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Sample records for operation iraqi freedom

  1. 76 FR 72243 - Proposed Information Collection (Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom Veterans...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-22

    ... Health Needs Assessment) Activity; Comment Request AGENCY: Veterans Health Administration, Department of.... Title: Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom Veterans Health Needs Assessment, VA Form 10.... Abstract: VA Form 10-21091 is used to gather input from returning war zone veterans to identify their...

  2. Maintaining Discrimination in Operation Iraqi Freedom

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-12-01

    pregnancy .  Not only have the insurgents used women in attacks and operations to rout  American forces, but they have disguised these women to appear...the increased use of children within the  insurgency, in this month, six  teenage  boys, ages 14 to 16, were detained and claimed  they were being trained

  3. Infections Complicating the Care of Combat Casualties during Operations Iraqi Freedom and Enduring Freedom

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-27

    during Operations Iraqi Freedom and Enduring Freedom 27 January 2011 Clinton K. Murray, LTC, MC, USA 1 Military Health System Conference Brooke Army...burden for the collection of information is estimated to average 1 hour per response, including the time for reviewing instructions, searching...it does not display a currently valid OMB control number. 1 . REPORT DATE 27 JAN 2011 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2011 to 00-00-2011 4

  4. AH-64 IHADSS aviator vision experiences in Operation Iraqi Freedom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiatt, Keith L.; Rash, Clarence E.; Harris, Eric S.; McGilberry, William H.

    2004-09-01

    Forty AH-64 Apache aviators representing a total of 8564 flight hours and 2260 combat hours during Operation Iraqi Freedom and its aftermath were surveyed for their visual experiences with the AH-64's monocular Integrated Helmet and Display Sighting System (IHADSS) helmet-mounted display in a combat environment. A major objective of this study was to determine if the frequencies of reports of visual complaints and illusions reported in the previous studies, addressing mostly benign training environments, differ in the more stressful combat environments. The most frequently reported visual complaints, both while and after flying, were visual discomfort and headache, which is consistent with previous studies. Frequencies of complaints after flying in the current study were numerically lower for all complaint types, but differences from previous studies are statistically significant only for visual discomfort and disorientation (vertigo). With the exception of "brownout/whiteout," reports of degraded visual cues in the current study were numerically lower for all types, but statistically significant only for impaired depth perception, decreased field of view, and inadvertent instrumental meteorological conditions. This study also found statistically lower reports of all static and dynamic illusions (with one exception, disorientation). This important finding is attributed to the generally flat and featureless geography present in a large portion of the Iraqi theater and to the shift in the way that the aviators use the two disparate visual inputs presented by the IHADSS monocular design (i.e., greater use of both eyes as opposed to concentrating primarily on display imagery).

  5. Challenges and Opportunities of Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom Veterans with Disabilities Transitioning into Learning and Workplace Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ostovary, Fariba; Dapprich, Janet

    2011-01-01

    This article presents issues related to disabled military servicemen and women who are transitioning to civilian life. The emphasis is on the experience of veterans serving in the Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF) and Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF) as they reintegrate into civilian workplace and learning environments. The authors begin with an…

  6. 77 FR 7243 - Proposed Information Collection (Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom Veterans...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-10

    ... Health Needs Assessment) Activities Under OMB Review AGENCY: Veterans Health Administration, Department... Iraqi Freedom Veterans Health Needs Assessment, VA Form 10-21091. OMB Control Number: 2900-0728. Type of... from returning war zone veterans to identify their needs, concerns and health care preferences....

  7. Epidemiology of combat wounds in Operation Iraqi Freedom and Operation Enduring Freedom: orthopaedic burden of disease.

    PubMed

    Belmont, Philip J; Schoenfeld, Andrew J; Goodman, Gens

    2010-01-01

    The United States forces in Operation Iraqi Freedom/Operation Enduring Freedom (OIF/OEF) are primarily engaged in counterinsurgency operations within an irregular war. The US combat medical experience has reported new injury patterns secondary to the enemy's reliance on explosive mechanisms, particularly improvised explosive devices (IEDs), and the widespread use of individual and vehicular body armor. Musculoskeletal extremity injuries have been reported to comprise approximately 50% of all combat wounds for OIF/OEF. Utilization of individual body armor has dramatically reduced thoracic injuries and has decreased the lethality of gunshot wounds, as measured by the percent killed in action, which in conflicts prior to OIF/OEF was estimated at 33% but is now 4.6%. Explosive mechanisms of injury, with IEDs being the most common, account for over 75% of all combat casualties. The lethality of IEDs coupled with the protection of the thorax and abdomen provided by individual body armor has resulted in increasingly severe orthopaedic injuries. Collection and careful examination of orthopaedic combat casualties will allow for improved military personnel protective measures and treatment of injured soldiers.

  8. The Medical Symptom Validity Test in the evaluation of Operation Iraqi Freedom/Operation Enduring Freedom soldiers: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Whitney, Kriscinda A; Shepard, Polly H; Williams, Amanda L; Davis, Jeremy J; Adams, Kenneth M

    2009-03-01

    The clinical utility of the Medical Symptom Validity Test (MSVT) for soldiers returning from service in Operation Iraqi Freedom or Operation Enduring Freedom was preliminarily investigated through retrospective chart review. Results showed that 17%, or 4 of 23, Operation Iraqi Freedom/Operation Enduring Freedom patients at a Polytrauma Network Site (Level 2), performed below cut-offs on the MSVT. On "easy" subtests of the MSVT, the group of individuals who failed the MSVT performed significantly worse than the group of individuals who passed. However, there were no significant group differences on the "hard" subtests of the MSVT. When the profiles of individuals who failed the MSVT were examined, none of them met the criteria for the Dementia Profile. These preliminary findings and additional test data supported the conclusion that participants who failed the MSVT were exhibiting diminished symptom validity, suggesting that the specificity of the MSVT was 100%.

  9. Gunshot Wounds in Military Working Dogs in Operation Enduring Freedom and Operation Iraqi Freedom: 29 cases (2003-2009)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-01-01

    severity at the time of presentation to veterinary care was not correlated with length of time until return to duty. (J Vet Emerg Crit Care 2013; 23(1...action MWD Military Working Dogs OEF Operation Enduring Freedom OIF Operation Iraqi Freedom RTD Return to duty time TACEVAC tactical evacuation TCCC...Tactical Combat Casualty Care WIA wounded in action Introduction Military Working Dogs (MWDs) have been used exten- sively in current military areas of

  10. Ocular Surface Symptoms in Veterans Returning From Operation Iraqi Freedom and Operation Enduring Freedom

    PubMed Central

    Modi, Yasha S.; Qurban, Qirat; Zlotcavitch, Leonid; Echeverri, Roberto J.; Feuer, William; Florez, Hermes; Galor, Anat

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. To correlate situational exposures and psychiatric disease with self-reported ocular surface symptoms in a younger veteran population involved in Operation Iraqi Freedom and Operation Enduring Freedom (OIF/OEF). Methods. Cross-sectional study of all veterans evaluated in the OIF/OEF clinic between December 2012 and April 2013 who completed the dry eye questionnaire and screening evaluations for environmental exposures, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and depression. The main outcome measures were the influence of environmental exposure and psychiatric disease on ocular surface symptoms. Results. Of 115 participants, the average age was 33 years. While overseas, exposure to incinerated waste (odds ratio [OR] 2.67, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.23–5.81, P = 0.02) and PTSD (OR 2.68, 95% CI 1.23–5.85, P = 0.02) were associated with self-reported ocular surface symptoms. On return to the United States, older age (OR per decade 2.66, 95% CI 1.65–4.31, P = 0.04) was associated with persistent symptoms and incinerated waste was associated with resolution of symptoms (OR 0.25, 95% CI 0.07–0.90, P = 0.04). When evaluating symptom severity, 26% of the responders complained of severe ocular surface symptoms, with PTSD (OR 3.10, 95% CI 1.22–7.88, P = 0.02) and depression (OR 4.28, 95% CI 1.71–10.68, P = 0.002) being significant risk factors for their presence. Conclusions. PTSD was significantly associated with ocular surface symptoms both abroad and on return to the United States, whereas air pollution in the form of incinerated waste, was correlated with reversible symptoms. PMID:24408975

  11. Sustainment of Army Forces in Operation Iraqi Freedom. Battlefield Logistics and Effects on Operations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-01-01

    prepare and format the document. Rick Eden and John Dumond provided excellent comments to help with the organization of the report. LTG (retired...the problems or symptoms should be determined. Thus, this ____________ 8 Eric Peltz, Marc L. Robbins, Kenneth J. Girardini, Rick Eden , John M...Memorandum for Record, Subject: Operation Iraqi Freedom AAR, 19 May 2003. Interviews at 3rd ID Division Support Com- mand with LTC Bobby Towery (3rd FSB

  12. Operation Iraqi Freedom: Strategies, Approaches, Results, and Issues for Congress

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-04-02

    fruit and vegetable stands, and shops selling convenience foods like bottles of soda. To facilitate that process, commanders sometimes sought a...including ethnically based Iraqi political parties, and Turkey-based supporters of Iraqi Turkmen, sometimes use inflammatory language to stir up...and April 2008, and see Donna Miles, “ Anti -Insurgency Tactics Succeeding in Iraqi Detention Facilities,” American Forces Press Service, March 12, 2008

  13. Defensive Operations in the Media Battlespace: Operation Iraqi Freedom

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-12-15

    and data from the event. The other half of this calculation is grimmer . If the main interest of media outlets is cost versus entertainment value...instructions, searching existing data sources, gathering and maintaining the data needed, and completing and reviewing the collection of information. Send...collection level of the media system, producing pictures and data , generating events, and controlling access to influence news stories about the operational

  14. Operation Iraqi Freedom: Strategies, Approaches, Results, and Issues for Congress

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-10-28

    first shops to reopen in a neighborhood, as security improves, typically included fruit and vegetable stands, and shops selling convenience foods like...political parties and supporters of Iraqi Turkmen in Iraq’s neighboring state Turkey, sometimes use inflammatory language to stir up tensions in the...Miles, “ Anti - Insurgency Tactics Succeeding in Iraqi Detention Facilities,” American Forces Press Service, March 12, 2008. 583 Information from Task

  15. Operation Iraqi Freedom: Preliminary Observations on Iraqi Security Forces’ Logistics and Command and Control Capabilities

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-03-28

    Iraqi security forces, including the police and a new Iraqi military. Over time, multinational force commanders assumed responsibility for recruiting...and training some Iraqi defense and police forces in their areas of responsibility.1 In May 2004, President Bush issued a National Security...MNF-I) developed and began implementing a comprehensive campaign plan, which elaborated on and refined the original strategy for transferring security

  16. Joint Air Power, Transformation, and Operation Iraqi Freedom

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-05-31

    NOTES 1 Orson Scott Card, Ender’s Game. (New York: Tor Books 1977), 192-193. 2 Benjamin S...1989. Card, Orson Scott . Ender’s Game. New York: Tor Books, 1977. Cordesman, Anthony. The Iraq War. Strategy, Tacticics, and Military Lessons...21. 33 Cordesman. 184. 34 Scott Peterson and Peter Ford, “From Iraqi officers, three tales of shock and defeat,” Christian Science Monitor, (18 April

  17. Postdeployment driving stress and related occupational limitations among veterans of Operation Iraqi Freedom and Operation Enduring Freedom.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Eric J; Peyton, Claudia G; Kim, David K; Nakama-Sato, Kristine K; Noble, Amy E

    2014-01-01

    Difficulty in driving after deployment has emerged as an impediment for servicemembers returning from Operation Iraqi Freedom and Operation Enduring Freedom (OIF-OEF). This study explored postdeployment driving stress and related occupational limitations using two self-report instruments: the Driver's Stress Profile and the Driving and Occupational Limitations questionnaire. Data gathered from 103 OIF-OEF returnees confirmed that driving and related occupational issues occur postdeployment. Significant low to moderate correlations were found between postdeployment driving stress and limitations in community mobility, leisure, and social participation. The returnees who drove off base more frequently during deployment showed significantly higher levels of postdeployment driving stress than the returnees who drove off base less frequently. Moreover, the returnees who demonstrated higher levels of driving stress and occupational limitations required more time to resume normal driving postdeployment. Findings raise awareness about the need to design effective driver rehabilitation and community reintegration programs for this population.

  18. 75 FR 1120 - Agency Information Collection (Health-Care Use Survey for Enduring Freedom and Operation Iraqi...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-08

    ... Collection (Health-Care Use Survey for Enduring Freedom and Operation Iraqi Freedom (OEF/OIF) Veterans...-New (10-0478).'' SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title: Health-Care Use Survey for Enduring Freedom and... VA health care; (2) document unique barriers to VA care for women and men; and (3) provide...

  19. Civil-Military Relations: From Vietnam to Operation Iraqi Freedom

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-05-01

    jaded towards their services best interest.60 The next revision, The Defense Reorganization Act of 1958, initiated during the Eisenhower...crisis with the military was the Bay of Pigs fiasco.97 The operation which had been approved for planning and preparation by the Eisenhower...WWII as a statistician, teaching them the benefits statistical analysis. Also, more recently, the Bay of Pigs had shaped his strategic outlook.131

  20. Spouse abuse among United States Air Force personnel who deployed in support of Operation Iraqi Freedom/Operation Enduring Freedom.

    PubMed

    Rabenhorst, Mandy M; McCarthy, Randy J; Thomsen, Cynthia J; Milner, Joel S; Travis, Wendy J; Foster, Rachel E; Copeland, Carol W

    2013-10-01

    The authors examined spouse abuse perpetration among all married U.S. Air Force personnel who deployed in support of Operation Iraqi Freedom/Operation Enduring Freedom. Using Poisson and conditional Poisson regression, they compared rates of spouse abuse perpetration predeployment and postdeployment in the population of married U.S. Air Force personnel who had a combat-related deployment between October 1, 2001 and October 31, 2008 (N = 156,296). Just over 2% (n = 3,524) of deployers perpetrated at least one substantiated incident of spouse physical or emotional abuse within the 308,197,653 days at risk for abuse during the study period. Male deployers perpetrated spouse abuse at approximately twice the rate of female deployers. Regarding changes in rates of spouse abuse perpetration postdeployment versus predeployment among all deployers, the authors found no differences overall; however, several deployer and incident-related characteristics moderated this effect. Rates of emotional abuse, mild abuse, and abuse not involving alcohol were significantly lower postdeployment, whereas rates of moderate/severe abuse and abuse involving alcohol were significantly higher postdeployment. Although the majority of U.S. Air Force deployers did not perpetrate any substantiated incidents of spouse abuse, there was variability in the impact of deployment on spouse abuse rates before versus after deployment. The finding that rates of moderate/severe spouse abuse incidents involving alcohol were higher postdeployment suggests a need for focused prevention/intervention efforts.

  1. Ten-Year Analysis of Transfusion in Operation Iraqi Freedom and Operation Enduring Freedom: Increased Plasma and Platelet Use Correlates with Improved Survival

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-01-01

    evaluation of the impact of apheresis platelets used in the setting of massively transfused trauma patients. J Trauma. 2009;66(suppl 4):S77 S84...Ten-year analysis of transfusion in Operation Iraqi Freedom and Operation Enduring Freedom: Increased plasma and platelet use correlates with...coagulopathy, evaluates the effect of increased plasma and platelet (PLT) to red blood cell ratios, and analyzes other recent changes in practice

  2. Warrior Resilience Training in Operation Iraqi Freedom: combining rational emotive behavior therapy, resiliency, and positive psychology.

    PubMed

    Jarrett, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Warrior Resilience Training (WRT) is an educational class designed to enhance Warrior resilience, thriving, and posttraumatic growth for Soldiers deployed in Operation Iraqi Freedom. Warrior Resilience Training uses rational emotive behavior therapy (REBT), Army leadership principles, and positive psychology as a vehicle for students to apply resilient philosophies derived from Army Warrior Ethos, Stoic philosophy, and the survivor and resiliency literature. Students in WRT are trained to focus upon virtue, character, and emotional self-regulation by constructing and maintaining a personal resiliency philosophy that emphasizes critical thinking, rationality, virtue, and Warrior Ethos. The author, an Army licensed clinical social worker, executive coach, REBT doctoral fellow, and former Special Forces noncommissioned officer, describes his initial experience teaching WRT during Operation Iraqi Freedom to combat medics and Soldiers from 2005 to 2006, and his experience as a leader of a combat stress control prevention team currently in Iraq offering mobile WRT classes in-theater. Warrior Resilience Training rationale, curriculum, variants (like Warrior Family Resilience Training), and feedback are included, with suggestions as to how behavioral health providers and combat stress control teams might better integrate their services with leaders, chaplains, and commands to better market combat stress resiliency, reduce barriers to care, and promote force preservation. Informal analysis of class feedback from 1168 respondents regarding WRT reception and utilization is examined.

  3. Dental emergency rates at two expeditionary medical support facilities supporting operations enduring and Iraqi Freedom.

    PubMed

    Dunn, William J; Langsten, Robert E; Flores, Salvador; Fandell, Jay E

    2004-07-01

    This study reports dental emergency rates and distribution of causes of dental emergencies at two expeditionary medical support facilities supporting operations Enduring Freedom/ Iraqi Freedom. A retrospective cohort analysis of 9948 soldiers deployed to Prince Sultan Air Base, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, and 1467 soldiers at Baghdad International Airport, Iraq, was accomplished from a phased deployment from January 2003 to September 2003. Procedures were divided into 11 categories: endodontic, extraction of teeth other than third molars, extraction of third molar teeth, restoration of teeth (caries), restoration of broken teeth (not caries), orthodontic bracket/wire problem, sensitive teeth, temperomandibular pain, periodontal, oral pathology, and prosthodontic. The dental emergency rates for Prince Sultan Air Base and Baghdad International Airport were 153 and 145 dental emergencies per 1000 soldiers per year, respectively. Most of the emergencies were because of dental caries. Pain from third molars was the second most common reason for visiting the dental clinic.

  4. Lessons learned from smallpox vaccination of U.S. Navy forces before Operation Iraqi Freedom.

    PubMed

    Savitz, Scott; Stewart, Jessica

    2007-04-01

    Our objectives were to document and to analyze the U.S. Navy's smallpox vaccination program before Operation Iraqi Freedom, discerning lessons for future mass vaccination programs. This research scrutinized the challenges inherent in vaccinating approximately 40,000 personnel at diverse locations within a few weeks. We interviewed and observed participants at multiple locations throughout the vaccination process, while also collecting documentation. Subsequently, we analyzed how the Navy addressed the challenges of mass vaccination on a compressed timeline. We found that the population was vaccinated with no significant logistical challenges, few medical complications, almost no refusals, and minimal operational impact. Our analysis led us to conclude that two primary factors contributed to the vaccination program's success; both of these can be replicated in future mass vaccination programs. The first factor was a strong educational program, which repeated consistent messages via multiple communications channels. The second factor was vocal, demonstrative, high-level support for vaccination.

  5. Prolonged Exposure for Guilt and Shame in a Veteran of Operation Iraqi Freedom

    PubMed Central

    Paul, Lisa A.; Gros, Daniel F.; Strachan, Martha; Worsham, Glenna; Foa, Edna B.; Acierno, Ron

    2014-01-01

    Morally injurious events appear capable of producing posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), even though they may not involve actual or perceived life-threat or a response of fear, horror, or helplessness. Researchers have questioned whether exposure therapies can address these events. The current report presents evidence of the effectiveness of this treatment approach for addressing posttraumatic symptoms related to a morally injurious event through an illustrative case of an Operation Iraqi Freedom veteran with PTSD characterized by symptoms of guilt and shame. The veteran was successfully treated with nine sessions of prolonged exposure therapy, reporting minimal PTSD symptoms one week post-treatment and at a six-month follow-up assessment. Implications for the treatment of veterans with significant guilt and shame using exposure-based therapies, and with respect to the recent changes to the diagnostic criteria for PTSD, are discussed. PMID:25505798

  6. Perceived Stress, Heart Rate, and Blood Pressure among Adolescents with Family Members Deployed in Operation Iraqi Freedom

    PubMed Central

    Barnes, Vernon A.; Davis, Harry; Treiber, Frank A.

    2012-01-01

    This study compared the impact of the 2003 Operation Iraqi Freedom on heart rate (HR) and blood pressure (BP) and self-reported stress levels among three groups of self-categorized adolescents: 1) military dependents with family members deployed; 2) military dependents with no family members deployed; 3) civilian dependents. At the onset and end of the “major hostilities” of Operation Iraqi Freedom, 121 adolescents (mean age = 15.8 ± 1.1 years) completed questionnaires evaluating the psychological impact of the war and were evaluated for HR and BP. The military deployed dependents exhibited significantly higher HR than other groups at both evaluations (both p < 0.04). Ethnicity by group interactions indicated that European American-deployed dependents had higher stress scores at both time points (p < 0.02). Military dependent European Americans exhibited higher systolic BP compared to the other groups on the second evaluation (p < 0.03). PMID:17274264

  7. Repeated concussion among U.S. military personnel during Operation Iraqi Freedom.

    PubMed

    MacGregor, Andrew J; Dougherty, Amber L; Morrison, Rosemary H; Quinn, Kimberly H; Galarneau, Michael R

    2011-01-01

    Concussions are a predominant injury of the conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan. The aims of this study were to describe repeated concussive events among U.S. military personnel injured in Operation Iraqi Freedom and examine subsequent healthcare utilization. We reviewed clinical records from the Expeditionary Medical Encounter Database to identify service members with repeat concussions. We abstracted demographic and injury-specific variables, calculated time between events, and identified healthcare utilization from electronic medical databases. Overall, 113 personnel experienced more than one concussion between 2004 and 2008. A majority of these incidents were blast related. The median time between events was 40 days, with 20% experiencing a second event within 2 weeks of the first and 87% within 3 months. Time between events was not associated with severity of the second event. Greater severity of the second concussive event was associated with higher postinjury utilization of mental health and neurology services. This study is one of the first to describe repeated concussions in a combat setting. We found that repeated concussions occur within a short interval among deployed personnel, although the effects of the first event are unclear. Further research is needed to define the effect of repeated concussions on the health of combat veterans.

  8. A review of 41 upper extremity war injuries and the protective gear worn during Operation Enduring Freedom and Operation Iraqi Freedom.

    PubMed

    Greer, Michelle A; Miklos-Essenberg, M Elizabeth; Harrison-Weaver, Sandra

    2006-07-01

    Forty-one patients with upper extremity war injuries sustained during combat operations Operation Enduring Freedom and Operation Iraqi Freedom were reviewed to report on protective gear availability and usage at the time of injury. Participants treated at the Madigan Army Medical Center occupational therapy clinic from August 2004 until February 2005 completed a questionnaire regarding injuries sustained during deployment. Overall, 6 injuries were to upper extremity regions that were covered with issued protective gear; 21 injuries were to areas not covered with issued protective gear (i.e., participant was not wearing issued gear), and 22 injuries were to regions that were not covered because no protective gear was issued for that body area. Although this study is limited, future research would provide valuable insights about the efficacy of current body armor and the need for additional or modified gear.

  9. Operation Iraqi Freedom: An Operational Opportunity to Complete the Strategic Objectives of Desert Storm

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-05-31

    Likely anticipating a repeat of Desert Storm, Iraqi leadership expected time to further work diplomatic initiatives. Given the vocal international and...made the House of Saud a “house of cards.” The same is true for many of its neighbors. Building an independent and strong pro- Western region not only

  10. Combat experiences, pre-deployment training, and outcome of exposure therapy for post-traumatic stress disorder in Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom veterans.

    PubMed

    Price, Matthew; Gros, Daniel F; Strachan, Martha; Ruggiero, Kenneth J; Acierno, Ron

    2013-01-01

    The association between exposure to multiple potentially traumatic events (PTEs) and subsequent increased risk of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is well established. However, less is known about the relation between exposure to numerous PTEs, as is typical with military service, and treatment outcome. Furthermore, there has been little research examining military specific protective factors, such as pre-deployment preparedness, on PTSD treatment response. The current study investigated combat exposure and potential moderators of treatment outcome for exposure therapy in Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom (OEF/OIF) veterans with PTSD. One hundred and eleven OEF/OIF veterans diagnosed with PTSD participated in 8 weeks of exposure therapy. Results indicated that increased combat exposure was associated with a reduced rate of change in PTSD symptoms but not depression symptoms. These findings were consistent across two measures of combat exposure. There was preliminary support for the moderating effect of pre-deployment preparedness on the association between combat exposure and treatment response. Together, these findings suggest that increased combat exposure is associated with poor treatment response in veterans with PTSD; however, this can be reduced by elevated pre-deployment preparedness.

  11. Traumatic Brain Injury in United States Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom (OEF/OIF) Hispanic Veterans—A Review Using the PRISMA Method

    PubMed Central

    Arriola, Vanessa D.; Rozelle, Jeffrey W.

    2016-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is commonly defined by Menon et al. as an “alteration of the brain function, or other evidence of brain pathology, caused by an external force.” TBI can be caused by penetrating trauma to the head in which the magnitude of the injury is dependent on the magnitude of the forces that are applied to the head. The consequences of TBI can range from minimal to severe disability and even death. The major objectives of this systematic review are to survey the current literature on Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF) and Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF) Hispanic veterans with TBI. To complete this analysis, the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and MetaAnalysis (PRISMA) identified 875 articles in common and retrieved a total of 34 articles that met the inclusion criteria, consisted of OEF/OIF Hispanic veterans, reported quantitative data, and were conducted with adult U.S. veterans living in the United States. Since TBI diagnosis was unclear in most articles, only five articles that used the VATBIST instrument were analyzed. The results suggested that there is a lack of research on OEF/OIF Hispanic veterans and Hispanic subgroups. Future studies need to be conducted to consider minority groups while analyzing data involving TBI. PMID:26771647

  12. Showtime: An Analysis of the Embedded News Media Program During the Pre-Combat and the Combat Phases of Operation Iraqi Freedom

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-05-26

    Network . 50 Margaret Belknap, The CNN Effect, p. 7. 51 General (Ret) Colin Powell with Joseph Perisco, My American Journey (New York: Random House...Enduring Freedom, helped blaze the path for a large-scale, embedded media program in Operation Iraqi Freedom. Reeder inferred that when journalists were...that needs an answer. Did the networks and publics from countries other than the United States welcome the reports of embedded media? And, were the

  13. Combined PTSD and depressive symptoms interact with post-deployment social support to predict suicidal ideation in Operation Enduring Freedom and Operation Iraqi Freedom veterans.

    PubMed

    Debeer, Bryann B; Kimbrel, Nathan A; Meyer, Eric C; Gulliver, Suzy B; Morissette, Sandra B

    2014-05-30

    Rates of suicide are alarmingly high in military and veteran samples. Suicide rates are particularly elevated among those with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression, which share overlapping symptoms and frequently co-occur. Identifying and confirming factors that reduce, suicide risk among veterans with PTSD and depression is imperative. The proposed study evaluated, whether post-deployment social support moderated the influence of PTSD-depression symptoms on, suicidal ideation among Veterans returning from Iraq and Afghanistan using state of the art clinical, diagnostic interviews and self-report measures. Operations Enduring and Iraqi Freedom (OEF/OIF) Veterans (n=145) were invited to, participate in a study evaluating returning Veterans׳ experiences. As predicted, PTSD-depression, symptoms had almost no effect on suicidal ideation (SI) when post-deployment social support was high; however, when, post-deployment social support was low, PTSD-depression symptoms were positively associated with, SI. Thus, social support may be an important factor for clinicians to assess in the context of PTSD and, depressive symptoms. Future research is needed to prospectively examine the inter-relationship, between PTSD/depression and social support on suicidal risk, as well as whether interventions to, improve social support result in decreased suicidality.

  14. Effectiveness of Stability Operations During the Initial Implementation of the Transition Phase for Operation Iraqi Freedom

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-05-31

    www.ceto.quantico.usmc.mil/studies/Post-SaddamIraq.pdf; Internet; accessed 15 November 2003. 17 Eric Schmitt and Joel Brinkley , “Study Foresaw Trouble Now Plaguing...LTG (Ret) Jay M. Garner, news briefing, ABC News, 26 November 2003. 60 Schmitt and Brinkley . 61 Elliott. 62 William Booth, “In Najaf, New Mayor is...68 Schmitt and Brinkley . 69 Field Manual 3-0, 5-4. 70 Joint Pub 3-07.3, I-8 to I-9. 71 Joint Task Force Commander’s Handbook For Peace Operations

  15. Expanding a professional dental care system: experiences of Task Force 261 Multifunctional Medical Battalion during Operation Iraqi Freedom 07-09.

    PubMed

    Christopher, Frank L; Smith, Gregory M; Cobb, James W; Patterson, Craig G; Smith, Mark A; Pollard, Jennifer A

    2008-01-01

    During Operation Iraqi Freedom 07-09, Task Force 261 Multifunctional Medical Battalion managed an extensive dental care system stretching throughout the Iraq theater of operations. We illustrate several of the unique challenges faced by Task Force 261's headquarters and its dental and area support companies, and describe the remedies emplaced by the Task Force. Personnel structure, the evacuation chain, supply and facility management, dental civil-military operations, detainee care, information technology applications, and public health initiatives are discussed in detail.

  16. Now and Then: Combat Casualty Care Policies for Operation Iraqi Freedom and Operation Enduring Freedom Compared With Those of Vietnam

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-02-01

    Hemostatic Dressing In September 2005, in a policy entitled “Individual Sol- dier Hemostatic Dressing ”, the OTSG approved the chitosan hemostatic dressing ... chitosan -based hemostatic dressing : experience in current combat operations. J Trauma. 2006;60:655–658. 27. McManus J, Hurtado T, Pusateri A, Knoop KJ. A...to document lessons learned, and to study the impact of new wounding mechanisms, whether it be the Pungi sticks and mines of Vietnam or the types of

  17. Injury Severity and Causes of Death from Operation Iraqi Freedom and Operation Enduring Freedom: 2003-2004 Versus 2006

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-02-01

    on the chitosan -based hemostatic dressing : experience in current combat operations. J Trauma. 2006;60:655–658. 5. Holcomb JB. The 2004 Fitts Lecture...Defense has enacted numerous evidence-based pol- icies and clinical practice guidelines. We hypothesized that the severity of wounds has increased over...injury severity and number of wounds per casualty. Truncal hemorrhage is the leading cause of poten- tially survivable deaths. Arguably, the suc- cess of

  18. Over-reporting bias and the modified Stroop effect in Operation Enduring and Iraqi Freedom veterans with and without PTSD.

    PubMed

    Constans, Joseph I; Kimbrell, Timothy A; Nanney, John T; Marx, Brian P; Jegley, Susan; Pyne, Jeffrey M

    2014-02-01

    The current study investigated in a sample of Operation Enduring and Iraqi Freedom (OEF/OIF) veterans how a symptom overreporting response style might influence the association between PTSD diagnostic status and color-naming response latency for trauma-related stimuli during the Modified Stroop Task (i.e., the Modified Stroop Task effect, MST effect). It was hypothesized that, if an overreporting response style reflected feigning or exaggerating PTSD symptoms, an attenuated MST effect would be expected in overreporters with PTSD as compared with PTSD-diagnosed veterans without an overreporting style. If, however, overreporting stemmed from high levels of distress, the MST effect might be greater in overreporters compared with those with a neutral response style. The results showed that veterans with PTSD and an overreporting response style demonstrated an augmented MST effect in comparison with those with a more neutral style of response. Overreporters also reported greater levels of psychopathology, including markedly elevated reports of dissociative experiences. We suggest that dissociation-prone overreporters may misattribute emotional distress to combat experiences leading to the enhanced MST effect. Other possible explanations for these results are also discussed.

  19. Association of parental status and diagnosis of posttraumatic stress disorder among veterans of Operations Iraqi and Enduring Freedom.

    PubMed

    Janke-Stedronsky, Shonda R; Greenawalt, David S; Stock, Eileen M; Tsan, Jack Y; MacCarthy, Andrea A; MacCarthy, Daniel J; Copeland, Laurel A

    2016-01-01

    Research indicates that concerns about disruption of family relationships during military service may be associated with greater posttraumatic stress symptomatology. The current study sought to extend previous findings by examining the relative odds of a posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) diagnosis among Operations Enduring and Iraqi Freedom (OEF/OIF) veterans with dependent children versus veterans without dependent children. Administrative databases were queried to identify 36,334 OEF/OIF veterans with dependent children seeking care in the Veterans Health Administration (VA) during fiscal years 2006-2009. These veterans were matched 1:1 on age, gender, and demobilization date to veterans without dependent children (N = 72,668). In unconditional analyses, OEF/OIF veterans with dependent children versus those without were significantly more likely to incur a PTSD diagnosis (44% vs. 28%). After controlling for demographic variables, mental health utilization, and other serious mental illness, OEF/OIF veterans with dependent children were about 40% more likely to carry a diagnosis of PTSD. The association was stronger for men than for women. It may be of value for clinicians to consider parental status when assessing and treating veterans with PTSD. In-depth study of OEF/OIF veterans is needed to determine whether disruption of family relationships leads to increased psychological stress or parents are more likely than nonparents to seek VA mental health services for PTSD symptoms.

  20. Perceived burden in spouses of National Guard/Reserve service members deployed during Operations Enduring and Iraqi Freedom.

    PubMed

    Caska, Catherine M; Renshaw, Keith D

    2011-04-01

    Spouses of combat veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) experience elevated psychological distress. Recent research indicates that spouses' perceptions of burden may be one mechanism of such distress, but there are several gaps in this literature. No research has examined perceived burden in relation to symptoms other than PTSD or subclinical levels of psychological distress, and very little research has focused on characteristics of spouses that may be related to their perceptions of burden. The current study examined these variables in 130 spouses of reserve component troops deployed during Operations Enduring/Iraqi Freedom. Spouses' burden was positively associated with symptoms of PTSD, depression, and anxiety in service members, regardless of clinical severity. Moreover, burden fully mediated the relation between each type of symptom and spouses' own psychological distress. Furthermore, levels of burden were significantly related to spouses' neuroticism, avoidant coping, and self-efficacy, but only avoidant coping remained a significant predictor of burden when accounting for service members' distress. These results suggest that a broad range of service members' symptoms are related to spouses' burden and distress, and although individual characteristics of spouses may be related to their perceptions of burden, service members' symptoms play a primary role.

  1. Effects of Escitalopram on Autonomic Function in Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Among Veterans of Operations Enduring Freedom and Iraqi Freedom (OEF/OIF)

    PubMed Central

    Selvaraj, Vithyalakshmi; Driscoll, David; Madabushi, Jayakrishna S.; Bhatia, Subhash C.; Yeragani, Vikram

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Posttraumatic stress disorder is a chronic, debilitating condition that has become a growing concern among combat veterans. Previous research suggests that posttraumatic stress disorder disrupts normal autonomic responding and may increase the risk of cardiovascular disease and mortality. Measures of heart rate variability and QT interval variability have been used extensively to characterize sympathetic and parasympathetic influences on heart rate in a variety of psychiatric populations. The objective of this study was to better understand the effects of pharmacological treatment on autonomic reactivity in posttraumatic stress disorder. Design: A 12-week, Phase IV, prospective, open-label trial of escitalopram in veterans with combat-related posttraumatic stress disorder and comorbid depression. Setting: An outpatient mental health clinic at a Veterans Affairs Medical Center. Participants: Eleven male veterans of Operations Enduring Freedom and Iraqi Freedom diagnosed with posttraumatic stress disorder and comorbid depression. Measurements: Autonomic reactivity was measured by examining heart rate variability and QT interval variability. Treatment safety and efficacy were also evaluated pre- and post-treatment. Results: We observed a reduction in posttraumatic stress disorder and depression symptoms from pre- to post-treatment, and escitalopram was generally well tolerated in our sample. In addition, we observed a decrease in high frequency heart rate variability and an increase in QT variability, indicating a reduction in cardiac vagal function and heightened sympathetic activation. Conclusion: These findings suggest that escitalopram treatment in patients with posttraumatic stress disorder and depression can trigger changes in autonomic reactivity that may adversely impact cardiovascular health. PMID:26155373

  2. The Joint Medical Workstation (JMeWS) database in 2003: intradeployment health encounters of military personnel supporting Operations Enduring Freedom and Iraqi Freedom.

    PubMed

    Hooper, Tomoko I; DeBakey, Samar F; Bellis, Kimberly S; Cox, Kenneth L; Gackstetter, Gary D

    2008-02-01

    The Joint Medical Work Station (JMeWS) is a theater medical surveillance system that integrates information from three separate health data collection systems for the Army, Navy, Air Force, and Marines. Our objective was to characterize JMeWS data during its first year of implementation in 2003. We conducted a descriptive analysis of health events documented in JMeWS among military personnel deployed to Operations Enduring Freedom and Iraqi Freedom. Among the 38,498 individuals (7.8%) with a JMeWS record, women, college-educated, older individuals, and Reserve/Guard personnel were over-represented. There was wide variability by service (Air Force, 25%; Army, 5.5%; Marine Corps, 1.2%; and Navy, 0.6%). The most common diagnoses were in the categories of injury and poisoning, respiratory conditions, and musculoskeletal disorders. Differences in distribution of the various patient encounter modules in theater likely resulted in variable data capture across services. System enhancements should improve future applications.

  3. Iraqi Resistance to Freedom: A Frommian Perspective

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-01-01

    democracy. But 21st-century peer pressure is somewhat dif- ferent from that of the period with which Fromm was familiar. A more recent and powerful...there will be less resis- tance. It worked for postwar Europe—it can work again for Iraq.75 Freedom in “e-Conformity”? Fromm pointed out that peer ... pressure is a powerful force in gaining and retaining conformity, which will be a necessary and important tool in establishing a post-Saddam Iraqi

  4. Thoracic Injuries in US Combat Casualties: A 10-Year Review of Operation Enduring Freedom and Iraqi Freedom

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-01-01

    Freedom (OEF/OIF). METHODS: Data on US soldiers with a thoracic injury during OEF/OIF from January 2003 to May 2011 was collected from the Joint Theater...casualties (Fig. 1). Before World War I (WWI), the mortality rate from these wounds exceeded 50%. Positive-pressure ventilation was introduced in the late...are not easily identified from the civilian population, and most attacks on US military forces use mortar and improvised explosive devices rather

  5. Arthritis, comorbidities and care utilization in veterans of Operations Enduring and Iraqi Freedom.

    PubMed

    Rivera, Jessica C; Amuan, Megan E; Morris, Ruth M; Johnson, Anthony E; Pugh, Mary Jo

    2016-06-03

    Veteran populations are known to have frequencies of arthritis higher than civilian populations. The aim of this study is to define the prevalence of arthritis among a cohort of veterans from ongoing U.S. military operations. A retrospective cohort study using Veterans Administration data sources for service connected disability, comorbidities, clinic utilization, and pharmacy utilization was conducted including veterans who deployed in service to operations in Afghanistan or Iraq, comparing veterans with a diagnosis of arthritis, arthritis plus back pain, and veterans with no pain diagnoses. The frequency of arthritis was 11.8%. Veterans with arthritis and arthritis plus back pain had greater frequencies of diabetes, hyperlipidemia, hypertension, and obesity compare to veterans with no pain diagnosis. Veterans with arthritis plus back pain had the highest pain clinic utilization and prescription use of opioids and anti-inflammatories. Veterans with no pain diagnosis had higher frequencies of diagnosis and clinic utilization for mental health disorders. Arthritis is prevalent among the latest generation of combat veterans and is associated with diabetes, obesity, and cardiovascular comorbidities. The need for arthritis care and associated comorbidities is expected to increase as the Veterans Administration and the civilian health care sector assumes care of these veterans. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  6. Estimation of the Joint Patient Condition Occurrence Frequencies from Operation Iraqi Freedom and Operation Enduring Freedom. Volume I: Development of Methodology

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-28

    Freedom Volume 1: Development of Methodology James Zouris Edwin D’Souza Trevor Elkins Jay Walker Vern Wing Carrie Brown Document No. 11-9I...and Operation Enduring Freedom Volume I: Development of Methodology James Zouris Edwin D’Souza Trevor Elkins Jay Walker Vern Wing ...Closed FRAC CL SHOULDER & UPPER ARM 811 Fracture of Scapula , Closed FRAC CL SHOULDER & UPPER ARM 812 Fracture of Unspecified Part of Upper End of

  7. A Network-Centric Operations Case Study: US/UK Coalition Combat Operations During Operation Iraqi Freedom

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-03-02

    correlate well with the physical elements of the joint operational picture ( JOP )13 that includes other elements of situational awareness such as NBC...fires, logistics and meteorology. Command intent is included to set the context for the need for situational awareness. The layers of the JOP are...highlighted in Figure 3.6.2-1. METOC Enemy / Intel Friendly Fires Coord NBC Logistics Neutrals Geospatial Framework JOP Figure 3.6.2-1, The UK Joint

  8. Capability enhancement and amputee care in Operation Iraqi Freedom: The role of a rehabilitation and prosthetics assistance team in reconstruction operations.

    PubMed

    Scherer, Matthew

    2009-05-01

    Defining the role of the U.S. Army Rehabilitation and Prosthetic Assistance Team in reconstruction operations was a key component of this first of its kind Army Medical Department (AMEDD) mission in a combat theater of operations. In the tradition of civil-military operations, a five-man team trained 11 Iraqi rehabilitation and prosthetic providers on best clinical, technical, and business practices to manage the nation's growing amputee population. The team instructed, assisted, and supervised Iraqi clinicians in the delivery of prosthetic and rehabilitation services to 124 patients over 350 patient clinical visits. After a successful transition from Multi-National Force-Iraq oversight to the Iraqi Ministry of Defense (MoD), the premier prosthetics and rehabilitation clinic in Iraq now provides services to patients from current and past conflicts, including civilians and pediatric patients.

  9. Bacterial species diversity in cigarettes linked to an investigation of severe pneumonitis in U.S. Military personnel deployed in operation iraqi freedom.

    PubMed

    Rooney, Alejandro P; Swezey, James L; Wicklow, Donald T; McAtee, Matthew J

    2005-07-01

    This report presents results from a study on the bacterial diversity of cigarette brands collected from military personnel during the U.S. Army's investigation of a series of cases of acute eosinophilic pneumonitis in military personnel deployed in Operation Iraqi Freedom. Eight species of Bacillus, including five new species, and one new species of Kurthia were isolated from the cigarettes. Some of these species have been identified elsewhere as causes of hypersensitivity pneumonitis and other respiratory syndromes. All of the isolates were facultative anaerobes, and many displayed mucoid growth under anaerobic conditions. In addition, many isolates also displayed the ability to form surface biofilms under liquid culture. Although biofilm formation and mucoid growth were not correlated, the former was found to be much more pronounced under anaerobic conditions as opposed to aerobic ones. The implications of these findings are discussed.

  10. Comparing the Neuropsychological Test Performance of Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom (OEF/OIF) Veterans with and without Blast Exposure, Mild Traumatic Brain Injury, and Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms.

    PubMed

    Storzbach, Daniel; O'Neil, Maya Elin; Roost, Saw-Myo; Kowalski, Halina; Iverson, Grant L; Binder, Laurence M; Fann, Jesse R; Huckans, Marilyn

    2015-05-01

    To compare neuropsychological test performance of Veterans with and without mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI), blast exposure, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. We compared the neuropsychological test performance of 49 Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom (OEF/OIF) Veterans diagnosed with MTBI resulting from combat blast-exposure to that of 20 blast-exposed OEF/OIF Veterans without history of MTBI, 23 OEF/OIF Veterans with no blast exposure or MTBI history, and 40 matched civilian controls. Comparison of neuropsychological test performance across all four participant groups showed a complex pattern of mixed significant and mostly nonsignificant results, with omnibus tests significant for measures of attention, spatial abilities, and executive function. The most consistent pattern was the absence of significant differences between blast-exposed Veterans with MTBI history and blast-exposed Veterans without MTBI history. When blast-exposed Veteran groups with and without MTBI history were aggregated and compared to non-blast-exposed Veterans, there were significant differences for some measures of learning and memory, spatial abilities, and executive function. However, covariation for severity of PTSD symptoms eliminated all significant omnibus neuropsychological differences between Veteran groups. Our results suggest that, although some mild neurocognitive effects were associated with blast exposure, these neurocognitive effects might be better explained by PTSD symptom severity rather than blast exposure or MTBI history alone.

  11. Learning from Our Military History: The United States Army, Operation Iraqi Freedom, and the Potential for Operational Art and Thinking

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-06-14

    tradition in war and how it influences the way the US and the Army actually fights. In his book The American Way of War, historian Russell Weigley...CJTF-7.201 The US Army’s V Corps would assume command of CJTF-7 in May, with Lieutenant General (LTG) Ricardo Sanchez replacing LTG William Wallace as...unconstrained in the implementation of their 228James A. Russell , Innovation, Transformation, and War: Counterinsurgency Operations in Anbar and Ninewa

  12. A Review of the First 10 Years of Critical Care Aeromedical Transport During Operation Iraqi Freedom and Operation Enduring Freedom The Importance of Evacuation Timing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-25

    person team(an intensive careunit [ ICU ] physician, ICU nurse, and respiratory therapist) with a self- carriedequipment set capableof supporting the...The care process en route begins at the point of wounding and continues through the delivery of the pa- tient to rehabilitation centers back in the...fa- cilities evolved along with limited ICU capabilities. Solutions were continually advanced and operational strategies modi- fied tomeet the

  13. Hospitalization and Medical Evacuation of Army Personnel Due to Toxic Inhalational Exposure-Operations Iraqi Freedom and Enduring Freedom, 2001 Through Mid 2011

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-01-01

    prevalence of self- reported exposure to the smoke and self-reported symp- toms of asthma and bronchitis . That association did not hold when modeled...exposures during military operations is not new, how- ever. In fact, some personnel have received treatment due to environ- mental exposures during...asthma and bronchitis among gulf war veterans. Environ Health Perspect. 2002;110(11):1141-1146. Petruccelli BP, Goldenbaum M, Scott B, et al. 11

  14. Naval Coastal Warfare Operations from 2000 to Operation Iraqi Freedom and the Deficiencies that Prompted their Addition to the Naval Expeditionary Combat Command

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-11-02

    the historical information will be drawn from personal recollection, personal journals and live interviews. In addition, written transcripts taken from...and troubleshoot problems in live operations during a short two week period of time. Two weeks per year is not much time, especially when one considers...51 Admiral W.C. Marsh.13 The living area we were initially assigned to was located at Camp Arifjan, a U.S. Army staging area several miles inland

  15. Naval Coastal Warfare Operations from 2000 to Operation Iraqi Freedom and the Deficiencies that Prompted their Addition to the Naval Expeditionary Combat Command

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-12-03

    and live interviews. In addition, written transcripts taken from interviews that were conducted during the first few months of OIF will also be...coordinate, cooperate and troubleshoot problems in live operations during a short two week period of time. Two weeks per year is not much time...as Commander Task Group 51.9 (CTG 51.9) who worked directly for Commander Task Force 51 Admiral W.C. Marsh.13 The living area we were initially

  16. American Military Barrier War Paint, Camp Buehring, Kuwait: A Discovery of Troop Identity, Values, and Warfighting Attributes as They Deployed into Combat for Operation Iraqi Freedom

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-05-21

    appendages and a scorpion stinger. In an Area of Operation known for scorpions and camel spiders, biting or stinging insects were high on the list of... scorpion image as representation. In addition, the unit honors team members by identifying their names. The barrier, like that of the Class 25 MiTT

  17. There Are No New Lessons Learned, Just Old Lessons Relearned: A Case Study of Operation Iraqi Freedom Through the Eyes of Maslow

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-04-05

    Abraham Maslow , a renowned American psychologist, prioritized human needs into four categories and his theory suggests that humans are motivated by...addressed through examination of other COIN and reconstruction operations. Endnotes 1 Abraham H. Maslow , Motivation and Personality, 3rd ed. (New...a basic understanding of Islam and provided a great contextual background for research. Maslow , Abraham H. Motivation and Personality, 3rd ed. New

  18. Task Force Able Supporting Operation Iraqi Freedom

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-09-01

    standoff—was particularly useful. Figure 4, page 16, shows the Buffalo and the Meerkat mine detection systems. UXO and Captured Enemy Ammunition Iraq is...Protection Measures Used by Task Force Able 16 Engineer July-September 2004 Figure 4. Buffalo (left) and Meerkat (right) Mine Detection Systems

  19. Operation Iraqi Freedom 06-08

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-02-14

    separation from small children , "what kills me is that my son was born in July and I wasn’t there for the birth and he started crawling 2 months after...ROEs and potential investigations, as said by one Soldier, "it (15-6 investigations) adds that extra second-do I really want to do this fucking ...Amos, T., Doyle, U., Tomenson, B., Woodman, M. (1996). General practitioners and young suicides: a preventive role for primary care. British Journal

  20. Battlefield Extremity Injuries in Operation Iraqi Freedom

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-01

    Applications International Corporation, San Diego, CA, United States bDepartment of Medical Modeling, Simulation, and Mission Support, Naval Health Research...of extremity injury was indicated by one or more of the extremity International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision, ClinicalModification (ICD-9...upper arm 810–812, 831, 840, 880, 887(.2–.3), 912, Forearm and elbow 813, 832, 841, 881(.x0–.x1), 887(.0–.1), 9 Wrist, hand, and fingers 814–817, 833

  1. Optical and physical characterization of "Iraqi freedom" dust storm, a case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saeed, Thuraya M.; Al-Dashti, Hassan

    2011-05-01

    Kuwait was exposed to a severe dust storm on 19 March 2003, the eve of operation "Iraqi Freedom". Three days of dust events (19, 26, 27 March) were analyzed for their aerosol optical and physical properties using ground-based and satellite-retrieved measurements. Ground-based measurements of aerosol optical depth (or thickness; AOD or AOT) at 675 nm, τ 657, Ångstrom coefficient α 936/657, particulate matter of diameter 10 μm or less, PM10 (μg/m3), and meteorological parameters were analyzed for March 2003. AOT exceeded 3 for the 3 days of interest and PM10 concentrations reached as high value as 2,457 μg/m3 on 19 March dust storm day. Retrieved aerosol characteristics from space using Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) on board Terra and Aqua satellite were examined against ground-based measurements. A strong correlation was found between ground-based measurements of τ 675 and the Terra-MODIS retrieved AOD550. The synoptic of the dust storm were analyzed and source regions were identified using back trajectory analysis and Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer Aerosol Index.

  2. Force XXI Battle Command Brigade and Below-Blue Force Tracking (FBCB2-BFT). A Case Study in the Accelerated Acquisition of a Digital Command and Control System during Operations Enduring Freedom and Iraqi Freedom

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-12-01

    Command CIB Controlled Image Base COA Course of Action COTS Commercial off the Shelf CP Command Post CPX Command Post Exercise CTIS Combat Terrain...Command Brigade and Below FCS Future Combat System FRP Full Rate Production FY Fiscal Year G3 Deputy Chief of Staff for Operations and Training...Graphic User Interface HTI Horizontal Technology Insertion IMETS Integrated Meteorological System IMTF Information Management Task Force IOT &E

  3. Projects to Develop the Iraqi Special Operations Forces

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-25

    coordination centers, 18 Broadband Global Area Network ( BGAN ) kits were provided to the Iraqis. However, according to an INCTF-TT official, these...the 18 BGAN kits cannot be located. Each BGAN system costs $54,000, and together the 18 kits comprise nearly $1 million dollars worth of equipment...that is not being used or has been lost. Overall, INCTF-TT officials believe that the Iraqis may not be using the BGAN systems because of the high

  4. Space Station Freedom operations planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Accola, Anne L.; Keith, Bryant

    1989-01-01

    The Space Station Freedom program is developing an operations planning structure which assigns responsibility for planning activities to three tiers of management. The strategic level develops the policy, goals and requirements for the program over a five-year horizon. Planning at the tactical level emphasizes program integration and planning for a two-year horizon. The tactical planning process, architecture, and products have been documented and discussed with the international partners. Tactical planning includes the assignment of user and system hardware as well as significant operational events to a time increment (the period of time from the arrival of one Shuttle to the manned base to the arrival of the next). Execution-level planning emphasizes implementation, and each organization produces detailed plans, by increment, that are specific to its function.

  5. Operation Iraqi Freedom: Strategies, Approaches, Results, and Issues for Congress

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-12-15

    Turkmen in Iraq’s neighboring state Turkey, sometimes use inflammatory language to stir up tensions in the city.8 A second major challenge concerns how...towns by June 30, 2009, and for the withdrawal of all U.S. forces from Iraq by December 31, 2011.15 This language is a stricter version of earlier...launching or transit point for attacks against other countries.”16 The strategic framework agreement, which echoes this language , also provides that

  6. Hired Guns: Views about Armed Contractors in Operation Iraqi Freedom

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    the world. RAND’s publications do not necessarily reflect the opinions of its research clients and sponsors. R ® is a registered trademark...under copyright law. For information on reprint and linking permissions, please visit the R AND permissions page (http://www.rand.org/ publications...broader range of tasks and deploying in greater numbers within the theater than ever before ( Kidwell , 2005). Prompted by its experience in Vietnam

  7. On Point: The United States Army in Operation Iraqi Freedom

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-01-01

    come to grips with what happened and what it meant. For all of these reasons, those of us who wrote On Point depended upon help from many people to...shepherds.88 The two battalions’ pincer movements into the city appeared to force some pro-Saddam forces to flee from the north end of As Samawah. However...the way, both instinctively raising their hands to wave as they turned. Shock and horror gripped the two as they realized they were waving at a pair

  8. Epidemiology of Nephrolithiasis in Personnel Returning from Operation Iraqi Freedom

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-01

    16 A study of twins determined that urine char- cteristics, such as urinary calcium , oxalate , citrate, and uric cid, were highly heritable.15 The...revalence or incidence. An increase in urine calcium as reported in a small group of British naval personnel eployed to the Gulf Region during the summer...Urol. 1993;150:1757-1760. 4. Robertson WG, Peacock M, Heyburn PJ, et al. Epidemiological risk factors in calcium stone disease. Scand J Urol Nephrol

  9. Analyzing Contingency Contracting Purchases for Operation Iraqi Freedom (Unrestricted Version)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-01-01

    AND HEALTH CARE INTERNATIONAL AFFAIRS NATIONAL SECURITY POPULATION AND AGING PUBLIC SAFETY SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY SUBSTANCE ABUSE TERRORISM AND... care of cavalry horses for the Continental Army during the Revolutionary War (Cahlink, 2003). While the history of contracted support to U.S. military...and correcting errors can be time-consuming, and researchers must be careful to weigh the value added against the resources required to correct the

  10. Decisionmaking in Operation Iraqi Freedom: Removing Saddam Hussein by Force

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-02-01

    threatened to destabilize the vital oil-producing Southwest Asia region. In 1980 Saddam Hussein, the brutal dictator of Iraq, decided to invade Iran, his...Hussein simply was too entrenched to be removed without massive and direct U.S. involvement.10 This demonstrated a long- standing component of U.S...had played only a minor 13 part in the 2000 presidential campaign. It seldom came up in speeches and debates, even ones dealing with international

  11. Infections in Combat Casualties During Operations Iraqi and Enduring Freedom

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-04-01

    2 482.31 Group A Streptococcus pneumonia 1 482.41 Pneumonia Staphylococcus aureus 1 482.82 E. coli pneumonia 1 482.83 Gram-negative pneumonia 10...Bacterial meningitis 2 322.9 Meningitis unspecified 4 Lung 465.9 Acute upper respiratory infection 3 481 Pneumococcal pneumonia 9 482.1 Pseudomonas pneumonia ...482.89 Bacterial pneumonia 11 486 Pneumonia organism unspecified 35 510.9 Empyema without fistula 10 V46.1 Dependence on respirator 12 Skin/wound 519.01

  12. Decisionmaking in Operation Iraqi Freedom: The Strategic Shift of 2007

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-05-01

    them and will exist after them, they are less consumed with leaving their personal mark on history than on being the steward of their Service. The...enemies and allies. Lesser powers, which play a smaller role in determining the rules of behavior for regional or global security systems, are less...the Surge,” Commentary, April 2008, p. 25. 17. Letter to President Bush signed by Harry Reid, Nancy Pelosi, Dick Durbin, Steny Hoyer , Carl Levin, Ike

  13. Developing Adaptive Leaders: The Crucible Experience of Operation Iraqi Freedom

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-07-01

    must learn it all over again in a different way every 24 hours.15 Mark Twain Life on the Mississippi Complex Roles. Complexity for a junior leader in...this monograph a reality. 15. Mark Twain , Life on the Mississippi, Cambridge, MA: University Press, 1883, p. 105. 16. Unless otherwise noted

  14. A Comparison of Operation Iraqi Freedom and The Algerian War

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-04-23

    22 Alyssa J. Rubin, and John F. Burns, “U.S. forms an uneasy alliance with Sunnis; Military...New York, NY: Enigma Books, 2004), 129. 29 Chalmers Johnson, “Responding to Terrorism Without Committing Terrorism,” George Mason University’s...Committing Terrorism.” George Mason University’s History News Network, 1 October 2001. http://historynewsnetwork.org/articles/article.html?id=317

  15. Analyzing Contingency Contracting Purchases for Operation Iraqi Freedom (Unrestricted Version)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-01-01

    Planning and Execution Capa- bilities Within the Joint Expeditionary Movement System, Robert S. Tripp , Kristin F. Lynch, Charles Robert Roll, Jr., John G...Drew, and Patrick Mills (MG-377-AF). Strategic Analysis of Air National Guard Combat Support and Reachback Functions, Robert S. Tripp , Kristin F...to-End Support Considerations, John G. Drew, Russell D . Shaver, Kristin F. Lynch, Mahyar A. Amouzegar, and Don Snyder (MG-350-AF). Supporting Air

  16. Operation Iraqi Freedom: Strategies, Approaches, Results, and Issues for Congress

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-03-28

    including logistics and communications. The Marines were assigned the eastern route up to Baghdad — with more urban areas than the Army’s western route...members of the paramilitary force Saddam Fedayeen and others still loyal to the Ba’ath Party. To limit casualties in the large urban area, rather than...allowing the 3ID to move as quickly as possible. Soldiers from the 101st faced fighting in key urban areas — Hillah, Najaf, Karbala. Just after mid

  17. Operation Iraqi Freedom: Strategies, Approaches, Results, and Issues for Congress

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-09-22

    district and local levels, compared with the limited number of U.S. civilian experts, means that in practice, the military continues to play a strong...MNC-I officials, Baghdad, August 2008. 21 Interviews with U.S. civilian and military officials, Baghdad, August 2008. See for example Stephen Biddle...personnel and equipment from Iraq, and both the willingness and capacity of neighboring states to provide access and transit. Troop Drawdown Schools of

  18. Operation Iraqi Freedom: Strategies, Approaches, Results, and Issues for Congress

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-02-22

    capabilities including logistics and communications. The Marines were assigned the eastern route up to Baghdad — with more urban areas than the Army’s western...from members of the paramilitary force Saddam Fedayeen and others still loyal to the Ba’ath Party. To limit casualties in the large urban area, rather...to move as quickly as possible. Soldiers from the 101st faced fighting in key urban areas — Hillah, Najaf, Karbala. Just after mid-April, the division

  19. The Impact of Operation Iraqi Freedom on Building Future Coalitions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-02-11

    illenniumgoals/, accessed 2 Oct 07. 10 United Nations. Statement by the President of the Security Council, 28 Aug 07. 11 Buzan, Barry & Gonzalez- Pelaez ...Barracks:Winter 2003/2004. Vol. 33, Iss. 4, Pp. 67. 33 Buzan, Barry & Gonzalez- Pelaez , Ana. “International community’ after Iraq

  20. Evolution of Burn Resuscitation in Operation Iraqi Freedom

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-10-01

    and weather conditions, which hamper both air and ground evacuation. Burned soldiers re- quiring intravenous fluid ( IVF ) resuscitation pose a logistic...problem for medical personnel accompanying them. Carrying adequate quantities of IVF without compromising unit mobility has been continuing challenge...clinical end- points, such as mentation and palpable radial pulse to decrease or stop infusion of IVF .23 Although a stan- dardized prehospital guideline

  1. Strategic Reflections: Operation Iraqi Freedom, July 2004-February 2007

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-10-01

    only four of Iraq’s provinces (Anbar, Baghdad, Saladin , and Diyala) had averaged more than 10 reported attacks per day in the 6-month period from May...113 safe haven elimination Fallujah, 42 Najaf, 40 Saladin Province, 140 Samarra bombing, 89–96 Sanchez, Ricardo, LTG USA, 20, 22 Schoomaker, Peter J

  2. Preparing for the Chemical, Biological, Radiological and Nuclear (CBRN) Threat Within the Contemporary Operating Environment (COE)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    20 Chapter 3: CBRN Support for OPERATIONS ENDURING FREEDOM, NOBLE EAGLE...structure, the monograph assesses the impact and effectiveness of the CBRN organizations that supported OPERATION ENDURING FREEDOM and OPERATION IRAQI...2) What assets were deployed in support of OPERATION ENDURING FREEDOM and OPERATION IRAQI FREEDOM? What was their impact? (3) What were the

  3. Iraqi Perspectives Project. A View of Operation Iraqi Freedom from Saddam’s Senior Leadership

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-01-01

    away from the Christian West and towards Baghdad, which they had then sacked, leaving a vast pyramid of skulls in their wake. As Saddam explained...Project over the remains of the ancient ruins, resulting in irrecoverable damage to one of the world’s greatest archeological treasures. Almost from...military career fi eld because of the measures taken by the political leadership by which they alienated the people (the regime was a constant threat to

  4. Operation Iraqi Freedom: Preliminary Observations on Iraqi Security Forces’ Logistical Capabilities

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-03-09

    to a penalty for failing to comply with a collection of information if it does not display a currently valid OMB control number. 1. REPORT DATE 09...PERSON a . REPORT unclassified b. ABSTRACT unclassified c. THIS PAGE unclassified Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18...on Oversight and Investigations The National Strategy for Victory in Iraq, issued in November 2005, implies a conditions-based linkage between

  5. Fixed-wing Aircraft Combat Survivability Analysis for Operation Enduring Freedom and Operation Iraqi Freedom

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-01

    Battle Damage 9 1-6 Risk Assessment Matrix 14 2-1 Aircraft Survivability Balance 16 2-2 One vs. One Kill Chain ...Single Shot) 19 2-3 Hypothetical Kill Chain Illustrating an Insurgent vs. Aircraft 20 2-4 Keys to the AEF Vision 24 2-5...early days of the war, the Italian Army Air Corps conducted a bombing raid on a Turkish camp at Ain Zara , Libya. Figure 1-1 shows a replica of a

  6. Traumatic Brain Injury: Care and Treatment of Operation Enduring Freedom and Operation Iraqi Freedom Veterans

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-11-25

    addition to physical symptoms , mental health diagnoses such as PTSD, depression , and anxiety are common for TBI patients, as is substance abuse.8 These... individuals who have sustained a mild TBI may include increased rest, refraining from certain physical activities, management of symptoms , and education... symptoms , among other health conditions. However, DOD post- deployment discharge screening of servicemembers may not identify individuals with latent

  7. Operation Iraqi Freedom 06-08: Iraq. Operation Enduring Freedom 8: Afghanistan

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-02-14

    before their deployment and it doesn’t last." For some interviewees, another stressor was the separation from small children , "what kills me is that...Soldier, "it (15-6 investigations) adds that extra second-do I really want to do this fucking paperwork. I shot a guy in December and I came back from...General practitioners and young suicides: a preventive role for primary care. British Journal ofpsychiatry, 168, 330-333. Belenky, G., Wesensten, N

  8. 76 FR 73022 - Agency Information Collection (Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom Seriously...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-28

    ... Administration, Department of Veterans Affairs. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: In compliance with the Paperwork... Administration (VBA), Department of Veterans Affairs, will submit the collection of information abstracted below... nature of the information collection and its expected cost and burden; it includes the actual...

  9. Characteristics of Genitourinary Injuries Associated With Pelvic Fractures During Operation Iraqi Freedom and Operation Enduring Freedom

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-03-01

    and 15%.1–3 The mechanism of injury in these studies is most commonly blunt because of motor vehicle collisions ( MVCs ), falls, and pedestrian versus...Nonsurvivors Number (%) Survivors Number (%) IED 65 (71) 2 (20) Other Explosion 5 (5) 2 (20) Gunshot Wound 8 (9) 3 (30) MVC Without IED 4 (4) 2 (20...Combination 6 (6) Other 3 (3) l (10) Total 91 10 IED, improvised explosive device; EFP, explosively formed projectile.; MVC , motor vehicle collision

  10. Case Study: Operation Enduring Freedom Philippines

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-10-01

    Special Operations units worked with local authorities, host nation military and non- governmental agencies, to ensure unity of effort. Over time...relatively short time, the local population was made sufficiently comfortable with the host nation and US forces that they began to provide useful...Enduring Freedom Philippines 4 local communities by the terrorist group, highlighted by friendly psychological operations, probably facilitated the

  11. Medical observations of malingering in Iraqi enemy prisoners of war during Operation Desert Storm.

    PubMed

    Cappucci, D T; Flemming, S L

    1994-06-01

    The authors, who were at the Al Khanjar enemy prisoner of war (EPW) collection point along the Saudi Arabian-Kuwaiti frontier during Operation Desert Storm, furnish two accounts of malingering and deliberate, manipulative attempts at "conning the doctors" by Iraqi EPWs of the Republican Guard Corps. To some extent, malingering and conning of the doctors with faked illness or complaint expended time and other valuable resources that could have been directed toward EPW patient care and treatment with genuine medical bases.

  12. Infections Complicating the Care of Combat Casualties During Operations Iraqi Freedom and Enduring Freedom

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-07-01

    Staphylococcus unspec 47 41.11 S. aureus 66 41.19 Infection Staphylococcus OT 26 481 Pneumococcal pneumonia 11 482.3 Streptococcus pneumonia unspec 1...482.31 Group A Streptococcus pneumonia 1 482.4 Staphylococcal pneumonia nos 3 482.41 Pneumonia S. aureus 2 Other bacteria 041.89 Other specified...as pneumonia . They are commonly linked with higher ISS and injuries to the head, neck, and face. Key Words: Combat, Infection, Afghanistan, War

  13. Fasciotomy Rates in Operations Enduring Freedom and Iraqi Freedom: Association with Injury Severity and Tourniquet Use

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-01

    Elevation in compartment pressure following hypovolemic shock and fluid resuscitation: a canine model. Orthopedics. 2006;29:443–445. 16. Madigan MC, Kemp CD... treatment of open femur fractures. The case fatality rate of open femur fractures dropped precipitously from 80% to approximately 8% as a result and led to...the need for new 1000-bed specialty hospitals for the treatment of survivors.20,21 One of the unforeseen consequences of this lifesaving device was the

  14. Impact of Illness and Non-Combat Injury During Operations Iraqi Freedom and Enduring Freedom (Afghanistan)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-05-25

    reported, with the back being the most common single site of injury. A diagnosis of leishmaniasis was reported by 2.1% of the respondents (95% CI 1.1–3.5... visceral leishmaniasis in U.S. military person- nel – Afghanistan, 2002–2004. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 53: 265–268. 13. Schlagenhauf P, 2003. Malaria in... leishmaniasis (2.1%) were commonly reported. For all causes, 25.2% reported that they required intravenous fluids, 10.4% required hospi- talization, and 5.2

  15. Recent Human Factors Contributions to Improve Military Operations (Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Bulletin. Volume 46, Number 12, December 2003)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-12-01

    operations run the full gamut from large-scale, theater-wide combat, as witnessed in Operation Iraqi Freedom, to small-scale operations against terrorists, to... gamut from large-scale, theater-wide combat, as witnessed in Operation Iraqi Freedom, to small-scale operations against terror- ists, to operations

  16. Deployment Surveillance Summary, U.S. Army Operation Iraqi Freedom/Operation New Dawn/Operation Enduring Freedom, 2010

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-12-10

    leading causes of injury. d. Focus attention on strategies to prevent injuries from sports/ physical training, falls/jumps, and land transport...the Five Most Common Injuries for Basketball, Football, Physical Training, and Weightlifting, CY 2001–2008... physical training, falls/jumps, land transport, and crushing/blunt trauma. (c) For OIF/OND and OEF combined, the leading causes of sports-related NBIs

  17. Liberation or Occupation? How Failure to Apply Occupation Law During Iraqi Freedom Threatened U.S. Strategic Interests

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-05-03

    experts predicted mass hysteria and warned that the military needed to be prepared to provide strong leadership and security until rational behavior ...and warned that the military had to provide strong leadership and security until rational behavior returned. See Phyllis McIntosh, “Protecting Iraqi...in Iraq will Begin Now,” 24 April 2003; available from <http://www. unhchr.ch/ huricane /huricane.nsf/0/975E2E36F2593DCAC1256D12002DDDBF?opendocument

  18. Medical Logistics in a New Threater of Operations: An Operation Iraqi Freedom Case Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-05-25

    Departments and with the field armies. These depots supplied various items such as stretchers, chloroform, quinine , tourniquets, scissors, and...Qatar for the first month of the war. This problem was not solved until the units stabilized in specific sites in Iraq and regular connectivity...May when the full compliment of medical logistics units were in the theater and the medical units had stabilized in long term locations in Iraq, which

  19. Detainee Medical Operations during Operation Iraqi Freedom: Determination of a Transition Plan

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-06-15

    to all European governments, the United States of America, Brazil and Mexico . Sixteen States sent representation to the conference that met from 8 to...Additionally, a panel of physicians should provide consensual guidelines on resuscitative procedures and euthanasia . These topics do not have clear cut

  20. Operational cost analysis of dental emergencies for deployed US Army personnel during operation Iraqi freedom.

    PubMed

    Colthirst, Paul M; Berg, Rosann G; Denicolo, Philip; Simecek, John W

    2013-04-01

    The documentation of dental emergency (DE) rates in past global conflicts has been well established; however, little is known about wartime DE costs on the battlefield. Using DEs as an example for decreased combat effectiveness, this article analyzes the cost of treating DEs in theater, both in terms of fixed and variable costs, and also highlighted the difficulties that military units experience when faced with degradation of combat manpower because of DEs. The study found that Dental-Disease and Non-Battle Injury cost the U.S. Army a total of $21.4M between July 1, 2009 and June 30, 2010, and $21.9M between July 1, 2010 and June 30, 2011. The results also revealed that approximately 32% of DE required follow-up treatment over the 2-year period, which increased the costs associated with a DE over time. Understanding the etiology and cost of DE cases, military dental practitioners will be better equipped to provide oral health instructions and preventive measures before worldwide deployments.

  1. Interim Report on Projects to Develop the Iraqi Special Operations Forces

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-25

    coordination centers, 18 Broadband Global Area Network ( BGAN ) kits were provided to the Iraqis. However, according to an INCTF-TT official, these satellite... BGAN kits cannot be located. Each BGAN system costs $54,000, and together the 18 kits comprise nearly $1 million dollars worth of equipment that is...not being used or has been lost. Overall, INCTF-TT officials believe that the Iraqis may not be using the BGAN systems because of the high cost

  2. Deployment Injury Surveillance Summary, U.S. Army Operation Iraqi Freedom/Operation Enduring Freedom Calendar Year 2009

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-01

    injury. d. Devote additional study to falls/jumps, sports/ physical training (PT), own weapon, toxic substances, and land transport injury...sports/ physical training, falls/jumps, and land transport accidents. Leading causes of NBI hospitalizations differed from air evacuations, with the top... physical training and falls/jumps continue to be leading causes of NBIs, the rates of these injuries have been decreasing over time. (6) This

  3. Tympanic Membrane Perforation and Hearing Loss From Blast Overpressure in Operation Enduring Freedom and Operation Iraqi Freedom Wounded

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-10-01

    peripheral location of the defect have both been associated with lower rates of spontaneous healing.10 Most patients, in previous studies, were...5 19 Otorrhea 10 25 Tinnitus 21 50 Vertigo 3 8 Table 3 Grade of Tympanic Membrane Perforation, Size of Perforation, and Spontaneous Healing Rate Grade

  4. Child maltreatment among U.S. Air Force parents deployed in support of Operation Iraqi Freedom/Operation Enduring Freedom.

    PubMed

    Rabenhorst, Mandy M; McCarthy, Randy J; Thomsen, Cynthia J; Milner, Joel S; Travis, Wendy J; Colasanti, Marie P

    2015-02-01

    This study examined child maltreatment perpetration among 99,697 active-duty U.S. Air Force parents who completed a combat deployment. Using the deploying parent as the unit of analysis, we analyzed whether child maltreatment rates increased postdeployement relative to predeployment. These analyses extend previous research that used aggregate data and extend our previous work that used data from the same period but used the victim as the unit of analysis and included only deploying parents who engaged in child maltreatment. In this study, 2% (n = 1,746) of deploying parents perpetrated child maltreatment during the study period. Although no overall differences were found in child maltreatment rates postdeployment compared to predeployment, several maltreatment-related characteristics qualified this finding. Rates for emotional abuse and mild maltreatment were lower following deployment, whereas child maltreatment rates for severe maltreatment were higher following deployment. The finding that rates of severe child maltreatment, including incidents involving alcohol use, were higher postdeployment suggests a need for additional support services for parents following their return from combat deployment, with a focus on returning parents who have an alcohol use problem.

  5. The Changing Face of Disability in the US Army: The Operation Enduring Freedom and Operation Iraqi Freedom Effect

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-01-01

    osteoarthritis Fibromyalgia Diagnosis of fibromyalgia in which fibromyalgia itself is an unfitting condition Knee Any condition causing pain in or loss of function...ability significantly increased for all orthopaedic conditions, with the ex- ception of amputation, fibromyalgia , other lower extremity conditions...n = 3,143) P Value Amputation 1 0.06 33 1.05 ɘ.0001 Back painb 376 22.47 1,348 42.89 ɘ.0001 Foot and ankle 54 3.23 324 10.31 ɘ.0001 Fibromyalgia

  6. Ground operation of robotics on Space Station Freedom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wojcik, Z. Alex; Hunter, David G.; Cantin, Marc R.

    1993-01-01

    This paper reflects work carried out on Ground Operated Telerobotics (GOT) in 1992 to refine further the ideas, procedures, and technologies needed to test the procedures in a high latency environment, and to integrate GOT into Space Station Freedom operations. Space Station Freedom (SSF) will be in operation for 30 years, and will depend on robots to carry out a significant part of the assembly, maintenance, and utilization workload. Current plans call for on-orbit robotics to be operated by on-board crew members. This approach implies that on-orbit robotics operations use up considerable crew time, and that these operations cannot be carried out when SSF is unmanned. GOT will allow robotic operations to be operated from the ground, with on-orbit crew interventions only when absolutely required. The paper reviews how GOT would be implemented, how GOT operations would be planned and supported, and reviews GOT issues, critical success factors, and benefits.

  7. The Asian European Bridge: A Strategic Estimate of Turkey Following Operation Iraqi Freedom

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    34 and even Wolfowitz himself "confidently predicted " Turkey would help the US efforts (Gencsoy and Dahl 2004, 14). But unfortunately for the US, all was...Cutler 2003, 2). In light of this provision, and taking account of the 19 abstentions, the speaker Bulet Arinc declared that in fact an absolute...from the more uncompromisingly Islamist and anti-US Refah Party (banned in 1998) (Pipes 2003, 3). The Parliamentary Speaker Arinc himself already

  8. Sustainment of Army Forces in Operation Iraqi Freedom: Major Findings and Recommendations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-01-01

    objectivity. Eric Peltz, Marc L. Robbins, Kenneth J. Girardini, Rick Eden , John M. Halliday, Jeffrey Angers Prepared for the United States Army Approved...Support Command with LTC Bobby Towery (3rd FSB CDR), LTC Michael Armstead (26th FSB CDR), LTC Nate Glover (formerly 603rd ASB XO, then DISCOM S-3), LTC

  9. Trends in Post-Concussive Symptom Reporting Following Mild Traumatic Brain Injury in Operation Iraqi Freedom

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-04-01

    complaints on the PDHA were examined and included pain (headache, back, joint, muscle), memory problems, sleep problems, and tinnitus . The PDHA also...PCS). 6-8 Common PCS symptoms include headache, tinnitus , sleep problems, chronic pain and cognitive deficits. 8 In 2004, the World Health...higher among combat veterans with TBI compared to those with other injuries after adjusting for PTSD and depression . 14 Further, Pietrzak, et al

  10. Injuries Sustained in Noncombat Motor Vehicle Accidents During Operation Iraqi Freedom

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-01-01

    Amongst civilian populations, young adults in general have higher rates of MVAs.7 In addition, the physical environments in Iraq and Afghanistan...records. Although the use of seatbelts is mandated amongst British and US forces, the study amongst British military personnel identified a surprisingly...low rate of seatbelt compliance (15%).8 Finally, because the study population was identified from far-forward Navy-Marine Corps military treatment

  11. Operation Iraqi Freedom and the Global War on Terror: Selected Legislation from the 110th Congress

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-09-17

    Introduced: 01/31/07 Sen. Carl Levin A bill to express the sense of Congress on Iraq Sense of Congress that: The Senate disagrees with President...07 Sen. Ken Salazar National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2008 Sense of Congress that: U.S. should implement recommendations of Iraq...Saxby Chambliss National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2008 [Same as Amendment 2063 ( Salazar , above), with the following additional provision

  12. Prehospital Tourniquet Use in Operation Iraqi Freedom: Effect on Hemorrhage Control and Outcomes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-02-01

    hematocrit), blood products required (packed red blood cells, fresh whole blood, fresh frozen plasma, cryoprecip- itate, rFVIIa), disposition (death, return...the popliteal artery injury. Patient 7. A man of unknown age sustained a left grade IIIB open femur fracture and transection of profunda femoral artery...patient underwent external fixator placement of his femur and ligation of his profunda femoral artery. He required secondary amputation for the

  13. The Fiscal Blank Check Policy and Its Impact on Operation Iraqi Freedom

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-12-01

    incentives. Private industry has the measurable indicators of efficiency such as warrantee returns, variable cost, customer satisfaction surveys, and...to satisfy the increased scrutiny of CFLCC. Of course, to satisfy the request for more information, the request ultimately had to go to the...States to the theater. The effectiveness of the logistics system is able to satisfy the significant appetite of the U.S. forces in Iraq in a timely

  14. Contributing Factors to Total Mission Time for Medical Evacuation Missions during Operation Iraqi Freedom II

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-05-01

    nature have been conducted to analyze the data. Recent studies focused on the aeromedical evacuation from Level III facilities in theater to higher...missions with unusually large Total Mission Time or to compress the data by taking the natural log of the time variables. However, the data was not...All of the data is unclassified separately, but the analysis could be sensitive in nature so caution has been taken to protect it. Some missions may

  15. The Retention of Recalled Navy Nurse Reservists following Operation Iraqi Freedom

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-06-30

    billet I would probably stay awhile longer but I have a number of family commitments: elderly parents and a child with MS [ multiple sclerosis ], so I...and analyzed via descriptive statistics, exploratory factor analysis, multiple regression analysis, structural equation modeling (SEM), and content...collected by questionnaires and analyzed via descriptive statistics, exploratory factor analysis, multiple regression analysis, structural equation

  16. Postconcussive Symptom Reporting Among US Combat Veterans With Mild Traumatic Brain Injury From Operation Iraqi Freedom

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-01-01

    MPH, Naval Health Research Center, 140 Sylvester Rd, San Diego, CA 92106 (amber. dougherty@med.navy.mil). DOI: 10.1097/ HTR .0b013e3182596382 blast...LOC of 31 to 59 minutes (850.12), 10 had concussion with LOC of unspecified duration (850.5), 150 had con- cussion with no LOC (ICD-9 850.0), and 81 had...posttraumatic stress disorder, and depression. cHosmer-Lemeshow test indicated a good fit for all multivariate models (P > . 10 ). dP < .001. eP = .001 to .009. fP

  17. Repeated Concussion Among U.S. Military Personnel During Operation Iraqi Freedom

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    Dougherty Rosemary H. Morrison Kimberly H. Quinn Michael R. Galarneau Report No. 10 -33 The views expressed in this article are those of the...JRRD Volume 48, Number 10 , 2011Pages 1269–1278 Journal of Rehabil itation Research & DevelopmentRepeated concussion among U.S. military personnel...amber.dougherty@med.navy.mil DOI:10.1682/JRRD.2011.01.00131269 1270 JRRD, Volume 48, Number 10 , 2011concussions [9–13]. Evidence exists that some aspects of

  18. Initial Experience of US Marine Corps Forward Resuscitative Surgical System during Operation Iraqi Freedom

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-01-01

    available for use with external hemor- rhage uncontrolled by all other means. Almost all patients were transported by rotary wing air ca- sualty evacuation...MEDEVAC to the next level of care. These nurses faced the unenviable task of transporting critically ill, unstable patients via ro- tary wing , fixed... wing , and ground transport over sev- eral hundred miles of desert. The absence of significant en route complications and arrival of all patients in

  19. Combat Ocular Trauma Visual Outcomes during Operations Iraqi and Enduring Freedom

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-08-12

    plana vitrectomy . Anterior segment reconstructive surgeries included cataract extraction with pos- terior chamber intraocular lens (n 40). Nine of...these cases (19%) were combined with pars plana vitrectomy , 31 (66%) had a posterior chamber intraocular lens implantation delayed 3 to 6 months, and...included pars plana vitrec- tomy (n 121), pars plana lensectomy (n 74), and scleral buckle (n 11). Globe explorations were performed in 12 cases, with

  20. Epidemiological Study of Mild Traumatic Brain Injury Sequelae Caused by Blast Exposure During Operations Iraqi Freedom and Enduring Freedom

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-11-01

    Moeller- Bertram T, Afari N,Mostoufi S, Fink DS, Johnson Wright L, Baker DG: Specific pain complaints in Iraq and Afghanistan veterans screening positive...PTSD, depression, and substance abuse screens in a sample of OEF/OIF/OND Veterans, Moeller- Bertram and colleagues [20] did not find any demographic...pain in psychiatric outpatients. J Rehabil Res Dev. 2007; 44(2):167. 20. Moeller- Bertram T, Afari N, Mostoufi S, Fink DS, Johnson Wright L, Baker DG

  1. Epidemiological Study of Mild Traumatic Brain Injury Sequelae Caused by Blast Exposure During Operations Iraqi Freedom and Enduring Freedom

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-10-01

    Major Depressive Disorder , Bipolar Disorder , Panic Disorder w/ w/o Agoraphobia Social Anxiety Disorder , Specific Phobia, Obsessive - Compulsive ...blast exposure, head injury, post-traumatic stress disorder , post-concussion syndrome, military personnel, functional outcomes 16. SECURITY...and affective disorder using the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) (Radloff, 1977). The ICD-10 criteria for PCS will be

  2. Ten Years of War: A Characterization of Craniomaxillofacial Injuries Incurred During Operations Enduring Freedom and Iraqi Freedom

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-01-01

    common, but that is often because the facial fractures were broken up into maxilla, nasal , zygoma, and orbit.15,21 When these numbers are combined...injury. Injuries were classified according to type (wounds, fractures , burns, vascular injuries, and nerve injuries) using DRG International...of patients evacuated out of theater. There is a high preponderance of multiple wounds and open fractures in this region. The primary mechanism of

  3. Observations from Oversight Organizations Impacting Operations Iraqi Freedom and Enduring Freedom Beginning FY 2003 Through FY 2009

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-08-30

    a historical look at oversight activ ities in Southwest Asia beginning FY 2003 th rough FY 2009. This report also provides information related to...and chairs the quarterly meetings. The mission of the group is to better coordinate and integrate oversight activities and to oversee efforts to...prevent fraud, waste, abuse, and criminal activities in Southwest Asia. The group provides an opportunity for collaboration and teamwork with the

  4. Epidemiological Study of Mild Tramautic Brain Injury Sequelae Cause by Blast Exposure During Operations Iraqi Freedom and Enduring Freedom

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-10-01

    this report are those of the author( s ) and should not be construed as an official Department of the Army position, policy or decision unless so...5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR( S ) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER William C. Walker, M.D. Jerome R. Heimiller, RPH, MPA 5e. TASK NUMBER E...Mail: jrheimiller@gmail.com 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME( S ) AND ADDRESS(ES) 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT

  5. Epidemiological Study of Mild Traumatic Brain Injury Sequelae Caused by Blast Exposure During Operations Iraqi Freedom and Enduring Freedom

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-10-01

    traumatic stress disorder, post-concussion syndrome , military personnel, functional outcomes 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATIONS...post-concussion syndrome (PCS). Given that available information is largely anecdotal, the identification, characterization, and prediction of...measurement of: Post-concussion syndrome (PCS) using the Rivermead Post-Concussion Symptoms Checklist (RPQ) (King, 1995), Combat Stress using the PTSD

  6. Operations planning for Space Station Freedom - And beyond

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibson, Stephen S.; Martin, Thomas E.; Durham, H. J.

    1992-01-01

    The potential of automated planning and electronic execution systems for enhancing operations on board Space Station Freedom (SSF) are discussed. To exploit this potential the Operations Planning and Scheduling Subsystem is being developed at the NASA Johnson Space Center. Such systems may also make valuable contributions to the operation of resource-constrained, long-duration space habitats of the future. Points that should be considered during the design of future long-duration manned space missions are discussed. Early development of a detailed operations concept as an end-to-end mission description offers a basis for iterative design evaluation, refinement, and option comparison, particularly when used with an advanced operations planning system capable of modeling the operations and resource constraints of the proposed designs.

  7. Project VALOR: design and methods of a longitudinal registry of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in combat-exposed veterans in the Afghanistan and Iraqi military theaters of operations.

    PubMed

    Rosen, Raymond C; Marx, Brian P; Maserejian, Nancy N; Holowka, Darren W; Gates, Margaret A; Sleeper, Lynn A; Vasterling, Jennifer J; Kang, Han K; Keane, Terence M

    2012-03-01

    Few studies have investigated the natural history of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Project VALOR (Veterans' After-discharge Longitudinal Registry) was designed as a longitudinal patient registry assessing the course of combat-related PTSD among 1600 male and female Veterans who served in Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF) in Afghanistan or Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF). Aims of the study include investigating patterns and predictors of progression or remission of PTSD and treatment utilization. The study design was based on recommendations from the Agency for Healthcare Quality and Research for longitudinal disease registries and used a pre-specified theoretical model to select the measurement domains for data collection and interpretation of forthcoming results. The registry will include 1200 male and female Veterans with a recent diagnosis of PTSD in the Department of Veteran Affairs (VA) electronic medical record and a comparison group of 400 Veterans without a medical record-based PTSD diagnosis, to also allow for case-control analyses. Data are collected from administrative databases, electronic medical records, a self-administered questionnaire, and a semi-structured diagnostic telephone interview. Project VALOR is a unique and timely registry study that will evaluate the clinical course of PTSD, psychosocial correlates, and health outcomes in a carefully selected cohort of returning OEF/OIF Veterans.

  8. Microbiology operations and facilities aboard restructured Space Station Freedom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cioletti, Louis A.; Mishra, S. K.; Pierson, Duane L.

    1992-01-01

    With the restructure and funding changes for Space Station Freedom, the Environmental Health System (EHS)/Microbiology Subsystem revised its scheduling and operational requirements for component hardware. The function of the Microbiology Subsystem is to monitor the environmental quality of air, water, and internal surfaces and, in part, crew health on board Space Station. Its critical role shall be the identification of microbial contaminants in the environment that may cause system degradation, produce unsanitary or pathogenic conditions, or reduce crew and mission effectiveness. EHS/Microbiology operations and equipment shall be introduced in concert with a phased assembly sequence, from Man Tended Capability (MTC) through Permanently Manned Capability (PMC). Effective Microbiology operations and subsystem components will assure a safe, habitable, and useful spacecraft environment for life sciences research and long-term manned exploration.

  9. Deployment Surveillance Summary, U.S. Army Operation Iraqi Freedom/Operation New Dawn/Operation Enduring Freedom, 2011. Injury Prevention Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-12-10

    1) More Soldiers were air evacuated for NBIs (34 percent) than for BIs (17 percent) or any single category of disease. Sports/ physical ...leading causes of injury. d. Focus attention on strategies to prevent injuries from sports/ physical training, falls/jumps, and land transport...NBI air evacuations for OND were sports/ physical training, falls/jumps, crushing/blunt trauma, and lift/push/pull. (c) The four leading causes of

  10. Ground controlled robotic assembly operations for Space Station Freedom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parrish, Joseph C.

    1991-01-01

    A number of dextrous robotic systems and associated positioning and transportation devices are available on Space Station Freedom (SSF) to perform assembly tasks that would otherwise need to be performed by extravehicular activity (EVA) crewmembers. The currently planned operating mode for these robotic systems during the assembly phase is teleoperation by intravehicular activity (IVA) crewmembers. While this operating mode is less hazardous and expensive than manned EVA operations, and has insignificant control loop time delays, the amount of IVA time available to support telerobotic operations is much less than the anticipated requirements. Some alternative is needed to allow the robotic systems to perform useful tasks without exhausting the available IVA resources; ground control is one such alternative. The issues associated with ground control of SSF robotic systems to alleviate onboard crew time availability constraints are investigated. Key technical issues include the effect of communication time delays, the need for safe, reliable execution of remote operations, and required modifications to the SSF ground and flight system architecture. Time delay compensation techniques such as predictive displays and world model-based force reflection are addressed and collision detection and avoidance strategies to ensure the safety of the on-orbit crew, Orbiter, and SSF are described. Although more time consuming and difficult than IVA controlled teleoperations or manned EVA, ground controlled telerobotic operations offer significant benefits during the SSF assembly phase, and should be considered in assembly planning activities.

  11. Operational Cost Analysis of Dental Emergencies for Deployed U.S. Army Personnel During Operation Iraqi Freedom

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-04-01

    mitigated. Using the DOD Dental Fitness Classification ( DFC ) system, teeth with problems are assigned a classifi- cation of 2 or 3 based on their probability...of causing a DE over a 12-month period. For example, a tooth identified as a DFC 2 indicates the probability of a soldier developing a DE within...12 months is low. Although the DFC system has been validated, 13’ 14 dental providers should take additional steps to ensure their examinations and

  12. Coast Guard Patrol Boat Operations in the Arabian Gulf: The Way Forward in the Post-Operation Iraqi Freedom Era

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-07

    knowledge from the theater. Additionally, I would like to thank Dr. Charles D. McKenna, Dean of Academics at the Marine Corps University, Command and...Finally, and most importantly, I am forever indebted to my wife Sharon, who put up with my procrastination and prolonged grumpiness during my...worldwide scale . Lieutenant Thomas stated, "Often times, the countries within the region are more interested in working/training with the U.S. Coast

  13. Applying real-time operations to integrate and evaluate Space Station Freedom design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmidt, George; Winkler, David

    1990-01-01

    During its 30 year lifetime, Space Station Freedom will provide unique opportunities for a variety of research, commercial and space exploration activities. The diversity of Freedom's on-orbit operations and the partitioning of the spacecraft's flight elements and systems requires consideration of operations early in the design development. This paper presents a method for defining a structured relationship between Space Station Freedom real-time operations and system functionality, and discusses how this relationship can be used when evaluating the spacecraft design.

  14. PSYOP and the Information Age: Assessing US Army Employment of Psychological Operations in the Contemporary Operating Environment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-05-21

    amplifYing their effect, and increasing their effectiveness.5I The aerial bombing operation in Iraq at the start of Operation Iraqi Freedom provides a...contemporary example of action as information. Widely publicised as a "shock and awe" campaign, the bombing provided information to the Iraqis of the...might of the anticipated ground invasion ofIraq by US and coalition forces. Information Age technology enabled this bombing campaign to be

  15. Diagnoses and Factors Associated With Medical Evacuation and Return to Duty for Service Members Participating in Operation Iraqi Freedom or Operation Enduring Freedom: A Prospective Cohort Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-23

    153 (37%) Marines 4178 82 (2%) 9 (11%) 1078 55 ( 5 %) 13 (24%) 113 31 (27%) 4 (13%) 196 38 (19%) 8 (21%) 5565 206 (4%) 34 (17%) Total 18 125...1033 (6%) 318 ( 31 %) 16 843 1048 (6%) 453 (43%) 25 166 1136 ( 5 %) 432 (38%) 24 393 1482 (6%) 401 (27%) 84 527 4699 (6%) 1604 (34%) Data are number...n=5642) OEF (n=1136) OIF (n=6962) OEF (n=1482) Age (years)* 30·2 (9·4) 31 ·4 (9·4) 30·3 (9·2) 30·8 (9·4) 29·0 (8·7) 31 ·2 (9· 5 ) 28·6 (8·4) 30·7 (9·3

  16. High-intensity sports for posttraumatic stress disorder and depression: feasibility study of ocean therapy with veterans of Operation Enduring Freedom and Operation Iraqi Freedom.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Carly M; Mallinson, Trudy; Peppers, Dominique

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we conducted a pretest-posttest investigation of a sports-oriented occupational therapy intervention using surfing in an experiential, skills-based program to support veterans with symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in their transition to civilian life. The purpose of this feasibility study was to evaluate the intervention for attendance rates and retention in the program provided in 5 sessions over 5 wk. Fourteen veterans from a specialty postdeployment clinic at a Veterans Affairs hospital were enrolled; 11 completed the study, and 10 attended ≥3 sessions. Participants reported clinically meaningful improvement in PTSD symptom severity (PTSD Checklist-Military Version, Wilcoxon signed rank Z = 2.5, p = .01) and in depressive symptoms (Major Depression Inventory, Wilcoxon signed rank Z = 2.05, p = .04). The results of this small, uncontrolled study suggest that a sports-oriented occupational therapy intervention has potential as a feasible adjunct intervention for veterans seeking mental health treatment for symptoms of PTSD.

  17. Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF) and Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF) military mental health issues. Information on the wars' signature wounds: posttraumatic stress disorder and traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Wieland, Diane; Hursey, Melodee; Delgado, Deborah

    2010-09-01

    This topic can be related to the nursing profession and the need to be better educated on military mental health. Since mood disorder, suicide, alcohol abuse, PTSD and TBI are evident in actively serving and returning service members, it is imperative to educate nurses and healthcare providers about these conditions, the available evidence-based treatments and referrals to programs for these signature OEF/OIF wounds. The authors encourage nurse educators to consider ways to include military mental health and other service-related health issues into nursing curricula and to use Veterans Administration and veterans-related healthcare facilities for clinical courses. As the wars in Afghanistan and Iraq continue into the foreseeable future, many veterans will be seen not only in VA facilities, but they will self-refer to academic and community hospitals, and psychiatric and rehabilitation centers. It is important for all nurses to be aware of the effects of PTSD, depression, suicide, substance abuse and TBI on our patients and to be effective advocates for quality care of veterans in all settings. Nurses need to advocate for screening and provision of mental health services in primary care settings. When such services are offered in primary care settings, it normalizes the care and the service member will more likely allow themselves to receive the care (Jones, 2004). All nurses must understand the price of war experienced by U.S. service members and their families, and in particular, the invisible wounds of war.

  18. Increasing Marital Satisfaction as a Resilience Factor among Active Duty Members and Veterans of Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF) and Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ponder, Warren N.; Aguirre, Regina T. P.; Smith-Osborne, Alexa; Granvold, Donald K.

    2012-01-01

    Supportive relationships are protective against a number of prevalent health risks among military populations, including post-traumatic stress disorder. Increasing marital satisfaction and strengthening that relationship is an important avenue for maintaining health among returning service members and their families. The current study builds upon…

  19. The US Army in Kirkuk: Governance Operations on the Fault Lines of Iraqi Society, 2003-2009

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-12-01

    THIS PAGE unclassified Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 Cover art by Robin Kern, CGSC Copyright Registration #11-834 C...became the majority. Both major Kurdish political parties—the Kurdish Democratic Party (KDP) and the Patriotic Union of Kurdistan (PUK)—claimed...scenario involved the annexation of Kirkuk by the semiautonomous Kurdistan Regional Government which oversaw Iraqi Kurdistan , an officially recognized

  20. The US Army in Kirkuk: Governance Operations on the Fault Lines of Iraqi Society, 2003-2009

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-11-01

    THIS PAGE unclassified Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 Cover art by Robin Kern, CGSC Copyright Registration #11-834 C/E...became the majority. Both major Kurdish political parties—the Kurdish Democratic Party (KDP) and the Patriotic Union of Kurdistan (PUK)—claimed Kirkuk...scenario involved the annexation of Kirkuk by the semiautonomous Kurdistan Regional Government which oversaw Iraqi Kurdistan , an officially recognized

  1. American War and Military Operations Casualties: Lists and Statistics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-02-26

    16 Table 14. Operation Iraqi Freedom: Military Deaths , March 19, 2003, Through...Freedom: Military Deaths , March 19, 2003, Through February 6, 2010 Casualty Type Totals Army Navya Marines Air Force Hostile 3,469 2,524 65 851 29...2 Table 2. Worldwide U.S. Active Duty Military Deaths

  2. FROST - FREEDOM OPERATIONS SIMULATION TEST VERSION 1.0

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deshpande, G. K.

    1994-01-01

    The Space Station Freedom Information System processes and transmits data between the space station and the station controllers and payload operators on the ground. Components of the system include flight hardware, communications satellites, software and ground facilities. FROST simulates operation of the SSF Information System, tracking every data packet from generation to destination for both uplinks and downlinks. This program collects various statistics concerning the SSF Information System operation and provides reports of these at user-specified intervals. Additionally, FROST has graphical display capability to enhance interpretation of these statistics. FROST models each of the components of the SSF Information System as an object, to which packets are generated, received, processed, transmitted, and/or dumped. The user must provide the information system design with specified parameters and inter-connections among objects. To aid this process, FROST supplies an example SSF Information System for simulation, but this example must be copied before it is changed and used for further simulation. Once specified, system architecture and parameters are put into the input file, named the Test Configuration Definition (TCD) file. Alternative system designs can then be simulated simply by editing the TCD file. Within this file the user can define new objects, alter object parameters, redefine paths, redefine generation rates and windows, and redefine object interconnections. At present, FROST does not model every feature of the SSF Information System, but it is capable of simulating many of the system's important functions. To generate data messages, which can come from any object, FROST defines "windows" to specify when, what kind, and how much of that data is generated. All messages are classified by priority as either (1)emergency (2)quick look (3)telemetry or (4)payload data. These messages are processed by all objects according to priority. That is, all priority

  3. Status of Training Vehicles for U.S. Ground Forces Deploying in Support of Operation Iraqi Freedom

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-08-06

    Buffalo (or Mine Protection Clearance Vehicle), Cougar, Husky, and Meerkat vehicles. For example, the Buffalos are considered counter-improvised...Equipment Types/Models Wheeled Vehicles M998 M1025* M1026* M1097 M1114* M1151* Buffalo* Husky* Meerkat * Cougar* Crew-Served Weapons M249

  4. Distribution Synergy in Multi-National Division-Baghdad during Operation Iraqi Freedom Rotation 07-09

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-06-10

    TPE Theater Provided Equipment TSC Theater Support Command U.S. United States USTRANSCOM United States Army Transportation Command VBC Victory Base...several Rough Terrain Container Handlers (RTCH) from 1103rd CSSB’s Theater Provided Equipment ( TPE ) sitting unused in a motor pool. Third, there was a...of available TPE and contract equipment? The Approach ―Movement control is planning, routing, scheduling, coordinating, controlling, and the in

  5. Tactical Surgical Intervention with Temporary Shunting of Peripheral Vascular Trauma Sustained during Operation Iraqi Freedom: One Unit’s Experience

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-10-01

    Lymphocele 18 Failed limb salvage due to extensive soft tissue necrosis Wound infection at subsequent BKA site 19 Thrombosis of vein graft Sacral decubitus ... ulcer Empyema Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia 20 Initial graft thrombosis BKA, below knee amputation. The Journal of TRAUMA Injury, Infection, and

  6. Operation Iraqi Freedom: Actions Needed to Enhance DOD Planning for Reposturing of U.S. Forces from Iraq

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-09-01

    Retrograde Support Teams 72 Appendix V Theater Logistical Infrastructure Throughput Model 73 Appendix VI Detailed Process for Shipping Excess Theater...a pool of permanent stay behind equipment consisting of specific line items of modified table of organization and equipment property, issued Army...wish to consider directing DOD to modify its briefings submitted in accordance with the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2008 to

  7. Reliability Analysis and Modeling of the U.S. Marine Corps Medium Tactical Wheeled Vehicle in Operation Iraqi Freedom

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-09-01

    the NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL September 2007 Author: Matthew B. Reuter Approved by: Robert A. Koyak, Associate Professor...wants to thank Associate Professor Robert A. Koyak for his expert guidance and patience during the thesis research. This thesis is dedicated to... Pneumatic Tire (NSN 2610-01-334-2694), Plain Hexagon Nut (NSN 5310-01- 492-5571), Wheel and Tire Assembly (NSN 2530-01-497-0440), and Metallic Hose

  8. Disease and Nonbattle Injuries Sustained by a U.S. Army Brigade Combat Team During Operation Iraqi Freedom

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-07-01

    1,000 combat-years were as follows: ankle sprain 15.3, anterior cruciate ligament rupture 3.3 and shoulder dislocation 1.2. Conclusions...common musculoskeletal injuries per 1,000 combat-years were as follows: ankle sprain 15.3, anterior cruciate ligament rupture 3.3 and shoulder...the combat deployment included the overall ONBI casualty rate and selected musculoskeletal incidence rates to include ankle sprain, plantar fasciitis

  9. Managing Transitions: Examining the Institutional Army’s Transformation Following the Vietnam War and Operation Iraqi Freedom

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-05-23

    Act: (BCA) Potential Impact of Sequestration on Health Reform Spending”, Congressional Research Service (Washington DC: GPO, 2013), 2. The FY2013...leaders who managed the post-Vietnam transformation were more effective in managing the reform efforts than the leaders who managed the defense...transformation efforts in the early part of the Twenty-first Century. The post-Vietnam reform was developed with a solid doctrinal underpinning that informed

  10. Managing Transitions: Examining the Institutional Army’s Transformation Following the Vietnam War and Operation Iraqi Freedom

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-05-23

    for Battlefield Management Systems now identified as “Digitization” Force XXI Battle Command, Brigade and below (FBCB2) and led Vetronics -applying...to Development of AirLand Battle (ALB) .................................................................. 31 Part III: Case Study 2: From OIF to RAF...particular wars, campaigns, battles , generals and armies. Yet historians have largely neglected the course of events leading to given wars

  11. Strategic Calculation in Estonia’s Decision to Enter the Coalition of the Willing for Operation Iraqi Freedom in 2003

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-05-21

    view_news.php?id=19022 (accessed October 13, 2014). 30 and emotions within NATO capitals were running high. At the same time, the US Senate had not yet...units lacked or received substandard training in situational and cultural awareness, counter improvised explosive device (C-IED) techniques, enabler

  12. Microvascular Reconstructive Surgery in Operations Iraqi and Enduring Freedom: the US Military Experience Performing Free Flaps in a Combat Zone

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-01-01

    Minor complications occurred in six patients, including venous congestion requiring throm- bectomy (3), partial flap loss, donor site hematoma , and...internal- fixation of a comminuted radial fracture . (B), After inset of an anterolateral thigh free flap, the most proximal portion of the injury is...for reconstruction of acute open tibial fractures : timing of coverage and long-term functional results. Plast Reconstr Surg. 1992;89:478. 12. Heller L

  13. Injury and Illness Casualty Distributions Among U.S. Army and Marine Corps Personnel During Operation Iraqi Freedom

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-03-01

    parasitic diseases and diseases of the musculoskeletal, digestive, and nervous systems were more common. Branch of Service Marines sustained proportionally...neoplasms, mental disorders, diseases of the blood and blood-forming organs, respiratory, and genitourinary systems were more common among women than... system Circulatory Respiratory Digestive Genitourinary Pregnancy Skin Musculoskeletal Congenital Ill-defined Injury Supplementary Total OIF-I No.

  14. Traumatic Brain Injury During Operation Iraqi Freedom: Findings from The United States Navy-Marine Corps Combat Trauma Registry

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-05-01

    system disease 2 1 2 infections/ parasitic disease 1...1 2 skin disease 1 ,1 2 circulatory system disease ,1 ,1 ,1 respiratory system disease ,1 ,1 ,1 genitourinary system disease ,1 ,1 ,1 endocrine...influencing health signs/contact w/ health services 30 33 28 injury & poisoning 19 17 20 nervous system disease 13 14 13 musculoskeletal system 12 12

  15. Lessons of War: Combat-related Injury Infections during the Vietnam War and Operation Iraqi and Enduring Freedom

    PubMed Central

    Blyth, Dana M.; Yun, Heather C.; Tribble, David R.; Murray, Clinton K.

    2015-01-01

    Summary In over a decade of war, numerous advancements have been made to improve overall combat-related mortality, but infectious complications remain a leading cause of both morbidity and mortality in combat-related injured personnel. Here we will attempt to compare the challenges and lessons of combat-related injuries and infections from the Vietnam War with those of OIF/OEF. Throughout the Vietnam War and OIF/OEF, there have been similar infection-related challenges faced in caring for combat-related trauma patients. Both conflicts reinforced the importance of rapid medical evacuation and definitive surgical management of war wounds. They revealed the constant evolution of infecting organisms and the challenge of increasing antimicrobial resistance. We have also seen that with decreased mortality of severely injured personnel new morbidities must be addressed. Using the foundation of fragmented research from the Vietnam War, previously successful models were assembled into joint service research institutions which have allowed these questions to be addressed. However, many questions regarding measures to reduce infectious complications in our combat-injured personnel remain unanswered. Continued research building on established knowledge is critical for continued improvements in the care of combat-related trauma patients. PMID:26406435

  16. Redefining Projections of Disease and Nonbattle Injury Patient Condition Code Distributions with Casualty Data from Operation Iraqi Freedom

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-07-30

    ligament laxity 0.63% 0.90% 262 Tenosynovitis elbow wrist shoulders etc. 1.18% 1.70% 201 Strain lumbosacral sacroiliac joint chronic all cases 1.81...NavyMarine Corps Combat Trauma Registry and the Joint Patient Tracking Application were used to identify US military disease and nonbattle injury casualties...streams. Approach Data from the Navy–Marine Corps Combat Trauma Registry database and the Joint Patient Tracking Application were used to identify US

  17. Validation of Scales from the Deployment Risk and Resilience Inventory in a Sample of Operation Iraqi Freedom Veterans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vogt, Dawne S.; Proctor, Susan P.; King, Daniel W.; King, Lynda A.; Vasterling, Jennifer J.

    2008-01-01

    The Deployment Risk and Resilience Inventory (DRRI) is a suite of scales that can be used to assess deployment-related factors implicated in the health and well-being of military veterans. Although initial evidence for the reliability and validity of DRRI scales based on Gulf War veteran samples is encouraging, evidence with respect to a more…

  18. The Administration and Operation of the Freedom of Information Act: A Retrospective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Relyea, Harold C.

    1994-01-01

    Discusses aspects of the administration of the Freedom of Information Act (FOIA), including operational and cost considerations. The idea of applying the FOIA to the legislative branch of the federal government is discussed. (Contains 64 references.) (KRN)

  19. Advising and assisting an Iraqi Army medical clinic: observations of a U.S. military support mission.

    PubMed

    Lynn, David C; De Lorenzo, Robert A

    2011-09-01

    Medical civil-military operations are important for deployed military medical units engaged in counter-insurgency missions. There are few reports on military support for a host nation's military medical infrastructure, and we describe an initiative of the 21st Combat Support Hospital in 2010 during the postsurge phase of Operation Iraqi Freedom and Operation New Dawn. The goal was to incrementally improve the quality of care provided by Iraqi 7th Army medical personnel using existing clinic infrastructure and a low budget. Direct bedside teaching to include screening and treatment of ambulatory patients (sick call), focused pharmacy and medical supply system support, medical records documentation, and basic infection control compliance were the objectives. Lessons learned include the requirement to implement culturally relevant changes, maintain focus on system processes, and maximize education and mentorship through multiple modalities. In summary, a combat hospital can successfully implement an advise and assist mission with minimal external resources.

  20. Barriers to Electronic Records Management (ERM): An Exploratory Case Study Investigating ERM in the Deployed Environment During Operations Enduring Freedom and Iraqi Freedom

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-03-01

    Patterson, G., & Sprehe, J. T. (2002). Principal challenges facing electronic records management in federal agencies today. Government Information Quarterly , 19...factors in managing U.S. federal recordkeeping. Government Information Quarterly , 19(3), 289-305. Stake, R. E. (1995). The art of case study

  1. Air Medical Evacuations of Soldiers for Oral-facial Disease and Injuries, Operations Enduring Freedom/Iraqi Freedom, January-December 2006

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-12-01

    COL Timothy A Mitchener, DC USA 5e. TASK NUMBER 6. AUTHOR( S ) 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME( S ) AND ADDRESS(ES) 8...SPONSORING/MONITORING AGENCY NAME( S ) AND 10. SPONSOR/MONITOR’S ACRONYM( S ) ADDRESS(ES) 11. SPONSOR/MONITOR’S REPORT NUMBER( S ) 12. DISTRIBUTION/AVAILABILITY...NATO) Standardization Agreement (STANAG), 5th edition, coding scheme. (See P.J. Amoroso, G.S. Smith, and N.S. Bell : Qualitative assessment of cause

  2. Frequency and Causes of Nonbattle Injuries Air Evacuated from Operations Iraqi Freedom and Enduring Freedom, U.S. Army, 2001-2006

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    deployments affect ur ability to conduct high-quality, responsive injury sur- eillance during deployments. These limitations include he inability to...did not affect DNBI incidence.21 Wojcik com- ared the disease rates and NBI rates during the three hases of ODS&S—the build-up, ground combat, and...reports have recognized sports as an impor- ant cause of injury during deployments. A recent report escribed a suspected increase in basketball -related

  3. Evaluating the operations capability of Freedom's Data Management System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sowizral, Henry A.

    1990-01-01

    Three areas of Data Management System (DMS) performance are examined: raw processor speed, the subjective speed of the Lynx OS X-Window system, and the operational capacity of the Runtime Object Database (RODB). It is concluded that the proposed processor will operate at its specified rate of speed and that the X-Window system operates within users' subjective needs. It is also concluded that the RODB cannot provide the required level of service, even with a two-order of magnitude (100 fold) improvement in speed.

  4. Impacting Space Station Freedom design with operations and safety requirements - An availability process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garegnani, Jerry J.; Schondorf, Steven Y.

    1990-01-01

    The unusually long mission duration of Space Station Freedom leads to operations costs that have significant impacts on life-cycle cost relative to previous manned space programs. Maintaining an affordable program requires that operations costs be considered throughout the design process. An appropriate means of impacting the design with operations concerns is to specify requirements that ensure operational effectiveness when implemented. The Space Station Freedom Program has developed a process defining such requirements. It focuses on specifying functional profiles and allocating resources such that designers gain a better understanding of the operational envelope in which their systems must perform. This paper examines the details of the process, where it came from, and why it is effective.

  5. Journal of Special Operations Medicine, Volume 8, Edition 2

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-01-01

    Treatment of a Tension Pneu- mothorax in Trauma Patients: What Size Needle? Imme Zengerink, MD; et.al. ● Chest Wall Thickness in Military Personnel...Casualty Treatment and Evacuation Vignettes From Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF) and Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF) CPT Scott M. Gilpatrick, APA-C, DMO...advanced trauma treatment program he had taken before deploying, he said, the instructors gave each Corpsman an anesthetized pig. “The idea is to work

  6. Leveraging Naval Riverine Forces to Achieve Information Superiority in Stability Operations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-12-01

    countryside around the clock in the hope of spotting insurgents burying bombs or setting up ambushes.” While single events such as these can give the...operations: Operation Iraqi freedom initial impressions report ( IIR ). Retrieved February 4, 2010 from George Town, Grand Cayman: Public

  7. Altered amygdala activation during face processing in Iraqi and Afghanistani war veterans

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Exposure to combat can have a significant impact across a wide array of domains, and may manifest as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), a debilitating mental illness that is associated with neural and affective sequelae. This study tested the hypothesis that combat-exposed individuals with and without PTSD, relative to healthy control subjects with no history of PTSD or combat exposure, would show amygdala hyperactivity during performance of a well-validated face processing task. We further hypothesized that differences in the prefrontal cortex would best differentiate the combat-exposed groups with and without PTSD. Methods Twelve men with PTSD related to combat in Operations Enduring Freedom and/or Iraqi Freedom, 12 male combat-exposed control patients with a history of Operations Enduring Freedom and/or Iraqi Freedom combat exposure but no history of PTSD, and 12 healthy control male patients with no history of combat exposure or PTSD completed a face-matching task during functional magnetic resonance imaging. Results The PTSD group showed greater amygdala activation to fearful versus happy faces than both the combat-exposed control and healthy control groups. Both the PTSD and the combat-exposed control groups showed greater amygdala activation to all faces versus shapes relative to the healthy control group. However, the combat-exposed control group relative to the PTSD group showed greater prefrontal/parietal connectivity with the amygdala, while the PTSD group showed greater connectivity with the subgenual cingulate. The strength of connectivity in the PTSD group was inversely related to avoidance scores. Conclusions These observations are consistent with the hypothesis that PTSD is associated with a deficiency in top-down modulation of amygdala activation by the prefrontal cortex and shows specific sensitivity to fearful faces. PMID:22738183

  8. Pain management in the wilderness and operational setting.

    PubMed

    Wedmore, Ian S; Johnson, Troy; Czarnik, Jim; Hendrix, Steve

    2005-05-01

    The wilderness and operational setting places unique constraints on one's ability to treat pain. In this article we will discuss methods for treating pain both in the wilderness and operational setting. By operational we mean the austere deployed military setting, to include both noncombat and combat operations. The authors combined experience with wartime trauma pain management consists of experience in Operation "Just Cause" (Panama Invasion), Operation "Desert Storm" (Persian Gulf War), Operation "Uphold Democracy" (Haiti liberation), Operation "Enduring Freedom" (Afghanistan conflict), and Operation "Iraqi Freedom" (Iraq conflict).

  9. Ten Years of Spatial Disorientation in U.S. Army Rotary-Wing Operations (Reprint)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-10-01

    of the time, and changes over time in training, tactics, and technol- ogy [e.g., night vision goggles (NVG) and forward look- ing infrared (FLIR... night vision systems]. Ogden and colleagues ( 21 ) provided one of the fi rst looks (1957 to 1963) at Army helicopter “ orientation error ” (OE), re... vision goggles ; NVS- night vision system; OIF- Operation Iraqi Freedom; OEF- Operation Enduring Freedom. Fig. 1. Spatial disorientation-related

  10. Capability Enhancement and Amputee Care in Operation Iraqi Freedom: The Role of a Rehabilitation and Prosthetics Assistance Team in Reconstruction Operations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-05-01

    fabrication. Innovations included teaching total contact sockets for transfemoral amputees instead of using quadrilat- eral sockets per the local standard of...care, introducing single- axis feet for unilateral and bilateral transfemoral amputees to soften the transition from initial contact to midstance during...power to run clinic computers and equipment. Poor communications and antiquated banking systems affect the timely and reliable delivery of medical sup

  11. Procurement Integrity in Contingency Operations: A Case Study of Army Contracting Officer Corruption in Operations Iraqi and Enduring Freedom Utilizing Occupational Fraud Theory

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-12-01

    personnel incorrectly have been characterized as “ shoppers ,” by some both inside and outside of the Army (and, consequently, reduced in both quantity and...Publication 4-10). Retrieved from DTIC Online website: http://www.dtic.mil/doctrine/new_pubs/jp4_10.pdf Commission on Wartime Contracting in Iraq

  12. Considerations for a design and operations knowledge support system for Space Station Freedom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erickson, Jon D.; Crouse, Kenneth H.; Wechsler, Donald B.; Flaherty, Douglas R.

    1989-01-01

    Engineering and operations of modern engineered systems depend critically upon detailed design and operations knowledge that is accurate and authoritative. A design and operations knowledge support system (DOKSS) is a modern computer-based information system providing knowledge about the creation, evolution, and growth of an engineered system. The purpose of a DOKSS is to provide convenient and effective access to this multifaceted information. The complexity of Space Station Freedom's (SSF's) systems, elements, interfaces, and organizations makes convenient access to design knowledge especially important, when compared to simpler systems. The life cycle length, being 30 or more years, adds a new dimension to space operations, maintenance, and evolution. Provided here is a review and discussion of design knowledge support systems to be delivered and operated as a critical part of the engineered system. A concept of a DOKSS for Space Station Freedom (SSF) is presented. This is followed by a detailed discussion of a DOKSS for the Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center and Work Package-2 portions of SSF.

  13. The Systems Engineering Design of a Smart Forward Operating Base Surveillance System for Forward Operating Base Protection

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-06-01

    Network-Centric Warfare NOA NetOps Agility NOC Network Operations Center OI Object of Interest OIF Operation Iraqi Freedom OV Operational View RF...Agility NetOps Agility ( NOA ) allows the user access to information on demand from any node along a network. The user can also process, share, send or...receive information in a secure computing environment. The operation and management of the GIG is set by NOA policy and protocols (DoD CIO, 2007

  14. STS-49 - A demonstration of EMU operational capabilities for Space Station Freedom assembly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bleisath, Scott A.; Johnson, Kieth G.

    1992-07-01

    One of the primary objectives for Space Shuttle mission STS-49 is to perform three EVAs on consecutive days in a manner similar to those planned for Space Station Freedom (SSF) assembly missions. The preparation and completion of this mission will serve as a pathfinder for future EVA intensive SSF assembly flights. Several operational issues pertaining to the EMU have been addressed in preparation for this mission. Provisioning and orbiter stowage of the EMU and associated hardware have been optimized for four EVA crewmembers. EMU preparatory and maintenance activities have been streamlined to help minimize crew overhead and have been carefully integrated into a very demanding mission timeline. The constraints and limitations have been assessed in providing a backup EMU capability for each EVA crewmember. Several EMU concerns have also been addressed in supporting new EVA task requirements, such as large mass handling and performing SSF assembly operations over the crew cabin and nose of the Shuttle orbiter.

  15. Effects of Operational and Strategic Pauses on Mission Success

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-05-21

    testament to the grasp of operational art by the Allied commanders. Operation Iraqi Freedom “There is a finite range beyond which the joint force...to the Corps via training exercises prior to the invasion, and a firm grasp of operational reach enabled the Coalition advance in the south to...only Eisenhower was able to temper Patton’s continued advance and make him grasp reality. Although the war lasted another nine months after

  16. A Novel Method for Verifying War Mortality while Estimating Iraqi Deaths for the Iran-Iraq War through Operation Desert Storm (1980-1993)

    PubMed Central

    Li, Shang-Ju; Flaxman, Abraham; Lafta, Riyadh; Galway, Lindsay; Takaro, Tim K.; Burnham, Gilbert; Hagopian, Amy

    2016-01-01

    Objectives We estimated war-related Iraqi mortality for the period 1980 through 1993. Method To test our hypothesis that deaths reported by siblings (even dating back several decades) would correspond with war events, we compared sibling mortality reports with the frequency of independent news reports about violent historic events. We used data from a survey of 4,287 adults in 2000 Iraqi households conducted in 2011. Interviewees reported on the status of their 24,759 siblings. Death rates were applied to population estimates, 1980 to 1993. News report data came from the ProQuest New York Times database. Results About half of sibling-reported deaths across the study period were attributed to direct war-related injuries. The Iran-Iraq war led to nearly 200,000 adult deaths, and the 1990–1991 First Gulf War generated another approximately 40,000 deaths. Deaths during peace intervals before and after each war were significantly lower. We found a relationship between total sibling-reported deaths and the tally of war events across the period, p = 0.02. Conclusions We report a novel method to verify the reliability of epidemiological (household survey) estimates of direct war-related injury mortality dating back several decades. PMID:27768730

  17. Airspace Command and Control in the Contemporary Operating Environment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-05-07

    article titled, “The Miracle of Operation Iraqi Freedom Airspace Management,” Wathen details the herculean effort airspace With multiple actors...the ability to predict airspace conflicts. 4 Colonel David Hume , an Air War College graduate, wrote a thesis on command and control and integration...of unmanned aircraft into the battlespace. Hume argues that the TAGS is not optimized to support the integration of unmanned aircraft operations

  18. What Pre-Deployment and Early Post-Deployment Factors Predict Health Function after Combat Deployment?: A Prospective Longitudinal Study of Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF)/Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF) Soldiers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-04-30

    licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. McAndrew et al...34), a trait related to hypnotic susceptibility. J Abnorm Psychol 1974, 83:268–277. 19. King DW, King LA, Vogt DS: Manual for the Deployment Risk and

  19. What pre-deployment and early post-deployment factors predict health function after combat deployment?: a prospective longitudinal study of Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF)/Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF) soldiers

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Physical and mental function are strong indicators of disability and mortality. OEF/OIF Veterans returning from deployment have been found to have poorer function than soldiers who have not deployed; however the reasons for this are unknown. Methods A prospective cohort of 790 soldiers was assessed both pre- and immediately after deployment to determine predictors of physical and mental function after war. Results On average, OEF/OIF Veterans showed significant declines in both physical (t=6.65, p<.0001) and mental function (t=7.11, p<.0001). After controlling for pre-deployment function, poorer physical function after deployment was associated with older age, more physical symptoms, blunted systolic blood pressure reactivity and being injured. After controlling for pre-deployment function, poorer mental function after deployment was associated with younger age, lower social desirability, lower social support, greater physical symptoms and greater PTSD symptoms. Conclusions Combat deployment was associated with an immediate decline in both mental and physical function. The relationship of combat deployment to function is complex and influenced by demographic, psychosocial, physiological and experiential factors. Social support and physical symptoms emerged as potentially modifiable factors. PMID:23631419

  20. Design for an integrated discipline operations control center for Space Station Freedom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haines, Richard F.

    1993-01-01

    This paper presents selected features of a human factors oriented plan for a Space Station Freedom (SSF) ground Discipline Operations Center (DOC) that is integrated with other work areas used by multidisciplinary life scientists. This combined facility is referred to as an integrated DOC or IDOC. This plan is based upon the assumption that there will be a constantly changing array of specialized equipment and procedures used by life sciences principal investigators (PI) on the ground which must be linked to SSF through various DOC systems. Other sites will also be able to communicate with SSF (Anon., 1992). It is also assumed that cost reduction will be a major design consideration and that one integrated structure will be less expensive to build and operate than two separate ones. Since both the DOC personnel and PIs will need to communicate with the flight crew aboard SSF, the general interconnect architecture of the PIs' communication linkage is considered here. Key human factor design elements of this plan include: a candidate facility layout which accommodates three (3), multipurpose, rapidly reconfigurable work areas (suites) and consequent user traffic flow considerations, a multimedia telecommunications support capability, functional (human) traffic flow, optimized internal illumination and acoustics requirements, selected volumetric and safety requirements, and other architectural design parameters.

  1. Operations with the special purpose dextrous manipulator on Space Station Freedom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cox, B.; Brown, D.; Hiltz, M.

    1991-01-01

    SPAR Canada is actively participating in the Space Station Freedom Program by contributing the Mobile Servicing System (MSS) which will be involved in assembly, maintenance and servicing of both the Space Station and the MSS itself. Part of the MSS is the Special Purpose Dextrous Manipulator (SPDM), a two armed dextrous robot with advanced vision and manipulative capabilities. In addition to Space Station and payload servicing activities the SPDM will be designed to perform self maintenance on the MSS itself. The majority of Space Station equipment will be on orbit for the anticipated 30 year lifespan and the maintenance philosophy will be to repair by the exchange of Orbit Replacement Units or ORUs. The present concept, configuration, and operation of the SPDM and the detailed simulations associated with the maintenance of part of the MSS are described. The Design Reference Mission is the replacement of a Joint Drive Module on the Canadian large payload manipulator, the Space Station Remote Manipulator System. Other Design Reference Missions that were investigated are briefly described, and future operations activity to support the definition of SPDM requirements are discussed.

  2. A radiological assessment of nuclear power and propulsion operations near Space Station Freedom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bolch, Wesley E.; Thomas, J. Kelly; Peddicord, K. Lee; Nelson, Paul; Marshall, David T.; Busche, Donna M.

    1990-01-01

    Scenarios were identified which involve the use of nuclear power systems in the vicinity of Space Station Freedom (SSF) and their radiological impact on the SSF crew was quantified. Several of the developed scenarios relate to the use of SSF as an evolutionary transportation node for lunar and Mars missions. In particular, radiation doses delivered to SSF crew were calculated for both the launch and subsequent return of a Nuclear Electric Propulsion (NEP) cargo vehicle and a Nuclear Thermal Rocket (NTR) personnel vehicle to low earth orbit. The use of nuclear power on co-orbiting platforms and the storage and handling issues associated with radioisotope power systems were also explored as they relate to SSF. A central philosophy in these analyses was the utilization of a radiation dose budget, defined as the difference between recommended dose limits from all radiation sources and estimated doses received by crew members from natural space radiations. Consequently, for each scenario examined, the dose budget concept was used to identify and quantify constraints on operational parameters such as launch separation distances, returned vehicle parking distances, and reactor shutdown times prior to vehicle approach. The results indicate that realistic scenarios do not exist which would preclude the use of nuclear power sources in the vicinity of SSF. The radiation dose to the SSF crew can be maintained at safe levels solely by implementing proper and reasonable operating procedures.

  3. Live from the Battlefield: An Examination of Embedded War Correspondents’ Reporting during Operation Iraqi Freedom (21 March-14 April 2003)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-06-01

    Concepts emerge during research Seldom Always Data analysis Statistical Textual; statistical Data presentation Tables Tables and text The goal of...1 hour per response, including the time for reviewing instruction, searching existing data sources, gathering and maintaining the data needed, and...Validity Progression from data collection, analysis, interpretation Serial Reflective, circular Primary researcher involvement Data analysis and

  4. Fresh Whole Blood Transfusions in Coalition Military, Foreign National, and Enemy Combatant Patients During Operation Iraqi Freedom at a U.S. Combat Support Hospital

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-09

    1]. Military doctrine states that the use of FWB is acceptable when standard blood components are not available for life- saving therapy [2...plasma, platelets) is indicated for treatment and not available, or if the transfusion of avail- able blood components in a 1:1:1 ratio with adequate...utilizing FWB, for patients with the coagulopathy of trauma [18–20] when the patients’ coagu- lopathy is not responding to the use of blood components in a 1

  5. The Fight for the High Ground: The U.S. Army and Interrogation during Operation Iraqi Freedom I, May 2003-April 2004

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-06-12

    desperate war against a growing insurgency. Mounting U.S. casualties became the catalyst for a hidden "war within the war." Arrayed on one side of...desperate war against a growing insurgency. Mounting U.S. casualties became the catalyst for a hidden "war within the war." Arrayed on one side of...attacks against coalition forces in June. 4 Worse, these attacks had increased in both lethality and strategic effect : dangerous roadside bombs

  6. Statistical Modeling of Combat Mortality Events by Using Subject Matter Expert Opinions and Operation Iraqi Freedom Empirical Results from the Navy-Marine Corps Combat Trauma Registry

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    data is deemed unsatisfactory, other models will be examined. The life insurance industry typically uses actuarial tables to determine expected...fitted linear regres - sion model . In the figure, H(t) is estimated by summing the non-parametric estimates of the hazard rate, h(t) = 1/k, where k...compete for medical/logistics resources (staff, equipment, consumables, transporters) as casualties flow through the system. Other recent modeling and

  7. To Fight or Not to Fight? Organizational and Doctrinal Trends in Mounted Maneuver Reconnaissance from the Interwar Years to Operation Iraqi Freedom

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    process, Armored Force leaders bor - rowed heavily from the experiences of the 7th Cavalry Brigade (Mechanized). General Chaffee’s appointment as...General Hobart R. Gay , commander of the 1st Cavalry Division, summarized the views of many reconnaissance soldiers regarding the jeep: “A very mobile and...and Cavalry System (FSCS), 361–364, 395, 453 FV 701 Ferret, 129 Gay , Hobart R., 125 General Board, 92–94, 98–99 General Headquarters (GHQ), 45

  8. Apache Aviator Evaluation of Dual-Technology Night Vision Systems in Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF) Urban Combat (Master’s Thesis)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-01-01

    Psychology , 1, pp. 307- 312. Hiar. K. L., Rash, C. E., Harris, E. S., and McGilberry, W. H. 2004. Apache Aviator Visual Experiences with the IHADSS...MNo 10 5 (2.6%) 1 80 U.S AmyAeromedical Researh Laboratory Fort Rucker, Alabama 36362-0 577

  9. Psychological symptoms and marital satisfaction in spouses of Operation Iraqi Freedom veterans: relationships with spouses' perceptions of veterans' experiences and symptoms.

    PubMed

    Renshaw, Keith D; Rodrigues, Camila S; Jones, David H

    2008-08-01

    Much research has shown that spouses of combat veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) have higher rates of psychological and marital distress than do spouses of veterans without PTSD; however, very few studies have examined potential mechanisms of this increased vulnerability. The current study examined spouses of National Guard soldiers recently returned from deployments in Iraq. In addition to documenting elevated levels of psychological symptoms in these spouses, the authors found that spouses experienced greater symptom severity when they perceived high levels of symptoms in soldiers but the soldiers endorsed low levels of symptoms. Furthermore, spouses' marital satisfaction was negatively linked to soldiers' self-reported symptom severity only when spouses perceived that soldiers had experienced low levels of combat activity while deployed. When spouses perceived high levels of such activity, soldiers' self-reported symptoms had no relationship with spouses' marital satisfaction. These findings highlight the importance of interpersonal perceptions in intimate relationships and are consistent with the notion that uncontrollable attributions for a relative's mental health problems may provide a buffer against relationship distress. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. Predicting Resource Needs for Multiple and Mass Casualty Events in Combat: Lessons Learned From Combat Support Hospital Experience in Operation Iraqi Freedom

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-04-01

    explosions and gunshot wound ) firefights. The primary mechanism of injury for the majority of casualties (73%) was explosion, with the remaining 27% of...casualties injured by gunshot wound . The mean ISS for casualties who were in- jured in explosive incidents (improvised explosives, rocket, or mortar...slightly lower base deficit (5 vs. 3.5, p 0.05), and lower ISS (8.1 vs. 9.8, p 0.05) in patients who suffered gunshot wound mechanism compared

  11. Basing and Operational Reach

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-12-06

    and Purpose On August 2, 1990, the Iraqi Republican Guard invaded Kuwait over disputes in slant drilling in the Rumaila oil fields and accusations...Iraqi Freedom. Assessment, Washington, DC: Science Applications International Corporation, 2004. Seale, Khaled Bin Sultan with Patrick. Desert Warrior

  12. Dental emergency rates at an expeditionary medical support facility supporting Operation Enduring Freedom.

    PubMed

    Dunn, William Jackson

    2004-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to report the dental emergency rate and the distribution of cause of dental emergencies at an Expeditionary Medical Support +25 medical facility during a 6-month deployment in support of Operation Enduring Freedom. A retrospective cohort analysis of 1,972 soldiers stationed at Seeb Air Base, Sultanate of Oman, was accomplished from a phased deployment from March to September 2002. Procedures were divided into 11 categories: endodontic, extraction of teeth other than third molars, extraction of third molar teeth, restoration of teeth (caries), restoration of broken teeth (not caries), orthodontic bracket/wire problem, sensitive teeth, temperomandibular pain, periodontal, oral pathology, and prosthodontic. One hundred thirty-five dental emergency visits were recorded, corresponding to a rate of 137 dental emergencies per 1,000 soldiers per year. Most of the emergencies (34.8%) were due to caries. Pain from third molars was the second most common reason for visiting the dental clinic (19.3%).

  13. Microeconomics, Private Security, and the Significance to Operational Planning

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-05-23

    like to thank Major Ryan Bulger who provided significant peer feedback on the organization and flow of what unfolds in the following pages. I...Philippines OIF Operation Iraqi Freedom OSC -I Office of Security Cooperation-Iraq PACOM Pacific Command PMC Private Military Contractor PMF Private...unknown but a model established in Iraq under the Office of Security 8 Cooperation-Iraq ( OSC -I) provides a framework to maintain strategic

  14. Traditions, Changes, and Challenges: Military Operations and the Middle Eastern City

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-01-01

    Studies Institute,Fort Leavenworth, KS ,66027 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER 9. SPONSORING/MONITORING AGENCY NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) 10...World: World Regional Urban Development, 3d ed. (New York: Harper & Row, 2003), 271. 12. Brunn, 2003, 269-72. 13. Pacione, 135. 14. Philip K . Hitti...Operation Iraqi Freedom. Fort Leavenworth, KS : Combat Studies Institute Press, 2004. Dewar, Michael. War in the Streets: The Story of Urban Combat

  15. Operant conditioning of a multiple degree-of-freedom brain-machine interface in a primate model of amputation.

    PubMed

    Balasubramanian, Karthikeyan; Southerland, Joshua; Vaidya, Mukta; Qian, Kai; Eleryan, Ahmed; Fagg, Andrew H; Sluzky, Marc; Oweiss, Karim; Hatsopoulos, Nicholas

    2013-01-01

    Operant conditioning with biofeedback has been shown to be an effective method to modify neural activity to generate goal-directed actions in a brain-machine interface. It is particularly useful when neural activity cannot be mathematically mapped to motor actions of the actual body such as in the case of amputation. Here, we implement an operant conditioning approach with visual feedback in which an amputated monkey is trained to control a multiple degree-of-freedom robot to perform a reach-to-grasp behavior. A key innovation is that each controlled dimension represents a behaviorally relevant synergy among a set of joint degrees-of-freedom. We present a number of behavioral metrics by which to assess improvements in BMI control with exposure to the system. The use of non-human primates with chronic amputation is arguably the most clinically-relevant model of human amputation that could have direct implications for developing a neural prosthesis to treat humans with missing upper limbs.

  16. Air Power Against Terror: America’s Conduct of Operation Enduring Freedom

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-01-01

    deputy director of operations for the Joint Chiefs of Staff, Rear Ad- miral John Stufflebeam , put it, “we now have the access to be able to do... Stufflebeam , reported that around 10,000 munitions had been expended during the first 45 days of combat. That expenditure rate was roughly comparable to the

  17. Evolution of the U.S. Army aviation during Operation Enduring Freedom in Afghanistan

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-06-12

    from deep attack to close combat support and trained pilots in order to meet the needs of the war on terror. It also evolved into a smaller, modular...effected the capabilities and effectiveness of both aircraft and aircrews. In response to these effects, U.S. Army Aviation shifted its focus from deep ...39 Deep Operation–Close Combat Operation

  18. Operation Enduring Freedom-Philippines : A Demonstration of Economy of Force

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-05-04

    Gracia. 50 Once the firefight started, a US MH- 60L Black Hawk, flown by Special Operation troops, flew to the scene for support and medevaced Gracia to...only 40 UH -1 Heuys to cover the whole country. The AFP does not have the organic Intelligence, Reconnaissance, and Surveillance (ISR) assets

  19. Joint Mental Health Advisory Team 7 (J-MHAT 7) Operation Enduring Freedom 2010 Afghanistan (REDACTED)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-02-22

    Marine platoons. Eighty -five surveys were collected from behavioral health personnel in the Afghanistan Theater of Operations (ATO). From 27 July to 14...with Soldiers, Marines and behavioral health personnel, and (d) wrote the technical briefing and draft report. The report contains four key...Factors In the conceptual model, behavioral health rates are driven by risk factors. In this report, risk factors are broken down into four major

  20. Dynamics of Interagency Cooperation Process at Provincial Reconstruction Team in Operations ISAF and Enduring Freedom

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-06-11

    recently visited three PRTs in Afghanistan: Panshir (US led), Bamiyan (New Zealand defense forces) and Mazar e Sharif (Sweden). She says that each PRT has...opportunity to visit and work with PRTs Bamiyan (led by New Zealand Defense Forces), Mazar e Sharif (Swedish Forces) and Herat (Italian Forces). During...relationships and the deficiencies at PRT level were really based, she says, upon the different environments in which the PRTs operated. She did find Bamiyan

  1. Visa Process Keeps Iraqi Students out of U.S.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Labi, Aisha

    2008-01-01

    This article reports that American visa procedures have prevented graduate students from taking advantage of the Iraqi government's program to study in the United States. Iraqi students seeking to come to American colleges on full scholarships from the Iraqi government face so many hurdles in obtaining a visa that few are able to enter the…

  2. 31 CFR 576.308 - Iraqi petroleum and petroleum products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Iraqi petroleum and petroleum products... SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 576.308 Iraqi petroleum and petroleum products. The term Iraqi petroleum and petroleum products means any petroleum, petroleum products, or natural gas originating in...

  3. 31 CFR 576.308 - Iraqi petroleum and petroleum products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Iraqi petroleum and petroleum products... SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 576.308 Iraqi petroleum and petroleum products. The term Iraqi petroleum and petroleum products means any petroleum, petroleum products, or natural gas originating in...

  4. 31 CFR 576.308 - Iraqi petroleum and petroleum products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Iraqi petroleum and petroleum products... SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 576.308 Iraqi petroleum and petroleum products. The term Iraqi petroleum and petroleum products means any petroleum, petroleum products, or natural gas originating in...

  5. 31 CFR 576.308 - Iraqi petroleum and petroleum products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Iraqi petroleum and petroleum products... SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 576.308 Iraqi petroleum and petroleum products. The term Iraqi petroleum and petroleum products means any petroleum, petroleum products, or natural gas originating in...

  6. United States Army Special Operations Forces and Building Enduring Partner Enabler Capacity in Operation Enduring Freedom-Philippines

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-05-22

    El Salvador . Fort Leavenworth, KS: Combat Studies Institute, 2006. Robinson, Linda. The Future of US Special Operations Forces. New York, NY: Foreign...democracy and human rights , and grow the ranks of prosperous, capable, and democratic states to address key global challenges.29 The NSS also emphasizes...and interdependent on the other to provide the right resources at the right time and place to move and sustain the force. According to former

  7. National E-Learning Strategy to Enhance and Enrich the Iraqi Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elameer, Amer Saleem; Idrus, Rozhan M.

    2011-01-01

    Nowadays, the HE (higher education) sector of Iraq has suffered severe disruption and mass destruction due to the war and, in general, only 10% of its remaining operational sectors are in the acceptable conditions. This research is an attempt to plan a PS (proposed strategy) for the Iraqi HE sector that can be executed easily in Iraq as a part of…

  8. Developing a pharmaceutical formulary for joint military medical operations.

    PubMed

    Caouette, Marc L

    2005-02-01

    This article describes the development of a standardized formulary for medical contingency operations for any theater of operations. The article compares peacetime health care systems within the Department of Defense and the formulary systems developed and used within the fixed facility environment with Department of Defense contingency health care operations systems and the complications encountered while attempting formulary development for the deployed environment. Despite great difficulties, the Joint Readiness Clinical Advisory Board developed, published, and marketed a jointly approved, standardized, modernized formulary to assist forces deploying for Operations Enduring Freedom and Iraqi Freedom. The process used by the Joint Readiness Clinical Advisory Board during formulary development is described in detail, giving readers an understanding of the foundations of the Joint Deployment Formulary. The military departments will experience the benefits of enhanced supply chain predictability and responsiveness, increased clinician satisfaction, and improved patient safety and health care quality by implementing the Joint Deployment Formulary for their forces engaged in contingency operations.

  9. In-flight transfusion of packed red blood cells on a combat search and rescue mission: a case report from operation enduring freedom.

    PubMed

    West, Brad C; Bentley, Richard; Place, Ronald J

    2004-03-01

    Injuries on the battlefield can occur far from the nearest medical treatment facility. This is especially likely for downed pilots and special operations personnel. Some of these injuries lead to significant blood loss requiring transfusion. We present two cases of injured coalition force members during Operation Enduring Freedom that illustrate the potential need for a transfusion capability at the site of injury to prevent death. Consideration should be given to augmenting transfusion capabilities in military environments with predictably long evacuation times.

  10. Acquisition and extinction of operant pain-related avoidance behavior using a 3 degrees-of-freedom robotic arm.

    PubMed

    Meulders, Ann; Franssen, Mathijs; Fonteyne, Riet; Vlaeyen, Johan W S

    2016-05-01

    Ample empirical evidence endorses the role of associative learning in pain-related fear acquisition. Nevertheless, research typically focused on self-reported and psychophysiological measures of fear. Avoidance, which is overt behavior preventing the occurrence of an aversive (painful) stimulus, has been largely neglected so far. Therefore, we aimed to fill this gap and developed an operant conditioning procedure for pain-related avoidance behavior. Participants moved their arm to a target location using the HapticMaster (FCS Robotics; Moog Inc, East Aurora, New York), a 3 degrees-of-freedom, force-controlled robotic arm. Three movement trajectories led to the target location. If participants in the Experimental Group took the shortest/easiest trajectory, they always received a painful stimulus (T1 = 100% reinforcement; no resistance). If they deviated from this trajectory, the painful stimulus could be partly or totally prevented (T2 = 50% reinforcement; T3 = 0% reinforcement), but more effort was needed (T2 = moderate resistance and deviation; T3 = strongest resistance and largest deviation). The Yoked Group received the same reinforcement schedule irrespective of their own behavior. During the subsequent extinction phase, no painful stimuli were delivered. Self-reported pain-expectancy and pain-related fear were assessed, and avoidance behavior was operationalized as the maximal distance from the shortest trajectory. During acquisition, the Experimental Group reported more pain-related fear and pain-expectancy to T1 vs T2 vs T3 and deviated more from the shortest trajectory than the Yoked Group. During subsequent extinction, avoidance behavior, self-reported fear, and pain-expectancy decreased significantly, but conditioned differences persisted despite the absence of painful stimuli. To conclude, this operant learning task might provide a valid paradigm to study pain-related avoidance behavior in future studies.

  11. Iraqi Refugee High School Students' Academic Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bang, Hyeyoung

    2017-01-01

    Many Iraqi refugee students in the United States suffer from posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) as well as acculturation stresses. These stresses often create challenges for their integration into U.S. schools. The project explored risk factors such as the length of educational gaps in transit, PTSD, and separation and marginalization…

  12. A definition study of the on-orbit assembly operations for the outboard photovoltaic power modules for Space Station Freedom. M.S. Thesis - Toledo Univ.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sours, Thomas J.

    1989-01-01

    A concept is described for the assembly of the outboard PV modules for Space Station Freedom. Analysis of the on-orbit assembly operations was performed using CADAM design graphics software. A scenario for assembly using the various assembly equipment, as currently defined, is described in words, tables and illustrations. This work is part of ongoing studies in the area of space station assembly. The outboard PV module and the assembly equipment programs are all in definition and preliminary design phases. An input is provided to the design process of assembly equipment programs. It is established that the outboard PV module assembly operations can be performed using the assembly equipment currently planned in the Space Station Freedom Program.

  13. Microgravity science and applications overview - Research, facility and instrumentation development, Space Station Freedom operations and utilization planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crouch, Roger K.; Kicza, M. E.

    1991-01-01

    The NASA microgravity science and applications program is reviewed. Particular attention is given to the planning for utilization of the Shuttle and plans leading to the utilization of Space Station Freedom. It is concluded that the potential rewards of the program include a better understanding of the physical processes in the space environment, which may lead to refined control strategies, and advances in technology, which may lead to important commercial applications.

  14. Iraqi Power and U.S. Security in the Middle East

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-05-30

    44 Israel.......................................................... 45 Iraq’s Economy and the Army...such operations. The authors believe that the future of the Iraqi military will be conditioned by the performance of the economy . Iraq is a ix...and morose.2 6 A second factor was driving Saddam to recapture Al Faw. The war had wrecked Iraq’s economy . Iraq had been funding itself since at least

  15. A concurrent resolution commending the 39th Infantry Brigade Combat Team of the Arkansas National Guard upon its completion of a second deployment in support of Operation Iraqi Freedom.

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Sen. Pryor, Mark L. [D-AR

    2009-03-31

    03/31/2009 Referred to the Committee on Armed Services. (text of measure as introduced: CR S4087) (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  16. Empirical Analysis of Operation Iraqi Freedom Combat Mortality Using the Navy-Marine Corps Combat Trauma Registry Expeditionary Medical Encounter Database for Applications to Tactical Medical Logistics Modeling and Simulation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-05-15

    applicable to other battlefield and civilian tactical medical logistics M&S efforts. Objectives This study focused on two main objectives: 1...with battlefield casualty disposition from the point of injury (POI) to higher levels of care. One of the tool’s most important metrics, and the...effects of treatment delays and available resuscitation (surgical-level resuscitation vs. non-surgical-level resuscitation) on battlefield mortality

  17. Change and Continuity in Arab Iraqi Education: Sunni and Shi'i Discourse in Iraqi Textbooks before and after 2003

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rohde, Achim

    2013-01-01

    This article investigates Iraqi schooling during the 1990s under Ba'thist rule and after the regime's fall in 2003 and compares the treatment of Islam in the curriculum. I focus on the degree to which Iraqi textbooks under Saddam Hussein contained a Sunni bias and the changes introduced immediately after the 2003 US invasion of Iraq in 2003. To…

  18. Neurosurgery in Iraqi Kurdistan: An Example of International Neurosurgery Capacity Building.

    PubMed

    Dossani, Rimal Hanif; Carr, Steven; Bolles, Gene; Balata, Razvan; Guthikonda, Bharat

    2016-08-01

    The medical infrastructure of Iraqi Kurdistan, a semiautonomous region in the northern part of Iraq, lags disproportionately behind relative to the otherwise booming industrial advances of the region. Although neurosurgical training is available, the local population lacks trust in its own neurosurgeons. Medical facilities suffer from a lack of basic resources, such as high-speed drills, intracranial pressure monitoring, and stereotaxy to care for neurosurgical patients. Since 2012, American volunteer neurosurgeons have delivered lectures and mentored local neurosurgeons in performing neurosurgical procedures. Over the last 4 years, the visiting neurosurgical team has seen hundreds of patients in consultation and performed more than 50 complex cranial and spinal operations jointly with local neurosurgeons. This article discusses our experience as volunteer neurosurgeons in building neurosurgical capacity in Iraqi Kurdistan.

  19. Domestic violence among Iraqi refugees in Syria.

    PubMed

    Tappis, Hannah; Biermann, Elizabeth; Glass, Nancy; Tileva, Margarita; Doocy, Shannon

    2012-01-01

    A domestic violence questionnaire was administered to 701 adult females in a sample of 813 Iraqi households in Syria; unmarried women and women whose husbands were away were excluded, yielding a final sample of 486. Lifetime physical, verbal, or emotional abuse was reported by 30%, and approximately 20% experienced abuse within the past year. Non-Damascus residence, children <18 years in the household, no financial challenges upon arrival, and borrowing money in Syria were associated with increased risk of domestic violence within the past year. Support services are inadequate and should be expanded; and longer-term prevention measures also should be implemented.

  20. Iraqi oil industry slowly returning to normal

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-09-07

    This paper reports that Iraq is making progress in putting its battered petroleum industry back together 1 1/2 years after the Persian Gulf war ended. OPEC News Agency (Opecna) reported the finish of reconstruction of Iraq's Mina al-Bakr oil terminal on the northern tip of the Persian Gulf, using Iraqi know-how and engineering personnel. The terminal, heavily damaged during the gulf conflict, has been restored to its prewar loading capacity of 1.6 million b/d at a cost of $16 million. Ninety per cent of the port had been damaged.

  1. Inclusion cylinder method for aortic valve replacement utilising the Ross operation in adults with predominant aortic stenosis – 99% freedom from re-operation on the aortic valve at 15 years

    PubMed Central

    Skillington, Peter D.; Mokhles, M. Mostafa; Wilson, William; Grigg, Leeanne; Larobina, Marco; O'Keefe, Michael; Takkenberg, Johanna

    2013-01-01

    Background: To report our experience with the Ross operation in patients with predominant aortic stenosis (AS) using an inclusion cylinder (IC) method. Methods: Out of 324 adults undergoing a Ross operation, 204 patients of mean age of 41.3 years (limits 16–62) underwent this procedure for either AS or mixed AS and regurgitation (AS/AR) between October, 1992 and February, 2012, implanting the PA with an IC method. Clinical follow up and serial echo data for this group is 97% complete with late mortality follow up 99% complete. Results: There has been zero (0%) early mortality, and late survival at 15 years is 98% (96%, 100%). Only one re-operation on the aortic valve for progressive aortic regurgitation (AR) has been required with freedom from re-operation on the aortic valve at 15 years being 99% (96%, 100%). The freedom from all re-operations on the aortic and pulmonary valves at 15 years is 97% (94%, 100%). Echo analysis at the most recent study shows that 98% have nil, trivial or mild AR. Aortic root size has remained stable, shown by long-term (15 year) echo follow up. Conclusions: In an experience spanning 19 years, the Ross operation used for predominant AS using the IC method described, results in 99% freedom from re-operation on the aortic valve at 15 years, better than any other tissue or mechanical valve. For adults under 65 years without significant co-morbidities who present with predominant AS, the pulmonary autograft inserted with this technique gives excellent results. PMID:24749112

  2. Coordinating medical civil military operations in Multinational Division-North.

    PubMed

    Smyrski, John A; Rainey, McKinley; Roach, Shane; Stevens, Mark; Hernandez, Gloria; Vargo, Ruth

    2010-11-01

    Medical civil military operations (MCMO) are part of military civil capacity-building efforts within the full spectrum of military operations, from war to military operations other than war. In 2008-2009 during Operation Iraqi Freedom, the Division Surgeon's Section (DSS) of the 25th Infantry Division (25ID) and Multinational Division-North developed an innovative MCMO program in northern Iraq. The program centered on understanding and mapping key relationships, empowering brigade-level programs, and leveraging technology to identify and share best practices. The DSS mapped the critical relationships within and between the three entities affecting MCMO: the government of Iraq (GOI), Department of State (DOS), and the Department of Defense (DOD). A division MCMO working group was then created along with processes to facilitate MCMO project execution and program management. The structure and organization of the 25ID MCMO program lend themselves to other operational environments requiring synchronization of medical capacity-building efforts.

  3. Manipulator Design and Operation for a Six-Degree-of-Freedom Handheld Tremor-Canceling Microsurgical Instrument

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Sungwook; MacLachlan, Robert A.; Riviere, Cameron N.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the design and actuation of a six-degree-of-freedom (6-DOF) manipulator for a handheld instrument, known as “Micron,” which performs active tremor compensation during microsurgery. The design incorporates a Gough-Stewart platform based on piezoelectric linear motor, with a specified minimum workspace of a cylinder 4 mm long and 4 mm in diameter at the end-effector. Given the stall force of the motors and the loading typically encountered in vitreoretinal microsurgery, the dimensions of the manipulator are optimized to tolerate a transverse load of 0.2 N on a remote center of motion near the midpoint of the tool shaft. The optimization yields a base diameter of 23 mm and a height of 37 mm. The fully handheld instrument includes a custom-built optical tracking system for control feedback, and an ergonomic housing to serve as a handle. The manipulation performance was investigated in both clamped and handheld conditions. In positioning experiments with varying side loads, the manipulator tolerates side load up to 0.25 N while tracking a sinusoidal target trajectory with less than 20 μm error. Physiological hand tremor is reduced by about 90% in a pointing task, and error less than 25 μm is achieved in handheld circle-tracing. PMID:25419103

  4. Family stress and posttraumatic stress: the impact of military operations on military health care providers.

    PubMed

    Gibbons, Susanne W; Barnett, Scott D; Hickling, Edward J

    2012-08-01

    This study uses data from the 2005 Department of Defense Survey of Health-Related Behaviors Among Military Personnel to examine relationships between family stress and posttraumatic stress symptoms across 4 subgroups of Operation Iraqi Freedom-deployed (i.e., war in Iraq) or Operation Enduring Freedom-deployed (i.e., war in Afghanistan) active-duty military service members. Results suggest the following: (a) the greatest positive correlation of family stressors with posttraumatic stress symptoms was found within the military health care officer group, and (b) these military health care officers differed in family stressors mediating posttraumatic stress with divorce and financial problems accounting for significant and unique portions of the variance. Implications for care of service members and their families are discussed.

  5. An algebraic function operator expectation value based eigenstate determinations for quantum systems with one degree of freedom

    SciTech Connect

    Kalay, Berfin; Demiralp, Metin

    2015-12-31

    This proceedings paper aims to show the efficiency of an expectation value identity for a given algebraic function operator which is assumed to be depending pn only position operator. We show that this expectation value formula becomes enabled to determine the eigenstates of the quantum system Hamiltonian as long as it is autonomous and an appropriate basis set in position operator is used. This approach produces a denumerable infinite recursion which may be considered as revisited but at the same time generalized form of the recursions over the natural number powers of the position operator. The content of this short paper is devoted not only to the formulation of the new method but also to show that this novel approach is capable of catching the eigenvalues and eigenfunctions for Hydrogen-like systems, beyond that, it can give a hand to us to reveal the wavefunction structure. So it has also somehow a confirmative nature.

  6. Reporting Iraqi civilian fatalities in a time of war

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background In February, 2007, the Associated Press (AP) conducted a poll of 1,002 adults in the United States about their attitudes towards the war in Iraq. Respondents were remarkably accurate estimating the current death toll of US soldiers, yet were grossly inaccurate in estimating the current death toll of Iraqi civilians. We conducted a search of newspapers reports to determine the extent of the discrepancy between reporting Coalition and Iraqi civilian deaths, hypothesizing that there would be an over-representation of Coalition deaths compared to Iraqi civilian deaths. Methods We examined 11 U.S. newspapers and 5 non-U.S. newspapers using electronic databases or newspaper web-archives, to record any reports between March 2003 and March 2008 of Coalition and Iraqi deaths that included a numeric indicator. Reports were described as "events" where they described a specific occurrence involving fatalities and "tallies" when they mentioned the number of deaths over a period of time. We recorded the number of events and tallies related to Coalition deaths, Iraqi civilian deaths, and Iraqi combatant deaths Results U.S. newspapers report more events and tallies related to Coalition deaths than Iraqi civilian deaths, although there are substantially different proportions amongst the different U.S. newspapers. In four of the five non-US newspapers, the pattern was reversed. Conclusion This difference in reporting trends may partly explain the discrepancy in how well people are informed about U.S. and Iraqi civilian fatalities in Iraq. Furthermore, this calls into question the role of the media in reporting and sustaining armed conflict, and the extent to which newspaper and other media reports can be used as data to assess fatalities or trends in the time of war. PMID:19895676

  7. Reintegration of the Iraqi Military in Post-Conflict Era

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-03-01

    NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL THESIS Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited REINTEGRATION OF THE IRAQI MILITARY IN POST...DATES COVERED Master’s Thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE: Reintegration of the Iraqi Military in Post-Conflict Era. 6. AUTHOR(S) Ertürk, Sait 5...process of the United States led coalition is to be successful . The fulcrum of power in Iraq has always been the internecine ethnic, religious, and

  8. Chern-Simons gravity with (curvature){sup 2} and (torsion){sup 2} terms and a basis of degree-of-freedom projection operators

    SciTech Connect

    Helayeel-Neto, J. A.; Hernaski, C. A.; Pereira-Dias, B.; Vargas-Paredes, A. A.; Vasquez-Otoya, V. J.

    2010-09-15

    The effects of (curvature){sup 2}- and (torsion){sup 2}-terms in the Einstein-Hilbert-Chern-Simons Lagrangian are investigated. The purposes are two-fold: (i) to show the efficacy of an orthogonal basis of degree-of-freedom projection operators recently proposed and to ascertain its adequacy for obtaining propagators of general parity-breaking gravity models in three dimensions; (ii) to analyze the role of the topological Chern-Simons term for the unitarity and the particle spectrum of the model squared-curvature terms in connection with dynamical torsion. Our conclusion is that the Chern-Simons term does not influence the unitarity conditions imposed on the parameters of the Lagrangian but significantly modifies the particle spectrum.

  9. Ecosystem-based management of a Mediterranean urban wastewater system: a sensitivity analysis of the operational degrees of freedom.

    PubMed

    Corominas, Lluís; Neumann, Marc B

    2014-10-01

    Urban wastewater systems discharge organic matter, nutrients and other pollutants (including toxic substances) to receiving waters, even after removing more than 90% of incoming pollutants from human activities. Understanding their interactions with the receiving water bodies is essential for the implementation of ecosystem-based management strategies. Using mathematical modeling and sensitivity analysis we quantified how 19 operational variables of an urban wastewater system affect river water quality. The mathematical model of the Congost system (in the Besòs catchment, Spain) characterizes the dynamic interactions between sewers, storage tanks, wastewater treatment plants and the river. The sensitivity analysis shows that the use of storage tanks for peak shaving and the use of a connection between two neighboring wastewater treatment plants are the most important factors influencing river water quality. We study how the sensitivity of the water quality variables towards changes in the operational variables varies along the river due to discharge locations and river self-purification processes. We demonstrate how to use the approach to identify interactions and how to discard non-influential operational variables.

  10. Freedom, Justice, and Understanding.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Peter

    2001-01-01

    States that Paulo Freire distinguished between authoritarianism and the legitimate exercise of authority, aligning legitimate authority with the assurance of freedom. He also linked freedom with the process of struggle, indicating a strong relationship between freedom and social justice. (NB)

  11. A Study of Apology Strategies Used by Iraqi EFL University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ugla, Raed Latif; Abidin, Mohamad Jafre Zainol

    2016-01-01

    This study was aimed at exploring apology strategies of English used by Iraqi EFL students, apology strategies in Iraqi Arabic and the pragmatic strategies of Iraqi EFL students in relation to the use of apology as a speech act. The data analyzed in this study were collected in Al-Yarmouk University College and University of Diyala. The study was…

  12. 48 CFR 252.225-7022 - Trade agreements certificate-inclusion of Iraqi end products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... certificate-inclusion of Iraqi end products. 252.225-7022 Section 252.225-7022 Federal Acquisition Regulations...—inclusion of Iraqi end products. As prescribed in 225.1101(7), use the following provision: Trade Agreements Certificate—Inclusion of Iraqi End Products (SEP 2008) (a) Definitions. Designated country end product,...

  13. The Securitisation of Refugee Flows and the Schooling of Refugees: Examining the Cases of North Koreans in South Korea and Iraqis in Jordan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collet, Bruce A.; Bang, Hyeyoung

    2016-01-01

    Drawing on data collected in South Korea, Jordan and the USA, this paper examines the degree to which security concerns impact the schooling of North Korean refugees in South Korea and Iraqi refugees in Jordan. Operating from a framework examining the intersection of migration and securitisation, the authors find that accounts of negative images…

  14. Academic Freedom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ouchi, William G.

    2004-01-01

    Argues that school systems are so centralized that they waste money on bureaucratic operations and lack the capacity to respond rapidly to changing circumstances. A study of nine school systems that vary dramatically in their degree of decentralization demonstrates that true decentralization yields benefits in both efficiency and performance. (MLF)

  15. Geographic Freedom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Kennedy Space Center's need to conduct real-time monitoring of Space Shuttle operations led to the development of Netlander Inc.'s JTouch system. The technology behind JTouch allows engineers to view Space Shuttle and ground support data from any desktop computer using a web browser. Companies can make use of JTouch to better monitor locations scattered around the world, increasing decision-making speed and reducing travel costs for site visits.

  16. A six degree of freedom, plume-fuel optimal trajectory planner for spacecraft proximity operations using an A* node search. M.S. Thesis - MIT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, Mark Charles

    1994-01-01

    Spacecraft proximity operations are complicated by the fact that exhaust plume impingement from the reaction control jets of space vehicles can cause structural damage, contamination of sensitive arrays and instruments, or attitude misalignment during docking. The occurrence and effect of jet plume impingement can be reduced by planning approach trajectories with plume effects considered. An A* node search is used to find plume-fuel optimal trajectories through a discretized six dimensional attitude-translation space. A plume cost function which approximates jet plume isopressure envelopes is presented. The function is then applied to find relative costs for predictable 'trajectory altering' firings and unpredictable 'deadbanding' firings. Trajectory altering firings are calculated by running the spacecraft jet selection algorithm and summing the cost contribution from each jet fired. A 'deadbanding effects' function is defined and integrated to determine the potential for deadbanding impingement along candidate trajectories. Plume costs are weighed against fuel costs in finding the optimal solution. A* convergence speed is improved by solving approach trajectory problems in reverse time. Results are obtained on a high fidelity space shuttle/space station simulation. Trajectory following is accomplished by a six degree of freedom autopilot. Trajectories planned with, and without, plume costs are compared in terms of force applied to the target structure.

  17. I Love Freedom. Editorial.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buck, George H.

    2001-01-01

    Four examples show how academic freedom has come under heavy attack during the 20th century. Yet some scholars say they do not care about academic freedom. Perhaps the greatest danger to academic freedom does not come from scholars who advocate extreme views or assert their right to academic freedom, but from those who are apathetic or cowardly.…

  18. Filling the Information Void: Adapting the Information Operation (IO) Message in Post-Hostility Iraq

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    restriction of the sites that Iraqis visit . Beyond internet access, the end of the Baath regime also resulted in a proliferation of independent radio...http://www.iwar.org.uk/news-archive/iraq/oif- reporters.pdf . 29 than 40 embedded reporters remained to provide their reports from Iraq. Once the...vacuum of Iraqi sentiments” because their perceptions are formed by those translators or Iraqis who visit the Civil-Military Operations Center (CMOC

  19. Contextual freedom: absoluteness versus relativity of freedom.

    PubMed

    Pahlavan, Farzaneh; Amirrezvani, Ali

    2013-10-01

    Our commentary is focused on the idea that "freedom" takes on its full significance whenever its relativistic nature, in the short- and long terms, is taken into account. Given the transformations brought about by "globalization," application of a general model of freedom based on ecological-economic factors clearly seems to be rather untimely. We examine this idea through egocentric and ethnocentric views of the social and environmental analyses of "freedom."

  20. Iraqi Perspectives Project. Primary Source Materials for Saddam and Terrorism: Emerging Insights from Captured Iraqi Documents. Volume 3 (Redacted)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-01

    kilometers) ... 2) For your guidance, ( Hola ) has some people he knows over there (Ali Khalaf AI-Shahri), Iraqi origin. 3) Rented Assi brother’s car (Lakhy or...or480-47 Abou Ahmad). b) The Meditator: Hola Maaiji Jabbar Al-Zalimi (Iraqi). 11.) Pressure Agency Type: a) Volunteering personally for Feda’ay work b...named ( Hola Mou’ji Al- Dhalemi) was sent to Al-Hafr area the night of 26th ,2ih ofNovember, Maiibi Al-Zalimi) to use his vehicle under commando (Fedayee

  1. Iraqi Universities Struggle to Rebuild the "House of Knowledge"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, Mary

    2004-01-01

    The sign, "Hawler International Airport," greeted the author and her fellow passengers as their six-seater plane landed in July 2003 on a strip of concrete in the middle of an Iraqi field. Fortunately, the approach to this improvised airfield was direct, not like the spiraling in and out of Baghdad and Basra required to avoid possible…

  2. Why They Hate Us: Disaggregating the Iraqi Insurgency

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-03-01

    purpose of my thesis I will differentiate between religiously motivated indigenous Iraqis and "jihadists". I will classify jihadists 4 Sidney Tarrow ...Available from http://apnews.myway.com/article/20050211/D886HE780.html. Accessed 4 March 2005. Tarrow , Sidney . "Power in Movement: Collective Action, Social

  3. Investigating the Speech Act of Correction in Iraqi EFL Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darweesh, Abbas Deygan; Mehdi, Wafaa Sahib

    2016-01-01

    The present paper investigates the performance of the Iraqi students for the speech act of correction and how it is realized with status unequal. It attempts to achieve the following aims: (1) Setting out the felicity conditions for the speech act of correction in terms of Searle conditions; (2) Identifying the semantic formulas that realize the…

  4. Women and Learning in the Iraqi War Zone

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zangana, Haifa

    2008-01-01

    Having accumulated, throughout the twentieth century, historical achievements in education and standards of living higher than in most Arab and "third world" countries, Iraqi women were hit hard by two wars, the US-imposed economic sanctions of the 1990s, and then set back by the 2003 Anglo-American imperial occupation. Physical survival…

  5. Never Say Never: The Case for Iraqi Judeo-Arabic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isaacs, Talia

    2006-01-01

    In light of a growing body of research on language death, this paper examines the situation of Judeo-Arabic, an ethnolect of Jews from Arabic-speaking countries with various written and spoken forms. More specifically, the fate of the Iraqi variety of Judeo-Arabic is discussed, particularly in the context of Montreal, Canada. Educational…

  6. U.S. Army combat operational stress control throughout the deployment cycle: a case study.

    PubMed

    Mattila, Amy M; Crandall, Brian D; Goldman, Sarah B

    2011-01-01

    As military conflicts around the world persist, a comprehensive approach in managing behavioral health issues will continue to be a key component of military healthcare. Deployed military personnel frequently exposed to trauma are well-known to be at high risk for developing behavioral health disorders, including combat stress reactions and posttraumatic stress disorder. In the U.S. Army, members of combat operational stress control (COSC) units have unique skills to assist soldiers and their families not only throughout all phases of a deployment, but also throughout a soldier's entire career. The purposes of this article are twofold, first to describe the role of COSC operations with an emphasis on interventions in a deployed environment. The second purpose is to present a case study from Operation Iraqi Freedom highlighting the efficacy of the COSC approach to meet a Soldier's behavioral health needs in a deployed environment.

  7. Reforming Iraqi Journalism and Mass Communication Higher Education: Adapting the UNESCO Model Curricula for Journalism Education to Iraqi Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pavlik, John V.; Laufer, Peter D.; Burns, David P.; Ataya, Ramzi T.

    2012-01-01

    Journalism and mass communication higher education in Iraq is well established but largely isolated from global developments since the 1970s. In the post-Iraq war period, the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) implemented a multiyear project to work with the leadership of Iraqi higher education to help update…

  8. Intratexturealities: The Poetics of the Freedom Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agosto, Vonzell

    2008-01-01

    Freedom Schools, which operated during 1964 after the collaborative efforts of several Civil Rights organizations, provided an opportunity to understand how students can drive the curriculum to meet individual and collective needs within a community. The presence and use of poetry throughout the Freedom Schools was mysterious, given that it is…

  9. Freedom, Coercion, Authority.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bellah, Robert N.

    1999-01-01

    Despite much talk about balancing freedom and responsibility in higher education, a more appropriate pairing is of freedom with authority. The concept of responsibility has become problematic, and educators have lost the ability to speak with authority. Although we have come to identify freedom with the free market, it is the bottom line which has…

  10. Space Station Freedom Utilization Conference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The topics addressed in Space Station Freedom Utilization Conference are: (1) space station freedom overview and research capabilities; (2) space station freedom research plans and opportunities; (3) life sciences research on space station freedom; (4) technology research on space station freedom; (5) microgravity research and biotechnology on space station freedom; and (6) closing plenary.

  11. Iranian Influence in Iraqi Shi’a Groups

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-06-01

    SUBTITLE Iranian Influence in Shi’a Groups of Iraq 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6. AUTHOR James N. Watts 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES...Iran, has also taken advantage of the post-Saddam political opportunities by attempting to influence religiously similar groups within Iraq, namely...responsible for influencing every Shi’a militant groups within Iraq. Specifically, this thesis addresses the scope of Iranian influence within Iraqi

  12. Iraqi Government Support for the Iraq International Academy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-26

    Advisory Mission assigned to assist the Iraqi Ministry of Defense ( ITAM -MOD). SIGIR is concerned about the lack of GOI commitment to maintain and...than $20 million. According to ITAM -MOD officials, MOD officials were eager to start the project, and in April 2009, the concept was presented to...January 2010, ITAM -MOD expanded its vision of the academy to that of a regional educational institute similar to the George C. Marshall Center in

  13. Iraqi children's rights: building a system under fire.

    PubMed

    AlObaidi, Abdul Kareem; Jeffrey, Linda R; Scarth, Leslie; Albadawi, Ghazwan

    2009-01-01

    War violates every human right of children. In recent years, the lives of Iraqi children and the livelihoods of their families have become precarious. Conflict has split the communities where they live and taken the lives of hundreds of their friends and family members. The literature focuses on the negative effects of armed conflict on Iraqi children, and the steps that need to be taken to ameliorate their condition by adapting evidence based but culturally sensitive measures. A comprehensive solution to child protection problems clearly will take time. The primary need for the protection of Iraqi children is an end to conflict. Family and educational order and social stability are central to efforts to achieve progress in child protection. Solutions to armed conflict and its aftermath work best when they are responsive to local cultural practices and beliefs, and are drawn from an understanding of child development. Child safety, security and well-being should be in the forefront of the national agenda to ensure a more positive future both economically and socially to achieve a healthier Iraq.

  14. The Effect of Post Traumatic Stress Disorder on Military Leadership: An Historical Perspective

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-05-19

    Post Traumatic Stress Disorder and Operations Enduring Freedom and Iraqi Freedom: Progress in the Time of Controversy,” Clinical Psychology Review 29...Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Operating Enduring Freedom and Iraqi Freedom: Progress in a Time of Controversy.” Clinical Psychology Review 29

  15. Restructured Freedom configuration characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Troutman, Patrick A.; Heck, Michael L.; Kumar, Renjith R.; Mazanek, Daniel D.

    1991-01-01

    In Jan. 1991, the LaRc SSFO performed an assessment of the configuration characteristics of the proposed pre-integrated Space Station Freedom (SSF) concept. Of particular concern was the relationship of solar array operation and orientation with respect to spacecraft controllability. For the man-tended configuration (MTC), it was determined that torque equilibrium attitude (TEA) seeking Control Moment Gyroscope (CMG) control laws could not always maintain attitude. The control problems occurred when the solar arrays were tracking the sun to produce full power while flying in an arrow or gravity gradient flight mode. The large solar array articulations that sometimes result from having the functions of the alpha and beta joints reversed on MTC induced large product of inertia changes that can invalidate the control system gains during an orbit. Several modified sun tracking techniques were evaluated with respect to producing a controllable configuration requiring no modifications to the CMG control algorithms. Another assessment involved the permanently manned configuration (PMC) which has a third asymmetric PV unit on one side of the transverse boom. Recommendations include constraining alpha rotations for MTC in the arrow and gravity gradient flight modes and perhaps developing new non-TEA seeking control laws. Recommendations for PMC include raising the operational altitude and moving to a symmetric configuration as soon as possible.

  16. Iraqi Expatriates' Experience of North American Media Coverage of the Iraq War

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rostam, Hajera; Haverkamp, Beth E.

    2009-01-01

    The extensive North American (NA) media coverage of the recent conflict in Iraq invites the question of how adult Iraqi immigrants have experienced such coverage. This qualitative investigation, involving Iraqi immigrants in Vancouver, Canada, used an interpretive description method (Thorne et al., Int J Qual Methods 3(1):1-21, 2004) to analyze…

  17. Some Problems of English Word-Stress for the Iraqi Learner.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aziz, Yowell Y.

    1980-01-01

    Deals with English stress problems for Iraqis under three main headings: single-stressed words, double-stressed words, and unstressed syllables. While stress in Arabic is predictable, stress in English is not. The Iraqi will transfer native-language stress patterns to English. Errors cause miscommunication and are difficult to pinpoint. (PJM)

  18. 31 CFR 575.410 - Imports of Iraqi goods from third countries; transshipments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... into the United States from third countries of goods, including refined petroleum products, containing raw materials or components of Iraqi origin is prohibited. In light of the universal prohibition in..., substantial transformation of Iraqi-origin goods in a third country does not exempt the third-country...

  19. A study of hand vibration on chipping and grinding operators, part II: Four-degree-of-freedom lumped parameter model of the vibration response of the human hand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reynolds, D. D.; Falkenberg, R. J.

    1984-08-01

    The results of the development of a four-degree-of-freedom, lumped parameter model of the vibration response characteristics of the human hand are presented. For this study dynamic compliance measurements were made on 75 foundry workers. Curve fitting techniques were then employed to identify the values of the model parameters that yielded empirically generated dynamic compliance curves that correlated well with the measured dynamic compliance values. The agreement was good between 20 Hz and 1000 Hz in the X- and Y-directions. The agreement was good between 20 Hz and 1000 Hz in the Z-direction.

  20. Academic Freedom Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doughty, Howard A.

    2010-01-01

    One of the author's enduring concerns about the concept of academic freedom is with semantics. It has seemed to him that one of the biggest difficulties with discussions of academic freedom (as with many conversations about "value-laden" terms such as "democracy," "equity," and "justice") is that people begin from different positions and with…

  1. Beyond Freedom and Dignity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, George W.

    In B. F. Skinner's "Beyond Freedom and Dignity," he states that people can achieve a better society and greater well-being if we destroy our pretensions concerning the freedom and dignity of man. He explains that man must now take total control of his evolution by consciously designing his entire culture so that it will shape the…

  2. Recovery Ship Freedom Star

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Freedom Star, one of NASA's two solid rocket booster recovery ships, is towing a barge containing the third Space Shuttle Super Lightweight External Tank (SLWT) into Port Canaveral. This SLWT was slated for use to launch the orbiter Discovery on mission STS-95 in October 1998. This first time towing arrangement, part of a cost saving plan by NASA to prudently manage existing resources, began June 12 from the Michoud Assembly Facility in New Orleans where the Shuttle's external tanks were manufactured. The barge was transported up Banana River to the LC-39 turn basin using a conventional tug boat. Previously, NASA relied on an outside contractor to provide external tank towing services at a cost of about $120,000 per trip. The new plan allowed NASA's Space Flight Operations contractor, United Space Alliance (USA), to provide the same service to NASA using the recovery ships during their downtime between Shuttle launches. Studies showed a potential savings of about $50,000 per trip. The cost of the necessary ship modifications would be paid back by the fourteenth tank delivery. The other recovery ship, Liberty Star, also underwent deck strengthening enhancements and had the necessary towing wench installed.

  3. STS-1 operational flight profile. Volume 5: Descent cycle 3. Appendix D: GRTLS six degree of freedom Monte Carlo dispersion analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Montez, M. N.

    1980-01-01

    The results of a six degree of freedom (6-DOF) nonlinear Monte Carlo dispersion analysis for the latest glide return to landing site (GRTLS) abort trajectory for the Space Transportation System 1 Flight are presented. For this GRTLS, the number two main engine fails at 262.5 seconds ground elapsed time. Fifty randomly selected simulations, initialized at external tank separation, are analyzed. The initial covariance matrix is a 20 x 20 matrix and includes navigation errors and dispersions in position and velocity, time, accelerometer bias, and inertial platform misalinements. In all 50 samples, speedbrake, rudder, elevon, and body flap hinge moments are acceptable. Transitions to autoland begin before 9,000 feet and there are no tailscrapes. Navigation derived dynamic pressure accuracies exceed the flight control system constraints above Mach 2.5. Three out of 50 landings exceeded tire specification limit speed of 222 knots. Pilot manual landings are expected to reduce landing speed by landing farther downrange.

  4. Eliminating Success During Eclipse II: An Examination of the Decision to Disband the Iraqi Military

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-03-26

    To simply disband them is extremely dangerous. Jean - Paul Sartre commented: "Violence suits those who have nothing to lose." As a former member of...arrival in Iraq, the head of the CPA, Paul Bremer, negated both of the planning assumptions. The arguments "for" and "against" dissolving the Iraqi...at least one-eighth of the Iraqi Army would have been retained. Conclusion: The U.S. decision to disband the Iraqi military via Paul Bremer and the

  5. Business Case Analysis of Cargo Unmanned Aircraft System (UAS) Capability in Support of Forward Deployed Logistics in Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-10-31

    operating, and sustaining either the Boeing A160T Hummingbird or the Lockheed Martin K-MAX unmanned aircraft systems (UASs) with the costs of the status...KC-130J with joint precision airdrop system (JPADS) against both the Lockheed Martin K-MAX and the Boeing A160T Hummingbird in five operational...A160T Hummingbird or the Lockheed Martin K-MAX helicopters in an operational environment. Upon completion of initial deployment, Navy and Marine Corps

  6. Freedom and forgiveness.

    PubMed

    Cavell, Marcia

    2003-06-01

    In the history of philosophy and political thought freedom has meant a number of different things. The author considers several of these meanings and their relevance to psychoanalytic theory. The general argument against freedom that has been mounted in the history of thought, and echoed by Freud, is the thesis of causal determinism; but it is urged here that this in itself is no threat to freedom in the sense of the word required for moral agency: a free choice is one that is caused to some extent by reasons and that is relatively unconstrained both by 'external' and 'internal' forces. Yet because agents are embedded in a causal nexus that includes both the physical world and other people, agency and freedom can be compromised in innumerable ways. Neither freedom nor agency is a condition which we absolutely have or lack, but a matter of degree. Psychoanalytic therapy works toward expanding the capacity for agency and diminishing the constraints of certain internal forces. In the sense defined here, objectivity is an attitude that accepts our embeddedness in the world. With objectivity may come both forgiveness and self-forgiveness, which in turn promote agency.

  7. Susceptibility of Iraqi fresh water snails to infection with Schistosoma haematobium and Schistosoma mansoni Egyptian strains.

    PubMed

    Wajdi, N A; Hussain, W I; El-Hawary, M F

    1979-01-01

    A great number of Egyptian workers and farmers are seeking settlement in Iraq and some of them proved to have either Schistosoma Haematobium (S.h.) or Schistosoma mansoni (S.m) or even mixed infection. Besides, there is the possibility that some of the Iraqi fresh water snails may prove to be susceptible to infection by one or both of the Schistosoma Egyptian strains. The present study deals with investigations on the susceptibility of Iraqi B. truncatus, Gyranaulus ehrenbergi, Physa c.f. fontinalis, Lymnea lagetis, Melanoides tuberculata and Melanopsis nodes by these parasites. Egyptian S. haematobium but not Egyptian S. mansoni infect Iraqi B. truncatus and both proved to be unable to infect any of the other snails included in the study. Yet, the number of cercariae shedded by B. truncatus snails infected with the Egyptian S. haematobium strain, was much less that the number of cercariae shedded by these snails when infected with the Iraqi S. Haematobium strain.

  8. Penetrating Missile Injuries During the Iraqi Insurgency

    PubMed Central

    Ramasamy, A; Harrisson, SE; Stewart, MPM; Midwinter, M

    2009-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Since the invasion of Iraq in 2003, the conflict has evolved from asymmetric warfare to a counter-insurgency operation. This study investigates the pattern of wounding and types of injuries seen in casualties of hostile action presenting to a British military field hospital during the present conflict. PATIENTS AND METHODS Data were prospectively collected on 100 consecutive patients either injured or killed from hostile action from January 2006 who presented to the sole coalition field hospital in southern Iraq. RESULTS Eighty-two casualties presented with penetrating missile injuries from hostile action. Three subsequently died of wounds (3.7%). Forty-six (56.1%) casualties had their initial surgery performed by British military surgeons. Twenty casualties (24.4%) sustained gunshot wounds, 62 (75.6%) suffered injuries from fragmentation weapons. These 82 casualties were injured in 55 incidents (mean, 1.49 casualties; range 1–6 casualties) and sustained a total 236 wounds (mean, 2.88 wounds) affecting a mean 2.4 body regions per patient. Improvised explosive devices were responsible for a mean 2.31 casualties (range, 1–4 casualties) per incident. CONCLUSIONS The current insurgency in Iraq illustrates the likely evolution of modern, low-intensity, urban conflict. Improvised explosive devices employed against both military and civilian targets have become a major cause of injury. With the current global threat from terrorist bombings, both military and civilian surgeons should be aware of the spectrum and emergent management of the injuries caused by these weapons. PMID:19833014

  9. Thoughts on freedom.

    PubMed

    Hallingby, L

    1981-11-01

    The tradition of personal freedom as Americans know it is not known in China. In America, people are free to choose their own lifestyle but they cannot walk the streets in safety for fear of crime and violence. In a sense, they are not free. In China, one is not free to choose an occupation and a place to live and work, but people are free to walk the streets in safety. Perhaps the true difference between the U.S. and China is not the presence or absence of freedom, but rather the nature of the freedom involved. There are certain underlying assumptions which explain why personal freedom is not very important in China: 1) everyone belongs to a series of larger units, the family, the neighborhood commune, and society; and 2) the effect of an individual's actions on the larger unit is more important than the immediate effect on the individual. Thus, the Chinese do not have the freedom to engage in self-defeating and self-destructive behavior that Americans tend to engage in. In the U.S., people have the right to become alcoholics, to become drug addicts and to have as many babies at as young an age as their bodies will allow. The negative effects of these types of behavior are less important to Americans as the individual's right to free choice. Sexual pleasures and sexual freedom are not paramount concerns in China, but there is 1 basic lifestyle which everyone is expected to follow: marriage, parenting of 1 child, living with the parents of 1 spouse or the other, and caring for one's parents in their old age. The Chinese are not free to choose to cohabitate without being married, to remain single, to remain childless, or to be single parents. These lifestyles and sexual practices find their roots in the fact that China is a monolithic society where everyone thinks and behaves in the same way, and also in the fact that sexual taboos are motivated by practical or economic, rather than religious and moral concerns. Although women are encouraged to have an abortion if

  10. Introduction to Space Station Freedom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kohrs, Richard

    1992-01-01

    NASA field centers and contractors are organized to develop 'work packages' for Space Station Freedom. Marshall Space Flight Center and Boeing are building the U.S. laboratory and habitation modules, nodes, and environmental control and life support system; Johnson Space Center and McDonnell Douglas are responsible for truss structure, data management, propulsion systems, thermal control, and communications and guidance; Lewis Research Center and Rocketdyne are developing the power system. The Canadian Space Agency (CSA) is contributing a Mobile Servicing Center, Special Dextrous Manipulator, and Mobile Servicing Center Maintenance Depot. The National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA) is contributing a Japanese Experiment Module (JEM), which includes a pressurized module, logistics module, and exposed experiment facility. The European Space Agency (ESA) is contributing the Columbus laboratory module. NASA ground facilities, now in various stages of development to support Space Station Freedom, include: Marshall Space Flight Center's Payload Operations Integration Center and Payload Training Complex (Alabama), Johnson Space Center's Space Station Control Center and Space Station Training Facility (Texas), Lewis Research Center's Power System Facility (Ohio), and Kennedy Space Center's Space Station Processing Facility (Florida). Budget appropriations impact the development of the Space Station. In Fiscal Year 1988, Congress appropriated only half of the funds that NASA requested for the space station program ($393 million vs. $767 million). In FY 89, NASA sought $967 million for the program, and Congress appropriated $900 million. NASA's FY 90 request was $2.05 billion compared to an appropriation of $1.75 billion; the FY 91 request was $2.45 billion, and the appropriation was $1.9 billion. After NASA restructured the Space Station Freedom program in response to directions from Congress, the agency's full budget request of $2.029 billion for Space Station

  11. Introduction to Space Station Freedom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohrs, Richard

    NASA field centers and contractors are organized to develop 'work packages' for Space Station Freedom. Marshall Space Flight Center and Boeing are building the U.S. laboratory and habitation modules, nodes, and environmental control and life support system; Johnson Space Center and McDonnell Douglas are responsible for truss structure, data management, propulsion systems, thermal control, and communications and guidance; Lewis Research Center and Rocketdyne are developing the power system. The Canadian Space Agency (CSA) is contributing a Mobile Servicing Center, Special Dextrous Manipulator, and Mobile Servicing Center Maintenance Depot. The National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA) is contributing a Japanese Experiment Module (JEM), which includes a pressurized module, logistics module, and exposed experiment facility. The European Space Agency (ESA) is contributing the Columbus laboratory module. NASA ground facilities, now in various stages of development to support Space Station Freedom, include: Marshall Space Flight Center's Payload Operations Integration Center and Payload Training Complex (Alabama), Johnson Space Center's Space Station Control Center and Space Station Training Facility (Texas), Lewis Research Center's Power System Facility (Ohio), and Kennedy Space Center's Space Station Processing Facility (Florida). Budget appropriations impact the development of the Space Station. In Fiscal Year 1988, Congress appropriated only half of the funds that NASA requested for the space station program ($393 million vs. $767 million). In FY 89, NASA sought $967 million for the program, and Congress appropriated $900 million. NASA's FY 90 request was $2.05 billion compared to an appropriation of $1.75 billion; the FY 91 request was $2.45 billion, and the appropriation was $1.9 billion. After NASA restructured the Space Station Freedom program in response to directions from Congress, the agency's full budget request of $2.029 billion for Space Station

  12. A metazoan parasitological research of some Iraqi amphibians.

    PubMed

    Saeed, Isam; Al-Barwari, Shlemon E; Al-Harmni, Kawther I

    2007-01-01

    The incidence and intensity of metazoan parasites in 3 species of Iraqi amphibians were studied. The amphibians were Rana ridibunda, Bufo viridis and Hyla arborea. Twenty-four species of helminths were encountered, including 16 trematodes, 1 cestode and 7 nematodes. Their respective names are: Polystoma integerrimum, Prosotocus confusus, P. fuelleborni, Pleurogenoides gastroporus, P. medians, Sonsinotrema tacapense, Opisthioglyphe ranae, Haplometra cylindracea, Haematoloechus volgensis, H. vitelloconfluentum, H. similis, H. asper, Gorgoderina vitelliloba, Gorgodera euzeti, G. amplicava, Nematotaenia dispar, Cosmocerca ornata, C. commutata, Aplectana acuminata, Aplectana sp., Oxysomatium sp., Ozwaldocruzia filiformis and Rhabdias bufonis. Collection localities, infection sites and rates and parasite burdens were determined throughout the species list. The highest and lowest rates of infection were for R. bufonis in B. viridis and O. ranae in R. ridibunda, while the highest and lowest worm burdens were for C. ornata in R. ridibunda and P. integerrimum in B. viridis. Seven of the species included in this study are thought to be new for Iraq.

  13. Thinking Academic Freedom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lange, Lis

    2016-01-01

    This lecture argues that the politicisation and instrumentalisation of the university caused by neoliberal frames has as a result the depoliticisation of knowledge and of the academic as individual. This depoliticisation has turned academic freedom into a right to disengage not only from the political fight around these issues but also from the…

  14. Religious Freedom in America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kittlaus, Jennifer, Ed.; Bliss, Pam, Ed.

    2001-01-01

    This magazine aims to help high school teachers of civics, government, history, law, and law-related education program developers educate students about legal issues. This issue focuses on religious freedom in the United States. It contains 11 articles: (1) "Government-Religion Relations in Historical Perspective" (C. Cookson) discusses…

  15. FREEDOM TO MOVE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CARPENTER, ETHELOUISE; SHIPLEY, FERNE

    PLAY WHICH INVOLVES NATURAL MOVEMENT HELPS THE CHILD TO LEARN ABOUT THE PROPERTIES OF MATTER AND ABOUT HIMSELF. AN EXPANSIVE AND VERSATILE USE OF SPACE FOR LIVING INCREASES WITH EXPLORATION. FREEDOM TO MOVE IS INTELLECTUAL AND EMOTIONAL, AS WELL AS PHYSICAL. NEW EXPERIENCES ARISING OUT OF CURIOSITY AND INTERACTION WITH HIS OWN FAMILY AND OTHER…

  16. Freedom in nature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hájíček, P.

    2009-09-01

    The paper starts with the proposal that the cause of the apparent insolubility of the free-will problem are several popular but strongly metaphysical notions and hypotheses. To reduce the metaphysics, some ideas are borrowed from physics. A concept of event causality is discussed. The importance of Hume’s Principle of Causality is stressed and his Principle of Causation is weakened. The key concept of the paper, the so-called relative freedom, is also suggested by physics. It is a kind of freedom that can be observed everywhere in nature. Turning to biology, incomplete knowledge is defined for all organisms. They cope with the problem by Popper’s trial and error processes. One source of their success is the relative freedom of choice from the basic option ranges: mutations, motions and neural connections. Finally, the conjecture is adopted that communicability can be used as a criterion of consciousness and free will is defined as a conscious version of relative freedom. The resulting notion is logically self-consistent and it describes an observable phenomenon that agrees with our experience.

  17. For Freedom's Sake. [Videotape].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Library Association Video/Library Video Network, Towson, MD.

    Intellectual freedom is a concept fundamental to all libraries. It enables library customers to access a wide variety of materials in numerous formats, and is a concept dear to the hearts and minds of a democratic society. Libraries are often challenged by individuals and groups concerned about the availability of certain materials. The first part…

  18. Female genital mutilation in Iraqi Kurdistan: description and associated factors.

    PubMed

    Saleem, Rozhgar A; Othman, Nasih; Fattah, Fattah H; Hazim, Luma; Adnan, Berivan

    2013-01-01

    The high prevalence of female genital mutilation has been a concern in Iraqi Kurdistan. This study was undertaken to estimate its prevalence and describe factors associated with its occurrence. A cross-sectional survey was undertaken from March to April 2011 of females aged up to 20 years using interviews and clinical examination. The survey included 1,508 participants with mean age of 13.5 years (SD 5.6). Overall female genital mutilation prevalence was 23%, and the mean age at which it had been performed was 4.6 years (SD 2.4). Type I (partial or total removal of the clitoris) comprised 76% of those who had had female genital mutilation; in 79% of cases the decision to perform it was made by the mother; and in 54% of cases it was performed by traditional birth attendants/midwives. Women aged 16 years and over were more likely to have had female genital mutilation compared to children aged below 6 years (OR 11.9, p < .001). Children of uneducated mothers were eight times as likely to have had genital mutilation compared to children of mothers with over nine years of education (OR 8.0, p < .001). Among women aged 17 years and younger, 34% of those who were married had been circumcised versus 17% of those who were not married (p < .001). Participants residing in the northeast of Kurdistan region were more likely to have been circumcised. The study results show that female genital mutilation is a frequent practice in Iraqi Kurdistan. Attention and intervention is needed to address this aspect of the well-being of girls and women.

  19. Business Case Analysis of Cargo Unmanned Aircraft System (UAS) Capability in Support of Forward Deployed Logistics in Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-12-01

    5. A160T Hummingbird CUAS ............................................................59 C. SOURCE OF SECOND THOUGHTS: VULNERABILITIES FOR CUAS... Hummingbird or the Lockheed Martin K-MAX unmanned aircraft systems (UASs) with the costs of the status quo of cargo replenishment currently used by the...system (JPADS) against both the Lockheed Martin K-MAX and the Boeing A160T Hummingbird in five operational scenarios performing resupply every three

  20. Initial accomplishments of the Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) atmosphere revitalization (AR) predevelopment operational system test (POST) for the Space Station Freedom (SSF)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunn, Kevin H.; Bulgajewski, Peter J.

    1992-01-01

    Initial results of the integrated AR POST conducted by Boeing at Marshall Space Flight Center in 1992 are presented. The three baselined ECLSS Man Tended Capability AR assemblies were integrated and operated in a closed door chamber in which the internal atmosphere was monitored. The test provides a prerequisite checkout of the AR subsystem in preparation for longer duration tests in which the AR subsystem will be integrated with the Water Recovery Management subsystem. The integrated AR POST will serve as an early test bed to evaluate the integration of the space station ECLSS AR subsystem during design maturation.

  1. International utilization and operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldberg, Stanley R.

    1989-01-01

    The international framework of the Space Station Freedom Program is described. The discussion covers the U.S. space policy, international agreements, international Station elements, overall program management structure, and utilization and operations management. Consideration is also given to Freedom's user community, Freedom's crew, pressurized payload and attached payload accommodations, utilization and operations planning, user integration, and user operations.

  2. Academic Freedom in the Public Schools. ERIC Digest No. 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Kay K.

    This synthesis of current attitudes on academic freedom as defined by lower court and Supreme Court cases describes the (1) framework in which academic freedom operates, (2) powers and limitations of state legislatures and school officials in defining the curriculum and setting policy, (3) rights and limitations of teachers in making curricular…

  3. A failure recovery planning prototype for Space Station Freedom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hammen, David G.; Kelly, Christine M.

    1991-01-01

    NASA is investigating the use of advanced automation to enhance crew productivity for Space Station Freedom in numerous areas, including failure management. A prototype is described that uses various advanced automation techniques to generate courses of action whose intents are to recover from a diagnosed failure, and to do so within the constraints levied by the failure and by Freedom's configuration and operating conditions.

  4. Bioethics and academic freedom.

    PubMed

    Singer, Peter

    1990-01-01

    The author describes the events surrounding his attempts to lecture on the subject of euthanasia in West Germany in June 1989. Singer, who defends the view that active euthanasia for some newborns with handicaps may be ethically permissible, had been invited to speak to professional and academic groups. Strong public protests against Singer and his topic led to the cancellation of some of his engagements, disruptions during others, and harrassment of the German academics who had invited him to speak. These incidents and the subject of euthanasia became matters of intense national debate in West Germany, but there was little public or academic support for Singer's right to be heard. Singer argues that bioethics and bioethicists must have the freedom to challenge conventional moral beliefs, and that the events in West Germany illustrate the grave danger to that freedom from religious and political intolerance.

  5. Freedom of Information Act

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Newman, D.J.

    2012-01-01

    The Freedom of Information Act( FOIA), 5 U.S.C.§ 552, as amended, generally provides that any person has a right to request access to Federal agency records. The USGS proactively promotes information disclosure as inherent to its mission of providing objective science to inform decisionmakers and the general public. USGS scientists disseminate up-to-date and historical scientific data that are critical to addressing national and global priorities.

  6. Space Station Freedom altitude strategy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcdonald, Brian M.; Teplitz, Scott B.

    1990-01-01

    The Space Station Freedom (SSF) altitude strategy provides guidelines and assumptions to determine an altitude profile for Freedom. The process for determining an altitude profile incorporates several factors such as where the Space Shuttle will rendezvous with the SSF, when reboosts must occur, and what atmospheric conditions exist causing decay. The altitude strategy has an influence on all areas of SSF development and mission planning. The altitude strategy directly affects the micro-gravity environment for experiments, propulsion and control system sizing, and Space Shuttle delivery manifests. Indirectly the altitude strategy influences almost every system and operation within the Space Station Program. Evolution of the SSF altitude strategy has been a very dynamic process over the past few years. Each altitude strategy in turn has emphasized a different consideration. Examples include a constant Space Shuttle rendezvous altitude for mission planning simplicity, or constant micro-gravity levels with its inherent emphasis on payloads, or lifetime altitudes to provide a safety buffer to loss of control conditions. Currently a new altitude strategy is in development. This altitude strategy will emphasize Space Shuttle delivery optimization. Since propellant is counted against Space Shuttle payload-to-orbit capacity, lowering the rendezvous altitude will not always increase the net payload-to-orbit, since more propellant would be required for reboost. This altitude strategy will also consider altitude biases to account for Space Shuttle launch slips and an unexpected worsening of atmospheric conditions. Safety concerns will define a lower operational altitude limit, while radiation levels will define upper altitude constraints. The evolution of past and current SSF altitude strategies and the development of a new altitude strategy which focuses on operational issues as opposed to design are discussed.

  7. Academic Freedom: The Ethical Imperative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slattery, Patrick

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the author takes his cue for discussions of academic freedom from Simone de Beauvoir as found in her classic text, "The Ethics of Ambiguity." Like other existentialists, de Beauvoir emphasizes that freedom and responsibility are intimately linked. Academic freedom is an ethical responsibility that compels the author to teach and…

  8. Academic Freedom Requires Constant Vigilance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emery, Kim

    2009-01-01

    Traditionally, academic freedom has been understood as an individual right and a negative liberty. As William Tierney and Vincente Lechuga explain, "Academic freedom, although an institutional concept, was vested in the individual professor." The touchstone document on academic freedom, the American Association of University Professor's (AAUP)…

  9. An Intellectual Freedom Theme Issue.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolner, Myrtle Smith, Ed.

    1986-01-01

    Prepared by an intellectual freedom committee, this issue is intended to aid librarians in thinking about intellectual freedom when confronted with the current creationism controversy. A manual containing documents and resources on intellectual freedom, a bibliography of pro- and anti-creationism materials, and results of a censorship survey are…

  10. Intellectual Freedom: 2000 and Beyond.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holtze, Terri L.; Rader, Hannelore B.

    2000-01-01

    Focuses on intellectual freedom, discussing the role of libraries, the Berlin Wall and banned books as attempts to restrict intellectual freedom, and controversies surrounding filtering software. Contains an annotated bibliography of intellectual freedom resources, presented in five categories: general; government and legal issues; access and…

  11. Freedom, responsibility, and health.

    PubMed Central

    Bunker, J. P.; Stansfeld, S.; Potter, J.

    1996-01-01

    Freedom and responsibility, how much of each and how they are balanced, have profound implications for our personal lives and for our work. The health of a population and its achievement in the workplace are enhanced when individuals have some freedom and some responsibility, but not too much of either, and when civil associations of individuals rather than individuals acting alone are the essential social units. The consistent association of social contacts with health and productivity provides strong support for the premise that intimate relationships are the focus around which people's lives revolve. Membership of a "social network" may be merely conforming to a reigning social norm, and this could mean having to pay an important price in the loss of creativity associated with individualism. But social conformity should not prevent individuals from going their own way, and it should be possible to combine the luxury of individuality with an active life in civic affairs. Less than complete freedom may fall short of existential utopia, but it may be best for our health and wellbeing. Images Fig 1 Fig 2 PMID:8990992

  12. Space Station Freedom Gateway to the Future

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The first inhabited outpost on the frontier of space will be a place to live, work, and discover. Experiments conducted on Freedom will advance scientific knowledge about our world, our environment, and ourselves. We will learn how to adapt to the space environment and to build and operate new spacecraft with destinations far beyond Earth, continuing the tradition of exploration that began with a journey to the Moon. What we learn from living and working on Freedom will strengthen our expertise in science and engineering, promote national research and development initiatives and inspire another generation of Americans to push forward and onward. On the eve of the 21st century, Space Station Freedom will be our gateway to the future. This material covers gateways to space, research, discovery, utilization, benefits, and NASA.

  13. "When Mu'awiya Entered the Curriculum"--Some Comments on the Iraqi Education System in the Interwar Period

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bashkin, Orit

    2006-01-01

    In this essay, the author explores the nationalization and secularization of the Iraqi educational system during the period between the two world wars, while demonstrating how various intellectuals championed pluralist educational models. Iraqi social and intellectual history has focused on education as an important prism reflecting approaches to…

  14. 31 CFR 576.206 - Protection granted to the Development Fund for Iraq, Iraqi Petroleum and Petroleum Products, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Fund for Iraq, Iraqi Petroleum and Petroleum Products, and the Central Bank of Iraq. 576.206 Section... Prohibitions § 576.206 Protection granted to the Development Fund for Iraq, Iraqi Petroleum and Petroleum... petroleum and petroleum products, and interests therein, but only until title passes to the...

  15. 31 CFR 576.206 - Protection granted to the Development Fund for Iraq, Iraqi Petroleum and Petroleum Products, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Fund for Iraq, Iraqi Petroleum and Petroleum Products, and the Central Bank of Iraq. 576.206 Section... Prohibitions § 576.206 Protection granted to the Development Fund for Iraq, Iraqi Petroleum and Petroleum... petroleum and petroleum products, and interests therein, but only until title passes to the...

  16. 31 CFR 576.206 - Protection granted to the Development Fund for Iraq, Iraqi Petroleum and Petroleum Products, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Fund for Iraq, Iraqi Petroleum and Petroleum Products, and the Central Bank of Iraq. 576.206 Section... Prohibitions § 576.206 Protection granted to the Development Fund for Iraq, Iraqi Petroleum and Petroleum... petroleum and petroleum products, and interests therein, but only until title passes to the...

  17. 31 CFR 576.206 - Protection granted to the Development Fund for Iraq, Iraqi Petroleum and Petroleum Products, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Fund for Iraq, Iraqi Petroleum and Petroleum Products, and the Central Bank of Iraq. 576.206 Section... Prohibitions § 576.206 Protection granted to the Development Fund for Iraq, Iraqi Petroleum and Petroleum... petroleum and petroleum products, and interests therein, but only until title passes to the...

  18. Summary Report: U.S.- UK Integration in Helmand

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-02-01

    Operation Enduring Freedom (2001), and Operation Iraqi Freedom (2003). 2 Eugene Robinson...The Essence of Coalition Warfare,” Parameters, Spring 1997. Robinson, Eugene . “Clinton’s Remarks Cause Upper Lips to Twitch," Washington Post, 19

  19. Medical civil-military operations: the deployed medical brigade's role in counterinsurgency operations.

    PubMed

    Bryan, Jeffrey; Miyamoto, Danelle; Holman, Vincent

    2008-01-01

    Medical civil-military operations are a critical combat multiplier directly supporting the counterinsurgency fight. Army Medical Department Soldiers support medical civil affairs activities at all levels from platoon to the United States Mission-Iraq (Department of State) initiatives enhancing the legitimacy of medical services in the Iraq Ministry of Health, Ministry of Defense, Ministry of the Interior, and Ministry of Justice. The civil-military operations mission of the deployed Task Force 62 Medical Brigade has also evolved into a broad mission encompassing over 120 contractors including Iraqi-American, Bilingual Bicultural Advisors-Subject Matter Experts serving as case management liaison officers and medical trainers, as well as Iraqi Advisor Task Force members providing medical atmospherics, assessments, training, and the overall management of Iraqi linguists supporting all level III medical facilities.

  20. Anxiety, stress, and quality of life among Iraqi refugees in Jordan: A cross sectional survey.

    PubMed

    Al-Smadi, Ahmed Mohammad; Tawalbeh, Loai Issa; Gammoh, Omar Salem; Ashour, Ala Fawzi; Alshraifeen, Ali; Gougazeh, Yazeed Mohammed

    2017-03-01

    This study was conducted to identify the predictors, levels, and prevalence of anxiety and stress and to assess the relationship between these factors and quality of life in recently displaced Iraqis. A cross-sectional design was used. A convenience sample of 171 Iraqi refugees was recruited. The results indicated that more than half of the sample suffered from high anxiety levels, while 42.8% reported high stress. The regression model explained 46.3% of the variance in levels of quality of life. Unemployment, fewer than three family members, and high anxiety significantly predicted low-level quality of life. These three predictors need to be taken into consideration when developing health-related interventions to improve the quality of life of Iraqi refugees.

  1. Iraqi American refugee youths' exposure to violence: relationship to attitudes and peers' perpetration of dating violence.

    PubMed

    Black, Beverly M; Chiodo, Lisa M; Weisz, Arlene N; Elias-Lambert, Nada; Kernsmith, Poco D; Yoon, Jina S; Lewandowski, Linda A

    2013-02-01

    This exploratory study examines the relationships between exposure to violence in the community, school, home and dating relationships among Iraqi American youth. As Iraqi American youth are traditionally not allowed to date, dating violence measures focused on attitudes about and perceptions of abuse occurring in the relationships of friends. The number of friends known who were secretly dating was the most significant predictor of acceptability of dating violence and perceived prevalence of abuse. Youth who experienced child abuse perceived higher rates of dating violence among their peers. Findings highlight the complexities of prevention and intervention of teen dating violence within secretive relationships.

  2. Space Station Freedom contamination requirements and predictions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ehlers, Horst K. F.

    1990-01-01

    Space Station Freedom (SSF) requirements for the induced external gaseous and particulate environment have been defined. They include the Assembly Complete (AC) and the Permanently Manned Capability (PMC) phases which were established since the original configuration was developed. Requirements for both SSF configurations are discussed. Preliminary assessments of the impacts on SSF design and operation indicate that these requirements are both realistic and acceptable to the users with attached payloads.

  3. The Future of Academic Freedom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menand, Louis, Ed.

    These nine essays address controversial issues of academic freedom and values at the university level. The book, which was derived from two years of debate and lectures presented to national meetings of the American Association of University Professors, is organized in three sections which address such issues as: the purpose of academic freedom,…

  4. Academic Freedom: A Precarious Balance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaNear, John A.

    Academic freedom is an elusive concept. Many university and college faculty members who purport to possess its protections believe they have a solid understanding of its nature and of the individual rights secured by academic freedom. There is some consensus on the meaning of the term in the academic universe. This concurrence of understanding is…

  5. Academic Freedom and Indentured Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Jeffrey J.

    2012-01-01

    Discussion of academic freedom usually focuses on faculty, and it usually refers to speech. That is the gist of the 1915 "General Report of the Committee on Academic Freedom and Academic Tenure," appearing in the inaugural AAUP "Bulletin" as a kind of mission statement. Given the conditions of the American system of higher education--decentralized…

  6. The Erosion of Academic Freedom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ledoux, Michael W.; Marshall, Thomas; McHenry, Nadine

    2010-01-01

    This article originated from a single question: do the restrictions that various accrediting agencies place on teacher educators limit, or entirely eliminate, academic freedom? Considering that question makes it apparent the problem is much broader than academic freedom. The issue has two foci: personal identity and the impact of market…

  7. Academic Freedom: Crisis and Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirsh, Stephanie A.; Kemerer, Frank R.

    This document was prepared to inform teachers about their academic freedom rights and to assist teachers who are confronted with a potential academic freedom issue. It provides (1) an essay which outlines the issues, (2) a list of significant decisions of the U.S. Courts of Appeals and their implications, (3) steps to follow when academic freedom…

  8. Intellectual Freedom Manual. Eighth Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ALA Editions, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Updated for the first time since 2005, this indispensable volume includes revised interpretations of the Library Bill of Rights along with key intellectual freedom guidelines and policies, including: (1) A new chapter, "Interactivity and the Internet," and other fresh material on intellectual freedom and privacy in online social…

  9. Academic Freedom and Academic Tenure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De George, Richard T.

    2001-01-01

    Asserts that Martin Michaelson's proposal in "Should Untenured as Well as Tenured Faculty Be Guaranteed Academic Freedom? A Few Observations," despite its good intentions, is seriously flawed and if adopted in preference to existing standards will weaken rather than strengthen academic freedom. (EV)

  10. Out of Crisis: Reflections of an Iraqi and an American on Advocacy for Andragogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bright, Larry K.; Mahdi, Ghada S.

    2010-01-01

    Mahdi is an Iraqi doctoral candidate in adult and higher education and Bright is her doctoral advisor. The two have been involved in intensive dialogue about how they see their cultures, how they perceive the conflict in the Middle East, and how andragogical theory offers hope for changing learning and teaching approaches that can influence…

  11. Role of Iraqi Higher Education Institutes in Handling National/International Environmental and Health Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Maliky, Salam J. Bash

    2012-01-01

    Huge environmental and health crises such as the use of Depleted Uranium (DU) munitions during the military activities against Iraq and the required responses are amongst the fields that Iraqi higher education institutions (HEIs) may have a crucial role. Similar international cases, such as Agent Orange (Vietnam), Three Mile Island (USA) and…

  12. Neglected Issues and Possible Strategies for the Iraqi Economy After the 2003 Invasion

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-12-01

    Provincial Reconstruction Team, The Commander’s Emergency Response Program , Microfinance Institutions. 16. PRICE CODE 17. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION...dismayed the Iraqis because of poverty and the uncertainty of the future. Actually, the intent of the de-Ba’athification program was “justice...level and create a prosperous economy. But, Microfinance Institutions (MFI), The Commanders Emergency Response Programs (CERP), and The Provisional

  13. Iraqi Adolescents: Self-Regard, Self-Derogation, and Perceived Threat in War

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlton-Ford, Steve; Ender, Morten G.; Tabatabai, Ahoo

    2008-01-01

    A year into the 2003 US-Iraq war, how were adolescents in Baghdad faring? Conflict-related events typically lower psychological well-being; in contrast, investment in and protection of threatened identities should lead to self-esteem striving and, presumably, better well-being. How threatened do Iraqi adolescents feel? Is their self-esteem related…

  14. Establishing Peace and Conflict Studies Programs in Iraqi Universities: Necessary Conditions and Short-Term Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Peace and Conflict Studies was unknown as a field of academic inquiry in Iraq when the 21st century began. Just over a decade later, formal institutional entities had been established to explore the subject at three Iraqi universities. Using a participatory action research methodology, this dissertation explores two questions: 1. What are the…

  15. Breastfeeding Education, Support, and Barriers among Iraqi Refugee Women in Jordan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madanat, Hala; Farrell, Heather; Merrill, Ray; Cox, Erin

    2007-01-01

    UNICEF data indicates that Iraqi women have lower rates of breastfeeding than other Middle East countries and that breastfeeding rates are usually even lower among refugee women. This low rate of breastfeeding may be a result of refugee women's lack of public and social support and access to health professionals. This study identifies Iraqi…

  16. 31 CFR 575.412 - Release of Iraqi goods from bonded warehouse or foreign trade zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... warehouse or foreign trade zone. 575.412 Section 575.412 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to... SANCTIONS REGULATIONS Interpretations § 575.412 Release of Iraqi goods from bonded warehouse or foreign trade zone. Section 575.204 does not prohibit the release from a bonded warehouse or a foreign...

  17. Synergy across the Curriculum: Simulating the Institution of Postwar Iraqi Government

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Austin, W. Chadwick; McDowell, Todd; Sacko, David H.

    2006-01-01

    This article describes an undergraduate simulation that formulates Iraqi regimes following the removal of Saddam Hussein's Baathist regime. This exercise reinforces student comprehension and awareness for a range of legal and political topics--including group decision making, international law, diplomacy, and human rights--by actively engaging the…

  18. Pragmatic Difficulties in the Production of the Speech Act of Apology by Iraqi EFL Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Ghazalli, Mehdi Falih; Al-Shammary, Mohanad A. Amert

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate the pragmatic difficulties encountered by Iraqi EFL university students in producing the speech act of apology. Although the act of apology is easy to recognize or use by native speakers of English, non-native speakers generally encounter difficulties in discriminating one speech act from another. The…

  19. Acquisition of English Prepositions among Iraqi Secondary School Students in Kuala Lumpur-Malaysia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shakir, Hani; Yaseen, Bilal Huri

    2015-01-01

    The study focuses on the acquisition of English prepositions among students of Iraqi secondary school in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Participants in the study were (20) students all of them at sixth level. The researchers studied the students' responses to the given test to investigate the problematic prepositions of English language that Iraqi…

  20. The Socioemotional Development of Orphans in Orphanages and Traditional Foster Care in Iraqi Kurdistan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahmad, Abdulbaghi; Mohamad, Kirmanj

    1996-01-01

    A one-year follow-up study of children who had lost both parents and were placed in orphanages (n=19) or foster homes (n=18) in Iraqi Kurdistan investigated the orphans' situation and development. The children in orphanages were found to have higher frequency of post-traumatic stress disorder than the foster care children. (Author/CR)

  1. Jesuit Contributions to the Iraqi Education System in the 1930s and Later

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Girling, Kristian

    2016-01-01

    This article will consider the significant role which the Society of Jesus had played in the Iraqi secondary and higher education systems in the period 1932-1968. The Jesuits' Baghdad-based school and university formed a part of the substantial Jesuit educational network established across the Middle East from the nineteenth century and this…

  2. Three Degree of Freedom Parallel Mechanical Linkage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adelstein, Bernard D. (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    A three degree of freedom parallel mechanism or linkage that couples three degree of freedom translational displacements at an endpoint, such as a handle, a hand grip, or a robot tool, to link rotations about three axes that are fixed with respect to a common base or ground link. The mechanism includes a three degree of freedom spherical linkage formed of two closed loops, and a planar linkage connected to the endpoint. The closed loops are rotatably interconnected, and made of eight rigid links connected by a plurality of single degree of freedom revolute joints. Three of these revolute joints are base joints and are connected to a common ground. such that the axis lines passing through the revolute joints intersect at a common fixed center point K forming the center of a spherical work volume in which the endpoint is capable of moving. 'Me three degrees of freedom correspond to the spatial displacement of the endpoint, for instance. The mechanism provides a new overall spatial kinematic linkage composed of a minimal number of rigid links and rotary joints. The mechanism has improved mechanical stiffness, and conveys mechanical power bidirectionally between the human operator and the electromechanical actuators. It does not require gears, belts. cable, screw or other types of transmission elements, and is useful in applications requiring full backdrivability. Thus, this invention can serve as the mechanical linkage for actively powered devices such as compliant robotic manipulators and force-reflecting hand controllers, and passive devices such as manual input devices for computers and other systems.

  3. Let Freedom Ring! Let Peace Reign!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Mary Elizabeth Mullino

    2012-01-01

    True freedom and true peace are cousins, but they can only work together if the freedom of one people is seen in relation to the freedom of another. Struggles for freedom and peace can only enhance each other if the peace people seek is a robust harmony in which conflict is embraced and people are encouraged to imagine a far stronger freedom and…

  4. Opportunities for research on Space Station Freedom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, Robert W.

    1992-01-01

    NASA has allocated research accommodations on Freedom (equipment, utilities, etc.) to the program offices that sponsor space-based research and development as follows: Space Science and Applications (OSSA)--52 percent, Commercial Programs (OCP)--28 percent, Aeronautics and Space Technology (OAST)--12 percent, and Space Flight (OSF)--8 percent. Most of OSSA's allocation will be used for microgravity and life science experiments; although OSSA's space physics, astrophysics, earth science and applications, and solar system exploration divisions also will use some of this allocation. Other Federal agencies have expressed an interest in using Space Station Freedom. They include the National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Geological Survey, National Science Foundation, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, and U.S. Departments of Agriculture and Energy. Payload interfaces with space station lab support equipment must be simple, and experiment packages must be highly contained. Freedom's research facilities will feature International Standard Payload Racks (ISPR's), experiment racks that are about twice the size of a Spacelab rack. ESA's Columbus lab will feature 20 racks, the U.S. lab will have 12 racks, and the Japanese lab will have 10. Thus, Freedom will have a total of 42 racks versus 8 for Space lab. NASA is considering outfitting some rack space to accommodate small, self-contained payloads similar to the Get-Away-Special canisters and middeck-locker experiment packages flown on Space Shuttle missions. Crew time allotted to experiments on Freedom at permanently occupied capability will average 25 minutes per rack per day, compared to six hours per rack per day on Spacelab missions. Hence, telescience--the remote operation of space-based experiments by researchers on the ground--will play a very important role in space station research. Plans for supporting life sciences research on Freedom focus on the two basic goals of NASA 's space life sciences

  5. Pharmacy and freedom.

    PubMed

    Cowen, D L

    1984-03-01

    The development of pharmacy in Western civilization has been influenced by ideas of individual liberty; the impact of these ideas is traced. For a short time during the French Revolution, individuals without qualifications could practice pharmacy, but abuses prompted return of regulation; from 1803, pharmacy was closely regulated by the state. Liberal thinking in 19th-century Britain left control of pharmacy mainly within the profession; regulation was definitive rather than restrictive. With the influence of Jacksonian Democracy and freedom of trade in the United States, there were no effective pharmacy regulations until the late 19th century and few educational requirements for licensure until the 1920s. In Germany, the old system of concessions and privileges was upset after World War II when any qualified pharmacist was allowed to open a shop wherever desired in the American-occupied zone; the courts upheld this policy as the basis for establishment of pharmacies in West Germany. Liberty in dispensing drugs has been limited out of concern for the well-being of individuals and of society as a whole. In Great Britain and the U.S., restrictions on dispensing antedated laws establishing qualifications for pharmacists. The history of pharmacy demonstrates that there are moral and social barriers to realization of the ideals of liberty. History also suggests that if pharmacists assume responsibilities that use their specialized training, they can defend against inroads by nonpharmacists.

  6. Neurological disorders in Iraqi refugees in Jordan: data from the United Nations Refugee Assistance Information System.

    PubMed

    Mateen, Farrah J; Carone, Marco; Nyce, Sayre; Ghosn, Jad; Mutuerandu, Timothy; Al-Saedy, Huda; Lowenstein, Daniel H; Burnham, Gilbert

    2012-04-01

    The United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) recognizes 43.7 million forcibly displaced persons and asylum seekers due to conflict and persecution worldwide. Neurological disorders have rarely been described in displaced persons but likely pose a significant burden of disease. We describe the disease spectrum and health service utilization of Iraqi refugees and asylum seekers with neurological disorders using an information system developed by the UNHCR. Neurological disorders were actively monitored among the 7,642 UNHCR-registered Iraqi refugees and asylum seekers who received health and humanitarian assistance using a pilot, centralized, database called the Refugee Assistance Information System (RAIS) in the Kingdom of Jordan in 2010. There were 122 neurological diagnoses reported in 1,328 refugees (mean age 41 years, 49% female, 10% disabled, 43% with pending resettlement applications) in 2,659 health visits, accounting for 17% of all refugees who sought health assistance in RAIS. Referral to a neurologist occurred in 178 cases (13.4%). The most frequent ICD-10 neurological diagnoses were dorsalgia (back pain) (29.7% of individuals with neurological disorders), headache (13.1%), and epilepsy (12.6%). Approximately 1 in 20 Iraqi refugees with a neurological diagnosis self-reported a history of torture, which was higher than Iraqi refugees without a history of torture [66/1,328 versus 196/6,314, odds ratio (OR) = 1.63, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.21-2.18]. Neurological disease affects a high proportion of Iraqi refugees, including victims of torture and the disabled. Refugees require dedicated care for treatment of neurological disease with a focus on pain disorders and epilepsy.

  7. Mental Health Care Use by Soldiers Conducting Counterinsurgency Operations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-05-01

    assigned to a brigade combat team that operated from a large forward operating base in Iraq during the counterinsurgency campaign. Most reported sleep ...irritability, trouble sleeping , anxiety, conflict with super- visors, and, to a lesser extent, somatic complaints. Some described their chief complaint...depression, sleep dis- turbances including nightmares, hypervigilance, flashbacks, and anger typically expressed toward unit leadership or the Iraqi

  8. Space Station Freedom user's guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    This guide is intended to inform prospective users of the accommodations and resources provided by the Space Station Freedom program. Using this information, they can determine if Space Station Freedom is an appropriate laboratory or facility for their research objectives. The steps that users must follow to fly a payload on Freedom are described. This guide covers the accommodations and resources available on the Space Station during the Man-Tended Capability (MTC) period, scheduled to begin the end of 1996, and a Permanently Manned Capability (PMC) beginning in late 1999.

  9. Space Station Freedom Evolution Symposium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ott, Richard H.

    1991-01-01

    Information on the Space Station Freedom Evolution Symposium is given in viewgraph form. Topics covered include industry development needs and the Office of Commercial Programs strategy, the three-phase program to develop commercial space, Centers for the Commercial Development of Space (CCDS), key provisions of the Joint Endeavor agreement, current commercial flight experiment requirements, the CCDS expendable launch vehicle program, the Commercial Experiment Transporter (COMET) program, commercial launch dates, payload sponsors, the commercial roles of the Space Station Freedom, and a listing of the Office of Commercial Programs Space Station Freedom payloads.

  10. Statement of Carol E. Dinkins, Deputy Attorney General, before the Committee on Government Operations, Subcommittee on Government Information, Justice, and Agriculture, House of Representatives Concerning Freedom of Information Act Amendments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dinkins, Carol E.

    In considering the purposes of the Freedom of Information Act (FOIA), it is essential to keep in mind that the Act is not, and never could be, a statute with the singleminded purpose of disclosing government information. Many kinds of information that the government has in its possession must be kept confidential to protect important public…

  11. 50th Anniversary: Freedom 7

    NASA Video Gallery

    On May 5, 1961, Alan Shepard was propelled into space aboard the Mercury capsule Freedom 7. His 15-minute suborbital flight was part of Project Mercury, the United States' first man-in-space progra...

  12. Scientific Freedom and Human Rights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munoz, Elisa

    2000-03-01

    As part of her ongoing work monitoring issues at the intersection of science and human rights, Ms. Munoz has highlighted violations of academic freedom in Serbia and Iran, the denial of visas and travel licenses to U.S. and Cuban scientists, interference with scientific freedom in Brazil, Mexico, Russia, and the Ukraine, the use of organs from executed prisoners in China, legislation jeopardizing women's health in Iran, and the closure of centers for the treatment of torture survivors in Turkey. Such violations contravene international human rights principles listed in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and other international human rights covenants. Ms. Munoz will describe current violations of scientific freedom and the relevant international principles on which these freedoms rest.

  13. Freedom in responsibility: a response.

    PubMed

    Waters, Brent

    2005-08-01

    This paper is a critical response to Elisabeth Gräb-Schmidt's article "Freedom in responsibility: On the relevance of 'sin' as hermeneutic guiding principle in bioethical decision making." Gräb-Schmidt's chief contention is that ethics begins with anthropology, and that moral responsibility is thereby grounded within a set of given limits. Freedom is distorted into sin when these limits are transgressed. My principal complaint is that her account of the relationship between freedom and sin is grounded in a tragic ontology. Alternatively, I contend that anthropology is grounded in Christology in which freedom is a gift of the Spirit. Consequently, sin is not so much tragic as it marks a refusal of humans to accept their divine election. The issues of human cloning and embryonic stem-cell research are used to exemplify what difference these respective differences might make in a process of moral deliberation.

  14. Knowledge and practice of colorectal screening in a suburban group of Iraqi American women.

    PubMed

    Jillson, Irene; Faeq, Zainab; Kabbara, Khaled W; Cousin, Carolyn; Mumford, William; Blancato, Jan

    2015-06-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) was the second most common cancer among women in 2008, accounting for 571,000 cases, and 9.4% of all cancer cases afflicting women worldwide. According to the World Health Organization (WHO) and the Iraqi National Cancer Registry (INCR), Iraq has seen a steady rise in CRC rates among its general population over the past several decades. Despite Iraq's increasing national incidence of CRC and the growth of the US' Iraqi immigrant population over the last 10 years, little remains known about the prevalence of CRC among the latter population, their knowledge of CRC and associated risk factors, or their behavioral intent and practices regarding CRC screening. The aims of this study were to (1) examine the knowledge of and adherence to National Cancer Institute screening recommendations for CRC among a population of Iraqi women living in the Washington D.C. Metropolitan Area and (2) test the efficacy of a one-time educational intervention conducted using linguistically and culturally appropriate materials to raise awareness of, and promote future adherence to, CRC screening methods. This descriptive study used a pre/post design with a 12-month follow-up. Following extensive dissemination of information regarding the study in the Iraqi American community in the study location, 50 women were initially recruited, of whom 32 participated in the study. The study's findings revealed that the participants generally had low baseline levels of CRC screening adherence and preventive knowledge that significantly improved after the intervention as demonstrated by pre- and post-assessments of knowledge and behavior. These findings could be used to raise awareness (1) among clinicians regarding the need for early detection and screening of and referral for CRC treatment among Iraqi American women and (2) among Iraqi American women about risk factors for this disease and the importance of early detection and screening. The study also highlights the need for a

  15. Human factors and productivity on Space Station Freedom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leach, C. S.; Brown, J. W.; Santy, P. A.

    1989-01-01

    Three main facets of man systems are investigated with reference to the Space Station Freedom program: specific hardware systems that focus on the human element; requirements definition for man-systems integration; and crew interface and operations analysis. Three key criteria have been identified for selecting individuals to constitute the human system or crew for Space Station Freedom missions: aptitude for mission specific skills, motivation, and sensitivity to self and others. Integration of the human system into the complex engineering and science systems planned on Space Station Freedom will require the close collaboration of engineers, physicians, psychologists, and human factors experts. Ground-based research and experiments on the KC-135 aircraft are providing information about how human systems will function on a space station and how to design other systems to interact with the crew. A laboratory for further research will be provided onboard Space Station Freedom.

  16. The Description of Health Among Iraqi Refugee Women in the United States.

    PubMed

    Salman, Khlood F; Resick, Lenore K

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to understand the description of health among Iraqi women refugees, their health status, and health experiences during resettlement in the United States. Twelve women, ages 21-67 years old, who resettled in the United States during or after 2003 where interviewed. The women described health as a gift determined by God, the ability to function, the absence of physical symptoms, and the need to feel safe and secure in the context of resettlement. Although the Iraqi women valued health, during the resettlement process, seeking safety and feeling secure were the foremost priorities. Findings revealed that this is a vulnerable population which has experienced the violence of war and, as a result, have unique physical, mental, economic, and social concerns related to health. Implications are for a multidisciplinary approach to best meet the unique individual health needs of this vulnerable population.

  17. Acute haemolytic episodes & fava bean consumption in G6PD deficient Iraqis.

    PubMed

    Yahya, H I; al-Allawi, N A

    1993-12-01

    The relation between fava bean ingestion and the occurrence of a haemolytic episode was studied in 102 glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenate (G6PD) deficient Iraqi patients. None of the patients (mean age 12.8 yr) had a documented similar illness earlier, although all of them gave history of reported regular fava bean ingestion in the past. Further, none of the three patients who were rechallenged (2-3 months later) by the beans developed any clinical or laboratory evidence of haemolysis. The incidence of the haemolytic episodes was found to peak in April, while the fava bean season extends from February to June. This study thus does not support a causal relation between the bean ingestion and the haemolytic episodes in G6PD deficient Iraqis. Possibly, some other factor such as a viral infection may be involved.

  18. 76 FR 70631 - World Freedom Day, 2011

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-14

    ... November 14, 2011 Part III The President Proclamation 8752--World Freedom Day, 2011 #0; #0; #0... Freedom Day, 2011 By the President of the United States of America A Proclamation On November 9, 1989, the... stronger affirmation of freedom. On World Freedom Day, we commemorate the fall of the Berlin...

  19. 76 FR 3815 - Religious Freedom Day, 2011

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-20

    ... Proclamation 8623--Religious Freedom Day, 2011 Proclamation 8624--Martin Luther King, Jr., Federal Holiday... January 14, 2011 Religious Freedom Day, 2011 By the President of the United States of America A... Religious Freedom Day, we commemorate Virginia's 1786 Statute for Religious Freedom, in which...

  20. Academic Freedom 3: Education and Human Rights.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniel, John, Ed.; And Others

    This collection of reports gives a picture of educational systems from a human rights perspective, monitoring academic freedom in the context of freedom of thought and freedom of opinion and expression. The World University Service's Lima Declaration on Academic Freedom and Autonomy of Institutions of Higher Education of 1988 is used as the…

  1. Space Station Freedom solar array design development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winslow, Cindy; Bilger, Kevin; Baraona, Cosmo

    1989-01-01

    The Space Station Freedom solar array program is required to provide a 75-kW power module that uses eight solar array (SA) wings over a four-year period in low earth orbit (LEO). Each wing will be capable of providing 23.4 kW at the 4-yr design point. The design of flexible-substrate SAs that must survive exposure to the space environment, including atomic oxygen, for an operating life of fifteen years is discussed. The tradeoff study and development areas being investigated include solar cell module size, solar cell weld pads, panel stiffener frames, materials inherently resistant to atomic oxygen, and weight reduction design alternatives.

  2. Effects of witnessing or exposure to community violence on mental health of Iraqi men

    PubMed Central

    Al-Nuaimi, Maha A.; Hamad, Ruaa A.; Lafta, Riyadh K.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Iraq is consistently exposed to large-scale traumatic events such as successive wars since 1980 to the present day, economic sanctions, sustained organized violence, and terrorism. These unsafe circumstances have negatively impacted the psychosocial status of the Iraqi community. Objective: To study the prevalence of witnessing or exposure to various types of violence, and its association with mental health problems in a sample of Iraqi men. Methods: This is a cross-sectional study that was conducted from April to September 2014. The target population were men from different age groups that were collected through a convenience sampling technique from two large cities; Baghdad (the capital city) and Mosul (the second largest city in Iraq). The source of data was from different institutions, colleges and lay people. The data collection process was done using the Self-Reporting Questionnaire 20 which is recommended by the World Health Organization for screening psychiatric disturbances. Results: A total of 480 Iraqi males agreed to participate in the study. The main type of violence reported was witnessing violence (55.4%), followed by exposure of friends or relatives to violence (51.4%), and witnessing or exposure to sexual assault was least reported (3.8%). The most frequent feeling recorded was of worry (72.9%), getting easily upset (65.4%), suffering from headaches (62.7%) and lethargy (59.4%). Severe psychological changes were evident in 68.5% of men, while moderate changes were present in 31.5%. Analysis of the feelings and behavioral changes in relation to the participants' history of exposure to violence revealed a significant association with witnessing shooting or stabbings, displacement, friends or relatives' exposure to violence, and viewing corpses. Conclusion: There is a high prevalence among Iraqi men of exposure to, or witnessing violence that showed an association with their mental condition, which, if proved causally, may be a leading

  3. Optimizing the Long-Term Capacity Expansion and Protection of Iraqi Oil Infrastructure

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-09-01

    PROTECTION OF IRAQI OIL INFRASTRUCTURE Patrick S. Brown Lieutenant Commander, United States Navy B.S., University of Idaho, 1991 Submitted in...U.S. statute mile NCAD Navy Cost Analysis Division NIMA National Imagery and Mapping Agency nm nautical mile NOC Northern Oil Company (Iraq) OPEC...remotely using only a computer and a high-speed internet connection. I only wish that the Navy as a whole were as receptive to telecommuting as you

  4. Drug and Alcohol Use in Iraq: Findings of the Inaugural Iraqi Community Epidemiological Workgroup

    PubMed Central

    Al-Hemiary, Nesif; Al-Diwan, Jawad; Hasson, Albert; Rawson, Richard A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Reports suggest increased use of alcohol, prescription drugs, and illicit drugs in Iraq in the past decade, which may portend an increase in substance use disorders (SUDs) and, thus, an increased need for treatments. Objectives/Methods To develop better information on the nature and extent of drug and alcohol use in Iraq, the Iraqi Ministry of Health, with support from the U.S. government and technical assistance from U.S. researchers, held an initial Iraqi Community Epidemiology Work Group meeting in May 2012 in Baghdad. Drug seizure data was the primary data source, provided by Iraqi law enforcement and customs officials. Ministry of Health officials presented data from hospitals (medical and psychiatric), outpatient clinics, and health centers, as well as from surveys of medical patients, pharmacy patients, and prisoners. Results The data suggest that the most commonly used substances are alcohol, hashish, and prescription drugs. New drugs in Iraq's drug use scene include the amphetamine-type substances “Captagon” and crystal methamphetamine, and the painkiller tramadol. Seizures of Captagon, methamphetamine, Afghan opium, teriac (a crude form of opium), and heroin at border crossings may indicate that these substances are becoming more popular. A plan for an ongoing program of CEWG meetings was developed. Conclusions Drug and alcohol use in Iraq is increasing and new drugs are appearing in the country. An ongoing program for monitoring drug use trends and informing Iraqi policy makers is important for public health planning, including the development of strategies to identify citizens with SUDs and provide them treatment. PMID:24827867

  5. Food security and humanitarian assistance among displaced Iraqi populations in Jordan and Syria.

    PubMed

    Doocy, Shannon; Sirois, Adam; Anderson, Jamie; Tileva, Margarita; Biermann, Elizabeth; Storey, J Douglas; Burnham, Gilbert

    2011-01-01

    The Iraq conflict resulted in the largest displacement in the Middle East in recent history, and provision of health services to the displaced population presents a critical challenge. With an increase in the number of people affected by complex emergencies and the number of people displaced in urban settings, the international community must adapt intervention strategies to meet the specific demands and contexts of this population. The study aimed to provide information on food security and livelihoods for Iraqi refugees in Syria and Jordan to inform humanitarian assistance planning. National cross-sectional cluster sample surveys of displaced Iraqi populations displaced were conducted in Jordan (October 2008) and Syria (March 2009). Clusters of ten households were randomly selected using probability-based sampling; a total of 1200 and 813 Iraqi households in Jordan and Syria, respectively, were interviewed about food security and receipt of humanitarian assistance. In Syria, 60% of households reported the household food situation had declined since the arrival period as compared to 46% in Jordan. Food aid receipt was reported by 18.0% of households in Jordan and 90.3% of households in Syria. In Jordan, 10.2% of households received cash assistance and in Syria 25.3% of households received cash assistance. In Jordan, cash assistance was associated with low socioeconomic status, large household size, and UNHCR registration. In Syria, female headed households, Damascus residents, families with children, and those registered with UNHCR were more likely to receive cash assistance. Food insecurity remains a concern among displaced Iraqi households in both Jordan and Syria. Improved targeting of both food and cash assistance and the expansion of cash-based programs could lead to a more effective use of funds and facilitate the implementation of assistance programs that are sustainable in the context of declining funding availability.

  6. Physical and mental health status of Iraqi refugees resettled in the United States.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Eboni M; Yanni, Emad A; Pezzi, Clelia; Guterbock, Michael; Rothney, Erin; Harton, Elizabeth; Montour, Jessica; Elias, Collin; Burke, Heather

    2014-12-01

    We conducted a survey among Iraqi refugees resettled in the United States to assess their physical and mental health status and healthcare access and utilization following the initial 8-month, post-arrival period. We randomly selected Iraqi refugees: ≥18 years of age; living in the United States for 8–36 months; and residents of Michigan, California, Texas and Idaho. Participants completed a household questionnaire and mental health assessment. We distributed 366 surveys. Seventy-five percent of participants had health insurance at the time of the survey; 43 % reported delaying or not seeking care for a medical problem in the past year. Sixty percent of participants reported one chronic condition; 37 % reported ≥2 conditions. The prevalence of emotional distress, anxiety, and depression was approximately 50 % of participants; 31 % were at risk for post-traumatic stress disorder. Iraqi refugees in this evaluation reported a high prevalence of chronic conditions and mental health symptoms despite relatively high access to healthcare. It is important for resettlement partners to be aware of the distinctive health concerns of this population to best address needs within this community.

  7. [Knowledge and practices of women in Iraqi universities on breast self examination].

    PubMed

    Alwan, N; Al Attar, W; Eliessa, R; Al-Madfaie, Z; Nedal, F

    2012-07-01

    This study evaluated the knowledge and practice of breast self-examination (BSE), among a sample of educated Iraqi women. The study sample comprised 858 women aged 18-62 years affiliated to 6 major Iraqi universities, categorized according to occupation as teaching staff (11.5%), administrative staff (18.0%) and students (70.5%). Data were collected by a self-completed questionnaire. In all, 93.9% of the women had heard about BSE, the main source of information was television (39.9%), doctors (18.4%) and the awareness campaign of the Iraqi National Breast Cancer Research Programme (11.6%). Only 53.9% of the women practised BSE; the most common excuses by those that did not were lack of knowledge of the significance of BSE (42.0%) and lack of confidence in their ability to perform BSE (39.5%). Just over 38% did not seek medical advice if they experienced signs/symptoms of breast disease, attributing that to reasons of timidity, lack of time or fear of discovering cancer. The majority (88%) of the women were willing to instruct others in BSE (aftertraining), 40% of whom were interested in collaborating with the National Breast Cancer Awareness Programme in Iraq.

  8. Space Station Freedom food management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitehurst, Troy N., Jr.; Bourland, Charles T.

    1992-01-01

    This paper summarizes the specification requirements for the Space Station Food System, and describes the system that is being designed and developed to meet those requirements. Space Station Freedom will provide a mix of frozen, refrigerated, rehydratable, and shelf stable foods. The crew will pre-select preferred foods from an approved list, to the extent that proper nutrition balance is maintained. A galley with freezers, refrigerators, trash compactor, and combination microwave and convection ovens will improve crew efficiency and productivity during the long Space Station Freedom (SSF) missions.

  9. Expanded Public Information Imperative in the Contemporary Operating Environment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-06-17

    Stewart (SAIC), Nick Ackerman (Reed, Inc), Jan Bosman (Reed / Harris, Inc) – Iraqi Media Network Northern Regional Managers. Non-governmental agency...Branch, compiled by Mr. Jeff Harley , Information Operations Newsletter, volume 5, nos. 1 through 12, 2004-2005. Yin, R. K. 1989. Case study research

  10. Solar dynamic power for space station freedom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Labus, Thomas L.; Secunde, Richard R.; Lovely, Ronald G.

    1989-01-01

    The Space Station Freedom Program is presently planned to consist of two phases. At the completion of Phase 1, Freedom's manned base will consist of a transverse boom with attached manned modules and 75 kW of available electric power supplied by photovoltaic (PV) power sources. In Phase 2, electric power available to the manned base will be increased to 125 kW by the addition of two solar dynamic (SD) power modules, one at each end of the transverse boom. Power for manned base growth beyond Phase 2 will be supplied by additional SD modules. Studies show that SD power for the growth eras will result in life cycle cost savings of $3 to $4 billion when compared to PV-supplied power. In the SD power modules for Space Station Freedom, an offset parabolic concentrator collects and focuses solar energy into a heat receiver. To allow full power operation over the entire orbit, the receiver includes integral thermal energy storage by means of the heat of fusion of a salt mixture. Thermal energy is removed from the receiver and converted to electrical energy by a power conversion unit (PCU) which includes a closed brayton cycle (CBC) heat engine and an alternator. The receiver/PCU/radiator combination will be completely assembled and charged with gas and cooling fluid on Earth before launch to orbit. The concentrator subassemblies will be pre-aligned and stowed in the orbiter bay before launch. On orbit, the receiver/PCU/radiator assembly will be installed as a unit. The pre-aligned concentrator panels will then be latched together and the total concentrator attached to the receiver/PCU/radiator by the astronauts. After final electric connections are made and checkout is complete, the SD power module will be ready for operation.

  11. Solar dynamic power for Space Station Freedom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Labus, Thomas L.; Secunde, Richard R.; Lovely, Ronald G.

    1989-01-01

    The Space Station Freedom Program is presently planned to consist of two phases. At the completion of Phase 1, Freedom's manned base will consist of a transverse boom with attached manned modules and 75 kW of available electric power supplied by photovoltaic (PV) power sources. In Phase 2, electric power available to the manned base will be increased to 125 kW by the addition of two solar dynamic (SD) power modules, one at each end of the transverse boom. Power for manned base growth beyond Phase 2 will be supplied by additional SD modules. Studies show that SD power for the growth eras will result in life cycle cost savings of $3 to $4 billion when compared to PV-supplied power. In the SD power modules for Space Station Freedom, an offset parabolic concentrator collects and focuses solar energy into a heat receiver. To allow full power operation over the entire orbit, the receiver includes integral thermal energy storage by means of the heat of fusion of a salt mixture. Thermal energy is removed from the receiver and converted to electrical energy by a power conversion unit (PCU) which includes a closed brayton cycle (CBC) heat engine and an alternator. The receiver/PCU/radiator combination will be completely assembled and charged with gas and cooling fluid on earth before launch to orbit. The concentrator subassemblies will be pre-aligned and stowed in the orbiter bay before launch. On orbit, the receiver/PCU/radiator assembly will be installed as a unit. The pre-aligned concentrator panels will then be latched together and the total concentrator attached to the receiver/PCU/radiator by the astronauts. After final electric connections are made and checkout is complete, the SD power module will be ready for operation.

  12. Violent Deaths of Iraqi Civilians, 2003–2008: Analysis by Perpetrator, Weapon, Time, and Location

    PubMed Central

    Hicks, Madelyn Hsiao-Rei; Dardagan, Hamit; Guerrero Serdán, Gabriela; Bagnall, Peter M.; Sloboda, John A.; Spagat, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Background Armed violence is a major public health and humanitarian problem in Iraq. In this descriptive statistical analysis we aimed to describe for the first time Iraqi civilian deaths caused by perpetrators of armed violence during the first 5 years of the Iraq war: over time; by weapon used; by region (governorate); and by victim demographics. Methods and Findings We analyzed the Iraq Body Count database of 92,614 Iraqi civilian direct deaths from armed violence occurring from March 20, 2003 through March 19, 2008, of which Unknown perpetrators caused 74% of deaths (n = 68,396), Coalition forces 12% (n = 11,516), and Anti-Coalition forces 11% (n = 9,954). We analyzed the subset of 60,481 civilian deaths from 14,196 short-duration events of lethal violence to link individual civilian deaths to events involving perpetrators and their methods. One-third of civilian violent death was from extrajudicial executions by Unknown perpetrators; quadratic regression shows these deaths progressively and disproportionately increased as deaths from other forms of violence increased across Iraq's governorates. The highest average number of civilians killed per event in which a civilian died were in Unknown perpetrator suicide bombings targeting civilians (19 per lethal event) and Coalition aerial bombings (17 per lethal event). In temporal analysis, numbers of civilian deaths from Coalition air attacks, and woman and child deaths from Coalition forces, peaked during the invasion. We applied a Woman and Child “Dirty War Index” (DWI), measuring the proportion of women and children among civilian deaths of known demographic status, to the 22,066 civilian victims identified as men, women, or children to indicate relatively indiscriminate perpetrator effects. DWI findings suggest the most indiscriminate effects on women and children were from Unknown perpetrators using mortar fire (DWI  = 79) and nonsuicide vehicle bombs (DWI  = 54) and from Coalition air

  13. MORAL ENHANCEMENT AND FREEDOM

    PubMed Central

    Harris, John

    2011-01-01

    This paper identifies human enhancement as one of the most significant areas of bioethical interest in the last twenty years. It discusses in more detail one area, namely moral enhancement, which is generating significant contemporary interest. The author argues that so far from being susceptible to new forms of high tech manipulation, either genetic, chemical, surgical or neurological, the only reliable methods of moral enhancement, either now or for the foreseeable future, are either those that have been in human and animal use for millennia, namely socialization, education and parental supervision or those high tech methods that are general in their application. By that is meant those forms of cognitive enhancement that operate across a wide range of cognitive abilities and do not target specifically ‘ethical’ capacities. The paper analyses the work of some of the leading contemporary advocates of moral enhancement and finds that in so far as they identify moral qualities or moral emotions for enhancement they have little prospect of success. PMID:21133978

  14. International initiative to engage Iraq's science and technology community : report on the priorities of the Iraqi science and technology community.

    SciTech Connect

    Littlefield, Adriane C.; Munir, Ammar M.; Alnajjar, Abdalla Abdelaziz; Pregenzer, Arian Leigh

    2004-05-01

    This report describes the findings of the effort initiated by the Arab Science and Technology Foundation and the Cooperative Monitoring Center at Sandia National Laboratories to identify, contact, and engage members of the Iraqi science and technology (S&T) community. The initiative is divided into three phases. The first phase, the survey of the Iraqi scientific community, shed light on the most significant current needs in the fields of science and technology in Iraq. Findings from the first phase will lay the groundwork for the second phase that includes the organization of a workshop to bring international support for the initiative, and simultaneously decides on an implementation mechanism. Phase three involves the execution of outcomes of the report as established in the workshop. During Phase 1 the survey team conducted a series of trips to Iraq during which they had contact with nearly 200 scientists from all sections of the country, representing all major Iraqi S&T specialties. As a result of these contacts, the survey team obtained over 450 project ideas from Iraqi researchers. These projects were revised and analyzed to identify priorities and crucial needs. After refinement, the result is approximately 170 project ideas that have been categorized according to their suitability for (1) developing joint research projects with international partners, (2) engaging Iraqi scientists in solving local problems, and (3) developing new business opportunities. They have also been ranked as to high, medium, or low priority.

  15. Access, Intellectual Freedom and Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darling, Richard L.

    1979-01-01

    Reviews attitudes toward censorship in the United States throughout its history in relation to the nation and its institutions. The library is recognized as an institution in which censorship has no place, due to its creed of information access and intellectual freedom for all. (MBR)

  16. Academic Freedom and Artistic Expression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Academe, 1990

    1990-01-01

    The concluding statement by participants in the 1990 Wolf Trap Conference on Academic Freedom and Artistic Expression (Virginia, April 29-May 1) proposes policies to assist institutions in responding to issues of accountability, audience, and public funding arising from presentation of artistic works to the public in a manner that preserves…

  17. Academic Freedom: A Lawyer's Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davies, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Academic freedom is central to ideas of higher education, yet in the United Kingdom it is facing challenges from changing managerial approaches within some universities and changing governmental expectations. Universities are increasingly expected to focus upon knowledge which can be shown to have value and to exploit the results of academic…

  18. No School like Freedom School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williamson, Lisa Ann

    2013-01-01

    "You are the hope of the future." That's the message Marian Wright Edelman, executive director of the Children's Defense Fund (CDF), gave more than 1,500 excited college students and recent graduates as they began a week-long training for the CDF's Freedom Schools. She was preparing them for a daunting task--that of transforming the…

  19. Academic Freedom and Faculty Responsibility.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evergreen State Coll., Olympia, Washington.

    Presented in this paper is an outline of the policy at Evergreen State College concerning faculty evaluation, faculty reappointment or nonreappointment, and program review and institutional self-study. Within the policy is the belief that the principles governing academic freedom and faculty responsibility at Evergreen must apply to all members of…

  20. Hey] What's Space Station Freedom?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vonehrenfried, Dutch

    This video, 'Hey] What's Space Station Freedom?', has been produced as a classroom tool geared toward middle school children. There are three segments to this video. Segment One is a message to teachers presented by Dr. Jeannine Duane, New Jersey, 'Teacher in Space'. Segment Two is a brief Social Studies section and features a series of Presidential Announcements by President John F. Kennedy (May 1961), President Ronald Reagan (July 1982), and President George Bush (July 1989). These historical announcements are speeches concerning the present and future objectives of the United States' space programs. In the last segment, Charlie Walker, former Space Shuttle astronaut, teaches a group of middle school children, through models, computer animation, and actual footage, what Space Station Freedom is, who is involved in its construction, how it is to be built, what each of the modules on the station is for, and how long and in what sequence this construction will occur. There is a brief animation segment where, through the use of cartoons, the children fly up to Space Station Freedom as astronauts, perform several experiments and are given a tour of the station, and fly back to Earth. Space Station Freedom will take four years to build and will have three lab modules, one from ESA and another from Japan, and one habitation module for the astronauts to live in.

  1. Intellectual Freedom Manual. Fifth Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Library Association, Chicago, IL. Office of Intellectual Freedom.

    This manual is designed to help librarians anticipate and resist censorship of library materials, how to handle complaints, and how to write legislators effectively. Part I, "Library Bill of Rights," and Part II, "Protecting the Freedom to Read," present the text and historical development of the American Library Association's…

  2. Religious Freedom vs. Sex Equality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Song, Sarah

    2006-01-01

    This essay examines Susan Moller Okin's writing on conflicts between religious freedom and sex equality, and her criticism of "political liberal" approaches to these conflicts, which I take to be a part of her lifelong critique of the public-private distinction. I argue that, while Okin ultimately accepted a version of the distinction, she was…

  3. A Setback for Religious Freedom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sendor, Benjamin

    1997-01-01

    In "City of Boerne v. Flores, Archbishop of San Antonio," the U.S. Supreme Court struck down the 1993 Religious Freedom Restoration Act. RFRA was not intended to overrule a 1990 Supreme Court decision forbidding use of peyote in Native American religious ceremonies, but to "enforce" 14th-Amendment free-exercise rights. The…

  4. Casting Freedom, 1860-1862

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Social Education, 2005

    2005-01-01

    Thomas Crawford, an American Sculptor, created the full-size figure of Freedom in clay. Molds were made, from which a full-size positive plaster model was cast in five main sections. This model is on view today in the basement rotunda of the Russell Senate Office Building. Clark Mills was a self-taught American sculptor with experience in casting…

  5. The Withering of Academic Freedom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kutner, Marc L.

    1998-01-01

    Discusses interrelations between administrators and faculty and how academic freedom can be negatively impacted. Suggests that by cutting costs and overloading faculty, administrators are contributing indirectly to a dissatisfied student. Addresses the importance of having a very clear grievance process composed primarily of elected faculty…

  6. Microbiology on Space Station Freedom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pierson, Duane L. (Editor); Mcginnis, Michael R. (Editor); Mishra, S. K. (Editor); Wogan, Christine F. (Editor)

    1991-01-01

    This panel discussion convened in Houston, Texas, at the Lunar and Planetary Institute, on November 6 to 8, 1989, to review NASA's plans for microbiology on Space Station Freedom. A panel of distinguished scientists reviewed, validated, and recommended revisions to NASA's proposed acceptability standards for air, water, and internal surfaces on board Freedom. Also reviewed were the proposed microbiology capabilities and monitoring plan, disinfection procedures, waste management, and clinical issues. In the opinion of this advisory panel, ensuring the health of the Freedom's crews requires a strong goal-oriented research effort to determine the potential effects of microorganisms on the crewmembers and on the physical environment of the station. Because there are very few data addressing the fundamental question of how microgravity influences microbial function, the panel recommended establishing a ground-based microbial model of Freedom, with subsequent evaluation using in-flight shuttle data. Sampling techniques and standards will be affected by both technological advances in microgravity-compatible instrumentation, and by changes in the microbial population over the life of the station.

  7. Academic Freedom: A Classroom Exercise.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helms, Ronald G.

    1984-01-01

    A 6-8 day secondary level social studies unit explores censorship in education through a variety of activities. Students participate in a preassessment poll measuring their opinions on academic freedom, answer a questionnaire entitled "What do you think?" concerning local school board and community powers, rank a list of possible teacher…

  8. Space Station Freedom combustion research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Faeth, G. M.

    1992-01-01

    Extended operations in microgravity, on board spacecraft like Space Station Freedom, provide both unusual opportunities and unusual challenges for combustion science. On the one hand, eliminating the intrusion of buoyancy provides a valuable new perspective for fundamental studies of combustion phenomena. On the other hand, however, the absence of buoyancy creates new hazards of fires and explosions that must be understood to assure safe manned space activities. These considerations - and the relevance of combustion science to problems of pollutants, energy utilization, waste incineration, power and propulsion systems, and fire and explosion hazards, among others - provide strong motivation for microgravity combustion research. The intrusion of buoyancy is a greater impediment to fundamental combustion studies than to most other areas of science. Combustion intrinsically heats gases with the resulting buoyant motion at normal gravity either preventing or vastly complicating measurements. Perversely, this limitation is most evident for fundamental laboratory experiments; few practical combustion phenomena are significantly affected by buoyancy. Thus, we have never observed the most fundamental combustion phenomena - laminar premixed and diffusion flames, heterogeneous flames of particles and surfaces, low-speed turbulent flames, etc. - without substantial buoyant disturbances. This precludes rational merging of theory, where buoyancy is of little interest, and experiments, that always are contaminated by buoyancy, which is the traditional path for developing most areas of science. The current microgravity combustion program seeks to rectify this deficiency using both ground-based and space-based facilities, with experiments involving space-based facilities including: laminar premixed flames, soot processes in laminar jet diffusion flames, structure of laminar and turbulent jet diffusion flames, solid surface combustion, one-dimensional smoldering, ignition and flame

  9. Approach to transaction management for Space Station Freedom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Easton, C. R.; Cressy, Phil; Ohnesorge, T. E.; Hector, Garland

    1990-01-01

    The Space Station Freedom Manned Base (SSFMB) will support the operation of the many payloads that may be located within the pressurized modules or on external attachment points. The transaction management (TM) approach presented provides a set of overlapping features that will assure the effective and safe operation of the SSFMB and provide a schedule that makes potentially hazardous operations safe, allocates resources within the capability of the resource providers, and maintains an environment conducive to the operations planned. This approach provides for targets of opportunity and schedule adjustments that give the operators the flexibility to conduct a vast majority of their operations with no conscious involvement with the TM function.

  10. Space Station Freedom electrical performance model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hojnicki, Jeffrey S.; Green, Robert D.; Kerslake, Thomas W.; Mckissock, David B.; Trudell, Jeffrey J.

    1993-01-01

    The baseline Space Station Freedom electric power system (EPS) employs photovoltaic (PV) arrays and nickel hydrogen (NiH2) batteries to supply power to housekeeping and user electrical loads via a direct current (dc) distribution system. The EPS was originally designed for an operating life of 30 years through orbital replacement of components. As the design and development of the EPS continues, accurate EPS performance predictions are needed to assess design options, operating scenarios, and resource allocations. To meet these needs, NASA Lewis Research Center (LeRC) has, over a 10 year period, developed SPACE (Station Power Analysis for Capability Evaluation), a computer code designed to predict EPS performance. This paper describes SPACE, its functionality, and its capabilities.

  11. 16 CFR 1018.29 - Appeals under the Freedom of Information Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Appeals under the Freedom of Information Act. 1018.29 Section 1018.29 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION GENERAL ADVISORY COMMITTEE MANAGEMENT Operation of Advisory Committees § 1018.29 Appeals under the Freedom of Information...

  12. A Faustian Bargain for Academic Freedom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowen, Roger

    2008-01-01

    The historic institution of tenure is rapidly becoming history. The American Association of University Professors (AAUP) has for almost a century advocated for tenure as the chief guarantor of a faculty member's academic freedom. But today tenure and academic freedom are viewed less and less as crucially intertwined. Academic freedom has widely…

  13. Freedom of Speech Newsletter, February 1976.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Winfred G., Jr., Ed.

    The "Freedom of Speech Newsletter" is the communication medium, published four times each academic year, of the Freedom of Speech Interest Group, Western Speech Communication Association. Articles included in this issue are "What Is Academic Freedom For?" by Ralph Ross, "A Sociology of Free Speech" by Ray Heidt,…

  14. 77 FR 2907 - Religious Freedom Day, 2012

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-20

    ... Documents#0;#0; ] Proclamation 8774 of January 13, 2012 Religious Freedom Day, 2012 By the President of the... from the texts of the Enlightenment in the laws of state. On Religious Freedom Day, we celebrate this... proclaim January 16, 2012, as Religious Freedom Day. I call on all Americans to commemorate this day...

  15. Can Academic Freedom Work in Military Academies?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niday, Jackson A., II; Harrington, Kathleen

    2007-01-01

    This article addresses the thorny question of military discipline vs. academic freedom, demonstrating that the military academy is the perfect proving ground if you want to test the value of academic freedom. The authors, who are also Air Force officers, embarked on a two-year quest to determine what place academic freedom has at a military…

  16. Freedom, Professionalism, and Our National Heritage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maley, Donald

    There is a need for the spirit of freedom in the teaching profession since in some respects the teacher's fulfillment is dependent upon the freedom that the teacher is willing and able to exercise in his/her profession. Teaching freedom means the opportunity to develop the potential for teaching excellence according to the teacher's individuality…

  17. 78 FR 13472 - Freedom of Information Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-28

    ... CFR Part 4 Freedom of Information Act AGENCY: Federal Trade Commission (FTC). ACTION: Final rule... information for the filing of initial Freedom of Information Act (``FOIA'') requests; clarifying agency..., Freedom of Information Act. For the reasons set forth in the preamble, the Federal Trade Commission...

  18. Threats to Academic Freedom in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oldaker, Lawrence Lee

    This paper looks at the meaning of academic freedom and threats to that freedom in recent conflicts and legal rulings. The introduction calls academic freedom confusing and widely misunderstood and offers an historical and legal explanation of the concept as well as discussion of the traditional areas of conflict in instruction, research,…

  19. Individual Freedom and Institutional Frameworks in Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Nicholas

    2012-01-01

    In this article I explore Amartya Sen's contention that individual freedom represents both the objective of development and the means through which development is to take place. Examining the conceptualisation of freedom central to Sen's capability approach, I distinguish between two notions of freedom, autonomy and agency, where the former…

  20. Academic Freedom and the Inclusive University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahn, Sharon E., Ed.; Pavlich, Dennis, Ed.

    The chapters in this collection explore issues related to academic freedom and the inclusive university. The first section, Clarifying Concepts in Ideology, Language, and Law, contains these chapters: (1) Whats Sauce for One Goose: The Logic of Academic Freedom (Stanley Fish); (2) Academic Freedom: Rights as Immunities and Privileges (Frederick…

  1. Operations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkins, Jesse L. M.; Norton, Anderson; Boyce, Steven J.

    2013-01-01

    Previous research has documented schemes and operations that undergird students' understanding of fractions. This prior research was based, in large part, on small-group teaching experiments. However, written assessments are needed in order for teachers and researchers to assess students' ways of operating on a whole-class scale. In this study,…

  2. Using MODIS and GRACE to assess water storage in regional Wetlands: Iraqi and Sudd Marsh systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, R.

    2015-12-01

    Both The Iraqi (Mesopotamian) Marshes, an extensive wetlands system in Iraq, and the Sudd Marshlands, located in Sudan have been heavily impacted by both human and climate forces over the past decades. The Sudd wetlands are highly variable in size, averaging roughly 30,000 km2, but extending to as large as ~130,000 km2 during the wet seasons, while the Iraqi marshes are smaller, at ~15,000 km2, without the same extent of intra-annual variability. A combination of MODIS and GRACE images from 2003-2015 for the study areas were used to determine the time dependent change in surface water area (SWA) in the marshes, marshland extent and variability in total water storage. Combined open water area and vegetation abundance and cover, as determined by MODIS (NDVI and MNDWI), is highly correlated with total mass variability observed by GRACE (RL05 Tellus land grid). Annual variability in the Iraqi marshes correlates well with combined SWA and vegetation extent. Variability of vegetation in the Sudd marshes is seen to correlate well on an annual basis with water storage variation, and with a 2 month lag (water mass increases and decreases lead vegetation increases and decreases) when examined on a monthly basis. As a result, in both systems, the overall wetlands extent and health is observed to be water limited. Predictions for precipitation variability and human diversions of water through either dam storage or navigation modifications are predicted to lower water availability and lower variability in these systems. These two regional wetlands systems will shrink, with resulting loss in habitat and other ecosystem services.

  3. Chronic disease and disability among Iraqi populations displaced in Jordan and Syria.

    PubMed

    Doocy, Shannon; Sirois, Adam; Tileva, Margarita; Storey, J Douglas; Burnham, Gilbert

    2013-01-01

    The Iraq conflict resulted in the largest displacement in the Middle East since the Palestinian crisis, and provision of health services to the displaced population presents a critical challenge. The study aimed to provide information on chronic medical conditions and disability to inform humanitarian assistance planning. Nationally representative cross-sectional surveys of Iraqi populations displaced in Jordan and Syria were conducted in late 2008 and early 2009. Clusters of 10 household were randomly selected using probability-based sampling; a total of 1200 and 813 Iraqi households in Jordan and Syria, respectively, were interviewed. The majority of respondents in both countries perceived healthcare as unaffordable but accessible; cost was an important barrier to care. In Jordan, most routine health expenditures were for medications where in Syria, expenses were divided between medical consultations and medication. Chronic disease prevalence among adults was 51.5% (confidence interval (CI): 49.4-53.5) in Syria and 41.0% (CI: 39.4-42.7) in Jordan, most common were hypertension and musculoskeletal problems. Overall disability rates were 7.1% (CI: 6.3-8.0) in Syria and 3.4% (CI: 3.0-3.9) in Jordan. In both countries, the majority of disability was attributed to conflict, prevalence was higher in men than women, and depression was the leading cause of mental health disability. Chronic illnesses, disabilities and psychological health are key challenges for the Iraqi population and the health systems in Jordan and Syria. Continued attention to the development of systems to manage conditions that require secondary and tertiary care is essential, particularly given reported difficulties in accessing care and the anticipated prolonged displacement.

  4. Reanalysis of dose-response data from the Iraqi methylmercury poisoning episode

    SciTech Connect

    Crump, K.; Clewell, H.; Gearhart, J.

    1995-08-01

    Applying a hockey stick parametric dose-response model to data on late or retarded development in Iraqi children exposed in utero to methylmercury, with mercury (Hg) exposure characterized by the peak Hg concentration in mothers` hair during pregnancy, Cox et al. calculated the {open_quotes}best statistical estimate{close_quotes} of the threshold for health effects as 10 ppm Hg in hair with a 95% range of uncertainty of between 0 and 13.6 ppm. A new application of the hockey stick model to the Iraqi data shows, however, that the statistical upper limit of the threshold based on the hockey stick model could be as high as 255 ppm. Futhermore, the maximum likelihood estimate of the threshold using a different parametric model is virtually zero. These and other analyses demonstrate that threshold estimates based on parametric models exhibit high statistical variability and model dependency, and are highly sensitive to the precise definition of an abnormal response. Consequently, they are not a reliable basis for setting a reference dose (RfD) for methylmercury. Benchmark analyses and statistical analyses useful for deriving NOAELs are also presented. We believe these latter analyses-particularly the benchmark analyses-generally form a sounder basis for determining RfDs than the type of hockey stick analysis presented by Cox et al. However, the acute nature of the exposures, as well as other limitations in the Iraqi data suggest that other data may be more appropriate for determining acceptable human exposures to methylmercury. 24 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. Comparison Among Commonly Available Infant Formula Milks in the Iraqi Market

    PubMed Central

    Mikhael, Ehab Mudher

    2015-01-01

    Breast-feeding is the best method of feeding infants. In some cases, formula milk can be a suitable alternative, so this study aimed to compare the safety and nutritional adequacy of commonly available formula milks in the Iraqi market. An observational study for the commonly available formula milks was conducted in the largest supermarkets of Baghdad, Iraq, during January-March 2015. The macronutrient and micronutrient contents as presented in the label of each type of formula milk was compared with the standard requirement of formula milk according to the European Society for Paediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition (ESPGHAN) guidelines. Dielac formula milk is the commonest formula milk in the Iraqi market, with the lowest price when compared with other formula milks. All infant formula milks (Similac, Guigoz, and S-26 Gold) except Dielac have the mandatory contents within the specified ranges, according to the ESPGHAN guidelines. Dielac lacks more than 1 of the major mandatory contents besides lacking all optional contents in its formula. Guigoz formula milk lacks the optional ingredients arachidonic acid, docosahexaenoic acid, and nucleotides. Similac milk was supplemented with a higher-than-specified level of nucleotides, and its l-carnitine contents were not declared. Only S26 Gold formula milk contained all mandatory and optional ingredients within the specified range, according to the ESPGHAN guidelines. In conclusion, no formula milk can resemble breast milk; however, S26 Gold formula milk is the most acceptable formula, and Dielac formula milk is the worst. Therefore, it is recommended that Dielac be withdrawn from the Iraqi market. PMID:27335982

  6. External induced contamination environment assessment for Space Station Freedom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leger, Lubert; Ehlers, Horst; Hakes, Charles; Theall, Jeff; Soares, Carlos

    1993-01-01

    An assessment of the Space Station Freedom performance as affected by the external induced contamination environment is in progress. The assessment procedure involves comparing the Space Station Freedom external contamination requirements, SSP 30426, Revision B (1991), with calculated molecular deposition, molecular column density, and other effects from potential sources of contamination. The current assessment comprises discussions of Space Shuttle proximity operations, Space Shuttle waste-water dumps (while docked to the Space Station), Space Station fluid and waste-gas venting, system gas leakage, external material outgassing, and a combined contamination assessment. This performance assessment indicates that Space Station Freedom contamination requirements are realistic and can be satisfied when all contamination sources are included.

  7. Why the Iraqi Resistance to the Coalition Invasion Was So Weak

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-01-01

    the U.S. or Coalition pre- sented. Nor did they have a strategy for dealing with the West, apart from tactical games at the UN.” The other members of...between the rivers is just chock -a-block with canals. It could have been a real nightmare for the U.S. military, even if just the engineers had been...like a teenager playing a video war game .”44 These criticisms were echoed by other Iraqi officers, who tended to blame Saddam and his sons, Qusay

  8. Eidinemacheilus proudlovei, a new subterranean loach from Iraqi Kurdistan (Teleostei; Nemacheilidae).

    PubMed

    Freyhof, Jörg; Abdullah, Younis Sabir; Ararat, Korsh; Ibrahim, Hamad; Geiger, Matthias F

    2016-10-04

    Eidinemacheilus proudlovei, new species, is described from subterranean waters in the Little Zab River drainage in Iraqi Kurdistan. After the discovery of E. smithi in 1976, E. proudlovei is the second troglomorphic nemacheilid loach found in the Middle East and the second species placed in Eidinemacheilus. Eidinemacheilus proudlovei is distinguished from E. smithi by having 8+8 or 8+7 branched caudal-fin rays, no adipose keel on the caudal peduncle, enlarged jaws and a fully developed head canal system. It furthers differs substantially in its DNA barcode (>8% K2P distance) from all other nemacheilid loaches in the Middle East, Europe and Western India.

  9. Academic Freedom Should Be Redefined: Point and Counterpoint

    PubMed Central

    Acosta, W. Renee’; Chung, Eunice P.; Cox, Arthur G.; Garcia, George A.; Klucken, Jamie Ridley; Chisholm-Burns, Marie

    2016-01-01

    As part of the 2014-15 Academic Leadership Fellows Program, the cohort teams presented debates on topics relevant to academic pharmacy at a public forum during the 2015 American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy Interim Meeting. The topic of one of the debates was “Academic Freedom Should Be Redefined.” The “point” of the debate focused on important issues such as the fundamental definition of academic freedom as it was written in the 1940 American Association of University Professors’ Statement and the need for redefinition as a consequence of many misunderstandings and misinterpretations that have arisen over time. The “counterpoint” received the greatest support, and it asserted that redefinition is not necessary, but rather the need is to clearly articulate the intended meaning of academic freedom through education, discussion, and by not supporting inappropriate behaviors in the name of “academic freedom.” Reinforced clarity and operational guidance from the academy and academic institutions may add further clarification and may be the best approach to address the concerns related to academic freedom. PMID:28090095

  10. Cohesion: The Key to Special Operations Network

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-10-01

    Importance The importance of cohesion has been recognized throughout history. Roman legionnaires were trained to maintain their ranks during the heat of...caliber machine guns could silence the radar sites before the Iraqis could give a warning. Col Bennie D. Orrell, then 1st Special Operations Wing (SOW...and machines into military forces does not necessarily mean that they are equipped and trained for the accomplishment, if necessary, of decisive

  11. Space Station Freedom Environmental Health Care Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richard, Elizabeth E.; Russo, Dane M.

    1992-01-01

    The paper discusses the environmental planning and monitoring aspects of the Space Station Freedom (SSF) Environmental Health Care Program, which encompasses all phases of the SSF assembly and operation from the first element entry at MB-6 through the Permanent Manned Capability and beyond. Environmental planning involves the definition of acceptability limits and monitoring requirements for the radiation dose barothermal parameters and potential contaminants in the SSF air and water and on internal surfaces. Inflight monitoring will be implemented through the Environmental Health System, which consists of five subsystems: Microbiology, Toxicology, Water Quality, Radiation, and Barothermal Physiology. In addition to the environmental data interpretation and analysis conducted after each mission, the new data will be compared to archived data for statistical and long-term trend analysis and determination of risk exposures. Results of these analyses will be used to modify the acceptability limits and monitoring requirements for the future.

  12. Space Station Freedom Solar Array design development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winslow, Cindy; Bilger, Kevin; Baraona, Cosmo R.

    1989-01-01

    The Space Station Freedom Solar Array Program is required to provide a 75 kW power module that uses eight solar array (SA) wings over a four-year period in low Earth orbit (LEO). Each wing will be capable of providing 23.4 kW at the 4-year design point. Lockheed Missles and Space Company, Inc. (LMSC) is providing the flexible substrate SAs that must survive exposure to the space environment, including atomic oxygen, for an operating life of fifteen years. Trade studies and development testing, important for evolving any design to maturity, are presently underway at LMSC on the flexible solar array. The trade study and development areas being investigated include solar cell module size, solar cell weld pads, panel stiffener frames, materials inherently resistant to atomic oxygen, and weight reduction design alternatives.

  13. Space station operations management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cannon, Kathleen V.

    1989-01-01

    Space Station Freedom operations management concepts must be responsive to the unique challenges presented by the permanently manned international laboratory. Space Station Freedom will be assembled over a three year period where the operational environment will change as significant capability plateaus are reached. First Element Launch, Man-Tended Capability, and Permanent Manned Capability, represent milestones in operational capability that is increasing toward mature operations capability. Operations management concepts are being developed to accomodate the varying operational capabilities during assembly, as well as the mature operational environment. This paper describes operations management concepts designed to accomodate the uniqueness of Space Station Freedoom, utilizing tools and processes that seek to control operations costs.

  14. Approach to transaction management for Space Station Freedom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Easton, C. R.; Cressy, Phil; Ohnesorge, T. E.; Hector, Garland

    1989-01-01

    An approach to managing the operations of the Space Station Freedom based on their external effects is described. It is assumed that there is a conflict-free schedule that, if followed, will allow only appropriate operations to occur. The problem is then reduced to that of ensuring that the operations initiated are within the limits allowed by the schedule, or that the external effects of such operations are within those allowed by the schedule. The main features of the currently adopted transaction management approach are discussed.

  15. Space Station Freedom crew training.

    PubMed

    Bobko, K J; Gibson, E G; Maroney, S A; Muccio, J D

    1990-01-01

    The nature of the Space Station Freedom Program presents an array of new and enhanced challenges which need to be addressed en route to developing an effective and affordable infrastructure for crew training. Such an infrastructure is essential for the safety and success of the program. The three major challenges that affect crew training are the long lifetime of the program (thirty years), the interdependence of successive increments, and the participation of the three International Partners (Canada, European Space Agency, and Japan) and a myriad of experimenters. This paper addresses these major challenges as they drive the development of a crew training capability and the actual conduct of crew training.

  16. Iraqi Perspectives Project. Primary Source Materials for Saddam and Terrorism: Emerging Insights from Captured Iraqi Documents. Volume 5 (Redacted)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-01

    whether the latter are serving near or far in espionage missions. This experiment started on 6/25/1958. It involved telepathy , and it ended with a 70...Atlantic. Rather, a new kind ofweapon was used in this operation, namely parapsychology - by using a specialized diver and telepathy . (11-22

  17. Pre- and Post-displacement Stressors and Body Weight Development in Iraqi Refugees in Michigan.

    PubMed

    Jen, K-L Catherine; Zhou, Kequan; Arnetz, Bengt; Jamil, Hikmet

    2015-10-01

    Refugees have typically experienced stress and trauma before entering the US. Stressors and mental health disorders may contribute to obesity. The aim of this study was to investigate changes in the body mass index (BMI) in Iraqi refugees settled in Michigan in relationship to pre- and post-migration stressors and mental health. Anthropometric and demographic data were collected from 290 Iraqi refugees immediately after they arrived in Michigan and one year after settlement. Significant increases were observed in BMI (+0.46 ± 0.09 kg/m(2), p < 0.0001) and the percentage of refugees suffering from hypertension (from 9.6 to 13.1%, p < 0.05). Significant increases in stress, depression and acculturation, as well as decreases in post-migration trauma and social support, were also observed. Linear regression analyses failed to link stressors, well-being, and mental health to changes in BMI. It is likely that acculturation to a new lifestyle, including dietary patterns and physical activity levels, may have contributed to these changes.

  18. Characterization and determination of lignin in different types of Iraqi phoenix date palm pruning woods.

    PubMed

    Abdullah, Hilal M; Abdul Latif, Mohammed H; Attiya, Hanaa G

    2013-10-01

    This study aimed to find analytical data base for Iraqi phoenix date palm pruning woods, which produced by pruning process at the season of date palm production. Lignin has been extracted and purified for five types of Iraqi date palm using Klason lignin method. The weight of the extracted lignin ranged from 0.410 g to 0.720 g, and the lignin % ranged from 17.6 to 36. The other ingredients (waxes, oils, resin, and proteins of wood gums) % ranged from 20 to 29.5. FT-IR characterization showed that the (-OH) phenolic group appear in Ashrasi lignin structure only and disappear in other lignin samples, and the (4-O-5 inter monomeric lignin linkage) showed strong to moderate intensity peaks for all studied samples except the Austa omran sample has a weak intensity peaks. Also (DODO inter monomeric lignin linkage) showed strong intensity peaks for all studied samples except the Barban sample showed moderate intensity peaks. UV-vis characterization showed that the lowest absorption maximum (266 nm) corresponds to Barban lignin sample, while the highest absorption maximum (271 nm) corresponds to Sultani lignin sample.

  19. The Epidemiology of Major Depressive Episode in the Iraqi General Population

    PubMed Central

    Al-Hamzawi, Ali Obaid; Bruffaerts, Ronny; Bromet, Evelyn J.; AlKhafaji, Abdulzahra Mohammed; Kessler, Ronald C.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To assess the prevalence, symptom severity, functional impairment, and treatment of major depressive episode (MDE) in the Iraqi general population. Methods The Iraq Mental Health Survey is a nationally representative face-to-face survey of 4,332 non-institutionalized adults aged 18+ interviewed in 2006–2007 as part of the WHO World Mental Health Surveys. Prevalence and correlates of DSM-IV MDE were determined with the WHO Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI). Findings Lifetime and 12-month prevalence of MDE were 7.4% and 4.0%, respectively. Close to half (46%) of the 12-month MDE cases were severe/very severe. MDE was more common among women and those previously married. Median age of onset was 25.2. Only one-seventh of 12-month MDE cases received treatment despite being associated with very substantial role impairment (on average 70 days out of role in the past year). Conclusions MDE is a commonly occurring disorder in the Iraqi general population and is associated with considerable disability and low treatment. Efforts are needed to decrease the barriers to treatment and to educate general medical providers in Iraq about the recognition and treatment of depression. PMID:26230265

  20. Suicide by self-burning in Iraqi Kurdistan: description and risk factors.

    PubMed

    Othman, Nasih

    2011-01-01

    This study aims to provide evidence for the problem of suicide by self-burning in Iraqi Kurdistan. Data were collected prospectively from all patients admitted to the burn center in the province of Sulaymaniyah and cases of self-burning were compared with cases of accidental burns. There were 197 cases with an annual incidence rate of 8.4 per 100,000 per year and female to male risk ratio of 13.1. Independent risk factors for self-burning were female sex (odds ratio 13.75, 95% CI 6.91-27.36, P < 0.001); young age of 11 to 18 years (OR 3.92, 95% CI 2.20-7.0, P < 0.001); poor education (OR 2.50, 95% CI 1.15-5.45, P = 0.02); spring season (OR 2.39, 95% CI 1.3-4.41, P = 0.005); and small family size (OR 2.72, 95% CI 1.44-5.15, P = 0.002). Suicide by self-burning is common in Iraqi Kurdistan especially among women. Urgent action is required to provide a better understanding of the situation, and identify partners, capacities, and opportunities for action.

  1. Characterization of Some Iraqi Archaeological Samples Using IBA, Analytical X-ray and Other Complementary Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shihab Al-Sarraj, Ziyad; Roumie, Mohamad; Damboos, Hassan I.

    2012-07-01

    The present work aimed at investigating the compositions and microstructures of some archaeological samples which dated back to various periods of the ancient Iraqi civilizations using PIXE, XRF, XRD, and SEM techniques. The models selected for the study (ceramics, glaze, etc.) were diverse in size and nature, therefore a limited number of samples were then butted from them by a small diamond wheel. Conventional powder metallurgy method was then used to prepare the samples. Dried samples were then coated with a thin layer of carbon, and analyzed using the ion beam accelerator of the LAEC. Three other groups of samples were also prepared for the purpose of analysis by X-ray fluorescence (XRF), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and scanning electron microscope (SEM). Analysis results of the chemical composition showed good agreement between the various techniques as well as for phases, while the fine structure analysis obtained by optical and scanning microscopy exhibited features of a structure where it got an intensified densification in the final stage of sintering and accompanied by quasi-homogeneous distribution of the closed pores. This will lead to the conclusion that the temperature used for sintering by ancient Iraqi was sufficient and it may fall in the range between 950-1200°C, also the mixes and the forming methods used by them, were both suitable to obtain good sintered bodies with even distribution of pores. A ring-shaped trace noticed in SEM micrographs need more work and study to explain what it is?

  2. A novel mutation in the HEXA gene specific to Tay-Sachs disease carriers of Jewish Iraqi origin.

    PubMed

    Karpati, M; Peleg, L; Gazit, E; Akstein, E; Goldman, B

    2000-05-01

    An increased frequency of carriers of 1:140, as defined by reduced hexosaminidase A (HexA) activity, was observed among Iraqi Jews participating in the Tay-Sachs disease (TSD) carrier detection program. Prior to this finding, TSD among Jews had been restricted to those of Eastern European (Ashkenazi) and Moroccan descent with carrier frequencies of 1:29 and 1:110 for Jews of Ashkenazi and Moroccan extraction, respectively. A general, pan-ethnic frequency of approximately 1:280 has been observed among other Jewish Israeli populations. Analysis of 48 DNA samples from Iraqi Jews suspected, by enzymatic assay, to be carriers revealed a total of five mutations, one of which was novel. In nine carriers (19%), a known mutation typical to either Ashkenazi or Moroccan Jews was identified. DeltaF304/ 305 was detected in four individuals, and + 1278TATC in three. G269S and R170Q each appeared in a single person. The new mutation, G749T, resulting in a substitution of glycine to valine at position 250 has been found in 19 of the DNA samples (40%). This mutation was not detected among 100 non-carrier, Iraqi Jews and 65 Ashkenazi enzymatically determined carriers. Aside from Ashkenazi and Moroccan Jews, a specific mutation in the HEXA gene has now also been identified in Jews of Iraqi descent.

  3. Narratives of Iraqi Adult Learners: Experiences of Spoken Register in English for Academic Purposes Programs at an Australian University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al Hamdany, Hayder; Picard, Michelle

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores the perceptions of Iraqi students of three different English Programs (a general English for academic purposes program, a pre-enrolment English program and the English component of a disciplinary bridging program) at an Australian University as reflected in their language learning narratives. It focuses specifically on the…

  4. Between Home and Exile: A Reading of the Exilic Experience of the Iraqi Poet Adnan Al-Sayegh

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghena, Hana Khlaif

    2016-01-01

    This paper aims at exploring the exilic experience of the Iraqi poet, Adnan Al-Sayegh whose involuntarily departure from his homeland, Iraq, in the early 1990s made him suffer a strong sense of estrangement, nostalgia, self-fragmentation and disconnection. The paper is divided into three sections and a conclusion. Section one sheds light on the…

  5. The Use of Projective Drawings to Determine Visual Themes in Young Kuwaiti Women Impacted by the Iraqi Invasion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pepin-Wakefield, Yvonne

    2008-01-01

    This study is part of a larger qualitative research project which examines visual imagery created through projective art tasks undertaken by young Kuwaiti women who were resident in Kuwait during the 1990 Saddam-Hussein-led Iraqi invasion of their country. The purpose of this article is to present evidence from the study as it is evolving. This…

  6. Freedom: Toward an Integration of the Counseling Profession

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanna, Fred J.

    2011-01-01

    Freedom is presented as an overarching paradigm that may align and bring together the counseling profession's diverse counseling theories and open a doorway to a new generation of counseling techniques. Freedom is defined and discussed in terms of its 4 modalities: freedom from, freedom to, freedom with, and freedom for. The long-standing problem…

  7. Compilation of Theses Abstracts

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-12-01

    METEOROLOGY An Analysis of a Dust Storm Impacting Operation Iraqi Freedom, 25–27 March 2003 ................................ 75 TABLE OF CONTENTS xii...ANALYSIS OF A DUST STORM IMPACTING OPERATION IRAQI FREEDOM, 25–27 MARCH 2003 John W. Anderson–Captain, United States Air Force B.S., University of... dust storm initiated by the passage of a synoptically driven cold front. This storm impacted ground and air operations across the entire area of

  8. Space Station Freedom Utilization Conference: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    From August 3-6, 1992, Space Station Freedom Program (SSFP) representatives and prospective Space Station Freedom researchers gathered at the Von Braun Civic Center in Huntsville, Alabama, for NASA's first annual Space Station Freedom (SSF) Utilization Conference. The sessions presented are: (1) overview and research capabilities; (2) research plans and opportunities; (3) life sciences research; (4) technology research; (4) microgravity research and biotechnology; and (5) closing plenary.

  9. 3 CFR - Freedom of Information Act

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... the Heads of Executive Departments and Agencies A democracy requires accountability, and... disinfectants.” In our democracy, the Freedom of Information Act (FOIA), which encourages accountability...

  10. Management of the Space Station Freedom onboard local area network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Frank W.; Mitchell, Randy C.

    1991-01-01

    An operational approach is proposed to managing the Data Management System Local Area Network (LAN) on Space Station Freedom. An overview of the onboard LAN elements is presented first, followed by a proposal of the operational guidelines by which management of the onboard network may be effected. To implement the guidelines, a recommendation is then presented on a set of network management parameters which should be made available in the onboard Network Operating System Computer Software Configuration Item and Fiber Distributed Data Interface firmware. Finally, some implications for the implementation of the various network management elements are discussed.

  11. Freedom and purpose in biology.

    PubMed

    McShea, Daniel W

    2016-08-01

    All seemingly teleological systems share a common hierarchical structure. They consist of a small entity moving or changing within a larger field that directs it from above (what I call "upper direction"). This is true for organisms seeking some external resource, for the organized behavior of cells and other parts in organismal development, and for lineages evolving by natural selection. In all cases, the lower-level entity is partly "free," tending to wander under the influence of purely local forces, and partly directed by a larger enveloping field. The persistent and plastic behavior that characterizes goal-directedness arises, I argue, at intermediate levels of freedom and upper direction, when the two are in a delicate balance. I tentatively extend the argument to human teleology (wants, purposes).

  12. Six degree of freedom sensor

    DOEpatents

    Vann, Charles S.

    1999-01-01

    This small, non-contact optical sensor increases the capability and flexibility of computer controlled machines by detecting its relative position to a workpiece in all six degrees of freedom (DOF). At a fraction of the cost, it is over 200 times faster and up to 25 times more accurate than competing 3-DOF sensors. Applications range from flexible manufacturing to a 6-DOF mouse for computers. Until now, highly agile and accurate machines have been limited by their inability to adjust to changes in their tasks. By enabling them to sense all six degrees of position, these machines can now adapt to new and complicated tasks without human intervention or delay--simplifying production, reducing costs, and enhancing the value and capability of flexible manufacturing.

  13. Six degree of freedom sensor

    DOEpatents

    Vann, C.S.

    1999-03-16

    This small, non-contact optical sensor increases the capability and flexibility of computer controlled machines by detecting its relative position to a workpiece in all six degrees of freedom (DOF). At a fraction of the cost, it is over 200 times faster and up to 25 times more accurate than competing 3-DOF sensors. Applications range from flexible manufacturing to a 6-DOF mouse for computers. Until now, highly agile and accurate machines have been limited by their inability to adjust to changes in their tasks. By enabling them to sense all six degrees of position, these machines can now adapt to new and complicated tasks without human intervention or delay--simplifying production, reducing costs, and enhancing the value and capability of flexible manufacturing. 3 figs.

  14. Reconstruction Leaders’ Perceptions of the Commander’s Emergency Response Program in Iraq

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-04-30

    USACE) officials. Taken together, these groups represent the primary U.S. government bodies responsible for the nomination, execution, and subsequent monitoring and evaluation of CERP projects during Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF).

  15. 77 FR 7243 - Agency Information Collection (Survey of Post-Deployment Adjustment Among OEF and OIF Veterans...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-10

    ..., family and social adjustment and functioning of Veterans who were deployed to Afghanistan and/or Iraq... Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF) Veterans with an emphasis on the needs of female Veterans who experienced...

  16. Model reduction for Space Station Freedom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Trevor

    1992-01-01

    Model reduction is an important practical problem in the control of flexible spacecraft, and a considerable amount of work has been carried out on this topic. Two of the best known methods developed are modal truncation and internal balancing. Modal truncation is simple to implement but can give poor results when the structure possesses clustered natural frequencies, as often occurs in practice. Balancing avoids this problem but has the disadvantages of high computational cost, possible numerical sensitivity problems, and no physical interpretation for the resulting balanced 'modes'. The purpose of this work is to examine the performance of the subsystem balancing technique developed by the investigator when tested on a realistic flexible space structure, in this case a model of the Permanently Manned Configuration (PMC) of Space Station Freedom. This method retains the desirable properties of standard balancing while overcoming the three difficulties listed above. It achieves this by first decomposing the structural model into subsystems of highly correlated modes. Each subsystem is approximately uncorrelated from all others, so balancing them separately and then combining yields comparable results to balancing the entire structure directly. The operation count reduction obtained by the new technique is considerable: a factor of roughly r(exp 2) if the system decomposes into r equal subsystems. Numerical accuracy is also improved significantly, as the matrices being operated on are of reduced dimension, and the modes of the reduced-order model now have a clear physical interpretation; they are, to first order, linear combinations of repeated-frequency modes.

  17. Multiple-degree-of-freedom vehicle

    DOEpatents

    Borenstein, Johann

    1995-01-01

    A multi-degree-of-freedom vehicle employs a compliant linkage to accommodate the need for a variation in the distance between drive wheels or drive systems which are independently steerable and drivable. The subject vehicle is provided with rotary encodes to provide signals representative of the orientation of the steering pivot associated with each such drive wheel or system, and a linear encoder which issues a signal representative of the fluctuations in the distance between the drive elements. The wheels of the vehicle are steered and driven in response to the linear encoder signal, there being provided a controller system for minimizing the fluctuations in the distance. The controller system is a software implementation of a plurality of controllers, operating at the chassis level and at the vehicle level. A trajectory interpolator receives x-displacement, y-displacement, and .theta.-displacement signals and produces to the vehicle level controller trajectory signals corresponding to interpolated control signals. The x-displacement, y-displacement, and .theta.-displacement signals are received from a human operator, via a manipulable joy stick.

  18. Automated electric power management and control for Space Station Freedom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dolce, James L.; Mellor, Pamela A.; Kish, James A.

    1990-01-01

    A comprehensive automation design is being developed for Space Station Freedom's electric power system. It strives to increase station productivity by applying expert systems and conventional algorithms to automate power system operation. An integrated approach to the power system command and control problem is defined and used to direct technology development in: diagnosis, security monitoring and analysis, battery management, and cooperative problem-solving for resource allocation. The prototype automated power system is developed using simulations and test-beds.

  19. The health profile and chronic diseases comorbidities of US-bound Iraqi refugees screened by the International Organization for Migration in Jordan: 2007-2009.

    PubMed

    Yanni, Emad A; Naoum, Marwan; Odeh, Nedal; Han, Pauline; Coleman, Margaret; Burke, Heather

    2013-02-01

    More than 63,000 Iraqi refugees were resettled in the United States from 1994 to 2010. We analyzed data for all US-bound Iraqi refugees screened in International Organization for Migration clinics in Jordan during June 2007-September 2009 (n = 18,990), to describe their health profile before arrival in the United States. Of 14,077 US-bound Iraqi refugees ≥ 15 years of age, one had active TB, 251 had latent TB infection, and 14 had syphilis. No HIV infections were reported. Chronic diseases comorbidities accounted for a large burden of disease in this population: 35% (n = 4,105) of screened Iraqi refugees had at least one of three chronic medical conditions; hypertension, diabetes mellitus, or obesity. State health departments and clinicians who screen refugees need to be aware of the high prevalence of chronic diseases among Iraqi refugees resettled in the United States. These results will help public health specialists develop policies to reduce morbidity and mortality among US-bound Iraqi refugees.

  20. Structural technology challenges for evolutionary growth of Space Station Freedom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doiron, Harold H.

    1990-01-01

    A proposed evolutionary growth scenario for Space Station Freedom was defined recently by a NASA task force created to study requirements for a Human Exploration Initiative. The study was an initial response to President Bush's July 20, 1989 proposal to begin a long range program of human exploration of space including a permanently manned lunar base and a manned mission to Mars. This growth scenario evolves Freedom into a critical transportation node to support lunar and Mars missions. The growth scenario begins with the Assembly Complete configuration and adds structure, power, and facilities to support a Lunar Transfer Vehicle (LTV) verification flight. Evolutionary growth continues to support expendable, then reusable LTV operations, and finally, LTV and Mars Transfer Vehicle (MTV) operations. The significant structural growth and additional operations creating new loading conditions will present new technological and structural design challenges in addition to the considerable technology requirements of the baseline Space Station Freedom program. Several structural design and technology issues of the baseline program are reviewed and related technology development required by the growth scenario is identified.

  1. Specific trauma subtypes improve the predictive validity of the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire in Iraqi refugees.

    PubMed

    Arnetz, Bengt B; Broadbridge, Carissa L; Jamil, Hikmet; Lumley, Mark A; Pole, Nnamdi; Barkho, Evone; Fakhouri, Monty; Talia, Yousif Rofa; Arnetz, Judith E

    2014-12-01

    Trauma exposure contributes to poor mental health among refugees, and exposure often is measured using a cumulative index of items from the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire (HTQ). Few studies, however, have asked whether trauma subtypes derived from the HTQ could be superior to this cumulative index in predicting mental health outcomes. A community sample of recently arrived Iraqi refugees (N = 298) completed the HTQ and measures of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression symptoms. Principal components analysis of HTQ items revealed a 5-component subtype model of trauma that accounted for more item variance than a 1-component solution. These trauma subtypes also accounted for more variance in PTSD and depression symptoms (12 and 10%, respectively) than did the cumulative trauma index (7 and 3%, respectively). Trauma subtypes provided more information than cumulative trauma in the prediction of negative mental health outcomes. Therefore, use of these subtypes may enhance the utility of the HTQ when assessing at-risk populations.

  2. Kidnapping and Mental Health in Iraqi Refugees: The Role of Resilience.

    PubMed

    Wright, A Michelle; Talia, Yousif R; Aldhalimi, Abir; Broadbridge, Carissa L; Jamil, Hikmet; Lumley, Mark A; Pole, Nnamdi; Arnetz, Bengt B; Arnetz, Judith E

    2017-02-01

    Although kidnapping is common in war-torn countries, there is little research examining its psychological effects. Iraqi refugees (N = 298) were assessed upon arrival to the U.S. and 1 year later. At arrival, refugees were asked about prior trauma exposure, including kidnapping. One year later refugees were assessed for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and major depression disorder (MDD) using the SCID-I. Individual resilience and narratives of the kidnapping were also assessed. Twenty-six refugees (9 %) reported being kidnapped. Compared to those not kidnapped, those who were had a higher prevalence of PTSD, but not MDD, diagnoses. Analyses examining kidnapping victims revealed that higher resilience was associated with lower rates of PTSD. Narratives of the kidnapping were also discussed. This study suggests kidnapping is associated with PTSD, but not MDD. Additionally, kidnapping victims without PTSD reported higher individual resilience. Future studies should further elucidate risk and resilience mechanisms.

  3. Iraqi, Syrian, and Palestinian Refugee Adolescents' Beliefs About Parental Authority Legitimacy and Its Correlates.

    PubMed

    Smetana, Judith G; Ahmad, Ikhlas; Wray-Lake, Laura

    2015-01-01

    This study examined intra- and interindividual variations in parental legitimacy beliefs in a sample of 883 Arab refugee adolescents (M(age) = 15.01 years, SD = 1.60), 277 Iraqis, 275 Syrians, and 331 Palestinians in Amman, Jordan. Confirmatory factor analyses showed distinct latent factors for moral-conventional, prudential, and personal legitimacy items. Older adolescents rated legitimacy lower for personal issues, but higher for prudential issues. Beliefs were associated with socioeconomic status (fathers' education, family size), particularly for personal issues, but were more pervasively associated with displacement-related experiences. Greater war trauma was associated with less prudential legitimacy for all youth and more authority legitimacy over moral-conventional issues for Syrian youth. Greater hopefulness was associated with more authority legitimacy over all but personal issues.

  4. Risk, suffering and competing narratives in the psychiatric assessment of an Iraqi refugee.

    PubMed

    Savy, Pauline; Sawyer, Anne-Maree

    2008-03-01

    This paper highlights the problem of "place" for an Iraqi refugee who, for years, had been tortured and imprisoned in his home country. Specifically, the paper presents a case study of a clinical encounter with this refugee, who had come to the attention of an Australian Crisis Assessment and Treatment Team. Drawing from narrative theory, the paper describes the chaotic nature of the encounter to show how the diverse motives, claims and actions of those present expose the struggle involved in the emplotment of an emerging narrative. The case study is constructed and analysed to illustrate the interpretive machinery of "clinical reasoning" and, in particular, the tension and play between "paradigmatic thinking" and "narrative thinking." More generally, this analysis follows the work of social scientists who seek to expand methodologies for writing about human suffering.

  5. Willingness to Adopt Telemedicine in Major Iraqi Hospitals: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Abd Ghani, Mohd Khanapi; Jaber, Mustafa Musa

    2015-01-01

    The Iraqi healthcare services are struggling to regain their lost momentum. Many physicians and nurses left Iraq because of the current situation in the country. Despite plans of calling back the skilled health workforce, they are still worried by the disadvantages of their return. Hence, technology plays a central role in taking advantage of their profession through the use of telemedicine. Studying the factors that affect the implementation of telemedicine is necessary. Telemedicine covers network services, policy makers, and patient understanding. A framework that includes the influencing factors in adopting telemedicine in Iraq was developed in this study. A questionnaire was distributed among physicians in Baghdad Medical City to examine the hypothesis on each factor. The Statistical Package for the Social Sciences was utilized to verify the reliability of the questionnaire and Cronbach's alpha test shows that the factors have values more than 0.7, which are standard. PMID:26557848

  6. Maintaining Intellectual Freedom in a Filtered World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Doug

    2005-01-01

    The concepts of intellectual freedom as expressed in these two quotations are as relevant to information in electronic formats as they are in print. As a proponent of intellectual freedom, the author of this article advocated and received administrative support for unfiltered Internet access in the Mankato Area (Minnesota) Public Schools from 1994…

  7. 78 FR 4293 - Religious Freedom Day, 2013

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-22

    ... Day, 2013 By the President of the United States of America A Proclamation Foremost among the rights... observe Religious Freedom Day, let us remember the legacy of faith and independence we have inherited, and..., 2013, as Religious Freedom Day. I call on all Americans to commemorate this day with events...

  8. 75 FR 3843 - Religious Freedom Day, 2010

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-22

    ... Documents#0;#0; ] Proclamation 8474 of January 15, 2010 Religious Freedom Day, 2010 By the President of the... diversity is built upon a rich tradition of religious tolerance. On this day, we commemorate an early... faith and follow our conscience is central to our ability to live in harmony. On Religious Freedom...

  9. 77 FR 68043 - World Freedom Day, 2012

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-15

    ... Documents#0;#0; #0; #0;Title 3-- #0;The President ] Proclamation 8903 of November 9, 2012 World Freedom Day..., 2012, as World Freedom Day. I call upon the people of the United States to observe this day with... WHEREOF, I have hereunto set my hand this ninth day of November, in the year of our Lord two...

  10. 78 FR 68325 - World Freedom Day, 2013

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-14

    ... Documents#0;#0; #0; #0;Title 3-- #0;The President ] Proclamation 9056 of November 8, 2013 World Freedom Day... Freedom Day, we remember that for all the raw power of authoritarian regimes, it is ultimately citizens... of oppression and embrace a brighter day. NOW, THEREFORE, I, BARACK OBAMA, President of the...

  11. Exemplary Teachers: Teaching for Intellectual Freedom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collinson, Vivienne

    2012-01-01

    Intellectual freedom has long been a desirable ideal and a foundational value for supporting democratic governance. Since 1948, it has been a universal human right. Given the unique nature of education in democratic societies, schools serve as a crucible for helping children understand and practise the rudiments of intellectual freedom. Drawing on…

  12. Escape from Freedom: Towards the Political Realm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dillon, Katrina

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, the author contends that the ability to create a political realm is dependent upon one's state of freedom. She questions what it means to be free and whether assumptions of the definitions of this concept are always good or beneficial. After discussing some of the known theories about freedom, she states that schools are some…

  13. Academic Freedom as an Ethical Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Joan Wallach

    1995-01-01

    The power of academic freedom lies in the ambiguity between its existence as a universal principle and as a historically circumscribed relationship. Its greatest threat is dogmatism, which seeks to banish ambiguity by appealing to absolute truth. Academic freedom is an ethical practice aimed at both protection of individuals and advancement of…

  14. Theoretical Value in Teaching Freedom of Speech.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carney, John J., Jr.

    The exercise of freedom of speech within our nation has deteriorated. A practical value in teaching free speech is the possibility of restoring a commitment to its principles by educators. What must be taught is why freedom of speech is important, why it has been compromised, and the extent to which it has been compromised. Every technological…

  15. Rabies in Ireland: a precarious freedom.

    PubMed

    Costello, J A

    1988-01-01

    The prolonged freedom from rabies enjoyed by Ireland is based on both its island location and the rigid enforcement of national legislation. The yachting tourist and the increased level of shipping activity in ports and harbours are a major threat of disease introduction. Mass media publicity and public awareness are the main safeguards necessary to protect the freedom of our island.

  16. Who Defends Intellectual Freedom for Librarians?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buschman, John

    2009-01-01

    "Academe"'s readers know the importance of academic freedom and the history of the (American Association of University Professors) AAUP's defense and promotion of academic freedom for faculty. Librarians have an analogous set of interlocking policies concerning their ethics and related issues. The author has always been proud that the American…

  17. Pluralism in Education: The Freedom to Choose.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ness, Frederic W.

    This speech emphasizes the need of all types of academic institutions, to maintain a freedom of choice in higher education that will preserve a vigorous system of independent higher education. Without it, pluralism in any true sense is impossible, and without pluralism in higher education, freedom of choice is without meaning. (Author/MJM)

  18. IVA robotics for Space Station Freedom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Sharon Monica

    1992-01-01

    The objective is to increase the scientific productivity of Space Station Freedom (Spacelab) during the man-tended phase and beyond. The topics are presented in viewgraph form and include: Space Station Freedom (SSF) background, man-tended phase, intra-vehicular activity (IVA) robotics, protein crystal growth experiment, thermal enclosure system equipment, and candidate mockup demonstrations.

  19. Intellectual Freedom and Censorship in the Library

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Jessica L.

    2010-01-01

    The article gives a brief description of intellectual freedom and censorship in order to set a foundation for looking into the library community's role in advocating for intellectual freedom and combating censorship. Focus is given to the unique challenges of school libraries in fulfilling the larger library community's expectations in these two…

  20. Freedom of Speech as an Academic Discipline.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haiman, Franklyn S.

    Since its formation, the Speech Communication Association's Committee on Freedom of Speech has played a critical leadership role in course offerings, research efforts, and regional activities in freedom of speech. Areas in which research has been done and in which further research should be carried out include: historical-critical research, in…

  1. Academic Freedom 2--A Human Rights Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniel, John, Ed.; And Others

    The ten essays in this book examine issues related to academic freedom and university autonomy. Chapter 1 serves as an introduction, providing an overview of the situation in universities worldwide, including national and international initiatives to promote academic freedom. It also discusses the role of the World University Service in this…

  2. Let Freedom Ring! Bulletin, 1937, No. 32

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calhoun, Harold G.; Calhoun, Dorothy; Hatch, Roy W.; Cohen, Philip H.; Schramm, Rudolf

    1937-01-01

    This volume of "Let Freedom Ring!" contains the scripts of the 13 national broadcasts of the radio series of that name presented in the spring of 1937 over the national network of the Columbia Broadcast System. In "Let Freedom Ring!" you will find the courage, the struggle, the triumph of men and women who fought to win and safeguard liberties…

  3. Convocation on Current Threats to Academic Freedom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strohm, Paul

    1986-01-01

    A discussion by endorsers of the American Association of University Professors' (AAUP) 1940 statement on academic freedom and tenure is summarized, including the topics of academic accuracy watchdogs, government constraints on academic freedom, irregular faculty appointments and periodic review, special issues at church-related colleges, and the…

  4. Academic Freedom: A Call for Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ochoa, Anna

    The need for research on academic freedom as it applies to the K-12 level is addressed. The existing literature in the area of academic freedom, while often critical, rhetorical, and prescriptive, never calls for research. Indeed, there are very few examples of research in this area. Two separate ERIC (Educational Research Information Center)…

  5. Freedom for the Thought We Hate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gunther, Gerald

    1990-01-01

    Current efforts to place new limits on freedom of expression on campuses, however well intentioned, are incompatible with the mission and meaning of a university and send exactly the wrong message from academia to society. Universities should exhibit more, not less, freedom of expression than prevails in society at large. (MSE)

  6. Academic Freedom in the Secondary Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Civil Liberties Union, New York, NY.

    A policy statement recommends application of the principles of academic freedom and civil liberties to the secondary schools. Teachers' rights are discussed in terms of (1) appointments and dismissals, (2) loyalty oaths, (3) curriculum, (4) selection of texts and supplementary instructional resources, (5) freedom to teach controversial issues, (6)…

  7. Freedom of Conscience and Catholic Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donlevy, J. K.; Gereluk, D.; Patterson, P.; Brandon, J.

    2014-01-01

    This paper's purpose is to extensively review the historical understanding of conscience and the current juridical interpretation of freedom of conscience under section 2(a) of the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms (1982). It then briefly notes that given the challenge faced by Ontario's Catholic schools in providing for inclusionary…

  8. Academic Freedom: Constitutional Myths and Practical Realities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thro, William E.

    2007-01-01

    Academic Freedom is a sacrosanct value on American university campuses. Virtually all research institutions, public and private, have explicitly adopted some form of the American Association of University Professors' 1940 "Statement of Principles on Academic Freedom and Tenure" or the organization's the 1915 "Declaration of…

  9. Intellectual Freedom and the Bible College Library

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Gregory A.

    2004-01-01

    A number of evangelical Christian authors have wrestled with the subject of intellectual freedom--few, though, in the context of Bible college libraries. The secular concept of intellectual freedom is incompatible with Bible colleges in that it is absolutist and shuns any standard of morality. Theological, educational, and pragmatic factors…

  10. Freedom of Speech and Philosophy of Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Roy

    2009-01-01

    Why is freedom of speech so seldom raised as an issue in philosophy of education? In assessing this question, it is important to distinguish (i) between a freedom and its exercise, and (ii) between different philosophies of education. Western philosophies of education may be broadly divided into classes derived from theories of knowledge first…

  11. Reading Educational Philosophies in "Freedom Writers"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, Jung-Ah

    2009-01-01

    The 2007 film "Freedom Writers" portrays the real-life experiences of Erin Gruwell, a teacher at an inner-city high school in Long Beach, California. This article discusses the educational theories underpinning Gruwell's pedagogical practice, as seen in "Freedom Writers", and identifies four themes--rewriting curriculum,…

  12. Academic Freedom: A Global Comparative Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marginson, Simon

    2014-01-01

    Academic freedom is best understood not as an abstract universal principle or an ideal state of being but as concrete university practices nested in specific relational environments. As such, practices of academic freedom vary across the world, according to variations in political cultures, educational cultures and state-university relations. The…

  13. Academic Freedom in Europe: Reviewing UNESCO's "Recommendation"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karran, Terence

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines the compliance of universities in the European Union with the UNESCO Recommendation concerning the Status of Higher-Education Teaching Personnel, which deals primarily with protection for academic freedom. The paper briefly surveys the European genesis of the modern research university and academic freedom, before evaluating…

  14. Long-term pulmonary complications of chemical warfare agent exposure in Iraqi Kurdish civilians.

    PubMed

    Ghanei, Mostafa; Naderi, Mostafa; Kosar, Ali Morad; Harandi, Ali Amini; Hopkinson, Nicholas S; Poursaleh, Zohreh

    2010-08-01

    The Iraqi government used a range of chemical weapons, including blistering and nerve agents, against Iraqi Kurdish civilians in the 1980s. Few data exist about the long-term respiratory consequences of this exposure. In this study, Kurdish subjects with a history of exposure to chemical weapons were invited to attend a clinical assessment, including a review of their history, physical examination, and a high-resolution computed tomography (CT) of the thorax. Blistering at the time of exposure was used to define significant exposure to mustard gas. Results were compared between two groups of blistering and nonblistering. Four hundred seventy-nine subjects were studied; 45.7% male and 54.3% female. The mean age and standard deviation (mean +/- SD) of the cases was 43.1 +/- 13.7. Spirometry was abnormal in 15.2% of subjects and air trapping was present on CT scan in 46.6% and did not differ between patients with (n = 278) or without a history of blistering. Respiratory symptoms, including dyspnea, cough, and sputum production, were more common in subjects with a history of blistering (all p < .005) and blistering was also associated with a lower forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV(1)) (p < .0001). Severe complications were most common in subjects from Halabja who also made up the majority of participants. These results show that objective abnormalities are common in people with symptoms attributed to prior exposure to chemical agent. Blistering at the time of exposure was associated with more respiratory symptoms and worse lung function, but not with CT appearances. The high proportion of severe cases in comparison to reports from Iran may reflect the historical absence of effective early treatment, including strategies to reduce prolonged early exposure in this population.

  15. Chronic traumatic encephalopathy in an Iraqi war veteran with posttraumatic stress disorder who committed suicide.

    PubMed

    Omalu, Bennet; Hammers, Jennifer L; Bailes, Julian; Hamilton, Ronald L; Kamboh, M Ilyas; Webster, Garrett; Fitzsimmons, Robert P

    2011-11-01

    Following his discovery of chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) in football players in 2002, Dr. Bennet Omalu hypothesized that posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in military veterans may belong to the CTE spectrum of diseases. The CTE surveillance at the Brain Injury Research Institute was therefore expanded to include deceased military veterans diagnosed with PTSD. The authors report the case of a 27-year-old United States Marine Corps (USMC) Iraqi war veteran, an amphibious assault vehicle crewman, who committed suicide by hanging after two deployments to Fallujah and Ramadi. He experienced combat and was exposed to mortar blasts and improvised explosive device blasts less than 50 m away. Following his second deployment he developed a progressive history of cognitive impairment, impaired memory, behavioral and mood disorders, and alcohol abuse. Neuropsychiatric assessment revealed a diagnosis of PTSD with hyperarousal (irritability and insomnia) and numbing. He committed suicide approximately 8 months after his honorable discharge from the USMC. His brain at autopsy appeared grossly unremarkable except for congestive brain swelling. There was no atrophy or remote focal traumatic brain injury such as contusional necrosis or hemorrhage. Histochemical and immunohistochemical brain tissue analysis revealed CTE changes comprising multifocal, neocortical, and subcortical neurofibrillary tangles and neuritic threads (ranging from none, to sparse, to frequent) with the skip phenomenon, accentuated in the depths of sulci and in the frontal cortex. The subcortical white matter showed mild rarefaction, sparse perivascular and neuropil infiltration by histiocytes, and mild fibrillary astrogliosis. Apolipoprotein E genotype was 3/4. The authors report this case as a sentinel case of CTE in an Iraqi war veteran diagnosed with PTSD to possibly stimulate new lines of thought and research in the possible pathoetiology and pathogenesis of PTSD in military veterans as part of

  16. Effects Based Assessment in the United States Air Force

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-05-01

    during OIF includes: Predator and Global Hawk UAV, RC-135 Rivet Joint , E-8 JSTARS, E-3 AWACS, and overhead national assets. 59 Operation Iraqi Freedom...Moseley, Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF) Joint Forces Air Component Commander (JFACC), succinctly described OIF assessment when he said, “BDA [was...only three weeks, the war was over. During these three weeks, Moseley’s air component provided crucial support to Frank’s joint campaign. In order

  17. Advancing automation and robotics technology for the Space Station Freedom and for the US economy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lum, Henry, Jr.

    1992-01-01

    Described here is the progress made by Levels 1, 2, and 3 of the Space Station Freedom in developing and applying advanced automation and robotics technology. Emphasis was placed on the Space Station Freedom program responses to specific recommendations made in the Advanced Technology Advisory Committee (ATAC) Progress Report 13, and issues of A&R implementation into the payload operations integration Center at Marshall Space Flight Center. Assessments are presented for these and other areas as they apply to the advancement of automation and robotics technology for Space Station Freedom.

  18. Impact of phlebotomine sand flies on U.S. Military operations at Tallil Air Base, Iraq: 1. background, military situation, and development of a "Leishmaniasis Control Program".

    PubMed

    Coleman, Russell E; Burkett, Douglas A; Putnam, John L; Sherwood, Van; Caci, Jennifer B; Jennings, Barton T; Hochberg, Lisa P; Spradling, Sharon L; Rowton, Edgar D; Blount, Keith; Ploch, John; Hopkins, Grady; Raymond, Jo-Lynne W; O'Guinn, Monica L; Lee, John S; Weina, Peter J

    2006-07-01

    One of the most significant modern day efforts to prevent and control an arthropod-borne disease during a military deployment occurred when a team of U.S. military entomologists led efforts to characterize, prevent, and control leishmaniasis at Tallil Air Base (TAB), Iraq, during Operation Iraqi Freedom. Soon after arriving at TAB on 22 March 2003, military entomologists determined that 1) high numbers of sand flies were present at TAB, 2) individual soldiers were receiving many sand fly bites in a single night, and 3) Leishmania parasites were present in 1.5% of the female sand flies as determined using a real-time (fluorogenic) Leishmania-generic polymerase chain reaction assay. The rapid determination that leishmaniasis was a specific threat in this area allowed for the establishment of a comprehensive Leishmaniasis Control Program (LCP) over 5 mo before the first case of leishmaniasis was confirmed in a U.S. soldier deployed to Iraq. The LCP had four components: 1) risk assessment, 2) enhancement of use of personal protective measures by all personnel at TAB, 3) vector and reservoir control, and 4) education of military personnel about sand flies and leishmaniasis. The establishment of the LCP at TAB before the onset of any human disease conclusively demonstrated that entomologists can play a critical role during military deployments.

  19. Environmental interactions of the Space Station Freedom electric power system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nahra, Henry K.; Lu, Cheng-Yi

    1991-01-01

    The Space Station Freedom operates in a low earth orbit (LEO) environment. Such operation results in different potential interactions with the Space Station systems including the Electric Power System (EPS). These potential interactions result in environmental effects which include neutral species effects such as atomic oxygen erosion, effects of micrometeoroid and orbital debris impacts, plasma effects, ionizing radiation, and induced contamination degradation effects. The EPS design and its interactions with the LEO environment are briefly described and the results of analyses and testing programs planned and performed thus far to resolve environmental concerns related to the EPS and its function in LEO environment.

  20. Environmental interactions of the Space Station Freedom electric power system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nahra, Henry K.; Lu, C. Y.

    1991-01-01

    The Space Station Freedom will be operating in the Low Earth Orbit (LEO) environment. LEO environment operation results in different potential interactions with the Space Station systems including the Electric Power Systems (EPS). These potential interactions result in environmental effects which include neutral species effects such as atomic oxygen erosion, effects of micrometeroid and orbital debris impacts, plasma effects, ionizing radiation effects, and induced contamination degradation effects. The EPS design and its interactions with the LEO environment are described. The results of analyses and testing programs planned and performed thus far to resolve the environmental concerns related to the EPS and its function in the LEO environment are discussed.

  1. Lessons of the Iraqi De-Ba’athification Program for Iraq’s Future and the Arab Revolutions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-05-01

    Iraqi people.76 He was released in February 2004, in partial response to the uproar within the Shi’ite community. He then traveled to a series of...expected). Gamal Mubarak had no military service, traveled in circles of extreme crony capitalist wealth, and was widely viewed as likely to rise to... unrestrained revenge, many of the new Libyan leaders are also concerned about the potential problems of building a new government with effective and

  2. How to get on board Space Station Freedom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bartoe, John-David

    1992-01-01

    Space Station Freedom will accommodate researchers with interests in science, technology and commercial applications. NASA sponsors will be responsible for selecting the U.S. researchers for Space Station Freedom. The four NASA sponsors are: Office of Space Science and Applications (OSSA), Office of Aeronautics and Space Technology (OAST), Office of Commercial Programs (OCP), and the Office of Space Flight (OSF). The areas of research responsibility for each sponsor are presented. The researcher solicitation vehicles used by OSSA and OAST and the methodology for researchers seeking sponsorship from OCP and OSF as well as the pricing policy are discussed. Descriptions of flight planning, payload integration and operations functions are presented. Three categories of payloads and their respective payload integration times are discussed. Researchers are advised to contact a NASA sponsor and a source which lists the points of contact for the NASA sponsors is noted.

  3. Development of the Space Station Freedom Environmental Health System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richard, Elizabeth E.; Russo, Dane

    1990-01-01

    The Environmental Health System (EHS), a subsystem of the Space Station Freedom (SSF) Crew Health Care System, was established to ensure that crewmembers will have a safe and healthy environment in which to live and work. EHS is comprised of six subsystems: Microbiology, Toxicology, Water Quality, Radiological Health, Vibroacoustics, and Barothermal Physiology. Each subsystem contributes to the overall functions of the EHS including environmental planning, environmental monitoring, environmental monitoring, environmental health assessments, and operations support. The EHS will provide hardware for monitoring the air, water, and internal surfaces of Freedom, including capabilities for inflight sample collection, processing, and analysis. The closed environment of SSF, and its dependence on recycled air and water, will necessitate a reliable monitoring system to alert crewmembers if contamination levels exceed the maximum allowable limits established to ensure crew health and safety. This paper describes the functions and hardware design status of the EHS.

  4. Food and Nutrient Intake among 12-Month-Old Norwegian-Somali and Norwegian-Iraqi Infants

    PubMed Central

    Grewal, Navnit Kaur; Andersen, Lene Frost; Kolve, Cathrine Solheim; Kverndalen, Ingrid; Torheim, Liv Elin

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present paper was to describe food and nutrient intake among 12-month-old Norwegian-Somali and Norwegian-Iraqi infants, with a focus on iron and vitamin D intake. A cross-sectional survey was conducted from August 2013 through September 2014. Eighty-nine mothers/infants of Somali origin and 77 mothers/infants of Iraqi origin residing in Eastern Norway participated in the study. Data were collected using two 24-h multiple-pass recalls. Forty percent of the Norwegian-Somali infants and 47% of the Norwegian-Iraqi infants were breastfed at 12 months of age (p = 0.414). Median energy percentages (E%) from protein, fat and carbohydrates were within the recommended intake ranges, except the level of saturated fats (12–13 E%). Median intakes of almost all micronutrients were above the recommended daily intakes. Most of the infants consumed iron-enriched products (81%) and received vitamin D supplements (84%). The median intakes of iron and vitamin D were significantly higher among infants receiving iron-enriched products and vitamin D supplements compared to infants not receiving such products (p < 0.001). The findings indicate that the food and nutrient intake of this group of infants in general seems to be in accordance with Norwegian dietary recommendations. Foods rich in iron and vitamin D supplements were important sources of the infants’ intake of iron and vitamin D and should continue to be promoted. PMID:27690092

  5. Women Marines in Counterinsurgency Operations: Lioness and Female Engagement Teams

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-04-05

    Lioness and Female N/A Engagement Teams 5b. GRANT NUMBER N/A 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER N/A 6. AI)THOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER Major Ginger E...adapted to overcome the Middle Eastern cultural gender sensitivities by utilizing women Marines to engage with the Iraqi and Afghan female population...Attaching Lioness and Female Engagement Teams to ground combat units is very successful in increasing security, information operations, and relations

  6. America Goes to War: Managing the Force During Times of Stress and Uncertainty

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-01-01

    74 Operation Enduring Freedom and Operation Iraqi Freedom . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76 Contemporary Programs to Mitigate...OPTEMPO operational tempo PCS permanent change of station PDC permanent duty change PERSTEMPO personnel tempo PSYOPS psychological operations QQLR...therefore managed its personnel inefficiently” ( Bruner , 2004). To Go “Soldiering”: Managing the Force Without a Draft 59 tell the difficulties the United

  7. John Peter Zenger, Battler for Freedom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallerstein, Gerry

    1974-01-01

    Examines the freedom of the press precedent set by the John Peter Zenger case in 1743 and considers its application to such current events as the jailing of reporters for not disclosing news sources. (RB)

  8. Space Station Freedom solar dynamic power generation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Springer, T.; Friefeld, Jerry M.

    1990-01-01

    Viewgraphs on Space Station Freedom solar dynamic power generation are presented. Topics covered include: prime contract activity; key solar dynamic power module requirements; solar dynamic heat receiver technology; and solar concentrator advanced development.

  9. Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) Policy

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This policy establishes EPA requirements for complying with the Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) as amended, EPA FOIA regulations, and guidance issued by the U. S. Department of Justice and the National Archives and Records Administration.

  10. FAST - FREEDOM ASSEMBLY SEQUENCING TOOL PROTOTYPE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borden, C. S.

    1994-01-01

    FAST is a project management tool designed to optimize the assembly sequence of Space Station Freedom. An appropriate assembly sequence coordinates engineering, design, utilization, transportation availability, and operations requirements. Since complex designs tend to change frequently, FAST assesses the system level effects of detailed changes and produces output metrics that identify preferred assembly sequences. FAST incorporates Space Shuttle integration, Space Station hardware, on-orbit operations, and programmatic drivers as either precedence relations or numerical data. Hardware sequencing information can either be input directly and evaluated via the "specified" mode of operation or evaluated from the input precedence relations in the "flexible" mode. In the specified mode, FAST takes as its input a list of the cargo elements assigned to each flight. The program determines positions for the cargo elements that maximize the center of gravity (c.g.) margin. These positions are restricted by the geometry of the cargo elements and the location of attachment fittings both in the orbiter and on the cargo elements. FAST calculates every permutation of cargo element location according to its height, trunnion fitting locations, and required intercargo element spacing. Each cargo element is tested in both its normal and reversed orientation (rotated 180 degrees). The best solution is that which maximizes the c.g. margin for each flight. In the flexible mode, FAST begins with the first flight and determines all feasible combinations of cargo elements according to mass, volume, EVA, and precedence relation constraints. The program generates an assembly sequence that meets mass, volume, position, EVA, and precedence constraints while minimizing the total number of Shuttle flights required. Issues associated with ground operations, spacecraft performance, logistics requirements and user requirements will be addressed in future versions of the model. FAST is written in C

  11. Philip Reid and the Statue of Freedom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walton, Eugene

    2005-01-01

    The Statue of Freedom stands at the very top of the dome of the Capitol, where Congress meets in Washington, D.C. The dome, with its statue, is a symbol recognized all over the world. Thomas Crawford, an American sculptor, created the Statue of Freedom in clay in a studio in Rome, Italy. A plaster model was cast in five major sections and shipped…

  12. TROUBLE 3: A fault diagnostic expert system for Space Station Freedom's power system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manner, David B.

    1990-01-01

    Designing Space Station Freedom has given NASA many opportunities to develop expert systems that automate onboard operations of space based systems. One such development, TROUBLE 3, an expert system that was designed to automate the fault diagnostics of Space Station Freedom's electric power system is described. TROUBLE 3's design is complicated by the fact that Space Station Freedom's power system is evolving and changing. TROUBLE 3 has to be made flexible enough to handle changes with minimal changes to the program. Three types of expert systems were studied: rule-based, set-covering, and model-based. A set-covering approach was selected for TROUBLE 3 because if offered the needed flexibility that was missing from the other approaches. With this flexibility, TROUBLE 3 is not limited to Space Station Freedom applications, it can easily be adapted to handle any diagnostic system.

  13. Space Station Freedom as an engineering experiment station: An overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rose, M. Frank

    1992-01-01

    In this presentation, the premise that Space Station Freedom has great utility as an engineering experiment station will be explored. There are several modes in which it can be used for this purpose. The most obvious are space qualification, process development, in space satellite repair, and materials engineering. The range of engineering experiments which can be done at Space Station Freedom run the gamut from small process oriented experiments to full exploratory development models. A sampling of typical engineering experiments are discussed in this session. First and foremost, Space Station Freedom is an elaborate experiment itself, which, if properly instrumented, will provide engineering guidelines for even larger structures which must surely be built if humankind is truly 'outward bound.' Secondly, there is the test, evaluation and space qualification of advanced electric thruster concepts, advanced power technology and protective coatings which must of necessity be tested in the vacuum of space. The current approach to testing these technologies is to do exhaustive laboratory simulation followed by shuttle or unmanned flights. Third, the advanced development models of life support systems intended for future space stations, manned mars missions, and lunar colonies can be tested for operation in a low gravity environment. Fourth, it will be necessary to develop new protective coatings, establish construction techniques, evaluate new materials to be used in the upgrading and repair of Space Station Freedom. Finally, the industrial sector, if it is ever to build facilities for the production of commercial products, must have all the engineering aspects of the process evaluated in space prior to a commitment to such a facility.

  14. OSSA Space Station Freedom science utilization plans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cressy, Philip J.

    1992-01-01

    Long duration exposure to an essentially zero-gravity environment is a phenomenon exclusive to the Space Station Freedom that cannot be duplicated on Earth. The Freedom Station will offer periods of time on orbit extending to weeks and months rather than hours or days, allowing for in-depth space based research and analysis to a degree never before achieved. OSSA remains committed to exploiting the unique capabilities provided by the Space Station as well as other space-based facilities to study the nature of physical, chemical, and biological processes in a low-gravity environment and to apply these studies to advance science and applications in such fields as biomedical research, plant and animal physiology, exobiology, biotechnology, materials science, fluid physics, and combustion science. The OSSA focus is on progressive science investigations, many requiring hands-on scientist involvement using sophisticated experiment hardware. OSSA science utilization planning for the Freedom Station is firmly established. For this presentation, this planning is discussed in three general areas: OSSA goals and overall approach, the current and on-going program, and plans for space station utilization. In the first area, OSSA addresses its overall approach to space science research, its commitment to transition to Space Station Freedom, and its top-level strategy for the utilization of Freedom. The current and on-going program is next discussed, focusing on the various Spacelab series of missions which are providing the stepping-stones to Space Station Freedom. Selected science results from SLS-1 and USML-1 are cited which underline the value of properly outfitted laboratories in space in which crew-intensive experiment interactions are possible. The presentation is concluded with a discussion of top-level goals and strategies for utilizing the Freedom Station by OSSA's Life Sciences Division and its Microgravity Science and Applications Division.

  15. United States Military in Central Asia: Beyond Operation Enduring Freedom

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-10-23

    Malinowski , advocacy director for Human Rights Watch, stated, “the United States is most effective in promoting liberty around the world when people...26 U.S. President, The National Security Strategy of the United States of America, page? 27 Thomas Malinowski , “Testimony

  16. Operational Implications of Sovereignty and Freedom of Navigation in Space

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-04-01

    during the periods of land and gold rushes .1 As with the U.S. land and gold rushes , there are military advantages to be had with space based C2, C4, ISR...we call this the "code of conduct," but either way, it means the same thing œ we want to avoid the Wild West, or gold rush mentality œ we want to

  17. Military Entomology in Operation Enduring Freedom, 2010-2011

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-01-01

    that units across theater were properly collecting and submitting vectors for testing. Vector-borne Diseases Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) remains a...primarily located in Regional Command South and Regional Command North. Cu- taneous leishmaniasis in Afghanistan may be zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis ...caused by Leishmania major (Friedlin), or anthroponotic cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL), caused by L. tropica (Wright). The majority of CL cases in 2010

  18. Unemployment in Iraqi refugees: The interaction of pre and post-displacement trauma.

    PubMed

    Wright, A Michelle; Dhalimi, Abir; Lumley, Mark A; Jamil, Hikmet; Pole, Nnamdi; Arnetz, Judith E; Arnetz, Bengt B

    2016-12-01

    Previous refugee research has been unable to link pre-displacement trauma with unemployment in the host country. The current study assessed the role of pre-displacement trauma, post-displacement trauma, and the interaction of both trauma types to prospectively examine unemployment in a random sample of newly-arrived Iraqi refugees. Participants (N = 286) were interviewed three times over the first two years post-arrival. Refugees were assessed for pre-displacement trauma exposure, post-displacement trauma exposure, a history of unemployment in the country of origin and host country, and symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression. Analyses found that neither pre-displacement nor post-displacement trauma independently predicted unemployment 2 years post-arrival; however, the interaction of pre and post-displacement trauma predicted 2-year unemployment. Refugees with high levels of both pre and post-displacement trauma had a 91% predicted probability of unemployment, whereas those with low levels of both traumas had a 20% predicted probability. This interaction remained significant after controlling for sociodemographic variables and mental health upon arrival to the US. Resettlement agencies and community organizations should consider the interactive effect of encountering additional trauma after escaping the hardships of the refugee's country of origin.

  19. Reporting questionnaire for children as a screening instrument for child mental health problems in Iraqi Kurdistan.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Abdulbaghi; Abdul-Majeed, Anas M; Siddiq, Aras A; Jabar, Fatima; Qahar, Jabar; Rasheed, Jihan; von Knorring, Anne-Liis

    2007-03-01

    To identify child mental health problems in a mid-sized to large city in Iraqi Kurdistan, the Reporting Questionnaire for Children (RQC), followed by the Child Behaviour Checklist (CBCL) and the Post-traumatic Stress Symptom Checklist for Children (PTSS-C), were administered in interview form to the caregivers of 806 school-aged children. To cover different categories of children, four samples were randomly selected from among the general population (n = 201), orphans (n = 241), primary medical care patients (n = 199), and hospital patients (n = 165). The RQC revealed satisfactory validity against a deviant CBCL cut-off. The screening capacity of the RQC was further supported by its similarity to the CBCL in distribution of problem scores among the four samples and its positive correlation with the CBCL, but not with the trauma-related PTSS-C. Although the general population showed lower problem scores than the orphans and the two clinical samples, problem scores in all instruments were considerably higher than those reported from other societies. The RQC seems to be useful as a first-stage screening instrument for child mental health problems in Kurdistan.

  20. Using simulation and data envelopment analysis to evaluate Iraqi regions in producing strategic crops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaloob, Ibrahim Z.; Ramli, Razamin; Nawawi, Mohd Kamal Mohd

    2014-12-01

    Productivity of the agriculture sector in Iraq has yet to reach an acceptable level. In this paper, we introduce a practical method to help manage Iraqi agriculture sector to control resources and increase production to meet the modern century requirements of good crops. These important resources are identified as water, fertilizer, natural fertilizer, pesticides and labour. The current agricultural patterns in Iraq affect the strategic crops cultivation in the country and lessen agricultural production to some life-threatening limits. Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA), which is a non-parametric tool, is proposed to identify solutions that can maximize farmers' net benefit making an optimal use of the five resources. This model also improves optimal mix of the resources. In reference to the production of each one of the three strategic crops in Iraq, the DEA model is used to find the efficiency of one region among four others in its agriculture sector, with the main problem being the constraint in the number of lands available in the situation. Hence, the simulation technique is used to generate additional regions to the four main regions adopted. This is to resolve the constriction of DEA when the decision making unit is less than the number of variables (outputs and inputs). The result is expected to show the efficiency of each of the evaluated region.

  1. Community violence and mental health among Iraqi women, a population-based study

    PubMed Central

    Al-Nuaimi, Maha A.

    2013-01-01

    Background: The recent events in Iraq following the 2003 war render Iraq as a country with a high level of all types of violence. Exposure to violence, as a witness or a victim, is related to a number of longer term emotional, behavioral and social problems. Objectives: To investigate the impact of witnessing and experiencing community violence and tragedy as a factor contributing to mental health disorders among Iraqi women in the city of Mosul. Methods: A population-based cross-sectional study of 500 women were selected by a multi-stage random sampling technique. Four catchment areas of primary health centers of Mosul city were selected. Community violence with nine commonly associated social, economic, emotional, physical and mental health symptoms were recorded by questionnaire. Results: The study revealed that all the participating women had a history of exposure to at least one type of community violence within the last twelve months. A mainstream consequence of exposure to community violence was transportation difficulties, loss of husband's job, and family displacement. More than half of the women were classified as having severe emotional disturbances that may evolve to mental health problems in future. Conclusion: Women are bearing the consequences of the violence in Iraq. National commitment and action needs to be taken to curb the violence which is hugely affecting the people of Iraq. Treatment programs targeted at promoting emotional resilience may be effective at preventing mental health problems. PMID:25003060

  2. Geological evolution of the Iraqi Mesopotamia Foredeep, inner platform and near surroundings of the Arabian Plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sissakian, Varoujan K.

    2013-08-01

    The Iraqi territory could be divided into four main tectonic zones; each one has its own characteristics concerning type of the rocks, their age, thickness and structural evolution. These four zones are: (1) Inner Platform (stable shelf), (2) Outer Platform (unstable shelf), (3) Shalair Zone (Terrain), and (4) Zagros Suture Zone. The first two zones of the Arabian Plate lack any kind of metamorphism and volcanism. The Iraqi territory is located in the extreme northeastern part of the Arabian Plate, which is colliding with the Eurasian (Iranian) Plate. This collision has developed a foreland basin that includes: (1) Imbricate Zone, (2) High Folded Zone, (3) Low Folded Zone and (4) Mesopotamia Foredeep. The Mesopotamia Foredeep, in Iraq includes the Mesopotamia Plain and the Jazira Plain; it is less tectonically disturbed as compared to the Imbricate, High Folded and Low Folded Zones. Quaternary alluvial sediments of the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers and their tributaries as well as distributaries cover the central and southeastern parts of the Foredeep totally; it is called the Mesopotamian Flood Plain. The extension of the Mesopotamia Plain towards northwest however, is called the Jazira Plain, which is covered by Miocene rocks. The Mesopotamia Foredeep is represented by thick sedimentary sequence, which thickens northwestwards including synrift sediments; especially of Late Cretaceous age, whereas on surface the Quaternary sediments thicken southeastwards. The depth of the basement also changes from 8 km, in the west to 14 km, in the Iraqi-Iranian boarders towards southeast. The anticlinal structures have N-S trend, in the extreme southern part of the Mesopotamia Foredeep and extends northwards until the Latitude 32°N, within the Jazira Plain, there they change their trends to NW-SE, and then to E-W trend. The Mesozoic sequence is almost without any significant break, with increase in thickness from the west to the east, attaining 5 km. The sequence forms the main

  3. Molar-incisor hypomineralisation: prevalence and defect characteristics in Iraqi children.

    PubMed

    Ghanim, Aghareed; Morgan, Michael; Mariño, Rodrigo; Bailey, Denise; Manton, David

    2011-11-01

    BACKGROUND.  Little prevalence data relating to molar incisor hypomineralisation (MIH) exist for Middle East populations. AIM.  To evaluate the prevalence and the clinical features of MIH in school-aged children residing in Mosul City, Iraq. DESIGN.  A cluster sample of 823 7- to 9-year-old children had their first permanent molars and incisors (index teeth) evaluated using the European Academy of Paediatric Dentistry (EAPD) criteria for MIH. The examinations were conducted at schools by a calibrated examiner. RESULTS.  Of the children examined, 177 (21.5%) had hypomineralisation defects in at least one index tooth, 153 (18.6%) had at least one affected first molar or first molars and incisors and were considered as having MIH. The most commonly affected teeth were maxillary molars. Demarcated creamy white opacities were the most frequent lesion type. Dental restorations and tooth extraction because of MIH were uncommon. Children with three or more affected teeth were 3.7 times more likely to have enamel breakdown when compared with those children having only one or two affected teeth. CONCLUSIONS.  Molar incisor hypomineralisation was common amongst Iraqi children. Demarcated opacities were more prevalent than breakdown. The severity of the lesions increased with the number of affected teeth. The more severe the defect, the greater the involved tooth surface area.

  4. Risk factors in the occurrence of molar-incisor hypomineralization amongst a group of Iraqi children.

    PubMed

    Ghanim, Aghareed; Manton, David; Bailey, Denise; Mariño, Rodrigo; Morgan, Michael

    2013-05-01

    BACKGROUND.  Despite the worldwide increasing interest in the prevalence studies of molar-incisor hypomineralization (MIH), there is still insufficient evidence to verify the aetiological factors of this condition. AIMS.  To investigate risk factors involved in the development of MIH in a group of school-aged Iraqi children. DESIGN.  Seven- to nine-year-old school children (823 of 1000 eligible, response rate of 82.3%) had their first permanent molars and incisors evaluated using the European Academy of Paediatric Dentistry evaluation criteria for MIH. Mothers completed a medical history questionnaire-based interview performed in the schools by a trained examiner. RESULTS.  For children with MIH, 6% reported no relevant medical history; the remaining 94% reported various medical conditions putatively associated with MIH compared with 70% for the non-affected group. Post-natal medical conditions (33.3%) were most frequently reported. When data were split into the possible risk effect groups, maternal psychological stress (OR, 3.24), frequent exposure to ultrasonic scans during the last gestational trimester (OR, 2.51) and birth order as a fourth sibling or later (OR, 3.17 and 5.73, respectively) were previously unreported significant risk factors and postulated as contributing to, or causing the defect. CONCLUSIONS.  Children with MIH had experienced a greater number of medical conditions than their unaffected peers with no single health event identified as a risk factor.

  5. Demographic transition and potential for development: the case of Iraqi Kurdistan.

    PubMed

    Al-Hadithi, T S; Shabila, N R; Al-Tawil, N G; Othman, S M

    2010-10-01

    The effect of population growth and demographic transitionon economic developmenthas been well documented. The population growth in Iraqi Kurdistan is passing through a critical stage of demographic transition. It is, in fact, extremely likely that the region will fail to efficiently move through the demographic transition and will experience a long period in the demographic trap, i.e. the population will grow steadily and rapidly owing to the high fertility and low mortality rates. With correct government policies in terms of promoting family planning programmes, should the political context allow, demographic transition can pass smoothly through this critical stage. Furthermore, if demographic transition in Kurdistan moves to the next stage, it will provide an important window of opportunity for economic development. Proper exploitation of this demographic window through investment in education, on-the-job training and health services, in addition to proper and appropriate exploitation of economic resources and suitable and productive use of the labour force, will result in significant economic development over the next few decades.

  6. Genotyping of IL-4 −590 (C>T) Gene in Iraqi Asthma Patients

    PubMed Central

    Jaber, Saddam H.

    2017-01-01

    This study is the first investigation in Iraq dealing with genotyping of IL-4 −590 (C>T) gene, especially in Iraqi patients with asthma. We studied forty-eight blood samples collected from patients with asthma and compared with age-matched 25 healthy individuals as controls. The polymorphism results of IL-4 −590 (C>T) gene by using amplification refractory mutation system (ARMS-PCR) showed the presence of C and T alleles and three genotypes (CC, CT, and TT). Interestingly the frequency of C allele and CC genotype was higher in patients with asthma in comparison with the same allele and genotype in control (P 1 × 10−6). This increase was associated with an increased risk factor of asthma (odds ratio [OR] 9.21; 95% confidence interval [CI] 3.58–23.71). Genotypes analysis by using Hardy-Weinberg distribution showed no significant differences between patients with asthma and healthy subjects. In conclusion, the increasing risk of asthma was associated with C allele and the CC genotype and these are revealed as etiological fraction with risk by having this disease, while the T allele percentage ratio in controls was higher when it is compared with asthma patients suggesting that these alleles have a protective effect (preventive fraction). PMID:28386156

  7. Freedom and the Growth of an Ethical Dimension in Journalism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merrill, John C.

    To examine what freedom is and how it, in its many manifestations, may best be used to thrust journalism into more productive, progressive, and moral directions, this paper surveys the concepts of freedom and press freedom in Western thought from the eighteenth century to the present. After surveying the evolution of the concept of freedom,…

  8. Recent progress in utilization planning for Space Station Freedom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bartoe, John-David F.; Thiringer, Peter S.

    1991-01-01

    The progress made in utilization planning for the redesigned Space Station Freedom (SSF) concept is described. Consideration is given to the SSF user capabilities, the strategic planning process, the strategic planning organizations, and the Consolidated Operations and Utilization Plan (COUP, which will be released in January 1993) as well as to the COUP development process and implementation. The process by which the COUP will be produced was exercised in the international Multilateral Strategic and Tactical Integration Process (MUSTIP) simulation. The paper describes the MUSTIP simulation and its activities along with MUSTIP findings and recommendations.

  9. Automation of vehicle processing at Space Station Freedom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vargo, Rick; Sklar, Mike; Wegerif, Dan

    1991-02-01

    A methodology for applying the Kennedy Space Center vehicle processing experience to similar operations at Space Station Freedom is described. First, the required on-orbit processing tasks are identified. These tasks are then evaluated for automation suitability, and robotic manipulator and artificial intelligence technologies are investigated to automate selected physical and cognitive tasks. Effects on processing times, extra-vehicular activity savings, and required resources for incorporating these automation enhancements are identified. Results of the following case studies are included: Phobos Gateway Vehicle On-Orbit Assembly and Launch, Lunar Evolution Vehicle On-Orbit Refurbishment, and Mars Mission Vehicle On-Orbit Assembly and Launch.

  10. Six degrees of freedom vibration isolation using electromagnetic suspension

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Sang-Il; Debra, Daniel B.; Michelson, Peter F.; Taber, Robert C.; Price, John C.

    1993-01-01

    Experimental data are presented for modeling an electromagnet. Control laws are considered with and without flux feedback and with position and orientation information of the suspended body. Base motion and sensor noise are the principal disturbances. Proper selection of the geometrical operating point minimizes the passive coupling above the bandwidth of the control and filtering can attenuate the high frequency content of sensor noise. Six electromagnets are arranged in a configuration which optimizes the load support and provides control over all six degrees of freedom of the suspended body. The design is based on experimental data generated with a specially designed test facility. Application for suspension of a gravity wave antenna is discussed.

  11. Developing an Army Strategy for Building Partner Capacity for Stability Operations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    was reissued as Department of Defense Instruction 3000.05, Stability Operations, September 16, 2009. The new instruction updates policy and assigns... policy and academic emphasis on the impact of U.S. and coalition efforts to train, assist, and advise Iraqi and Afghani security forces. However...Operations: roles, Missions, and Capabilities 23 other U.S. government foreign policies and programs that may have an impact on the security sector

  12. Lucrative Targets: The U.S. Air Force in the Kuwaiti Theater of Operations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-01-01

    sti- 7 fling. With the temperatures reaching daily highs of 115 to 120 degrees Fahren - heit, medics advised the American troops to drink at least six...defense operations were autonomous .7 Overwhelmed by these initial Coalition attacks, the Iraqi air defenses never regained their effectiveness. This was...contingency plans for continuing operations after their air defense system was attacked and its sub- ordinate elements were rendered autonomous . One KTO

  13. The Transfer Veteran Student Experience: Exploring College Choice, Transition, and Collegiate Experiences of Veterans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunklin, Shaftone B.

    2012-01-01

    The tragic series of events that took place on September 11, 2001, changed the course of this nation and became the catalyst for wars that have spanned for more than a decade. As a result, over 2 million veterans have been deployed in support of Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF), Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF), and Operation New Dawn. In 2008,…

  14. Privately Contracted Military Firms in the Twenty-First Century: Reclassifying, Redefining, and Reforming the Way We Fight

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-06-01

    AND THE CREATION OF THE PIB ............................................................................90 VII. SUMMARY AND FINAL THOUGHTS...OE—Operational Environment OEF—Operation Enduring Freedom OIF—Operation Iraqi Freedom PCMF—Privately Contracted Military Firm PIB ––Public...previous chapter), that recommending such an entity is easy, seeing it to fruition, highly difficult. A public international body ( PIB ) would

  15. Integrative Leadership in Higher Education: Meeting the Needs of Student Veterans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Earls, Jamie Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Since the attacks on September 11, 2001, over two million men and women have deployed as part of Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF), Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF), and Operation New Dawn (OND). In 2011 there were more than half a million veterans of OEF/OIF enrolled in college. Soldiers face many issues when returning home from war. This qualitative…

  16. Religious Freedom in the World: A Global Comparative Survey Sponsored by Freedom House.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Educator, 2001

    2001-01-01

    Summarizes findings from a report on religious freedom around the world created by a multidisciplinary, multi-religious group of international scholars, explaining that this basic human right is under assault in many areas. Presents descriptions of religious freedom in Russia, India, North Korea, and Sudan. A chart describes and rates religious…

  17. Institutional Academic Freedom vs. Faculty Academic Freedom in Public Colleges and Universities: A Dubious Dichotomy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hiers, Richard H.

    2002-01-01

    Analyzes the origins of recent federal appellate decisions' divergence from the Supreme Court's identification of teachers' or faculty's academic freedom as "a special concern of the First Amendment." Suggests ways in which academic freedom might better be accorded its rightful importance within the framework of current Supreme Court…

  18. Impact of interpretation on associative freedom.

    PubMed

    Spence, D P; Dahl, H; Jones, E E

    1993-06-01

    Seventy hours from the psychoanalytic case of Mrs. C, covering the full course of treatment, were scored for associative freedom, number of interventions, and a variety of clinical phenomena such as clarifications, interpretations, different forms of resistance, transference manifestations, and the like. Associative freedom significantly increased over the course of treatment and was significantly related to the number of analyst interventions per hour. The relationship was particularly strong in the latter stages of treatment. Three specific types of interventions were found to increase associative freedom in the latter stages of treatment. The effect of each type was found to influence both the session containing the interpretation and the next 3 sessions. This carryover effect was specific to the latter stages of the analysis.

  19. AIDS and the future of reproductive freedom.

    PubMed

    Bayer, Ronald

    1990-01-01

    The specter of pediatric AIDS fundamentally challenges elements of the liberal ideological basis of women's reproductive freedom. Many public health officials hold that preventing transmission of HIV from mother to fetus requires efforts to discourage pregnancy by infected women. For over two decades, however, genetic counselors, feminists, and medical ethicists have stressed the importance of nondirective counseling in the context of reproductive choice. The question now confronted by American society is whether it will be possible to frame an ideology of reproductive choice that recognizes the limits of liberal individualism, while preserving the basic features of reproductive freedom.

  20. Lens positioner with five degrees of freedom

    DOEpatents

    Kobierecki, Marian W.; Rienecker, Jr., Frederick

    1978-01-01

    A device for positioning lenses precisely with five degrees of freedom (three translations and two angular rotations). The unique features of the device are its compact design, large clear aperture, and high degree of positioning accuracy combined with five degrees of freedom in axis motion. Thus, the device provides precision and flexibility in positioning of optical components. BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION The invention described herein was made in the course of, or under, Contract No. AT(29-1)-1183, with the United States Energy Research and Development Administration.