Science.gov

Sample records for operation iraqi freedom

  1. 76 FR 73022 - Agency Information Collection (Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom Seriously...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-28

    ... Injured/Ill Service Member Veteran Worksheet): Activity Under OMB Review AGENCY: Veterans Benefits... Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom Seriously Injured/Ill Service Member Veteran Worksheet, VA Form...

  2. Traumatic brain injury in operation enduring freedom/operation iraqi freedom: a primer.

    PubMed

    Fabrizio, Katherine S; Keltner, Norman L

    2010-12-01

    In greater numbers than in prior conflicts, service members deployed as part of Operation Enduring Freedom and Operation Iraqi Freedom have an increased risk of experiencing a traumatic brain injury (TBI). The basics of TBI are discussed, with particular attention paid to blast-related events, as this is a common mechanism of injury in this population. Particular attention is focused on the pharmacologic treatment of the sequlae of TBI and common comorbid conditions.

  3. AH-64 IHADSS aviator vision experiences in Operation Iraqi Freedom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiatt, Keith L.; Rash, Clarence E.; Harris, Eric S.; McGilberry, William H.

    2004-09-01

    Forty AH-64 Apache aviators representing a total of 8564 flight hours and 2260 combat hours during Operation Iraqi Freedom and its aftermath were surveyed for their visual experiences with the AH-64's monocular Integrated Helmet and Display Sighting System (IHADSS) helmet-mounted display in a combat environment. A major objective of this study was to determine if the frequencies of reports of visual complaints and illusions reported in the previous studies, addressing mostly benign training environments, differ in the more stressful combat environments. The most frequently reported visual complaints, both while and after flying, were visual discomfort and headache, which is consistent with previous studies. Frequencies of complaints after flying in the current study were numerically lower for all complaint types, but differences from previous studies are statistically significant only for visual discomfort and disorientation (vertigo). With the exception of "brownout/whiteout," reports of degraded visual cues in the current study were numerically lower for all types, but statistically significant only for impaired depth perception, decreased field of view, and inadvertent instrumental meteorological conditions. This study also found statistically lower reports of all static and dynamic illusions (with one exception, disorientation). This important finding is attributed to the generally flat and featureless geography present in a large portion of the Iraqi theater and to the shift in the way that the aviators use the two disparate visual inputs presented by the IHADSS monocular design (i.e., greater use of both eyes as opposed to concentrating primarily on display imagery).

  4. 76 FR 58565 - Proposed Information Collection (Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom Seriously...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-21

    ... Injured/Ill Service Member Veteran Worksheet); Comment Request AGENCY: Veterans Benefits Administration... Iraqi Freedom Seriously Injured/Ill Service Member Veteran Worksheet, VA Form 21-0773. OMB...

  5. Problems with veteran-family communication during operation enduring freedom/operation Iraqi freedom military deployment.

    PubMed

    Hinojosa, Ramon; Hinojosa, Melanie Sberna; Högnäs, Robin S

    2012-02-01

    Twenty Reserve component (Army and Marines) and Army National Guard male veterans of Operational Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom discuss their deployment and postdeployment family reintegration experiences. A Grounded Theory approach is used to highlight some of the ways in which family miscommunication during deployment can occur. Communication with civilian family members is affected by the needs of operational security, technical problems with communication tools, miscommunication between family members, or because veterans have "nothing new to say" to family back home. These communication difficulties may lead to an initial gulf of understanding between veterans and family members that can cause family strain during postdeployment family reintegration. We end with a discussion of veteran family reintegration difficulties.

  6. Challenges and Opportunities of Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom Veterans with Disabilities Transitioning into Learning and Workplace Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ostovary, Fariba; Dapprich, Janet

    2011-01-01

    This article presents issues related to disabled military servicemen and women who are transitioning to civilian life. The emphasis is on the experience of veterans serving in the Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF) and Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF) as they reintegrate into civilian workplace and learning environments. The authors begin with an…

  7. Medical Logistics Lessons Observed During Operations Enduring Freedom and Iraqi Freedom.

    PubMed

    Dole, Mark J; Kissane, Jonathan M

    2016-01-01

    Medical Logistics (MEDLOG) is a function of the Army's integrated System for Health that provides the medical products and specialized logistics services required to deliver health protection and care under all operational conditions. In unified land operations, MEDLOG is an inherent function of Health Service Support (HSS), which also includes casualty care and medical evacuation. This paper focuses on a few key lessons observed during Operations Enduring Freedom and Iraqi Freedom with direct implications for the support of HSS in future operations as envisioned in the Army Operating Concept and the Joint Concept for Health Services. It also examines a few key enablers that helped mitigate these challenges that are not yet fully acknowledged in Army Medical Department doctrine, policy, and planning. PMID:27215878

  8. Medical Logistics Lessons Observed During Operations Enduring Freedom and Iraqi Freedom.

    PubMed

    Dole, Mark J; Kissane, Jonathan M

    2016-01-01

    Medical Logistics (MEDLOG) is a function of the Army's integrated System for Health that provides the medical products and specialized logistics services required to deliver health protection and care under all operational conditions. In unified land operations, MEDLOG is an inherent function of Health Service Support (HSS), which also includes casualty care and medical evacuation. This paper focuses on a few key lessons observed during Operations Enduring Freedom and Iraqi Freedom with direct implications for the support of HSS in future operations as envisioned in the Army Operating Concept and the Joint Concept for Health Services. It also examines a few key enablers that helped mitigate these challenges that are not yet fully acknowledged in Army Medical Department doctrine, policy, and planning.

  9. 75 FR 1120 - Agency Information Collection (Health-Care Use Survey for Enduring Freedom and Operation Iraqi...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-08

    ... AFFAIRS Agency Information Collection (Health-Care Use Survey for Enduring Freedom and Operation Iraqi...: Health-Care Use Survey for Enduring Freedom and Operation Iraqi Freedom (OEF/OIF) Veterans. OMB Control... study are to: (1) Examine the stigma-related barriers to VA health care; (2) document unique barriers...

  10. Implications of humanitarian orthopaedic surgery in a combat zone: Operation Enduring Freedom and Iraqi Freedom experience.

    PubMed

    Robins, R Judd; Porta, C Rees; Eastridge, Brian J; Holcomb, John B; Martin, Matthew J

    2014-01-01

    The primary mission of deployed military orthopaedic surgeons in a combat zone is to treat musculoskeletal battlefield trauma and associated wartime injuries. The role of humanitarian surgical care during combat operations has not been defined. An anonymous online survey was sent to databases containing all U.S. military active-duty orthopaedic surgeons as well as to members of the Society of Military Orthopaedic Surgeons. Inclusion criteria for the study were defined as at least one deployment to Iraq (Operation Iraqi Freedom, OIF) or Afghanistan (Operation Enduring Freedom, OEF). Three hundred fifty-six invitations were sent with 107 orthopaedic surgeons completing the survey. Respondents reported approximately 3,000 humanitarian surgeries performed in the combat zone, with 70% to 80% involving chronic deformity and nonunion surgeries. Seventy-nine percent of the respondents believed that humanitarian surgery was a key component of the mission, improved skills (73%), benefited population (76%), and improved security (61%). A significant amount of humanitarian surgery in the combat zone has been performed in OEF/OIF. PMID:25153810

  11. US Army Physical Therapist Roles and Contributions in Operations Enduring Freedom and Iraqi Freedom.

    PubMed

    Shaffer, Scott W; Moore, Josef H

    2016-01-01

    Musculoskeletal injuries are a leading cause of health care utilization, medical evacuation, and disability. US Army physical therapists (PTs) have served as physician extenders for the management of nonsurgical neuromusculoskeletal injuries since the Vietnam conflict. The roles and evidence supporting US Army physical therapy continue to evolve. This article discusses the different levels of care and roles of US Army PTs, the contributions and evidence regarding US Army physical therapy, and physical therapy lessons learned during Operations Enduring Freedom and Iraqi Freedom. Since 2001, US Army PTs and enlisted physical therapy technicians have provided care from Levels 1 to 5 and assignments have expanded to special operations and brigade combat teams. Evidence suggests US Army PTs serving both in referral and direct access roles provided safe and definitive care that maximized readiness while reducing evacuation. Key physical therapy lessons learned include: (1) a continued focus on a Soldier sports medicine forward care model, (2) a need for injury risk assessment, physical performance screenings, and reconditioning programs that optimize readiness, and (3) continued support for physical therapy structure, training, and research that maximizes Soldier readiness and health. PMID:27215867

  12. US Army Physical Therapist Roles and Contributions in Operations Enduring Freedom and Iraqi Freedom.

    PubMed

    Shaffer, Scott W; Moore, Josef H

    2016-01-01

    Musculoskeletal injuries are a leading cause of health care utilization, medical evacuation, and disability. US Army physical therapists (PTs) have served as physician extenders for the management of nonsurgical neuromusculoskeletal injuries since the Vietnam conflict. The roles and evidence supporting US Army physical therapy continue to evolve. This article discusses the different levels of care and roles of US Army PTs, the contributions and evidence regarding US Army physical therapy, and physical therapy lessons learned during Operations Enduring Freedom and Iraqi Freedom. Since 2001, US Army PTs and enlisted physical therapy technicians have provided care from Levels 1 to 5 and assignments have expanded to special operations and brigade combat teams. Evidence suggests US Army PTs serving both in referral and direct access roles provided safe and definitive care that maximized readiness while reducing evacuation. Key physical therapy lessons learned include: (1) a continued focus on a Soldier sports medicine forward care model, (2) a need for injury risk assessment, physical performance screenings, and reconditioning programs that optimize readiness, and (3) continued support for physical therapy structure, training, and research that maximizes Soldier readiness and health.

  13. Descriptive summary of patients seen at the surgical companies during Operation Iraqi Freedom-1.

    PubMed

    Walker, G Jay; Zouris, James; Galarneau, Michael F; Dye, Judy

    2007-01-01

    The Navy-Marine Corps Combat Trauma Registry is a data repository summarizing information from data sets describing injuries sustained and treatments administered to casualties from the point of injury to rehabilitation. Among the medical facilities contributing data to the Combat Trauma Registry during Operation Iraqi Freedom were the Marine Corps forward surgical companies. The surgical companies offer resuscitative surgery, medical treatment, and temporary holding facilities, in addition to preparing patients for evacuation. This article reviews the types of patients admitted and treatments provided at the surgical companies during the major combat period of Operation Iraqi Freedom. The surgical companies saw an average of 15 to 17 patients per day during this period. Less than 20% of the U.S. casualties seen were wounded in action. In contrast, >75% of the enemy prisoner of war presentations were for battle injuries. Less than 15% of the patients were held at the facilities for >24 hours.

  14. A review of driving simulator parameters relevant to the Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom veteran population.

    PubMed

    Kraft, Malissa; Amick, Melissa M; Barth, Jeffrey T; French, Louis M; Lew, Henry L

    2010-04-01

    There is currently a pressing need for safe, reliable, cost-effective methods of evaluating driving ability. With recent improvements in virtual reality technology, driving simulators seem to offer a promising alternative to on-road methods of driving assessment. One population at risk for driving difficulties may be veterans returning from combat in Iraq or Afghanistan. The use of driving simulators to evaluate and remediate veterans' abilities to operate a motor vehicle is a rehabilitative goal. However, there are no consistent standardized procedures for determining safe from unsafe driving using driving simulators, which limit the clinical utility of this important tool. The purposes of this article are (1) to give the reader a better understanding of the parameters that are most commonly measured in the driving simulation literature and (2) to review parameters that are most relevant for the Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom veteran population. PMID:20299851

  15. Using military friendships to optimize postdeployment reintegration for male Operation Iraqi Freedom/Operation Enduring Freedom veterans.

    PubMed

    Hinojosa, Ramon; Hinojosa, Melanie Sberna

    2011-01-01

    Social relationships are important to health out comes. The postdeployment family reintegration literature focuses on the role of the civilian family in facilitating the transition from Active Duty military deployment to civilian society. The focus on the civilian family relationship may miss other important personal connections in veterans' lives. One such connection is the relationship many veterans have with former military unit members who served with them when deployed. Drawing on interviews with male Operation Iraqi Freedom/Operation Enduring Freedom veterans conducted from 2008 to 2009, we argue that the members of a military unit, especially during armed conflict, should be considered a resource to help the "family" reintegration process rather than impede it. This research has implications for current reintegration policy and how best to assist veterans transitioning into civilian society.

  16. Postdeployment driving stress and related occupational limitations among veterans of Operation Iraqi Freedom and Operation Enduring Freedom.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Eric J; Peyton, Claudia G; Kim, David K; Nakama-Sato, Kristine K; Noble, Amy E

    2014-01-01

    Difficulty in driving after deployment has emerged as an impediment for servicemembers returning from Operation Iraqi Freedom and Operation Enduring Freedom (OIF-OEF). This study explored postdeployment driving stress and related occupational limitations using two self-report instruments: the Driver's Stress Profile and the Driving and Occupational Limitations questionnaire. Data gathered from 103 OIF-OEF returnees confirmed that driving and related occupational issues occur postdeployment. Significant low to moderate correlations were found between postdeployment driving stress and limitations in community mobility, leisure, and social participation. The returnees who drove off base more frequently during deployment showed significantly higher levels of postdeployment driving stress than the returnees who drove off base less frequently. Moreover, the returnees who demonstrated higher levels of driving stress and occupational limitations required more time to resume normal driving postdeployment. Findings raise awareness about the need to design effective driver rehabilitation and community reintegration programs for this population.

  17. Physical activity in postdeployment Operation Iraqi Freedom/Operation Enduring Freedom veterans using Department of Veterans Affairs services.

    PubMed

    Buis, Lorraine R; Kotagal, Lindsey V; Porcari, Carole E; Rauch, Sheila A M; Krein, Sarah L; Richardson, Caroline R

    2011-01-01

    Veteran activity levels may decrease between Active Duty and postdeployment. We examined attitudes and changes in self-reported activities between the two in Operation Iraqi Freedom/Operation Enduring Freedom (OIF/OEF) veterans using Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) services. We conducted an online cross-sectional survey (June-August 2008) of postdeployment OIF/OEF veterans registered with the VA Ann Arbor Healthcare System, Ann Arbor, Michigan. Descriptive statistics summarized demographic data and attitudes, while regression analyses compared physical activities during Active Duty with physical activities postdeployment. Participants (n = 319, 15.6% response rate) reported that they believe staying physically fit is important, they worry about gaining weight, and they believe exercise will keep them healthy (77%, 72%, and 90% agree or strongly agree, respectively). Running (30.0%), Exercise with Gym Equipment (21.5%), Occupational Activities (14.9%), and Walking (13.0%) were the most frequently reported Active Duty physical activities. The most frequently reported postdeployment physical activities included Walking (21.1%), Running (18.5%), and Exercise with Gym Equipment (17.9%). Health problems (39%) and chronic pain (52%) were common barriers to physical activity. Postdeployment OIF/OEF veterans using the VA believe physical activity is beneficial, yet many report health problems and/or chronic pain that makes exercise difficult. Physical activity promotes health, and strategies are needed to facilitate physical activity in this population. PMID:22068369

  18. The Invisible Wound: Moral Injury and Its Impact on the Health of Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom Veterans.

    PubMed

    Yan, Grace W

    2016-05-01

    Many veterans are now returning from Operation Enduring Freedom and Operation Iraqi Freedom (OEF/OIF) deployments with physical and mental health problems. However, there are few studies that examine the impact of moral injury on both physical and mental well-being. This study examines the impact of moral injury on self-reported general physical health, general mental health, post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms, and depression symptoms. Cross-sectional data were collected at as part of a pilot study at the New Jersey Veteran Affairs. 100 OEF/OIF veterans recruited at the New Jersey Veteran Affairs completed the paper questionnaire. We found that moral injury and combat experiences positively predicted post-traumatic stress disorder scores. Seeing the aftermath of battle and moral injury were negatively associated with mental well-being and positively associated with depression. Physical health status was negatively associated with depression. Spirituality and moral injury were negatively associated with physical health, whereas age was positively associated with physical health. Moral injury plays an important role in both physical and mental health outcomes for OEF/OIF veterans, but it is often not addressed in health care. These results underline the need for an approach to veterans' health care that includes discussion of existential and moral issues since they may impact health outcomes for many service members.

  19. Warrior Resilience Training in Operation Iraqi Freedom: combining rational emotive behavior therapy, resiliency, and positive psychology.

    PubMed

    Jarrett, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Warrior Resilience Training (WRT) is an educational class designed to enhance Warrior resilience, thriving, and posttraumatic growth for Soldiers deployed in Operation Iraqi Freedom. Warrior Resilience Training uses rational emotive behavior therapy (REBT), Army leadership principles, and positive psychology as a vehicle for students to apply resilient philosophies derived from Army Warrior Ethos, Stoic philosophy, and the survivor and resiliency literature. Students in WRT are trained to focus upon virtue, character, and emotional self-regulation by constructing and maintaining a personal resiliency philosophy that emphasizes critical thinking, rationality, virtue, and Warrior Ethos. The author, an Army licensed clinical social worker, executive coach, REBT doctoral fellow, and former Special Forces noncommissioned officer, describes his initial experience teaching WRT during Operation Iraqi Freedom to combat medics and Soldiers from 2005 to 2006, and his experience as a leader of a combat stress control prevention team currently in Iraq offering mobile WRT classes in-theater. Warrior Resilience Training rationale, curriculum, variants (like Warrior Family Resilience Training), and feedback are included, with suggestions as to how behavioral health providers and combat stress control teams might better integrate their services with leaders, chaplains, and commands to better market combat stress resiliency, reduce barriers to care, and promote force preservation. Informal analysis of class feedback from 1168 respondents regarding WRT reception and utilization is examined.

  20. Orthopedic injuries in U.S. casualties treated on a hospital ship during Operation Iraqi Freedom.

    PubMed

    Enad, Jerome G; Headrick, Jeff D

    2008-10-01

    From March to May 2003, the USNS Comfort was deployed to the Persian Gulf in support of combat operations for Operation Iraqi Freedom. The onboard orthopedic service treated 58 U.S. casualties during that period. Eighty-seven percent of the injuries were to the appendicular skeleton. Twenty-four percent were battle injuries, and 72% were nonbattle injuries. Patients with battle injuries tended to be younger and required more orthopedic operations than did patients with nonbattle injuries. Moreover, all patients with battle injuries were evacuated to higher echelons for further care, whereas 19% of patients with nonbattle injuries returned to duty in the short term. Complications were few, with no infections, amputations, or deaths. A descriptive review of the types of injuries, orthopedic care, and eventual disposition is presented.

  1. Prolonged Exposure for Guilt and Shame in a Veteran of Operation Iraqi Freedom

    PubMed Central

    Paul, Lisa A.; Gros, Daniel F.; Strachan, Martha; Worsham, Glenna; Foa, Edna B.; Acierno, Ron

    2014-01-01

    Morally injurious events appear capable of producing posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), even though they may not involve actual or perceived life-threat or a response of fear, horror, or helplessness. Researchers have questioned whether exposure therapies can address these events. The current report presents evidence of the effectiveness of this treatment approach for addressing posttraumatic symptoms related to a morally injurious event through an illustrative case of an Operation Iraqi Freedom veteran with PTSD characterized by symptoms of guilt and shame. The veteran was successfully treated with nine sessions of prolonged exposure therapy, reporting minimal PTSD symptoms one week post-treatment and at a six-month follow-up assessment. Implications for the treatment of veterans with significant guilt and shame using exposure-based therapies, and with respect to the recent changes to the diagnostic criteria for PTSD, are discussed. PMID:25505798

  2. AH-64 aviator impressions of IHADSS HMD flight in Operation Iraqi Freedom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiatt, Keith L.; Rash, Clarence E.

    2005-05-01

    As part of a 2003 survey during Operation Iraqi Freedom, forty AH-64 Apache aviators were interviewed regarding their experience using the AH-64"s monocular helmet-mounted display (HMD). Participants represented a total of 8564 flight hours and 2260 combat hours in the OIF theatre of operation. The interview consisted of 12 questions that addressed previously identified potential problem areas (e.g., maintaining full field-of-view [FOV], combiner breakage, and sensor slew rate) and requested participant opinion on the best and worst features of the IHADSS, day versus night use of the IHADSS, and the acceptance of a hypothetical binocular IHADSS design. Participants expressed a desire for a larger FOV; emphasized the impact of poor helmet fit on ability to achieve and maintain a full FOV; decried the overall performance of the current FLIR sensors; and reported that the current slew rates for the PNVS and TADS are slower than desired (worse for TADS), necessitating compensation in normal head movement rates.

  3. Improving Treatment Engagement for Returning Operation Enduring Freedom and Operation Iraqi Freedom Veterans With Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, Depression, and Suicidal Ideation.

    PubMed

    Gallegos, Autumn M; Streltzov, Nicholas A; Stecker, Tracy

    2016-05-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is associated with increased risk of suicidal ideation among veterans of Operation Enduring Freedom and Operation Iraqi Freedom. This report examined the effectiveness of a brief phone-based cognitive-behavioral intervention on treatment seeking among suicidal and nonsuicidal Operation Enduring Freedom and Operation Iraqi Freedom veterans who screened positive for PTSD. Participants were randomized to the intervention or control conditions. We found that suicidal participants, regardless of condition, were twice as likely to attend treatment as nonsuicidal participants. Participants assigned to the control condition who did not indicate suicidality at baseline were less likely to attend treatment at both the 1- and 6-month follow-up interviews. Qualitative findings of the suicidal participants indicated PTSD and depressive symptoms, low social support, and infrequent positive coping mechanisms. Our finding indicates the effectiveness of an intervention to motivate veterans with PTSD to initiate and remain in treatment. The intervention might be particularly useful prior to experiencing a psychological crisis. PMID:26894313

  4. AH-64 monocular HMD visual assessment during urban combat in operation Iraqi freedom (OIF)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rash, Clarence E.; Heinecke, J. Kevin; Hiatt, Keith L.

    2007-04-01

    In the first two decades of the fielding of the monocular helmet-mounted display (HMD) flown in the U.S. Army's AH-64 Apache attack helicopter, a number of studies reported a significant incidence of physical visual symptoms and illusions. In 2004, a similar study looked at the presence of these complaints during the first combat phase of Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF). The study found a general trend of a reduced frequency of complaints associated with the AH-64's HMD. A follow-up study has been conducted to validate this downward trend and to investigate the impact the shift in mission role of the AH-64 from one of open-field tank hunter to one of close-quarter urban combat. Thirty-eight AH-64D pilots were asked to complete a survey questionnaire that solicited data about the presence and frequency of the visual complaints reported in previous studies. Data for physical visual symptoms and static and dynamic illusions were found not to be significantly different from frequencies reported in the previous OIF study. Both OIF studies reported headache as the prominent physical complaint with height judgment and slope estimation as the most frequently reported static illusions and with undetected drift and faulty closure judgment as the two most frequently reported dynamic illusions.

  5. Repeated concussion among U.S. military personnel during Operation Iraqi Freedom.

    PubMed

    MacGregor, Andrew J; Dougherty, Amber L; Morrison, Rosemary H; Quinn, Kimberly H; Galarneau, Michael R

    2011-01-01

    Concussions are a predominant injury of the conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan. The aims of this study were to describe repeated concussive events among U.S. military personnel injured in Operation Iraqi Freedom and examine subsequent healthcare utilization. We reviewed clinical records from the Expeditionary Medical Encounter Database to identify service members with repeat concussions. We abstracted demographic and injury-specific variables, calculated time between events, and identified healthcare utilization from electronic medical databases. Overall, 113 personnel experienced more than one concussion between 2004 and 2008. A majority of these incidents were blast related. The median time between events was 40 days, with 20% experiencing a second event within 2 weeks of the first and 87% within 3 months. Time between events was not associated with severity of the second event. Greater severity of the second concussive event was associated with higher postinjury utilization of mental health and neurology services. This study is one of the first to describe repeated concussions in a combat setting. We found that repeated concussions occur within a short interval among deployed personnel, although the effects of the first event are unclear. Further research is needed to define the effect of repeated concussions on the health of combat veterans.

  6. Select Public Health and Communicable Disease Lessons Learned During Operations Iraqi Freedom and Enduring Freedom.

    PubMed

    Garges, Eric C; Taylor, Kevin M; Pacha, Laura A

    2016-01-01

    History has taught us that the threat of communicable diseases to operational readiness should not be underestimated. The unique operational challenges of a decade at war in Southwest Asia have left us with many new lessons about prevention and mitigation of disease. The successes of military immunization programs demonstrated the successful application of military science to modern combat. Historic maladies such as tuberculosis and malaria continue to challenge our Army health leadership while new challenges with diseases like Q fever and rabies led to questions about our preparedness. These conflicts also brought awareness of issues about the broader deployed community, and the often unique risks that arise when US service members interact more frequently with foreign militaries, local nationals, and third country nationals. Application of these lessons to predeployment training and integration into leadership decision-making will improve our ability to maintain force readiness in future conflicts and adapt Army policy to current evidence and intelligence. PMID:27215886

  7. An examination of the roles of trauma exposure and posttraumatic stress disorder on emotion regulation strategies of Operation Iraqi Freedom, Operation Enduring Freedom, and Operation New Dawn veterans.

    PubMed

    Sippel, Lauren M; Roy, Alicia M; Southwick, Steven M; Fichtenholtz, Harlan M

    2016-09-01

    Theories of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) implicate emotional processes, including difficulties utilizing adaptive emotion regulation strategies, as critical to the etiology and maintenance of PTSD. Operation Iraqi Freedom, Operation Enduring Freedom, and Operation New Dawn (OIF/OEF/OND) veterans report high levels of combat exposure and PTSD. We aimed to extend findings suggesting that emotion regulation difficulties are a function of PTSD, rather than combat trauma exposure or common comorbidities, to OIF/OEF/OND veterans, in order to inform models of PTSD risk and recovery that can be applied to returning veterans. We tested differences in emotion regulation, measured with the Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale and Emotion Regulation Questionnaire, among trauma-exposed veterans with (n = 24) or without PTSD (n = 22) and healthy civilian comparison participants (n = 27) using multivariate analyses of covariance, adjusting for major depressive disorder, anxiety disorders, and demographic variables (age, sex, and ethnicity). Veterans with PTSD reported more use of expressive suppression and more difficulties with emotion regulation than veterans without PTSD and healthy comparison participants. Groups did not differ on cognitive reappraisal. Findings suggest the key role of PTSD above and beyond trauma exposure, depression, and anxiety in specific aspects of emotion dysregulation among OIF/OEF/OND veterans. Interventions that help veterans expand and diversify their emotion regulation skills may serve as helpful adjunctive treatments for PTSD among OIF/OEF/OND veterans. PMID:27195939

  8. Combat experiences, pre-deployment training, and outcome of exposure therapy for post-traumatic stress disorder in Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom veterans.

    PubMed

    Price, Matthew; Gros, Daniel F; Strachan, Martha; Ruggiero, Kenneth J; Acierno, Ron

    2013-01-01

    The association between exposure to multiple potentially traumatic events (PTEs) and subsequent increased risk of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is well established. However, less is known about the relation between exposure to numerous PTEs, as is typical with military service, and treatment outcome. Furthermore, there has been little research examining military specific protective factors, such as pre-deployment preparedness, on PTSD treatment response. The current study investigated combat exposure and potential moderators of treatment outcome for exposure therapy in Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom (OEF/OIF) veterans with PTSD. One hundred and eleven OEF/OIF veterans diagnosed with PTSD participated in 8 weeks of exposure therapy. Results indicated that increased combat exposure was associated with a reduced rate of change in PTSD symptoms but not depression symptoms. These findings were consistent across two measures of combat exposure. There was preliminary support for the moderating effect of pre-deployment preparedness on the association between combat exposure and treatment response. Together, these findings suggest that increased combat exposure is associated with poor treatment response in veterans with PTSD; however, this can be reduced by elevated pre-deployment preparedness.

  9. Combat Experiences, Pre-Deployment Training, and Outcome of Exposure Therapy for Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder in Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom Veterans

    PubMed Central

    Price, Matthew; Gros, Daniel F.; Strachan, Martha; Ruggiero, Kenneth J.; Acierno, Ron

    2012-01-01

    The association between exposure to multiple potentially traumatic events (PTEs) and subsequent increased risk of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is well established. However, less is known about the relation between exposure to numerous PTEs, as is typical with military service, and treatment outcome. Furthermore, there has been little research examining military specific protective factors, such as pre-deployment preparedness, on PTSD treatment response. The current study investigated combat exposure and potential moderators of treatment outcome for exposure therapy in Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom (OEF/OIF) veterans with PTSD. One hundred and eleven OEF/OIF veterans diagnosed with PTSD participated in 8 weeks of exposure therapy. Results indicated that increased combat exposure was associated with a reduced rate of change in PTSD symptoms but not depression symptoms. These findings were consistent across two measures of combat exposure. There was preliminary support for the moderating effect of pre-deployment preparedness on the association between combat exposure and treatment response. Together, these findings suggest that increased combat exposure is associated with poor treatment response in veterans with PTSD; however, this can be reduced by elevated pre-deployment preparedness. PMID:22253233

  10. Traumatic Brain Injury in United States Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom (OEF/OIF) Hispanic Veterans—A Review Using the PRISMA Method

    PubMed Central

    Arriola, Vanessa D.; Rozelle, Jeffrey W.

    2016-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is commonly defined by Menon et al. as an “alteration of the brain function, or other evidence of brain pathology, caused by an external force.” TBI can be caused by penetrating trauma to the head in which the magnitude of the injury is dependent on the magnitude of the forces that are applied to the head. The consequences of TBI can range from minimal to severe disability and even death. The major objectives of this systematic review are to survey the current literature on Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF) and Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF) Hispanic veterans with TBI. To complete this analysis, the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and MetaAnalysis (PRISMA) identified 875 articles in common and retrieved a total of 34 articles that met the inclusion criteria, consisted of OEF/OIF Hispanic veterans, reported quantitative data, and were conducted with adult U.S. veterans living in the United States. Since TBI diagnosis was unclear in most articles, only five articles that used the VATBIST instrument were analyzed. The results suggested that there is a lack of research on OEF/OIF Hispanic veterans and Hispanic subgroups. Future studies need to be conducted to consider minority groups while analyzing data involving TBI. PMID:26771647

  11. Combined PTSD and depressive symptoms interact with post-deployment social support to predict suicidal ideation in Operation Enduring Freedom and Operation Iraqi Freedom veterans.

    PubMed

    Debeer, Bryann B; Kimbrel, Nathan A; Meyer, Eric C; Gulliver, Suzy B; Morissette, Sandra B

    2014-05-30

    Rates of suicide are alarmingly high in military and veteran samples. Suicide rates are particularly elevated among those with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression, which share overlapping symptoms and frequently co-occur. Identifying and confirming factors that reduce, suicide risk among veterans with PTSD and depression is imperative. The proposed study evaluated, whether post-deployment social support moderated the influence of PTSD-depression symptoms on, suicidal ideation among Veterans returning from Iraq and Afghanistan using state of the art clinical, diagnostic interviews and self-report measures. Operations Enduring and Iraqi Freedom (OEF/OIF) Veterans (n=145) were invited to, participate in a study evaluating returning Veterans׳ experiences. As predicted, PTSD-depression, symptoms had almost no effect on suicidal ideation (SI) when post-deployment social support was high; however, when, post-deployment social support was low, PTSD-depression symptoms were positively associated with, SI. Thus, social support may be an important factor for clinicians to assess in the context of PTSD and, depressive symptoms. Future research is needed to prospectively examine the inter-relationship, between PTSD/depression and social support on suicidal risk, as well as whether interventions to, improve social support result in decreased suicidality.

  12. Combined PTSD and Depressive Symptoms Interact with Post-Deployment Social Support to Predict Suicidal Ideation in Operation Enduring Freedom and Operation Iraqi Freedom Veterans

    PubMed Central

    DeBeer, Bryann B.; Kimbrel, Nathan A.; Meyer, Eric C.; Gulliver, Suzy B.; Morissette, Sandra B.

    2016-01-01

    Rates of suicide are alarmingly high in military and veteran samples. Suicide rates are particularly elevated among those with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression, which share overlapping symptoms and frequently co-occur. Identifying and confirming factors that reduce suicide risk among veterans with PTSD and depression is imperative. The proposed study evaluated whether post-deployment social support moderated the influence of PTSD-depression symptoms on suicidal ideation among veterans returning from Iraq and Afghanistan using state of the art clinical diagnostic interviews and self-report measures. Operations Enduring and Iraqi Freedom (OEF/OIF) veterans (n=145) were invited to participate in a study evaluation returning veterans’ experiences. As predicted, PTSD-depression symptoms had almost no effect on suicidal ideation (SI) when post-deployment social support was high; however, when post-deployment social support was low, PTSD-depression symptoms were positively associated with SI. Thus, social support may be an important factor for clinicians to assess in the context of PTSD and depressive symptoms. Future research is needed to prospectively examine the interrelationship between PTSD/depression and social support on suicidal risk, as well as whether interventions to improve social support result in decreased suicidality. PMID:24612971

  13. Over-reporting bias and the modified Stroop effect in Operation Enduring and Iraqi Freedom veterans with and without PTSD.

    PubMed

    Constans, Joseph I; Kimbrell, Timothy A; Nanney, John T; Marx, Brian P; Jegley, Susan; Pyne, Jeffrey M

    2014-02-01

    The current study investigated in a sample of Operation Enduring and Iraqi Freedom (OEF/OIF) veterans how a symptom overreporting response style might influence the association between PTSD diagnostic status and color-naming response latency for trauma-related stimuli during the Modified Stroop Task (i.e., the Modified Stroop Task effect, MST effect). It was hypothesized that, if an overreporting response style reflected feigning or exaggerating PTSD symptoms, an attenuated MST effect would be expected in overreporters with PTSD as compared with PTSD-diagnosed veterans without an overreporting style. If, however, overreporting stemmed from high levels of distress, the MST effect might be greater in overreporters compared with those with a neutral response style. The results showed that veterans with PTSD and an overreporting response style demonstrated an augmented MST effect in comparison with those with a more neutral style of response. Overreporters also reported greater levels of psychopathology, including markedly elevated reports of dissociative experiences. We suggest that dissociation-prone overreporters may misattribute emotional distress to combat experiences leading to the enhanced MST effect. Other possible explanations for these results are also discussed.

  14. Homecoming of soldiers who are citizens: Re-employment and financial status of returning Army National Guard soldiers from Operations Iraqi Freedom (OIF) and Enduring Freedom (OEF).

    PubMed

    Griffith, James

    2015-01-01

    This study examined civilian employment among Army National Guard soldiers who had recently returned from Operations Iraqi Freedom (OIF) and Enduring Freedom (OEF). Of specific interest were relationships of re-employment and financial difficulties to several conditions, such as amount of social support during and after deployment, combat exposure, negative feelings during and after deployment, and postdeployment adjustment symptoms. Survey data from the Army's Reintegration Unit Risk Inventory were used (4,546 soldiers in 50 units who were deployed during 2010). Few soldiers reported financial difficulties during deployment (7.1% of the sample) and after having returned (11.8%). Of those who reported postdeployment financial difficulties, nearly one-half had reported such difficulties during deployment, and not having resumed the predeployment job was associated with more postdeployment financial difficulties. Logistic regression analyses showed the relative contribution of the study variables to changed financial status, from deployment to postdeployment. Reported deployment support (e.g., trust in the unit chain-of-command and available support) was associated with decreased financial difficulties. In contrast, increased financial difficulties were associated with having seen others wounded or killed in combat. Other postdeployment experiences, such as feelings of anger and frustration and available support, were associated with increased financial difficulties, in addition to alcohol use, trouble sleeping and suicidal thoughts. Implications of results for policy and practice to lessen financial hardships and job loss associated with deployment are discussed.

  15. Effects of Escitalopram on Autonomic Function in Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Among Veterans of Operations Enduring Freedom and Iraqi Freedom (OEF/OIF)

    PubMed Central

    Selvaraj, Vithyalakshmi; Driscoll, David; Madabushi, Jayakrishna S.; Bhatia, Subhash C.; Yeragani, Vikram

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Posttraumatic stress disorder is a chronic, debilitating condition that has become a growing concern among combat veterans. Previous research suggests that posttraumatic stress disorder disrupts normal autonomic responding and may increase the risk of cardiovascular disease and mortality. Measures of heart rate variability and QT interval variability have been used extensively to characterize sympathetic and parasympathetic influences on heart rate in a variety of psychiatric populations. The objective of this study was to better understand the effects of pharmacological treatment on autonomic reactivity in posttraumatic stress disorder. Design: A 12-week, Phase IV, prospective, open-label trial of escitalopram in veterans with combat-related posttraumatic stress disorder and comorbid depression. Setting: An outpatient mental health clinic at a Veterans Affairs Medical Center. Participants: Eleven male veterans of Operations Enduring Freedom and Iraqi Freedom diagnosed with posttraumatic stress disorder and comorbid depression. Measurements: Autonomic reactivity was measured by examining heart rate variability and QT interval variability. Treatment safety and efficacy were also evaluated pre- and post-treatment. Results: We observed a reduction in posttraumatic stress disorder and depression symptoms from pre- to post-treatment, and escitalopram was generally well tolerated in our sample. In addition, we observed a decrease in high frequency heart rate variability and an increase in QT variability, indicating a reduction in cardiac vagal function and heightened sympathetic activation. Conclusion: These findings suggest that escitalopram treatment in patients with posttraumatic stress disorder and depression can trigger changes in autonomic reactivity that may adversely impact cardiovascular health. PMID:26155373

  16. Expanding a professional dental care system: experiences of Task Force 261 Multifunctional Medical Battalion during Operation Iraqi Freedom 07-09.

    PubMed

    Christopher, Frank L; Smith, Gregory M; Cobb, James W; Patterson, Craig G; Smith, Mark A; Pollard, Jennifer A

    2008-01-01

    During Operation Iraqi Freedom 07-09, Task Force 261 Multifunctional Medical Battalion managed an extensive dental care system stretching throughout the Iraq theater of operations. We illustrate several of the unique challenges faced by Task Force 261's headquarters and its dental and area support companies, and describe the remedies emplaced by the Task Force. Personnel structure, the evacuation chain, supply and facility management, dental civil-military operations, detainee care, information technology applications, and public health initiatives are discussed in detail. PMID:20084764

  17. Comparing the Neuropsychological Test Performance of Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom (OEF/OIF) Veterans with and without Blast Exposure, Mild Traumatic Brain Injury, and Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms.

    PubMed

    Storzbach, Daniel; O'Neil, Maya Elin; Roost, Saw-Myo; Kowalski, Halina; Iverson, Grant L; Binder, Laurence M; Fann, Jesse R; Huckans, Marilyn

    2015-05-01

    To compare neuropsychological test performance of Veterans with and without mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI), blast exposure, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. We compared the neuropsychological test performance of 49 Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom (OEF/OIF) Veterans diagnosed with MTBI resulting from combat blast-exposure to that of 20 blast-exposed OEF/OIF Veterans without history of MTBI, 23 OEF/OIF Veterans with no blast exposure or MTBI history, and 40 matched civilian controls. Comparison of neuropsychological test performance across all four participant groups showed a complex pattern of mixed significant and mostly nonsignificant results, with omnibus tests significant for measures of attention, spatial abilities, and executive function. The most consistent pattern was the absence of significant differences between blast-exposed Veterans with MTBI history and blast-exposed Veterans without MTBI history. When blast-exposed Veteran groups with and without MTBI history were aggregated and compared to non-blast-exposed Veterans, there were significant differences for some measures of learning and memory, spatial abilities, and executive function. However, covariation for severity of PTSD symptoms eliminated all significant omnibus neuropsychological differences between Veteran groups. Our results suggest that, although some mild neurocognitive effects were associated with blast exposure, these neurocognitive effects might be better explained by PTSD symptom severity rather than blast exposure or MTBI history alone.

  18. Acute spinal cord injury and infection with multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter calcoaceticus-baumannii complex among returning Operation Iraqi Freedom soldiers: Successful innovations in rehabilitation during isolation.

    PubMed

    Recio, Albert C; Bohart, Zachary W; Havens, Spencer R; Stiens, Steven A

    2010-04-01

    Concerns about drug-resistant infectious organisms are increasing in rehabilitation facilities. Resulting isolation protocols can potentially challenge the patients' access to medical care, psychological adaptation, mobility, and environmental interaction and therefore hinder the rehabilitation process. We report a systematic, retrospective case review of an active-duty Army sergeant who sustained a C5 American Spinal Cord Injury Association Impairment Scale A spinal cord injury while serving in Operation Iraqi Freedom. The patient's acute rehabilitation was complicated by an Acinetobacter calcoaceticus-baumannii complex infection, in the blood and urine, contracted while in Iraq. Isolation protocols were designed to enable regular hands-on contact for proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation, transfers, wheelchair fitting, mobility training, and environmental control. After 1 mo of comprehensive acute interdisciplinary rehabilitation, delivered in a single room on the spinal cord injury unit, the patient acquired functional skills comparable with other complete C5 tetraplegics in our unit. If a patient with spinal cord injury must be placed in isolation, it is still feasible to conduct a comprehensive interdisciplinary rehabilitation program while strictly adhering to contact isolation protocols.

  19. Protecting military convoys in Iraq: an examination of battle injuries sustained by a mechanized battalion during Operation Iraqi Freedom II.

    PubMed

    Gondusky, Joseph S; Reiter, Michael P

    2005-06-01

    Improvised explosive devices and mines pose a formidable threat to military convoys traveling in Iraq. This study evaluated battle injuries sustained by a mechanized battalion operating against this threat. The objective was to gain insight into injury profiles and prevention. In the period examined, 32 attacks injured 120 Marines, causing 188 injuries. Upper extremity and head injuries (70%) were common, whereas lower extremity injuries (11%) were rare (as expected, given the threat and the body areas exposed). Shoulder and axilla protectors may be beneficial, but lower arm and hand injuries remain difficult to combat. Ear injury was the most common single injury type (23%). Combat earplugs may reduce ear blast injuries. Eye injuries were uncommon (0.5%), likely because of ballistic eye protection. Injury to the torso (11%) was generally mild, because of body armor vests. The majority of wounds were minor, allowing > 80% of the injured Marines to return to duty.

  20. Access to the US Department of Veterans Affairs health system: self-reported barriers to care among returnees of Operations Enduring Freedom and Iraqi Freedom

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) implemented the Polytrauma System of Care to meet the health care needs of military and veterans with multiple injuries returning from combat operations in Afghanistan and Iraq. Studies are needed to systematically assess barriers to use of comprehensive and exclusive VA healthcare services from the perspective of veterans with polytrauma and with other complex health outcomes following their service in Afghanistan and Iraq. These perspectives can inform policy with regard to the optimal delivery of care to returning veterans. Methods We studied combat veterans (n = 359) from two polytrauma rehabilitation centers using structured clinical interviews and qualitative open-ended questions, augmented with data collected from electronic health records. Our outcomes included several measures of exclusive utilization of VA care with our primary exposure as reported access barriers to care. Results Nearly two thirds of the veterans reported one or more barriers to their exclusive use of VA healthcare services. These barriers predicted differences in exclusive use of VA healthcare services. Experiencing any barriers doubled the returnees’ odds of not using VA exclusively, the geographic distance to VA barrier resulted in a 7 fold increase in the returnees odds of not using VA, and reporting a wait time barrier doubled the returnee’s odds of not using VA. There were no striking differences in access barriers for veterans with polytrauma compared to other returning veterans, suggesting the barriers may be uniform barriers that predict differences in using the VA exclusively for health care. Conclusions This study provides an initial description of utilization of VA polytrauma rehabilitation and other medical care for veteran returnees from all military services who were involved in combat operations in Afghanistan or Iraq. Our findings indicate that these veterans reported important stigmatization and barriers to

  1. Ocular laser bioeffects in Operation Iraqi Freedom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hacker, Henry D.; Lund, Jack; Cheramie, Rachel; Stuck, Bruce E.

    2008-02-01

    Laser hazards on the modern battlefield include numerous applications with the potential for eye damage from both pulsed and high luminance continuous energy laser devices. The multitude of laser devices deployed both by friendly and threat forces represent a significant hazard to vision, and consequently duty performance. Increased application of high luminance devices for tactical use may result in accidental exposure and temporary or persistent symptoms. These symptoms may be confounded by ongoing ocular retinal disorders. The management of these patients requires additional laser training to prevent injury as well as more experience and training for first responders in order to triage individuals with vision disturbances thought secondary to ocular laser exposure.

  2. Space Station Freedom operations planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Accola, Anne L.; Keith, Bryant

    1989-01-01

    The Space Station Freedom program is developing an operations planning structure which assigns responsibility for planning activities to three tiers of management. The strategic level develops the policy, goals and requirements for the program over a five-year horizon. Planning at the tactical level emphasizes program integration and planning for a two-year horizon. The tactical planning process, architecture, and products have been documented and discussed with the international partners. Tactical planning includes the assignment of user and system hardware as well as significant operational events to a time increment (the period of time from the arrival of one Shuttle to the manned base to the arrival of the next). Execution-level planning emphasizes implementation, and each organization produces detailed plans, by increment, that are specific to its function.

  3. Space Station Freedom operations planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Kevin J.

    1988-01-01

    This paper addresses the development of new planning methodologies which will evolve to serve the Space Station Freedom program; these planning processes will focus on the complex task of effectively managing the resources provided by the Space Station Freedom and will be made available to the diverse international community of space station users in support of their ongoing investigative activities.

  4. Outcomes of lower extremity injuries sustained during Operation Iraqi Freedom and Operation Enduring Freedom.

    PubMed

    Spear, Marcia

    2009-01-01

    Lower extremity war injuries are complex because of changes in weaponry and ballistics. Outcomes of a functional lower extremity depend on early transport, early debridement and washout, and advanced surgical techniques such as microvascular procedures. The purpose of this article is to present evidence on the outcomes of lower extremity complex injuries and provide evidence-based factors that contribute to these outcomes. PMID:19752681

  5. 76 FR 72243 - Proposed Information Collection (Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom Veterans...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-22

    ... through the Federal Docket Management System (FDMS) at http://www.Regulations.gov or to Cynthia Harvey...., Washington, DC 20420; or email: cynthia.harvey-pryor@va.gov . Please refer to ``OMB Control No. 2900-0728... FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Cynthia Harvey-Pryor at (202) 461-5870 or FAX (202) 273-9381....

  6. The four free-operant freedoms

    PubMed Central

    Lindsley, Ogden R.

    1996-01-01

    This article reviews early free-operant conditioning laboratory research and applications. The seldom-mentioned four free-operant freedoms are described for the first time in detail. Most current behavior analysts do not realize that the freedom to form responses and the freedom to speed responses were crucial steps in designing free-operant operanda in the 1950s. These four freedoms were known by the laboratory researchers of the 1950s to the point that, along with operanda design, Sidman (1960) did not feel the need to detail them in his classic, Tactics of Scientific Research. The dimensions of freedom in the operant were so well understood and accepted in the 1950s that most thought it redundant to use the term free operant. These issues are reviewed in some detail for younger behavior analysts who did not have the opportunity of learning them firsthand. PMID:22478258

  7. Child maltreatment among U.S. Air Force parents deployed in support of Operation Iraqi Freedom/Operation Enduring Freedom.

    PubMed

    Rabenhorst, Mandy M; McCarthy, Randy J; Thomsen, Cynthia J; Milner, Joel S; Travis, Wendy J; Colasanti, Marie P

    2015-02-01

    This study examined child maltreatment perpetration among 99,697 active-duty U.S. Air Force parents who completed a combat deployment. Using the deploying parent as the unit of analysis, we analyzed whether child maltreatment rates increased postdeployement relative to predeployment. These analyses extend previous research that used aggregate data and extend our previous work that used data from the same period but used the victim as the unit of analysis and included only deploying parents who engaged in child maltreatment. In this study, 2% (n = 1,746) of deploying parents perpetrated child maltreatment during the study period. Although no overall differences were found in child maltreatment rates postdeployment compared to predeployment, several maltreatment-related characteristics qualified this finding. Rates for emotional abuse and mild maltreatment were lower following deployment, whereas child maltreatment rates for severe maltreatment were higher following deployment. The finding that rates of severe child maltreatment, including incidents involving alcohol use, were higher postdeployment suggests a need for additional support services for parents following their return from combat deployment, with a focus on returning parents who have an alcohol use problem. PMID:25424846

  8. Child maltreatment among U.S. Air Force parents deployed in support of Operation Iraqi Freedom/Operation Enduring Freedom.

    PubMed

    Rabenhorst, Mandy M; McCarthy, Randy J; Thomsen, Cynthia J; Milner, Joel S; Travis, Wendy J; Colasanti, Marie P

    2015-02-01

    This study examined child maltreatment perpetration among 99,697 active-duty U.S. Air Force parents who completed a combat deployment. Using the deploying parent as the unit of analysis, we analyzed whether child maltreatment rates increased postdeployement relative to predeployment. These analyses extend previous research that used aggregate data and extend our previous work that used data from the same period but used the victim as the unit of analysis and included only deploying parents who engaged in child maltreatment. In this study, 2% (n = 1,746) of deploying parents perpetrated child maltreatment during the study period. Although no overall differences were found in child maltreatment rates postdeployment compared to predeployment, several maltreatment-related characteristics qualified this finding. Rates for emotional abuse and mild maltreatment were lower following deployment, whereas child maltreatment rates for severe maltreatment were higher following deployment. The finding that rates of severe child maltreatment, including incidents involving alcohol use, were higher postdeployment suggests a need for additional support services for parents following their return from combat deployment, with a focus on returning parents who have an alcohol use problem.

  9. Telepresence and Space Station Freedom workstation operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jensen, Dean G.; Adam, Susan C.; Stramler, James H.; Wilmington, Robert P.

    1990-01-01

    The Space Station Freedom workstation system is a distributed network of computer based workstations that provides the man-machine interfaces for controlling space station systems. This includes control of external manipulator, robotic and free flyer devices by crewmembers in the space station's pressurized shirt-sleeve environment. These remotely controlled devices help minimize the requirement for costly crew extravehicular activity (EVA) time for such tasks as station assembly and payload support. Direct window views may be used for controlling some of the systems, but many activities will be remote or require levels of detail not possible by direct observation. Since controlling remote devices becomes more difficult when direct views are inadequate or unavailable, many performance enhancing techniques have been considered for representing information about remote activities to the operator. Described here are the telepresence techniques under consideration to support operations and training. This includes video enhancements (e.g., graphic and text overlays and stereo viewing), machine vision systems, remote activity animation, and force reflection representation.

  10. Ground operation of robotics on Space Station Freedom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wojcik, Z. Alex; Hunter, David G.; Cantin, Marc R.

    1993-01-01

    This paper reflects work carried out on Ground Operated Telerobotics (GOT) in 1992 to refine further the ideas, procedures, and technologies needed to test the procedures in a high latency environment, and to integrate GOT into Space Station Freedom operations. Space Station Freedom (SSF) will be in operation for 30 years, and will depend on robots to carry out a significant part of the assembly, maintenance, and utilization workload. Current plans call for on-orbit robotics to be operated by on-board crew members. This approach implies that on-orbit robotics operations use up considerable crew time, and that these operations cannot be carried out when SSF is unmanned. GOT will allow robotic operations to be operated from the ground, with on-orbit crew interventions only when absolutely required. The paper reviews how GOT would be implemented, how GOT operations would be planned and supported, and reviews GOT issues, critical success factors, and benefits.

  11. Space Station Freedom payload operations from the user's perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robey, J. L.; Leech, S. A.

    1992-08-01

    This report describes the Microgravity Science and Applications Division's (MSAD) operations concept for using the Space Station Freedom (SSF) program ground data systems and services, and the plans for and capabilities of the MSAD remote User Operations Facilities (UOF) from which the MSAD SSF payloads will be operated. Attention is given to the MSAD operational phases, the MSAD UOF concept, and UOF operations teams. MSAD is planning remote payload operations for a number of Spacelab missions which will supply MSAD valuable information for application to the development of UOFs in the SSF era.

  12. Project VALOR: design and methods of a longitudinal registry of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in combat-exposed veterans in the Afghanistan and Iraqi military theaters of operations.

    PubMed

    Rosen, Raymond C; Marx, Brian P; Maserejian, Nancy N; Holowka, Darren W; Gates, Margaret A; Sleeper, Lynn A; Vasterling, Jennifer J; Kang, Han K; Keane, Terence M

    2012-03-01

    Few studies have investigated the natural history of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Project VALOR (Veterans' After-discharge Longitudinal Registry) was designed as a longitudinal patient registry assessing the course of combat-related PTSD among 1600 male and female Veterans who served in Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF) in Afghanistan or Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF). Aims of the study include investigating patterns and predictors of progression or remission of PTSD and treatment utilization. The study design was based on recommendations from the Agency for Healthcare Quality and Research for longitudinal disease registries and used a pre-specified theoretical model to select the measurement domains for data collection and interpretation of forthcoming results. The registry will include 1200 male and female Veterans with a recent diagnosis of PTSD in the Department of Veteran Affairs (VA) electronic medical record and a comparison group of 400 Veterans without a medical record-based PTSD diagnosis, to also allow for case-control analyses. Data are collected from administrative databases, electronic medical records, a self-administered questionnaire, and a semi-structured diagnostic telephone interview. Project VALOR is a unique and timely registry study that will evaluate the clinical course of PTSD, psychosocial correlates, and health outcomes in a carefully selected cohort of returning OEF/OIF Veterans.

  13. Microbiology operations and facilities aboard restructured Space Station Freedom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cioletti, Louis A.; Mishra, S. K.; Pierson, Duane L.

    1992-01-01

    With the restructure and funding changes for Space Station Freedom, the Environmental Health System (EHS)/Microbiology Subsystem revised its scheduling and operational requirements for component hardware. The function of the Microbiology Subsystem is to monitor the environmental quality of air, water, and internal surfaces and, in part, crew health on board Space Station. Its critical role shall be the identification of microbial contaminants in the environment that may cause system degradation, produce unsanitary or pathogenic conditions, or reduce crew and mission effectiveness. EHS/Microbiology operations and equipment shall be introduced in concert with a phased assembly sequence, from Man Tended Capability (MTC) through Permanently Manned Capability (PMC). Effective Microbiology operations and subsystem components will assure a safe, habitable, and useful spacecraft environment for life sciences research and long-term manned exploration.

  14. Ground controlled robotic assembly operations for Space Station Freedom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parrish, Joseph C.

    1991-01-01

    A number of dextrous robotic systems and associated positioning and transportation devices are available on Space Station Freedom (SSF) to perform assembly tasks that would otherwise need to be performed by extravehicular activity (EVA) crewmembers. The currently planned operating mode for these robotic systems during the assembly phase is teleoperation by intravehicular activity (IVA) crewmembers. While this operating mode is less hazardous and expensive than manned EVA operations, and has insignificant control loop time delays, the amount of IVA time available to support telerobotic operations is much less than the anticipated requirements. Some alternative is needed to allow the robotic systems to perform useful tasks without exhausting the available IVA resources; ground control is one such alternative. The issues associated with ground control of SSF robotic systems to alleviate onboard crew time availability constraints are investigated. Key technical issues include the effect of communication time delays, the need for safe, reliable execution of remote operations, and required modifications to the SSF ground and flight system architecture. Time delay compensation techniques such as predictive displays and world model-based force reflection are addressed and collision detection and avoidance strategies to ensure the safety of the on-orbit crew, Orbiter, and SSF are described. Although more time consuming and difficult than IVA controlled teleoperations or manned EVA, ground controlled telerobotic operations offer significant benefits during the SSF assembly phase, and should be considered in assembly planning activities.

  15. Increasing Marital Satisfaction as a Resilience Factor among Active Duty Members and Veterans of Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF) and Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ponder, Warren N.; Aguirre, Regina T. P.; Smith-Osborne, Alexa; Granvold, Donald K.

    2012-01-01

    Supportive relationships are protective against a number of prevalent health risks among military populations, including post-traumatic stress disorder. Increasing marital satisfaction and strengthening that relationship is an important avenue for maintaining health among returning service members and their families. The current study builds upon…

  16. High-intensity sports for posttraumatic stress disorder and depression: feasibility study of ocean therapy with veterans of Operation Enduring Freedom and Operation Iraqi Freedom.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Carly M; Mallinson, Trudy; Peppers, Dominique

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we conducted a pretest-posttest investigation of a sports-oriented occupational therapy intervention using surfing in an experiential, skills-based program to support veterans with symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in their transition to civilian life. The purpose of this feasibility study was to evaluate the intervention for attendance rates and retention in the program provided in 5 sessions over 5 wk. Fourteen veterans from a specialty postdeployment clinic at a Veterans Affairs hospital were enrolled; 11 completed the study, and 10 attended ≥3 sessions. Participants reported clinically meaningful improvement in PTSD symptom severity (PTSD Checklist-Military Version, Wilcoxon signed rank Z = 2.5, p = .01) and in depressive symptoms (Major Depression Inventory, Wilcoxon signed rank Z = 2.05, p = .04). The results of this small, uncontrolled study suggest that a sports-oriented occupational therapy intervention has potential as a feasible adjunct intervention for veterans seeking mental health treatment for symptoms of PTSD.

  17. Lessons of War: Combat-related Injury Infections during the Vietnam War and Operation Iraqi and Enduring Freedom

    PubMed Central

    Blyth, Dana M.; Yun, Heather C.; Tribble, David R.; Murray, Clinton K.

    2015-01-01

    Summary In over a decade of war, numerous advancements have been made to improve overall combat-related mortality, but infectious complications remain a leading cause of both morbidity and mortality in combat-related injured personnel. Here we will attempt to compare the challenges and lessons of combat-related injuries and infections from the Vietnam War with those of OIF/OEF. Throughout the Vietnam War and OIF/OEF, there have been similar infection-related challenges faced in caring for combat-related trauma patients. Both conflicts reinforced the importance of rapid medical evacuation and definitive surgical management of war wounds. They revealed the constant evolution of infecting organisms and the challenge of increasing antimicrobial resistance. We have also seen that with decreased mortality of severely injured personnel new morbidities must be addressed. Using the foundation of fragmented research from the Vietnam War, previously successful models were assembled into joint service research institutions which have allowed these questions to be addressed. However, many questions regarding measures to reduce infectious complications in our combat-injured personnel remain unanswered. Continued research building on established knowledge is critical for continued improvements in the care of combat-related trauma patients. PMID:26406435

  18. Cardiovascular Complaints Among Military Members During Operation Enduring Freedom.

    PubMed

    Watts, James A; Russo, Frank D; Villines, Todd C; Jones, Samuel O; Patino, Gilberto; Nasir, Javed M; Eckart, Robert E; Steel, Kevin E

    2016-01-01

    During Operation Enduring Freedom, the US military began deploying a dedicated theater cardiology consultant to Afghanistan in an effort to increase rates of return to duty in service members with cardiovascular complaints. This study was designed to categorize these complaints and determine the effect on both aeromedical evacuation and return to duty rates during a 2.5 year observation period. A total of 1,495 service members were evaluated, with 43% presenting due to chest pain followed by arrhythmias/palpitations (24.5%) and syncope (13.5%). Eighty-five percent of individuals returned to duty, most commonly with complaints of noncardiac chest pain, palpitations, or abnormal electrocardiograms. Fifteen percent were evacuated out of theater, most often with acute coronary syndrome, pulmonary embolus, or ventricular tachycardia. The forward-deployed theater cardiology consultant is vital in the disposition of military members by effectively parsing out life threatening cardiovascular conditions versus low risk diagnoses that can safely return to duty. PMID:27215883

  19. Advising and assisting an Iraqi Army medical clinic: observations of a U.S. military support mission.

    PubMed

    Lynn, David C; De Lorenzo, Robert A

    2011-09-01

    Medical civil-military operations are important for deployed military medical units engaged in counter-insurgency missions. There are few reports on military support for a host nation's military medical infrastructure, and we describe an initiative of the 21st Combat Support Hospital in 2010 during the postsurge phase of Operation Iraqi Freedom and Operation New Dawn. The goal was to incrementally improve the quality of care provided by Iraqi 7th Army medical personnel using existing clinic infrastructure and a low budget. Direct bedside teaching to include screening and treatment of ambulatory patients (sick call), focused pharmacy and medical supply system support, medical records documentation, and basic infection control compliance were the objectives. Lessons learned include the requirement to implement culturally relevant changes, maintain focus on system processes, and maximize education and mentorship through multiple modalities. In summary, a combat hospital can successfully implement an advise and assist mission with minimal external resources. PMID:21987956

  20. Advising and assisting an Iraqi Army medical clinic: observations of a U.S. military support mission.

    PubMed

    Lynn, David C; De Lorenzo, Robert A

    2011-09-01

    Medical civil-military operations are important for deployed military medical units engaged in counter-insurgency missions. There are few reports on military support for a host nation's military medical infrastructure, and we describe an initiative of the 21st Combat Support Hospital in 2010 during the postsurge phase of Operation Iraqi Freedom and Operation New Dawn. The goal was to incrementally improve the quality of care provided by Iraqi 7th Army medical personnel using existing clinic infrastructure and a low budget. Direct bedside teaching to include screening and treatment of ambulatory patients (sick call), focused pharmacy and medical supply system support, medical records documentation, and basic infection control compliance were the objectives. Lessons learned include the requirement to implement culturally relevant changes, maintain focus on system processes, and maximize education and mentorship through multiple modalities. In summary, a combat hospital can successfully implement an advise and assist mission with minimal external resources.

  1. FROST - FREEDOM OPERATIONS SIMULATION TEST VERSION 1.0

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deshpande, G. K.

    1994-01-01

    The Space Station Freedom Information System processes and transmits data between the space station and the station controllers and payload operators on the ground. Components of the system include flight hardware, communications satellites, software and ground facilities. FROST simulates operation of the SSF Information System, tracking every data packet from generation to destination for both uplinks and downlinks. This program collects various statistics concerning the SSF Information System operation and provides reports of these at user-specified intervals. Additionally, FROST has graphical display capability to enhance interpretation of these statistics. FROST models each of the components of the SSF Information System as an object, to which packets are generated, received, processed, transmitted, and/or dumped. The user must provide the information system design with specified parameters and inter-connections among objects. To aid this process, FROST supplies an example SSF Information System for simulation, but this example must be copied before it is changed and used for further simulation. Once specified, system architecture and parameters are put into the input file, named the Test Configuration Definition (TCD) file. Alternative system designs can then be simulated simply by editing the TCD file. Within this file the user can define new objects, alter object parameters, redefine paths, redefine generation rates and windows, and redefine object interconnections. At present, FROST does not model every feature of the SSF Information System, but it is capable of simulating many of the system's important functions. To generate data messages, which can come from any object, FROST defines "windows" to specify when, what kind, and how much of that data is generated. All messages are classified by priority as either (1)emergency (2)quick look (3)telemetry or (4)payload data. These messages are processed by all objects according to priority. That is, all priority

  2. Expendable launch vehicles in Space Station Freedom logistics resupply operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newman, J. Steven; Courtney, Roy L.; Brunt, Peter

    The projected Space Station Freedom (SSF) annual logistics resupply requirements were predicted to exceed the 1988 baseline Shuttle resupply system capability. This paper examines the implications of employing a 'mixed fleet' of Shuttles and ELVs to provide postassembly, steady-state logistics resupply. The study concluded that ELVs supported by the OMV could provide the additional required resupply capability with one to three launches per annum. However, the study determined that such a capability would require significant programmatic commitments, including baseline SSF OMV accommodations, on-orbit OMV monoprop replenishment capability, and substantial economics investments. The study also found the need for a half-size pressurized logistics module for the increase in the efficiency of logistics manifesting on the Shuttle as well as ELVs.

  3. Expendable launch vehicles in Space Station Freedom logistics resupply operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newman, J. Steven; Courtney, Roy L.; Brunt, Peter

    1990-01-01

    The projected Space Station Freedom (SSF) annual logistics resupply requirements were predicted to exceed the 1988 baseline Shuttle resupply system capability. This paper examines the implications of employing a 'mixed fleet' of Shuttles and ELVs to provide postassembly, steady-state logistics resupply. The study concluded that ELVs supported by the OMV could provide the additional required resupply capability with one to three launches per annum. However, the study determined that such a capability would require significant programmatic commitments, including baseline SSF OMV accommodations, on-orbit OMV monoprop replenishment capability, and substantial economics investments. The study also found the need for a half-size pressurized logistics module for the increase in the efficiency of logistics manifesting on the Shuttle as well as ELVs.

  4. The expanded role of computers in Space Station Freedom real-time operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crawford, R. Paul; Cannon, Kathleen V.

    1990-01-01

    The challenges that NASA and its international partners face in their real-time operation of the Space Station Freedom necessitate an increased role on the part of computers. In building the operational concepts concerning the role of the computer, the Space Station program is using lessons learned experience from past programs, knowledge of the needs of future space programs, and technical advances in the computer industry. The computer is expected to contribute most significantly in real-time operations by forming a versatile operating architecture, a responsive operations tool set, and an environment that promotes effective and efficient utilization of Space Station Freedom resources.

  5. A 6 degrees-of-freedom haptic milling simulator for surgical training of vertebral operations.

    PubMed

    Eriksson, Magnus; Wikander, Jan

    2012-01-01

    In the research presented here, the aim has been to develop a haptic milling simulator for surgical training of vertebral operations. One central goal has been to create a simulator that gives the user a realistic impression of contacts with, and milling of, a virtually represented bone tissue model. A new 6 degrees-of-freedom haptic algorithm for milling is implemented together with new 6 degrees-of-freedom haptic device.

  6. Evaluating the operations capability of Freedom's Data Management System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sowizral, Henry A.

    1990-01-01

    Three areas of Data Management System (DMS) performance are examined: raw processor speed, the subjective speed of the Lynx OS X-Window system, and the operational capacity of the Runtime Object Database (RODB). It is concluded that the proposed processor will operate at its specified rate of speed and that the X-Window system operates within users' subjective needs. It is also concluded that the RODB cannot provide the required level of service, even with a two-order of magnitude (100 fold) improvement in speed.

  7. EVA operational guidelines and considerations for use during the Space Station Freedom design review process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trevino, Robert

    1992-01-01

    The EVA hardware interfaces, standards, and considerations are examined, as are guidelines that EVA operations engineer will use when reviewing the design packages from the EVA operational point of view. By utilizing both the EVA and robotics interfaces standards, design requirements, and the EVA operational guidelines and considerations, the Space Station Freedom program design can be more cost effective in the long term and also more compatible and friendly for on-orbit assembly and on-orbit maintenance and repair.

  8. A Novel Method for Verifying War Mortality while Estimating Iraqi Deaths for the Iran-Iraq War through Operation Desert Storm (1980-1993)

    PubMed Central

    Li, Shang-Ju; Flaxman, Abraham; Lafta, Riyadh; Galway, Lindsay; Takaro, Tim K.; Burnham, Gilbert; Hagopian, Amy

    2016-01-01

    Objectives We estimated war-related Iraqi mortality for the period 1980 through 1993. Method To test our hypothesis that deaths reported by siblings (even dating back several decades) would correspond with war events, we compared sibling mortality reports with the frequency of independent news reports about violent historic events. We used data from a survey of 4,287 adults in 2000 Iraqi households conducted in 2011. Interviewees reported on the status of their 24,759 siblings. Death rates were applied to population estimates, 1980 to 1993. News report data came from the ProQuest New York Times database. Results About half of sibling-reported deaths across the study period were attributed to direct war-related injuries. The Iran-Iraq war led to nearly 200,000 adult deaths, and the 1990–1991 First Gulf War generated another approximately 40,000 deaths. Deaths during peace intervals before and after each war were significantly lower. We found a relationship between total sibling-reported deaths and the tally of war events across the period, p = 0.02. Conclusions We report a novel method to verify the reliability of epidemiological (household survey) estimates of direct war-related injury mortality dating back several decades. PMID:27768730

  9. 31 CFR 575.309 - Iraq; Iraqi.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Iraq; Iraqi. 575.309 Section 575.309... ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY IRAQI SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 575.309 Iraq; Iraqi. The term Iraq means the country of Iraq and any territory under the jurisdiction or...

  10. Considerations for a design and operations knowledge support system for Space Station Freedom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erickson, Jon D.; Crouse, Kenneth H.; Wechsler, Donald B.; Flaherty, Douglas R.

    1989-01-01

    Engineering and operations of modern engineered systems depend critically upon detailed design and operations knowledge that is accurate and authoritative. A design and operations knowledge support system (DOKSS) is a modern computer-based information system providing knowledge about the creation, evolution, and growth of an engineered system. The purpose of a DOKSS is to provide convenient and effective access to this multifaceted information. The complexity of Space Station Freedom's (SSF's) systems, elements, interfaces, and organizations makes convenient access to design knowledge especially important, when compared to simpler systems. The life cycle length, being 30 or more years, adds a new dimension to space operations, maintenance, and evolution. Provided here is a review and discussion of design knowledge support systems to be delivered and operated as a critical part of the engineered system. A concept of a DOKSS for Space Station Freedom (SSF) is presented. This is followed by a detailed discussion of a DOKSS for the Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center and Work Package-2 portions of SSF.

  11. Design, operation, and critical issues of the U.S. Space Station Freedom propulsion system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morano, Joseph S.; Henderson, John B.

    1989-01-01

    The U.S. Space Station Freedom Manned Base (SSFMB) propulsion system is a gaseous hydrogen/oxygen-based system for primary reboost, attitude control, and station contingencies using electrolyzed water as a propellant. A secondary propulsion reboost system employs multipropellant resistojets which utilize the various waste gases generated during normal station operations. The hydrogen/oxygen propulsion system is comprised of several modules which contain thrusters, propellant storage tanks, regulation subsystems, water electrolysis units, electronic controls, and fluid plumbing. The resistojet system is comprised of one module containing the resistojets, regulators, electronic controls, and fluid plumbing. The waste gas propellant storage takes place in the Fluid Management System.

  12. U.S. Space Station Freedom Supplemental Reboost System (SRS) design and operational impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winters, Brian A.; Winters, Donna M.

    1992-07-01

    Current designs of the U.S. Space Station Freedom Propulsion System require the capability to perform reboost, attitude control, and other orbit adjustment maneuvers as part of normal operations. In order to reduce the quantity of hydrazine consumed by the Primary Propulsion System, the propulsion system includes the capability to propulsively dispose waste gases that are generated by various station systems and experiments. The impulses generated by the Supplemental Reboost System (SRS) are used to offset orbital decay due to atmospheric drag and reduce propellant requirements. This paper presents the designs of the SRS including schematics of the waste gas collection architecture, various system and component characteristics, and methods of system operation. Estimates of waste gas quantities, propellant savings, and operational altitude impacts are provided.

  13. Modern Iraqi Arabic: A Textbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alkalesi, Yasin M.

    This book is an introductory textbook for those with no previous knowledge of Arabic or for those who know Arabic but want to learn the Iraqi dialect. The book is divided into 16 lessons: "Arabic Alphabet and Vowels"; "Greetings and Courtesy Expressions"; "Asking for Directions"; "Arrival at Baghdad Airport, Part I"; "Arrival at Baghdad Airport,…

  14. Space Station Freedom/lunar transfer vehicle propellant operation hazard analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dominick, Sam; Stevenson, Steven M.; Feingold, Harvey

    1991-01-01

    Space Station Freedom (SSF), as a transportation node for Space Exploration Initiative missions, would involve the assembly and refurbishing of lunar and Mars transfer vehicles. This includes operations involving cryogenic propellants (LH2 7 LO2) such as storing and handling of loaded propellant tanks, assembly onto the vehicle, and propellant transfer. Cryogenic propellants dictate rigorous safety precautions and impose unique requirements to ensure flight safety to both personnel and SSF elements. The objective of this study is to identify potential hazards and risks associated with cryogenic propellants. This involves identification of pertinent system design features and operational procedures. Criticality of identified risks/hazards shall be assessed and those that fall in the catastrophic and critical categories shall include mitigating solutions.

  15. STS-49 - A demonstration of EMU operational capabilities for Space Station Freedom assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bleisath, Scott A.; Johnson, Kieth G.

    1992-01-01

    One of the primary objectives for Space Shuttle mission STS-49 is to perform three EVAs on consecutive days in a manner similar to those planned for Space Station Freedom (SSF) assembly missions. The preparation and completion of this mission will serve as a pathfinder for future EVA intensive SSF assembly flights. Several operational issues pertaining to the EMU have been addressed in preparation for this mission. Provisioning and orbiter stowage of the EMU and associated hardware have been optimized for four EVA crewmembers. EMU preparatory and maintenance activities have been streamlined to help minimize crew overhead and have been carefully integrated into a very demanding mission timeline. The constraints and limitations have been assessed in providing a backup EMU capability for each EVA crewmember. Several EMU concerns have also been addressed in supporting new EVA task requirements, such as large mass handling and performing SSF assembly operations over the crew cabin and nose of the Shuttle orbiter.

  16. A radiological assessment of space nuclear power operations near Space Station Freedom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stevenson, Steve

    1990-01-01

    In order to accomplish NASA's more ambitious exploration goals, nuclear reactors may be used in the vicinity of Space Station Freedom (SSF) either as power sources for coorbiting platforms or as part of the propulsion system for departing and returning personnel or cargo vehicles. This study identifies ranges of operational parameters, such as parking distances and reactor cooldown times, which would reasonably guarantee that doses to the SSF crew from all radiation sources would be below guidelines recently recommended by the National Council of Radiation Protection and Measurements. The specific scenarios considered include: (1) the launch and return of a nuclear electric propulsion vehicle, (2) the launch and return of a nuclear thermal rocket vehicle, (3) the operation of an SP-100 class reactor on a coorbiting platform, (4) the activation of materials near operating reactors, (5) the storage and handling of radioisotope thermal generator units, and (6) the storage and handling of fresh and previously operated reactors. Portable reactor shield concepts were examined for relaxing the operational constraints imposed by unshielded (for human proximity operations) reactors and that might also be used to provide additional SSF crew protection from natural background radiation.

  17. Six-degree-of-freedom whole-body vibration exposure levels during routine skidder operations.

    PubMed

    Jack, R J; Oliver, M; Dickey, J P; Cation, S; Hayward, G; Lee-Shee, N

    2010-05-01

    This research focuses on quantifying six-degree-of-freedom (6-DOF) whole-body vibration (WBV) exposure levels that occur in Northern Ontario skidders during routine field operating tasks. 6-DOF vibration running root-mean-square (RMS) acceleration levels at the operator/seat interface were determined for eight skidders while driving loaded, driving unloaded, picking up a load, dropping off a load and ploughing logs under field operating conditions. The acceleration data were weighted in accordance with ISO 2631-1:1997 and evaluated for both health and comfort outcomes. The mean running RMS weighted translational and rotational accelerations all exceeded 0.36 m/s(2) and 0.14 rad/s(2). The greatest average accelerations occurred while driving unloaded with this condition displaying translational vibration total values (VTV) that exceeded the upper limit of the ISO 2631-1:1997 health caution zone within an average of 2.3 h. Utilizing 6-DOF VTV, virtually all operating conditions would be designated as uncomfortable. STATEMENT OF RELEVANCE: This study provides one of the most comprehensive reports on vibration exposures in seated vehicle operators. The results are geared towards ergonomists with discussions on health effects and measurement concerns, while providing the raw vibration exposure data that will be useful to vehicle, component and vibration sensor designers.

  18. Freedom-to-operate analysis of a transgenic multivitamin corn variety.

    PubMed

    Zanga, Daniela; Capell, Teresa; Zhu, Changfu; Christou, Paul; Thangaraj, Harry

    2016-05-01

    In this article, we explore the intellectual property (IP) landscape relevant to the production and commercialization of Carolight(™) , a transgenic multivitamin corn variety created on humanitarian grounds to address micronutrient deficiencies in low-and-middle-income countries. The successful production of this variety requires IP rights risk management because there is a strong protection on inventions and processes via patent portfolios in both developing and industrialized countries. The IP framework is complex, and specialist patent lawyers are usually employed to perform such analysis, but the costs cannot always be met by small, publicly funded projects. We report an alternative strategy, a do-it-yourself patent analysis, to produce a review with limited legal value that can nevertheless lay the foundations for a subsequent more in-depth professional freedom-to-operate opinion.

  19. 31 CFR 575.311 - Iraqi origin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Iraqi origin. 575.311 Section 575.311 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN... Government of Iraq, or of a business entity located in Iraq. Services of Iraqi origin are not imported...

  20. A radiological assessment of nuclear power and propulsion operations near Space Station Freedom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bolch, Wesley E.; Thomas, J. Kelly; Peddicord, K. Lee; Nelson, Paul; Marshall, David T.; Busche, Donna M.

    1990-01-01

    Scenarios were identified which involve the use of nuclear power systems in the vicinity of Space Station Freedom (SSF) and their radiological impact on the SSF crew was quantified. Several of the developed scenarios relate to the use of SSF as an evolutionary transportation node for lunar and Mars missions. In particular, radiation doses delivered to SSF crew were calculated for both the launch and subsequent return of a Nuclear Electric Propulsion (NEP) cargo vehicle and a Nuclear Thermal Rocket (NTR) personnel vehicle to low earth orbit. The use of nuclear power on co-orbiting platforms and the storage and handling issues associated with radioisotope power systems were also explored as they relate to SSF. A central philosophy in these analyses was the utilization of a radiation dose budget, defined as the difference between recommended dose limits from all radiation sources and estimated doses received by crew members from natural space radiations. Consequently, for each scenario examined, the dose budget concept was used to identify and quantify constraints on operational parameters such as launch separation distances, returned vehicle parking distances, and reactor shutdown times prior to vehicle approach. The results indicate that realistic scenarios do not exist which would preclude the use of nuclear power sources in the vicinity of SSF. The radiation dose to the SSF crew can be maintained at safe levels solely by implementing proper and reasonable operating procedures.

  1. Operations with the special purpose dextrous manipulator on Space Station Freedom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cox, B.; Brown, D.; Hiltz, M.

    1991-01-01

    SPAR Canada is actively participating in the Space Station Freedom Program by contributing the Mobile Servicing System (MSS) which will be involved in assembly, maintenance and servicing of both the Space Station and the MSS itself. Part of the MSS is the Special Purpose Dextrous Manipulator (SPDM), a two armed dextrous robot with advanced vision and manipulative capabilities. In addition to Space Station and payload servicing activities the SPDM will be designed to perform self maintenance on the MSS itself. The majority of Space Station equipment will be on orbit for the anticipated 30 year lifespan and the maintenance philosophy will be to repair by the exchange of Orbit Replacement Units or ORUs. The present concept, configuration, and operation of the SPDM and the detailed simulations associated with the maintenance of part of the MSS are described. The Design Reference Mission is the replacement of a Joint Drive Module on the Canadian large payload manipulator, the Space Station Remote Manipulator System. Other Design Reference Missions that were investigated are briefly described, and future operations activity to support the definition of SPDM requirements are discussed.

  2. Design for an integrated discipline operations control center for Space Station Freedom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haines, Richard F.

    1993-01-01

    This paper presents selected features of a human factors oriented plan for a Space Station Freedom (SSF) ground Discipline Operations Center (DOC) that is integrated with other work areas used by multidisciplinary life scientists. This combined facility is referred to as an integrated DOC or IDOC. This plan is based upon the assumption that there will be a constantly changing array of specialized equipment and procedures used by life sciences principal investigators (PI) on the ground which must be linked to SSF through various DOC systems. Other sites will also be able to communicate with SSF (Anon., 1992). It is also assumed that cost reduction will be a major design consideration and that one integrated structure will be less expensive to build and operate than two separate ones. Since both the DOC personnel and PIs will need to communicate with the flight crew aboard SSF, the general interconnect architecture of the PIs' communication linkage is considered here. Key human factor design elements of this plan include: a candidate facility layout which accommodates three (3), multipurpose, rapidly reconfigurable work areas (suites) and consequent user traffic flow considerations, a multimedia telecommunications support capability, functional (human) traffic flow, optimized internal illumination and acoustics requirements, selected volumetric and safety requirements, and other architectural design parameters.

  3. Autonomous rendezvous and docking operations of unmanned expendable cargo transfer vehicles (e.g. Centaur) with Space Station Freedom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Emmet, Brian R.

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes the results of the feasibility study using Centaur or other CTV's to deliver payloads to the Space Station Freedom (SSF). During this study was examined the requirements upon unmanned cargo transfer stages (including Centaur) for phasing, rendezvous, proximity operations and docking/berthing (capture).

  4. 31 CFR 576.308 - Iraqi petroleum and petroleum products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Iraqi petroleum and petroleum products... SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 576.308 Iraqi petroleum and petroleum products. The term Iraqi petroleum and petroleum products means any petroleum, petroleum products, or natural gas originating in...

  5. 31 CFR 576.308 - Iraqi petroleum and petroleum products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Iraqi petroleum and petroleum products... SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 576.308 Iraqi petroleum and petroleum products. The term Iraqi petroleum and petroleum products means any petroleum, petroleum products, or natural gas originating in...

  6. 31 CFR 576.308 - Iraqi petroleum and petroleum products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Iraqi petroleum and petroleum products... SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 576.308 Iraqi petroleum and petroleum products. The term Iraqi petroleum and petroleum products means any petroleum, petroleum products, or natural gas originating in...

  7. 31 CFR 576.308 - Iraqi petroleum and petroleum products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Iraqi petroleum and petroleum products... SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 576.308 Iraqi petroleum and petroleum products. The term Iraqi petroleum and petroleum products means any petroleum, petroleum products, or natural gas originating in...

  8. Visa Process Keeps Iraqi Students out of U.S.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Labi, Aisha

    2008-01-01

    This article reports that American visa procedures have prevented graduate students from taking advantage of the Iraqi government's program to study in the United States. Iraqi students seeking to come to American colleges on full scholarships from the Iraqi government face so many hurdles in obtaining a visa that few are able to enter the…

  9. 31 CFR 575.419 - Transactions in Iraqi debt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Transactions in Iraqi debt. 575.419... § 575.419 Transactions in Iraqi debt. Section 575.533 authorizes U.S. persons to trade in Iraqi commercial or sovereign debt in secondary markets, subject to the following conditions: (a) Such debt was...

  10. National E-Learning Strategy to Enhance and Enrich the Iraqi Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elameer, Amer Saleem; Idrus, Rozhan M.

    2011-01-01

    Nowadays, the HE (higher education) sector of Iraq has suffered severe disruption and mass destruction due to the war and, in general, only 10% of its remaining operational sectors are in the acceptable conditions. This research is an attempt to plan a PS (proposed strategy) for the Iraqi HE sector that can be executed easily in Iraq as a part of…

  11. Operant conditioning of a multiple degree-of-freedom brain-machine interface in a primate model of amputation.

    PubMed

    Balasubramanian, Karthikeyan; Southerland, Joshua; Vaidya, Mukta; Qian, Kai; Eleryan, Ahmed; Fagg, Andrew H; Sluzky, Marc; Oweiss, Karim; Hatsopoulos, Nicholas

    2013-01-01

    Operant conditioning with biofeedback has been shown to be an effective method to modify neural activity to generate goal-directed actions in a brain-machine interface. It is particularly useful when neural activity cannot be mathematically mapped to motor actions of the actual body such as in the case of amputation. Here, we implement an operant conditioning approach with visual feedback in which an amputated monkey is trained to control a multiple degree-of-freedom robot to perform a reach-to-grasp behavior. A key innovation is that each controlled dimension represents a behaviorally relevant synergy among a set of joint degrees-of-freedom. We present a number of behavioral metrics by which to assess improvements in BMI control with exposure to the system. The use of non-human primates with chronic amputation is arguably the most clinically-relevant model of human amputation that could have direct implications for developing a neural prosthesis to treat humans with missing upper limbs.

  12. Microgravity science and applications overview - Research, facility and instrumentation development, Space Station Freedom operations and utilization planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kicza, M. E.

    1990-01-01

    An overview is provided of NASA's Microgravity Science and Applications Program, with emphasis on plans for evolution to the Space Station. The Microgravity Science and Applications Division program consists of two major parts including the ground-based research program and the flight program. Transition to flight experiment status may occur only after the ground-based research and testing demonstrates sufficient technical maturity to assure that scientific objectives can be met in space with a high degree of success. Program strategy calls for a transition to the Space Station Freedom before the end of the century. In this connection, six multi-user facilities are planned to be phased into operation aboard the Space Station over an extended time frame. It is projected that the design of these facilities will evolve based on experience with precursor experiment hardware designed and operated on Skylab and other carriers.

  13. Developing a pharmaceutical formulary for joint military medical operations.

    PubMed

    Caouette, Marc L

    2005-02-01

    This article describes the development of a standardized formulary for medical contingency operations for any theater of operations. The article compares peacetime health care systems within the Department of Defense and the formulary systems developed and used within the fixed facility environment with Department of Defense contingency health care operations systems and the complications encountered while attempting formulary development for the deployed environment. Despite great difficulties, the Joint Readiness Clinical Advisory Board developed, published, and marketed a jointly approved, standardized, modernized formulary to assist forces deploying for Operations Enduring Freedom and Iraqi Freedom. The process used by the Joint Readiness Clinical Advisory Board during formulary development is described in detail, giving readers an understanding of the foundations of the Joint Deployment Formulary. The military departments will experience the benefits of enhanced supply chain predictability and responsiveness, increased clinician satisfaction, and improved patient safety and health care quality by implementing the Joint Deployment Formulary for their forces engaged in contingency operations. PMID:15782828

  14. 31 CFR 575.535 - Iraqi debt unblocked.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Iraqi debt unblocked. 575.535 Section..., and Statements of Licensing Policy § 575.535 Iraqi debt unblocked. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, all transactions otherwise prohibited by this part that involve debts in...

  15. Acquisition and extinction of operant pain-related avoidance behavior using a 3 degrees-of-freedom robotic arm.

    PubMed

    Meulders, Ann; Franssen, Mathijs; Fonteyne, Riet; Vlaeyen, Johan W S

    2016-05-01

    Ample empirical evidence endorses the role of associative learning in pain-related fear acquisition. Nevertheless, research typically focused on self-reported and psychophysiological measures of fear. Avoidance, which is overt behavior preventing the occurrence of an aversive (painful) stimulus, has been largely neglected so far. Therefore, we aimed to fill this gap and developed an operant conditioning procedure for pain-related avoidance behavior. Participants moved their arm to a target location using the HapticMaster (FCS Robotics; Moog Inc, East Aurora, New York), a 3 degrees-of-freedom, force-controlled robotic arm. Three movement trajectories led to the target location. If participants in the Experimental Group took the shortest/easiest trajectory, they always received a painful stimulus (T1 = 100% reinforcement; no resistance). If they deviated from this trajectory, the painful stimulus could be partly or totally prevented (T2 = 50% reinforcement; T3 = 0% reinforcement), but more effort was needed (T2 = moderate resistance and deviation; T3 = strongest resistance and largest deviation). The Yoked Group received the same reinforcement schedule irrespective of their own behavior. During the subsequent extinction phase, no painful stimuli were delivered. Self-reported pain-expectancy and pain-related fear were assessed, and avoidance behavior was operationalized as the maximal distance from the shortest trajectory. During acquisition, the Experimental Group reported more pain-related fear and pain-expectancy to T1 vs T2 vs T3 and deviated more from the shortest trajectory than the Yoked Group. During subsequent extinction, avoidance behavior, self-reported fear, and pain-expectancy decreased significantly, but conditioned differences persisted despite the absence of painful stimuli. To conclude, this operant learning task might provide a valid paradigm to study pain-related avoidance behavior in future studies. PMID:26761388

  16. Closed-form inverse kinematics for intra-operative mobile C-arm positioning with six degrees of freedom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Lejing; Zou, Rui; Weidert, Simon; Landes, Juergen; Euler, Ekkehard; Burschka, Darius; Navab, Nassir

    2011-03-01

    For trauma and orthopedic surgery, maneuvering a mobile C-arm X-ray device into a desired position in order to acquire the right picture is a routine task. The precision and ease of use of the C-arm positioning becomes even more important for more advanced imaging techniques as parallax-free X-ray image stitching, for example. Standard mobile C-arms have only five degrees of freedom (DOF), which definitely restricts their motions that have six DOF in 3D Cartesian space. We have proposed a method to model the kinematics of the mobile Carm and operating table as an integrated 6DOF C-arm X-ray imaging system.1 This enables mobile C-arms to be positioned relative to the patient's table with six DOF in 3D Cartesian space. Moving mobile C-arms to a desired position and orientation requires finding the necessary joint values, which is an inverse kinematics problem. In this paper, we present closed-form solutions, i.e. analytic expressions, obtained in an algebraic way for the inverse kinematics problem of the 6DOF C-arm model. In addition, we implement a 6DOF C-arm system for interactively radiation-free C-arm positioning based on a continuous guidance from C-arm pose estimation. For this we employ a visual marker pattern attached under the operating table and a mobile C-arm system augmented by a video camera and mirror construction. In our experiment, repositioning C-arm to a pre-defined pose in a phantom study demonstrates the practicality and accuracy of our developed 6DOF C-arm system.

  17. Domestic violence among Iraqi refugees in Syria.

    PubMed

    Tappis, Hannah; Biermann, Elizabeth; Glass, Nancy; Tileva, Margarita; Doocy, Shannon

    2012-01-01

    A domestic violence questionnaire was administered to 701 adult females in a sample of 813 Iraqi households in Syria; unmarried women and women whose husbands were away were excluded, yielding a final sample of 486. Lifetime physical, verbal, or emotional abuse was reported by 30%, and approximately 20% experienced abuse within the past year. Non-Damascus residence, children <18 years in the household, no financial challenges upon arrival, and borrowing money in Syria were associated with increased risk of domestic violence within the past year. Support services are inadequate and should be expanded; and longer-term prevention measures also should be implemented.

  18. A definition study of the on-orbit assembly operations for the outboard photovoltaic power modules for Space Station Freedom. M.S. Thesis - Toledo Univ.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sours, Thomas J.

    1989-01-01

    A concept is described for the assembly of the outboard PV modules for Space Station Freedom. Analysis of the on-orbit assembly operations was performed using CADAM design graphics software. A scenario for assembly using the various assembly equipment, as currently defined, is described in words, tables and illustrations. This work is part of ongoing studies in the area of space station assembly. The outboard PV module and the assembly equipment programs are all in definition and preliminary design phases. An input is provided to the design process of assembly equipment programs. It is established that the outboard PV module assembly operations can be performed using the assembly equipment currently planned in the Space Station Freedom Program.

  19. Military Sleep Management: An Operational Imperative.

    PubMed

    Mysliwiec, Vincent; Walter, Robert J; Collen, Jacob; Wesensten, Nancy

    2016-01-01

    Sleep is critical for military operational readiness but is commonly disregarded during operational planning. The start of combat operations with Operation Iraqi Freedom saw a dramatic rise in diagnosis rates of clinically significant sleep disorders among officers and enlisted. This coincided with a parallel rise in behavioral health disorders. In this article, the etiology of sleep problems and sleep disorders in our military population is reviewed, and guidance is provided for improving sleep health in our military population. It is our view that appropriate sleep planning and management affords military units and commanders a near-term tactical advantage in terms of maintaining alertness, a midterm tactical advantage of decreasing susceptibility to sleep and behavioral health disorders, and a long-term strategic advantage with increased readiness and resiliency of their Soldiers. PMID:27215880

  20. Asymptotic freedom

    SciTech Connect

    Drell, S.D.

    1980-09-15

    The concept of asymptotic freedom in quantum chromodynamics (QCD) is reviewed. Analogies are drawn to quantum electrodynamics and non-relativistic quantum mechanics. Asymptotic freedom is seen as the effect of anti-shielding due to the quantums of QCD, the gluons, carrying the color charge. Beginning with the Hamiltonian for the color gauge field plus fixed sources of color charge, the interaction energy between two fixed charges is derived. Both the interaction energy and the running coupling constant are seen to decrease with decreasing distance.

  1. Intellectual Freedom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knox, Emily

    2011-01-01

    Support for intellectual freedom, a concept codified in the American Library Association's Library Bill of Rights and Code of Ethics, is one of the core tenets of modern librarianship. According to the most recent interpretation of the Library Bill of Rights, academic librarians are encouraged to incorporate the principles of intellectual freedom…

  2. Academic Freedom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tobin, Brian G.

    The strength of academic freedom has always depended upon historical circumstances. In the United States, higher education began with institutions founded and controlled by religious sects. The notion of who gets educated and to what ends expanded as American democracy expanded. By the 1980's, legitimate calls for equality became a general…

  3. 31 CFR 575.410 - Imports of Iraqi goods from third countries; transshipments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., substantial transformation of Iraqi-origin goods in a third country does not exempt the third-country products... raw materials or components of Iraqi origin is prohibited. In light of the universal prohibition...

  4. Employment of a joint medical task force in a counterinsurgency operational environment.

    PubMed

    Avery, Scott; Holman, Vincent

    2008-01-01

    To understand the complexity of the medical task force mission in support of Operation Iraqi Freedom, we must first understand the operational environment and its impact on the military healthcare system and the medical task force charged with its execution in theater. Historically the medical task force has focused almost exclusively on delivering a robust and accessible set of level II and III care and force health protection support since operations began in Iraq. Consequently, after 5 years of stable positioning, security, and infrastructure within our bases there were no discernable standardization of healthcare support, clinical quality, or medical equipment beyond what the units had chosen to adopt. Task Force 62 Medical Brigade has taken advantage of this unique time in history to place a concerted focus on institutionalizing our combat healthcare system and meeting the challenges of the counterinsurgency operational environment. Whereas our predecessors rightly focused on delivering combat health support during their tenure, we focused on the future, laying the foundation for the eventual transition to an environment similar to that in the Republic of Korea as the security situation improves. The foundation laid during Operation Iraqi Freedom 07-09 can be the foundation for the Army and the military healthcare system's vision in creating and modifying the delivery of US standard healthcare in a combat theater. PMID:20088053

  5. University Freedom in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dolasir, Semiyha

    2006-01-01

    Freedom means the right of the universities to do their scientific activities and to regulate and do the higher education through their organs. The three feet that make up the university freedom are scientific freedom, administrative freedom and financial freedom. Scientific freedom is realized by the freedom of the faculty and teaching staff and…

  6. A Study of Apology Strategies Used by Iraqi EFL University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ugla, Raed Latif; Abidin, Mohamad Jafre Zainol

    2016-01-01

    This study was aimed at exploring apology strategies of English used by Iraqi EFL students, apology strategies in Iraqi Arabic and the pragmatic strategies of Iraqi EFL students in relation to the use of apology as a speech act. The data analyzed in this study were collected in Al-Yarmouk University College and University of Diyala. The study was…

  7. 48 CFR 252.225-7022 - Trade agreements certificate-inclusion of Iraqi end products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... certificate-inclusion of Iraqi end products. 252.225-7022 Section 252.225-7022 Federal Acquisition Regulations...—inclusion of Iraqi end products. As prescribed in 225.1101(7), use the following provision: Trade Agreements Certificate—Inclusion of Iraqi End Products (SEP 2008) (a) Definitions. Designated country end product,...

  8. 48 CFR 252.225-7022 - Trade agreements certificate-inclusion of Iraqi end products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... certificate-inclusion of Iraqi end products. 252.225-7022 Section 252.225-7022 Federal Acquisition Regulations...—inclusion of Iraqi end products. As prescribed in 225.1101(7), use the following provision: Trade Agreements Certificate—Inclusion of Iraqi End Products (SEP 2008) (a) Definitions. Designated country end product,...

  9. 48 CFR 252.225-7022 - Trade agreements certificate-inclusion of Iraqi end products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... certificate-inclusion of Iraqi end products. 252.225-7022 Section 252.225-7022 Federal Acquisition Regulations...—inclusion of Iraqi end products. As prescribed in 225.1101(7), use the following provision: Trade Agreements Certificate—Inclusion of Iraqi End Products (SEP 2008) (a) Definitions. Designated country end product,...

  10. The Iraqi medical brain drain: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Al-Khalisi, Nabil

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to explore the independent predictors of physicians' emigration from Iraq and the emigration temporal trends of Iraqi doctors. We used a convenience sample of Iraqi physicians, extracting their e-mail addresses from public records of Iraqi Medical Association websites and asking them to complete an online survey. Of the 1,395 Iraqi physicians contacted, 599 responded and 567 were eligible for inclusion. Of these, 202 reside in Iraq and the rest live abroad. Doctors abroad describe better work atmospheres, job satisfaction, and training quality. The majority live in English-speaking countries. Of these, 60 percent left Iraq for security reasons, 99 percent left when they were juniors, and 66 percent of those completed their specialty training and settled abroad forever. Of doctors abroad, 17 percent want to return to Iraq, while 50 percent of doctors in Iraq want to leave. Iraqi doctors' rate of emigration peaked in 2006; these figures have since declined, but remain relatively high. Iraq has lost many of its doctors, and emigration is ongoing. The predictors of emigration shifted from financial issues during the 1990s to security and training concerns after 2003. The mass exodus will impact the health care system in the long term. PMID:23821910

  11. The Securitisation of Refugee Flows and the Schooling of Refugees: Examining the Cases of North Koreans in South Korea and Iraqis in Jordan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collet, Bruce A.; Bang, Hyeyoung

    2016-01-01

    Drawing on data collected in South Korea, Jordan and the USA, this paper examines the degree to which security concerns impact the schooling of North Korean refugees in South Korea and Iraqi refugees in Jordan. Operating from a framework examining the intersection of migration and securitisation, the authors find that accounts of negative images…

  12. Manipulator Design and Operation for a Six-Degree-of-Freedom Handheld Tremor-Canceling Microsurgical Instrument

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Sungwook; MacLachlan, Robert A.; Riviere, Cameron N.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the design and actuation of a six-degree-of-freedom (6-DOF) manipulator for a handheld instrument, known as “Micron,” which performs active tremor compensation during microsurgery. The design incorporates a Gough-Stewart platform based on piezoelectric linear motor, with a specified minimum workspace of a cylinder 4 mm long and 4 mm in diameter at the end-effector. Given the stall force of the motors and the loading typically encountered in vitreoretinal microsurgery, the dimensions of the manipulator are optimized to tolerate a transverse load of 0.2 N on a remote center of motion near the midpoint of the tool shaft. The optimization yields a base diameter of 23 mm and a height of 37 mm. The fully handheld instrument includes a custom-built optical tracking system for control feedback, and an ergonomic housing to serve as a handle. The manipulation performance was investigated in both clamped and handheld conditions. In positioning experiments with varying side loads, the manipulator tolerates side load up to 0.25 N while tracking a sinusoidal target trajectory with less than 20 μm error. Physiological hand tremor is reduced by about 90% in a pointing task, and error less than 25 μm is achieved in handheld circle-tracing. PMID:25419103

  13. An algebraic function operator expectation value based eigenstate determinations for quantum systems with one degree of freedom

    SciTech Connect

    Kalay, Berfin; Demiralp, Metin

    2015-12-31

    This proceedings paper aims to show the efficiency of an expectation value identity for a given algebraic function operator which is assumed to be depending pn only position operator. We show that this expectation value formula becomes enabled to determine the eigenstates of the quantum system Hamiltonian as long as it is autonomous and an appropriate basis set in position operator is used. This approach produces a denumerable infinite recursion which may be considered as revisited but at the same time generalized form of the recursions over the natural number powers of the position operator. The content of this short paper is devoted not only to the formulation of the new method but also to show that this novel approach is capable of catching the eigenvalues and eigenfunctions for Hydrogen-like systems, beyond that, it can give a hand to us to reveal the wavefunction structure. So it has also somehow a confirmative nature.

  14. Economic Prosperity and Utilization of Human Resources in Iraqi Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Rubaiy, A.; And Others

    Since Iraq gained independence in the 1930s and particularly since it became a republic in the 1950s and began earning oil revenue, efforts to improve Iraqi education have received increasing attention. By 1984 the educational system had achieved the ability to enroll every child reaching the age of six, and a national campaign to reduce…

  15. Iraqi Universities Struggle to Rebuild the "House of Knowledge"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, Mary

    2004-01-01

    The sign, "Hawler International Airport," greeted the author and her fellow passengers as their six-seater plane landed in July 2003 on a strip of concrete in the middle of an Iraqi field. Fortunately, the approach to this improvised airfield was direct, not like the spiraling in and out of Baghdad and Basra required to avoid possible hostile…

  16. Women and Learning in the Iraqi War Zone

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zangana, Haifa

    2008-01-01

    Having accumulated, throughout the twentieth century, historical achievements in education and standards of living higher than in most Arab and "third world" countries, Iraqi women were hit hard by two wars, the US-imposed economic sanctions of the 1990s, and then set back by the 2003 Anglo-American imperial occupation. Physical survival and daily…

  17. Investigating the Speech Act of Correction in Iraqi EFL Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darweesh, Abbas Deygan; Mehdi, Wafaa Sahib

    2016-01-01

    The present paper investigates the performance of the Iraqi students for the speech act of correction and how it is realized with status unequal. It attempts to achieve the following aims: (1) Setting out the felicity conditions for the speech act of correction in terms of Searle conditions; (2) Identifying the semantic formulas that realize the…

  18. Chern-Simons gravity with (curvature){sup 2} and (torsion){sup 2} terms and a basis of degree-of-freedom projection operators

    SciTech Connect

    Helayeel-Neto, J. A.; Hernaski, C. A.; Pereira-Dias, B.; Vargas-Paredes, A. A.; Vasquez-Otoya, V. J.

    2010-09-15

    The effects of (curvature){sup 2}- and (torsion){sup 2}-terms in the Einstein-Hilbert-Chern-Simons Lagrangian are investigated. The purposes are two-fold: (i) to show the efficacy of an orthogonal basis of degree-of-freedom projection operators recently proposed and to ascertain its adequacy for obtaining propagators of general parity-breaking gravity models in three dimensions; (ii) to analyze the role of the topological Chern-Simons term for the unitarity and the particle spectrum of the model squared-curvature terms in connection with dynamical torsion. Our conclusion is that the Chern-Simons term does not influence the unitarity conditions imposed on the parameters of the Lagrangian but significantly modifies the particle spectrum.

  19. Reforming Iraqi Journalism and Mass Communication Higher Education: Adapting the UNESCO Model Curricula for Journalism Education to Iraqi Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pavlik, John V.; Laufer, Peter D.; Burns, David P.; Ataya, Ramzi T.

    2012-01-01

    Journalism and mass communication higher education in Iraq is well established but largely isolated from global developments since the 1970s. In the post-Iraq war period, the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) implemented a multiyear project to work with the leadership of Iraqi higher education to help update…

  20. Ecosystem-based management of a Mediterranean urban wastewater system: a sensitivity analysis of the operational degrees of freedom.

    PubMed

    Corominas, Lluís; Neumann, Marc B

    2014-10-01

    Urban wastewater systems discharge organic matter, nutrients and other pollutants (including toxic substances) to receiving waters, even after removing more than 90% of incoming pollutants from human activities. Understanding their interactions with the receiving water bodies is essential for the implementation of ecosystem-based management strategies. Using mathematical modeling and sensitivity analysis we quantified how 19 operational variables of an urban wastewater system affect river water quality. The mathematical model of the Congost system (in the Besòs catchment, Spain) characterizes the dynamic interactions between sewers, storage tanks, wastewater treatment plants and the river. The sensitivity analysis shows that the use of storage tanks for peak shaving and the use of a connection between two neighboring wastewater treatment plants are the most important factors influencing river water quality. We study how the sensitivity of the water quality variables towards changes in the operational variables varies along the river due to discharge locations and river self-purification processes. We demonstrate how to use the approach to identify interactions and how to discard non-influential operational variables.

  1. Ecosystem-based management of a Mediterranean urban wastewater system: a sensitivity analysis of the operational degrees of freedom.

    PubMed

    Corominas, Lluís; Neumann, Marc B

    2014-10-01

    Urban wastewater systems discharge organic matter, nutrients and other pollutants (including toxic substances) to receiving waters, even after removing more than 90% of incoming pollutants from human activities. Understanding their interactions with the receiving water bodies is essential for the implementation of ecosystem-based management strategies. Using mathematical modeling and sensitivity analysis we quantified how 19 operational variables of an urban wastewater system affect river water quality. The mathematical model of the Congost system (in the Besòs catchment, Spain) characterizes the dynamic interactions between sewers, storage tanks, wastewater treatment plants and the river. The sensitivity analysis shows that the use of storage tanks for peak shaving and the use of a connection between two neighboring wastewater treatment plants are the most important factors influencing river water quality. We study how the sensitivity of the water quality variables towards changes in the operational variables varies along the river due to discharge locations and river self-purification processes. We demonstrate how to use the approach to identify interactions and how to discard non-influential operational variables. PMID:24880221

  2. Change and Continuity in Arab Iraqi Education: Sunni and Shi'i Discourse in Iraqi Textbooks before and after 2003

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rohde, Achim

    2013-01-01

    This article investigates Iraqi schooling during the 1990s under Ba'thist rule and after the regime's fall in 2003 and compares the treatment of Islam in the curriculum. I focus on the degree to which Iraqi textbooks under Saddam Hussein contained a Sunni bias and the changes introduced immediately after the 2003 US invasion of Iraq in…

  3. Employment Satisfaction and Health Outcomes among Professional Iraqi refugees as compared to Immigrants

    PubMed Central

    Jamil, Hikmet; Aldhalimi, Abir; Arnetz, Bengt B.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates employment and health outcomes in Iraqi refugees compared to Iraqi immigrants. We surveyed 148 Iraqi professional refugees and 111 Iraqi professional immigrants residing in the U.S. We hypothesized that Iraqi refugees would report lower employment and worse self-rated health as compared to Iraqi immigrants. Logistic Regression was used to test various models. Results showed that more immigrants were employed, as well as employed in their original profession as compared to refugees. Regardless of immigration status, participants' age and the way they rated their job played a larger role in health. The study is the first to demonstrate that, controlling for professional, ethnic and cultural background, there are unknown mechanisms resulting in lower employment and skilled employment in refugees as compared to matched immigrant controls. Furthermore, satisfaction with the new work appears more important than employment per se. PMID:24683383

  4. Geographic Freedom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Kennedy Space Center's need to conduct real-time monitoring of Space Shuttle operations led to the development of Netlander Inc.'s JTouch system. The technology behind JTouch allows engineers to view Space Shuttle and ground support data from any desktop computer using a web browser. Companies can make use of JTouch to better monitor locations scattered around the world, increasing decision-making speed and reducing travel costs for site visits.

  5. A six degree of freedom, plume-fuel optimal trajectory planner for spacecraft proximity operations using an A* node search. M.S. Thesis - MIT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, Mark Charles

    1994-01-01

    Spacecraft proximity operations are complicated by the fact that exhaust plume impingement from the reaction control jets of space vehicles can cause structural damage, contamination of sensitive arrays and instruments, or attitude misalignment during docking. The occurrence and effect of jet plume impingement can be reduced by planning approach trajectories with plume effects considered. An A* node search is used to find plume-fuel optimal trajectories through a discretized six dimensional attitude-translation space. A plume cost function which approximates jet plume isopressure envelopes is presented. The function is then applied to find relative costs for predictable 'trajectory altering' firings and unpredictable 'deadbanding' firings. Trajectory altering firings are calculated by running the spacecraft jet selection algorithm and summing the cost contribution from each jet fired. A 'deadbanding effects' function is defined and integrated to determine the potential for deadbanding impingement along candidate trajectories. Plume costs are weighed against fuel costs in finding the optimal solution. A* convergence speed is improved by solving approach trajectory problems in reverse time. Results are obtained on a high fidelity space shuttle/space station simulation. Trajectory following is accomplished by a six degree of freedom autopilot. Trajectories planned with, and without, plume costs are compared in terms of force applied to the target structure.

  6. Contextual freedom: absoluteness versus relativity of freedom.

    PubMed

    Pahlavan, Farzaneh; Amirrezvani, Ali

    2013-10-01

    Our commentary is focused on the idea that "freedom" takes on its full significance whenever its relativistic nature, in the short- and long terms, is taken into account. Given the transformations brought about by "globalization," application of a general model of freedom based on ecological-economic factors clearly seems to be rather untimely. We examine this idea through egocentric and ethnocentric views of the social and environmental analyses of "freedom."

  7. Contextual freedom: absoluteness versus relativity of freedom.

    PubMed

    Pahlavan, Farzaneh; Amirrezvani, Ali

    2013-10-01

    Our commentary is focused on the idea that "freedom" takes on its full significance whenever its relativistic nature, in the short- and long terms, is taken into account. Given the transformations brought about by "globalization," application of a general model of freedom based on ecological-economic factors clearly seems to be rather untimely. We examine this idea through egocentric and ethnocentric views of the social and environmental analyses of "freedom." PMID:23985124

  8. U.S. Colleges Can Help Rebuild Iraqi Higher Education, Academics Say

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fischer, Karin

    2009-01-01

    A number of Iraqi-American academics, meeting this month for a conference on how to rebuild Iraq's battered higher-education system, said the Iraqi government's plan to send thousands of students abroad annually would lead to a "brain drain" of a new generation of the nation's top talent. Prime Minister Nuri al-Malaki has proposed spending a…

  9. 31 CFR 575.414 - Imports of Iraqi goods and purchases of goods from Iraq.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Imports of Iraqi goods and purchases of goods from Iraq. 575.414 Section 575.414 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money... REGULATIONS Interpretations § 575.414 Imports of Iraqi goods and purchases of goods from Iraq....

  10. Iraqi Expatriates' Experience of North American Media Coverage of the Iraq War

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rostam, Hajera; Haverkamp, Beth E.

    2009-01-01

    The extensive North American (NA) media coverage of the recent conflict in Iraq invites the question of how adult Iraqi immigrants have experienced such coverage. This qualitative investigation, involving Iraqi immigrants in Vancouver, Canada, used an interpretive description method (Thorne et al., Int J Qual Methods 3(1):1-21, 2004) to analyze…

  11. 31 CFR 575.304 - Entity of the Government of Iraq; Iraqi Government entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Entity of the Government of Iraq... SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 575.304 Entity of the Government of Iraq; Iraqi Government entity. The term entity of the Government of Iraq or Iraqi Government entity includes: (a)...

  12. Virtual simulation-enhanced triage training for Iraqi medical personnel.

    PubMed

    Kizakevich, Paul N; Culwell, Andrew; Furberg, Robert; Gemeinhardt, Don; Grantlin, Susan; Hubal, Robert; Stafford, Allison; Dombroski, R Todd

    2007-01-01

    Triage, establishing the priority of care among casualties in disaster management, is generally practiced using constructive tabletop or live exercises. Actual disasters involving multiple casualties occur rarely, offering little opportunity for gaining experience and competency assessment. When they do occur, response needs to be rapid and well-learned. In the Iraqi medical education environment where the need for triage is immediate, but the ability to stage practice is nearly impossible, blending didactic learning with simulation-based triage offers an alternative training methodology. PMID:17377271

  13. Iraqi Nurses’ Perspectives on Safety Issues in Maternity Services

    PubMed Central

    Jamil Piro, Tiran; Ghiyasvandian, Shahrzad; Salsali, Mahvash

    2015-01-01

    Background: Studies introduce maternal and neonatal safety phenomena as important challenges to the public health, particularly in low-income countries. However, few researches are conducted on the identification of safety issues in maternity hospitals in Iraq. It was the first study on nurses’ perspectives on safety issues in Kurdistan, Iraq. Objectives: The current study aimed to describe nurses’ perspectives on what constitutes a safe maternity service in Kurdistan, Iraq. Patients and Methods: A qualitative design, based on a content analysis approach, was used. Ten Kurdish nurses who worked in the delivery room of Kurdistan, Iraq maternity hospital were recruited through purposive sampling. Semi-structured interviews were performed to collect data. All interviews were audiotaped and transcribed verbatim. Sampling continued to the level of data saturation. Data analysis was performed based on the steps suggested by Graneheim and Lundman. Results: Thematic analysis led to the identification of six main categories including stressful job, lack of schedule and job description, providing care with limited resources, professional unaccountability, regional sociopolitical factors, and inadequate training. Conclusions: Iraqi nurses identified factors such as limited health resources, lack of job description, and professional unaccountability as major safety issues in maternity services. These findings alarm the need to ensure the provision of females and neonates with appropriate care. This, however, would require coordination between Iraqi Kurdistan health authorities to provide midwifery care facilities, high-quality and relevant staff training, and an effective healthcare system in the maternity units. PMID:26576445

  14. Space Station Freedom Utilization Conference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The topics addressed in Space Station Freedom Utilization Conference are: (1) space station freedom overview and research capabilities; (2) space station freedom research plans and opportunities; (3) life sciences research on space station freedom; (4) technology research on space station freedom; (5) microgravity research and biotechnology on space station freedom; and (6) closing plenary.

  15. Perspectives on preventive health care and barriers to breast cancer screening among Iraqi women refugees.

    PubMed

    Saadi, Altaf; Bond, Barbara; Percac-Lima, Sanja

    2012-08-01

    Since the Iraq war began in 2003, over 4 million Iraqis have been displaced. Little is known about preventive cancer care in this population, but stark disparities have been documented. The purpose of this study was to assess the perspectives of Iraqi women refugees on preventive care and perceived barriers to breast cancer screening. Interviews were conducted in Arabic with twenty Iraqi refugee women by a bilingual (English/Arabic) medical student, transcribed, translated and coded according to established qualitative content and thematic analysis procedures. Psychosocial barriers, culturally mediated beliefs, and health consequences of war were identified as major themes, ultimately showing what factors, alone and collectively, have impeded Iraqi refugee women's ability and motivation to obtain breast cancer screening. To improve cancer prevention and decrease disparities in care in this most vulnerable population, culturally appropriate health education and outreach programs, as well as further community-level targeted studies, are needed.

  16. Space Station Freedom natural environment design models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suggs, Robert M.

    1993-01-01

    The Space Station Freedom program has established a series of natural environment models and databases for utilization in design and operations planning activities. The suite of models and databases that have either been selected from among internationally recognized standards or developed specifically for spacecraft design applications are presented. The models have been integrated with an orbit propagator and employed to compute environmental conditions for planned operations altitudes of Space Station Freedom.

  17. On the helminth fauna of some Iraqi reptiles.

    PubMed

    Al-Barwari, Shlemon E; Saeed, Isam

    2007-01-01

    A study on the parasitofauna of 7 species of Iraqi reptiles revealed the presence of at least 8 adult helminth species and some tentatively identified larvae. The reptiles were Hemidactylus flaviviridis, H. persicus, Asaccus elisae, Spalerosophis d. cliffordi, Testudo g. terrestris, Mauremys c. caspica and Trionyx euphraticus. The helminths found comprised 1 species of digenetic trematodes (Telorchis stunkardi), cysticercoids of Diplopylidium nolleri and 7 nematode species (Thelandros sp., Microtetrameres sp., Angusticaecum holopterum, Atractis dactyluris, Tachygonetria nicolleri, Camallanus microcephalus, and Falcaustra japonensis). Information about the locality of collection, infection site and rate and parasite burden is provided. Although similar cysticercoid larvae and adults of Thelandros sp. and Microtetrameres sp. were previously recorded from Iraq, the scope of the relevant data is considerably extended. In the researchers' judgment, the rest of the parasite species represents a new addition to the Iraq list.

  18. The prevalence of torture and associated symptoms in United States Iraqi refugees.

    PubMed

    Willard, Cynthia L; Rabin, Mara; Lawless, Martha

    2014-12-01

    Iraqi refugees face difficulties resettling in the US, which may be partially due to high rates of torture. This study determines the rates of torture experience, primary and secondary, among Iraqi refugees in the US; and the association to physical and mental health symptoms on arrival. A retrospective review was conducted in 2011 on the post-arrival health screens of Iraqi refugees resettled in Utah in 2008 and 2009. Measures included reports of torture experience as defined by the United Nations; reports of physical and mental health symptoms at the time of screening; and association of torture to the presence of symptoms on arrival. The study included the health screens of 497 (97%) of eligible Iraqi refugees. Most experienced torture (56%) before arrival in the US Logistic regression revealed that torture was the most significant predictor of mental illness symptoms. Iraqi refugees in the US have a high prevalence of torture, and torture is associated with the presence of both mental and physical symptoms on the post-arrival health screen. This information is critical to the development of successful resettlement strategies for Iraqi refugees.

  19. Restructured Freedom configuration characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Troutman, Patrick A.; Heck, Michael L.; Kumar, Renjith R.; Mazanek, Daniel D.

    1991-01-01

    In Jan. 1991, the LaRc SSFO performed an assessment of the configuration characteristics of the proposed pre-integrated Space Station Freedom (SSF) concept. Of particular concern was the relationship of solar array operation and orientation with respect to spacecraft controllability. For the man-tended configuration (MTC), it was determined that torque equilibrium attitude (TEA) seeking Control Moment Gyroscope (CMG) control laws could not always maintain attitude. The control problems occurred when the solar arrays were tracking the sun to produce full power while flying in an arrow or gravity gradient flight mode. The large solar array articulations that sometimes result from having the functions of the alpha and beta joints reversed on MTC induced large product of inertia changes that can invalidate the control system gains during an orbit. Several modified sun tracking techniques were evaluated with respect to producing a controllable configuration requiring no modifications to the CMG control algorithms. Another assessment involved the permanently manned configuration (PMC) which has a third asymmetric PV unit on one side of the transverse boom. Recommendations include constraining alpha rotations for MTC in the arrow and gravity gradient flight modes and perhaps developing new non-TEA seeking control laws. Recommendations for PMC include raising the operational altitude and moving to a symmetric configuration as soon as possible.

  20. Academic Freedom Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doughty, Howard A.

    2010-01-01

    One of the author's enduring concerns about the concept of academic freedom is with semantics. It has seemed to him that one of the biggest difficulties with discussions of academic freedom (as with many conversations about "value-laden" terms such as "democracy," "equity," and "justice") is that people begin from different positions and with…

  1. Freedom Is Structure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papay, Twila Yates

    To make freedom work in the writing classroom, the instructor must be highly structured, possessing a clear sense of direction that includes a precise idea of the skills to be covered. Freedom refers to the view of writing as a liberal art, a liberating force with the capacity to open new channels of thought and lead students to discover…

  2. Beyond Freedom and Dignity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, George W.

    In B. F. Skinner's "Beyond Freedom and Dignity," he states that people can achieve a better society and greater well-being if we destroy our pretensions concerning the freedom and dignity of man. He explains that man must now take total control of his evolution by consciously designing his entire culture so that it will shape the behavior needed…

  3. Academic Freedom and Me

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnard, Ian

    2009-01-01

    This article presents a personal history of the author's own relationships with the concept of academic freedom. The article is subdivided into 3 prehistories, 7 incidents, 3 disjunctions, and 3 myths. The author discusses the complications of politics, culture, and academic freedom in one career.

  4. STS-1 operational flight profile. Volume 5: Descent cycle 3. Appendix D: GRTLS six degree of freedom Monte Carlo dispersion analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Montez, M. N.

    1980-01-01

    The results of a six degree of freedom (6-DOF) nonlinear Monte Carlo dispersion analysis for the latest glide return to landing site (GRTLS) abort trajectory for the Space Transportation System 1 Flight are presented. For this GRTLS, the number two main engine fails at 262.5 seconds ground elapsed time. Fifty randomly selected simulations, initialized at external tank separation, are analyzed. The initial covariance matrix is a 20 x 20 matrix and includes navigation errors and dispersions in position and velocity, time, accelerometer bias, and inertial platform misalinements. In all 50 samples, speedbrake, rudder, elevon, and body flap hinge moments are acceptable. Transitions to autoland begin before 9,000 feet and there are no tailscrapes. Navigation derived dynamic pressure accuracies exceed the flight control system constraints above Mach 2.5. Three out of 50 landings exceeded tire specification limit speed of 222 knots. Pilot manual landings are expected to reduce landing speed by landing farther downrange.

  5. Brief narrative exposure therapy for posttraumatic stress in Iraqi refugees: a preliminary randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Hijazi, Alaa M; Lumley, Mark A; Ziadni, Maisa S; Haddad, Luay; Rapport, Lisa J; Arnetz, Bengt B

    2014-06-01

    Many Iraqi refugees suffer from posttraumatic stress. Efficient, culturally sensitive interventions are needed, and so we adapted narrative exposure therapy into a brief version (brief NET) and tested its effects in a sample of traumatized Iraqi refugees. Iraqi refugees in the United States reporting elevated posttraumatic stress (N = 63) were randomized to brief NET or waitlist control conditions in a 2:1 ratio; brief NET was 3 sessions, conducted individually, in Arabic. Positive indicators (posttraumatic growth and well-being) and symptoms (posttraumatic stress, depressive, and somatic) were assessed at baseline and 2- and 4-month follow-up. Treatment participation (95.1% completion) and study retention (98.4% provided follow-up data) were very high. Significant condition by time interactions showed that those receiving brief NET had greater posttraumatic growth (d = 0.83) and well-being (d = 0.54) through 4 months than controls. Brief NET reduced symptoms of posttraumatic stress (d = -0.48) and depression (d = -0.46) more, but only at 2 months; symptoms of controls also decreased from 2 to 4 months, eliminating condition differences at 4 months. Three sessions of brief NET increased growth and well-being and led to symptom reduction in highly traumatized Iraqi refugees. This preliminary study suggests that brief NET is both acceptable and potentially efficacious in traumatized Iraqi refugees.

  6. 31 CFR 576.206 - Protection granted to the Development Fund for Iraq, Iraqi Petroleum and Petroleum Products, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Fund for Iraq, Iraqi Petroleum and Petroleum Products, and the Central Bank of Iraq. 576.206 Section... Prohibitions § 576.206 Protection granted to the Development Fund for Iraq, Iraqi Petroleum and Petroleum... petroleum and petroleum products, and interests therein, but only until title passes to the...

  7. 31 CFR 576.206 - Protection granted to the Development Fund for Iraq, Iraqi Petroleum and Petroleum Products, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Fund for Iraq, Iraqi Petroleum and Petroleum Products, and the Central Bank of Iraq. 576.206 Section... Prohibitions § 576.206 Protection granted to the Development Fund for Iraq, Iraqi Petroleum and Petroleum... petroleum and petroleum products, and interests therein, but only until title passes to the...

  8. 31 CFR 576.206 - Protection granted to the Development Fund for Iraq, Iraqi Petroleum and Petroleum Products, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Fund for Iraq, Iraqi Petroleum and Petroleum Products, and the Central Bank of Iraq. 576.206 Section... Prohibitions § 576.206 Protection granted to the Development Fund for Iraq, Iraqi Petroleum and Petroleum... petroleum and petroleum products, and interests therein, but only until title passes to the...

  9. 31 CFR 576.206 - Protection granted to the Development Fund for Iraq, Iraqi Petroleum and Petroleum Products, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Fund for Iraq, Iraqi Petroleum and Petroleum Products, and the Central Bank of Iraq. 576.206 Section... Prohibitions § 576.206 Protection granted to the Development Fund for Iraq, Iraqi Petroleum and Petroleum... petroleum and petroleum products, and interests therein, but only until title passes to the...

  10. [Drug addiction and freedom].

    PubMed

    Albuquerque, M A

    1982-03-01

    The author, in a historical and philosophical approach, analyses the concept of freedom as opposed to slavery. He also refers to the legal and social restrictions and studies the determinism and free will as the causes of human behaviour. Quoting Spinoza, the author states that man accepts the idea of freedom because he realizes the "how" of his options but ignores "why". Without the hypothesis of causality and determinism, there seems to have no science. Without freedom, there seems to be no anthropos man (Jimeno Valdez). The principles of anticausality, of nonreproducibility and of differentiation characterize the human freedom, but are contrary to the way science works. According to the social and political point of view, it was established that the State has the right to oblige and to violently limit freedom. Practically speaking, though, the State is violent just for being the State; the dominant groups are the government because they are and they have been violent. There is a need to limit and to discipline this right of the State of being violent within the dilemma of safety and freedom. By working, the slave avoided the whip. And by doing this, he encouraged the behaviour of the one who whipped him. The non-aversive attitudes limit the freedom in the modern world more and more for they also enchain our will, a rebellion becoming impossible. One is not granted the freedom; it shall be conquered and kept. Freedom, either as a concept or a phenomenon, is always relative. The concept of toxicomania or pharmacodependance is analysed according to the same perspective. The conclusion is that this is always more a problem of the society than of the individual, and this is how it has to be understood and treated. The present world is described as a millenial human culture specifically characterized by eight groups of phenomena: 1. Transport increased human mobility, reduced the relative dimensions of the earth, mixed peoples, compared cultures and created

  11. Academic Freedom and Organisational Identity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tierney, William G.

    2001-01-01

    Summarizes prominent current arguments on academic freedom's endangerment by managerialism and discusses their limitations. Defines a new vision of academic freedom informed by thinking on globalization. Presents findings from interviews with Australian faculty about academic freedom and discusses ways to ensure that academic freedom endures in…

  12. Characters of Lactobacillus coryniformis, isolated from an Iraqi cheese.

    PubMed

    Hegazi, F Z; Abo-Elnaga, I G

    1980-01-01

    The cultural, physiological, and biochemical characters of 21 strains of Lactobacillus coryniformis, isolated from Iraqi cheese, were investigated. Some of the strains grew at 45 degrees C. All possessed the following characteristics: they did not contain DAP; no growth in 4% taurocholate or in 9% NaCl; growth in 6.5% NaCl; milk mostly coagulated within 3 to 60 days with final activity of 0.85--1.09% and pH 4.05; xylose, (D+)tagatose, inulin, and trehalose not fermented; ribose fermented by only one strain and arabinose by another; pyruvate, malate, and fumarate decomposed in the presence of glucose with formation of carbon dioxide; CO2 was produced from gluconate by 20 out of 21 strains. The mean total amount of lactate, produced after 41 days at 30 degrees C, was 42.6 +/- 2.5 mumoles per ml, of L(+)lactate 17.8 +/- 1.1, and of % L(+)lactate of total lactate 42.3 +/- 1.7. The isolates degraded pyruvate (111 mumoles/ml) in the presence of glucose (55.5 mumoles/ml) with lactate as the major product, together with acetate 5.8%, ethanol 8.15%, acetoin 1.95%, and diacetyl 2.50% yield on a molar basis after 60 days at 30 degrees C. Diacetyl and acetoin could be formed from pyruvate plus glucose, but not from either glucose alone, citrate alone, or from citrate plus glucose. The mean total amount of diacetyl plus acetoin, after 26 days at 30 degrees C, was 1059.6 +/- 24.0 micrograms/ml, of diacetyl 92.8 +/- 2.2, and of % diacetyl of the total diacetyl plus acetoin was 8.8 +/- 0.3. L. coryniformis differs from L. plantarum in morphology, in not containing DAP, in failure to grow in 4% taurocholate, in not fermenting ribose and trehalose, and in not decomposing tartrate.

  13. Thoughts on freedom.

    PubMed

    Hallingby, L

    1981-11-01

    The tradition of personal freedom as Americans know it is not known in China. In America, people are free to choose their own lifestyle but they cannot walk the streets in safety for fear of crime and violence. In a sense, they are not free. In China, one is not free to choose an occupation and a place to live and work, but people are free to walk the streets in safety. Perhaps the true difference between the U.S. and China is not the presence or absence of freedom, but rather the nature of the freedom involved. There are certain underlying assumptions which explain why personal freedom is not very important in China: 1) everyone belongs to a series of larger units, the family, the neighborhood commune, and society; and 2) the effect of an individual's actions on the larger unit is more important than the immediate effect on the individual. Thus, the Chinese do not have the freedom to engage in self-defeating and self-destructive behavior that Americans tend to engage in. In the U.S., people have the right to become alcoholics, to become drug addicts and to have as many babies at as young an age as their bodies will allow. The negative effects of these types of behavior are less important to Americans as the individual's right to free choice. Sexual pleasures and sexual freedom are not paramount concerns in China, but there is 1 basic lifestyle which everyone is expected to follow: marriage, parenting of 1 child, living with the parents of 1 spouse or the other, and caring for one's parents in their old age. The Chinese are not free to choose to cohabitate without being married, to remain single, to remain childless, or to be single parents. These lifestyles and sexual practices find their roots in the fact that China is a monolithic society where everyone thinks and behaves in the same way, and also in the fact that sexual taboos are motivated by practical or economic, rather than religious and moral concerns. Although women are encouraged to have an abortion if

  14. Thoughts on freedom.

    PubMed

    Hallingby, L

    1981-11-01

    The tradition of personal freedom as Americans know it is not known in China. In America, people are free to choose their own lifestyle but they cannot walk the streets in safety for fear of crime and violence. In a sense, they are not free. In China, one is not free to choose an occupation and a place to live and work, but people are free to walk the streets in safety. Perhaps the true difference between the U.S. and China is not the presence or absence of freedom, but rather the nature of the freedom involved. There are certain underlying assumptions which explain why personal freedom is not very important in China: 1) everyone belongs to a series of larger units, the family, the neighborhood commune, and society; and 2) the effect of an individual's actions on the larger unit is more important than the immediate effect on the individual. Thus, the Chinese do not have the freedom to engage in self-defeating and self-destructive behavior that Americans tend to engage in. In the U.S., people have the right to become alcoholics, to become drug addicts and to have as many babies at as young an age as their bodies will allow. The negative effects of these types of behavior are less important to Americans as the individual's right to free choice. Sexual pleasures and sexual freedom are not paramount concerns in China, but there is 1 basic lifestyle which everyone is expected to follow: marriage, parenting of 1 child, living with the parents of 1 spouse or the other, and caring for one's parents in their old age. The Chinese are not free to choose to cohabitate without being married, to remain single, to remain childless, or to be single parents. These lifestyles and sexual practices find their roots in the fact that China is a monolithic society where everyone thinks and behaves in the same way, and also in the fact that sexual taboos are motivated by practical or economic, rather than religious and moral concerns. Although women are encouraged to have an abortion if

  15. Introduction to Space Station Freedom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohrs, Richard

    NASA field centers and contractors are organized to develop 'work packages' for Space Station Freedom. Marshall Space Flight Center and Boeing are building the U.S. laboratory and habitation modules, nodes, and environmental control and life support system; Johnson Space Center and McDonnell Douglas are responsible for truss structure, data management, propulsion systems, thermal control, and communications and guidance; Lewis Research Center and Rocketdyne are developing the power system. The Canadian Space Agency (CSA) is contributing a Mobile Servicing Center, Special Dextrous Manipulator, and Mobile Servicing Center Maintenance Depot. The National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA) is contributing a Japanese Experiment Module (JEM), which includes a pressurized module, logistics module, and exposed experiment facility. The European Space Agency (ESA) is contributing the Columbus laboratory module. NASA ground facilities, now in various stages of development to support Space Station Freedom, include: Marshall Space Flight Center's Payload Operations Integration Center and Payload Training Complex (Alabama), Johnson Space Center's Space Station Control Center and Space Station Training Facility (Texas), Lewis Research Center's Power System Facility (Ohio), and Kennedy Space Center's Space Station Processing Facility (Florida). Budget appropriations impact the development of the Space Station. In Fiscal Year 1988, Congress appropriated only half of the funds that NASA requested for the space station program ($393 million vs. $767 million). In FY 89, NASA sought $967 million for the program, and Congress appropriated $900 million. NASA's FY 90 request was $2.05 billion compared to an appropriation of $1.75 billion; the FY 91 request was $2.45 billion, and the appropriation was $1.9 billion. After NASA restructured the Space Station Freedom program in response to directions from Congress, the agency's full budget request of $2.029 billion for Space Station

  16. Introduction to Space Station Freedom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kohrs, Richard

    1992-01-01

    NASA field centers and contractors are organized to develop 'work packages' for Space Station Freedom. Marshall Space Flight Center and Boeing are building the U.S. laboratory and habitation modules, nodes, and environmental control and life support system; Johnson Space Center and McDonnell Douglas are responsible for truss structure, data management, propulsion systems, thermal control, and communications and guidance; Lewis Research Center and Rocketdyne are developing the power system. The Canadian Space Agency (CSA) is contributing a Mobile Servicing Center, Special Dextrous Manipulator, and Mobile Servicing Center Maintenance Depot. The National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA) is contributing a Japanese Experiment Module (JEM), which includes a pressurized module, logistics module, and exposed experiment facility. The European Space Agency (ESA) is contributing the Columbus laboratory module. NASA ground facilities, now in various stages of development to support Space Station Freedom, include: Marshall Space Flight Center's Payload Operations Integration Center and Payload Training Complex (Alabama), Johnson Space Center's Space Station Control Center and Space Station Training Facility (Texas), Lewis Research Center's Power System Facility (Ohio), and Kennedy Space Center's Space Station Processing Facility (Florida). Budget appropriations impact the development of the Space Station. In Fiscal Year 1988, Congress appropriated only half of the funds that NASA requested for the space station program ($393 million vs. $767 million). In FY 89, NASA sought $967 million for the program, and Congress appropriated $900 million. NASA's FY 90 request was $2.05 billion compared to an appropriation of $1.75 billion; the FY 91 request was $2.45 billion, and the appropriation was $1.9 billion. After NASA restructured the Space Station Freedom program in response to directions from Congress, the agency's full budget request of $2.029 billion for Space Station

  17. High School Press Freedom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maurer, Diana J.

    This report focuses on controversial articles written by the high school press, decisions made by the courts regarding students' press freedoms, and reactions to the articles and rulings. Particular attention is given to two rulings concerning censorship of articles about students' sexual atttiudes and activities, the issue of prior restraint of…

  18. Religious Freedom in America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kittlaus, Jennifer, Ed.; Bliss, Pam, Ed.

    2001-01-01

    This magazine aims to help high school teachers of civics, government, history, law, and law-related education program developers educate students about legal issues. This issue focuses on religious freedom in the United States. It contains 11 articles: (1) "Government-Religion Relations in Historical Perspective" (C. Cookson) discusses how…

  19. Thinking Academic Freedom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lange, Lis

    2016-01-01

    This lecture argues that the politicisation and instrumentalisation of the university caused by neoliberal frames has as a result the depoliticisation of knowledge and of the academic as individual. This depoliticisation has turned academic freedom into a right to disengage not only from the political fight around these issues but also from the…

  20. Breastfeeding Education, Support, and Barriers among Iraqi Refugee Women in Jordan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madanat, Hala; Farrell, Heather; Merrill, Ray; Cox, Erin

    2007-01-01

    UNICEF data indicates that Iraqi women have lower rates of breastfeeding than other Middle East countries and that breastfeeding rates are usually even lower among refugee women. This low rate of breastfeeding may be a result of refugee women's lack of public and social support and access to health professionals. This study identifies Iraqi…

  1. Iraqi Adolescents: Self-Regard, Self-Derogation, and Perceived Threat in War

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlton-Ford, Steve; Ender, Morten G.; Tabatabai, Ahoo

    2008-01-01

    A year into the 2003 US-Iraq war, how were adolescents in Baghdad faring? Conflict-related events typically lower psychological well-being; in contrast, investment in and protection of threatened identities should lead to self-esteem striving and, presumably, better well-being. How threatened do Iraqi adolescents feel? Is their self-esteem related…

  2. Out of Crisis: Reflections of an Iraqi and an American on Advocacy for Andragogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bright, Larry K.; Mahdi, Ghada S.

    2010-01-01

    Mahdi is an Iraqi doctoral candidate in adult and higher education and Bright is her doctoral advisor. The two have been involved in intensive dialogue about how they see their cultures, how they perceive the conflict in the Middle East, and how andragogical theory offers hope for changing learning and teaching approaches that can influence…

  3. Teaching English Literature to Iraqi Students of Translation: A Study in Cultural Overlap.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Azzawi, A. S.

    An approach to teaching English literature to first-year students of translation, emphasizing literature as a vehicle of culture, of literary experience, and for development of communication skills in English as a Second Language, is recommended based on one teacher's experience at an Iraqi university. Literature is seen as a means of helping…

  4. A Basic Course in Iraqi Arabic. The Richard Slade Harrell Arabic Series: Number Eleven.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erwin, Wallace M.

    This text in basic Arabic is audiolingual in approach and is based specifically on Muslim Baghdad Arabic, which can generally be understood throughout Iraq and to some extent throughout the Arab world. Units 1-10 present a description of the phonological system of Iraqi Arabic, with detailed explanations and drills designed to help the student…

  5. The Iraqis. Their History and Culture. CAL Refugee Fact Sheet Series No. 11.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robson, Barbara; Nydell, Margaret

    Iraqi refugees are coming to the United States after years of war and internal conflict, and they bring with them an ancient history. This booklet gives an overview of the land, the people, and the history of Iraq, with a description of the circumstances that compel these refugees to leave their native land. The people who live in Iraq represent a…

  6. Synergy across the Curriculum: Simulating the Institution of Postwar Iraqi Government

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Austin, W. Chadwick; McDowell, Todd; Sacko, David H.

    2006-01-01

    This article describes an undergraduate simulation that formulates Iraqi regimes following the removal of Saddam Hussein's Baathist regime. This exercise reinforces student comprehension and awareness for a range of legal and political topics--including group decision making, international law, diplomacy, and human rights--by actively engaging the…

  7. 19 CFR 12.104j - Emergency protection for Iraqi cultural antiquities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... material of Iraq is restricted pursuant to the Emergency Protection for Iraqi Cultural Antiquities Act of... ethnological material of Iraq” means cultural property of Iraq and other items of archaeological, historical, cultural, rare scientific, or religious importance illegally removed from the Iraq National Museum,...

  8. 19 CFR 12.104j - Emergency protection for Iraqi cultural antiquities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... material of Iraq is restricted pursuant to the Emergency Protection for Iraqi Cultural Antiquities Act of... ethnological material of Iraq” means cultural property of Iraq and other items of archaeological, historical, cultural, rare scientific, or religious importance illegally removed from the Iraq National Museum,...

  9. Role of Iraqi Higher Education Institutes in Handling National/International Environmental and Health Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Maliky, Salam J. Bash

    2012-01-01

    Huge environmental and health crises such as the use of Depleted Uranium (DU) munitions during the military activities against Iraq and the required responses are amongst the fields that Iraqi higher education institutions (HEIs) may have a crucial role. Similar international cases, such as Agent Orange (Vietnam), Three Mile Island (USA) and…

  10. 31 CFR 575.412 - Release of Iraqi goods from bonded warehouse or foreign trade zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... warehouse or foreign trade zone. 575.412 Section 575.412 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to... SANCTIONS REGULATIONS Interpretations § 575.412 Release of Iraqi goods from bonded warehouse or foreign trade zone. Section 575.204 does not prohibit the release from a bonded warehouse or a foreign...

  11. Neurological disorders in Iraqi refugees in Jordan: data from the United Nations Refugee Assistance Information System.

    PubMed

    Mateen, Farrah J; Carone, Marco; Nyce, Sayre; Ghosn, Jad; Mutuerandu, Timothy; Al-Saedy, Huda; Lowenstein, Daniel H; Burnham, Gilbert

    2012-04-01

    The United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) recognizes 43.7 million forcibly displaced persons and asylum seekers due to conflict and persecution worldwide. Neurological disorders have rarely been described in displaced persons but likely pose a significant burden of disease. We describe the disease spectrum and health service utilization of Iraqi refugees and asylum seekers with neurological disorders using an information system developed by the UNHCR. Neurological disorders were actively monitored among the 7,642 UNHCR-registered Iraqi refugees and asylum seekers who received health and humanitarian assistance using a pilot, centralized, database called the Refugee Assistance Information System (RAIS) in the Kingdom of Jordan in 2010. There were 122 neurological diagnoses reported in 1,328 refugees (mean age 41 years, 49% female, 10% disabled, 43% with pending resettlement applications) in 2,659 health visits, accounting for 17% of all refugees who sought health assistance in RAIS. Referral to a neurologist occurred in 178 cases (13.4%). The most frequent ICD-10 neurological diagnoses were dorsalgia (back pain) (29.7% of individuals with neurological disorders), headache (13.1%), and epilepsy (12.6%). Approximately 1 in 20 Iraqi refugees with a neurological diagnosis self-reported a history of torture, which was higher than Iraqi refugees without a history of torture [66/1,328 versus 196/6,314, odds ratio (OR) = 1.63, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.21-2.18]. Neurological disease affects a high proportion of Iraqi refugees, including victims of torture and the disabled. Refugees require dedicated care for treatment of neurological disease with a focus on pain disorders and epilepsy.

  12. Freedom, equality, race.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Jeffrey B

    2011-01-01

    This essay explores come of the reasons for the continuing power of racial categorization in our era, and thus offers some friendly amendments to the more optimistic renderings of the term post-racial. Focusing mainly on the relationship between black and white Americans, it argues that the widespread embrace of universal values of freedom and equality, which most regard as antidotes to racial exclusion, actually reinforce it. The internal logic of these categories requires the construction of the "other." In America, where freedom and equality still stand at the contested center of collective identity, a history of racial oppression informs the very meaning of these terms. Thus the irony: much of the effort exerted to transcend race tends to fuel continuing division. PMID:21469393

  13. Freedom of Information Act

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Newman, D.J.

    2012-01-01

    The Freedom of Information Act( FOIA), 5 U.S.C.§ 552, as amended, generally provides that any person has a right to request access to Federal agency records. The USGS proactively promotes information disclosure as inherent to its mission of providing objective science to inform decisionmakers and the general public. USGS scientists disseminate up-to-date and historical scientific data that are critical to addressing national and global priorities.

  14. Freedom, responsibility, and health.

    PubMed

    Bunker, J P; Stansfeld, S; Potter, J

    Freedom and responsibility, how much of each and how they are balanced, have profound implications for our personal lives and for our work. The health of a population and its achievement in the workplace are enhanced when individuals have some freedom and some responsibility, but not too much of either, and when civil associations of individuals rather than individuals acting alone are the essential social units. The consistent association of social contacts with health and productivity provides strong support for the premise that intimate relationships are the focus around which people's lives revolve. Membership of a "social network" may be merely conforming to a reigning social norm, and this could mean having to pay an important price in the loss of creativity associated with individualism. But social conformity should not prevent individuals from going their own way, and it should be possible to combine the luxury of individuality with an active life in civic affairs. Less than complete freedom may fall short of existential utopia, but it may be best for our health and wellbeing.

  15. The epidemiology of Critical Care Air Transport Team operations in contemporary warfare.

    PubMed

    Galvagno, Samuel M; Dubose, Joseph J; Grissom, Thomas E; Fang, Raymond; Smith, Richard; Bebarta, Vikhyat S; Shackelford, Stacy; Scalea, Thomas M

    2014-06-01

    Critical Care Air Transport Teams (CCATTs) have evolved as a vital component of the U.S. Air Force's aeromedical evacuation system. Previous epidemiological research in this area is limited. The objective of this commentary is to highlight the importance of obtaining robust epidemiological data regarding patients transported by CCATTs. A limited epidemiological analysis was performed to describe CCATT patients transported during Operation Enduring Freedom and the waning months of Operation Iraqi Freedom. CCATT transports for the calendar year 2011 were examined as recorded in the U.S. Transportation Command Regulating and Command and Control (C2) Evacuation System database. As many as 290 CCATT primary patient transport records were reviewed. Of these, 58.6% of patients had multiple injuries, 15.9% of patients had traumatic brain injury, 7% had acute coronary syndromes, and 24.8% of all transports were for nonbattle-related injuries. The most common International Classification of Disease, 9th Edition, Clinical Modification coded injury was bilateral lower extremity amputation (40%). Explosive blasts were the top mechanism of injury for patients requiring CCAT. The distribution of injuries and illnesses requiring CCAT appear to have changed compared to previous conventional conflicts. Understanding the epidemiology of casualties evacuated by CCATT during modern warfare is a prerequisite for the development of effective predeployment training to ensure optimal outcomes for critically ill and injured warriors.

  16. Academic Freedom: The Ethical Imperative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slattery, Patrick

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the author takes his cue for discussions of academic freedom from Simone de Beauvoir as found in her classic text, "The Ethics of Ambiguity." Like other existentialists, de Beauvoir emphasizes that freedom and responsibility are intimately linked. Academic freedom is an ethical responsibility that compels the author to teach and…

  17. Academic Freedom Requires Constant Vigilance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emery, Kim

    2009-01-01

    Traditionally, academic freedom has been understood as an individual right and a negative liberty. As William Tierney and Vincente Lechuga explain, "Academic freedom, although an institutional concept, was vested in the individual professor." The touchstone document on academic freedom, the American Association of University Professor's (AAUP)…

  18. Academic Freedom and Christian Scholarship.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diekema, Anthony J.

    This book reflects on the scholarly literature on academic freedom and the personal experience of an educator with 20 years experience as a college president. The book offers a balanced approach which develops a working definition of academic freedom, assesses the threats it faces, acknowledges the significance of academic freedom, and explores…

  19. An Intellectual Freedom Theme Issue.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolner, Myrtle Smith, Ed.

    1986-01-01

    Prepared by an intellectual freedom committee, this issue is intended to aid librarians in thinking about intellectual freedom when confronted with the current creationism controversy. A manual containing documents and resources on intellectual freedom, a bibliography of pro- and anti-creationism materials, and results of a censorship survey are…

  20. Medical civil-military operations: the deployed medical brigade's role in counterinsurgency operations.

    PubMed

    Bryan, Jeffrey; Miyamoto, Danelle; Holman, Vincent

    2008-01-01

    Medical civil-military operations are a critical combat multiplier directly supporting the counterinsurgency fight. Army Medical Department Soldiers support medical civil affairs activities at all levels from platoon to the United States Mission-Iraq (Department of State) initiatives enhancing the legitimacy of medical services in the Iraq Ministry of Health, Ministry of Defense, Ministry of the Interior, and Ministry of Justice. The civil-military operations mission of the deployed Task Force 62 Medical Brigade has also evolved into a broad mission encompassing over 120 contractors including Iraqi-American, Bilingual Bicultural Advisors-Subject Matter Experts serving as case management liaison officers and medical trainers, as well as Iraqi Advisor Task Force members providing medical atmospherics, assessments, training, and the overall management of Iraqi linguists supporting all level III medical facilities. PMID:20088052

  1. Space Station Freedom altitude strategy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcdonald, Brian M.; Teplitz, Scott B.

    1990-01-01

    The Space Station Freedom (SSF) altitude strategy provides guidelines and assumptions to determine an altitude profile for Freedom. The process for determining an altitude profile incorporates several factors such as where the Space Shuttle will rendezvous with the SSF, when reboosts must occur, and what atmospheric conditions exist causing decay. The altitude strategy has an influence on all areas of SSF development and mission planning. The altitude strategy directly affects the micro-gravity environment for experiments, propulsion and control system sizing, and Space Shuttle delivery manifests. Indirectly the altitude strategy influences almost every system and operation within the Space Station Program. Evolution of the SSF altitude strategy has been a very dynamic process over the past few years. Each altitude strategy in turn has emphasized a different consideration. Examples include a constant Space Shuttle rendezvous altitude for mission planning simplicity, or constant micro-gravity levels with its inherent emphasis on payloads, or lifetime altitudes to provide a safety buffer to loss of control conditions. Currently a new altitude strategy is in development. This altitude strategy will emphasize Space Shuttle delivery optimization. Since propellant is counted against Space Shuttle payload-to-orbit capacity, lowering the rendezvous altitude will not always increase the net payload-to-orbit, since more propellant would be required for reboost. This altitude strategy will also consider altitude biases to account for Space Shuttle launch slips and an unexpected worsening of atmospheric conditions. Safety concerns will define a lower operational altitude limit, while radiation levels will define upper altitude constraints. The evolution of past and current SSF altitude strategies and the development of a new altitude strategy which focuses on operational issues as opposed to design are discussed.

  2. Microbial identification system for Space Station Freedom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Harlan D.; Scarlett, Janie B.; Skweres, Joyce A.; Fortune, Russell L.; Staples, John L.; Pierson, Duane L.

    1989-01-01

    The Environmental Health System (EHS) and Health Maintenance Facility (HMF) on Space Station Freedom will require a comprehensive microbiology capability. This requirement entails the development of an automated system to perform microbial identifications on isolates from a variety of environmental and clinical sources and, when required, to perform antimicrobial sensitivity testing. The unit currently undergoing development and testing is the Automated Microbiology System II (AMS II) built by Vitek Systems, Inc. The AMS II has successfully completed 12 months of laboratory testing and evaluation for compatibility with microgravity operation. The AMS II is a promising technology for use on Space Station Freedom.

  3. A failure recovery planning prototype for Space Station Freedom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hammen, David G.; Kelly, Christine M.

    1991-01-01

    NASA is investigating the use of advanced automation to enhance crew productivity for Space Station Freedom in numerous areas, including failure management. A prototype is described that uses various advanced automation techniques to generate courses of action whose intents are to recover from a diagnosed failure, and to do so within the constraints levied by the failure and by Freedom's configuration and operating conditions.

  4. 16 CFR 1018.29 - Appeals under the Freedom of Information Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... COMMITTEE MANAGEMENT Operation of Advisory Committees § 1018.29 Appeals under the Freedom of Information Act... the Commission's Procedures for Disclosure or Production of Information under the Freedom of Information Act (16 CFR part 1015)....

  5. Space Station Freedom Gateway to the Future

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The first inhabited outpost on the frontier of space will be a place to live, work, and discover. Experiments conducted on Freedom will advance scientific knowledge about our world, our environment, and ourselves. We will learn how to adapt to the space environment and to build and operate new spacecraft with destinations far beyond Earth, continuing the tradition of exploration that began with a journey to the Moon. What we learn from living and working on Freedom will strengthen our expertise in science and engineering, promote national research and development initiatives and inspire another generation of Americans to push forward and onward. On the eve of the 21st century, Space Station Freedom will be our gateway to the future. This material covers gateways to space, research, discovery, utilization, benefits, and NASA.

  6. Knowledge and practice of colorectal screening in a suburban group of Iraqi American women.

    PubMed

    Jillson, Irene; Faeq, Zainab; Kabbara, Khaled W; Cousin, Carolyn; Mumford, William; Blancato, Jan

    2015-06-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) was the second most common cancer among women in 2008, accounting for 571,000 cases, and 9.4% of all cancer cases afflicting women worldwide. According to the World Health Organization (WHO) and the Iraqi National Cancer Registry (INCR), Iraq has seen a steady rise in CRC rates among its general population over the past several decades. Despite Iraq's increasing national incidence of CRC and the growth of the US' Iraqi immigrant population over the last 10 years, little remains known about the prevalence of CRC among the latter population, their knowledge of CRC and associated risk factors, or their behavioral intent and practices regarding CRC screening. The aims of this study were to (1) examine the knowledge of and adherence to National Cancer Institute screening recommendations for CRC among a population of Iraqi women living in the Washington D.C. Metropolitan Area and (2) test the efficacy of a one-time educational intervention conducted using linguistically and culturally appropriate materials to raise awareness of, and promote future adherence to, CRC screening methods. This descriptive study used a pre/post design with a 12-month follow-up. Following extensive dissemination of information regarding the study in the Iraqi American community in the study location, 50 women were initially recruited, of whom 32 participated in the study. The study's findings revealed that the participants generally had low baseline levels of CRC screening adherence and preventive knowledge that significantly improved after the intervention as demonstrated by pre- and post-assessments of knowledge and behavior. These findings could be used to raise awareness (1) among clinicians regarding the need for early detection and screening of and referral for CRC treatment among Iraqi American women and (2) among Iraqi American women about risk factors for this disease and the importance of early detection and screening. The study also highlights the need for a

  7. Acute haemolytic episodes & fava bean consumption in G6PD deficient Iraqis.

    PubMed

    Yahya, H I; al-Allawi, N A

    1993-12-01

    The relation between fava bean ingestion and the occurrence of a haemolytic episode was studied in 102 glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenate (G6PD) deficient Iraqi patients. None of the patients (mean age 12.8 yr) had a documented similar illness earlier, although all of them gave history of reported regular fava bean ingestion in the past. Further, none of the three patients who were rechallenged (2-3 months later) by the beans developed any clinical or laboratory evidence of haemolysis. The incidence of the haemolytic episodes was found to peak in April, while the fava bean season extends from February to June. This study thus does not support a causal relation between the bean ingestion and the haemolytic episodes in G6PD deficient Iraqis. Possibly, some other factor such as a viral infection may be involved.

  8. Intimate partner violence among Iraqi immigrant women in Metro Detroit: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Barkho, Evone; Fakhouri, Monty; Arnetz, Judith E

    2011-08-01

    Violence against women is an important public health problem. The objective of this study was to examine the prevalence of intimate partner violence (IPV) among immigrant Iraqi women, and to explore the association between IPV and self-rated health. A pilot study using a previously published, self-report questionnaire was carried out among a convenience sampling of 55 Iraqi women in greater Detroit. The overall prevalence of controlling behavior, threatening behavior, and physical violence was 93, 76, and 80%, respectively. Approximately 40% of the women reported having poor or fair health, and 90% reported experiencing one or more types of psychosomatic symptoms. Self-rated health was inversely related to exposure to threatening behavior and physical violence, and positively related to knowledge of one's legal rights. The prevalence of IPV in this sample was high. Results indicated a significant association between exposure to IPV and women's physical health and psychosomatic symptoms.

  9. Jockeying for position in the humanitarian field: Iraqi refugees and faith-based organisations in Damascus.

    PubMed

    Zaman, Tahir

    2012-07-01

    The rise in the number of interventions by faith-based organisations in the humanitarian field has reignited debate about the role of religion in the public sphere. This paper presents a nuanced examination of the part played by religious institutions and networks in the strategies of forced migrants in urban contexts. Furthermore, it considers how such organisations work to integrate displaced populations into their new surroundings. Drawing on two case studies and ethnographic fieldwork and in-depth interviews with Iraqi refugees and refugee service providers in Damascus, Syria, carried out between March 2010 and March 2011, it evaluates how Iraqi refugees, as active social agents, utilise religious institutions and networks in conjunction with established international humanitarian organisations to produce a distinctive geography of exile. In addition, it draws attention to how the Syrian state exerts influence over religious actors and how ultimately this affects the decision-making of forced migrants.

  10. Acute haemolytic episodes & fava bean consumption in G6PD deficient Iraqis.

    PubMed

    Yahya, H I; al-Allawi, N A

    1993-12-01

    The relation between fava bean ingestion and the occurrence of a haemolytic episode was studied in 102 glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenate (G6PD) deficient Iraqi patients. None of the patients (mean age 12.8 yr) had a documented similar illness earlier, although all of them gave history of reported regular fava bean ingestion in the past. Further, none of the three patients who were rechallenged (2-3 months later) by the beans developed any clinical or laboratory evidence of haemolysis. The incidence of the haemolytic episodes was found to peak in April, while the fava bean season extends from February to June. This study thus does not support a causal relation between the bean ingestion and the haemolytic episodes in G6PD deficient Iraqis. Possibly, some other factor such as a viral infection may be involved. PMID:8132232

  11. Jockeying for position in the humanitarian field: Iraqi refugees and faith-based organisations in Damascus.

    PubMed

    Zaman, Tahir

    2012-07-01

    The rise in the number of interventions by faith-based organisations in the humanitarian field has reignited debate about the role of religion in the public sphere. This paper presents a nuanced examination of the part played by religious institutions and networks in the strategies of forced migrants in urban contexts. Furthermore, it considers how such organisations work to integrate displaced populations into their new surroundings. Drawing on two case studies and ethnographic fieldwork and in-depth interviews with Iraqi refugees and refugee service providers in Damascus, Syria, carried out between March 2010 and March 2011, it evaluates how Iraqi refugees, as active social agents, utilise religious institutions and networks in conjunction with established international humanitarian organisations to produce a distinctive geography of exile. In addition, it draws attention to how the Syrian state exerts influence over religious actors and how ultimately this affects the decision-making of forced migrants. PMID:22687154

  12. Effects of witnessing or exposure to community violence on mental health of Iraqi men

    PubMed Central

    Al-Nuaimi, Maha A.; Hamad, Ruaa A.; Lafta, Riyadh K.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Iraq is consistently exposed to large-scale traumatic events such as successive wars since 1980 to the present day, economic sanctions, sustained organized violence, and terrorism. These unsafe circumstances have negatively impacted the psychosocial status of the Iraqi community. Objective: To study the prevalence of witnessing or exposure to various types of violence, and its association with mental health problems in a sample of Iraqi men. Methods: This is a cross-sectional study that was conducted from April to September 2014. The target population were men from different age groups that were collected through a convenience sampling technique from two large cities; Baghdad (the capital city) and Mosul (the second largest city in Iraq). The source of data was from different institutions, colleges and lay people. The data collection process was done using the Self-Reporting Questionnaire 20 which is recommended by the World Health Organization for screening psychiatric disturbances. Results: A total of 480 Iraqi males agreed to participate in the study. The main type of violence reported was witnessing violence (55.4%), followed by exposure of friends or relatives to violence (51.4%), and witnessing or exposure to sexual assault was least reported (3.8%). The most frequent feeling recorded was of worry (72.9%), getting easily upset (65.4%), suffering from headaches (62.7%) and lethargy (59.4%). Severe psychological changes were evident in 68.5% of men, while moderate changes were present in 31.5%. Analysis of the feelings and behavioral changes in relation to the participants' history of exposure to violence revealed a significant association with witnessing shooting or stabbings, displacement, friends or relatives' exposure to violence, and viewing corpses. Conclusion: There is a high prevalence among Iraqi men of exposure to, or witnessing violence that showed an association with their mental condition, which, if proved causally, may be a leading

  13. Food security and humanitarian assistance among displaced Iraqi populations in Jordan and Syria.

    PubMed

    Doocy, Shannon; Sirois, Adam; Anderson, Jamie; Tileva, Margarita; Biermann, Elizabeth; Storey, J Douglas; Burnham, Gilbert

    2011-01-01

    The Iraq conflict resulted in the largest displacement in the Middle East in recent history, and provision of health services to the displaced population presents a critical challenge. With an increase in the number of people affected by complex emergencies and the number of people displaced in urban settings, the international community must adapt intervention strategies to meet the specific demands and contexts of this population. The study aimed to provide information on food security and livelihoods for Iraqi refugees in Syria and Jordan to inform humanitarian assistance planning. National cross-sectional cluster sample surveys of displaced Iraqi populations displaced were conducted in Jordan (October 2008) and Syria (March 2009). Clusters of ten households were randomly selected using probability-based sampling; a total of 1200 and 813 Iraqi households in Jordan and Syria, respectively, were interviewed about food security and receipt of humanitarian assistance. In Syria, 60% of households reported the household food situation had declined since the arrival period as compared to 46% in Jordan. Food aid receipt was reported by 18.0% of households in Jordan and 90.3% of households in Syria. In Jordan, 10.2% of households received cash assistance and in Syria 25.3% of households received cash assistance. In Jordan, cash assistance was associated with low socioeconomic status, large household size, and UNHCR registration. In Syria, female headed households, Damascus residents, families with children, and those registered with UNHCR were more likely to receive cash assistance. Food insecurity remains a concern among displaced Iraqi households in both Jordan and Syria. Improved targeting of both food and cash assistance and the expansion of cash-based programs could lead to a more effective use of funds and facilitate the implementation of assistance programs that are sustainable in the context of declining funding availability.

  14. 13 CFR 400.107 - Freedom of Information Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... institution of vocational education that operates a program of scholarly research. (6) Noncommercial... the guidance of the public and in compliance with the requirements of the Freedom of Information...

  15. 13 CFR 500.107 - Freedom of Information Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... institution of vocational education that operates a program of scholarly research. (6) Noncommercial... the guidance of the public and in compliance with the requirements of the Freedom of Information...

  16. 13 CFR 500.107 - Freedom of Information Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... institution of vocational education that operates a program of scholarly research. (6) Noncommercial... the guidance of the public and in compliance with the requirements of the Freedom of Information...

  17. 13 CFR 400.107 - Freedom of Information Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... institution of vocational education that operates a program of scholarly research. (6) Noncommercial... the guidance of the public and in compliance with the requirements of the Freedom of Information...

  18. 13 CFR 500.107 - Freedom of Information Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... institution of vocational education that operates a program of scholarly research. (6) Noncommercial... the guidance of the public and in compliance with the requirements of the Freedom of Information...

  19. Molecular and Phylogenetic Analysis of Bovine Papillomavirus Type 1: First Report in Iraqi Cattle.

    PubMed

    Hamad, Mohammed A; Al-Shammari, Ahmed M; Odisho, Shoni M; Yaseen, Nahi Y

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to provide the first molecular characterization of bovine papillomavirus type 1 (BPV-1) in Iraq. BPV is a widely spread oncogenic virus in Iraqi cattle and is associated with the formation of both benign and malignant lesions, resulting in notable economic losses in dairy and beef cattle. In the current study, 140 cutaneous papilloma specimens were collected from cattle in central Iraq. These samples were submitted to histopathological examination, PCR, and sequencing analysis. The histopathology revealed that the main lesion type among the specimens was fibropapilloma. BPV-1 DNA was detected in 121 of the samples (86.42%) in Iraqi cattle as the main causative agent for the disease. A partial sequence for the E2, L2 genes, and complete sequence for the E5 gene were deposited in GenBank. Phylogenetic analysis confirmed the presence of BPV-1 and showed that the origin of infection may be imported European cattle. Obtaining a complete E5 gene sequence enabled us to perform structural predictions. This study presents the first report of BPV-1 infection in the Iraqi cattle and contributes to extending the knowledge of the origin of the spread of this disease. The results of this study will aid in the development of appropriate control measures and therapeutic strategies. PMID:27413374

  20. Molecular and Phylogenetic Analysis of Bovine Papillomavirus Type 1: First Report in Iraqi Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Hamad, Mohammed A.; Al-Shammari, Ahmed M.; Odisho, Shoni M.; Yaseen, Nahi Y.

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to provide the first molecular characterization of bovine papillomavirus type 1 (BPV-1) in Iraq. BPV is a widely spread oncogenic virus in Iraqi cattle and is associated with the formation of both benign and malignant lesions, resulting in notable economic losses in dairy and beef cattle. In the current study, 140 cutaneous papilloma specimens were collected from cattle in central Iraq. These samples were submitted to histopathological examination, PCR, and sequencing analysis. The histopathology revealed that the main lesion type among the specimens was fibropapilloma. BPV-1 DNA was detected in 121 of the samples (86.42%) in Iraqi cattle as the main causative agent for the disease. A partial sequence for the E2, L2 genes, and complete sequence for the E5 gene were deposited in GenBank. Phylogenetic analysis confirmed the presence of BPV-1 and showed that the origin of infection may be imported European cattle. Obtaining a complete E5 gene sequence enabled us to perform structural predictions. This study presents the first report of BPV-1 infection in the Iraqi cattle and contributes to extending the knowledge of the origin of the spread of this disease. The results of this study will aid in the development of appropriate control measures and therapeutic strategies. PMID:27413374

  1. Physical and mental health status of Iraqi refugees resettled in the United States.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Eboni M; Yanni, Emad A; Pezzi, Clelia; Guterbock, Michael; Rothney, Erin; Harton, Elizabeth; Montour, Jessica; Elias, Collin; Burke, Heather

    2014-12-01

    We conducted a survey among Iraqi refugees resettled in the United States to assess their physical and mental health status and healthcare access and utilization following the initial 8-month, post-arrival period. We randomly selected Iraqi refugees: ≥18 years of age; living in the United States for 8–36 months; and residents of Michigan, California, Texas and Idaho. Participants completed a household questionnaire and mental health assessment. We distributed 366 surveys. Seventy-five percent of participants had health insurance at the time of the survey; 43 % reported delaying or not seeking care for a medical problem in the past year. Sixty percent of participants reported one chronic condition; 37 % reported ≥2 conditions. The prevalence of emotional distress, anxiety, and depression was approximately 50 % of participants; 31 % were at risk for post-traumatic stress disorder. Iraqi refugees in this evaluation reported a high prevalence of chronic conditions and mental health symptoms despite relatively high access to healthcare. It is important for resettlement partners to be aware of the distinctive health concerns of this population to best address needs within this community.

  2. Violent Deaths of Iraqi Civilians, 2003–2008: Analysis by Perpetrator, Weapon, Time, and Location

    PubMed Central

    Hicks, Madelyn Hsiao-Rei; Dardagan, Hamit; Guerrero Serdán, Gabriela; Bagnall, Peter M.; Sloboda, John A.; Spagat, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Background Armed violence is a major public health and humanitarian problem in Iraq. In this descriptive statistical analysis we aimed to describe for the first time Iraqi civilian deaths caused by perpetrators of armed violence during the first 5 years of the Iraq war: over time; by weapon used; by region (governorate); and by victim demographics. Methods and Findings We analyzed the Iraq Body Count database of 92,614 Iraqi civilian direct deaths from armed violence occurring from March 20, 2003 through March 19, 2008, of which Unknown perpetrators caused 74% of deaths (n = 68,396), Coalition forces 12% (n = 11,516), and Anti-Coalition forces 11% (n = 9,954). We analyzed the subset of 60,481 civilian deaths from 14,196 short-duration events of lethal violence to link individual civilian deaths to events involving perpetrators and their methods. One-third of civilian violent death was from extrajudicial executions by Unknown perpetrators; quadratic regression shows these deaths progressively and disproportionately increased as deaths from other forms of violence increased across Iraq's governorates. The highest average number of civilians killed per event in which a civilian died were in Unknown perpetrator suicide bombings targeting civilians (19 per lethal event) and Coalition aerial bombings (17 per lethal event). In temporal analysis, numbers of civilian deaths from Coalition air attacks, and woman and child deaths from Coalition forces, peaked during the invasion. We applied a Woman and Child “Dirty War Index” (DWI), measuring the proportion of women and children among civilian deaths of known demographic status, to the 22,066 civilian victims identified as men, women, or children to indicate relatively indiscriminate perpetrator effects. DWI findings suggest the most indiscriminate effects on women and children were from Unknown perpetrators using mortar fire (DWI  = 79) and nonsuicide vehicle bombs (DWI  = 54) and from Coalition air

  3. Academic Freedom: A Precarious Balance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaNear, John A.

    Academic freedom is an elusive concept. Many university and college faculty members who purport to possess its protections believe they have a solid understanding of its nature and of the individual rights secured by academic freedom. There is some consensus on the meaning of the term in the academic universe. This concurrence of understanding is…

  4. Parentage Analysis of Freedom Rootstock

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The rootstock Freedom has been widely deployed for nematode resistance in California vineyards. As the offspring of two open-pollinated parents, its risk of V. vinifera-derived phylloxera susceptibility is unknown. In order to determine the progenitors of Freedom, genetic profiles of candidate paren...

  5. Intellectual Freedom Manual. Eighth Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ALA Editions, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Updated for the first time since 2005, this indispensable volume includes revised interpretations of the Library Bill of Rights along with key intellectual freedom guidelines and policies, including: (1) A new chapter, "Interactivity and the Internet," and other fresh material on intellectual freedom and privacy in online social networks; (2) An…

  6. The Erosion of Academic Freedom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ledoux, Michael W.; Marshall, Thomas; McHenry, Nadine

    2010-01-01

    This article originated from a single question: do the restrictions that various accrediting agencies place on teacher educators limit, or entirely eliminate, academic freedom? Considering that question makes it apparent the problem is much broader than academic freedom. The issue has two foci: personal identity and the impact of market…

  7. Academic Freedom and Indentured Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Jeffrey J.

    2012-01-01

    Discussion of academic freedom usually focuses on faculty, and it usually refers to speech. That is the gist of the 1915 "General Report of the Committee on Academic Freedom and Academic Tenure," appearing in the inaugural AAUP "Bulletin" as a kind of mission statement. Given the conditions of the American system of higher education--decentralized…

  8. The Future of Academic Freedom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menand, Louis, Ed.

    These nine essays address controversial issues of academic freedom and values at the university level. The book, which was derived from two years of debate and lectures presented to national meetings of the American Association of University Professors, is organized in three sections which address such issues as: the purpose of academic freedom,…

  9. Life sciences utilization of Space Station Freedom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chambers, Lawrence P.

    1992-01-01

    Space Station Freedom will provide the United States' first permanently manned laboratory in space. It will allow, for the first time, long term systematic life sciences investigations in microgravity. This presentation provides a top-level overview of the planned utilization of Space Station Freedom by NASA's Life Sciences Division. The historical drivers for conducting life sciences research on a permanently manned laboratory in space as well as the advantages that a space station platform provides for life sciences research are discussed. This background information leads into a description of NASA's strategy for having a fully operational International Life Sciences Research Facility by the year 2000. Achieving this capability requires the development of the five discipline focused 'common core' facilities. Once developed, these facilities will be brought to the space station during the Man-Tended Capability phase, checked out and brought into operation. Their delivery must be integrated with the Space Station Freedom manifest. At the beginning of Permanent Manned Capability, the infrastructure is expected to be completed and the Life Sciences Division's SSF Program will become fully operational. A brief facility description, anticipated launch date and a focused objective is provided for each of the life sciences facilities, including the Biomedical Monitoring and Countermeasures (BMAC) Facility, Gravitational Biology Facility (GBF), Gas Grain Simulation Facility (GGSF), Centrifuge Facility (CF), and Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) Test Facility. In addition, hardware developed by other NASA organizations and the SSF International Partners for an International Life Sciences Research Facility is also discussed.

  10. International initiative to engage Iraq's science and technology community : report on the priorities of the Iraqi science and technology community.

    SciTech Connect

    Littlefield, Adriane C.; Munir, Ammar M.; Alnajjar, Abdalla Abdelaziz; Pregenzer, Arian Leigh

    2004-05-01

    This report describes the findings of the effort initiated by the Arab Science and Technology Foundation and the Cooperative Monitoring Center at Sandia National Laboratories to identify, contact, and engage members of the Iraqi science and technology (S&T) community. The initiative is divided into three phases. The first phase, the survey of the Iraqi scientific community, shed light on the most significant current needs in the fields of science and technology in Iraq. Findings from the first phase will lay the groundwork for the second phase that includes the organization of a workshop to bring international support for the initiative, and simultaneously decides on an implementation mechanism. Phase three involves the execution of outcomes of the report as established in the workshop. During Phase 1 the survey team conducted a series of trips to Iraq during which they had contact with nearly 200 scientists from all sections of the country, representing all major Iraqi S&T specialties. As a result of these contacts, the survey team obtained over 450 project ideas from Iraqi researchers. These projects were revised and analyzed to identify priorities and crucial needs. After refinement, the result is approximately 170 project ideas that have been categorized according to their suitability for (1) developing joint research projects with international partners, (2) engaging Iraqi scientists in solving local problems, and (3) developing new business opportunities. They have also been ranked as to high, medium, or low priority.

  11. Let Freedom Ring! Let Peace Reign!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Mary Elizabeth Mullino

    2012-01-01

    True freedom and true peace are cousins, but they can only work together if the freedom of one people is seen in relation to the freedom of another. Struggles for freedom and peace can only enhance each other if the peace people seek is a robust harmony in which conflict is embraced and people are encouraged to imagine a far stronger freedom and…

  12. Academic Freedom: Its Nature, Extent and Value

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrow, Robin

    2009-01-01

    Academic freedom does not refer to freedom to engage in any speech act, but to freedom to hold any belief and espouse it in an appropriately academic manner. This freedom belongs to certain institutions, rather than to individuals, because of their academic nature. Academic freedom should be absolute, regardless of any offence it may on occasion…

  13. Three Degree of Freedom Parallel Mechanical Linkage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adelstein, Bernard D. (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    A three degree of freedom parallel mechanism or linkage that couples three degree of freedom translational displacements at an endpoint, such as a handle, a hand grip, or a robot tool, to link rotations about three axes that are fixed with respect to a common base or ground link. The mechanism includes a three degree of freedom spherical linkage formed of two closed loops, and a planar linkage connected to the endpoint. The closed loops are rotatably interconnected, and made of eight rigid links connected by a plurality of single degree of freedom revolute joints. Three of these revolute joints are base joints and are connected to a common ground. such that the axis lines passing through the revolute joints intersect at a common fixed center point K forming the center of a spherical work volume in which the endpoint is capable of moving. 'Me three degrees of freedom correspond to the spatial displacement of the endpoint, for instance. The mechanism provides a new overall spatial kinematic linkage composed of a minimal number of rigid links and rotary joints. The mechanism has improved mechanical stiffness, and conveys mechanical power bidirectionally between the human operator and the electromechanical actuators. It does not require gears, belts. cable, screw or other types of transmission elements, and is useful in applications requiring full backdrivability. Thus, this invention can serve as the mechanical linkage for actively powered devices such as compliant robotic manipulators and force-reflecting hand controllers, and passive devices such as manual input devices for computers and other systems.

  14. Opportunities for research on Space Station Freedom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, Robert W.

    NASA has allocated research accommodations on Freedom (equipment, utilities, etc.) to the program offices that sponsor space-based research and development as follows: Space Science and Applications (OSSA)--52 percent, Commercial Programs (OCP)--28 percent, Aeronautics and Space Technology (OAST)--12 percent, and Space Flight (OSF)--8 percent. Most of OSSA's allocation will be used for microgravity and life science experiments; although OSSA's space physics, astrophysics, earth science and applications, and solar system exploration divisions also will use some of this allocation. Other Federal agencies have expressed an interest in using Space Station Freedom. They include the National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Geological Survey, National Science Foundation, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, and U.S. Departments of Agriculture and Energy. Payload interfaces with space station lab support equipment must be simple, and experiment packages must be highly contained. Freedom's research facilities will feature International Standard Payload Racks (ISPR's), experiment racks that are about twice the size of a Spacelab rack. ESA's Columbus lab will feature 20 racks, the U.S. lab will have 12 racks, and the Japanese lab will have 10. Thus, Freedom will have a total of 42 racks versus 8 for Space lab. NASA is considering outfitting some rack space to accommodate small, self-contained payloads similar to the Get-Away-Special canisters and middeck-locker experiment packages flown on Space Shuttle missions. Crew time allotted to experiments on Freedom at permanently occupied capability will average 25 minutes per rack per day, compared to six hours per rack per day on Spacelab missions. Hence, telescience--the remote operation of space-based experiments by researchers on the ground--will play a very important role in space station research. Plans for supporting life sciences research on Freedom focus on the two basic goals of NASA 's space life sciences

  15. Opportunities for research on Space Station Freedom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, Robert W.

    1992-01-01

    NASA has allocated research accommodations on Freedom (equipment, utilities, etc.) to the program offices that sponsor space-based research and development as follows: Space Science and Applications (OSSA)--52 percent, Commercial Programs (OCP)--28 percent, Aeronautics and Space Technology (OAST)--12 percent, and Space Flight (OSF)--8 percent. Most of OSSA's allocation will be used for microgravity and life science experiments; although OSSA's space physics, astrophysics, earth science and applications, and solar system exploration divisions also will use some of this allocation. Other Federal agencies have expressed an interest in using Space Station Freedom. They include the National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Geological Survey, National Science Foundation, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, and U.S. Departments of Agriculture and Energy. Payload interfaces with space station lab support equipment must be simple, and experiment packages must be highly contained. Freedom's research facilities will feature International Standard Payload Racks (ISPR's), experiment racks that are about twice the size of a Spacelab rack. ESA's Columbus lab will feature 20 racks, the U.S. lab will have 12 racks, and the Japanese lab will have 10. Thus, Freedom will have a total of 42 racks versus 8 for Space lab. NASA is considering outfitting some rack space to accommodate small, self-contained payloads similar to the Get-Away-Special canisters and middeck-locker experiment packages flown on Space Shuttle missions. Crew time allotted to experiments on Freedom at permanently occupied capability will average 25 minutes per rack per day, compared to six hours per rack per day on Spacelab missions. Hence, telescience--the remote operation of space-based experiments by researchers on the ground--will play a very important role in space station research. Plans for supporting life sciences research on Freedom focus on the two basic goals of NASA 's space life sciences

  16. Space Station Freedom user's guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    This guide is intended to inform prospective users of the accommodations and resources provided by the Space Station Freedom program. Using this information, they can determine if Space Station Freedom is an appropriate laboratory or facility for their research objectives. The steps that users must follow to fly a payload on Freedom are described. This guide covers the accommodations and resources available on the Space Station during the Man-Tended Capability (MTC) period, scheduled to begin the end of 1996, and a Permanently Manned Capability (PMC) beginning in late 1999.

  17. [Manpower migrations and Arab unity: the challenges of the Iraqi model].

    PubMed

    Roussillon, A

    1985-01-01

    Iraq occupies a unique position in the system of manpower exchanges between Middle Eastern states brought about by the rise in petroleum incomes of the 1970s. Iraq was among the most important oil exporters until the war with Iran, but its economy is predominantly agricultural, it is a rich country in terms of available financial resources, and it is both an importer and exporter of labor, traits which place it squarely between the nonoil-producing states which are poor and overpopulated and the oil exporters which are rich and underpopulated. Its migration policy, which radically distinguishes between Arab and non-Arab manpower, is also unique. Data on migration to Iraq are very sparse despite the fact that the nation has a good data-gathering capacity. Estimates of migration to Iraq and employment patterns of migrants have varied widely and have contradicted each other in crucial respects. The most unusual aspect of Iraqi immigration policy, the free access offered to Egyptians and other Arabs, has hampered attempts to estimate the volume of migration, as workers come and go for relatively short periods, seeking their own employment in Iraq and working in jobs for which they may be overqualified. Official formulations of Iraqi migration policy insist that migration should not only be beneficial to individual importing and exporting countries in terms of development and social cohesion, but should also reinforce the solidarity and regional complementarity of the Arab world as a whole. Iraqi migration policy is presented as expressing the most fundamental choices of the "Arab revolution" in the socialist dimension of Arab unitary ideology rather than in terms of immediate national economic interest. Iraqi legislation grants non-Iraqi Arabs the same labor, residence, investment, and ultimately naturalization rights as those enjoyed by nationals, but severely restricts access to employment and other rights of non-Arab foreigners. Denunciation of the dangers posed by

  18. [Manpower migrations and Arab unity: the challenges of the Iraqi model].

    PubMed

    Roussillon, A

    1985-01-01

    Iraq occupies a unique position in the system of manpower exchanges between Middle Eastern states brought about by the rise in petroleum incomes of the 1970s. Iraq was among the most important oil exporters until the war with Iran, but its economy is predominantly agricultural, it is a rich country in terms of available financial resources, and it is both an importer and exporter of labor, traits which place it squarely between the nonoil-producing states which are poor and overpopulated and the oil exporters which are rich and underpopulated. Its migration policy, which radically distinguishes between Arab and non-Arab manpower, is also unique. Data on migration to Iraq are very sparse despite the fact that the nation has a good data-gathering capacity. Estimates of migration to Iraq and employment patterns of migrants have varied widely and have contradicted each other in crucial respects. The most unusual aspect of Iraqi immigration policy, the free access offered to Egyptians and other Arabs, has hampered attempts to estimate the volume of migration, as workers come and go for relatively short periods, seeking their own employment in Iraq and working in jobs for which they may be overqualified. Official formulations of Iraqi migration policy insist that migration should not only be beneficial to individual importing and exporting countries in terms of development and social cohesion, but should also reinforce the solidarity and regional complementarity of the Arab world as a whole. Iraqi migration policy is presented as expressing the most fundamental choices of the "Arab revolution" in the socialist dimension of Arab unitary ideology rather than in terms of immediate national economic interest. Iraqi legislation grants non-Iraqi Arabs the same labor, residence, investment, and ultimately naturalization rights as those enjoyed by nationals, but severely restricts access to employment and other rights of non-Arab foreigners. Denunciation of the dangers posed by

  19. The College Student's Freedom of Expression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibbs, Annette

    1974-01-01

    Discussion of means to ensure freedom of expression by college students. Areas of expression noted are student newspapers, lectures by off-campus speakers, freedom to assemble peaceably and freedom to associate. (EK)

  20. Chronic disease and disability among Iraqi populations displaced in Jordan and Syria.

    PubMed

    Doocy, Shannon; Sirois, Adam; Tileva, Margarita; Storey, J Douglas; Burnham, Gilbert

    2013-01-01

    The Iraq conflict resulted in the largest displacement in the Middle East since the Palestinian crisis, and provision of health services to the displaced population presents a critical challenge. The study aimed to provide information on chronic medical conditions and disability to inform humanitarian assistance planning. Nationally representative cross-sectional surveys of Iraqi populations displaced in Jordan and Syria were conducted in late 2008 and early 2009. Clusters of 10 household were randomly selected using probability-based sampling; a total of 1200 and 813 Iraqi households in Jordan and Syria, respectively, were interviewed. The majority of respondents in both countries perceived healthcare as unaffordable but accessible; cost was an important barrier to care. In Jordan, most routine health expenditures were for medications where in Syria, expenses were divided between medical consultations and medication. Chronic disease prevalence among adults was 51.5% (confidence interval (CI): 49.4-53.5) in Syria and 41.0% (CI: 39.4-42.7) in Jordan, most common were hypertension and musculoskeletal problems. Overall disability rates were 7.1% (CI: 6.3-8.0) in Syria and 3.4% (CI: 3.0-3.9) in Jordan. In both countries, the majority of disability was attributed to conflict, prevalence was higher in men than women, and depression was the leading cause of mental health disability. Chronic illnesses, disabilities and psychological health are key challenges for the Iraqi population and the health systems in Jordan and Syria. Continued attention to the development of systems to manage conditions that require secondary and tertiary care is essential, particularly given reported difficulties in accessing care and the anticipated prolonged displacement.

  1. Chronic disease and disability among Iraqi populations displaced in Jordan and Syria.

    PubMed

    Doocy, Shannon; Sirois, Adam; Tileva, Margarita; Storey, J Douglas; Burnham, Gilbert

    2013-01-01

    The Iraq conflict resulted in the largest displacement in the Middle East since the Palestinian crisis, and provision of health services to the displaced population presents a critical challenge. The study aimed to provide information on chronic medical conditions and disability to inform humanitarian assistance planning. Nationally representative cross-sectional surveys of Iraqi populations displaced in Jordan and Syria were conducted in late 2008 and early 2009. Clusters of 10 household were randomly selected using probability-based sampling; a total of 1200 and 813 Iraqi households in Jordan and Syria, respectively, were interviewed. The majority of respondents in both countries perceived healthcare as unaffordable but accessible; cost was an important barrier to care. In Jordan, most routine health expenditures were for medications where in Syria, expenses were divided between medical consultations and medication. Chronic disease prevalence among adults was 51.5% (confidence interval (CI): 49.4-53.5) in Syria and 41.0% (CI: 39.4-42.7) in Jordan, most common were hypertension and musculoskeletal problems. Overall disability rates were 7.1% (CI: 6.3-8.0) in Syria and 3.4% (CI: 3.0-3.9) in Jordan. In both countries, the majority of disability was attributed to conflict, prevalence was higher in men than women, and depression was the leading cause of mental health disability. Chronic illnesses, disabilities and psychological health are key challenges for the Iraqi population and the health systems in Jordan and Syria. Continued attention to the development of systems to manage conditions that require secondary and tertiary care is essential, particularly given reported difficulties in accessing care and the anticipated prolonged displacement. PMID:22685057

  2. Comparison Among Commonly Available Infant Formula Milks in the Iraqi Market

    PubMed Central

    Mikhael, Ehab Mudher

    2015-01-01

    Breast-feeding is the best method of feeding infants. In some cases, formula milk can be a suitable alternative, so this study aimed to compare the safety and nutritional adequacy of commonly available formula milks in the Iraqi market. An observational study for the commonly available formula milks was conducted in the largest supermarkets of Baghdad, Iraq, during January-March 2015. The macronutrient and micronutrient contents as presented in the label of each type of formula milk was compared with the standard requirement of formula milk according to the European Society for Paediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition (ESPGHAN) guidelines. Dielac formula milk is the commonest formula milk in the Iraqi market, with the lowest price when compared with other formula milks. All infant formula milks (Similac, Guigoz, and S-26 Gold) except Dielac have the mandatory contents within the specified ranges, according to the ESPGHAN guidelines. Dielac lacks more than 1 of the major mandatory contents besides lacking all optional contents in its formula. Guigoz formula milk lacks the optional ingredients arachidonic acid, docosahexaenoic acid, and nucleotides. Similac milk was supplemented with a higher-than-specified level of nucleotides, and its l-carnitine contents were not declared. Only S26 Gold formula milk contained all mandatory and optional ingredients within the specified range, according to the ESPGHAN guidelines. In conclusion, no formula milk can resemble breast milk; however, S26 Gold formula milk is the most acceptable formula, and Dielac formula milk is the worst. Therefore, it is recommended that Dielac be withdrawn from the Iraqi market. PMID:27335982

  3. Using MODIS and GRACE to assess water storage in regional Wetlands: Iraqi and Sudd Marsh systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, R.

    2015-12-01

    Both The Iraqi (Mesopotamian) Marshes, an extensive wetlands system in Iraq, and the Sudd Marshlands, located in Sudan have been heavily impacted by both human and climate forces over the past decades. The Sudd wetlands are highly variable in size, averaging roughly 30,000 km2, but extending to as large as ~130,000 km2 during the wet seasons, while the Iraqi marshes are smaller, at ~15,000 km2, without the same extent of intra-annual variability. A combination of MODIS and GRACE images from 2003-2015 for the study areas were used to determine the time dependent change in surface water area (SWA) in the marshes, marshland extent and variability in total water storage. Combined open water area and vegetation abundance and cover, as determined by MODIS (NDVI and MNDWI), is highly correlated with total mass variability observed by GRACE (RL05 Tellus land grid). Annual variability in the Iraqi marshes correlates well with combined SWA and vegetation extent. Variability of vegetation in the Sudd marshes is seen to correlate well on an annual basis with water storage variation, and with a 2 month lag (water mass increases and decreases lead vegetation increases and decreases) when examined on a monthly basis. As a result, in both systems, the overall wetlands extent and health is observed to be water limited. Predictions for precipitation variability and human diversions of water through either dam storage or navigation modifications are predicted to lower water availability and lower variability in these systems. These two regional wetlands systems will shrink, with resulting loss in habitat and other ecosystem services.

  4. Elevated titanium levels in Iraqi children with neurodevelopmental disorders echo findings in occupation soldiers.

    PubMed

    Savabieasfahani, M; Alaani, S; Tafash, M; Dastgiri, S; Al-Sabbak, M

    2015-01-01

    Anthropogenic release of pollutants into the environment is especially harmful to growing fetuses and young children. These populations are at an increased risk of damage because exposure to pollutants during critical periods of development can cause many impairments. Children's exposure to mixtures of metals could be responsible for the rising numbers of neurological disorders surfacing in Iraqi children. Titanium (Ti) and magnesium (Mg) are heavily used in war industries. Exposure to Ti and Mg has been linked to the dust in occupation soldiers' lungs. Hair samples of children in Hawija, Iraq (n = 13) contained significantly higher levels of Ti compared to Iranian children (n = 13) living near the Iraqi border (2080 ± 940 vs 707 ± 421 μg/kg, p < 0.0001). Magnesium was 1.7 times higher in Hawija children compared to Iranian children (115,763 ± 118,155 vs 67,650 ± 46,729 μg/kg). In samples from Hawija, Ti was 1.3 times higher in children with neurodevelopmental disorders (2198 ± 1108 vs 1942 ± 779 μg/kg), and Mg was 1.9 times higher in children without neurodevelopmental disorders (155,618 ± 140,791 vs 81,602 ± 91,940 μg/kg). Lead, arsenic, and cadmium in Hawija children with neurodevelopmental disorders (n = 6) were 2.5, 2.2, and 1.37 times higher compared to non-disabled children (n = 7). To get a clear understanding of the current status of neurodevelopmental disorders in Iraqi children and to determine the magnitude of this suspected global health issue, registries should be set up to compile and aggregate data from hospitals, clinics, and health centers across the country. Functional registries can develop collaborations with researchers toward finding causes of these disorders in Iraqi children and toward preventing them. PMID:25446717

  5. Reconstructing a health system and a profession: priorities of Iraqi nurses in the Kurdish region.

    PubMed

    Squires, Allison; Sindi, Ali; Fennie, Kristopher

    2006-01-01

    To evaluate nurses' priorities for health system reconstruction and professional development in Iraq, a survey of 744 Iraqi nurses was conducted, with the research process managed via the Internet. Seven definite priorities emerged along with significant differences in priorities related to years of experience, age, speciality area of nursing practice, gender, level of education, and geographic location of practice. Results indicate that nurses should be included in health system reconstruction processes and that support for the development of the nursing profession should be included in the plan for overall reconstruction.

  6. Health related quality of life among Iraqi immigrants settled in Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Migrants everywhere face several demands for health and maintaining good health and quality of life could be challenging. Iraqis are the second largest refugee group that has sought refuge in the recent years, yet little is known about their health related quality of life (HRQOL). The study aims at assessing the HRQOL among Iraqis living in Malaysia. Methods A self-administered Arabic version of Sf-36 questionnaire was distributed among 300 Iraqi migrants in Malaysia. The questionnaire taps eight concepts of physical and mental health to assess the HRQOL. Univariate analysis was performed for group analysis (t test, ANOVA) and Multiple Linear Regression was used to control for confounding effects. Results Two hundred and fifty three participants ranging in age from 18 to 67 years (Mean = 33.6) returned the completed questionnaire. The majority was males (60.1%) and more than half of the respondents (59.5%) were married. Less than half (45.4%) and about a quarter (25.9%) reported bachelor degree and secondary school education respectively and the remaining 28.7% had either a master or a PhD degree. Univariate analysis showed that the HRQOL scores among male immigrants were found to be higher than those of females in physical function (80.0 vs. 73.5), general health (72.5 vs. 60.7) and bodily pain (87.9 vs. 72.5) subscales. The youngest age group had significantly higher physical function (79.32) and lower mental health scores (57.62). The mean score of physical component summary was higher than the mental component summary mean score (70.22 vs. 63.34). Stepwise multiple linear regression, revealed that gender was significantly associated with physical component summary (β = - 6.06, p = 0.007) and marital status was associated with mental component summary (β = 7.08, p = 0.003). Conclusions From the data it appears that Iraqi immigrants living in Malaysia have HRQOL scores that might be considered to indicate a relatively moderate HRQOL. The HRQOL is

  7. Freedom of Expression at Yale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    AAUP Bulletin, 1975

    1975-01-01

    A report of the Committee on Freedom of Expression at Yale appointed by the president to examine the condition of free expression, peaceful dissent, mutual respect and tolerance at Yale and to draft recommendations for maintenance of those principles. (JT)

  8. Scientific Freedom and Human Rights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munoz, Elisa

    2000-03-01

    As part of her ongoing work monitoring issues at the intersection of science and human rights, Ms. Munoz has highlighted violations of academic freedom in Serbia and Iran, the denial of visas and travel licenses to U.S. and Cuban scientists, interference with scientific freedom in Brazil, Mexico, Russia, and the Ukraine, the use of organs from executed prisoners in China, legislation jeopardizing women's health in Iran, and the closure of centers for the treatment of torture survivors in Turkey. Such violations contravene international human rights principles listed in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and other international human rights covenants. Ms. Munoz will describe current violations of scientific freedom and the relevant international principles on which these freedoms rest.

  9. 50th Anniversary: Freedom 7

    NASA Video Gallery

    On May 5, 1961, Alan Shepard was propelled into space aboard the Mercury capsule Freedom 7. His 15-minute suborbital flight was part of Project Mercury, the United States' first man-in-space progra...

  10. Assessment of posttraumatic stress disorder four and one-half years after the Iraqi invasion.

    PubMed

    al-Naser, F; al-Khulaifi, I M; Martino, C

    2000-01-01

    In the earliest formulations of posttraumatic stress (PTS) and even posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), it was clear that war could engender PTSD within both primary and secondary victims. The clinical course of PTS and PTSD is not always clear, but the disorder may persist months and even years after the precipitating traumatic event. The current study was undertaken in an effort to assess the prevalence of PTSD in a sample of 404 Kuwaiti citizens 4.5 years after the invasion and occupation of Kuwait by the Iraqi Army. Results indicate a psychometrically assessed prevalence of PTSD of 28.4%. A subsample of 195 students revealed a prevalence of 45.6%. If correct, these data are worrisome indeed and point to 1) a significant public health challenge facing the government of Kuwait, as well as, 2) the increased sensitivity of the young to traumatic stress, both personally and vicariously. Based upon the current data, there may exist a virtual epidemic of posttraumatic stress disorder within the Kuwaiti population 4.5 years after the end of the Iraqi occupation. These data argue the need for a comprehensive confirmatory epidemiological investigation in the current prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder within the Kuwaiti population so that appropriate resources may be further directed to address what may be a significant public health problem. PMID:11232095

  11. Characterization of Some Iraqi Archaeological Samples Using IBA, Analytical X-ray and Other Complementary Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shihab Al-Sarraj, Ziyad; Roumie, Mohamad; Damboos, Hassan I.

    2012-07-01

    The present work aimed at investigating the compositions and microstructures of some archaeological samples which dated back to various periods of the ancient Iraqi civilizations using PIXE, XRF, XRD, and SEM techniques. The models selected for the study (ceramics, glaze, etc.) were diverse in size and nature, therefore a limited number of samples were then butted from them by a small diamond wheel. Conventional powder metallurgy method was then used to prepare the samples. Dried samples were then coated with a thin layer of carbon, and analyzed using the ion beam accelerator of the LAEC. Three other groups of samples were also prepared for the purpose of analysis by X-ray fluorescence (XRF), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and scanning electron microscope (SEM). Analysis results of the chemical composition showed good agreement between the various techniques as well as for phases, while the fine structure analysis obtained by optical and scanning microscopy exhibited features of a structure where it got an intensified densification in the final stage of sintering and accompanied by quasi-homogeneous distribution of the closed pores. This will lead to the conclusion that the temperature used for sintering by ancient Iraqi was sufficient and it may fall in the range between 950-1200°C, also the mixes and the forming methods used by them, were both suitable to obtain good sintered bodies with even distribution of pores. A ring-shaped trace noticed in SEM micrographs need more work and study to explain what it is?

  12. Natural Iraqi palygorskite clay as low cost adsorbent for the treatment of dye containing industrial wastewater.

    PubMed

    Nassir Taha, Dakhil; Sadi Samaka, Isra'a

    2012-01-01

    In this study, natural Iraqi low- cost locally available clay (palygorskite) was studied for its potential use as an adsorbent for removal Congo red from aqueous solutions. Batch type experiments were conducted to study the effect of contact time, initial pH of the dye solution, initial dye concentration, adsorbent dosage, and particle size of adsorbent on adsorption capacity of Congo red. The adsorption occurred very fast initially and attains equilibrium within 60 min. When the effect of pH of solution dye on the yield adsorption has been carried in a range of 2-10, the adsorption obtained was nearly the same with very slightly effect of pH and it was reported that above 49.07 mg/g of Cong red by palygorskite clay occurred in the pH range 2 to 10. It was observed that the removal of Congo red increase with increasing initial dye concentration and adsorbent dose, but, adsorption capacity decrease with increasing adsorbent dose. The adsorption capacity increase with decreasing particle size of adsorbent. The equilibrium adsorption data were interpreted using Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models. The obtained results revealed that the equilibrium data closely followed both models, but the Langmuir isotherm fitted the data better. The maximum adsorption capacity was found to be 99 mg/g at ambient temperature. Results indicate that Iraqi palygorskite clay could be employed as a low cost alternative to commercial activated carbon in wastewater treatment for the removal of colour and dyes. PMID:23196874

  13. The Epidemiology of Major Depressive Episode in the Iraqi General Population

    PubMed Central

    Al-Hamzawi, Ali Obaid; Bruffaerts, Ronny; Bromet, Evelyn J.; AlKhafaji, Abdulzahra Mohammed; Kessler, Ronald C.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To assess the prevalence, symptom severity, functional impairment, and treatment of major depressive episode (MDE) in the Iraqi general population. Methods The Iraq Mental Health Survey is a nationally representative face-to-face survey of 4,332 non-institutionalized adults aged 18+ interviewed in 2006–2007 as part of the WHO World Mental Health Surveys. Prevalence and correlates of DSM-IV MDE were determined with the WHO Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI). Findings Lifetime and 12-month prevalence of MDE were 7.4% and 4.0%, respectively. Close to half (46%) of the 12-month MDE cases were severe/very severe. MDE was more common among women and those previously married. Median age of onset was 25.2. Only one-seventh of 12-month MDE cases received treatment despite being associated with very substantial role impairment (on average 70 days out of role in the past year). Conclusions MDE is a commonly occurring disorder in the Iraqi general population and is associated with considerable disability and low treatment. Efforts are needed to decrease the barriers to treatment and to educate general medical providers in Iraq about the recognition and treatment of depression. PMID:26230265

  14. Knowledge and perception about health risks of cigarette smoking among Iraqi smokers

    PubMed Central

    Dawood, Omar Thanoon; Rashan, Mohammed Abd Ahmed; Hassali, Mohamed Azmi; Saleem, Fahad

    2016-01-01

    Background: Smoking is a major public health problem, especially in Iraq. There is very little information had been documented regarding smoking risk factors and quit intention among Iraqi smokers. Objectives: The main objectives of this study are to determine smokers' knowledge and perception about smoking health risks; and to determine smoking behavior and quitting intentions among Iraqi smokers; as well as to predict the factors that may associate with quit intentions. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted at the outpatient clinic in Tikrit Teaching Hospital, Tikrit City, Iraq. Adult smokers who are smoking cigarette everyday and able to communicate with the researcher were invited to participate in the study. A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect data from 386 participants. Results: This study showed that smokers had low awareness about some risk effects of smoking such as lung cancer in nonsmokers (30.1%), impotence in male smokers (52.6%), premature ageing (64%), and stroke (66.3%). In addition, the high score of knowledge and perception was significantly associated with quitting intention. Conclusion: Smokers' knowledge and perception regarding smoking health effects were low, especially in terms of secondhand smokers. Many efforts needed from health policy-makers and health care professionals to disseminate information about the risks of smoking and health benefits of give up smoking. PMID:27134468

  15. Human factors and productivity on Space Station Freedom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leach, C. S.; Brown, J. W.; Santy, P. A.

    1989-01-01

    Three main facets of man systems are investigated with reference to the Space Station Freedom program: specific hardware systems that focus on the human element; requirements definition for man-systems integration; and crew interface and operations analysis. Three key criteria have been identified for selecting individuals to constitute the human system or crew for Space Station Freedom missions: aptitude for mission specific skills, motivation, and sensitivity to self and others. Integration of the human system into the complex engineering and science systems planned on Space Station Freedom will require the close collaboration of engineers, physicians, psychologists, and human factors experts. Ground-based research and experiments on the KC-135 aircraft are providing information about how human systems will function on a space station and how to design other systems to interact with the crew. A laboratory for further research will be provided onboard Space Station Freedom.

  16. Academic Freedom 3: Education and Human Rights.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniel, John, Ed.; And Others

    This collection of reports gives a picture of educational systems from a human rights perspective, monitoring academic freedom in the context of freedom of thought and freedom of opinion and expression. The World University Service's Lima Declaration on Academic Freedom and Autonomy of Institutions of Higher Education of 1988 is used as the…

  17. Academic Freedom and the Diminished Subject

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayes, Dennis

    2009-01-01

    Discussions about freedom of speech and academic freedom today are about the limits to those freedoms. However, these discussions take place mostly in the higher education trade press and do not receive any serious attention from academics and educationalists. In this paper several key arguments for limiting academic freedom are identified,…

  18. Freedom of Education: An Enduring Problem.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoz, Victor Garcia

    1981-01-01

    Analyzes how the problems of freedom in educational policy in Spain have been affected by authoritarian and liberal governments during the twentieth century. Freedom of teaching, professional freedom, participatory government and student groups, participation of society at large, and freedom of language are examined. (SR)

  19. A novel mutation in the HEXA gene specific to Tay-Sachs disease carriers of Jewish Iraqi origin.

    PubMed

    Karpati, M; Peleg, L; Gazit, E; Akstein, E; Goldman, B

    2000-05-01

    An increased frequency of carriers of 1:140, as defined by reduced hexosaminidase A (HexA) activity, was observed among Iraqi Jews participating in the Tay-Sachs disease (TSD) carrier detection program. Prior to this finding, TSD among Jews had been restricted to those of Eastern European (Ashkenazi) and Moroccan descent with carrier frequencies of 1:29 and 1:110 for Jews of Ashkenazi and Moroccan extraction, respectively. A general, pan-ethnic frequency of approximately 1:280 has been observed among other Jewish Israeli populations. Analysis of 48 DNA samples from Iraqi Jews suspected, by enzymatic assay, to be carriers revealed a total of five mutations, one of which was novel. In nine carriers (19%), a known mutation typical to either Ashkenazi or Moroccan Jews was identified. DeltaF304/ 305 was detected in four individuals, and + 1278TATC in three. G269S and R170Q each appeared in a single person. The new mutation, G749T, resulting in a substitution of glycine to valine at position 250 has been found in 19 of the DNA samples (40%). This mutation was not detected among 100 non-carrier, Iraqi Jews and 65 Ashkenazi enzymatically determined carriers. Aside from Ashkenazi and Moroccan Jews, a specific mutation in the HEXA gene has now also been identified in Jews of Iraqi descent. PMID:10852376

  20. The Use of Projective Drawings to Determine Visual Themes in Young Kuwaiti Women Impacted by the Iraqi Invasion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pepin-Wakefield, Yvonne

    2008-01-01

    This study is part of a larger qualitative research project which examines visual imagery created through projective art tasks undertaken by young Kuwaiti women who were resident in Kuwait during the 1990 Saddam-Hussein-led Iraqi invasion of their country. The purpose of this article is to present evidence from the study as it is evolving. This…

  1. Space Station Freedom food management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitehurst, Troy N., Jr.; Bourland, Charles T.

    1992-01-01

    This paper summarizes the specification requirements for the Space Station Food System, and describes the system that is being designed and developed to meet those requirements. Space Station Freedom will provide a mix of frozen, refrigerated, rehydratable, and shelf stable foods. The crew will pre-select preferred foods from an approved list, to the extent that proper nutrition balance is maintained. A galley with freezers, refrigerators, trash compactor, and combination microwave and convection ovens will improve crew efficiency and productivity during the long Space Station Freedom (SSF) missions.

  2. MORAL ENHANCEMENT AND FREEDOM

    PubMed Central

    Harris, John

    2011-01-01

    This paper identifies human enhancement as one of the most significant areas of bioethical interest in the last twenty years. It discusses in more detail one area, namely moral enhancement, which is generating significant contemporary interest. The author argues that so far from being susceptible to new forms of high tech manipulation, either genetic, chemical, surgical or neurological, the only reliable methods of moral enhancement, either now or for the foreseeable future, are either those that have been in human and animal use for millennia, namely socialization, education and parental supervision or those high tech methods that are general in their application. By that is meant those forms of cognitive enhancement that operate across a wide range of cognitive abilities and do not target specifically ‘ethical’ capacities. The paper analyses the work of some of the leading contemporary advocates of moral enhancement and finds that in so far as they identify moral qualities or moral emotions for enhancement they have little prospect of success. PMID:21133978

  3. Solar dynamic power for space station freedom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Labus, Thomas L.; Secunde, Richard R.; Lovely, Ronald G.

    1989-01-01

    The Space Station Freedom Program is presently planned to consist of two phases. At the completion of Phase 1, Freedom's manned base will consist of a transverse boom with attached manned modules and 75 kW of available electric power supplied by photovoltaic (PV) power sources. In Phase 2, electric power available to the manned base will be increased to 125 kW by the addition of two solar dynamic (SD) power modules, one at each end of the transverse boom. Power for manned base growth beyond Phase 2 will be supplied by additional SD modules. Studies show that SD power for the growth eras will result in life cycle cost savings of $3 to $4 billion when compared to PV-supplied power. In the SD power modules for Space Station Freedom, an offset parabolic concentrator collects and focuses solar energy into a heat receiver. To allow full power operation over the entire orbit, the receiver includes integral thermal energy storage by means of the heat of fusion of a salt mixture. Thermal energy is removed from the receiver and converted to electrical energy by a power conversion unit (PCU) which includes a closed brayton cycle (CBC) heat engine and an alternator. The receiver/PCU/radiator combination will be completely assembled and charged with gas and cooling fluid on Earth before launch to orbit. The concentrator subassemblies will be pre-aligned and stowed in the orbiter bay before launch. On orbit, the receiver/PCU/radiator assembly will be installed as a unit. The pre-aligned concentrator panels will then be latched together and the total concentrator attached to the receiver/PCU/radiator by the astronauts. After final electric connections are made and checkout is complete, the SD power module will be ready for operation.

  4. Solar dynamic power for Space Station Freedom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Labus, Thomas L.; Secunde, Richard R.; Lovely, Ronald G.

    1989-01-01

    The Space Station Freedom Program is presently planned to consist of two phases. At the completion of Phase 1, Freedom's manned base will consist of a transverse boom with attached manned modules and 75 kW of available electric power supplied by photovoltaic (PV) power sources. In Phase 2, electric power available to the manned base will be increased to 125 kW by the addition of two solar dynamic (SD) power modules, one at each end of the transverse boom. Power for manned base growth beyond Phase 2 will be supplied by additional SD modules. Studies show that SD power for the growth eras will result in life cycle cost savings of $3 to $4 billion when compared to PV-supplied power. In the SD power modules for Space Station Freedom, an offset parabolic concentrator collects and focuses solar energy into a heat receiver. To allow full power operation over the entire orbit, the receiver includes integral thermal energy storage by means of the heat of fusion of a salt mixture. Thermal energy is removed from the receiver and converted to electrical energy by a power conversion unit (PCU) which includes a closed brayton cycle (CBC) heat engine and an alternator. The receiver/PCU/radiator combination will be completely assembled and charged with gas and cooling fluid on earth before launch to orbit. The concentrator subassemblies will be pre-aligned and stowed in the orbiter bay before launch. On orbit, the receiver/PCU/radiator assembly will be installed as a unit. The pre-aligned concentrator panels will then be latched together and the total concentrator attached to the receiver/PCU/radiator by the astronauts. After final electric connections are made and checkout is complete, the SD power module will be ready for operation.

  5. Current Cases on Academic Freedom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandmann, Warren

    This paper discusses current court rulings on academic freedom at the college and university level. The paper focuses on three cases: "Hall v. Kutztown," in which the U.S. District Court for the Eastern District of Pennsylvania ruled that Kutztown University violated the free speech rights of a philosophy professor when it rejected him for two…

  6. The Withering of Academic Freedom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kutner, Marc L.

    1998-01-01

    Discusses interrelations between administrators and faculty and how academic freedom can be negatively impacted. Suggests that by cutting costs and overloading faculty, administrators are contributing indirectly to a dissatisfied student. Addresses the importance of having a very clear grievance process composed primarily of elected faculty…

  7. Freedom of Expression? It's Academic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayes, Louis

    1999-01-01

    Examines the educational environment in Japan since World War II. Assesses both elementary and secondary levels of education, and evaluates the psychology of dependence as a factor in the lack of freedom of expression in academic settings. Delves into the external and internal structure of Japanese cultural society. (CCM)

  8. Academic Freedom in Hong Kong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Currie, Jan; Petersen, Carole J.; Mok, Ka Ho

    2006-01-01

    In this book, the authors explore the unique situation in Hong Kong, a tiny jurisdiction in which there is active protection for the freedom of expression despite the close proximity and relationship with mainland China. Hong Kong scholars and intellectuals assume the responsibility of public critics, but this is not without an element of crisis.…

  9. No School like Freedom School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williamson, Lisa Ann

    2013-01-01

    "You are the hope of the future." That's the message Marian Wright Edelman, executive director of the Children's Defense Fund (CDF), gave more than 1,500 excited college students and recent graduates as they began a week-long training for the CDF's Freedom Schools. She was preparing them for a daunting task--that of transforming the educational…

  10. Leisure, Freedom, and Liberal Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gary, Kevin

    2006-01-01

    At present liberal education is generally understood and justified as the acquisition of critical thinking skills and individual autonomy. Traditionally, however, the ultimate purpose of liberal education has been leisure. Freedom, it was thought, was not simply the result of critical thinking but also required the cultivation of leisure that…

  11. Casting Freedom, 1860-1862

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Social Education, 2005

    2005-01-01

    Thomas Crawford, an American Sculptor, created the full-size figure of Freedom in clay. Molds were made, from which a full-size positive plaster model was cast in five main sections. This model is on view today in the basement rotunda of the Russell Senate Office Building. Clark Mills was a self-taught American sculptor with experience in casting…

  12. Space Station Freedom media handbook

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1992-05-01

    Work underway at NASA to design and develop Space Station Freedom is described in this handbook. The roles, responsibilities, and tasks at NASA are discussed in order to provide information for the media. Ground facilities are described with a look towards future possibilities and requirements. Historical perspectives, international cooperation, and the responsibilities of specific NASA centers are also examined.

  13. Microbiology on Space Station Freedom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pierson, Duane L. (Editor); Mcginnis, Michael R. (Editor); Mishra, S. K. (Editor); Wogan, Christine F. (Editor)

    1991-01-01

    This panel discussion convened in Houston, Texas, at the Lunar and Planetary Institute, on November 6 to 8, 1989, to review NASA's plans for microbiology on Space Station Freedom. A panel of distinguished scientists reviewed, validated, and recommended revisions to NASA's proposed acceptability standards for air, water, and internal surfaces on board Freedom. Also reviewed were the proposed microbiology capabilities and monitoring plan, disinfection procedures, waste management, and clinical issues. In the opinion of this advisory panel, ensuring the health of the Freedom's crews requires a strong goal-oriented research effort to determine the potential effects of microorganisms on the crewmembers and on the physical environment of the station. Because there are very few data addressing the fundamental question of how microgravity influences microbial function, the panel recommended establishing a ground-based microbial model of Freedom, with subsequent evaluation using in-flight shuttle data. Sampling techniques and standards will be affected by both technological advances in microgravity-compatible instrumentation, and by changes in the microbial population over the life of the station.

  14. Academic Freedom: A Lawyer's Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davies, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Academic freedom is central to ideas of higher education, yet in the United Kingdom it is facing challenges from changing managerial approaches within some universities and changing governmental expectations. Universities are increasingly expected to focus upon knowledge which can be shown to have value and to exploit the results of academic…

  15. Academic Freedom and Artistic Expression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Academe, 1990

    1990-01-01

    The concluding statement by participants in the 1990 Wolf Trap Conference on Academic Freedom and Artistic Expression (Virginia, April 29-May 1) proposes policies to assist institutions in responding to issues of accountability, audience, and public funding arising from presentation of artistic works to the public in a manner that preserves…

  16. A Setback for Religious Freedom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sendor, Benjamin

    1997-01-01

    In "City of Boerne v. Flores, Archbishop of San Antonio," the U.S. Supreme Court struck down the 1993 Religious Freedom Restoration Act. RFRA was not intended to overrule a 1990 Supreme Court decision forbidding use of peyote in Native American religious ceremonies, but to "enforce" 14th-Amendment free-exercise rights. The "Boerne" decision gives…

  17. Hey] What's Space Station Freedom?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vonehrenfried, Dutch

    This video, 'Hey] What's Space Station Freedom?', has been produced as a classroom tool geared toward middle school children. There are three segments to this video. Segment One is a message to teachers presented by Dr. Jeannine Duane, New Jersey, 'Teacher in Space'. Segment Two is a brief Social Studies section and features a series of Presidential Announcements by President John F. Kennedy (May 1961), President Ronald Reagan (July 1982), and President George Bush (July 1989). These historical announcements are speeches concerning the present and future objectives of the United States' space programs. In the last segment, Charlie Walker, former Space Shuttle astronaut, teaches a group of middle school children, through models, computer animation, and actual footage, what Space Station Freedom is, who is involved in its construction, how it is to be built, what each of the modules on the station is for, and how long and in what sequence this construction will occur. There is a brief animation segment where, through the use of cartoons, the children fly up to Space Station Freedom as astronauts, perform several experiments and are given a tour of the station, and fly back to Earth. Space Station Freedom will take four years to build and will have three lab modules, one from ESA and another from Japan, and one habitation module for the astronauts to live in.

  18. A Presumption of Academic Freedom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ivie, Robert L.

    2005-01-01

    In the simplest terms, academic freedom means unfettered scholarly inquiry, a scholar's fundamental right of research, publication, and instruction free of institutional constraint. This indispensable principle of scholarship is the precious gift of independent intellectual judgment--an endowment of open inquiry, free investigation, speculation,…

  19. Reinforcement Schedules and Attributed Freedom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidson, Andrew R.; Steiner, Ivan D.

    This study tests the contention that a reinforcing agent's manner of administering rewards and punishments is construed by his associates as revealing his margin of freedom, and that associates are more attentive to cues concerning a reinforcing agent's dispositional qualities, and more inclined to ingratiate themselves to him, when he employes…

  20. Intellectual Freedom Manual. Fifth Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Library Association, Chicago, IL. Office of Intellectual Freedom.

    This manual is designed to help librarians anticipate and resist censorship of library materials, how to handle complaints, and how to write legislators effectively. Part I, "Library Bill of Rights," and Part II, "Protecting the Freedom to Read," present the text and historical development of the American Library Association's (ALA) intellectual…

  1. Space Station Freedom combustion research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Faeth, G. M.

    1992-01-01

    Extended operations in microgravity, on board spacecraft like Space Station Freedom, provide both unusual opportunities and unusual challenges for combustion science. On the one hand, eliminating the intrusion of buoyancy provides a valuable new perspective for fundamental studies of combustion phenomena. On the other hand, however, the absence of buoyancy creates new hazards of fires and explosions that must be understood to assure safe manned space activities. These considerations - and the relevance of combustion science to problems of pollutants, energy utilization, waste incineration, power and propulsion systems, and fire and explosion hazards, among others - provide strong motivation for microgravity combustion research. The intrusion of buoyancy is a greater impediment to fundamental combustion studies than to most other areas of science. Combustion intrinsically heats gases with the resulting buoyant motion at normal gravity either preventing or vastly complicating measurements. Perversely, this limitation is most evident for fundamental laboratory experiments; few practical combustion phenomena are significantly affected by buoyancy. Thus, we have never observed the most fundamental combustion phenomena - laminar premixed and diffusion flames, heterogeneous flames of particles and surfaces, low-speed turbulent flames, etc. - without substantial buoyant disturbances. This precludes rational merging of theory, where buoyancy is of little interest, and experiments, that always are contaminated by buoyancy, which is the traditional path for developing most areas of science. The current microgravity combustion program seeks to rectify this deficiency using both ground-based and space-based facilities, with experiments involving space-based facilities including: laminar premixed flames, soot processes in laminar jet diffusion flames, structure of laminar and turbulent jet diffusion flames, solid surface combustion, one-dimensional smoldering, ignition and flame

  2. Willingness to Adopt Telemedicine in Major Iraqi Hospitals: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Abd Ghani, Mohd Khanapi; Jaber, Mustafa Musa

    2015-01-01

    The Iraqi healthcare services are struggling to regain their lost momentum. Many physicians and nurses left Iraq because of the current situation in the country. Despite plans of calling back the skilled health workforce, they are still worried by the disadvantages of their return. Hence, technology plays a central role in taking advantage of their profession through the use of telemedicine. Studying the factors that affect the implementation of telemedicine is necessary. Telemedicine covers network services, policy makers, and patient understanding. A framework that includes the influencing factors in adopting telemedicine in Iraq was developed in this study. A questionnaire was distributed among physicians in Baghdad Medical City to examine the hypothesis on each factor. The Statistical Package for the Social Sciences was utilized to verify the reliability of the questionnaire and Cronbach's alpha test shows that the factors have values more than 0.7, which are standard. PMID:26557848

  3. Risk, suffering and competing narratives in the psychiatric assessment of an Iraqi refugee.

    PubMed

    Savy, Pauline; Sawyer, Anne-Maree

    2008-03-01

    This paper highlights the problem of "place" for an Iraqi refugee who, for years, had been tortured and imprisoned in his home country. Specifically, the paper presents a case study of a clinical encounter with this refugee, who had come to the attention of an Australian Crisis Assessment and Treatment Team. Drawing from narrative theory, the paper describes the chaotic nature of the encounter to show how the diverse motives, claims and actions of those present expose the struggle involved in the emplotment of an emerging narrative. The case study is constructed and analysed to illustrate the interpretive machinery of "clinical reasoning" and, in particular, the tension and play between "paradigmatic thinking" and "narrative thinking." More generally, this analysis follows the work of social scientists who seek to expand methodologies for writing about human suffering. PMID:18066652

  4. Specific trauma subtypes improve the predictive validity of the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire in Iraqi refugees.

    PubMed

    Arnetz, Bengt B; Broadbridge, Carissa L; Jamil, Hikmet; Lumley, Mark A; Pole, Nnamdi; Barkho, Evone; Fakhouri, Monty; Talia, Yousif Rofa; Arnetz, Judith E

    2014-12-01

    Trauma exposure contributes to poor mental health among refugees, and exposure often is measured using a cumulative index of items from the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire (HTQ). Few studies, however, have asked whether trauma subtypes derived from the HTQ could be superior to this cumulative index in predicting mental health outcomes. A community sample of recently arrived Iraqi refugees (N = 298) completed the HTQ and measures of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression symptoms. Principal components analysis of HTQ items revealed a 5-component subtype model of trauma that accounted for more item variance than a 1-component solution. These trauma subtypes also accounted for more variance in PTSD and depression symptoms (12 and 10%, respectively) than did the cumulative trauma index (7 and 3%, respectively). Trauma subtypes provided more information than cumulative trauma in the prediction of negative mental health outcomes. Therefore, use of these subtypes may enhance the utility of the HTQ when assessing at-risk populations.

  5. Geological evolution of the Iraqi Mesopotamia Foredeep, inner platform and near surroundings of the Arabian Plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sissakian, Varoujan K.

    2013-08-01

    The Iraqi territory could be divided into four main tectonic zones; each one has its own characteristics concerning type of the rocks, their age, thickness and structural evolution. These four zones are: (1) Inner Platform (stable shelf), (2) Outer Platform (unstable shelf), (3) Shalair Zone (Terrain), and (4) Zagros Suture Zone. The first two zones of the Arabian Plate lack any kind of metamorphism and volcanism. The Iraqi territory is located in the extreme northeastern part of the Arabian Plate, which is colliding with the Eurasian (Iranian) Plate. This collision has developed a foreland basin that includes: (1) Imbricate Zone, (2) High Folded Zone, (3) Low Folded Zone and (4) Mesopotamia Foredeep. The Mesopotamia Foredeep, in Iraq includes the Mesopotamia Plain and the Jazira Plain; it is less tectonically disturbed as compared to the Imbricate, High Folded and Low Folded Zones. Quaternary alluvial sediments of the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers and their tributaries as well as distributaries cover the central and southeastern parts of the Foredeep totally; it is called the Mesopotamian Flood Plain. The extension of the Mesopotamia Plain towards northwest however, is called the Jazira Plain, which is covered by Miocene rocks. The Mesopotamia Foredeep is represented by thick sedimentary sequence, which thickens northwestwards including synrift sediments; especially of Late Cretaceous age, whereas on surface the Quaternary sediments thicken southeastwards. The depth of the basement also changes from 8 km, in the west to 14 km, in the Iraqi-Iranian boarders towards southeast. The anticlinal structures have N-S trend, in the extreme southern part of the Mesopotamia Foredeep and extends northwards until the Latitude 32°N, within the Jazira Plain, there they change their trends to NW-SE, and then to E-W trend. The Mesozoic sequence is almost without any significant break, with increase in thickness from the west to the east, attaining 5 km. The sequence forms the main

  6. Iraqi, Syrian, and Palestinian Refugee Adolescents' Beliefs About Parental Authority Legitimacy and Its Correlates.

    PubMed

    Smetana, Judith G; Ahmad, Ikhlas; Wray-Lake, Laura

    2015-01-01

    This study examined intra- and interindividual variations in parental legitimacy beliefs in a sample of 883 Arab refugee adolescents (M(age) = 15.01 years, SD = 1.60), 277 Iraqis, 275 Syrians, and 331 Palestinians in Amman, Jordan. Confirmatory factor analyses showed distinct latent factors for moral-conventional, prudential, and personal legitimacy items. Older adolescents rated legitimacy lower for personal issues, but higher for prudential issues. Beliefs were associated with socioeconomic status (fathers' education, family size), particularly for personal issues, but were more pervasively associated with displacement-related experiences. Greater war trauma was associated with less prudential legitimacy for all youth and more authority legitimacy over moral-conventional issues for Syrian youth. Greater hopefulness was associated with more authority legitimacy over all but personal issues.

  7. Long-term pulmonary complications of chemical warfare agent exposure in Iraqi Kurdish civilians.

    PubMed

    Ghanei, Mostafa; Naderi, Mostafa; Kosar, Ali Morad; Harandi, Ali Amini; Hopkinson, Nicholas S; Poursaleh, Zohreh

    2010-08-01

    The Iraqi government used a range of chemical weapons, including blistering and nerve agents, against Iraqi Kurdish civilians in the 1980s. Few data exist about the long-term respiratory consequences of this exposure. In this study, Kurdish subjects with a history of exposure to chemical weapons were invited to attend a clinical assessment, including a review of their history, physical examination, and a high-resolution computed tomography (CT) of the thorax. Blistering at the time of exposure was used to define significant exposure to mustard gas. Results were compared between two groups of blistering and nonblistering. Four hundred seventy-nine subjects were studied; 45.7% male and 54.3% female. The mean age and standard deviation (mean +/- SD) of the cases was 43.1 +/- 13.7. Spirometry was abnormal in 15.2% of subjects and air trapping was present on CT scan in 46.6% and did not differ between patients with (n = 278) or without a history of blistering. Respiratory symptoms, including dyspnea, cough, and sputum production, were more common in subjects with a history of blistering (all p < .005) and blistering was also associated with a lower forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV(1)) (p < .0001). Severe complications were most common in subjects from Halabja who also made up the majority of participants. These results show that objective abnormalities are common in people with symptoms attributed to prior exposure to chemical agent. Blistering at the time of exposure was associated with more respiratory symptoms and worse lung function, but not with CT appearances. The high proportion of severe cases in comparison to reports from Iran may reflect the historical absence of effective early treatment, including strategies to reduce prolonged early exposure in this population. PMID:20560732

  8. Approach to transaction management for Space Station Freedom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Easton, C. R.; Cressy, Phil; Ohnesorge, T. E.; Hector, Garland

    1990-01-01

    The Space Station Freedom Manned Base (SSFMB) will support the operation of the many payloads that may be located within the pressurized modules or on external attachment points. The transaction management (TM) approach presented provides a set of overlapping features that will assure the effective and safe operation of the SSFMB and provide a schedule that makes potentially hazardous operations safe, allocates resources within the capability of the resource providers, and maintains an environment conducive to the operations planned. This approach provides for targets of opportunity and schedule adjustments that give the operators the flexibility to conduct a vast majority of their operations with no conscious involvement with the TM function.

  9. 78 FR 50351 - Freedom of Information Act Regulations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-19

    ... without charge. These Direct Costs shall include the cost of operating a central processing unit for that... processing Requests for Information under the Freedom of Information Act (FOIA). The revisions reorganize the... reached before the NCPC charges members of the public a processing fee for information. DATES:...

  10. Academic freedom and global health.

    PubMed

    Evans, Donald

    2012-02-01

    There is a tension between the preservation of academic freedom and the economic context in which the university currently finds itself. This tension embodies serious threats to global health as a result of three overlapping phenomena which impede the production and diffusion of valuable knowledge about health. These phenomena, the privatisation, commercialisation and instrumentalisation of knowledge are identified and examined in this paper in relation to human rights and international morality.

  11. Individual Freedom and Institutional Frameworks in Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Nicholas

    2012-01-01

    In this article I explore Amartya Sen's contention that individual freedom represents both the objective of development and the means through which development is to take place. Examining the conceptualisation of freedom central to Sen's capability approach, I distinguish between two notions of freedom, autonomy and agency, where the former…

  12. Academic Freedom in the 21st Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tierney, William G.; Lechuga, Vicente M.

    2005-01-01

    Throughout the 20th century, academic freedom was a foundational value for the academy in the United States. The concept of academic freedom pertains to the right of faculty to enjoy considerable autonomy in their research and teaching. The assumption that drives academic freedom is that the country benefits when faculty are able to search for…

  13. Freedom, License and A.S. Neill.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrett, Richard

    1981-01-01

    Attempts to unravel some of the confusion which has arisen over theoretical and actual freedom at A.S. Neill's alternative school in England, Summerhill. An overview of the topic of freedom is offered, based on contrasting theories of freedom in "On Being Free," by Firthjof Bergmann (University of Notre Dame Press, 1977). (DB)

  14. Academic Freedom and the Inclusive University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahn, Sharon E., Ed.; Pavlich, Dennis, Ed.

    The chapters in this collection explore issues related to academic freedom and the inclusive university. The first section, Clarifying Concepts in Ideology, Language, and Law, contains these chapters: (1) Whats Sauce for One Goose: The Logic of Academic Freedom (Stanley Fish); (2) Academic Freedom: Rights as Immunities and Privileges (Frederick…

  15. [Development of Engineering Systems for Space Station Freedom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    From January, 1990 through September, 1995, Cleveland State University (CSU) and Lewis Research Center (LeRC) participated in a research cooperative agreement. Extensive study and experimentation were done by CSU on research technologies, methods, and techniques employed by the Space Station Freedom (SSF) project and, later, the Space Experiments Division (SED). In spite of many problems occasioned by the virtual cancellation of Space Station Freedom at LeRC, and organizational and financial problem at LeRC, CSU was able to do valuable work in the study and improvement of research operating methods there.

  16. Space Shuttle orbiter modifications to support Space Station Freedom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Segert, Randall; Lichtenfels, Allyson

    1992-01-01

    The Space Shuttle will be the primary vehicle to support the launch, assembly, and maintenance of the Space Station Freedom (SSF). In order to accommodate this function, the Space Shuttle orbiter will require significant modifications. These modifications are currently in development in the Space Shuttle Program. The requirements for the planned modifications to the Space Shuttle orbiter are dependent on the design of the SSF. Therefore, extensive coordination is required with the Space Station Freedom Program (SSFP) in order to identify requirements and resolve integration issues. This paper describes the modifications to the Space Shuttle orbiter required to support SSF assembly and operations.

  17. Food and Nutrient Intake among 12-Month-Old Norwegian-Somali and Norwegian-Iraqi Infants

    PubMed Central

    Grewal, Navnit Kaur; Andersen, Lene Frost; Kolve, Cathrine Solheim; Kverndalen, Ingrid; Torheim, Liv Elin

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present paper was to describe food and nutrient intake among 12-month-old Norwegian-Somali and Norwegian-Iraqi infants, with a focus on iron and vitamin D intake. A cross-sectional survey was conducted from August 2013 through September 2014. Eighty-nine mothers/infants of Somali origin and 77 mothers/infants of Iraqi origin residing in Eastern Norway participated in the study. Data were collected using two 24-h multiple-pass recalls. Forty percent of the Norwegian-Somali infants and 47% of the Norwegian-Iraqi infants were breastfed at 12 months of age (p = 0.414). Median energy percentages (E%) from protein, fat and carbohydrates were within the recommended intake ranges, except the level of saturated fats (12–13 E%). Median intakes of almost all micronutrients were above the recommended daily intakes. Most of the infants consumed iron-enriched products (81%) and received vitamin D supplements (84%). The median intakes of iron and vitamin D were significantly higher among infants receiving iron-enriched products and vitamin D supplements compared to infants not receiving such products (p < 0.001). The findings indicate that the food and nutrient intake of this group of infants in general seems to be in accordance with Norwegian dietary recommendations. Foods rich in iron and vitamin D supplements were important sources of the infants’ intake of iron and vitamin D and should continue to be promoted. PMID:27690092

  18. E-government factors to reduce administrative and finance corruption in Arab countries: Case study Iraqi oil sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohammed, M. A.; Eman, Y.; Hussein, A. H.; Hasson, A. R.

    2015-12-01

    Arab countries face the corruption issues in its several public organizations. The corruption in these countries is considered as the main challenge. The oil sector is one of the public sectors that have huge level of corruption. However, the Iraqi economy had become dependable on oil sector daring the last three decades, and on the contrary, of what other oil countries did. The capital is considered as one of the essential factor for economic development. The revenues of oil exports will stay the essential source for economic development in Iraq in the future in order to reduce being dependable on oil. Since the beginning of the 3rd thousands, the world witnessed great rise in the demand on oil, but the Iraqi exports of crude oil come to be less than its similarities in the seventeenths of last century. So our oil sector is still in need of deep study. This study focuses on technological technique that can make huge decrease for corruption in oil sector in Iraq. However, e-government is considered as the best techniques that can decrease the corruption. Thus, this study bases on challenges that effect on build successful e-government project in Iraqi oil industry.

  19. External induced contamination environment assessment for Space Station Freedom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leger, Lubert; Ehlers, Horst; Hakes, Charles; Theall, Jeff; Soares, Carlos

    1993-01-01

    An assessment of the Space Station Freedom performance as affected by the external induced contamination environment is in progress. The assessment procedure involves comparing the Space Station Freedom external contamination requirements, SSP 30426, Revision B (1991), with calculated molecular deposition, molecular column density, and other effects from potential sources of contamination. The current assessment comprises discussions of Space Shuttle proximity operations, Space Shuttle waste-water dumps (while docked to the Space Station), Space Station fluid and waste-gas venting, system gas leakage, external material outgassing, and a combined contamination assessment. This performance assessment indicates that Space Station Freedom contamination requirements are realistic and can be satisfied when all contamination sources are included.

  20. Space Station Freedom Environmental Health Care Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richard, Elizabeth E.; Russo, Dane M.

    1992-01-01

    The paper discusses the environmental planning and monitoring aspects of the Space Station Freedom (SSF) Environmental Health Care Program, which encompasses all phases of the SSF assembly and operation from the first element entry at MB-6 through the Permanent Manned Capability and beyond. Environmental planning involves the definition of acceptability limits and monitoring requirements for the radiation dose barothermal parameters and potential contaminants in the SSF air and water and on internal surfaces. Inflight monitoring will be implemented through the Environmental Health System, which consists of five subsystems: Microbiology, Toxicology, Water Quality, Radiation, and Barothermal Physiology. In addition to the environmental data interpretation and analysis conducted after each mission, the new data will be compared to archived data for statistical and long-term trend analysis and determination of risk exposures. Results of these analyses will be used to modify the acceptability limits and monitoring requirements for the future.

  1. Space Station Freedom Solar Array design development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winslow, Cindy; Bilger, Kevin; Baraona, Cosmo R.

    1989-01-01

    The Space Station Freedom Solar Array Program is required to provide a 75 kW power module that uses eight solar array (SA) wings over a four-year period in low Earth orbit (LEO). Each wing will be capable of providing 23.4 kW at the 4-year design point. Lockheed Missles and Space Company, Inc. (LMSC) is providing the flexible substrate SAs that must survive exposure to the space environment, including atomic oxygen, for an operating life of fifteen years. Trade studies and development testing, important for evolving any design to maturity, are presently underway at LMSC on the flexible solar array. The trade study and development areas being investigated include solar cell module size, solar cell weld pads, panel stiffener frames, materials inherently resistant to atomic oxygen, and weight reduction design alternatives.

  2. Protecting America's secrets while maintaining academic freedom.

    PubMed

    Keel, Brooks A

    2004-04-01

    The terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, and the subsequent anthrax mail attacks, have had a profound impact on Americans' personal and professional lives and have sparked an active debate regarding the delicate balance between the need for national security and the pursuit of academic freedom. Although academic freedom can be defined in many ways, there are four primary tenets of freedom in an academic environment: freedom to research, freedom to publish, freedom to teach, and freedom to speak. Each of these tenets has come under attack in the wake of September 11, 2001. In this report the author further defines academic freedom and reflects upon recent events that have had a real or perceived impact on this freedom, including (1) attempts to categorize and restrict some research as "sensitive," (2) implementation of export control laws and select agent regulations, (3) limitations on the publication of research findings, (4) prohibition of certain foreign nationals from collaborating with U.S. researchers and receiving education and training in U.S. colleges and universities, and (5) restraint of faculty free speech. The author offers some suggestions as to how academia might achieve a proper balance between protecting our national security while promoting and maintaining academic freedom.

  3. Protecting America's secrets while maintaining academic freedom.

    PubMed

    Keel, Brooks A

    2004-04-01

    The terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, and the subsequent anthrax mail attacks, have had a profound impact on Americans' personal and professional lives and have sparked an active debate regarding the delicate balance between the need for national security and the pursuit of academic freedom. Although academic freedom can be defined in many ways, there are four primary tenets of freedom in an academic environment: freedom to research, freedom to publish, freedom to teach, and freedom to speak. Each of these tenets has come under attack in the wake of September 11, 2001. In this report the author further defines academic freedom and reflects upon recent events that have had a real or perceived impact on this freedom, including (1) attempts to categorize and restrict some research as "sensitive," (2) implementation of export control laws and select agent regulations, (3) limitations on the publication of research findings, (4) prohibition of certain foreign nationals from collaborating with U.S. researchers and receiving education and training in U.S. colleges and universities, and (5) restraint of faculty free speech. The author offers some suggestions as to how academia might achieve a proper balance between protecting our national security while promoting and maintaining academic freedom. PMID:15044166

  4. Approach to transaction management for Space Station Freedom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Easton, C. R.; Cressy, Phil; Ohnesorge, T. E.; Hector, Garland

    1989-01-01

    An approach to managing the operations of the Space Station Freedom based on their external effects is described. It is assumed that there is a conflict-free schedule that, if followed, will allow only appropriate operations to occur. The problem is then reduced to that of ensuring that the operations initiated are within the limits allowed by the schedule, or that the external effects of such operations are within those allowed by the schedule. The main features of the currently adopted transaction management approach are discussed.

  5. Freedom: Toward an Integration of the Counseling Profession

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanna, Fred J.

    2011-01-01

    Freedom is presented as an overarching paradigm that may align and bring together the counseling profession's diverse counseling theories and open a doorway to a new generation of counseling techniques. Freedom is defined and discussed in terms of its 4 modalities: freedom from, freedom to, freedom with, and freedom for. The long-standing problem…

  6. Community violence and mental health among Iraqi women, a population-based study

    PubMed Central

    Al-Nuaimi, Maha A.

    2013-01-01

    Background: The recent events in Iraq following the 2003 war render Iraq as a country with a high level of all types of violence. Exposure to violence, as a witness or a victim, is related to a number of longer term emotional, behavioral and social problems. Objectives: To investigate the impact of witnessing and experiencing community violence and tragedy as a factor contributing to mental health disorders among Iraqi women in the city of Mosul. Methods: A population-based cross-sectional study of 500 women were selected by a multi-stage random sampling technique. Four catchment areas of primary health centers of Mosul city were selected. Community violence with nine commonly associated social, economic, emotional, physical and mental health symptoms were recorded by questionnaire. Results: The study revealed that all the participating women had a history of exposure to at least one type of community violence within the last twelve months. A mainstream consequence of exposure to community violence was transportation difficulties, loss of husband's job, and family displacement. More than half of the women were classified as having severe emotional disturbances that may evolve to mental health problems in future. Conclusion: Women are bearing the consequences of the violence in Iraq. National commitment and action needs to be taken to curb the violence which is hugely affecting the people of Iraq. Treatment programs targeted at promoting emotional resilience may be effective at preventing mental health problems. PMID:25003060

  7. Demographic transition and potential for development: the case of Iraqi Kurdistan.

    PubMed

    Al-Hadithi, T S; Shabila, N R; Al-Tawil, N G; Othman, S M

    2010-10-01

    The effect of population growth and demographic transitionon economic developmenthas been well documented. The population growth in Iraqi Kurdistan is passing through a critical stage of demographic transition. It is, in fact, extremely likely that the region will fail to efficiently move through the demographic transition and will experience a long period in the demographic trap, i.e. the population will grow steadily and rapidly owing to the high fertility and low mortality rates. With correct government policies in terms of promoting family planning programmes, should the political context allow, demographic transition can pass smoothly through this critical stage. Furthermore, if demographic transition in Kurdistan moves to the next stage, it will provide an important window of opportunity for economic development. Proper exploitation of this demographic window through investment in education, on-the-job training and health services, in addition to proper and appropriate exploitation of economic resources and suitable and productive use of the labour force, will result in significant economic development over the next few decades.

  8. Assessing the anti-tumour properties of Iraqi propolis in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Sulaiman, Ghassan M; Ad'hiah, Ali H; Al-Sammarrae, Khulood W; Bagnati, Renzo; Frapolli, Roberta; Bello, Ezia; Uboldi, Sarah; Romano, Michela; Panini, Nicolò; Scanziani, Eugenio; Pezzolato, Marzia; Erba, Eugenio; D'Incalci, Maurizio

    2012-05-01

    The study was designed to evaluate anti-tumour properties of Iraqi propolis collected from Mosul region (M) on HL-60 and HCT-116 cell lines and on HCT-116 in vivo. M induced an inhibitory effect against the proliferation of HL-60 and colony potential of HCT-116 cells. The apoptosis in HL-60 cells was associated with down-regulation of Bcl-2 and activation of Bax, while in HCT-116 cells, necrotic features were observed; size of cells was dramatically increased by swelling of cytoplasm and loss of membrane integrity, cell rupture and release of cellular contents. Analysis of BrdU/DNA cell cycle in both cell lines showed that M induced cell cycle perturbations in both BrdU positive and BrdU negative cells. The exposure of HL-60 to M caused γ-H2AX in a dose dependent manner and was associated with induction of apoptosis. The experiments in HCT-116 tumor-bearing mice showed that oral administration of propolis at doses that caused no detectable toxicity was associated with a decrease in mitotic cells and an increase in endoreduplications, increased p53 and decreased Ki-67 expression of cells in tumor sections. This study provides the rationale to investigate the potential beneficial effect of propolis in the diet of patients receiving anti-cancer therapies. PMID:22306915

  9. Geological evolution of the Iraqi Mesopotamia Foredeep, inner platform and near surroundings of the Arabian Plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sissakian, Varoujan K.

    2013-08-01

    The Iraqi territory could be divided into four main tectonic zones; each one has its own characteristics concerning type of the rocks, their age, thickness and structural evolution. These four zones are: (1) Inner Platform (stable shelf), (2) Outer Platform (unstable shelf), (3) Shalair Zone (Terrain), and (4) Zagros Suture Zone. The first two zones of the Arabian Plate lack any kind of metamorphism and volcanism. The Iraqi territory is located in the extreme northeastern part of the Arabian Plate, which is colliding with the Eurasian (Iranian) Plate. This collision has developed a foreland basin that includes: (1) Imbricate Zone, (2) High Folded Zone, (3) Low Folded Zone and (4) Mesopotamia Foredeep. The Mesopotamia Foredeep, in Iraq includes the Mesopotamia Plain and the Jazira Plain; it is less tectonically disturbed as compared to the Imbricate, High Folded and Low Folded Zones. Quaternary alluvial sediments of the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers and their tributaries as well as distributaries cover the central and southeastern parts of the Foredeep totally; it is called the Mesopotamian Flood Plain. The extension of the Mesopotamia Plain towards northwest however, is called the Jazira Plain, which is covered by Miocene rocks. The Mesopotamia Foredeep is represented by thick sedimentary sequence, which thickens northwestwards including synrift sediments; especially of Late Cretaceous age, whereas on surface the Quaternary sediments thicken southeastwards. The depth of the basement also changes from 8 km, in the west to 14 km, in the Iraqi-Iranian boarders towards southeast. The anticlinal structures have N-S trend, in the extreme southern part of the Mesopotamia Foredeep and extends northwards until the Latitude 32°N, within the Jazira Plain, there they change their trends to NW-SE, and then to E-W trend. The Mesozoic sequence is almost without any significant break, with increase in thickness from the west to the east, attaining 5 km. The sequence forms the main

  10. Using simulation and data envelopment analysis to evaluate Iraqi regions in producing strategic crops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaloob, Ibrahim Z.; Ramli, Razamin; Nawawi, Mohd Kamal Mohd

    2014-12-01

    Productivity of the agriculture sector in Iraq has yet to reach an acceptable level. In this paper, we introduce a practical method to help manage Iraqi agriculture sector to control resources and increase production to meet the modern century requirements of good crops. These important resources are identified as water, fertilizer, natural fertilizer, pesticides and labour. The current agricultural patterns in Iraq affect the strategic crops cultivation in the country and lessen agricultural production to some life-threatening limits. Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA), which is a non-parametric tool, is proposed to identify solutions that can maximize farmers' net benefit making an optimal use of the five resources. This model also improves optimal mix of the resources. In reference to the production of each one of the three strategic crops in Iraq, the DEA model is used to find the efficiency of one region among four others in its agriculture sector, with the main problem being the constraint in the number of lands available in the situation. Hence, the simulation technique is used to generate additional regions to the four main regions adopted. This is to resolve the constriction of DEA when the decision making unit is less than the number of variables (outputs and inputs). The result is expected to show the efficiency of each of the evaluated region.

  11. Space station operations management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cannon, Kathleen V.

    1989-01-01

    Space Station Freedom operations management concepts must be responsive to the unique challenges presented by the permanently manned international laboratory. Space Station Freedom will be assembled over a three year period where the operational environment will change as significant capability plateaus are reached. First Element Launch, Man-Tended Capability, and Permanent Manned Capability, represent milestones in operational capability that is increasing toward mature operations capability. Operations management concepts are being developed to accomodate the varying operational capabilities during assembly, as well as the mature operational environment. This paper describes operations management concepts designed to accomodate the uniqueness of Space Station Freedoom, utilizing tools and processes that seek to control operations costs.

  12. Space Station Freedom Utilization Conference: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    From August 3-6, 1992, Space Station Freedom Program (SSFP) representatives and prospective Space Station Freedom researchers gathered at the Von Braun Civic Center in Huntsville, Alabama, for NASA's first annual Space Station Freedom (SSF) Utilization Conference. The sessions presented are: (1) overview and research capabilities; (2) research plans and opportunities; (3) life sciences research; (4) technology research; (4) microgravity research and biotechnology; and (5) closing plenary.

  13. Freedom and purpose in biology.

    PubMed

    McShea, Daniel W

    2016-08-01

    All seemingly teleological systems share a common hierarchical structure. They consist of a small entity moving or changing within a larger field that directs it from above (what I call "upper direction"). This is true for organisms seeking some external resource, for the organized behavior of cells and other parts in organismal development, and for lineages evolving by natural selection. In all cases, the lower-level entity is partly "free," tending to wander under the influence of purely local forces, and partly directed by a larger enveloping field. The persistent and plastic behavior that characterizes goal-directedness arises, I argue, at intermediate levels of freedom and upper direction, when the two are in a delicate balance. I tentatively extend the argument to human teleology (wants, purposes). PMID:26777154

  14. Six degree of freedom sensor

    DOEpatents

    Vann, C.S.

    1999-03-16

    This small, non-contact optical sensor increases the capability and flexibility of computer controlled machines by detecting its relative position to a workpiece in all six degrees of freedom (DOF). At a fraction of the cost, it is over 200 times faster and up to 25 times more accurate than competing 3-DOF sensors. Applications range from flexible manufacturing to a 6-DOF mouse for computers. Until now, highly agile and accurate machines have been limited by their inability to adjust to changes in their tasks. By enabling them to sense all six degrees of position, these machines can now adapt to new and complicated tasks without human intervention or delay--simplifying production, reducing costs, and enhancing the value and capability of flexible manufacturing. 3 figs.

  15. Six degree of freedom sensor

    DOEpatents

    Vann, Charles S.

    1999-01-01

    This small, non-contact optical sensor increases the capability and flexibility of computer controlled machines by detecting its relative position to a workpiece in all six degrees of freedom (DOF). At a fraction of the cost, it is over 200 times faster and up to 25 times more accurate than competing 3-DOF sensors. Applications range from flexible manufacturing to a 6-DOF mouse for computers. Until now, highly agile and accurate machines have been limited by their inability to adjust to changes in their tasks. By enabling them to sense all six degrees of position, these machines can now adapt to new and complicated tasks without human intervention or delay--simplifying production, reducing costs, and enhancing the value and capability of flexible manufacturing.

  16. 3 CFR - Freedom of Information Act

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... the Heads of Executive Departments and Agencies A democracy requires accountability, and... disinfectants.” In our democracy, the Freedom of Information Act (FOIA), which encourages accountability...

  17. Innovations in military handling of facial trauma.

    PubMed

    Faulkner, Jeffrey A; Ferguson, Earl E

    2009-01-01

    As the military medical treatment facilities of Operation Iraqi Freedom have transitioned from make-shift tent facilities to more formal fixed facilities, the capability to deliver more complex care has markedly improved. Using case presentations, the authors illustrate the integration of advances in surgical technology in managing complex and devastating craniofacial trauma at the 332nd Air Force Theater Hospital in Balad Iraq during Operation Iraqi Freedom 2006. PMID:19164991

  18. Model reduction for Space Station Freedom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Trevor

    1992-01-01

    Model reduction is an important practical problem in the control of flexible spacecraft, and a considerable amount of work has been carried out on this topic. Two of the best known methods developed are modal truncation and internal balancing. Modal truncation is simple to implement but can give poor results when the structure possesses clustered natural frequencies, as often occurs in practice. Balancing avoids this problem but has the disadvantages of high computational cost, possible numerical sensitivity problems, and no physical interpretation for the resulting balanced 'modes'. The purpose of this work is to examine the performance of the subsystem balancing technique developed by the investigator when tested on a realistic flexible space structure, in this case a model of the Permanently Manned Configuration (PMC) of Space Station Freedom. This method retains the desirable properties of standard balancing while overcoming the three difficulties listed above. It achieves this by first decomposing the structural model into subsystems of highly correlated modes. Each subsystem is approximately uncorrelated from all others, so balancing them separately and then combining yields comparable results to balancing the entire structure directly. The operation count reduction obtained by the new technique is considerable: a factor of roughly r(exp 2) if the system decomposes into r equal subsystems. Numerical accuracy is also improved significantly, as the matrices being operated on are of reduced dimension, and the modes of the reduced-order model now have a clear physical interpretation; they are, to first order, linear combinations of repeated-frequency modes.

  19. Multiple-degree-of-freedom vehicle

    DOEpatents

    Borenstein, Johann

    1995-01-01

    A multi-degree-of-freedom vehicle employs a compliant linkage to accommodate the need for a variation in the distance between drive wheels or drive systems which are independently steerable and drivable. The subject vehicle is provided with rotary encodes to provide signals representative of the orientation of the steering pivot associated with each such drive wheel or system, and a linear encoder which issues a signal representative of the fluctuations in the distance between the drive elements. The wheels of the vehicle are steered and driven in response to the linear encoder signal, there being provided a controller system for minimizing the fluctuations in the distance. The controller system is a software implementation of a plurality of controllers, operating at the chassis level and at the vehicle level. A trajectory interpolator receives x-displacement, y-displacement, and .theta.-displacement signals and produces to the vehicle level controller trajectory signals corresponding to interpolated control signals. The x-displacement, y-displacement, and .theta.-displacement signals are received from a human operator, via a manipulable joy stick.

  20. Automated electric power management and control for Space Station Freedom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dolce, James L.; Mellor, Pamela A.; Kish, James A.

    1990-01-01

    A comprehensive automation design is being developed for Space Station Freedom's electric power system. It strives to increase station productivity by applying expert systems and conventional algorithms to automate power system operation. An integrated approach to the power system command and control problem is defined and used to direct technology development in: diagnosis, security monitoring and analysis, battery management, and cooperative problem-solving for resource allocation. The prototype automated power system is developed using simulations and test-beds.

  1. Food insecurity among Iraqi refugees living in Lebanon, 10 years after the invasion of Iraq: data from a household survey.

    PubMed

    Ghattas, Hala; Sassine, AnnieBelle J; Seyfert, Karin; Nord, Mark; Sahyoun, Nadine R

    2014-07-14

    Iraqi refugees in Lebanon are vulnerable to food insecurity because of their limited rights and fragile livelihoods. The objective of the present study was to assess household food insecurity among Iraqi refugees living in Lebanon, almost 10 years after the invasion of Iraq. A representative survey of 800 UN High Commissioner for Refugees-registered refugee households in Lebanon was conducted using multi-stage cluster random sampling. We measured food insecurity using a modified US Department of Agriculture household food security module. We collected data on household demographic, socio-economic, health, housing and dietary diversity status and analysed these factors by food security status. Hb level was measured in a subset of children below 5 years of age (n 85). Weighted data were used in univariate and multivariate analyses. Among the Iraqi refugee households surveyed (n 630), 20·1% (95% CI 17·3, 23·2) were found to be food secure, 35·5% (95% CI 32·0, 39·2) moderately food insecure and 44·4% (95% CI 40·8, 48·1) severely food insecure. Severe food insecurity was associated with the respondent's good self-reported health (OR 0·3, 95% CI 0·2, 0·5), length of stay as a refugee (OR 1·1, 95% CI 1·0, 1·2), very poor housing quality (OR 3·3, 95% CI 1·6, 6·5) and the number of children in the household (OR 1·2, 95% CI 1·0, 1·4), and resulted in poor dietary diversity (P< 0·0001). Anaemia was found in 41% (95% CI 30·6, 51·9) of children below 5 years of age, but was not associated with food insecurity. High food insecurity, low diet quality and high prevalence of anaemia in Iraqi refugees living in Lebanon call for urgent programmes to address the food and health situation of this population with restricted rights.

  2. Escape from Freedom: Towards the Political Realm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dillon, Katrina

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, the author contends that the ability to create a political realm is dependent upon one's state of freedom. She questions what it means to be free and whether assumptions of the definitions of this concept are always good or beneficial. After discussing some of the known theories about freedom, she states that schools are some…

  3. Who Defends Intellectual Freedom for Librarians?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buschman, John

    2009-01-01

    "Academe"'s readers know the importance of academic freedom and the history of the (American Association of University Professors) AAUP's defense and promotion of academic freedom for faculty. Librarians have an analogous set of interlocking policies concerning their ethics and related issues. The author has always been proud that the American…

  4. Freedom and Restrictions in Language Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Donnell, Roy C.

    Since freedom of thought and expression is essential in a democracy, censorship of language is rightly regarded as a threat to all other freedoms. Still, it is inevitable that certain restrictions will occasionally be imposed on language in America and in other societies. Restrictions on language date back to the Ten Commandments, which condemned…

  5. 78 FR 68325 - World Freedom Day, 2013

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-14

    ... the two hundred and thirty- eighth. (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc. 2013-27377 Filed 11-13-13; 8:45 am... Documents#0;#0; #0; #0;Title 3-- #0;The President ] Proclamation 9056 of November 8, 2013 World Freedom Day... Freedom Day, we remember that for all the raw power of authoritarian regimes, it is ultimately...

  6. 77 FR 68043 - World Freedom Day, 2012

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-15

    .... (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc. 2012-27918 Filed 11-14-12; 8:45 am] Billing code 3295-F3 ... Documents#0;#0; #0; #0;Title 3-- #0;The President ] Proclamation 8903 of November 9, 2012 World Freedom Day..., 2012, as World Freedom Day. I call upon the people of the United States to observe this day...

  7. 75 FR 69571 - World Freedom Day, 2010

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-15

    ... Independence of the United States of America the two hundred and thirty-fifth. (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc... Documents#0;#0; #0; #0;Title 3-- #0;The President ] Proclamation 8599 of November 8, 2010 World Freedom Day... down the hated blockade. World Freedom Day commemorates the end of this icon of division;...

  8. 77 FR 2907 - Religious Freedom Day, 2012

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-20

    .... (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc. 2012-1194 Filed 1-19-12; 8:45 am] Billing code 3295-F2-P ... Documents#0;#0; ] Proclamation 8774 of January 13, 2012 Religious Freedom Day, 2012 By the President of the... from the texts of the Enlightenment in the laws of state. On Religious Freedom Day, we celebrate...

  9. 76 FR 3815 - Religious Freedom Day, 2011

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-20

    .... (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc. 2011-1304 Filed 1-19-11; 11:15 am] Billing code 3195-W1-P ... Proclamation 8623--Religious Freedom Day, 2011 Proclamation 8624--Martin Luther King, Jr., Federal Holiday... January 14, 2011 Religious Freedom Day, 2011 By the President of the United States of America...

  10. IVA robotics for Space Station Freedom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Sharon Monica

    1992-01-01

    The objective is to increase the scientific productivity of Space Station Freedom (Spacelab) during the man-tended phase and beyond. The topics are presented in viewgraph form and include: Space Station Freedom (SSF) background, man-tended phase, intra-vehicular activity (IVA) robotics, protein crystal growth experiment, thermal enclosure system equipment, and candidate mockup demonstrations.

  11. Let Freedom Ring! Bulletin, 1937, No. 32

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calhoun, Harold G.; Calhoun, Dorothy; Hatch, Roy W.; Cohen, Philip H.; Schramm, Rudolf

    1937-01-01

    This volume of "Let Freedom Ring!" contains the scripts of the 13 national broadcasts of the radio series of that name presented in the spring of 1937 over the national network of the Columbia Broadcast System. In "Let Freedom Ring!" you will find the courage, the struggle, the triumph of men and women who fought to win and safeguard liberties…

  12. Freedom of Conscience and Catholic Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donlevy, J. K.; Gereluk, D.; Patterson, P.; Brandon, J.

    2014-01-01

    This paper's purpose is to extensively review the historical understanding of conscience and the current juridical interpretation of freedom of conscience under section 2(a) of the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms (1982). It then briefly notes that given the challenge faced by Ontario's Catholic schools in providing for…

  13. Freedom of Speech and Philosophy of Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Roy

    2009-01-01

    Why is freedom of speech so seldom raised as an issue in philosophy of education? In assessing this question, it is important to distinguish (i) between a freedom and its exercise, and (ii) between different philosophies of education. Western philosophies of education may be broadly divided into classes derived from theories of knowledge first…

  14. Academic Freedom 2--A Human Rights Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniel, John, Ed.; And Others

    The ten essays in this book examine issues related to academic freedom and university autonomy. Chapter 1 serves as an introduction, providing an overview of the situation in universities worldwide, including national and international initiatives to promote academic freedom. It also discusses the role of the World University Service in this…

  15. Intellectual Freedom and Censorship in the Library

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Jessica L.

    2010-01-01

    The article gives a brief description of intellectual freedom and censorship in order to set a foundation for looking into the library community's role in advocating for intellectual freedom and combating censorship. Focus is given to the unique challenges of school libraries in fulfilling the larger library community's expectations in these two…

  16. Intellectual Freedom and the Bible College Library

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Gregory A.

    2004-01-01

    A number of evangelical Christian authors have wrestled with the subject of intellectual freedom--few, though, in the context of Bible college libraries. The secular concept of intellectual freedom is incompatible with Bible colleges in that it is absolutist and shuns any standard of morality. Theological, educational, and pragmatic factors…

  17. Rabies in Ireland: a precarious freedom.

    PubMed

    Costello, J A

    1988-01-01

    The prolonged freedom from rabies enjoyed by Ireland is based on both its island location and the rigid enforcement of national legislation. The yachting tourist and the increased level of shipping activity in ports and harbours are a major threat of disease introduction. Mass media publicity and public awareness are the main safeguards necessary to protect the freedom of our island.

  18. Individual Academic Freedom and Aprofessional Acts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andreescu, Liviu

    2009-01-01

    In this essay, Liviu Andreescu examines the question of whether a certain category of aprofessional acts by academics (in particular, political speech) deserves protection against academic sanctions under the principle of academic freedom. Andreescu discusses two alternative views of academic freedom (the extensive and the restrictive) providing…

  19. Academic Freedom in the Secondary Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Civil Liberties Union, New York, NY.

    A policy statement recommends application of the principles of academic freedom and civil liberties to the secondary schools. Teachers' rights are discussed in terms of (1) appointments and dismissals, (2) loyalty oaths, (3) curriculum, (4) selection of texts and supplementary instructional resources, (5) freedom to teach controversial issues, (6)…

  20. Academic Freedom in Europe: Reviewing UNESCO's "Recommendation"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karran, Terence

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines the compliance of universities in the European Union with the UNESCO Recommendation concerning the Status of Higher-Education Teaching Personnel, which deals primarily with protection for academic freedom. The paper briefly surveys the European genesis of the modern research university and academic freedom, before evaluating…

  1. Molecular Analysis of CYP21A2 Gene Mutations among Iraqi Patients with Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Al-Obaidi, Ruqayah G. Y.; Al-Zubaidi, Munib Ahmed K.; Oberkanins, Christian; Németh, Stefan; Al-Obaidi, Yusra G. Y.

    2016-01-01

    Congenital adrenal hyperplasia is a group of autosomal recessive disorders. The most frequent one is 21-hydroxylase deficiency. Analyzing CYP21A2 gene mutations was so far not reported in Iraq. This work aims to analyze the spectrum and frequency of CYP21A2 mutations among Iraqi CAH patients. Sixty-two children were recruited from the Pediatric Endocrine Consultation Clinic, Children Welfare Teaching Hospital, Baghdad, Iraq, from September 2014 till June 2015. Their ages ranged between one day and 15 years. They presented with salt wasting, simple virilization, or pseudoprecocious puberty. Cytogenetic study was performed for cases with ambiguous genitalia. Molecular analysis of CYP21A2 gene was done using the CAH StripAssay (ViennaLab Diagnostics) for detection of 11 point mutations and >50% of large gene deletions/conversions. Mutations were found in 42 (67.7%) patients; 31 (50%) patients were homozygotes, 9 (14.5%) were heterozygotes, and 2 (3.2%) were compound heterozygotes with 3 mutations, while 20 (32.3%) patients had none of the tested mutations. The most frequently detected mutations were large gene deletions/conversions found in 12 (19.4%) patients, followed by I2Splice and Q318X in 8 (12.9%) patients each, I172N in 5 (8.1%) patients, and V281L in 4 (6.5%) patients. Del 8 bp, P453S, and R483P were each found in one (1.6%) and complex alleles were found in 2 (3.2%). Four point mutations (P30L, Cluster E6, L307 frameshift, and R356W) were not identified in any patient. In conclusion, gene deletions/conversions and 7 point mutations were recorded in varying proportions, the former being the commonest, generally similar to what was reported in regional countries. PMID:27777794

  2. Association of Global DNA Hypomethylation with Clinicopathological Variables in Colonic Tumors of Iraqi Patients

    PubMed Central

    Qasim, Ban J.; Al-Wasiti, Estabraq A.; Azzal, Hayder S.

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aim: Colorectal cancer (CRC) ranks sixth among the most common 10 cancers in Iraq. It is a foremost public health dilemma and there is improved interest in understanding the fundamental principles of its molecular biology. DNA methylation in cancer has become the issue of passionate investigation. As compared with normal cells, the malignant cells show major disruptions in their DNA methylation patterns. We aimed to assess the association of global DNA hypomethylation in colonic adenomas and carcinomas of Iraqi patients, measured by immunohistochemistry of 5-methylcytosin, with different clinicopathological variables. Patients and Methods: Thirty tissue paraffin blocks from patients with colorectal adenomas, 30 tissue paraffin blocks from patients with colorectal adenocarcinomas, and 30 samples of apparently normal colonic tissue taken from autopsy cases as a control group were included in the present study. From each block, two sections of 5 μm thickness were taken, one section was stained with Hematoxylin and Eosin for revision of histopathological diagnosis and one section was immunohistochemically stained for 5-methylcytosine (5mC) and digitally analyzed by AperioImageScope software. Results: The mean digital value of 5mC immunohistochemical expression was sequentially decreased during neoplastic progression from normal colonic tissue into adenoma and then to carcinoma. The mean digital value of 5mC expression was significantly lower in large size adenomas (≥1 cm), and those with severe dysplasia. Concerning carcinoma cases, 5mC expression was significantly lower in stage C2. Conclusions: The immunohistochemical evaluation of 5mC yields refined information on colorectal tumor biology in adenoma and carcinoma. Global DNA hypomethylation reflected by low immunohistochemical expression of 5-mC is associated with advanced colorectal adenomatous polyps suggesting that it is an early event in colorectal carcinogenesis. Also this hypomethylation can

  3. Bacterial isolates associated with dystocia and retained placenta in iraqi buffaloes.

    PubMed

    Azawi, O I; Rahawy, M A; Hadad, J J

    2008-06-01

    The present study was conducted on 50 recently calved Iraqi Buffalo cows. Depending on the kind of parturition, buffalo cows were divided into two main groups, the first group had normal unassisted parturition (NP) (26 animals) and the second group with certain periparturent complications (PPC) (24 animals). After 24 h of parturition, these two groups were further subdivided into two groups as cows expel their foetal membranes in <24 h postpartum and referred as non-retained placenta (NRP) while cows that did not expel their foetal membrane after 24 h referred as retained placenta (RP). Sampling for bacteriology, uterine discharge for polymorphonuclear cells per cent and blood samples for polymorphonuclear neutrophil (PMN) and the enzyme creatine kinase activity were performed at 6, 24 and 48 h postpartum. In PPC group, the most prevalent bacteria after 6 h of calving were Escherichia coli, beta-haemolytic Streptococci and Lactobacillus acidophilus. Total bacterial isolates in the uterus of buffaloes with RP in PPC group after 24 and 48 h were 129 and 183 respectively. Among the isolates, Archanobacterium pyogenes, Fusobacterium necrophorum, Prevotella melaninogenicus and Staphylococcus aureus were the most prevalent isolates after 48 h of RP buffaloes in PPC group. Polymorphonuclear neutrophil were significantly (p < 0.01) increased in the uterine discharge than in blood in buffaloes with RP in both PPC and NP groups. In conclusion, uterine contamination occurs as a result of postpartum ascending contamination by non-specific environmental organisms. The presence of Lactobacillus sp. in the uterus indicated a healthy uterus. Peripartum complications followed by retention of foetal membranes with the dominance of E. coli in the uterine lumen might favour the colonization of other bacteria including facultative anaerobic and strictly anaerobic in the uterine wall of buffaloes.

  4. Impact of phlebotomine sand flies on U.S. Military operations at Tallil Air Base, Iraq: 1. background, military situation, and development of a "Leishmaniasis Control Program".

    PubMed

    Coleman, Russell E; Burkett, Douglas A; Putnam, John L; Sherwood, Van; Caci, Jennifer B; Jennings, Barton T; Hochberg, Lisa P; Spradling, Sharon L; Rowton, Edgar D; Blount, Keith; Ploch, John; Hopkins, Grady; Raymond, Jo-Lynne W; O'Guinn, Monica L; Lee, John S; Weina, Peter J

    2006-07-01

    One of the most significant modern day efforts to prevent and control an arthropod-borne disease during a military deployment occurred when a team of U.S. military entomologists led efforts to characterize, prevent, and control leishmaniasis at Tallil Air Base (TAB), Iraq, during Operation Iraqi Freedom. Soon after arriving at TAB on 22 March 2003, military entomologists determined that 1) high numbers of sand flies were present at TAB, 2) individual soldiers were receiving many sand fly bites in a single night, and 3) Leishmania parasites were present in 1.5% of the female sand flies as determined using a real-time (fluorogenic) Leishmania-generic polymerase chain reaction assay. The rapid determination that leishmaniasis was a specific threat in this area allowed for the establishment of a comprehensive Leishmaniasis Control Program (LCP) over 5 mo before the first case of leishmaniasis was confirmed in a U.S. soldier deployed to Iraq. The LCP had four components: 1) risk assessment, 2) enhancement of use of personal protective measures by all personnel at TAB, 3) vector and reservoir control, and 4) education of military personnel about sand flies and leishmaniasis. The establishment of the LCP at TAB before the onset of any human disease conclusively demonstrated that entomologists can play a critical role during military deployments. PMID:16892621

  5. Impact of phlebotomine sand flies on U.S. Military operations at Tallil Air Base, Iraq: 1. background, military situation, and development of a "Leishmaniasis Control Program".

    PubMed

    Coleman, Russell E; Burkett, Douglas A; Putnam, John L; Sherwood, Van; Caci, Jennifer B; Jennings, Barton T; Hochberg, Lisa P; Spradling, Sharon L; Rowton, Edgar D; Blount, Keith; Ploch, John; Hopkins, Grady; Raymond, Jo-Lynne W; O'Guinn, Monica L; Lee, John S; Weina, Peter J

    2006-07-01

    One of the most significant modern day efforts to prevent and control an arthropod-borne disease during a military deployment occurred when a team of U.S. military entomologists led efforts to characterize, prevent, and control leishmaniasis at Tallil Air Base (TAB), Iraq, during Operation Iraqi Freedom. Soon after arriving at TAB on 22 March 2003, military entomologists determined that 1) high numbers of sand flies were present at TAB, 2) individual soldiers were receiving many sand fly bites in a single night, and 3) Leishmania parasites were present in 1.5% of the female sand flies as determined using a real-time (fluorogenic) Leishmania-generic polymerase chain reaction assay. The rapid determination that leishmaniasis was a specific threat in this area allowed for the establishment of a comprehensive Leishmaniasis Control Program (LCP) over 5 mo before the first case of leishmaniasis was confirmed in a U.S. soldier deployed to Iraq. The LCP had four components: 1) risk assessment, 2) enhancement of use of personal protective measures by all personnel at TAB, 3) vector and reservoir control, and 4) education of military personnel about sand flies and leishmaniasis. The establishment of the LCP at TAB before the onset of any human disease conclusively demonstrated that entomologists can play a critical role during military deployments.

  6. Motorcycling freedom: a paraplegics dream.

    PubMed

    Lomman, D; Kirk, B

    2006-03-01

    People with disabilities have the same rights as other members of society in directing and implementing the decisions which affect their lives, although it is not always afforded them due to physical limitations. A chance encounter by the author, a University of Western Australia mechanical engineering student, with a paraplegic man who expressed his dream of being able to ride a motorcycle again led to the design and build of a specially modified motorcycle that could be ridden safely and comfortably by a person without the use of their legs. The prototype involved several modifications which allow it to be ridden by a paraplegic person. They included, a thumb controlled pneumatic gear shifter, an integrated front and rear brake actuated with a single hand lever, ergonomic supports to hold the riders legs in place and an automatic stabilising system to balance the motorcycle at low speeds. The benefits that result from the inclusion of people with disabilities into regular leisure activities include normalisation as well as a sense of independence and freedom for the individual. It also allowed one man the chance to reach for his dreams.

  7. The effect of economic sanctions on the mortality of Iraqi children prior to the 1991 Persian Gulf War.

    PubMed Central

    Daponte, B O; Garfield, R

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study examined the effect of sanctions on mortality among Iraqi children. METHODS: The effects of economic sanctions on health are not well known. Past studies on the effect of economic sanctions on mortality have suffered from unreliable data sources and the collinearity of sanctions with other negative economic events. We overcame these weaknesses by using individual child records from a retrospective survey of mothers conducted after the 1991 Persian Gulf War to examine the effect of sanctions on mortality among Iraqi children. Multivariate proportional hazards analysis was used to assess the effect of economic sanctions prior to war (from August through December 1990). RESULTS: We found that after controlling for child and maternal characteristics, when economic sanctions were entered into the proportional hazards equation, the risk of dying increased dramatically. This increase was highly significant statistically. CONCLUSIONS: Innovative application of robust epidemiologic research tools can contribute to assessments of health and well-being even under the methodological and practical constraints of comprehensive economic sanctions, but more research is needed. PMID:10754968

  8. Emergency egress requirements for Space Station Freedom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, Paul S.

    1991-01-01

    An objective was to determine if the pressurized elements and hatchways of the Space Station Freedom support the emergency egress of crewmembers during operation of the station at the stage of Permanently Manned Capacity. Emergency egress was defined as the exit from a pressurized element when an event occurs which makes that element uninhabitable. The possible egress paths for four emergency scenarios considered were: (1) accident occurs in a module and crewmembers translate to the attached node; (2) accident occurs at a node and crewmembers translate through it to the safe node; (3) accident occurs at a module close to a node and crewmembers are not able to translate through the affected area; and (4) accident occurs at a node and crewmembers cannot translate through it. The structural design of the pressurized elements and the hatches studied is adequate for the emergence egress translation requirement. The current location of a few racks may cause some obstruction for egress to the orbiter. The egress time required in the worst situation is estimated to be about 3 mins. There is a chance of getting crewmembers trapped in a module in case of a severe accident. Aids are needed for emergency egress translation.

  9. Advancing automation and robotics technology for the Space Station Freedom and for the US economy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lum, Henry, Jr.

    1992-01-01

    Described here is the progress made by Levels 1, 2, and 3 of the Space Station Freedom in developing and applying advanced automation and robotics technology. Emphasis was placed on the Space Station Freedom program responses to specific recommendations made in the Advanced Technology Advisory Committee (ATAC) Progress Report 13, and issues of A&R implementation into the payload operations integration Center at Marshall Space Flight Center. Assessments are presented for these and other areas as they apply to the advancement of automation and robotics technology for Space Station Freedom.

  10. Relaxation of vibrational degrees of freedom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frohn, A.

    Shock tubes were used to measure relaxation times of the degrees of freedom in inelastic collisions of gas molecules. Design and construction of the experimental setup are described. For relaxation time measurements of vibrational degrees of freedom an initial pressure between 0.1 and 1 mbar is found to be optimal, and for dissociation between 1 and 10 mbar. The density gradients in the shock tube flow are measured with four differential laser interferometers and plotted with a transient recorder. A FORTRAN program was developed to determine the relaxation times. This measurement technique does not in general allow the degrees of freedom to be investigated separately.

  11. Environmental interactions of the Space Station Freedom electric power system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nahra, Henry K.; Lu, Cheng-Yi

    1991-01-01

    The Space Station Freedom operates in a low earth orbit (LEO) environment. Such operation results in different potential interactions with the Space Station systems including the Electric Power System (EPS). These potential interactions result in environmental effects which include neutral species effects such as atomic oxygen erosion, effects of micrometeoroid and orbital debris impacts, plasma effects, ionizing radiation, and induced contamination degradation effects. The EPS design and its interactions with the LEO environment are briefly described and the results of analyses and testing programs planned and performed thus far to resolve environmental concerns related to the EPS and its function in LEO environment.

  12. Environmental interactions of the Space Station Freedom electric power system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nahra, Henry K.; Lu, C. Y.

    1991-01-01

    The Space Station Freedom will be operating in the Low Earth Orbit (LEO) environment. LEO environment operation results in different potential interactions with the Space Station systems including the Electric Power Systems (EPS). These potential interactions result in environmental effects which include neutral species effects such as atomic oxygen erosion, effects of micrometeroid and orbital debris impacts, plasma effects, ionizing radiation effects, and induced contamination degradation effects. The EPS design and its interactions with the LEO environment are described. The results of analyses and testing programs planned and performed thus far to resolve the environmental concerns related to the EPS and its function in the LEO environment are discussed.

  13. The pilot and evaluation of a postnatal support group for Iraqi women in the year following the birth of their baby

    PubMed Central

    Rooney, Rosanna M.; Kane, Robert T.; Wright, Bernadette; Gent, Vanessa; Di Ciano, Taralisa; Mancini, Vincent

    2014-01-01

    The current study involved conducting a pilot test of a culturally sensitive support group program developed to assist Iraqi women in the year following the birth of their baby (CSSG-B) in Perth, Western Australia. The aim of this study was to evaluate the social validity of the program. It was hypothesized that women involved in the program would find the program to be socially valid and culturally appropriate, and will also report lower levels of depressive symptomatology and higher levels of social support, following the group intervention. Participants were 12 Iraqi Arabic speaking women, who had a child less than 12 months of age. The program was based on Iraqi women's explanatory models (Kleinman, 1978; Di Ciano et al., 2010) of the birth and motherhood experience. Social validity ratings were obtained during the implementation of the program in order to assess the level of acceptability of the intervention. A one-group pre-test–post-test design was used to determine if depressive symptoms had decreased during the course of the intervention and social support had increased. Results indicated that Iraqi Arabic speaking women found the support group intervention acceptable and relevant and there was a significant decrease in scores on the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) from pre-test to post-test. These results that the culturally sensitive group intervention was culturally acceptable and was associated with decreased levels of depressive symptomatology. PMID:24523705

  14. Development of the Space Station Freedom Environmental Health System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richard, Elizabeth E.; Russo, Dane

    1990-01-01

    The Environmental Health System (EHS), a subsystem of the Space Station Freedom (SSF) Crew Health Care System, was established to ensure that crewmembers will have a safe and healthy environment in which to live and work. EHS is comprised of six subsystems: Microbiology, Toxicology, Water Quality, Radiological Health, Vibroacoustics, and Barothermal Physiology. Each subsystem contributes to the overall functions of the EHS including environmental planning, environmental monitoring, environmental monitoring, environmental health assessments, and operations support. The EHS will provide hardware for monitoring the air, water, and internal surfaces of Freedom, including capabilities for inflight sample collection, processing, and analysis. The closed environment of SSF, and its dependence on recycled air and water, will necessitate a reliable monitoring system to alert crewmembers if contamination levels exceed the maximum allowable limits established to ensure crew health and safety. This paper describes the functions and hardware design status of the EHS.

  15. Integrated energy balance analysis for Space Station Freedom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tandler, John

    1991-01-01

    An integrated simulation model is described which characterizes the dynamic interaction of the energy transport subsystems of Space Station Freedom for given orbital conditions and for a given set of power and thermal loads. Subsystems included in the model are the Electric Power System (EPS), the Internal Thermal Control System (ITCS), the External Thermal Control System (ETCS), and the cabin Temperature and Humidity Control System (THC) (which includes the avionics air cooling, cabin air cooling, and intermodule ventilation systems). Models of the subsystems were developed in a number of system-specific modeling tools and validated. The subsystem models are then combined into integrated models to address a number of integrated performance issues involving the ability of the integrated energy transport system of Space Station Freedom to provide power, controlled cabin temperature and humidity, and equipment thermal control to support operations.

  16. Hydro geochemistry Study of Yamama formation water in southern Iraqi oil Fields, Migration,Diagensis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, A. A.; SOC Team

    2013-05-01

    Yamama Formation (Lower Cretaceous) form one of the main oil reservoir in southern Iraq, the present study deals with the general physical and chemical characteristics of Yamama formation water in selected oil fields - southern Iraq. Via the collecting the available water analysis data in in selected 10 wells in southern Iraqi oil fields, Well Logs, as well as, the technical final well reports. The task of this study is to illustrate the chemical and physical variation among the study oil wells, and their relation with the depositional environment, the grading of temperature and pressure, the reason behind of over pressure phenomenon, besides the delineation of oil migration and water reservoir movement direction. The study confirms the occurrences of two types of formation water; the first one is the connate water, which is brine, hypersaline, and marine in nature reflects the possibility of hydrocarbon accumulations. And the second is mixing water reflects the mixing of original marine water with percolating meteoric water for various degree. Regarding the hydrochemical ratios, the direction of water movement and oil migration is from northeast toward west and south west starting from Messan oil Fields, moreover, the secondary migration of oil is in the same direction. The western migration of oil and water attributed to the enhancement of porosity and permeability in this direction, which in turn means the possibility of finding new stratigraphic traps in this direction mainly western of Nasiriya and Garraf areas. The relationship between depositional environment and diagenetic processes in one hand, and the sediment logical units; tidal lime granular unit revealed the occurrences of khidar al-may which extends up to Al-Managish in Kuwait and Nahar Umar - Majnoon, Nasiriya - Abu Amood, as well as the clayey units represented by isolated and semi isolated lagoonal deposits. Based on the ionic ratios in AlZubair, Nahar Umer and Al-Kifil oil fields, outer shelf

  17. Space Station Freedom solar dynamic power generation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Springer, T.; Friefeld, Jerry M.

    1990-01-01

    Viewgraphs on Space Station Freedom solar dynamic power generation are presented. Topics covered include: prime contract activity; key solar dynamic power module requirements; solar dynamic heat receiver technology; and solar concentrator advanced development.

  18. The fragility of freedom of speech.

    PubMed

    Shackel, Nicholas

    2013-05-01

    Freedom of speech is a fundamental liberty that imposes a stringent duty of tolerance. Tolerance is limited by direct incitements to violence. False notions and bad laws on speech have obscured our view of this freedom. Hence, perhaps, the self-righteous intolerance, incitements and threats in response to Giubilini and Minerva. Those who disagree have the right to argue back but their attempts to shut us up are morally wrong. PMID:23637438

  19. The fragility of freedom of speech.

    PubMed

    Shackel, Nicholas

    2013-05-01

    Freedom of speech is a fundamental liberty that imposes a stringent duty of tolerance. Tolerance is limited by direct incitements to violence. False notions and bad laws on speech have obscured our view of this freedom. Hence, perhaps, the self-righteous intolerance, incitements and threats in response to Giubilini and Minerva. Those who disagree have the right to argue back but their attempts to shut us up are morally wrong.

  20. Philip Reid and the Statue of Freedom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walton, Eugene

    2005-01-01

    The Statue of Freedom stands at the very top of the dome of the Capitol, where Congress meets in Washington, D.C. The dome, with its statue, is a symbol recognized all over the world. Thomas Crawford, an American sculptor, created the Statue of Freedom in clay in a studio in Rome, Italy. A plaster model was cast in five major sections and shipped…

  1. FAST - FREEDOM ASSEMBLY SEQUENCING TOOL PROTOTYPE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borden, C. S.

    1994-01-01

    FAST is a project management tool designed to optimize the assembly sequence of Space Station Freedom. An appropriate assembly sequence coordinates engineering, design, utilization, transportation availability, and operations requirements. Since complex designs tend to change frequently, FAST assesses the system level effects of detailed changes and produces output metrics that identify preferred assembly sequences. FAST incorporates Space Shuttle integration, Space Station hardware, on-orbit operations, and programmatic drivers as either precedence relations or numerical data. Hardware sequencing information can either be input directly and evaluated via the "specified" mode of operation or evaluated from the input precedence relations in the "flexible" mode. In the specified mode, FAST takes as its input a list of the cargo elements assigned to each flight. The program determines positions for the cargo elements that maximize the center of gravity (c.g.) margin. These positions are restricted by the geometry of the cargo elements and the location of attachment fittings both in the orbiter and on the cargo elements. FAST calculates every permutation of cargo element location according to its height, trunnion fitting locations, and required intercargo element spacing. Each cargo element is tested in both its normal and reversed orientation (rotated 180 degrees). The best solution is that which maximizes the c.g. margin for each flight. In the flexible mode, FAST begins with the first flight and determines all feasible combinations of cargo elements according to mass, volume, EVA, and precedence relation constraints. The program generates an assembly sequence that meets mass, volume, position, EVA, and precedence constraints while minimizing the total number of Shuttle flights required. Issues associated with ground operations, spacecraft performance, logistics requirements and user requirements will be addressed in future versions of the model. FAST is written in C

  2. OSSA Space Station Freedom science utilization plans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cressy, Philip J.

    1992-01-01

    Long duration exposure to an essentially zero-gravity environment is a phenomenon exclusive to the Space Station Freedom that cannot be duplicated on Earth. The Freedom Station will offer periods of time on orbit extending to weeks and months rather than hours or days, allowing for in-depth space based research and analysis to a degree never before achieved. OSSA remains committed to exploiting the unique capabilities provided by the Space Station as well as other space-based facilities to study the nature of physical, chemical, and biological processes in a low-gravity environment and to apply these studies to advance science and applications in such fields as biomedical research, plant and animal physiology, exobiology, biotechnology, materials science, fluid physics, and combustion science. The OSSA focus is on progressive science investigations, many requiring hands-on scientist involvement using sophisticated experiment hardware. OSSA science utilization planning for the Freedom Station is firmly established. For this presentation, this planning is discussed in three general areas: OSSA goals and overall approach, the current and on-going program, and plans for space station utilization. In the first area, OSSA addresses its overall approach to space science research, its commitment to transition to Space Station Freedom, and its top-level strategy for the utilization of Freedom. The current and on-going program is next discussed, focusing on the various Spacelab series of missions which are providing the stepping-stones to Space Station Freedom. Selected science results from SLS-1 and USML-1 are cited which underline the value of properly outfitted laboratories in space in which crew-intensive experiment interactions are possible. The presentation is concluded with a discussion of top-level goals and strategies for utilizing the Freedom Station by OSSA's Life Sciences Division and its Microgravity Science and Applications Division.

  3. Space Station Freedom as an engineering experiment station: An overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rose, M. Frank

    1992-01-01

    In this presentation, the premise that Space Station Freedom has great utility as an engineering experiment station will be explored. There are several modes in which it can be used for this purpose. The most obvious are space qualification, process development, in space satellite repair, and materials engineering. The range of engineering experiments which can be done at Space Station Freedom run the gamut from small process oriented experiments to full exploratory development models. A sampling of typical engineering experiments are discussed in this session. First and foremost, Space Station Freedom is an elaborate experiment itself, which, if properly instrumented, will provide engineering guidelines for even larger structures which must surely be built if humankind is truly 'outward bound.' Secondly, there is the test, evaluation and space qualification of advanced electric thruster concepts, advanced power technology and protective coatings which must of necessity be tested in the vacuum of space. The current approach to testing these technologies is to do exhaustive laboratory simulation followed by shuttle or unmanned flights. Third, the advanced development models of life support systems intended for future space stations, manned mars missions, and lunar colonies can be tested for operation in a low gravity environment. Fourth, it will be necessary to develop new protective coatings, establish construction techniques, evaluate new materials to be used in the upgrading and repair of Space Station Freedom. Finally, the industrial sector, if it is ever to build facilities for the production of commercial products, must have all the engineering aspects of the process evaluated in space prior to a commitment to such a facility.

  4. Integrative Leadership in Higher Education: Meeting the Needs of Student Veterans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Earls, Jamie Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Since the attacks on September 11, 2001, over two million men and women have deployed as part of Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF), Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF), and Operation New Dawn (OND). In 2011 there were more than half a million veterans of OEF/OIF enrolled in college. Soldiers face many issues when returning home from war. This qualitative…

  5. The Transfer Veteran Student Experience: Exploring College Choice, Transition, and Collegiate Experiences of Veterans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunklin, Shaftone B.

    2012-01-01

    The tragic series of events that took place on September 11, 2001, changed the course of this nation and became the catalyst for wars that have spanned for more than a decade. As a result, over 2 million veterans have been deployed in support of Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF), Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF), and Operation New Dawn. In 2008,…

  6. TROUBLE 3: A fault diagnostic expert system for Space Station Freedom's power system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manner, David B.

    1990-01-01

    Designing Space Station Freedom has given NASA many opportunities to develop expert systems that automate onboard operations of space based systems. One such development, TROUBLE 3, an expert system that was designed to automate the fault diagnostics of Space Station Freedom's electric power system is described. TROUBLE 3's design is complicated by the fact that Space Station Freedom's power system is evolving and changing. TROUBLE 3 has to be made flexible enough to handle changes with minimal changes to the program. Three types of expert systems were studied: rule-based, set-covering, and model-based. A set-covering approach was selected for TROUBLE 3 because if offered the needed flexibility that was missing from the other approaches. With this flexibility, TROUBLE 3 is not limited to Space Station Freedom applications, it can easily be adapted to handle any diagnostic system.

  7. Temperature and frequency effects on the electric conductivity of X% Al2O3 powder extracted from Iraqi kaolin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karim, A. S.

    2015-03-01

    Samples containing X% of Al2O3 (X =17.85, 28.05, 87.98 and 95.63) were prepared from Iraqi kaolin through calcinations process, by the method of evaporation. Electrical conductivity on as prepared and annealed samples at 1200°C were performed in the temperature range (30 - 115°C) and with applied frequencies from (10 KHz to 1MHz). The electrical conductivity increased with the increase of temperature for all investigated samples except 17.8%Al2O3. From the electrical conductivity curves, activation energies are obtained with the assumption of Arrhenius behavior over the entire temperature range from (30 to 110°C).

  8. Academic Freedom in the Middle and Secondary School Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Daniel E.; Garrett, Jack A.

    2005-01-01

    The freedom to pursue intellectual inquiries wherever they might lead and the freedom to give expression to one's views, whatever they might be, are crucial for the intellectual health of educational institutions. But while those who teach zealously defend their own academic freedom, they sometimes overlook the fact that academic freedom is just…

  9. 7 CFR 52.808 - Freedom from defects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Freedom from defects. 52.808 Section 52.808... Quality § 52.808 Freedom from defects. (a) General. The factor of freedom from defects refers to the degree of freedom from harmless extraneous material, mutilated cherries, and cherries blemished by...

  10. Institutional Academic Freedom vs. Faculty Academic Freedom in Public Colleges and Universities: A Dubious Dichotomy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hiers, Richard H.

    2002-01-01

    Analyzes the origins of recent federal appellate decisions' divergence from the Supreme Court's identification of teachers' or faculty's academic freedom as "a special concern of the First Amendment." Suggests ways in which academic freedom might better be accorded its rightful importance within the framework of current Supreme Court First…

  11. Religious Freedom in the World: A Global Comparative Survey Sponsored by Freedom House.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Educator, 2001

    2001-01-01

    Summarizes findings from a report on religious freedom around the world created by a multidisciplinary, multi-religious group of international scholars, explaining that this basic human right is under assault in many areas. Presents descriptions of religious freedom in Russia, India, North Korea, and Sudan. A chart describes and rates religious…

  12. Recent progress in utilization planning for Space Station Freedom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bartoe, John-David F.; Thiringer, Peter S.

    1991-01-01

    The progress made in utilization planning for the redesigned Space Station Freedom (SSF) concept is described. Consideration is given to the SSF user capabilities, the strategic planning process, the strategic planning organizations, and the Consolidated Operations and Utilization Plan (COUP, which will be released in January 1993) as well as to the COUP development process and implementation. The process by which the COUP will be produced was exercised in the international Multilateral Strategic and Tactical Integration Process (MUSTIP) simulation. The paper describes the MUSTIP simulation and its activities along with MUSTIP findings and recommendations.

  13. Automation of vehicle processing at Space Station Freedom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vargo, Rick; Sklar, Mike; Wegerif, Dan

    1991-02-01

    A methodology for applying the Kennedy Space Center vehicle processing experience to similar operations at Space Station Freedom is described. First, the required on-orbit processing tasks are identified. These tasks are then evaluated for automation suitability, and robotic manipulator and artificial intelligence technologies are investigated to automate selected physical and cognitive tasks. Effects on processing times, extra-vehicular activity savings, and required resources for incorporating these automation enhancements are identified. Results of the following case studies are included: Phobos Gateway Vehicle On-Orbit Assembly and Launch, Lunar Evolution Vehicle On-Orbit Refurbishment, and Mars Mission Vehicle On-Orbit Assembly and Launch.

  14. Automation of vehicle processing at Space Station Freedom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vargo, Rick; Sklar, Mike; Wegerif, Dan

    1991-01-01

    A methodology for applying the Kennedy Space Center vehicle processing experience to similar operations at Space Station Freedom is described. First, the required on-orbit processing tasks are identified. These tasks are then evaluated for automation suitability, and robotic manipulator and artificial intelligence technologies are investigated to automate selected physical and cognitive tasks. Effects on processing times, extra-vehicular activity savings, and required resources for incorporating these automation enhancements are identified. Results of the following case studies are included: Phobos Gateway Vehicle On-Orbit Assembly and Launch, Lunar Evolution Vehicle On-Orbit Refurbishment, and Mars Mission Vehicle On-Orbit Assembly and Launch.

  15. Six degrees of freedom vibration isolation using electromagnetic suspension

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Sang-Il; Debra, Daniel B.; Michelson, Peter F.; Taber, Robert C.; Price, John C.

    1993-01-01

    Experimental data are presented for modeling an electromagnet. Control laws are considered with and without flux feedback and with position and orientation information of the suspended body. Base motion and sensor noise are the principal disturbances. Proper selection of the geometrical operating point minimizes the passive coupling above the bandwidth of the control and filtering can attenuate the high frequency content of sensor noise. Six electromagnets are arranged in a configuration which optimizes the load support and provides control over all six degrees of freedom of the suspended body. The design is based on experimental data generated with a specially designed test facility. Application for suspension of a gravity wave antenna is discussed.

  16. Impact of interpretation on associative freedom.

    PubMed

    Spence, D P; Dahl, H; Jones, E E

    1993-06-01

    Seventy hours from the psychoanalytic case of Mrs. C, covering the full course of treatment, were scored for associative freedom, number of interventions, and a variety of clinical phenomena such as clarifications, interpretations, different forms of resistance, transference manifestations, and the like. Associative freedom significantly increased over the course of treatment and was significantly related to the number of analyst interventions per hour. The relationship was particularly strong in the latter stages of treatment. Three specific types of interventions were found to increase associative freedom in the latter stages of treatment. The effect of each type was found to influence both the session containing the interpretation and the next 3 sessions. This carryover effect was specific to the latter stages of the analysis. PMID:8326039

  17. Academic freedom: history, constraints, and recommendations for nursing education.

    PubMed

    Sheehe, J B

    1994-01-01

    Nurse faculty members may have a limited awareness of the rights and responsibilities inherent in academic freedom. The author explores the development of academic freedom and those practices in nursing education that have limited nurse educators' academic freedom. Rights and responsibilities of and for faculty and students and constraints to academic freedom are examined. The article closes with recommendations that will help ensure increased awareness of and adherence to the rights and responsibilities of academic freedom.

  18. AIDS and the future of reproductive freedom.

    PubMed

    Bayer, Ronald

    1990-01-01

    The specter of pediatric AIDS fundamentally challenges elements of the liberal ideological basis of women's reproductive freedom. Many public health officials hold that preventing transmission of HIV from mother to fetus requires efforts to discourage pregnancy by infected women. For over two decades, however, genetic counselors, feminists, and medical ethicists have stressed the importance of nondirective counseling in the context of reproductive choice. The question now confronted by American society is whether it will be possible to frame an ideology of reproductive choice that recognizes the limits of liberal individualism, while preserving the basic features of reproductive freedom.

  19. Lens positioner with five degrees of freedom

    DOEpatents

    Kobierecki, Marian W.; Rienecker, Jr., Frederick

    1978-01-01

    A device for positioning lenses precisely with five degrees of freedom (three translations and two angular rotations). The unique features of the device are its compact design, large clear aperture, and high degree of positioning accuracy combined with five degrees of freedom in axis motion. Thus, the device provides precision and flexibility in positioning of optical components. BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION The invention described herein was made in the course of, or under, Contract No. AT(29-1)-1183, with the United States Energy Research and Development Administration.

  20. Spacetime thermodynamics without hidden degrees of freedom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chirco, Goffredo; Haggard, Hal M.; Riello, Aldo; Rovelli, Carlo

    2014-08-01

    A celebrated result by Jacobson is the derivation of Einstein's equations from Unruh's temperature, the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy and the Clausius relation. This has been repeatedly taken as evidence for an interpretation of Einstein's equations as equations of state for unknown degrees of freedom underlying the metric. We show that a different interpretation of Jacobson's result is possible, which does not imply the existence of additional degrees of freedom, and follows only from the quantum properties of gravity. We introduce the notion of quantum gravitational Hadamard states, which give rise to the full local thermodynamics of gravity.

  1. Asymptocic Freedom of Gluons in Hamiltonian Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gómez-Rocha, María; Głazek, Stanisław D.

    2016-07-01

    We derive asymptotic freedom of gluons in terms of the renormalized SU(3) Yang-Mills Hamiltonian in the Fock space. Namely, we use the renormalization group procedure for effective particles to calculate the three-gluon interaction term in the front-form Yang-Mills Hamiltonian using a perturbative expansion in powers of g up to third order. The resulting three-gluon vertex is a function of the scale parameter s that has an interpretation of the size of effective gluons. The corresponding Hamiltonian running coupling constant exhibits asymptotic freedom, and the corresponding Hamiltonian {β} -function coincides with the one obtained in an earlier calculation using a different generator.

  2. Academic freedom, public reactions, and anonymity.

    PubMed

    Häyry, Matti

    2014-05-01

    Academic freedom can be defined as immunity against adverse reactions from the general public, designed to keep scholars unintimidated and productive even after they have published controversial ideas. Francesca Minerva claims that this notion of strict instrumental academic freedom is supported by Ronald Dworkin, and that anonymity would effectively defend the sphere of immunity implied by it. Against this, I argue that the idea defended by Minerva finds no support in the work by Dworkin referred to; that anonymity would not in most cases effectively protect the kind of immunity sought after; and that in some cases it would not even be desirable to protect scholars from public reactions to their controversial claims.

  3. Space Station Freedom - Configuration management approach to supporting concurrent engineering and total quality management. [for NASA Space Station Freedom Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gavert, Raymond B.

    1990-01-01

    Some experiences of NASA configuration management in providing concurrent engineering support to the Space Station Freedom program for the achievement of life cycle benefits and total quality are discussed. Three change decision experiences involving tracing requirements and automated information systems of the electrical power system are described. The potential benefits of concurrent engineering and total quality management include improved operational effectiveness, reduced logistics and support requirements, prevention of schedule slippages, and life cycle cost savings. It is shown how configuration management can influence the benefits attained through disciplined approaches and innovations that compel consideration of all the technical elements of engineering and quality factors that apply to the program development, transition to operations and in operations. Configuration management experiences involving the Space Station program's tiered management structure, the work package contractors, international partners, and the participating NASA centers are discussed.

  4. Nationality, Gender, Age, and Body Mass Index Influences on Vitamin D Concentration among Elderly Patients and Young Iraqi and Jordanian in Jordan

    PubMed Central

    Al-Horani, Hanan; Abu Dayyih, Wael; Mallah, Eyad; Hamad, Mohammed; Mima, Mohammad; Awad, Riad; Arafat, Tawfiq

    2016-01-01

    Vitamin D is necessary for maintaining and regulating calcium levels; thus, insufficiency of vitamin D increases the risk of many chronic diseases. This study aimed to examine vitamin D levels among Jordanian and Iraqi volunteers and find the relation between vitamin D level and lipid profile patients. Vitamin D levels were evaluated using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. For young healthy group subjects, vitamin D levels were 20.60 ± 5.94 ng/mL for Jordanian and 27.59 ± 7.74 ng/mL for Iraqi. Vitamin D concentrations for young males and females were 25.82 ± 8.33 ng/mL and 21.95 ± 6.39 ng/mL, respectively. Females wearing hijab were 20.87 ± 6.45 ng/mL, while uncovered females were 23.55 ± 6.04 ng/mL. For >40 years Iraqi subjects, vitamin D level for healthy was 29.78 ± 9.49 ng/mL and 23.88 ± 7.93 ng/mL for hyperlipidemic subjects. Vitamin D levels for overweight and obese healthy groups were significantly higher (P < 0.050) than those for the hyperlipidemic patients groups. Vitamin D levels for males were significantly higher than females and were significantly higher for healthy than those hyperlipidemic Iraqi patients. These findings showed that vitamin D levels are affected by age, nationality, gender, and health statues and highlight the importance of vitamin D supplementation for groups with low levels particularly old, hijab wearing females, and hyperlipidemic groups. PMID:27110402

  5. Academic Freedom: Problems in Conceptualization and Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdel Latif, Muhammad M. M.

    2014-01-01

    Academic freedom is of central importance to higher education and it affects all aspects of work at universities. It symbolizes academics' acceptance of the need for openness and flexibility (Balyer, 2011) and it protects the conditions leading to the creation of good teaching and learning, sound research, and scholarship (Atkinson, 2004).…

  6. Freedom or Structure: One Teacher's Journey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stern, David

    2000-01-01

    Children are unique. They need different things at different times. Parents and educators should listen thoughtfully to children to determine how best to support them. Describes how a New Hampshire Quaker boarding school implements a thoughtful mix of direction and freedom based on participatory decision making and listening. "Clearness meetings"…

  7. Intellectual Freedom and Censorship: An Annotated Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffmann, Frank

    Intended to act as a general introduction for high school and college students, this book presents an annotated bibliography of books, periodical articles, legal materials, and other documents dealing with the subject of intellectual freedom and censorship. The book is divided into five parts: (1) "The Theoretical Foundations of Censorship and…

  8. 76 FR 70631 - World Freedom Day, 2011

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-14

    ... heralded a new era in Europe and around the world. Today, we once again find ourselves at a crossroads of... November 14, 2011 Part III The President Proclamation 8752--World Freedom Day, 2011 #0; #0; #0... / Presidential Documents#0;#0; #0; #0;Title 3-- #0;The President ] Proclamation 8752 of November 8, 2011...

  9. Freedom of Expression in Elementary School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zirkel, Perry A.

    2003-01-01

    Uses question and answer format to discuss scope of elementary students' First Amendment freedom of expression rights. For example, does the First Amendment prevent the disciplining of a sixth grader for writing a sexually inappropriate remark in another student's notebook? Answer: No. (Contains 13 references.) (PKP)

  10. Collaboratively Teaching Intellectual Freedom to Education Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Nadean; Bradley, Darcy

    2013-01-01

    Together an education librarian and education professor developed a series of exercises for education students about intellectual freedom and book challenges. The resources are primarily online and they progressively work from book censorship cases and concerns to handling book challenges proactively through discussions, activities, and role…

  11. Hannah Arendt and the "Freedom" to Think

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Marie

    2016-01-01

    Dissatisfied with the Western tradition of political philosophy, Arendt maintained a tension between the political, which she associates primarily with the freedom to act, and the philosophical, which she associates principally with the activity of thinking, throughout her works. Whilst Arendt's work is underpinned by a focus on political action,…

  12. Professors' Freedoms under Assault in the Courts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Recent court rulings have challenged the long-held concept of academic freedom for faculty members. As an associate professor of mechanical engineering at the University of Wisconsin at Milwaukee, Kevin J. Renken says he felt obliged to speak out about his belief that administrators there were mishandling a National Science Foundation grant to him…

  13. Freedom Train: Building an Underground Railroad.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hickman, Wayne

    1999-01-01

    Describes an activity called the "Freedom Train": a simulation for eighth grade students that enables them to gain an understanding of the importance and dangers of the Underground Railroad. Explains that the project encourages students to work cooperatively while also reinforcing their research and map skills. Provides follow-up activities. (CMK)

  14. Freedom of Speech Newsletter, May 1976.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Winfred G., Jr., Ed.

    This issue of the "Freedom of Speech Newsletter" contains three articles. "Big Brother, 1976--Judges and the Gag Order" by Miles Clark examines constitutional censorship of the media and government secrecy. "Democratic Rights: A Socialist View" by Kipp Dawson argues that "the rulers of the United States have never granted the American people any…

  15. 75 FR 3843 - Religious Freedom Day, 2010

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-22

    ... States of America the two hundred and thirty-fourth. (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc. 2010-1369 Filed 1-21-10... Documents#0;#0; ] Proclamation 8474 of January 15, 2010 Religious Freedom Day, 2010 By the President of the... diversity is built upon a rich tradition of religious tolerance. On this day, we commemorate an...

  16. 78 FR 4293 - Religious Freedom Day, 2013

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-22

    ... Independence of the United States of America the two hundred and thirty- seventh. (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc... Day, 2013 By the President of the United States of America A Proclamation Foremost among the rights... observe Religious Freedom Day, let us remember the legacy of faith and independence we have inherited,...

  17. Freedom Road: Adult Education of African Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Elizabeth A., Ed.

    This book contains six chapters by various authors about the history of African Americans' contributions and participation in adult education. The book reports on how some African American leaders saw the connection between education and the eventual freedom or uplift of the African American people. Following a foreword (Phyllis M. Cunningham) and…

  18. Oregon Intellectual Freedom Clearinghouse: Third Annual Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oregon State Library, Salem. Intellectual Freedom Clearinghouse.

    The Oregon Intellectual Freedom Clearinghouse received reports of formal challenges to 25 books and 1 recording during the time period between July 1, 1989, and June 30, 1990. It is noted that 17 of the challenged items were held by public libraries and 9 by school library media centers, with 21 items designated as children's and young adult…

  19. Wilderness And Individual Freedom. Conference Proceedings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oregon Univ., Eugene.

    A fundamental statement of the only philosophy that can really lead to protection of wild lands emerged from the proceedings of the March, 1976 Wilderness and Individual Freedom Conference--there must be more citizen participation in wilderness decisions because there is a great diversity of wilderness users and because we cannot separate what…

  20. The Struggle for Black Freedom before Emancipation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Durrill, Wayne K.

    1993-01-01

    Argues that the struggle of black slaves seeking their own freedom prior to the Emancipation Proclamation has been ignored by historians. Recounts several incidents of North Carolina slaves and slave families. Asserts that these efforts are only beginning to receive appropriate treatment by historians. (CFR)

  1. Freedom of the Press: Foundations and Attitudes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibson, Martin Leroy, Jr.

    This study reports the results of a national survey of the attitudes of five demographic groups toward freedom of the press. The groups are newsmen, state legislators, high school teachers, high school students, and the general public. The survey is broken into two parts, the first dealing with general principles (e.g., support for a law against…

  2. Milton's "Areopagitica" Freedom of Speech on Campus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Daniel F.

    2006-01-01

    The author discusses the content in John Milton's "Areopagitica: A Speech for the Liberty of Unlicensed Printing to the Parliament of England" (1985) and provides parallelism to censorship practiced in higher education. Originally published in 1644, "Areopagitica" makes a powerful--and precocious--argument for freedom of speech and against…

  3. Multiple degree of freedom optical pattern recognition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Casasent, D.

    1987-01-01

    Three general optical approaches to multiple degree of freedom object pattern recognition (where no stable object rest position exists) are advanced. These techniques include: feature extraction, correlation, and artificial intelligence. The details of the various processors are advanced together with initial results.

  4. Academic Freedom, Achievement Standards and Professional Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sadler, D. Royce

    2011-01-01

    The tension between the freedom of academics to grade the achievements of their students without interference or coercion and the prerogative of higher education institutions to control grading standards is often deliberated by weighing up the authority and rights of the two parties. An alternative approach is to start with an analysis of the…

  5. Depression and Participation in Athletics among Military-Dependent High School Athletes during War

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madler, Gerald L.

    2009-01-01

    This applied research study investigated depressive symptoms in military-dependent high school athletes vs. non-athletes who have a parent on active duty during Operation Iraqi Freedom/Operation Enduring Freedom. The sample consisted of 332 adolescents who either did or did not participate in athletic activities and either did or did not have a…

  6. The Role of Psychological Symptomatology and Social Support in the Academic Adjustment of Previously Deployed Student Veterans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Robyn; Riggs, Shelley A.

    2015-01-01

    Context: Research has indicated that returning Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom (OEF/OIF) veterans are experiencing mental health concerns following deployment. Increasing numbers of veterans are enrolling in higher education institutions; there is a scarcity of empirical research investigating student veterans' experiences as…

  7. Invisible Wounds: Serving Service Members and Veterans with PTSD and TBI

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Council on Disability, 2009

    2009-01-01

    More than 1.6 million American service members have deployed to Iraq and Afghanistan in Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF) and Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF). As of December 2008, more than 4,000 troops have been killed and over 30,000 have returned from a combat zone with visible wounds and a range of permanent disabilities. In addition, an…

  8. Transformations: Working with Veterans in the Composition Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leonhardy, Galen

    2009-01-01

    Veterans make up a fair number of potential students. It is important to understand them, even if teachers do not agree with the politics of the War on Terror, Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF), or Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF). In working with the veterans at Black Hawk College and other two-year and four-year institutions, the author has learned…

  9. Proposed ground-based control of accelerometer on Space Station Freedom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delombard, Richard

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes the innovative control of an accelerometer to support the needs of the scientists operating science experiments that are on-board Space Station Freedom (SSF). Accelerometers in support of science experiments on the shuttle have typically been passive, record-only devices that present data only after the mission or that present limited data to the crew or ground operators during the mission. With the advent of science experiment operations on SSF, the principal investigators will need microgravity acceleration data during, as well as after, experiment operations. Because their data requirements may change during the experiment operations, the principal investigators will be allocated some control of accelerometer parameters. This paper summarizes the general-purpose Space Acceleration Measurement System (SAMS) operation that supports experiments on the shuttle and describes the control of the SAMS for Space Station Freedom. Emphasis is placed on the proposed ground-based control of the accelerometer by the principal investigators.

  10. Technology planning for long range utilization of Space Station Freedom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahlf, P.; Volosin, J.

    Over the course of the operational life of Space Station Freedom (SSF), technologies used for spacecraft design and use will advance. In some cases, such as data management, components or systems initially incorporated in the design may become obsolete in a relatively short period of time. In order to assure that SSF can benefit from new technologies, beneficial technologies must be identified, development of beneficial technologies must be tracked and advocated where appropriate, the design must accommodate technology upgrades, and a process for transferring technologies into the flight program must be implemented. The NASA Office of Space Flight, in coordination with the SSF program, has developed a consolidated listing of high priority technology requirements in support of overall Agency technology development planning. Included in this list are technologies which support increased utilization of SSF, enhance crew safety or productivity, or reduce operations costs. Efforts to ensure development of these technologies have begun, and a mechanism for technology transfer has been developed.

  11. Trans Fat Bans and Human Freedom

    PubMed Central

    Resnik, David

    2014-01-01

    A growing body of evidence has linked consumption of trans fatty acids to cardiovascular disease. To promote public health, numerous state and local governments in the United States have banned the use of artificial trans fats in restaurant foods, and additional bans may follow. Although these policies may have a positive impact on human health, they open the door to excessive government control over food, which could restrict dietary choices, interfere with cultural, ethnic, and religious traditions, and exacerbate socioeconomic inequalities. These slippery slope concerns cannot be dismissed as far-fetched, because the social and political pressures are place to induce additional food regulations. To protect human freedom and other values, policies that significantly restrict food choices, such as bans on types of food, should be adopted only when they are supported by substantial scientific evidence, and when policies that impose fewer restrictions on freedom, such as educational campaigns and product labeling, are likely to be ineffective. PMID:20229412

  12. Academic freedom, public reactions, and anonymity.

    PubMed

    Häyry, Matti

    2014-05-01

    Academic freedom can be defined as immunity against adverse reactions from the general public, designed to keep scholars unintimidated and productive even after they have published controversial ideas. Francesca Minerva claims that this notion of strict instrumental academic freedom is supported by Ronald Dworkin, and that anonymity would effectively defend the sphere of immunity implied by it. Against this, I argue that the idea defended by Minerva finds no support in the work by Dworkin referred to; that anonymity would not in most cases effectively protect the kind of immunity sought after; and that in some cases it would not even be desirable to protect scholars from public reactions to their controversial claims. PMID:24724541

  13. Space Station Freedom capabilities for users

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, William W. L.; Snyder, Robert S.; Willenberg, Harvey J.

    1991-01-01

    Space Station Freedom's major objectives are to prepare for human space exploration by providing a long-duration, continuously habitable spacecraft in low earth orbit for physiology studies and for development of systems to support human presence in space and to enable laboratory and observational research in space. As a result of restructuring and the preliminary design review, designs of Space Station Freedom architecture and systems have progressed to the point where the accommodations for users can be well described. These capabilities are enumerated, covering such important resources as power and cooling, rack volume and external accommodations, crew time, data and command rates, and acceleration environment. Related items such as total energy, data management systems, and interfaces, station attitude, payload transportation, and on board and ground facilities are considered.

  14. Modelling early failures in Space Station Freedom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Navard, Sharon E.

    1993-01-01

    A major problem encountered in planning for Space Station Freedom is the amount of maintenance that will be required. To predict the failure rates of components and systems aboard Space Station Freedom, the logical approach is to use data obtained from previously flown spacecraft. In order to determine the mechanisms that are driving the failures, models can be proposed, and then checked to see if they adequately fit the observed failure data obtained from a large variety of satellites. For this particular study, failure data and truncation times were available for satellites launched between 1976 and 1984; no data past 1984 was available. The study was limited to electrical subsystems and assemblies, which were studied to determine if they followed a model resulting from a mixture of exponential distributions.

  15. Oregon Intellectual Freedom Clearinghouse Annual Report. May 1987-June 30, 1988.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oregon State Library, Salem. Intellectual Freedom Clearinghouse.

    Established in May 1987 by the Oregon State Library to serve as a central clearinghouse for the collection of reports about challenges against library materials, the Oregon Intellectual Freedom Clearinghouse received a total of 17 formal challenges against library materials during its first year of operation. Of these, 10 challenges were received…

  16. Oregon Intellectual Freedom Clearinghouse. Second Annual Report, July 1, 1988-June 30, 1989.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oregon State Library, Salem. Intellectual Freedom Clearinghouse.

    Challenges against library materials that were reported to the Oregon Intellectual Freedom Clearinghouse by Oregon libraries during its second full year of operation totalled 34 books, 13 of which were owned by public libraries and 21 by school libraries. The first challenge against an art exhibit in a public library was also reported. In 25 of…

  17. Non-Governmental Religious Schools in Europe: Institutional Opportunities, Associational Freedoms, and Contemporary Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maussen, Marcel; Bader, Veit

    2015-01-01

    The European Convention on Human Rights guarantees freedom of education, including opportunities to create and operate faith-based schools. But as European societies become religiously more diverse and "less religious" at the same time, the role of religious schools increasingly is being contested. Serious tensions have emerged between…

  18. Freedom of Information Act-Employee responsibilities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Newman, David J.

    2012-01-01

    The Freedom of Information Act( FOIA), 5 U.S.C. § 552, as amended, generally provides that any person has a right to request access to Federal agency records. The USGS proactively promotes information disclosure as inherent to its mission of providing objective science to inform decisionmakers and the general public. USGS scientists disseminate up-to-date and historical scientific data that are critical to addressing national and global priorities.

  19. Coping with data from Space Station Freedom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Marjory J.

    1991-01-01

    The volume of data from future NASA space missions will be phenomenal. Here, we examine the expected data flow from the Space Station Freedom and describe techniques that are being developed to transport and process that data. Networking in space, the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS), recommendations of the Consultative Committee for Space Data systems (CCSDS), NASA institutional ground support, communications system architecture, and principal data types and formats are discussed.

  20. Microbiology facilities aboard Space Station Freedom (SSF)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cioletti, L. A.; Mishra, S. K.; Richard, Elizabeth E.; Taylor, R.

    1990-01-01

    A comprehensive microbiological facility is being designed for use on board Space Station Freedom (SSF). Its purpose will be to conduct microbial surveillance of the SSF environment and to examine clinical specimens. Air, water, and internal surfaces will be periodically monitored to satisfy requirements for a safe environment. Crew health will remain a principle objective for every mission. This paper will review the Microbiology Subsystem capabilities planned for SSF application.

  1. Space Station Freedom Utilization Conference. Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    The Space Station Freedom Utilization Conference was held on 3-6 Aug. 1992 in Huntsville, Alabama. The purpose of the conference was to bring together prospective space station researchers and the people in NASA and industry with whom they would be working to exchange information and discuss plans and opportunities for space station research. Topics covered include: research capabilities; research plans and opportunities; life sciences research; technology research; and microgravity research and biotechnology.

  2. Space Station Freedom pressurized element interior design process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hopson, George D.; Aaron, John; Grant, Richard L.

    1990-01-01

    The process used to develop the on-orbit working and living environment of the Space Station Freedom has some very unique constraints and conditions to satisfy. The goal is to provide maximum efficiency and utilization of the available space, in on-orbit, zero G conditions that establishes a comfortable, productive, and safe working environment for the crew. The Space Station Freedom on-orbit living and working space can be divided into support for three major functions: (1) operations, maintenance, and management of the station; (2) conduct of experiments, both directly in the laboratories and remotely for experiments outside the pressurized environment; and (3) crew related functions for food preparation, housekeeping, storage, personal hygiene, health maintenance, zero G environment conditioning, and individual privacy, and rest. The process used to implement these functions, the major requirements driving the design, unique considerations and constraints that influence the design, and summaries of the analysis performed to establish the current configurations are described. Sketches and pictures showing the layout and internal arrangement of the Nodes, U.S. Laboratory and Habitation modules identify the current design relationships of the common and unique station housekeeping subsystems. The crew facilities, work stations, food preparation and eating areas (galley and wardroom), and exercise/health maintenance configurations, waste management and personal hygiene area configuration are shown. U.S. Laboratory experiment facilities and maintenance work areas planned to support the wide variety and mixtures of life science and materials processing payloads are described.

  3. System performance predictions for Space Station Freedom's electric power system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerslake, Thomas W.; Hojnicki, Jeffrey S.; Green, Robert D.; Follo, Jeffrey C.

    1993-01-01

    Space Station Freedom Electric Power System (EPS) capability to effectively deliver power to housekeeping and user loads continues to strongly influence Freedom's design and planned approaches for assembly and operations. The EPS design consists of silicon photovoltaic (PV) arrays, nickel-hydrogen batteries, and direct current power management and distribution hardware and cabling. To properly characterize the inherent EPS design capability, detailed system performance analyses must be performed for early stages as well as for the fully assembled station up to 15 years after beginning of life. Such analyses were repeatedly performed using the FORTRAN code SPACE (Station Power Analysis for Capability Evaluation) developed at the NASA Lewis Research Center over a 10-year period. SPACE combines orbital mechanics routines, station orientation/pointing routines, PV array and battery performance models, and a distribution system load-flow analysis to predict EPS performance. Time-dependent, performance degradation, low earth orbit environmental interactions, and EPS architecture build-up are incorporated in SPACE. Results from two typical SPACE analytical cases are presented: (1) an electric load driven case and (2) a maximum EPS capability case.

  4. Space Station Freedom solar array panels plasma interaction test facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, Donald F.; Mellott, Kenneth D.

    1989-01-01

    The Space Station Freedom Power System will make extensive use of photovoltaic (PV) power generation. The phase 1 power system consists of two PV power modules each capable of delivering 37.5 KW of conditioned power to the user. Each PV module consists of two solar arrays. Each solar array is made up of two solar blankets. Each solar blanket contains 82 PV panels. The PV power modules provide a 160 V nominal operating voltage. Previous research has shown that there are electrical interactions between a plasma environment and a photovoltaic power source. The interactions take two forms: parasitic current loss (occurs when the currect produced by the PV panel leaves at a high potential point and travels through the plasma to a lower potential point, effectively shorting that portion of the PV panel); and arcing (occurs when the PV panel electrically discharges into the plasma). The PV solar array panel plasma interaction test was conceived to evaluate the effects of these interactions on the Space Station Freedom type PV panels as well as to conduct further research. The test article consists of two active solar array panels in series. Each panel consists of two hundred 8 cm x 8 cm silicon solar cells. The test requirements dictated specifications in the following areas: plasma environment/plasma sheath; outgassing; thermal requirements; solar simulation; and data collection requirements.

  5. Re-Framing Student Academic Freedom: A Capability Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macfarlane, Bruce

    2012-01-01

    The scholarly debate about academic freedom focuses almost exclusively on the rights of academic faculty. Student academic freedom is rarely discussed and is normally confined to debates connected with the politicisation of the curriculum. Concerns about (student) freedom of speech reflect the dominant role of negative rights in the analysis of…

  6. Academic Freedom in Athletic Training Education: Food for Thought

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Payne, Ellen K.; Berry, David C.; Lowry, John E.

    2012-01-01

    Academic freedom is defined as the "freedom of the individual scholar to pursue truth wherever it leads, without fear of punishment or of termination of employment for having offended some political, methodological, religious, or social orthodoxy." Currently there is paucity of literature addressing the issue of academic freedom specific to…

  7. Zealotry and Academic Freedom: A Legal and Historical Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, Neil

    This book aims to explore academic freedom and the threats to it in higher education and among faculty, to present the history of academic freedom over the past 125 years, and to recommend measures to safeguard that freedom. The book argues that current academic zealots view the exercise of standards of academic quality and merit-based performance…

  8. Along Freedom's Double Edge: The Arab Press Under Israeli Occupation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nasser, Munir K.

    This paper examines the Arab press under Israeli occupation and presents two hypotheses: freedom of the press under occupation serves both Israeli interests and the Arab population, and freedom of the Arab press under occupation is "relative" and "controlled." By allowing freedom of expression, the Israelis achieve several aims: a free press will…

  9. John Stuart Mill on Freedom, Education, and Social Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carbone, Peter F.

    1983-01-01

    Examines the social philosophy of John Stuart Mill, emphasizing his views on freedom, education, and social reform. Considers Mill's individualism and reformism, the conflict between freedom and control that characterizes his work, and the importance of freedom and education. Suggests caution in drawing educational implications from his work. (DAB)

  10. Prevalence and gender differences in symptomatology of posttraumatic stress disorder and depression among Iraqi Yazidis displaced into Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Tekin, Atilla; Karadağ, Hekim; Süleymanoğlu, Metin; Tekin, Merve; Kayran, Yusuf; Alpak, Gökay; Şar, Vedat

    2016-01-01

    Background Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression are common among populations displaced due to large-scale political conflicts and war. Objective The aim of this study is to investigate the prevalence and gender-based differences in symptoms of PTSD and depression among Iraqi Yazidis displaced into Turkey. Method The study was conducted on 238 individuals who were evaluated using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV (SCID-I) and the Stressful Life Events Screening Questionnaire. Results Of the participants, 42.9% met the DSM-IV diagnostic criteria for PTSD, 39.5% for major depression, and 26.4% for both disorders. More women than men suffered from PTSD and major depression. More women than men with PTSD or depression reported having experienced or witnessed the death of a spouse or child. Women with PTSD reported flashbacks, hypervigilance, and intense psychological distress due to reminders of trauma more frequently than men. Men with PTSD reported feelings of detachment or estrangement from others more frequently than women. More depressive women than men reported feelings of guilt or worthlessness. Conclusions PTSD and major depression affected women more frequently than men. While women tended to respond to traumatic stress by undermodulation of emotions and low self-esteem, men tended to respond by overmodulation of emotions. Rather than being a derivative of sex differences, this complementary diversity in response types between genders seems to be shaped by social factors in consideration of survival under extreme threat. PMID:26886485

  11. The molecular genetic basis of Glanzmann thrombasthenia in the Iraqi-Jewish and Arab populations in Israel

    SciTech Connect

    Newman, P.J. Medical Coll. of Wisconsin, Milwaukee ); Seligsohn, U. ); Lyman, S. ); Coller, B.S. )

    1991-04-15

    Glanzmann thrombasthenia is an autosomal recessive bleeding disorder characterized by a decrease or absence of functional platelet glycoprotein (GP) IIb-IIIa ({alpha}{sub IIb}{beta}{sub 3}) integrin receptors. Although thrombasthenia is a rare disorder, its occurrence is increased in some regions of the world where intracommunity marriage and consanguinity are commonplace, resulting in increased expression of autosomal recessive traits. The authors have been studying two populations having an unusually high frequency of Glanzmann disease, Iraqi Jews and Arabs living in Israel, and were able to distinguish the populations on the basis of immunodetectable GPIIIa and populations on the basis of immunodetectable GPIIIa and platelet surface vitronectin receptor ({alpha}{sub v}{beta}{sub 3}) expression. In this article, they describe molecular genetic studies based on use of the PCR that have allowed us to characterize platelet mRNA sequences encoding GPIIb and GPIIIa from patients in these populations. These studies demonstrate the heterogeneity of Glanzmann thrombasthenia in different populations, and its homogeneity within geographically restricted populations, and offer insight into the requirements for integrin surface expression.

  12. Automating security monitoring and analysis for Space Station Freedom's electric power system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dolce, James L.; Sobajic, Dejan J.; Pao, Yoh-Han

    1990-01-01

    Operating a large, space power system requires classifying the system's status and analyzing its security. Conventional algorithms are used by terrestrial electric utilities to provide such information to their dispatchers, but their application aboard Space Station Freedom will consume too much processing time. A novel approach for monitoring and analysis using adaptive pattern techniques is presented. This approach yields an on-line security monitoring and analysis algorithm that is accurate and fast; and thus, it can free the Space Station Freedom's power control computers for other tasks.

  13. Automating security monitoring and analysis for Space Station Freedom's electric power system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dolce, James L.; Sobajic, Dejan J.; Pao, Yoh-Han

    1990-01-01

    Operating a large, space power system requires classifying the system's status and analyzing its security. Conventional algorithms are used by terrestrial electric utilities to provide such information to their dispatchers, but their application aboard Space Station Freedom will consume too much processing time. A new approach for monitoring and analysis using adaptive pattern techniques is presented. This approach yields an on-line security monitoring and analysis algorithm that is accurate and fast; and thus, it can free the Space Station Freedom's power control computers for other tasks.

  14. Fire safety practices in the Shuttle and the Space Station Freedom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friedman, Robert

    1993-01-01

    The Shuttle reinforces its policy of fire-preventive measures with onboard smoke detectors and Halon 1301 fire extinguishers. The forthcoming Space Station Freedom will have expanded fire protection with photoelectric smoke detectors, radiation flame detectors, and both fixed and portable carbon dioxide fire extinguishers. Many design and operational issues remain to be resolved for Freedom. In particular, the fire-suppression designs must consider the problems of gas leakage in toxic concentrations, alternative systems for single-failure redundancy, and commonality with the corresponding systems of the Freedom international partners. While physical and engineering requirements remain the primary driving forces for spacecraft fire-safety technology, there are, nevertheless, needs and opportunities for the application of microgravity combustion knowledge to improve and optimize the fire-protective systems.

  15. Fire safety practices in the Shuttle and the Space Station Freedom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedman, Robert

    1993-02-01

    The Shuttle reinforces its policy of fire-preventive measures with onboard smoke detectors and Halon 1301 fire extinguishers. The forthcoming Space Station Freedom will have expanded fire protection with photoelectric smoke detectors, radiation flame detectors, and both fixed and portable carbon dioxide fire extinguishers. Many design and operational issues remain to be resolved for Freedom. In particular, the fire-suppression designs must consider the problems of gas leakage in toxic concentrations, alternative systems for single-failure redundancy, and commonality with the corresponding systems of the Freedom international partners. While physical and engineering requirements remain the primary driving forces for spacecraft fire-safety technology, there are, nevertheless, needs and opportunities for the application of microgravity combustion knowledge to improve and optimize the fire-protective systems.

  16. Psychopathology, Iraq and Afghanistan Service, and Suicide among Veterans Health Administration Patients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ilgen, Mark A.; McCarthy, John F.; Ignacio, Rosalinda V.; Bohnert, Amy S. B.; Valenstein, Marcia; Blow, Frederic C.; Katz, Ira R.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Despite concerns regarding elevated psychiatric morbidity and suicide among veterans returning from Operations Enduring Freedom and Iraqi Freedom (OEF/OIF), little is known about the impact of psychiatric conditions on the risk of suicide in these veterans. To inform tailored suicide prevention efforts, it is important to assess…

  17. Psychological Traumas of War: Training School Counselors as Home-Front Responders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waliski, Angie; Kirchner, JoAnn E.; Shue, Valorie M.; Bokony, Patti A.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: With nearly 3 million US troops having deployed for Operations Enduring Freedom, Iraqi Freedom, and New Dawn (OEF/OIF/OND) since the conflicts began, an estimated 2 million children have been separated from a parent. This manuscript describes a collaborative project between a state's Veterans Healthcare System, a branch of the American…

  18. Space Station Freedom photovoltaic power module design status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jimenez, Amador P.; Hoberecht, Mark A.

    1989-01-01

    Electric power generation for the Space Station Freedom will be provided by four photovoltaic (PV) power modules using silicon solar cells during phase I operation. Each PV power module requires two solar arrays with 32,800 solar cells generating 18.75 kW of dc power for a total of 75 kW. A portion of this power will be stored in nickel-hydrogen batteries for use during eclipse, and the balance will be processed and converted to 20 kHz ac power for distribution to end users through the power management and distribution system. The design incorporates an optimized thermal control system, pointing and tracking provision with the application of gimbals, and the use of orbital replacement units to achieve modularization. The design status of the PV power module, as derived from major trade studies, is discussed at hardware levels ranging from component to system. Details of the design are presented where appropriate.

  19. Space Station Freedom photovoltaic power module design status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jimenez, Amador P.; Hoberecht, Mark A.

    1989-01-01

    Electric power generation for Space Station Freedom will be provided by four photovoltaic (PV) power modules using silicon solar cells during Phase 1 operation. Each PV power module requires two solar arrays with 32,800 solar cells generating 18.75 kW of dc power for a total of 75 kW. A portion of this power will be stored in nickel-hydrogen batteries for use during eclipse, and the balance will be processed and converted to 20 kHz ac power for distribution to end users through the power management and distribution system. The design incorporates an optimized thermal control system, pointing and tracking provision with the application of gimbals, and the use of orbital replacement units (ORU's) to achieve modularization. Design status of the PV power module, as derived from major trade studies, is discussed at hardware levels ranging from component to system. Details of the design are presented where appropriate.

  20. Quantum Computation Based on Photons with Three Degrees of Freedom.

    PubMed

    Luo, Ming-Xing; Li, Hui-Ran; Lai, Hong; Wang, Xiaojun

    2016-01-01

    Quantum systems are important resources for quantum computer. Different from previous encoding forms using quantum systems with one degree of freedom (DoF) or two DoFs, we investigate the possibility of photon systems encoding with three DoFs consisting of the polarization DoF and two spatial DoFs. By exploring the optical circular birefringence induced by an NV center in a diamond embedded in the photonic crystal cavity, we propose several hybrid controlled-NOT (hybrid CNOT) gates operating on the two-photon or one-photon system. These hybrid CNOT gates show that three DoFs may be encoded as independent qubits without auxiliary DoFs. Our result provides a useful way to reduce quantum simulation resources by exploring complex quantum systems for quantum applications requiring large qubit systems. PMID:27174302

  1. Solar array electrical performance assessment for Space Station Freedom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Bryan K.; Brisco, Holly

    1993-01-01

    Electrical power for Space Station Freedom will be generated by large photovoltaic arrays with a beginning of life power requirement of 30.8 kW per array. The solar arrays will operate in a Low Earth Orbit (LEO) over a design life of fifteen years. This paper provides an analysis of the predicted solar array electrical performance over the design life and presents a summary of supporting analysis and test data for the assigned model parameters and performance loss factors. Each model parameter and loss factor is assessed based upon program requirements, component analysis and test data to date. A description of the LMSC performance model future test plans and predicted performance ranges are also given.

  2. Using computer graphics to design Space Station Freedom viewing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldsberry, B. S.; Lippert, B. O.; Mckee, S. D.; Lewis, J. L., Jr.; Mount, F. E.

    1989-01-01

    An important aspect of planning for Space Station Freedom at the United States National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is the placement of the viewing windows and cameras for optimum crewmember use. Researchers and analysts are evaluating the placement options using a three-dimensional graphics program called PLAID. This program, developed at the NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC), is being used to determine the extent to which the viewing requirements for assembly and operations are being met. A variety of window placement options in specific modules are assessed for accessibility. In addition, window and camera placements are analyzed to insure that viewing areas are not obstructed by the truss assemblies, externally-mounted payloads, or any other station element. Other factors being examined include anthropometric design considerations, workstation interfaces, structural issues, and mechanical elements.

  3. Space Station Freedom - Initial plans for U.S. utilization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Epstein, Barry; Bosley, John J.

    1992-01-01

    NASA's utilization plans for the Space Station Freedom (SSF) are outlined with references to the Consolidated Operations and Utilization Plan (COUP) being developed to cover the first five years of the program. The SSF is described with particular attention given to the spacecraft capabilities, and initial long-term U.S. objectives are set forth with more immediate corresponding research areas. U.S. plans include research in microgravity, life sciences, and technology, and payload concepts are shown to be in development for each area. The SSF is expected to be a useful resource for: (1) commercial research on crystal growth; (2) investigations into physical and chemical processes in the microgravitational environment; and (3) technology studies relevant to the efficient exploitation of space. The NASA Partner Utilization Plan on which these observations are based is being prepared for incorporation into the SSF COUP.

  4. Solar array electrical performance assessment for Space Station Freedom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Bryan K.; Brisco, Holly

    1993-01-01

    Electrical power for Space Station Freedom will be generated by large Photovoltaic arrays with a beginning of life power requirement of 30.8 kW per array. The solar arrays will operate in a Low Earth Orbit (LEO) over a design life of fifteen years. This paper provides an analysis of the predicted solar array electrical performance over the design life and presents a summary of supporting analysis and test data for the assigned model parameters and performance loss factors. Each model parameter and loss factor is assessed based upon program requirements, component analysis, and test data to date. A description of the LMSC performance model, future test plans, and predicted performance ranges are also given.

  5. Quantum Computation Based on Photons with Three Degrees of Freedom

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Ming-Xing; Li, Hui-Ran; Lai, Hong; Wang, Xiaojun

    2016-01-01

    Quantum systems are important resources for quantum computer. Different from previous encoding forms using quantum systems with one degree of freedom (DoF) or two DoFs, we investigate the possibility of photon systems encoding with three DoFs consisting of the polarization DoF and two spatial DoFs. By exploring the optical circular birefringence induced by an NV center in a diamond embedded in the photonic crystal cavity, we propose several hybrid controlled-NOT (hybrid CNOT) gates operating on the two-photon or one-photon system. These hybrid CNOT gates show that three DoFs may be encoded as independent qubits without auxiliary DoFs. Our result provides a useful way to reduce quantum simulation resources by exploring complex quantum systems for quantum applications requiring large qubit systems. PMID:27174302

  6. Multimodal sensor controlled three Degree of Freedom transradial prosthesis.

    PubMed

    Ohnishi, Kengo; Morio, Toshiyuki; Takagi, Tomoo; Kajitani, Isamu

    2013-06-01

    This paper describes the basic concept of our multimodal sensor control system for 3-Degree-of-Freedom transradial prosthesis. The target of developing the controller is to reduce the mental effort of planning operating multiple joints in the conventional multifunctional myoelectric controller and reduce the compensating motion of conventional myoelectric prosthesis. An accelerometer is installed in the socket and the angles of the gravitational force are computed to drive the pronation/spination joint and the palmar flexion/dorsifelxion joint of the prosthesis. A threshold On/Off control using the posture information is implemented with the triggering of a co-contraction EMG signal. Through experiment with able-body subjects, we confirmed that this controller has a potential of reducing compensating shoulder movements for pick-raise-place tasks, when compared to the task conducted with conventional locked-wrist prostheses. Yet modification is required for stability. PMID:24187284

  7. Quantum Computation Based on Photons with Three Degrees of Freedom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Ming-Xing; Li, Hui-Ran; Lai, Hong; Wang, Xiaojun

    2016-05-01

    Quantum systems are important resources for quantum computer. Different from previous encoding forms using quantum systems with one degree of freedom (DoF) or two DoFs, we investigate the possibility of photon systems encoding with three DoFs consisting of the polarization DoF and two spatial DoFs. By exploring the optical circular birefringence induced by an NV center in a diamond embedded in the photonic crystal cavity, we propose several hybrid controlled-NOT (hybrid CNOT) gates operating on the two-photon or one-photon system. These hybrid CNOT gates show that three DoFs may be encoded as independent qubits without auxiliary DoFs. Our result provides a useful way to reduce quantum simulation resources by exploring complex quantum systems for quantum applications requiring large qubit systems.

  8. Commercial infrastructure participation in the Space Station Freedom program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watkins, Alison; Barquinero, Kevin

    1991-01-01

    The contribution of the private sector in developing the infrastructure for the Space Station Freedom (SSF) is analyzed, and approaches are proposed for initiating commercial infrastructural input. The opportunities for commercial infrastructure in the SSF program include power, transportation, and communication services that are ground-based and on-orbit. SSF commercial activities reduce NASA's up-front expenditures, expands the support base for the SSF, and creates new markets and technological possibilities for the private sector. NASA can identify opportunities for the SSF commercial infrastructure by: (1) receiving unsolicited proposals; (2) soliciting proposals for commercial development; and (3) soliciting proposals for commercial operation. Contributions to the SSF program from the private sector can enhance both the efficiency of the program itself and of the emerging space industry.

  9. Psychological health maintenance on Space Station Freedom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Santy, Patricia A.

    1990-01-01

    The scheduling of crew rotations at intervals of as much as 180 days on NASA's Space Station Freedom entails that the cumulative effects of psychological, emotional, and social stressors on astronauts be monitored. The Space Station's Health Maintenance Facility (HMF) will furnish preventive, diagnostic, and therapeutic assistance for significant psychiatric and interpersonal problems. Mental health professionals must be part of the team of medical personnel charged with facilitating the physiological and phychological transition from earth to space and back. An account is presently given of the critical factors to be addressed by HMF personnel on extended-duration missions.

  10. Two degree of freedom camera mount

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ambrose, Robert O. (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    A two degree of freedom camera mount. The camera mount includes a socket, a ball, a first linkage and a second linkage. The socket includes an interior surface and an opening. The ball is positioned within an interior of the socket. The ball includes a coupling point for rotating the ball relative to the socket and an aperture for mounting a camera. The first and second linkages are rotatably connected to the socket and slidably connected to the coupling point of the ball. Rotation of the linkages with respect to the socket causes the ball to rotate with respect to the socket.

  11. Space station freedom life sciences activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, G. R.

    1994-01-01

    Life sciences activities being planned for Space Station Freedom (SSF) as of Fall 1992 are discussed. Planning for these activities is ongoing. Therefore, this description should be viewed as indicative of the prevailing ideas at one particular time in the SSF development cycle. The proposed contributions of the Canadian Space Agency (CSN) the European Space Agency (ESA), Japan, and the United States are all discussed in detail. In each case, the life sciences goals, and the way in which each partner proposes to achieve their goals, are reviewed.

  12. Space Station Freedom common berthing mechanism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Illi, Erik

    1992-01-01

    The Common Berthing Mechanism (CBM) is a generic device used to join the pressurized elements of the Space Station Freedom (SSF) utilizing the Space Shuttle Orbiter Remote Manipulator System (SRMS) or the Space Station Remote Manipulator System (SSRMS). The two berthing halves, the active, and the passive, maintain a pressurized atmosphere to allow astronaut passage, as well as to provide a structural linkage between elements. The generic design of the CBM allows any Passive Berthing Mechanism to berth with any Active Berthing Mechanism, permitting a variety of pressurized module patterns to be built.

  13. Health economics: the end of clinical freedom?

    PubMed

    Williams, A

    1988-11-01

    A British professor of economics enters the debate within the medical profession over whether it is the doctor's duty to take costs into account when deciding what course of action to recommend for a patient. He surveys differing views on the subject, and concludes with an analysis of Raymond Hoffenberg's thesis in his book Clinical Freedom (London: Nuffield Provincial Hospitals Trust; 1987), and the presentation of Williams' own position that doctors have absorbed economic considerations within what they would still regard as their own clinical judgment rather than recognizing such economic considerations as an external responsibility to society. PMID:3144343

  14. An Unconventional Path Toward the Operational Leveraging of Research-Grade Environmental Satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, S.; Hawkins, J.; Turk, J.

    2007-12-01

    relegated to research-only pursuits suddenly became operationally viable for mission planning purposes. Through close coordination with Fleet Numerical Meteorology/Oceanography Center (FNMOC), NRL leveraged these NRTPE MODIS and other research satellite datasets to infuse unprecedented operational capabilities (e.g., dust detection, low clouds and fog, snow cover, natural color imagery)--making these and other products available on the 'Satellite Focus' secure internet web page at precisely the time of highest need. Post deployment reports from aircraft carrier groups engaged in Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF) and Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF) give testimony to the utility and impact of these resources. This paper describes the chain of events leading to an unlikely success story in the leveraging of research satellite data. Illustrative examples from Satellite Focus, as well as from the NexSat web page (public analog), are presented. The positive outcome of this activity suggests a new paradigm for future observing systems whereby operational utility is evaluated well in advance of their implementation on formal operational platforms. These demonstrations help users anticipate (and provide feedback to developers concerning) the capabilities and limitations of next-generation sensors--addressing in part the 'missing link' between higher-risk research sensors and tried-and-true (off the shelf) technology appropriate for operational systems.

  15. Radiological assessment for Space Station Freedom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Badhwar, Gautam D.; Hardy, Alva C.; Robbins, Donald E.; Atwell, William

    1993-01-01

    Circumstances have made it necessary to reassess the risks to Space Station Freedom crewmembers that arise from exposure to the space radiation environment. An option is being considered to place it in an orbit similar to that of the Russian Mir space station. This means it would be in a 51.6 deg inclination orbit instead of the previously planned 28.5 deg inclination orbit. A broad range of altitudes is still being considered, although the baseline is a 407 km orbit. In addition, recent data from the Japanese A-bomb survivors has made it necessary for NASA to have the exposure limits reviewed. Preliminary findings of the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements indicate that the limits must be significantly reduced. Finally, the Space Station will be a laboratory where effects of long-term zero gravity on human physiology will be studied in detail. It is possible that a few crewmembers will be assigned to as many as three 1-year missions. Thus, their accumulated exposure will exceed 1,000 days. Results of this radiation risk assessment for Space Station Freedom crewmembers finds that females less than 35 years old will be confined to mission assignments where the altitude is less than about 400 km. Slight restrictions may also need to be made for male crewmembers less than 35 years old.

  16. Research centrifuge accommodations on Space Station Freedom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arno, Roger D.; Horkachuk, Michael J.

    1990-01-01

    Life sciences research using plants and animals on the Space Station Freedom requires the ability to maintain live subjects in a safe and low stress environment for long durations at microgravity and at one g. The need for a centrifuge to achieve these accelerations is evident. Programmatic, technical, and cost considerations currently favor a 2.5 meter diameter centrifuge located either in the end cone of a Space Station Freedom node or in a separate module. A centrifuge facility could support a mix of rodent, plant, and small primate habitats. An automated cage extractor could be used to remove modular habitats in pairs without stopping the main rotor, minimizing the disruption to experiment protocols. The accommodation of such a centrifuge facility on the Space Station represents a significant demand on the crew time, power, data, volume, and logistics capability. It will contribute to a better understanding of the effects of space flight on humans, an understanding of plant growth in space for the eventual production of food, and an understanding of the role of gravity in biological processes.

  17. High degree-of-freedom dynamic manipulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, Michael P.; Stephens, Benjamin; Abe, Yeuhi; Rizzi, Alfred A.

    2012-06-01

    The creation of high degree of freedom dynamic mobile manipulation techniques and behaviors will allow robots to accomplish difficult tasks in the field. We are investigating the use of the body and legs of legged robots to improve the strength, velocity, and workspace of an integrated manipulator to accomplish dynamic manipulation. This is an especially challenging task, as all of the degrees of freedom are active at all times, the dynamic forces generated are high, and the legged system must maintain robust balance throughout the duration of the tasks. To accomplish this goal, we are utilizing trajectory optimization techniques to generate feasible open-loop behaviors for our 28 dof quadruped robot (BigDog) by planning the trajectories in a 13 dimensional space. Covariance Matrix Adaptation techniques are utilized to optimize for several criteria such as payload capability and task completion speed while also obeying constraints such as torque and velocity limits, kinematic limits, and center of pressure location. These open-loop behaviors are then used to generate feed-forward terms, which are subsequently used online to improve tracking and maintain low controller gains. Some initial results on one of our existing balancing quadruped robots with an additional human-arm-like manipulator are demonstrated on robot hardware, including dynamic lifting and throwing of heavy objects 16.5kg cinder blocks, using motions that resemble a human athlete more than typical robotic motions. Increased payload capacity is accomplished through coordinated body motion.

  18. The Refined and Further Defined Freedom Paradigm: A Response to Ottens and MacCluskie

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanna, Fred J.

    2012-01-01

    The proposed freedom paradigm is briefly reviewed as an overarching framework that may provide a structure for integrating the counseling profession and counseling theories. Freedom is defined and discussed in terms of four modalities: "freedom from," "freedom to," "freedom with," and "freedom for." This is followed by a response to comments on…

  19. Six degree of freedom manual controls study report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mckinnon, G. M.; Lippay, A.; King, M. L.

    1982-01-01

    The feasibility of using degree of freedom manual controls in space in an on orbit environment was determined. Several six degree of freedom controls were tested in a laboratory environment, and replica controls were used to control robot arms. The selection of six degrees of freedom as a design goal was based on the fact that six degrees are sufficient to define the location and orientation of a rigid body in space.

  20. Nutritional Requirements for Space Station Freedom Crews

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lane, Helen W.; Rice, Barbara L.; Wogan, Christine F. (Editor)

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this report was to set preliminary nutritional requirements for crewmembers flying from 90 to 180 day missions on Space Station Freedom. Specific recommendations included providing crewmembers with in flight feedback on nutritional intake, weight and strength, and incorporating issues of energy intake, body weight, body composition, strength, and protein intake in the flight medicine program. Exercise must be considered an integral part of any plan to maintain nutritional status, especially those modes that stress the skeleton and maintain body weight. Nutrient intake, amount of exercise, and drugs ingested must be recorded daily; high priority should be given to development of fully automated record systems that minimize astronauts' effort. A system of nutritional supplements should be developed to provide a method for reducing intake deficits that become apparent. Finally, post flight monitoring should include bone density, muscle mass and function, and iron status at three and six months after landing.

  1. Animal research facility for Space Station Freedom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bonting, Sjoerd L.

    1992-01-01

    An integrated animal research facility is planned by NASA for Space Station Freedom which will permit long-term, man-tended experiments on the effects of space conditions on vertebrates. The key element in this facility is a standard type animal habitat which supports and maintains the animals under full bioisolation during transport and during the experiment. A holding unit accommodates the habitats with animals to be maintained at zero gravity; and a centrifuge, those to be maintained at artificial gravity for control purposes or for gravity threshold studies. A glovebox permits handling of the animals for experimental purposes and for transfer to a clean habitat. These facilities are described, and the aspects of environmental control, monitoring, and bioisolation are discussed.

  2. Freedom and authority in the Clinical Diary.

    PubMed

    Erős, Ferenc

    2014-12-01

    The paper discusses some philosophical, ethical and political-philosophical implications of Ferenczi's Clinical Diary, with special regard to the concepts of freedom and authority. These topics are already present in Ferenczi's early writings that explicitly deal with social and political issues, the central concept of which is "individual socialism". The paper also discusses (and publishes in Appendix) two short manuscripts by Ferenczi, written probably in 1920, which attempts to parallel psychoanalysis with Marxism, and with liberal socialism, respectively. It is shown that in 1932, the last year of his life, Ferenczi avoids using political and ideological concepts directly in his Diary, but, in the spirit of his earlier writings, he proposes a balance between "ruthless capitalism and fanciful egalitarianism". Finally, the significance of Utopia in Ferenczi's thinking is discussed. PMID:25434890

  3. Emergency egress requirements for Space Station Freedom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, Paul S.

    1990-01-01

    There is a real concern regarding the requirements for safe emergency egress from the Space Station Freedom (SSF). The possible causes of emergency are depressurization due to breach of the station hull by space debris, meteoroids, seal failure, or vent failure; chemical toxicity; and a large fire. The objectives of the current study are to identify the tasks required to be performed in emergencies, establish the time required to perform these tasks, and to review the human equipment interface in emergencies. It was found that a fixed time value specified for egress has shifted focus from the basic requirements of safe egress, that in some situations the crew members may not be able to complete the emergency egress tasks in three minutes without sacrificing more than half of the station, and that increased focus should be given to human factors aspects of space station design.

  4. A Space Station Freedom utilization roadmap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurzhals, Peter R.

    1992-08-01

    Results of an AIAA assessment of Space Station Freedom (SSF) utilization are summarized. The assessment involved 45 representatives nominated by 20 AIAA technical committees to address four key SSF utilization areas (microgravity, life sciences, attached payloads, and small missions) and to lay out a top-level 30-yr roadmap for SSF ultilization. SSF capabilities and support needs for these mission roadmaps are also defined. Specific resultant mission categories and functions are outlined for the four SSF time periods (1995-2000, 2000-2005, 2005-2015, and 2015-2025) addressed by the assessment. Candidate payloads are used to illustrate related SSF utilization benefits and to characterize SSF capabilities required for each of the time periods.

  5. Exobiology research on Space Station Freedom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huntington, J. L.; Stratton, D. M.; Scattergood, T. W.

    1995-01-01

    The Gas-Grain Simulation Facility (GGSF) is a multidisciplinary experiment laboratory being developed by NASA at Ames Research Center for delivery to Space Station Freedom in 1998. This facility will employ the low-gravity environment of the Space Station to enable aerosol experiments of much longer duration than is possible in any ground-based laboratory. Studies of fractal aggregates that are impossible to sustain on Earth will also be enabled. Three research areas within exobiology that will benefit from the GGSF are described here. An analysis of the needs of this research and of other suggested experiments has produced a list of science requirements which the facility design must accommodate. A GGSF design concept developed in the first stage of flight hardware development to meet these requirements is also described.

  6. Exobiology research on Space Station Freedom.

    PubMed

    Huntington, J L; Stratton, D M; Scattergood, T W

    1995-03-01

    The Gas-Grain Simulation Facility (GGSF) is a multidisciplinary experiment laboratory being developed by NASA at Ames Research Center for delivery to Space Station Freedom in 1998. This facility will employ the low-gravity environment of the Space Station to enable aerosol experiments of much longer duration than is possible in any ground-based laboratory. Studies of fractal aggregates that are impossible to sustain on Earth will also be enabled. Three research areas within exobiology that will benefit from the GGSF are described here. An analysis of the needs of this research and of other suggested experiments has produced a list of science requirements which the facility design must accommodate. A GGSF design concept developed in the first stage of flight hardware development to meet these requirements is also described.

  7. Freedom and authority in the Clinical Diary.

    PubMed

    Erős, Ferenc

    2014-12-01

    The paper discusses some philosophical, ethical and political-philosophical implications of Ferenczi's Clinical Diary, with special regard to the concepts of freedom and authority. These topics are already present in Ferenczi's early writings that explicitly deal with social and political issues, the central concept of which is "individual socialism". The paper also discusses (and publishes in Appendix) two short manuscripts by Ferenczi, written probably in 1920, which attempts to parallel psychoanalysis with Marxism, and with liberal socialism, respectively. It is shown that in 1932, the last year of his life, Ferenczi avoids using political and ideological concepts directly in his Diary, but, in the spirit of his earlier writings, he proposes a balance between "ruthless capitalism and fanciful egalitarianism". Finally, the significance of Utopia in Ferenczi's thinking is discussed.

  8. Academic freedom and academic-industry relationships in biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Streiffer, Robert

    2006-06-01

    Commercial academic-industry relationships (AIRs) are widespread in biotechnology and have resulted in a wide array of restrictions on academic research. Objections to such restrictions have centered on the charge that they violate academic freedom. I argue that these objections are almost invariably unsuccessful. On a consequentialist understanding of the value of academic freedom, they rely on unfounded empirical claims about the overall effects that AIRs have on academic research. And on a rights-based understanding of the value of academic freedom, they rely on excessively lavish assumptions about the kinds of activities that academic freedom protects.

  9. Pre- and post-displacement stressors and time of migration as related to self-rated health among Iraqi immigrants and refugees in Southeast Michigan

    PubMed Central

    Jamil, Hikraei; Nassar-McMillan, Sylvia; Lambert, Richard; Wang, Yun; Ager, Joel; Arnetz, Bengt

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether perceived health status of Iraqi immigrants and refugees residing in the United States was related to pre-migration environmental stress, current unemployment, and if they had emigrated before or after the 1991 Gulf War. A random sample of Iraqis residing in Southeast Michigan, US, was interviewed using an Arab language structured survey. The main outcome measure was self-rated health (SRH). Major predictors included socioeconomics, employment status, pre-migration environmental stress, and health disorders. Path analysis was used to look: at mediating effects between predictors and SRH. We found that SRH was significantly worse among participants that had left Iraq after the 1991 Gulf War. Unemployment and environmental stress exposure were inversely related to SRH. There was a direct path between Gulf War exposure and poor health. In addition, there were indirect paths mediated through psychosomatic and psychiatric disorders to SRH. Another path went from Gulf War exposure, via environmen tal stress and somatic health to poor health. Unemployment had a direct path, as well as an indirect paths mediated through psychiatric and psychosomatic disorders, to poor self-rated health. In conclusion, these results suggest that pre- as well as post-migration factors, and period of migration, affect health. PMID:21291168

  10. Type III 3-Methylglutaconic Aciduria (Optic Atrophy Plus Syndrome, or Costeff Optic Atrophy Syndrome): Identification of the OPA3 Gene and Its Founder Mutation in Iraqi Jews

    PubMed Central

    Anikster, Yair; Kleta, Robert; Shaag, Avraham; Gahl, William A.; Elpeleg, Orly

    2001-01-01

    Type III 3-methylglutaconic aciduria (MGA) (MIM 258501) is a neuro-ophthalmologic syndrome that consists of early-onset bilateral optic atrophy and later-onset spasticity, extrapyramidal dysfunction, and cognitive deficit. Urinary excretion of 3-methylglutaconic acid and of 3-methylglutaric acid is increased. The disorder has been reported in ∼40 patients of Iraqi Jewish origin, allowing the mapping of the disease to chromosome 19q13.2-q13.3, by linkage analysis. To isolate the causative gene, OPA3, we sequenced four genes within the critical interval and identified, in the intronic sequence of a gene corresponding to cDNA clone FLJ22187, a point mutation that segregated with the type III MGA phenotype. The FLJ22187-cDNA clone, which we identified as the OPA3 gene, consists of two exons and encodes a peptide of 179 amino acid residues. Northern blot analysis revealed a primary transcript of ∼5.0 kb that was ubiquitously expressed, most prominently in skeletal muscle and kidney. Within the brain, the cerebral cortex, the medulla, the cerebellum, and the frontal lobe, compared to other parts of the brain, had slightly increased expression. The intronic G→C mutation abolished mRNA expression in fibroblasts from affected patients and was detected in 8 of 85 anonymous Israeli individuals of Iraqi Jewish origin. Milder mutations in OPA3 should be sought in patients with optic atrophy with later onset, even in the absence of additional neurological abnormalities. PMID:11668429

  11. Potentially traumatic events and mental health problems among children of Iraqi refugees: The roles of relationships with parents and feelings about school.

    PubMed

    Trentacosta, Christopher J; McLear, Caitlin M; Ziadni, Maisa S; Lumley, Mark A; Arfken, Cynthia L

    2016-01-01

    This study examined mental health problems among children of Iraqi refugees, most of whom were Christian. Exposure to potentially traumatic events was hypothesized to predict more symptoms of depression and traumatic stress. Moreover, youth reports of supportive relationships with parents and positive feelings about school were examined in relation to mental health problems. These promotive factors were expected to mitigate the hypothesized association between traumatic event exposure and mental health problems. Participants were 211 youth recruited from agencies and programs serving Iraqi refugees in a large metropolitan area in the United States. The hypotheses were partially supported. Youth who reported experiencing more potentially traumatic events endorsed more traumatic stress and depression symptoms. After accounting for exposure to potentially traumatic events and other covariates, youth who reported more positive feelings about school endorsed fewer symptoms of traumatic stress, and youth who reported more supportive relationships with parents endorsed fewer symptoms of depression. In addition, there was an interaction between potentially traumatic events and relationships with parents when predicting depression symptoms. Youth endorsed higher levels of depression symptoms when they reported less supportive relationships, regardless of the amount of traumatic event exposure, whereas youth endorsed lower levels of depression symptoms when they reported more supportive relationships with parents, but only at low levels of traumatic event exposure. Otherwise, the main effects were not qualified by interactions between potentially traumatic event exposure and the promotive factors. The findings from this study have implications for future research, policy, and practice with children of refugees. (PsycINFO Database Record

  12. Is fluency free-operant response-response chaining?

    PubMed Central

    Lindsley, Ogden R.

    1996-01-01

    This article briefly reviews behavioral fluency and its 10 products. Fluency development requires three of the four free-operant freedoms: the freedom to present stimuli at the learner's rhythm, the freedom to form the response, and the freedom to speed at the learner's maximum frequency. The article closes with several suggestions that fluent performing is really operant response-response (R-R) chaining, and recommends further controlled laboratory research on free-operant R-R chaining. ImagesFigure 1 PMID:22478259

  13. Pointing and tracking control for freedom's Solar Dynamic modules and vibration control of freedom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quinn, Roger D.; Chen, Jiunn-Liang

    1992-01-01

    A control strategy is presented for pointing particular modules of flexible multibody space structures while simultaneously attenuating structural vibrations. The application that is addressed is the planned Space Station Freedom in a growth configuration with Solar Dynamic (SD) module. A NASTRAN model of Freedom is used to demonstrate the control strategy. Two cases of SD concentrator fine-pointing controller bandwidths are studied with examples. The effect of limiting the controller motor torques to realistic baseline values is examined. SD pointing and station vibration control is accomplished during realistic disturbances due to aerodynamic drag, Shuttle docking, and Shuttle reaction control system plume impingement on SD. Gravity gradient induced torques on SD are relatively small and pseudo-steady.

  14. Decoherence of a driven quantum system interacting with environment through many degrees of freedom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Zhongyuan; Chu, Shih-I.; Han, Siyuan

    2007-06-01

    We present a comprehensive approach for the study of decoherence of an ac-field-driven multilevel quantum system interacting with environment through many degrees of freedom. In this approach, the system is described by a reduced density operator and the environment is characterized by a number of spectral densities. The reduced density operator is governed by a master equation in which the effect of ac fields and leakage to non-computational states are included. The approach is applied to investigate decoherence of a SQUID flux qubit with a two-dimensional (2D) potential coupled to environment through its control and readout circuits. The calculated relaxation time agrees well with experimental result when the potential is quasi one-dimensional (1D). Effects of the second degree of freedom, which is frozen in a quasi-1D system, on relaxation and decoherence times are examined systematically by varying circuit parameters.

  15. Enhanced versatility of fluid control in centrifugal microfluidic platforms using two degrees of freedom.

    PubMed

    Cao, Xiaobao; deMello, A J; Elvira, K S

    2016-04-01

    Centrifugal microfluidic platforms have significant potential in commercial applications because of their operational flexibility and minimal external infrastructure requirements. However, the dynamic and real-time control of fluid flow within traditional centrifugal microfluidic platforms is problematic. To address this significant limitation, we propose a two degrees of freedom platform, in which a digital servo is located at each end of an arm driven by a motor. This allows for reversible inward pumping between multiple chambers with perfect efficiency. Furthermore, the addition of a second degree of freedom allows position-based pressure controlled burst valves to be accessed and operated in an independent fashion. To demonstrate the efficacy of this technical innovation, we show rapid and configurable flow switching between three target chambers within a centrifugal microfluidic device.

  16. Six-degree-of-freedom Sensor Fish design and instrumentation

    SciTech Connect

    Deng, Zhiqun; Carlson, Thomas J.; Duncan, Joanne P.; Richmond, Marshall C.

    2007-12-19

    Fish passing through dams may be injured or killed despite advances in turbine design, project operations and other fish bypass systems. The Six-degree-of-freedom (6DOF) Sensor Fish device is an autonomous sensor package designed to characterize the physical conditions and physical stresses fish are exposed to when they pass through complex hydraulic environments. It has been used to identify the locations and operations where conditions are severe enough to injure or kill fish. During the design process, a set of governing equations of motion for the device was derived and simulated in order to understand the design implications of instrument selection and placement within the body of the device. The sensor package includes three rotation sensors, three acceleration sensors, a pressure sensor, and a temperature sensor with a sampling frequency of 2,000 Hz. Its housing is constructed of clear polycarbonate plastic. It is 24.5 mm in diameter and 90 mm in length, weighs about 43 grams, similar to the size and density of a yearling salmon smolt. The relative errors of both the linear acceleration and angular velocity measurements were determined to be less than 5% from laboratory acceptance tests. Since its development in 2005, the 6DOF Sensor Fish device has been successfully deployed at many major dams in the United States.

  17. Space station freedom resource nodes internal thermal control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merhoff, Paul; Dellinger, Brent; Taggert, Shawn; Cornwell, John

    1993-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the design and operation of the internal thermal control system (ITCS) developed for Space Station Freedom by the NASA-Johnson Space Center and McDonnell Douglas Aerospace to provide cooling for the resource nodes, airlock, and pressurized logistics modules. The ITCS collects, transports and rejects waste heat from these modules by a dual-loop, single-phase water cooling system. ITCS performance, cooling, and flow rate requirements are presented. An ITCS fluid schematic is shown and an overview of the current baseline system design and its operation is presented. Assembly sequence of the ITCS is explained as its configuration develops from Man Tended Capability (MTC), for which node 2 alone is cooled, to Permanently Manned Capability (PMC) where the airlock, a pressurized logistics module, and node 1 are cooled, in addition to node 2. A SINDA/FLUINT math model of the ITCS is described, and results of analyses for an MTC and a PMC case are shown and discussed.

  18. Space Station Freedom electric power system availability study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turnquist, Scott R.

    1990-01-01

    The results are detailed of follow-on availability analyses performed on the Space Station Freedom electric power system (EPS). The scope includes analyses of several EPS design variations, these are: the 4-photovoltaic (PV) module baseline EPS design, a 6-PV module EPS design, and a 3-solar dynamic module EPS design which included a 10 kW PV module. The analyses performed included: determining the discrete power levels that the EPS will operate at upon various component failures and the availability of each of these operating states; ranking EPS components by the relative contribution each component type gives to the power availability of the EPS; determining the availability impacts of including structural and long-life EPS components in the availability models used in the analyses; determining optimum sparing strategies, for storing space EPS components on-orbit, to maintain high average-power-capability with low lift-mass requirements; and analyses to determine the sensitivity of EPS-availability to uncertainties in the component reliability and maintainability data used.

  19. Using computer graphics to design Space Station Freedom viewing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldsberry, Betty S.; Lippert, Buddy O.; Mckee, Sandra D.; Lewis, James L., Jr.; Mount, Francis E.

    1993-01-01

    Viewing requirements were identified early in the Space Station Freedom program for both direct viewing via windows and indirect viewing via cameras and closed-circuit television (CCTV). These requirements reside in NASA Program Definition and Requirements Document (PDRD), Section 3: Space Station Systems Requirements. Currently, analyses are addressing the feasibility of direct and indirect viewing. The goal of these analyses is to determine the optimum locations for the windows, cameras, and CCTV's in order to meet established requirements, to adequately support space station assembly, and to operate on-board equipment. PLAID, a three-dimensional computer graphics program developed at NASA JSC, was selected for use as the major tool in these analyses. PLAID provides the capability to simulate the assembly of the station as well as to examine operations as the station evolves. This program has been used successfully as a tool to analyze general viewing conditions for many Space Shuttle elements and can be used for virtually all Space Station components. Additionally, PLAID provides the ability to integrate an anthropometric scale-modeled human (representing a crew member) with interior and exterior architecture.

  20. Specific mutations in the HEXA gene among Iraqi Jewish Tay-Sachs disease carriers: dating of founder ancestor.

    PubMed

    Karpati, Mazal; Gazit, Ephraim; Goldman, Boleslaw; Frisch, Amos; Colombo, Roberto; Peleg, Leah

    2004-02-01

    The incidence of Tay-Sachs disease (TSD) carriers, as defined by enzyme assay, is 1:29 among Ashkenazi Jews and 1:110 among Moroccan Jews. An elevated carrier frequency of 1:140 was also observed in the Iraqi Jews (IJ), while in other Israeli populations the world's pan-ethnic frequency of approximately 1:280 has been found. Recently a novel mutation, G749T, has been reported in 38.7% of the IJ carriers (24/62). Here we report a second novel HEXA mutation specific to the IJ TDS carriers: a substitution of cytosine 1351 by guanosine (C1351G), resulting in the change of leucine to valine in position 451. This mutation was found in 33.9% (21/62) of the carriers and in none of 100 non-carrier IJ. In addition to the two specific mutations, 14.5% (9/62) of the IJ carriers bear a known "Jewish" mutation (Ashkenazi or Moroccan) and 11.3% (7/62) carry a known "non-Jewish" mutation. In 1 DNA sample no mutation has yet been detected. To investigate the genetic history of the IJ-specific mutations (C1351G and G749T), the allelic distribution of four polymorphic markers (D15S131, D15S1025, D15S981, D15S1050) was analyzed in IJ heterozygotes and ethnically matched controls. Based on linkage disequilibrium, recombination factor (theta) between the markers and mutated loci, and the population growth correction, we deduced that G749T occurred in a founder ancestor 44.8 +/- 14.2 generations (g) ago [95% confidence interval (CI) 17.0-72.6 g] and C1351G arose 80.4 +/- 35.9 g ago (95% CI 44.5-116.3 g). Thus, the estimated dates for introduction of mutations are: 626 +/- 426 A.D. (200-1052 A.D.) for G749T and 442 +/- 1077 B.C. (1519 B.C. to 635 A.D.) for C1351G. PMID:14648242

  1. Proposed CTV design reference missions in support of Space Station Freedom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saucillo, Rudy J.; Cirillo, William M.

    1991-01-01

    Use of design reference missions (DRM's) for the cargo transfer vehicle (CTV) in support of Space Station Freedom (SSF) can provide a common baseline for the design and assessment of CTV systems and mission operations. These DRM's may also provide baseline operations scenarios for integrated CTV, Shuttle, and SSF operations. Proposed DRM's for CTV, SSF, and Shuttle operations envisioned during the early post-PMC time frame and continuing through mature, SSF evolutionary operations are described. These proposed DRM's are outlines for detailed mission definition; by treating these DRM's as top-level input for mission design studies, a range of parametric studies for systems/operations may be performed. Shuttle flight design experience, particularly rendezvous flight design, provides an excellent basis for DRM operations studies. To begin analysis of the DRM's, shuttle trajectory design tools were used in single case analysis to define CTV performance requirements. A summary of these results is presented.

  2. Proposed CTV design reference missions in support of Space Station Freedom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saucillo, Rudy J.; Cirillo, William M.

    Use of design reference missions (DRM's) for the cargo transfer vehicle (CTV) in support of Space Station Freedom (SSF) can provide a common baseline for the design and assessment of CTV systems and mission operations. These DRM's may also provide baseline operations scenarios for integrated CTV, Shuttle, and SSF operations. Proposed DRM's for CTV, SSF, and Shuttle operations envisioned during the early post-PMC time frame and continuing through mature, SSF evolutionary operations are described. These proposed DRM's are outlines for detailed mission definition; by treating these DRM's as top-level input for mission design studies, a range of parametric studies for systems/operations may be performed. Shuttle flight design experience, particularly rendezvous flight design, provides an excellent basis for DRM operations studies. To begin analysis of the DRM's, shuttle trajectory design tools were used in single case analysis to define CTV performance requirements. A summary of these results is presented.

  3. Toward a Normative Theory of Freedom of the Press.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jensen, Dwight Wm.

    In considering the possibility of a normative theory of freedom of the press, this paper examines arguments about such freedom in the Third World and elsewhere. Some of the arguments discussed in the paper are derived from the theories of John Locke and Karl Marx; others are drawn from the concepts of divine rights, elitism, liberal democracy, and…

  4. 45 CFR 1218.6 - Freedom to present views.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Freedom to present views. 1218.6 Section 1218.6 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) CORPORATION FOR NATIONAL AND COMMUNITY SERVICE VISTA VOLUNTEERS-HEARING OPPORTUNITY § 1218.6 Freedom to present views. The expression by...

  5. Annotated Bibliography; Freedom of Information Center Reports and Summary Papers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freedom of Information Center, Columbia, MO.

    This bibliography lists and annotates almost 400 information reports, opinion papers, and summary papers dealing with freedom of information. Topics covered include the nature of press freedom and increased press efforts toward more open access to information; the press situation in many foreign countries, including France, Sweden, Communist…

  6. Contingency and Freedom: Important Concepts for an Educated Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Mark E.

    Individuals in general and educators in particular should be knowledgeable about and understand the social implications of contingency and freedom. Contingency--a possible or unforeseen occurrence--is interpreted in light of the unpredictability of nature which insures that people cannot be prepared for every possibility. Freedom is interpreted as…

  7. The Historical Importance of Jury to Press Freedom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olasky, Marvin N.

    Staggered by some recent libel verdicts, many journalists are neglecting lessons about press freedom learned at great cost during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. Journalists then learned that state power over the press, residing in the hands of either censors or judges, leads to a decrease in press freedom. In 1986, though, many media…

  8. A Utilitarian Case for Intellectual Freedom in Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doyle, Tony

    2001-01-01

    Outlines the history of censorship and intellectual and expressive freedom in American libraries; discusses the two main types of ethical theory, utilitarianism and deontology; and maintains that libraries have a special role to play in promoting unconditional intellectual freedom. (Author/LRW)

  9. Academic Freedom in Europe: A Preliminary Comparative Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karran, Terence

    2007-01-01

    Using comparative data from 23 states within the European Union (EU), this paper is a preliminary assessment of the protection for, and (by extension) the health of, academic freedom in the universities of the nations of the EU. The paper examines constitutional and legislative protection for academic freedom, along with legal regulations…

  10. Higher Education Restructuring and Academic Freedom in Hong Kong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petersen, Carole J.; Currie, Jan

    2008-01-01

    A former British colony, Hong Kong was reunited with the People's Republic of China in 1997 under the "one country two systems" model. The Hong Kong Basic Law contains detailed provisions for academic freedom, ensuring that local academics enjoy far greater freedom than their counterparts in mainland China. Hong Kong academics and the broader…

  11. Freedom and Sharing in the Global Network Society

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lankshear, Colin

    2006-01-01

    This article focuses on some ideas from social and political philosophy concerning the ideal of freedom that may be useful for thinking about issues associated with the rise of network societies. The tendency for "freedom" to mean very different things to different people has carried over to the context of thinking about issues associated with new…

  12. Freedom of Speech and Adolescent Public School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hussain, Murad

    2008-01-01

    Some legal cases on the freedom of speech in adolescent public school students are discussed. It is suggested that schools, social scientists and psychologists should build a social consensus on the extent to which the freedom of speech for abusive students can be allowed so as not to affect development of other students.

  13. 29 CFR 1404.8 - Freedom of choice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Freedom of choice. 1404.8 Section 1404.8 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) FEDERAL MEDIATION AND CONCILIATION SERVICE ARBITRATION SERVICES Procedures for Arbitration Services § 1404.8 Freedom of choice. Nothing contained in this part should...

  14. Academic Freedom in International Higher Education: Right or Responsibility?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibbs, Alexis

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores the conceptual history of academic freedom and its emergence as a substantive right that pertains to either the academic or the university. It is suggested that historical reconceptualisations necessitated by contingent circumstance may have led to academic freedom being seen as a form of protection for those working within…

  15. Freedom of Speech: Its Exercise and Its Interpretation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, David A.

    2010-01-01

    Professor Roy Harris (2009) criticises me for ignoring freedom of speech in order to focus on "soft" issues, such as game theory, decision theory and chaos theory. In this response, I accept most of his arguments relating to freedom of speech, but argue that, in order to develop better systems of education, we need to pay more attention to the…

  16. Why Boards Can't Ignore Academic Freedom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernard, Pamela J.; Gottschalk, Thomas A.; O'Neil, Robert M.

    2011-01-01

    Ten board members and a like number of general counsels recently met to consider how to better protect and advance academic freedom--and to preserve the institutional autonomy of colleges and universities. The meeting reconfirmed that boards have a key, and increasingly important, role to play in sustaining academic freedom on campuses across the…

  17. Freedom, Constraint, or Both? Readings on Popular Music and Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bjorck, Cecilia

    2011-01-01

    This article examines how notions of freedom are linked to popular music practices in previous research literature. The author discusses how two competing discourses depict popular music practices on the one hand as "freedom," and on the other hand as "constraint," and how these ideas relate to gender. She also argues that unproblematized…

  18. Freedom as Non-Domination, Standards and the Negotiated Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hopkins, Neil

    2015-01-01

    This article investigates the application of Philip Pettit's concept of freedom as non-domination to the issues of educational standards and the negotiated curriculum. The article will argue that freedom as non-domination (and the connected concept of debating contestations as part of a legitimate democratic state) shines a critical light on…

  19. Freedom Reconsidered: Heteronomy, Open Subjectivity, and the "Gift of Teaching"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhao, Guoping

    2014-01-01

    This paper analyzes the entanglement of the modern concepts of freedom, autonomy, and the modern notion of the subject and how a passion for and insistence on freedom has undermined the reconstruction of human subjectivity in Heidegger and Foucault, and how such passion has also limited the educational effort at addressing the problems brought to…

  20. Federal Freedom of Information Policy: Highlights of Recent Developments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Relyea, Harold C.

    2009-01-01

    For the Federal government of the United States, freedom of information policy is expressed in statutory law--the Freedom of Information Act (FOIA), enacted in 1966, being the first such expression in this regard. Other transparency laws would follow. The FOIA, however, was legislated in the face of considerable opposition by the executive branch.…

  1. Freedom of Expression in the Original Constitution: A Bicentennial Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kane, Peter E.

    The original United States Constitution of 1787, specifically in the communication related provisions of Article 1, deals extensively with communication issues, and provides an illustration of the tensions that existed between freedom and suppression. Philosophically, there was support for freedom of expression while in real world events there was…

  2. Dialogue of Freedom. Asian Voices Challenge Cultural Assumptions about Democracy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pon, Cynthia

    2001-01-01

    Discusses the concept of freedom in a global context, focusing on the Asian perspectives of three spokespersons: Zhuangzi or Chuang Tzu, a Daoist (Taoist) poet-philosopher in 4th-century-BCE China; Indian-born Nobel economist Amartya Sen, whose work on poverty links development with freedom; and Aung San Suu Kyi, Burmese democratic leader and…

  3. Is Academic Freedom a Threat to Teaching Introductory Science?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    French, Donald P.

    2005-01-01

    Graves (2005) suggested that academic freedom might impede efforts to improve institutional performance and achieve the goals set for learning outcomes, cost efficiency, and preparing students for the workplace. The author's initial response to threats to academic freedom and calls for efficiency is to bristle, because he views these as threats to…

  4. Academic Freedom: In Justification of a Universal Ideal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karran, Terence

    2009-01-01

    This article examines the justification for, and benefits of, academic freedom to academics, students, universities and the world at large. It surveys the development of the concept of academic freedom within Europe, more especially the impact of the reforms at the University of Berlin instigated by Wilhelm von Humboldt. Following from this, the…

  5. A Contentious Triangle: Grading and Academic Freedom in the Academy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Duncan

    2011-01-01

    This article examines the tensions created by academic freedom and grading in universities between academic staff and academic administration. Additionally, the impact of grading and academic standards on students' academic freedom is addressed, as well as the impact of corporatisation in the academy. By reviewing the existing literature and case…

  6. Freedom Schooling: Stokely Carmichael and Critical Rhetorical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneider, Stephen

    2006-01-01

    "Freedom Schooling" looks at a Freedom School class taught by Black Power activist Stokely Carmichael (Kwame Ture). Specifically, this article explores the philosophies of language and education that informed this class and the organic relationship fostered between the classroom and the political goals of African American communities during the…

  7. The use of PLAID in the Space Station Freedom viewing analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mount, Frances E.; Mckee, Sandra D.

    1990-01-01

    The focus early in the Space Station Freedom Program was on identifying viewing requirements for both direct viewing (windows) and indirect viewing (closed-circuit television). Currently, an analysis is being conducted to address the feasibility of viewing for Space Station Freedom. The goal of this analysis is to determine the optimum location for the windows and closed-circuit television cameras in order to meet the established requirements. Additionally all viewing provisions must adequately support Space Station assembly and on-board operations once the Station is operable. PLAID, a three-dimensional graphics system developed at NASA/Johnson Space Center, was selected for use as the primary tool in this analysis. PLAID provides the capability to simulate the assembly of the Space Station Freedom, as well as to examine operations on the Station as it evolves. In addition, it is used as a tool to analyze general out-the-window viewing conditions for all Space Station components, and provides the ability to integrate an anthropometric scale-modeled person (representing a crewmember) with the Station's interior architecture.

  8. Expressing freedom and taking liberties: the paradoxes of aberrant science.

    PubMed

    Little, M

    2006-06-01

    Complete freedom does not exist, despite people's preparedness to die for it. Scientific freedom is much defended and yet much misunderstood. Scientists have limits imposed on their freedom by the disciplines and discourse communities in which they place themselves. Freedom within these socially constructed constraints needs to be distinguished from taking liberties with the rules and practices that make up these constraints, and validate the activities of special groups within society. Scientists (and the public) perceive taking liberties with science's rules and practices as aberrant science, and they often react punitively. Aberrant science can be broadly examined under four headings: wicked science, naughty science, dysfunctional science, and ideologically unacceptable science. When we examine examples of perceived aberrant science, we find that these categories of "misconduct" are connected and often confused. Scientific freedom needs to be redefined with due regard to current understandings of scientists as human beings facing powerful social pressures to deliver results of a particular kind.

  9. Flutter calculations in three degrees of freedom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Theodorsen, Theodore; Garrick, I E

    1942-01-01

    The present paper is a continuation of the general study of flutter published in NACA reports nos. 496 and 685. The paper is mainly devoted to flutter in three degrees of freedom (bending, torsion, and aileron) for which a number of selected cases have been calculated and presented in graphical form. The results are analyzed and discussed with regard to the effects of structural damping, of fractional-span ailerons, and of mass-balancing. The analysis shows that more emphasis should be put on the effect of structural damping and less on mass-balancing. The conclusion is drawn that a definite minimum amount of structural damping, which is usually found to be present, is essential in the calculations for an adequate description of the flutter case. Theoretical flutter predictions are thus brought into closer agreement with the facts of experience. A brief discussion is included of a particular biplane that had experienced flutter at about 200 miles per hour. Some simplifications have been achieved in the method of calculation. (author)

  10. Mesodynamics with implicit degrees of freedom.

    PubMed

    Lin, Keng-Hua; Holian, Brad Lee; Germann, Timothy C; Strachan, Alejandro

    2014-08-14

    Mesoscale phenomena--involving a level of description between the finest atomistic scale and the macroscopic continuum--can be studied by a variation on the usual atomistic-level molecular dynamics (MD) simulation technique. In mesodynamics, the mass points, rather than being atoms, are mesoscopic in size, for instance, representing the centers of mass of polycrystalline grains or molecules. In order to reproduce many of the overall features of fully atomistic MD, which is inherently more expensive, the equations of motion in mesodynamics must be derivable from an interaction potential that is faithful to the compressive equation of state, as well as to tensile de-cohesion that occurs along the boundaries of the mesoscale units. Moreover, mesodynamics differs from Newton's equations of motion in that dissipation--the exchange of energy between mesoparticles and their internal degrees of freedom (DoFs)--must be described, and so should the transfer of energy between the internal modes of neighboring mesoparticles. We present a formulation where energy transfer between the internal modes of a mesoparticle and its external center-of-mass DoFs occurs in the phase space of mesoparticle coordinates, rather than momenta, resulting in a Galilean invariant formulation that conserves total linear momentum and energy (including the energy internal to the mesoparticles). We show that this approach can be used to describe, in addition to mesoscale problems, conduction electrons in atomic-level simulations of metals, and we demonstrate applications of mesodynamics to shockwave propagation and thermal transport.

  11. Mesodynamics with implicit degrees of freedom

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Keng-Hua; Strachan, Alejandro; Holian, Brad Lee; Germann, Timothy C.

    2014-08-14

    Mesoscale phenomena—involving a level of description between the finest atomistic scale and the macroscopic continuum—can be studied by a variation on the usual atomistic-level molecular dynamics (MD) simulation technique. In mesodynamics, the mass points, rather than being atoms, are mesoscopic in size, for instance, representing the centers of mass of polycrystalline grains or molecules. In order to reproduce many of the overall features of fully atomistic MD, which is inherently more expensive, the equations of motion in mesodynamics must be derivable from an interaction potential that is faithful to the compressive equation of state, as well as to tensile de-cohesion that occurs along the boundaries of the mesoscale units. Moreover, mesodynamics differs from Newton's equations of motion in that dissipation—the exchange of energy between mesoparticles and their internal degrees of freedom (DoFs)—must be described, and so should the transfer of energy between the internal modes of neighboring mesoparticles. We present a formulation where energy transfer between the internal modes of a mesoparticle and its external center-of-mass DoFs occurs in the phase space of mesoparticle coordinates, rather than momenta, resulting in a Galilean invariant formulation that conserves total linear momentum and energy (including the energy internal to the mesoparticles). We show that this approach can be used to describe, in addition to mesoscale problems, conduction electrons in atomic-level simulations of metals, and we demonstrate applications of mesodynamics to shockwave propagation and thermal transport.

  12. New nursing: the road to freedom?

    PubMed

    Porter, S

    1994-08-01

    The consequences that recent developments in nursing have had for the nurse-patient relationship are the concern of this paper. It is argued that, by attempting to reduce the power differentials that exist between nurse and patient, 'new nursing' reforms encourage rational, rather than distorted, communication between lay and professional participants in health care encounters. The significance of these developments is underlined by framing them within the theoretical framework developed by Jürgen Habermas, who argues that, because symbolic communication is a defining feature of our essential humanity, distortion of communication by means of coercive power is a denial of that humanity. Conversely, rational communication is the stuff of truth, freedom and justice. Empirical evidence from in-depth interviews with nurses is used to demonstrate that there have been significant changes in the nurse-patient relationship, which have led to improvements in communication and to the empowerment of patients. Despite the fact that the reforms face significant obstacles, nurses can be proud of the fact that their efforts have contributed to the re-affirmation of the full humanity of people requiring health care.

  13. Filipino women demand freedom from debt.

    PubMed

    Taguiwalo, J

    1993-10-01

    Filipino women suffer from the dual burden of unpaid reproductive work and underpaid labor in the work force. They are also paying heavily for the huge foreign debt assumed by their country. The fact that economic development has stagnated in the Philippines is directly related to a government policy which provides for automatic debt repayment regardless of the economic status of the country. The strategy of honoring debt obligations and removing governmental market controls was intended to lead to economic development in the Philippines but has instead increased the burden of women who must cope with reductions in income, reductions in social and community services, increases in taxes, and higher prices for essentials. Increased work and less food have had an adverse impact on the women's health, and the emphasis on exports has resulted in an increased number of women migrating overseas to find jobs. Thus, even highly trained women must resort to performing domestic work overseas to earn a living. Cash-crop production has reduced women's role in food production and threatened food security while creating a pool of cheap labor among the newly displaced peasant families. Violence against women is increasing because of stress related to poverty, and women working abroad are subject to rape and sexual abuse. These conditions have led to the creation of women's groups such as the Freedom from Debt Coalition which is developing a comprehensive alternative development strategy which includes measures to reduce the burden of foreign debt.

  14. Waste management for Space Station Freedom.

    PubMed

    Huff, W

    1991-10-01

    Because of the tremendous task of designing, testing, building and maintaining the waste systems for Space Station Freedom, different methods of managing these systems are now being developed. This paper summarizes some of those methods. The first task for the design engineer is to develop systems and hardware to handle waste in the special conditions of the space station. Different closed and open loop systems, along with the development of new hardware in these loops, are being tested to meet this task. Some of the new hardware to be discussed are water and air monitors, hazardous material handling, and plumbing hardware such as commodes, showers and clothes washers. The second task is to develop methods to manage the process of developing these systems. Some of the areas to manage are testing information, materials, facilities, people, budgets, time, safety, legal responsibilities and testing standards. The last task is to incorporate the new technologies for other areas besides space stations. Other areas would include long-duration space missions, lunar stations and other non-space applications.

  15. Mesodynamics with implicit degrees of freedom.

    PubMed

    Lin, Keng-Hua; Holian, Brad Lee; Germann, Timothy C; Strachan, Alejandro

    2014-08-14

    Mesoscale phenomena--involving a level of description between the finest atomistic scale and the macroscopic continuum--can be studied by a variation on the usual atomistic-level molecular dynamics (MD) simulation technique. In mesodynamics, the mass points, rather than being atoms, are mesoscopic in size, for instance, representing the centers of mass of polycrystalline grains or molecules. In order to reproduce many of the overall features of fully atomistic MD, which is inherently more expensive, the equations of motion in mesodynamics must be derivable from an interaction potential that is faithful to the compressive equation of state, as well as to tensile de-cohesion that occurs along the boundaries of the mesoscale units. Moreover, mesodynamics differs from Newton's equations of motion in that dissipation--the exchange of energy between mesoparticles and their internal degrees of freedom (DoFs)--must be described, and so should the transfer of energy between the internal modes of neighboring mesoparticles. We present a formulation where energy transfer between the internal modes of a mesoparticle and its external center-of-mass DoFs occurs in the phase space of mesoparticle coordinates, rather than momenta, resulting in a Galilean invariant formulation that conserves total linear momentum and energy (including the energy internal to the mesoparticles). We show that this approach can be used to describe, in addition to mesoscale problems, conduction electrons in atomic-level simulations of metals, and we demonstrate applications of mesodynamics to shockwave propagation and thermal transport. PMID:25134551

  16. University Oversight of Professors' Teaching Activities: A Professor's Academic Freedom Does Not Mean Freedom from Institutional Regulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fossey, Richard

    2007-01-01

    This article reviews federal case law that address a college instructor's right to academic freedom over classroom activities. This review shows that the federal courts have defined a college instructor's academic freedom rights narrowly in terms of the instructor's classroom activities. Institutions have a great deal of latitude to regulate an…

  17. [Conservative or operative treatment for chondropathia patellae?].

    PubMed

    Ziegler, R; Rau, R

    1980-04-01

    Results of the conservative and operative therapy in chondropathia patellae are reported. A high percentage of freedom from symptoms was achieved by physiotherapeutic measures and intra-articular Arteparon-injections.

  18. Two degrees of freedom piezoelectric vibration energy harvester

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Wei; Liu, Shengsheng; Cao, Junyi; Zhou, Shengxi; Lin, Jing

    2016-04-01

    Recently, vibration energy harvesting from surrounding environments to power wearable devices and wireless sensors in structure health monitoring has received considerable interest. Piezoelectric conversion mechanism has been employed to develop many successful energy harvesting devices due to its simple structure, long life span, high harvesting efficiency and so on. However, there are many difficulties of microscale cantilever configurations in energy harvesting from low frequency ambient. In order to improve the adaptability of energy harvesting from ambient vibrations, a two degrees of freedom (2-DOF) magnetic-coupled piezoelectric energy harvester is proposed in this paper. The electromechanical governing models of the cantilever and clamped hybrid energy harvester are derived to describe the dynamic characteristics for 2-DOF magnetic-coupled piezoelectric vibration energy harvester. Numerical simulations based on Matlab and ANSYS software show that the proposed magnetically coupled energy harvester can enhance the effective operating frequency bandwidth and increase the energy density. The experimental voltage responses of 2-DOF harvester under different structure parameters are acquired to demonstrate the effectiveness of the lumped parameter model for low frequency excitations. Moreover, the proposed energy harvester can enhance the energy harvesting performance over a wider bandwidth of low frequencies and has a great potential for broadband vibration energy harvesting.

  19. Development of advanced silicon solar cells for Space Station Freedom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lillington, David R.

    1990-01-01

    This report describes the development of large area high efficiency wrapthrough solar cells for Space Station Freedom. The goal of this contract was the development and fabrication of 8 x 8 cm coplanar back contact solar cells with a minimum output of 1.039 watts/cell. The first task in this program was a modeling study to determine the optimum configuration of the cell and to study the effects of surface passivation, substrate resistivity, and back surface field on the BOL and EOL performance. In addition, the optical stack, including the cell cover, AR coatings, and Kapton blanket, was modeled to optimize 'on orbit' operation. The second phase was a manufacturing development phase to develop high volume manufacturing processes for the reliable production of low recombination velocity boron back surface fields, techniques to produce smooth, low leakage wrapthrough holes, passivation, photoresist application methods, and metallization schemes. The final portion of this program was a pilot production phase. Seven hundred solar cells were delivered in this phase. At the end of the program, cells with average efficiencies over 13 percent were being produced with power output in excess of 1.139 watts/cell, thus substantially exceeding the program goal.

  20. Evolutionary growth for Space Station Freedom electrical power system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marshall, Matthew F.; Mclallin, Kerry L.; Zernic, Michael J.

    1989-01-01

    Over an operational lifetime of at least 30 yr, Space Station Freedom will encounter increased space station user requirements and advancing technologies. The space station electrical power system is designed with the flexibility to accommodate these emerging technologies and expert systems and is being designed with the necessary software hooks and hardware scars to accommodate increased growth demand. The electrical power system is planned to grow from the initial 75 kW up to 300 kW. The Phase 1 station will utilize photovoltaic arrays to produce the electrical power; however, for growth to 300 kW, solar dynamic power modules will be utilized. Pairs of 25 kW solar dynamic power modules will be added to the station to reach the power growth level. The addition of solar dynamic power in the growth phase places constraints in the initial space station systems such as guidance navigation and control, external thermal, truss structural stiffness, computational capabilities and storage which must be planned-in in order to facilitate the addition of the solar dynamic modules.