the high cost

  1. Gunshot Wounds in Military Working Dogs in Operation Enduring Freedom and Operation Iraqi Freedom: 29 cases (2003-2009)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-01-01

    Interventions – None. Measurements and Main Results – Clinical data from battlefield treatment, which includes care from the point of injury through arrival to...time for reviewing instructions, searching existing data sources, gathering and maintaining the data needed, and completing and reviewing the...hostile enemy action while deployed to Iraq and Afghanistan. Materials and Methods Data were collected from veterinary records of dogs in- curringGSW in

  2. Postdeployment resilience as a predictor of mental health in operation enduring freedom/operation iraqi freedom returnees.

    PubMed

    Eisen, Susan V; Schultz, Mark R; Glickman, Mark E; Vogt, Dawne; Martin, James A; Osei-Bonsu, Princess E; Drainoni, Mari-Lynn; Elwy, A Rani

    2014-12-01

    Much of the research on the impact of trauma exposure among veterans has focused on factors that increase risk for mental health problems. Fewer studies have investigated factors that may prevent mental health problems following trauma exposure. This study examines resilience variables as factors that may prevent subsequent mental health problems. To determine whether military service members returning from Afghanistan and Iraq who exhibit higher levels of resilience, including hardiness (encompassing control, commitment, and challenge), self-efficacy, and social support after returning from deployment are less vulnerable to subsequent mental health problems, alcohol, and drug use. A national sample of 512 service members was surveyed between 3 and 12 months of return from deployment and 6-12 months later. Data were collected in 2008-2009 and analyzed in 2013. Regression analyses ascertained whether resilience 3-12 months after return predicted later mental health and substance problems, controlling for demographic characteristics, mental health, and risk factors, including predeployment stressful events, combat exposure, and others. Greater hardiness predicted several indicators of better mental health and lower levels of alcohol use 6-12 months later, but did not predict subsequent posttraumatic stress symptom severity. Postdeployment social support predicted better overall mental health and less posttraumatic stress symptom severity, alcohol, and drug use. Some aspects of resilience after deployment appear to protect returning service members from the negative effects of traumatic exposure, suggesting that interventions to promote and sustain resilience after deployment have the potential to enhance the mental health of veterans. Copyright © 2014 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. All rights reserved.

  3. Trauma System Development in a Theater of War: Experiences From Operation Iraqi Freedom and Operation Enduring Freedom

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-09-01

    environment and surgical practice was improved to care for wounded soldiers. From his World War II experiences, Dr. Michael Debakey noted that wars have...397–401. 24. Holcomb JB. The 2004 Fitts Lecture: current perspective on combat casualty care. J Trauma. 2005;59:990–1002. 25. Gondusky JS, Reiter MP

  4. Tympanic Membrane Perforation and Hearing Loss From Blast Overpressure in Operation Enduring Freedom and Operation Iraqi Freedom Wounded

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-10-01

    peripheral location of the defect have both been associated with lower rates of spontaneous healing.10 Most patients, in previous studies, were...5 19 Otorrhea 10 25 Tinnitus 21 50 Vertigo 3 8 Table 3 Grade of Tympanic Membrane Perforation, Size of Perforation, and Spontaneous Healing Rate Grade

  5. The Changing Face of Disability in the US Army: The Operation Enduring Freedom and Operation Iraqi Freedom Effect

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-01-01

    osteoarthritis Fibromyalgia Diagnosis of fibromyalgia in which fibromyalgia itself is an unfitting condition Knee Any condition causing pain in or loss of function...ability significantly increased for all orthopaedic conditions, with the ex- ception of amputation, fibromyalgia , other lower extremity conditions...n = 3,143) P Value Amputation 1 0.06 33 1.05 ɘ.0001 Back painb 376 22.47 1,348 42.89 ɘ.0001 Foot and ankle 54 3.23 324 10.31 ɘ.0001 Fibromyalgia

  6. Child maltreatment among U.S. Air Force parents deployed in support of Operation Iraqi Freedom/Operation Enduring Freedom.

    PubMed

    Rabenhorst, Mandy M; McCarthy, Randy J; Thomsen, Cynthia J; Milner, Joel S; Travis, Wendy J; Colasanti, Marie P

    2015-02-01

    This study examined child maltreatment perpetration among 99,697 active-duty U.S. Air Force parents who completed a combat deployment. Using the deploying parent as the unit of analysis, we analyzed whether child maltreatment rates increased postdeployement relative to predeployment. These analyses extend previous research that used aggregate data and extend our previous work that used data from the same period but used the victim as the unit of analysis and included only deploying parents who engaged in child maltreatment. In this study, 2% (n = 1,746) of deploying parents perpetrated child maltreatment during the study period. Although no overall differences were found in child maltreatment rates postdeployment compared to predeployment, several maltreatment-related characteristics qualified this finding. Rates for emotional abuse and mild maltreatment were lower following deployment, whereas child maltreatment rates for severe maltreatment were higher following deployment. The finding that rates of severe child maltreatment, including incidents involving alcohol use, were higher postdeployment suggests a need for additional support services for parents following their return from combat deployment, with a focus on returning parents who have an alcohol use problem. © The Author(s) 2014.

  7. Ground operation of robotics on Space Station Freedom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wojcik, Z. Alex; Hunter, David G.; Cantin, Marc R.

    1993-01-01

    This paper reflects work carried out on Ground Operated Telerobotics (GOT) in 1992 to refine further the ideas, procedures, and technologies needed to test the procedures in a high latency environment, and to integrate GOT into Space Station Freedom operations. Space Station Freedom (SSF) will be in operation for 30 years, and will depend on robots to carry out a significant part of the assembly, maintenance, and utilization workload. Current plans call for on-orbit robotics to be operated by on-board crew members. This approach implies that on-orbit robotics operations use up considerable crew time, and that these operations cannot be carried out when SSF is unmanned. GOT will allow robotic operations to be operated from the ground, with on-orbit crew interventions only when absolutely required. The paper reviews how GOT would be implemented, how GOT operations would be planned and supported, and reviews GOT issues, critical success factors, and benefits.

  8. The Retention of Recalled Navy Nurse Reservists following Operation Iraqi Freedom

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-06-30

    long-term psychiatric settings. Research in Nursing & Health, 21, 415-427. Allgood, C., O’Rourke, K ., VanDerslice, J ., & Hardy, M. (2000). Job...Leveck and Jones (1996), Lucas, Atwood, and Hagaman (1993), McNeese-Smith (1996), Morrison, Jones, and Fuller (1997), Moss and Rowles (1997...1997; Moss & Rowles , 1997; Mullen, 1996; Schwab, 1996). This variation may be attributed to the consequences of major restructuring in health care

  9. Initial Experience of US Marine Corps Forward Resuscitative Surgical System during Operation Iraqi Freedom

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-01-01

    available for use with external hemor- rhage uncontrolled by all other means. Almost all patients were transported by rotary wing air ca- sualty evacuation...MEDEVAC to the next level of care. These nurses faced the unenviable task of transporting critically ill, unstable patients via ro- tary wing , fixed... wing , and ground transport over sev- eral hundred miles of desert. The absence of significant en route complications and arrival of all patients in

  10. Burns Sustained in Combat Explosions in Operations Iraqi and Enduring Freedom (OIF/OEF Explosion Burns)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-11-01

    explosions increased in frequency, size and injury severity. Burns were concentrated on areas not protected by clothing or equipment. These injuries...the secondary effect of burning vehicles, clothing , and equipment. The frequency and severity of burn is increasing, along with the proportion of...unprotected by military clothing and equipment. The high incidence, great morbidity, and potential preventability of burns to the hands and head in combat

  11. The Fiscal Blank Check Policy and Its Impact on Operation Iraqi Freedom

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-12-01

    incentives. Private industry has the measurable indicators of efficiency such as warrantee returns, variable cost, customer satisfaction surveys, and...to satisfy the increased scrutiny of CFLCC. Of course, to satisfy the request for more information, the request ultimately had to go to the...States to the theater. The effectiveness of the logistics system is able to satisfy the significant appetite of the U.S. forces in Iraq in a timely

  12. Trends in Post-Concussive Symptom Reporting Following Mild Traumatic Brain Injury in Operation Iraqi Freedom

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-04-01

    combat-related TBI, and whether it differs from other concussion mechanisms seen in civilian populations (e.g., sports -related). Complicating matters...across the Military Spectrum (Bien-être et santé mentale dans le milieu militaire). RTO-MP-HFM-205 14. ABSTRACT Background: Post-concussive syndrome...concussion mechanisms seen in civilian populations (e.g., sports -related). Complicating matters is the overlap of symptoms between TBI and post-traumatic

  13. Injuries Sustained in Noncombat Motor Vehicle Accidents During Operation Iraqi Freedom

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-01-01

    contributions to this work. This work was supported by the US Navy Bureau of Medicine under the Wounded, Ill and Injured/Psychological Health/Traumatic... armour required in the combat§ This manuscript was presented at the 52nd annual meeting of the Society of Military Orthopaedic Surgeons, December 2010...2011.04.017environment may restrict motion, which may limit a driver’s reactionary ability to hazards. Extra armour used to protect vehicles has also

  14. Postconcussive Symptom Reporting Among US Combat Veterans With Mild Traumatic Brain Injury From Operation Iraqi Freedom

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-01-01

    MPH, Naval Health Research Center, 140 Sylvester Rd, San Diego, CA 92106 (amber. dougherty@med.navy.mil). DOI: 10.1097/ HTR .0b013e3182596382 blast...LOC of 31 to 59 minutes (850.12), 10 had concussion with LOC of unspecified duration (850.5), 150 had con- cussion with no LOC (ICD-9 850.0), and 81 had...posttraumatic stress disorder, and depression. cHosmer-Lemeshow test indicated a good fit for all multivariate models (P > . 10 ). dP < .001. eP = .001 to .009. fP

  15. Repeated Concussion Among U.S. Military Personnel During Operation Iraqi Freedom

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    Dougherty Rosemary H. Morrison Kimberly H. Quinn Michael R. Galarneau Report No. 10 -33 The views expressed in this article are those of the...JRRD Volume 48, Number 10 , 2011Pages 1269–1278 Journal of Rehabil itation Research & DevelopmentRepeated concussion among U.S. military personnel...amber.dougherty@med.navy.mil DOI:10.1682/JRRD.2011.01.00131269 1270 JRRD, Volume 48, Number 10 , 2011concussions [9–13]. Evidence exists that some aspects of

  16. The Asian European Bridge: A Strategic Estimate of Turkey Following Operation Iraqi Freedom

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    34 and even Wolfowitz himself "confidently predicted " Turkey would help the US efforts (Gencsoy and Dahl 2004, 14). But unfortunately for the US, all was...Cutler 2003, 2). In light of this provision, and taking account of the 19 abstentions, the speaker Bulet Arinc declared that in fact an absolute...from the more uncompromisingly Islamist and anti-US Refah Party (banned in 1998) (Pipes 2003, 3). The Parliamentary Speaker Arinc himself already

  17. Operation Iraqi Freedom and the Global War on Terror: Selected Legislation from the 110th Congress

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-09-17

    Introduced: 01/31/07 Sen. Carl Levin A bill to express the sense of Congress on Iraq Sense of Congress that: The Senate disagrees with President...07 Sen. Ken Salazar National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2008 Sense of Congress that: U.S. should implement recommendations of Iraq...Saxby Chambliss National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2008 [Same as Amendment 2063 ( Salazar , above), with the following additional provision

  18. A Customer Wait Time Analysis of Medical Supplies and Equipment for Operations Enduring and Iraqi Freedom

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-06-15

    Supply Chain Management , Supply Chain Performance. 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF 18. NUMBER 19a. NAME OF RESPONSIBLE PERSON a. REPORT...equipment to the OEF and OIF theaters. Customer Wait Time Analysis 8 Literature review Effective supply chain management is paramount to an organization’s...the last several decades the Army has made continuous improvements in supply chain management that coincide with changes in the strategic objectives

  19. Psychological Correlates of Battle and Nonbattle Injury Among Operation Iraqi Freedom Veterans

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-08-20

    port, peri-traumatic responses . J Behav Health Serv Res 2000 ; 27 (4) : 406 – 16 . 13. Verger P , Dab W , Lamping DL , et al : The...PTSD in OIF Veterans MILITARY MEDICINE, Vol. 174, March 2009 231 31. U.S. Department of Defense : Test Manual for the Armed Services Vocational

  20. Sustainment of Army Forces in Operation Iraqi Freedom: Major Findings and Recommendations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-01-01

    objectivity. Eric Peltz, Marc L. Robbins, Kenneth J. Girardini, Rick Eden , John M. Halliday, Jeffrey Angers Prepared for the United States Army Approved...Support Command with LTC Bobby Towery (3rd FSB CDR), LTC Michael Armstead (26th FSB CDR), LTC Nate Glover (formerly 603rd ASB XO, then DISCOM S-3), LTC

  1. Contributing Factors to Total Mission Time for Medical Evacuation Missions during Operation Iraqi Freedom II

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-05-01

    nature have been conducted to analyze the data. Recent studies focused on the aeromedical evacuation from Level III facilities in theater to higher...missions with unusually large Total Mission Time or to compress the data by taking the natural log of the time variables. However, the data was not...All of the data is unclassified separately, but the analysis could be sensitive in nature so caution has been taken to protect it. Some missions may

  2. Prehospital Tourniquet Use in Operation Iraqi Freedom: Effect on Hemorrhage Control and Outcomes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-02-01

    autologous saphenous vein graft. The patient died of sepsis on postinjury day 11. Patient 6. A 22-year-old man sustained multiple fragment wounds to all...multiple fragment wounds to right upper ex- tremity. Brachial artery and vein were transected but contained in a hematoma. Prehospital Tourniquet and

  3. Postconcussive symptom reporting among US combat veterans with mild traumatic brain injury from Operation Iraqi Freedom.

    PubMed

    MacGregor, Andrew J; Dougherty, Amber L; Tang, Janet J; Galarneau, Michael R

    2013-01-01

    To examine the association between postconcussive symptoms and mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI) among combat veterans while adjusting for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression. Military personnel with provider-diagnosed MTBI (n = 334) or nonhead injury (n = 658) were identified from the Expeditionary Medical Encounter Database. Post-Deployment Health Assessments and Re-Assessments were used to examine postconcussive symptoms and self-rated health. Personnel with MTBI were more likely to report headache (odds ratio [OR] = 3.37; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.19-5.17), back pain (OR = 1.79; 95% CI = 1.23-2.60), memory problems (OR = 1.86; 95% CI = 1.20-2.88), tinnitus (OR = 1.63; 95% CI = 1.10-2.41), and dizziness (OR = 2.13; 95% CI = 1.06-4.29) compared with those with non-head injuries. Among those with MTBI, self-reported decline in health was associated with memory problems (OR = 5.07; 95% CI = 2.56-10.02) and dizziness (OR = 10.60; 95% CI = 3.48-32.27). Mild traumatic brain injury is associated with reports of negative health consequences among combat veterans even when accounting for co-occurring psychological morbidity. The identification of postconcussive symptoms related to declines in a service member's self-rated health may be important in targeting and prioritizing clinical interventions.

  4. Combat Ocular Trauma Visual Outcomes during Operations Iraqi and Enduring Freedom

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-08-12

    plana vitrectomy . Anterior segment reconstructive surgeries included cataract extraction with pos- terior chamber intraocular lens (n 40). Nine of...these cases (19%) were combined with pars plana vitrectomy , 31 (66%) had a posterior chamber intraocular lens implantation delayed 3 to 6 months, and...included pars plana vitrec- tomy (n 121), pars plana lensectomy (n 74), and scleral buckle (n 11). Globe explorations were performed in 12 cases, with

  5. Epidemiological Study of Mild Traumatic Brain Injury Sequelae Caused by Blast Exposure During Operations Iraqi Freedom and Enduring Freedom

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-11-01

    Wechsler Test of Adult Reading (WTAR, pre-morbid IQ estimate),(Mathias, Bowden, Bigler, & Rosenfeld, 2007) Conners Continuous Performance Test -II (CCPT-II...of epidemiological investigations. Multiple hypotheses are being tested including: ∑ a significant proportion (>18%) of service members...PCS can be identified; ∑ returnees with PCS will display objective impairments on neuropsychological testing , computerized posturography and/or

  6. Epidemiological Study of Mild Traumatic Brain Injury Sequelae Caused by Blast Exposure During Operations Iraqi Freedom and Enduring Freedom

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-10-01

    employee by the end of year 4. Data management and analyses have been continued to be refined through meetings, reviews, quality checks, and consultations...McKinney, Cifu, Manning Franke & Walker] Previously accomplished. 5. Complete set-up of data management software system. [Mr. Bush...Major Depressive Disorder, Bipolar Disorder, Panic Disorder w/ w/o Agoraphobia Social Anxiety Disorder, Specific Phobia, Obsessive-Compulsive

  7. Observations from Oversight Organizations Impacting Operations Iraqi Freedom and Enduring Freedom Beginning FY 2003 Through FY 2009

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-08-30

    a historical look at oversight activ ities in Southwest Asia beginning FY 2003 th rough FY 2009. This report also provides information related to...and chairs the quarterly meetings. The mission of the group is to better coordinate and integrate oversight activities and to oversee efforts to...prevent fraud, waste, abuse, and criminal activities in Southwest Asia. The group provides an opportunity for collaboration and teamwork with the

  8. Ten Years of War: A Characterization of Craniomaxillofacial Injuries Incurred During Operations Enduring Freedom and Iraqi Freedom

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-01-01

    ORIGINAL ARTICLE J Trauma Acute Care Surg Volume 73, Number 6, Supplement 5 S453 From the Dental and Trauma Research Detachment (R.K.C., A.S.-J., J.W...injuries, corneal abrasions , tympanic mem- brane ruptures, and nonbattle-related injuries were also excluded. The study database was maintained under data...address intracranial in- juries or isolated tympanic membrane ruptures and corneal abrasions . Although these injuries are exceedingly common and deserve

  9. Thoracic Injuries in US Combat Casualties: A 10-Year Review of Operation Enduring Freedom and Iraqi Freedom

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-01-01

    SD) age was 26 (6.6) years, and mean (SD) chest AIS score was 2.9 (0.9). Penetrating trauma was the most common mechanism of injury (61.5%), and...Registry The Joint Theater Trauma Registry (JTTR) is a database established in 2001 to accumulate information on combat in- juries, such as mechanism of...database included basic demographics, mechanism of injury, total blood products received in theater, additional in- juries, Injury Severity Score (ISS

  10. Epidemiological Study of Mild Tramautic Brain Injury Sequelae Cause by Blast Exposure During Operations Iraqi Freedom and Enduring Freedom

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-10-01

    this report are those of the author( s ) and should not be construed as an official Department of the Army position, policy or decision unless so...5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR( S ) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER William C. Walker, M.D. Jerome R. Heimiller, RPH, MPA 5e. TASK NUMBER E...Mail: jrheimiller@gmail.com 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME( S ) AND ADDRESS(ES) 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT

  11. Epidemiological Study of Mild Traumatic Brain Injury Sequelae Caused by Blast Exposure During Operations Iraqi Freedom and Enduring Freedom

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-10-01

    traumatic stress disorder, post-concussion syndrome , military personnel, functional outcomes 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATIONS...post-concussion syndrome (PCS). Given that available information is largely anecdotal, the identification, characterization, and prediction of...measurement of: Post-concussion syndrome (PCS) using the Rivermead Post-Concussion Symptoms Checklist (RPQ) (King, 1995), Combat Stress using the PTSD

  12. Field Artillery And Fire Support At The Operational Level: An Analysis Of Operation Desert Storm and Operation Iraqi Freedom

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-05-25

    this context, revolutionary means tradition- shattering, deriving from the theory of Thomas S. Kuhn in The Structure of Scientific Revolutions, 3d ed...43 Bibliography ...Top Threats,” DoD News, Defense Media Activity, 19 February 2015, accessed 14 December 2016, http://www.defense.gov/News/ Article / Article /604134; Dan

  13. Operations planning for Space Station Freedom - And beyond

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibson, Stephen S.; Martin, Thomas E.; Durham, H. J.

    1992-01-01

    The potential of automated planning and electronic execution systems for enhancing operations on board Space Station Freedom (SSF) are discussed. To exploit this potential the Operations Planning and Scheduling Subsystem is being developed at the NASA Johnson Space Center. Such systems may also make valuable contributions to the operation of resource-constrained, long-duration space habitats of the future. Points that should be considered during the design of future long-duration manned space missions are discussed. Early development of a detailed operations concept as an end-to-end mission description offers a basis for iterative design evaluation, refinement, and option comparison, particularly when used with an advanced operations planning system capable of modeling the operations and resource constraints of the proposed designs.

  14. The US Army in Kirkuk: Governance Operations on the Fault Lines of Iraqi Society, 2003-2009

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-11-01

    leaders to form an independent state fell short. 4. See the Kirkuk Referendum in Article 140 of the Iraqi constitution. 5. James Baker and Lee...to civil affairs projects officer, First Lieutenant James Philpott.98 If Iraqis were to do so, they could begin conducting more of their own business...Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2009. Baker, James and Lee Hamilton. The Iraq Study Group Report. Washington, DC: Government Printing

  15. The US Army in Kirkuk: Governance Operations on the Fault Lines of Iraqi Society, 2003-2009

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-12-01

    Kurdish leaders to form an independent state fell short. 4. See the Kirkuk Referendum in Article 140 of the Iraqi constitution. 5. James Baker and Lee...to civil affairs projects officer, First Lieutenant James Philpott.98 If Iraqis were to do so, they could begin conducting more of their own...Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2009. Baker, James and Lee Hamilton. The Iraq Study Group Report. Washington, DC: Government Printing

  16. Project VALOR: design and methods of a longitudinal registry of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in combat-exposed veterans in the Afghanistan and Iraqi military theaters of operations.

    PubMed

    Rosen, Raymond C; Marx, Brian P; Maserejian, Nancy N; Holowka, Darren W; Gates, Margaret A; Sleeper, Lynn A; Vasterling, Jennifer J; Kang, Han K; Keane, Terence M

    2012-03-01

    Few studies have investigated the natural history of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Project VALOR (Veterans' After-discharge Longitudinal Registry) was designed as a longitudinal patient registry assessing the course of combat-related PTSD among 1600 male and female Veterans who served in Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF) in Afghanistan or Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF). Aims of the study include investigating patterns and predictors of progression or remission of PTSD and treatment utilization. The study design was based on recommendations from the Agency for Healthcare Quality and Research for longitudinal disease registries and used a pre-specified theoretical model to select the measurement domains for data collection and interpretation of forthcoming results. The registry will include 1200 male and female Veterans with a recent diagnosis of PTSD in the Department of Veteran Affairs (VA) electronic medical record and a comparison group of 400 Veterans without a medical record-based PTSD diagnosis, to also allow for case-control analyses. Data are collected from administrative databases, electronic medical records, a self-administered questionnaire, and a semi-structured diagnostic telephone interview. Project VALOR is a unique and timely registry study that will evaluate the clinical course of PTSD, psychosocial correlates, and health outcomes in a carefully selected cohort of returning OEF/OIF Veterans. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Microbiology operations and facilities aboard restructured Space Station Freedom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cioletti, Louis A.; Mishra, S. K.; Pierson, Duane L.

    1992-01-01

    With the restructure and funding changes for Space Station Freedom, the Environmental Health System (EHS)/Microbiology Subsystem revised its scheduling and operational requirements for component hardware. The function of the Microbiology Subsystem is to monitor the environmental quality of air, water, and internal surfaces and, in part, crew health on board Space Station. Its critical role shall be the identification of microbial contaminants in the environment that may cause system degradation, produce unsanitary or pathogenic conditions, or reduce crew and mission effectiveness. EHS/Microbiology operations and equipment shall be introduced in concert with a phased assembly sequence, from Man Tended Capability (MTC) through Permanently Manned Capability (PMC). Effective Microbiology operations and subsystem components will assure a safe, habitable, and useful spacecraft environment for life sciences research and long-term manned exploration.

  18. Ground controlled robotic assembly operations for Space Station Freedom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parrish, Joseph C.

    1991-01-01

    A number of dextrous robotic systems and associated positioning and transportation devices are available on Space Station Freedom (SSF) to perform assembly tasks that would otherwise need to be performed by extravehicular activity (EVA) crewmembers. The currently planned operating mode for these robotic systems during the assembly phase is teleoperation by intravehicular activity (IVA) crewmembers. While this operating mode is less hazardous and expensive than manned EVA operations, and has insignificant control loop time delays, the amount of IVA time available to support telerobotic operations is much less than the anticipated requirements. Some alternative is needed to allow the robotic systems to perform useful tasks without exhausting the available IVA resources; ground control is one such alternative. The issues associated with ground control of SSF robotic systems to alleviate onboard crew time availability constraints are investigated. Key technical issues include the effect of communication time delays, the need for safe, reliable execution of remote operations, and required modifications to the SSF ground and flight system architecture. Time delay compensation techniques such as predictive displays and world model-based force reflection are addressed and collision detection and avoidance strategies to ensure the safety of the on-orbit crew, Orbiter, and SSF are described. Although more time consuming and difficult than IVA controlled teleoperations or manned EVA, ground controlled telerobotic operations offer significant benefits during the SSF assembly phase, and should be considered in assembly planning activities.

  19. Operational Cost Analysis of Dental Emergencies for Deployed U.S. Army Personnel During Operation Iraqi Freedom

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-04-01

    found that Dental- Disease and Non-Battle Injury cost the U.S. Army a total of $21.4M between July I, 2009 and June 30, 2010, and $21.9M between July...dental disease or from the potential of engagement with the enemy during transport of the patient to a treatment facility. Additionally, a unit that...DOI40/D7510 Candidiasis DO 140/D91 10 Defective Restoration-No DO I40/D0220 Infection- Periodontal D9910 Caries 0991 0/02150 Anatomic Space 00140/07510

  20. Coast Guard Patrol Boat Operations in the Arabian Gulf: The Way Forward in the Post-Operation Iraqi Freedom Era

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-07

    knowledge from the theater. Additionally, I would like to thank Dr. Charles D. McKenna, Dean of Academics at the Marine Corps University, Command and...Finally, and most importantly, I am forever indebted to my wife Sharon, who put up with my procrastination and prolonged grumpiness during my...worldwide scale . Lieutenant Thomas stated, "Often times, the countries within the region are more interested in working/training with the U.S. Coast

  1. Learning from Our Military History: The United States Army, Operation Iraqi Freedom, and the Potential for Operational Art and Thinking

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-06-14

    command. The Necessity of Military History for Command Leadership Military educators might, of course, console themselves with the reminder that...also Robert Roberts, “Emotions in the Christian Tradition,” The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Summer 2011 Edition). The claim compassion is good...or virtuous, has perhaps more to do with a particular Judeo- Christian tradition and worldview that exalts suffering, both actual and vicarious

  2. Space Station Freedom ground data system: Design and operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunning, Richard A., Jr.; Knops, Frederick W., III; Fishkind, Stanley A.; Pasciuto, Michael P.

    1993-01-01

    Over the previous year the Space Station Freedom (SSF) Program (SSFP) ground data distribution system has become independent of a number of data systems that were to have been provided by other National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) programs. Consequently, the SSFP has outlined the basic architecture of a new data system dedicated to supporting SSF requirements. This has been accomplished through a complete redesign of the ground network and a reallocation of selected functions. There are a number of aspects of the new ground data distribution system that are unique among NASA programs. These considerations make SSF ground data distribution one of the most extensive and complex data management challenges encountered in the arena of Space Operations. A description of this system comprises the main focus of the paper.

  3. Applying real-time operations to integrate and evaluate Space Station Freedom design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmidt, George; Winkler, David

    1990-01-01

    During its 30 year lifetime, Space Station Freedom will provide unique opportunities for a variety of research, commercial and space exploration activities. The diversity of Freedom's on-orbit operations and the partitioning of the spacecraft's flight elements and systems requires consideration of operations early in the design development. This paper presents a method for defining a structured relationship between Space Station Freedom real-time operations and system functionality, and discusses how this relationship can be used when evaluating the spacecraft design.

  4. Iraqi Perspectives Project Phase II. Um Al-Ma’arik (The Mother of All Battles): Operational and Strategic Insights from an Iraqi Perspective, Volume 1 (Revised May 2008)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-05-01

    appliances that… in- terest Iraqi soldiers like video players and air conditioners.” Moreover, “Kuwaiti girls were putting poison in tea and others were...instructions “to inject wounded Iraqi soldiers with poison .” Finally, Kuwaiti saboteurs were using “feminine elements” as a cover be- cause Iraqi...indicates he was so con- vinced “the Zionist enemy” would use chemical weapons that he built a special “ poison gas- proof chamber” in his home to protect

  5. Using the Media in the Proper Cultural Context to Win Iraqi and US Hearts and Minds in Support of Operation Iraqi Freedom

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-04-01

    in the Middle East: A Comprehensive Handbook. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press. 1994. Pg xvii 8 Hurrat, Khalid Serhan and Leidig, Lisa Isabel...Iraq,” Mass Media in the Middle East: A Comprehensive Handbook. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press. 1994. Pg 98 9 Hurrat, Khalid Serhan and Leidig...University Press, 1955. Pg 21 22 Hurrat, Khalid Serhan and Leidig, Lisa Isabel. “Iraq,” Mass Media in the Middle East: A Comprehensive Handbook

  6. United States Marine Corps Post-Cold War Evolutionary Efforts: Implications for a Post-Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom Force

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-05-25

    through the championing of the maneuverist movement, which were directly influenced by Boyd’s writings and teaching. The Cold War is the subject of...volumes of writings and discourse. Most of these works focus on how and why it started, where and when confrontation took place, and eventually how...legacy as the foremost expert on strategic thought in the Marine Corps through organizationally and individually published writings .43 He directed a

  7. A Review of the First 10 Years of Critical Care Aeromedical Transport During Operation Iraqi Freedom and Operation Enduring Freedom The Importance of Evacuation Timing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-25

    PRBC, median (IQR), U 2 (0-10) 2 (0-10) 0 (0-14) .63 Blood transfused, median (IQR), La 0 (0-0) 0 (0-0) 0 (0-0) <.001 INR , median (IQR) 1.2 (1.0-1.5...25.3-50.3) 38.3 (25.3-50.4) 31.9 (26.3-46.3) .45 Abbreviations: GCS, Glasgow Coma Scale; INR , international normalized ratio; IQR, interquartile range...1.10-1.32) <.001 SBP 0.99 (0.97-1.00) .06 NA NA Heart rate 1.00 (0.98-1.01) .72 NA NA Base deficit 0.88 (0.82-0.95) <.001 NA NA INR 2.81 (1.48-5.34

  8. High-intensity sports for posttraumatic stress disorder and depression: feasibility study of ocean therapy with veterans of Operation Enduring Freedom and Operation Iraqi Freedom.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Carly M; Mallinson, Trudy; Peppers, Dominique

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we conducted a pretest-posttest investigation of a sports-oriented occupational therapy intervention using surfing in an experiential, skills-based program to support veterans with symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in their transition to civilian life. The purpose of this feasibility study was to evaluate the intervention for attendance rates and retention in the program provided in 5 sessions over 5 wk. Fourteen veterans from a specialty postdeployment clinic at a Veterans Affairs hospital were enrolled; 11 completed the study, and 10 attended ≥3 sessions. Participants reported clinically meaningful improvement in PTSD symptom severity (PTSD Checklist-Military Version, Wilcoxon signed rank Z = 2.5, p = .01) and in depressive symptoms (Major Depression Inventory, Wilcoxon signed rank Z = 2.05, p = .04). The results of this small, uncontrolled study suggest that a sports-oriented occupational therapy intervention has potential as a feasible adjunct intervention for veterans seeking mental health treatment for symptoms of PTSD.

  9. Diagnoses and Factors Associated With Medical Evacuation and Return to Duty for Service Members Participating in Operation Iraqi Freedom or Operation Enduring Freedom: A Prospective Cohort Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-23

    in 2004; n=698, 8% in 2005). In 2006, the most common reasons for evacuation were musculo - skeletal and connective tissue disorders (n=1582, 23... musculo - skeletal disorders, with mental illness ranking eighth.19 The increasing and disproportionate consumption of resources by non-battle...studies have revealed an association between PTSD and physical health, including cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, musculo - skeletal, respiratory

  10. Increasing Marital Satisfaction as a Resilience Factor among Active Duty Members and Veterans of Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF) and Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ponder, Warren N.; Aguirre, Regina T. P.; Smith-Osborne, Alexa; Granvold, Donald K.

    2012-01-01

    Supportive relationships are protective against a number of prevalent health risks among military populations, including post-traumatic stress disorder. Increasing marital satisfaction and strengthening that relationship is an important avenue for maintaining health among returning service members and their families. The current study builds upon…

  11. Transfusion-transmissible viral infections among US military recipients of whole blood and platelets during Operation Enduring Freedom and Operation Iraqi Freedom.

    PubMed

    Hakre, Shilpa; Peel, Sheila A; O'Connell, Robert J; Sanders-Buell, Eric E; Jagodzinski, Linda L; Eggleston, John C; Myles, Otha; Waterman, Paige E; McBride, Richard H; Eader, Scott A; Davis, Kenneth W; Rentas, Francisco J; Sateren, Warren B; Naito, Neal A; Tobler, Steven K; Tovanabutra, Sodsai; Petruccelli, Bruno P; McCutchan, Francine E; Michael, Nelson L; Cersovsky, Steven B; Scott, Paul T

    2011-03-01

    Current US military clinical practice guidelines permit emergency transfusions of non-Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-compliant freshly collected blood products in theaters of war. This investigation aimed to characterize the risks of transfusion-transmitted infections (TTIs) associated with battlefield transfusions of non-FDA-compliant blood products. US Service members who received emergency transfusion products in Iraq and Afghanistan (March 1, 2002-September 30, 2007) were tested for hepatitis C virus (HCV), human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and hepatitis B virus (HBV) infections using reposed pre- and posttransfusion sera. Selected regions of viral genomes from epidemiologically linked infected recipients and their donors were sequenced and compared. Of 761 US Service members who received emergency transfusion products, 475 were tested for HCV, 472 for HIV, and 469 for HBV. One transfusion-transmitted HCV infection (incidence rate of 2.1/1000 persons) was identified. The pretransfusion numbers (prevalence per 1000 persons) were HCV-four (8/1000), HIV-zero (0/1000), chronic HBV-two (4 /1000), and naturally immune (antibody to HBV core antigen)-nine (19/1000). One HCV TTI was determined to be associated with emergency blood product use. The pretransfusion HCV and HBV prevalence in transfusion recipients, themselves members of the potential donor population, indicates better characterization of the deployed force's actual donor population, and further investigations of the TTI prevalence in these donors are needed. These data will inform countermeasure development and clinical decision making. © 2010 American Association of Blood Banks.

  12. Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF) and Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF) military mental health issues. Information on the wars' signature wounds: posttraumatic stress disorder and traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Wieland, Diane; Hursey, Melodee; Delgado, Deborah

    2010-09-01

    This topic can be related to the nursing profession and the need to be better educated on military mental health. Since mood disorder, suicide, alcohol abuse, PTSD and TBI are evident in actively serving and returning service members, it is imperative to educate nurses and healthcare providers about these conditions, the available evidence-based treatments and referrals to programs for these signature OEF/OIF wounds. The authors encourage nurse educators to consider ways to include military mental health and other service-related health issues into nursing curricula and to use Veterans Administration and veterans-related healthcare facilities for clinical courses. As the wars in Afghanistan and Iraq continue into the foreseeable future, many veterans will be seen not only in VA facilities, but they will self-refer to academic and community hospitals, and psychiatric and rehabilitation centers. It is important for all nurses to be aware of the effects of PTSD, depression, suicide, substance abuse and TBI on our patients and to be effective advocates for quality care of veterans in all settings. Nurses need to advocate for screening and provision of mental health services in primary care settings. When such services are offered in primary care settings, it normalizes the care and the service member will more likely allow themselves to receive the care (Jones, 2004). All nurses must understand the price of war experienced by U.S. service members and their families, and in particular, the invisible wounds of war.

  13. Increasing Marital Satisfaction as a Resilience Factor among Active Duty Members and Veterans of Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF) and Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ponder, Warren N.; Aguirre, Regina T. P.; Smith-Osborne, Alexa; Granvold, Donald K.

    2012-01-01

    Supportive relationships are protective against a number of prevalent health risks among military populations, including post-traumatic stress disorder. Increasing marital satisfaction and strengthening that relationship is an important avenue for maintaining health among returning service members and their families. The current study builds upon…

  14. Examination of the dynamic interplay between posttraumatic stress symptoms and alcohol misuse among combat-exposed Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF)/Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF) Veterans.

    PubMed

    Langdon, Kirsten J; Fox, Annie B; King, Lynda A; King, Daniel W; Eisen, Susan; Vogt, Dawne

    2016-05-15

    Although alcohol misuse co-occurs with PTSD symptoms at a strikingly high rate (i.e., nearly 52% of men and 28% of women with PTSD also meet diagnostic criteria for an Alcohol Use Disorder), the functional associations between these symptom types remain unclear. The current study sought to clarify the nature of posttraumatic stress-alcohol misuse relations by employing a prospective longitudinal methodology-the latent difference score approach-to examine dynamic change in posttraumatic stress symptoms and alcohol misuse among 478 combat-exposed Veterans completing a longitudinal survey of post-deployment mental and physical health. This study builds on the existing literature, as most prior research has been limited to cross-sectional studies and has not explored prospective relations between specific PTSD symptom clusters and alcohol misuse. Consistent with the self-medication model, results indicated that PTSD symptoms demonstrate a prospective and proximal association with alcohol misuse during the assessment period; however, alcohol misuse did not appear to be a unique contributor to overall PTSD symptom exacerbation over time. Examination of individual PTSD symptom clusters revealed that more severe symptoms of intrusion and numbing, but not avoidance and hyperarousal, predicted greater alcohol misuse at subsequent time intervals. The constructs examined within this investigation relied on self-report data; diagnostic criteria for PTSD and/or Alcohol Use Disorders were not assessed. Future work may benefit from replicating these findings in clinical populations formally diagnosed with PTSD via clinician-administered structured interviews. Findings underscore the importance of addressing PTSD symptoms in the context of alcohol treatment to facilitate improved drinking outcomes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. American War and Military Operations Casualties: Lists and Statistics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-02-26

    16 Table 14. Operation Iraqi Freedom: Military Deaths , March 19, 2003, Through...Freedom: Military Deaths , March 19, 2003, Through February 6, 2010 Casualty Type Totals Army Navya Marines Air Force Hostile 3,469 2,524 65 851 29...2 Table 2. Worldwide U.S. Active Duty Military Deaths

  16. Operability of Space Station Freedom's meteoroid/debris protection system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kahl, Maggie S.; Stokes, Jack W.

    1992-01-01

    The design of Space Station Freedom's external structure must not only protect the spacecraft from the hazardous environment, but also must be compatible with the extra vehicular activity system for assembly and maintenance. The external procedures for module support are utility connections, external orbital replaceable unit changeout, and maintenance of the meteoroid/debris shields and multilayer insulation. All of these interfaces require proper man-machine engineering to be compatible with the extra vehicular activity and manipulator systems. This paper discusses design solutions, including those provided for human interface, to the Space Station Freedom meteoroid/debris protection system. The system advantages and current access capabilities are illustrated through analysis of its configuration over the Space Station Freedom resource nodes and common modules, with emphasis on the cylindrical sections and endcones.

  17. FROST - FREEDOM OPERATIONS SIMULATION TEST VERSION 1.0

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deshpande, G. K.

    1994-01-01

    The Space Station Freedom Information System processes and transmits data between the space station and the station controllers and payload operators on the ground. Components of the system include flight hardware, communications satellites, software and ground facilities. FROST simulates operation of the SSF Information System, tracking every data packet from generation to destination for both uplinks and downlinks. This program collects various statistics concerning the SSF Information System operation and provides reports of these at user-specified intervals. Additionally, FROST has graphical display capability to enhance interpretation of these statistics. FROST models each of the components of the SSF Information System as an object, to which packets are generated, received, processed, transmitted, and/or dumped. The user must provide the information system design with specified parameters and inter-connections among objects. To aid this process, FROST supplies an example SSF Information System for simulation, but this example must be copied before it is changed and used for further simulation. Once specified, system architecture and parameters are put into the input file, named the Test Configuration Definition (TCD) file. Alternative system designs can then be simulated simply by editing the TCD file. Within this file the user can define new objects, alter object parameters, redefine paths, redefine generation rates and windows, and redefine object interconnections. At present, FROST does not model every feature of the SSF Information System, but it is capable of simulating many of the system's important functions. To generate data messages, which can come from any object, FROST defines "windows" to specify when, what kind, and how much of that data is generated. All messages are classified by priority as either (1)emergency (2)quick look (3)telemetry or (4)payload data. These messages are processed by all objects according to priority. That is, all priority

  18. The Administration and Operation of the Freedom of Information Act: A Retrospective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Relyea, Harold C.

    1994-01-01

    Discusses aspects of the administration of the Freedom of Information Act (FOIA), including operational and cost considerations. The idea of applying the FOIA to the legislative branch of the federal government is discussed. (Contains 64 references.) (KRN)

  19. Disease and Nonbattle Injuries Sustained by a U.S. Army Brigade Combat Team During Operation Iraqi Freedom

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-07-01

    1,000 combat-years were as follows: ankle sprain 15.3, anterior cruciate ligament rupture 3.3 and shoulder dislocation 1.2. Conclusions...common musculoskeletal injuries per 1,000 combat-years were as follows: ankle sprain 15.3, anterior cruciate ligament rupture 3.3 and shoulder...the combat deployment included the overall ONBI casualty rate and selected musculoskeletal incidence rates to include ankle sprain, plantar fasciitis

  20. Status of Training Vehicles for U.S. Ground Forces Deploying in Support of Operation Iraqi Freedom

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-08-06

    Buffalo (or Mine Protection Clearance Vehicle), Cougar, Husky, and Meerkat vehicles. For example, the Buffalos are considered counter-improvised...Equipment Types/Models Wheeled Vehicles M998 M1025* M1026* M1097 M1114* M1151* Buffalo* Husky* Meerkat * Cougar* Crew-Served Weapons M249

  1. Lessons of War: Combat-related Injury Infections during the Vietnam War and Operation Iraqi and Enduring Freedom

    PubMed Central

    Blyth, Dana M.; Yun, Heather C.; Tribble, David R.; Murray, Clinton K.

    2015-01-01

    Summary In over a decade of war, numerous advancements have been made to improve overall combat-related mortality, but infectious complications remain a leading cause of both morbidity and mortality in combat-related injured personnel. Here we will attempt to compare the challenges and lessons of combat-related injuries and infections from the Vietnam War with those of OIF/OEF. Throughout the Vietnam War and OIF/OEF, there have been similar infection-related challenges faced in caring for combat-related trauma patients. Both conflicts reinforced the importance of rapid medical evacuation and definitive surgical management of war wounds. They revealed the constant evolution of infecting organisms and the challenge of increasing antimicrobial resistance. We have also seen that with decreased mortality of severely injured personnel new morbidities must be addressed. Using the foundation of fragmented research from the Vietnam War, previously successful models were assembled into joint service research institutions which have allowed these questions to be addressed. However, many questions regarding measures to reduce infectious complications in our combat-injured personnel remain unanswered. Continued research building on established knowledge is critical for continued improvements in the care of combat-related trauma patients. PMID:26406435

  2. Validation of Scales from the Deployment Risk and Resilience Inventory in a Sample of Operation Iraqi Freedom Veterans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vogt, Dawne S.; Proctor, Susan P.; King, Daniel W.; King, Lynda A.; Vasterling, Jennifer J.

    2008-01-01

    The Deployment Risk and Resilience Inventory (DRRI) is a suite of scales that can be used to assess deployment-related factors implicated in the health and well-being of military veterans. Although initial evidence for the reliability and validity of DRRI scales based on Gulf War veteran samples is encouraging, evidence with respect to a more…

  3. Injury and Illness Casualty Distributions Among U.S. Army and Marine Corps Personnel During Operation Iraqi Freedom

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-03-01

    parasitic diseases and diseases of the musculoskeletal, digestive, and nervous systems were more common. Branch of Service Marines sustained proportionally...neoplasms, mental disorders, diseases of the blood and blood-forming organs, respiratory, and genitourinary systems were more common among women than... system Circulatory Respiratory Digestive Genitourinary Pregnancy Skin Musculoskeletal Congenital Ill-defined Injury Supplementary Total OIF-I No.

  4. Traumatic Brain Injury During Operation Iraqi Freedom: Findings from The United States Navy-Marine Corps Combat Trauma Registry

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-05-01

    system disease 2 1 2 infections/ parasitic disease 1...1 2 skin disease 1 ,1 2 circulatory system disease ,1 ,1 ,1 respiratory system disease ,1 ,1 ,1 genitourinary system disease ,1 ,1 ,1 endocrine...influencing health signs/contact w/ health services 30 33 28 injury & poisoning 19 17 20 nervous system disease 13 14 13 musculoskeletal system 12 12

  5. Tactical Surgical Intervention with Temporary Shunting of Peripheral Vascular Trauma Sustained during Operation Iraqi Freedom: One Unit’s Experience

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-10-01

    Lymphocele 18 Failed limb salvage due to extensive soft tissue necrosis Wound infection at subsequent BKA site 19 Thrombosis of vein graft Sacral decubitus ... ulcer Empyema Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia 20 Initial graft thrombosis BKA, below knee amputation. The Journal of TRAUMA Injury, Infection, and

  6. Microvascular Reconstructive Surgery in Operations Iraqi and Enduring Freedom: the US Military Experience Performing Free Flaps in a Combat Zone

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-01-01

    Minor complications occurred in six patients, including venous congestion requiring throm- bectomy (3), partial flap loss, donor site hematoma , and...internal- fixation of a comminuted radial fracture . (B), After inset of an anterolateral thigh free flap, the most proximal portion of the injury is...for reconstruction of acute open tibial fractures : timing of coverage and long-term functional results. Plast Reconstr Surg. 1992;89:478. 12. Heller L

  7. Operation Iraqi Freedom: Actions Needed to Enhance DOD Planning for Reposturing of U.S. Forces from Iraq

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-09-01

    Retrograde Support Teams 72 Appendix V Theater Logistical Infrastructure Throughput Model 73 Appendix VI Detailed Process for Shipping Excess Theater...a pool of permanent stay behind equipment consisting of specific line items of modified table of organization and equipment property, issued Army...wish to consider directing DOD to modify its briefings submitted in accordance with the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2008 to

  8. The beneficial relationship of the colocation of orthopedics and physical therapy in a deployed setting: Operation Iraqi Freedom.

    PubMed

    Davis, Susan; Machen, Michael S; Chang, Laurette

    2006-03-01

    In a deployment setting, orthopedic and musculoskeletal injuries represent the majority of both combat-related and noncombat-related injuries. To expeditiously and efficiently manage the large influx of patients, our experience revealed the tremendous benefits of having physical therapy colocated with an orthopedic surgeon in a level III combat support hospital. A physical therapist, working in a physician extender role, can treat the majority of nonsurgical orthopedic patients, thus allowing the orthopedic surgeon to focus his or her skills and time on surgical interventions. This physician extender role, although often overlooked during peacetime, becomes essential during wartime, when critically injured patients are abundant and physicians are in short supply. The lessons learned support the continued colocation of physical therapy and orthopedics in a deployment setting and recognize the need to have more physical therapists placed at level I and II echelons of care.

  9. Managing Transitions: Examining the Institutional Army’s Transformation Following the Vietnam War and Operation Iraqi Freedom

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-05-23

    for Battlefield Management Systems now identified as “Digitization” Force XXI Battle Command, Brigade and below (FBCB2) and led Vetronics -applying...to Development of AirLand Battle (ALB) .................................................................. 31 Part III: Case Study 2: From OIF to RAF...particular wars, campaigns, battles , generals and armies. Yet historians have largely neglected the course of events leading to given wars

  10. Reliability Analysis and Modeling of the U.S. Marine Corps Medium Tactical Wheeled Vehicle in Operation Iraqi Freedom

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-09-01

    the NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL September 2007 Author: Matthew B. Reuter Approved by: Robert A. Koyak, Associate Professor...wants to thank Associate Professor Robert A. Koyak for his expert guidance and patience during the thesis research. This thesis is dedicated to... Pneumatic Tire (NSN 2610-01-334-2694), Plain Hexagon Nut (NSN 5310-01- 492-5571), Wheel and Tire Assembly (NSN 2530-01-497-0440), and Metallic Hose

  11. Redefining Projections of Disease and Nonbattle Injury Patient Condition Code Distributions with Casualty Data from Operation Iraqi Freedom

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-07-30

    ligament laxity 0.63% 0.90% 262 Tenosynovitis elbow wrist shoulders etc. 1.18% 1.70% 201 Strain lumbosacral sacroiliac joint chronic all cases 1.81...NavyMarine Corps Combat Trauma Registry and the Joint Patient Tracking Application were used to identify US military disease and nonbattle injury casualties...streams. Approach Data from the Navy–Marine Corps Combat Trauma Registry database and the Joint Patient Tracking Application were used to identify US

  12. Validation of Scales from the Deployment Risk and Resilience Inventory in a Sample of Operation Iraqi Freedom Veterans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vogt, Dawne S.; Proctor, Susan P.; King, Daniel W.; King, Lynda A.; Vasterling, Jennifer J.

    2008-01-01

    The Deployment Risk and Resilience Inventory (DRRI) is a suite of scales that can be used to assess deployment-related factors implicated in the health and well-being of military veterans. Although initial evidence for the reliability and validity of DRRI scales based on Gulf War veteran samples is encouraging, evidence with respect to a more…

  13. Expendable launch vehicles in Space Station Freedom logistics resupply operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newman, J. Steven; Courtney, Roy L.; Brunt, Peter

    The projected Space Station Freedom (SSF) annual logistics resupply requirements were predicted to exceed the 1988 baseline Shuttle resupply system capability. This paper examines the implications of employing a 'mixed fleet' of Shuttles and ELVs to provide postassembly, steady-state logistics resupply. The study concluded that ELVs supported by the OMV could provide the additional required resupply capability with one to three launches per annum. However, the study determined that such a capability would require significant programmatic commitments, including baseline SSF OMV accommodations, on-orbit OMV monoprop replenishment capability, and substantial economics investments. The study also found the need for a half-size pressurized logistics module for the increase in the efficiency of logistics manifesting on the Shuttle as well as ELVs.

  14. Expendable launch vehicles in Space Station Freedom logistics resupply operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newman, J. Steven; Courtney, Roy L.; Brunt, Peter

    1990-01-01

    The projected Space Station Freedom (SSF) annual logistics resupply requirements were predicted to exceed the 1988 baseline Shuttle resupply system capability. This paper examines the implications of employing a 'mixed fleet' of Shuttles and ELVs to provide postassembly, steady-state logistics resupply. The study concluded that ELVs supported by the OMV could provide the additional required resupply capability with one to three launches per annum. However, the study determined that such a capability would require significant programmatic commitments, including baseline SSF OMV accommodations, on-orbit OMV monoprop replenishment capability, and substantial economics investments. The study also found the need for a half-size pressurized logistics module for the increase in the efficiency of logistics manifesting on the Shuttle as well as ELVs.

  15. Advising and assisting an Iraqi Army medical clinic: observations of a U.S. military support mission.

    PubMed

    Lynn, David C; De Lorenzo, Robert A

    2011-09-01

    Medical civil-military operations are important for deployed military medical units engaged in counter-insurgency missions. There are few reports on military support for a host nation's military medical infrastructure, and we describe an initiative of the 21st Combat Support Hospital in 2010 during the postsurge phase of Operation Iraqi Freedom and Operation New Dawn. The goal was to incrementally improve the quality of care provided by Iraqi 7th Army medical personnel using existing clinic infrastructure and a low budget. Direct bedside teaching to include screening and treatment of ambulatory patients (sick call), focused pharmacy and medical supply system support, medical records documentation, and basic infection control compliance were the objectives. Lessons learned include the requirement to implement culturally relevant changes, maintain focus on system processes, and maximize education and mentorship through multiple modalities. In summary, a combat hospital can successfully implement an advise and assist mission with minimal external resources.

  16. Air Medical Evacuations of Soldiers for Oral-facial Disease and Injuries, Operations Enduring Freedom/Iraqi Freedom, January-December 2006

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-12-01

    COL Timothy A Mitchener, DC USA 5e. TASK NUMBER 6. AUTHOR( S ) 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME( S ) AND ADDRESS(ES) 8...SPONSORING/MONITORING AGENCY NAME( S ) AND 10. SPONSOR/MONITOR’S ACRONYM( S ) ADDRESS(ES) 11. SPONSOR/MONITOR’S REPORT NUMBER( S ) 12. DISTRIBUTION/AVAILABILITY...NATO) Standardization Agreement (STANAG), 5th edition, coding scheme. (See P.J. Amoroso, G.S. Smith, and N.S. Bell : Qualitative assessment of cause

  17. Frequency and Causes of Nonbattle Injuries Air Evacuated from Operations Iraqi Freedom and Enduring Freedom, U.S. Army, 2001-2006

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    deployments affect ur ability to conduct high-quality, responsive injury sur- eillance during deployments. These limitations include he inability to...did not affect DNBI incidence.21 Wojcik com- ared the disease rates and NBI rates during the three hases of ODS&S—the build-up, ground combat, and...reports have recognized sports as an impor- ant cause of injury during deployments. A recent report escribed a suspected increase in basketball -related

  18. Barriers to Electronic Records Management (ERM): An Exploratory Case Study Investigating ERM in the Deployed Environment During Operations Enduring Freedom and Iraqi Freedom

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-03-01

    committee members, Dr . Dennis Strouble and Maj (Ret.) Dale Long for their many contributions to improve the quality, rigor, and readability of this...Professor of Information Resource Management Department of Systems and Engineering Management //signed// 16 March 2005 DENNIS D... STROUBLE , Ph.D. (Committee Member) Date Assistant Professor of Information Resource Management Department of Systems and Engineering Management

  19. Evaluating the operations capability of Freedom's Data Management System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sowizral, Henry A.

    1990-01-01

    Three areas of Data Management System (DMS) performance are examined: raw processor speed, the subjective speed of the Lynx OS X-Window system, and the operational capacity of the Runtime Object Database (RODB). It is concluded that the proposed processor will operate at its specified rate of speed and that the X-Window system operates within users' subjective needs. It is also concluded that the RODB cannot provide the required level of service, even with a two-order of magnitude (100 fold) improvement in speed.

  20. Space Station Freedom technology payload user operations facility concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henning, Gary N.; Avery, Don E.

    1992-01-01

    This report presents a concept for a User Operations Facility (UOF) for payloads sponsored by the NASA Office of Aeronautics and Space Technology (OAST). The UOF can be located at any OAST sponsored center; however, for planning purposes, it is assumed that the center will be located at Langley Research Center (LaRC).

  1. Impacting Space Station Freedom design with operations and safety requirements - An availability process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garegnani, Jerry J.; Schondorf, Steven Y.

    1990-01-01

    The unusually long mission duration of Space Station Freedom leads to operations costs that have significant impacts on life-cycle cost relative to previous manned space programs. Maintaining an affordable program requires that operations costs be considered throughout the design process. An appropriate means of impacting the design with operations concerns is to specify requirements that ensure operational effectiveness when implemented. The Space Station Freedom Program has developed a process defining such requirements. It focuses on specifying functional profiles and allocating resources such that designers gain a better understanding of the operational envelope in which their systems must perform. This paper examines the details of the process, where it came from, and why it is effective.

  2. Space Station Freedom assembly and operation at a 51.6 degree inclination orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Troutman, Patrick A.; Brewer, Laura M.; Heck, Michael L.; Kumar, Renjith R.

    1993-01-01

    This study examines the implications of assembling and operating Space Station Freedom at a 51.6 degree inclination orbit utilizing an enhanced lift Space Shuttle. Freedom assembly is currently baselined at a 220 nautical mile high, 28.5 degree inclination orbit. Some of the reasons for increasing the orbital inclination are (1) increased ground coverage for Earth observations, (2) greater accessibility from Russian and other international launch sites, and (3) increased number of Assured Crew Return Vehicle (ACRV) landing sites. Previous studies have looked at assembling Freedom at a higher inclination using both medium and heavy lift expendable launch vehicles (such as Shuttle-C and Energia). The study assumes that the shuttle is used exclusively for delivering the station to orbit and that it can gain additional payload capability from design changes such as a lighter external tank that somewhat offsets the performance decrease that occurs when the shuttle is launched to a 51.6 degree inclination orbit.

  3. Leveraging Naval Riverine Forces to Achieve Information Superiority in Stability Operations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-12-01

    countryside around the clock in the hope of spotting insurgents burying bombs or setting up ambushes.” While single events such as these can give the...operations: Operation Iraqi freedom initial impressions report ( IIR ). Retrieved February 4, 2010 from George Town, Grand Cayman: Public

  4. Operation Brain Trauma Therapy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-10-01

    cyclosporin A on susceptibility to pilocarpine-induced seizures in rats with brain injured at different developmental stages. Epilepsy Res. 2004;61:63...Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a leading cause of morbid-ity and mortality in Operation Iraqi Freedom largely due to the emergence of blast-injury from...initiate seizure activity than another promising calcineurin antagonist cyclosporine A28—which is currently in clinical trials for TBI. However, unlike

  5. Altered amygdala activation during face processing in Iraqi and Afghanistani war veterans

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Exposure to combat can have a significant impact across a wide array of domains, and may manifest as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), a debilitating mental illness that is associated with neural and affective sequelae. This study tested the hypothesis that combat-exposed individuals with and without PTSD, relative to healthy control subjects with no history of PTSD or combat exposure, would show amygdala hyperactivity during performance of a well-validated face processing task. We further hypothesized that differences in the prefrontal cortex would best differentiate the combat-exposed groups with and without PTSD. Methods Twelve men with PTSD related to combat in Operations Enduring Freedom and/or Iraqi Freedom, 12 male combat-exposed control patients with a history of Operations Enduring Freedom and/or Iraqi Freedom combat exposure but no history of PTSD, and 12 healthy control male patients with no history of combat exposure or PTSD completed a face-matching task during functional magnetic resonance imaging. Results The PTSD group showed greater amygdala activation to fearful versus happy faces than both the combat-exposed control and healthy control groups. Both the PTSD and the combat-exposed control groups showed greater amygdala activation to all faces versus shapes relative to the healthy control group. However, the combat-exposed control group relative to the PTSD group showed greater prefrontal/parietal connectivity with the amygdala, while the PTSD group showed greater connectivity with the subgenual cingulate. The strength of connectivity in the PTSD group was inversely related to avoidance scores. Conclusions These observations are consistent with the hypothesis that PTSD is associated with a deficiency in top-down modulation of amygdala activation by the prefrontal cortex and shows specific sensitivity to fearful faces. PMID:22738183

  6. Pain management in the wilderness and operational setting.

    PubMed

    Wedmore, Ian S; Johnson, Troy; Czarnik, Jim; Hendrix, Steve

    2005-05-01

    The wilderness and operational setting places unique constraints on one's ability to treat pain. In this article we will discuss methods for treating pain both in the wilderness and operational setting. By operational we mean the austere deployed military setting, to include both noncombat and combat operations. The authors combined experience with wartime trauma pain management consists of experience in Operation "Just Cause" (Panama Invasion), Operation "Desert Storm" (Persian Gulf War), Operation "Uphold Democracy" (Haiti liberation), Operation "Enduring Freedom" (Afghanistan conflict), and Operation "Iraqi Freedom" (Iraq conflict).

  7. Ten Years of Spatial Disorientation in U.S. Army Rotary-Wing Operations (Reprint)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-10-01

    of the time, and changes over time in training, tactics, and technol- ogy [e.g., night vision goggles (NVG) and forward look- ing infrared (FLIR... night vision systems]. Ogden and colleagues ( 21 ) provided one of the fi rst looks (1957 to 1963) at Army helicopter “ orientation error ” (OE), re... vision goggles ; NVS- night vision system; OIF- Operation Iraqi Freedom; OEF- Operation Enduring Freedom. Fig. 1. Spatial disorientation-related

  8. Considerations for a design and operations knowledge support system for Space Station Freedom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erickson, Jon D.; Crouse, Kenneth H.; Wechsler, Donald B.; Flaherty, Douglas R.

    1989-01-01

    Engineering and operations of modern engineered systems depend critically upon detailed design and operations knowledge that is accurate and authoritative. A design and operations knowledge support system (DOKSS) is a modern computer-based information system providing knowledge about the creation, evolution, and growth of an engineered system. The purpose of a DOKSS is to provide convenient and effective access to this multifaceted information. The complexity of Space Station Freedom's (SSF's) systems, elements, interfaces, and organizations makes convenient access to design knowledge especially important, when compared to simpler systems. The life cycle length, being 30 or more years, adds a new dimension to space operations, maintenance, and evolution. Provided here is a review and discussion of design knowledge support systems to be delivered and operated as a critical part of the engineered system. A concept of a DOKSS for Space Station Freedom (SSF) is presented. This is followed by a detailed discussion of a DOKSS for the Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center and Work Package-2 portions of SSF.

  9. The Experience of the US Marine Corps’ Surgical Shock Trauma Platoon with 417 Operative Combat Casualties during a 12 Month Period of Operation Iraqi Freedom

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-06-01

    Surgical Research Fort Sam Houston, Texas REFERENCES 1. Holcomb JB. The 2004 Fitts Lecture: current perspective on combat casualty care. J Trauma. 2005;59...374):36–46. 4. DeBakey ME. History, the torch that illuminates: lessons from military medicine. Mil Med. 1996;161:711–716. DISCUSSION Dr. Michael J

  10. Procurement Integrity in Contingency Operations: A Case Study of Army Contracting Officer Corruption in Operations Iraqi and Enduring Freedom Utilizing Occupational Fraud Theory

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-12-01

    process, this minority of Army CCOs broke the law, betrayed Army values1, and violated their country’s trust. Investigation and conviction rates ...of fraud in OIF and OEF is consistent with the general occupational fraud rate , then I hypothesize that classic occupational fraud theory can...as poor market conditions or high interest rates . The fourth category, physical isolation, refers to an individual’s belief that no one can

  11. The Systems Engineering Design of a Smart Forward Operating Base Surveillance System for Forward Operating Base Protection

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-06-01

    Network-Centric Warfare NOA NetOps Agility NOC Network Operations Center OI Object of Interest OIF Operation Iraqi Freedom OV Operational View RF...Agility NetOps Agility ( NOA ) allows the user access to information on demand from any node along a network. The user can also process, share, send or...receive information in a secure computing environment. The operation and management of the GIG is set by NOA policy and protocols (DoD CIO, 2007

  12. 31 CFR 575.311 - Iraqi origin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Iraqi origin. 575.311 Section 575.311... Iraqi origin. The term goods or services of Iraqi origin includes: (a) Goods produced, manufactured... Government of Iraq, or of a business entity located in Iraq. Services of Iraqi origin are not imported into...

  13. Forward surgical team (FST) workload in a special operations environment: the 250th FST in Operation ENDURING FREEDOM.

    PubMed

    Place, Ronald J; Rush, Robert M; Arrington, Edward D

    2003-01-01

    Forward Surgical Teams (FST) deploy to support conventional combat units of at least regimental size. This report examines the injuries and treatments of an FST in an environment of unconventional tactics, limited personal protection, and extended areas of responsibility during Operation ENDURING FREEDOM. A prospective evaluation of the personal protective measures, mechanisms of injury, types of injuries, and times to treatment in Operation ENDURING FREEDOM. Additionally, per-surgeon caseloads, operative interventions, and outcomes are examined. The first phase of this deployment involved co-locating with an Air Force Expeditionary Medical Squadron at Seeb Air Base, Oman (SABO). The second phase involved stand-alone operations at Kandahar International Airport (KIA). Participants include U.S. Special Forces, conventional U.S forces, coalition country special forces, and anti-Taliban Afghan soldiers. During the deployment, the FST performed 68 surgical procedures on 50 patients (19 SAB, 31 KIA). There were 35 orthopedic cases (2 to 28 per surgeon), 30 general surgery cases (2 to 10 per surgeon), and 3 head/neck cases. Mechanism of injury included non-battle injury (13), bomb blast (13), gunshot wounds (8), mine (8), and grenades (5). Primary injuries were to the extremities in 27, torso in 9, and head/neck in 11. Three patients had appendicitis. Five patients were wearing body armor, whereas 4 wore helmets. The mean Relative Trauma Score was 7.4. Thirty-one patients were treated at KIA with a mean time to operative treatment of 2.7 +/- 2.7 hours, whereas 19 were treated in SABO with a mean time to operative treatment of 12.4 +/- 15.1 hours. Nine patients received transfusions. Three nonoperative patients died of wounds. Despite the lack of personal protective gear, most patients had extremity wounds as their primary injuries. In this special operations environment, time to operative treatment was significantly longer than expected.

  14. Sensitivity study of Space Station Freedom operations cost and selected user resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Accola, Anne; Fincannon, H. J.; Williams, Gregory J.; Meier, R. Timothy

    1990-01-01

    The results of sensitivity studies performed to estimate probable ranges for four key Space Station parameters using the Space Station Freedom's Model for Estimating Space Station Operations Cost (MESSOC) are discussed. The variables examined are grouped into five main categories: logistics, crew, design, space transportation system, and training. The modification of these variables implies programmatic decisions in areas such as orbital replacement unit (ORU) design, investment in repair capabilities, and crew operations policies. The model utilizes a wide range of algorithms and an extensive trial logistics data base to represent Space Station operations. The trial logistics data base consists largely of a collection of the ORUs that comprise the mature station, and their characteristics based on current engineering understanding of the Space Station. A nondimensional approach is used to examine the relative importance of variables on parameters.

  15. Operational Art and the Sustainment Warfighting Function

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-12-01

    Keeley. Asking the Right Questions: a Guide to Critical Thinking. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall, 2007. Checkland, Peter, and John ...Logistics Activities during Operation Iraqi Freedom. Report. 2003. Hammond, John S., Ralph L. Keeney, and Howard Raiffa. "The Hidden Traps in Decision...Command And General Staff College, 2000. 46 Naughton , Philippe. "Haiti Sea Port Opens for Quake Aid as US Expands Operations - Times Online." The

  16. The Evolution of Centralized Operational Logistics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-05-17

    Operation IRAQI FREEDOM: Battlefield Logistics and Effects on Operations." (Santa Monica: RAND Corporation, 2005 ), xi. 81 Peltz et al, "Sustainment...Association (Washington, DC: Government Printing Office, 2005 ), Slides 3, 9, 10. 100 U.S. Department of Defense, Joint Publication 4-03...Lieutenant Colonel (Ret.). "Transforming Joint Logistics Information Management." Army Logistician, vol. 37 (January/February 2005 ): 27-31. Boles

  17. STS-49 - A demonstration of EMU operational capabilities for Space Station Freedom assembly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bleisath, Scott A.; Johnson, Kieth G.

    1992-07-01

    One of the primary objectives for Space Shuttle mission STS-49 is to perform three EVAs on consecutive days in a manner similar to those planned for Space Station Freedom (SSF) assembly missions. The preparation and completion of this mission will serve as a pathfinder for future EVA intensive SSF assembly flights. Several operational issues pertaining to the EMU have been addressed in preparation for this mission. Provisioning and orbiter stowage of the EMU and associated hardware have been optimized for four EVA crewmembers. EMU preparatory and maintenance activities have been streamlined to help minimize crew overhead and have been carefully integrated into a very demanding mission timeline. The constraints and limitations have been assessed in providing a backup EMU capability for each EVA crewmember. Several EMU concerns have also been addressed in supporting new EVA task requirements, such as large mass handling and performing SSF assembly operations over the crew cabin and nose of the Shuttle orbiter.

  18. A radiological assessment of space nuclear power operations near Space Station Freedom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stevenson, Steve

    1990-01-01

    In order to accomplish NASA's more ambitious exploration goals, nuclear reactors may be used in the vicinity of Space Station Freedom (SSF) either as power sources for coorbiting platforms or as part of the propulsion system for departing and returning personnel or cargo vehicles. This study identifies ranges of operational parameters, such as parking distances and reactor cooldown times, which would reasonably guarantee that doses to the SSF crew from all radiation sources would be below guidelines recently recommended by the National Council of Radiation Protection and Measurements. The specific scenarios considered include: (1) the launch and return of a nuclear electric propulsion vehicle, (2) the launch and return of a nuclear thermal rocket vehicle, (3) the operation of an SP-100 class reactor on a coorbiting platform, (4) the activation of materials near operating reactors, (5) the storage and handling of radioisotope thermal generator units, and (6) the storage and handling of fresh and previously operated reactors. Portable reactor shield concepts were examined for relaxing the operational constraints imposed by unshielded (for human proximity operations) reactors and that might also be used to provide additional SSF crew protection from natural background radiation.

  19. Freedom-to-operate analysis of a transgenic multivitamin corn variety.

    PubMed

    Zanga, Daniela; Capell, Teresa; Zhu, Changfu; Christou, Paul; Thangaraj, Harry

    2016-05-01

    In this article, we explore the intellectual property (IP) landscape relevant to the production and commercialization of Carolight(™) , a transgenic multivitamin corn variety created on humanitarian grounds to address micronutrient deficiencies in low-and-middle-income countries. The successful production of this variety requires IP rights risk management because there is a strong protection on inventions and processes via patent portfolios in both developing and industrialized countries. The IP framework is complex, and specialist patent lawyers are usually employed to perform such analysis, but the costs cannot always be met by small, publicly funded projects. We report an alternative strategy, a do-it-yourself patent analysis, to produce a review with limited legal value that can nevertheless lay the foundations for a subsequent more in-depth professional freedom-to-operate opinion. © 2015 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. A Novel Method for Verifying War Mortality while Estimating Iraqi Deaths for the Iran-Iraq War through Operation Desert Storm (1980-1993)

    PubMed Central

    Li, Shang-Ju; Flaxman, Abraham; Lafta, Riyadh; Galway, Lindsay; Takaro, Tim K.; Burnham, Gilbert; Hagopian, Amy

    2016-01-01

    Objectives We estimated war-related Iraqi mortality for the period 1980 through 1993. Method To test our hypothesis that deaths reported by siblings (even dating back several decades) would correspond with war events, we compared sibling mortality reports with the frequency of independent news reports about violent historic events. We used data from a survey of 4,287 adults in 2000 Iraqi households conducted in 2011. Interviewees reported on the status of their 24,759 siblings. Death rates were applied to population estimates, 1980 to 1993. News report data came from the ProQuest New York Times database. Results About half of sibling-reported deaths across the study period were attributed to direct war-related injuries. The Iran-Iraq war led to nearly 200,000 adult deaths, and the 1990–1991 First Gulf War generated another approximately 40,000 deaths. Deaths during peace intervals before and after each war were significantly lower. We found a relationship between total sibling-reported deaths and the tally of war events across the period, p = 0.02. Conclusions We report a novel method to verify the reliability of epidemiological (household survey) estimates of direct war-related injury mortality dating back several decades. PMID:27768730

  1. A Novel Method for Verifying War Mortality while Estimating Iraqi Deaths for the Iran-Iraq War through Operation Desert Storm (1980-1993).

    PubMed

    Li, Shang-Ju; Flaxman, Abraham; Lafta, Riyadh; Galway, Lindsay; Takaro, Tim K; Burnham, Gilbert; Hagopian, Amy

    2016-01-01

    We estimated war-related Iraqi mortality for the period 1980 through 1993. To test our hypothesis that deaths reported by siblings (even dating back several decades) would correspond with war events, we compared sibling mortality reports with the frequency of independent news reports about violent historic events. We used data from a survey of 4,287 adults in 2000 Iraqi households conducted in 2011. Interviewees reported on the status of their 24,759 siblings. Death rates were applied to population estimates, 1980 to 1993. News report data came from the ProQuest New York Times database. About half of sibling-reported deaths across the study period were attributed to direct war-related injuries. The Iran-Iraq war led to nearly 200,000 adult deaths, and the 1990-1991 First Gulf War generated another approximately 40,000 deaths. Deaths during peace intervals before and after each war were significantly lower. We found a relationship between total sibling-reported deaths and the tally of war events across the period, p = 0.02. We report a novel method to verify the reliability of epidemiological (household survey) estimates of direct war-related injury mortality dating back several decades.

  2. Airspace Command and Control in the Contemporary Operating Environment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-05-07

    article titled, “The Miracle of Operation Iraqi Freedom Airspace Management,” Wathen details the herculean effort airspace With multiple actors...the ability to predict airspace conflicts. 4 Colonel David Hume , an Air War College graduate, wrote a thesis on command and control and integration...of unmanned aircraft into the battlespace. Hume argues that the TAGS is not optimized to support the integration of unmanned aircraft operations

  3. A radiological assessment of nuclear power and propulsion operations near Space Station Freedom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bolch, Wesley E.; Thomas, J. Kelly; Peddicord, K. Lee; Nelson, Paul; Marshall, David T.; Busche, Donna M.

    1990-01-01

    Scenarios were identified which involve the use of nuclear power systems in the vicinity of Space Station Freedom (SSF) and their radiological impact on the SSF crew was quantified. Several of the developed scenarios relate to the use of SSF as an evolutionary transportation node for lunar and Mars missions. In particular, radiation doses delivered to SSF crew were calculated for both the launch and subsequent return of a Nuclear Electric Propulsion (NEP) cargo vehicle and a Nuclear Thermal Rocket (NTR) personnel vehicle to low earth orbit. The use of nuclear power on co-orbiting platforms and the storage and handling issues associated with radioisotope power systems were also explored as they relate to SSF. A central philosophy in these analyses was the utilization of a radiation dose budget, defined as the difference between recommended dose limits from all radiation sources and estimated doses received by crew members from natural space radiations. Consequently, for each scenario examined, the dose budget concept was used to identify and quantify constraints on operational parameters such as launch separation distances, returned vehicle parking distances, and reactor shutdown times prior to vehicle approach. The results indicate that realistic scenarios do not exist which would preclude the use of nuclear power sources in the vicinity of SSF. The radiation dose to the SSF crew can be maintained at safe levels solely by implementing proper and reasonable operating procedures.

  4. Operations with the special purpose dextrous manipulator on Space Station Freedom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cox, B.; Brown, D.; Hiltz, M.

    1991-01-01

    SPAR Canada is actively participating in the Space Station Freedom Program by contributing the Mobile Servicing System (MSS) which will be involved in assembly, maintenance and servicing of both the Space Station and the MSS itself. Part of the MSS is the Special Purpose Dextrous Manipulator (SPDM), a two armed dextrous robot with advanced vision and manipulative capabilities. In addition to Space Station and payload servicing activities the SPDM will be designed to perform self maintenance on the MSS itself. The majority of Space Station equipment will be on orbit for the anticipated 30 year lifespan and the maintenance philosophy will be to repair by the exchange of Orbit Replacement Units or ORUs. The present concept, configuration, and operation of the SPDM and the detailed simulations associated with the maintenance of part of the MSS are described. The Design Reference Mission is the replacement of a Joint Drive Module on the Canadian large payload manipulator, the Space Station Remote Manipulator System. Other Design Reference Missions that were investigated are briefly described, and future operations activity to support the definition of SPDM requirements are discussed.

  5. Design for an integrated discipline operations control center for Space Station Freedom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haines, Richard F.

    1993-01-01

    This paper presents selected features of a human factors oriented plan for a Space Station Freedom (SSF) ground Discipline Operations Center (DOC) that is integrated with other work areas used by multidisciplinary life scientists. This combined facility is referred to as an integrated DOC or IDOC. This plan is based upon the assumption that there will be a constantly changing array of specialized equipment and procedures used by life sciences principal investigators (PI) on the ground which must be linked to SSF through various DOC systems. Other sites will also be able to communicate with SSF (Anon., 1992). It is also assumed that cost reduction will be a major design consideration and that one integrated structure will be less expensive to build and operate than two separate ones. Since both the DOC personnel and PIs will need to communicate with the flight crew aboard SSF, the general interconnect architecture of the PIs' communication linkage is considered here. Key human factor design elements of this plan include: a candidate facility layout which accommodates three (3), multipurpose, rapidly reconfigurable work areas (suites) and consequent user traffic flow considerations, a multimedia telecommunications support capability, functional (human) traffic flow, optimized internal illumination and acoustics requirements, selected volumetric and safety requirements, and other architectural design parameters.

  6. Design for an integrated discipline operations control center for Space Station Freedom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haines, Richard F.

    1993-01-01

    This paper presents selected features of a human factors oriented plan for a Space Station Freedom (SSF) ground Discipline Operations Center (DOC) that is integrated with other work areas used by multidisciplinary life scientists. This combined facility is referred to as an integrated DOC or IDOC. This plan is based upon the assumption that there will be a constantly changing array of specialized equipment and procedures used by life sciences principal investigators (PI) on the ground which must be linked to SSF through various DOC systems. Other sites will also be able to communicate with SSF (Anon., 1992). It is also assumed that cost reduction will be a major design consideration and that one integrated structure will be less expensive to build and operate than two separate ones. Since both the DOC personnel and PIs will need to communicate with the flight crew aboard SSF, the general interconnect architecture of the PIs' communication linkage is considered here. Key human factor design elements of this plan include: a candidate facility layout which accommodates three (3), multipurpose, rapidly reconfigurable work areas (suites) and consequent user traffic flow considerations, a multimedia telecommunications support capability, functional (human) traffic flow, optimized internal illumination and acoustics requirements, selected volumetric and safety requirements, and other architectural design parameters.

  7. Prevalence and correlates of cigarette smoking among operation Iraqi freedom-era and operation enduring freedom-era women from the Active Component military and Reserve/National Guard.

    PubMed

    Vander Weg, Mark W; Mengeling, Michelle A; Booth, Brenda M; Torner, James C; Sadler, Anne G

    2015-04-01

    Tobacco use adversely affects the health and readiness of military personnel. Although rates of cigarette smoking have historically been elevated among men serving in the military, less is known about tobacco use in servicewomen. To examine the prevalence and correlates of tobacco use among women serving in the Active Component (AC) and Reserve/National Guard (RNG) as well as factors associated with starting to smoke during military service. Cross-sectional surveys of 1320 women serving in the AC or RNG were used to examine cigarette use in servicewomen. Associations between self-reported tobacco use history, sociodemographics, military service, and psychosocial factors were investigated using logistic regression analyses. Thirty-six percent of servicewomen had a lifetime history of cigarette use, with 18% reporting current smoking. Thirty-one percent of lifetime smokers initiated smoking during military service. Factors associated with current smoking included pay grade, marital status, use of psychotropic medications, past-year alcohol use, and lifetime illicit drug or illegal prescription medication use. An enlisted pay grade, being white, and a history of deployment were all associated with starting to smoke during military service. Although progress has been made in reducing the gap in tobacco use between military and civilian populations, nearly 1 in 5 servicewomen in our sample smoked cigarettes. Further efforts are needed to address tobacco use in this population. In addition to providing resources to assist smokers with quitting, additional attention should be given to preventing smoking initiation, particularly among deployed female personnel.

  8. What pre-deployment and early post-deployment factors predict health function after combat deployment?: a prospective longitudinal study of Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF)/Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF) soldiers

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Physical and mental function are strong indicators of disability and mortality. OEF/OIF Veterans returning from deployment have been found to have poorer function than soldiers who have not deployed; however the reasons for this are unknown. Methods A prospective cohort of 790 soldiers was assessed both pre- and immediately after deployment to determine predictors of physical and mental function after war. Results On average, OEF/OIF Veterans showed significant declines in both physical (t=6.65, p<.0001) and mental function (t=7.11, p<.0001). After controlling for pre-deployment function, poorer physical function after deployment was associated with older age, more physical symptoms, blunted systolic blood pressure reactivity and being injured. After controlling for pre-deployment function, poorer mental function after deployment was associated with younger age, lower social desirability, lower social support, greater physical symptoms and greater PTSD symptoms. Conclusions Combat deployment was associated with an immediate decline in both mental and physical function. The relationship of combat deployment to function is complex and influenced by demographic, psychosocial, physiological and experiential factors. Social support and physical symptoms emerged as potentially modifiable factors. PMID:23631419

  9. What Pre-Deployment and Early Post-Deployment Factors Predict Health Function after Combat Deployment?: A Prospective Longitudinal Study of Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF)/Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF) Soldiers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-04-30

    licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. McAndrew et al...34), a trait related to hypnotic susceptibility. J Abnorm Psychol 1974, 83:268–277. 19. King DW, King LA, Vogt DS: Manual for the Deployment Risk and

  10. Autonomous rendezvous and docking operations of unmanned expendable cargo transfer vehicles (e.g. Centaur) with Space Station Freedom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Emmet, Brian R.

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes the results of the feasibility study using Centaur or other CTV's to deliver payloads to the Space Station Freedom (SSF). During this study was examined the requirements upon unmanned cargo transfer stages (including Centaur) for phasing, rendezvous, proximity operations and docking/berthing (capture).

  11. To Fight or Not to Fight? Organizational and Doctrinal Trends in Mounted Maneuver Reconnaissance from the Interwar Years to Operation Iraqi Freedom

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    organization and provide the RSTA brigade with a more effective set of capabilities. 470 Chapter 8 Notes 1. General Eric K. Shinseki and Louis Caldera , “The...Archives, paper, Transformation files. 3. Shinseki and Caldera , “The Army Vision: Soldiers On Point for the Nation—Persuasive in Peace, Invincible in War... Caldera , “The Army Vision: Soldiers On Point for the Nation—Persuasive in Peace, Invincible in War,” 12 October 1999. 5. “The Foundations of Army

  12. Apache Aviator Evaluation of Dual-Technology Night Vision Systems in Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF) Urban Combat (Master’s Thesis)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-01-01

    Psychology , 1, pp. 307- 312. Hiar. K. L., Rash, C. E., Harris, E. S., and McGilberry, W. H. 2004. Apache Aviator Visual Experiences with the IHADSS...MNo 10 5 (2.6%) 1 80 U.S AmyAeromedical Researh Laboratory Fort Rucker, Alabama 36362-0 577

  13. Predicting Resource Needs for Multiple and Mass Casualty Events in Combat: Lessons Learned From Combat Support Hospital Experience in Operation Iraqi Freedom

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-04-01

    explosions and gunshot wound ) firefights. The primary mechanism of injury for the majority of casualties (73%) was explosion, with the remaining 27% of...casualties injured by gunshot wound . The mean ISS for casualties who were in- jured in explosive incidents (improvised explosives, rocket, or mortar...slightly lower base deficit (5 vs. 3.5, p 0.05), and lower ISS (8.1 vs. 9.8, p 0.05) in patients who suffered gunshot wound mechanism compared

  14. American Military Barrier War Paint, Camp Buehring, Kuwait: A Discovery of Troop Identity, Values, and Warfighting Attributes as They Deployed into Combat for Operation Iraqi Freedom

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-05-21

    hallways, storage closets, or basements. Due to such factors, art created during war lost its rightful place of appreciation in military studies, from......carries its viewer to an island paradise . Images that define the theme include; Hawaiian 82West-Point.org, “Paul Wenceslaus Peña Memorial Page,” http

  15. Statistical Modeling of Combat Mortality Events by Using Subject Matter Expert Opinions and Operation Iraqi Freedom Empirical Results from the Navy-Marine Corps Combat Trauma Registry

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    data is deemed unsatisfactory, other models will be examined. The life insurance industry typically uses actuarial tables to determine expected...fitted linear regres - sion model . In the figure, H(t) is estimated by summing the non-parametric estimates of the hazard rate, h(t) = 1/k, where k...compete for medical/logistics resources (staff, equipment, consumables, transporters) as casualties flow through the system. Other recent modeling and

  16. Fresh whole blood transfusions in coalition military, foreign national, and enemy combatant patients during Operation Iraqi Freedom at a U.S. combat support hospital.

    PubMed

    Spinella, Philip C; Perkins, Jeremy G; Grathwohl, Kurt W; Repine, Thomas; Beekley, Alec C; Sebesta, James; Jenkins, Donald; Azarow, Kenneth; Holcomb, John B

    2008-01-01

    United States military doctrine permits the use of fresh whole blood (FWB), donated by U.S. military personnel on site, for casualties with life-threatening injuries at combat support hospitals. U.S. Military Medical Department policy dictates that all patients treated at military facilities during combat (coalition military personnel, foreign nationals, and enemy combatants) are to be treated equally. The objectives of this study were to describe admission vital signs and laboratory values and injury location for patients transfused with FWB, and to determine if FWB was employed equally among all patient personnel categories at a combat support hospital. This retrospective cohort study evaluated admission vital signs and laboratory values, injury location, and personnel category for all patients receiving FWB at a U.S. Army combat support hospital in Baghdad, Iraq, between January and December 2004. Eighty-seven patients received 545 units of FWB. Upon admission, the average (+/-S.D.) heart rate was 144 bpm (+/-25); systolic blood pressure, 106 mmHg (+/-33); base deficit, 9 (+/-6.5); hemoglobin, 9.0 g/dl (+/-2.6); platelet concentration, 81.9 x 10(3)/mm(3) (+/-81); international normalized ratio (INR), 2.0 (+/-1.1); and temperature 95.7 degrees F (+/-2.6). The percentages of intensive care patients who received FWB by personnel category were as follows: coalition soldiers, 51/592 (8.6%); foreign nationals, 25/347 (7.2%); and enemy combatants, 11/128 (8.5% (p = 0.38). The amount of FWB transfused by personnel category was as follows: coalition soldier, 4 units (1-35); foreign national, 4 units (1-36); and enemy combatant, 4 units (1-11) (p = 0.9). Fresh whole blood was used for anemic, acidemic, hypothermic, coagulopathic patients with life-threatening traumatic injuries in hemorrhagic shock, and it was transfused in equal percentages and amounts for coalition soldiers, foreign nationals, and enemy combatants.

  17. Fresh Whole Blood Transfusions in Coalition Military, Foreign National, and Enemy Combatant Patients During Operation Iraqi Freedom at a U.S. Combat Support Hospital

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-09

    HIV], hepatitis C virus [HCV], hepatitis B virus [ HBV ], rapid plasma regain [RPR] titer, and human T-cell lymphotropic virus) of donor samples to...the rapid tests for HIV, HCV, HBV , and (now available) RPR (Biokit, Spain). At medical facilities smaller than CSHs and in more remote locations, it is

  18. Psychological symptoms and marital satisfaction in spouses of Operation Iraqi Freedom veterans: relationships with spouses' perceptions of veterans' experiences and symptoms.

    PubMed

    Renshaw, Keith D; Rodrigues, Camila S; Jones, David H

    2008-08-01

    Much research has shown that spouses of combat veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) have higher rates of psychological and marital distress than do spouses of veterans without PTSD; however, very few studies have examined potential mechanisms of this increased vulnerability. The current study examined spouses of National Guard soldiers recently returned from deployments in Iraq. In addition to documenting elevated levels of psychological symptoms in these spouses, the authors found that spouses experienced greater symptom severity when they perceived high levels of symptoms in soldiers but the soldiers endorsed low levels of symptoms. Furthermore, spouses' marital satisfaction was negatively linked to soldiers' self-reported symptom severity only when spouses perceived that soldiers had experienced low levels of combat activity while deployed. When spouses perceived high levels of such activity, soldiers' self-reported symptoms had no relationship with spouses' marital satisfaction. These findings highlight the importance of interpersonal perceptions in intimate relationships and are consistent with the notion that uncontrollable attributions for a relative's mental health problems may provide a buffer against relationship distress. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. Live from the Battlefield: An Examination of Embedded War Correspondents’ Reporting during Operation Iraqi Freedom (21 March-14 April 2003)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-06-01

    Concepts emerge during research Seldom Always Data analysis Statistical Textual; statistical Data presentation Tables Tables and text The goal of...1 hour per response, including the time for reviewing instruction, searching existing data sources, gathering and maintaining the data needed, and...Validity Progression from data collection, analysis, interpretation Serial Reflective, circular Primary researcher involvement Data analysis and

  20. Dental emergency rates at an expeditionary medical support facility supporting Operation Enduring Freedom.

    PubMed

    Dunn, William Jackson

    2004-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to report the dental emergency rate and the distribution of cause of dental emergencies at an Expeditionary Medical Support +25 medical facility during a 6-month deployment in support of Operation Enduring Freedom. A retrospective cohort analysis of 1,972 soldiers stationed at Seeb Air Base, Sultanate of Oman, was accomplished from a phased deployment from March to September 2002. Procedures were divided into 11 categories: endodontic, extraction of teeth other than third molars, extraction of third molar teeth, restoration of teeth (caries), restoration of broken teeth (not caries), orthodontic bracket/wire problem, sensitive teeth, temperomandibular pain, periodontal, oral pathology, and prosthodontic. One hundred thirty-five dental emergency visits were recorded, corresponding to a rate of 137 dental emergencies per 1,000 soldiers per year. Most of the emergencies (34.8%) were due to caries. Pain from third molars was the second most common reason for visiting the dental clinic (19.3%).

  1. Analysis of Army Contracting Officer Representative Role in Contingency Operations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-12-01

    Independent Government Cost Estimate JER – Joint Ethics Regulation LH – Labor Hour MAJ – Major MFR – Memorandum for the Record MSG – Master Sergeant OCI...contracting process, as well as the deficiencies in the procurement integrity framework , which have resulted in fraud investigations and convictions of...personnel in Operations Iraqi/Enduring Freedom (OIF/OEF), 23 percent indicate deficiencies with the Army’s existing procurement integrity framework

  2. Microeconomics, Private Security, and the Significance to Operational Planning

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-05-23

    like to thank Major Ryan Bulger who provided significant peer feedback on the organization and flow of what unfolds in the following pages. I...Philippines OIF Operation Iraqi Freedom OSC -I Office of Security Cooperation-Iraq PACOM Pacific Command PMC Private Military Contractor PMF Private...unknown but a model established in Iraq under the Office of Security 8 Cooperation-Iraq ( OSC -I) provides a framework to maintain strategic

  3. Modern Iraqi Arabic: A Textbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alkalesi, Yasin M.

    This book is an introductory textbook for those with no previous knowledge of Arabic or for those who know Arabic but want to learn the Iraqi dialect. The book is divided into 16 lessons: "Arabic Alphabet and Vowels"; "Greetings and Courtesy Expressions"; "Asking for Directions"; "Arrival at Baghdad Airport, Part…

  4. Geospatial Intelligence School Enhances Iraqi Army Effectiveness

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-12-01

    Iraqi Army was disbanded. The new school established by MNC–I C-7, known as the Iraqi Mapping and Survey School ( IMSS ), provided training to...Topographic Engineer Company, 20th Engineer Brigade, XVIII Airborne Corps, implemented plans to develop the IMSS . Desktop computers, laptops, and global...Engineer Company were assigned to the school as instructors/advisors. Mission and Training MNC–I C-7 designed the IMSS , located in an Iraqi

  5. Dynamics of Interagency Cooperation Process at Provincial Reconstruction Team in Operations ISAF and Enduring Freedom

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-06-11

    and Enduring Freedom. Approved by: , Thesis Committee Chair James B. Martin , Ph.D. , Member Michael E. Weaver, M.A...Specifically, he would like to acknowledge the following people: Doctor James Martin , Mr Mike Weaver, Mr Edward Jennings, Mr Ken Turner, Ms...Hernandorena, Katherine Rogers, 102 Patrick B Baetjer, James J Wirtz, Scott R Feil , Robert B Polk, Amanda Smith, Robert H Dorff, James M Smith, Brian

  6. Traditions, Changes, and Challenges: Military Operations and the Middle Eastern City

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-01-01

    Studies Institute,Fort Leavenworth, KS ,66027 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER 9. SPONSORING/MONITORING AGENCY NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) 10...World: World Regional Urban Development, 3d ed. (New York: Harper & Row, 2003), 271. 12. Brunn, 2003, 269-72. 13. Pacione, 135. 14. Philip K . Hitti...Operation Iraqi Freedom. Fort Leavenworth, KS : Combat Studies Institute Press, 2004. Dewar, Michael. War in the Streets: The Story of Urban Combat

  7. Joint Operational Fires in the Offense: The Southwest Pacific Campaign to Isolate Rabaul

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-05-22

    Boyne , Operation Iraqi Freedom: What Went Right, What Went Wrong, and Why (New York: Forge, 2003), 128-133; Hollis, 6-7. 5...Cartwheel Area Source: John Miller, Cartwheel: The Reduction of Rabaul (Washington, DC: Government Printing Office, 1959), 23 17 On New Guinea...The Years of MacArthur, Volume II: 1941-1945, vol. 2, 3 vols. (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1976), 98, 119-121, 153-154; John Miller, Guadalcanal: The

  8. Operant conditioning of a multiple degree-of-freedom brain-machine interface in a primate model of amputation.

    PubMed

    Balasubramanian, Karthikeyan; Southerland, Joshua; Vaidya, Mukta; Qian, Kai; Eleryan, Ahmed; Fagg, Andrew H; Sluzky, Marc; Oweiss, Karim; Hatsopoulos, Nicholas

    2013-01-01

    Operant conditioning with biofeedback has been shown to be an effective method to modify neural activity to generate goal-directed actions in a brain-machine interface. It is particularly useful when neural activity cannot be mathematically mapped to motor actions of the actual body such as in the case of amputation. Here, we implement an operant conditioning approach with visual feedback in which an amputated monkey is trained to control a multiple degree-of-freedom robot to perform a reach-to-grasp behavior. A key innovation is that each controlled dimension represents a behaviorally relevant synergy among a set of joint degrees-of-freedom. We present a number of behavioral metrics by which to assess improvements in BMI control with exposure to the system. The use of non-human primates with chronic amputation is arguably the most clinically-relevant model of human amputation that could have direct implications for developing a neural prosthesis to treat humans with missing upper limbs.

  9. Pre-deployment training recommendations for Special Forces Medical Sergeants based on recent Operation Enduring Freedom experiences.

    PubMed

    Hughes, John; Hughes, Teresa

    2009-01-01

    Retrospective analysis of patient records from two 1st Battalion, 7th Special Forces Group combat rotations in Operation Enduring Freedom reveals a high volume of medical activity over a wide range of medical issues managed by Special Forces Medical Sergeants (MOS 18Ds). The initial training curriculum for 18Ds has been modified to provide graduating 18Ds with a refresher course and updated credentialing before reporting to their first unit. However, due to the high operational tempo, subsequent biannual refresher training has proven difficult for at least one Special Forces unit. Units must plan ahead between deployments to balance medic recredentialing with unit pre-mission training and individual non-medical training.

  10. Microgravity science and applications overview - Research, facility and instrumentation development, Space Station Freedom operations and utilization planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kicza, M. E.

    1990-01-01

    An overview is provided of NASA's Microgravity Science and Applications Program, with emphasis on plans for evolution to the Space Station. The Microgravity Science and Applications Division program consists of two major parts including the ground-based research program and the flight program. Transition to flight experiment status may occur only after the ground-based research and testing demonstrates sufficient technical maturity to assure that scientific objectives can be met in space with a high degree of success. Program strategy calls for a transition to the Space Station Freedom before the end of the century. In this connection, six multi-user facilities are planned to be phased into operation aboard the Space Station over an extended time frame. It is projected that the design of these facilities will evolve based on experience with precursor experiment hardware designed and operated on Skylab and other carriers.

  11. Iraqi Population Displacement Analysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-11-01

    4302. Respondents should be aware that notwithstanding any other provision of law, no person shall be subject to any penalty for failing to comply with...NOTES 14. ABSTRACT The purpose of this study was to inform CJ34 Civil Military Operations decisions on placement of internally displaced person (IDP...IDPs stay in locations that are not aligned with their ethno-religious majority. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Internally Displaced Person (IDP), Iraq

  12. Helping Iraqis Rebuild Iraq

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-09-01

    For example, the task force hired several former plant workers to fix the water pumps and generators to a water treatment plant in the town of Abu...Charlie Company, 223d Engineer Battalion (Task Force Knight), Mississippi National Guard, was able to put his civilian water treatment plant expertise...to use and help negotiate the purchase of parts that brought the water treatment plant to full operation. In addition, personnel from the 14th

  13. Air Power Against Terror: America’s Conduct of Operation Enduring Freedom

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-01-01

    deputy director of operations for the Joint Chiefs of Staff, Rear Ad- miral John Stufflebeam , put it, “we now have the access to be able to do... Stufflebeam , reported that around 10,000 munitions had been expended during the first 45 days of combat. That expenditure rate was roughly comparable to the

  14. Operation Enduring Freedom-Philippines : A Demonstration of Economy of Force

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-05-04

    Gracia. 50 Once the firefight started, a US MH- 60L Black Hawk, flown by Special Operation troops, flew to the scene for support and medevaced Gracia to...only 40 UH -1 Heuys to cover the whole country. The AFP does not have the organic Intelligence, Reconnaissance, and Surveillance (ISR) assets

  15. Joint Mental Health Advisory Team 7 (J-MHAT 7) Operation Enduring Freedom 2010 Afghanistan (REDACTED)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-02-22

    difficult to determine if caffeine consumption is the cause or the effect Soldiers who are experiencing more sleep disruption due to operational demand...would be expected to take more caffeine . Alternatively, high doses of caffeine or consuming caffeine before sleep can interfere with sleep. Caffeine ...should be limited for several hours prior to anticipated sleep and Soldiers should not consume more than 400-500 mg of caffeine per day, regardless

  16. Department of Defense Environmental Policy in Afghanistan During Operation Enduring Freedom

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-08-31

    Law School in partial satisfaction for the requirements for the degree of Master of Laws August 31, 2008 Thesis directed by Dinah L. Shelton Professor...ENVTL L. J. 577, 594 (2007). 143 John P. Quinn , et al., United States Navy Development of Operational-Environmental Doctrine, in THI: ENVIRONMENTAL...number of doubts and controversies" of any type of international law.)). 22’ ALEXANDRE KISS AND DINAH L. SHELTON , GUIDE TO INTERNATIONAL

  17. Observations on Operation Enduring Freedom - Recommendations for Development of the Transformation Objective Force Logistics Structure

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-04-07

    Public reporting burder for this collection of information is estibated to average 1 hour per response, including the time for reviewing instructions...synchronize and implement fifteen Lines of Operation (LOs) that “…describe closely related activities that link objectives in time and purpose.”6 The Army... time line. To counter balance these challenges, planners initially relied solely on strategic airlift, establishing two air lines of communication

  18. Evolution of the U.S. Army aviation during Operation Enduring Freedom in Afghanistan

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-06-12

    Military Decision Making Process MEDEVAC Medical Evacuation METT-TC Mission, Enemy, Terrain and Weather, Troops and Support Available, Time Available...Map of Afghanistan Source: Wikipedia, “Geography of Afghanistan,” accessed March 7, 2015, http://en.wikipedia.org/ wiki /Geography_of_Afghanistan...http://en.wikipedia.org/ wiki /Geography_of_Afghanistan. 7 James Dimon, Interview by John McCool, January 23, 2006, Operational Leadership Experiences

  19. United States Army Special Operations Forces and Building Enduring Partner Enabler Capacity in Operation Enduring Freedom-Philippines

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-05-22

    medical , facility engineering, and sustainment to help others understand the importance of building a self-sustaining partner force to produce... Medical Officer, and a JSOTF-P Special Forces Operations Officer. In the end of the study, three conclusions are offered. First, despite its vast... Medical ................................................................................................................................. 23

  20. Visa Process Keeps Iraqi Students out of U.S.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Labi, Aisha

    2008-01-01

    This article reports that American visa procedures have prevented graduate students from taking advantage of the Iraqi government's program to study in the United States. Iraqi students seeking to come to American colleges on full scholarships from the Iraqi government face so many hurdles in obtaining a visa that few are able to enter the…

  1. 31 CFR 576.308 - Iraqi petroleum and petroleum products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Iraqi petroleum and petroleum products... SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 576.308 Iraqi petroleum and petroleum products. The term Iraqi petroleum and petroleum products means any petroleum, petroleum products, or natural gas originating in...

  2. 31 CFR 576.308 - Iraqi petroleum and petroleum products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Iraqi petroleum and petroleum products... SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 576.308 Iraqi petroleum and petroleum products. The term Iraqi petroleum and petroleum products means any petroleum, petroleum products, or natural gas originating in...

  3. 31 CFR 576.308 - Iraqi petroleum and petroleum products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Iraqi petroleum and petroleum products... SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 576.308 Iraqi petroleum and petroleum products. The term Iraqi petroleum and petroleum products means any petroleum, petroleum products, or natural gas originating in...

  4. 31 CFR 576.308 - Iraqi petroleum and petroleum products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Iraqi petroleum and petroleum products... SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 576.308 Iraqi petroleum and petroleum products. The term Iraqi petroleum and petroleum products means any petroleum, petroleum products, or natural gas originating in...

  5. National E-Learning Strategy to Enhance and Enrich the Iraqi Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elameer, Amer Saleem; Idrus, Rozhan M.

    2011-01-01

    Nowadays, the HE (higher education) sector of Iraq has suffered severe disruption and mass destruction due to the war and, in general, only 10% of its remaining operational sectors are in the acceptable conditions. This research is an attempt to plan a PS (proposed strategy) for the Iraqi HE sector that can be executed easily in Iraq as a part of…

  6. Developing a pharmaceutical formulary for joint military medical operations.

    PubMed

    Caouette, Marc L

    2005-02-01

    This article describes the development of a standardized formulary for medical contingency operations for any theater of operations. The article compares peacetime health care systems within the Department of Defense and the formulary systems developed and used within the fixed facility environment with Department of Defense contingency health care operations systems and the complications encountered while attempting formulary development for the deployed environment. Despite great difficulties, the Joint Readiness Clinical Advisory Board developed, published, and marketed a jointly approved, standardized, modernized formulary to assist forces deploying for Operations Enduring Freedom and Iraqi Freedom. The process used by the Joint Readiness Clinical Advisory Board during formulary development is described in detail, giving readers an understanding of the foundations of the Joint Deployment Formulary. The military departments will experience the benefits of enhanced supply chain predictability and responsiveness, increased clinician satisfaction, and improved patient safety and health care quality by implementing the Joint Deployment Formulary for their forces engaged in contingency operations.

  7. In-flight transfusion of packed red blood cells on a combat search and rescue mission: a case report from operation enduring freedom.

    PubMed

    West, Brad C; Bentley, Richard; Place, Ronald J

    2004-03-01

    Injuries on the battlefield can occur far from the nearest medical treatment facility. This is especially likely for downed pilots and special operations personnel. Some of these injuries lead to significant blood loss requiring transfusion. We present two cases of injured coalition force members during Operation Enduring Freedom that illustrate the potential need for a transfusion capability at the site of injury to prevent death. Consideration should be given to augmenting transfusion capabilities in military environments with predictably long evacuation times.

  8. Acquisition and extinction of operant pain-related avoidance behavior using a 3 degrees-of-freedom robotic arm.

    PubMed

    Meulders, Ann; Franssen, Mathijs; Fonteyne, Riet; Vlaeyen, Johan W S

    2016-05-01

    Ample empirical evidence endorses the role of associative learning in pain-related fear acquisition. Nevertheless, research typically focused on self-reported and psychophysiological measures of fear. Avoidance, which is overt behavior preventing the occurrence of an aversive (painful) stimulus, has been largely neglected so far. Therefore, we aimed to fill this gap and developed an operant conditioning procedure for pain-related avoidance behavior. Participants moved their arm to a target location using the HapticMaster (FCS Robotics; Moog Inc, East Aurora, New York), a 3 degrees-of-freedom, force-controlled robotic arm. Three movement trajectories led to the target location. If participants in the Experimental Group took the shortest/easiest trajectory, they always received a painful stimulus (T1 = 100% reinforcement; no resistance). If they deviated from this trajectory, the painful stimulus could be partly or totally prevented (T2 = 50% reinforcement; T3 = 0% reinforcement), but more effort was needed (T2 = moderate resistance and deviation; T3 = strongest resistance and largest deviation). The Yoked Group received the same reinforcement schedule irrespective of their own behavior. During the subsequent extinction phase, no painful stimuli were delivered. Self-reported pain-expectancy and pain-related fear were assessed, and avoidance behavior was operationalized as the maximal distance from the shortest trajectory. During acquisition, the Experimental Group reported more pain-related fear and pain-expectancy to T1 vs T2 vs T3 and deviated more from the shortest trajectory than the Yoked Group. During subsequent extinction, avoidance behavior, self-reported fear, and pain-expectancy decreased significantly, but conditioned differences persisted despite the absence of painful stimuli. To conclude, this operant learning task might provide a valid paradigm to study pain-related avoidance behavior in future studies.

  9. Closed-form inverse kinematics for intra-operative mobile C-arm positioning with six degrees of freedom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Lejing; Zou, Rui; Weidert, Simon; Landes, Juergen; Euler, Ekkehard; Burschka, Darius; Navab, Nassir

    2011-03-01

    For trauma and orthopedic surgery, maneuvering a mobile C-arm X-ray device into a desired position in order to acquire the right picture is a routine task. The precision and ease of use of the C-arm positioning becomes even more important for more advanced imaging techniques as parallax-free X-ray image stitching, for example. Standard mobile C-arms have only five degrees of freedom (DOF), which definitely restricts their motions that have six DOF in 3D Cartesian space. We have proposed a method to model the kinematics of the mobile Carm and operating table as an integrated 6DOF C-arm X-ray imaging system.1 This enables mobile C-arms to be positioned relative to the patient's table with six DOF in 3D Cartesian space. Moving mobile C-arms to a desired position and orientation requires finding the necessary joint values, which is an inverse kinematics problem. In this paper, we present closed-form solutions, i.e. analytic expressions, obtained in an algebraic way for the inverse kinematics problem of the 6DOF C-arm model. In addition, we implement a 6DOF C-arm system for interactively radiation-free C-arm positioning based on a continuous guidance from C-arm pose estimation. For this we employ a visual marker pattern attached under the operating table and a mobile C-arm system augmented by a video camera and mirror construction. In our experiment, repositioning C-arm to a pre-defined pose in a phantom study demonstrates the practicality and accuracy of our developed 6DOF C-arm system.

  10. The quantitative analysis of uranium isotopes in the urine of the civilian population of eastern Afghanistan after Operation Enduring Freedom.

    PubMed

    Durakovic, Asaf

    2005-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the concentrations and precise isotopic compositions of four uranium isotopes (234U, 235U, 236U, and 238U) in urine specimens from the civilian population of Afghanistan after Allied Forces Operation Enduring Freedom. Eight male civilians from Nangarhar-Jalalabad region who presented with symptoms of fatigue, fever, musculoskeletal and neurological alterations, headaches, and respiratory impairment after inhalation of dust during the bombing raids in June 2002 had urine samples collected under controlled conditions and analyzed in duplicate for 234U, 235U, 236U, and 238U, with multicollector, inductively coupled, plasma ionization mass spectrometry. Control samples with an internal urine standard were analyzed with the same method. The mean concentration of uranium in eight samples was found to be considerably greater (275.04 ng/L; SD, 137.80 ng/L; SE, 48.72 ng/L) than what is regarded as a reference range (1-20 ng/L). The 238U/235U ratio was 137.87 +/- 0.20, which is consistent with that of natural uranium. The 234U/238U ratio for the Afghan samples was 0.000055 +/- 0.000001, also consistent with natural uranium. 236U, which usually forms a component of depleted uranium, was not detected (measured 236U/ 238U ratio, < 10(-7)). Our results demonstrate that contamination in Afghanistan with a source consistent with natural uranium has resulted in total uranium concentrations up to 100 times higher than the normal range for various geographic and environmental areas throughout the world. The cause of our findings is currently being evaluated as a part of our ongoing research.

  11. A definition study of the on-orbit assembly operations for the outboard photovoltaic power modules for Space Station Freedom. M.S. Thesis - Toledo Univ.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sours, Thomas J.

    1989-01-01

    A concept is described for the assembly of the outboard PV modules for Space Station Freedom. Analysis of the on-orbit assembly operations was performed using CADAM design graphics software. A scenario for assembly using the various assembly equipment, as currently defined, is described in words, tables and illustrations. This work is part of ongoing studies in the area of space station assembly. The outboard PV module and the assembly equipment programs are all in definition and preliminary design phases. An input is provided to the design process of assembly equipment programs. It is established that the outboard PV module assembly operations can be performed using the assembly equipment currently planned in the Space Station Freedom Program.

  12. Iraqi Refugee High School Students' Academic Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bang, Hyeyoung

    2017-01-01

    Many Iraqi refugee students in the United States suffer from posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) as well as acculturation stresses. These stresses often create challenges for their integration into U.S. schools. The project explored risk factors such as the length of educational gaps in transit, PTSD, and separation and marginalization…

  13. Cultural Awareness: Nursing Care of Iraqi Patients.

    PubMed

    Goodman, Petra; Edge, Bethany; Agazio, Janice; Prue-Owens, Kathy

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the cultural factors that have an impact on military nursing care for Iraqi patients. The results were part of a larger study in which the purpose was to understand nurses' experiences of delivery of care for Iraqi patients. Three focus groups, consisting of military registered nurses and licensed practical nurses, were used to generate rich descriptions of experiences in a military combat support hospital in Iraq. Data were analyzed using thematic analysis methods. Culturally, the differences between the Iraqi patients and the nurses included variations in communication, diet, and beliefs and values in reference to gender and patient dependency. The findings indicated that the nurses need language skills and cultural customs and beliefs training to provide care to culturally diverse patients. In addition, support services, such as dieticians, need to be involved in the plan of care to address applicable cultural issues. Implementation of learning to provide nurses language skills and cultural awareness of the diet, customs and beliefs of Iraqi people as well as the economic, political, and social factors that have an impact on their lives will promote quality nursing care and optimal health outcomes. © The Author(s) 2014.

  14. Iraqi Refugee High School Students' Academic Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bang, Hyeyoung

    2017-01-01

    Many Iraqi refugee students in the United States suffer from posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) as well as acculturation stresses. These stresses often create challenges for their integration into U.S. schools. The project explored risk factors such as the length of educational gaps in transit, PTSD, and separation and marginalization…

  15. Freedom Crater

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-02-20

    Freedom crater, located in Acidalia Planitia, exhibits a concentric ring pattern in its interior as seen in this image from NASA Mars Odyssey spacecraft, suggesting that there has been some movement of these materials towards the center of the crater.

  16. Gauging the Iraqi Threat to Kuwait in the 1960s

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-01-01

    UK Indications and Warning Gauging the Iraqi Threat to Kuwait in the 1960s Richard A. Mobley � Assessments by Britain �s Joint Inteffigence Committee... United Kingdom . intelligence and security agencies. the JJC was the sole source of fin ished all-source estimates regarding Iraqi and Kuwaiti capabilities...in it~. w.�c�klv svorlclwide intc�Iligence sum mar\\ 20 Iraqi Threat Government Lnited Kingdom . Consequently, UK military planning focused on inter

  17. Microgravity science and applications overview - Research, facility and instrumentation development, Space Station Freedom operations and utilization planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crouch, Roger K.; Kicza, M. E.

    1991-01-01

    The NASA microgravity science and applications program is reviewed. Particular attention is given to the planning for utilization of the Shuttle and plans leading to the utilization of Space Station Freedom. It is concluded that the potential rewards of the program include a better understanding of the physical processes in the space environment, which may lead to refined control strategies, and advances in technology, which may lead to important commercial applications.

  18. A concurrent resolution commending the 39th Infantry Brigade Combat Team of the Arkansas National Guard upon its completion of a second deployment in support of Operation Iraqi Freedom.

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Sen. Pryor, Mark L. [D-AR

    2009-03-31

    03/31/2009 Referred to the Committee on Armed Services. (text of measure as introduced: CR S4087) (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  19. Empirical Analysis of Operation Iraqi Freedom Combat Mortality Using the Navy-Marine Corps Combat Trauma Registry Expeditionary Medical Encounter Database for Applications to Tactical Medical Logistics Modeling and Simulation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-05-15

    applicable to other battlefield and civilian tactical medical logistics M&S efforts. Objectives This study focused on two main objectives: 1...with battlefield casualty disposition from the point of injury (POI) to higher levels of care. One of the tool’s most important metrics, and the...effects of treatment delays and available resuscitation (surgical-level resuscitation vs. non-surgical-level resuscitation) on battlefield mortality

  20. Iraqi Power and U.S. Security in the Middle East

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-05-30

    44 Israel.......................................................... 45 Iraq’s Economy and the Army...such operations. The authors believe that the future of the Iraqi military will be conditioned by the performance of the economy . Iraq is a ix...and morose.2 6 A second factor was driving Saddam to recapture Al Faw. The war had wrecked Iraq’s economy . Iraq had been funding itself since at least

  1. Intellectual Freedom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knox, Emily

    2011-01-01

    Support for intellectual freedom, a concept codified in the American Library Association's Library Bill of Rights and Code of Ethics, is one of the core tenets of modern librarianship. According to the most recent interpretation of the Library Bill of Rights, academic librarians are encouraged to incorporate the principles of intellectual freedom…

  2. 48 CFR 252.225-7022 - Trade agreements certificate-inclusion of Iraqi end products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... certificate-inclusion of Iraqi end products. 252.225-7022 Section 252.225-7022 Federal Acquisition Regulations...—inclusion of Iraqi end products. As prescribed in 225.1101(7), use the following provision: Trade Agreements Certificate—Inclusion of Iraqi End Products (SEP 2008) (a) Definitions. Designated country end product, Iraqi...

  3. 48 CFR 252.225-7022 - Trade agreements certificate-inclusion of Iraqi end products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... certificate-inclusion of Iraqi end products. 252.225-7022 Section 252.225-7022 Federal Acquisition Regulations...—inclusion of Iraqi end products. As prescribed in 225.1101(7), use the following provision: Trade Agreements Certificate—Inclusion of Iraqi End Products (SEP 2008) (a) Definitions. Designated country end product, Iraqi...

  4. Employment of a joint medical task force in a counterinsurgency operational environment.

    PubMed

    Avery, Scott; Holman, Vincent

    2008-01-01

    To understand the complexity of the medical task force mission in support of Operation Iraqi Freedom, we must first understand the operational environment and its impact on the military healthcare system and the medical task force charged with its execution in theater. Historically the medical task force has focused almost exclusively on delivering a robust and accessible set of level II and III care and force health protection support since operations began in Iraq. Consequently, after 5 years of stable positioning, security, and infrastructure within our bases there were no discernable standardization of healthcare support, clinical quality, or medical equipment beyond what the units had chosen to adopt. Task Force 62 Medical Brigade has taken advantage of this unique time in history to place a concerted focus on institutionalizing our combat healthcare system and meeting the challenges of the counterinsurgency operational environment. Whereas our predecessors rightly focused on delivering combat health support during their tenure, we focused on the future, laying the foundation for the eventual transition to an environment similar to that in the Republic of Korea as the security situation improves. The foundation laid during Operation Iraqi Freedom 07-09 can be the foundation for the Army and the military healthcare system's vision in creating and modifying the delivery of US standard healthcare in a combat theater.

  5. University Freedom in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dolasir, Semiyha

    2006-01-01

    Freedom means the right of the universities to do their scientific activities and to regulate and do the higher education through their organs. The three feet that make up the university freedom are scientific freedom, administrative freedom and financial freedom. Scientific freedom is realized by the freedom of the faculty and teaching staff and…

  6. Change and Continuity in Arab Iraqi Education: Sunni and Shi'i Discourse in Iraqi Textbooks before and after 2003

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rohde, Achim

    2013-01-01

    This article investigates Iraqi schooling during the 1990s under Ba'thist rule and after the regime's fall in 2003 and compares the treatment of Islam in the curriculum. I focus on the degree to which Iraqi textbooks under Saddam Hussein contained a Sunni bias and the changes introduced immediately after the 2003 US invasion of Iraq in 2003. To…

  7. Inclusion cylinder method for aortic valve replacement utilising the Ross operation in adults with predominant aortic stenosis – 99% freedom from re-operation on the aortic valve at 15 years

    PubMed Central

    Skillington, Peter D.; Mokhles, M. Mostafa; Wilson, William; Grigg, Leeanne; Larobina, Marco; O'Keefe, Michael; Takkenberg, Johanna

    2013-01-01

    Background: To report our experience with the Ross operation in patients with predominant aortic stenosis (AS) using an inclusion cylinder (IC) method. Methods: Out of 324 adults undergoing a Ross operation, 204 patients of mean age of 41.3 years (limits 16–62) underwent this procedure for either AS or mixed AS and regurgitation (AS/AR) between October, 1992 and February, 2012, implanting the PA with an IC method. Clinical follow up and serial echo data for this group is 97% complete with late mortality follow up 99% complete. Results: There has been zero (0%) early mortality, and late survival at 15 years is 98% (96%, 100%). Only one re-operation on the aortic valve for progressive aortic regurgitation (AR) has been required with freedom from re-operation on the aortic valve at 15 years being 99% (96%, 100%). The freedom from all re-operations on the aortic and pulmonary valves at 15 years is 97% (94%, 100%). Echo analysis at the most recent study shows that 98% have nil, trivial or mild AR. Aortic root size has remained stable, shown by long-term (15 year) echo follow up. Conclusions: In an experience spanning 19 years, the Ross operation used for predominant AS using the IC method described, results in 99% freedom from re-operation on the aortic valve at 15 years, better than any other tissue or mechanical valve. For adults under 65 years without significant co-morbidities who present with predominant AS, the pulmonary autograft inserted with this technique gives excellent results. PMID:24749112

  8. Neurosurgery in Iraqi Kurdistan: An Example of International Neurosurgery Capacity Building.

    PubMed

    Dossani, Rimal Hanif; Carr, Steven; Bolles, Gene; Balata, Razvan; Guthikonda, Bharat

    2016-08-01

    The medical infrastructure of Iraqi Kurdistan, a semiautonomous region in the northern part of Iraq, lags disproportionately behind relative to the otherwise booming industrial advances of the region. Although neurosurgical training is available, the local population lacks trust in its own neurosurgeons. Medical facilities suffer from a lack of basic resources, such as high-speed drills, intracranial pressure monitoring, and stereotaxy to care for neurosurgical patients. Since 2012, American volunteer neurosurgeons have delivered lectures and mentored local neurosurgeons in performing neurosurgical procedures. Over the last 4 years, the visiting neurosurgical team has seen hundreds of patients in consultation and performed more than 50 complex cranial and spinal operations jointly with local neurosurgeons. This article discusses our experience as volunteer neurosurgeons in building neurosurgical capacity in Iraqi Kurdistan.

  9. Coordinating medical civil military operations in Multinational Division-North.

    PubMed

    Smyrski, John A; Rainey, McKinley; Roach, Shane; Stevens, Mark; Hernandez, Gloria; Vargo, Ruth

    2010-11-01

    Medical civil military operations (MCMO) are part of military civil capacity-building efforts within the full spectrum of military operations, from war to military operations other than war. In 2008-2009 during Operation Iraqi Freedom, the Division Surgeon's Section (DSS) of the 25th Infantry Division (25ID) and Multinational Division-North developed an innovative MCMO program in northern Iraq. The program centered on understanding and mapping key relationships, empowering brigade-level programs, and leveraging technology to identify and share best practices. The DSS mapped the critical relationships within and between the three entities affecting MCMO: the government of Iraq (GOI), Department of State (DOS), and the Department of Defense (DOD). A division MCMO working group was then created along with processes to facilitate MCMO project execution and program management. The structure and organization of the 25ID MCMO program lend themselves to other operational environments requiring synchronization of medical capacity-building efforts.

  10. Domestic violence among Iraqi refugees in Syria.

    PubMed

    Tappis, Hannah; Biermann, Elizabeth; Glass, Nancy; Tileva, Margarita; Doocy, Shannon

    2012-01-01

    A domestic violence questionnaire was administered to 701 adult females in a sample of 813 Iraqi households in Syria; unmarried women and women whose husbands were away were excluded, yielding a final sample of 486. Lifetime physical, verbal, or emotional abuse was reported by 30%, and approximately 20% experienced abuse within the past year. Non-Damascus residence, children <18 years in the household, no financial challenges upon arrival, and borrowing money in Syria were associated with increased risk of domestic violence within the past year. Support services are inadequate and should be expanded; and longer-term prevention measures also should be implemented.

  11. Iraqi oil industry slowly returning to normal

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-09-07

    This paper reports that Iraq is making progress in putting its battered petroleum industry back together 1 1/2 years after the Persian Gulf war ended. OPEC News Agency (Opecna) reported the finish of reconstruction of Iraq's Mina al-Bakr oil terminal on the northern tip of the Persian Gulf, using Iraqi know-how and engineering personnel. The terminal, heavily damaged during the gulf conflict, has been restored to its prewar loading capacity of 1.6 million b/d at a cost of $16 million. Ninety per cent of the port had been damaged.

  12. Manipulator Design and Operation for a Six-Degree-of-Freedom Handheld Tremor-Canceling Microsurgical Instrument

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Sungwook; MacLachlan, Robert A.; Riviere, Cameron N.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the design and actuation of a six-degree-of-freedom (6-DOF) manipulator for a handheld instrument, known as “Micron,” which performs active tremor compensation during microsurgery. The design incorporates a Gough-Stewart platform based on piezoelectric linear motor, with a specified minimum workspace of a cylinder 4 mm long and 4 mm in diameter at the end-effector. Given the stall force of the motors and the loading typically encountered in vitreoretinal microsurgery, the dimensions of the manipulator are optimized to tolerate a transverse load of 0.2 N on a remote center of motion near the midpoint of the tool shaft. The optimization yields a base diameter of 23 mm and a height of 37 mm. The fully handheld instrument includes a custom-built optical tracking system for control feedback, and an ergonomic housing to serve as a handle. The manipulation performance was investigated in both clamped and handheld conditions. In positioning experiments with varying side loads, the manipulator tolerates side load up to 0.25 N while tracking a sinusoidal target trajectory with less than 20 μm error. Physiological hand tremor is reduced by about 90% in a pointing task, and error less than 25 μm is achieved in handheld circle-tracing. PMID:25419103

  13. An algebraic function operator expectation value based eigenstate determinations for quantum systems with one degree of freedom

    SciTech Connect

    Kalay, Berfin; Demiralp, Metin

    2015-12-31

    This proceedings paper aims to show the efficiency of an expectation value identity for a given algebraic function operator which is assumed to be depending pn only position operator. We show that this expectation value formula becomes enabled to determine the eigenstates of the quantum system Hamiltonian as long as it is autonomous and an appropriate basis set in position operator is used. This approach produces a denumerable infinite recursion which may be considered as revisited but at the same time generalized form of the recursions over the natural number powers of the position operator. The content of this short paper is devoted not only to the formulation of the new method but also to show that this novel approach is capable of catching the eigenvalues and eigenfunctions for Hydrogen-like systems, beyond that, it can give a hand to us to reveal the wavefunction structure. So it has also somehow a confirmative nature.

  14. Family stress and posttraumatic stress: the impact of military operations on military health care providers.

    PubMed

    Gibbons, Susanne W; Barnett, Scott D; Hickling, Edward J

    2012-08-01

    This study uses data from the 2005 Department of Defense Survey of Health-Related Behaviors Among Military Personnel to examine relationships between family stress and posttraumatic stress symptoms across 4 subgroups of Operation Iraqi Freedom-deployed (i.e., war in Iraq) or Operation Enduring Freedom-deployed (i.e., war in Afghanistan) active-duty military service members. Results suggest the following: (a) the greatest positive correlation of family stressors with posttraumatic stress symptoms was found within the military health care officer group, and (b) these military health care officers differed in family stressors mediating posttraumatic stress with divorce and financial problems accounting for significant and unique portions of the variance. Implications for care of service members and their families are discussed.

  15. Chern-Simons gravity with (curvature){sup 2} and (torsion){sup 2} terms and a basis of degree-of-freedom projection operators

    SciTech Connect

    Helayeel-Neto, J. A.; Hernaski, C. A.; Pereira-Dias, B.; Vargas-Paredes, A. A.; Vasquez-Otoya, V. J.

    2010-09-15

    The effects of (curvature){sup 2}- and (torsion){sup 2}-terms in the Einstein-Hilbert-Chern-Simons Lagrangian are investigated. The purposes are two-fold: (i) to show the efficacy of an orthogonal basis of degree-of-freedom projection operators recently proposed and to ascertain its adequacy for obtaining propagators of general parity-breaking gravity models in three dimensions; (ii) to analyze the role of the topological Chern-Simons term for the unitarity and the particle spectrum of the model squared-curvature terms in connection with dynamical torsion. Our conclusion is that the Chern-Simons term does not influence the unitarity conditions imposed on the parameters of the Lagrangian but significantly modifies the particle spectrum.

  16. Medical evacuations from Afghanistan during Operation Enduring Freedom, active and reserve components, U.S. Armed Forces, 7 October 2001-31 December 2012.

    PubMed

    2013-06-01

    From October 7, 2001 to 31 December 2012, over 20,000 service members were medically evacuated from the Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF) theater of combat operations to a medical treatment facility outside of theater. During the period the number, rates, and underlying causes of medical evacuations sharply varied in relation to the natures of ongoing military operations. During every month of the period, medical evacuations for disease and non-battle injuries exceeded those for battle-related injuries. The majority of evacuations (88.7%) occurred among males; however, the rate of medical evacuations was 22 percent higher among females. The major causes of medical evacuations differed among male and female deployers; however, rates of battle injuries and mental health disorders increased in both sexes during the period. Rates of medical evacuations were highest among white, non-Hispanics, soldiers, and in service members in the reserve component, junior enlisted, and in combat-specific occupations. Most service members were discharged back to duty after medical evacuation. The findings enforce the need to tailor force health protection policies and practices to the characteristics of the deployed force and the nature of the military operation.

  17. Reporting Iraqi civilian fatalities in a time of war

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background In February, 2007, the Associated Press (AP) conducted a poll of 1,002 adults in the United States about their attitudes towards the war in Iraq. Respondents were remarkably accurate estimating the current death toll of US soldiers, yet were grossly inaccurate in estimating the current death toll of Iraqi civilians. We conducted a search of newspapers reports to determine the extent of the discrepancy between reporting Coalition and Iraqi civilian deaths, hypothesizing that there would be an over-representation of Coalition deaths compared to Iraqi civilian deaths. Methods We examined 11 U.S. newspapers and 5 non-U.S. newspapers using electronic databases or newspaper web-archives, to record any reports between March 2003 and March 2008 of Coalition and Iraqi deaths that included a numeric indicator. Reports were described as "events" where they described a specific occurrence involving fatalities and "tallies" when they mentioned the number of deaths over a period of time. We recorded the number of events and tallies related to Coalition deaths, Iraqi civilian deaths, and Iraqi combatant deaths Results U.S. newspapers report more events and tallies related to Coalition deaths than Iraqi civilian deaths, although there are substantially different proportions amongst the different U.S. newspapers. In four of the five non-US newspapers, the pattern was reversed. Conclusion This difference in reporting trends may partly explain the discrepancy in how well people are informed about U.S. and Iraqi civilian fatalities in Iraq. Furthermore, this calls into question the role of the media in reporting and sustaining armed conflict, and the extent to which newspaper and other media reports can be used as data to assess fatalities or trends in the time of war. PMID:19895676

  18. Reintegration of the Iraqi Military in Post-Conflict Era

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-03-01

    NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL THESIS Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited REINTEGRATION OF THE IRAQI MILITARY IN POST...DATES COVERED Master’s Thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE: Reintegration of the Iraqi Military in Post-Conflict Era. 6. AUTHOR(S) Ertürk, Sait 5...process of the United States led coalition is to be successful . The fulcrum of power in Iraq has always been the internecine ethnic, religious, and

  19. Iraqi Refugees and Internally Displaced Persons: A Deepening Humanitarian Crisis?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-10-03

    treatment; dependants of refugees residing in resettlement countries; older persons at risk; unaccompanied or separated children ; high profile cases; those...divide the money to feed all the children .”19 As most Iraqi refugees in Syria struggle to cope with their new situations, there have been few reports...Iraqi refugees . In its findings, the Iraq Study Group (ISG) refers specifically to the dramatic increase in population displacement that could cause

  20. Ecosystem-based management of a Mediterranean urban wastewater system: a sensitivity analysis of the operational degrees of freedom.

    PubMed

    Corominas, Lluís; Neumann, Marc B

    2014-10-01

    Urban wastewater systems discharge organic matter, nutrients and other pollutants (including toxic substances) to receiving waters, even after removing more than 90% of incoming pollutants from human activities. Understanding their interactions with the receiving water bodies is essential for the implementation of ecosystem-based management strategies. Using mathematical modeling and sensitivity analysis we quantified how 19 operational variables of an urban wastewater system affect river water quality. The mathematical model of the Congost system (in the Besòs catchment, Spain) characterizes the dynamic interactions between sewers, storage tanks, wastewater treatment plants and the river. The sensitivity analysis shows that the use of storage tanks for peak shaving and the use of a connection between two neighboring wastewater treatment plants are the most important factors influencing river water quality. We study how the sensitivity of the water quality variables towards changes in the operational variables varies along the river due to discharge locations and river self-purification processes. We demonstrate how to use the approach to identify interactions and how to discard non-influential operational variables.

  1. Iraqi Perspectives Project. Primary Source Materials for Saddam and Terrorism: Emerging Insights from Captured Iraqi Documents. Volume 4 (Redacted)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-01

    1,000,000.00 as a reward - He owns a Cell Phone Manufacturing ompany, Headquarter located in Hong Kong - He met the Iraqi Minister of Foreign Affairs and as...manufacturing cell phone , which works by using the satellite system and the developed equipment are located in Hong Kong and he offered to build a...the Kuwaiti government. -One of the participants suggested stablishing an Iraqi radio station to broadcast the corruption that took place in Gulf

  2. Freedom, Justice, and Understanding.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Peter

    2001-01-01

    States that Paulo Freire distinguished between authoritarianism and the legitimate exercise of authority, aligning legitimate authority with the assurance of freedom. He also linked freedom with the process of struggle, indicating a strong relationship between freedom and social justice. (NB)

  3. A Study of Apology Strategies Used by Iraqi EFL University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ugla, Raed Latif; Abidin, Mohamad Jafre Zainol

    2016-01-01

    This study was aimed at exploring apology strategies of English used by Iraqi EFL students, apology strategies in Iraqi Arabic and the pragmatic strategies of Iraqi EFL students in relation to the use of apology as a speech act. The data analyzed in this study were collected in Al-Yarmouk University College and University of Diyala. The study was…

  4. A six degree of freedom, plume-fuel optimal trajectory planner for spacecraft proximity operations using an A* node search. M.S. Thesis - MIT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, Mark Charles

    1994-01-01

    Spacecraft proximity operations are complicated by the fact that exhaust plume impingement from the reaction control jets of space vehicles can cause structural damage, contamination of sensitive arrays and instruments, or attitude misalignment during docking. The occurrence and effect of jet plume impingement can be reduced by planning approach trajectories with plume effects considered. An A* node search is used to find plume-fuel optimal trajectories through a discretized six dimensional attitude-translation space. A plume cost function which approximates jet plume isopressure envelopes is presented. The function is then applied to find relative costs for predictable 'trajectory altering' firings and unpredictable 'deadbanding' firings. Trajectory altering firings are calculated by running the spacecraft jet selection algorithm and summing the cost contribution from each jet fired. A 'deadbanding effects' function is defined and integrated to determine the potential for deadbanding impingement along candidate trajectories. Plume costs are weighed against fuel costs in finding the optimal solution. A* convergence speed is improved by solving approach trajectory problems in reverse time. Results are obtained on a high fidelity space shuttle/space station simulation. Trajectory following is accomplished by a six degree of freedom autopilot. Trajectories planned with, and without, plume costs are compared in terms of force applied to the target structure.

  5. The Securitisation of Refugee Flows and the Schooling of Refugees: Examining the Cases of North Koreans in South Korea and Iraqis in Jordan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collet, Bruce A.; Bang, Hyeyoung

    2016-01-01

    Drawing on data collected in South Korea, Jordan and the USA, this paper examines the degree to which security concerns impact the schooling of North Korean refugees in South Korea and Iraqi refugees in Jordan. Operating from a framework examining the intersection of migration and securitisation, the authors find that accounts of negative images…

  6. The Securitisation of Refugee Flows and the Schooling of Refugees: Examining the Cases of North Koreans in South Korea and Iraqis in Jordan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collet, Bruce A.; Bang, Hyeyoung

    2016-01-01

    Drawing on data collected in South Korea, Jordan and the USA, this paper examines the degree to which security concerns impact the schooling of North Korean refugees in South Korea and Iraqi refugees in Jordan. Operating from a framework examining the intersection of migration and securitisation, the authors find that accounts of negative images…

  7. Academic Freedom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ouchi, William G.

    2004-01-01

    Argues that school systems are so centralized that they waste money on bureaucratic operations and lack the capacity to respond rapidly to changing circumstances. A study of nine school systems that vary dramatically in their degree of decentralization demonstrates that true decentralization yields benefits in both efficiency and performance. (MLF)

  8. Education, Learning and Freedom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinchliffe, Geoffrey

    2017-01-01

    This paper takes as its starting point Kant's analysis of freedom in the Critique of Pure Reason. From this analysis, two different types of freedom are discerned, formative and instrumental freedom. The paper suggests that much of what passes for the pedagogy of learning in UK universities takes the form of an instrumental freedom. This, however,…

  9. I Love Freedom. Editorial.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buck, George H.

    2001-01-01

    Four examples show how academic freedom has come under heavy attack during the 20th century. Yet some scholars say they do not care about academic freedom. Perhaps the greatest danger to academic freedom does not come from scholars who advocate extreme views or assert their right to academic freedom, but from those who are apathetic or cowardly.…

  10. Geographic Freedom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Kennedy Space Center's need to conduct real-time monitoring of Space Shuttle operations led to the development of Netlander Inc.'s JTouch system. The technology behind JTouch allows engineers to view Space Shuttle and ground support data from any desktop computer using a web browser. Companies can make use of JTouch to better monitor locations scattered around the world, increasing decision-making speed and reducing travel costs for site visits.

  11. Filling the Information Void: Adapting the Information Operation (IO) Message in Post-Hostility Iraq

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    restriction of the sites that Iraqis visit . Beyond internet access, the end of the Baath regime also resulted in a proliferation of independent radio...http://www.iwar.org.uk/news-archive/iraq/oif- reporters.pdf . 29 than 40 embedded reporters remained to provide their reports from Iraq. Once the...vacuum of Iraqi sentiments” because their perceptions are formed by those translators or Iraqis who visit the Civil-Military Operations Center (CMOC

  12. Contextual freedom: absoluteness versus relativity of freedom.

    PubMed

    Pahlavan, Farzaneh; Amirrezvani, Ali

    2013-10-01

    Our commentary is focused on the idea that "freedom" takes on its full significance whenever its relativistic nature, in the short- and long terms, is taken into account. Given the transformations brought about by "globalization," application of a general model of freedom based on ecological-economic factors clearly seems to be rather untimely. We examine this idea through egocentric and ethnocentric views of the social and environmental analyses of "freedom."

  13. The Relationship Between Gabapentin and Pregabalin and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Burned Servicemembers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-10-01

    recent combat operations in Overseas Contingency Opera- tions, including Operation Iraqi Freedom in Iraq and Operation Enduring Freedom in Afghanistan...stress disorder (PTSD) affects approximately 30% of burned Servicemembers returning from Operation Iraqi Freedom /Operation Enduring Freedom ...shares the same mechanisms of action as gabapentin.27 Gabapentin and pregabalin are effective choices for treating seizures and, like other

  14. Iraqi Perspectives Project. Primary Source Materials for Saddam and Terrorism: Emerging Insights from Captured Iraqi Documents. Volume 3 (Redacted)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-01

    kilometers) ... 2) For your guidance, ( Hola ) has some people he knows over there (Ali Khalaf AI-Shahri), Iraqi origin. 3) Rented Assi brother’s car (Lakhy or...or480-47 Abou Ahmad). b) The Meditator: Hola Maaiji Jabbar Al-Zalimi (Iraqi). 11.) Pressure Agency Type: a) Volunteering personally for Feda’ay work b...named ( Hola Mou’ji Al- Dhalemi) was sent to Al-Hafr area the night of 26th ,2ih ofNovember, Maiibi Al-Zalimi) to use his vehicle under commando (Fedayee

  15. U.S. Army combat operational stress control throughout the deployment cycle: a case study.

    PubMed

    Mattila, Amy M; Crandall, Brian D; Goldman, Sarah B

    2011-01-01

    As military conflicts around the world persist, a comprehensive approach in managing behavioral health issues will continue to be a key component of military healthcare. Deployed military personnel frequently exposed to trauma are well-known to be at high risk for developing behavioral health disorders, including combat stress reactions and posttraumatic stress disorder. In the U.S. Army, members of combat operational stress control (COSC) units have unique skills to assist soldiers and their families not only throughout all phases of a deployment, but also throughout a soldier's entire career. The purposes of this article are twofold, first to describe the role of COSC operations with an emphasis on interventions in a deployed environment. The second purpose is to present a case study from Operation Iraqi Freedom highlighting the efficacy of the COSC approach to meet a Soldier's behavioral health needs in a deployed environment.

  16. What's on Freedom for users?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Richard J.; Dorian, Robert A.; Holt, Alan C.

    1989-01-01

    The design and use of the Space Station Freedom are discussed. The contributions to the Station from EAS, Japan, Canada, and the US are described. Consideration is given to the capability of the Station, the internal accommodations for crew and payloads, various applications for the modules, and the planning and operation of the payloads.

  17. Why They Hate Us: Disaggregating the Iraqi Insurgency

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-03-01

    purpose of my thesis I will differentiate between religiously motivated indigenous Iraqis and "jihadists". I will classify jihadists 4 Sidney Tarrow ...Available from http://apnews.myway.com/article/20050211/D886HE780.html. Accessed 4 March 2005. Tarrow , Sidney . "Power in Movement: Collective Action, Social

  18. Women and Learning in the Iraqi War Zone

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zangana, Haifa

    2008-01-01

    Having accumulated, throughout the twentieth century, historical achievements in education and standards of living higher than in most Arab and "third world" countries, Iraqi women were hit hard by two wars, the US-imposed economic sanctions of the 1990s, and then set back by the 2003 Anglo-American imperial occupation. Physical survival…

  19. Investigating the Speech Act of Correction in Iraqi EFL Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darweesh, Abbas Deygan; Mehdi, Wafaa Sahib

    2016-01-01

    The present paper investigates the performance of the Iraqi students for the speech act of correction and how it is realized with status unequal. It attempts to achieve the following aims: (1) Setting out the felicity conditions for the speech act of correction in terms of Searle conditions; (2) Identifying the semantic formulas that realize the…

  20. Iraqi Universities Struggle to Rebuild the "House of Knowledge"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, Mary

    2004-01-01

    The sign, "Hawler International Airport," greeted the author and her fellow passengers as their six-seater plane landed in July 2003 on a strip of concrete in the middle of an Iraqi field. Fortunately, the approach to this improvised airfield was direct, not like the spiraling in and out of Baghdad and Basra required to avoid possible…

  1. Iraqi Universities Struggle to Rebuild the "House of Knowledge"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, Mary

    2004-01-01

    The sign, "Hawler International Airport," greeted the author and her fellow passengers as their six-seater plane landed in July 2003 on a strip of concrete in the middle of an Iraqi field. Fortunately, the approach to this improvised airfield was direct, not like the spiraling in and out of Baghdad and Basra required to avoid possible…

  2. Women and Learning in the Iraqi War Zone

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zangana, Haifa

    2008-01-01

    Having accumulated, throughout the twentieth century, historical achievements in education and standards of living higher than in most Arab and "third world" countries, Iraqi women were hit hard by two wars, the US-imposed economic sanctions of the 1990s, and then set back by the 2003 Anglo-American imperial occupation. Physical survival…

  3. Never Say Never: The Case for Iraqi Judeo-Arabic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isaacs, Talia

    2006-01-01

    In light of a growing body of research on language death, this paper examines the situation of Judeo-Arabic, an ethnolect of Jews from Arabic-speaking countries with various written and spoken forms. More specifically, the fate of the Iraqi variety of Judeo-Arabic is discussed, particularly in the context of Montreal, Canada. Educational…

  4. Intratexturealities: The Poetics of the Freedom Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agosto, Vonzell

    2008-01-01

    Freedom Schools, which operated during 1964 after the collaborative efforts of several Civil Rights organizations, provided an opportunity to understand how students can drive the curriculum to meet individual and collective needs within a community. The presence and use of poetry throughout the Freedom Schools was mysterious, given that it is…

  5. Reforming Iraqi Journalism and Mass Communication Higher Education: Adapting the UNESCO Model Curricula for Journalism Education to Iraqi Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pavlik, John V.; Laufer, Peter D.; Burns, David P.; Ataya, Ramzi T.

    2012-01-01

    Journalism and mass communication higher education in Iraq is well established but largely isolated from global developments since the 1970s. In the post-Iraq war period, the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) implemented a multiyear project to work with the leadership of Iraqi higher education to help update…

  6. Reforming Iraqi Journalism and Mass Communication Higher Education: Adapting the UNESCO Model Curricula for Journalism Education to Iraqi Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pavlik, John V.; Laufer, Peter D.; Burns, David P.; Ataya, Ramzi T.

    2012-01-01

    Journalism and mass communication higher education in Iraq is well established but largely isolated from global developments since the 1970s. In the post-Iraq war period, the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) implemented a multiyear project to work with the leadership of Iraqi higher education to help update…

  7. Operational Law Handbook 2002

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    focused collection of diverse legal and practical information. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Operational Law 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT...coalition planners, however, Iraqi civilians used the shelter as nighttime sleeping quarters. The complex was bombed, resulting in 300 civilian...These protections continue through all stages of captivity, including interrogation. Detainees. Particularly in Military Operations Other Than War

  8. Freedom, Coercion, Authority.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bellah, Robert N.

    1999-01-01

    Despite much talk about balancing freedom and responsibility in higher education, a more appropriate pairing is of freedom with authority. The concept of responsibility has become problematic, and educators have lost the ability to speak with authority. Although we have come to identify freedom with the free market, it is the bottom line which has…

  9. Space Station Freedom Utilization Conference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The topics addressed in Space Station Freedom Utilization Conference are: (1) space station freedom overview and research capabilities; (2) space station freedom research plans and opportunities; (3) life sciences research on space station freedom; (4) technology research on space station freedom; (5) microgravity research and biotechnology on space station freedom; and (6) closing plenary.

  10. Iraqi Government Support for the Iraq International Academy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-26

    Advisory Mission assigned to assist the Iraqi Ministry of Defense ( ITAM -MOD). SIGIR is concerned about the lack of GOI commitment to maintain and...than $20 million. According to ITAM -MOD officials, MOD officials were eager to start the project, and in April 2009, the concept was presented to...January 2010, ITAM -MOD expanded its vision of the academy to that of a regional educational institute similar to the George C. Marshall Center in

  11. Iraqi Refugees and Internally Displaced Persons: A Deepening Humanitarian Crisis?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-08-15

    dependants of refugees residing in resettlement countries; older persons at risk; unaccompanied or separated children ; high profile cases; those who...pregnant women, and children . (See “U.S. Refugee Program and Iraqi Refugees ” section later in this report.) Most of those displaced are moving in with...support to the Sunni-led insurgency in Iraq. 20 “Illiteracy Increasing among Iraq’s Refugee Children ,” McClatchy Newspapers, December 12, 2007. 21 UNHCR

  12. Combating Terrorism via the Womb: Empowering Iraqi Women

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-04-01

    Database (September 2006). The Iraqi government’s new constitution and labor law grants women equal rights to an education and employment to include...education, and employment. Iraq’s constitution and labor law guarantees the right of work of every citizen regardless of sex.”102 Initiatives to Support...law, labor law , and social insurance; (2) public investments to lower the costs of girls’ education and women’s employment; and (3) proactive 22 AU

  13. Iraqi children's rights: building a system under fire.

    PubMed

    AlObaidi, Abdul Kareem; Jeffrey, Linda R; Scarth, Leslie; Albadawi, Ghazwan

    2009-01-01

    War violates every human right of children. In recent years, the lives of Iraqi children and the livelihoods of their families have become precarious. Conflict has split the communities where they live and taken the lives of hundreds of their friends and family members. The literature focuses on the negative effects of armed conflict on Iraqi children, and the steps that need to be taken to ameliorate their condition by adapting evidence based but culturally sensitive measures. A comprehensive solution to child protection problems clearly will take time. The primary need for the protection of Iraqi children is an end to conflict. Family and educational order and social stability are central to efforts to achieve progress in child protection. Solutions to armed conflict and its aftermath work best when they are responsive to local cultural practices and beliefs, and are drawn from an understanding of child development. Child safety, security and well-being should be in the forefront of the national agenda to ensure a more positive future both economically and socially to achieve a healthier Iraq.

  14. A study of hand vibration on chipping and grinding operators, part II: Four-degree-of-freedom lumped parameter model of the vibration response of the human hand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reynolds, D. D.; Falkenberg, R. J.

    1984-08-01

    The results of the development of a four-degree-of-freedom, lumped parameter model of the vibration response characteristics of the human hand are presented. For this study dynamic compliance measurements were made on 75 foundry workers. Curve fitting techniques were then employed to identify the values of the model parameters that yielded empirically generated dynamic compliance curves that correlated well with the measured dynamic compliance values. The agreement was good between 20 Hz and 1000 Hz in the X- and Y-directions. The agreement was good between 20 Hz and 1000 Hz in the Z-direction.

  15. Restructured Freedom configuration characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Troutman, Patrick A.; Heck, Michael L.; Kumar, Renjith R.; Mazanek, Daniel D.

    1991-01-01

    In Jan. 1991, the LaRc SSFO performed an assessment of the configuration characteristics of the proposed pre-integrated Space Station Freedom (SSF) concept. Of particular concern was the relationship of solar array operation and orientation with respect to spacecraft controllability. For the man-tended configuration (MTC), it was determined that torque equilibrium attitude (TEA) seeking Control Moment Gyroscope (CMG) control laws could not always maintain attitude. The control problems occurred when the solar arrays were tracking the sun to produce full power while flying in an arrow or gravity gradient flight mode. The large solar array articulations that sometimes result from having the functions of the alpha and beta joints reversed on MTC induced large product of inertia changes that can invalidate the control system gains during an orbit. Several modified sun tracking techniques were evaluated with respect to producing a controllable configuration requiring no modifications to the CMG control algorithms. Another assessment involved the permanently manned configuration (PMC) which has a third asymmetric PV unit on one side of the transverse boom. Recommendations include constraining alpha rotations for MTC in the arrow and gravity gradient flight modes and perhaps developing new non-TEA seeking control laws. Recommendations for PMC include raising the operational altitude and moving to a symmetric configuration as soon as possible.

  16. Combat operational stress control in Iraq and Afghanistan: Army occupational therapy.

    PubMed

    Smith-Forbes, Enrique; Najera, Cecilia; Hawkins, Donald

    2014-03-01

    One of the primary roles for U.S. Army Occupational Therapists (OTs) during combat operations is the Behavioral Health (BH) mission. Army OTs have been involved in Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF) and Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF) providing BH treatment to service members, serving in Brigade Combat Teams, and Combat Stress Control Units, however, the impact of the OT BH mission has been scarcely documented. Although the theoretical deployment role of OTs in Combat and Operational Stress Control (COSC) operations has been described, the literature provides minimal experiential application of OTs in the COSC role. This article describes the deployed operational roles of three OTs, two deployed during OIF and one in OEF during 2008-2010. Deployed assignments included positions as Officers in Charge of restoration centers, and of prevention centers to include animal-assisted therapy, and disaster response. Occupational therapists play a vital role within the COSC unit as they add the unique perspective of assessing the service member's functional performance in daily living occupations. Reprint & Copyright © 2014 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  17. 31 CFR 575.410 - Imports of Iraqi goods from third countries; transshipments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... into the United States from third countries of goods, including refined petroleum products, containing raw materials or components of Iraqi origin is prohibited. In light of the universal prohibition in..., substantial transformation of Iraqi-origin goods in a third country does not exempt the third-country...

  18. The Usefulness of Automatic Speech Recognition (ASR) Eyespeak Software in Improving Iraqi EFL Students' Pronunciation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sidgi, Lina Fathi Sidig; Shaari, Ahmad Jelani

    2017-01-01

    The present study focuses on determining whether automatic speech recognition (ASR) technology is reliable for improving English pronunciation to Iraqi EFL students. Non-native learners of English are generally concerned about improving their pronunciation skills, and Iraqi students face difficulties in pronouncing English sounds that are not…

  19. Why the Iraqi Resistance to the Coalition Invasion Was so Weak

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-01-01

    113 Iraqi Forces Could Not Withstand the Weight and Accuracy of Coalition Firepower... deprived the Coalition of the indig- enous military forces and civilian officials that Coalition planners had counted on to help stabilize and secure... weighted to the east, paralleling the Iraqi-Iranian border. One division, the 51st Mech- anized, was positioned south of Basra for the defense of

  20. Why the Iraqi Resistance to the Coalition Invasion Was So Weak

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-01-01

    113 Iraqi Forces Could Not Withstand the Weight and...the occupation. (See pp. 133–134.) The massive desertions also deprived the Coalition of the indig- enous military forces and civilian officials...discussion will show, the positioning of this force was heavily weighted to the east, paralleling the Iraqi-Iranian border. One division, the 51st

  1. Iraqi Expatriates' Experience of North American Media Coverage of the Iraq War

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rostam, Hajera; Haverkamp, Beth E.

    2009-01-01

    The extensive North American (NA) media coverage of the recent conflict in Iraq invites the question of how adult Iraqi immigrants have experienced such coverage. This qualitative investigation, involving Iraqi immigrants in Vancouver, Canada, used an interpretive description method (Thorne et al., Int J Qual Methods 3(1):1-21, 2004) to analyze…

  2. Some Problems of English Word-Stress for the Iraqi Learner.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aziz, Yowell Y.

    1980-01-01

    Deals with English stress problems for Iraqis under three main headings: single-stressed words, double-stressed words, and unstressed syllables. While stress in Arabic is predictable, stress in English is not. The Iraqi will transfer native-language stress patterns to English. Errors cause miscommunication and are difficult to pinpoint. (PJM)

  3. U.S. Colleges Can Help Rebuild Iraqi Higher Education, Academics Say

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fischer, Karin

    2009-01-01

    A number of Iraqi-American academics, meeting this month for a conference on how to rebuild Iraq's battered higher-education system, said the Iraqi government's plan to send thousands of students abroad annually would lead to a "brain drain" of a new generation of the nation's top talent. Prime Minister Nuri al-Malaki has proposed…

  4. 19 CFR 12.104j - Emergency protection for Iraqi cultural antiquities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Emergency protection for Iraqi cultural antiquities. 12.104j Section 12.104j Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SPECIAL CLASSES OF MERCHANDISE Cultural Property § 12.104j Emergency protection for Iraqi cultural antiquities....

  5. Iraqi Expatriates' Experience of North American Media Coverage of the Iraq War

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rostam, Hajera; Haverkamp, Beth E.

    2009-01-01

    The extensive North American (NA) media coverage of the recent conflict in Iraq invites the question of how adult Iraqi immigrants have experienced such coverage. This qualitative investigation, involving Iraqi immigrants in Vancouver, Canada, used an interpretive description method (Thorne et al., Int J Qual Methods 3(1):1-21, 2004) to analyze…

  6. Academic Freedom Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doughty, Howard A.

    2010-01-01

    One of the author's enduring concerns about the concept of academic freedom is with semantics. It has seemed to him that one of the biggest difficulties with discussions of academic freedom (as with many conversations about "value-laden" terms such as "democracy," "equity," and "justice") is that people begin from different positions and with…

  7. Beyond Freedom and Dignity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, George W.

    In B. F. Skinner's "Beyond Freedom and Dignity," he states that people can achieve a better society and greater well-being if we destroy our pretensions concerning the freedom and dignity of man. He explains that man must now take total control of his evolution by consciously designing his entire culture so that it will shape the…

  8. Academic Freedom and Me

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnard, Ian

    2009-01-01

    This article presents a personal history of the author's own relationships with the concept of academic freedom. The article is subdivided into 3 prehistories, 7 incidents, 3 disjunctions, and 3 myths. The author discusses the complications of politics, culture, and academic freedom in one career.

  9. Beyond Freedom and Dignity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, George W.

    In B. F. Skinner's "Beyond Freedom and Dignity," he states that people can achieve a better society and greater well-being if we destroy our pretensions concerning the freedom and dignity of man. He explains that man must now take total control of his evolution by consciously designing his entire culture so that it will shape the…

  10. STS-1 operational flight profile. Volume 5: Descent cycle 3. Appendix D: GRTLS six degree of freedom Monte Carlo dispersion analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Montez, M. N.

    1980-01-01

    The results of a six degree of freedom (6-DOF) nonlinear Monte Carlo dispersion analysis for the latest glide return to landing site (GRTLS) abort trajectory for the Space Transportation System 1 Flight are presented. For this GRTLS, the number two main engine fails at 262.5 seconds ground elapsed time. Fifty randomly selected simulations, initialized at external tank separation, are analyzed. The initial covariance matrix is a 20 x 20 matrix and includes navigation errors and dispersions in position and velocity, time, accelerometer bias, and inertial platform misalinements. In all 50 samples, speedbrake, rudder, elevon, and body flap hinge moments are acceptable. Transitions to autoland begin before 9,000 feet and there are no tailscrapes. Navigation derived dynamic pressure accuracies exceed the flight control system constraints above Mach 2.5. Three out of 50 landings exceeded tire specification limit speed of 222 knots. Pilot manual landings are expected to reduce landing speed by landing farther downrange.

  11. Recovery Ship Freedom Star

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Freedom Star, one of NASA's two solid rocket booster recovery ships, is towing a barge containing the third Space Shuttle Super Lightweight External Tank (SLWT) into Port Canaveral. This SLWT was slated for use to launch the orbiter Discovery on mission STS-95 in October 1998. This first time towing arrangement, part of a cost saving plan by NASA to prudently manage existing resources, began June 12 from the Michoud Assembly Facility in New Orleans where the Shuttle's external tanks were manufactured. The barge was transported up Banana River to the LC-39 turn basin using a conventional tug boat. Previously, NASA relied on an outside contractor to provide external tank towing services at a cost of about $120,000 per trip. The new plan allowed NASA's Space Flight Operations contractor, United Space Alliance (USA), to provide the same service to NASA using the recovery ships during their downtime between Shuttle launches. Studies showed a potential savings of about $50,000 per trip. The cost of the necessary ship modifications would be paid back by the fourteenth tank delivery. The other recovery ship, Liberty Star, also underwent deck strengthening enhancements and had the necessary towing wench installed.

  12. Recovery Ship Freedom Star

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Freedom Star, one of NASA's two solid rocket booster recovery ships, is towing a barge containing the third Space Shuttle Super Lightweight External Tank (SLWT) into Port Canaveral. This SLWT was slated for use to launch the orbiter Discovery on mission STS-95 in October 1998. This first time towing arrangement, part of a cost saving plan by NASA to prudently manage existing resources, began June 12 from the Michoud Assembly Facility in New Orleans where the Shuttle's external tanks were manufactured. The barge was transported up Banana River to the LC-39 turn basin using a conventional tug boat. Previously, NASA relied on an outside contractor to provide external tank towing services at a cost of about $120,000 per trip. The new plan allowed NASA's Space Flight Operations contractor, United Space Alliance (USA), to provide the same service to NASA using the recovery ships during their downtime between Shuttle launches. Studies showed a potential savings of about $50,000 per trip. The cost of the necessary ship modifications would be paid back by the fourteenth tank delivery. The other recovery ship, Liberty Star, also underwent deck strengthening enhancements and had the necessary towing wench installed.

  13. Business Case Analysis of Cargo Unmanned Aircraft System (UAS) Capability in Support of Forward Deployed Logistics in Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-10-31

    operating, and sustaining either the Boeing A160T Hummingbird or the Lockheed Martin K-MAX unmanned aircraft systems (UASs) with the costs of the status...KC-130J with joint precision airdrop system (JPADS) against both the Lockheed Martin K-MAX and the Boeing A160T Hummingbird in five operational...A160T Hummingbird or the Lockheed Martin K-MAX helicopters in an operational environment. Upon completion of initial deployment, Navy and Marine Corps

  14. Space Station Freedom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    In 1982, the Space Station Task Force was formed, signaling the initiation of the Space Station Freedom Program, and eventually resulting in the Marshall Space Flight Center's responsibilities for Space Station Work Package 1.

  15. Scientific Freedom and Responsibility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cretsos, James M.

    1976-01-01

    Recommends that the American Society for Information Science become involved and cooperate with the American Association for the Advancement of Science in the issue of scientific freedom and responsibility. (Author/PF)

  16. Homophobia and academic freedom.

    PubMed

    Moshman, David

    2002-10-01

    SUMMARY Addressing homophobia and heterosexism as a teacher raises issues of respect for the intellectual freedom of your students. The central thesis of this article is that these issues are best addressed on the basis of general principles of academic freedom-that is, intellectual freedom in educational and research contexts. Three cases are analyzed on the basis of principles developed by the Academic Freedom Coalition of Nebraska (AFCON). These principles permit advocacy, rather than requiring neutrality, but do not permit indoctrination. That is, instructors may express and justify their own ideas relevant to the curriculum and try to convince students to adopt those ideas and/or abandon alternatives, but must not coerce or require belief, censor or punish students who remain unconvinced, or restrict access to alternative views.

  17. Eliminating Success During Eclipse II: An Examination of the Decision to Disband the Iraqi Military

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-03-26

    To simply disband them is extremely dangerous. Jean - Paul Sartre commented: "Violence suits those who have nothing to lose." As a former member of...arrival in Iraq, the head of the CPA, Paul Bremer, negated both of the planning assumptions. The arguments "for" and "against" dissolving the Iraqi...at least one-eighth of the Iraqi Army would have been retained. Conclusion: The U.S. decision to disband the Iraqi military via Paul Bremer and the

  18. Command and Control for Distributed Operations: An Analysis of Possible Technologies, Structure and Employment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-06-01

    Iraqi Freedom OLSR Optimized Link State Routing OSI Open Systems Interconnect OTM On-the-Move PCMCIA Personal Computer Memory Card...natural disasters or terrorist attacks . The ability to bridge dissimilar networks on the tactical or first- responder level is a real problem

  19. Space Station Freedom commercial infrastructure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barquinero, Kevin

    1990-01-01

    Several approaches to initiating the provision of the Space Station Freedom (SSF) commercial infrastructure are discussed, including proposals from the private sector, the commercial development of infrastructure, and the commercial operation of infrastructure. Specific options for SSF commercial infrastructure which are currently being studied by NASA are described. One candidate for commercial service is the supplemental power for SSF beyond the Assembly Complete phase. The methods which a company could use in providing supplemental power are discussed, with special attention given to the use of solar dynamic power elements attached ot the SSF evolution structure. Another option under evaluation is commercial provision of SSF logistics services using ELVs.

  20. Freedom and forgiveness.

    PubMed

    Cavell, Marcia

    2003-06-01

    In the history of philosophy and political thought freedom has meant a number of different things. The author considers several of these meanings and their relevance to psychoanalytic theory. The general argument against freedom that has been mounted in the history of thought, and echoed by Freud, is the thesis of causal determinism; but it is urged here that this in itself is no threat to freedom in the sense of the word required for moral agency: a free choice is one that is caused to some extent by reasons and that is relatively unconstrained both by 'external' and 'internal' forces. Yet because agents are embedded in a causal nexus that includes both the physical world and other people, agency and freedom can be compromised in innumerable ways. Neither freedom nor agency is a condition which we absolutely have or lack, but a matter of degree. Psychoanalytic therapy works toward expanding the capacity for agency and diminishing the constraints of certain internal forces. In the sense defined here, objectivity is an attitude that accepts our embeddedness in the world. With objectivity may come both forgiveness and self-forgiveness, which in turn promote agency.

  1. International utilization and operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldberg, Stanley R.

    1989-01-01

    The international framework of the Space Station Freedom Program is described. The discussion covers the U.S. space policy, international agreements, international Station elements, overall program management structure, and utilization and operations management. Consideration is also given to Freedom's user community, Freedom's crew, pressurized payload and attached payload accommodations, utilization and operations planning, user integration, and user operations.

  2. Introduction to Space Station Freedom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohrs, Richard

    NASA field centers and contractors are organized to develop 'work packages' for Space Station Freedom. Marshall Space Flight Center and Boeing are building the U.S. laboratory and habitation modules, nodes, and environmental control and life support system; Johnson Space Center and McDonnell Douglas are responsible for truss structure, data management, propulsion systems, thermal control, and communications and guidance; Lewis Research Center and Rocketdyne are developing the power system. The Canadian Space Agency (CSA) is contributing a Mobile Servicing Center, Special Dextrous Manipulator, and Mobile Servicing Center Maintenance Depot. The National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA) is contributing a Japanese Experiment Module (JEM), which includes a pressurized module, logistics module, and exposed experiment facility. The European Space Agency (ESA) is contributing the Columbus laboratory module. NASA ground facilities, now in various stages of development to support Space Station Freedom, include: Marshall Space Flight Center's Payload Operations Integration Center and Payload Training Complex (Alabama), Johnson Space Center's Space Station Control Center and Space Station Training Facility (Texas), Lewis Research Center's Power System Facility (Ohio), and Kennedy Space Center's Space Station Processing Facility (Florida). Budget appropriations impact the development of the Space Station. In Fiscal Year 1988, Congress appropriated only half of the funds that NASA requested for the space station program ($393 million vs. $767 million). In FY 89, NASA sought $967 million for the program, and Congress appropriated $900 million. NASA's FY 90 request was $2.05 billion compared to an appropriation of $1.75 billion; the FY 91 request was $2.45 billion, and the appropriation was $1.9 billion. After NASA restructured the Space Station Freedom program in response to directions from Congress, the agency's full budget request of $2.029 billion for Space Station

  3. Introduction to Space Station Freedom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kohrs, Richard

    1992-01-01

    NASA field centers and contractors are organized to develop 'work packages' for Space Station Freedom. Marshall Space Flight Center and Boeing are building the U.S. laboratory and habitation modules, nodes, and environmental control and life support system; Johnson Space Center and McDonnell Douglas are responsible for truss structure, data management, propulsion systems, thermal control, and communications and guidance; Lewis Research Center and Rocketdyne are developing the power system. The Canadian Space Agency (CSA) is contributing a Mobile Servicing Center, Special Dextrous Manipulator, and Mobile Servicing Center Maintenance Depot. The National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA) is contributing a Japanese Experiment Module (JEM), which includes a pressurized module, logistics module, and exposed experiment facility. The European Space Agency (ESA) is contributing the Columbus laboratory module. NASA ground facilities, now in various stages of development to support Space Station Freedom, include: Marshall Space Flight Center's Payload Operations Integration Center and Payload Training Complex (Alabama), Johnson Space Center's Space Station Control Center and Space Station Training Facility (Texas), Lewis Research Center's Power System Facility (Ohio), and Kennedy Space Center's Space Station Processing Facility (Florida). Budget appropriations impact the development of the Space Station. In Fiscal Year 1988, Congress appropriated only half of the funds that NASA requested for the space station program ($393 million vs. $767 million). In FY 89, NASA sought $967 million for the program, and Congress appropriated $900 million. NASA's FY 90 request was $2.05 billion compared to an appropriation of $1.75 billion; the FY 91 request was $2.45 billion, and the appropriation was $1.9 billion. After NASA restructured the Space Station Freedom program in response to directions from Congress, the agency's full budget request of $2.029 billion for Space Station

  4. Penetrating Missile Injuries During the Iraqi Insurgency

    PubMed Central

    Ramasamy, A; Harrisson, SE; Stewart, MPM; Midwinter, M

    2009-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Since the invasion of Iraq in 2003, the conflict has evolved from asymmetric warfare to a counter-insurgency operation. This study investigates the pattern of wounding and types of injuries seen in casualties of hostile action presenting to a British military field hospital during the present conflict. PATIENTS AND METHODS Data were prospectively collected on 100 consecutive patients either injured or killed from hostile action from January 2006 who presented to the sole coalition field hospital in southern Iraq. RESULTS Eighty-two casualties presented with penetrating missile injuries from hostile action. Three subsequently died of wounds (3.7%). Forty-six (56.1%) casualties had their initial surgery performed by British military surgeons. Twenty casualties (24.4%) sustained gunshot wounds, 62 (75.6%) suffered injuries from fragmentation weapons. These 82 casualties were injured in 55 incidents (mean, 1.49 casualties; range 1–6 casualties) and sustained a total 236 wounds (mean, 2.88 wounds) affecting a mean 2.4 body regions per patient. Improvised explosive devices were responsible for a mean 2.31 casualties (range, 1–4 casualties) per incident. CONCLUSIONS The current insurgency in Iraq illustrates the likely evolution of modern, low-intensity, urban conflict. Improvised explosive devices employed against both military and civilian targets have become a major cause of injury. With the current global threat from terrorist bombings, both military and civilian surgeons should be aware of the spectrum and emergent management of the injuries caused by these weapons. PMID:19833014

  5. Thoughts on freedom.

    PubMed

    Hallingby, L

    1981-11-01

    The tradition of personal freedom as Americans know it is not known in China. In America, people are free to choose their own lifestyle but they cannot walk the streets in safety for fear of crime and violence. In a sense, they are not free. In China, one is not free to choose an occupation and a place to live and work, but people are free to walk the streets in safety. Perhaps the true difference between the U.S. and China is not the presence or absence of freedom, but rather the nature of the freedom involved. There are certain underlying assumptions which explain why personal freedom is not very important in China: 1) everyone belongs to a series of larger units, the family, the neighborhood commune, and society; and 2) the effect of an individual's actions on the larger unit is more important than the immediate effect on the individual. Thus, the Chinese do not have the freedom to engage in self-defeating and self-destructive behavior that Americans tend to engage in. In the U.S., people have the right to become alcoholics, to become drug addicts and to have as many babies at as young an age as their bodies will allow. The negative effects of these types of behavior are less important to Americans as the individual's right to free choice. Sexual pleasures and sexual freedom are not paramount concerns in China, but there is 1 basic lifestyle which everyone is expected to follow: marriage, parenting of 1 child, living with the parents of 1 spouse or the other, and caring for one's parents in their old age. The Chinese are not free to choose to cohabitate without being married, to remain single, to remain childless, or to be single parents. These lifestyles and sexual practices find their roots in the fact that China is a monolithic society where everyone thinks and behaves in the same way, and also in the fact that sexual taboos are motivated by practical or economic, rather than religious and moral concerns. Although women are encouraged to have an abortion if

  6. Susceptibility of Iraqi fresh water snails to infection with Schistosoma haematobium and Schistosoma mansoni Egyptian strains.

    PubMed

    Wajdi, N A; Hussain, W I; El-Hawary, M F

    1979-01-01

    A great number of Egyptian workers and farmers are seeking settlement in Iraq and some of them proved to have either Schistosoma Haematobium (S.h.) or Schistosoma mansoni (S.m) or even mixed infection. Besides, there is the possibility that some of the Iraqi fresh water snails may prove to be susceptible to infection by one or both of the Schistosoma Egyptian strains. The present study deals with investigations on the susceptibility of Iraqi B. truncatus, Gyranaulus ehrenbergi, Physa c.f. fontinalis, Lymnea lagetis, Melanoides tuberculata and Melanopsis nodes by these parasites. Egyptian S. haematobium but not Egyptian S. mansoni infect Iraqi B. truncatus and both proved to be unable to infect any of the other snails included in the study. Yet, the number of cercariae shedded by B. truncatus snails infected with the Egyptian S. haematobium strain, was much less that the number of cercariae shedded by these snails when infected with the Iraqi S. Haematobium strain.

  7. Healthcare Access for Iraqi Refugee Children in Texas: Persistent Barriers, Potential Solutions, and Policy Implications.

    PubMed

    Vermette, David; Shetgiri, Rashmi; Al Zuheiri, Haidar; Flores, Glenn

    2015-10-01

    To identify access barriers to healthcare and potential interventions to improve access for Iraqi refugee children. Four focus groups were conducted using consecutive sampling of Iraqi refugee parents residing in the US for 8 months to 5 years. Eight key-informant interviews also were conducted with employees of organizations serving Iraqi refugee families, recruited using snowball sampling. Focus groups and interviews were audiotaped, transcribed, and analyzed using margin coding and grounded theory. Iraqi refugees identified provider availability, Medicaid maintenance and renewal, language issues, and inadequate recognition of post-traumatic stress disorder as barriers to care for their children. Interviewees cited loss of case-management services and difficulties in understanding the Medicaid renewal process as barriers. Potential interventions to improve access include community-oriented efforts to educate parents on Medicaid renewal, obtaining services, and accessing specialists. Given the enduring nature of language and Medicaid renewal barriers, policies addressing eligibility alone are insufficient.

  8. Perspectives on preventive health care and barriers to breast cancer screening among Iraqi women refugees.

    PubMed

    Saadi, Altaf; Bond, Barbara; Percac-Lima, Sanja

    2012-08-01

    Since the Iraq war began in 2003, over 4 million Iraqis have been displaced. Little is known about preventive cancer care in this population, but stark disparities have been documented. The purpose of this study was to assess the perspectives of Iraqi women refugees on preventive care and perceived barriers to breast cancer screening. Interviews were conducted in Arabic with twenty Iraqi refugee women by a bilingual (English/Arabic) medical student, transcribed, translated and coded according to established qualitative content and thematic analysis procedures. Psychosocial barriers, culturally mediated beliefs, and health consequences of war were identified as major themes, ultimately showing what factors, alone and collectively, have impeded Iraqi refugee women's ability and motivation to obtain breast cancer screening. To improve cancer prevention and decrease disparities in care in this most vulnerable population, culturally appropriate health education and outreach programs, as well as further community-level targeted studies, are needed.

  9. Business Case Analysis of Cargo Unmanned Aircraft System (UAS) Capability in Support of Forward Deployed Logistics in Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-12-01

    5. A160T Hummingbird CUAS ............................................................59 C. SOURCE OF SECOND THOUGHTS: VULNERABILITIES FOR CUAS... Hummingbird or the Lockheed Martin K-MAX unmanned aircraft systems (UASs) with the costs of the status quo of cargo replenishment currently used by the...system (JPADS) against both the Lockheed Martin K-MAX and the Boeing A160T Hummingbird in five operational scenarios performing resupply every three

  10. Deployed Flight Test of the Iraqi Air Force Comp Air 7SLX (CA-7)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-02-28

    support of U.S. Central Command and the Iraqi Air Force. The Comp Air 7SLX (CA-7) aircraft was an experimental aircraft, also known as a homebuilt or...acceleration; test surge; Combat Logistics Support Squadron(CLSS); Aero Comp Inc.; deployment; predeployment; teams (personnel); flight training; homebuilt ...aircraft to the Iraqi Air Force in 2004. As an experimental 2 aircraft, also known as a homebuilt or kitplane, the CA-7 was built from a kit

  11. Initial accomplishments of the Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) atmosphere revitalization (AR) predevelopment operational system test (POST) for the Space Station Freedom (SSF)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunn, Kevin H.; Bulgajewski, Peter J.

    1992-01-01

    Initial results of the integrated AR POST conducted by Boeing at Marshall Space Flight Center in 1992 are presented. The three baselined ECLSS Man Tended Capability AR assemblies were integrated and operated in a closed door chamber in which the internal atmosphere was monitored. The test provides a prerequisite checkout of the AR subsystem in preparation for longer duration tests in which the AR subsystem will be integrated with the Water Recovery Management subsystem. The integrated AR POST will serve as an early test bed to evaluate the integration of the space station ECLSS AR subsystem during design maturation.

  12. Freedom in nature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hájíček, P.

    2009-09-01

    The paper starts with the proposal that the cause of the apparent insolubility of the free-will problem are several popular but strongly metaphysical notions and hypotheses. To reduce the metaphysics, some ideas are borrowed from physics. A concept of event causality is discussed. The importance of Hume’s Principle of Causality is stressed and his Principle of Causation is weakened. The key concept of the paper, the so-called relative freedom, is also suggested by physics. It is a kind of freedom that can be observed everywhere in nature. Turning to biology, incomplete knowledge is defined for all organisms. They cope with the problem by Popper’s trial and error processes. One source of their success is the relative freedom of choice from the basic option ranges: mutations, motions and neural connections. Finally, the conjecture is adopted that communicability can be used as a criterion of consciousness and free will is defined as a conscious version of relative freedom. The resulting notion is logically self-consistent and it describes an observable phenomenon that agrees with our experience.

  13. Thinking Academic Freedom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lange, Lis

    2016-01-01

    This lecture argues that the politicisation and instrumentalisation of the university caused by neoliberal frames has as a result the depoliticisation of knowledge and of the academic as individual. This depoliticisation has turned academic freedom into a right to disengage not only from the political fight around these issues but also from the…

  14. Religious Freedom in America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kittlaus, Jennifer, Ed.; Bliss, Pam, Ed.

    2001-01-01

    This magazine aims to help high school teachers of civics, government, history, law, and law-related education program developers educate students about legal issues. This issue focuses on religious freedom in the United States. It contains 11 articles: (1) "Government-Religion Relations in Historical Perspective" (C. Cookson) discusses…

  15. Religious Freedom in America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kittlaus, Jennifer, Ed.; Bliss, Pam, Ed.

    2001-01-01

    This magazine aims to help high school teachers of civics, government, history, law, and law-related education program developers educate students about legal issues. This issue focuses on religious freedom in the United States. It contains 11 articles: (1) "Government-Religion Relations in Historical Perspective" (C. Cookson) discusses…

  16. FREEDOM TO MOVE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CARPENTER, ETHELOUISE; SHIPLEY, FERNE

    PLAY WHICH INVOLVES NATURAL MOVEMENT HELPS THE CHILD TO LEARN ABOUT THE PROPERTIES OF MATTER AND ABOUT HIMSELF. AN EXPANSIVE AND VERSATILE USE OF SPACE FOR LIVING INCREASES WITH EXPLORATION. FREEDOM TO MOVE IS INTELLECTUAL AND EMOTIONAL, AS WELL AS PHYSICAL. NEW EXPERIENCES ARISING OUT OF CURIOSITY AND INTERACTION WITH HIS OWN FAMILY AND OTHER…

  17. Intellectual Freedom and Racism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Interracial Books for Children Bulletin, 1977

    1977-01-01

    This issue of the "Interracial Books for Children Bulletin" contains a special section focusing on the film called, "The Speaker". This film purports to deal with an assault on the First Amendment and with the necessity for eternal vigilance in defense of U.S. Constitutional freedom. The setting is an integrated high school…

  18. Presidential Medal of Freedom

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-05-29

    Major S. Lee Meyer, USMC, Military Aide to the President, holds the Presidential Medal of Freedom that is to be presented by President Barack Obama to former United States Marine Corps pilot, astronaut, and United States Senator John Glenn, Tuesday, May 29, 2012, during a ceremony at the White House in Washington. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  19. Thinking Academic Freedom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lange, Lis

    2016-01-01

    This lecture argues that the politicisation and instrumentalisation of the university caused by neoliberal frames has as a result the depoliticisation of knowledge and of the academic as individual. This depoliticisation has turned academic freedom into a right to disengage not only from the political fight around these issues but also from the…

  20. For Freedom's Sake. [Videotape].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Library Association Video/Library Video Network, Towson, MD.

    Intellectual freedom is a concept fundamental to all libraries. It enables library customers to access a wide variety of materials in numerous formats, and is a concept dear to the hearts and minds of a democratic society. Libraries are often challenged by individuals and groups concerned about the availability of certain materials. The first part…

  1. A metazoan parasitological research of some Iraqi amphibians.

    PubMed

    Saeed, Isam; Al-Barwari, Shlemon E; Al-Harmni, Kawther I

    2007-01-01

    The incidence and intensity of metazoan parasites in 3 species of Iraqi amphibians were studied. The amphibians were Rana ridibunda, Bufo viridis and Hyla arborea. Twenty-four species of helminths were encountered, including 16 trematodes, 1 cestode and 7 nematodes. Their respective names are: Polystoma integerrimum, Prosotocus confusus, P. fuelleborni, Pleurogenoides gastroporus, P. medians, Sonsinotrema tacapense, Opisthioglyphe ranae, Haplometra cylindracea, Haematoloechus volgensis, H. vitelloconfluentum, H. similis, H. asper, Gorgoderina vitelliloba, Gorgodera euzeti, G. amplicava, Nematotaenia dispar, Cosmocerca ornata, C. commutata, Aplectana acuminata, Aplectana sp., Oxysomatium sp., Ozwaldocruzia filiformis and Rhabdias bufonis. Collection localities, infection sites and rates and parasite burdens were determined throughout the species list. The highest and lowest rates of infection were for R. bufonis in B. viridis and O. ranae in R. ridibunda, while the highest and lowest worm burdens were for C. ornata in R. ridibunda and P. integerrimum in B. viridis. Seven of the species included in this study are thought to be new for Iraq.

  2. Burden of typhoid fever in Sulaimania, Iraqi Kurdistan.

    PubMed

    Dworkin, Jonathan; Saeed, Rebeen; Mykhan, Hawar; Kanan, Shwan; Farhad, Dlawer; Ali, Kocher Omer; Abdulwahab, Runak Hama Kareem; Palardy, John; Neill, Marguerite A

    2014-10-01

    Typhoid fever imposes a high disease burden worldwide, but resource limitations mean that the burden of typhoid fever in many countries is poorly understood. The authors conducted a prospective surveillance study at the adult and pediatric teaching hospitals in Sulaimania, Iraqi Kurdistan. All patients presenting with an undifferentiated febrile illness consistent with typhoid were eligible for enrollment. Enrolled patients had blood cultures and Brucella serologies performed. Incidence was calculated with reference to census data. Both typhoid fever and brucellosis were common, and the incidence of typhoid fever was 21 cases/100 000 patient-years. Classic disease symptoms were uncommonly observed. Cost-effective surveillance projects to calculate disease burden of typhoid fever are practical and replicable. Typhoid has successfully adapted to the healthcare environment in Sulaimania. Additional work in the region should focus on antibiotic resistance and other enteric pathogens such as Brucella spp. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  3. Hepatitis B infection among Iraqi children: the impact of sanctions.

    PubMed

    Ali, H Y M

    2004-01-01

    Effect of sanctions on hepatitis B vaccine availability and occurrence of viral hepatitis B among Iraqi children was studied. Between June 2000 and June 2001, families of patients attending the Public Health Laboratory, Mosul, for hepatitis B follow-up were screened. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to test for HBsAg, HBeAg and anti-HBe. We diagnosed 74 children born 1994-1998 as HBsAg carriers. For 62 of 74 cases, parents had consulted vaccine centres promptly: 41 were not vaccinated and 21 had only one vaccine dose. HBeAg marker was positive for 9 (14.5%) and anti-HBe for 50 (80.7%). Parental reluctance was the reason for non-vaccination for 12. Vaccine shortages during the birth years of cases were documented, even after implementation of United Nations Security Council Resolution 986.

  4. Female genital mutilation in Iraqi Kurdistan: description and associated factors.

    PubMed

    Saleem, Rozhgar A; Othman, Nasih; Fattah, Fattah H; Hazim, Luma; Adnan, Berivan

    2013-01-01

    The high prevalence of female genital mutilation has been a concern in Iraqi Kurdistan. This study was undertaken to estimate its prevalence and describe factors associated with its occurrence. A cross-sectional survey was undertaken from March to April 2011 of females aged up to 20 years using interviews and clinical examination. The survey included 1,508 participants with mean age of 13.5 years (SD 5.6). Overall female genital mutilation prevalence was 23%, and the mean age at which it had been performed was 4.6 years (SD 2.4). Type I (partial or total removal of the clitoris) comprised 76% of those who had had female genital mutilation; in 79% of cases the decision to perform it was made by the mother; and in 54% of cases it was performed by traditional birth attendants/midwives. Women aged 16 years and over were more likely to have had female genital mutilation compared to children aged below 6 years (OR 11.9, p < .001). Children of uneducated mothers were eight times as likely to have had genital mutilation compared to children of mothers with over nine years of education (OR 8.0, p < .001). Among women aged 17 years and younger, 34% of those who were married had been circumcised versus 17% of those who were not married (p < .001). Participants residing in the northeast of Kurdistan region were more likely to have been circumcised. The study results show that female genital mutilation is a frequent practice in Iraqi Kurdistan. Attention and intervention is needed to address this aspect of the well-being of girls and women.

  5. Academic Freedom in the Public Schools. ERIC Digest No. 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Kay K.

    This synthesis of current attitudes on academic freedom as defined by lower court and Supreme Court cases describes the (1) framework in which academic freedom operates, (2) powers and limitations of state legislatures and school officials in defining the curriculum and setting policy, (3) rights and limitations of teachers in making curricular…

  6. A failure recovery planning prototype for Space Station Freedom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hammen, David G.; Kelly, Christine M.

    1991-01-01

    NASA is investigating the use of advanced automation to enhance crew productivity for Space Station Freedom in numerous areas, including failure management. A prototype is described that uses various advanced automation techniques to generate courses of action whose intents are to recover from a diagnosed failure, and to do so within the constraints levied by the failure and by Freedom's configuration and operating conditions.

  7. Microbial identification system for Space Station Freedom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Harlan D.; Scarlett, Janie B.; Skweres, Joyce A.; Fortune, Russell L.; Staples, John L.; Pierson, Duane L.

    1989-01-01

    The Environmental Health System (EHS) and Health Maintenance Facility (HMF) on Space Station Freedom will require a comprehensive microbiology capability. This requirement entails the development of an automated system to perform microbial identifications on isolates from a variety of environmental and clinical sources and, when required, to perform antimicrobial sensitivity testing. The unit currently undergoing development and testing is the Automated Microbiology System II (AMS II) built by Vitek Systems, Inc. The AMS II has successfully completed 12 months of laboratory testing and evaluation for compatibility with microgravity operation. The AMS II is a promising technology for use on Space Station Freedom.

  8. Space Station Freedom altitude strategy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcdonald, Brian M.; Teplitz, Scott B.

    1990-01-01

    The Space Station Freedom (SSF) altitude strategy provides guidelines and assumptions to determine an altitude profile for Freedom. The process for determining an altitude profile incorporates several factors such as where the Space Shuttle will rendezvous with the SSF, when reboosts must occur, and what atmospheric conditions exist causing decay. The altitude strategy has an influence on all areas of SSF development and mission planning. The altitude strategy directly affects the micro-gravity environment for experiments, propulsion and control system sizing, and Space Shuttle delivery manifests. Indirectly the altitude strategy influences almost every system and operation within the Space Station Program. Evolution of the SSF altitude strategy has been a very dynamic process over the past few years. Each altitude strategy in turn has emphasized a different consideration. Examples include a constant Space Shuttle rendezvous altitude for mission planning simplicity, or constant micro-gravity levels with its inherent emphasis on payloads, or lifetime altitudes to provide a safety buffer to loss of control conditions. Currently a new altitude strategy is in development. This altitude strategy will emphasize Space Shuttle delivery optimization. Since propellant is counted against Space Shuttle payload-to-orbit capacity, lowering the rendezvous altitude will not always increase the net payload-to-orbit, since more propellant would be required for reboost. This altitude strategy will also consider altitude biases to account for Space Shuttle launch slips and an unexpected worsening of atmospheric conditions. Safety concerns will define a lower operational altitude limit, while radiation levels will define upper altitude constraints. The evolution of past and current SSF altitude strategies and the development of a new altitude strategy which focuses on operational issues as opposed to design are discussed.

  9. Bioethics and academic freedom.

    PubMed

    Singer, Peter

    1990-01-01

    The author describes the events surrounding his attempts to lecture on the subject of euthanasia in West Germany in June 1989. Singer, who defends the view that active euthanasia for some newborns with handicaps may be ethically permissible, had been invited to speak to professional and academic groups. Strong public protests against Singer and his topic led to the cancellation of some of his engagements, disruptions during others, and harrassment of the German academics who had invited him to speak. These incidents and the subject of euthanasia became matters of intense national debate in West Germany, but there was little public or academic support for Singer's right to be heard. Singer argues that bioethics and bioethicists must have the freedom to challenge conventional moral beliefs, and that the events in West Germany illustrate the grave danger to that freedom from religious and political intolerance.

  10. Academic Freedom: The Ethical Imperative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slattery, Patrick

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the author takes his cue for discussions of academic freedom from Simone de Beauvoir as found in her classic text, "The Ethics of Ambiguity." Like other existentialists, de Beauvoir emphasizes that freedom and responsibility are intimately linked. Academic freedom is an ethical responsibility that compels the author to teach and…

  11. Academic Freedom Requires Constant Vigilance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emery, Kim

    2009-01-01

    Traditionally, academic freedom has been understood as an individual right and a negative liberty. As William Tierney and Vincente Lechuga explain, "Academic freedom, although an institutional concept, was vested in the individual professor." The touchstone document on academic freedom, the American Association of University Professor's (AAUP)…

  12. An Intellectual Freedom Theme Issue.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolner, Myrtle Smith, Ed.

    1986-01-01

    Prepared by an intellectual freedom committee, this issue is intended to aid librarians in thinking about intellectual freedom when confronted with the current creationism controversy. A manual containing documents and resources on intellectual freedom, a bibliography of pro- and anti-creationism materials, and results of a censorship survey are…

  13. Academic Freedom: The Ethical Imperative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slattery, Patrick

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the author takes his cue for discussions of academic freedom from Simone de Beauvoir as found in her classic text, "The Ethics of Ambiguity." Like other existentialists, de Beauvoir emphasizes that freedom and responsibility are intimately linked. Academic freedom is an ethical responsibility that compels the author to teach and…

  14. Academic Freedom Requires Constant Vigilance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emery, Kim

    2009-01-01

    Traditionally, academic freedom has been understood as an individual right and a negative liberty. As William Tierney and Vincente Lechuga explain, "Academic freedom, although an institutional concept, was vested in the individual professor." The touchstone document on academic freedom, the American Association of University Professor's (AAUP)…

  15. Intellectual Freedom: 2000 and Beyond.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holtze, Terri L.; Rader, Hannelore B.

    2000-01-01

    Focuses on intellectual freedom, discussing the role of libraries, the Berlin Wall and banned books as attempts to restrict intellectual freedom, and controversies surrounding filtering software. Contains an annotated bibliography of intellectual freedom resources, presented in five categories: general; government and legal issues; access and…

  16. Space Station Freedom Gateway to the Future

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The first inhabited outpost on the frontier of space will be a place to live, work, and discover. Experiments conducted on Freedom will advance scientific knowledge about our world, our environment, and ourselves. We will learn how to adapt to the space environment and to build and operate new spacecraft with destinations far beyond Earth, continuing the tradition of exploration that began with a journey to the Moon. What we learn from living and working on Freedom will strengthen our expertise in science and engineering, promote national research and development initiatives and inspire another generation of Americans to push forward and onward. On the eve of the 21st century, Space Station Freedom will be our gateway to the future. This material covers gateways to space, research, discovery, utilization, benefits, and NASA.

  17. Freedom to box.

    PubMed Central

    Warburton, N

    1998-01-01

    The british Medical Association wants to criminalise all boxing. This article examines the logic of the arguments it uses and finds them wanting. The move from medical evidence about the risk of brain damage to the conclusion that boxing should be banned is not warranted. The BMA's arguments are a combination of inconsistent paternalism and legal moralism. Consistent application of the principles implicit in the BMA's arguments would lead to absurd consequences and to severe limitations being put on individual freedom. PMID:9549684

  18. Freedom of Information Act

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Newman, D.J.

    2012-01-01

    The Freedom of Information Act( FOIA), 5 U.S.C.§ 552, as amended, generally provides that any person has a right to request access to Federal agency records. The USGS proactively promotes information disclosure as inherent to its mission of providing objective science to inform decisionmakers and the general public. USGS scientists disseminate up-to-date and historical scientific data that are critical to addressing national and global priorities.

  19. Freedom, responsibility, and health.

    PubMed Central

    Bunker, J. P.; Stansfeld, S.; Potter, J.

    1996-01-01

    Freedom and responsibility, how much of each and how they are balanced, have profound implications for our personal lives and for our work. The health of a population and its achievement in the workplace are enhanced when individuals have some freedom and some responsibility, but not too much of either, and when civil associations of individuals rather than individuals acting alone are the essential social units. The consistent association of social contacts with health and productivity provides strong support for the premise that intimate relationships are the focus around which people's lives revolve. Membership of a "social network" may be merely conforming to a reigning social norm, and this could mean having to pay an important price in the loss of creativity associated with individualism. But social conformity should not prevent individuals from going their own way, and it should be possible to combine the luxury of individuality with an active life in civic affairs. Less than complete freedom may fall short of existential utopia, but it may be best for our health and wellbeing. Images Fig 1 Fig 2 PMID:8990992

  20. Freedom, responsibility, and health.

    PubMed

    Bunker, J P; Stansfeld, S; Potter, J

    Freedom and responsibility, how much of each and how they are balanced, have profound implications for our personal lives and for our work. The health of a population and its achievement in the workplace are enhanced when individuals have some freedom and some responsibility, but not too much of either, and when civil associations of individuals rather than individuals acting alone are the essential social units. The consistent association of social contacts with health and productivity provides strong support for the premise that intimate relationships are the focus around which people's lives revolve. Membership of a "social network" may be merely conforming to a reigning social norm, and this could mean having to pay an important price in the loss of creativity associated with individualism. But social conformity should not prevent individuals from going their own way, and it should be possible to combine the luxury of individuality with an active life in civic affairs. Less than complete freedom may fall short of existential utopia, but it may be best for our health and wellbeing.

  1. Medical civil-military operations: the deployed medical brigade's role in counterinsurgency operations.

    PubMed

    Bryan, Jeffrey; Miyamoto, Danelle; Holman, Vincent

    2008-01-01

    Medical civil-military operations are a critical combat multiplier directly supporting the counterinsurgency fight. Army Medical Department Soldiers support medical civil affairs activities at all levels from platoon to the United States Mission-Iraq (Department of State) initiatives enhancing the legitimacy of medical services in the Iraq Ministry of Health, Ministry of Defense, Ministry of the Interior, and Ministry of Justice. The civil-military operations mission of the deployed Task Force 62 Medical Brigade has also evolved into a broad mission encompassing over 120 contractors including Iraqi-American, Bilingual Bicultural Advisors-Subject Matter Experts serving as case management liaison officers and medical trainers, as well as Iraqi Advisor Task Force members providing medical atmospherics, assessments, training, and the overall management of Iraqi linguists supporting all level III medical facilities.

  2. Brief narrative exposure therapy for posttraumatic stress in Iraqi refugees: a preliminary randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Hijazi, Alaa M; Lumley, Mark A; Ziadni, Maisa S; Haddad, Luay; Rapport, Lisa J; Arnetz, Bengt B

    2014-06-01

    Many Iraqi refugees suffer from posttraumatic stress. Efficient, culturally sensitive interventions are needed, and so we adapted narrative exposure therapy into a brief version (brief NET) and tested its effects in a sample of traumatized Iraqi refugees. Iraqi refugees in the United States reporting elevated posttraumatic stress (N = 63) were randomized to brief NET or waitlist control conditions in a 2:1 ratio; brief NET was 3 sessions, conducted individually, in Arabic. Positive indicators (posttraumatic growth and well-being) and symptoms (posttraumatic stress, depressive, and somatic) were assessed at baseline and 2- and 4-month follow-up. Treatment participation (95.1% completion) and study retention (98.4% provided follow-up data) were very high. Significant condition by time interactions showed that those receiving brief NET had greater posttraumatic growth (d = 0.83) and well-being (d = 0.54) through 4 months than controls. Brief NET reduced symptoms of posttraumatic stress (d = -0.48) and depression (d = -0.46) more, but only at 2 months; symptoms of controls also decreased from 2 to 4 months, eliminating condition differences at 4 months. Three sessions of brief NET increased growth and well-being and led to symptom reduction in highly traumatized Iraqi refugees. This preliminary study suggests that brief NET is both acceptable and potentially efficacious in traumatized Iraqi refugees. Copyright © 2014 International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies.

  3. "When Mu'awiya Entered the Curriculum"--Some Comments on the Iraqi Education System in the Interwar Period

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bashkin, Orit

    2006-01-01

    In this essay, the author explores the nationalization and secularization of the Iraqi educational system during the period between the two world wars, while demonstrating how various intellectuals championed pluralist educational models. Iraqi social and intellectual history has focused on education as an important prism reflecting approaches to…

  4. 31 CFR 576.206 - Protection granted to the Development Fund for Iraq, Iraqi Petroleum and Petroleum Products, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Fund for Iraq, Iraqi Petroleum and Petroleum Products, and the Central Bank of Iraq. 576.206 Section... Prohibitions § 576.206 Protection granted to the Development Fund for Iraq, Iraqi Petroleum and Petroleum... petroleum and petroleum products, and interests therein, but only until title passes to the...

  5. 31 CFR 576.206 - Protection granted to the Development Fund for Iraq, Iraqi Petroleum and Petroleum Products, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Fund for Iraq, Iraqi Petroleum and Petroleum Products, and the Central Bank of Iraq. 576.206 Section... Prohibitions § 576.206 Protection granted to the Development Fund for Iraq, Iraqi Petroleum and Petroleum... petroleum and petroleum products, and interests therein, but only until title passes to the...

  6. 31 CFR 576.206 - Protection granted to the Development Fund for Iraq, Iraqi Petroleum and Petroleum Products, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Fund for Iraq, Iraqi Petroleum and Petroleum Products, and the Central Bank of Iraq. 576.206 Section... Prohibitions § 576.206 Protection granted to the Development Fund for Iraq, Iraqi Petroleum and Petroleum... petroleum and petroleum products, and interests therein, but only until title passes to the...

  7. 31 CFR 576.206 - Protection granted to the Development Fund for Iraq, Iraqi Petroleum and Petroleum Products, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Fund for Iraq, Iraqi Petroleum and Petroleum Products, and the Central Bank of Iraq. 576.206 Section... Prohibitions § 576.206 Protection granted to the Development Fund for Iraq, Iraqi Petroleum and Petroleum... petroleum and petroleum products, and interests therein, but only until title passes to the...

  8. "When Mu'awiya Entered the Curriculum"--Some Comments on the Iraqi Education System in the Interwar Period

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bashkin, Orit

    2006-01-01

    In this essay, the author explores the nationalization and secularization of the Iraqi educational system during the period between the two world wars, while demonstrating how various intellectuals championed pluralist educational models. Iraqi social and intellectual history has focused on education as an important prism reflecting approaches to…

  9. Case Study: Operation Enduring Freedom Philippines

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-10-01

    undertook negotiations, a splinter group, made up in part of returning veterans from jihad in Afghanistan, formed the Moro Islamic Liberation Front ( MILF ...Clark Air Force Base and Subic Naval Base was rejected by the Philippines Senate. The goals of ASG, like MILF , were separatist, in their case to...and MILF 11 See Dr. C. H. Briscoe and Lieutenant Colonel Dennis Downey, “Multiple Insurgent

  10. Inpatient Hospitalizations of U.S. Military Personnel Medically Evacuated From Iraq and Afghanistan With Combat-Related Traumatic Brain Injury

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-02-01

    AHSTRACT Traumatic brain injury (TEl) has been called the signature wound of Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF) and Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF). The...hospitalizations is also of primary importance during a time of war. 23 A recent report of service members injured in Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF) and...Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF) who were hospitalized at Walter Reed Medical Center indi- cated that the majority (59%) were admitted with TBI.() The

  11. Enemy Prisoners of War (EPW) Operations during Operation Desert Storm

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-04-15

    experience that warmed the 66 heart .඀ Later, commenting on the conditions of the Saudi camp and the Iraqi prisoners being held by the HN, he wrote, "The...EPW operational requirements from the early days of Operation Desert Shield to several months after the last US MP soldiers had left Saudia Arabia and...infestation and communicable diseases , especially tuberculosis, malaria and venereal disease ; and determining the general state of health, nutrition

  12. Anxiety, stress, and quality of life among Iraqi refugees in Jordan: A cross sectional survey.

    PubMed

    Al-Smadi, Ahmed Mohammad; Tawalbeh, Loai Issa; Gammoh, Omar Salem; Ashour, Ala Fawzi; Alshraifeen, Ali; Gougazeh, Yazeed Mohammed

    2017-03-01

    This study was conducted to identify the predictors, levels, and prevalence of anxiety and stress and to assess the relationship between these factors and quality of life in recently displaced Iraqis. A cross-sectional design was used. A convenience sample of 171 Iraqi refugees was recruited. The results indicated that more than half of the sample suffered from high anxiety levels, while 42.8% reported high stress. The regression model explained 46.3% of the variance in levels of quality of life. Unemployment, fewer than three family members, and high anxiety significantly predicted low-level quality of life. These three predictors need to be taken into consideration when developing health-related interventions to improve the quality of life of Iraqi refugees.

  13. Reconstruction of residual mandibular defects by iliac crest bone graft in war-wounded Iraqi civilians, 2006-2011.

    PubMed

    Guerrier, Gilles; Alaqeeli, Ali; Al Jawadi, Ammar; Foote, Nancy; Baron, Emmanuel; Albustanji, Ashraf

    2015-07-01

    Our aim was to assess the long-term results, complications, and factors associated with failure of mandibular reconstructions among wounded Iraqi civilians with mandibular defects. Success was measured by the quality of bony union, and assessed radiographically and by physical examination. Failures were defined as loss of most or all of the bone graft, or inability to control infection. During the 6-year period (2006-2011), 35 Iraqi patients (30 men and 5 women, mean age 33 years, range 15-57) had residual mandibular defects reconstructed by iliac crest bone grafts. The causes were bullets (n=29), blasts (n=3), and shrapnel (n=3). The size of the defect was more than 5cm in 19 cases. Along the mandible the defect was lateral (n=14), central/lateral (n=5), lateral/central/lateral in continuity (n=6), and central in continuity (n=10). The mean time from injury to operation was 548 days (range 45-3814). All but 2 patients had infected lesions on admission. Bony fixation was ensured by locking reconstruction plates (n=27), non-locking reconstruction plates (n=6), and miniplates (n=2). Complications were associated with the reconstruction plate in 2 cases, and donor-site morbidity in 5. After a mean follow-up of 17 months (range 6-54), bony union was achieved in 28 (80%). The quality of the bone was adequate for dental implants in 23 cases (66%). Our results suggest that war-related mandibular defects can be reconstructed with non-vascularised bone grafts by multistage procedures with good results, provided that the soft tissues are in good condition, infection is controlled, and the method of fixation is appropriate. Further studies are needed to assess the role of vascularised free flaps in similar conditions. Copyright © 2012 The British Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Iraqi American refugee youths' exposure to violence: relationship to attitudes and peers' perpetration of dating violence.

    PubMed

    Black, Beverly M; Chiodo, Lisa M; Weisz, Arlene N; Elias-Lambert, Nada; Kernsmith, Poco D; Yoon, Jina S; Lewandowski, Linda A

    2013-02-01

    This exploratory study examines the relationships between exposure to violence in the community, school, home and dating relationships among Iraqi American youth. As Iraqi American youth are traditionally not allowed to date, dating violence measures focused on attitudes about and perceptions of abuse occurring in the relationships of friends. The number of friends known who were secretly dating was the most significant predictor of acceptability of dating violence and perceived prevalence of abuse. Youth who experienced child abuse perceived higher rates of dating violence among their peers. Findings highlight the complexities of prevention and intervention of teen dating violence within secretive relationships.

  15. Human freedom and the brain.

    PubMed

    Kornhuber, Hans Helmut

    2009-06-01

    Freedom of will does exist, it is self-leadership of man based on reason and ethos. Evidence comes from truth. Determinism cannot be proved since if you try, you mean to prove a truth; but there is no truth without freedom. By contrast for freedom there are many pieces of evidence e.g. science, arts, technology. Freedom utilizes creative abstract thinking with phantasy. Freedom is graded, limited, based on nature, but not developed without good will. We perceive reliably freedom by self-consciousness and in other persons as long as we are sober. Freedom needs intelligence, but is more, it is a creative and moral virtue. The basis for freedom is phylogenesis and culture, in the individual learning and experimenting. Factors in the becoming of freedom are not only genes and environment but also self-discipline. But the creativity of free will is dangerous. Man therefore needs morale. Drives and feelings become humanized, cultural interests are developed. There is a humane nobility from long good will.

  16. Space Station Freedom contamination requirements and predictions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ehlers, Horst K. F.

    1990-01-01

    Space Station Freedom (SSF) requirements for the induced external gaseous and particulate environment have been defined. They include the Assembly Complete (AC) and the Permanently Manned Capability (PMC) phases which were established since the original configuration was developed. Requirements for both SSF configurations are discussed. Preliminary assessments of the impacts on SSF design and operation indicate that these requirements are both realistic and acceptable to the users with attached payloads.

  17. Space Station Freedom contamination requirements and predictions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ehlers, Horst K. F.

    1990-01-01

    Space Station Freedom (SSF) requirements for the induced external gaseous and particulate environment have been defined. They include the Assembly Complete (AC) and the Permanently Manned Capability (PMC) phases which were established since the original configuration was developed. Requirements for both SSF configurations are discussed. Preliminary assessments of the impacts on SSF design and operation indicate that these requirements are both realistic and acceptable to the users with attached payloads.

  18. U.S. Army Medical Department Journal (October-December 2006)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-12-01

    headaches, migraines, concussions, seizures , syncope, epilepsy , nonsurgical neck or back pain, chronic pain syndromes, and vague neuropsychiatric...Medical Information Program 65 During Operation Iraqi Freedom IV MAJ Mark L. Higdon, MC, USA Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB No. 0704-0188...US Army Medical Research and Materiel Command, Fort Detrick, Maryland. 20 Army Medical Department Journal INTRODUCTION Operation Iraqi Freedom has

  19. The Cost of Treating Post Traumatic Stress Disorder and Mild Traumatic Brain Injuries

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-01

    signature wounds of war for Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF) and Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF). “With advances in body armor technology and acute... Freedom and Operation Iraqi Freedom (OEF/OIF), upward of 78% of combat injuries are the result of explosive munitions (Owens, Kragh, Wenke, Macaitis...skills dizziness ringing in the ears concentration balance depression Vomiting problems learning new things seizures anxiety Guilt poor memory

  20. Defense Health: Coordinating Authority Needed for Psychological Health and Traumatic Brain Injury Activities

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-01-01

    Process for Service Members Injured in OIF/OEF (Operation Iraqi Freedom /Operation Enduring Freedom ) (June 2008). 3U.S. Troop Readiness, Veterans...over the care and treatment of wounded warriors from Operations Enduring Freedom and Iraqi Freedom , in May 2007 the Secretaries of Defense and...signs of Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, or other manifestations of neurodegeneration, as well as epilepsy , in such members, in coordination

  1. Intellectual Freedom Manual. Eighth Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ALA Editions, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Updated for the first time since 2005, this indispensable volume includes revised interpretations of the Library Bill of Rights along with key intellectual freedom guidelines and policies, including: (1) A new chapter, "Interactivity and the Internet," and other fresh material on intellectual freedom and privacy in online social…

  2. Intellectual Freedom Manual. Eighth Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ALA Editions, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Updated for the first time since 2005, this indispensable volume includes revised interpretations of the Library Bill of Rights along with key intellectual freedom guidelines and policies, including: (1) A new chapter, "Interactivity and the Internet," and other fresh material on intellectual freedom and privacy in online social…

  3. Academic Freedom and Indentured Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Jeffrey J.

    2012-01-01

    Discussion of academic freedom usually focuses on faculty, and it usually refers to speech. That is the gist of the 1915 "General Report of the Committee on Academic Freedom and Academic Tenure," appearing in the inaugural AAUP "Bulletin" as a kind of mission statement. Given the conditions of the American system of higher education--decentralized…

  4. A Freedom of Information Retrospective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freedom of Information Center, Columbia, MO.

    This booklet was published in observance of the twentieth year of the Freedom of Information Center at the University of Missouri-Columbia. It includes seven speeches about the right to know or freedom of information movement that seeks to end government secrecy. The authors of the speeches are: Paul Fisher, who discusses the history of the…

  5. The Erosion of Academic Freedom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ledoux, Michael W.; Marshall, Thomas; McHenry, Nadine

    2010-01-01

    This article originated from a single question: do the restrictions that various accrediting agencies place on teacher educators limit, or entirely eliminate, academic freedom? Considering that question makes it apparent the problem is much broader than academic freedom. The issue has two foci: personal identity and the impact of market…

  6. The Future of Academic Freedom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menand, Louis, Ed.

    These nine essays address controversial issues of academic freedom and values at the university level. The book, which was derived from two years of debate and lectures presented to national meetings of the American Association of University Professors, is organized in three sections which address such issues as: the purpose of academic freedom,…

  7. The Future of Academic Freedom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menand, Louis, Ed.

    These nine essays address controversial issues of academic freedom and values at the university level. The book, which was derived from two years of debate and lectures presented to national meetings of the American Association of University Professors, is organized in three sections which address such issues as: the purpose of academic freedom,…

  8. Academic Freedom: Crisis and Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirsh, Stephanie A.; Kemerer, Frank R.

    This document was prepared to inform teachers about their academic freedom rights and to assist teachers who are confronted with a potential academic freedom issue. It provides (1) an essay which outlines the issues, (2) a list of significant decisions of the U.S. Courts of Appeals and their implications, (3) steps to follow when academic freedom…

  9. Academic Freedom and Indentured Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Jeffrey J.

    2012-01-01

    Discussion of academic freedom usually focuses on faculty, and it usually refers to speech. That is the gist of the 1915 "General Report of the Committee on Academic Freedom and Academic Tenure," appearing in the inaugural AAUP "Bulletin" as a kind of mission statement. Given the conditions of the American system of higher education--decentralized…

  10. Personality Control and Academic Freedom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Kathlene W.

    1975-01-01

    In Rampey v. Allen faculty members and administrators sued an Oklahoma state college alleging nonrenewal of their contracts abridged their freedom of expression and due process rights. The author examines the circuit court decision in their favor determining that it was a step forward in defining the boundaries of academic freedom. (JT)

  11. Academic Freedom: A Precarious Balance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaNear, John A.

    Academic freedom is an elusive concept. Many university and college faculty members who purport to possess its protections believe they have a solid understanding of its nature and of the individual rights secured by academic freedom. There is some consensus on the meaning of the term in the academic universe. This concurrence of understanding is…

  12. Academic Freedom and Academic Tenure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De George, Richard T.

    2001-01-01

    Asserts that Martin Michaelson's proposal in "Should Untenured as Well as Tenured Faculty Be Guaranteed Academic Freedom? A Few Observations," despite its good intentions, is seriously flawed and if adopted in preference to existing standards will weaken rather than strengthen academic freedom. (EV)

  13. Three Degree of Freedom Parallel Mechanical Linkage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adelstein, Bernard D. (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    A three degree of freedom parallel mechanism or linkage that couples three degree of freedom translational displacements at an endpoint, such as a handle, a hand grip, or a robot tool, to link rotations about three axes that are fixed with respect to a common base or ground link. The mechanism includes a three degree of freedom spherical linkage formed of two closed loops, and a planar linkage connected to the endpoint. The closed loops are rotatably interconnected, and made of eight rigid links connected by a plurality of single degree of freedom revolute joints. Three of these revolute joints are base joints and are connected to a common ground. such that the axis lines passing through the revolute joints intersect at a common fixed center point K forming the center of a spherical work volume in which the endpoint is capable of moving. 'Me three degrees of freedom correspond to the spatial displacement of the endpoint, for instance. The mechanism provides a new overall spatial kinematic linkage composed of a minimal number of rigid links and rotary joints. The mechanism has improved mechanical stiffness, and conveys mechanical power bidirectionally between the human operator and the electromechanical actuators. It does not require gears, belts. cable, screw or other types of transmission elements, and is useful in applications requiring full backdrivability. Thus, this invention can serve as the mechanical linkage for actively powered devices such as compliant robotic manipulators and force-reflecting hand controllers, and passive devices such as manual input devices for computers and other systems.

  14. Academic Freedom: Its Nature, Extent and Value

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrow, Robin

    2009-01-01

    Academic freedom does not refer to freedom to engage in any speech act, but to freedom to hold any belief and espouse it in an appropriately academic manner. This freedom belongs to certain institutions, rather than to individuals, because of their academic nature. Academic freedom should be absolute, regardless of any offence it may on occasion…

  15. Let Freedom Ring! Let Peace Reign!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Mary Elizabeth Mullino

    2012-01-01

    True freedom and true peace are cousins, but they can only work together if the freedom of one people is seen in relation to the freedom of another. Struggles for freedom and peace can only enhance each other if the peace people seek is a robust harmony in which conflict is embraced and people are encouraged to imagine a far stronger freedom and…

  16. Let Freedom Ring! Let Peace Reign!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Mary Elizabeth Mullino

    2012-01-01

    True freedom and true peace are cousins, but they can only work together if the freedom of one people is seen in relation to the freedom of another. Struggles for freedom and peace can only enhance each other if the peace people seek is a robust harmony in which conflict is embraced and people are encouraged to imagine a far stronger freedom and…

  17. Academic Freedom: Its Nature, Extent and Value

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrow, Robin

    2009-01-01

    Academic freedom does not refer to freedom to engage in any speech act, but to freedom to hold any belief and espouse it in an appropriately academic manner. This freedom belongs to certain institutions, rather than to individuals, because of their academic nature. Academic freedom should be absolute, regardless of any offence it may on occasion…

  18. Opportunities for research on Space Station Freedom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, Robert W.

    1992-01-01

    NASA has allocated research accommodations on Freedom (equipment, utilities, etc.) to the program offices that sponsor space-based research and development as follows: Space Science and Applications (OSSA)--52 percent, Commercial Programs (OCP)--28 percent, Aeronautics and Space Technology (OAST)--12 percent, and Space Flight (OSF)--8 percent. Most of OSSA's allocation will be used for microgravity and life science experiments; although OSSA's space physics, astrophysics, earth science and applications, and solar system exploration divisions also will use some of this allocation. Other Federal agencies have expressed an interest in using Space Station Freedom. They include the National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Geological Survey, National Science Foundation, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, and U.S. Departments of Agriculture and Energy. Payload interfaces with space station lab support equipment must be simple, and experiment packages must be highly contained. Freedom's research facilities will feature International Standard Payload Racks (ISPR's), experiment racks that are about twice the size of a Spacelab rack. ESA's Columbus lab will feature 20 racks, the U.S. lab will have 12 racks, and the Japanese lab will have 10. Thus, Freedom will have a total of 42 racks versus 8 for Space lab. NASA is considering outfitting some rack space to accommodate small, self-contained payloads similar to the Get-Away-Special canisters and middeck-locker experiment packages flown on Space Shuttle missions. Crew time allotted to experiments on Freedom at permanently occupied capability will average 25 minutes per rack per day, compared to six hours per rack per day on Spacelab missions. Hence, telescience--the remote operation of space-based experiments by researchers on the ground--will play a very important role in space station research. Plans for supporting life sciences research on Freedom focus on the two basic goals of NASA 's space life sciences

  19. Unwanted Guests: The Impact of Iraqi Refugees on Jordan’s Economy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-13

    part due to domestic concerns that the Iraqis’ presence would destabilize Jordan’s somewhat fragile political and economic institutions and because...process: Before they can be legally employed, Iraqi refugees must obtain a work permit from the Ministry of Labour . To be eligible for a work permit

  20. Synergy across the Curriculum: Simulating the Institution of Postwar Iraqi Government

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Austin, W. Chadwick; McDowell, Todd; Sacko, David H.

    2006-01-01

    This article describes an undergraduate simulation that formulates Iraqi regimes following the removal of Saddam Hussein's Baathist regime. This exercise reinforces student comprehension and awareness for a range of legal and political topics--including group decision making, international law, diplomacy, and human rights--by actively engaging the…