Science.gov

Sample records for operational diagnostics methods

  1. Development of wide area environment accelerator operation and diagnostics method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uchiyama, Akito; Furukawa, Kazuro

    2015-08-01

    Remote operation and diagnostic systems for particle accelerators have been developed for beam operation and maintenance in various situations. Even though fully remote experiments are not necessary, the remote diagnosis and maintenance of the accelerator is required. Considering remote-operation operator interfaces (OPIs), the use of standard protocols such as the hypertext transfer protocol (HTTP) is advantageous, because system-dependent protocols are unnecessary between the remote client and the on-site server. Here, we have developed a client system based on WebSocket, which is a new protocol provided by the Internet Engineering Task Force for Web-based systems, as a next-generation Web-based OPI using the Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System Channel Access protocol. As a result of this implementation, WebSocket-based client systems have become available for remote operation. Also, as regards practical application, the remote operation of an accelerator via a wide area network (WAN) faces a number of challenges, e.g., the accelerator has both experimental device and radiation generator characteristics. Any error in remote control system operation could result in an immediate breakdown. Therefore, we propose the implementation of an operator intervention system for remote accelerator diagnostics and support that can obviate any differences between the local control room and remote locations. Here, remote-operation Web-based OPIs, which resolve security issues, are developed.

  2. Assessment of diagnostic methods for determining degradation of motor-operated valves

    SciTech Connect

    Haynes, H.D. ); Farmer, W.S. )

    1992-01-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has carried out a comprehensive aging assessment of motor-operated valves (MOVs) in support of the Nuclear Plant Aging Research (NPAR) program. This paper provides a summary of the ORNL MOV aging assessment with emphasis on the identification, evaluation, and application of MOV monitoring methods and techniques. The diagnostic information available from any MOV measurable parameters was evaluated by ORNL using MOVs that were mounted on test stands. Those tests led to the conclusion that the single most informative MOV measurable parameter was also the one which was most easily acquired, namely the motor current. Motor current signature analysis (MCSA) was found to provide detailed information related to the condition of the motor, motor operator, and valve across a wide range of levels. As part of the MOV aging assessment, several tests were carried out by ORNL on MOVs having implanted defects and degradations. Tests were also performed on many MOVs located within a nuclear power plant. In addition, ORNL participated in the Gate Valve Flow Interruption Blowdown Test program carried out at Wyle Laboratories in Huntsville, Alabama. Results from all of these tests are summarized in this paper and several selected examples are given. Other areas covered in this paper include descriptions of relevant regulatory issues and activities, other related diagnostics research at ORNL, and interactions ORNL has had with outside organizations for the purpose of disseminating research results.

  3. Assessment of diagnostic methods for determining degradation of motor-operated valves

    SciTech Connect

    Haynes, H.D.; Farmer, W.S.

    1992-05-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has carried out a comprehensive aging assessment of motor-operated valves (MOVs) in support of the Nuclear Plant Aging Research (NPAR) program. This paper provides a summary of the ORNL MOV aging assessment with emphasis on the identification, evaluation, and application of MOV monitoring methods and techniques. The diagnostic information available from any MOV measurable parameters was evaluated by ORNL using MOVs that were mounted on test stands. Those tests led to the conclusion that the single most informative MOV measurable parameter was also the one which was most easily acquired, namely the motor current. Motor current signature analysis (MCSA) was found to provide detailed information related to the condition of the motor, motor operator, and valve across a wide range of levels. As part of the MOV aging assessment, several tests were carried out by ORNL on MOVs having implanted defects and degradations. Tests were also performed on many MOVs located within a nuclear power plant. In addition, ORNL participated in the Gate Valve Flow Interruption Blowdown Test program carried out at Wyle Laboratories in Huntsville, Alabama. Results from all of these tests are summarized in this paper and several selected examples are given. Other areas covered in this paper include descriptions of relevant regulatory issues and activities, other related diagnostics research at ORNL, and interactions ORNL has had with outside organizations for the purpose of disseminating research results.

  4. Using the Attribute Hierarchy Method to Make Diagnostic Inferences about Examinees' Knowledge and Skills in Mathematics: An Operational Implementation of Cognitive Diagnostic Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gierl, Mark J.; Alves, Cecilia; Majeau, Renate Taylor

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to apply the attribute hierarchy method in an operational diagnostic mathematics program at Grades 3 and 6 to promote cognitive inferences about students' problem-solving skills. The attribute hierarchy method is a psychometric procedure for classifying examinees' test item responses into a set of structured attribute…

  5. First Wall and Operational Diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    Lasnier, C; Allen, S; Boedo, J; Groth, M; Brooks, N; McLean, A; LaBombard, B; Sharpe, J; Skinner, C; Whyte, D; Rudakov, D; West, W; Wong, C

    2006-06-19

    In this chapter we review numerous diagnostics capable of measurements at or near the first wall, many of which contribute information useful for safe operation of a tokamak. There are sections discussing infrared cameras, visible and VUV cameras, pressure gauges and RGAs, Langmuir probes, thermocouples, and erosion and deposition measurements by insertable probes and quartz microbalance. Also discussed are dust measurements by electrostatic detectors, laser scattering, visible and IR cameras, and manual collection of samples after machine opening. In each case the diagnostic is discussed with a view toward application to a burning plasma machine such as ITER.

  6. Advanced valve motor operator diagnostic system

    SciTech Connect

    Thibault, C.

    1989-01-01

    A brief summary of the current use of diagnostic applications to motor-operated valves (MOVs) to satisfy the requirements of IE Bulletin 85-03, IE 85-03 (Supplement 1), and preventive maintenance applications is presented in this paper. This paper explains a new system for diagnostics, signature analysis, and direct measurement of actual load on MOV in the closed direction. This advanced valve motor operator diagnostic system (AVMODS) system comprises two complementary segments: (1) valve motor operator diagnostic system (V-MODS) and (2) motor current signature analysis (MCSA). AVMODS technical considerations regarding V-MODS and MCSA are discussed.

  7. Development of a Method for Operational Vibration Diagnostics of a Combustion Chamber GPA-C-16C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Razboinikov, A. A.; Vashchilin, V. V.

    2016-10-01

    The paper identifies the main causes of the GCU combustion chamber vibration, as well as emerging for this reason failures and defects. It describes the main elements of the developed method for operative diagnosing the GCU combustion chamber on vibration signals in real time. The expected efficiency of the implementation of this method is described.

  8. [Novel methods for dementia diagnostics].

    PubMed

    Wiltfang, J

    2015-04-01

    Novel diagnostic methods, such as cerebrospinal fluid-based neurochemical dementia diagnostics (CSF-NDD) and [18F] amyloid positron emission tomography (PET) are meanwhile recommended for specific indications by international guidelines for the improved early and differential diagnostics of multigenic (sporadic) Alzheimer's dementia (AD). In the case of CSF-NDD the German neuropsychiatric guidelines have already been validated on the S3 level of evidence (http://www.DGPPN.de) and the additional consideration of [18F] amyloid-PET in the current update of the guidelines is to be expected. By means of CSF-NDD and/or [18F] amyloid-PET a predictive diagnosis of incipient (preclinical) AD is also possible for patients at high risk for AD who are in prodromal stages, such as mild cognitive impairment (MCI). As accompanying (secondary) preventive therapy of AD cannot be offered a predictive molecular dementia diagnostics is not recommended by the German neuropsychiatric dementia guidelines (http://www.DGPPN.de). However, novel diagnostic approaches, which offer molecular positive diagnostics of AD have already gained high relevance in therapy research as they allow promising preventive treatment avenues to be validated directly in the clinical trial. Moreover, future blood-based dementia diagnostics by means of multiplex assays is becoming increasingly more feasible; however, so far corresponding proteomic or epigenetic assays could not be consistently validated in independent studies.

  9. Standing footprint diagnostic method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Y. F.; Fan, Y. B.; Li, Z. Y.; Newman, T.; Lv, C. S.; Fan, Y. Z.

    2013-10-01

    Center of pressure is commonly used to evaluate standing balance. Even though it is incomplete, no better evaluation method has been presented. We designed our experiment with three standing postures: standing with feet together, standing with feet shoulder width apart, and standing with feet slightly wider than shoulder width. Our platform-based pressure system collected the instantaneous plantar pressure (standing footprint). A physical quantity of instantaneous standing footprint principal axis was defined, and it was used to construct an index to evaluate standing balance. Comparison between results from our newly established index and those from the center of pressure index to evaluate the stability of different standing postures revealed that the standing footprint principal axis index could better respond to the standing posture change than the existing one. Analysis indicated that the insensitive response to the relative position between feet and to the standing posture change from the center of pressure could be better detected by the standing footprint principal axis index. This predicts a wide application of standing footprint principal axis index when evaluating standing balance.

  10. Developing a Method for Operative Diagnostics and Appraisal of Working Capacity of a Combustion Chamber DG-90

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Razboinikov, A. A.; Vashchilin, V. V.

    2016-10-01

    In the paper the problematics of gas transport system, main factors of an urgency of the development are described. Stages of a proposed reconstruction of combustion chamber DG-90 are introduced. Basic elements of the elaborated method for appraisal of risks of an emergency situation occurrence are given. The expected efficiency from implementation of the produced method is described.

  11. Dounreay Shuffler diagnostic software operations manual

    SciTech Connect

    Eccleston, G.W.; Stuewe, B.; Klosterbuer, S.; Van Lyssel, T.

    1985-07-01

    This operations manual describes the test software for the Dounreay Shuffler. The Shuffler is an assay system, controlled by a Commodore PET computer, that measures the plutonium content in leached hulls at the fuel reprocessing plant in Dounreay, Scotland. The Shuffler contains a /sup 252/Cf neutron source that is moved between storage and irradiation locations to obtain measurement data. A stepping motor control (SMC) module operates the Shuffler and accepts commands from the PET to move the source. This manual briefly describes the Shuffler and provides details on running and using the diagnostic software program. The communications protocol for message transmittal between the PET and SMC is defined and a detailed example of message sending is presented in an appendix.

  12. A Three-Dimensional Receiver Operator Characteristic Surface Diagnostic Metric

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, Donald L.

    2011-01-01

    Receiver Operator Characteristic (ROC) curves are commonly applied as metrics for quantifying the performance of binary fault detection systems. An ROC curve provides a visual representation of a detection system s True Positive Rate versus False Positive Rate sensitivity as the detection threshold is varied. The area under the curve provides a measure of fault detection performance independent of the applied detection threshold. While the standard ROC curve is well suited for quantifying binary fault detection performance, it is not suitable for quantifying the classification performance of multi-fault classification problems. Furthermore, it does not provide a measure of diagnostic latency. To address these shortcomings, a novel three-dimensional receiver operator characteristic (3D ROC) surface metric has been developed. This is done by generating and applying two separate curves: the standard ROC curve reflecting fault detection performance, and a second curve reflecting fault classification performance. A third dimension, diagnostic latency, is added giving rise to 3D ROC surfaces. Applying numerical integration techniques, the volumes under and between the surfaces are calculated to produce metrics of the diagnostic system s detection and classification performance. This paper will describe the 3D ROC surface metric in detail, and present an example of its application for quantifying the performance of aircraft engine gas path diagnostic methods. Metric limitations and potential enhancements are also discussed

  13. Mission Risk Diagnostic (MRD) Method Description

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-02-01

    Mission Risk Diagnostic ( MRD ) Method Description Christopher Alberts Audrey Dorofee February 2012 TECHNICAL NOTE CMU/SEI-2012-TN-005...Analyzing Risk 13 3.1 Tactical Risk Analysis 14 3.2 Mission Risk Analysis 15 4 Mission Risk Diagnostic ( MRD ) Concepts 18 4.1 Identify Mission and...4.2.3 Tailoring an Existing Set of Drivers 25 4.3 Analyze Drivers 26 5 Mission Risk Diagnostic ( MRD ) Method 32 5.1 MRD Structure 34 5.2 Prepare

  14. Application of diagnostics to determine operational readiness of aged motor-operated valves

    SciTech Connect

    Eissenberg, D.M.

    1987-06-29

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has been carrying out an aging assessment of motor-operated valves (MOVs) with the primary objective of recommending diagnostic methods for detecting and trending aging. As a result of experimental investigations at ORNL, it was discovered that the motor current during a valve stroke was a very useful diagnostic parameter for detecting and trending many MOV drive train load variations. The motor current signatures were analyzed at four levels: mean value for a stroke, gross trends during a stroke, transients, and noise frequency spectra. Examples illustrating the use of this technique are presented. The use of motor current signature analysis was also shown to apply to other electric motor driven equipment. Future work includes developing a data base of MOV diagnostics, including criteria for determining the extent of degradation and application of the technique to other LWR motor driven safety equipment.

  15. Application of diagnostics to determine motor-operated valve operational readiness

    SciTech Connect

    Eissenberg, D.M.

    1986-01-01

    ORNL has been carrying out an aging assessment of motor-operated valves (MOVs) with the primary objective of recommending diagnostic methods for detecting and trending aging. As a result of experimental investigations at ORNL, it was discovered that the motor current during a valve stroke was a very useful diagnostic parameter for detecting and trending many MOV drive train load variations. The motor curent signatures were analyzed at four levels: mean value for a stroke, gross trends during a stroke, transients, and noise frequency spectra. Examples illustrating the use of this technique are presented. The use of motor current signature analysis was also shown to apply to other electric motor driven equipment. Future work includes developing a data base of MOV diagnostics, including criteria for determining the extent of degradation and application of the technique to other LWR motor driven safety equipment.

  16. Motor-operated valve testing and diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    Kuehn, S.E.

    1994-01-01

    This article addresses changes in testing requirements for nuclear power plant pumps and valves to assess the operational readiness of these components. The topics of the article include an overview of the scope of the requirements, NRC generic guidance, GL 89-10 programs, test quality, motor current signature analysis, operating principles, safety and availability.

  17. Tomographic methods in flow diagnostics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Decker, Arthur J.

    1993-01-01

    This report presents a viewpoint of tomography that should be well adapted to currently available optical measurement technology as well as the needs of computational and experimental fluid dynamists. The goals in mind are to record data with the fastest optical array sensors; process the data with the fastest parallel processing technology available for small computers; and generate results for both experimental and theoretical data. An in-depth example treats interferometric data as it might be recorded in an aeronautics test facility, but the results are applicable whenever fluid properties are to be measured or applied from projections of those properties. The paper discusses both computed and neural net calibration tomography. The report also contains an overview of key definitions and computational methods, key references, computational problems such as ill-posedness, artifacts, missing data, and some possible and current research topics.

  18. Cryptosporidiosis: multiattribute evaluation of six diagnostic methods.

    PubMed Central

    MacPherson, D W; McQueen, R

    1993-01-01

    Six diagnostic methods (Giemsa staining, Ziehl-Neelsen staining, auramine-rhodamine staining, Sheather's sugar flotation, an indirect immunofluorescence procedure, and a modified concentration-sugar flotation method) for the detection of Cryptosporidium spp. in stool specimens were compared on the following attributes: diagnostic yield, cost to perform each test, ease of handling, and ability to process large numbers of specimens for screening purposes by batching. A rank ordering from least desirable to most desirable was then established for each method by using the study attributes. The process of decision analysis with respect to the laboratory diagnosis of cryptosporidiosis is discussed through the application of multiattribute utility theory to the rank ordering of the study criteria. Within a specific health care setting, a diagnostic facility will be able to calculate its own utility scores for our study attributes. Multiattribute evaluation and analysis are potentially powerful tools in the allocation of resources in the laboratory. PMID:8432802

  19. Trends in Laboratory Diagnostic Methods in Periodontology.

    PubMed

    Bolerázska, Beáta; Mareková, Mária; Markovská, Neda

    2016-01-01

    This work presents a summary of current knowledge on the laboratory diagnosis of periodontitis. It focuses on the theoretical foundations and is supplemented with new knowledge. It subsequently describes specifically the laboratory diagnosis methods of periodontitis: the protein expression of inflammation, oral microbiology and molecular diagnostics. Periodontitis is a serious disease worldwide and its confirmed association with systemic diseases means its severity is increasing. Its laboratory diagnosis has the potential to rise to the level of clinical and diagnostic imaging. The transfer of diagnostic methods from laboratory to clinical use is increasingly used in the prevention and monitoring of the exacerbation and treatment of periodontal disease, as well as of its impact on systemic disease.

  20. JET diagnostic enhancements in preparation for DT operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Figueiredo, J.; Murari, A.; Perez Von Thun, C.; Marocco, D.; Tardocchi, M.; Belli, F.; García Muñoz, M.; Silva, A.; Soare, S.; Craciunescu, T.; Santala, M.; Blanchard, P.; Balboa, I.; Hawkes, N.

    2016-11-01

    In order to complete the exploitation of the JET ITER-like Wall and to take full benefit from deuterium-tritium experiments on JET, a set of diagnostic system refurbishments or upgrades is in progress. These diagnostic enhancements focus mainly on neutron, gamma, fast ions, instabilities, and operations support. These efforts intend to provide better spatial, temporal, and energy resolution while increasing measurement coverage. Also previously non-existing capabilities, such as Doppler reflectometry is now available for scientific exploitation. Guaranteeing diagnostic reliability and consistency during the expected DT conditions is also a critical objective of the work and systems being implemented. An overview of status and scope of the ongoing projects is presented.

  1. Non-invasive diagnostic methods in dentistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Todea, Carmen

    2016-03-01

    The paper, will present the most important non-invasive methods for diagnostic, in different fields of dentistry. Moreover, the laser-based methods will be emphasis. In orthodontics, 3D laser scanners are increasingly being used to establish database for normative population and cross-sectional growth changes but also to asses clinical outcomes in orthognatic surgical and non-surgical treatments. In prevention the main methods for diagnostic of demineralization and caries detection in early stages are represented by laser fluorescence - Quantitative Light Florescence (QLF); DiagnoDent-system-655nm; FOTI-Fiberoptic transillumination; DIFOTI-Digital Imaging Fiberoptic transillumination; and Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT). In odontology, Laser Doppler Flowmetry (LDF) is a noninvasive real time method used for determining the tooth vitality by monitoring the pulp microcirculation in traumatized teeth, fractured teeth, and teeth undergoing different conservative treatments. In periodontology, recently study shows the ability of LDF to evaluate the health of gingival tissue in periodontal tissue diseases but also after different periodontal treatments.

  2. Method of azimuthally stable Mueller-matrix diagnostics of blood plasma polycrystalline films in cancer diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ushenko, Yu. A.; Prysyazhnyuk, V. P.; Gavrylyak, M. S.; Gorsky, M. P.; Bachinskiy, V. T.; Vanchuliak, O. Ya.

    2015-02-01

    A new information optical technique of diagnostics of the structure of polycrystalline films of blood plasma is proposed. The model of Mueller-matrix description of mechanisms of optical anisotropy of such objects as optical activity, birefringence, as well as linear and circular dichroism is suggested. The ensemble of informationally topical azimuthally stable Mueller-matrix invariants is determined. Within the statistical analysis of such parameters distributions the objective criteria of differentiation of films of blood plasma taken from healthy and patients with liver cirrhosis were determined. From the point of view of probative medicine the operational characteristics (sensitivity, specificity and accuracy) of the information-optical method of Mueller-matrix mapping of polycrystalline films of blood plasma were found and its efficiency in diagnostics of liver cirrhosis was demonstrated. Prospects of application of the method in experimental medicine to differentiate postmortem changes of the myocardial tissue was examined.

  3. [Dermoscopy for beginners (ii): Dermoscopic structures and diagnostic methods].

    PubMed

    Palacios-Martínez, D; Díaz-Alonso, R A

    2016-01-06

    Dermoscopy (DS) is an in vivo non-invasive diagnostic technique developed to study skin lesions. It improves the diagnostic accuracy of hyperpigmented lesions and early diagnosis of potentially malignant lesions, especially melanoma. It uses a device called a dermoscope to display deeper skin structures not visible to the naked eye, called dermoscopic structures. Only some of them have histological significance, basing them on DS. Many, more or less complex, dermoscopic methods have been developed to aid in the differential diagnosis of skin cancer. The most widespread is 2-step algorithm dermoscopy. But there are some more simple methods, designed to be operated by non-medical experts in DS. Two of them are useful in primary care: the 3-point checklist of DS, and the BLINCK algorithm. This paper focuses on describing the dermoscopic parameters needed to implement these algorithms, as well as their interpretation.

  4. METHOD OF CENTRIFUGE OPERATION

    DOEpatents

    Cohen, K.

    1960-05-10

    A method of isotope separation is described in which two streams are flowed axially of, and countercurrently through, a cylindrical centrifuge bowl. Under the influence of a centrifugal field, the light fraction is concentrated in a stream flowing through the central portion of the bowl, whereas the heavy fraction is concentrated in a stream at the periphery thereof.

  5. Current status of diagnostic methods for henipavirus.

    PubMed

    Tamin, A; Rota, P A

    2013-01-01

    Hendra virus (HeV) and Nipah virus (NiV) are the causative agents of emerging transboundary animal disease in pigs and horses. They also cause fatal disease in humans. NiV has a case fatality rate of 40 - 100%. In the initial NiV outbreak in Malaysia in 1999, about 1.1 million pigs had to be culled. The economic impact was estimated to be approximately US$450 million. Worldwide, HeV has caused more than 60 deaths in horses with 7 human cases and 4 deaths. Since the initial outbreak, HeV spillovers from Pteropus bats to horses and humans continue. This article presents a brief review on the currently available diagnostic methods for henipavirus infections, including advances achieved since the initial outbreak, and a gap analysis of areas needing improvement.

  6. [Clinical importance and diagnostic methods of minimal hepatic encephalopathy].

    PubMed

    Stawicka, Agnieszka; Zbrzeźniak, Justyna; Świderska, Aleksandra; Kilisińska, Natalia; Świderska, Magdalena; Jaroszewicz, Jerzy; Flisiak, Robert

    2016-02-01

    Minimal hepatic encephalopathy (MHE) encompasses a number of neuropsychological and neurophysiological disorders in patients suffering from liver cirrhosis, who do not display abnormalities during a medical interview or physical examination. A negative influence of MHE on the quality of life of patients suffering from liver cirrhosis was confirmed, which include retardation of ability of operating motor vehicles and disruption of multiple health-related areas, as well as functioning in the society. The data on frequency of traffic offences and accidents amongst patients diagnosed with MHE in comparison to patients diagnosed with liver cirrhosis without MHE, as well as healthy persons is alarming. Those patients are unaware of their disorder and retardation of their ability to operate vehicles, therefore it is of utmost importance to define this group. The term minimal hepatic encephalopathy (formerly "subclinical" encephalopathy) erroneously suggested the unnecessity of diagnostic and therapeutic procedures in patients with liver cirrhosis. Diagnosing MHE is an important predictive factor for occurrence of overt encephalopathy - more than 50% of patients with this diagnosis develop overt encephalopathy during a period of 30 months after. Early diagnosing MHE gives a chance to implement proper treatment which can be a prevention of overt encephalopathy. Due to continuing lack of clinical research there exist no commonly agreed-upon standards for definition, diagnostics, classification and treatment of hepatic encephalopathy. This article introduces the newest findings regarding the importance of MHE, scientific recommendations and provides detailed descriptions of the most valuable diagnostic methods.

  7. Ultrasensitive microanalytical diagnostic methods for rickettsial pathogens

    SciTech Connect

    Hatch, A. V.

    2012-03-01

    A strategic CRADA was established between Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and the University of Texas Medical Branch (UTMB) at Galveston to address pressing needs for US protection against biological weapons of mass destruction (WMD) and emerging infectious diseases. The combination of unique expertise and facilities at UTMB and SNL enabled interdisciplinary research efforts in the development of rapid and accurate diagnostic methods for early detection of trace priority pathogen levels. Outstanding postdoctoral students were also trained at both institutions to help enable the next generation of scientists to tackle the challenging interdisciplinary problems in the area of biodefense and emerging infectious diseases. Novel approaches to diagnostics were developed and the both the speed of assays as well as the detection sensitivity were improved by over an order of magnitude compared to traditional methods. This is a significant step toward more timely and specific detection of dangerous infections. We developed in situ polymerized porous polymer monoliths that can be used as (1) size exclusion elements for capture and processing of rickettsial infected cells from a sample, (2) photopatternable framework for grafting high densities of functionalized antibodies/fluorescent particles using novel monolith chemistry. Grafting affinity reagents specific to rickettsial particles enables rapid, ultra-sensitive assays by overcoming transport limitations of traditional planar assay approaches. We have selectively trapped particles and bacteria at the cell trap and have also detected picomolar mouse IL-6 captured with only 20 minutes total incubation times using the densely patterned monolith framework. As predicted, the monolith exhibits >10x improvements in both capture speed and capture density compared to traditional planar approaches. The most significant advancements as part of this CRADA is the optimization of techniques allowing the detection of <10 rickettsial

  8. [New molecular methods in prenatal invasive diagnostics].

    PubMed

    Łaczmańska, Izabela; Stembalska, Agnieszka

    2013-10-01

    New diagnostic techniques employed in laboratories all over the world enable to create new tests for prenatal genetic diagnosis. They include cytogenetics, molecular-cytogenetics and molecular methods. Chromosomal numerical aberrations (aneuploidies) remain to be the most frequent genetic changes diagnosed prenatally Therefore, our paper presents the latest methods used mainly in prenatal diagnosis of the most common chromosome numerical changes, as well as other methods applicable in detecting chromosome structural changes or gene mutations. One of the main advantages of these new approaches is the short period of time needed to obtain a result. Some of these techniques are used world-wide: QF-PCR (Fluorescence Quantitive Polymerase Chain Reaction)--based on the analysis of the short polymorphic sequences characteristic for each individual; MLPA (Multiplex Ligation-dependent Probe Amplification)--based on the probes ligation to complementary genomic fragments in patient DNA; microarray CGH (Comparative Genomic Hybridization)--based on genomic hybridization to microarray, which enables analysis of the entire genome. Other new methods are also gradually introduced to invasive prenatal diagnosis: NGS (Next-generation DNA sequencing)--for the analysis of the whole genome at the DNA level; BoBs (BACS-on-Beads)--molecular-cytogenetic technique based on hybridization of probes immobilized on polystyrene microspheres with fetal DNA. Nowadays, rapid diagnosis of the most common chromosomal aneuploidies is not a standard procedure in Poland, as opposed to cytogenetics (karyotyping). However, for specific clinical indications, fast and reliable methods of genetic analysis present are likely to become standard procedures in prenatal diagnosis.

  9. [Valuation of diagnostic methods of pneumonia alveolitis].

    PubMed

    Makhmudova, S Iu

    2010-05-01

    The aim of this study was to identify effectiveness of modern complex of roentgenological, endoscopic, functional, citomorphologic and immunological methods in diagnosis of alveolitis. Between May-June 2002 and July-August 2003 the single-stage diagnosis was conducted among 1192 workers (400 - Siasan broiler, 391 - Baku flour mill and 401 - tobacco from Gabala zone). The patients with the diagnosis of various forms alveolitis were examined. 89 patients with symptoms of tympanal, acrocyanosis, tachycardia, tarnished glass effect, vascular lungs deformation were selected. Cough, short breath, crackling, infiltrative and cystous changes in lungs, acceleration of erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) up to 27-36 mm/hour on average, decrease of total lung capacity, lymphocyte reaction, opacity, symptom of honeycomb lung and alteration in mucous of lung were considered as auxiliary factors. The investigation proofed that computed tomography was an effective technique for the diagnosis of alveolitis; the diagnostic reliability of computed tomography for the evaluation of various forms of alveolitis was 100%.

  10. Diagnostic Profiles: A Standard Setting Method for Use with a Cognitive Diagnostic Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skaggs, Gary; Hein, Serge F.; Wilkins, Jesse L. M.

    2016-01-01

    This article introduces the Diagnostic Profiles (DP) standard setting method for setting a performance standard on a test developed from a cognitive diagnostic model (CDM), the outcome of which is a profile of mastered and not-mastered skills or attributes rather than a single test score. In the DP method, the key judgment task for panelists is a…

  11. TPX diagnostics for tokamak operation, plasma control and machine protection

    SciTech Connect

    Edmonds, P.H.; Medley, S.S.; Young, K.M.

    1995-08-01

    The diagnostics for TPX are at an early design phase, with emphasis on the diagnostic access interface with the major tokamak components. Account has to be taken of the very severe environment for diagnostic components located inside the vacuum vessel. The placement of subcontracts for the design and fabrication of the diagnostic systems is in process.

  12. Towards Verification of Operational Procedures Using Auto-Generated Diagnostic Trees

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kurtoglu, Tolga; Lutz, Robyn; Patterson-Hine, Ann

    2009-01-01

    The design, development, and operation of complex space, lunar and planetary exploration systems require the development of general procedures that describe a detailed set of instructions capturing how mission tasks are performed. For both crewed and uncrewed NASA systems, mission safety and the accomplishment of the scientific mission objectives are highly dependent on the correctness of procedures. In this paper, we describe how to use the auto-generated diagnostic trees from existing diagnostic models to improve the verification of standard operating procedures. Specifically, we introduce a systematic method, namely the Diagnostic Tree for Verification (DTV), developed with the goal of leveraging the information contained within auto-generated diagnostic trees in order to check the correctness of procedures, to streamline the procedures in terms of reducing the number of steps or use of resources in them, and to propose alternative procedural steps adaptive to changing operational conditions. The application of the DTV method to a spacecraft electrical power system shows the feasibility of the approach and its range of capabilities

  13. Electron-Beam Diagnostic Methods for Hypersonic Flow Diagnostics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this work was the evaluation of the use of electron-bean fluorescence for flow measurements during hypersonic flight. Both analytical and numerical models were developed in this investigation to evaluate quantitatively flow field imaging concepts based upon the electron beam fluorescence technique for use in flight research and wind tunnel applications. Specific models were developed for: (1) fluorescence excitation/emission for nitrogen, (2) rotational fluorescence spectrum for nitrogen, (3) single and multiple scattering of electrons in a variable density medium, (4) spatial and spectral distribution of fluorescence, (5) measurement of rotational temperature and density, (6) optical filter design for fluorescence imaging, and (7) temperature accuracy and signal acquisition time requirements. Application of these models to a typical hypersonic wind tunnel flow is presented. In particular, the capability of simulating the fluorescence resulting from electron impact ionization in a variable density nitrogen or air flow provides the capability to evaluate the design of imaging instruments for flow field mapping. The result of this analysis is a recommendation that quantitative measurements of hypersonic flow fields using electron-bean fluorescence is a tractable method with electron beam energies of 100 keV. With lower electron energies, electron scattering increases with significant beam divergence which makes quantitative imaging difficult. The potential application of the analytical and numerical models developed in this work is in the design of a flow field imaging instrument for use in hypersonic wind tunnels or onboard a flight research vehicle.

  14. Application of modern diagnostic methods to environmental improvement. Annual progress report, October 1994--September 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Shepard, W.S.

    1995-12-01

    The Diagnostic Instrumentation and Analysis Laboratory (DIAL), an interdisciplinary research department in the College of Engineering at Mississippi State University (MSU), is under contract with the US Department of Energy (DOE) to develop and apply advanced diagnostic instrumentation and analysis techniques to aid in solving DOE`s nuclear waste problem. The program is a comprehensive effort which includes five focus areas: advanced diagnostic systems; development/application; torch operation and test facilities; process development; on-site field measurement and analysis; technology transfer/commercialization. As part of this program, diagnostic methods will be developed and evaluated for characterization, monitoring and process control. Also, the measured parameters, will be employed to improve, optimize and control the operation of the plasma torch and the overall plasma treatment process. Moreover, on-site field measurements at various DOE facilities are carried out to aid in the rapid demonstration and implementation of modern fieldable diagnostic methods. Such efforts also provide a basis for technology transfer.

  15. Method and apparatus for holographic wavefront diagnostics

    DOEpatents

    Toeppen, J.S.

    1995-04-25

    A wavefront diagnostic apparatus has an optic and a measuring system. The optic forms a holographic image in response to a beam of light striking a hologram formed on a surface of the optic. The measuring system detects the position of the array of holographic images and compares the positions of the array of holographic images to a reference holographic image. 3 figs.

  16. Method and apparatus for holographic wavefront diagnostics

    DOEpatents

    Toeppen, John S.

    1995-01-01

    A wavefront diagnostic apparatus has an optic and a measuring system. The optic forms a holographic image in response to a beam of light striking a hologram formed on a surface of the optic. The measuring system detects the position of the array of holographic images and compares the positions of the array of holographic images to a reference holographic image.

  17. A Refined QSO Selection Method Using Diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Dae-Won; Protopapas, Pavlos; Trichas, Markos; Rowan-Robinson, Michael; Khardon, Roni; Alcock, Charles; Byun, Yong-Ik

    2012-04-01

    We present 663 QSO candidates in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) that were selected using multiple diagnostics. We started with a set of 2,566 QSO candidates selected using the methodology presented in our previous work based on time variability of the MACHO LMC light curves. We then obtained additional information for the candidates by cross-matching them with the Spitzer SAGE, the 2MASS, the Chandra, the XMM, and an LMC UBVI catalogues. Using that information, we specified diagnostic features based on mid-IR colours, photometric redshifts using SED template fitting, and X-ray luminosities, in order to discriminate more high-confidence QSO candidates in the absence of spectral information. We then trained a one-class Support Vector Machine model using those diagnostics features. We applied the trained model to the original candidates, and finally selected 663 high-confidence QSO candidates. We cross-matched those 663 QSO candidates with 152 newly-confirmed QSOs and 275 non-QSOs in the LMC fields, and found that the false positive rate was less than 1%.

  18. Aircraft Engine Gas Path Diagnostic Methods: Public Benchmarking Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, Donald L.; Borguet, Sebastien; Leonard, Olivier; Zhang, Xiaodong (Frank)

    2013-01-01

    Recent technology reviews have identified the need for objective assessments of aircraft engine health management (EHM) technologies. To help address this issue, a gas path diagnostic benchmark problem has been created and made publicly available. This software tool, referred to as the Propulsion Diagnostic Method Evaluation Strategy (ProDiMES), has been constructed based on feedback provided by the aircraft EHM community. It provides a standard benchmark problem enabling users to develop, evaluate and compare diagnostic methods. This paper will present an overview of ProDiMES along with a description of four gas path diagnostic methods developed and applied to the problem. These methods, which include analytical and empirical diagnostic techniques, will be described and associated blind-test-case metric results will be presented and compared. Lessons learned along with recommendations for improving the public benchmarking processes will also be presented and discussed.

  19. Urban Operations: Strategic Imperatives to Operational Methods

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-05-03

    a greater frequency of military intervention as poverty, ethnic competition, and overpopulation and associated environmental stress create various...personnel become capable of speaking fluent dialects. In preparation for returning to Iraq and continued operations in the Horn of Africa and Colombia

  20. Diagnostic methods for CW laser damage testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stewart, Alan F.; Shah, Rashmi S.

    2004-06-01

    High performance optical coatings are an enabling technology for many applications - navigation systems, telecom, fusion, advanced measurement systems of many types as well as directed energy weapons. The results of recent testing of superior optical coatings conducted at high flux levels will be presented. The diagnostics used in this type of nondestructive testing and the analysis of the data demonstrates the evolution of test methodology. Comparison of performance data under load to the predictions of thermal and optical models shows excellent agreement. These tests serve to anchor the models and validate the performance of the materials and coatings.

  1. METHOD OF OPERATING A CALUTRON

    DOEpatents

    Davidson, P.H.

    1960-01-12

    A method of operating an electromagnetic isotope separator of the calutron class is reported whereby uranium tetrachloride is produced at a controlled rate within the source rather than betng introduced therein as was formerly practiced. This is accomplished by placing a uranium-bearing material, such as uranium metal, uranium trichloride, or uranium carbide in the charge receptacle of the calutron, heating this material to about to produce uranium tetrachloride vapor at a rate controlled by the chlorine gas flow into the source. The vapor is subsequently ionized by an electric arc and mass separated by conventional calutron methods.

  2. Development and Evaluation of Chemical Diagnostic Methods.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-05-01

    Mol. Spec. 20 (1966) 11. 4.21 J.I. Steinfeld, "Molecules and Radiation", (Harper -and Row, New York, 1974). * 4.22 D.A. McQuarrie , " Statistical ...Operating Mechanism ...... . 88 5.2.2 Sensitivity and Selectivity ...... 89 GEO-CENTERS, INC. I4 TABLE OF CONTENTS (Cont’d.) 5.3 System Configuration...module - the existence of microprocessors and data processing algorithms allows the raw signal to be manipulated using powerful statistical procedures

  3. Method and system for diagnostics of apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gorinevsky, Dimitry (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    Proposed is a method, implemented in software, for estimating fault state of an apparatus outfitted with sensors. At each execution period the method processes sensor data from the apparatus to obtain a set of parity parameters, which are further used for estimating fault state. The estimation method formulates a convex optimization problem for each fault hypothesis and employs a convex solver to compute fault parameter estimates and fault likelihoods for each fault hypothesis. The highest likelihoods and corresponding parameter estimates are transmitted to a display device or an automated decision and control system. The obtained accurate estimate of fault state can be used to improve safety, performance, or maintenance processes for the apparatus.

  4. Propulsion Diagnostic Method Evaluation Strategy (ProDiMES) User's Guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, Donald L.

    2010-01-01

    This report is a User's Guide for the Propulsion Diagnostic Method Evaluation Strategy (ProDiMES). ProDiMES is a standard benchmarking problem and a set of evaluation metrics to enable the comparison of candidate aircraft engine gas path diagnostic methods. This Matlab (The Mathworks, Inc.) based software tool enables users to independently develop and evaluate diagnostic methods. Additionally, a set of blind test case data is also distributed as part of the software. This will enable the side-by-side comparison of diagnostic approaches developed by multiple users. The Users Guide describes the various components of ProDiMES, and provides instructions for the installation and operation of the tool.

  5. METHOD OF OPERATING NUCLEAR REACTORS

    DOEpatents

    Untermyer, S.

    1958-10-14

    A method is presented for obtaining enhanced utilization of natural uranium in heavy water moderated nuclear reactors by charging the reactor with an equal number of fuel elements formed of natural uranium and of fuel elements formed of uranium depleted in U/sup 235/ to the extent that the combination will just support a chain reaction. The reactor is operated until the rate of burnup of plutonium equals its rate of production, the fuel elements are processed to recover plutonium, the depleted uranium is discarded, and the remaining uranium is formed into fuel elements. These fuel elements are charged into a reactor along with an equal number of fuel elements formed of uranium depleted in U/sup 235/ to the extent that the combination will just support a chain reaction, and reuse of the uranium is continued as aforesaid until it wlll no longer support a chain reaction when combined with an equal quantity of natural uranium.

  6. Computer methods for ITER-like materials LIBS diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Łepek, Michał; Gąsior, Paweł

    2014-11-01

    Recent development of Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) caused that this method is considered as the most promising for future diagnostic applications for characterization of the deposited materials in the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER), which is currently under construction. In this article the basics of LIBS are shortly discussed and the software for spectra analyzing is presented. The main software function is to analyze measured spectra with respect to the certain element lines presence. Some program operation results are presented. Correct results for graphite and aluminum are obtained although identification of tungsten lines is a problem. The reason for this is low tungsten lines intensity, and thus low signal to noise ratio of the measured signal. In the second part artificial neural networks (ANNs) as the next step for LIBS spectra analyzing are proposed. The idea is focused on multilayer perceptron network (MLP) with backpropagation learning method. The potential of ANNs for data processing was proved through application in several LIBS-related domains, e.g. differentiating ancient Greek ceramics (discussed). The idea is to apply an ANN for determination of W, Al, C presence on ITER-like plasma-facing materials.

  7. Differential temperature integrating diagnostic method and apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Doss, James D.; McCabe, Charles W.

    1976-01-01

    A method and device for detecting the presence of breast cancer in women by integrating the temperature difference between the temperature of a normal breast and that of a breast having a malignant tumor. The breast-receiving cups of a brassiere are each provided with thermally conductive material next to the skin, with a thermistor attached to the thermally conductive material in each cup. The thermistors are connected to adjacent arms of a Wheatstone bridge. Unbalance currents in the bridge are integrated with respect to time by means of an electrochemical integrator. In the absence of a tumor, both breasts maintain substantially the same temperature, and the bridge remains balanced. If the tumor is present in one breast, a higher temperature in that breast unbalances the bridge and the electrochemical cells integrate the temperature difference with respect to time.

  8. Fault Diagnostics for Electrically Operated Pitch Systems in Offshore Wind Turbines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teja Kandukuri, Surya; Khang Huynh, Van; Karimi, Hamid Reza; Robbersmyr, Kjell Gunnar

    2016-09-01

    This paper investigates the electrically operated pitch systems of offshore wind turbines for online condition monitoring and health assessment. The current signature based fault diagnostics is developed for electrically operated pitch systems using model-based approach. The electrical motor faults are firstly modelled based on modified winding function theory and then, current signature analysis is performed to detect the faults. Further, in order to verify the fault diagnostics capabilities in realistic conditions, the operating profiles are obtained from FAST simulation of offshore wind turbines in various wind conditions. In this way, the applicability of current signature analysis for fault diagnostics in offshore wind turbine pitch systems is demonstrated.

  9. [Cognitive functions, their development and modern diagnostic methods].

    PubMed

    Klasik, Adam; Janas-Kozik, Małgorzata; Krupka-Matuszczyk, Irena; Augustyniak, Ewa

    2006-01-01

    provided a theory. The psychometric approach concentrates on studying the differences in intelligence. The aim of this approach is to test intelligence by means of standardized tests (e.g. WISC-R, WAIS-R) used to show the individual differences among humans. Human cognitive functions determine individuals' adaptation capabilities and disturbances in this area indicate a number of psychopathological changes and are a symptom enabling to differentiate or diagnose one with a disorder. That is why the psychological assessment of cognitive functions is an important part of patients' diagnosis. Contemporary neuropsychological studies are to a great extent based computer tests. The use of computer methods has a number of measurement-related advantages. It allows for standardized testing environment, increasing therefore its reliability and standardizes the patient assessment process. Special attention should be paid to the neuropsychological tests included in the Vienna Test System (Cognitron, SIGNAL, RT, VIGIL, DAUF), which are used to assess the operational memory span, learning processes, reaction time, attention selective function, attention continuity as well as attention interference resistance. It also seems justified to present the CPT id test (Continuous Performance Test) as well as Free Recall. CPT is a diagnostic tool used to assess the attention selective function, attention continuity of attention, attention interference resistance as well as attention alertness. The Free Recall test is used in the memory processes diagnostics to assess patients' operational memory as well as the information organization degree in operational memory. The above mentioned neuropsychological tests are tools used in clinical assessment of cognitive function disorders.

  10. Motor current signature analysis method for diagnosing motor operated devices

    DOEpatents

    Haynes, Howard D.; Eissenberg, David M.

    1990-01-01

    A motor current noise signature analysis method and apparatus for remotely monitoring the operating characteristics of an electric motor-operated device such as a motor-operated valve. Frequency domain signal analysis techniques are applied to a conditioned motor current signal to distinctly identify various operating parameters of the motor driven device from the motor current signature. The signature may be recorded and compared with subsequent signatures to detect operating abnormalities and degradation of the device. This diagnostic method does not require special equipment to be installed on the motor-operated device, and the current sensing may be performed at remote control locations, e.g., where the motor-operated devices are used in accessible or hostile environments.

  11. Image processing methods and architectures in diagnostic pathology.

    PubMed

    Bueno, Gloria; Déniz, Oscar; Salido, Jesús; Rojo, Marcial García

    2009-01-01

    Grid technology has enabled the clustering and the efficient and secure access to and interaction among a wide variety of geographically distributed resources such as: supercomputers, storage systems, data sources, instruments and special devices and services. Their main applications include large-scale computational and data intensive problems in science and engineering. General grid structures and methodologies for both software and hardware in image analysis for virtual tissue-based diagnosis has been considered in this paper. This methods are focus on the user level middleware. The article describes the distributed programming system developed by the authors for virtual slide analysis in diagnostic pathology. The system supports different image analysis operations commonly done in anatomical pathology and it takes into account secured aspects and specialized infrastructures with high level services designed to meet application requirements. Grids are likely to have a deep impact on health related applications, and therefore they seem to be suitable for tissue-based diagnosis too. The implemented system is a joint application that mixes both Web and Grid Service Architecture around a distributed architecture for image processing. It has shown to be a successful solution to analyze a big and heterogeneous group of histological images under architecture of massively parallel processors using message passing and non-shared memory.

  12. Linear combination methods to improve diagnostic/prognostic accuracy on future observations

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Le; Liu, Aiyi; Tian, Lili

    2014-01-01

    Multiple diagnostic tests or biomarkers can be combined to improve diagnostic accuracy. The problem of finding the optimal linear combinations of biomarkers to maximise the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve has been extensively addressed in the literature. The purpose of this article is threefold: (1) to provide an extensive review of the existing methods for biomarker combination; (2) to propose a new combination method, namely, the nonparametric stepwise approach; (3) to use leave-one-pair-out cross-validation method, instead of re-substitution method, which is overoptimistic and hence might lead to wrong conclusion, to empirically evaluate and compare the performance of different linear combination methods in yielding the largest area under receiver operating characteristic curve. A data set of Duchenne muscular dystrophy was analysed to illustrate the applications of the discussed combination methods. PMID:23592714

  13. Method to directly radiolabel antibodies for diagnostic imaging and therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Thakur, M.L.

    1991-04-30

    This patent describes a method for directly labeling proteins with radionuclides for use in diagnostic imaging and therapy. It comprises: the steps of incubating a protein-containing solution with a solution of sodium ascorbate; adding a required quantity of reduced radionuclide to the incubated protein-containing solution and incubating.

  14. Method to directly radiolabel antibodies for diagnostic imaging and therapy

    DOEpatents

    Thakur, Mathew L.

    1994-01-01

    The invention is a novel method and kit for directly radiolabeling proteins such as antibodies or antibody fragments for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. The method comprises incubating a protein-containing solution with a solution of sodium ascorbate; adding a required quantity of reduced radionuclide to the incubated protein. A kit is also provided wherein the protein and/or reducing agents may be in lyophilized form.

  15. Method to directly radiolabel antibodies for diagnostic imaging and therapy

    DOEpatents

    Thakur, Mathew L.

    1991-01-01

    The invention is a novel method and kit for directly radiolabeling proteins such as antibodies or antibody fragments for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. The method comprises incubating a protein-containing solution with a solution of sodium ascorbate; adding a required quantity of reduced radionuclide to the incubated protein. A kit is also provided wherein the protein and/or reducing agents may be in lyophilized form.

  16. Method to directly radiolabel antibodies for diagnostic imaging and therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Thakur, M.L.

    1994-05-03

    The invention is a novel method and kit for directly radiolabeling proteins such as antibodies or antibody fragments for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. The method comprises incubating a protein-containing solution with a solution of sodium ascorbate; adding a required quantity of reduced radionuclide to the incubated protein. A kit is also provided wherein the protein and/or reducing agents may be in lyophilized form. No Drawings

  17. INITIAL OPERATION OF THE LEDA BEAM-INDUCED FLUORESCENCE DIAGNOSTIC

    SciTech Connect

    J. KAMPERSCHROER; ET AL

    2000-06-01

    A diagnostic based on beam-induced fluorescence has been developed and used to examine the expanded beam in the High-Energy Beam Transport (HEBT) section of the Low Energy Demonstration Accelerator (LEDA). The system consists of a camera, a gas injector, a spectrometer, and a control system. Gas is injected to provide a medium for the beam to excite, the camera captures the resulting image of the fluorescing gas, and the spectrometer measures the spectrum of the emitted light. EPICS was used to control the camera and acquire and store images. Data analysis is presently being performed offline. A Kodak DCS420m professional CCD camera is the primary component of the optical system. InterScience, Inc. modified the camera with the addition of a gain of 4000 image intensifier, thereby producing an intensified camera with a sensitivity of {approximately}0.5 milli-lux. Light is gathered with a 1 inch format, 16-160 mm, Computar zoom lens. This lens is attached to the camera via a Century Precision Optics relay lens. Images obtained using only hydrogen from the beam stop exhibited features not yet understood. Images with good signal-to-noise ratio were obtained with the injection of sufficient nitrogen to raise the HEBT pressure to 2-8x10{sup {minus}6} torr. Two strong nitrogen lines, believed to be of the first negative group of N{sub 2}{sup +}, were identified at 391 and 428 nm.

  18. Molecular Diagnostic Methods for Detection and Characterization of Human Noroviruses

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Haifeng; Hu, Yuan

    2016-01-01

    Human noroviruses are a group of viral agents that afflict people of all age groups. The viruses are now recognized as the most common causative agent of nonbacterial acute gastroenteritis and foodborne viral illness worldwide. However, they have been considered to play insignificant roles in the disease burden of acute gastroenteritis for the past decades until the recent advent of new and more sensitive molecular diagnostic methods. The availability and application of the molecular diagnostic methods have led to enhanced detection of noroviruses in clinical, food and environmental samples, significantly increasing the recognition of noroviruses as an etiologic agent of epidemic and sporadic acute gastroenteritis. This article aims to summarize recent efforts made for the development of molecular methods for the detection and characterization of human noroviruses. PMID:27335620

  19. A diagnostic signal selection scheme for planetary gearbox vibration monitoring under non-stationary operational conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Ke; Wang, KeSheng; Zhang, Mian; Ni, Qing; Zuo, Ming J.

    2017-03-01

    The planetary gearbox, due to its unique mechanical structures, is an important rotating machine for transmission systems. Its engineering applications are often in non-stationary operational conditions, such as helicopters, wind energy systems, etc. The unique physical structures and working conditions make the vibrations measured from planetary gearboxes exhibit a complex time-varying modulation and therefore yield complicated spectral structures. As a result, traditional signal processing methods, such as Fourier analysis, and the selection of characteristic fault frequencies for diagnosis face serious challenges. To overcome this drawback, this paper proposes a signal selection scheme for fault-emphasized diagnostics based upon two order tracking techniques. The basic procedures for the proposed scheme are as follows. (1) Computed order tracking is applied to reveal the order contents and identify the order(s) of interest. (2) Vold-Kalman filter order tracking is used to extract the order(s) of interest—these filtered order(s) constitute the so-called selected vibrations. (3) Time domain statistic indicators are applied to the selected vibrations for faulty information-emphasized diagnostics. The proposed scheme is explained and demonstrated in a signal simulation model and experimental studies and the method proves to be effective for planetary gearbox fault diagnosis.

  20. Instrumental methods in the diagnostics of locked-in syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kotchoubey, Boris; Lotze, Martin

    2013-01-01

    The locked-in syndrome (LiS) is typically characterized by a paralysis of almost all body muscles combined with intact cognitive functions. In practice, there are often additional brain damages besides the one directly causing LiS. These damages can lead to cognitive impairment, which substantially complicates the diagnosis of LiS. At the level of behavior, therefore, the disease can be confused with akinetic mutism, vegetative state (syn. unresponsive wakefulness state) and some other conditions. Using instrumental methods in addition to behavioral diagnostics helps to avoid diagnostic errors and to improve prognosis of rehabilitation of such patients. These methods, which include measurements of brain electric or magnetic fields, electrical potential of muscles, blood flow and oxygen consumption in the brain, are reviewed in this paper.

  1. [Malignant tumours of the eye: Epidemiology, diagnostic methods and radiotherapy].

    PubMed

    Jardel, P; Caujolle, J-P; Gastaud, L; Maschi, C; Sauerwein, W; Thariat, J

    2015-12-01

    Malignant tumours of the eye are not common, barely representing 1 % of all cancers. This article aims to summarise, for each of the main eye malignant diseases, aspects of epidemiology, diagnostic methods and treatments, with a focus on radiation therapy techniques. The studied tumours are: eye metastasis, intraocular and ocular adnexal lymphomas, uveal melanomas, malignant tumours of the conjunctive, of the lids, and retinoblastomas. The last chapter outlines ocular complications of radiation therapy and their management.

  2. Alternative Confidence Interval Methods Used in the Diagnostic Accuracy Studies.

    PubMed

    Erdoğan, Semra; Gülhan, Orekıcı Temel

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aim. It is necessary to decide whether the newly improved methods are better than the standard or reference test or not. To decide whether the new diagnostics test is better than the gold standard test/imperfect standard test, the differences of estimated sensitivity/specificity are calculated with the help of information obtained from samples. However, to generalize this value to the population, it should be given with the confidence intervals. The aim of this study is to evaluate the confidence interval methods developed for the differences between the two dependent sensitivity/specificity values on a clinical application. Materials and Methods. In this study, confidence interval methods like Asymptotic Intervals, Conditional Intervals, Unconditional Interval, Score Intervals, and Nonparametric Methods Based on Relative Effects Intervals are used. Besides, as clinical application, data used in diagnostics study by Dickel et al. (2010) has been taken as a sample. Results. The results belonging to the alternative confidence interval methods for Nickel Sulfate, Potassium Dichromate, and Lanolin Alcohol are given as a table. Conclusion. While preferring the confidence interval methods, the researchers have to consider whether the case to be compared is single ratio or dependent binary ratio differences, the correlation coefficient between the rates in two dependent ratios and the sample sizes.

  3. Benchmarking Gas Path Diagnostic Methods: A Public Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, Donald L.; Bird, Jeff; Davison, Craig; Volponi, Al; Iverson, R. Eugene

    2008-01-01

    Recent technology reviews have identified the need for objective assessments of engine health management (EHM) technology. The need is two-fold: technology developers require relevant data and problems to design and validate new algorithms and techniques while engine system integrators and operators need practical tools to direct development and then evaluate the effectiveness of proposed solutions. This paper presents a publicly available gas path diagnostic benchmark problem that has been developed by the Propulsion and Power Systems Panel of The Technical Cooperation Program (TTCP) to help address these needs. The problem is coded in MATLAB (The MathWorks, Inc.) and coupled with a non-linear turbofan engine simulation to produce "snap-shot" measurements, with relevant noise levels, as if collected from a fleet of engines over their lifetime of use. Each engine within the fleet will experience unique operating and deterioration profiles, and may encounter randomly occurring relevant gas path faults including sensor, actuator and component faults. The challenge to the EHM community is to develop gas path diagnostic algorithms to reliably perform fault detection and isolation. An example solution to the benchmark problem is provided along with associated evaluation metrics. A plan is presented to disseminate this benchmark problem to the engine health management technical community and invite technology solutions.

  4. A defect-driven diagnostic method for machine tool spindles.

    PubMed

    Vogl, Gregory W; Donmez, M Alkan

    2015-01-01

    Simple vibration-based metrics are, in many cases, insufficient to diagnose machine tool spindle condition. These metrics couple defect-based motion with spindle dynamics; diagnostics should be defect-driven. A new method and spindle condition estimation device (SCED) were developed to acquire data and to separate system dynamics from defect geometry. Based on this method, a spindle condition metric relying only on defect geometry is proposed. Application of the SCED on various milling and turning spindles shows that the new approach is robust for diagnosing the machine tool spindle condition.

  5. A defect-driven diagnostic method for machine tool spindles

    PubMed Central

    Vogl, Gregory W.; Donmez, M. Alkan

    2016-01-01

    Simple vibration-based metrics are, in many cases, insufficient to diagnose machine tool spindle condition. These metrics couple defect-based motion with spindle dynamics; diagnostics should be defect-driven. A new method and spindle condition estimation device (SCED) were developed to acquire data and to separate system dynamics from defect geometry. Based on this method, a spindle condition metric relying only on defect geometry is proposed. Application of the SCED on various milling and turning spindles shows that the new approach is robust for diagnosing the machine tool spindle condition. PMID:28065985

  6. A Bayesian Hierarchical Non-Linear Regression Model in Receiver Operating Characteristic Analysis of Clustered Continuous Diagnostic Data

    PubMed Central

    Zou, Kelly H.; O’Malley, A. James

    2005-01-01

    Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis is a useful evaluative method of diagnostic accuracy. A Bayesian hierarchical nonlinear regression model for ROC analysis was developed. A validation analysis of diagnostic accuracy was conducted using prospective multi-center clinical trial prostate cancer biopsy data collected from three participating centers. The gold standard was based on radical prostatectomy to determine local and advanced disease. To evaluate the diagnostic performance of PSA level at fixed levels of Gleason score, a normality transformation was applied to the outcome data. A hierarchical regression analysis incorporating the effects of cluster (clinical center) and cancer risk (low, intermediate, and high) was performed, and the area under the ROC curve (AUC) was estimated. PMID:16161801

  7. Expert diagnostics system as a part of analysis software for power mission operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harris, Jennifer A.; Bahrami, Khosrow A.

    1993-01-01

    The operation of interplanetary spacecraft at JPL has become an increasingly complex activity. This complexity is due to advanced spacecraft designs and ambitious mission objectives which lead to operations requirements that are more demanding than those of any previous mission. For this reason, several productivity enhancement measures are underway at JPL within mission operations, particularly in the spacecraft analysis area. These measures aimed at spacecraft analysis include: the development of a multi-mission, multi-subsystem operations environment; the introduction of automated tools into this environment; and the development of an expert diagnostics system. This paper discusses an effort to integrate the above mentioned productivity enhancement measures. A prototype was developed that integrates an expert diagnostics system into a multi-mission, multi-subsystem operations environment using the Galileo Power / Pyro Subsystem as a testbed. This prototype will be discussed in addition to background information associated with it.

  8. Application of modern diagnostic methods to environmental improvement. Annual progress report, January--October 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Shepard, W.S.

    1994-12-01

    The Diagnostic Instrumentation and Analysis Laboratory (DIAL), a research department in the College of Engineering at Mississippi State University (MSU), is under contract with the US Department of Energy (DOE) to develop and apply advanced diagnostic instrumentation and analysis techniques to real world processes; measurements are made in hot, highly corrosive atmospheres in which conventional measurement devices are ineffective. Task 1 of this agreement is concerned with the development and application of various diagnostic methods to characterize the plasma properties, the melt properties and the downstream emissions from a plasma torch facility designed to vitrify mixed waste. Correlation of the measured properties with the operating parameters of the torch will be sought to improve, optimize and control the overall operation of the plasma treatment process. As part of this program, diagnostic methods will be developed and evaluated for characterization, monitoring and control purposes of treatment processes in general. Task 2 of this agreement is concerned with the development of a system to monitor and control the combustion stoichiometry in real time in order to minimize environmental impact and maximize process efficiency. Staged fuel injection is also being studied to minimize NO{sub x} formation.

  9. Molecular and Nonmolecular Diagnostic Methods for Invasive Fungal Infections

    PubMed Central

    Arvanitis, Marios; Anagnostou, Theodora; Fuchs, Beth Burgwyn; Caliendo, Angela M.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Invasive fungal infections constitute a serious threat to an ever-growing population of immunocompromised individuals and other individuals at risk. Traditional diagnostic methods, such as histopathology and culture, which are still considered the gold standards, have low sensitivity, which underscores the need for the development of new means of detecting fungal infectious agents. Indeed, novel serologic and molecular techniques have been developed and are currently under clinical evaluation. Tests like the galactomannan antigen test for aspergillosis and the β-glucan test for invasive Candida spp. and molds, as well as other antigen and antibody tests, for Cryptococcus spp., Pneumocystis spp., and dimorphic fungi, have already been established as important diagnostic approaches and are implemented in routine clinical practice. On the other hand, PCR and other molecular approaches, such as matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI) and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), have proved promising in clinical trials but still need to undergo standardization before their clinical use can become widespread. The purpose of this review is to highlight the different diagnostic approaches that are currently utilized or under development for invasive fungal infections and to identify their performance characteristics and the challenges associated with their use. PMID:24982319

  10. Prognostic Analysis System and Methods of Operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    MacKey, Ryan M. E. (Inventor); Sneddon, Robert (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A prognostic analysis system and methods of operating the system are provided. In particular, a prognostic analysis system for the analysis of physical system health applicable to mechanical, electrical, chemical and optical systems and methods of operating the system are described herein.

  11. Method of operating a thermoelectric generator

    SciTech Connect

    Reynolds, Michael G; Cowgill, Joshua D

    2013-11-05

    A method for operating a thermoelectric generator supplying a variable-load component includes commanding the variable-load component to operate at a first output and determining a first load current and a first load voltage to the variable-load component while operating at the commanded first output. The method also includes commanding the variable-load component to operate at a second output and determining a second load current and a second load voltage to the variable-load component while operating at the commanded second output. The method includes calculating a maximum power output of the thermoelectric generator from the determined first load current and voltage and the determined second load current and voltage, and commanding the variable-load component to operate at a third output. The commanded third output is configured to draw the calculated maximum power output from the thermoelectric generator.

  12. Real time diagnostic for operation at a CW low voltage FEL

    SciTech Connect

    Balfour, C.; Shaw, A.; Mayhew, S.E.

    1995-12-31

    At Liverpool University, a system for single user control of an FEL has been designed to satisfy the low voltage FEL (ie 200kV) operational requirements. This system incorporates many aspects of computer automation for beam diagnostics, radiation detection and vacuum system management. In this paper the results of the development of safety critical control systems critical control systems are reported.

  13. Application of Diagnostic/Prognostic Methods to Critical Equipment for the Spent Nuclear Fuel Cleanup Program

    SciTech Connect

    Casazza, Lawrence O.; Jarrell, Donald B.; Koehler, Theresa M.; Meador, Richard J.; Wallace, Dale E.

    2002-02-28

    The management of the Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) project at the Hanford K-Basin in the 100 N Area has successfully restructured the preventive maintenance, spare parts inventory requirements, and the operator rounds data requirements. In this investigation, they continue to examine the different facets of the operations and maintenance (O&M) of the K-Basin cleanup project in search of additional reliability and cost savings. This report focuses on the initial findings of a team of PNNL engineers engaged to identify potential opportunities for reducing the cost of O&M through the application of advanced diagnostics (fault determination) and prognostics (residual life/reliability determination). The objective is to introduce predictive technologies to eliminate or reduce high impact equipment failures. The PNNL team in conjunction with the SNF engineers found the following major opportunities for cost reduction and/or enhancing reliability: (1) Provide data routing and automated analysis from existing detection systems to a display center that will engage the operations and engineering team. This display will be operator intuitive with system alarms and integrated diagnostic capability. (2) Change operating methods to reduce major transients induced in critical equipment. This would reduce stress levels on critical equipment. (3) Install a limited sensor set on failure prone critical equipment to allow degradation or stressor levels to be monitored and alarmed. This would provide operators and engineers with advance guidance and warning of failure events. Specific methods for implementation of the above improvement opportunities are provided in the recommendations. They include an Integrated Water Treatment System (IWTS) decision support system, introduction of variable frequency drives on certain pump motors, and the addition of limited diagnostic instrumentation on specified critical equipment.

  14. New Methods and Transducer Designs for Ultrasonic Diagnostics and Therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rybyanets, A. N.; Naumenko, A. A.; Sapozhnikov, O. A.; Khokhlova, V. A.

    Recent advances in the field of physical acoustics, imaging technologies, piezoelectric materials, and ultrasonic transducer design have led to emerging of novel methods and apparatus for ultrasonic diagnostics, therapy and body aesthetics. The paper presents the results on development and experimental study of different high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) transducers. Technological peculiarities of the HIFU transducer design as well as theoretical and numerical models of such transducers and the corresponding HIFU fields are discussed. Several HIFU transducers of different design have been fabricated using different advanced piezoelectric materials. Acoustic field measurements for those transducers have been performed using a calibrated fiber optic hydrophone and an ultrasonic measurement system (UMS). The results of ex vivo experiments with different tissues as well as in vivo experiments with blood vessels are presented that prove the efficacy, safety and selectivity of the developed HIFU transducers and methods.

  15. A composite likelihood method for bivariate meta-analysis in diagnostic systematic reviews

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yulun; Ning, Jing; Nie, Lei; Zhu, Hongjian; Chu, Haitao

    2014-01-01

    Diagnostic systematic review is a vital step in the evaluation of diagnostic technologies. In many applications, it involves pooling pairs of sensitivity and specificity of a dichotomized diagnostic test from multiple studies. We propose a composite likelihood method for bivariate meta-analysis in diagnostic systematic reviews. This method provides an alternative way to make inference on diagnostic measures such as sensitivity, specificity, likelihood ratios and diagnostic odds ratio. Its main advantages over the standard likelihood method are the avoidance of the non-convergence problem, which is non-trivial when the number of studies are relatively small, the computational simplicity and some robustness to model mis-specifications. Simulation studies show that the composite likelihood method maintains high relative efficiency compared to that of the standard likelihood method. We illustrate our method in a diagnostic review of the performance of contemporary diagnostic imaging technologies for detecting metastases in patients with melanoma. PMID:25512146

  16. Initial operation of a newly developed multichord motional Stark effect diagnostic in KSTAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, J.; Ko, J.; Wi, H.; Messmer, M.; Schenkelaars, S.; Scheffer, M.; Jaspers, R. J. E.

    2016-11-01

    A photo-elastic modulator based 25-chord motional Stark effect (MSE) diagnostic has been successfully developed and commissioned in Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research. The diagnostic measures the radial magnetic pitch angle profile of the Stark splitting of a D-alpha line at 656.1 nm by the electric field associated with the neutral deuterium heating beam. A tangential view of the neutral beam provides a good spatial resolution of 1-3 cm for covering the major radius from 1.74 m to 2.28 m, and the time resolution is achieved at 10 ms. An in-vessel calibration before the vacuum closing as well as an in situ calibration during the tokamak operation was performed by means of specially designed polarized lighting sources. In this work, we present the final design of the installed MSE diagnostic and the first results of the commissioning.

  17. Operational diagnostics of thermal state and efficiency of steam turbines of TPP and NPP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bozhko, V. V.; Kovalenko, A. N.; Lyapunov, V. M.; Khomenok, L. A.

    2016-05-01

    Various ways for solving complex problems of the strength and operating life of steam turbines of TPP and NPP are studied. Diagnostic characters and technical possibilities for their control during the steam turbine operation are determined. It is shown that the effect of various factors on the reliability, maneuverability, and service life of power installations of TPP and NPP is generally determined by the thermal state of steam-electric generating sets. Leading foreign and domestic manufacturers give major attention to the organization of the control of the thermal state of facilities and the development of systems for accounting ("counter") the service life depletion. Zones of high-temperature sites of shafts and disks with maximum parameters of operating environment are determined. A model for on-line computation of thermal stresses with the diagnostic evaluation of the service life depletion (fatigue accumulation) and forecasting of optimum heating conditions for thermostressed turbine units is briefly stated. An example of a program for diagnostics of the quality of the facility operation is given. The program provides the operative control of thermal stresses and the service life depletion in main units of the turbine under various operation conditions, operates in the real-time mode, calculates and represents currents values of thermal stresses in turbine units, and forms and transmits into the industrial control signals on the occurrence of restrictions with respect to thermal stresses and prohibition of an increase or decrease in the vapor temperature and the load in the case of approaching pressures to maximum permissible ones. In the case of stationary operation conditions, the program computed the current efficiency in high (HPC) and mean (MPC) pressure cylinders.

  18. Helicobacter pylori identification: a diagnostic/confirmatory method for evaluation.

    PubMed

    Mesquita, B; Gonçalves, M J; Pacheco, P; Lopes, J; Salazar, F; Relvas, M; Coelho, C; Pacheco, J J; Velazco, C

    2014-09-01

    The Helicobacter pylori extra gastric reservoir is probably the oral cavity. In order to evaluate the presence of this bacterium in patients with periodontitis and suspicious microbial cultures, saliva was collected from these and non-periodontitis subjects. PCRs targeting 16S rRNA gene and a 860 bp specific region were performed, and digested with the restriction enzyme DdeI. We observed that the PCR-RFLP approach augments the accuracy from 26.2 % (16/61), found in the PCR-based results, to 42.6 % (26/61), which is an excellent indicator for the establishment of this low-cost procedure as a diagnostic/confirmatory method for H. pylori evaluation.

  19. [Imputation methods for missing data in educational diagnostic evaluation].

    PubMed

    Fernández-Alonso, Rubén; Suárez-Álvarez, Javier; Muñiz, José

    2012-02-01

    In the diagnostic evaluation of educational systems, self-reports are commonly used to collect data, both cognitive and orectic. For various reasons, in these self-reports, some of the students' data are frequently missing. The main goal of this research is to compare the performance of different imputation methods for missing data in the context of the evaluation of educational systems. On an empirical database of 5,000 subjects, 72 conditions were simulated: three levels of missing data, three types of loss mechanisms, and eight methods of imputation. The levels of missing data were 5%, 10%, and 20%. The loss mechanisms were set at: Missing completely at random, moderately conditioned, and strongly conditioned. The eight imputation methods used were: listwise deletion, replacement by the mean of the scale, by the item mean, the subject mean, the corrected subject mean, multiple regression, and Expectation-Maximization (EM) algorithm, with and without auxiliary variables. The results indicate that the recovery of the data is more accurate when using an appropriate combination of different methods of recovering lost data. When a case is incomplete, the mean of the subject works very well, whereas for completely lost data, multiple imputation with the EM algorithm is recommended. The use of this combination is especially recommended when data loss is greater and its loss mechanism is more conditioned. Lastly, the results are discussed, and some future lines of research are analyzed.

  20. Sialoendoscopy, sialography, and ultrasound: a comparison of diagnostic methods

    PubMed Central

    Pniak, Tomáš; Štrympl, Pavel; Staníková, Lucia; Zeleník, Karol; Matoušek, Petr

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective To compare the accuracy of ultrasound, sialography, and sialendoscopy for examining benign salivary gland obstructions. Methods In this prospective study, patients with symptoms of obstruction of the major salivary gland duct system presenting at the ENT Clinic University Hospital, Ostrava, from June 2010 to December 2013 were included. All patients (n=76) underwent ultrasound, sialography, and sialoendoscopy. The signs of sialolithiasis, ductal stenosis, or normal findings were recorded after the examinations. Statistical analysis of the sensitivity and specificity of all the methods was performed, as well as a comparison of the accuracy of each method for different kinds of pathology (sialolithiasis or stenosis). Results The sensitivity of ultrasound, sialography, and sialoendoscopy for sialolithiasis findings were 71.9%, 86.7 %, and 100%, respectively. The sensitivity of sialography and sialoendoscopy for stenosis of the duct was 69.0%, and 100%, respectively. The study showed impossibility of ultrasonic diagnostics of ductal stenosis. The sensitivity of sialoendoscopy for both pathologies was significantly higher than that from ultrasound or sialography (p<0.05). The specificity of sialoendoscopy was significantly higher than that from by ultrasound or sialography (p<0.05). Conclusion Sialoendoscopy was the most accurate method for examination ductal pathology, with significantly higher sensitivity and specificity than by ultrasound or sialography. PMID:28352836

  1. Effectiveness of different diagnostic methods for assessment of hyperandrogenism in young women with hirsutism.

    PubMed

    Chanukvadze, D; Kristesashvili, J

    2011-11-01

    Free testosterone is the most common marker of hyperandrogenism in women. Its measurement by equilibrium dialysis and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectroscopy is the "gold standard", but determination of free testosterone routinely not feasible in all laboratories. In some cases the level of free testosterone may be elevated when the total testosterone level is normal. Low level of sex-hormone binding globulin determines the fraction of plasma testosterone that is free or bound to albumin. Recently, some models for calculating free testosterone and bioavailable testosterone from total testosterone, sex hormone binding globulin and albumin have been developed. The aim of this study was to compare effectiveness of diagnostic methods, such as serum free testosterone measured by ELISA-method and free androgen index and calculated androgen parameters for assessment of hyperandrogenism in young women with hirsutism. In 35 patients with hirsutism and different diagnosis free androgen index, free and bioavailable testosterone were calculated from total testosterone, sex hormone binding globulin and albumin. Free testosterone was measured by Elisa- method. Receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curves were drawn to assess diagnostic power of androgen parametres for different hirsutism degree. Significant positive correlation between free testosterone (FT) measured by ELISA -method and free androgen index (FAI) in patients with hirsutism was detected. The diagnostic power of cFT (calculated free testosterone) was greater than diagnostic power of FT and FAI in the group with severe hirsutism (for severe hirsutism (n=14) auROC (FT) =0,446; auROC (cFT)= 0,507; auROC (FAI)=0,461). FAI, cFT and cBio-T may be more adequate and alternative methods for assessment hyperandrogenism in women with hirsutism, than only free testosterone measured by ELISA-method. Furthermore, the calculated androgen parameters may be important to determinate the mechanisms of hyperandrogenism

  2. Operational modelling to guide implementation and scale-up of diagnostic tests within the health system: exploring opportunities for parasitic disease diagnostics based on example application for tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Langley, Ivor; Adams, Emily; Doulla, Basra; Squire, S Bertel

    2014-12-01

    Research and innovation in the diagnosis of infectious and parasitic diseases has led to the development of several promising diagnostic tools, for example in malaria there is extensive literature concerning the use of rapid diagnostic tests. This means policymakers in many low and middle income countries need to make difficult decisions about which of the recommended tools and approaches to implement and scale-up. The test characteristics (e.g. sensitivity and specificity) of the tools alone are not a sufficient basis on which to make these decisions as policymakers need to also consider the best combination of tools, whether the new tools should complement or replace existing diagnostics and who should be tested. Diagnostic strategies need dovetailing to different epidemiology and structural resource constraints (e.g. existing diagnostic pathways, human resources and laboratory capacity). We propose operational modelling to assist with these complex decisions. Projections of patient, health system and cost impacts are essential and operational modelling of the relevant elements of the health system could provide these projections and support rational decisions. We demonstrate how the technique of operational modelling applied in the developing world to support decisions on diagnostics for tuberculosis, could in a parallel way, provide useful insights to support implementation of appropriate diagnostic innovations for parasitic diseases.

  3. Application of receiver-operator analysis to diagnostic tests of iron deficiency in man.

    PubMed

    Kim, I; Pollitt, E; Leibel, R L; Viteri, F E; Alvarez, E

    1984-09-01

    The objective of the present report is to demonstrate the use of receiver-operator characteristics (ROC) analysis in the selection of diagnostic tests for iron deficiency in a specific population. Conventional ROC curves were prepared with true positive fraction (TPF) and false positive fraction (FPF) determined by the application of different cut-off points for four indicators of iron status. ROC plots were then transformed into normal deviate scales. The advantages of Gaussian transformation of TPF and FPF when underlying decision functions are normally distributed are: the ROC curve is a straight line; and the separation between the two distributions and shape of these distributions can be simply quantitated as intercepts and slopes. In the present study, pretreatment hemoglobin concentration was the most robust diagnostic indicator of iron deficiency as operationally defined by a response of hemoglobin to iron treatment. Free erythrocyte protoporphyrin was a more sensitive and specific predictor than either serum ferritin or transferin saturation when a stringent operational definition of iron deficiency was used. These findings illustrate the utility of ROC analysis in discriminating between diagnostic indicators having different degrees of accuracy.

  4. Edge Thomson scattering diagnostic on COMPASS tokamak: installation, calibration, operation, improvements.

    PubMed

    Bohm, P; Aftanas, M; Bilkova, P; Stefanikova, E; Mikulin, O; Melich, R; Janky, F; Havlicek, J; Sestak, D; Weinzettl, V; Stockel, J; Hron, M; Panek, R; Scannell, R; Frassinetti, L; Fassina, A; Naylor, G; Walsh, M J

    2014-11-01

    The core Thomson scattering diagnostic (TS) on the COMPASS tokamak was put in operation and reported earlier. Implementation of edge TS, with spatial resolution along the laser beam up to ∼1/100 of the tokamak minor radius, is presented now. The procedure for spatial calibration and alignment of both core and edge systems is described. Several further upgrades of the TS system, like a triggering unit and piezo motor driven vacuum window shutter, are introduced as well. The edge TS system, together with the core TS, is now in routine operation and provides electron temperature and density profiles.

  5. [CONTEMPORARY MOLECULAR-GENETIC METHODS USED FOR ETIOLOGIC DIAGNOSTICS OF SEPSIS].

    PubMed

    Gavrilov, S N; Skachkova, T S; Shipulina, O Yu; Savochkina, Yu A; Shipulin, G A; Maleev, V V

    2016-01-01

    Etiologic diagnostics of sepsis is one of the most difficult problems of contemporary medicine due to a wide variety of sepsis causative agents, many of which are components of normal human microflora. Disadvantages of contemporary "golden standard" of microbiologic diagnostics of sepsis etiology by seeding of blood for sterility are duration of cultivation, limitation in detection of non-cultivable forms of microorganisms, significant effect of preliminary empiric antibiotics therapy on results of the analysis. Methods of molecular diagnostics that are being actively developed and integrated during the last decade are deprived of these disadvantages. Main contemporary methods of molecular-biological diagnostics are examined in the review, actualdata on their diagnostic characteristic are provided. Special attention is given to methods of PCR-diagnostics, including novel Russian developments. Methods of nucleic acid hybridization and proteomic analysis are examined in comparative aspect. Evaluation of application and perspectives of development of methods of molecular diagnostics of sepsis is given.

  6. [Evaluation of the diagnostic power of 3 methods for assaying free T4. Results in the diagnostic strategy of hyperthyroidism].

    PubMed

    Fragu, P; Noel, M; Patois, E; Delarue, J C; Paugam-Capelle, J; Parmentier, C

    1985-01-01

    The free thyroxin (FT4) tests of Amersham, Clinical Assay and Corning Medical were evaluated in 240 patients who were suspected of hyperthyroidism. The diagnostic performances of the Corning method were of less value while those of the other methods were equivalent to that obtained with the free thyroxin index for an average cost reduced. Furthermore our results show that T3 determination is better than T4 determination in patients who remained doubtful after FT4. However the development of ultra-short methods of measurement of total thyroid hormone blood levels using fluorescence polarization could lead to reconsider the diagnostic strategy of hyperthyroidism.

  7. A Review of the Diagnostic Methods Reported in the Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waller, Stacey A.; Armstrong, Kevin J.; McGrath, Ann M.; Sullivan, Cristin L.

    1999-01-01

    This review summarizes subject selection and diagnostic procedures documented in 142 empirical articles published between 1993 and 1997. Although most researchers reported use of standard diagnostic criteria in classifying subjects, numerous studies did not report diagnostic methods and there was often a lack of specification of inclusion and…

  8. Overview of diagnostic performance and results for the first operation phase in Wendelstein 7-X (invited).

    PubMed

    Krychowiak, M; Adnan, A; Alonso, A; Andreeva, T; Baldzuhn, J; Barbui, T; Beurskens, M; Biel, W; Biedermann, C; Blackwell, B D; Bosch, H S; Bozhenkov, S; Brakel, R; Bräuer, T; Brotas de Carvalho, B; Burhenn, R; Buttenschön, B; Cappa, A; Cseh, G; Czarnecka, A; Dinklage, A; Drews, P; Dzikowicka, A; Effenberg, F; Endler, M; Erckmann, V; Estrada, T; Ford, O; Fornal, T; Frerichs, H; Fuchert, G; Geiger, J; Grulke, O; Harris, J H; Hartfuß, H J; Hartmann, D; Hathiramani, D; Hirsch, M; Höfel, U; Jabłoński, S; Jakubowski, M W; Kaczmarczyk, J; Klinger, T; Klose, S; Knauer, J; Kocsis, G; König, R; Kornejew, P; Krämer-Flecken, A; Krawczyk, N; Kremeyer, T; Książek, I; Kubkowska, M; Langenberg, A; Laqua, H P; Laux, M; Lazerson, S; Liang, Y; Liu, S C; Lorenz, A; Marchuk, A O; Marsen, S; Moncada, V; Naujoks, D; Neilson, H; Neubauer, O; Neuner, U; Niemann, H; Oosterbeek, J W; Otte, M; Pablant, N; Pasch, E; Sunn Pedersen, T; Pisano, F; Rahbarnia, K; Ryć, L; Schmitz, O; Schmuck, S; Schneider, W; Schröder, T; Schuhmacher, H; Schweer, B; Standley, B; Stange, T; Stephey, L; Svensson, J; Szabolics, T; Szepesi, T; Thomsen, H; Travere, J-M; Trimino Mora, H; Tsuchiya, H; Weir, G M; Wenzel, U; Werner, A; Wiegel, B; Windisch, T; Wolf, R; Wurden, G A; Zhang, D; Zimbal, A; Zoletnik, S

    2016-11-01

    Wendelstein 7-X, a superconducting optimized stellarator built in Greifswald/Germany, started its first plasmas with the last closed flux surface (LCFS) defined by 5 uncooled graphite limiters in December 2015. At the end of the 10 weeks long experimental campaign (OP1.1) more than 20 independent diagnostic systems were in operation, allowing detailed studies of many interesting plasma phenomena. For example, fast neutral gas manometers supported by video cameras (including one fast-frame camera with frame rates of tens of kHz) as well as visible cameras with different interference filters, with field of views covering all ten half-modules of the stellarator, discovered a MARFE-like radiation zone on the inboard side of machine module 4. This structure is presumably triggered by an inadvertent plasma-wall interaction in module 4 resulting in a high impurity influx that terminates some discharges by radiation cooling. The main plasma parameters achieved in OP1.1 exceeded predicted values in discharges of a length reaching 6 s. Although OP1.1 is characterized by short pulses, many of the diagnostics are already designed for quasi-steady state operation of 30 min discharges heated at 10 MW of ECRH. An overview of diagnostic performance for OP1.1 is given, including some highlights from the physics campaigns.

  9. Overview of diagnostic performance and results for the first operation phase in Wendelstein 7-X (invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krychowiak, M.; Adnan, A.; Alonso, A.; Andreeva, T.; Baldzuhn, J.; Barbui, T.; Beurskens, M.; Biel, W.; Biedermann, C.; Blackwell, B. D.; Bosch, H. S.; Bozhenkov, S.; Brakel, R.; Bräuer, T.; Brotas de Carvalho, B.; Burhenn, R.; Buttenschön, B.; Cappa, A.; Cseh, G.; Czarnecka, A.; Dinklage, A.; Drews, P.; Dzikowicka, A.; Effenberg, F.; Endler, M.; Erckmann, V.; Estrada, T.; Ford, O.; Fornal, T.; Frerichs, H.; Fuchert, G.; Geiger, J.; Grulke, O.; Harris, J. H.; Hartfuß, H. J.; Hartmann, D.; Hathiramani, D.; Hirsch, M.; Höfel, U.; Jabłoński, S.; Jakubowski, M. W.; Kaczmarczyk, J.; Klinger, T.; Klose, S.; Knauer, J.; Kocsis, G.; König, R.; Kornejew, P.; Krämer-Flecken, A.; Krawczyk, N.; Kremeyer, T.; Książek, I.; Kubkowska, M.; Langenberg, A.; Laqua, H. P.; Laux, M.; Lazerson, S.; Liang, Y.; Liu, S. C.; Lorenz, A.; Marchuk, A. O.; Marsen, S.; Moncada, V.; Naujoks, D.; Neilson, H.; Neubauer, O.; Neuner, U.; Niemann, H.; Oosterbeek, J. W.; Otte, M.; Pablant, N.; Pasch, E.; Sunn Pedersen, T.; Pisano, F.; Rahbarnia, K.; Ryć, L.; Schmitz, O.; Schmuck, S.; Schneider, W.; Schröder, T.; Schuhmacher, H.; Schweer, B.; Standley, B.; Stange, T.; Stephey, L.; Svensson, J.; Szabolics, T.; Szepesi, T.; Thomsen, H.; Travere, J.-M.; Trimino Mora, H.; Tsuchiya, H.; Weir, G. M.; Wenzel, U.; Werner, A.; Wiegel, B.; Windisch, T.; Wolf, R.; Wurden, G. A.; Zhang, D.; Zimbal, A.; Zoletnik, S.

    2016-11-01

    Wendelstein 7-X, a superconducting optimized stellarator built in Greifswald/Germany, started its first plasmas with the last closed flux surface (LCFS) defined by 5 uncooled graphite limiters in December 2015. At the end of the 10 weeks long experimental campaign (OP1.1) more than 20 independent diagnostic systems were in operation, allowing detailed studies of many interesting plasma phenomena. For example, fast neutral gas manometers supported by video cameras (including one fast-frame camera with frame rates of tens of kHz) as well as visible cameras with different interference filters, with field of views covering all ten half-modules of the stellarator, discovered a MARFE-like radiation zone on the inboard side of machine module 4. This structure is presumably triggered by an inadvertent plasma-wall interaction in module 4 resulting in a high impurity influx that terminates some discharges by radiation cooling. The main plasma parameters achieved in OP1.1 exceeded predicted values in discharges of a length reaching 6 s. Although OP1.1 is characterized by short pulses, many of the diagnostics are already designed for quasi-steady state operation of 30 min discharges heated at 10 MW of ECRH. An overview of diagnostic performance for OP1.1 is given, including some highlights from the physics campaigns.

  10. Overview of diagnostic performance and results for the first operation phase in Wendelstein 7-X (invited)

    DOE PAGES

    Krychowiak, M.

    2016-10-27

    Wendelstein 7-X, a superconducting optimized stellarator built in Greifswald/Germany, started its first plasmas with the last closed flux surface (LCFS) defined by 5 uncooled graphite limiters in December 2015. At the end of the 10 weeks long experimental campaign (OP1.1) more than 20 independent diagnostic systems were in operation, allowing detailed studies of many interesting plasma phenomena. For example, fast neutral gas manometers supported by video cameras (including one fast-frame camera with frame rates of tens of kHz) as well as visible cameras with different interference filters, with field of views covering all ten half-modules of the stellarator, discovered amore » MARFE-like radiation zone on the inboard side of machine module 4. This structure is presumably triggered by an inadvertent plasma-wall interaction in module 4 resulting in a high impurity influx that terminates some discharges by radiation cooling. The main plasma parameters achieved in OP1.1 exceeded predicted values in discharges of a length reaching 6 s. Although OP1.1 is characterized by short pulses, many of the diagnostics are already designed for quasi-steady state operation of 30 min discharges heated at 10 MW of ECRH. Finally, an overview of diagnostic performance for OP1.1 is given, including some highlights from the physics campaigns.« less

  11. Overview of diagnostic performance and results for the first operation phase in Wendelstein 7-X (invited)

    SciTech Connect

    Krychowiak, M.

    2016-10-27

    Wendelstein 7-X, a superconducting optimized stellarator built in Greifswald/Germany, started its first plasmas with the last closed flux surface (LCFS) defined by 5 uncooled graphite limiters in December 2015. At the end of the 10 weeks long experimental campaign (OP1.1) more than 20 independent diagnostic systems were in operation, allowing detailed studies of many interesting plasma phenomena. For example, fast neutral gas manometers supported by video cameras (including one fast-frame camera with frame rates of tens of kHz) as well as visible cameras with different interference filters, with field of views covering all ten half-modules of the stellarator, discovered a MARFE-like radiation zone on the inboard side of machine module 4. This structure is presumably triggered by an inadvertent plasma-wall interaction in module 4 resulting in a high impurity influx that terminates some discharges by radiation cooling. The main plasma parameters achieved in OP1.1 exceeded predicted values in discharges of a length reaching 6 s. Although OP1.1 is characterized by short pulses, many of the diagnostics are already designed for quasi-steady state operation of 30 min discharges heated at 10 MW of ECRH. Finally, an overview of diagnostic performance for OP1.1 is given, including some highlights from the physics campaigns.

  12. The analysis of diagnostics possibilities of the Dual- Drive electric power steering system using diagnostics scanner and computer method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szczypiński-Sala, W.; Dobaj, K.

    2016-09-01

    The article presents the analysis of diagnostics possibilities of electric power steering system using computer diagnostics scanner. Several testing attempts were performed. There were analyzed the changes of torque moment exerted on steering wheel by the driver and the changes of the angle of rotation steering wheel accompanying them. The tests were conducted in variable conditions comprising wheel load and the friction coefficient of tyre road interaction. Obtained results enabled the analysis of the influence of changeable operations conditions, possible to acquire in diagnostics scanners of chosen parameters of electric power steering system. Moreover, simulation model of operation, electric drive power steering system with the use of the Matlab simulation software was created. The results of the measurements obtained in road conditions served to verify this model. Subsequently, model response to inputs change of the device was analyzed and its reaction to various constructional and exploitative parameters was checked. The entirety of conducted work constitutes a step to create a diagnostic monitor possible to use in self-diagnosis of electric power steering system.

  13. Dental and dental hygiene students' diagnostic accuracy in oral radiology: effect of diagnostic strategy and instructional method.

    PubMed

    Baghdady, Mariam T; Carnahan, Heather; Lam, Ernest W N; Woods, Nicole N

    2014-09-01

    There has been much debate surrounding diagnostic strategies and the most appropriate training models for novices in oral radiology. It has been argued that an analytic approach, using a step-by-step analysis of the radiographic features of an abnormality, is ideal. Alternative research suggests that novices can successfully employ non-analytic reasoning. Many of these studies do not take instructional methodology into account. This study evaluated the effectiveness of non-analytic and analytic strategies in radiographic interpretation and explored the relationship between instructional methodology and diagnostic strategy. Second-year dental and dental hygiene students were taught four radiographic abnormalities using basic science instructions or a step-by-step algorithm. The students were tested on diagnostic accuracy and memory immediately after learning and one week later. A total of seventy-three students completed both immediate and delayed sessions and were included in the analysis. Students were randomly divided into two instructional conditions: one group provided a diagnostic hypothesis for the image and then identified specific features to support it, while the other group first identified features and then provided a diagnosis. Participants in the diagnosis-first condition (non-analytic reasoning) had higher diagnostic accuracy then those in the features-first condition (analytic reasoning), regardless of their learning condition. No main effect of learning condition or interaction with diagnostic strategy was observed. Educators should be mindful of the potential influence of analytic and non-analytic approaches on the effectiveness of the instructional method.

  14. Interrater reliability of diagnostic methods in traditional Indian ayurvedic medicine.

    PubMed

    Kurande, Vrinda; Bilgrau, Anders Ellern; Waagepetersen, Rasmus; Toft, Egon; Prasad, Ramjee

    2013-01-01

    This study assesses the interrater reliability of Ayurvedic pulse (nadi), tongue (jivha), and body constitution (prakriti) assessments. Fifteen registered Ayurvedic doctors with 3-15 years of experience independently examined twenty healthy subjects. Subjects completed self-assessment questionnaires and software analyses for prakriti assessment. Weighted kappa statistics for all 105 pairs of doctors were computed for the pulse, tongue, and prakriti data sets. According to the Landis-Koch scale, the pairwise kappas ranged from poor to slight, slight to fair, and fair to moderate for pulse, tongue, and prakriti assessments, respectively. The average pairwise kappa for pulse, tongue, and prakriti was 0.07, 0.17, and 0.28, respectively. For each data set and pair of doctors, the null hypothesis of random rating was rejected for just twelve pairs of doctors for prakriti, one pair of doctors for pulse examination, and no pairs of doctors for tongue assessment. Thus, the results demonstrate a low level of reliability for all types of assessment made by doctors. There was significant evidence against random rating by software and questionnaire use and by the diagnosis preferred by the majority of doctors. Prakriti assessment appears reliable when questionnaire and software assessment are used, while other diagnostic methods have room for improvement.

  15. FTDD973: A multimedia knowledge-based system and methodology for operator training and diagnostics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hekmatpour, Amir; Brown, Gary; Brault, Randy; Bowen, Greg

    1993-01-01

    FTDD973 (973 Fabricator Training, Documentation, and Diagnostics) is an interactive multimedia knowledge based system and methodology for computer-aided training and certification of operators, as well as tool and process diagnostics in IBM's CMOS SGP fabrication line (building 973). FTDD973 is an example of what can be achieved with modern multimedia workstations. Knowledge-based systems, hypertext, hypergraphics, high resolution images, audio, motion video, and animation are technologies that in synergy can be far more useful than each by itself. FTDD973's modular and object-oriented architecture is also an example of how improvements in software engineering are finally making it possible to combine many software modules into one application. FTDD973 is developed in ExperMedia/2; and OS/2 multimedia expert system shell for domain experts.

  16. Operation Request Gatekeeper: a software system for remote access control of diagnostic instruments in fusion experiments.

    PubMed

    Abla, G; Fredian, T W; Schissel, D P; Stillerman, J A; Greenwald, M J; Stepanov, D N; Ciarlette, D J

    2010-10-01

    Tokamak diagnostic settings are repeatedly modified to meet the changing needs of each experiment. Enabling the remote diagnostic control has significant challenges due to security and efficiency requirements. The Operation Request Gatekeeper (ORG) is a software system that addresses the challenges of remotely but securely submitting modification requests. The ORG provides a framework for screening all the requests before they enter the secure machine zone and are executed by performing user authentication and authorization, grammar validation, and validity checks. A prototype ORG was developed for the ITER CODAC that satisfies their initial requirements for remote request submission and has been tested with remote control of the KSTAR Plasma Control System. This paper describes the software design principles and implementation of ORG as well as worldwide test results.

  17. Advanced Optical Diagnostic Methods for Describing Fuel Injection and Combustion Flowfield Phenomena

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Locke, Randy J.; Hicks, Yolanda R.; Anderson, Robert C.

    2004-01-01

    Over the past decade advanced optical diagnostic techniques have evolved and matured to a point where they are now widely applied in the interrogation of high pressure combusting flows. At NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC), imaging techniques have been used successfully in on-going work to develop the next generation of commercial aircraft gas turbine combustors. This work has centered on providing a means by which researchers and designers can obtain direct visual observation and measurements of the fuel injection/mixing/combustion processes and combustor flowfield in two- and three-dimensional views at actual operational conditions. Obtaining a thorough understanding of the chemical and physical processes at the extreme operating conditions of the next generation of combustors is critical to reducing emissions and increasing fuel efficiency. To accomplish this and other tasks, the diagnostic team at GRC has designed and constructed optically accessible, high pressurer high temperature flame tubes and sectar rigs capable of optically probing the 20-60 atm flowfields of these aero-combustors. Among the techniques employed at GRC are planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) for imaging molecular species as well as liquid and gaseous fuel; planar light scattering (PLS) for imaging fuel sprays and droplets; and spontaneous Raman scattering for species and temperature measurement. Using these techniques, optical measurements never before possible have been made in the actual environments of liquid fueled gas turbines. 2-D mapping of such parameters as species (e.g. OH-, NO and kerosene-based jet fuel) distribution, injector spray angle, and fuel/air distribution are just some of the measurements that are now routinely made. Optical imaging has also provided prompt feedback to researchers regarding the effects of changes in the fuel injector configuration on both combustor performance and flowfield character. Several injector design modifications and improvements have

  18. Optical caries diagnostics: comparison of laser spectroscopic PNC method with method of laser integral fluorescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masychev, Victor I.

    2000-11-01

    In this research we present the results of approbation of two methods of optical caries diagnostics: PNC-spectral diagnostics and caries detection by laser integral fluorescence. The research was conducted in a dental clinic. PNC-method analyses parameters of probing laser radiation and PNC-spectrums of stimulated secondary radiations: backscattering and endogenous fluorescence of caries-involved bacterias. He-Ne-laser ((lambda) =632,8 nm, 1-2mW) was used as a source of probing (stimulated) radiation. For registration of signals, received from intact and pathological teeth PDA-detector was applied. PNC-spectrums were processed by special algorithms, and were displayed on PC monitor. The method of laser integral fluorescence was used for comparison. In this case integral power of fluorescence of human teeth was measured. As a source of probing (stimulated) radiation diode lasers ((lambda) =655 nm, 0.1 mW and 630nm, 1mW) and He-Ne laser were applied. For registration of signals Si-photodetector was used. Integral power was shown in a digital indicator. Advantages and disadvantages of these methods are described in this research. It is disclosed that the method of laser integral power of fluorescence has the following characteristics: simplicity of construction and schema-technical decisions. However the method of PNC-spectral diagnostics are characterized by considerably more sensitivity in diagnostics of initial caries and capability to differentiate pathologies of various stages (for example, calculus/initial caries). Estimation of spectral characteristics of PNC-signals allows eliminating a number of drawbacks, which are character for detection by method of laser integral fluorescence (for instance, detection of fluorescent fillings, plagues, calculus, discolorations generally, amalgam, gold fillings as if it were caries.

  19. Relativistic hydrodynamics from the projection operator method.

    PubMed

    Minami, Yuki; Hidaka, Yoshimasa

    2013-02-01

    We study relativistic hydrodynamics in the linear regime, based on Mori's projection operator method. In relativistic hydrodynamics, it is considered that an ambiguity about the fluid velocity occurs from the choice of a local rest frame: the Landau and Eckart frames. We find that the difference of the frames is not the choice of the local rest frame, but rather that of dynamic variables in the linear regime. We derive hydrodynamic equations in both frames by the projection operator method. We show that the natural derivation gives the linearized Landau equation. Also we find that, even for the Eckart frame, the slow dynamics is actually described by the dynamic variables for the Landau frame.

  20. Initial operation of the NSTX-Upgrade real-time velocity diagnostic

    DOE PAGES

    Podestà, M.; Bell, R. E.

    2016-11-03

    A real-time velocity (RTV) diagnostic based on active charge-exchange recombination spectroscopy is now operational on the National Spherical Torus Experiment-Upgrade (NSTX-U) spherical torus (Menard et al 2012 Nucl. Fusion 52 083015). We designed the system in order to supply plasma velocity data in real time to the NSTX-U plasma control system, as required for the implementation of toroidal rotation control. Our measurements are available from four radii at a maximum sampling frequency of 5 kHz. Post-discharge analysis of RTV data provides additional information on ion temperature, toroidal velocity and density of carbon impurities. Furthermore, examples of physics studies enabled bymore » RTV measurements from initial operations of NSTX-U are discussed.« less

  1. Initial operation of the NSTX-Upgrade real-time velocity diagnostic

    SciTech Connect

    Podestà, M.; Bell, R. E.

    2016-11-03

    A real-time velocity (RTV) diagnostic based on active charge-exchange recombination spectroscopy is now operational on the National Spherical Torus Experiment-Upgrade (NSTX-U) spherical torus (Menard et al 2012 Nucl. Fusion 52 083015). We designed the system in order to supply plasma velocity data in real time to the NSTX-U plasma control system, as required for the implementation of toroidal rotation control. Our measurements are available from four radii at a maximum sampling frequency of 5 kHz. Post-discharge analysis of RTV data provides additional information on ion temperature, toroidal velocity and density of carbon impurities. Furthermore, examples of physics studies enabled by RTV measurements from initial operations of NSTX-U are discussed.

  2. Initial operation of the NSTX-Upgrade real-time velocity diagnostic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Podestà, M.; Bell, R. E.

    2016-12-01

    A real-time velocity (RTV) diagnostic based on active charge-exchange recombination spectroscopy is now operational on the National Spherical Torus Experiment-Upgrade (NSTX-U) spherical torus (Menard et al 2012 Nucl. Fusion 52 083015). The system has been designed to supply plasma velocity data in real time to the NSTX-U plasma control system, as required for the implementation of toroidal rotation control. Measurements are available from four radii at a maximum sampling frequency of 5 kHz. Post-discharge analysis of RTV data provides additional information on ion temperature, toroidal velocity and density of carbon impurities. Examples of physics studies enabled by RTV measurements from initial operations of NSTX-U are discussed.

  3. Electrically heated particulate filter diagnostic systems and methods

    DOEpatents

    Gonze, Eugene V [Pinckney, MI

    2009-09-29

    A system that diagnoses regeneration of an electrically heated particulate filter is provided. The system generally includes a grid module that diagnoses a fault of the grid based on at least one of a current signal and a voltage signal. A diagnostic module at least one of sets a fault status and generates a warning signal based on the fault of the grid.

  4. Sherlock Holmes's Methods of Deductive Reasoning Applied to Medical Diagnostics

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Larry

    1985-01-01

    Having patterned the character of Sherlock Holmes after one of his professors, Sir Arthur Conan Doyle, himself a physician, incorporated many of the didactic qualities of the 19th century medical diagnostician into the character of Holmes. In this paper I explore Holmes's techniques of deductive reasoning and their basis in 19th and 20th century medical diagnostics. PMID:3887762

  5. Sherlock Holmes' methods of deductive reasoning applied to medical diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Miller, L

    1985-03-01

    Having patterned the character of Sherlock Holmes after one of his professors, Sir Arthur Conan Doyle, himself a physician, incorporated many of the didactic qualities of the 19th century medical diagnostician into the character of Holmes. In this paper I explore Holmes's techniques of deductive reasoning and their basis in 19th and 20th century medical diagnostics.

  6. In Depth Diagnostics for RF System Operation in the PEP-II B Factory

    SciTech Connect

    Van Winkle, Daniel; Fox, John; Teytelman, Dmitry; /SLAC

    2005-05-27

    The PEP-II RF systems incorporate numerous feedback loops in the low-level processing for impedance control and operating point regulation. The interaction of the multiple loops with the beam is complicated, and the systems incorporate online diagnostic tools to configure the feedback loops as well as to record fault files in the case of an RF abort. Rapid and consistent analysis of the RF-related beam aborts and other failures is critical to the reliable operation of the B-Factory, especially at the recently achieved high beam currents. Procedures and algorithms used to extract diagnostic information from time domain fault files are presented and illustrated via example interpretations of PEP-II fault file data. Example faults presented will highlight the subtle interpretation required to determine the root cause. Some such examples are: abort kicker firing asynchronously, klystron and cavity arcs, beam loss leading to longitudinal instability, tuner read back jumps and poorly configured low-level RF feedback loop.

  7. Engine and method for operating an engine

    DOEpatents

    Lauper, Jr., John Christian; Willi, Martin Leo; Thirunavukarasu, Balamurugesh; Gong, Weidong

    2008-12-23

    A method of operating an engine is provided. The method may include supplying a combustible combination of reactants to a combustion chamber of the engine, which may include supplying a first hydrocarbon fuel, hydrogen fuel, and a second hydrocarbon fuel to the combustion chamber. Supplying the second hydrocarbon fuel to the combustion chamber may include at least one of supplying at least a portion of the second hydrocarbon fuel from an outlet port that discharges into an intake system of the engine and supplying at least a portion of the second hydrocarbon fuel from an outlet port that discharges into the combustion chamber. Additionally, the method may include combusting the combustible combination of reactants in the combustion chamber.

  8. First hydrogen operation of NIO1: Characterization of the source plasma by means of an optical emission spectroscopy diagnostic

    SciTech Connect

    Barbisan, M. Baltador, C.; Zaniol, B.; Pasqualotto, R.; Serianni, G.; Cavenago, M.; Fantz, U.; Wünderlich, D.; Vialetto, L.

    2016-02-15

    NIO1 (Negative Ion Optimization 1) is a compact and flexible radio frequency H{sup −} ion source, developed by Consorzio RFX and INFN-LNL. The aim of the experimentation on NIO1 is the optimization of both the production of negative ions and their extraction and beam optics. In the initial phase of its commissioning, NIO1 was operated with nitrogen, but now the source is regularly operated also with hydrogen. To evaluate the source performances, an optical emission spectroscopy diagnostic was installed. The system includes a low resolution spectrometer in the spectral range of 300-850 nm and a high resolution (50 pm) one, to study, respectively, the atomic and the molecular emissions in the visible range. The spectroscopic data have been interpreted also by means of a collisional-radiative model developed at IPP Garching. Besides the diagnostic hardware and the data analysis methods, the paper presents the first plasma measurements across a transition to the full H mode, in a hydrogen discharge. The characteristic signatures of this transition in the plasma parameters are described, in particular, the sudden increase of the light emitted from the plasma above a certain power threshold.

  9. Impact of gene patents on diagnostic testing: a new patent landscaping method applied to spinocerebellar ataxia

    PubMed Central

    Berthels, Nele; Matthijs, Gert; Van Overwalle, Geertrui

    2011-01-01

    Recent reports in Europe and the United States raise concern about the potential negative impact of gene patents on the freedom to operate of diagnosticians and on the access of patients to genetic diagnostic services. Patents, historically seen as legal instruments to trigger innovation, could cause undesired side effects in the public health domain. Clear empirical evidence on the alleged hindering effect of gene patents is still scarce. We therefore developed a patent categorization method to determine which gene patents could indeed be problematic. The method is applied to patents relevant for genetic testing of spinocerebellar ataxia (SCA). The SCA test is probably the most widely used DNA test in (adult) neurology, as well as one of the most challenging due to the heterogeneity of the disease. Typically tested as a gene panel covering the five common SCA subtypes, we show that the patenting of SCA genes and testing methods and the associated licensing conditions could have far-reaching consequences on legitimate access to this gene panel. Moreover, with genetic testing being increasingly standardized, simply ignoring patents is unlikely to hold out indefinitely. This paper aims to differentiate among so-called ‘gene patents' by lifting out the truly problematic ones. In doing so, awareness is raised among all stakeholders in the genetic diagnostics field who are not necessarily familiar with the ins and outs of patenting and licensing. PMID:21811306

  10. Multiple frequency method for operating electrochemical sensors

    DOEpatents

    Martin, Louis P [San Ramon, CA

    2012-05-15

    A multiple frequency method for the operation of a sensor to measure a parameter of interest using calibration information including the steps of exciting the sensor at a first frequency providing a first sensor response, exciting the sensor at a second frequency providing a second sensor response, using the second sensor response at the second frequency and the calibration information to produce a calculated concentration of the interfering parameters, using the first sensor response at the first frequency, the calculated concentration of the interfering parameters, and the calibration information to measure the parameter of interest.

  11. Speckle methods for diagnostics of the human oral cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kharish, Natalia A.; Sedykh, Alexey V.; Ulyanov, Sergey S.; Lepilin, Alexander V.; Tuchin, Valery V.

    1999-11-01

    Possibility of application of speckle interferometry for diagnostics in dentistry has been analyzed. Problem of standardization of the measuring procedure has been studied. Deviation of output characteristics of Doppler system for blood microcirculation measurements has been investigated. Dependence of form of Doppler spectrum on the degree of seriousness of diseases has been studied in experiments in vivo. Behavior of spectral moments of measuring signal during the treatment of parodontitis has been analyzed.

  12. Jet Noise Diagnostics Supporting Statistical Noise Prediction Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bridges, James E.

    2006-01-01

    The primary focus of my presentation is the development of the jet noise prediction code JeNo with most examples coming from the experimental work that drove the theoretical development and validation. JeNo is a statistical jet noise prediction code, based upon the Lilley acoustic analogy. Our approach uses time-average 2-D or 3-D mean and turbulent statistics of the flow as input. The output is source distributions and spectral directivity. NASA has been investing in development of statistical jet noise prediction tools because these seem to fit the middle ground that allows enough flexibility and fidelity for jet noise source diagnostics while having reasonable computational requirements. These tools rely on Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) computational fluid dynamics (CFD) solutions as input for computing far-field spectral directivity using an acoustic analogy. There are many ways acoustic analogies can be created, each with a series of assumptions and models, many often taken unknowingly. And the resulting prediction can be easily reverse-engineered by altering the models contained within. However, only an approach which is mathematically sound, with assumptions validated and modeled quantities checked against direct measurement will give consistently correct answers. Many quantities are modeled in acoustic analogies precisely because they have been impossible to measure or calculate, making this requirement a difficult task. The NASA team has spent considerable effort identifying all the assumptions and models used to take the Navier-Stokes equations to the point of a statistical calculation via an acoustic analogy very similar to that proposed by Lilley. Assumptions have been identified and experiments have been developed to test these assumptions. In some cases this has resulted in assumptions being changed. Beginning with the CFD used as input to the acoustic analogy, models for turbulence closure used in RANS CFD codes have been explored and

  13. Method Matters: Understanding Diagnostic Reliability in DSM-IV and DSM-5

    PubMed Central

    Chmielewski, Michael; Clark, Lee Anna; Bagby, R. Michael; Watson, David

    2015-01-01

    Diagnostic reliability is essential for the science and practice of psychology, in part because reliability is necessary for validity. Recently, the DSM-5 Field Trials documented lower diagnostic reliability than past field trials and the general research literature, resulting in substantial criticism of the DSM-5 diagnostic criteria. Rather than indicating specific problems with DSM-5, however, the Field Trials may have revealed long-standing diagnostic issues that have been hidden due to a reliance on audio/video-recordings for estimating reliability. We estimated the reliability of DSM-IV diagnoses using both the standard audio-recording method and the test-retest method used in the DSM-5 Field Trials, in which different clinicians conduct separate interviews. Psychiatric patients (N = 339) were diagnosed using the SCID-I/P; 218 were diagnosed a second time by an independent interviewer. Diagnostic reliability using the audio-recording method (N = 49) was “good” to “excellent” (M kappa = .80) and comparable to the DSM-IV Field Trials estimates. Reliability using the test-retest method (N = 218) was “poor” to “fair” (M kappa = .47) and similar to DSM-5 Field-Trials’ estimates. Despite low test-retest diagnostic reliability, self-reported symptoms were highly stable. Moreover, there was no association between change in self-report and change in diagnostic status. These results demonstrate the influence of method on estimates of diagnostic reliability. PMID:26098046

  14. An objective method and measuring equipment for noise control and acoustic diagnostics of motorcars. [acoustic diagnostics on automobile engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kacprowski, J.; Motylewski, J.; Miazga, J.

    1974-01-01

    An objective method and apparatus for noise control and acoustic diagnostics of motorcar engines are reported. The method and apparatus let us know whether the noisiness of the vehicle under test exceeds the admissible threshold levels given by appropriate standards and if so what is the main source of the excessive noise. The method consists in measuring both the overall noise level and the sound pressure levels in definite frequency bands while the engine speed is controlled as well and may be fixed at prescribed values. Whenever the individually adjusted threshold level has been exceeded in any frequency band, a self-sustaining control signal is sent.

  15. Surveillance system and method having an operating mode partitioned fault classification model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bickford, Randall L. (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    A system and method which partitions a parameter estimation model, a fault detection model, and a fault classification model for a process surveillance scheme into two or more coordinated submodels together providing improved diagnostic decision making for at least one determined operating mode of an asset.

  16. The German Competence Net Dementias: standard operating procedures for the neurochemical dementia diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Lewczuk, P; Kornhuber, J; Wiltfang, J

    2006-08-01

    Aging of population results in an increasing number of patients with dementia. Therefore, recently a BMBF-supported project, Competence Net Dementia, was launched to reveal diagnostic, therapeutic, and epidemiologic aspects of demential disorders. In this project, our task was to establish and maintain human body fluids (HBF) bank to collect cerebrospinal fluid, plasma, serum, and full blood of patients enrolled into the study. As the pre-analytical sample handling is a prerequisite of all studies aiming at finding novel disease biomarkers, standard operating procedures (SOPs) were launched by our group to allow standardized collection, storage, and shipment of the samples among all 14 University centers involved in HBF collection. Currently, to our best knowledge the CND HBF bank represents one of the largest prospectively collected set of the samples from subjects with mild cognitive impairment and early dementias. With the samples collected in the HBF bank, recently introduced analytical technologies (like e.g. surface enhanced laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (SELDI-TOF MS), differential gel electrophoresis (DIGE), and multiplexing) can be promptly tested with regard to their potential usefulness in neurochemical dementia diagnostics.

  17. [Concepts, evaluation methods, diagnostic and prognostic values of implant stability].

    PubMed

    Grognard, Nicolas; Vande Vannet, Bart

    2010-01-01

    The outcome of oral implant treatment is in part focused on the obtained implant stability as outlined in the success criteria as propose by Albrektsson T. & Albrektsson B. (1987) and by Buser et al. (1997). In those criteria, clinical diagnostic testing of implant stability is a rather crude and subjective procedure. Quantitative measurement technology, such as the Periotest and the Osstell Mentor devices do provide more refined and objective tools to diagnose and monitor the state of osseointegration. On the other hand, their power to predict treatment outcome is rather low.

  18. Method of operating a coal gasifier

    DOEpatents

    Blaskowski, Henry J.

    1979-01-01

    A method of operating an entrained flow coal gasifier which comprises the steps of firing coal at two levels in a combustion zone with near stoichiometric air, removing molten ash from the combustion zone, conveying combustion products upwardly from the combustion zone through a reduction zone, injecting additional coal into the combustion products in the reduction zone and gasifying at least a portion of the coal to form low BTU gas, conveying the gas to a point of use, including also reducing gasifier output by modifying the ratio of air to coal supplied to the upper level of the combustion zone so that the ratio becomes increasingly substoichiometric thereby extending the gasification of coal from the reduction zone into the upper level of the combustion zone, and maintaining the lower level of coal in the combustion zone at near stoichiometric conditions so as to provide sufficient heat to maintain effective slagging conditions.

  19. Startup impurity diagnostics in Wendelstein 7-X stellarator in the first operational phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomsen, H.; Langenberg, A.; Zhang, D.; Bertschinger, G.; Biedermann, C.; Biel, W.; Burhenn, R.; Buttenschön, B.; Grosser, K.; König, R.; Kubkowska, M.; Marchuk, O.; Pablant, N.; Ryc, L.; Pedersen, T. S.; W7-X Team

    2015-10-01

    An essential element for stationary stellarator operation is the understanding of the impurity transport behavior. Neoclassical theory predicts an impurity transport towards the plasma core for the standard ion root regime in stellarators [1,2]. The performance of a quasi-stationary device like Wendelstein 7-X stellarator (W7-X, presently in the commissioning phase in Greifswald, Germany) could be limited in case of strong impurity accumulation. Therefore, a set of plasma diagnostics is foreseen to obtain key experimental quantities for the neoclassical transport modeling as ion temperature profile, density gradients and impurity concentration [1]. The core impurity content is monitored by the High Efficiency eXtreme ultraviolet Overview Spectrometer system (HEXOS) [2], covering the wavelength range 2.5-160 nm (intermediate ionization states of all relevant heavy intrinsic impurity species) with high spectral resolution and a time resolution of 1 ms, adequate for transport analysis. Impurity radiation at shorter wave lengths (4 nm-0.06 nm) will be monitored with the SX pulse height analysis system (PHA) [3]. The ion temperature profile can be deduced from inversion of data from the High Resolution X-ray Imaging Spectrometer (HR-XIS), which measures the concentration and temperature of argon tracer gas in helium-like ionization stages [6,7,8]. A second X-ray Imaging Crystal Spectrometer (XICS), which will additionally provide the poloidal ion rotation velocity, is under preparation [8,9]. The total radiation will be measured by two bolometer cameras [10,11]. The status of the impurity diagnostics for the first operational phase in W7-X is summarized in this paper and an outlook for the next experimental campaign is given.

  20. Diagnostic efficacy of in vitro methods vs. skin testing in patients with inhalant allergies

    SciTech Connect

    Corey, J.P.; Liudahl, J.J.; Young, S.A.; Rodman, S.M. )

    1991-03-01

    The purpose of our study was to investigate the diagnostic efficacy of two selected methods of in vitro allergy testing. Specifically, the PRIST/modified RAST I125 isotope systems and the Quantizyme/modified EAST alkaline phosphatase method were compared. The time, expense, convenience, and diagnostic efficacy of the two procedures are discussed. Special attention is given to the practicality of each method for the practicing physician.

  1. Method for operating a flue gas desulfurization

    SciTech Connect

    Karger, R.; Weinzierl, K.

    1983-02-01

    A method of operating a flue gas desulfurization with a steam power plant heated with fossil fuels. The sulfur dioxide contained in the flue gas is removed in a wash tower by means of an excess of milk of lime or limestone, and the resulting sulfite is oxidized with air at a low ph-value into calcium sulfate. The non-converted milk of lime or limestone is neutralized at least partially by an addition of acid waste waters from a complete desalination plant for the supply water, and/or by an addition of acid condensate from the flue or chimney of the steam power plant. An installation for carrying out the method of the present invention includes a wash tower having flue gas flowing therethrough, an oxidation tower having air flowing therethrough, milk of lime or limestone supply into the wash tower, and a delivery device for the wash liquid in the wash tower and in the oxidation tower, with the device having a pump for liquid drawn off from the sump of the wash tower. The sump of the wash tower is connected with a supply line for acid waste water from a complete desalination plant, and/or with a supply line for acid condensate from the chimney or flue of the steam power plant.

  2. Diagnostic methods and recommendations for the cerebral creatine deficiency syndromes.

    PubMed

    Clark, Joseph F; Cecil, Kim M

    2015-03-01

    Primary care pediatricians and a variety of specialist physicians strive to define an accurate diagnosis for children presenting with impairment of expressive speech and delay in achieving developmental milestones. Within the past two decades, a group of disorders featuring this presentation have been identified as cerebral creatine deficiency syndromes (CCDS). Patients with these disorders were initially discerned using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy of the brain within a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examination. The objective of this review is to provide the clinician with an overview of the current information available on identifying and treating these conditions. We explain the salient features of creatine metabolism, synthesis, and transport required for normal development. We propose diagnostic approaches for confirming a CCDS diagnosis. Finally, we describe treatment approaches for managing patients with these conditions.

  3. Non-Intrusive Optical Diagnostic Methods for Flowfield Characterization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tabibi, Bagher M.; Terrell, Charles A.; Spraggins, Darrell; Lee, Ja. H.; Weinstein, Leonard M.

    1997-01-01

    Non-intrusive optical diagnostic techniques such as Electron Beam Fluorescence (EBF), Laser-Induced Fluorescence (LIF), and Focusing Schlieren (FS) have been setup for high-speed flow characterization and large flowfield visualization, respectively. Fluorescence emission from the First Negative band of N2(+) with the (0,0) vibration transition (at lambda =391.44 nm) was obtained using the EBF technique and a quenching rate of N2(+)* molecules by argon gas was reported. A very high sensitivity FS system was built and applied in the High-Speed Flow Generator (HFG) at NASA LaRC. A LIF system is available at the Advanced Propulsion Laboratory (APL) on campus and a plume exhaust velocity measurement, measuring the Doppler shift from lambda = 728.7 nm of argon gas, is under way.

  4. [Radiological methods in the diagnostics of extrinsic allergic alveolitis].

    PubMed

    Makhmudova, S

    2005-09-01

    There were 77 patients with EAA under our observation with the following X-ray symptom groups: emphysematous-interstitial; parenchymatous-interstitial; pneumonic. The emphysematous-interstitial X-ray symptom group is the most non-specific for the X-ray diagnostics. The changes indicate to symptoms of impaired bronchial conductance of different expression and are relevant to clinical EAA options characteristic for the obstructive syndrome. The parenchymatous-interstitial X-ray symptom group is more characteristic for occupational EAA. In such cases the most important are changes in the lung parenchyma that have a diffusive character and are accompanied by general symptoms indicating to bronchial impairments of different severity. In pneumatic X-ray symptom group, the major X-ray symptom is presence of local sites of lung tissue consolidation of hypoventilation-infiltrative character that can be bilateral, multiple with a trend to migration.

  5. Raman background photobleaching as a possible method of cancer diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandt, Nikolai N.; Brandt, Nikolai B.; Chikishev, Andrey Y.; Gangardt, Mihail G.; Karyakina, Nina F.

    2001-06-01

    Kinetics of photobleaching of background in Raman spectra of aqueous solutions of plant toxins ricin and ricin agglutinin, ricin binding subunit, and normal and malignant human blood serum were measured. For the excitation of the spectra cw and pulsed laser radiation were used. The spectra of Raman background change upon laser irradiation. Background intensity is lower for the samples with small molecular weight. The cyclization of amino acid residues in the toxin molecules as well as in human blood serum can be a reason of the Raman background. The model of the background photobleaching is proposed. The differences in photobleaching kinetics in the cases of cw and pulsed laser radiation are discussed. It is shown that Raman background photobleaching can be very informative for cancer diagnostics.

  6. Spectrophotometric Method for Differentiation of Human Skin Melanoma. II. Diagnostic Characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petruk, V. G.; Ivanov, A. P.; Kvaternyuk, S. M.; Barunb, V. V.

    2016-05-01

    Experimental data on the spectral dependences of the optical diffuse reflection coefficient for skin from different people with melanoma or nevus are presented in the form of the probability density of the diffuse reflection coefficient for the corresponding pigmented lesions. We propose a noninvasive technique for differentiating between malignant and benign tumors, based on measuring the diffuse reflection coefficient for a specific patient and comparing the value obtained with a pre-set threshold. If the experimental result is below the threshold, then it is concluded that the person has melanoma; otherwise, no melanoma is present. As an example, we consider the wavelength 870 nm. We determine the risk of malignant transformation of a nevus (its transition to melanoma) for different measured diffuse reflection coefficients. We have studied the errors in the method, its operating characteristics and probability characteristics as the threshold diffuse reflection coefficient is varied. We find that the diagnostic confidence, sensitivity, specificity, and effectiveness (accuracy) parameters are maximum (>0.82) for a threshold of 0.45-0.47. The operating characteristics for the proposed technique exceed the corresponding parameters for other familiar optical approaches to melanoma diagnosis. Its distinguishing feature is operation at only one wavelength, and consequently implementation of the experimental technique is simplified and made less expensive.

  7. The Rapid-Heat LAMPellet Method: A Potential Diagnostic Method for Human Urogenital Schistosomiasis

    PubMed Central

    Carranza-Rodríguez, Cristina; Pérez-Arellano, José Luis; Vicente, Belén; López-Abán, Julio; Muro, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Background Urogenital schistosomiasis due to Schistosoma haematobium is a serious underestimated public health problem affecting 112 million people - particularly in sub-Saharan Africa. Microscopic examination of urine samples to detect parasite eggs still remains as definitive diagnosis. This work was focussed on developing a novel loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay for detection of S. haematobium DNA in human urine samples as a high-throughput, simple, accurate and affordable diagnostic tool to use in diagnosis of urogenital schistosomiasis. Methodology/Principal Findings A LAMP assay targeting a species specific sequence of S. haematobium ribosomal intergenic spacer was designed. The effectiveness of our LAMP was assessed in a number of patients´ urine samples with microscopy confirmed S. haematobium infection. For potentially large-scale application in field conditions, different DNA extraction methods, including a commercial kit, a modified NaOH extraction method and a rapid heating method were tested using small volumes of urine fractions (whole urine, supernatants and pellets). The heating of pellets from clinical samples was the most efficient method to obtain good-quality DNA detectable by LAMP. The detection limit of our LAMP was 1 fg/µL of S. haematobium DNA in urine samples. When testing all patients´ urine samples included in our study, diagnostic parameters for sensitivity and specificity were calculated for LAMP assay, 100% sensitivity (95% CI: 81.32%-100%) and 86.67% specificity (95% CI: 75.40%-94.05%), and also for microscopy detection of eggs in urine samples, 69.23% sensitivity (95% CI: 48.21% -85.63%) and 100% specificity (95% CI: 93.08%-100%). Conclusions/Significance We have developed and evaluated, for the first time, a LAMP assay for detection of S. haematobium DNA in heated pellets from patients´ urine samples using no complicated requirement procedure for DNA extraction. The procedure has been named the Rapid

  8. Motor current signature analysis method for diagnosing motor-operated devices

    SciTech Connect

    Haynes, H D; Eissenberg, D M

    1986-09-30

    A motor current noise signature analysis method for remotely monitoring the operating characteristics of an electric motor-operated device such as a motor-operated valve. Frequency domain signal analysis techniques are applied to a conditioned motor current signal to distinctly identify various operating parameters of the motor driven device from the motor current signature. The signature may be recorded and compared with subsequent signatures to detect operating abnormalities and degradation of the device. This diagnostic method does not require special equipment to be installed on the motor-operated device, and the current sensing may be performed at remote control locations, e.g., where the motor-operated devices are used in inaccessible or hostile environments. 6 figs.

  9. Diagnostics comparing sea surface temperature feedbacks from operational hurricane forecasts to observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lloyd, Ian D.; Marchok, Timothy; Vecchi, Gabriel A.

    2011-04-01

    This paper examines the ability of recent versions of the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory Operational Hurricane Forecast Model (GHM) to reproduce the observed relationship between hurricane intensity and hurricane-induced Sea Surface Temperature (SST) cooling. The analysis was performed by taking a Lagrangian composite of all hurricanes in the North Atlantic from 1998-2009 in observations and 2005-2009 for the GHM. A marked improvement in the intensity-SST relationship for the GHM compared to observations was found between the years 2005 and 2006-2009 due to the introduction of warm-core eddies, a representation of the loop current, and changes to the drag coefficient parameterization for bulk turbulent flux computation. A Conceptual Hurricane Intensity Model illustrates the essential steady-state characteristics of the intensity-SST relationship and is explained by two coupled equations for the atmosphere and ocean. The conceptual model qualitatively matches observations and the 2006-2009 period in the GHM, and presents supporting evidence for the conclusion that weaker upper oceanic thermal stratification in the Gulf of Mexico, caused by the introduction of the loop current and warm core eddies, is crucial to explaining the observed SST-intensity pattern. The diagnostics proposed by the conceptual model offer an independent set of metrics for comparing operational hurricane forecast models to observations.

  10. Calibration and operational experience with the JET motional Stark effect diagnostic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hawkes, N. C.; Brix, M.

    2006-10-01

    Motional Stark effect measurements of the magnetic field pitch angle on JET present several difficulties most serious of which is that the injection systems consist of more than one source, each with a different motional stark effect (MSE) angle. Attempts to describe the net polarization angle, within the EFIT equilibrium code, using the weighted sum of Stokes vectors, have proved inaccurate. Instead we rely on spectrally isolating the emission of a single source. Beam power modulation is helpful in differentiating background polarized light, but this technique fails in the presence of strong edge localized mode (ELMs). Calibration is difficult because of the presence of a mirror in the optical system. The mirror introduces a large optical phase shift which means that the polarimeter has to resolve circular as well as linear polarized components. Basic calibration is carried out off the tokamak using a motorized rotary encoder stage and a six-parameter physical model of the optical and electronic systems. This is readjusted using plasma emission, for mirror operation at 300 °C. Some of the operating experience obtained with the JET MSE diagnostic will be relevant to ITER, although the lack of independent power or voltage control of the ITER injectors is seen as the chief challenge facing the ITER MSE design.

  11. Calibration and operational experience with the JET motional Stark effect diagnostic

    SciTech Connect

    Hawkes, N. C.; Brix, M.

    2006-10-15

    Motional Stark effect measurements of the magnetic field pitch angle on JET present several difficulties most serious of which is that the injection systems consist of more than one source, each with a different motional stark effect (MSE) angle. Attempts to describe the net polarization angle, within the EFIT equilibrium code, using the weighted sum of Stokes vectors, have proved inaccurate. Instead we rely on spectrally isolating the emission of a single source. Beam power modulation is helpful in differentiating background polarized light, but this technique fails in the presence of strong edge localized mode (ELMs). Calibration is difficult because of the presence of a mirror in the optical system. The mirror introduces a large optical phase shift which means that the polarimeter has to resolve circular as well as linear polarized components. Basic calibration is carried out off the tokamak using a motorized rotary encoder stage and a six-parameter physical model of the optical and electronic systems. This is readjusted using plasma emission, for mirror operation at 300 deg. C. Some of the operating experience obtained with the JET MSE diagnostic will be relevant to ITER, although the lack of independent power or voltage control of the ITER injectors is seen as the chief challenge facing the ITER MSE design.

  12. Express diagnostic of anaerobic infection and disbacteriosis by optical PNC method in clinical dentistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexandrov, Michail T.; Koz'ma, Sergey U.; Taubinsky, Ilia M.; Masychev, Victor I.

    2000-11-01

    In this research a new way of express (real time) diagnostics of anaerobic infection and disbacteriosis is suggested. The express diagnostics of anaerobic infection allows to perform quick assessment of the injury microbiocenosis, the state of gastroenteric tract, the disbacteriosis presence and the degree of its development, to follow up dynamics of microflora variations in the process of medication treatment. The research were performed with optical PNC-method. The basic of the method is in registration of stimulated (secondary) radiations and registration of their space fields, which occur in the process of probing radiation interaction with biological tissues and their active elements. The process is called Photon- undulatory Nonlinear Conversion or in short PNC-process (PNC- method, PNC-diagnostic). The optimal diagnostic PNC-method developed here allows detecting the presence of anaerobic microflora directly at the bed of a patient. It makes possible to control the dynamic of patient rehabilitation process, providing strictly individual assessments.

  13. Hydroxymethyl phosphine compounds for use as diagnostic and therapeutic pharmaceuticals and method of making same

    DOEpatents

    Katti, Kattesh V.; Karra, Srinivasa Rao; Berning, Douglas E.; Smith, C. Jeffrey; Volkert, Wynn A.; Ketring, Alan R.

    1999-01-01

    A compound and method of making a compound for use as a diagnostic or therapeutic pharmaceutical comprises at least one functionalized hydroxyalkyl phosphine donor group and one or more sulfur or nitrogen donor and a metal combined with the ligand.

  14. Hydroxymethyl phosphine compounds for use as diagnostic and therapeutic pharmaceuticals and method of making same

    DOEpatents

    Katti, Kattesh V.; Karra, Srinivasa Rao; Berning, Douglas E.; Smith, C. Jeffrey; Volkert, Wynn A.; Ketring, Alan R.

    2000-01-01

    A compound and method of making a compound for use as a diagnostic or therapeutic pharmaceutical comprises at least one functionalized hydroxyalkyl phosphine donor group and one or more sulfur or nitrogen donor and a metal combined with the ligand.

  15. Method of operating a neutronic reactor

    DOEpatents

    Woods, Wallace K.

    1976-05-25

    1. A method of operating a reactor having an active portion of a given length between a charging end and a discharging end, a first end region of the reactor extending from the charging end for one-quarter to one-third of said given length, a second end region extending from the discharging end for one-quarter to one-third of said given length, and a middle region extending between said end regions, said method comprising the steps of inserting end to end in the active region through the charging end a first group of bodies filling the middle region and a second group of bodies filling the first end region, irradiating the first and second groups of bodies while in the middle and first end regions, removing the first group from the reactor through the second end region, shifting the second group through the middle region to the second end region, inserting new first and second groups of bodies through the charging face into the middle and first end regions of the reactor, respectively, and irradiating the original second group and the new first and second groups while in the second end, middle, and first end regions, respectively, removing the original second group and the new first group from the reactor through the second end region, shifting the new second group through the middle region to the second end region, and irradiating the new second group again, whereby the first groups of bodies are irradiated only once and the second groups are irradiated twice.

  16. Diagnostic Methods for Predicting Performance Impairment Associated with Combat Stress

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-08-01

    measures in a multivariate model . Research at Georgia State University, employing simulated military tasks representing sentry duty, peacekeeping operations... model . Individual differences in concurrent CBFV were not related to vigilance. o Subjective state measures demonstrated task-induced stress and...Matthews et al. (2004, 2005), generalize to cognitive vigilance. The resource model of vigilance (Davies & Parasuraman, 1982; Warm, Matthews & Finomore

  17. Frequency-Domain Methods for Characterization of Pulsed Power Diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    White, A D; Anderson, R A; Ferriera, T J; Goerz, D A

    2009-07-27

    This paper discusses methods of frequency-domain characterization of pulsed power sensors using vector network analyzer and spectrum analyzer techniques that offer significant simplification over time-domain methods, while mitigating or minimizing the effect of the difficulties present in time domain characterization. These methods are applicable to characterization of a wide variety of sensors.

  18. Mapping the different methods adopted for diagnostic imaging instruction at medical schools in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Chojniak, Rubens; Carneiro, Dominique Piacenti; Moterani, Gustavo Simonetto Peres; Duarte, Ivone da Silva; Bitencourt, Almir Galvão Vieira; Muglia, Valdair Francisco; D'Ippolito, Giuseppe

    2017-01-01

    Objective To map the different methods for diagnostic imaging instruction at medical schools in Brazil. Materials and Methods In this cross-sectional study, a questionnaire was sent to each of the coordinators of 178 Brazilian medical schools. The following characteristics were assessed: teaching model; total course hours; infrastructure; numbers of students and professionals involved; themes addressed; diagnostic imaging modalities covered; and education policies related to diagnostic imaging. Results Of the 178 questionnaires sent, 45 (25.3%) were completed and returned. Of those 45 responses, 17 (37.8%) were from public medical schools, whereas 28 (62.2%) were from private medical schools. Among the 45 medical schools evaluated, the method of diagnostic imaging instruction was modular at 21 (46.7%), classic (independent discipline) at 13 (28.9%), hybrid (classical and modular) at 9 (20.0%), and none of the preceding at 3 (6.7%). Diagnostic imaging is part of the formal curriculum at 36 (80.0%) of the schools, an elective course at 3 (6.7%), and included within another modality at 6 (13.3%). Professors involved in diagnostic imaging teaching are radiologists at 43 (95.5%) of the institutions. Conclusion The survey showed that medical courses in Brazil tend to offer diagnostic imaging instruction in courses that include other content and at different time points during the course. Radiologists are extensively involved in undergraduate medical education, regardless of the teaching methodology employed at the institution. PMID:28298730

  19. Tokamak physics studies using x-ray diagnostic methods

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, K.W.; Bitter, M.; von Goeler, S.; Beiersdorfer, P.; Fredrickson, E.; Hsuan, H.; McGuire, K.; Sauthoff, N.R.; Sesnic, S.; Stevens, J.E.

    1987-03-01

    X-ray diagnostic measurements have been used in a number of experiments to improve our understanding of important tokamak physics issues. The impurity content in TFTR plasmas, its sources and control have been clarified through soft x-ray pulse-height analysis (PHA) measurements. The dependence of intrinsic impurity concentrations and Z/sub eff/ on electron density, plasma current, limiter material and conditioning, and neutral-beam power have shown that the limiter is an important source of metal impurities. Neoclassical-like impurity peaking following hydrogen pellet injection into Alcator C and a strong effect of impurities on sawtooth behavior were demonstrated by x-ray imaging (XIS) measurements. Rapid inward motion of impurities and continuation of m = 1 activity following an internal disruption were demonstrated with XIS measurements on PLT using injected aluminum to enhance the signals. Ion temperatures up to 12 keV and a toroidal plasma rotation velocity up to 6 x 10/sup 5/ m/s have been measured by an x-ray crystal spectrometer (XCS) with up to 13 MW of 85-keV neutral-beam injection in TFTR. Precise wavelengths and relative intensities of x-ray lines in several helium-like ions and neon-like ions of silver have been measured in TFTR and PLT by the XCS. The data help to identify the important excitation processes predicted in atomic physics. Wavelengths of n = 3 to 2 silver lines of interest for x-ray lasers were measured, and precise instrument calibration techniques were developed. Electron thermal conductivity and sawtooth dynamics have been studied through XIS measurements on TFTR of heat-pulse propagation and compound sawteeth. A non-Maxwellian electron distribution function has been measured, and evidence of the Parail-Pogutse instability identified by hard x-ray PHA measurements on PLT during lower-hybrid current-drive experiments.

  20. Diagnostic methods and treatment modalities of dry eye conditions.

    PubMed

    Holly, F J

    1993-06-01

    One may view dry eye conditions as a group of diseases in which the ocular surface is adversely affected. Tear film instability invariably leads to some degree of cellular surface damage over the cornea and conjunctiva. In turn, ocular epitheliopathy may adversely affect tear film stability. The clinical presentation of the disease may not yield a clue as to its etiology. In recent years considerable progress was made both in the diagnosis and the treatment of the disease and promising studies are planned or are underway. The diagnostic techniques can be divided into four groups. The first is concerned with the clinical presentation. The second is concerned with the bulk properties of the aqueous tears including dynamic characteristics, composition, and colligative properties. The third is tear-film related and includes the film break-up time, evaporation rate, and lipid abnormality. The fourth is concerned with the ocular surface and includes vital staining, impression cytology, and surface microscopy. The most promising attempts are being made in the second group by attempting to elucidate the role of enzyme and enzyme activator activity and inhibitor contents as well as the tear protein profiles and correlating them with the specific disease states. The treatment modalities belong to three major groups aside from surgical intervention; the supplementation, preservation, and the stimulation of tears. The modern version of tear supplementation is expected to include the topical use of efficacious aqueous formulations that typically contain film stabilizing polymers, nutrients, and/or--in the future--biochemically active ingredients such as enzyme activators and inhibitors.

  1. Method of Operating a Neutronic Reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fermi, Enrico; Szilard, Leo

    moderators such as light water or beryllium. In particular, the ratio is given of the absorption cross section to the scattering cross section for several moderators. Procedures for the purification of uranium are described as well. Several methods (i.e., the exponential pile or the "shotgun" method; see Patent No. 2.969,307) are reported for testing the purity against neutron absorption of different materials. The effect of the boron and vanadium impurities in the graphite and light water in the heavy water are considered. Different cooling systems for the reactors are considered and compared in the Patent, based on the circulation of a gas (typically, air) or a liquid (light or heavy water, diphenyl, etc.). The principles and practice for the construction, functioning and control of several kinds of reactors are reported in detail. One reactor considered in the present Patent is a low power uranium-graphite one without cooling system, where the active part consists in (small) cylinders of metallic uranium or pseudo-spheres of uranium oxide (or cylinders of U3O8). The control rods are made of steel with boron inserts, while limitation and safety rods are made of cadmium. In addition, an uranium-graphite pile cooled by air or even by water or diphenyl is considered. It is pointed out that dyphenil should usually be preferred with respect to water, due to its lower absorption of neutrons and to its higher boiling temperature, but the disadvantage related to its use is mainly due to the closed pumping system required and to the possible occurrence of polymerization which makes the fluid viscous. Another kind of reactor described in detail is made of uranium (vertical) bars immersed in heavy water. When, during the operation, heavy water is dissociated into D2 and O2, these two gaseous elements are carried by an inert gas (helium) into a recombination device. The control and safety rods are made of cadmium. Hybrid reactors composed of different lattices in the same neutronic

  2. Wavelet and multiscale methods for operator equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dahmen, Wolfgang

    More than anything else, the increase of computing power seems to stimulate the greed for tackling ever larger problems involving large-scale numerical simulation. As a consequence, the need for understanding something like the intrinsic complexity of a problem occupies a more and more pivotal position. Moreover, computability often only becomes feasible if an algorithm can be found that is asymptotically optimal. This means that storage and the number of floating point operations needed to resolve the problem with desired accuracy remain proportional to the problem size when the resolution of the discretization is refined. A significant reduction of complexity is indeed often possible, when the underlying problem admits a continuous model in terms of differential or integral equations. The physical phenomena behind such a model usually exhibit characteristic features over a wide range of scales. Accordingly, the most successful numerical schemes exploit in one way or another the interaction of different scales of discretization. A very prominent representative is the multigrid methodology; see, for instance, Hackbusch (1985) and Bramble (1993). In a way it has caused a breakthrough in numerical analysis since, in an important range of cases, it does indeed provide asymptotically optimal schemes. For closely related multilevel techniques and a unified treatment of several variants, such as multiplicative or additive subspace correction methods, see Bramble, Pasciak and Xu (1990), Oswald (1994), Xu (1992), and Yserentant (1993). Although there remain many unresolved problems, multigrid or multilevel schemes in the classical framework of finite difference and finite element discretizations exhibit by now a comparatively clear profile. They are particularly powerful for elliptic and parabolic problems.

  3. New drilling/operating methods boost efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-03-01

    The industry has not had viable alternatives for solving several major operating problems in areas of downhole and surface drilling operations, and facility and equipment maintenance. However, recent introductions and proven application of innovative problem solving techniques have removed these dilemmas for many operators. Four such technology advances are shown here. These include: (1) novel, clear protectors and compound that allow visual pipe thread inspection, (2) foam-core insulation for preserving Arctic ice drill pads, (3) a mobile system for producing multiple stripper wells, (4) a tool to retrieve data from a stuck logging recorder, and (5) a complete surface/downhole slimhole drilling system.

  4. A Simplified Diagnostic Method for Elastomer Bond Durability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, Paul

    2009-01-01

    A simplified method has been developed for determining bond durability under exposure to water or high humidity conditions. It uses a small number of test specimens with relatively short times of water exposure at elevated temperature. The method is also gravimetric; the only equipment being required is an oven, specimen jars, and a conventional laboratory balance.

  5. The urgent need for clinical, diagnostic, and operational research for management of Buruli ulcer in Africa.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Daniel P; Comte, Eric; Serafini, Micaela; Ehounou, Geneviève; Antierens, Annick; Vuagnat, Hubert; Christinet, Vanessa; Hamani, Mitima D; du Cros, Philipp

    2014-05-01

    Despite great advances in the diagnosis and treatment of Buruli ulcer, it is one of the least studied major neglected tropical diseases. In Africa, major constraints in the management of Buruli ulcer relate to diagnosis and treatment, and accessibility, feasibility, and delivery of services. In this Personal View, we outline key areas for clinical, diagnostic, and operational research on this disease in Africa and propose a research agenda that aims to advance the management of Buruli ulcer in Africa. A model of care is needed to increase early case detection, to diagnose the disease accurately, to simplify and improve treatment, to reduce side-effects of treatment, to deal with populations with HIV and tuberculosis appropriately, to decentralise care, and to scale up coverage in populations at risk. This approach will require commitment and support to strategically implement research by national Buruli ulcer programmes and international technical and donor organisations, combined with adaptations in programme design and advocacy. A critical next step is to build consensus for a research agenda with WHO and relevant groups experienced in Buruli ulcer care or related diseases, and we call on on them to help to turn this agenda into reality.

  6. Analysis method for Thomson scattering diagnostics in GAMMA 10/PDX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohta, K.; Yoshikawa, M.; Yasuhara, R.; Chikatsu, M.; Shima, Y.; Kohagura, J.; Sakamoto, M.; Nakasima, Y.; Imai, T.; Ichimura, M.; Yamada, I.; Funaba, H.; Minami, T.

    2016-11-01

    We have developed an analysis method to improve the accuracies of electron temperature measurement by employing a fitting technique for the raw Thomson scattering (TS) signals. Least square fitting of the raw TS signals enabled reduction of the error in the electron temperature measurement. We applied the analysis method to a multi-pass (MP) TS system. Because the interval between the MPTS signals is very short, it is difficult to separately analyze each Thomson scattering signal intensity by using the raw signals. We used the fitting method to obtain the original TS scattering signals from the measured raw MPTS signals to obtain the electron temperatures in each pass.

  7. Simple fractal method of assessment of histological images for application in medical diagnostics

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    We propose new method of assessment of histological images for medical diagnostics. 2-D image is preprocessed to form 1-D landscapes or 1-D signature of the image contour and then their complexity is analyzed using Higuchi's fractal dimension method. The method may have broad medical application, from choosing implant materials to differentiation between benign masses and malignant breast tumors. PMID:21134258

  8. Restrictive Stochastic Item Selection Methods in Cognitive Diagnostic Computerized Adaptive Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Chun; Chang, Hua-Hua; Huebner, Alan

    2011-01-01

    This paper proposes two new item selection methods for cognitive diagnostic computerized adaptive testing: the restrictive progressive method and the restrictive threshold method. They are built upon the posterior weighted Kullback-Leibler (KL) information index but include additional stochastic components either in the item selection index or in…

  9. Optical methods for diagnostic of cell-tissue grafts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timchenko, P. E.; Timchenko, E. V.; Volova, L. T.; Boltovskaya, V. V.; Zherdeva, L. A.; Belousov, N. V.; Pershutkina, S. V.

    2015-08-01

    In this work the results of cell-tissue grafts research with a complex of optical methods - confocal fluorescent microscopy and Raman spectroscopy are presented. It was established that coefficient M scatter is related to irregularity of demineralization process. It was microscopically shown that the quantity of integrated cells into these types of transplants amounts to 20% of its surface.

  10. Calreticulin Mutations in Myeloproliferative Neoplasms: Comparison of Three Diagnostic Methods

    PubMed Central

    Park, Ji-Hye; Sevin, Margaux; Ramla, Selim; Truffot, Aurélie; Verrier, Tiffany; Bouchot, Dominique; Courtois, Martine; Bas, Mathilde; Benali, Sonia; Bailly, François; Favre, Bernardine; Guy, Julien; Martin, Laurent; Maynadié, Marc; Carillo, Serge; Girodon, François

    2015-01-01

    Calreticulin (CALR) mutations have recently been reported in 70–84% of JAK2V617F-negative myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN), and this detection has become necessary to improve the diagnosis of MPN. In a large single-centre cohort of 298 patients suffering from Essential Thrombocythemia (ET), the JAK2V617F, CALR and MPL mutations were noted in 179 (60%), 56 (18.5%) and 13 (4.5%) respectively. For the detection of the CALR mutations, three methods were compared in parallel: high-resolution melting-curve analysis (HRM), product-sizing analysis and Sanger sequencing. The sensitivity for the HRM, product-sizing analysis and Sanger sequencing was 96.4%, 98.2% and 89.3% respectively, whereas the specificity was 96.3%, 100% and 100%. In our cohort, the product-sizing analysis was the most sensitive method and was the easiest to interpret, while the HRM was sometimes difficult to interpret. In contrast, when large series of samples were tested, HRM provided results more quickly than did the other methods, which required more time. Finally, the sequencing method, which is the reference method, had the lowest sensitivity but can be used to describe the type of mutation precisely. Altogether, our results suggest that in routine laboratory practice, product-sizing analysis is globally similar to HRM for the detection of CALR mutations, and that both may be used as first-line screening tests. If the results are positive, Sanger sequencing can be used to confirm the mutation and to determine its type. Product-sizing analysis provides sensitive and specific results, moreover, with the quantitative measurement of CALR, which might be useful to monitor specific treatments. PMID:26501981

  11. Diagnostic of the surface micro-discharge using spectroscopic methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yang-Fang; Morfill, Gregor

    2012-10-01

    A handheld and battery-driven CAP device is designed for clinical studies. The accomplished medical phase I study has shown high bactericidal efficacy in vitro, ex vivo as well as in vivo. Although tests have been done concerning the biological safety and toxic gas emissions accordingly to the electrical safety, the chemical production of this device is not well addressed. In particular, the ozone production remains to be a big issue for safety reasons and reactive Nitrogen and Oxygen species (RNOS) are regarded to the key players for the biological and medical effects of CAPs. Given the application time for the clinical trial would be in the range of 30 seconds, we will present the temporal evolution of several RNOS within running time of a few minutes. The measurement is done mainly by the optical emission and absorption spectroscopies. Depending on the characteristic parameters of the applied voltage signal for discharge, the production of the RNOS may evolve in different profiles. Especially for high power operation, the discharge takes around 30 seconds to reach a steady state. Although the discharge power is found to be the most important factor, the characteristic frequency and even the gas temperature in ambient air, which in our case is the working gas, may alter the yields of several species, for example ozone and atomic Oxygen. The result will help for developing CAP devices for different applications and to design the protocol for the clinical test concerning the efficacy and safety.

  12. Stably operating pulse combustor and method

    DOEpatents

    Zinn, B.T.; Reiner, D.

    1990-05-29

    A pulse combustor apparatus is described which is adapted to burn either a liquid fuel or a pulverized solid fuel within a preselected volume of the combustion chamber. The combustion process is substantially restricted to an optimum combustion zone in order to attain effective pulse combustion operation. 4 figs.

  13. Stably operating pulse combustor and method

    DOEpatents

    Zinn, Ben T.; Reiner, David

    1990-01-01

    A pulse combustor apparatus adapted to burn either a liquid fuel or a pulverized solid fuel within a preselected volume of the combustion chamber. The combustion process is substantially restricted to an optimum combustion zone in order to attain effective pulse combustion operation.

  14. Fraley's syndrome: case report and update on current diagnostic methods

    SciTech Connect

    Zuckier, L.S.; Patel, Y.D.; Fine, E.J.; Koenigsberg, M.

    1988-01-01

    A 38-year-old woman presented with fever, right flank pain, and a clinical diagnosis of pyelonephritis. Work-up revealed the presence of a crossing arterial branch causing obstruction of the superior infundibulum of the right kidney, which is an uncommon cause of nephralgia and urinary infection initially described by Fraley in 1966. Intravenous urography, retrograde pyelography, and angiography remain the mainstay of diagnosis, much as in the initial descriptions of this entity. (/sup 131/I)Hippuran imaging, with analysis of the upper and lower pole regions of interest, provides a simple yet powerful method of evaluating functional and excretory changes in the superior infundibulum, and has proved more efficacious than previously reported whole-kidney renograms. Renal scintigraphy represents a relatively noninvasive method of serial functional examination in this disorder. Ultrasound imaging, by monitoring upper-pole dilatation, may provide complementary morphologic information important for long-term follow-up.

  15. Apparatus and method for monitoring breath acetone and diabetic diagnostics

    DOEpatents

    Duan, Yixiang; Cao, Wenqing

    2008-08-26

    An apparatus and method for monitoring diabetes through breath acetone detection and quantitation employs a microplasma source in combination with a spectrometer. The microplasma source provides sufficient energy to produce excited acetone fragments from the breath gas that emit light. The emitted light is sent to the spectrometer, which generates an emission spectrum that is used to detect and quantify acetone in the breath gas.

  16. Bearing diagnostics: A method based on differential geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Ye; Wang, Zili; Lu, Chen; Wang, Zhipeng

    2016-12-01

    The structures around bearings are complex, and the working environment is variable. These conditions cause the collected vibration signals to become nonlinear, non-stationary, and chaotic characteristics that make noise reduction, feature extraction, fault diagnosis, and health assessment significantly challenging. Thus, a set of differential geometry-based methods with superiorities in nonlinear analysis is presented in this study. For noise reduction, the Local Projection method is modified by both selecting the neighborhood radius based on empirical mode decomposition and determining noise subspace constrained by neighborhood distribution information. For feature extraction, Hessian locally linear embedding is introduced to acquire manifold features from the manifold topological structures, and singular values of eigenmatrices as well as several specific frequency amplitudes in spectrograms are extracted subsequently to reduce the complexity of the manifold features. For fault diagnosis, information geometry-based support vector machine is applied to classify the fault states. For health assessment, the manifold distance is employed to represent the health information; the Gaussian mixture model is utilized to calculate the confidence values, which directly reflect the health status. Case studies on Lorenz signals and vibration datasets of bearings demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed methods.

  17. [Comparative study of different diagnostic methods in pulmonary alveolitis].

    PubMed

    Makhmudova, S Iu

    2009-05-01

    To evaluate and analyze, clinical and roentgenological manifestations of extrinsic allergic alveolitis (EAA) and idiopathic fibrosing alveolitis (IFA) 89 patients underwent bronchoscopy survey and functional test of lungs. Average age of patients was 38,3+/-5,8. Among examined 89 patients 31 (34,8%) patients were poultry farmers, 30 (33,7%) - millers, and 28 (31,5%) - tobacco-growers. EAA was found among 22 poultry farmers, 19 tobacco-growers, and 19 millers. IFA was found among 11 millers, 9 tobacco-growers and 9 poultry farmers. Acute respiratory disease (ARD) was found among 58 patients; 38 patients suffer from lung diseases. Control group consisted of 20 healthy people. Along with general blood analysis, all patients underwent - roentgenological analysis of thorax in two shifts. Recent studies show that CT lung screening is more sensitive than standard lung screening methods in detecting lung disease. Comparative analysis allowed concluding that Real-Time CT method is the most effective. CT lung screening is more sensitive than standard lung screening methods in detecting lung diseases.

  18. Using the Attribute Hierarchy Method to Make Diagnostic Inferences about Examinees' Cognitive Skills in Critical Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Changjiang; Gierl, Mark J.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to apply the attribute hierarchy method (AHM) to a subset of SAT critical reading items and illustrate how the method can be used to promote cognitive diagnostic inferences. The AHM is a psychometric procedure for classifying examinees' test item responses into a set of attribute mastery patterns associated with…

  19. Characterization and diagnostic methods for geomagnetic auroral infrasound waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oldham, Justin J.

    Infrasonic perturbations resulting from auroral activity have been observed since the 1950's. In the last decade advances in infrasonic microphone sensitivity, high latitude sensor coverage, time series analysis methods and computational efficiency have elucidated new types of auroral infrasound. Persistent periods of infrasonic activity associated with geomagnetic sub-storms have been termed geomagnetic auroral infrasound waves [GAIW]. We consider 63 GAIW events recorded by the Fairbanks, AK infrasonic array I53US ranging from 2003 to 2014 and encompassing a complete solar cycle. We make observations of the acoustic features of these events alongside magnetometer, riometer, and all-sky camera data in an effort to quantify the ionospheric conditions suitable for infrasound generation. We find that, on average, the generation mechanism for GAIW is confined to a region centered about ~60 0 longitude east of the anti-Sun-Earth line and at ~770 North latitude. We note furthermore that in all cases considered wherein imaging riometer data are available, that dynamic regions of heightened ionospheric conductivity periodically cross the overhead zenith. Consistent features in concurrent magnetometer conditions are also noted, with irregular oscillations in the horizontal component of the field ubiquitous in all cases. In an effort to produce ionosphere based infrasound free from the clutter and unknowns typical of geophysical observations, an experiment was undertaken at the High Frequency Active Auroral Research Program [HAARP] facility in 2012. Infrasonic signals appearing to originate from a source region overhead were observed briefly on 9 August 2012. The signals were observed during a period when an electrojet current was presumed to have passed overhead and while the facilities radio transmitter was periodically heating the lower ionosphere. Our results suggest dynamic auroral electrojet currents as primary sources of much of the observed infrasound, with

  20. Agile Development Methods for Space Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trimble, Jay; Webster, Chris

    2012-01-01

    Main stream industry software development practice has gone from a traditional waterfall process to agile iterative development that allows for fast response to customer inputs and produces higher quality software at lower cost. How can we, the space ops community, adopt state of the art software development practice, achieve greater productivity at lower cost, and maintain safe and effective space flight operations? At NASA Ames, we are developing Mission Control Technologies Software, in collaboration with Johnson Space Center (JSC) and, more recently, the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL).

  1. Gene and genetic diagnostic method patent claims: a comparison under current European and US patent law.

    PubMed

    Huys, Isabelle; Van Overwalle, Geertrui; Matthijs, Gert

    2011-10-01

    The paper focuses on the fundamental debate that is going on in Europe and the United States about whether genes and genetic diagnostic methods are to be regarded as inventions or subject matter eligible for patent protection, or whether they are discoveries or principles of nature and thus excluded from patentability. The study further explores some possible scenarios of American influences on European patent applications with respect to genetic diagnostic methods. Our analysis points out that patent eligibility for genes and genetic diagnostic methods, as discussed in the United States in the Association of Molecular Pathology versus US Patent and Trademark Office decision, is based on a different reasoning compared with the European Patent Convention.

  2. [Nonstationarity and duration of the R-R-segment in the diagnostics of functional states of operators].

    PubMed

    Mashin, V A

    2007-01-01

    The effect of the nonstationarity of R-R interval series on the diagnostics of functional states of operators has been analyzed. The functional states were diagnosed by means of a factor model of heart rate variability. The heart rate was recorded in the supine position, before the performance of an important task, and after its completion. A high resistance of the diagnostics of functional states to nonstationarity was found for all periods. Indices of heart rate variability resistant to nonstationarity were defined. Also, the effect of R-R segment duration on functional states diagnostics was explored. The results obtained allow one to conclude that the diagnostics of functional states based on the three-factor model of heart rate variability can be used on short segments within a range of 256 divided 32 R-R intervals. The indices of the factor model of heart rate variability must be normalized for corresponding R-R segment duration before diagnostics. In addition, the effect of the duration of R-R segment on the indices of heart rate variability was analyzed for different functional states. The indices resistant to the duration of R-R segments and conditions necessary for heart rate recording were defined.

  3. Diagnostic Performance of a Rapid Magnetic Resonance Imaging Method of Measuring Hepatic Steatosis

    PubMed Central

    House, Michael J.; Gan, Eng K.; Adams, Leon A.; Ayonrinde, Oyekoya T.; Bangma, Sander J.; Bhathal, Prithi S.; Olynyk, John K.; St. Pierre, Tim G.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Hepatic steatosis is associated with an increased risk of developing serious liver disease and other clinical sequelae of the metabolic syndrome. However, visual estimates of steatosis from histological sections of biopsy samples are subjective and reliant on an invasive procedure with associated risks. The aim of this study was to test the ability of a rapid, routinely available, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) method to diagnose clinically relevant grades of hepatic steatosis in a cohort of patients with diverse liver diseases. Materials and Methods Fifty-nine patients with a range of liver diseases underwent liver biopsy and MRI. Hepatic steatosis was quantified firstly using an opposed-phase, in-phase gradient echo, single breath-hold MRI methodology and secondly, using liver biopsy with visual estimation by a histopathologist and by computer-assisted morphometric image analysis. The area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was used to assess the diagnostic performance of the MRI method against the biopsy observations. Results The MRI approach had high sensitivity and specificity at all hepatic steatosis thresholds. Areas under ROC curves were 0.962, 0.993, and 0.972 at thresholds of 5%, 33%, and 66% liver fat, respectively. MRI measurements were strongly associated with visual (r2 = 0.83) and computer-assisted morphometric (r2 = 0.84) estimates of hepatic steatosis from histological specimens. Conclusions This MRI approach, using a conventional, rapid, gradient echo method, has high sensitivity and specificity for diagnosing liver fat at all grades of steatosis in a cohort with a range of liver diseases. PMID:23555650

  4. Diagnostic methods for assessing maxillary skeletal and dental transverse deficiencies: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Sawchuk, Dena; Currie, Kris; Vich, Manuel Lagravere; Palomo, Juan Martin

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the accuracy and reliability of the diagnostic tools available for assessing maxillary transverse deficiencies. Methods An electronic search of three databases was performed from their date of establishment to April 2015, with manual searching of reference lists of relevant articles. Articles were considered for inclusion if they reported the accuracy or reliability of a diagnostic method or evaluation technique for maxillary transverse dimensions in mixed or permanent dentitions. Risk of bias was assessed in the included articles, using the Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies tool-2. Results Nine articles were selected. The studies were heterogeneous, with moderate to low methodological quality, and all had a high risk of bias. Four suggested that the use of arch width prediction indices with dental cast measurements is unreliable for use in diagnosis. Frontal cephalograms derived from cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) images were reportedly more reliable for assessing intermaxillary transverse discrepancies than posteroanterior cephalograms. Two studies proposed new three-dimensional transverse analyses with CBCT images that were reportedly reliable, but have not been validated for clinical sensitivity or specificity. No studies reported sensitivity, specificity, positive or negative predictive values or likelihood ratios, or ROC curves of the methods for the diagnosis of transverse deficiencies. Conclusions Current evidence does not enable solid conclusions to be drawn, owing to a lack of reliable high quality diagnostic studies evaluating maxillary transverse deficiencies. CBCT images are reportedly more reliable for diagnosis, but further validation is required to confirm CBCT's accuracy and diagnostic superiority. PMID:27668196

  5. CHRONICLE: Fourth Scientific and Technical Conference on Optical Methods for Flow Diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zubov, Vladimir A.; Rinkevichius, Bronyus S.

    1997-12-01

    A review is given of the papers presented at the Fourth Scientific and Technical Conference on Optical Methods for Flow Diagnostics. This conference was concerned with research and applications in the field of flow diagnostics and with related physical and technical topics, such as determination and visualisation of optical and dynamic characteristics of media, creation and monitoring of local directional precision displacements, local measurements and determination of the spatial distribution of optical inhomogeneities in transparent media, as well as a number of practical applications of new methods and techniques.

  6. New method of acne disease fluorescent diagnostics in natural and fluorescent light and treatment control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karimova, L. N.; Berezin, A. N.; Shevchik, S. A.; Kharnas, S. S.; Kusmin, S. G.; Loschenov, V. B.

    2005-08-01

    In the given research the new method of fluorescent diagnostics (FD) and photodynamic therapy (PDT) control of acne disease is submitted. Method is based on simultaneous diagnostics in natural and fluorescent light. PDT was based on using 5-ALA (5- aminolevulinic acid) preparation and 600-730 nanometers radiation. If the examined site of a skin possessed a high endogenous porphyrin fluorescence level, PDT was carried out without 5-ALA. For FD and treatment control a dot spectroscopy and the fluorescent imaging of the affected skin were used.

  7. Eigenvalues of singular differential operators by finite difference methods. II.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baxley, J. V.

    1972-01-01

    Note is made of an earlier paper which defined finite difference operators for the Hilbert space L2(m), and gave the eigenvalues for these operators. The present work examines eigenvalues for higher order singular differential operators by using finite difference methods. The two self-adjoint operators investigated are defined by a particular value in the same Hilbert space, L2(m), and are strictly positive with compact inverses. A class of finite difference operators is considered, with the idea of application to the theory of Toeplitz matrices. The approximating operators consist of a good approximation plus a perturbing operator.

  8. Performance factors as a basis of practical fault detection and diagnostic methods for air-handling units

    SciTech Connect

    Kaerki, S.H.; Karjalainen, S.J.

    1999-07-01

    The technical term performance is defined as how well a system fulfills its intended purpose in different operational circumstances. This paper describes the process of establishing the performance factors of air-handling units (AHUs), defining the performance requirements, and connecting them to fault detection and diagnosis methods. The most important performance requirements of AHUs are related to heating and cooling energy, the supply airflow rate and purity, energy efficiency, and control quality. Many solutions made during different life-cycle phases affect the final system performance. These solutions are discussed in this paper. Diagnostic tools and methods can be developed for monitoring the defined performance criteria. Practical FDD methods have been developed for the system considered here. The methods are simple and easy to apply in practice. Methods for monitoring the heat recovery unit and the AHU energy use are presented. Examples of utilizing characteristic curves and fault-symptom trees are also described.

  9. Optical Diagnostic Characterization of High-Power Hall Thruster Wear and Operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, George J., Jr.; Soulas, George C.; Kamhawi, Hani

    2012-01-01

    Optical emission spectroscopy is employed to correlate BN insulator erosion with high-power Hall thruster operation. Specifically, actinometry leveraging excited xenon states is used to normalize the emission spectra of ground state boron as a function of thruster operating condition. Trends in the strength of the boron signal are correlated with thruster power, discharge voltage, and discharge current. In addition, the technique is demonstrated on metallic coupons embedded in the walls of the HiVHAc EM thruster. The OES technique captured the overall trend in the erosion of the coupons which boosts credibility in the method since there are no data to which to calibrate the erosion rates of high-power Hall thrusters. The boron signals are shown to trend linearly with discharge voltage for a fixed discharge current as expected. However, the boron signals of the higher-power NASA 300M and NASA 457Mv2 trend with discharge current and show an unexpectedly weak to inverse dependence on discharge voltage. Electron temperatures measured optically in the near-field plume of the thruster agree well with Langmuir probe data. However, the optical technique used to determine Te showed unacceptable sensitivity to the emission intensities. Near-field, single-frequency imaging of the xenon neutrals is also presented as a function of operating condition for the NASA 457 Mv2.

  10. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Helicobacter pylori Diagnostic Methods in Patients with Atrophic Gastritis

    PubMed Central

    Shimbo, Takuro; Ohde, Sachiko; Fukui, Tsuguya

    2017-01-01

    Background. There are several diagnostic methods for Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection. A cost-effective analysis is needed to decide on the optimal diagnostic method. The aim of this study was to determine a cost-effective diagnostic method in patients with atrophic gastritis (AG). Methods. A decision-analysis model including seven diagnostic methods was constructed for patients with AG diagnosed by esophagogastroduodenoscopy. Expected values of cost and effectiveness were calculated for each test. Results. If the prevalence of H. pylori in the patients with AG is 85% and CAM-resistant H. pylori is 30%, histology, stool H. pylori antigen (SHPAg), bacterial culture (BC), and urine H. pylori antibody (UHPAb) were dominated by serum H. pylori IgG antibody (SHPAb), rapid urease test (RUT), and urea breath test (UBT). Among three undominated methods, the incremental cost-effective ratios (ICER) of RUT versus SHPAb and UBT versus RUT were $214 and $1914, respectively. If the prevalence of CAM-sensitive H. pylori was less than 55%, BC was not dominated, but its H. pylori eradication success rate was 0.86. Conclusions. RUT was the most cost-effective at the current prevalence of CAM-resistant H. pylori. BC could not be selected due to its poor effectiveness even if CAM-resistant H. pylori was more than 45%. PMID:28337217

  11. Hydrogasification reactor and method of operating same

    SciTech Connect

    Hobbs, Raymond; Karner, Donald; Sun, Xiaolei; Boyle, John; Noguchi, Fuyuki

    2013-09-10

    The present invention provides a system and method for evaluating effects of process parameters on hydrogasification processes. The system includes a hydrogasification reactor, a pressurized feed system, a hopper system, a hydrogen gas source, and a carrier gas source. Pressurized carbonaceous material, such as coal, is fed to the reactor using the carrier gas and reacted with hydrogen to produce natural gas.

  12. [Methodical features of the molding of diagnostic competences in medical parasitology workers].

    PubMed

    Dovgalev, A S; Astanina, S Iu; Avdiukhina, T I; Serdiuk, A P; Imamkuliev, K D

    2015-01-01

    The paper provides a rationale for a procedure to mold diagnostic competences in medical workers of the laboratories of therapeutic-and-prophylactic institutions and hygiene and epidemiology centers, Russian Federal Service for Supervision of Consumer Rights Protection and Human Welfare. The methodical features of molding diagnostic competences in the above contingents are the design and organization of an educational process by applying systems integration and competence-based approaches; increased active self-directed learning of audience; a procedure to organize its unsupervised extracurricular activities. Professional habits and skills in laboratory specialists should be molded on the basis of didactic principles and in compliance with the found methodical patterns. The eventual result (molded competences) and its compliance with the practical health care requirements is assessed using all control types (incoming, running, intermediate, and ultimate ones). This ensures the stability and predictability of molding diagnostic competences in parasitology specialists.

  13. CT-guided percutaneous aspiration of Tarlov cyst as a useful diagnostic procedure prior to operative intervention.

    PubMed

    Lee, J-Y; Impekoven, P; Stenzel, W; Löhr, M; Ernestus, R-I; Klug, N

    2004-07-01

    Tarlov or perineural cysts are lesions of the nerve root most often found in the sacral region. Several authors recommend surgical treatment of symptomatic Tarlov cysts. However, successful surgical treatment is dependent on appropriate patient selection. In this article, we report three cases of a sacral perineural cyst, causing sciatic pain, and emphasize the usefulness of CT-guided percutaneous aspiration as an important diagnostic and prognostic procedure prior to definitive operative treatment.

  14. Diagnostic efficiency of several methods of identifying socially rejected children and effect of participation rate on classification accuracy.

    PubMed

    McKown, Clark; Gumbiner, Laura M; Johnson, Jason

    2011-10-01

    Social rejection is associated with a wide variety of negative outcomes. Early identification of social rejection and intervention to minimize its negative impact is thus important. However, sociometric methods, which are considered high in validity for identifying socially rejected children, are frequently not used because of (a) procedural challenges, (b) community apprehension, and (c) sensitivity to missing data. In a sample of 316 students in grades K through 8, we used receiver operating characteristics (ROC) analyses to compare the diagnostic efficiency of several methods for identifying socially rejected children. When not using least-liked nominations, (a) most-liked nominations yielded the greatest diagnostic efficiency (AUC=.96), (b) peer ratings were more efficient (AUC=.84 to .99) than teacher ratings (AUC=.74 to .81), and (c) teacher report of social status was more efficient (AUC=.81) than scores from teacher behavior rating scales (AUC=.74 to .75). We also examined the effects of nominator non-participation on diagnostic efficiency. At participation as low as 50%, classification of sociometric rejection (i.e., being rejected or not rejected) was quite accurate (κ=.63 to .77). In contrast, at participation as high as 70%, classification of sociometric status (i.e., popular, average, unclassified, neglected, controversial, or rejected) was significantly less accurate (κ=.50 to .59).

  15. Depression and Spinal Cord Injury: A Review of Diagnostic Methods for Depression, 1985 to 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skinner, Amy L.; Armstrong, Kevin J.; Rich, John

    2003-01-01

    Studies of depression in individuals with spinal cord injuries (SCI) over a 15-year period were examined to determine if researchers used consistent diagnostic measures. The Beck Depression Inventory was the most frequently used instrument, but there was inconsistency among methods employed and disagreement regarding the inclusion of somatic…

  16. Hydroxymethyl phosphine compounds for use as diagnostic and therapeutic pharmaceuticals and method of making same

    DOEpatents

    Katti, K.V.; Karra, S.R.; Berning, D.E.; Smith, C.J.; Volkert, W.A.; Ketring, A.R.

    1999-01-05

    A compound and method of making a compound for use as a diagnostic or therapeutic pharmaceutical comprises at least one functionalized hydroxyalkyl phosphine donor group and one or more sulfur or nitrogen donor and a metal combined with the ligand. 21 figs.

  17. Hydroxyalkyl phosphine gold complexes for use as diagnostic and therapeutic pharmaceuticals and method of making same

    DOEpatents

    Katti, Kattesh V.; Berning, Douglas E.; Volkert, Wynn A.; Ketring, Alan R.

    1998-01-01

    A complex and method for making same for use as a diagnostic or therapeutic pharmaceutical includes a ligand comprising at least one hydroxyalkyl phosphine donor group bound to a gold atom to form a gold-ligand complex that is stable in aqueous solutions containing oxygen, serum and other body fluids.

  18. Hydroxyalkyl phosphine gold complexes for use as diagnostic and therapeutic pharmaceuticals and method of making same

    DOEpatents

    Katti, K.V.; Berning, D.E.; Volkert, W.A.; Ketring, A.R.

    1998-12-01

    A complex and method for making a diagnostic or therapeutic pharmaceutical includes a ligand comprising at least one hydroxyalkyl phosphine donor group bound to a gold atom to form a gold-ligand complex that is stable in aqueous solutions containing oxygen, serum and other body fluids. 20 figs.

  19. [Mobile phone based data acquisition and evaluation system for the alternative four diagnostic methods of traditional Chinese medicine].

    PubMed

    Yang, Jun; Liu, Jing; Liu, Ran

    2013-01-01

    This study is dedicated to integrate the theories of the four diagnostic methods of TCM and the methods of mobile healthcare so as to achieve the goal of the four diagnostic functions of TCM on mobile phone. An Android smartphone based data acquisition system has been developed and experimentally demonstrated. It was shown that the prototype could successfully achieve the fundamental function of the four diagnostic methods of TCM and thus help preliminarily interpret the symptoms of human diseases.

  20. Estimation of diagnostic test accuracy without full verification: a review of latent class methods

    PubMed Central

    Collins, John; Huynh, Minh

    2014-01-01

    The performance of a diagnostic test is best evaluated against a reference test that is without error. For many diseases, this is not possible, and an imperfect reference test must be used. However, diagnostic accuracy estimates may be biased if inaccurately verified status is used as the truth. Statistical models have been developed to handle this situation by treating disease as a latent variable. In this paper, we conduct a systematized review of statistical methods using latent class models for estimating test accuracy and disease prevalence in the absence of complete verification. PMID:24910172

  1. Estimation of diagnostic test accuracy without full verification: a review of latent class methods.

    PubMed

    Collins, John; Huynh, Minh

    2014-10-30

    The performance of a diagnostic test is best evaluated against a reference test that is without error. For many diseases, this is not possible, and an imperfect reference test must be used. However, diagnostic accuracy estimates may be biased if inaccurately verified status is used as the truth. Statistical models have been developed to handle this situation by treating disease as a latent variable. In this paper, we conduct a systematized review of statistical methods using latent class models for estimating test accuracy and disease prevalence in the absence of complete verification.

  2. System and method of operating toroidal magnetic confinement devices

    DOEpatents

    Chance, M.S.; Jardin, S.C.; Stix, T.H.; Grimm, R.C.; Manickam, J.; Okabayashi, M.

    1984-08-30

    This invention pertains to methods and arrangements for attaining high beta values in plasma confinement devices. More specifically, this invention pertains to methods for accessing the second stability region of operation in toroidal magnetic confinement devices.

  3. Low-frequency sonophoresis: a noninvasive method of drug delivery and diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Mitragotri, S; Kost, J

    2000-01-01

    Transdermal drug delivery offers an attractive alternative to injections and oral medications. However, applications of transdermal drug delivery are limited to only a few drugs as a result of low skin permeability. Application of low-frequency ultrasound enhances skin permeability, a phenomenon referred to as low-frequency sonophoresis. In this method, a short application of ultrasound is used to permeabilize skin for a prolonged period of time. During this period, ultrasonically permeabilized skin may be utilized for drug delivery. In addition, a sample of interstitial fluid or its components may be extracted through permeabilized skin for diagnostic applications. In this paper, we report our in vivo studies that demonstrate the principles of both of these concepts. Detailed studies on drug delivery are performed using inulin and mannitol as model drugs. Studies on diagnostics are performed using glucose as a model analyte. Applications of this technology to drug delivery and diagnostics are discussed.

  4. Method for assessing motor insulation on operating motors

    DOEpatents

    Kueck, J.D.; Otaduy, P.J.

    1997-03-18

    A method for monitoring the condition of electrical-motor-driven devices is disclosed. The method is achieved by monitoring electrical variables associated with the functioning of an operating motor, applying these electrical variables to a three phase equivalent circuit and determining non-symmetrical faults in the operating motor based upon symmetrical components analysis techniques. 15 figs.

  5. Method for assessing motor insulation on operating motors

    DOEpatents

    Kueck, John D.; Otaduy, Pedro J.

    1997-01-01

    A method for monitoring the condition of electrical-motor-driven devices. The method is achieved by monitoring electrical variables associated with the functioning of an operating motor, applying these electrical variables to a three phase equivalent circuit and determining non-symmetrical faults in the operating motor based upon symmetrical components analysis techniques.

  6. Molecular diagnostic methods for invasive fungal disease: the horizon draws nearer?

    PubMed

    Halliday, C L; Kidd, S E; Sorrell, T C; Chen, S C-A

    2015-04-01

    Rapid, accurate diagnostic laboratory tests are needed to improve clinical outcomes of invasive fungal disease (IFD). Traditional direct microscopy, culture and histological techniques constitute the 'gold standard' against which newer tests are judged. Molecular diagnostic methods, whether broad-range or fungal-specific, have great potential to enhance sensitivity and speed of IFD diagnosis, but have varying specificities. The use of PCR-based assays, DNA sequencing, and other molecular methods including those incorporating proteomic approaches such as matrix-assisted laser desorption ionisation-time of flight mass spectroscopy (MALDI-TOF MS) have shown promising results. These are used mainly to complement conventional methods since they require standardisation before widespread implementation can be recommended. None are incorporated into diagnostic criteria for defining IFD. Commercial assays may assist standardisation. This review provides an update of molecular-based diagnostic approaches applicable to biological specimens and fungal cultures in microbiology laboratories. We focus on the most common pathogens, Candida and Aspergillus, and the mucormycetes. The position of molecular-based approaches in the detection of azole and echinocandin antifungal resistance is also discussed.

  7. [Hemostasis management in multiple trauma patients--value of near-patient diagnostic methods].

    PubMed

    Jámbor, Csilla; Heindl, Bernhard; Spannagl, Michael; Rolfes, Caroline; Dinges, Gerhard Klaus; Frietsch, Thomas

    2009-03-01

    Massively transfused multiple trauma patients commonly develop a complex coagulopathy which needs immediate treatment. Near-patient diagnostic methods are available for the management of this coagulopathy and for the guidance of the therapeutic options with blood products and haemostatic drugs: conventional laboratory analysis methods adapted to the point-of-care (POC) situation (blood gas analysis, point of care PT, APTT and platelet count), and the complex whole blood methods used for near-patient coagulation monitoring (thromboelastometry and platelet function analysis). Based on the new Guidelines of the German Medical Association for the use of blood and plasma derivates, interventions with blood products and haemostatic drugs in multiple trauma patients are suggested. The diagnostic value of near-patient methods for coagulation monitoring is discussed.

  8. A real-time PCR diagnostic method for detection of Naegleria fowleri.

    PubMed

    Madarová, Lucia; Trnková, Katarína; Feiková, Sona; Klement, Cyril; Obernauerová, Margita

    2010-09-01

    Naegleria fowleri is a free-living amoeba that can cause primary amoebic meningoencephalitis (PAM). While, traditional methods for diagnosing PAM still rely on culture, more current laboratory diagnoses exist based on conventional PCR methods; however, only a few real-time PCR processes have been described as yet. Here, we describe a real-time PCR-based diagnostic method using hybridization fluorescent labelled probes, with a LightCycler instrument and accompanying software (Roche), targeting the Naegleria fowleriMp2Cl5 gene sequence. Using this method, no cross reactivity with other tested epidemiologically relevant prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms was found. The reaction detection limit was 1 copy of the Mp2Cl5 DNA sequence. This assay could become useful in the rapid laboratory diagnostic assessment of the presence or absence of Naegleria fowleri.

  9. [Microsurgery in lumbar disk operations. Possibilities, methods and results].

    PubMed

    Schwetlick, G

    1998-07-01

    The frequency of lumbar disc hemiation amounts to 5.1% with the male and 3.7% with the female population. Because of the often long-time pain-conditional impairment of the patients as well as the varied therapy-possibilities, the treatment of the ruptured lumbar intervertebral disc represents a special challenge. The indication to the operation for the lumbar disk-herniation results from the malfunctions of the nerve roots, the pains, as well as the temporal course of the symptoms. New and important developments have given the introduction of micro-surgical operation-techniques into the orthopedics. This development has led to it that many orthopedists and neurosurgeons the micro-surgical operation-technique prefers. Important for the micro-surgical lumbar discectomy is the operation-microscope, a good preoperative diagnostics as well as a particular micro-surgical operation-instrument. Through the different enlargement-possibilities of the operation-microscope, all anatomical structures can increase and are done visibly for the surgeon as well as the assistant. Intraoperative injuries of the dura as well as the spinal-nerves are certainly avoided hereby. The micro-surgical discectomie requires no longer time like the conventional operation of the disk. The postoperative stay in the hospital as well as the time of the work-incompetence is reduced. Postoperative inflammations of the disk-area as well as renewed operations are rarer with the microchirurgischen technique. If an operation is necessary, so this should not be out-hesitated too long in order to avoid bed results.

  10. DIAGNOSTIC CARDIAC CATHETERIZATION USING THE MEDRAD AVANTA FLUID MANAGEMENT SYSTEM AS COMPARED TO THE TRADITIONAL MANUAL INJECTION METHOD

    SciTech Connect

    Winniford, Michael D

    2013-02-08

    smaller diameter catheters have both been shown to reduce the volume of contrast administered. The use of smaller size catheters also permits more rapid hemostasis, thus allowing shorter ambulation time without the need for costly wound closure devices. These factors can result in enhanced patient satisfaction as well as more efficient management of post-procedure rooms. The intent of this study was to demonstrate that using the MEDRAD Avanta Fluid Management Injection System (MEDRAD, INC., Pittsburgh, PA) for coronary diagnostic procedures can produce a reduction in the volume of contrast administered without loss of operational quality or efficiency. In addition, this study will explore procedure time and efficiency in an effort to minimize the amount of ionizing radiation delivered to the patient as well as the diagnostic team members. Study Design This is a post-market study designed to collect data during diagnostic cardiac catheterization when utilizing 5FR or 6FR catheters in conjunction with the Avanta Fluid Management System or a manual manifold injection method control group. A minimum of 420 patients scheduled for diagnostic cardiac catheterization will be enrolled in the study cohort. Patients will be assigned into the following two groups. Group 1: Catheterization with 5FR or 6FR catheters, using the traditional manual manifold injection method for contrast media delivery which is defined as manual hand injection of contrast media through a 3 or 4 port manifold and left ventriculography performed via standard fixed rate power injection. Group 2: Catheterization with 5FR or 6FR catheters, using the MEDRAD Avanta system for contrast media delivery. Study endpoints include volume of contrast media administered during diagnostic cardiac catheterization, volume of contrast media wasted post-procedure, procedure time (defined as the time from first catheter insertion to last diagnostic catheter removal), fluoroscopy time and angiographic image quality. The study

  11. Development status of the X-ray beam diagnostics devices for the commissioning and user operation of the European XFEL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grünert, Jan; Buck, Jens; Freund, Wolfgang; Ozkan, Cigdem; Molodtsov, Serguei

    2013-03-01

    X-ray Free-Electron-Lasers (XFEL) as the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) in the USA, SACLA in Japan, and the European XFEL under construction in Germany are 4th generation light sources which allow research of at the same time extremely small structures (Ångström resolution) and extremely fast phenomena (femtosecond resolution). Unlike the pulses from a conventional optical laser, the radiation in these sources is created by the Self-Amplified Spontaneous Emission (SASE) process when electron bunches pass through very long segmented undulators. The shot noise at the origin of this process leads to significant pulse-to-pulse variations of pulse intensity, spectrum, wavefront, temporal properties etc. so that for user experiments an online monitoring of these properties is mandatory. Also, the adjustment of the long segmented undulators requires dedicated diagnostics such as an undulator commissioning spectrometer and spontaneous radiation analysis. The extremely high brilliance and resulting single-shot damage issue are difficult to handle for any XFEL diagnostics. Apart from the large energy range of operation of the facility from 280 eV to 25 keV in FEL fundamental, the particular challenge for the European XFEL diagnostics is the high intra bunch train photon pulse repetition rate of 4.5 MHz, potentially causing additional damage by high heat loads and making shot-to-shot diagnostics very demanding. This contribution reports on the facility concepts, recent progress in instrumentation development, and the optimization of diagnostics performance with respect to resolution/accuracy, shot-to-shot capabilities and energy range.

  12. Development and improvement of the operating diagnostics systems of NPO CKTI works for turbine of thermal and nuclear power plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovalev, I. A.; Rakovskii, V. G.; Isakov, N. Yu.; Sandovskii, A. V.

    2016-03-01

    The work results on the development and improvement of the techniques, algorithms, and software-hardware of continuous operating diagnostics systems of rotating units and parts of turbine equipment state are presented. In particular, to ensure the full remote service of monitored turbine equipment using web technologies, the web version of the software of the automated systems of vibration-based diagnostics (ASVD VIDAS) was developed. The experience in the automated analysis of data obtained by ASVD VIDAS form the basis of the new algorithm of early detection of such dangerous defects as rotor deflection, crack in the rotor, and strong misalignment of supports. The program-technical complex of monitoring and measuring the deflection of medium pressure rotor (PTC) realizing this algorithm will alert the electric power plant staff during a deflection and indicate its value. This will give the opportunity to take timely measures to prevent the further extension of the defect. Repeatedly, recorded cases of full or partial destruction of shrouded shelves of rotor blades of the last stages of low-pressure cylinders of steam turbines defined the need to develop a version of the automated system of blade diagnostics (ASBD SKALA) for shrouded stages. The processing, analysis, presentation, and backup of data characterizing the mechanical state of blade device are carried out with a newly developed controller of the diagnostics system. As a result of the implementation of the works, the diagnosed parameters determining the operation security of rotating elements of equipment was expanded and the new tasks on monitoring the state of units and parts of turbines were solved. All algorithmic solutions and hardware-software implementations mentioned in the article were tested on the test benches and applied at some power plants.

  13. Instrumentation for noninvasive express-diagnostics bacteriophages and viruses by optical method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moguilnaia, Tatiana A.; Andreev, Gleb I.; Agibalov, Andrey A.; Botikov, Andrey G.; Kosenkov, Evgeniy; Saguitova, Elena

    2004-03-01

    The theoretical and the experimental researches of spectra of absent-minded radiation in medium containing viruses were carried out. The information on spectra luminescence 31 viruses was written down.The new method the express - analysis of viruses in organism of the man was developed. It shall be mentioned that the proposed method of express diagnostics allows detection of infection agent in the organism several hours after infection. It makes it suitable for high efficient testing in blood services for detection and rejection of potential donors infected with such viruses as hepatitis, herpes, Epstein-Barre, cytomegalovirus, and immunodeficiency. Methods of serum diagnostics used for that purpose can detect antibodies to virus only 1-3 months after the person has been infected. The device for the express analysis of 31 viruses of the man was created.

  14. Diagnostic Method of Diabetes Based on Support Vector Machine and Tongue Images

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Xiaojuan; Chen, Qingguang; Tu, Liping; Huang, Jingbin; Cui, Ji

    2017-01-01

    Objective. The purpose of this research is to develop a diagnostic method of diabetes based on standardized tongue image using support vector machine (SVM). Methods. Tongue images of 296 diabetic subjects and 531 nondiabetic subjects were collected by the TDA-1 digital tongue instrument. Tongue body and tongue coating were separated by the division-merging method and chrominance-threshold method. With extracted color and texture features of the tongue image as input variables, the diagnostic model of diabetes with SVM was trained. After optimizing the combination of SVM kernel parameters and input variables, the influences of the combinations on the model were analyzed. Results. After normalizing parameters of tongue images, the accuracy rate of diabetes predication was increased from 77.83% to 78.77%. The accuracy rate and area under curve (AUC) were not reduced after reducing the dimensions of tongue features with principal component analysis (PCA), while substantially saving the training time. During the training for selecting SVM parameters by genetic algorithm (GA), the accuracy rate of cross-validation was grown from 72% or so to 83.06%. Finally, we compare with several state-of-the-art algorithms, and experimental results show that our algorithm has the best predictive accuracy. Conclusions. The diagnostic method of diabetes on the basis of tongue images in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) is of great value, indicating the feasibility of digitalized tongue diagnosis. PMID:28133611

  15. Diagnostic Method of Diabetes Based on Support Vector Machine and Tongue Images.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jianfeng; Xu, Jiatuo; Hu, Xiaojuan; Chen, Qingguang; Tu, Liping; Huang, Jingbin; Cui, Ji

    2017-01-01

    Objective. The purpose of this research is to develop a diagnostic method of diabetes based on standardized tongue image using support vector machine (SVM). Methods. Tongue images of 296 diabetic subjects and 531 nondiabetic subjects were collected by the TDA-1 digital tongue instrument. Tongue body and tongue coating were separated by the division-merging method and chrominance-threshold method. With extracted color and texture features of the tongue image as input variables, the diagnostic model of diabetes with SVM was trained. After optimizing the combination of SVM kernel parameters and input variables, the influences of the combinations on the model were analyzed. Results. After normalizing parameters of tongue images, the accuracy rate of diabetes predication was increased from 77.83% to 78.77%. The accuracy rate and area under curve (AUC) were not reduced after reducing the dimensions of tongue features with principal component analysis (PCA), while substantially saving the training time. During the training for selecting SVM parameters by genetic algorithm (GA), the accuracy rate of cross-validation was grown from 72% or so to 83.06%. Finally, we compare with several state-of-the-art algorithms, and experimental results show that our algorithm has the best predictive accuracy. Conclusions. The diagnostic method of diabetes on the basis of tongue images in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) is of great value, indicating the feasibility of digitalized tongue diagnosis.

  16. Diagnostic utility of the cell block method versus the conventional smear study in pleural fluid cytology

    PubMed Central

    Shivakumarswamy, Udasimath; Arakeri, Surekha U; Karigowdar, Mahesh H; Yelikar, BR

    2012-01-01

    Background: The cytological examinations of serous effusions have been well-accepted, and a positive diagnosis is often considered as a definitive diagnosis. It helps in staging, prognosis and management of the patients in malignancies and also gives information about various inflammatory and non-inflammatory lesions. Diagnostic problems arise in everyday practice to differentiate reactive atypical mesothelial cells and malignant cells by the routine conventional smear (CS) method. Aims: To compare the morphological features of the CS method with those of the cell block (CB) method and also to assess the utility and sensitivity of the CB method in the cytodiagnosis of pleural effusions. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted in the cytology section of the Department of Pathology. Sixty pleural fluid samples were subjected to diagnostic evaluation for over a period of 20 months. Along with the conventional smears, cell blocks were prepared by using 10% alcohol–formalin as a fixative agent. Statistical analysis with the ‘z test’ was performed to identify the cellularity, using the CS and CB methods. Mc. Naemer's χ2test was used to identify the additional yield for malignancy by the CB method. Results: Cellularity and additional yield for malignancy was 15% more by the CB method. Conclusions: The CB method provides high cellularity, better architectural patterns, morphological features and an additional yield of malignant cells, and thereby, increases the sensitivity of the cytodiagnosis when compared with the CS method. PMID:22438610

  17. A method for comparing beam-hardening filter materials for diagnostic radiology.

    PubMed

    Jennings, R J

    1988-01-01

    The necessity for using adequate beam filtration in diagnostic radiology is well known. Although aluminum is the most widely used filter material for diagnostic x-ray applications, the possibility that other materials might have superior properties has prompted a number of studies that have attempted to determine both the type and the amount of filtration most appropriate for a given situation. This paper describes a method based on precise matching of spectral shape that permits the absolute ranking of beam-hardening materials. Matching of spectral shape ensures equality of such parameters as image contrast and patient dose. Spectrally equivalent filters can then be ranked on the basis of the transmission of one relative to another. Following the development of the theory behind the method and an algorithm for implementing it, the method is applied to the evaluation of a variety of materials for use as filters in diagnostic radiology. Experimental verification of a few of the calculated results is also described. Both calculated and experimental results show that normal aluminum filters are about 10% less efficient than filters of materials such as copper, brass, or iron. Since the approach followed here was the basis for several early investigations of filtration for orthovoltage therapy, a brief comparison of results from these early reports with results calculated using the method developed here is also presented.

  18. Operator performance evaluation using multi criteria decision making methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rani, Ruzanita Mat; Ismail, Wan Rosmanira; Razali, Siti Fatihah

    2014-06-01

    Operator performance evaluation is a very important operation in labor-intensive manufacturing industry because the company's productivity depends on the performance of its operators. The aims of operator performance evaluation are to give feedback to operators on their performance, to increase company's productivity and to identify strengths and weaknesses of each operator. In this paper, six multi criteria decision making methods; Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP), fuzzy AHP (FAHP), ELECTRE, PROMETHEE II, Technique for Order of Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution (TOPSIS) and VlseKriterijumska Optimizacija I Kompromisno Resenje (VIKOR) are used to evaluate the operators' performance and to rank the operators. The performance evaluation is based on six main criteria; competency, experience and skill, teamwork and time punctuality, personal characteristics, capability and outcome. The study was conducted at one of the SME food manufacturing companies in Selangor. From the study, it is found that AHP and FAHP yielded the "outcome" criteria as the most important criteria. The results of operator performance evaluation showed that the same operator is ranked the first using all six methods.

  19. 12 CFR 1102.303 - Organization and methods of operation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Organization and methods of operation. 1102.303...) Statutory and other guidelines. Statutory requirements relating to the ASC's organization are stated in 12 U.S.C. 3310, 3333 and 3334. The ASC has adopted and published Rules of Operation guiding...

  20. On line diagnostics and self-tuning method for the fluidized bed temperature controller

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porzuczek, Jan

    2016-03-01

    The paper presents the method of on-line diagnostics of the bed temperature controller for the fluidized bed boiler. Proposed solution is based on the methods of statistical process control. Detected decrease of the bed temperature control quality is used to activate the controller self-tuning procedure. The algorithm that provides optimal tuning of the bed temperature controller is also proposed. The results of experimental verification of the presented method is attached. Experimental studies were carried out using the 2 MW bubbling fluidized bed boiler.

  1. Adaptation of LASCA method for diagnostics of malignant tumours in laboratory animals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ul'yanov, S. S.; Laskavyi, V. N.; Glova, Alina B.; Polyanina, T. I.; Ul'yanova, O. V.; Fedorova, V. A.; Ul'yanov, A. S.

    2012-05-01

    The LASCA method is adapted for diagnostics of malignant neoplasms in laboratory animals. Tumours are studied in mice of Balb/c inbred line after inoculation of cells of syngeneic myeloma cell line Sp.2/0 — Ag.8. The appropriateness of using the tLASCA method in tumour investigations is substantiated; its advantages in comparison with the sLASCA method are demonstrated. It is found that the most informative characteristic, indicating the presence of a tumour, is the fractal dimension of LASCA images.

  2. Method for remote diagnostics of the internal structure of layered media

    SciTech Connect

    Lychagov, V V; Kal'yanov, A L; Ryabukho, V P; Lyakin, D V

    2008-06-30

    The method of autocorrelation low coherence interferometry is proposed for diagnostics of inhomogeneities and the internal structure of layered technical and biological samples. In this method the low coherence optical field reflected from the layered sample is analysed by using a Michelson interferometer. Because the object is outside the interferometer, the distance between the interferometer and the object under study is not limited and thus the object can move during the measurements. Theoretical substantiation of the autocorrelation method for media with discrete and continuous optical structure modifications is presented. (special issue devoted to application of laser technologies in biophotonics and biomedical studies)

  3. [Interdisciplinary neuro-oncology: part 1: diagnostics and operative therapy of primary brain tumors].

    PubMed

    Tabatabai, G; Hattingen, E; Schlegel, J; Stummer, W; Schlegel, U

    2014-08-01

    By combining the expertise of clinical neuroscience, the aim of neuro-oncology is to optimize diagnostic planning and therapy of primary brain tumors in an interdisciplinary setting together with radio-oncology and medical oncology. High-end imaging frequently allows brain tumors to be diagnosed preoperatively with respect to tumor entity and even tumor malignancy grade. Moreover, neuroimaging is indispensable for guidance of biopsy resection and monitoring of therapy. Surgical resection of intracranial lesions with preservation of neurological function is increasingly feasible. Tools to achieve this goal are, for example neuronavigation, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), tractography, intraoperative cortical stimulation and precise intraoperative definition of tumor margins by virtue of various techniques. In addition to classical histopathological diagnosis and tumor classification, modern neuropathology is supplemented by molecular characterization of brain tumors in order to provide clinicians with prognostic and predictive (of therapy) markers, such as codeletion of chromosomes 1p and 19q in anaplastic gliomas and O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) promoter methylation in glioblastomas. Although this is not yet individualized tumor therapy, the increasingly more detailed analysis of the molecular pathogenesis of an individual glioma will eventually lead to specific pharmacological blockade of disturbed intracellular pathways in individual patients. This article gives an overview of the state of the art of interdisciplinary neuro-oncology whereby part 1 deals with the diagnostics and surgical therapy of primary brain tumors and part 2 describes the medical therapy of primary brain tumors.

  4. Why cannot a β-lactamase gene be detected using an efficient molecular diagnostic method?

    PubMed Central

    Park, Kwang Seung; Lee, Jung Hun; Park, Moonhee; Karim, Asad Mustafa; Lee, Sang Hee

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Fast detection of β-lactamase (bla) genes can minimize the spread of antibiotic resistance. Although several molecular diagnostic methods have been developed to detect limited bla gene types, these methods have significant limitations, such as their failure to detect almost all clinically available bla genes. We have evaluated a further refinement of our fast and accurate molecular method, developed to overcome these limitations, using clinical isolates. Methods: We have recently developed the efficient large-scale bla detection method (large-scaleblaFinder) that can detect bla gene types including almost all clinically available 1,352 bla genes with perfect specificity and sensitivity. Using this method, we have evaluated a further refinement of this method using clinical isolates provided by International Health Management Associates, Inc. (Schaumburg, Illinois, USA). Results were interpreted in a blinded manner by researchers who did not know any information on bla genes harbored by these isolates. Results: With only one exception, the large-scaleblaFinder detected all bla genes identified by the provider using microarray and multiplex PCR. In one of the Escherichia coli test isolates, a blaDHA-1 gene was detected using the multiplex PCR assay but it was not detected using the large-scaleblaFinder. Conclusion: The truncation of a blaDHA-1 gene is an important reason for an efficient molecular diagnostic method (large-scaleblaFinder) not to detect the bla gene. PMID:27882043

  5. Dynamically balanced fuel nozzle and method of operation

    DOEpatents

    Richards, George A.; Janus, Michael C.; Robey, Edward H.

    2000-01-01

    An apparatus and method of operation designed to reduce undesirably high pressure oscillations in lean premix combustion systems burning hydrocarbon fuels are provided. Natural combustion and nozzle acoustics are employed to generate multiple fuel pockets which, when burned in the combustor, counteract the oscillations caused by variations in heat release in the combustor. A hybrid of active and passive control techniques, the apparatus and method eliminate combustion oscillations over a wide operating range, without the use of moving parts or electronics.

  6. Method and Apparatus Providing Deception and/or Altered Operation in an Information System Operating System

    DOEpatents

    Cohen, Fred; Rogers, Deanna T.; Neagoe, Vicentiu

    2008-10-14

    A method and/or system and/or apparatus providing deception and/or execution alteration in an information system. In specific embodiments, deceptions and/or protections are provided by intercepting and/or modifying operation of one or more system calls of an operating system.

  7. Integrated factory interface for the precision implant 9000 ion implanter operator. Operator, service personnel, factory management host, and remote diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Southwood, P. D.; Bright, N. J.

    Modern wafer fabrication techniques, which include ever decreasing device geometries, demand greater uniformity and yield. To cope with these requirements, equipment is becoming more advanced, more expensive and far more complex. Addressing the complexity inherent in the new generation of equipment demands further advances in automation. To achieve cost-effectivity, equipment utilization must be maximized. Thus reliability must be high and mean time-to-repair must be minimized. The industry is also demanding that normal control of equipment requires less skilled personnel for operation than has been necessary in the past. However, since all equipment malfunctions occasionally, it is vital that, when problems do occur, they can be diagnosed and solved simply, quickly, and correctly. To meet these requirements an extremely versatile, yet simple approach to equipment control is mandatory. This paper describes the Light Touch™ control system which is implemented in the Applied Materials Precision Implant 9000 System. Light Touch is a trademark of Applied Materials, Inc.

  8. Pirogow's Amputation: A Modification of the Operation Method

    PubMed Central

    Bueschges, M.; Muehlberger, T.; Mauss, K. L.; Bruck, J. C.; Ottomann, C.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. Pirogow's amputation at the ankle presents a valuable alternative to lower leg amputation for patients with the corresponding indications. Although this method offers the ability to stay mobile without the use of a prosthesis, it is rarely performed. This paper proposes a modification regarding the operation method of the Pirogow amputation. The results of the modified operation method on ten patients were objectified 12 months after the operation using a patient questionnaire (Ankle Score). Material and Methods. We modified the original method by rotating the calcaneus. To fix the calcaneus to the tibia, Kirschner wire and a 3/0 spongiosa tension screw as well as a Fixateur externe were used. Results. 70% of those questioned who were amputated following the modified Pirogow method indicated an excellent or very good result in total points whereas in the control group (original Pirogow's amputation) only 40% reported excellent or very good result. In addition, the level of pain experienced one year after the completed operation showed different results in favour of the group being operated with the modified way. Furthermore, patients in both groups showed differences in radiological results, postoperative leg length difference, and postoperative mobility. Conclusion. The modified Pirogow amputation presents a valuable alternative to the original amputation method for patients with the corresponding indications. The benefits are found in the significantly reduced pain, difference in reduced radiological complications, the increase in mobility without a prosthesis, and the reduction of postoperative leg length difference. PMID:23606976

  9. The role of ultrasound and nuclear medicine methods in the preoperative diagnostics of primary hyperparathyroidism

    PubMed Central

    Cacko, Marek; Królicki, Leszek

    2015-01-01

    Primary hyperparathyroidism (PH) represents one of the most common endocrine diseases. In most cases, the disorder is caused by parathyroid adenomas. Bilateral neck exploration has been a widely used treatment method for adenomas since the 20's of the twentieth century. In the last decade, however, it has been increasingly replaced by a minimally invasive surgical treatment. Smaller extent, shorter duration and lower complication rate of such a procedure are emphasized. Its efficacy depends on a precise location of parathyroid tissue during the preoperative imaging. Scintigraphy and ultrasound play a major role in the diagnostic algorithms. The efficacy of both methods has been repeatedly verified and compared. The still-current guidelines of the European Association of Nuclear Medicine (2009) emphasize the complementary role of scintigraphy and ultrasonography in the preoperative diagnostics in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism. At the same time, attempts are made to improve both these techniques by implementing new study protocols or innovative technologies. Publications have emerged in the recent years in the field of ultrasonography, whose authors pointed out the usefulness of elastography and contrast media. Nuclear medicine studies, on the other hand, focus mainly on the assessment of new radiotracers used in the positron emission tomography (PET). The aim of this article is to present, based on literature data, the possibilities of ultrasound and scintigraphy in the preoperative diagnostics in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism. Furthermore, the main directions in the development of imaging techniques in PH patients were evaluated. PMID:26807297

  10. Surgical extraction of lower third molars: diagnostic tests and operative technique in the prevention of inferior alveolar nerve injury. Case study

    PubMed Central

    MELEO, D.; PACIFICI, L.

    2009-01-01

    SUMMARY Increased knowledge and technical refinement have broadened the limits of outpatient oral surgery; however, these changes have at the same time led to a greater number of complications and poor outcomes and, accordingly, to legal action for professional responsibility. Oral surgery represents 10% of all actions, and almost all of these are attributable to exodontic surgery, of which around a third are related to inferior alveolar nerve injury following the extraction of lower third molars. The aim of this case study is to suggest operative technical strategies in accordance with a correct clinical-diagnostic pathway in order to prevent neurological complications involving the inferior alveolar nerve subsequent to lower third molar extraction. Cases should be carefully selected and surgical intervention undertaken solely when genuinely necessary. The patient should be informed of the risks, the methods and the possible results of the treatment. These are the bases for correct indication, along with a sufficient diagnostic path and a good level of communication between operator and patient. PMID:23285341

  11. Engine systems and methods of operating an engine

    DOEpatents

    Scotto, Mark Vincent

    2015-08-25

    One embodiment of the present invention is a unique method for operating an engine. Another embodiment is a unique engine system. Other embodiments include apparatuses, systems, devices, hardware, methods, and combinations for engines and engine systems. Further embodiments, forms, features, aspects, benefits, and advantages of the present application will become apparent from the description and figures provided herewith.

  12. Synchronized operation by field programmable gate array based signal controller for the Thomson scattering diagnostic system in KSTAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, W. R.; Kim, H. S.; Park, M. K.; Lee, J. H.; Kim, K. H.

    2012-09-01

    The Thomson scattering diagnostic system is successfully installed in the Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research (KSTAR) facility. We got the electron temperature and electron density data for the first time in 2011, 4th campaign using a field programmable gate array (FPGA) based signal control board. It operates as a signal generator, a detector, a controller, and a time measuring device. This board produces two configurable trigger pulses to operate Nd:YAG laser system and receives a laser beam detection signal from a photodiode detector. It allows a trigger pulse to be delivered to a time delay module to make a scattered signal measurement, measuring an asynchronous time value between the KSTAR timing board and the laser system injection signal. All functions are controlled by the embedded processor running on operating system within a single FPGA. It provides Ethernet communication interface and is configured with standard middleware to integrate with KSTAR. This controller has operated for two experimental campaigns including commissioning and performed the reconfiguration of logic designs to accommodate varying experimental situation without hardware rebuilding.

  13. Synchronized operation by field programmable gate array based signal controller for the Thomson scattering diagnostic system in KSTAR

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, W. R.; Park, M. K.; Lee, J. H.; Kim, H. S.; Kim, K. H.

    2012-09-15

    The Thomson scattering diagnostic system is successfully installed in the Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research (KSTAR) facility. We got the electron temperature and electron density data for the first time in 2011, 4th campaign using a field programmable gate array (FPGA) based signal control board. It operates as a signal generator, a detector, a controller, and a time measuring device. This board produces two configurable trigger pulses to operate Nd:YAG laser system and receives a laser beam detection signal from a photodiode detector. It allows a trigger pulse to be delivered to a time delay module to make a scattered signal measurement, measuring an asynchronous time value between the KSTAR timing board and the laser system injection signal. All functions are controlled by the embedded processor running on operating system within a single FPGA. It provides Ethernet communication interface and is configured with standard middleware to integrate with KSTAR. This controller has operated for two experimental campaigns including commissioning and performed the reconfiguration of logic designs to accommodate varying experimental situation without hardware rebuilding.

  14. Synchronized operation by field programmable gate array based signal controller for the Thomson scattering diagnostic system in KSTAR.

    PubMed

    Lee, W R; Kim, H S; Park, M K; Lee, J H; Kim, K H

    2012-09-01

    The Thomson scattering diagnostic system is successfully installed in the Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research (KSTAR) facility. We got the electron temperature and electron density data for the first time in 2011, 4th campaign using a field programmable gate array (FPGA) based signal control board. It operates as a signal generator, a detector, a controller, and a time measuring device. This board produces two configurable trigger pulses to operate Nd:YAG laser system and receives a laser beam detection signal from a photodiode detector. It allows a trigger pulse to be delivered to a time delay module to make a scattered signal measurement, measuring an asynchronous time value between the KSTAR timing board and the laser system injection signal. All functions are controlled by the embedded processor running on operating system within a single FPGA. It provides Ethernet communication interface and is configured with standard middleware to integrate with KSTAR. This controller has operated for two experimental campaigns including commissioning and performed the reconfiguration of logic designs to accommodate varying experimental situation without hardware rebuilding.

  15. Support Operators Method for the Diffusion Equation in Multiple Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Winters, Andrew R.; Shashkov, Mikhail J.

    2012-08-14

    A second-order finite difference scheme for the solution of the diffusion equation on non-uniform meshes is implemented. The method allows the heat conductivity to be discontinuous. The algorithm is formulated on a one dimensional mesh and is derived using the support operators method. A key component of the derivation is that the discrete analog of the flux operator is constructed to be the negative adjoint of the discrete divergence, in an inner product that is a discrete analog of the continuum inner product. The resultant discrete operators in the fully discretized diffusion equation are symmetric and positive definite. The algorithm is generalized to operate on meshes with cells which have mixed material properties. A mechanism to recover intermediate temperature values in mixed cells using a limited linear reconstruction is introduced. The implementation of the algorithm is verified and the linear reconstruction mechanism is compared to previous results for obtaining new material temperatures.

  16. Personality Assessment in the Diagnostic Manuals: On Mindfulness, Multiple Methods, and Test Score Discontinuities

    PubMed Central

    Bornstein, Robert F.

    2015-01-01

    Recent controversies have illuminated the strengths and limitations of different frameworks for conceptualizing personality pathology (e.g., trait perspectives, categorical models), and stimulated debate regarding how best to diagnose personality disorders (PDs) in DSM-5, and in other diagnostic systems (i.e., the International Classification of Diseases, the Psychodynamic Diagnostic Manual). In this article I argue that regardless of how PDs are conceptualized and which diagnostic system is employed, multi-method assessment must play a central role in PD diagnosis. By complementing self-reports with evidence from other domains (e.g., performance-based tests), a broader range of psychological processes are engaged in the patient, and the impact of self-perception and self-presentation biases may be better understood. By providing the assessor with evidence drawn from multiple modalities, some of which provide converging patterns and some of which yield divergent results, the assessor is compelled to engage this evidence more deeply. The mindful processing that ensues can help minimize the deleterious impact of naturally occurring information processing bias and distortion on the part of the clinician (e.g., heuristics, attribution errors), bringing greater clarity to the synthesis and integration of assessment data. PMID:25856565

  17. NEW INSTRUMENTS AND METHODS OF INVESTIGATIONS: Holographic methods for regulating the sensitivity of interference measurements for transparent media diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeĭlikovich, I. S.; Lyalikov, A. M.

    1991-01-01

    This is a review of holographic methods which enable one to regulate the sensitivity of interference measurements. Methods for increasing measurement sensitivity by using waves reconstructed from a hologram in higher diffraction orders and from a rerecording of a hologram, and also methods for regulating sensitivity that are based on recording holograms in two wavelengths, are considered. A review is given of methods for increasing sensitivity during the multiple passage of a beam through a volume being investigated or a hologram. Electronic phase measurement methods which enable one to increase the threshold of measurement sensitivity are considered. A review of the use of holographic interferometry with regulated measurement sensitivity for transparent media diagnostics is given.

  18. Vertical root fracture: Biological effects and accuracy of diagnostic imaging methods

    PubMed Central

    Baageel, Turki M.; Allah, Emad Habib; Bakalka, Ghaida T.; Jadu, Fatima; Yamany, Ibrahim; Jan, Ahmed M.; Bogari, Dania F.; Alhazzazi, Turki Y.

    2016-01-01

    This review assessed the most up-to-date literature on the accuracy of detecting vertical root fractures (VRFs] using the currently available diagnostic imaging methods. In addition, an overview of the biological and clinical aspects of VRFs will also be discussed. A systematic review of the literature was initiated in December of 2015 and then updated in May of 2016. The electronic databases searched included PubMed, Emabse, Ovid, and Google Scholar. An assessment of the methodological quality was performed using a modified version of the quality assessment of diagnostic accuracy studies tool. Twenty-two studies were included in this systematic review after applying specific inclusion and exclusion criteria. Of those, 12 favored using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) for detecting VRF as compared to periapical radiographs, whereas 5 reported no differences between the two methods. The remaining 5 studies confirmed the advantages associated with using CBCT when diagnosing VRF and described the parameters and limitations associated with this method, but they were not comparative studies. In conclusion, overwhelming evidence suggests that the use of CBCT is a preferred method for detecting VRFs. Nevertheless, additional well controlled and high quality studies are needed to produce solid evidence and guidelines to support the routine use of CBCT in the diagnosis of VRFs as a standard of care. PMID:27652254

  19. Molecular Diagnostics for Lassa Fever at Irrua Specialist Teaching Hospital, Nigeria: Lessons Learnt from Two Years of Laboratory Operation

    PubMed Central

    Hass, Meike; Gabriel, Martin; Ölschläger, Stephan; Becker-Ziaja, Beate; Folarin, Onikepe; Phelan, Eric; Ehiane, Philomena E.; Ifeh, Veritas E.; Uyigue, Eghosasere A.; Oladapo, Yemisi T.; Muoebonam, Ekene B.; Osunde, Osagie; Dongo, Andrew; Okokhere, Peter O.; Okogbenin, Sylvanus A.; Momoh, Mojeed; Alikah, Sylvester O.; Akhuemokhan, Odigie C.; Imomeh, Peter; Odike, Maxy A. C.; Gire, Stephen; Andersen, Kristian; Sabeti, Pardis C.; Happi, Christian T.; Akpede, George O.; Günther, Stephan

    2012-01-01

    Background Lassa fever is a viral hemorrhagic fever endemic in West Africa. However, none of the hospitals in the endemic areas of Nigeria has the capacity to perform Lassa virus diagnostics. Case identification and management solely relies on non-specific clinical criteria. The Irrua Specialist Teaching Hospital (ISTH) in the central senatorial district of Edo State struggled with this challenge for many years. Methodology/Principal Findings A laboratory for molecular diagnosis of Lassa fever, complying with basic standards of diagnostic PCR facilities, was established at ISTH in 2008. During 2009 through 2010, samples of 1,650 suspected cases were processed, of which 198 (12%) tested positive by Lassa virus RT-PCR. No remarkable demographic differences were observed between PCR-positive and negative patients. The case fatality rate for Lassa fever was 31%. Nearly two thirds of confirmed cases attended the emergency departments of ISTH. The time window for therapeutic intervention was extremely short, as 50% of the fatal cases died within 2 days of hospitalization—often before ribavirin treatment could be commenced. Fatal Lassa fever cases were older (p = 0.005), had lower body temperature (p<0.0001), and had higher creatinine (p<0.0001) and blood urea levels (p<0.0001) than survivors. Lassa fever incidence in the hospital followed a seasonal pattern with a peak between November and March. Lassa virus sequences obtained from the patients originating from Edo State formed—within lineage II—a separate clade that could be further subdivided into three clusters. Conclusions/Significance Lassa fever case management was improved at a tertiary health institution in Nigeria through establishment of a laboratory for routine diagnostics of Lassa virus. Data collected in two years of operation demonstrate that Lassa fever is a serious public health problem in Edo State and reveal new insights into the disease in hospitalized patients. PMID:23029594

  20. A Toxocara cati eggs concentration method from cats' faeces, for experimental and diagnostic purposes.

    PubMed

    Cardillo, N; Sommerfelt, I; Fariña, F; Pasqualetti, M; Pérez, M; Ercole, M; Rosa, A; Ribicich, M

    2014-09-01

    Toxocariosis is a zoonotic parasite infection worldwide distributed, now considered a neglected disease associated to poverty. For experimental infection in animals and to develop the diagnosis in humans it is necessary to obtain large number of Toxocara spp. larval eggs. Toxocara cati eggs recovered percentage from faeces of infected cats was determined employing a novel egg concentration method. The McMaster egg counting technique and the concentration method were applied on 20 positive cats' sample faeces obtained from naturally infected cats. The mean percentage of eggs recovered by the concentration method was 24.37% higher than the count obtained by McMaster egg counting technique. The main advantage of this method is that it can be obtained a small final volume with a high number of recovered eggs and a good quality inoculum for experimental and diagnostic purposes.

  1. High-Accuracy Ultrasound Contrast Agent Detection Method for Diagnostic Ultrasound Imaging Systems.

    PubMed

    Ito, Koichi; Noro, Kazumasa; Yanagisawa, Yukari; Sakamoto, Maya; Mori, Shiro; Shiga, Kiyoto; Kodama, Tetsuya; Aoki, Takafumi

    2015-12-01

    An accurate method for detecting contrast agents using diagnostic ultrasound imaging systems is proposed. Contrast agents, such as microbubbles, passing through a blood vessel during ultrasound imaging are detected as blinking signals in the temporal axis, because their intensity value is constantly in motion. Ultrasound contrast agents are detected by evaluating the intensity variation of a pixel in the temporal axis. Conventional methods are based on simple subtraction of ultrasound images to detect ultrasound contrast agents. Even if the subject moves only slightly, a conventional detection method will introduce significant error. In contrast, the proposed technique employs spatiotemporal analysis of the pixel intensity variation over several frames. Experiments visualizing blood vessels in the mouse tail illustrated that the proposed method performs efficiently compared with conventional approaches. We also report that the new technique is useful for observing temporal changes in microvessel density in subiliac lymph nodes containing tumors. The results are compared with those of contrast-enhanced computed tomography.

  2. Method for operating a combustor in a fuel cell system

    DOEpatents

    Clingerman, Bruce J.; Mowery, Kenneth D.

    2002-01-01

    In one aspect, the invention provides a method of operating a combustor to heat a fuel processor to a desired temperature in a fuel cell system, wherein the fuel processor generates hydrogen (H.sub.2) from a hydrocarbon for reaction within a fuel cell to generate electricity. More particularly, the invention provides a method and select system design features which cooperate to provide a start up mode of operation and a smooth transition from start-up of the combustor and fuel processor to a running mode.

  3. Centrifuge-operated specimen staining method and apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clarke, Mark S. F. (Inventor); Feeback, Daniel L. (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    A method of staining preselected, mounted specimens of either biological or nonbiological material enclosed within a staining chamber where the liquid staining reagents are applied and removed from the staining chamber using hypergravity as the propelling force. In the preferred embodiment, a spacecraft-operated centrifuge and method of diagnosing biological specimens while in orbit, characterized by hermetically sealing a shell assembly. The assembly contains slide stain apparatus with computer control therefor, the operative effect of which is to overcome microgravity, for example on board an International Space Station.

  4. Systems and methods for analyzing building operations sensor data

    DOEpatents

    Mezic, Igor; Eisenhower, Bryan A.

    2015-05-26

    Systems and methods are disclosed for analyzing building sensor information and decomposing the information therein to a more manageable and more useful form. Certain embodiments integrate energy-based and spectral-based analysis methods with parameter sampling and uncertainty/sensitivity analysis to achieve a more comprehensive perspective of building behavior. The results of this analysis may be presented to a user via a plurality of visualizations and/or used to automatically adjust certain building operations. In certain embodiments, advanced spectral techniques, including Koopman-based operations, are employed to discern features from the collected building sensor data.

  5. Method of operating a cold cathode-cold reservoir thyratron

    SciTech Connect

    Tauber, A.; Finnegan, R.D.; Rothwarf, F.

    1984-05-22

    A method is disclosed of operating a cold-cathode-cold-reservoir thyratron for laser/radar and other systems employing high voltage and current pulses using ZrVFe as the hydrogen thyratron material. According to the method, a hydride of ZrVFe is first formed and the hydrided material then placed in the cathode structure of the thyratron. The tube is then pumped down to its operating pressure of approximately 10/sup -3/ atmospheres, the hydrided material then acting as a ballast to maintain that partial pressure of hydrogen at room temperature.

  6. A nondestructive diagnostic method based on swept-frequency ultrasound transmission-reflection measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bramanti, Mauro

    1992-08-01

    A nondestructive diagnostic technique is proposed to measure depth and thickness of unwanted inclusions inside laminate-type materials (gaps, delaminations, and cracks, for example). The method is based on the frequency-domain analysis of transmission and reflection coefficient measured on the material under test when it is irradiated by a CW ultrasound beam whose frequency varies over a suitable frequency range. By measuring the frequency distance between two adjacent minima in the attenuation and reflection coefficients the thickness and depth of the inclusion can be obtained. A practical implementation of the technique is suggested, and the first experimental results obtained by a laboratory setup are reported.

  7. Methods for evaluating effect of operators on dragline energy efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdi Oskouei, Maryam

    Draglines are dominant machines and the most significant electricity consumers in surface coal mines. With the growing price of energy, environmental concerns, and the high sensitivity of mine profitability to dragline productivity, any improvement in efficiency of dragline will be beneficial for mines. Research has shown that operator practices have a significant impact on energy efficiency of mining loading tools. However, not enough work has been done to provide guidance on how to quantitatively assess the effect of operator practices on dragline energy efficiency. The objectives of this work were to: (i) test the hypothesis that dragline operator's practices and skills significantly affect dragline energy efficiency; and (ii) develop a methodology to identify the critical parameters that explain the differences in operator energy efficiency. Statistical tests are suggested to study the effect of operator practice and skills on dragline energy efficiency to achieve the first research objective. The second objective was achieved with a novel methodology based on sound statistical principles. Both approaches were illustrated with a real-life dragline operation. The suggested methodology was used on the data collected from an 85yd 3 BE-1570w dragline to compare the energy efficiency of five operators during a one month period. Valid methods have been formulated for testing operator effects on dragline energy efficiency and for identifying critical parameters that explain such differences. Using the developed approaches, the case study shows that operator practices can affect dragline energy efficiency. The tests show that there is a high probability that differences in energy efficiency are due to dumping height, vertical and horizontal drag distances, and spotting and dumping time among the surveyed operators.

  8. New diagnostic methods for laser plasma- and microwave-enhanced combustion

    PubMed Central

    Miles, Richard B; Michael, James B; Limbach, Christopher M; McGuire, Sean D; Chng, Tat Loon; Edwards, Matthew R; DeLuca, Nicholas J; Shneider, Mikhail N; Dogariu, Arthur

    2015-01-01

    The study of pulsed laser- and microwave-induced plasma interactions with atmospheric and higher pressure combusting gases requires rapid diagnostic methods that are capable of determining the mechanisms by which these interactions are taking place. New rapid diagnostics are presented here extending the capabilities of Rayleigh and Thomson scattering and resonance-enhanced multi-photon ionization (REMPI) detection and introducing femtosecond laser-induced velocity and temperature profile imaging. Spectrally filtered Rayleigh scattering provides a method for the planar imaging of temperature fields for constant pressure interactions and line imaging of velocity, temperature and density profiles. Depolarization of Rayleigh scattering provides a measure of the dissociation fraction, and multi-wavelength line imaging enables the separation of Thomson scattering from Rayleigh scattering. Radar REMPI takes advantage of high-frequency microwave scattering from the region of laser-selected species ionization to extend REMPI to atmospheric pressures and implement it as a stand-off detection method for atomic and molecular species in combusting environments. Femtosecond laser electronic excitation tagging (FLEET) generates highly excited molecular species and dissociation through the focal zone of the laser. The prompt fluorescence from excited molecular species yields temperature profiles, and the delayed fluorescence from recombining atomic fragments yields velocity profiles. PMID:26170432

  9. A study of diagnostic methods for Marteilioides chungmuensis infections in the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas.

    PubMed

    Choi, Hee Jung; Hwang, Jee Youn; Choi, Dong Lim; Huh, Min Do; Park, Myoung Ae

    2012-09-15

    The eggs of the Pacific oyster, Crassostraea gigas, become infertile when infected by the parasite Marteilioides chungmuensis. Histologically, M. chungmuensis infects the oyster oocyte cytoplasm, and the ovaries take on a "lumpy" appearance once infected, which lowers commercial value of the oyster. This has a negative economic impact on oyster farms in South Korea and Japan. In this study, we compared traditional diagnostic methods (histology) with two molecular-based methods (polymerase chain reaction [PCR] amplification and in situ hybridization [ISH]) to identify M. chungmuensis-infected oysters. The efficacy of PCR and ISH to identify M. chungmuensis-infected oysters was compared to that of routine histology in 100 oysters. Thirty infections were identified using PCR and 16 using histology, whereas 31 infections were identified using ISH. The ISH and PCR assays were more sensitive compared to using histology with standard epidemiological methods. We strongly recommend that early parasitic invasion should be monitored with PCR/ISH methodologies as a basis for developing effective diagnostic techniques to identify M. chungmuensis-infected oysters.

  10. Combined Use of Cytogenetic and Molecular Methods in Prenatal Diagnostics of Chromosomal Abnormalities

    PubMed Central

    Stomornjak-Vukadin, Meliha; Kurtovic-Basic, Ilvana; Mehinovic, Lejla; Konjhodzic, Rijad

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The aim of prenatal diagnostics is to provide information of the genetic abnormalities of the fetus early enough for the termination of pregnancy to be possible. Chromosomal abnormalities can be detected in an unborn child through the use of cytogenetic, molecular- cytogenetic and molecular methods. In between them, central spot is still occupied by cytogenetic methods. In cases where use of such methods is not informative enough, one or more molecular cytogenetic methods can be used for further clarification. Combined use of the mentioned methods improves the quality of the final findings in the diagnostics of chromosomal abnormalities, with classical cytogenetic methods still occupying the central spot. Material and methods: Conducted research represent retrospective-prospective study of a four year period, from 2008 through 2011. In the period stated, 1319 karyotyping from amniotic fluid were conducted, along with 146 FISH analysis. Results: Karyotyping had detected 20 numerical and 18 structural aberrations in that period. Most common observed numerical aberration were Down syndrome (75%), Klinefelter syndrome (10%), Edwards syndrome, double Y syndrome and triploidy (5% each). Within observed structural aberrations more common were balanced chromosomal aberrations then non balanced ones. Most common balanced structural aberrations were as follows: reciprocal translocations (60%), Robertson translocations (13.3%), chromosomal inversions, duplications and balanced de novo chromosomal rearrangements (6.6% each). Conclusion: With non- balanced aberrations observed in the samples of amniotic fluid, non- balanced translocations, deletions and derived chromosomes were equally represented. Number of detected aneuploidies with FISH, prior to obtaining results with karyotyping, were 6. PMID:26005269

  11. Autonomous Diagnostic Imaging Performed by Untrained Operators using Augmented Reality as a Form of "Just-in-Time" Training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, D. S.; Wang, L.; Laurie, S. S.; Lee, S. M. C.; Fleischer, A. C.; Gibson, C. R.; Stenger, M. B.

    2017-01-01

    We will address the Human Factors and Performance Team, "Risk of performance errors due to training deficiencies" by improving the JIT training materials for ultrasound and OCT imaging by providing advanced guidance in a detailed, timely, and user-friendly manner. Specifically, we will (1) develop an audio-visual tutorial using AR that guides non-experts through an abdominal trauma ultrasound protocol; (2) develop an audio-visual tutorial using AR to guide an untrained operator through the acquisition of OCT images; (3) evaluate the quality of abdominal ultrasound and OCT images acquired by untrained operators using AR guidance compared to images acquired using traditional JIT techniques (laptop-based training conducted before image acquisition); and (4) compare the time required to complete imaging studies using AR tutorials with images acquired using current JIT practices to identify areas for time efficiency improvements. Two groups of subjects will be recruited to participate in this study. Operator-subjects, without previous experience in ultrasound or OCT, will be asked to perform both procedures using either the JIT training with AR technology or the traditional JIT training via laptop. Images acquired by inexperienced operator-subjects will be scored by experts in that imaging modality for diagnostic and research quality; experts will be blinded to the form of JIT used to acquire the images. Operator-subjects also will be asked to submit feedback to improve the training modules used during the scans to improve future training modules. Scanned-subjects will be a small group individuals from whom all images will be acquired.

  12. Probe diagnostics in the far scrape-off layer plasma of Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research tokamak using a sideband harmonic method

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Dong-Hwan; Hong, Suk-Ho; Park, Il-Seo; Lee, Hyo-Chang; Kang, Hyun-Ju; Chung, Chin-Wook

    2015-12-15

    Plasma characteristics in the far scrape-off layer region of tokamak play a crucial role in the stable plasma operation and its sustainability. Due to the huge facility, electrical diagnostic systems to measure plasma properties have extremely long cable length resulting in large stray current. To overcome this problem, a sideband harmonic method was applied to the Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research tokamak plasma. The sideband method allows the measurement of the electron temperature and the plasma density without the effect of the stray current. The measured plasma densities are compared with those from the interferometer, and the results show reliability of the method.

  13. Probe diagnostics in the far scrape-off layer plasma of Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research tokamak using a sideband harmonic method.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dong-Hwan; Hong, Suk-Ho; Park, Il-Seo; Lee, Hyo-Chang; Kang, Hyun-Ju; Chung, Chin-Wook

    2015-12-01

    Plasma characteristics in the far scrape-off layer region of tokamak play a crucial role in the stable plasma operation and its sustainability. Due to the huge facility, electrical diagnostic systems to measure plasma properties have extremely long cable length resulting in large stray current. To overcome this problem, a sideband harmonic method was applied to the Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research tokamak plasma. The sideband method allows the measurement of the electron temperature and the plasma density without the effect of the stray current. The measured plasma densities are compared with those from the interferometer, and the results show reliability of the method.

  14. Investigation of opportunities of the optical non-invasive diagnostics method for the blood sugar control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lastovskaia, Elena A.; Gorbunova, Elena V.; Chertov, Aleksandr N.; Korotaev, Valery V.

    2015-03-01

    The relevance of noninvasive method for determining the blood sugar is caused by necessity of regular monitoring of glucose levels in diabetic patients blood. Traditional invasive method is painful, because it requires a finger pricking. Despite the active studies in the field of non-invasive medical diagnostics, to date the painless and inexpensive instrument for blood sugar control for personal use doesn't exist. It's possible to measure the concentration of glucose in the blood with help of spectrophotometry method. It consists of registering and analyzing the spectral characteristics of the radiation which missed, reflected or absorbed by the object. The authors proposed a measuring scheme for studying the spectral characteristics of the radiation, missed by earlobe. Ultra-violet, visible and near infrared spectral ranges are considered. The paper presents the description of construction and working principles of the proposed special retaining clip and results of experiment with real patient.

  15. Evaluation of three rapid diagnostic methods for direct identification of microorganisms in positive blood cultures.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Raquel M; Bauerle, Elizabeth R; Fang, Ferric C; Butler-Wu, Susan M

    2014-07-01

    The identification of organisms from positive blood cultures generally takes several days. However, recently developed rapid diagnostic methods offer the potential for organism identification within only a few hours of blood culture positivity. In this study, we evaluated the performance of three commercial methods to rapidly identify organisms directly from positive blood cultures: QuickFISH (AdvanDx, Wolburn, MA), Verigene Gram-Positive Blood Culture (BC-GP; Nanosphere, Northbrook, IL), and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) with Sepsityper processing (Bruker Daltonics, Billerica, MA). A total of 159 blood cultures (VersaTREK Trek Diagnostic Systems, Cleveland, OH) positive for Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria as well as yeast were analyzed with QuickFISH and MALDI-TOF MS. In all, 102 blood cultures were analyzed using the BC-GP assay. For monomicrobial cultures, we observed 98.0% concordance with routine methods for both QuickFISH (143/146) and the BC-GP assay (93/95). MALDI-TOF MS demonstrated 80.1% (117/146) and 87.7% (128/146) concordance with routine methods to the genus and species levels, respectively. None of the methods tested were capable of consistently identifying polymicrobial cultures in their entirety or reliably differentiating Streptococcus pneumoniae from viridans streptococci. Nevertheless, the methods evaluated in this study are convenient and accurate for the most commonly encountered pathogens and have the potential to dramatically reduce turnaround time for the provision of results to the treating physician.

  16. Investigation of Radio Frequency Discharges and Langmuir Probe Diagnostic Methods in a Fast Flowing Electronegative Background Gas

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-12-01

    the equations 1.43, 1.44, and 1.45, can be solved using a Runge - Kutta or other standard numerical techniques with the results of the solution to the...INVESTIGATION OF RADIO FREQUENCY DISCHARGES AND LANGMUIR PROBE DIAGNOSTIC METHODS IN A FAST FLOWING...AFIT/DS/ENP/DSP-04J INVESTIGATION OF RADIO FREQUENCY DISCHARGES AND LANGMUIR PROBE DIAGNOSTIC METHODS IN A FAST FLOWING ELECTRONEGATIVE

  17. Fluorescent-spectroscopic and imaging methods of investigations for diagnostics of head and neck tumors and control of PDT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edinak, N. J.; Shental, Victor V.; Komov, D. V.; Vacoulovskaia, E. G.; Tabolinovskaia, T. D.; Abdullin, N. A.; Pustynsky, I.; Chatikchine, V. H.; Loschenov, Victor B.; Meerovich, Gennadii A.; Stratonnikov, Alexander A.; Linkov, Kirill G.; Agafonov, Vladimir I.; Zuravleva, V.; Lukjanets, Eugeny A.

    1996-01-01

    Methodics of PDT control and fluorescent-spectroscopic diagnostic of head and neck tumors and mammary gland cancer (nodular) with the use of Kr, He-Ne and semiconductor lasers and photosensitizer (PS) -- Al phtalocyanin (Photosense) are discussed. The results show that applied diagnostic methods permit us not only to identify the topology and malignancy of a tumor but also to correct PDT process directly during irradiation.

  18. 12 CFR 1101.3 - Organization and methods of operation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... relating to the Council's organization are stated in 12 U.S.C. 3303. (b) Council staff. Administrative... agency staff serving the Council on a part-time basis. (d) State Liaison Committee. Under 12 U.S.C. 3306... 12 Banks and Banking 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Organization and methods of operation....

  19. 37 CFR 203.4 - Methods of operation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... AND PROCEDURES FREEDOM OF INFORMATION ACT: POLICIES AND PROCEDURES Procedures § 203.4 Methods of operation. (a) In accordance with section 552(a)(2) of the Freedom of Information Act, the Copyright Office... under the Freedom of Information Act. Individuals desiring to obtain access to Copyright...

  20. 37 CFR 203.4 - Methods of operation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... OFFICE AND PROCEDURES FREEDOM OF INFORMATION ACT: POLICIES AND PROCEDURES Procedures § 203.4 Methods of operation. (a) In accordance with section 552(a)(2) of the Freedom of Information Act, the Copyright Office... under the Freedom of Information Act. Individuals desiring to obtain access to Copyright...

  1. A method for fine positioning of diagnostic packages in inertial confinement fusion experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Wei; Shi, Tielin; Lee, Kok-Meng

    2011-12-01

    A method based on binocular vision servoing for positioning of a diagnostic package in inertial confinement fusion (ICF) experiments is presented. The general diagnostic instrument manipulator will provide precision three dimension positioning and alignment-to-target capability in ICF experiments. In this work, we focus on the final precise automatic positioning with a binocular vision system. A three dimension image projection vector (IPV), which has an almost linear relationship with the target position in 3D space under the condition of weak perspective, is introduced to extract target position information from binocular image. The difference of the IPV between the current image and the desired image will be used as the input of servo controller. A differential motion model was found for the hybrid manipulator with three degrees of freedom. With this model and the said IPV, the servo strategy will be dramatically simplified compare with general image based visual servo in which the image Jacobian matrix needs estimated online. The experiment result implies that the locating accuracy of the manipulator is less than two pixels. This method can also be used in micromanipulation visual servo field.

  2. BREAST: a novel method to improve the diagnostic efficacy of mammography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brennan, P. C.; Tapia, K.; Ryan, J.; Lee, W.

    2013-03-01

    High quality breast imaging and accurate image assessment are critical to the early diagnoses, treatment and management of women with breast cancer. Breast Screen Reader Assessment Strategy (BREAST) provides a platform, accessible by researchers and clinicians world-wide, which will contain image data bases, algorithms to assess reader performance and on-line systems for image evaluation. The platform will contribute to the diagnostic efficacy of breast imaging in Australia and beyond on two fronts: reducing errors in mammography, and transforming our assessment of novel technologies and techniques. Mammography is the primary diagnostic tool for detecting breast cancer with over 800,000 women X-rayed each year in Australia, however, it fails to detect 30% of breast cancers with a number of missed cancers being visible on the image [1-6]. BREAST will monitor the mistakes, identify reasons for mammographic errors, and facilitate innovative solutions to reduce error rates. The BREAST platform has the potential to enable expert assessment of breast imaging innovations, anywhere in the world where experts or innovations are located. Currently, innovations are often being assessed by limited numbers of individuals who happen to be geographically located close to the innovation, resulting in equivocal studies with low statistical power. BREAST will transform this current paradigm by enabling large numbers of experts to assess any new method or technology using our embedded evaluation methods. We are confident that this world-first system will play an important part in the future efficacy of breast imaging.

  3. A simple method of observation impact analysis for operational storm surge forecasting systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sumihar, Julius; Verlaan, Martin

    2016-04-01

    In this work, a simple method is developed for analyzing the impact of assimilating observations in improving forecast accuracy of a model. The method simply makes use of observation time series and the corresponding model output that are generated without data assimilation. These two time series are usually available in an operational database. The method is therefore easy to implement. Moreover, it can be used before actually implementing any data assimilation to the forecasting system. In this respect, it can be used as a tool for designing a data assimilation system, namely for searching for an optimal observing network. The method can also be used as a diagnostic tool, for example, for evaluating an existing operational data assimilation system to check if all observations are contributing positively to the forecast accuracy. The method has been validated with some twin experiments using a simple one-dimensional advection model as well as with an operational storm surge forecasting system based on the Dutch Continental Shelf model version 5 (DCSMv5). It has been applied for evaluating the impact of observations in the operational data assimilation system with DCSMv5 and for designing a data assimilation system for the new model DCSMv6. References: Verlaan, M. and J. Sumihar (2016), Observation impact analysis methods for storm surge forecasting systems, Ocean Dynamics, ODYN-D-15-00061R1 (in press) Zijl, F., J. Sumihar, and M. Verlaan (2015), Application of data assimilation for improved operational water level forecasting of the northwest European shelf and North Sea, Ocean Dynamics, 65, Issue 12, pp 1699-1716.

  4. Bacteriological comparison of low anal fistula operated by ordinary methods and laser methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yuanrong; Xiong, Yigai

    1996-09-01

    Since 1989, 42 cases with low anal fistula were operated with laser and ordinary methods respectively. During the operation, secreted or charred tissues were extracted from the surface of the wound for bacteria culture. Experimental group (laser method): no bacteria were found in 24 cases operated by laser method. Control group (ordinary method): bacterial were found in 16 out of 18 cases operated by ordinary methods. The results of two different group showed that they had statistical difference for P < 0.001. So, CO2 laser is proved to be a definitely practical tool in surgical use for its bacteria killing power. While the anal fistula were operated by the laser, the neurotic carboatomic tissue can block blood vessel and prevent infection from spreading. The high temperature produced by the carboatomic action have enough ability to kill directly the bacteria living in the anal fistula.

  5. Processing module operating methods, processing modules, and communications systems

    DOEpatents

    McCown, Steven Harvey; Derr, Kurt W.; Moore, Troy

    2014-09-09

    A processing module operating method includes using a processing module physically connected to a wireless communications device, requesting that the wireless communications device retrieve encrypted code from a web site and receiving the encrypted code from the wireless communications device. The wireless communications device is unable to decrypt the encrypted code. The method further includes using the processing module, decrypting the encrypted code, executing the decrypted code, and preventing the wireless communications device from accessing the decrypted code. Another processing module operating method includes using a processing module physically connected to a host device, executing an application within the processing module, allowing the application to exchange user interaction data communicated using a user interface of the host device with the host device, and allowing the application to use the host device as a communications device for exchanging information with a remote device distinct from the host device.

  6. Method of low temperature operation of an electrochemical cell array

    DOEpatents

    Singh, Prabhakar; Ruka, Roswell J.; Bratton, Raymond J.

    1994-01-01

    In the method of operating an electrochemical cell generator apparatus containing a generator chamber (20) containing an array of cells (12) having interior and exterior electrodes with solid electrolyte between the electrodes, where a hot gas (F) contacts the outside of the cells (12) and the generating chamber normally operates at over 850.degree. C., where N.sub.2 gas is fed to contact the interior electrode of the cells (12) in any case when the generating chamber (20) temperature drops for whatever reason to within the range of from 550.degree. C. to 800.degree. C., to eliminate cracking within the cells (12).

  7. Method of low temperature operation of an electrochemical cell array

    DOEpatents

    Singh, P.; Ruka, R.J.; Bratton, R.J.

    1994-04-26

    A method is described for operating an electrochemical cell generator apparatus containing a generator chamber containing an array of cells having interior and exterior electrodes with solid electrolyte between the electrodes, where a hot gas contacts the outside of the cells and the generating chamber normally operates at over 850 C, where N[sub 2] gas is fed to contact the interior electrode of the cells in any case when the generating chamber temperature drops for whatever reason to within the range of from 550 C to 800 C, to eliminate cracking within the cells. 2 figures.

  8. Building method of diagnostic model of Bayesian networks based on fault tree

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xiao; Li, Haijun; Li, Lin

    2008-10-01

    Fault tree (FT) is usually a reliability and security analysis and diagnoses decision model. It is also in common use that expressing fault diagnosis question with fault tree model. But it will not be changed easily if fault free model was built, and it could not accept and deal with new information easily. It is difficult to put the information which have nothing to do with equipment fault but can be used to fault diagnosis into diagnostic course. Bayesian Networks (BN) can learn and improve its network architecture and parameters at any time by way of practice accumulation, and raises the ability of fault diagnosis. The method of building BN based on FT is researched on this article, this method could break through the limitations of FT itself, make BN be more extensively applied to the domain of fault diagnosis and gains much better ability of fault analysis and diagnosis.

  9. Reliability studies of diagnostic methods in Indian traditional Ayurveda medicine: An overview

    PubMed Central

    Kurande, Vrinda Hitendra; Waagepetersen, Rasmus; Toft, Egon; Prasad, Ramjee

    2013-01-01

    Recently, a need to develop supportive new scientific evidence for contemporary Ayurveda has emerged. One of the research objectives is an assessment of the reliability of diagnoses and treatment. Reliability is a quantitative measure of consistency. It is a crucial issue in classification (such as prakriti classification), method development (pulse diagnosis), quality assurance for diagnosis and treatment and in the conduct of clinical studies. Several reliability studies are conducted in western medicine. The investigation of the reliability of traditional Chinese, Japanese and Sasang medicine diagnoses is in the formative stage. However, reliability studies in Ayurveda are in the preliminary stage. In this paper, examples are provided to illustrate relevant concepts of reliability studies of diagnostic methods and their implication in practice, education, and training. An introduction to reliability estimates and different study designs and statistical analysis is given for future studies in Ayurveda. PMID:23930037

  10. Method and apparatus to predict the remaining service life of an operating system

    DOEpatents

    Greitzer, Frank L.; Kangas, Lars J.; Terrones, Kristine M.; Maynard, Melody A.; Pawlowski, Ronald A. , Ferryman; Thomas A.; Skorpik, James R.; Wilson, Bary W.

    2008-11-25

    A method and computer-based apparatus for monitoring the degradation of, predicting the remaining service life of, and/or planning maintenance for, an operating system are disclosed. Diagnostic information on degradation of the operating system is obtained through measurement of one or more performance characteristics by one or more sensors onboard and/or proximate the operating system. Though not required, it is preferred that the sensor data are validated to improve the accuracy and reliability of the service life predictions. The condition or degree of degradation of the operating system is presented to a user by way of one or more calculated, numeric degradation figures of merit that are trended against one or more independent variables using one or more mathematical techniques. Furthermore, more than one trendline and uncertainty interval may be generated for a given degradation figure of merit/independent variable data set. The trendline(s) and uncertainty interval(s) are subsequently compared to one or more degradation figure of merit thresholds to predict the remaining service life of the operating system. The present invention enables multiple mathematical approaches in determining which trendline(s) to use to provide the best estimate of the remaining service life.

  11. MANGO – Modal Analysis for Grid Operation: A Method for Damping Improvement through Operating Point Adjustment

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Zhenyu; Zhou, Ning; Tuffner, Francis K.; Chen, Yousu; Trudnowski, Daniel J.; Diao, Ruisheng; Fuller, Jason C.; Mittelstadt, William A.; Hauer, John F.; Dagle, Jeffery E.

    2010-10-18

    Small signal stability problems are one of the major threats to grid stability and reliability in the U.S. power grid. An undamped mode can cause large-amplitude oscillations and may result in system breakups and large-scale blackouts. There have been several incidents of system-wide oscillations. Of those incidents, the most notable is the August 10, 1996 western system breakup, a result of undamped system-wide oscillations. Significant efforts have been devoted to monitoring system oscillatory behaviors from measurements in the past 20 years. The deployment of phasor measurement units (PMU) provides high-precision, time-synchronized data needed for detecting oscillation modes. Measurement-based modal analysis, also known as ModeMeter, uses real-time phasor measurements to identify system oscillation modes and their damping. Low damping indicates potential system stability issues. Modal analysis has been demonstrated with phasor measurements to have the capability of estimating system modes from both oscillation signals and ambient data. With more and more phasor measurements available and ModeMeter techniques maturing, there is yet a need for methods to bring modal analysis from monitoring to actions. The methods should be able to associate low damping with grid operating conditions, so operators or automated operation schemes can respond when low damping is observed. The work presented in this report aims to develop such a method and establish a Modal Analysis for Grid Operation (MANGO) procedure to aid grid operation decision making to increase inter-area modal damping. The procedure can provide operation suggestions (such as increasing generation or decreasing load) for mitigating inter-area oscillations.

  12. Holistic Evaluation of Lightweight Operating Systems using the PERCU Method

    SciTech Connect

    Kramer, William T.C.; He, Yun; Carter, Jonathan; Glenski, Joseph; Rippe, Lynn; Cardo, Nicholas

    2008-05-01

    The scale of Leadership Class Systems presents unique challenges to the features and performance of operating system services. This paper reports results of comprehensive evaluations of two Light Weight Operating Systems (LWOS), Cray's Catamount Virtual Node (CVN) and Linux Environment (CLE) operating systems, on the exact same large-scale hardware. The evaluation was carried out over a 5-month period on NERSC's 19,480 core Cray XT-4, Franklin, using a comprehensive evaluation method that spans Performance, Effectiveness, Reliability, Consistency and Usability criteria for all major subsystems and features. The paper presents the results of the comparison between CVN and CLE, evaluates their relative strengths, and reports observations regarding the world's largest Cray XT-4 as well.

  13. Diagnostic Assessment of Childhood Apraxia of Speech Using Automatic Speech Recognition (ASR) Methods.

    PubMed

    Hosom, John-Paul; Shriberg, Lawrence; Green, Jordan R

    2004-12-01

    We report findings from two feasibility studies using automatic speech recognition (ASR) methods in childhood speech sound disorders. The studies evaluated and implemented the automation of two recently proposed diagnostic markers for suspected Apraxia of Speech (AOS) termed the Lexical Stress Ratio (LSR) and the Coefficient of Variation Ratio (CVR). The LSR is a weighted composite of amplitude area, frequency area , and duration in the stressed compared to the unstressed vowel as obtained from a speaker's productions of eight trochaic word forms. Composite weightings for the three stress parameters were determined from a principal components analysis. The CVR expresses the average normalized variability of durations of pause and speech events that were obtained from a conversational speech sample. We describe the automation procedures used to obtain LSR and CVR scores for four children with suspected AOS and report comparative findings. The LSR values obtained with ASR were within 1.2% to 6.7% of the LSR values obtained manually using Computerized Speech Lab (CSL). The CVR values obtained with ASR were within 0.7% to 2.7% of the CVR values obtained manually using Matlab. These results indicate the potential of ASR-based techniques to process these and other diagnostic markers of childhood speech sound disorders.

  14. Interobserver Reliability of Four Diagnostic Methods Using Traditional Korean Medicine for Stroke Patients

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ju Ah; Kang, Byoung-Kab; Alraek, Terje

    2014-01-01

    Objective. The aim of this study is to evaluate the consistency of pattern identification (PI), a set of diagnostic indicators used by traditional Korean medicine (TKM) clinicians. Methods. A total of 168 stroke patients who were admitted into oriental medical university hospitals from June 2012 through January 2013 were included in the study. Using the PI indicators, each patient was independently diagnosed by two experts from the same department. Interobserver consistency was assessed by simple percentage agreement as well as by kappa and AC1 statistics. Results. Interobserver agreement on the PI indicators (for all patients) was generally high: pulse diagnosis signs (AC1 = 0.66–0.89); inspection signs (AC1 = 0.66–0.95); listening/smelling signs (AC1 = 0.67–0.88); and inquiry signs (AC1 = 0.62–0.94). Conclusion. In four examinations, there was moderate agreement between the clinicians on the PI indicators. To improve clinician consistency (e.g., in the diagnostic criteria used), it is necessary to analyze the reasons for inconsistency and to improve clinician training. PMID:25574181

  15. Adaptation of an ethnographic method for investigation of the task domain in diagnostic radiology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramey, Judith A.; Rowberg, Alan H.; Robinson, Carol

    1992-07-01

    A number of user-centered methods for designing radiology workstations have been described by researchers at Carleton University (Ottawa), Georgetown University, George Washington University, and University of Arizona, among others. The approach described here differs in that it enriches standard human-factors practices with methods adapted from ethnography to study users (in this case, diagnostic radiologists) as members of a distinct culture. The overall approach combines several methods; the core method, based on ethnographic ''stream of behavior chronicles'' and their analysis, has four phases: (1) first, we gather the stream of behavior by videotaping a radiologist as he or she works; (2) we view the tape ourselves and formulate questions and hypothesis about the work; and then (3) in a second videotaped session, we show the radiologist the original tape and ask for a running commentary on the work, into which, at the appropriate points, we interject our questions for clarification. We then (4) categorize/index the behavior on the ''raw data'' tapes for various kinds of follow-on analysis. We describe and illustrate this method in detail, describe how we analyze the ''raw data'' videotapes and the commentary tapes, and explain how the method can be integrated into an overall user-centered design process based on standard human-factors techniques.

  16. Diagnostic methods to cutaneous leishmaniasis detection in domestic dogs and cats*

    PubMed Central

    Trevisan, Daliah Alves Coelho; Lonardoni, Maria Valdrinez Campana; Demarchi, Izabel Galhardo

    2015-01-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis is caused by different species of Leishmania. In domestic animals such as dogs and cats, the diagnostic consists of clinical, epidemiological and serological tests, which changes among countries all around the world. Because of this diversity in the methods selected, we propose this systematic literature review to identify the methods of laboratory diagnosis used to detect cutaneous leishmaniasis in domestic dogs and cats in the Americas. Articles published in the last 5 years were searched in PubMed, ISI Web of Science, LILACS and Scielo, and we selected 10 papers about cutaneous leishmaniasis in dogs and cats in the Americas. In Brazil, often the indirect immunofluorescence and enzyme immunoassay (ELISA) have been applied. Other countries like United States and Mexico have been using antigenic fractions for antibodies detections by Western blot. ELISA and Western blot showed a higher sensitivity and efficacy in the detection of leishmaniasis. Analysis of sensibility and specificity of the methods was rarely used. Although confirmatory to leishmaniasis, direct methods for parasites detection and polymerase chain reaction showed low positivity in disease detection. We suggested that more than one method should be used for the detection of feline and canine leishmaniasis. Serological methods such as Western blot and enzyme immunoassay have a high efficacy in the diagnosis of this disease. PMID:26734869

  17. Diagnostic methods to cutaneous leishmaniasis detection in domestic dogs and cats.

    PubMed

    Trevisan, Daliah Alves Coelho; Lonardoni, Maria Valdrinez Campana; Demarchi, Izabel Galhardo

    2015-01-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis is caused by different species of Leishmania. In domestic animals such as dogs and cats, the diagnostic consists of clinical, epidemiological and serological tests, which changes among countries all around the world. Because of this diversity in the methods selected, we propose this systematic literature review to identify the methods of laboratory diagnosis used to detect cutaneous leishmaniasis in domestic dogs and cats in the Americas. Articles published in the last 5 years were searched in PubMed, ISI Web of Science, LILACS and Scielo, and we selected 10 papers about cutaneous leishmaniasis in dogs and cats in the Americas. In Brazil, often the indirect immunofluorescence and enzyme immunoassay (ELISA) have been applied. Other countries like United States and Mexico have been using antigenic fractions for antibodies detections by Western blot. ELISA and Western blot showed a higher sensitivity and efficacy in the detection of leishmaniasis. Analysis of sensibility and specificity of the methods was rarely used. Although confirmatory to leishmaniasis, direct methods for parasites detection and polymerase chain reaction showed low positivity in disease detection. We suggested that more than one method should be used for the detection of feline and canine leishmaniasis. Serological methods such as Western blot and enzyme immunoassay have a high efficacy in the diagnosis of this disease.

  18. Technical Note: Method to correlate whole-specimen histopathology of radical prostatectomy with diagnostic MR imaging

    SciTech Connect

    McGrath, Deirdre M. Lee, Jenny; Foltz, Warren D.; Samavati, Navid; Jewett, Michael A. S.; Kwast, Theo van der; Chung, Peter; Ménard, Cynthia; Brock, Kristy K.

    2016-03-15

    Purpose: Validation of MRI-guided tumor boundary delineation for targeted prostate cancer therapy is achieved via correlation with gold-standard histopathology of radical prostatectomy specimens. Challenges to accurate correlation include matching the pathology sectioning plane with the in vivo imaging slice plane and correction for the deformation that occurs between in vivo imaging and histology. A methodology is presented for matching of the histological sectioning angle and position to the in vivo imaging slices. Methods: Patients (n = 4) with biochemical failure following external beam radiotherapy underwent diagnostic MRI to confirm localized recurrence of prostate cancer, followed by salvage radical prostatectomy. High-resolution 3-D MRI of the ex vivo specimens was acquired to determine the pathology sectioning angle that best matched the in vivo imaging slice plane, using matching anatomical features and implanted fiducials. A novel sectioning device was developed to guide sectioning at the correct angle, and to assist the insertion of reference dye marks to aid in histopathology reconstruction. Results: The percentage difference in the positioning of the urethra in the ex vivo pathology sections compared to the positioning in in vivo images was reduced from 34% to 7% through slicing at the best match angle. Reference dye marks were generated, which were visible in ex vivo imaging, in the tissue sections before and after processing, and in histology sections. Conclusions: The method achieved an almost fivefold reduction in the slice-matching error and is readily implementable in combination with standard MRI technology. The technique will be employed to generate datasets for correlation of whole-specimen prostate histopathology with in vivo diagnostic MRI using 3-D deformable registration, allowing assessment of the sensitivity and specificity of MRI parameters for prostate cancer. Although developed specifically for prostate, the method is readily

  19. Bayesian analysis of two diagnostic methods for paediatric ringworm infections in a teaching hospital.

    PubMed

    Rath, S; Panda, M; Sahu, M C; Padhy, R N

    2015-09-01

    Quantitatively, conventional methods of diagnosis of tinea capitis or paediatric ringworm, microscopic and culture tests were evaluated with Bayes rule. This analysis would help in quantifying the pervasive errors in each diagnostic method, particularly the microscopic method, as a long-term treatment would be involved to eradicate the infection by the use of a particular antifungal chemotherapy. Secondly, the analysis of clinical data would help in obtaining digitally the fallible standard of the microscopic test method, as the culture test method is taken as gold standard. Test results of 51 paediatric patients were of 4 categories: 21 samples were true positive (both tests positive), and 13 were true negative; the rest samples comprised both 14 false positive (microscopic test positivity with culture test negativity) and 3 false negative (microscopic test negativity with culture test positivity) samples. The prevalence of tinea infection was 47.01% in the population of 51 children. The microscopic test of a sample was efficient by 87.5%, in arriving at a positive result on diagnosis, when its culture test was positive; and, this test was efficient by 76.4%, in arriving at a negative result, when its culture test was negative. But, the post-test probability value of a sample with both microscopic and culture tests would be correct in distinguishing a sample from a sick or a healthy child with a chance of 71.5%. However, since the sensitivity of the analysis is 87.5%, the microscopic test positivity would be easier to detect in the presence of infection. In conclusion, it could be stated that Trychophyton rubrum was the most prevalent species; sensitivity and specificity of treating the infection, by antifungal therapy before ascertaining by the culture method remain as 0.8751 and 0.7642, respectively. A correct/coveted diagnostic method of fungal infection would be could be achieved by modern molecular methods (matrix-assisted laser desorption ionisation

  20. Improving Cognitive Diagnostic Computerized Adaptive Testing by Balancing Attribute Coverage: The Modified Maximum Global Discrimination Index Method

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Ying

    2010-01-01

    This article proposes a new item selection method, namely, the modified maximum global discrimination index (MMGDI) method, for cognitive diagnostic computerized adaptive testing (CD-CAT). The new method captures two aspects of the appeal of an item: (a) the amount of contribution it can make toward adequate coverage of every attribute and (b) the…

  1. [Sonography of the teat of cattle, sheep and goats in comparison with other methods of diagnostic imaging--a review].

    PubMed

    Franz, S; Hofmann-Parisot, M; Gumpenberger, M

    2001-01-01

    Beside the clinical examination of udder/teat imaging methods e.g. sonography, radiography and endoscopy allow diagnosis. This publication will give a summary of currently used and potentially usable methods of diagnostic imaging applied to the teat. Advantages and disadvantages of the several methods were compared--as quoted in literature and completed by own experiences.

  2. Computer controlled fluorometer device and method of operating same

    DOEpatents

    Kolber, Zbigniew; Falkowski, Paul

    1990-01-01

    A computer controlled fluorometer device and method of operating same, said device being made to include a pump flash source and a probe flash source and one or more sample chambers in combination with a light condenser lens system and associated filters and reflectors and collimators, as well as signal conditioning and monitoring means and a programmable computer means and a software programmable source of background irradiance that is operable according to the method of the invention to rapidly, efficiently and accurately measure photosynthetic activity by precisely monitoring and recording changes in fluorescence yield produced by a controlled series of predetermined cycles of probe and pump flashes from the respective probe and pump sources that are controlled by the computer means.

  3. Computer controlled fluorometer device and method of operating same

    DOEpatents

    Kolber, Z.; Falkowski, P.

    1990-07-17

    A computer controlled fluorometer device and method of operating same, said device being made to include a pump flash source and a probe flash source and one or more sample chambers in combination with a light condenser lens system and associated filters and reflectors and collimators, as well as signal conditioning and monitoring means and a programmable computer means and a software programmable source of background irradiance that is operable according to the method of the invention to rapidly, efficiently and accurately measure photosynthetic activity by precisely monitoring and recording changes in fluorescence yield produced by a controlled series of predetermined cycles of probe and pump flashes from the respective probe and pump sources that are controlled by the computer means. 13 figs.

  4. Microvascular resistance in essential hypertension and flowmetry as a diagnostic method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lukjanov, Valdimir F.

    2001-08-01

    New Doppler-Laser flowmetry diagnostic test of functional condition of microcirculation was worked out of find precapillar and postcapillar resistance. Flowmetry was used to measure vasomotion and blood flow after arterial compression, decompression and venous hyperemia were held. Patients of essential hypertension were examined with the help of Doppler-Laser Flowmetry, optical photometry (540 nm). Precapillar resistance included next basis parameters: vasomotion with high frequency (10-16 per/min) and low amplitude, latent time after decompression, large postocclusive reactive hyperemia, absent venous hyperemia. Postcapillar resistance included next basis parameters: vasomotion with low frequency (4-8 per/min) and high amplitude, paradoxical hyperemia in arterial compression, little or absent postocclusive reactive hyperemia, large venous hyperemia. This test-method was applied to select patogenetic treatment of essential hypertension.

  5. Embedded diagnostic, prognostic, and health management system and method for a humanoid robot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barajas, Leandro G. (Inventor); Sanders, Adam M (Inventor); Reiland, Matthew J (Inventor); Strawser, Philip A (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A robotic system includes a humanoid robot with multiple compliant joints, each moveable using one or more of the actuators, and having sensors for measuring control and feedback data. A distributed controller controls the joints and other integrated system components over multiple high-speed communication networks. Diagnostic, prognostic, and health management (DPHM) modules are embedded within the robot at the various control levels. Each DPHM module measures, controls, and records DPHM data for the respective control level/connected device in a location that is accessible over the networks or via an external device. A method of controlling the robot includes embedding a plurality of the DPHM modules within multiple control levels of the distributed controller, using the DPHM modules to measure DPHM data within each of the control levels, and recording the DPHM data in a location that is accessible over at least one of the high-speed communication networks.

  6. Article separation apparatus and method for unit operations

    DOEpatents

    Pardini, Allan F.; Gervais, Kevin L.; Mathews, Royce A.; Hockey, Ronald L.

    2010-06-22

    An apparatus and method are disclosed for separating articles from a group of articles. The apparatus includes a container for containing one or more articles coupled to a suitable fluidizer for suspending articles within the container and transporting articles to an induction tube. A portal in the induction tube introduces articles singly into the induction tube. A vacuum pulls articles through the induction tube separating the articles from the group of articles in the container. The apparatus and method can be combined with one or more unit operations or modules, e.g., for inspecting articles, assessing quality of articles, or ascertaining material properties and/or parameters of articles, including layers thereof.

  7. The Scientific Method, Diagnostic Bayes, and How to Detect Epistemic Errors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vrugt, J. A.

    2015-12-01

    In the past decades, Bayesian methods have found widespread application and use in environmental systems modeling. Bayes theorem states that the posterior probability, P(H|D) of a hypothesis, H is proportional to the product of the prior probability, P(H) of this hypothesis and the likelihood, L(H|hat{D}) of the same hypothesis given the new/incoming observations, \\hat {D}. In science and engineering, H often constitutes some numerical simulation model, D = F(x,.) which summarizes using algebraic, empirical, and differential equations, state variables and fluxes, all our theoretical and/or practical knowledge of the system of interest, and x are the d unknown parameters which are subject to inference using some data, \\hat {D} of the observed system response. The Bayesian approach is intimately related to the scientific method and uses an iterative cycle of hypothesis formulation (model), experimentation and data collection, and theory/hypothesis refinement to elucidate the rules that govern the natural world. Unfortunately, model refinement has proven to be very difficult in large part because of the poor diagnostic power of residual based likelihood functions tep{gupta2008}. This has inspired te{vrugt2013} to advocate the use of 'likelihood-free' inference using approximate Bayesian computation (ABC). This approach uses one or more summary statistics, S(\\hat {D}) of the original data, \\hat {D} designed ideally to be sensitive only to one particular process in the model. Any mismatch between the observed and simulated summary metrics is then easily linked to a specific model component. A recurrent issue with the application of ABC is self-sufficiency of the summary statistics. In theory, S(.) should contain as much information as the original data itself, yet complex systems rarely admit sufficient statistics. In this article, we propose to combine the ideas of ABC and regular Bayesian inference to guarantee that no information is lost in diagnostic model

  8. How do organisational characteristics influence teamwork and service delivery in lung cancer diagnostic assessment programmes? A mixed-methods study

    PubMed Central

    Honein-AbouHaidar, Gladys N; Stuart-McEwan, Terri; Waddell, Tom; Salvarrey, Alexandra; Smylie, Jennifer; Dobrow, Mark J; Brouwers, Melissa C; Gagliardi, Anna R

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Diagnostic assessment programmes (DAPs) can reduce wait times for cancer diagnosis, but optimal DAP design is unknown. This study explored how organisational characteristics influenced multidisciplinary teamwork and diagnostic service delivery in lung cancer DAPs. Design A mixed-methods approach integrated data from descriptive qualitative interviews and medical record abstraction at 4 lung cancer DAPs. Findings were analysed with the Integrated Team Effectiveness Model. Setting 4 DAPs at 2 teaching and 2 community hospitals in Canada. Participants 22 staff were interviewed about organisational characteristics, target service benchmarks, and teamwork processes, determinants and outcomes; 314 medical records were reviewed for actual service benchmarks. Results Formal, informal and asynchronous team processes enabled service delivery and yielded many perceived benefits at the patient, staff and service levels. However, several DAP characteristics challenged teamwork and service delivery: referral volume/workload, time since launch, days per week of operation, rural–remote population, number and type of full-time/part-time human resources, staff colocation, information systems. As a result, all sites failed to meet target benchmarks (from referral to consultation median 4.0 visits, median wait time 35.0 days). Recommendations included improved information systems, more staff in all specialties, staff colocation and expanded roles for patient navigators. Findings were captured in a conceptual framework of lung cancer DAP teamwork determinants and outcomes. Conclusions This study identified several DAP characteristics that could be improved to facilitate teamwork and enhance service delivery, thereby contributing to knowledge of organisational determinants of teamwork and associated outcomes. Findings can be used to update existing DAP guidelines, and by managers to plan or evaluate lung cancer DAPs. Ongoing research is needed to identify ideal roles for

  9. Differential operator multiplication method for fractional differential equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Shaoqiang; Ying, Yuping; Lian, Yanping; Lin, Stephen; Yang, Yibo; Wagner, Gregory J.; Liu, Wing Kam

    2016-11-01

    Fractional derivatives play a very important role in modeling physical phenomena involving long-range correlation effects. However, they raise challenges of computational cost and memory storage requirements when solved using current well developed numerical methods. In this paper, the differential operator multiplication method is proposed to address the issues by considering a reaction-advection-diffusion equation with a fractional derivative in time. The linear fractional differential equation is transformed into an integer order differential equation by the proposed method, which can fundamentally fix the aforementioned issues for select fractional differential equations. In such a transform, special attention should be paid to the initial conditions for the resulting differential equation of higher integer order. Through numerical experiments, we verify the proposed method for both fractional ordinary differential equations and partial differential equations.

  10. A new method for tracking organ motion on diagnostic ultrasound images

    SciTech Connect

    Kubota, Yoshiki Matsumura, Akihiko; Fukahori, Mai; Minohara, Shin-ichi; Yasuda, Shigeo; Nagahashi, Hiroshi

    2014-09-15

    Purpose: Respiratory-gated irradiation is effective in reducing the margins of a target in the case of abdominal organs, such as the liver, that change their position as a result of respiratory motion. However, existing technologies are incapable of directly measuring organ motion in real-time during radiation beam delivery. Hence, the authors proposed a novel quantitative organ motion tracking method involving the use of diagnostic ultrasound images; it is noninvasive and does not entail radiation exposure. In the present study, the authors have prospectively evaluated this proposed method. Methods: The method involved real-time processing of clinical ultrasound imaging data rather than organ monitoring; it comprised a three-dimensional ultrasound device, a respiratory sensing system, and two PCs for data storage and analysis. The study was designed to evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed method by tracking the gallbladder in one subject and a liver vein in another subject. To track a moving target organ, the method involved the control of a region of interest (ROI) that delineated the target. A tracking algorithm was used to control the ROI, and a large number of feature points and an error correction algorithm were used to achieve long-term tracking of the target. Tracking accuracy was assessed in terms of how well the ROI matched the center of the target. Results: The effectiveness of using a large number of feature points and the error correction algorithm in the proposed method was verified by comparing it with two simple tracking methods. The ROI could capture the center of the target for about 5 min in a cross-sectional image with changing position. Indeed, using the proposed method, it was possible to accurately track a target with a center deviation of 1.54 ± 0.9 mm. The computing time for one frame image using our proposed method was 8 ms. It is expected that it would be possible to track any soft-tissue organ or tumor with large deformations and

  11. Hybrid digital signal processing and neural networks for automated diagnostics using NDE methods

    SciTech Connect

    Upadhyaya, B.R.; Yan, W.

    1993-11-01

    The primary purpose of the current research was to develop an integrated approach by combining information compression methods and artificial neural networks for the monitoring of plant components using nondestructive examination data. Specifically, data from eddy current inspection of heat exchanger tubing were utilized to evaluate this technology. The focus of the research was to develop and test various data compression methods (for eddy current data) and the performance of different neural network paradigms for defect classification and defect parameter estimation. Feedforward, fully-connected neural networks, that use the back-propagation algorithm for network training, were implemented for defect classification and defect parameter estimation using a modular network architecture. A large eddy current tube inspection database was acquired from the Metals and Ceramics Division of ORNL. These data were used to study the performance of artificial neural networks for defect type classification and for estimating defect parameters. A PC-based data preprocessing and display program was also developed as part of an expert system for data management and decision making. The results of the analysis showed that for effective (low-error) defect classification and estimation of parameters, it is necessary to identify proper feature vectors using different data representation methods. The integration of data compression and artificial neural networks for information processing was established as an effective technique for automation of diagnostics using nondestructive examination methods.

  12. Cross method for analysis of the erythrocyte sedimentation rate and aggregation coefficient in medical diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamaikina, Irene V.; Furmanchuk, Dmitryi A.

    1998-06-01

    Method of erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) measurement is non-specific one. The ESR are tightly correlated to increase or decrease of aggregation coefficient (N). The variations of N could happen due to two main reasons: either changes in concentration of plasma proteins (first of all of fibrinogen) or changes of erythrocyte membrane characteristics (surface charge, transmembrane potential). The cross-method of ESR analysis has been proposed, using blood samples from patient and healthy donor of the same ABO blood groups and Rh-factors. The hematocrit (Ho)-ESR dependencies were measured in four variants: (1) patient's erythrocytes in patient's plasma; (2) patient's erythrocytes in donor's plasma; (3) donor's erythrocytes in donor's plasma; (4) donor's erythrocytes in patient's plasma. On presenting the ESR data for more than 100 patients with different bone marrow disorders after chemotherapy in the coordinates Ho-ESR three conventional zones could be marked out: high-ESR zone, medium zone and zone of low level of Ho. Proposed cross-method allows to estimate which of the two aforementioned reasons results in ESR variation. Some patients revealed not only changed fibrinogen level but additional changes in membrane affinity to fibrinogen. The modificated ESR cross-method opens us some new capacities in medical diagnostics.

  13. Diagnostic Methods of Helicobacter pylori Infection for Epidemiological Studies: Critical Importance of Indirect Test Validation

    PubMed Central

    Miftahussurur, Muhammad; Yamaoka, Yoshio

    2016-01-01

    Among the methods developed to detect H. pylori infection, determining the gold standard remains debatable, especially for epidemiological studies. Due to the decreasing sensitivity of direct diagnostic tests (histopathology and/or immunohistochemistry [IHC], rapid urease test [RUT], and culture), several indirect tests, including antibody-based tests (serology and urine test), urea breath test (UBT), and stool antigen test (SAT) have been developed to diagnose H. pylori infection. Among the indirect tests, UBT and SAT became the best methods to determine active infection. While antibody-based tests, especially serology, are widely available and relatively sensitive, their specificity is low. Guidelines indicated that no single test can be considered as the gold standard for the diagnosis of H. pylori infection and that one should consider the method's advantages and disadvantages. Based on four epidemiological studies, culture and RUT present a sensitivity of 74.2–90.8% and 83.3–86.9% and a specificity of 97.7–98.8% and 95.1–97.2%, respectively, when using IHC as a gold standard. The sensitivity of serology is quite high, but that of the urine test was lower compared with that of the other methods. Thus, indirect test validation is important although some commercial kits propose universal cut-off values. PMID:26904678

  14. Diagnostic Methods of Helicobacter pylori Infection for Epidemiological Studies: Critical Importance of Indirect Test Validation.

    PubMed

    Miftahussurur, Muhammad; Yamaoka, Yoshio

    2016-01-01

    Among the methods developed to detect H. pylori infection, determining the gold standard remains debatable, especially for epidemiological studies. Due to the decreasing sensitivity of direct diagnostic tests (histopathology and/or immunohistochemistry [IHC], rapid urease test [RUT], and culture), several indirect tests, including antibody-based tests (serology and urine test), urea breath test (UBT), and stool antigen test (SAT) have been developed to diagnose H. pylori infection. Among the indirect tests, UBT and SAT became the best methods to determine active infection. While antibody-based tests, especially serology, are widely available and relatively sensitive, their specificity is low. Guidelines indicated that no single test can be considered as the gold standard for the diagnosis of H. pylori infection and that one should consider the method's advantages and disadvantages. Based on four epidemiological studies, culture and RUT present a sensitivity of 74.2-90.8% and 83.3-86.9% and a specificity of 97.7-98.8% and 95.1-97.2%, respectively, when using IHC as a gold standard. The sensitivity of serology is quite high, but that of the urine test was lower compared with that of the other methods. Thus, indirect test validation is important although some commercial kits propose universal cut-off values.

  15. [Mass spectrometry analysis of blood plasma lipidome as method of disease diagnostics, evuation of effectiveness and optimization of drug therapy].

    PubMed

    Lokhov, P G; Maslov, D L; Balashova, E E; Trifonova, O P; Medvedeva, N V; Torkhovskaya, T I; Ipatova, O M; Archakov, A I; Malyshev, P P; Kukharchuk, V V; Shestakova, E A; Shestakova, M V; Dedov, I I

    2015-01-01

    A new method for the analysis of blood lipid based on direct mass spectrometry of lipophilic low molecular weight fraction of blood plasma has been considered. Such technique allows quantification of hundreds of various types of lipids and this changes existing concepts on diagnostics of lipid disorders and related diseases. The versatility and quickness of the method significantly simplify its wide use. This method is applicable for diagnostics of atherosclerosis, diabetes, cancer and other diseases. Detalization of plasma lipid composition at the molecular level by means of mass spectrometry allows to assess the effectiveness of therapy and to optimize the drug treatment of cardiovascular diseases by phospholipid preparations.

  16. Method and apparatus for operating an improved thermocline storage unit

    DOEpatents

    Copeland, R.J.

    1982-09-30

    A method and apparatus for operating a thermocline storage unit in which an insulated barrier member is provided substantially at the interface region between the hot and cold liquids in the storage tank. The barrier member physically and thermally separates the hot and cold liquids substantially preventing any diffusing or mixing between them and substantially preventing any heat transfer there between. The barrier member follows the rise and fall of the interface region between the liquids as the tank is charged and discharged. Two methods of maintaining it in the interface region are disclosed. With the structure and operation of the present invention and in particular the significant reduction in diffusing or mixing between the hot and cold liquids as well as the significant reduction in the thermal heat transfer between them, the performance of the storage tank is improved. More specifically, the stability of the interface region or thermocline is enhanced and the thickness of the thermocline is reduced producing a corresponding increase in the steepness of the temperature gradient across the thermocline and a more efficiently operating thermocline storage unit.

  17. Diagnostic methods of a bladed disc mode shape evaluation used for shrouded blades in steam turbines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strnad, Jaromir; Liska, Jindrich

    2015-11-01

    This paper deals with advanced methods for the evaluation of a bladed disc behavior in terms of the wheel vibration and blade service time consumption. These methods are developed as parts of the noncontact vibration monitoring system of the steam turbine shrouded blades. The proposed methods utilize the time-frequency processing (cross spectra) and the method using least squares to analyse the data from the optical and magnetoresistive sensors, which are mounted in the stator radially above the rotor blades. Fundamentally, the blade vibrations are detected during the blade passages under the sensors and the following signal processing, which covers also the proposed methods, leads to the estimation of the blade residual service life. The prototype system implementing above mentioned techniques was installed into the last stage of the new steam turbine (LP part). The methods for bladed disc mode shape evaluation were successfully verified on the signals, which were obtained during the commission operation of the turbine.

  18. Automated liquid operation method for microfluidic heterogeneous immunoassay.

    PubMed

    Yi, Hui; Pan, Jian-Zhang; Shi, Xiao-Tong; Fang, Qun

    2013-02-15

    In this work, an automated liquid operation method for multistep heterogeneous immunoassay toward point of care testing (POCT) was proposed. A miniaturized peristaltic pump was developed to control the flow direction, flow time and flow rate in the microliter range according to a program. The peristaltic pump has the advantages of simple structure, small size, low cost, and easy to build and use. By coupling the peristaltic pump with an antibody-coated capillary and a reagent-preloaded cartridge, the complicated liquid handling operation for heterogeneous immunoassay, including sample metering and introduction, multistep reagent introduction and rinsing, could be triggered by an action and accomplished automatically in 12 min. The analytical performance of the present immunoassay system was demonstrated in the measurement of human IgG with fluorescence detection. A detection limit of 0.68 μg/mL IgG and a dynamic range of 2-300 μg/mL were obtained.

  19. Computer-aided diagnostic method for classification of Alzheimer's disease with atrophic image features on MR images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arimura, Hidetaka; Yoshiura, Takashi; Kumazawa, Seiji; Tanaka, Kazuhiro; Koga, Hiroshi; Mihara, Futoshi; Honda, Hiroshi; Sakai, Shuji; Toyofuku, Fukai; Higashida, Yoshiharu

    2008-03-01

    Our goal for this study was to attempt to develop a computer-aided diagnostic (CAD) method for classification of Alzheimer's disease (AD) with atrophic image features derived from specific anatomical regions in three-dimensional (3-D) T1-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) images. Specific regions related to the cerebral atrophy of AD were white matter and gray matter regions, and CSF regions in this study. Cerebral cortical gray matter regions were determined by extracting a brain and white matter regions based on a level set based method, whose speed function depended on gradient vectors in an original image and pixel values in grown regions. The CSF regions in cerebral sulci and lateral ventricles were extracted by wrapping the brain tightly with a zero level set determined from a level set function. Volumes of the specific regions and the cortical thickness were determined as atrophic image features. Average cortical thickness was calculated in 32 subregions, which were obtained by dividing each brain region. Finally, AD patients were classified by using a support vector machine, which was trained by the image features of AD and non-AD cases. We applied our CAD method to MR images of whole brains obtained from 29 clinically diagnosed AD cases and 25 non-AD cases. As a result, the area under a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve obtained by our computerized method was 0.901 based on a leave-one-out test in identification of AD cases among 54 cases including 8 AD patients at early stages. The accuracy for discrimination between 29 AD patients and 25 non-AD subjects was 0.840, which was determined at the point where the sensitivity was the same as the specificity on the ROC curve. This result showed that our CAD method based on atrophic image features may be promising for detecting AD patients by using 3-D MR images.

  20. Intelligent Condition Diagnosis Method Based on Adaptive Statistic Test Filter and Diagnostic Bayesian Network

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ke; Zhang, Qiuju; Wang, Kun; Chen, Peng; Wang, Huaqing

    2016-01-01

    A new fault diagnosis method for rotating machinery based on adaptive statistic test filter (ASTF) and Diagnostic Bayesian Network (DBN) is presented in this paper. ASTF is proposed to obtain weak fault features under background noise, ASTF is based on statistic hypothesis testing in the frequency domain to evaluate similarity between reference signal (noise signal) and original signal, and remove the component of high similarity. The optimal level of significance α is obtained using particle swarm optimization (PSO). To evaluate the performance of the ASTF, evaluation factor Ipq is also defined. In addition, a simulation experiment is designed to verify the effectiveness and robustness of ASTF. A sensitive evaluation method using principal component analysis (PCA) is proposed to evaluate the sensitiveness of symptom parameters (SPs) for condition diagnosis. By this way, the good SPs that have high sensitiveness for condition diagnosis can be selected. A three-layer DBN is developed to identify condition of rotation machinery based on the Bayesian Belief Network (BBN) theory. Condition diagnosis experiment for rolling element bearings demonstrates the effectiveness of the proposed method. PMID:26761006

  1. Intelligent Condition Diagnosis Method Based on Adaptive Statistic Test Filter and Diagnostic Bayesian Network.

    PubMed

    Li, Ke; Zhang, Qiuju; Wang, Kun; Chen, Peng; Wang, Huaqing

    2016-01-08

    A new fault diagnosis method for rotating machinery based on adaptive statistic test filter (ASTF) and Diagnostic Bayesian Network (DBN) is presented in this paper. ASTF is proposed to obtain weak fault features under background noise, ASTF is based on statistic hypothesis testing in the frequency domain to evaluate similarity between reference signal (noise signal) and original signal, and remove the component of high similarity. The optimal level of significance α is obtained using particle swarm optimization (PSO). To evaluate the performance of the ASTF, evaluation factor Ipq is also defined. In addition, a simulation experiment is designed to verify the effectiveness and robustness of ASTF. A sensitive evaluation method using principal component analysis (PCA) is proposed to evaluate the sensitiveness of symptom parameters (SPs) for condition diagnosis. By this way, the good SPs that have high sensitiveness for condition diagnosis can be selected. A three-layer DBN is developed to identify condition of rotation machinery based on the Bayesian Belief Network (BBN) theory. Condition diagnosis experiment for rolling element bearings demonstrates the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  2. Multicenter Evaluation of Clinical Diagnostic Methods for Detection and Isolation of Campylobacter spp. from Stool

    PubMed Central

    Patrick, Mary; Gonzalez, Anthony; Akin, Joshua; Polage, Christopher R.; Wymore, Kate; Gillim-Ross, Laura; Xavier, Karen; Sadlowski, Jennifer; Monahan, Jan; Hurd, Sharon; Dahlberg, Suzanne; Jerris, Robert; Watson, Renee; Santovenia, Monica; Mitchell, David; Harrison, Cassandra; Tobin-D'Angelo, Melissa; DeMartino, Mary; Pentella, Michael; Razeq, Jafar; Leonard, Celere; Jung, Carrianne; Achong-Bowe, Ria; Evans, Yaaqobah; Jain, Damini; Juni, Billie; Leano, Fe; Robinson, Trisha; Smith, Kirk; Gittelman, Rachel M.; Garrigan, Charles; Nachamkin, Irving

    2016-01-01

    The use of culture-independent diagnostic tests (CIDTs), such as stool antigen tests, as standalone tests for the detection of Campylobacter in stool is increasing. We conducted a prospective, multicenter study to evaluate the performance of stool antigen CIDTs compared to culture and PCR for Campylobacter detection. Between July and October 2010, we tested 2,767 stool specimens from patients with gastrointestinal illness with the following methods: four types of Campylobacter selective media, four commercial stool antigen assays, and a commercial PCR assay. Illnesses from which specimens were positive by one or more culture media or at least one CIDT and PCR were designated “cases.” A total of 95 specimens (3.4%) met the case definition. The stool antigen CIDTs ranged from 79.6% to 87.6% in sensitivity, 95.9 to 99.5% in specificity, and 41.3 to 84.3% in positive predictive value. Culture alone detected 80/89 (89.9% sensitivity) Campylobacter jejuni/Campylobacter coli-positive cases. Of the 209 noncases that were positive by at least one CIDT, only one (0.48%) was positive by all four stool antigen tests, and 73% were positive by just one stool antigen test. The questionable relevance of unconfirmed positive stool antigen CIDT results was supported by the finding that noncases were less likely than cases to have gastrointestinal symptoms. Thus, while the tests were convenient to use, the sensitivity, specificity, and positive predictive value of Campylobacter stool antigen tests were highly variable. Given the relatively low incidence of Campylobacter disease and the generally poor diagnostic test characteristics, this study calls into question the use of commercially available stool antigen CIDTs as standalone tests for direct detection of Campylobacter in stool. PMID:26962088

  3. Methods for Determining Operation Lifetime of Space Reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schriener, Timothy M.; El-Genk, Mohamed S.

    2007-01-01

    Space fission reactors can provide reliable, high power levels for periods of more than 10 years to support human outposts and for space travel to the farthest planets in the solar system. The operation lifetimes of these reactors depend on many factors chief among which are the hot-clean excess reactivity and the fuel burnup rate (or operation power) and the accumulation and decay of fission products. Other important parameters are the fuel average temperature and fissile inventory and the Doppler reactivity effect. Determining the operation lifetime for space reactors is a critical input to mission planning, requiring the use of sophisticated fuel burnup and criticality computational tools and benchmarking the results against actual data, if readily available. This paper performs parametric and comparative studies using widely used codes and a simplified approach for determining the operation lifetimes of two space reactors: the Sectored, Compact Reactor (SCoRe) that is liquid metal cooled, and the Submersion-Subcritical, Safe Space (S∧4) reactor that is cooled by a He-Xe binary gas mixture. The codes investigated against experimental data from a LWR are: (a) Monteburns 2.0, coupling MCNP5 1.30 to Origen2.2, (b) MCNPX 2.6b's internal burn package incorporating CINDER90, and (c) TRITON a code in the SCALE5 package using NEWT and Origen-S. From the results Monteburns and MCNPX performed the best, and are selected to compare their predictions of the lifetimes of the two space reactors with those of a simplified method. This method couples MCNP5 to a burnup analysis model in Simulink® considering only the 10 most probable low Z and 10 most probable high Z elements of the fission yield peaks plus 149Sm. Results show that the predicted operational lifetimes using the simplified method are within -6.6 to 12.8% of those calculated using the widely used Monteburns 2.0 and MCNPX 2.6bc1 codes.

  4. Methods for Determining Operation Lifetime of Space Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Schriener, Timothy M.; El-Genk, Mohamed S.

    2007-01-30

    Space fission reactors can provide reliable, high power levels for periods of more than 10 years to support human outposts and for space travel to the farthest planets in the solar system. The operation lifetimes of these reactors depend on many factors chief among which are the hot-clean excess reactivity and the fuel burnup rate (or operation power) and the accumulation and decay of fission products. Other important parameters are the fuel average temperature and fissile inventory and the Doppler reactivity effect. Determining the operation lifetime for space reactors is a critical input to mission planning, requiring the use of sophisticated fuel burnup and criticality computational tools and benchmarking the results against actual data, if readily available. This paper performs parametric and comparative studies using widely used codes and a simplified approach for determining the operation lifetimes of two space reactors: the Sectored, Compact Reactor (SCoRe) that is liquid metal cooled, and the Submersion-Subcritical, Safe Space (S and 4) reactor that is cooled by a He-Xe binary gas mixture. The codes investigated against experimental data from a LWR are: (a) Monteburns 2.0, coupling MCNP5 1.30 to Origen2.2, (b) MCNPX 2.6b's internal burn package incorporating CINDER90, and (c) TRITON a code in the SCALE5 package using NEWT and Origen-S. From the results Monteburns and MCNPX performed the best, and are selected to compare their predictions of the lifetimes of the two space reactors with those of a simplified method. This method couples MCNP5 to a burnup analysis model in Simulink registered considering only the 10 most probable low Z and 10 most probable high Z elements of the fission yield peaks plus 149Sm. Results show that the predicted operational lifetimes using the simplified method are within -6.6 to 12.8% of those calculated using the widely used Monteburns 2.0 and MCNPX 2.6bc1 codes.

  5. Control methods to improve non-linear HVAC system operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phalak, Kaustubh Pradeep

    The change of weather conditions and occupancy schedules makes heating ventilating and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems heavily dynamic. The mass and thermal inertia, nonlinear characteristics and interactions in HVAC systems make the control more complicated. As a result, some conventional control methods often cannot provide desired control performance under variable operating conditions. The purpose of this study is to develop control methods to improve the control performance of HVAC systems. This study focuses on optimizing the airflow-pressure control method of air side economizers, identifying robust building pressurization controls, developing a control method to control outdoor air and building pressure in absence of flow and pressure sensors, stabilizing the cooling coil valve operation and, return fan speed control. The improvements can be achieved by identifying and selecting a method with relatively linear performance characteristics out of the available options, applying fans rather than dampers to control building pressure, and improving the controller's stability range using cascade control method. A steady state nonlinear network model, for an air handling unit (AHU), air distribution system and conditioned space, is applied to analyze the system control performance of air-side economizers and building pressurization. The study shows that traditional controls with completely interlinked outdoor air, recirculated air, relief air dampers have the best control performance. The decoupled relief damper control may result in negative building static pressure at lower outdoor airflow ratio and excessively positive building static pressure at higher outdoor airflow ratio. On the other hand, return fan speed control has a better controllability on building pressurization. In absence of flow and pressure sensors fixed interlinked damper and linear return fan speed tracking control can maintain constant outside air ratio and positive building pressure. The

  6. [The comparative evaluation of the diagnostic value of methods of detection of antibodies to citrullinized proteins under rheumatoid arthritis].

    PubMed

    Novikov, A A; Cherkasova, M V; Aleksandrova, E N; Popkova, T V; Luchikhina, E L; Rytikova, N S; Nasonov, E L

    2012-10-01

    The hyper production of large specter of autoantibodies, primarily rheumatoid factors and antibodies to citrullinized proteins, is a characteristic sign of rheumatoid arthritis. The detection of these antibodies plays an important role in diagnosing the disease, especially on its early stages. The study compared the diagnostic accuracy of different methods of detection of antibodies to citrullinized proteins under rheumatoid arthritis. The examined sample included 144 patients aged 33-58 years with reliable diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis. The patients with systemic lupus erythematous, osteoarthritis, psoriatic arthritis, OVERLAP syndrome, ankylosing spondylitis and conditionally healthy donors consisted the comparative group. To detect antibodies to citrullinized proteins the methods of enzyme immunoassay, electrochemiluminescence, immunochromatography were applied. The study demonstrated that all the methods of detection of antibodies to citrullinized proteins have adequate diagnostic value to be implemented both in a routine clinical diagnostic practice and on the stage of screening of patients.

  7. A new diagnostic method for separating airborne and structureborne noise radiated by plates with applications for propeller driven aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcgary, Michael C.

    1988-01-01

    The anticipated application of advanced turboprop propulsion systems is expected to increase the interior noise of future aircraft to unacceptably high levels. The absence of technically and economically feasible noise source-path diagnostic tools has been a prime obstacle in the development of efficient noise control treatments for propeller-driven aircraft. A new diagnostic method that permits the separation and prediction of the fully coherent airborne and structureborne components of the sound radiated by plates or thin shells has been developed. Analytical and experimental studies of the proposed method were performed on an aluminum plate. The results of the study indicate that the proposed method could be used in flight, and has fewer encumbrances than the other diagnostic tools currently available.

  8. Simplified Symptom Pattern Method for verbal autopsy analysis: multisite validation study using clinical diagnostic gold standards

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Verbal autopsy can be a useful tool for generating cause of death data in data-sparse regions around the world. The Symptom Pattern (SP) Method is one promising approach to analyzing verbal autopsy data, but it has not been tested rigorously with gold standard diagnostic criteria. We propose a simplified version of SP and evaluate its performance using verbal autopsy data with accompanying true cause of death. Methods We investigated specific parameters in SP's Bayesian framework that allow for its optimal performance in both assigning individual cause of death and in determining cause-specific mortality fractions. We evaluated these outcomes of the method separately for adult, child, and neonatal verbal autopsies in 500 different population constructs of verbal autopsy data to analyze its ability in various settings. Results We determined that a modified, simpler version of Symptom Pattern (termed Simplified Symptom Pattern, or SSP) performs better than the previously-developed approach. Across 500 samples of verbal autopsy testing data, SSP achieves a median cause-specific mortality fraction accuracy of 0.710 for adults, 0.739 for children, and 0.751 for neonates. In individual cause of death assignment in the same testing environment, SSP achieves 45.8% chance-corrected concordance for adults, 51.5% for children, and 32.5% for neonates. Conclusions The Simplified Symptom Pattern Method for verbal autopsy can yield reliable and reasonably accurate results for both individual cause of death assignment and for determining cause-specific mortality fractions. The method demonstrates that verbal autopsies coupled with SSP can be a useful tool for analyzing mortality patterns and determining individual cause of death from verbal autopsy data. PMID:21816099

  9. Accuracy of Conventional Diagnostic Methods for Identifying Structural Changes in Patients with Focal Epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Dakaj, Nazim; Kruja, Jera; Jashari, Fisnik; Boshnjaku, Dren; Shatri, Nexhat; Zeqiraj, Kamber

    2016-01-01

    Background: Epilepsy is a neurological disorder characterized by abnormal firing of nerve impulses in the brain. Aim: This study aims to investigate the frequency of appearance of pathological changes in conventional examination methods (electroencephalography–EEG, brain computerized tomography -CT or brain magnetic resonance imaging – MRI) in patients with epilepsy, and relationship between clinical manifestations and localization of changes in CT or MRI. Methods: In this study we have included 110 patients with focal epilepsy who fulfilled the inclusion criteria out of 557 initially diagnosed patients. Detailed clinical examination together with brain imaging (CT and MRI) and electroencephalography examination was performed. We have evaluated the accuracy of each diagnostic method to localize the epileptic focus. Diagnosis of epilepsy was determined by the ILAE (International League Against Epilepsy) criteria of the year 1989, and classification of epileptic seizures was made according to the ILAE classification 2010. Results: Electroencephalography presented changes in 60.9% of patients; brain CT in 42.1%, and MRI in 78% of the patients. The results of our study showed that clinical manifestations were not always conveyed with pathological changes in conventional examining methods performed. Of the total of 79 patients with changes in imaging (8 with changes in CT and 71 in MRI), 79.7% presented a clinical picture compatible with the region in which morphological changes were found, while in 20.3% of patients the presented morphological changes were not aligned with the clinical picture. Conclusion: In patients with epilepsy, conventional examination methods do not always find pathological changes, while clinical manifestations of epilepsy did not always coincide with the location of changes in imaging. Further studies are needed to see if there is clear border between focal and generalized epilepsy. PMID:28077892

  10. A review of droplet resonators: Operation method and application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yan; Li, Hanyang; Zhao, Liyuan; Wu, Bing; Liu, Shuangqiang; Liu, Yongjun; Yang, Jun

    2016-12-01

    Droplet resonators hold promise as a special class of optical cavities for numerous applications in micro-optical. Owing to liquid surface tension, droplet resonators possess nearly perfect spherical geometry and exceptionally smooth surfaces that prompt more and more meritorious applications to be exploit. Herein, we survey two typical operation methods of the droplet resonators, passive and active droplet resonator. Besides, droplet applications as high-performance lasers and sensors have been discussed. Although these applications have brought us tremendous value, the research for droplet resonators are still in its infancy, added potential application and intrinsic investigation of the droplet resonators should be developed in the future work.

  11. Methods of performing downhole operations using orbital vibrator energy sources

    DOEpatents

    Cole, Jack H.; Weinberg, David M.; Wilson, Dennis R.

    2004-02-17

    Methods of performing down hole operations in a wellbore. A vibrational source is positioned within a tubular member such that an annulus is formed between the vibrational source and an interior surface of the tubular member. A fluid medium, such as high bulk modulus drilling mud, is disposed within the annulus. The vibrational source forms a fluid coupling with the tubular member through the fluid medium to transfer vibrational energy to the tubular member. The vibrational energy may be used, for example, to free a stuck tubular, consolidate a cement slurry and/or detect voids within a cement slurry prior to the curing thereof.

  12. Method of operating a two-stage coal gasifier

    DOEpatents

    Tanca, Michael C.

    1982-01-01

    A method of operating an entrained flow coal gasifier (10) via a two-stage gasification process. A portion of the coal (18) to be gasified is combusted in a combustion zone (30) with near stoichiometric air to generate combustion products. The combustion products are conveyed from the combustion zone into a reduction zone (32) wherein additional coal is injected into the combustion products to react with the combustion products to form a combustible gas. The additional coal is injected into the reduction zone as a mixture (60) consisting of coal and steam, preferably with a coal-to-steam weight ratio of approximately ten to one.

  13. Modified method to enhanced recovery of Toxocara cati larvae for the purposes of diagnostic and therapeutic.

    PubMed

    Zibaei, Mohammad; Uga, Shoji

    2016-10-01

    Human toxocariasis, extraintestinal-migration of Toxocara species, is a worldwide helminthic zoonosis in many places of the undeveloped countries. Toxocara cati is one of the common helminths in cats and it is a potentially preventable disease. Its diagnosis and treatment depend on the demonstration of specific excretory-secretory Toxocara antibodies from Toxocara larvae by immunological assays. This study provides a simple manual technique which can be performed in any laboratory for recovering a large number of Toxocara cati larvae from the thick-shelled eggs. The devices that are required contain a manual homogenizer and a filter membrane of 40 μm mesh; the rest of materials and solutions is standard laboratory ware. In the modified method the larval yields were 2.7 times higher (3000 larval/ml) and the time spent in performing the modified method was shorter (75 min). Further benefits over already techniques are the easy and repeatable, inexpensive and convenient materials, simplicity to perform and require less time for recovery of Toxocara cati larvae for subsequent cultivation and harvest of the larval excretory-secretory antigens for diagnostic or treatment purposes.

  14. A mixed methods study of age at diagnosis and diagnostic odyssey for Duchenne muscular dystrophy

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Siaw H; McClaren, Belinda J; Archibald, Alison Dalton; Weeks, Alice; Langmaid, Tess; Ryan, Monique M; Kornberg, Andrew; Metcalfe, Sylvia A

    2015-01-01

    The delayed diagnosis of Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) may be an ongoing problem internationally. We aimed to ascertain age at diagnosis and explore parents' experiences of the diagnosis of DMD in Australia. Using mixed methods, data were collected from laboratory and clinical record audits of testing for DMD in Victoria and Tasmania, interviews and a national survey of parents regarding their experiences from first noticing symptoms to receiving a diagnosis. The audits revealed that the median age at diagnosis for DMD was 5 years (n=49 during 2005–2010); this age had not changed substantially over this period. Fourteen parents interviewed reported age at diagnosis ranging from 2 to 8 years with a 6 month to 4 year delay between initial concerns about their child's development and receiving the DMD diagnosis. Sixty-two survey respondents reported the median age at diagnosis was 3 years and 9 months, while the median age when symptoms were noticed was 2 years and 9 months. Parents experienced many emotions in their search for a diagnosis and consulted with a wide range of health professionals. Half the survey respondents felt that their child could have been diagnosed earlier. Despite advances in testing technologies and increasing awareness of DMD, the age at diagnosis has remained constant in Australia. This mixed methods study shows that this diagnostic delay continues to have a negative impact on parents' experiences, places families at risk of having a second affected child and may have a deleterious effect on affected children's treatment. PMID:25626706

  15. Accuracy of diagnostic methods and surveillance sensitivity for human enterovirus, South Korea, 1999-2011.

    PubMed

    Hyeon, Ji-Yeon; Hwang, Seoyeon; Kim, Hyejin; Song, Jaehyoung; Ahn, Jeongbae; Kang, Byunghak; Kim, Kisoon; Choi, Wooyoung; Chung, Jae Keun; Kim, Cheon-Hyun; Cho, Kyungsoon; Jee, Youngmee; Kim, Jonghyun; Kim, Kisang; Kim, Sun-Hee; Kim, Min-Ji; Cheon, Doo-Sung

    2013-08-01

    The epidemiology of enteroviral infection in South Korea during 1999-2011 chronicles nationwide outbreaks and changing detection and subtyping methods used over the 13-year period. Of 14,657 patients whose samples were tested, 4,762 (32.5%) samples were positive for human enterovirus (human EV); as diagnostic methods improved, the rate of positive results increased. A seasonal trend of outbreaks was documented. Genotypes enterovirus 71, echovirus 30, coxsackievirus B5, enterovirus 6, and coxsackievirus B2 were the most common genotypes identified. Accurate test results correlated clinical syndromes to enterovirus genotypes: aseptic meningitis to echovirus 30, enterovirus 6, and coxsackievirus B5; hand, foot and mouth disease to coxsackievirus A16; and hand, foot and mouth disease with neurologic complications to enterovirus 71. There are currently no treatments specific to human EV infections; surveillance of enterovirus infections such as this study provides may assist with evaluating the need to research and develop treatments for infections caused by virulent human EV genotypes.

  16. Rapid diagnostic methods for influenza virus in clinical specimens - A comparative study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, A. S.; Olson, B.

    1982-01-01

    A comparison of five rapid viral diagnostic techniques for identifying influenza virus in nasopharyngeal aspirates has been made on patients with influenza-like illnesses. Initial results with immune electron microscopy were positive in only one of 11 specimens from which virus was isolated and further work abandoned. Four other rapid tests were carried out on 39 specimens from which influenza virus had been isolated in tissue culture in 28. Of these 28 specimens yielding virus, 24 (85.7 percent) were positive by an indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT) on nasopharyngeal cells, 18 (64.3 percent) by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), 19 (67.8 percent) by enzyme-linked fluorescent assay (ELFA), and 26 (92.8 percent) by a rapid tissue culture amplification method (TCA) in a continuous Rhesus monkey kidney line (LLC-MK2) with identification of virus by fluorescent antibody. In terms of sensitivity, simplicity, and rapidity, a combination of the IFAT and TCA methods seems to be very useful.

  17. Method for operating a combustor in a fuel cell system

    DOEpatents

    Chalfant, Robert W.; Clingerman, Bruce J.

    2002-01-01

    A method of operating a combustor to heat a fuel processor in a fuel cell system, in which the fuel processor generates a hydrogen-rich stream a portion of which is consumed in a fuel cell stack and a portion of which is discharged from the fuel cell stack and supplied to the combustor, and wherein first and second streams are supplied to the combustor, the first stream being a hydrocarbon fuel stream and the second stream consisting of said hydrogen-rich stream, the method comprising the steps of monitoring the temperature of the fuel processor; regulating the quantity of the first stream to the combustor according to the temperature of the fuel processor; and comparing said quantity of said first stream to a predetermined value or range of predetermined values.

  18. Complete and partial uterine perforation and embedding following insertion of intrauterine devices. II. Diagnostic methods, prevention, and management.

    PubMed

    Zakin, D; Stern, W Z; Rosenblatt, R

    1981-08-01

    This paper discusses the various methods used to diagnose uterine perforation caused by an IUD. Radiography, or plain film, has a limited use in the diagnosis of uterine perforation since its usefulness depends on the radiopacity of the particular IUD; if the IUD appears on film, plain film does not allow one to conclude whether the device is in its proper position. Several modifications of plain film have been tried but all methods fall short of their goals. Hysterography permits the best diagnostic assessment since it allows the visualization of the entire uterine cavity so that the position of the IUD is immediately evident in cases of embedding and of perforation. Pelvic pneumography can differentiate between intraperitoneal or extraperitoneal locations of perforated IUDs; it can be enhanced by hysterosalpingography and can be done on an ambulatory basis. Ultrasonography simply determines the presence or absence of an IUD, but has the advantage of accurately demonstrating a concomitant pregnancy; the sonogram is not reliable if the IUD is surrounded by omentum or by loops of bowel; ultrasonography can be advantageously coupled with hysterography. Laparoscopy is still the method most used to diagnose uterine IUD perforation; when removal of the device is advisable laparotomy is usually carried out concomitantly; successful laparoscopy requires a skilled and experienced operator. Hysteroscopy is a new and extremely valuable technique which should not be chosen as a primary procedure because it carries a risk of complications. The best prevention of uterine perforation is a meticulous and well executed insertion technique, done only by an experienced operator and after a careful pelvic examination. Uterine size, consistency and position must be exactly known; IUD insertion is easier during or immediately after menstruation. Perforated IUDs should be removed even if considered innocuous, although this is a matter still debated by the specialists. Spontaneous IUD

  19. Diagnostic Microbiologic Methods in the GEMS-1 Case/Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Panchalingam, Sandra; Antonio, Martin; Hossain, Anowar; Mandomando, Inacio; Ochieng, Ben; Oundo, Joseph; Ramamurthy, T.; Tamboura, Boubou; Zaidi, Anita K. M.; Petri, William; Houpt, Eric; Murray, Patrick; Prado, Valeria; Vidal, Roberto; Steele, Duncan; Strockbine, Nancy; Sansonetti, Philippe; Glass, Roger I.; Robins-Browne, Roy M.; Tauschek, Marija; Svennerholm, Ann-Marie; Kotloff, Karen; Levine, Myron M.; Nataro, James P.

    2012-01-01

    To understand the etiology of moderate-to-severe diarrhea among children in high mortality areas of sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia, we performed a comprehensive case/control study of children aged <5 years at 7 sites. Each site employed an identical case/control study design and each utilized a uniform comprehensive set of microbiological assays to identify the likely bacterial, viral and protozoal etiologies. The selected assays effected a balanced consideration of cost, robustness and performance, and all assays were performed at the study sites. Identification of bacterial pathogens employed streamlined conventional bacteriologic biochemical and serological algorithms. Diarrheagenic Escherichia coli were identified by application of a multiplex polymerase chain reaction assay for enterotoxigenic, enteroaggregative, and enteropathogenic E. coli. Rotavirus, adenovirus, Entamoeba histolytica, Giardia enterica, and Cryptosporidium species were detected by commercially available enzyme immunoassays on stool samples. Samples positive for adenovirus were further evaluated for adenovirus serotypes 40 and 41. We developed a novel multiplex assay to detect norovirus (types 1 and 2), astrovirus, and sapovirus. The portfolio of diagnostic assays used in the GEMS study can be broadly applied in developing countries seeking robust cost-effective methods for enteric pathogen detection. PMID:23169941

  20. [Positron emission tomography in neuroscience. An integrative part of clinical diagnostic methods and experimental research].

    PubMed

    Schaller, B

    2005-02-01

    The role of molecular neuroimaging techniques is increasing in the understanding of pathophysiological mechanism of diseases. To date, positron emission tomography is the most powerful tool for the non-invasive study of biochemical and molecular processes in humans and animals in vivo. With the development in radiochemistry and tracer technology, a variety of endogenously expressed and exogenously introduced genes can be analyzed by PET. This opens up the exciting and rapidly field of molecular imaging, aiming at the non-invasive localisation of a biological process of interest in normal and diseased cells in animal models and humans in vivo. Besides its usefulness for basic research positron emission tomography has been proven to be superior to conventional diagnostic methods in several clinical indications. This is illustrated by detection of biological or anatomic changes that cannot be demonstrated by computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging, as well as even before symptoms are expressed. The present review summarizes the clinical use of positron emission tomography in neuroscience that has helped elucidate the pathophysiology of a number of diseases and has suggested strategies in the treatment of these patients. Special reference is given to the neurovascular, neurodegenerative and neurooncological disease.

  1. Professional flossing as a diagnostic method for gingivitis in the primary dentition.

    PubMed

    Mariath, Adriela Azevedo Souza; Bressani, Ana Eliza Lemes; Haas, Alex Nogueira; Araujo, Fernando Borba de; Rösing, Cassiano Kuchenbecker

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate flossing as a diagnostic method for interproximal gingival bleeding in children. For this crossover study, 23 pre-schoolchildren presenting neither restorations nor approximal carious cavities and with at least 15% of gingival bleeding sites were selected. Examinations were performed at three different moments (3-4 days interval). Examinations comprised repeated measurements of two gingival indices with a 10-minute interval in the following sequences: the Ainamo & Bay Gingival Bleeding Index (GBI) followed by the Carter & Barnes flossing index (CBI); CBI followed by GBI; and GBI followed by GBI. Data analysis was performed only for the interproximal sites, considering the GBI as the gold-standard. Agreement between indices, sensitivity (SE), specificity (SP), positive (PPV) and negative predictive values (NPV) were estimated. Percentage agreements in sequences GBI-CBI, CBI-GBI and GBI-GBI were 70.3%, 76.4% and 84.5%, respectively. Validation of flossing in the first sequence (GBI-CBI) resulted in values of 0.61 (95%CI 0.53 - 0.68), 0.72 (95%CI 0.69 - 0.76), 0.33 (95%CI 0.28 - 0.39) and 0.89 (95%CI 0.86 - 0.92) respectively for SE, SP, PPV and NPV. It can be concluded that professional flossing is a useful tool in the diagnosis of interproximal gingival inflammatory status in children, especially in conditions of gingival health.

  2. Diagnostic microbiologic methods in the GEMS-1 case/control study.

    PubMed

    Panchalingam, Sandra; Antonio, Martin; Hossain, Anowar; Mandomando, Inacio; Ochieng, Ben; Oundo, Joseph; Ramamurthy, T; Tamboura, Boubou; Zaidi, Anita K M; Petri, William; Houpt, Eric; Murray, Patrick; Prado, Valeria; Vidal, Roberto; Steele, Duncan; Strockbine, Nancy; Sansonetti, Philippe; Glass, Roger I; Robins-Browne, Roy M; Tauschek, Marija; Svennerholm, Ann-Marie; Berkeley, Lynette Y; Kotloff, Karen; Levine, Myron M; Nataro, James P

    2012-12-01

    To understand the etiology of moderate-to-severe diarrhea among children in high mortality areas of sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia, we performed a comprehensive case/control study of children aged <5 years at 7 sites. Each site employed an identical case/control study design and each utilized a uniform comprehensive set of microbiological assays to identify the likely bacterial, viral and protozoal etiologies. The selected assays effected a balanced consideration of cost, robustness and performance, and all assays were performed at the study sites. Identification of bacterial pathogens employed streamlined conventional bacteriologic biochemical and serological algorithms. Diarrheagenic Escherichia coli were identified by application of a multiplex polymerase chain reaction assay for enterotoxigenic, enteroaggregative, and enteropathogenic E. coli. Rotavirus, adenovirus, Entamoeba histolytica, Giardia enterica, and Cryptosporidium species were detected by commercially available enzyme immunoassays on stool samples. Samples positive for adenovirus were further evaluated for adenovirus serotypes 40 and 41. We developed a novel multiplex assay to detect norovirus (types 1 and 2), astrovirus, and sapovirus. The portfolio of diagnostic assays used in the GEMS study can be broadly applied in developing countries seeking robust cost-effective methods for enteric pathogen detection.

  3. The conversion of CESR to operate as the test accelerator, CesrTA, Part 4: superconducting wiggler diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Billing, M. G.; Greenwald, S.; Liu, X.; Li, Y.; Sabol, D.; Smith, E. N.; Strohman, C. R.; Palmer, M. A.; Munson, D. V.; Suetsugu, Y.

    2016-10-01

    Cornell's electron/positron storage ring (CESR) was modified over a series of accelerator shutdowns beginning in May 2008, which substantially improves its capability for research and development for particle accelerators. CESR's energy span from 1.8 to 5.6 GeV with both electrons and positrons makes it appropriate for the study of a wide spectrum of accelerator physics issues and instrumentation related to present light sources and future lepton damping rings. Additionally a number of these are also relevant for the beam physics of proton accelerators. This paper, the last in a series of four, describes the vacuum system modifications of the superconducting wigglers to accommodate the diagnostic instrumentation for the study of electron cloud (EC) behavior within wigglers. Earlier papers provided an overview of the accelerator physics program, the general modifications of CESR, the modifications of the vacuum system necessary for the conversion of CESR to the test accelerator, CESRTA, enhanced to study such subjects as low emittance tuning methods, EC effects, intra-beam scattering, fast ion instabilities as well as general improvements to beam instrumentation. While the initial studies of CESRTA focussed on questions related to the International Linear Collider damping ring design, CESR is a very versatile storage ring, capable of studying a wide range of accelerator physics and instrumentation questions.

  4. The conversion of CESR to operate as the Test Accelerator, CesrTA. Part 3: electron cloud diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Billing, M. G.; Conway, J. V.; Crittenden, J. A.; Greenwald, S.; Li, Y.; Meller, R. E.; Strohman, C. R.; Sikora, J. P.; Calvey, J. R.; Palmer, M. A.

    2016-04-01

    Cornell's electron/positron storage ring (CESR) was modified over a series of accelerator shutdowns beginning in May 2008, which substantially improves its capability for research and development for particle accelerators. CESR's energy span from 1.8 to 5.6 GeV with both electrons and positrons makes it ideal for the study of a wide spectrum of accelerator physics issues and instrumentation related to present light sources and future lepton damping rings. Additionally a number of these are also relevant for the beam physics of proton accelerators. This paper is the third in a series of four describing the conversion of CESR to the test accelerator, CESRTA. The first two papers discuss the overall plan for the conversion of the storage ring to an instrument capable of studying advanced accelerator physics issues [1] and the details of the vacuum system upgrades [2]. This paper focusses on the necessary development of new instrumentation, situated in four dedicated experimental regions, capable of studying such phenomena as electron clouds (ECs) and methods to mitigate EC effects. The fourth paper in this series describes the vacuum system modifications of the superconducting wigglers to accommodate the diagnostic instrumentation for the study of EC behavior within wigglers. While the initial studies of CESRTA focussed on questions related to the International Linear Collider damping ring design, CESRTA is a very versatile storage ring, capable of studying a wide range of accelerator physics and instrumentation questions.

  5. The conversion of CESR to operate as the Test Accelerator, CesrTA. Part 3: Electron cloud diagnostics

    DOE PAGES

    Billing, M. G.; Conway, J. V.; Crittenden, J. A.; ...

    2016-04-28

    Cornell's electron/positron storage ring (CESR) was modified over a series of accelerator shutdowns beginning in May 2008, which substantially improves its capability for research and development for particle accelerators. CESR's energy span from 1.8 to 5.6 GeV with both electrons and positrons makes it ideal for the study of a wide spectrum of accelerator physics issues and instrumentation related to present light sources and future lepton damping rings. Additionally a number of these are also relevant for the beam physics of proton accelerators. This paper is the third in a series of four describing the conversion of CESR to themore » test accelerator, CESRTA. The first two papers discuss the overall plan for the conversion of the storage ring to an instrument capable of studying advanced accelerator physics issues [1] and the details of the vacuum system upgrades [2]. This paper focuses on the necessary development of new instrumentation, situated in four dedicated experimental regions, capable of studying such phenomena as electron clouds (ECs) and methods to mitigate EC effects. The fourth paper in this series describes the vacuum system modifications of the superconducting wigglers to accommodate the diagnostic instrumentation for the study of EC behavior within wigglers. Lastly, while the initial studies of CESRTA focused on questions related to the International Linear Collider damping ring design, CESRTA is a very versatile storage ring, capable of studying a wide range of accelerator physics and instrumentation questions.« less

  6. The conversion of CESR to operate as the Test Accelerator, CesrTA. Part 3: Electron cloud diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    Billing, M. G.; Conway, J. V.; Crittenden, J. A.; Greenwald, S.; Li, Y.; Meller, R. E.; Strohman, C. R.; Sikora, J. P.; Calvey, J. R.; Palmer, M. A.

    2016-04-28

    Cornell's electron/positron storage ring (CESR) was modified over a series of accelerator shutdowns beginning in May 2008, which substantially improves its capability for research and development for particle accelerators. CESR's energy span from 1.8 to 5.6 GeV with both electrons and positrons makes it ideal for the study of a wide spectrum of accelerator physics issues and instrumentation related to present light sources and future lepton damping rings. Additionally a number of these are also relevant for the beam physics of proton accelerators. This paper is the third in a series of four describing the conversion of CESR to the test accelerator, CESRTA. The first two papers discuss the overall plan for the conversion of the storage ring to an instrument capable of studying advanced accelerator physics issues [1] and the details of the vacuum system upgrades [2]. This paper focuses on the necessary development of new instrumentation, situated in four dedicated experimental regions, capable of studying such phenomena as electron clouds (ECs) and methods to mitigate EC effects. The fourth paper in this series describes the vacuum system modifications of the superconducting wigglers to accommodate the diagnostic instrumentation for the study of EC behavior within wigglers. Lastly, while the initial studies of CESRTA focused on questions related to the International Linear Collider damping ring design, CESRTA is a very versatile storage ring, capable of studying a wide range of accelerator physics and instrumentation questions.

  7. Development of Monitoring and Diagnostic Methods for Robots Used In Remediation of Waste Sites - Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, M.

    2000-04-01

    This project is the first evaluation of model-based diagnostics to hydraulic robot systems. A greater understanding of fault detection for hydraulic robots has been gained, and a new theoretical fault detection model developed and evaluated.

  8. Data Mining Method for Battery Operation Optimization in Photovoltaics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Katsunori; Wakao, Shinji

    Recently, a photovoltaic (PV) system has attracted attention because of serious environmental and energy problems. In near future, PV systems intensively connected to the grid will bring about the difficulties in the power system operation. As a countermeasure, this paper deals with the introduction of storage battery for making the unstable PV power controllable. In this regard, when we introduce a storage battery into a PV system, we have to consider the advantages and disadvantages. In order to evaluate the system from various perspectives, we have carried out multi-objective optimization of battery operation in PV system design. However, as the number of objective functions increases, it becomes difficult to appropriately interpret the correlation among objective functions and design variables. With this background, in this paper, a novel computational method is proposed for data mining of PV system design, in which we make an attempt to effectively extract the design information of the battery system with the use of Self-Organizing Map (SOM).

  9. A Review of Diagnostic Methods for Invasive Fungal Diseases: Challenges and Perspectives.

    PubMed

    Falci, Diego R; Stadnik, Claudio M B; Pasqualotto, Alessandro C

    2017-03-29

    Invasive fungal diseases are associated with a high morbidity and mortality, particularly in the context of immunosuppression. Diagnosis of invasive fungal diseases is usually complicated by factors such as poor clinical suspicion and unspecific clinical findings. Access to modern diagnostic tools is frequently limited in developing countries. Here, we describe five real-life clinical cases from a Brazilian tertiary hospital, in order to illustrate how to best select diagnostic tests in patients with different fungal infections.

  10. Self-Instructional Methods of Teaching Diagnostic Problem Solving to Automotive Students. Vocational-Industrial Education Research Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finch, Curtis R.

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of three methods of teaching diagnostic problem-solving (troubleshooting) to automotive students. The sample consisted of 45 community college students enrolled in automotive courses. Initially, all students received a presentation on ignition principles, and the Otis Mental Ability Test…

  11. Development of a benchtop baking method for chemically leavened crackers. I. Identification of a diagnostic formula and procedure

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A benchtop baking method has been developed to predict the contribution of gluten functionality to overall flour performance for chemically leavened crackers. In order to identify a diagnostic cracker formula, the effects of leavening system (sodium bicarbonate, monocalcium phosphate, and ammonium b...

  12. Target detection in diagnostic ultrasound: Evaluation of a method based on the CLEAN algorithm.

    PubMed

    Masoom, Hassan; Adve, Raviraj S; Cobbold, Richard S C

    2013-02-01

    A technique is proposed for the detection of abnormalities (targets) in ultrasound images using little or no a priori information and requiring little operator intervention. The scheme is a combination of the CLEAN algorithm, originally proposed for radio astronomy, and constant false alarm rate (CFAR) processing, as developed for use in radar systems. The CLEAN algorithm identifies areas in the ultrasound image that stand out above a threshold in relation to the background; CFAR techniques allow for an adaptive, semi-automated, selection of the threshold. Neither appears to have been previously used for target detection in ultrasound images and never together in any context. As a first step towards assessing the potential of this method we used a widely used method of simulating B-mode images (Field II). We assumed the use of a 256 element linear array operating at 3.0MHz into a water-like medium containing a density of point scatterers sufficient to simulate a background of fully developed speckle. Spherical targets with diameters ranging from 0.25 to 6.0mm and contrasts ranging from 0 to 12dB relative to the background were used as test objects. Using a contrast-detail analysis, the probability of detection curves indicate these targets can be consistently detected within a speckle background. Our results indicate that the method has considerable promise for the semi-automated detection of abnormalities with diameters greater than a few millimeters, depending on the contrast.

  13. Induction heating apparatus and methods of operation thereof

    SciTech Connect

    Richardson, John G.

    2006-08-01

    Methods of operation of an induction melter include providing material within a cooled crucible proximate an inductor. A desired electromagnetic flux skin depth for heating the material within the crucible may be selected, and a frequency of an alternating current for energizing the inductor and for producing the desired skin depth may be selected. The alternating current frequency may be adjusted after energizing the inductor to maintain the desired electromagnetic flux skin depth. The desired skin depth may be substantially maintained as the temperature of the material varies. An induction heating apparatus includes a sensor configured to detect changes in at least one physical characteristic of a material to be heated in a crucible, and a controller configured for selectively varying a frequency of an alternating current for energizing an inductor at least partially in response to changes in the physical characteristic to be detected by the sensor.

  14. Method for starting operation of a resistance melter

    DOEpatents

    Chapman, Christopher Charles

    1977-01-01

    A method for starting the operation of a resistance furnace, where heating occurs by passing a current through the charge between two furnace electrodes and the charge is a material which is essentially electrically nonconductive when in a solid physical state but which becomes more electrically conductive when in a molten physical state, by connecting electrical resistance heating wire between the furnace electrodes, placing the wire in contact with the charge material between the electrodes and passing a current through the wire to heat the wire to a temperature sufficient to melt the material between the furnace electrodes so that as the material melts, current begins to pass between the electrodes through the melted material, further heating and melting more material until all current between the electrodes passes through the charge material without the aid or presence of the resistance element.

  15. Method and system for operating an electric motor

    DOEpatents

    Gallegos-Lopez, Gabriel; Hiti, Silva; Perisic, Milun

    2013-01-22

    Methods and systems for operating an electric motor having a plurality of windings with an inverter having a plurality of switches coupled to a voltage source are provided. A first plurality of switching vectors is applied to the plurality of switches. The first plurality of switching vectors includes a first ratio of first magnitude switching vectors to second magnitude switching vectors. A direct current (DC) current associated with the voltage source is monitored during the applying of the first plurality of switching vectors to the plurality of switches. A second ratio of the first magnitude switching vectors to the second magnitude switching vectors is selected based on the monitoring of the DC current associated with the voltage source. A second plurality of switching vectors is applied to the plurality of switches. The second plurality of switching vectors includes the second ratio of the first magnitude switching vectors to the second magnitude switching vectors.

  16. Dental flossing as a diagnostic method for proximal gingivitis: a validation study.

    PubMed

    Grellmann, Alessandra Pascotini; Kantorski, Karla Zanini; Ardenghi, Thiago Machado; Moreira, Carlos Heitor Cunha; Danesi, Cristiane Cademartori; Zanatta, Fabricio Batistin

    2016-05-20

    This study evaluated the clinical diagnosis of proximal gingivitis by comparing two methods: dental flossing and the gingival bleeding index (GBI). One hundred subjects (aged at least 18 years, with 15% of positive proximal sites for GBI, without proximal attachment loss) were randomized into five evaluation protocols. Each protocol consisted of two assessments with a 10-minute interval between them: first GBI/second floss, first floss/second GBI, first GBI/second GBI, first tooth floss/second floss, and first gum floss-second floss. The dental floss was slid against the tooth surface (TF) and the gingival tissue (GF). The evaluated proximal sites should present teeth with established point of contact and probing depth ≤ 3mm. One trained and calibrated examiner performed all the assessments. The mean percentages of agreement and disagreement were calculated for the sites with gingival bleeding in both evaluation methods (GBI and flossing). The primary outcome was the percentage of disagreement between the assessments in the different protocols. The data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA, McNemar, chi-square and Tukey's post hoc tests, with a 5% significance level. When gingivitis was absent in the first assessment (negative GBI), bleeding was detected in the second assessment by TF and GF in 41.7% (p < 0.001) and 50.7% (p < 0.001) of the sites, respectively. In the absence of gingivitis in the second assessment (negative GBI), TF and GF detected bleeding in the first assessment in 38.9% (p = 0.004) and 58.3% (p < 0.001) of the sites, respectively. TF and GF appears to be a better diagnostic indicator of proximal gingivitis than GBI.

  17. Radionuclide angiography: as diagnostic method for Wilms' tumor with direct extension into the heart.

    PubMed

    Avila Ramírez, E; Martínez Guerra, G

    1982-01-01

    Radioisotope angiography may be used as an initial study in Wilms' tumor. We report a patient who had a total nephrectomy but then had severe cardiovascular complications. These led to open heart surgery and removal of a tumor lodged in the right atrium. Radioisotope angiography, performed two weeks earlier, showed a "cold" image on the anterior wall of the right ventricle. This finding was later confirmed by other studies and finally at the time of a second operation. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the different methods employed in this case, to emphasize the risks attributed to each, and finally to suggest the use of non-invasive studies such as radioisotope angiography as a practical method of study in infancy.

  18. Pavement testing by integrated geophysical methods: Feasibility, resolution and diagnostic potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orlando, Luciana; Cardarelli, Ettore; Cercato, Michele; De Donno, Giorgio; Di Giambattista, Luca

    2017-01-01

    This work is focused on the assessment of the diagnostic potential of several geophysical methods when applied to the investigation of a rigid airport pavement. The potential and limit of each technique are evaluated as well as the added value deriving from their integration. Firstly, we reconstruct a high-resolution image of the pavement by a large electromagnetic and georadar screening. An advanced processing of georadar data, implemented through the picking of the arrival times of reflections for each profile, provides a quantitative estimation of the deviation between the design and the as-built thickness of layers. Additionally, electrical tomography has been applied to unequivocally identify the anomalous zones, where higher values of resistivity would be associated to porous zones that are prone to degradation and failure. The seismic tomographic survey had the additional purpose to recover the mechanical properties of the pavement in terms of both P- and S-waves and consequently of elastic constants (Poisson's ratio), whose values were consistent with those recovered in literature. The anomalies detected by each technique are consistent in their indications and they can be correlated to failure phenomena occurring at layer interfaces within the pavement structure or to unexpected variations of the layer thicknesses. The cost-effective geophysical campaign has validated the four-layered system deduced from the original design and has been used to reconstruct a high-resolution map of the pavement in order to discriminate fractures, crack-prone areas or areas where the as-built differs from the original design.

  19. A temporally and spatially resolved electron density diagnostic method for the edge plasma based on Stark broadening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zafar, A.; Martin, E. H.; Shannon, S. C.; Isler, R. C.; Caughman, J. B. O.

    2016-11-01

    An electron density diagnostic (≥1010 cm-3) capable of high temporal (ms) and spatial (mm) resolution is currently under development at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The diagnostic is based on measuring the Stark broadened, Doppler-free spectral line profile of the n = 6-2 hydrogen Balmer series transition. The profile is then fit to a fully quantum mechanical model including the appropriate electric and magnetic field operators. The quasi-static approach used to calculate the Doppler-free spectral line profile is outlined here and the results from the model are presented for H-δ spectra for electron densities of 1010-1013 cm-3. The profile shows complex behavior due to the interaction between the magnetic substates of the atom.

  20. Data Mining Methods Applied to Flight Operations Quality Assurance Data: A Comparison to Standard Statistical Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stolzer, Alan J.; Halford, Carl

    2007-01-01

    In a previous study, multiple regression techniques were applied to Flight Operations Quality Assurance-derived data to develop parsimonious model(s) for fuel consumption on the Boeing 757 airplane. The present study examined several data mining algorithms, including neural networks, on the fuel consumption problem and compared them to the multiple regression results obtained earlier. Using regression methods, parsimonious models were obtained that explained approximately 85% of the variation in fuel flow. In general data mining methods were more effective in predicting fuel consumption. Classification and Regression Tree methods reported correlation coefficients of .91 to .92, and General Linear Models and Multilayer Perceptron neural networks reported correlation coefficients of about .99. These data mining models show great promise for use in further examining large FOQA databases for operational and safety improvements.

  1. Sequential Fuzzy Diagnosis Method for Motor Roller Bearing in Variable Operating Conditions Based on Vibration Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ke; Ping, Xueliang; Wang, Huaqing; Chen, Peng; Cao, Yi

    2013-01-01

    A novel intelligent fault diagnosis method for motor roller bearings which operate under unsteady rotating speed and load is proposed in this paper. The pseudo Wigner-Ville distribution (PWVD) and the relative crossing information (RCI) methods are used for extracting the feature spectra from the non-stationary vibration signal measured for condition diagnosis. The RCI is used to automatically extract the feature spectrum from the time-frequency distribution of the vibration signal. The extracted feature spectrum is instantaneous, and not correlated with the rotation speed and load. By using the ant colony optimization (ACO) clustering algorithm, the synthesizing symptom parameters (SSP) for condition diagnosis are obtained. The experimental results shows that the diagnostic sensitivity of the SSP is higher than original symptom parameter (SP), and the SSP can sensitively reflect the characteristics of the feature spectrum for precise condition diagnosis. Finally, a fuzzy diagnosis method based on sequential inference and possibility theory is also proposed, by which the conditions of the machine can be identified sequentially as well. PMID:23793021

  2. Atomic Resonance Radiation Energetics Investigation as a Diagnostic Method for Non-Equilibrium Hypervelocity Flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, Scott A.; Bershader, Daniel; Sharma, Surendra P.; Deiwert, George S.

    1996-01-01

    Absorption measurements with a tunable vacuum ultraviolet light source have been proposed as a concentration diagnostic for atomic oxygen, and the viability of this technique is assessed in light of recent measurements. The instrumentation, as well as initial calibration measurements, have been reported previously. We report here additional calibration measurements performed to study the resonance broadening line shape for atomic oxygen. The application of this diagnostic is evaluated by considering the range of suitable test conditions and requirements, and by identifying issues that remain to be addressed.

  3. Studies of the physical aspects of intumescence using advance diagnostics methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saeed, Hussain; Huang, Hua Wei; Zhang, Yang

    2014-04-01

    The use of intumescent paints as an active fire protection method has gained immense interest in recent years. A significant aspect of research has focused on studying the chemical aspects of the system to improve performance. The dynamics and physical aspects of intumescence in real time fire conditions are still unclear. The present research uses an experimental approach where diagnostics techniques such as thermal imaging camera was used to study intumescent characteristics that have been not been reported in great detail. T-panels are a substitute to the most commonly used part in construction, the I-beam. Studies were conducted using a cone calorimeter that provided a uniform heat flux through radiation on steel T-panel samples. The complex nature of char movement was recorded and a novel algorithm was used to track the growing char laye07r. The samples are designed to cater to different fire conditions. Therefore, the degree of intumescence was observed to be very different in the samples. The samples designed for low temperature cellulosic fires focus on high degree of intumesce. Whereas, mechanical strength is the focus for samples used in high temperature turbulent hydrocarbon fire conditions. The variation in the internal structure of the sample is presented. Furthermore, the phenomenon is phase shift is discussed. The phase shift is an essential part of the process of intumescence when the majority of intumescence occurs. It was observed to be different in all the samples. The movement of the samples is a property of great interest. This is because if any part of the substrate is exposed then the formulation does not meet strict commercialisation criterion. The movement was diagonal in nature as compared to flat panels where it is perpendicular. This is due tot the heating pattern of the plate that results in the web part of the panel to influence the growth of char on the flange part of the panel. A special case of char cracking is also highlighted and

  4. Studies of the physical aspects of intumescence using advance diagnostics methods

    SciTech Connect

    Saeed, Hussain Huang, Hua Wei Zhang, Yang

    2014-04-11

    The use of intumescent paints as an active fire protection method has gained immense interest in recent years. A significant aspect of research has focused on studying the chemical aspects of the system to improve performance. The dynamics and physical aspects of intumescence in real time fire conditions are still unclear. The present research uses an experimental approach where diagnostics techniques such as thermal imaging camera was used to study intumescent characteristics that have been not been reported in great detail. T-panels are a substitute to the most commonly used part in construction, the I-beam. Studies were conducted using a cone calorimeter that provided a uniform heat flux through radiation on steel T-panel samples. The complex nature of char movement was recorded and a novel algorithm was used to track the growing char laye07r. The samples are designed to cater to different fire conditions. Therefore, the degree of intumescence was observed to be very different in the samples. The samples designed for low temperature cellulosic fires focus on high degree of intumesce. Whereas, mechanical strength is the focus for samples used in high temperature turbulent hydrocarbon fire conditions. The variation in the internal structure of the sample is presented. Furthermore, the phenomenon is phase shift is discussed. The phase shift is an essential part of the process of intumescence when the majority of intumescence occurs. It was observed to be different in all the samples. The movement of the samples is a property of great interest. This is because if any part of the substrate is exposed then the formulation does not meet strict commercialisation criterion. The movement was diagonal in nature as compared to flat panels where it is perpendicular. This is due tot the heating pattern of the plate that results in the web part of the panel to influence the growth of char on the flange part of the panel. A special case of char cracking is also highlighted and

  5. Recursive-operator method in vibration problems for rod systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rozhkova, E. V.

    2009-12-01

    Using linear differential equations with constant coefficients describing one-dimensional dynamical processes as an example, we show that the solutions of these equations and systems are related to the solution of the corresponding numerical recursion relations and one does not have to compute the roots of the corresponding characteristic equations. The arbitrary functions occurring in the general solution of the homogeneous equations are determined by the initial and boundary conditions or are chosen from various classes of analytic functions. The solutions of the inhomogeneous equations are constructed in the form of integro-differential series acting on the right-hand side of the equation, and the coefficients of the series are determined from the same recursion relations. The convergence of formal solutions as series of a more general recursive-operator construction was proved in [1]. In the special case where the solutions of the equation can be represented in separated variables, the power series can be effectively summed, i.e., expressed in terms of elementary functions, and coincide with the known solutions. In this case, to determine the natural vibration frequencies, one obtains algebraic rather than transcendental equations, which permits exactly determining the imaginary and complex roots of these equations without using the graphic method [2, pp. 448-449]. The correctness of the obtained formulas (differentiation formulas, explicit expressions for the series coefficients, etc.) can be verified directly by appropriate substitutions; therefore, we do not prove them here.

  6. Pressurized reactor system and a method of operating the same

    DOEpatents

    Isaksson, J.M.

    1996-06-18

    A method and apparatus are provided for operating a pressurized reactor system in order to precisely control the temperature within a pressure vessel in order to minimize condensation of corrosive materials from gases on the surfaces of the pressure vessel or contained circulating fluidized bed reactor, and to prevent the temperature of the components from reaching a detrimentally high level, while at the same time allowing quick heating of the pressure vessel interior volume during start-up. Super-atmospheric pressure gas is introduced from the first conduit into the fluidized bed reactor and heat derived reactions such as combustion and gasification are maintained in the reactor. Gas is exhausted from the reactor and pressure vessel through a second conduit. Gas is circulated from one part of the inside volume to another to control the temperature of the inside volume, such as by passing the gas through an exterior conduit which has a heat exchanger, control valve, blower and compressor associated therewith, or by causing natural convection flow of circulating gas within one or more generally vertically extending gas passages entirely within the pressure vessel (and containing heat exchangers, flow rate control valves, or the like therein). Preferably, inert gas is provided as a circulating gas, and the inert gas may also be used in emergency shut-down situations. In emergency shut-down reaction gas being supplied to the reactor is cut off, while inert gas from the interior gas volume of the pressure vessel is introduced into the reactor. 2 figs.

  7. Pressurized reactor system and a method of operating the same

    DOEpatents

    Isaksson, Juhani M.

    1996-01-01

    A method and apparatus are provided for operating a pressurized reactor system in order to precisely control the temperature within a pressure vessel in order to minimize condensation of corrosive materials from gases on the surfaces of the pressure vessel or contained circulating fluidized bed reactor, and to prevent the temperature of the components from reaching a detrimentally high level, while at the same time allowing quick heating of the pressure vessel interior volume during start-up. Superatmospheric pressure gas is introduced from the first conduit into the fluidized bed reactor and heat derived reactions such as combustion and gassification are maintained in the reactor. Gas is exhausted from the reactor and pressure vessel through a second conduit. Gas is circulated from one part of the inside volume to another to control the temperature of the inside volume, such as by passing the gas through an exterior conduit which has a heat exchanger, control valve, blower and compressor associated therewith, or by causing natural convection flow of circulating gas within one or more generally vertically extending gas passages entirely within the pressure vessel (and containing heat exchangers, flow rate control valves, or the like therein). Preferably, inert gas is provided as a circulating gas, and the inert gas may also be used in emergency shut-down situations. In emergency shut-down reaction gas being supplied to the reactor is cut off, while inert gas from the interior gas volume of the pressure vessel is introduced into the reactor.

  8. Extended operator expansion method for neutrinoless double beta decay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirsch, M.; Kadowaki, O.; Klapdor-Kleingrothaus, H. V.; Muto, K.; Oda, T.

    1995-03-01

    Reliable calculations of nuclear matrix elements are a prerequisite for the determination of the effective neutrino mass and other particle physics parameters from neutrinoless double beta decay. Here, the operator expansion method is improved by including Coulomb, tensor and central interactions simultaneously. Furthermore, the formalism of the OEM is extended to those matrix elements necessary to extract the right-handed parameters < λ > and < η > from 0 νββ decay. OEM includes the dependence of the nuclear matrix elements on the intermediate states implicitly and can therefore be understood as a step beyond the closure approximation. Numerical studies are carried out for the isotope76Ge combining the OEM expressions with ground-state wave functions calculated within a proton-neutron quasiparticle Random Phase Approximation (pn-QRPA) model. The influence and relative importance of central, tensor and Coulomb interactions is investigated. Within the OEM, contributions from the Coulomb force are found to be negligible in 0 νββ decay, while the tensor force leads to a moderate change of the results, of the order of (10 30)%, giving a better agreement between sets of calculations which employ different NN-interactions. Generally, results of the OEM+QRPA calculation are similar to previous calculations of 0 νββ decay matrix elements, indicating that 0 νββ decay is not sensitive to model approximations and might therefore be more accurately calculated than the strongly suppressed 2 νββ decay matrix elements.

  9. Astrovirus Diagnostics

    PubMed Central

    Pérot, Philippe; Lecuit, Marc; Eloit, Marc

    2017-01-01

    Various methods exist to detect an astrovirus infection. Current methods include electron microscopy (EM), cell culture, immunoassays, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and various other molecular approaches that can be applied in the context of diagnostic or in surveillance studies. With the advent of metagenomics, novel human astrovirus (HAstV) strains have been found in immunocompromised individuals in association with central nervous system (CNS) infections. This work reviews the past and current methods for astrovirus detection and their uses in both research laboratories and for medical diagnostic purposes. PMID:28085120

  10. The Diagnostic Method of Inner Parts of Welded Joints at Nuclear Power Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Bednarova, O.; Janovec, J.

    2010-06-22

    There is no possibility to check any inner part at real welded joint at nuclear power station (NPS) during operation because any destructive test cannot be used. In practice there is checked surface of weld. There are used four methodical instructions for the check of real welds: 1. The visual inspection, 2. The measurement of hardness, 3. The chemical composition checking and 4. The microstructure replica analysis. It is necessary to know how these information of weld surface are in accordance with characteristics of inner parts of weld. If there is not any difference between surface weld microstructure and internal weld microstructure of experimental weld it is supposed to that there is not any difference in other measured properties of welds. If is changed structural characteristics of microstructure, it is changed also hardness, chemical analysis etc. It was observed that the microstructure of real welds is almost the same with simulated weld and also the surface microstructure of experimental weld is in accordance with microstructure of inner parts of this weld. It can be supposed extension of lifetime of NPS if there is not any difference between replicas microstructure taken after six year operation of NPS and microstructure of inner parts of simulated weld is almost the same with surface microstructure.

  11. Towards a rapid molecular diagnostic for melioidosis: comparison of DNA extraction methods from clinical specimens

    PubMed Central

    Richardson, Leisha J; Kaestli, Mirjam; Mayo, Mark; Bowers, Jolene R; Tuanyok, Apichai; Schupp, Jim; Engelthaler, David; Wagner, David M; Keim, Paul S; Currie, Bart J

    2011-01-01

    Optimising DNA extraction from clinical samples for Burkholderia pseudomallei Type III secretion system real-time PCR in suspected melioidosis patients confirmed that urine and sputum are useful diagnostic samples. Direct testing on blood remains problematic; testing DNA extracted from plasma was superior to DNA from whole blood or buffy coat. PMID:22108495

  12. Personality Assessment in the Diagnostic Manuals: On Mindfulness, Multiple Methods, and Test Score Discontinuities.

    PubMed

    Bornstein, Robert F

    2015-01-01

    Recent controversies have illuminated the strengths and limitations of different frameworks for conceptualizing personality pathology (e.g., trait perspectives, categorical models), and stimulated debate regarding how best to diagnose personality disorders (PDs) in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th ed.), and in other diagnostic systems (i.e., the International Classification of Diseases, the Psychodynamic Diagnostic Manual). In this article I argue that regardless of how PDs are conceptualized and which diagnostic system is employed, multimethod assessment must play a central role in PD diagnosis. By complementing self-reports with evidence from other domains (e.g., performance-based tests), a broader range of psychological processes are engaged in the patient, and the impact of self-perception and self-presentation biases can be better understood. By providing the assessor with evidence drawn from multiple modalities, some of which provide converging patterns and some of which yield divergent results, a multimethod assessment compels the assessor to engage this evidence more deeply. The mindful processing that ensues can help minimize the deleterious impact of naturally occurring information processing bias and distortion on the part of the clinician (e.g., heuristics, attribution errors), bringing greater clarity to the synthesis and integration of assessment data.

  13. Diagnostic methods for mastitis in cows are not appropriate for use in humans: commentary.

    PubMed

    Kvist, Linda J

    2016-01-01

    Healthcare workers are now being targeted for marketing of diagnostic tools for mastitis that were developed for the dairy industry and which aim to provide information regarding choice of antibiotic treatment. Meanwhile, scientists are striving to understand how the human microbiome affects health and wellbeing and the importance of maintenance of bacterial balance in the human body. Breast milk supplies a multitude of bacteria to populate the baby's intestinal tract and kick-start the immune system. Researchers propose a paradigm shift in the understanding of bacterial content in breast milk and an alternative paradigm for the understanding of lactational mastitis: there is the beginning of evidence that many cases of lactational mastitis will resolve spontaneously. An international group of researchers is attempting to answer how dietary habits, birth mode, genetics and environmental factors may impact the bacterial content of breast milk. Until we have more comprehensive knowledge about the human milk microbiome, diagnostic aids for identification of women in need of antibiotic therapy for mastitis remain unreliable. Diagnostic aids could lead to the injudicious use of antibiotic therapy, which in turn may rob the infant of bacteria valuable for development of its immune system. The marketing of diagnostic aids for use in human medicine, that were originally developed for use in cows, is neither evidence-based nor good ethical practice.

  14. Mutual Information Item Selection Method in Cognitive Diagnostic Computerized Adaptive Testing with Short Test Length

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Chun

    2013-01-01

    Cognitive diagnostic computerized adaptive testing (CD-CAT) purports to combine the strengths of both CAT and cognitive diagnosis. Cognitive diagnosis models aim at classifying examinees into the correct mastery profile group so as to pinpoint the strengths and weakness of each examinee whereas CAT algorithms choose items to determine those…

  15. Multi-Reader Multi-Case Studies Using the Area under the Receiver Operator Characteristic Curve as a Measure of Diagnostic Accuracy: Systematic Review with a Focus on Quality of Data Reporting

    PubMed Central

    Dendumrongsup, Thaworn; Plumb, Andrew A.; Halligan, Steve; Fanshawe, Thomas R.; Altman, Douglas G.; Mallett, Susan

    2014-01-01

    Introduction We examined the design, analysis and reporting in multi-reader multi-case (MRMC) research studies using the area under the receiver-operating curve (ROC AUC) as a measure of diagnostic performance. Methods We performed a systematic literature review from 2005 to 2013 inclusive to identify a minimum 50 studies. Articles of diagnostic test accuracy in humans were identified via their citation of key methodological articles dealing with MRMC ROC AUC. Two researchers in consensus then extracted information from primary articles relating to study characteristics and design, methods for reporting study outcomes, model fitting, model assumptions, presentation of results, and interpretation of findings. Results were summarized and presented with a descriptive analysis. Results Sixty-four full papers were retrieved from 475 identified citations and ultimately 49 articles describing 51 studies were reviewed and extracted. Radiological imaging was the index test in all. Most studies focused on lesion detection vs. characterization and used less than 10 readers. Only 6 (12%) studies trained readers in advance to use the confidence scale used to build the ROC curve. Overall, description of confidence scores, the ROC curve and its analysis was often incomplete. For example, 21 (41%) studies presented no ROC curve and only 3 (6%) described the distribution of confidence scores. Of 30 studies presenting curves, only 4 (13%) presented the data points underlying the curve, thereby allowing assessment of extrapolation. The mean change in AUC was 0.05 (−0.05 to 0.28). Non-significant change in AUC was attributed to underpowering rather than the diagnostic test failing to improve diagnostic accuracy. Conclusions Data reporting in MRMC studies using ROC AUC as an outcome measure is frequently incomplete, hampering understanding of methods and the reliability of results and study conclusions. Authors using this analysis should be encouraged to provide a full description of

  16. Design and operation of the pellet charge exchange diagnostic for measurement of energetic confined α particles and tritons on the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medley, S. S.; Mansfield, D. K.; Roquemore, A. L.; Fisher, R. K.; Duong, H. H.; McChesney, J. M.; Parks, P. B.; Petrov, M. P.; Khudoleev, A. V.; Gorelenkov, N. N.

    1996-09-01

    Radially resolved energy and density distributions of the confined α particles in D-T experiments on the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) are being measured with the pellet charge exchange (PCX) diagnostic. Other energetic ion species can be detected as well, such as tritons produced in D-D plasmas and H, He3, or tritium rf-driven minority ion tails. The ablation cloud formed by injected low-Z impurity pellets provides the neutralization target for this active charge exchange technique. Because the cloud neutralization efficiency is uncertain, the PCX diagnostic is not absolutely calibrated so only relative density profiles are obtained. A mass and energy resolving E∥B neutral particle analyzer (NPA) is used which has eight energy channels covering the energy range of 0.3-3.7 MeV for α particles with energy resolution ranging from 5.8% to 11.3% and a spatial resolution of ˜5 cm. The PCX diagnostic views deeply trapped ions in a narrow pitch angle range around a mean value of v∥/v=-0.048±10-3. For D-T operation, the NPA was shielded by a polyethylene-lead enclosure providing 100× attenuation of ambient γ radiation and 14 MeV neutrons. The PCX diagnostic technique and its application on TFTR are described in detail.

  17. Diagnostic Accuracy of the Child Behavior Checklist Scales for Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: A Receiver-Operating Characteristic Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Wei J.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Examined diagnostic accuracy of Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) scales for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Estimated 3 logistic regression models in 121 children with and without ADHD, then tested models in cross-validation sample (n=122) and among 219 siblings of samples. In all four groups, CBCL Attention Problems scale had…

  18. Memory alloy heat engine and method of operation

    DOEpatents

    Johnson, Alfred Davis

    1977-01-01

    A heat engine and method of operation employing an alloy having a shape memory effect. A memory alloy element such as one or more wire loops are cyclically moved through a heat source, along a path toward a heat sink, through the heat sink and then along another path in counter-flow heat exchange relationship with the wire in the first path. The portion of the wire along the first path is caused to elongate to its trained length under minimum tension as it is cooled. The portion of the wire along the second path is caused to contract under maximum tension as it is heated. The resultant tension differential between the wires in the two paths is applied as a force through a distance to produce mechanical work. In one embodiment a first set of endless memory alloy wires are reeved in non-slip engagement between a pair of pulleys which are mounted for conjoint rotation within respective hot and cold reservoirs. Another set of endless memory alloy wires are reeved in non-slip engagement about another pair of pulleys which are mounted in the respective hot and cold reservoirs. The pulleys in the cold reservoir are of a larger diameter than those in the hot reservoir and the opposite reaches of the wires between the two sets of pulleys extend in closely spaced-apart relationship in counter-flow heat regenerator zones. The pulleys are turned to move the two sets of wires in opposite directions. The wires are stretched as they are cooled upon movement through the heat regenerator toward the cold reservoirs, and the wires contract as they are heated upon movement through the regenerator zones toward the hot reservoir. This contraction of wires exerts a larger torque on the greater diameter pulleys for turning the pulleys and supplying mechanical power. Means is provided for applying a variable tension to the wires. Phase change means is provided for controlling the angular phase of the pulleys of each set for purposes of start up procedure as well as for optimizing engine

  19. Tools for Evaluating Fault Detection and Diagnostic Methods for HVAC Secondary Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pourarian, Shokouh

    Although modern buildings are using increasingly sophisticated energy management and control systems that have tremendous control and monitoring capabilities, building systems routinely fail to perform as designed. More advanced building control, operation, and automated fault detection and diagnosis (AFDD) technologies are needed to achieve the goal of net-zero energy commercial buildings. Much effort has been devoted to develop such technologies for primary heating ventilating and air conditioning (HVAC) systems, and some secondary systems. However, secondary systems, such as fan coil units and dual duct systems, although widely used in commercial, industrial, and multifamily residential buildings, have received very little attention. This research study aims at developing tools that could provide simulation capabilities to develop and evaluate advanced control, operation, and AFDD technologies for these less studied secondary systems. In this study, HVACSIM+ is selected as the simulation environment. Besides developing dynamic models for the above-mentioned secondary systems, two other issues related to the HVACSIM+ environment are also investigated. One issue is the nonlinear equation solver used in HVACSIM+ (Powell's Hybrid method in subroutine SNSQ). It has been found from several previous research projects (ASRHAE RP 825 and 1312) that SNSQ is especially unstable at the beginning of a simulation and sometimes unable to converge to a solution. Another issue is related to the zone model in the HVACSIM+ library of components. Dynamic simulation of secondary HVAC systems unavoidably requires an interacting zone model which is systematically and dynamically interacting with building surrounding. Therefore, the accuracy and reliability of the building zone model affects operational data generated by the developed dynamic tool to predict HVAC secondary systems function. The available model does not simulate the impact of direct solar radiation that enters a zone

  20. Physics-Based Methods of Failure Analysis and Diagnostics in Human Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smelyanskiy, Vadim N.; Luchinsky, Dmitry Georgievich; Hafiychuk, Vasyl Nmn; Osipov, Viatcheslav V.; Patterson-Hine, F. Ann

    2010-01-01

    The Integrated Health Management (IHM) for the future aerospace systems requires to interface models of multiple subsystems in an efficient and accurate information environment at the earlier stages of system design. The complexity of modern aeronautic and aircraft systems (including e.g. the power distribution, flight control, solid and liquid motors) dictates employment of hybrid models and high-level reasoners for analysing mixed continuous and discrete information flow involving multiple modes of operation in uncertain environments, unknown state variables, heterogeneous software and hardware components. To provide the information link between key design/performance parameters and high-level reasoners we rely on development of multi-physics performance models, distributed sensors networks, and fault diagnostic and prognostic (FD&P) technologies in close collaboration with system designers. The main challenges of our research are related to the in-flight assessment of the structural stability, engine performance, and trajectory control. The main goal is to develop an intelligent IHM that not only enhances components and system reliability, but also provides a post-flight feedback helping to optimize design of the next generation of aerospace systems. Our efforts are concentrated on several directions of the research. One of the key components of our strategy is an innovative approach to the diagnostics/prognostics based on the real time dynamical inference (DI) technologies extended to encompass hybrid systems with hidden state trajectories. The major investments are into the multiphysics performance modelling that provides an access of the FD&P technologies to the main performance parameters of e.g. solid and liquid rocket motors and composite materials of the nozzle and case. Some of the recent results of our research are discussed in this chapter. We begin by introducing the problem of dynamical inference of stochastic nonlinear models and reviewing earlier

  1. Ischemic Stroke Detection System with a Computer-Aided Diagnostic Ability Using an Unsupervised Feature Perception Enhancement Method

    PubMed Central

    Tyan, Yeu-Sheng; Wu, Ming-Chi; Chin, Chiun-Li; Kuo, Yu-Liang; Lee, Ming-Sian; Chang, Hao-Yan

    2014-01-01

    We propose an ischemic stroke detection system with a computer-aided diagnostic ability using a four-step unsupervised feature perception enhancement method. In the first step, known as preprocessing, we use a cubic curve contrast enhancement method to enhance image contrast. In the second step, we use a series of methods to extract the brain tissue image area identified during preprocessing. To detect abnormal regions in the brain images, we propose using an unsupervised region growing algorithm to segment the brain tissue area. The brain is centered on a horizontal line and the white matter of the brain's inner ring is split into eight regions. In the third step, we use a coinciding regional location method to find the hybrid area of locations where a stroke may have occurred in each cerebral hemisphere. Finally, we make corrections and mark the stroke area with red color. In the experiment, we tested the system on 90 computed tomography (CT) images from 26 patients, and, with the assistance of two radiologists, we proved that our proposed system has computer-aided diagnostic capabilities. Our results show an increased stroke diagnosis sensitivity of 83% in comparison to 31% when radiologists use conventional diagnostic images. PMID:25610453

  2. Ischemic stroke detection system with a computer-aided diagnostic ability using an unsupervised feature perception enhancement method.

    PubMed

    Tyan, Yeu-Sheng; Wu, Ming-Chi; Chin, Chiun-Li; Kuo, Yu-Liang; Lee, Ming-Sian; Chang, Hao-Yan

    2014-01-01

    We propose an ischemic stroke detection system with a computer-aided diagnostic ability using a four-step unsupervised feature perception enhancement method. In the first step, known as preprocessing, we use a cubic curve contrast enhancement method to enhance image contrast. In the second step, we use a series of methods to extract the brain tissue image area identified during preprocessing. To detect abnormal regions in the brain images, we propose using an unsupervised region growing algorithm to segment the brain tissue area. The brain is centered on a horizontal line and the white matter of the brain's inner ring is split into eight regions. In the third step, we use a coinciding regional location method to find the hybrid area of locations where a stroke may have occurred in each cerebral hemisphere. Finally, we make corrections and mark the stroke area with red color. In the experiment, we tested the system on 90 computed tomography (CT) images from 26 patients, and, with the assistance of two radiologists, we proved that our proposed system has computer-aided diagnostic capabilities. Our results show an increased stroke diagnosis sensitivity of 83% in comparison to 31% when radiologists use conventional diagnostic images.

  3. Apparatus and method for grounding compressed fuel fueling operator

    DOEpatents

    Cohen, Joseph Perry; Farese, David John; Xu, Jianguo

    2002-06-11

    A safety system for grounding an operator at a fueling station prior to removing a fuel fill nozzle from a fuel tank upon completion of a fuel filling operation is provided which includes a fuel tank port in communication with the fuel tank for receiving and retaining the nozzle during the fuel filling operation and a grounding device adjacent to the fuel tank port which includes a grounding switch having a contact member that receives physical contact by the operator and where physical contact of the contact member activates the grounding switch. A releasable interlock is included that provides a lock position wherein the nozzle is locked into the port upon insertion of the nozzle into the port and a release position wherein the nozzle is releasable from the port upon completion of the fuel filling operation and after physical contact of the contact member is accomplished.

  4. The development of malaria diagnostic techniques: a review of the approaches with focus on dielectrophoretic and magnetophoretic methods.

    PubMed

    Kasetsirikul, Surasak; Buranapong, Jirayut; Srituravanich, Werayut; Kaewthamasorn, Morakot; Pimpin, Alongkorn

    2016-07-12

    The large number of deaths caused by malaria each year has increased interest in the development of effective malaria diagnoses. At the early-stage of infection, patients show non-specific symptoms or are asymptomatic, which makes it difficult for clinical diagnosis, especially in non-endemic areas. Alternative diagnostic methods that are timely and effective are required to identify infections, particularly in field settings. This article reviews conventional malaria diagnostic methods together with recently developed techniques for both malaria detection and infected erythrocyte separation. Although many alternative techniques have recently been proposed and studied, dielectrophoretic and magnetophoretic approaches are among the promising new techniques due to their high specificity for malaria parasite-infected red blood cells. The two approaches are discussed in detail, including their principles, types, applications and limitations. In addition, other recently developed techniques, such as cell deformability and morphology, are also overviewed in this article.

  5. Methods of optical diagnostics of electron-positron beams and interaction between plasma and high-current electron beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vyacheslavov, L. N.; Ivantsivskii, M. V.; Meshkov, O. I.; Popov, S. S.; Smaluk, V. V.

    2012-03-01

    Optical diagnostics is widely used, both in plasma-physics experiments and in measuring parameters of electron and positron beams in accelerators. In doing so, the approaches with the same methodological base are often applied, which is explained by similarity of certain properties of objects under study despite the fact that these fields of physics are absolutely specific and require using the specialized techniques. The possibility of close contacts and cooperation among scientists concerned with similar problems in different fields of physics contributes to the fruitful exchange of ideas and helps to overcome these problems. It is especially characteristic of the Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, Siberian Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences, which is famous for pioneering works in the field of electron-positron colliders and controlled thermonuclear fusion. The first part of this paper presents a review of optical diagnostics of the stationary beam parameters in cyclic accelerators of electrons and positrons. The only techniques considered are those that became the recognized tools at colliders and storage rings of the latest generation, without which the routine operation of the facility is difficult to imagine. The second part of the paper describes optical diagnostics used in experiments of heating the plasma by a high-current electron beam.

  6. Model-based performance monitoring: Review of diagnostic methods and chiller case study

    SciTech Connect

    Haves, Phil; Khalsa, Sat Kartar

    2000-05-01

    The paper commences by reviewing the variety of technical approaches to the problem of detecting and diagnosing faulty operation in order to improve the actual performance of buildings. The review covers manual and automated methods, active testing and passive monitoring, the different classes of models used in fault detection, and methods of diagnosis. The process of model-based fault detection is then illustrated by describing the use of relatively simple empirical models of chiller energy performance to monitor equipment degradation and control problems. The CoolTools(trademark) chiller model identification package is used to fit the DOE-2 chiller model to on-site measurements from a building instrumented with high quality sensors. The need for simple algorithms to reject transient data, detect power surges and identify control problems is discussed, as is the use of energy balance checks to detect sensor problems. The accuracy with which the chiller model can be expected! to predict performance is assessed from the goodness of fit obtained and the implications for fault detection sensitivity and sensor accuracy requirements are discussed. A case study is described in which the model was applied retroactively to high-quality data collected in a San Francisco office building as part of a related project (Piette et al. 1999).

  7. Diagnostic methods current best practices and guidelines for histologic evaluation in infective endocarditis.

    PubMed

    Lepidi, Hubert; Durack, David T; Raoult, Didier

    2002-06-01

    Infective endocarditis (IE) often presents diagnostic and therapeutic challenges and continues to cause high morbidity and mortality. Confirmation of the diagnosis of IE is important for the purposes of epidemiologic and clinical studies and is crucial for patient management. Despite recent advances in diagnostic techniques, about 10% of IE cases remain culture-negative. Because pathological examination of cardiac valves to demonstrate vegetations and valvular inflammation remains the gold standard for the diagnosis of IE, the role of the pathologist is often decisive, especially when bacteriologists fail to isolate a microorganism or when a microorganism that has been isolated may be a contaminant. Furthermore, the pathologist may play an important role in identification of previously unknown infectious agents.

  8. Raman spectroscopy of saliva as a perspective method for periodontitis diagnostics Raman spectroscopy of saliva

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonchukov, S.; Sukhinina, A.; Bakhmutov, D.; Minaeva, S.

    2012-01-01

    In view of its potential for biological tissues analyses at a molecular level, Raman spectroscopy in optical range has been the object of biomedical research for the last years. The main aim of this work is the development of Raman spectroscopy for organic content identifying and determination of biomarkers of saliva at a molecular level for periodontitis diagnostics. Four spectral regions were determined: 1155 and 1525 cm-1, 1033 and 1611 cm-1, which can be used as biomarkers of this widespread disease.

  9. Survey of methods for improving operator acceptance of computerized aids

    SciTech Connect

    Frey, P. R.; Kisner, R. A.

    1982-04-01

    The success of current attempts to improve the operational performance and safety of nuclear power plants by installing computerized operational aids in the control rooms is dependent, in part, on the operator's attitude toward the aid. Utility experience with process computer systems indicates that problems may already exist with operator acceptance of computerized aids. The growth of the role that computers have in nuclear power plants makes user acceptance of computer technology an important issue for the nuclear industry. The purpose of this report is to draw from the literature factors related to user acceptance of computerized equipment that may also be applicable to the acceptance of computerized aids used in the nuclear power plant control room.

  10. Classification and uptake of reservoir operation optimization methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobson, Barnaby; Pianosi, Francesca; Wagener, Thorsten

    2016-04-01

    Reservoir operation optimization algorithms aim to improve the quality of reservoir release and transfer decisions. They achieve this by creating and optimizing the reservoir operating policy; a function that returns decisions based on the current system state. A range of mathematical optimization algorithms and techniques has been applied to the reservoir operation problem of policy optimization. In this work, we propose a classification of reservoir optimization approaches by focusing on the formulation of the water management problem rather than the optimization algorithm type. We believe that decision makers and operators will find it easier to navigate a classification system based on the problem characteristics, something they can clearly define, rather than the optimization algorithm. Part of this study includes an investigation regarding the extent of algorithm uptake and the possible reasons that limit real world application.

  11. A REFINED QSO SELECTION METHOD USING DIAGNOSTICS TESTS: 663 QSO CANDIDATES IN THE LARGE MAGELLANIC CLOUD

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Dae-Won; Protopapas, Pavlos; Trichas, Markos; Alcock, Charles; Rowan-Robinson, Michael; Khardon, Roni; Byun, Yong-Ik

    2012-03-10

    We present 663 QSO candidates in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) selected using multiple diagnostics. We started with a set of 2566 QSO candidates selected using the methodology presented in our previous work based on time variability of the MACHO LMC light curves. We then obtained additional information for the candidates by crossmatching them with the Spitzer SAGE, the Two Micron All Sky Survey, the Chandra, the XMM, and an LMC UBVI catalog. Using this information, we specified six diagnostic features based on mid-IR colors, photometric redshifts using spectral energy distribution template fitting, and X-ray luminosities in order to further discriminate high-confidence QSO candidates in the absence of spectra information. We then trained a one-class Support Vector Machine model using the diagnostics features of the confirmed 58 MACHO QSOs. We applied the trained model to the original candidates and finally selected 663 high-confidence QSO candidates. Furthermore, we crossmatched these 663 QSO candidates with the newly confirmed 151 QSOs and 275 non-QSOs in the LMC fields. On the basis of the counterpart analysis, we found that the false positive rate is less than 1%.

  12. Quench monitoring and control system and method of operating same

    DOEpatents

    Ryan, David Thomas; Laskaris, Evangelos Trifon; Huang, Xianrui

    2006-05-30

    A rotating machine comprising a superconductive coil and a temperature sensor operable to provide a signal representative of superconductive coil temperature. The rotating machine may comprise a control system communicatively coupled to the temperature sensor. The control system may be operable to reduce electric current in the superconductive coil when a signal representative of a defined superconducting coil temperature is received from the temperature sensor.

  13. Diagnostic tolerance for missing sensor data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scarl, Ethan A.

    1989-01-01

    For practical automated diagnostic systems to continue functioning after failure, they must not only be able to diagnose sensor failures but also be able to tolerate the absence of data from the faulty sensors. It is shown that conventional (associational) diagnostic methods will have combinatoric problems when trying to isolate faulty sensors, even if they adequately diagnose other components. Moreover, attempts to extend the operation of diagnostic capability past sensor failure will necessarily compound those difficulties. Model-based reasoning offers a structured alternative that has no special problems diagnosing faulty sensors and can operate gracefully when sensor data is missing.

  14. Update on diabetes diagnosis: a historical review of the dilemma of the diagnostic utility of glycohemoglobin A1c and a proposal for a combined glucose-A1c diagnostic method.

    PubMed

    Aldasouqi, Saleh A; Gossain, Ved V

    2012-01-01

    The role of glycohemoglobin A1c (A1c) for the diagnosis of diabetes has been debated for over three decades. Recently, the American Diabetes Association (ADA) has recommended adding A1c as an additional criterion for diabetes diagnosis. In view of the continued debate about the diagnostic utility of A1c, and in view of the unabated burden of undiagnosed diabetes, the search for alternative diagnostic methods is discussed. A historical literature review is provided, in view of the new ADA diagnostic guidelines, and a proposal is provided for combining A1c and a glucose measurement as a diagnostic alternative/adjunct to the use of a single criterion. This proposal is based on the non-overlapping of the advantages and disadvantages of these individual tests. The cost-effectiveness of this method remains to be tested.

  15. Diagnostics for ITER

    SciTech Connect

    Donne, A. J. H.; Hellermann, M. G. von; Barnsley, R.

    2008-10-22

    After an introduction into the specific challenges in the field of diagnostics for ITER (specifically high level of nuclear radiation, long pulses, high fluxes of particles to plasma facing components, need for reliability and robustness), an overview will be given of the spectroscopic diagnostics foreseen for ITER. The paper will describe both active neutral-beam based diagnostics as well as passive spectroscopic diagnostics operating in the visible, ultra-violet and x-ray spectral regions.

  16. Investigating the Nature of and Methods for Managing Metroplex Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atkins, Stephen; Capozzi, Brian; Hinkey, Jim; Idris, Husni; Kaiser, Kent

    2011-01-01

    A combination of traffic demand growth, Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) technologies and operational concepts, and increased utilization of regional airports is expected to increase the occurrence and severity of coupling between operations at proximate airports. These metroplex phenomena constrain the efficiency and/or capacity of airport operations and, in NextGen, have the potential to reduce safety and prevent environmental benefits. Without understanding the nature of metroplexes and developing solutions that provide efficient coordination of operations between closely-spaced airports, the use of NextGen technologies and distribution of demand to regional airports may provide little increase in the overall metroplex capacity. However, the characteristics and control of metroplex operations have not received significant study. This project advanced the state of knowledge about metroplexes by completing three objectives: 1. developed a foundational understand of the nature of metroplexes; 2. provided a framework for discussing metroplexes; 3. suggested and studied an approach for optimally managing metroplexes that is consistent with other NextGen concepts

  17. [Rapid methods for the diagnostic of food-borne infections determined by bacteria pertaining to genus Salmonella].

    PubMed

    Năşcuţiu, Alexandra-Maria

    2011-01-01

    For a long period of time, microbiological analysis of samples gathered from individuals, food and environment was based on culture techniques which were considered "gold standard". These conventional methods are yet time-consuming (with respect to germ identification and characterization), cumulative costs are huge, which made research focus on obtaining methods with a rapidity / cost ratio higher than that of classical methods. Rapid diagnostic became as well a priority in the case of food-borne diseases determined by Salmonella spp. These methods of rapid diagnostic are based on phenotypic or molecular techniques for identification and typing, as well as on tests using biosensors and DNA chips, which are under development, and which use the capacity of real-time monitoring of the presence of multiple pathogens in food. With the continuous development of new molecular technologies allowing the rapid detection of food pathogens, the future of conventional microbiological methods looks rather insecure, the more so as there is continuous interest in improving the performances of genotypic methods regarding easy handling, reliability and low costs. The work reviews the panoply of Salmonella identification and typing tests available in the present.

  18. System and method of operating toroidal magnetic confinement devices

    DOEpatents

    Chance, Morrell S.; Jardin, Stephen C.; Stix, Thomas H.; Grimm, deceased, Ray C.; Manickam, Janardhan; Okabayashi, Michio

    1987-01-01

    For toroidal magnetic confinement devices the second region of stability against ballooning modes can be accessed with controlled operation. Under certain modes of operation, the first and second stability regions may be joined together. Accessing the second region of stability is accomplished by forming a bean-shaped plasma and increasing the indentation until a critical value of indentation is reached. A pusher coil, located at the inner-major-radius side of the device, is engaged to form a bean-shaped poloidal cross-section in the plasma.

  19. System and method of vehicle operating condition management

    DOEpatents

    Sujan, Vivek A.; Vajapeyazula, Phani; Follen, Kenneth; Wu, An; Moffett, Barty L.

    2015-10-20

    A vehicle operating condition profile can be determined over a given route while also considering imposed constraints such as deviation from time targets, deviation from maximum governed speed limits, etc. Given current vehicle speed, engine state and transmission state, the present disclosure optimally manages the engine map and transmission to provide a recommended vehicle operating condition that optimizes fuel consumption in transitioning from one vehicle state to a target state. Exemplary embodiments provide for offline and online optimizations relative to fuel consumption. The benefit is increased freight efficiency in transporting cargo from source to destination by minimizing fuel consumption and maintaining drivability.

  20. A method to diagnose opioid dependence resulting from heroin versus prescription opioids using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview.

    PubMed

    Potter, Jennifer S; Prather, Kristi; Kropp, Frankie; Byrne, Mimmie; Sullivan, C Rollynn; Mohamedi, Nadia; Copersino, Marc L; Weiss, Roger D

    2010-03-01

    Treatment research with opioid-dependent populations has not traditionally distinguished between those dependent on prescription opioids versus dependent upon heroin. Evidence suggests there is a substantial subpopulation of individuals with opioid dependence resulting largely or exclusively from prescription opioid use. Because this subpopulation may respond to treatment differently from heroin users, a method for discriminating DSM-IV opioid dependence due to prescription opioid use would provide more precision when examining this population. This paper describes an innovative method using a currently available diagnostic instrument, to diagnose DSM-IV opioid dependence and distinguish between dependence resulting from prescription opioids versus dependence upon heroin.

  1. Diagnostic validation of three test methods for detection of cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (CyHV-3).

    PubMed

    Clouthier, Sharon C; McClure, Carol; Schroeder, Tamara; Desai, Megan; Hawley, Laura; Khatkar, Sunita; Lindsay, Melissa; Lowe, Geoff; Richard, Jon; Anderson, Eric D

    2017-03-06

    Cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (CyHV-3) is the aetiological agent of koi herpesvirus disease in koi and common carp. The disease is notifiable to the World Organisation for Animal Health. Three tests-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), conventional PCR (cPCR) and virus isolation by cell culture (VI)-were validated to assess their fitness as diagnostic tools for detection of CyHV-3. Test performance metrics of diagnostic accuracy were sensitivity (DSe) and specificity (DSp). Repeatability and reproducibility were measured to assess diagnostic precision. Estimates of test accuracy, in the absence of a gold standard reference test, were generated using latent class models. Test samples originated from wild common carp naturally exposed to CyHV-3 or domesticated koi either virus free or experimentally infected with the virus. Three laboratories in Canada participated in the precision study. Moderate to high repeatability (81 to 99%) and reproducibility (72 to 97%) were observed for the qPCR and cPCR tests. The lack of agreement observed between some of the PCR test pair results was attributed to cross-contamination of samples with CyHV-3 nucleic acid. Accuracy estimates for the PCR tests were 99% for DSe and 93% for DSp. Poor precision was observed for the VI test (4 to 95%). Accuracy estimates for VI/qPCR were 90% for DSe and 88% for DSp. Collectively, the results show that the CyHV-3 qPCR test is a suitable tool for surveillance, presumptive diagnosis and certification of individuals or populations as CyHV-3 free.

  2. Application Research of Two Real-Time Fault Diagnostic Methods in the Nuclear Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Chun-Li Xie; Yong-Kuo Liu; Hong Xia

    2006-07-01

    In order to guarantee the safety of nuclear power plants (NPP), we built two real-time fault diagnosis systems adopting VISUAL BAS6.0 programming language, which apply neural network technology and data fusion technology respectively. The fault diagnosis systems interchange data with the simulator timely utilizing communication interface. We insert faults on simulator to test the two systems on line. The advantages and disadvantages are illuminated and contrasted through analyzing the faults diagnostic results off- line, which establish the foundation for the further research and application to the fault diagnosis system of the nuclear power plants. (authors)

  3. Implementation of inverse calculation method in diagnostics of digital electric substations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oganyan, R. G.; Narakidze, N. D.; Shaykhutdinov, D. V.; Gorbatenko, N. I.; Maksuta, S. O.

    2017-02-01

    Diagnostics of the equipment of a substation is an important element of effective work of the machine-building industry in view of the fact that engineering plants need continuous and high-quality power supply. The article presents the solution for the accelerated analysis of the complex technical system equipment condition by the example of a digital substation. It is based on Boolean algebra and logic-numerical polynomic models. This approach can be applied to state estimation of the power equipment and digital devices of the substation.

  4. Genetic mutation underlying orthostatic intolerance and diagnostic and therapeutic methods relating thereto

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robertson, David (Inventor); Blakely, Randy D. (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    Isolated polynucleotide molecules and peptides encoded by these molecules are used in the analysis of human norepinephrine (NE) transporter variants, as well as in diagnostic and therapeutic applications, relating to a human NE transporter polymorphism. By analyzing genomic DNA or amplified genomic DNA, or amplified cDNA derived from mRNA, it is possible to type a human NE transporter with regard to the human NE transporter polymorphism, for example, in the context of diagnosing and treating NE transport impairments, and disorders associated with NE transport impairments, such as orthostatic intolerance.

  5. The Brief Introduction of Different Laser Diagnostics Methods Used in Aero-Engine Combustion Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xing, Fei; Song, Ge; Ruan, Can; Zhao, Jian; Yang, Yongjun

    2016-06-01

    Combustion test diagnose has always been one of the most important technologies for the development of aerospace engineering. Laser diagnostics techniques developed quickly in the past several years. They are used to measure the parameters of the combustion flow field such as velocity, temperature, components concentration with high space and time resolution and brought no disturbance. Planar Laser-Induced Fluorescence, Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Scattering, Tunable Diode Laser Absorption Spectroscopy and Raman Scattering were introduced systemically in this paper. After analysis their own advantages and disadvantages, it is believed that Raman Scattering system is more suitable for research activities on aero-engine combustion systems.

  6. ORF virus infection in children: clinical characteristics, transmission, diagnostic methods, and future therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Lederman, Edith R; Austin, Connie; Trevino, Ingrid; Reynolds, Mary G; Swanson, Holly; Cherry, Bryan; Ragsdale, Jennifer; Dunn, John; Meidl, Susan; Zhao, Hui; Li, Yu; Pue, Howard; Damon, Inger K

    2007-08-01

    Orf virus leads to self-limited, subacute cutaneous infections in children who have occupational or recreational contact with infected small ruminants. Breaches in the integument and contact with animals recently vaccinated for orf may be important risk factors in transmission. Common childhood behaviors are likely important factors in the provocation of significant contact (ie, bites) or in unusual lesion location (eg, facial lesions). Clinician recognition is important in distinguishing orf infection from life-threatening cutaneous zoonoses. Recently developed molecular techniques provide diagnostic precision and newer topical therapeutics may hasten healing.

  7. Operational Evaluation of the Rapid Viability PCR Method for ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Journal Article This research work has a significant impact on the use of the RV-PCR method to analyze post-decontamination environmental samples during an anthrax event. The method has shown 98% agreement with the traditional culture based method. With such a success, this method, upon validation, will significantly increase the laboratory throughput/capacity to analyze a large number of anthrax event samples in a relatively short time.

  8. The use of CA-IX as a diagnostic method for oral leukoplakia.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Sayáns, M; Suárez-Peñaranda, J M; Torres-López, M; Supuran, C T; Gándara-Vila, P; Gayoso-Diz, P; Barros-Angueira, F; Gallas-Torreira, M; García-García, A

    2015-02-01

    The presence and degree of dysplasia are important diagnostic and prognostic criteria for oral leukoplakia, but evaluation of dysplasia is difficult and subjective. Carbonic anhydrase-IX (CA-IX) is expressed primarily in tumor cells and is considered a specific hypoxia marker. We investigated the role of CA-IX in oral leukoplakia. We investigated 30 specimens of oral leukoplakia and 35 dysplasia specimens adjacent to the tumor margin. We analyzed clinical variables including age, sex, degree of dysplasia, and smoking, clinical appearance of leukoplakia, number of lesions, location, size, clinical monitoring, malignant transformation and recurrence. For the immunohistochemical study, we used a noncommercial monoclonal antibody against human CA-IX MAb M75. We found greater CA-IX positivity in nonsmokers, erythroplakia and mottled leukoplakia, those located on the tongue, patients with multiple lesions, 2-4 cm leukoplakias and in recurrent cases, although differences were not statistically significant. All lesions in all samples without dysplasia were negative for CA-IX; however, for all other categories of dysplasia, the percentages of positivity and negativity varied. Regarding the diagnostic index values, we found a sensitivity of 32%, specificity of 100%, a positive predictive value of 100% and a negative predictive value of 13%. Leukoplakias appear mainly in females and potentially are malignant; more than 90% have some degree of dysplasia, and therefore require close clinical and histopathological monitoring. The CA-IX immunohistochemical marker may be useful for screening samples without dysplasia owing to its high specificity.

  9. Space ultra-vacuum facility and method of operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Naumann, Robert J. (Inventor)

    1988-01-01

    A wake shield space processing facility (10) for maintaining ultra-high levels of vacuum is described. The wake shield (12) is a truncated hemispherical section having a convex side (14) and a concave side (24). Material samples (68) to be processed are located on the convex side of the shield, which faces in the wake direction in operation in orbit. Necessary processing fixtures (20) and (22) are also located on the convex side. Support equipment including power supplies (40, 42), CMG package (46) and electronic control package (44) are located on the convex side (24) of the shield facing the ram direction. Prior to operation in orbit the wake shield is oriented in reverse with the convex side facing the ram direction to provide cleaning by exposure to ambient atomic oxygen. The shield is then baked-out by being pointed directed at the sun to obtain heating for a suitable period.

  10. Cold weather hydrogen generation system and method of operation

    DOEpatents

    Dreier, Ken Wayne; Kowalski, Michael Thomas; Porter, Stephen Charles; Chow, Oscar Ken; Borland, Nicholas Paul; Goyette, Stephen Arthur

    2010-12-14

    A system for providing hydrogen gas is provided. The system includes a hydrogen generator that produces gas from water. One or more heat generation devices are arranged to provide heating of the enclosure during different modes of operation to prevent freezing of components. A plurality of temperature sensors are arranged and coupled to a controller to selectively activate a heat source if the temperature of the component is less than a predetermined temperature.

  11. Advanced Productivity Analysis Methods for Air Traffic Control Operations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-12-01

    games, corporate -pianning models, freeway simulation, hospital simu- lation, etc. The types ofi users range from engineers an4 scientists to business...radio and interphone commnications and direct- voice commnication ). For each identified task, we selected a "reasonable" minimum task performance...search parameters. To compute the Work Activity actual task times (e.g., for interphone commnication , RDP/RDP operations, and flight strip processing

  12. A real-time laser feedback control method for the three-wave laser source used in the polarimeter-interferometer diagnostic on Joint-TEXT tokamak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, C. Y.; Chen, J.; Li, Q.; Liu, Y.; Gao, L.

    2014-12-01

    A three-wave laser polarimeter-interferometer, equipped with three independent far-infrared laser sources, has been developed on Joint-TEXT (J-TEXT) tokamak. The diagnostic system is capable of high-resolution temporal and phase measurement of the Faraday angle and line-integrated density. However, for long-term operation (>10 min), the free-running lasers can lead to large drifts of the intermediate frequencies (˜100-˜500 kHz/10 min) and decay of laser power (˜10%-˜20%/10 min), which act to degrade diagnostic performance. In addition, these effects lead to increased maintenance cost and limit measurement applicability to long pulse/steady state experiments. To solve this problem, a real-time feedback control method of the laser source is proposed. By accurately controlling the length of each laser cavity, both the intermediate frequencies and laser power can be simultaneously controlled: the intermediate frequencies are controlled according to the pre-set values, while the laser powers are maintained at an optimal level. Based on this approach, a real-time feedback control system has been developed and applied on J-TEXT polarimeter-interferometer. Long-term (theoretically no time limit) feedback of intermediate frequencies (maximum change less than ±12 kHz) and laser powers (maximum relative power change less than ±7%) has been successfully achieved.

  13. A real-time laser feedback control method for the three-wave laser source used in the polarimeter-interferometer diagnostic on Joint-TEXT tokamak.

    PubMed

    Xiong, C Y; Chen, J; Li, Q; Liu, Y; Gao, L

    2014-12-01

    A three-wave laser polarimeter-interferometer, equipped with three independent far-infrared laser sources, has been developed on Joint-TEXT (J-TEXT) tokamak. The diagnostic system is capable of high-resolution temporal and phase measurement of the Faraday angle and line-integrated density. However, for long-term operation (>10 min), the free-running lasers can lead to large drifts of the intermediate frequencies (∼100-∼500 kHz/10 min) and decay of laser power (∼10%-∼20%/10 min), which act to degrade diagnostic performance. In addition, these effects lead to increased maintenance cost and limit measurement applicability to long pulse/steady state experiments. To solve this problem, a real-time feedback control method of the laser source is proposed. By accurately controlling the length of each laser cavity, both the intermediate frequencies and laser power can be simultaneously controlled: the intermediate frequencies are controlled according to the pre-set values, while the laser powers are maintained at an optimal level. Based on this approach, a real-time feedback control system has been developed and applied on J-TEXT polarimeter-interferometer. Long-term (theoretically no time limit) feedback of intermediate frequencies (maximum change less than ±12 kHz) and laser powers (maximum relative power change less than ±7%) has been successfully achieved.

  14. A real-time laser feedback control method for the three-wave laser source used in the polarimeter-interferometer diagnostic on Joint-TEXT tokamak

    SciTech Connect

    Xiong, C. Y.; Chen, J. Li, Q.; Liu, Y.; Gao, L.

    2014-12-15

    A three-wave laser polarimeter-interferometer, equipped with three independent far-infrared laser sources, has been developed on Joint-TEXT (J-TEXT) tokamak. The diagnostic system is capable of high-resolution temporal and phase measurement of the Faraday angle and line-integrated density. However, for long-term operation (>10 min), the free-running lasers can lead to large drifts of the intermediate frequencies (∼100–∼500 kHz/10 min) and decay of laser power (∼10%–∼20%/10 min), which act to degrade diagnostic performance. In addition, these effects lead to increased maintenance cost and limit measurement applicability to long pulse/steady state experiments. To solve this problem, a real-time feedback control method of the laser source is proposed. By accurately controlling the length of each laser cavity, both the intermediate frequencies and laser power can be simultaneously controlled: the intermediate frequencies are controlled according to the pre-set values, while the laser powers are maintained at an optimal level. Based on this approach, a real-time feedback control system has been developed and applied on J-TEXT polarimeter-interferometer. Long-term (theoretically no time limit) feedback of intermediate frequencies (maximum change less than ±12 kHz) and laser powers (maximum relative power change less than ±7%) has been successfully achieved.

  15. 29 CFR 779.218 - Methods to accomplish “unified operation.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Methods to accomplish âunified operation.â 779.218 Section... Coverage Unified Operation Or Common Control § 779.218 Methods to accomplish “unified operation.” There are... case the activities are performed through “unified operation” and have the effect of creating a...

  16. 29 CFR 779.218 - Methods to accomplish “unified operation.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Methods to accomplish âunified operation.â 779.218 Section... Coverage Unified Operation Or Common Control § 779.218 Methods to accomplish “unified operation.” There are... case the activities are performed through “unified operation” and have the effect of creating a...

  17. 29 CFR 779.218 - Methods to accomplish “unified operation.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Methods to accomplish âunified operation.â 779.218 Section... Coverage Unified Operation Or Common Control § 779.218 Methods to accomplish “unified operation.” There are... case the activities are performed through “unified operation” and have the effect of creating a...

  18. 29 CFR 779.218 - Methods to accomplish “unified operation.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Methods to accomplish âunified operation.â 779.218 Section... Coverage Unified Operation Or Common Control § 779.218 Methods to accomplish “unified operation.” There are... case the activities are performed through “unified operation” and have the effect of creating a...

  19. 29 CFR 779.218 - Methods to accomplish “unified operation.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Methods to accomplish âunified operation.â 779.218 Section... Coverage Unified Operation Or Common Control § 779.218 Methods to accomplish “unified operation.” There are... case the activities are performed through “unified operation” and have the effect of creating a...

  20. Prevalence of Giardia spp. in young dogs using a combination of two diagnostic methods.

    PubMed

    Alves, João; Santos, Ana

    2016-03-01

    In this study, prevalence of the protozoan parasites from the genus Giardia spp, with zoonotic potential and worldwide dissemination, was accessed in young dogs, which are reported as having higher prevalence rates. With that purpose, 49 animals from the Grupo de Intervenção Cinotécnico of the Guarda Nacional Republicana (Portuguese Gendarmerie Canine Unit) were chosen. They were housed individually in areas with a high number of kennels (up to 100), with ages ragging from newborns to 10 years old. Dogs were divided in four groups, according their age: under 6 months (n = 16), 6-12 months (n = 6), 12-18 months (n = 13) and 18-24 months (n = 14), comprising 22 females and 27 males. Fecal samples were collected from every animal and all were submitted to two different diagnostic tests, a passive flotation technique with a ZnSO4 solution and a detection of fecal antigen using a commercially available ELISA test (Witness® Giardia - Zoetis). From the 49 samples, 5 (10.2%) were considered positive with ZnSO4 flotation technique and 6 (12.24%) with the Witness® Giardia test. When considering the combination of both tests, 5 animals (10.2%) were considered positive. Of these, 3 (60%) were from the group under 6 months old, 1 (20%) from the 6-12 months and 1 from the 18-24 (20%) months. Within each group, in the under 6 months group 18.75% (n = 16) were considered positive, 16.67% in the 6-12 month group (n = 6), 0% in the 12-18 month group (n=13) and 7.14% in 18-24 month group (n = 14). None of the animals had clinical signs and no significant differences were found when comparing prevalence according to age, breed or gender. A combination of fecal flotation and antigen ELISA tests have good sensitivity and are easy to perform in practice and, therefore, could be a good choice to perform a diagnostic and small animal veterinarians should have this possible diagnostic in mind when in the present of clinical signs, particularly in young dogs.

  1. Evaluation of Two Methods for Determination of CD64 as a Diagnostic Marker of Infection in Critically Ill Adults

    PubMed Central

    Marra, Alexandre R.; Bacal, Nydia Strachman; Casaroto, Eduardo; Pinto, Lilian Moreira; Pasternak, Jacyr; Victor, Elivane da Silva; dos Santos, Oscar Fernando Pavão; Edmond, Michael B.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. Diagnostic markers of infection have had little innovation over the last few decades. CD64, a marker expressed on the surface of neutrophils, may have utility for this purpose. Methods. This study was conducted in an adult intensive care unit (ICU) in São Paulo, Brazil, with 89 patients. We evaluated CD64 in patients with documented or clinically diagnosed infection (infection group) and controls (patients without any evidence of infection) by two different methodologies: method #1, an in house assay, and method #2, the commercial kit Leuko64 (Trillium Diagnostics). Results. CD64 displayed good discriminating power with a 91.2% sensitivity (95% CI 90.7–91.6%) for detecting infection. The commercial kit (Leuko64) demonstrated higher specificity (87.3%) compared with method #1 as well as better accuracy (88.8%). Conclusions. CD64 seems to be a promising marker of infection in the intensive care setting, with Leuko64 showing a slight advantage. PMID:28097142

  2. The new regulation to investigate potentially beneficial diagnostic and therapeutic methods in Germany: up to international standard?

    PubMed

    Olberg, Britta; Perleth, Matthias; Busse, Reinhard

    2014-08-01

    Funding of diagnostic and therapeutic methods in Germany's statutory health insurance (SHI) follows a dichotomy: in outpatient care, only methods with proven benefit are reimbursed while in inpatient care, all methods may be provided unless they are excluded due to proven harm or lack of benefit. In January 2012, a new section 137e was added to the Social Code Book V (SGB V), allowing for the inclusion of innovative and potentially beneficial diagnostic or therapeutic methods in the SHI benefit basket, while additional evidence regarding their effectiveness and safety must be gathered. In 2013, the Federal Joint Committee (G-BA) has specified the details of this new approach, which can be considered a variety of "Coverage with Evidence Development" (CED). Our comparison with CED schemes in selected countries reveals a dependence of the CED implementation on the encompassing healthcare system. However, we identify a clear legislative foundation, a definitive decision-making body, the possibility to obtain public funding, and the preference for high quality study designs as constituting factors of an emerging international standard for CED. In addition, it is necessary to ensure the suitability of circumstances and technologies for the successful application of CED in a clear and transparent way.

  3. A near infra-red video system as a protective diagnostic for electron cyclotron resonance heating operation in the Wendelstein 7-X stellarator

    SciTech Connect

    Preynas, M.; Laqua, H. P.; Marsen, S.; Reintrog, A.; Corre, Y.; Moncada, V.; Travere, J.-M.

    2015-11-15

    The Wendelstein 7-X stellarator is a large nuclear fusion device based at Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik in Greifswald in Germany. The main plasma heating system for steady state operation in W7-X is electron cyclotron resonance heating (ECRH). During operation, part of plama facing components will be directly heated by the non-absorbed power of 1 MW rf beams of ECRH. In order to avoid damages of such components made of graphite tiles during the first operational phase, a near infra-red video system has been developed as a protective diagnostic for safe and secure ECRH operation. Both the mechanical design housing the camera and the optical system are very flexible and respect the requirements of steady state operation. The full system including data acquisition and control system has been successfully tested in the vacuum vessel, including on-line visualization and data storage of the four cameras equipping the ECRH equatorial launchers of W7-X.

  4. A near infra-red video system as a protective diagnostic for electron cyclotron resonance heating operation in the Wendelstein 7-X stellarator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Preynas, M.; Laqua, H. P.; Marsen, S.; Reintrog, A.; Corre, Y.; Moncada, V.; Travere, J.-M.

    2015-11-01

    The Wendelstein 7-X stellarator is a large nuclear fusion device based at Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik in Greifswald in Germany. The main plasma heating system for steady state operation in W7-X is electron cyclotron resonance heating (ECRH). During operation, part of plama facing components will be directly heated by the non-absorbed power of 1 MW rf beams of ECRH. In order to avoid damages of such components made of graphite tiles during the first operational phase, a near infra-red video system has been developed as a protective diagnostic for safe and secure ECRH operation. Both the mechanical design housing the camera and the optical system are very flexible and respect the requirements of steady state operation. The full system including data acquisition and control system has been successfully tested in the vacuum vessel, including on-line visualization and data storage of the four cameras equipping the ECRH equatorial launchers of W7-X.

  5. From Research to Operations: Integrating Components of an Advanced Diagnostic System with an Aspect-Oriented Framework

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fletcher, Daryl P.; Alena, Richard L.; Akkawi, Faisal; Duncavage, Daniel P.

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents some of the challenges associated with bringing software projects from the research world into an operationa1 environment. While the core functional components of research-oriented software applications can have great utility in an operational setting, these applications often lack aspects important in an operational environment such as logging and security. Furthermore, these stand-alone applications, sometimes developed in isolation from one another, can produce data products useful to other applications in a software ecosystem.

  6. Molecular method for the detection of Andes hantavirus infection: validation for clinical diagnostics

    PubMed Central

    Vial, Cecilia; Martinez-Valdebenito, Constanza; Rios, Susana; Martinez, Jessica; Vial, Pablo; Ferres, Marcela; Rivera, Juan Carlos; Perez, Ruth; Valdivieso, Francisca

    2016-01-01

    Hantavirus Cardiopulmonary Syndrome is a severe disease caused by exposure to New World hantaviruses. Early diagnosis is difficult due to the lack of specific initial symptoms. Anti-hantavirus antibodies are usually negative until late in the febrile prodrome or the beginning of cardiopulmonary phase while Andes hantavirus (ANDV) RNA genome can be detected before symptoms onset. We analyzed the effectiveness of RTqPCR as a diagnostic tool detecting ANDV-Sout genome in peripheral blood cells from 78 confirmed hantavirus patients and 166 negative controls. Our results indicate that RTqPCR had a low detection limit (~10 copies), with a specificity of 100% and a sensitivity of 94.9%. This suggests the potential for establishing RT-qPCR as the assay of choice for early diagnosis, promoting early effective care of patients and improve other important aspects of ANDV infection management, such as compliance of biosafety recommendations for health personnel in order to avoid nosocomial transmission. PMID:26508102

  7. Nucleic acid extraction methods from fixed and paraffin-embedded tissues in cancer diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Bonin, Serena; Stanta, Giorgio

    2013-04-01

    Diagnostic tests, based on nucleic acid extracts from formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded tissues, are now becoming increasingly common due to the introduction of biological agents for cancer therapy. Unfortunately, the formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded tissues are heterogeneous in terms of processing and tissue type, and this has an impact on downstream molecular techniques, especially RNA-based techniques. The present review deals with most of the variables connected to the extraction of nucleic acids from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues, ranging from tissue processing to quality control of extracts. The most recent peer-reviewed publications (mostly published in the past 5 years) and information provided by company websites have been analyzed to compile this review.

  8. Applications of Genetic Methods to NASA Design and Operations Problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laird, Philip D.

    1996-01-01

    We review four recent NASA-funded applications in which evolutionary/genetic methods are important. In the process we survey: the kinds of problems being solved today with these methods; techniques and tools used; problems encountered; and areas where research is needed. The presentation slides are annotated briefly at the top of each page.

  9. Flight Dynamics Operations: Methods and Lessons Learned from Space Shuttle Orbit Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cutri-Kohart, Rebecca M.

    2011-01-01

    The Flight Dynamics Officer is responsible for trajectory maintenance of the Space Shuttle. This paper will cover high level operational considerations, methodology, procedures, and lessons learned involved in performing the functions of orbit and rendezvous Flight Dynamics Officer and leading the team of flight dynamics specialists during different phases of flight. The primary functions that will be address are: onboard state vector maintenance, ground ephemeris maintenance, calculation of ground and spacecraft acquisitions, collision avoidance, burn targeting for the primary mission, rendezvous, deorbit and contingencies, separation sequences, emergency deorbit preparation, mass properties coordination, payload deployment planning, coordination with the International Space Station, and coordination with worldwide trajectory customers. Each of these tasks require the Flight Dynamics Officer to have cognizance of the current trajectory state as well as the impact of future events on the trajectory plan in order to properly analyze and react to real-time changes. Additionally, considerations are made to prepare flexible alternative trajectory plans in the case timeline changes or a systems failure impact the primary plan. The evolution of the methodology, procedures, and techniques used by the Flight Dynamics Officer to perform these tasks will be discussed. Particular attention will be given to how specific Space Shuttle mission and training simulation experiences, particularly off-nominal or unexpected events such as shortened mission durations, tank failures, contingency deorbit, navigation errors, conjunctions, and unexpected payload deployments, have influenced the operational procedures and training for performing Space Shuttle flight dynamics operations over the history of the program. These lessons learned can then be extended to future vehicle trajectory operations.

  10. Automatic transmission control system and method of operation

    SciTech Connect

    Lemon, R.W.; Arzoian, J.

    1991-04-16

    This patent describes a control system for an automatic transmission of a vehicle with a fluid torque converter having a bypass clutch, and a change gear assembly providing a variety of ratio changes on selective actuation of a plurality of friction engaging elements of the change gear assembly. The control system provides the selective engagement of three friction elements and the bypass clutch through the selective energization and de-energization of two solenoid operated valves and the selective actuation and de-actuation of three shift control valves.

  11. Medical diagnosis aboard submarines. Use of a computer-based Bayesian method of analysis in an abdominal pain diagnostic program.

    PubMed

    Osborne, S F

    1984-02-01

    The medical issues that arise in the isolated environment of a submarine can occasionally be grave. While crewmembers are carefully screened for health problems, they are still susceptible to serious acute illness. Currently, the submarine medical department representative, the hospital corpsman, utilizes a history and physical examination, clinical acumen, and limited laboratory testing in diagnosis. The application of a Bayesian method of analysis to an abdominal pain diagnostic system utilizing an onboard microcomputer is described herein. Early results from sea trials show an appropriate diagnosis in eight of 10 cases of abdominal pain, but the program should still be viewed as an extended "laboratory test" until proved effective at sea.

  12. STEAM FORMING NEUTRONIC REACTOR AND METHOD OF OPERATING IT

    DOEpatents

    Untermyer, S.

    1960-05-10

    The heterogeneous reactor is liquid moderated and cooled by a steam forming coolant and is designed to produce steam from the coolant directly within the active portion of the reactor while avoiding the formation of bubbles in the liquid moderator. This reactor achieves inherent stability as a result of increased neutron leakage and increased neutron resonance absorption in the U/sup 238/ fuel with the formation of bubbles. The invention produces certain conditions under which the formation of vapor bubbles as a result of a neutron flux excursion from the injection of a reactivity increment into the reactor will operate to nullify the reactivity increment within a sufficiently short period of time to prevent unsafe reactor operating conditions from developing. This is obtained by disposing a plurality of fuel elements within a mass of steam forming coolant in the core with the ratio of the volume of steam forming coolant to the volume of fissionable isotopes being within the range yielding a multiplication factor greater than unity and a negative reactivity to core void coefficient at the boiling temperature of the coolant.

  13. Method and apparatus for monitoring plasma processing operations

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Jr., Michael Lane; Stevenson, Joel O'Don; Ward, Pamela Peardon Denise

    2001-01-01

    The invention generally relates to various aspects of a plasma process, and more specifically the monitoring of such plasma processes. One aspect relates in at least some manner to calibrating or initializing a plasma monitoring assembly. This type of calibration may be used to address wavelength shifts, intensity shifts, or both associated with optical emissions data obtained on a plasma process. A calibration light may be directed at a window through which optical emissions data is being obtained to determine the effect, if any, that the inner surface of the window is having on the optical emissions data being obtained therethrough, the operation of the optical emissions data gathering device, or both. Another aspect relates in at least some manner to various types of evaluations which may be undertaken of a plasma process which was run, and more typically one which is currently being run, within the processing chamber. Plasma health evaluations and process identification through optical emissions analysis are included in this aspect. Yet another aspect associated with the present invention relates in at least some manner to the endpoint of a plasma process (e.g., plasma recipe, plasma clean, conditioning wafer operation) or discrete/discernible portion thereof (e.g., a plasma step of a multiple step plasma recipe). A final aspect associated with the present invention relates to how one or more of the above-noted aspects may be implemented into a semiconductor fabrication facility, such as the distribution of wafers to a wafer production system.

  14. Method and apparatus for monitoring plasma processing operations

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Jr., Michael Lane; Stevenson, Joel O'Don; Ward, Pamela Peardon Denise

    2002-07-16

    The invention generally relates to various aspects of a plasma process, and more specifically the monitoring of such plasma processes. One aspect relates in at least some manner to calibrating or initializing a plasma monitoring assembly. This type of calibration may be used to address wavelength shifts, intensity shifts, or both associated with optical emissions data obtained on a plasma process. A calibration light may be directed at a window through which optical emissions data is being obtained to determine the effect, if any, that the inner surface of the window is having on the optical emissions data being obtained therethrough, the operation of the optical emissions data gathering device, or both. Another aspect relates in at least some manner to various types of evaluations which may be undertaken of a plasma process which was run, and more typically one which is currently being run, within the processing chamber. Plasma health evaluations and process identification through optical emissions analysis are included in this aspect. Yet another aspect associated with the present invention relates in at least some manner to the endpoint of a plasma process (e.g., plasma recipe, plasma clean, conditioning wafer operation) or discrete/discernible portion thereof (e.g., a plasma step of a multiple step plasma recipe). A final aspect associated with the present invention relates to how one or more of the above-noted aspects may be implemented into a semiconductor fabrication facility, such as the distribution of wafers to a wafer production system.

  15. Method and apparatus for monitoring plasma processing operations

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Jr., Michael Lane; Stevenson, Joel O'Don; Ward, Pamela Peardon Denise

    2001-01-01

    The invention generally relates to various aspects of a plasma process, and more specifically the monitoring of such plasma processes. One aspect relates in at least some manner to calibrating or initializing a plasma monitoring assembly. This type of calibration may be used to address wavelength shifts, intensity shifts, or both associated with optical emissions data obtained on a plasma process. A calibration light may be directed at a window through which optical emissions data is being obtained to determine the effect, if any, that the inner surface of the window is having on the optical emissions data being obtained therethrough, the operation of the optical emissions data gathering device, or both. Another aspect relates in at least some manner to various types of evaluations which may be undertaken of a plasma process which was run, and more typically one which is currently being run, within the processing chamber. Plasma health evaluations and process identification through optical emissions analysis are included in this aspect. Yet another aspect associated with the present invention relates in at least some manner to the endpoint of a plasma process (e.g., plasma recipe, plasma clean, conditioning wafer operation) or discrete/discemible portion thereof (e.g., a plasma step of a multiple step plasma recipe). A final aspect associated with the present invention relates to how one or more of the above-noted aspects may be implemented into a semiconductor fabrication facility, such as the distribution of wafers to a wafer production system.

  16. Method and apparatus for monitoring plasma processing operations

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Jr., Michael Lane; Stevenson, Joel O'Don; Ward, Pamela Peardon Denise

    2000-01-01

    The invention generally relates to various aspects of a plasma process, and more specifically the monitoring of such plasma processes. One aspect relates in at least some manner to calibrating or initializing a plasma monitoring assembly. This type of calibration may be used to address wavelength shifts, intensity shifts, or both associated with optical emissions data obtained on a plasma process. A calibration light may be directed at a window through which optical emissions data is being obtained to determine the effect, if any, that the inner surface of the window is having on the optical emissions data being obtained therethrough, the operation of the optical emissions data gathering device, or both. Another aspect relates in at least some manner to various types of evaluations which may be undertaken of a plasma process which was run, and more typically one which is currently being run, within the processing chamber. Plasma health evaluations and process identification through optical emissions analysis are included in this aspect. Yet another aspect associated with the present invention relates in at least some manner to the endpoint of a plasma process (e.g., plasma recipe, plasma clean, conditioning wafer operation) or discrete/discernible portion thereof (e.g., a plasma step of a multiple step plasma recipe). A final aspect associated with the present invention relates to how one or more of the above-noted aspects may be implemented into a semiconductor fabrication facility, such as the distribution of wafers to a wafer production system.

  17. Analysis of Preconditioning and Relaxation Operators for the Discontinuous Galerkin Method Applied to Diffusion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atkins, H. L.; Shu, Chi-Wang

    2001-01-01

    The explicit stability constraint of the discontinuous Galerkin method applied to the diffusion operator decreases dramatically as the order of the method is increased. Block Jacobi and block Gauss-Seidel preconditioner operators are examined for their effectiveness at accelerating convergence. A Fourier analysis for methods of order 2 through 6 reveals that both preconditioner operators bound the eigenvalues of the discrete spatial operator. Additionally, in one dimension, the eigenvalues are grouped into two or three regions that are invariant with order of the method. Local relaxation methods are constructed that rapidly damp high frequencies for arbitrarily large time step.

  18. Supersonic jet engine and method of operating the same

    SciTech Connect

    Klees, G.W.

    1981-10-13

    A supersonic jet engine is disclosed that is capable not only of developing sufficient power to accelerate up to supersonic cruise and maintain efficient operation at supersonic cruise, but also arrange to cruise at subsonic velocities with a relatively low specific fuel consumption. The engine is provided with a variable bypass passageway downstream of the compressor. Flow into the bypass passageway is controlled so that during low power setting the bypass passageway is closed so that all the gaseous flow is directed through the turbine. During higher power settings, the bypass passageway is opened to the extent that a selected portion of the gaseous flow is directed through the bypass passageway to bypass the turbine, so that the corrected flow to the turbine remains substantially constant for both high and low power settings of the engine.

  19. Generalized dilatation operator method for non-relativistic holography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chemissany, Wissam; Papadimitriou, Ioannis

    2014-10-01

    We present a general algorithm for constructing the holographic dictionary for Lifshitz and hyperscaling violating Lifshitz backgrounds for any value of the dynamical exponent z and any value of the hyperscaling violation parameter θ compatible with the null energy condition. The objective of the algorithm is the construction of the general asymptotic solution of the radial Hamilton-Jacobi equation subject to the desired boundary conditions, from which the full dictionary can be subsequently derived. Contrary to the relativistic case, we find that a fully covariant construction of the asymptotic solution for running non-relativistic theories necessitates an expansion in the eigenfunctions of two commuting operators instead of one. This provides a covariant but non-relativistic grading of the expansion, according to the number of time derivatives.

  20. Method and apparatus for monitoring plasma processing operations

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Jr., Michael Lane; Ward, Pamela Denise Peardon; Stevenson, Joel O'Don

    2002-01-01

    The invention generally relates to various aspects of a plasma process, and more specifically the monitoring of such plasma processes. One aspect relates in at least some manner to calibrating or initializing a plasma monitoring assembly. This type of calibration may be used to address wavelength shifts, intensity shifts, or both associated with optical emissions data obtained on a plasma process. A calibration light may be directed at a window through which optical emissions data is being obtained to determine the effect, if any, that the inner surface of the window is having on the optical emissions data being obtained therethrough, the operation of the optical emissions data gathering device, or both. Another aspect relates in at least some manner to various types of evaluations which may be undertaken of a plasma process which was run, and more typically one which is currently being run, within the processing chamber. Plasma health evaluations and process identification through optical emissions analysis are included in this aspect. Yet another aspect associated with the present invention relates in at least some manner to the endpoint of a plasma process (e.g., plasma recipe, plasma clean, conditioning wafer operation) or discrete/discernible portion thereof (e.g., a plasma step of a multiple step plasma recipe). Another aspect associated with the present invention relates to how one or more of the above-noted aspects may be implemented into a semiconductor fabrication facility, such as the distribution of wafers to a wafer production system. A final aspect of the present invention relates to a network a plurality of plasma monitoring systems, including with remote capabilities (i.e., outside of the clean room).

  1. Development of monitoring and diagnostic methods for robots used in remediation of waste sites. 1997 annual progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Tecza, J.

    1998-06-01

    'Safe and efficient clean up of hazardous and radioactive waste sites throughout the DOE complex will require extensive use of robots. This research effort focuses on developing Monitoring and Diagnostic (M and D) methods for robots that will provide early detection, isolation, and tracking of impending faults before they result in serious failure. The utility and effectiveness of applying M and D methods to hydraulic robots has never been proven. The present research program is utilizing seeded faults in a laboratory test rig that is representative of an existing hydraulically-powered remediation robot. This report summarizes activity conducted in the first 9 months of the project. The research team has analyzed the Rosie Mobile Worksystem as a representative hydraulic robot, developed a test rig for implanted fault testing, developed a test plan and agenda, and established methods for acquiring and analyzing the test data.'

  2. Methods for operating parallel computing systems employing sequenced communications

    DOEpatents

    Benner, R.E.; Gustafson, J.L.; Montry, G.R.

    1999-08-10

    A parallel computing system and method are disclosed having improved performance where a program is concurrently run on a plurality of nodes for reducing total processing time, each node having a processor, a memory, and a predetermined number of communication channels connected to the node and independently connected directly to other nodes. The present invention improves performance of the parallel computing system by providing a system which can provide efficient communication between the processors and between the system and input and output devices. A method is also disclosed which can locate defective nodes with the computing system. 15 figs.

  3. Methods for operating parallel computing systems employing sequenced communications

    DOEpatents

    Benner, Robert E.; Gustafson, John L.; Montry, Gary R.

    1999-01-01

    A parallel computing system and method having improved performance where a program is concurrently run on a plurality of nodes for reducing total processing time, each node having a processor, a memory, and a predetermined number of communication channels connected to the node and independently connected directly to other nodes. The present invention improves performance of performance of the parallel computing system by providing a system which can provide efficient communication between the processors and between the system and input and output devices. A method is also disclosed which can locate defective nodes with the computing system.

  4. An extension of the finite cell method using boolean operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abedian, Alireza; Düster, Alexander

    2017-01-01

    In the finite cell method, the fictitious domain approach is combined with high-order finite elements. The geometry of the problem is taken into account by integrating the finite cell formulation over the physical domain to obtain the corresponding stiffness matrix and load vector. In this contribution, an extension of the FCM is presented wherein both the physical and fictitious domain of an element are simultaneously evaluated during the integration. In the proposed extension of the finite cell method, the contribution of the stiffness matrix over the fictitious domain is subtracted from the cell, resulting in the desired stiffness matrix which reflects the contribution of the physical domain only. This method results in an exponential rate of convergence for porous domain problems with a smooth solution and accurate integration. In addition, it reduces the computational cost, especially when applying adaptive integration schemes based on the quadtree/octree. Based on 2D and 3D problems of linear elastostatics, numerical examples serve to demonstrate the efficiency and accuracy of the proposed method.

  5. 49 CFR 393.70 - Coupling devices and towing methods, except for driveaway-towaway operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Coupling devices and towing methods, except for... MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY REGULATIONS PARTS AND ACCESSORIES NECESSARY FOR SAFE OPERATION Coupling Devices and Towing Methods § 393.70 Coupling devices and towing methods, except for driveaway-towaway operations....

  6. 49 CFR 393.71 - Coupling devices and towing methods, driveaway-towaway operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Coupling devices and towing methods, driveaway... SAFETY REGULATIONS PARTS AND ACCESSORIES NECESSARY FOR SAFE OPERATION Coupling Devices and Towing Methods § 393.71 Coupling devices and towing methods, driveaway-towaway operations. (a) Number in...

  7. 49 CFR 393.70 - Coupling devices and towing methods, except for driveaway-towaway operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Coupling devices and towing methods, except for... MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY REGULATIONS PARTS AND ACCESSORIES NECESSARY FOR SAFE OPERATION Coupling Devices and Towing Methods § 393.70 Coupling devices and towing methods, except for driveaway-towaway operations....

  8. 49 CFR 393.71 - Coupling devices and towing methods, driveaway-towaway operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Coupling devices and towing methods, driveaway... SAFETY REGULATIONS PARTS AND ACCESSORIES NECESSARY FOR SAFE OPERATION Coupling Devices and Towing Methods § 393.71 Coupling devices and towing methods, driveaway-towaway operations. (a) Number in...

  9. 49 CFR 393.70 - Coupling devices and towing methods, except for driveaway-towaway operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Coupling devices and towing methods, except for... MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY REGULATIONS PARTS AND ACCESSORIES NECESSARY FOR SAFE OPERATION Coupling Devices and Towing Methods § 393.70 Coupling devices and towing methods, except for driveaway-towaway operations....

  10. 49 CFR 393.70 - Coupling devices and towing methods, except for driveaway-towaway operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Coupling devices and towing methods, except for... MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY REGULATIONS PARTS AND ACCESSORIES NECESSARY FOR SAFE OPERATION Coupling Devices and Towing Methods § 393.70 Coupling devices and towing methods, except for driveaway-towaway operations....

  11. Recent observations on leptospirosis in Northern Ireland and their bearing on current diagnostic methods

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, T. S.

    1966-01-01

    An investigation was undertaken to assess the present importance of leptospiral infections in Northern Ireland, and in particular to look for evidence of infection by leptospiral serotypes other than L. icterohaemorrhagiae and L. canicola. Blood samples from 335 patients, sent to the laboratory for a variety of tests, were examined. After initial screening with five groups of pooled antigens, tests for leptospiral agglutinins were completed with formolized antigens prepared from 13 different serotypes. In seven patients a diagnosis of acute leptospirosis was made while nine others showed serological evidence of previous leptospiral infection. Attempts to isolate leptospirae by culture from 29 blood samples were unsuccessful. The serological results indicate that two additional leptospiral serotypes, namely L. ballum and L. bratislava, are causing human infection in Northern Ireland, and presumably also in other parts of the British Isles. Some clinical and epidemiological features associated with different types of leptospiral infection are described. It is stressed that leptospirosis is essentially a febrile illness, that meningeal symptoms are common, and that (contrary to popular belief) jaundice is by no means a constant occurrence. The implications of these findings are discussed, with special reference to the diagnosis of leptospiral infections. Laboratory diagnostic procedures are briefly reviewed, and the possible deficiencies of the agglutination test commonly used in Britain are pointed out. Some suggestions are made concerning both clinical and laboratory aspects of diagnosis, and the need for a reliable screening test for all forms of leptospiral infection is emphasized. PMID:5919352

  12. Detection of Onchocerca volvulus infection in low prevalence areas: a comparison of three diagnostic methods.

    PubMed

    Boatin, B A; Toé, L; Alley, E S; Nagelkerke, N J D; Borsboom, G; Habbema, J D F

    2002-12-01

    The standard assay for onchocerciasis diagnosis is microscopical detection of microfilariae in skin snips. Skin snipping is painful, requires appropriate sterilization of equipment, and may fail to diagnose light infections. Two alternatives are a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test which detects parasite DNA in pieces or scrapings of skin and a test based on allergic reactions to topical application of diethylcarbamazine (DEC). We compared these 2 diagnostics with standard skin snip microscopy in 313 individuals from 2 villages in Guinea, with low prevalence after over 10 years of control by the Onchocerciasis Control Programme. Lower and upper bounds on sensitivities and specificities of these 3 tests were estimated. In addition, these parameters were estimated using 5 different statistical models. Where prevalence was low, PCR and the DEC patch test appeared to be more sensitive than skin snipping which has low sensitivity. As the DEC test is non-invasive, simple and cheap, it may provide a good alternative to skin snipping alone for surveillance in low prevalence areas.

  13. Electrodiffusion Method of Near-Wall Flow Diagnostics in Microfluidic Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tihona, J.; Pěnkavová, V.; Stanovský, P.; Vejražka, J.

    2015-05-01

    The electrodiffusion technique has been mostly used for the near-wall flow diagnostics on large scales. A novel technique for fabrication of plastic microfluidic systems with integrated metal microelectrodes (called technique of sacrificed substrate) enables us to produce microfluidic devices with precisely shaped sensors for wall shear stress measurements. Several micrometer thick gold sensors, which are built-in a plastic substrate, exhibit good mechanical resistance and smoothness. Proper functioning of prepared chips with microsensors has been first tested in various calibration experiments (polarization curve, sensor response to polarization set-up, steady flow calibration, temperature dependence of diffusivity). Our first results obtained for separating/reattaching flow behind a backward-facing step and for gas-liquid Taylor flow in microchannels then demonstrate its applicability for the detection of near-wall flow reversal, the delimitation of flow - recirculation zones, and the determination of wall shear stress response to moving bubbles. Other applications of these sensors in microfluidics (e.g. characterization of liquid films, capillary waves, bubbles or drops) can be also envisaged.

  14. Molecular method for the detection of Andes hantavirus infection: validation for clinical diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Vial, Cecilia; Martinez-Valdebenito, Constanza; Rios, Susana; Martinez, Jessica; Vial, Pablo A; Ferres, Marcela; Rivera, Juan C; Perez, Ruth; Valdivieso, Francisca

    2016-01-01

    Hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome is a severe disease caused by exposure to New World hantaviruses. Early diagnosis is difficult due to the lack of specific initial symptoms. Antihantavirus antibodies are usually negative until late in the febrile prodrome or the beginning of cardiopulmonary phase, while Andes hantavirus (ANDV) RNA genome can be detected before symptoms onset. We analyzed the effectiveness of quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) as a diagnostic tool detecting ANDV-Sout genome in peripheral blood cells from 78 confirmed hantavirus patients and 166 negative controls. Our results indicate that RT-qPCR had a low detection limit (~10 copies), with a specificity of 100% and a sensitivity of 94.9%. This suggests the potential for establishing RT-qPCR as the assay of choice for early diagnosis, promoting early effective care of patients, and improving other important aspects of ANDV infection management, such as compliance of biosafety recommendations for health personnel in order to avoid nosocomial transmission.

  15. A diagnostic for determining the quality of single-reference electron correlation methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Timothy J.; Taylor, Peter R.

    1989-01-01

    It was recently proposed that the Euclidian norm of the t(sub 1) vector of the coupled cluster wave function (normalized by the number of electrons included in the correlation procedure) could be used to determine whether a single-reference-based electron correlation procedure is appopriate. This diagnostic, T(sub 1) is defined for use with self-consistent-field molecular orbitals and is invariant to the same orbital rotations as the coupled cluster energy. T(sub 1) is investigated for several different chemical systems which exhibit a range of multireference behavior, and is shown to be an excellent measure of the importance of non-dynamical electron correlation and is far superior to C(sub 0) from a singles and doubles configuration interaction wave function. It is further suggested that when the aim is to recover a large fraction of the dynamical electron correlation energy, a large T(sub 1) (i.e., greater than 0.02) probably indicates the need for a multireference electron correlation procedure.

  16. A diagnostic for determining the quality of single-reference electron correlation methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Timothy J.; Taylor, Peter R.

    1989-01-01

    It was recently proposed that the Euclidian norm of the t sub 1 vector of the coupled cluster wave function (normalized by the number of electrons included in the correlation procedure) could be used to determine whether a single-reference-based electron correlation procedure is appropriate. This diagnostic, T sub 1, is defined for use with self consistent field molecular orbitals and is invariant to the same orbital rotations as the coupled cluster energy. T sub 1 is investigated for several different chemical systems which exhibit a range of multireference behavior, and is shown to be an excellent measure of the importance of nondynamical electron correlation and is far superior to C sub 0 from a singles and doubles configuration interaction wave function. It is further suggested that when the aim is to recover a large fraction of the dynamical electron correlation energy, a large T sub 1 (i.e., greater than 0.02) probably indicates the need for a multireference electron correlation procedure.

  17. Design and operation of the pellet charge exchange diagnostic for measurement of energetic confined alphas and tritons on TFTR

    SciTech Connect

    Medley, S.S.; Duong, H.H.; Fisher, R.K.

    1996-05-01

    Radially-resolved energy and density distributions of the energetic confined alpha particles in D-T experiments on TFTR are being measured by active neutral particle analysis using low-Z impurity pellet injection. When injected into a high temperature plasma, an impurity pellet (e.g. Lithium or Boron) rapidly ablates forming an elongated cloud which is aligned with the magnetic field and moves with the pellet. This ablation cloud provides a dense target with which the alpha particles produced in D-T fusion reactions can charge exchange. A small fraction of the alpha particles incident on the pellet ablation cloud will be converted to helium neutrals whose energy is essentially unchanged by the charge transfer process. By measuring the resultant helium neutrals escaping from the plasma using a mass and energy resolving charge exchange analyzer, this technique offers a direct measurement of the energy distribution of the incident high-energy alpha particles. Other energetic ion species can be detected as well, such as tritons generated in D-D plasmas and H or He{sup 3} RF-driven minority ion tails. The diagnostic technique and its application on TFTR are described in detail.

  18. Application of Optical Emission Diagnostics to Study Effects of Foils on Self Magnetic Pinch E-Beam Diode Operations.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heathcote, A. D.; Critchley, A. D. J.; Johnston, M. D.

    2007-11-01

    Optical diagnostics are being developed and deployed at AWE to explore the limiting physics of electron beam diodes used for flash x-ray radiography. Photodiode and imaging systems have been used to observe plasma emission from the diode anode cathode (A-K) gap during x-ray production (˜100 ns) and for several microseconds beyond. There is currently a paucity of experimental data [1] direct from A-K gap plasmas; these data are needed to enhance understanding of the limiting physics of the diode geometries. Spatially and spectrally resolved intensity data from the A-K gap of self magnetic pinch (SMP) diodes has been collected and is presented. This has been used to study the role of foils used within the diode assembly and their role in inhibiting diode impedance collapse [2] for improved integrated dose output. [1] - Martin P, Short D, Jones A -- Theory Underpinning Ongoing Fundamental Pinch Physics Research at AWE, November 2005 to August 2006. Ref: AWE/HD02/B/0607/812. [2] - I. Crotch et al., ``Self Magnetic Pinch Diode Experiments at AWE'',14th IEEE Int. Pulsed Power Conf., 2003, pp. 507-509.

  19. Cellphone camera imaging of a periodically patterned chip as a potential method for point-of-care diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Ritu; Reifenberger, Ronald G; Kulkarni, Giridhar U

    2014-03-26

    In this study, we demonstrate that a disposable chip periodically patterned with suitable ligands, an ordinary cellphone camera, and a simple pattern recognition software, can potentially be used for quantitative diagnostics. A key factor in this demonstration is the design of a calibration grid around the chip that, through a contrast transfer process, enables reliable analysis of the images collected under variable ambient lighting conditions. After exposure to a dispersion of amine terminated silica beads used as analyte mimicking pathogens, an epoxy-terminated glass substrate microcontact printed with octadecyltrichlorosilane (250 μm periodicity) developed a characteristic pattern of beads which could be easily imaged with a cellphone camera of 3.2 MP pixels. A simple pattern recognition algorithm using fast Fourier transform produced a quantitative estimate of the analyte concentration present in the test solution. In this method importantly, neither the chip fabrication process nor the fill-factor of the periodic pattern need be perfect to arrive at a conclusive diagnosis. The method suggests a viable platform that may potentially find use in fault-tolerant and robust point-of-care diagnostic applications.

  20. Different PS application methods for laserlight-induced fluorescence diagnostics (LIFD) of dysplasia and early cancer of the colon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gahlen, Johannes; Pressmar, Jochen; Stern, Josef; Boehm, J.; Sinn, Hanns-joerg; Born, I. A.; Holle, R.; Herfarth, Christian

    1997-12-01

    Conventional diagnostics fail to trace dysplasias and early cancers of the colon. By means of Laserlight Induced Fluorescence Diagnostics (LIFD) macroscopically not visible malignant tumors and dysplasias of the colon can be detected. The main side effect of systemically applicated photosensitizers is a general photosensibilization of the organism which provokes an increased photosensitivity of the body. Local application of (delta) -aminolevulinic acid (ALA) reduces systemic uptake without impairment of the quality of investigation. Colorectal cancer in male wistar rats was induced by weekly subcutaneous (s.c.) injections of 1,2- dimethylhydrazine (DMH) for 17 weeks. After s.c. DMH injection the wistar rats (n equals 25) developed in average 5.6 macroscopically visible colon carcinomas. 80% of these tumor were detected by LIFD after photosensibilization with Photofrin II intravenously (i.v.), 29% after application of mTHPC (i.v.), 13% after ALA (i.v.), 20% after intraperitoneal application of ALA (i.p.) and 57% after local application of ALA in the colon. LIFD is a capable method for the detection of macroscopically not visible dysplasias and colon carcinomas of the rat induced by DMH. The applied PS and the method of application influences the detection of carcinomas and dysplasias. Systemic photosensibilization of the whole organism can be avoided by the local application of ALA without limiting the quality of investigation.

  1. Supersonic jet engine and method of operating the same

    SciTech Connect

    Klees, G.

    1981-09-08

    A supersonic jet engine is disclosed capable not only of developing sufficient power to accelerate up to supersonic cruise and maintain efficient operation at supersonic cruise, but also arrange to cruise at subsonic velocities with a relatively low specific fuel consumption. The engine is provided with a variable bypass passageway downstream of the compressor. Flow into the bypass passageway is controlled so that during low power setting the bypass passageway is closed so that all the gaseous flow is directed through the turbine. During higher power settings, the bypass passageway is opened to the extent that a selected portion of the gaseous flow is directed through the bypass passageway to bypass the turbine, so that the corrected flow to the turbine remains substantially constant for both high and low power settings of the engine. The turbine has first and second stages, with the first stage receiving all of the gaseous flow that is not directed through the bypass passageway. The gaseous flow from the turbine first stage is split into first and second portions, with the first portion being directed through a coannular inner passageway to drive the turbine second stage, and the second portion of the gaseous discharge being directed toward a coannular outer passageway to be discharged in a coannular pattern radially outwardly of the first portion of gaseous flow.

  2. Fluidized bed combustion apparatus and method of operating same

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, R.M.

    1987-02-03

    This patent describes a coal burning boiler having a dense bed column with a closed end and opening into a combustion chamber, and a source of coal. The improvement described here comprises: (a) coal processing mill means adapted to receive coal from the source and having a first outlet conduit connected to a the dense bed column adjacent the closed end and a second outlet conduit connected to the dense bed column spaced from the connection of the first outlet conduit to the dense bed column; (b) means supplying air into the coal processing mill means for stripping fine particulate fractions and delivering the same into the first outlet conduit for injection into the dense bed column; (c) means in the second outlet conduit connection operable to feed coarse particulate fractions into the dense bed column for supplying coarse coal fractions into the column spaced from the injection of fines into the column; and (d) air supply means connected into the dense bed column adjacent the closed end of the dense bed column for fluidizing the fine and coarse coal fractions in the dense bed column.

  3. Advanced hybrid particulate collector and method of operation

    DOEpatents

    Miller, Stanley J.

    2003-04-08

    A device and method for controlling particulate air pollutants of the present invention combines filtration and electrostatic collection devices. The invention includes a chamber housing a plurality of rows of filter elements. Between the rows of filter elements are rows of high voltage discharge electrodes. Between the rows of discharge electrodes and the rows of filter elements are grounded perforated plates for creating electrostatic precipitation zones.

  4. Photoacoustic sample vessel and method of elevated pressure operation

    DOEpatents

    Autrey, Tom; Yonker, Clement R.

    2004-05-04

    An improved photoacoustic vessel and method of photoacoustic analysis. The photoacoustic sample vessel comprises an acoustic detector, an acoustic couplant, and an acoustic coupler having a chamber for holding the acoustic couplant and a sample. The acoustic couplant is selected from the group consisting of liquid, solid, and combinations thereof. Passing electromagnetic energy through the sample generates an acoustic signal within the sample, whereby the acoustic signal propagates through the sample to and through the acoustic couplant to the acoustic detector.

  5. Feynman method for disentangling operators and a singular oscillator

    SciTech Connect

    Popov, V. S.; Trusov, M. A.

    2012-02-15

    The problem of the evolution of a singular quantum oscillator with a frequency exhibiting an arbitrary time dependence has been solved. The probabilities w{sub mn} of transitions in the oscillator spectrum and generating functions have been calculated, and the sum rules for w{sub mn} have been derived. The calculations are based on the Feynman disentangling method and the theory of representations of the SU(1, 1) group.

  6. Control system for, and a method of, heating an operator station of a work machine

    DOEpatents

    Baker, Thomas M.; Hoff, Brian D.; Akasam, Sivaprasad

    2005-04-05

    There are situations in which an operator remains in an operator station of a work machine when an engine of the work machine is inactive. The present invention includes a control system for, and a method of, heating the operator station when the engine is inactive. A heating system of the work machine includes an electrically-powered coolant pump, a power source, and at least one piece of warmed machinery. An operator heat controller is moveable between a first and a second position, and is operable to connect the electrically-powered coolant pump to the power source when the engine is inactive and the operator heat controller is in the first position. Thus, by deactivating the engine and then moving the operator heat controller to the first position, the operator may supply electrical energy to the electrically-powered coolant pump, which is operably coupled to heat the operator station.

  7. Evaluation of the vehicle state with vibration-based diagnostics methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gai, V. E.; Polyakov, I. V.; Krasheninnikov, M. S.; Koshurina, A. A.; Dorofeev, R. A.

    2017-02-01

    Timely detection of a trouble in the mechanisms work is a guarantee of the stable operation of the entire machine complex. It allows minimizing unexpected losses, and avoiding any injuries inflicted on working people. The solution of the problem is the most important for vehicles and machines, working in remote areas of the infrastructure. All-terrain vehicles can be referred to such type of transport. The potential object of application of the described methodology is the multipurpose rotary-screw amphibious vehicle for rescue; reconnaissance; transport and technological operations. At the present time, there is no information on the use of these kinds of systems in ground-based vehicles. The present paper is devoted to the state estimation of a mechanism based on the analysis of vibration signals produced by the mechanism, in particular, the vibration signals of rolling bearings. The theory of active perception was used for the solution of the problem of the state estimation.

  8. BRIEF COMMUNICATIONS: Electrical diagnostics of the operating conditions in a monitoring amplifier based on a laser diode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luc, Vu V.; Eliseev, P. G.; Man'ko, Margarita A.; Mikaelyan, G. T.

    1982-09-01

    Changes in the voltage across a laser diode operating as an amplifier (below the lasing threshold) were investigated as a function of the pump current and of the input optical signal of wavelengths 6-7 nm longer and shorter than the emission wavelength of the laser diode. The inversion threshold, traveling wave and regenerative amplification conditions, and lasing threshold could all be determined from the electrical signal developed by the diode. The sign of the signal changed on increase in the pump current: it was positive in the photodiode regime and negative when the diode operated as an amplifier. The maximum amplitude of the negative signal was 0.6-1 mV.

  9. Design and Operation of an Optically-Accessible Modular Reactor for Diagnostics of Thermal Thin Film Deposition Processes

    PubMed Central

    Kimes, W. A.; Sperling, B. A.; Maslars, J. E.

    2015-01-01

    The design and operation of a simple, optically-accessible modular reactor for probing thermal thin film deposition processes, such as atomic layer deposition processes (ALD) and chemical vapor deposition (CVD), is described. This reactor has a nominal footprint of 225 cm2 and a mass of approximately 6.6 kg, making it small enough to conveniently function as a modular component of an optical train. The design is simple, making fabrication straightforward and relatively inexpensive. Reactor operation is characterized using two infrared absorption measurements to determine exhaust times for tetrakis(dimethylamino)titanium and water, proto-typical ALD precursors, in a pressure and flow regime commonly used for ALD. PMID:26958438

  10. Microbial food safety: Potential of DNA extraction methods for use in diagnostic metagenomics.

    PubMed

    Josefsen, Mathilde H; Andersen, Sandra C; Christensen, Julia; Hoorfar, Jeffrey

    2015-07-01

    The efficiency of ten widely applied DNA extraction protocols was evaluated for suitability for diagnostic metagenomics. The protocols were selected based on a thorough literature study. Chicken fecal samples inoculated with about 1×10(3) and 1×10(6) CFU/g Campylobacter jejuni were used as a model. The evaluation was performed based on total DNA yield measured by fluorometry, and quality and quantity of C. jejuni DNA measured by real-time PCR. There was up to a 25-fold variance between the lowest (NucliSens miniMAG, BIOMÉRIEUX) and highest (PowerLyzer PowerSoil DNA Isolation Kit, MO BIO Laboratories) yielding protocols. The PowerLyzer PowerSoil DNA Isolation Kit performed significantly better than all other protocols tested. Selected protocols were modified, i.e., extended heating and homogenization, resulting in increased yields of total DNA. For QIAamp Fast DNA Stool Mini Kit (Qiagen) a 7-fold increase in total DNA was observed following the protocol for human DNA analysis and including a 5 min heating step at 70°C. For the PowerLyzer PowerSoil and the PowerFecal DNA Isolation Kit (MO BIO Laboratories) the total DNA fold increase was 1.6 to 1.8 when including an extra 10 min of bead-vortexing. There was no correlation between the yield of total DNA and the amount of PCR-amplifiable DNA from C. jejuni. The protocols resulting in the highest yield of total DNA did not show correspondingly increased levels of C. jejuni DNA as determined by PCR. In conclusion, substantial variation in the efficiency of the protocols to extract DNA was observed. The highest DNA yield was obtained with the PowerLyzer PowerSoil DNA Isolation Kit, whereas the FastDNA SPIN Kit for Feces (MP Biomedicals) resulted in the highest amount of PCR-amplifiable C. jejuni DNA.

  11. Method of controlling scale in oil recovery operations

    DOEpatents

    Krajicek, Richard W.

    1981-01-01

    Disclosed is a method of producing highly viscous minerals from a subterranean formation by injection of an acidic, thermal vapor stream without substantial scale buildup in downstream piping, pumps and well bore. The process comprises heating the formation by injection of heat, preferably in the form of a thermal vapor stream composed of combustion gases and steam and injecting an acidic compound simultaneously with the thermal vapor stream into the formation at a temperature above the dew point of the thermal vapor stream. The acidic, thermal vapor stream increases the solubility of metal ions in connate water and thus reduces scaling in the downstream equipment during the production of viscous hydrocarbons.

  12. Advanced hybrid particulate collector and method of operation

    DOEpatents

    Miller, Stanley J.

    1999-01-01

    A device and method for controlling particulate air pollutants of the present invention combines filtration and electrostatic collection devices. The invention includes a chamber housing a plurality of rows of filter elements. Between each row of filter elements is a grounded plate. Between the grounded plates and the filter elements are electrode grids for creating electrostatic precipitation zones between each row of filter elements. In this way, when the filter elements are cleaned by pulsing air in a reverse direction, the dust removed from the bags will collect in the electrostatic precipitation zones rather than on adjacent filter elements.

  13. Advanced hybrid particulate collector and method of operation

    DOEpatents

    Miller, S.J.

    1999-08-17

    A device and method for controlling particulate air pollutants of the present invention combines filtration and electrostatic collection devices. The invention includes a chamber housing a plurality of rows of filter elements. Between each row of filter elements is a grounded plate. Between the grounded plates and the filter elements are electrode grids for creating electrostatic precipitation zones between each row of filter elements. In this way, when the filter elements are cleaned by pulsing air in a reverse direction, the dust removed from the bags will collect in the electrostatic precipitation zones rather than on adjacent filter elements. 12 figs.

  14. METHOD OF OPERATING A HEAVY WATER MODERATED REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Vernon, H.C.

    1962-08-14

    A method of removing fission products from the heavy water used in a slurry type nuclear reactor is described. According to the process the slurry is steam distilled with carbon tetrachloride so that at least a part of the heavy water and carbon tetrachloride are vaporized; the heavy water and carbon tetrachloride are separated; the carbon tetrachloride is returned to the steam distillation column at different points in the column to aid in depositing the slurry particles at the bottom of the column; and the heavy water portion of the condensate is purified. (AEC)

  15. Diagnostic Criteria for Problematic Internet Use among U.S. University Students: A Mixed-Methods Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wen; O’Brien, Jennifer E.; Snyder, Susan M.; Howard, Matthew O.

    2016-01-01

    Empirical studies have identified increasing rates of problematic Internet use worldwide and a host of related negative consequences. However, researchers disagree as to whether problematic Internet use is a subtype of behavioral addiction. Thus, there are not yet widely accepted and validated diagnostic criteria for problematic Internet use. To address this gap, we used mixed-methods to examine the extent to which signs and symptoms of problematic Internet use mirror DSM-5 diagnostic criteria for substance use disorder, gambling disorder, and Internet gaming disorder. A total of 27 university students, who self-identified as intensive Internet users and who reported Internet-use-associated health and/or psychosocial problems were recruited. Students completed two measures that assess problematic Internet use (Young’s Diagnostic Questionnaire and the Compulsive Internet Use Scale) and participated in focus groups exploring their experiences with problematic Internet use. Results of standardized measures and focus group discussions indicated substantial overlap between students’ experiences of problematic Internet use and the signs and symptoms reflected in the DSM-5 criteria for substance use disorder, gambling disorder, and Internet gaming disorder. These signs and symptoms included: a) use Internet longer than intended, b) preoccupation with the Internet, c) withdrawal symptoms when unable to access the Internet, d) unsuccessful attempts to stop or reduce Internet use, e) craving, f) loss of interest in hobbies or activities other than the Internet, g) excessive Internet use despite the knowledge of related problems, g) use of the Internet to escape or relieve a negative mood, and h) lying about Internet use. Tolerance, withdrawal symptoms, and recurrent Internet use in hazardous situations were uniquely manifested in the context of problematic Internet use. Implications for research and practice are discussed. PMID:26751569

  16. Methods Developed by the Tools for Engine Diagnostics Task to Monitor and Predict Rotor Damage in Real Time

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baaklini, George Y.; Smith, Kevin; Raulerson, David; Gyekenyesi, Andrew L.; Sawicki, Jerzy T.; Brasche, Lisa

    2003-01-01

    Tools for Engine Diagnostics is a major task in the Propulsion System Health Management area of the Single Aircraft Accident Prevention project under NASA s Aviation Safety Program. The major goal of the Aviation Safety Program is to reduce fatal aircraft accidents by 80 percent within 10 years and by 90 percent within 25 years. The goal of the Propulsion System Health Management area is to eliminate propulsion system malfunctions as a primary or contributing factor to the cause of aircraft accidents. The purpose of Tools for Engine Diagnostics, a 2-yr-old task, is to establish and improve tools for engine diagnostics and prognostics that measure the deformation and damage of rotating engine components at the ground level and that perform intermittent or continuous monitoring on the engine wing. In this work, nondestructive-evaluation- (NDE-) based technology is combined with model-dependent disk spin experimental simulation systems, like finite element modeling (FEM) and modal norms, to monitor and predict rotor damage in real time. Fracture mechanics time-dependent fatigue crack growth and damage-mechanics-based life estimation are being developed, and their potential use investigated. In addition, wireless eddy current and advanced acoustics are being developed for on-wing and just-in-time NDE engine inspection to provide deeper access and higher sensitivity to extend on-wing capabilities and improve inspection readiness. In the long run, these methods could establish a base for prognostic sensing while an engine is running, without any overt actions, like inspections. This damage-detection strategy includes experimentally acquired vibration-, eddy-current- and capacitance-based displacement measurements and analytically computed FEM-, modal norms-, and conventional rotordynamics-based models of well-defined damages and critical mass imbalances in rotating disks and rotors.

  17. Metagenomics of Two Severe Foodborne Outbreaks Provides Diagnostic Signatures and Signs of Coinfection Not Attainable by Traditional Methods.

    PubMed

    Huang, Andrew D; Luo, Chengwei; Pena-Gonzalez, Angela; Weigand, Michael R; Tarr, Cheryl L; Konstantinidis, Konstantinos T

    2017-02-01

    Diagnostic testing for foodborne pathogens relies on culture-based techniques that are not rapid enough for real-time disease surveillance and do not give a quantitative picture of pathogen abundance or the response of the natural microbiome. Powerful sequence-based culture-independent approaches, such as shotgun metagenomics, could sidestep these limitations and potentially reveal a pathogen-specific signature on the microbiome that would have implications not only for diagnostics but also for better understanding disease progression and pathogen ecology. However, metagenomics have not yet been validated for foodborne pathogen detection. Toward closing these gaps, we applied shotgun metagenomics to stool samples collected from two geographically isolated (Alabama and Colorado) foodborne outbreaks, where the etiologic agents were identified by culture-dependent methods as distinct strains of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Heidelberg. Metagenomic investigations were consistent with the culture-based findings and revealed, in addition, the in situ abundance and level of intrapopulation diversity of the pathogen, the possibility of coinfections with Staphylococcus aureus, overgrowth of commensal Escherichia coli, and significant shifts in the gut microbiome during infection relative to reference healthy samples. Additionally, we designed our bioinformatics pipeline to deal with several challenges associated with the analysis of clinical samples, such as the high frequency of coeluting human DNA sequences and assessment of the virulence potential of pathogens. Comparisons of these results to those of other studies revealed that in several, but not all, cases of diarrheal outbreaks, the disease and healthy states of the gut microbial community might be distinguishable, opening new possibilities for diagnostics.

  18. Diagnostic Criteria for Problematic Internet Use among U.S. University Students: A Mixed-Methods Evaluation.

    PubMed

    Li, Wen; O'Brien, Jennifer E; Snyder, Susan M; Howard, Matthew O

    2016-01-01

    Empirical studies have identified increasing rates of problematic Internet use worldwide and a host of related negative consequences. However, researchers disagree as to whether problematic Internet use is a subtype of behavioral addiction. Thus, there are not yet widely accepted and validated diagnostic criteria for problematic Internet use. To address this gap, we used mixed-methods to examine the extent to which signs and symptoms of problematic Internet use mirror DSM-5 diagnostic criteria for substance use disorder, gambling disorder, and Internet gaming disorder. A total of 27 university students, who self-identified as intensive Internet users and who reported Internet-use-associated health and/or psychosocial problems were recruited. Students completed two measures that assess problematic Internet use (Young's Diagnostic Questionnaire and the Compulsive Internet Use Scale) and participated in focus groups exploring their experiences with problematic Internet use. Results of standardized measures and focus group discussions indicated substantial overlap between students' experiences of problematic Internet use and the signs and symptoms reflected in the DSM-5 criteria for substance use disorder, gambling disorder, and Internet gaming disorder. These signs and symptoms included: a) use Internet longer than intended, b) preoccupation with the Internet, c) withdrawal symptoms when unable to access the Internet, d) unsuccessful attempts to stop or reduce Internet use, e) craving, f) loss of interest in hobbies or activities other than the Internet, g) excessive Internet use despite the knowledge of related problems, g) use of the Internet to escape or relieve a negative mood, and h) lying about Internet use. Tolerance, withdrawal symptoms, and recurrent Internet use in hazardous situations were uniquely manifested in the context of problematic Internet use. Implications for research and practice are discussed.

  19. Molecular methods for pathogen and microbial community detection and characterization: current and potential application in diagnostic microbiology.

    PubMed

    Sibley, Christopher D; Peirano, Gisele; Church, Deirdre L

    2012-04-01

    Clinical microbiology laboratories worldwide have historically relied on phenotypic methods (i.e., culture and biochemical tests) for detection, identification and characterization of virulence traits (e.g., antibiotic resistance genes, toxins) of human pathogens. However, limitations to implementation of molecular methods for human infectious diseases testing are being rapidly overcome allowing for the clinical evaluation and implementation of diverse technologies with expanding diagnostic capabilities. The advantages and limitation of molecular techniques including real-time polymerase chain reaction, partial or whole genome sequencing, molecular typing, microarrays, broad-range PCR and multiplexing will be discussed. Finally, terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) and deep sequencing are introduced as technologies at the clinical interface with the potential to dramatically enhance our ability to diagnose infectious diseases and better define the epidemiology and microbial ecology of a wide range of complex infections.

  20. Depression and suicidal behavior in adolescents: a multi-informant and multi-methods approach to diagnostic classification

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Andrew J.; Bertino, Melanie D.; Bailey, Catherine M.; Skewes, Joanna; Lubman, Dan I.; Toumbourou, John W.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Informant discrepancies have been reported between parent and adolescent measures of depressive disorders and suicidality. We aimed to examine the concordance between adolescent and parent ratings of depressive disorder using both clinical interview and questionnaire measures and assess multi-informant and multi-method approaches to classification. Method: Within the context of assessment of eligibility for a randomized clinical trial, 50 parent–adolescent pairs (mean age of adolescents = 15.0 years) were interviewed separately with a structured diagnostic interview for depression, the KID-SCID. Adolescent self-report and parent-report versions of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire, the Short Mood and Feelings Questionnaire and the Depressive Experiences Questionnaire were also administered. We examined the diagnostic concordance rates of the parent vs. adolescent structured interview methods and the prediction of adolescent diagnosis via questionnaire methods. Results: Parent proxy reporting of adolescent depression and suicidal thoughts and behavior is not strongly concordant with adolescent report. Adolescent self-reported symptoms on depression scales provide a more accurate report of diagnosable adolescent depression than parent proxy reports of adolescent depressive symptoms. Adolescent self-report measures can be combined to improve the accuracy of classification. Parents tend to over report their adolescent’s depressive symptoms while under reporting their suicidal thoughts and behavior. Conclusion: Parent proxy report is clearly less reliable than the adolescent’s own report of their symptoms and subjective experiences, and could be considered inaccurate for research purposes. While parent report would still be sought clinically where an adolescent refuses to provide information, our findings suggest that parent reporting of adolescent suicidality should be interpreted with caution. PMID:25101031

  1. Evaluation of ride quality prediction methods for operational military helicopters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leatherwood, J. D.; Clevenson, S. A.; Hollenbaugh, D. D.

    1984-01-01

    The results of a simulator study conducted to compare and validate various ride quality prediction methods for use in assessing passenger/crew ride comfort within helicopters are presented. Included are results quantifying 35 helicopter pilots' discomfort responses to helicopter interior noise and vibration typical of routine flights, assessment of various ride quality metrics including the NASA ride comfort model, and examination of possible criteria approaches. Results of the study indicated that crew discomfort results from a complex interaction between vibration and interior noise. Overall measures such as weighted or unweighted root-mean-square acceleration level and A-weighted noise level were not good predictors of discomfort. Accurate prediction required a metric incorporating the interactive effects of both noise and vibration. The best metric for predicting crew comfort to the combined noise and vibration environment was the NASA discomfort index.

  2. Method and apparatus for operating on companded PCM voice data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Byrne, F. (Inventor)

    1986-01-01

    The method and apparatus constructed in accordance with this invention permits a plurality of parties to speak to each other on a conference line with a minimum of interference. The apparatus digitizes audio signals. Each of the parties has an audio transmitter and receiver provided for transmitting and receiving audio signals. The audio signals are converted to a PCM companded eight-bit parallel signal followed by a conversion to a serial signal for transmitting to a remote location and then reconverting each of the companded signals to a first-eight-bit parallel signal. The eight-bit parallel signal is fed to one input of a pre-programmed ROM. This eight-bit signal provides one-half of a sixteen-bit address of a lookup ROM. The other half of the sixteen-bit ROM address is supplied by another suscriber over an identical circuit.

  3. Method for operating a coke quench tower scrubber system

    SciTech Connect

    Tennyson, R.P.

    1981-10-13

    A method of quenching coke and scrubbing the resulting gases is disclosed in which a supply of hot coke is placed in an enclosed tower having an open top and subjected to water deposited on it from above. The water is first passed through at least one layer of a liquid gas contact body formed of corrugated sheets of material arranged with the corrugations in each adjacent sheet crossing each other. This water passes in countercurrent relation to the gases rising from the quenched coke and, as a result, particulate matter, liquid drops and water-soluble vapors in the gases are removed in the contact body. The gases passing from the contact body are then passed through a mist-eliminator structure to remove water droplets therefrom.

  4. Determining skeletal maturation stage using cervical vertebrae: evaluation of three diagnostic methods.

    PubMed

    Jaqueira, Luci Mara Fachardo; Armond, Monica Costa; Pereira, Luciano José; Alcântara, Carlos Eduardo Pinto de; Marques, Leandro Silva

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare the use of three cervical vertebral evaluation methods (Hassel-Farman, Baccetti et al., and Seedat-Forsberg) for determinating skeletal maturation stage in orthodontic patients. Twenty-three radiographs were randomly selected from a private orthodontic practice. Each radiograph was analyzed on three separate occasions by four evaluators (one radiologist and three orthodontists), who determined the skeletal maturation stage using the references established by each of the three methods. Intraevaluator and interevaluator comparisons were performed, and the degree of agreement was established using the weighted Kappa coefficient (95% CI). Good agreement (Kappa between 0.61 and 0.80) was observed between the determinations of most of the evaluators. The three methods demonstrated clinical applicability. However, the method proposed by Baccetti et al. achieved the best results, followed by the Hassel-Farman and the Seedat-Forsberg methods.

  5. The method of optimization of neuro-based concurrent operations in neurocomputers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romanchuk, V. A.

    2017-02-01

    The article deals with the task of optimization of neuro-based concurrent operations to be implemented in neurocomputers. We define mathematical tools of this optimization that can employ the set-theoretic approach towards such concepts as task, operation, and microcommand. We consider segmentation and parallelization of operations as methods to use, depending on precedence relations among operations that constitute these segments. The task solution of optimization of neuro-based concurrent operations in neurocomputers can be applied to a whole class of neurocomputers, regardless of the manufacturer, the model or the product line, since we only address the general properties and principles of the neurocomputer operation. We select criteria and define methods of evaluating the effectiveness of parallelization of concurrent operations, when they are implemented in neurocomputers. We describe our empiric research in the form of a software system that automatically optimizes neuro-based concurrent operations in neurocomputers on the NP Studio platform.

  6. Solving evolutionary-type differential equations and physical problems using the operator method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhukovsky, K. V.

    2017-01-01

    We present a general operator method based on the advanced technique of the inverse derivative operator for solving a wide range of problems described by some classes of differential equations. We construct and use inverse differential operators to solve several differential equations. We obtain operator identities involving an inverse derivative operator, integral transformations, and generalized forms of orthogonal polynomials and special functions. We present examples of using the operator method to construct solutions of equations containing linear and quadratic forms of a pair of operators satisfying Heisenberg-type relations and solutions of various modifications of partial differential equations of the Fourier heat conduction type, Fokker-Planck type, Black-Scholes type, etc. We demonstrate using the operator technique to solve several physical problems related to the charge motion in quantum mechanics, heat propagation, and the dynamics of the beams in accelerators.

  7. Application of molecular diagnostic methods to penaeid shrimp diseases: advances of the past 10 years for control of viral diseases in farmed shrimp.

    PubMed

    Lightner, D V; Poulos, B T; Tang-Nelson, K F J; Pantoja, C R; Nunan, L M; Navarro, S A; Redman, R M; Mohney, L L

    2006-01-01

    The most important diseases of farmed penaeid shrimp have infectious aetiologies. Among these are diseases with viral, rickettsial, bacterial, fungal and parasitic aetiologies. Diagnostic methods for these pathogens include the traditional methods of gross pathology, histopathology, classical microbiology, animal bioassay, antibody-based methods, and molecular methods using DNA probes and DNA amplification. While methods using clinical chemistry and tissue culture are standard methods in veterinary and human diagnostic laboratories, the former has not been routinely applied to the diagnosis of penaeid shrimp diseases and the latter has yet to be developed, despite considerable research and development efforts that have spanned the past 40 years. No continuous shrimp cell lines, or lines from other crustaceans, have been developed. Hence, when molecular methods began to be routinely applied to the diagnosis of infectious diseases in humans and domestic animals in the mid- to late 1980s, the technology was applied to the diagnosis of certain important diseases of penaeid shrimp for which only classical diagnostic methods were previously available. A DNA hybridization assay for the parvovirus IHHNV was the first molecular test developed for a shrimp disease. This was followed within a year by the first PCR test for MBV, an important baculovirus disease of shrimp. Today, shrimp disease diagnostic laboratories routinely use molecular tests for diagnostic and surveillance purposes for most of the important penaeid shrimp diseases.

  8. Method and machine for high strength undiffused brushless operation

    DOEpatents

    Hsu, John S.

    2003-06-03

    A brushless electric machine (30) having a stator (31) and a rotor (32) and a main air gap (34), the rotor (32) having pairs of rotor pole portions (22b, 22c, 32f, 32l) disposed at least partly around the axis of rotation (32p) and facing the main air gap (24b, 24c, 34), at least one stationary winding (20b, 20c, 33b) separated from the rotor (22b, 22c, 32) by a secondary air gap (23b, 23c, 35) so as to induce a rotor-side flux in the rotor (22b, 22c, 32) which controls a resultant flux in the main air gap (24b, 24c, 34). PM material (27b, 27c) is disposed in spaces between the rotor pole portions (22b, 22c, 32f, 32l) to inhibit the rotor-side flux from leaking from said pole portions (22b, 22c, 32f, 32l) prior to reaching the main air gap (24b, 24c, 34). By selecting the direction of current in the stationary winding (20b, 20c, 33b) both flux enhancement and flux weakening are provided for the main air gap (24b, 24c, 34). The stationary windings (31a, 33b) which are used for both primary and secondary excitation allow for easier adaptation to cooling systems as described. A method of non-diffused flux enhancement and flux weakening is also disclosed.

  9. Method of evaluating fluid loss in subsurface fracturing operations

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, W.S.; McMechan, D.E.; McDaniel, B.M.

    1993-08-31

    A method is described for evaluating characteristics of a subsurface formation fracturing program, comprising the steps of: pumping fluid into said formation for a first pumping time; shutting in said formation for a first shut-in time to establish a first set of pressure decline data; determining a fluid efficiency for said formation from said first pumping time and said first shut-in time; pumping fluid into said formation for a second pumping time to reopen said fracture; shutting in said formation for a second shut-in time to determine a second set of pressure decline data; determining a late time fluid loss coefficient in response to said second set of pressure decline data; determining an early time fluid loss coefficient in response to formation and fracturing fluid parameters; utilizing said determined early time fluid loss coefficient and said late time fluid loss coefficient to estimate a maximum spurt time; functionally relating said estimated spurt time to said determined early time fluid loss coefficient to estimate a spurt volume for said formation; and functionally relating said determined early time fluid loss coefficient and said established spurt time to said determined fluid efficiency in a balance relationship to establish a margin of error in said balance relationship; and iteratively changing said first-determined spurt time in response to said established margin of error, and interatively re-determining said spurt volume until a predetermined tolerance in said balance relationship is achieved.

  10. WASTE PACKAGE OPERATIONS FY99 CLOSURE METHODS REPORT

    SciTech Connect

    M. C. Knapp

    1999-09-23

    The waste package (WP) closure weld development task is part of a larger engineering development program to develop waste package designs. The purpose of the larger waste package engineering development program is to develop nuclear waste package fabrication and closure methods that the Nuclear Regulatory Commission will find acceptable and will license for disposal of spent nuclear fuel (SNF), non-fuel components, and vitrified high-level waste within a Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR). Within the WP closure development program are several major development tasks, which, in turn, are divided into subtasks. The major tasks include: WP fabrication development, WP closure weld development, nondestructive examination (NDE) development, and remote in-service inspection development. The purpose of this report is to present the objectives, technical information, and work scope relating to the WP closure weld development.and NDE tasks and subtasks and to report results of the closure weld and NDE development programs for fiscal year 1999 (FY-99). The objective of the FY-99 WP closure weld development task was to develop requirements for closure weld surface and volumetric NDE performance demonstrations, investigate alternative NDE inspection techniques, and develop specifications for welding, NDE, and handling system integration. In addition, objectives included fabricating several flat plate mock-ups that could be used for NDE development, stress relief peening, corrosion testing, and residual stress testing.

  11. CONCEPTUAL MODELS AND METHODS TO GUIDE DIAGNOSTIC RESEARCH INTO CAUSES OF IMPAIRMENT TO AQUATIC ECOSYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Methods and conceptual models to guide the development of tools for diagnosing the causes of biological impairment within aquatic ecosystems of the United States are described in this report. The conceptual models developed here address nutrients, suspended and bedded sediments (...

  12. Pattern classification approach to rocket engine diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    Tulpule, S.

    1989-01-01

    This paper presents a systems level approach to integrate state-of-the-art rocket engine technology with advanced computational techniques to develop an integrated diagnostic system (IDS) for future rocket propulsion systems. The key feature of this IDS is the use of advanced diagnostic algorithms for failure detection as opposed to the current practice of redline-based failure detection methods. The paper presents a top-down analysis of rocket engine diagnostic requirements, rocket engine operation, applicable diagnostic algorithms, and algorithm design techniques, which serve as a basis for the IDS. The concepts of hierarchical, model-based information processing are described, together with the use uf signal processing, pattern recognition, and artificial intelligence techniques which are an integral part of this diagnostic system. 27 refs.

  13. A unified treatment of some perturbed fixed point iterative methods with an infinite pool of operators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikazad, Touraj; Abbasi, Mokhtar

    2017-04-01

    In this paper, we introduce a subclass of strictly quasi-nonexpansive operators which consists of well-known operators as paracontracting operators (e.g., strictly nonexpansive operators, metric projections, Newton and gradient operators), subgradient projections, a useful part of cutter operators, strictly relaxed cutter operators and locally strongly Féjer operators. The members of this subclass, which can be discontinuous, may be employed by fixed point iteration methods; in particular, iterative methods used in convex feasibility problems. The closedness of this subclass, with respect to composition and convex combination of operators, makes it useful and remarkable. Another advantage with members of this subclass is the possibility to adapt them to handle convex constraints. We give convergence result, under mild conditions, for a perturbation resilient iterative method which is based on an infinite pool of operators in this subclass. The perturbation resilient iterative methods are relevant and important for their possible use in the framework of the recently developed superiorization methodology for constrained minimization problems. To assess the convergence result, the class of operators and the assumed conditions, we illustrate some extensions of existence research works and some new results.

  14. PERFORMING DIAGNOSTICS ON THE SPALLATION NEUTRON SOURCE VISION BEAM LINE TO ELIMINATE HIGH VIBRATION LEVELS AND PROVIDE A SUSTAINABLE OPERATION

    SciTech Connect

    Van Hoy, Blake W

    2014-01-01

    The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) provides variable energy neutrons for a variety of experiments. The neutrons proceed down beam lines to the experiment hall, which houses a variety of experiments and test articles. Each beam line has one or more neutron choppers which filter the neutron beam based on the neutron energy by using a rotating neutron absorbing material passing through the neutron beam. Excessive vibration of the Vision beam line, believed to be caused by the T0 chopper, prevented the Vision beam line from operating at full capacity. This problem had been addressed several times by rebalancing/reworking the T0 beam chopper but the problem stubbornly persisted. To determine the cause of the high vibration, dynamic testing was performed. Twenty-seven accelerometer and motor current channels of data were collected during drive up, drive down, coast down, and steady-state conditions; resonance testing and motor current signature analysis were also performed. The data was analyzed for traditional mechanical/machinery issues such as misalignment and imbalance using time series analysis, frequency domain analysis, and operating deflection shape analysis. The analysis showed that the chopper base plate was experiencing an amplified response to the excitation provided by the T0 beam chopper. The amplified response was diagnosed to be caused by higher than expected base plate flexibility, possibly due to improper grouting or loose floor anchors. Based on this diagnosis, a decision was made to dismantle the beam line chopper and remount the base plate. Neutron activation of the beam line components make modifications to the beam line especially expensive and time consuming due to the radiation handling requirements, so this decision had significant financial and schedule implications. It was found that the base plate was indeed loose because of improper grouting during its initial installation. The base plate was

  15. Methods for continuous direct carbon fuel cell operation with a circulating electrolyte slurry

    DOEpatents

    Harjes, Daniel I.; Dineen, Jr., D. Andrew; Guo, Liang; Calo, Joseph M.; Bloomfield, Valerie J.

    2017-02-07

    The present invention relates to methods and systems related to fuel cells, and in particular, to direct carbon fuel cells. The methods and systems relate to cleaning and removal of components utilized and produced during operation of the fuel cell, regeneration of components utilized during operation of the fuel cell, and generating power using the fuel cell.

  16. A Manual of Simplified Laboratory Methods for Operators of Wastewater Treatment Facilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westerhold, Arnold F., Ed.; Bennett, Ernest C., Ed.

    This manual is designed to provide the small wastewater treatment plant operator, as well as the new or inexperienced operator, with simplified methods for laboratory analysis of water and wastewater. It is emphasized that this manual is not a replacement for standard methods but a guide for plants with insufficient equipment to perform analyses…

  17. Comparison of the diagnostic accuracy, sensitivity and specificity of four odontological methods for age evaluation in Italian children at the age threshold of 14 years using ROC curves.

    PubMed

    Pinchi, Vilma; Pradella, Francesco; Vitale, Giulia; Rugo, Dario; Nieri, Michele; Norelli, Gian-Aristide

    2016-01-01

    The age threshold of 14 years is relevant in Italy as the minimum age for criminal responsibility. It is of utmost importance to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of every odontological method for age evaluation considering the sensitivity, or the ability to estimate the true positive cases, and the specificity, or the ability to estimate the true negative cases. The research aims to compare the specificity and sensitivity of four commonly adopted methods of dental age estimation - Demirjian, Haavikko, Willems and Cameriere - in a sample of Italian children aged between 11 and 16 years, with an age threshold of 14 years, using receiver operating characteristic curves and the area under the curve (AUC). In addition, new decision criteria are developed to increase the accuracy of the methods. Among the four odontological methods for age estimation adopted in the research, the Cameriere method showed the highest AUC in both female and male cohorts. The Cameriere method shows a high degree of accuracy at the age threshold of 14 years. To adopt the Cameriere method to estimate the 14-year age threshold more accurately, however, it is suggested - according to the Youden index - that the decision criterion be set at the lower value of 12.928 for females and 13.258 years for males, obtaining a sensitivity of 85% and specificity of 88% in females, and a sensitivity of 77% and specificity of 92% in males. If a specificity level >90% is needed, the cut-off point should be set at 12.959 years (82% sensitivity) for females.

  18. A high-throughput diagnostic method for measuring human exposure to organophosphorus nerve agents.

    PubMed

    Knaack, Jennifer S; Zhou, Yingtao; Abney, Carter W; Jacob, Justin T; Prezioso, Samantha M; Hardy, Katelyn; Lemire, Sharon W; Thomas, Jerry; Johnson, Rudolph C

    2012-11-06

    An automated high-throughput immunomagnetic separation (IMS) method for diagnosing exposure to the organophosphorus nerve agents (OPNAs) sarin (GB), cyclohexylsarin (GF), VX, and Russian VX (RVX) was developed to increase sample processing capacity for emergency response applications. Diagnosis of exposure to OPNAs was based on the formation of OPNA adducts to butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE). Data reported with this method represent a ratio of the agent-specific BuChE adduct concentration, relative to the total BuChE peptide concentration that provides a nonactivity measurement expressed as percent adducted. All magnetic bead transfer steps and washes were performed using instrumentation in a 96-well format allowing for simultaneous extraction of 86 clinical samples plus reference materials. Automating extractions increased sample throughput 50-fold, as compared to a previously reported manual method. The limits of detection, determined using synthetic peptides, were 1 ng/mL for unadducted BuChE and GB-, GF-, VX-, and RVX-adducted BuChE. The automated method was characterized using unexposed serum and serum pools exposed to GB, GF, VX, or RVX. Variation for the measurement of percent adducted was <12% for all characterized quality control serum pools. Twenty-six (26) serum samples from individuals asymptomatic for cholinesterase inhibitor exposure were analyzed using this method, and no background levels of OPNA exposure were observed. Unexposed BuChE serum concentrations measured using this method ranged from 2.8 μg/mL to 10.6 μg/mL, with an average concentration of 6.4 μg/mL.

  19. Diagnostic accuracy of Kato-Katz, FLOTAC, Baermann, and PCR methods for the detection of light-intensity hookworm and Strongyloides stercoralis infections in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Knopp, Stefanie; Salim, Nahya; Schindler, Tobias; Karagiannis Voules, Dimitrios A; Rothen, Julian; Lweno, Omar; Mohammed, Alisa S; Singo, Raymond; Benninghoff, Myrna; Nsojo, Anthony A; Genton, Blaise; Daubenberger, Claudia

    2014-03-01

    Sensitive diagnostic tools are crucial for an accurate assessment of helminth infections in low-endemicity areas. We examined stool samples from Tanzanian individuals and compared the diagnostic accuracy of a real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with the FLOTAC technique and the Kato-Katz method for hookworm and the Baermann method for Strongyloides stercoralis detection. Only FLOTAC had a higher sensitivity than the Kato-Katz method for hookworm diagnosis; the sensitivities of PCR and the Kato-Katz method were equal. PCR had a very low sensitivity for S. stercoralis detection. The cycle threshold values of the PCR were negatively correlated with the logarithm of hookworm egg and S. stercoralis larvae counts. The median larvae count was significantly lower in PCR false negatives than true positives. All methods failed to detect very low-intensity infections. New diagnostic approaches are needed for monitoring of progressing helminth control programs, confirmation of elimination, or surveillance of disease recrudescence.

  20. Diagnostic Accuracy of Kato–Katz, FLOTAC, Baermann, and PCR Methods for the Detection of Light-Intensity Hookworm and Strongyloides stercoralis Infections in Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Knopp, Stefanie; Salim, Nahya; Schindler, Tobias; Karagiannis Voules, Dimitrios A.; Rothen, Julian; Lweno, Omar; Mohammed, Alisa S.; Singo, Raymond; Benninghoff, Myrna; Nsojo, Anthony A.; Genton, Blaise; Daubenberger, Claudia

    2014-01-01

    Sensitive diagnostic tools are crucial for an accurate assessment of helminth infections in low-endemicity areas. We examined stool samples from Tanzanian individuals and compared the diagnostic accuracy of a real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with the FLOTAC technique and the Kato–Katz method for hookworm and the Baermann method for Strongyloides stercoralis detection. Only FLOTAC had a higher sensitivity than the Kato–Katz method for hookworm diagnosis; the sensitivities of PCR and the Kato–Katz method were equal. PCR had a very low sensitivity for S. stercoralis detection. The cycle threshold values of the PCR were negatively correlated with the logarithm of hookworm egg and S. stercoralis larvae counts. The median larvae count was significantly lower in PCR false negatives than true positives. All methods failed to detect very low-intensity infections. New diagnostic approaches are needed for monitoring of progressing helminth control programs, confirmation of elimination, or surveillance of disease recrudescence. PMID:24445211

  1. Operations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkins, Jesse L. M.; Norton, Anderson; Boyce, Steven J.

    2013-01-01

    Previous research has documented schemes and operations that undergird students' understanding of fractions. This prior research was based, in large part, on small-group teaching experiments. However, written assessments are needed in order for teachers and researchers to assess students' ways of operating on a whole-class scale. In this study,…

  2. New analysis methods to push the boundaries of diagnostic techniques in the environmental sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lungaroni, M.; Murari, A.; Peluso, E.; Gelfusa, M.; Malizia, A.; Vega, J.; Talebzadeh, S.; Gaudio, P.

    2016-04-01

    In the last years, new and more sophisticated measurements have been at the basis of the major progress in various disciplines related to the environment, such as remote sensing and thermonuclear fusion. To maximize the effectiveness of the measurements, new data analysis techniques are required. First data processing tasks, such as filtering and fitting, are of primary importance, since they can have a strong influence on the rest of the analysis. Even if Support Vector Regression is a method devised and refined at the end of the 90s, a systematic comparison with more traditional non parametric regression methods has never been reported. In this paper, a series of systematic tests is described, which indicates how SVR is a very competitive method of non-parametric regression that can usefully complement and often outperform more consolidated approaches. The performance of Support Vector Regression as a method of filtering is investigated first, comparing it with the most popular alternative techniques. Then Support Vector Regression is applied to the problem of non-parametric regression to analyse Lidar surveys for the environments measurement of particulate matter due to wildfires. The proposed approach has given very positive results and provides new perspectives to the interpretation of the data.

  3. [Baroreflex sensitivity: diagnostic importance, methods of determination and a model of baroreflex blood-pressure regulation].

    PubMed

    Svacinová, J; Moudr, J; Honzíková, N

    2013-01-01

    Baroreflex regulation of blood pressure primarily moderates its fluctuations and also affects mean blood pressure. Heart rate baroreflex sensitivity is described as changes of the inter-beat interval induced by a change of blood pressure of 1 mmHg (BRS). BRS is decreased in many cardiovascular diseases (hypertension, diabetes mellitus, obesity, cardiac failure, etc.). Decreased BRS in disposed individuals, especially after myocardial infarction, increases the risk of sudden cardiac death. Therefore, early diagnosis of BRS decrease gains in importance. This article describes different methods of determination of baroreflex sensitivity. The methods are based on evaluation of the spontaneous fluctuation of heart rate and blood pressure (spectral, sequential or nonlinear methods), or of primary changes of blood pressure induced by a vasoactive substance or a physiological manoeuvre and corresponding changes of cardiac intervals (Valsalva manoeuvre, phenylephrine administration). Each method has its advantages and disadvantages resulting from a different difficulty of calculation or from inclusion of different deviations in the results, which are not directly linked with baroreflex. Baroreflex regulating total peripheral resistance is less described. A mathematical model of baroreflex blood pressure regulation by fluctuation of heart rate and peripheral resistance is presented in this paper.

  4. Diagnostic methods for and clinical pictures of polyomavirus primary infections in children, Finland.

    PubMed

    Chen, Tingting; Tanner, Laura; Simell, Ville; Hedman, Lea; Mäkinen, Marjaana; Sadeghi, Mohammadreza; Veijola, Riitta; Hyöty, Heikki; Ilonen, Jorma; Knip, Mikael; Toppari, Jorma; Simell, Olli; Söderlund-Venermo, Maria; Hedman, Klaus

    2014-04-01

    We used comprehensive serodiagnostic methods (IgM, IgG, and IgG avidity) and PCR to study Merkel cell polyomavirus and trichodysplasia spinulosa-associated polyomavirus infections in children observed from infancy to adolescence. Comparing seroconversion intervals with previous and subsequent intervals, we found that primary infections with these 2 viruses were asymptomatic in childhood.

  5. Approach for Wide Use of Diagnostic Method for XLPE Cables Using Harmonics in AC Loss Current

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsujimoto, Tomiyuki; Nakade, Masahiko; Yagi, Yukihiro; Ishii, Noboru

    Water tree is one of the degradation aspects of XLPE cables used for under-ground distribution or transmission lines. We have developed the loss current method using 3rd harmonic in AC loss current for cable diagnosis. Harmonic components in loss current arise as a result of the non-linear voltage-current characteristics of water trees. We confirmed that the 3rd harmonic in AC loss current had good correlation with water tree growth and break down strength. After that, we have applied this method to the actual 66kV XLPE cable lines. Up to now, the number of the application results is more than 130 lines. In case of cable lines terminated at gas-insulated switchgear (GIS), we have to remove the lightning arrestor (LA) and the potential transformer (PT) out of the test circuit. The reason is that we are afraid that each of LA and PT disturbs the degradation signal from cable lines. It takes extra time (1 or 2 days) and costs more to remove LA and PT in GIS out of a circuit. In order to achieve easy and reasonable diagnosis, we have developed a new method for cable lines terminated at GIS, by utilizing a technique, which enables to reduce signal of LA and PT from disturbed signal of cable lines. We confirmed the effect of the new method by experiments with actual cables.

  6. Diagnostic Accuracy of the Small Membrane Filtration Method for Diagnosis of Pulmonary Tuberculosis in a High-HIV-Prevalence Setting

    PubMed Central

    Boum, Yap; Kim, Soyeon; Orikiriza, Patrick; Acuña-Villaorduña, Carlos; Vinhas, Solange; Bonnet, Maryline; Nyehangane, Dan; Mwanga-Amumpaire, Juliet; Fennelly, Kevin P.

    2016-01-01

    Sputum acid-fast bacilli (AFB) smear microscopy has suboptimal sensitivity but remains the most commonly used laboratory test to diagnose pulmonary tuberculosis (TB). We prospectively evaluated the small membrane filtration (SMF) method that concentrates AFB in a smaller area to facilitate detection to improve the diagnostic performance of microscopy. We enrolled adults with suspicion of pulmonary TB from health facilities in southwestern Uganda. Clinical history, physical examination, and 3 sputum samples were obtained for direct fluorescent AFB smear, SMF, Xpert MTB/RIF, and MGIT culture media. Sensitivity and specificity were estimated for SMF, AFB smear, and Xpert MTB/RIF, using MGIT as the reference standard. The analysis was stratified according to HIV status. From September 2012 to April 2014, 737 participants were included in the HIV-infected stratum (146 [20.5%] were culture positive) and 313 were in the HIV-uninfected stratum (85 [28%] were culture positive). In HIV-infected patients, the sensitivity of a single SMF was 67.4% (95% confidence interval [CI], 59.9% to 74.1%); for AFB, 68.0% (95% CI, 60.6% to 74.6%); and for Xpert MTB/RIF, 91.0% (95% CI, 85.0% to 94.8%). In HIV-uninfected patients, the corresponding sensitivities were 72.5% (95% CI, 62.1% to 80.9%), 80.3% (95% CI, 70.8% to 87.2%), and 93.5% (95% CI, 85.7% to 97.2%). The specificity for all 3 tests in both HIV groups was ≥96%. In this setting, the SMF method did not improve the diagnostic accuracy of sputum AFB. The Xpert MTB/RIF assay performed well in both HIV-infected and -uninfected groups. PMID:27030493

  7. Instantaneous phasor method for obtaining instantaneous balanced fundamental components for power quality control and continuous diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    Hsu, J.S.

    1997-07-01

    This paper introduces an instantaneous phasor method that considers three phases simultaneously. This method produces the instantaneous fundamental balanced components of the polluted voltages or currents. A figure shows three-phase voltages that contain 5% of fundamental magnitude for each order of the 3rd, 5th, 7th, 9th and the 11th harmonics, respectively. Additionally, the voltages have 5% unbalance for all voltage components. A 10% fundamental-frequency zero-sequence component, as well as a 10% fundamental-frequency negative-sequence component are also added to the phase voltages. Furthermore, certain high-frequency pulses arbitrarily given at 5% of a 35th order to represent a possible carrier frequency of power electronic circuits are also included.

  8. Diagnostics of Susabi-nori (Porphyra Yezoensis) by Laser-Induced Fluorescence Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okamoto, Tamotsu; Nakamura, Yuki; Takahashi, Kunio; Kaneko, Shohei; Shimada, Yuji

    Susabi-nori (Porphyra yezoensis) was diagnosed by means of laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) method. Fluorescence peaks located at approximately 580, 660, 685 and 720 nm were observed in the LIF spectra of Susabi-nori. In the spectrum of the sample infected with the red rot disease, the intensity of 580 nm peak was relatively high as compared with that of the control sample. On the other hand, the intensities of 580 nm and 660 nm peaks drastically decreased by the influence of the chytrid disease. Furthermore, the intensity of the 580 nm peak increased by dipping into fresh water. These results indicate that LIF spectra of Susabi-nori are affected by the diseases and the stress of fresh water and that the diseases and the stress of Susabi-nori can be diagnosed by the LIF method.

  9. Optimization of parodontium tissue irradiation method for fluorescent diagnostic (FD) and photodynamic therapy (PDT)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinyaeva, Maria L.; Mamedov, Ad. A.; Lervkin, V. V.; Kharnas, Sergey S.; Volkova, Anna I.; Loschenov, Victor B.; Berezin, Anatoly N.; Kiselev, Gennady L.

    2004-06-01

    During the last several years research activities have been conducted to study PDT availability in stomatology for pathogenic microflora suppression, which presence causes different kinds of oral cavity inflammatory disease. Studies indicate that PDT can be alternative to traditional antibiotic therapy. We carried out research in order to determine the optimal method of tooth irradiation to provide necessary therapeutic radiation dose for affected parodontium tissue in case of inflammatory disease. These data can be used for fiber-optic catheter positioning for further influence on oral cavity nidus of inflammation during PDT and PD. 20 teeth ex vivo were examined. Teeth were irradiated with diode laser (680 nm). In different teeth regions laser radiation intensity was measured by LESA-01-Biospec spectrometer. Optimal radiation method for PDT and PD was found.

  10. Diagnostic imaging in the planning and monitoring of limb lengthening by the Ilizarov method.

    PubMed

    Swiatkowski, Jan; Zarek, Sławomir; Macias, Jarosław

    2002-06-30

    Limb lengthening is a long and complicated process, and therefore requires monitoring by use of imaging methods. In planning the application of the Ilizarov method, it is essential to consider the pathology as a whole, and not merely the individual symptoms. This is particularly important in generalized defect on bone formation. The baseline clinical and radiological evaluation should elucidate the etiology of deformations and the extent of changes. Routine X ray examinations during limb lengthening (apart from baseline and immediate post-surgery) should be performed after two and four weeks of distraction, and then every month until the Ilizarov apparatus is removed. Bone cross-sections obtained in CT scans enable the evaluation of the rate of bone regeneration and the reconstruction of tubular bone shape. In doubtful situations CT scans of the regenerated bone three months after removal of the apparatus are also recommended.

  11. Effect of operating conditions in production of diagnostic Salmonella Enteritidis O-antigen-specific monoclonal antibody in different bioreactor systems.

    PubMed

    Ayyildiz-Tamis, Duygu; Nalbantsoy, Ayse; Elibol, Murat; Deliloglu-Gurhan, Saime Ismet

    2014-01-01

    In this study, different cultivation systems such as roller bottles (RB), 5-L stirred-tank bioreactor (STR), and disposable bioreactors were used to cultivate hybridoma for lab-scale production of Salmonella Enteritidis O-antigen-specific monoclonal antibody (MAb). Hybridoma cell line was cultivated in either serum-containing or serum-free medium (SFM) culture conditions. In STR, MAb production scaled up to 4 L, and production capabilities of the cells were also evaluated in different featured production systems. Moreover, the growth parameters of the cells in all production systems such as glucose consumption, lactate and ammonia production, and also MAb productivities were determined. Collected supernatants from the reactors were concentrated by a cross-flow filtration system. In conclusion, cells were not adapted to SFM in RB and STR. Therefore, less MAb titer in both STR and RB systems with SFM was observed compared to the cultures containing fetal bovine serum-supplemented medium. A higher MAb titer was gained in the membrane-aerated system compared to those in STR and RB. Although the highest MAb titer was obtained in the static membrane bioreactor system, the highest productivity was obtained in STR operated in semicontinuous mode with overlay aeration.

  12. [Diagnostics and new treatment methods of syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH)].

    PubMed

    Trolle, Christian; Rittig, Søren; Frøkjær, Jørgen; Jørgensen, Jens Otto Lunde

    2012-04-09

    New treatment methods of syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH) has emerged with the oral vasopressin V2-receptor antagonist (VV2RA) tolvaptan, but its therapeutic window remains to be defined. We present the scientific data and describe treatment possibilities of SIADH while raising the questions: "Does the present evidence enable us to identify who to treat with VV2RAs?" and "is VV2RAs justified as first-line treatment?".

  13. TaqMan Chemistry for Phytophthora ramorum Detection and Quantification, with a Comparison of Diagnostic Methods.

    PubMed

    Hayden, Katherine; Ivors, Kelly; Wilkinson, Carla; Garbelotto, Matteo

    2006-08-01

    ABSTRACT The choice of detection method for phytopathogens can be critically important in determining the success or failure of pest regulation systems. We present an assay for Phytophthora ramorum that uses 5' fluorogenic exonuclease (TaqMan) chemistry to detect and quantify the pathogen from diseased tissue, and include a universal primer and probe set for an internal positive control. This method is sensitive, detecting as little as 15 fg of target DNA when used in a nested design or 50 fg when used in a single round of polymerase chain reaction. None of the 17 other Phytophthora spp. tested was amplified by this assay. A comparison of the nested and non-nested TaqMan assays, and of one other nested assay, showed nested methods to be significantly more sensitive than nonnested and showed that host substrate significantly affected sensitivity of all assays. The nested TaqMan protocol was successfully field-tested; P. ramorum was detected in 255 of 874 plants in California woodlands, whereas the single-round TaqMan protocol detected significantly fewer positive samples. Finally, we documented increases in the quantity of pathogen DNA in Umbellularia californica leaves in initial stages of infection.

  14. Contrast-enhanced ultrasound in ovarian tumors – diagnostic parameters: method presentation and initial experience

    PubMed Central

    MAXIM, ANITA-ROXANA; BADEA, RADU; TAMAS, ATILLA; TRAILA, ALEXANDRU

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to discuss and illustrate the use of contrast-enhanced ultrasound in evaluating ovarian tumors compared to conventional ultrasound, Doppler ultrasound and the histopathological analysis and suggest how this technique may best be used to distinguish benign from malignant ovarian masses. We present the method and initial experience of our center by analyzing the parameters used in contrast-enhanced ultrasound in 6 patients with ovarian tumors of uncertain etiology. For examination we used a Siemens ultrasound machine with dedicated contrast software and the contrast agent SonoVue, Bracco. The patients underwent conventional ultrasound, Doppler ultrasound and i.v. administration of the contrast agent. The parameters studied were: inflow of contrast (rise time), time to peak enhancement, mean transit time. The series of patients is part of an extensive prospective PhD study aimed at elaborating a differential diagnosis protocol for benign versus malignant ovarian tumors, by validating specific parameters for contrast-enhanced ultrasound. Although the method is currently used with great success in gastroenterology, urology and senology, its validation in gynecology is still in the early phases. Taking into consideration that the method is minimally invasive and much less costly that CT/MRI imaging, demonstrating its utility in oncologic gynecology would be a big step in preoperative evaluation of these cases. PMID:26527912

  15. Methods for improved selectivity in photo-activation and detection of molecular diagnostic agents

    DOEpatents

    Wachter, Eric A.; Fisher, Walter G.; Dees, H. Craig

    2008-03-18

    A method for the imaging of a particular volume of plant or animal tissue, wherein the plant or animal tissue contains at least one photo-active molecular agent. The method comprises the steps of treating the particular volume of the plant or animal tissue with light sufficient to promote a simultaneous two-photon excitation of the photo-active molecular agent contained in the particular volume of the plant or animal tissue, photo-activating at least one of the at least one photo-active molecular agent in the particular volume of the plant or animal tissue, thereby producing at least one photo-activated molecular agent, wherein the at least one photo-activated molecular agent emits energy, detecting the energy emitted by the at least one photo-activated molecular agent, and producing a detected energy signal which is characteristic of the particular volume of plant or animal tissue. The present invention also provides a method for the imaging of a particular volume of material, wherein the material contains at least one photo-active molecular agent.

  16. Method for improved selectivity in photo-activation and detection of molecular diagnostic agents

    DOEpatents

    Wachter, E.A.; Fisher, W.G.; Dees, H.C.

    1998-11-10

    A method for the imaging of a particular volume of plant or animal tissue, wherein the plant or animal tissue contains at least one photo-active molecular agent. The method includes the steps of treating the particular volume of the plant or animal tissue with light sufficient to promote a simultaneous two-photon excitation of the photo-active molecular agent contained in the particular volume of the plant or animal tissue, photo-activating at least one of the at least one photo-active molecular agent in the particular volume of the plant or animal tissue, thereby producing at least one photo-activated molecular agent, wherein the at least one photo-activated molecular agent emits energy, detecting the energy emitted by the at least one photo-activated molecular agent, and producing a detected energy signal which is characteristic of the particular volume of plant or animal tissue. The present invention is also a method for the imaging of a particular volume of material, wherein the material contains at least one photo-active molecular agent. 13 figs.

  17. Method for improved selectivity in photo-activation and detection of molecular diagnostic agents

    DOEpatents

    Wachter, Eric A.; Fisher, Walter G.; Dees, H. Craig

    1998-01-01

    A method for the imaging of a particular volume of plant or animal tissue, wherein the plant or animal tissue contains at least one photo-active molecular agent. The method includes the steps of treating the particular volume of the plant or animal tissue with light sufficient to promote a simultaneous two-photon excitation of the photo-active molecular agent contained in the particular volume of the plant or animal tissue, photo-activating at least one of the at least one photo-active molecular agent in the particular volume of the plant or animal tissue, thereby producing at least one photo-activated molecular agent, wherein the at least one photo-activated molecular agent emits energy, detecting the energy emitted by the at least one photo-activated molecular agent, and producing a detected energy signal which is characteristic of the particular volume of plant or animal tissue. The present invention is also a method for the imaging of a particular volume of material, wherein the material contains at least one photo-active molecular agent.

  18. Targeted sequencing with enrichment PCR: a novel diagnostic method for the detection of EGFR mutations

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Suki; Kim, Baek Gil; Han, Hyun Ho; Lee, Joo Hyun; Kim, Ji Eun; Shim, Hyo Sup; Cho, Nam Hoon

    2015-01-01

    Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is an important mediator of tumor cell survival and proliferation. The detection of EGFR mutations can predict prognoses and indicate when treatment with EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors should be used. As such, the development of highly sensitive methods for detecting EGFR mutations is important. Targeted next-generation sequencing is an effective method for diagnosing mutations. We compared the abilities of enrichment PCR followed by ultra-deep pyrosequencing (UDP), UDP alone, and PNA-mediated RT-PCR clamping to detect low-frequency EGFR mutations in tumor cell lines and tissue samples. Using enrichment PCR-UDP, we were able to detect the E19del and L858R mutations at minimum frequencies of 0.01% and 0.05%, respectively, in the PC-9 and H197 tumor cell lines. We also confirmed the sensitivity of detecting the E19del mutation by performing a titration analysis in FFPE tumor samples. The lowest mutation frequency detected was 0.0692% in tissue samples. EGFR mutations with frequencies as low as 0.01% were detected using enrichment PCR-UDP, suggesting that this method is a valuable tool for detecting rare mutations, especially in scarce tissue samples or those with small quantities of DNA. PMID:25915533

  19. FLOTAC for the diagnosis of Hymenolepis spp. infection: proof-of-concept and comparing diagnostic accuracy with other methods.

    PubMed

    Steinmann, Peter; Cringoli, Giuseppe; Bruschi, Fabrizio; Matthys, Barbara; Lohourignon, Laurent K; Castagna, Barbara; Maurelli, Maria P; Morgoglione, Maria E; Utzinger, Jürg; Rinaldi, Laura

    2012-08-01

    Hymenolepis nana is the most common cestode parasitizing humans, yet it is under-diagnosed. We determined the optimal flotation solution (FS) for the diagnosis of this intestinal parasite with the FLOTAC method, and compared its diagnostic accuracy with an ether-concentration technique and the Kato-Katz method. Zinc sulphate (specific gravity 1.20) proved to be the best-performing FS. Using this FS, we detected 65 H. nana infections among 234 fixed fecal samples from Tajik and Sahrawi children (prevalence 27.8 %). The ether-concentration technique detected 40 infections (prevalence 17.1 %) in the same samples. Considering the combined results as a reference, the sensitivities of FLOTAC and ether-concentration were 95.6 % and 58.8 %, respectively. The Kato-Katz method resulted in a prevalence of only 8.7 %. In terms of eggs per gram of stool, a significantly (P <0.05) higher value was obtained with the FLOTAC and Kato-Katz techniques compared to ether-concentration. In another study carried out in China, the FLOTAC method detected six Hymenolepis diminuta infections in 302 fecal samples, whereas five samples were found positive with the Kato-Katz technique. We conclude that FLOTAC is an accurate coprodiagnostic technique for H. nana and H. diminuta, two species which join a growing list of intestinal parasites that can be reliably diagnosed by this technique.

  20. Development of a Model Based Technique for Gear Diagnostics using the Wigner-Ville method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choy, F.; Xu, A.; Polyshchuk, V.

    1997-01-01

    Imperfections in gear tooth geometry often result from errors in the manufacturing process or excessive material wear during operation. Such faults in the gear tooth geometry can result in large vibrations in the transmission system, and, in some cases, may lead to early failure of the gear transmission system. This report presents the study of the effects of imperfection in gear tooth geometry on the dynamic characteristics of a gear transmission system. The faults in the gear tooth geometry are modeled numerically as the deviation of the tooth profile from its original involute geometry. The changes in gear mesh stiffness due to various profile and pattern variations are evaluated numerically. The resulting changes in the mesh stiffness are incorporated into a computer code to simulate the dynamics of the gear transmission system. A parametric study is performed to examine the sensitivity of gear tooth geometry imperfections on the vibration of a gear transmission system. The parameters variations in this study consist of the magnitude of the imperfection, the pattern of the profile variation, and the total number of teeth affected. Numerical results from the dynamic simulations are examined in both the time and the frequency domains. A joint time-frequency analysis procedure using the Wigner-Ville Distribution is also introduced to identify the location of the damaged tooth from the vibration signature. Numerical simulations of the system dynamics with gear faults were compared to experimental results. An optimal tracker was introduced to quantify the level of damage in the gear mesh system. Conclusions are drawn from the results of this numerical study.

  1. [Assessment of diagnostic methods for the catheter-related bloodstream infections in intensive care units].

    PubMed

    Ataman Hatipoğlu, Ciğdem; Ipekkan, Korhan; Oral, Behiç; Onde, Ufuk; Bulut, Cemal; Demiröz, Ali Pekcan

    2011-01-01

    The majority of catheter-related bloodstream infections (CR-BSI) are associated with central venous catheters (CVCs) and most of them develop in patients staying at intensive care units (ICUs). The aim of this study was to assess the performance of different methods for the diagnosis of CR-BSI in neurology and neurosurgery ICUs of our hospital. This prospective study was carried out between January 2007 and January 2008 and all of the patients were followed daily for CR-BSI after the insertion of CVCs. Blood cultures were taken simultaneously from the catheter lumen and from at least one peripheral vein when there was a suspicion of CR-BSI. Additionally, from patients whose CVCs were removed, catheter tip cultures were taken and from patients with exit site infection, cultures of the skin surrounding the catheter entrance were taken. Catheter tip cultures were done by using quantitative and semiquantitative culture methods. Blood cultures taken from the catheter lumen and peripheral vein were incubated in the BACTEC 9050 (Becton Dickinson, USA) automated blood culture system. Gram and acridine orange (AO) staining were used for the smears prepared from the catheter tips and blood cultures. To evaluate the value of culture and staining methods in the diagnosis of CR-BSI; sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values (PPV and NPV, respectively) of each method were determined. A total of 148 patients (66 male, 82 female; age range: 1-94 years, mean age: 58.7 ± 21.8 years) were included in the study, of whom 67 (45.3%) were from neurology and 81 (54.7%) were from neurosurgery ICUs. One hundred ninety-nine CVC application performed in 148 patients were evaluated. Mean duration of catheterization was 8.5 ± 5.2 days. Thirty-two episodes of CR-BSI among 199 catheterizations (16%) in 29 patients among a total of 148 patients (19.6%) were determined. The most frequently isolated microorganisms were methicillin-resistant coagulase-negative staphylococci

  2. Aircraft engine sensor fault diagnostics using an on-line OBEM update method

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiaofeng; Xue, Naiyu; Yuan, Ye

    2017-01-01

    This paper proposed a method to update the on-line health reference baseline of the On-Board Engine Model (OBEM) to maintain the effectiveness of an in-flight aircraft sensor Fault Detection and Isolation (FDI) system, in which a Hybrid Kalman Filter (HKF) was incorporated. Generated from a rapid in-flight engine degradation, a large health condition mismatch between the engine and the OBEM can corrupt the performance of the FDI. Therefore, it is necessary to update the OBEM online when a rapid degradation occurs, but the FDI system will lose estimation accuracy if the estimation and update are running simultaneously. To solve this problem, the health reference baseline for a nonlinear OBEM was updated using the proposed channel controller method. Simulations based on the turbojet engine Linear-Parameter Varying (LPV) model demonstrated the effectiveness of the proposed FDI system in the presence of substantial degradation, and the channel controller can ensure that the update process finishes without interference from a single sensor fault. PMID:28182692

  3. Liver fibrosis in human immunodeficiency virus/hepatitis C virus coinfection: Diagnostic methods and clinical impact

    PubMed Central

    Sagnelli, Caterina; Martini, Salvatore; Pisaturo, Mariantonietta; Pasquale, Giuseppe; Macera, Margherita; Zampino, Rosa; Coppola, Nicola; Sagnelli, Evangelista

    2015-01-01

    Several non-invasive surrogate methods have recently challenged the main role of liver biopsy in assessing liver fibrosis in hepatitis C virus (HCV)-monoinfected and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/HCV-coinfected patients, applied to avoid the well-known side effects of liver puncture. Serological tests involve the determination of biochemical markers of synthesis or degradation of fibrosis, tests not readily available in clinical practice, or combinations of routine tests used in chronic hepatitis and HIV/HCV coinfection. Several radiologic techniques have also been proposed, some of which commonly used in clinical practice. The studies performed to compare the prognostic value of non-invasive surrogate methods with that of the degree of liver fibrosis assessed on liver tissue have not as yet provided conclusive results. Each surrogate technique has shown some limitations, including the risk of over- or under-estimating the extent of liver fibrosis. The current knowledge on liver fibrosis in HIV/HCV-coinfected patients will be summarized in this review article, which is addressed in particular to physicians involved in this setting in their clinical practice. PMID:26523204

  4. [Molecular diagnostic methods of respiratory infections. Has the scheme diagnosis changed?].

    PubMed

    Vila Estapé, Jordi; Zboromyrska, Yuliya; Vergara Gómez, Andrea; Alejo Cancho, Izaskun; Rubio García, Elisa; Álvarez-Martínez, Miriam José; la Bellacasa Brugada, Jorge Puig de; Marcos Maeso, M Ángeles

    2016-07-01

    Lower respiratory tract infections remain one of the most common causes of mortality worldwide, which is why early diagnosis is crucial. Traditionally the microbiological diagnosis of these infections has been based on conventional methods including culture on artificial media for isolation of bacteria and fungi and cell cultures for virus and antibody or antigen detection using antigen-antibody reactions. The main drawback of the above mentioned methods is the time needed for an etiological diagnosis of the infection. The techniques based on molecular biology have drawn much attention in recent decades as tools for rapid diagnosis of infections. Some techniques are very expensive, especially those that can detect various microorganisms in the same reaction, therefore the question that arises is whether the cost of such testing is justified by the information obtained and by the clinical impact that its implementation will determine. In this article we make a review of the various techniques of molecular biology applied to the diagnosis of pneumonia and focus primarily on analysing the impact they may have on the management of patients with acute respiratory tract infections.

  5. Aircraft engine sensor fault diagnostics using an on-line OBEM update method.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaofeng; Xue, Naiyu; Yuan, Ye

    2017-01-01

    This paper proposed a method to update the on-line health reference baseline of the On-Board Engine Model (OBEM) to maintain the effectiveness of an in-flight aircraft sensor Fault Detection and Isolation (FDI) system, in which a Hybrid Kalman Filter (HKF) was incorporated. Generated from a rapid in-flight engine degradation, a large health condition mismatch between the engine and the OBEM can corrupt the performance of the FDI. Therefore, it is necessary to update the OBEM online when a rapid degradation occurs, but the FDI system will lose estimation accuracy if the estimation and update are running simultaneously. To solve this problem, the health reference baseline for a nonlinear OBEM was updated using the proposed channel controller method. Simulations based on the turbojet engine Linear-Parameter Varying (LPV) model demonstrated the effectiveness of the proposed FDI system in the presence of substantial degradation, and the channel controller can ensure that the update process finishes without interference from a single sensor fault.

  6. [Comparison of the diagnostic methods for studying parvovirus and rotavirus infections of dogs].

    PubMed

    Kölbl, S; Vogel, I; Modli, M; Gerstl, F

    1990-07-01

    79 feces samples of dogs between 7 weeks till 13.5 years of age, showing clinical signs of a hemorrhagic gastroenteritis, were tested by a commercial ELISA (DiaSystems Canine Parvo, Tech-America) for Canine Parvovirus (CPV) and by two Latex-Agglutination tests for Rotavirus (30 probes were tested by Rota Screen, 49 samples by Slidex Rota-Kit 2, both tests from BioMerieux). All samples were also examined by electron microscopy. The results of the simultaneous investigations showed 28 times positive and 28 times negative for CPV (70.9%). In 93.7% the investigations for Rotavirus-infection showed identical results by the Latex-Agglutination and electron microscopy: 73 samples were negative, one case showed a positive reaction. In 4 feces samples Rotavirus could only be detected by the Latex-test. In one sample a double-infection (CPV/Rotavirus) could be observed by all methods, in two cases the double-infection was only found by using the Latex-Agglutination. No other viruses could be found by the electron microscope than those described above. The results and the performance of the methods are discussed and compared with the data of other authors.

  7. The visualization of biofilms in chronic diabetic foot wounds using routine diagnostic microscopy methods.

    PubMed

    Oates, Angela; Bowling, Frank L; Boulton, Andrew J M; Bowler, Philip G; Metcalf, Daniel G; McBain, Andrew J

    2014-01-01

    Diabetic foot wounds are commonly colonised by taxonomically diverse microbial communities and may additionally be infected with specific pathogens. Since biofilms are demonstrably less susceptible to antimicrobial agents than are planktonic bacteria, and may be present in chronic wounds, there is increasing interest in their aetiological role. In the current investigation, the presence of structured microbial assemblages in chronic diabetic foot wounds is demonstrated using several visualization methods. Debridement samples, collected from the foot wounds of diabetic patients, were histologically sectioned and examined using bright-field, fluorescence, and environmental scanning electron microscopy and assessed by quantitative differential viable counting. All samples (n = 26) harboured bioburdens in excess of 5 log₁₀ CFU/g. Microcolonies were identified in 4/4 samples by all three microscopy methods, although bright-field and fluorescence microscopy were more effective at highlighting putative biofilm morphology than ESEM. Results in this pilot study indicate that bacterial microcolonies and putative biofilm matrix can be visualized in chronic wounds using fluorescence microscopy and ESEM, but also using the simple Gram stain.

  8. Conventional parasitology and DNA-based diagnostic methods for onchocerciasis elimination programmes.

    PubMed

    Lloyd, Melanie M; Gilbert, Rebecca; Taha, Nathalie Tebao; Weil, Gary J; Meite, Aboulaye; Kouakou, Ilunga M M; Fischer, Peter U

    2015-06-01

    Commonly used methods for diagnosing Onchocerca volvulus infections (microscopic detection of microfilariae in skin snips and nodule palpation) are insensitive. Improved methods are needed for monitoring and evaluation of onchocerciasis elimination programmes and for clinical diagnosis of individual patients. A sensitive probe-based qPCR assay was developed for detecting O. volvulus DNA, and this was tested with samples collected from an endemic area in eastern Côte d'Ivoire. The new test was evaluated with dried skin snip pairs from 369 subjects and compared to routine skin snip microscopy and nodule palpation results from the same individuals. Onchocerciasis prevalence for these samples by qPCR, skin snip microscopy, and nodule palpation were 56.9%, 26.0%, and 37.9%, respectively. Furthermore, the combination of all three tests produced an infection prevalence of 72.9%, which was significantly higher than 53.1% detected by microscopy plus nodule palpation without qPCR. However, the qPCR assay was negative for 54 of 229 individuals with palpable nodules. qPCR could be a useful tool for detecting residual O. volvulus infections in human populations as prevalence decreases in areas following community-directed treatment with ivermectin.

  9. Guide waves-based multi-damage identification using a local probability-based diagnostic imaging method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Dongyue; Wu, Zhanjun; Yang, Lei; Zheng, Yuebin

    2016-04-01

    Multi-damage identification is an important and challenging task in the research of guide waves-based structural health monitoring. In this paper, a multi-damage identification method is presented using a guide waves-based local probability-based diagnostic imaging (PDI) method. The method includes a path damage judgment stage, a multi-damage judgment stage and a multi-damage imaging stage. First, damage imaging was performed by partition. The damage imaging regions are divided into beside damage signal paths. The difference in guide waves propagation characteristics between cross and beside damage paths is proposed by theoretical analysis of the guide wave signal feature. The time-of-flight difference of paths is used as a factor to distinguish between cross and beside damage paths. Then, a global PDI method (damage identification using all paths in the sensor network) is performed using the beside damage path network. If the global PDI damage zone crosses the beside damage path, it means that the discrete multi-damage model (such as a group of holes or cracks) has been misjudged as a continuum single-damage model (such as a single hole or crack) by the global PDI method. Subsequently, damage imaging regions are separated by beside damage path and local PDI (damage identification using paths in the damage imaging regions) is performed in each damage imaging region. Finally, multi-damage identification results are obtained by superimposing the local damage imaging results and the marked cross damage paths. The method is employed to inspect the multi-damage in an aluminum plate with a surface-mounted piezoelectric ceramic sensors network. The results show that the guide waves-based multi-damage identification method is capable of visualizing the presence, quantity and location of structural damage.

  10. Devices and methods of operation thereof for providing stable flow for centrifugal compressors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skoch, Gary J. (Inventor); Stevens, Mark A. (Inventor); Jett, Thomas A. (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    Centrifugal compressor flow stabilizing devices and methods of operation thereof are disclosed that act upon the flow field discharging from the impeller of a centrifugal compressor and modify the flow field ahead of the diffuser vanes such that flow conditions contributing to rotating stall and surge are reduced or even eliminated. In some embodiments, shaped rods and methods of operation thereof are disclosed, whereas in other embodiments reverse-tangent air injection devices and methods are disclosed.

  11. Evaluation of Diagnostic Methods in the Differentiation of Heart Murmurs in Children

    PubMed Central

    Begic, Zijo; Dinarevic, Senka Mesihovic; Pesto, Senad; Begic, Edin; Dobraca, Amra; Masic, Izet

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The most common clinical sign in pediatric cardiology is a heart murmur (organic and inorganic). Organic are sign of heart disease, while inorganic (basically divided into accidental and functional) murmurs occur on anatomically healthy heart. Aim: To determine the justification of the application of the methods of cardiac treatment. Patients and methods: Study included 116 children aged from 1 to 15 years, who were referred due to cardiac treatment to Pediatric Clinic, of Sarajevo University Clinical Center. Results: The first group consisted of children with innocent heart murmur, 97 (53 males). The second group consisted of patients with organic murmur, 19 (13 males). The average age of the first group was 7.69 (1.01–15.01) years old, and of the second group 3.15 (1.01- 8.06) years old, and there is a significant difference between these two groups (p <0.001). Medical history questions about potentially harmful habits of mother in pregnancy, found significant differences in the frequency of the existence of habits between the first and second groups of subjects (14.44% vs. 85.1%, p = 0.013). The values of the pulse of patients showed statistically significant difference (p = 0.012). The most common place of the murmurs’ appearance is the second left intercostal space. In the first group, the most common were vibratory (32.3%) and ejection (31.9%) and in the second the most common were holosystolic (73.7%) murmur. Analyzing the R/S ratio of V1, a significant difference among the two groups was found (mean 0.78 vs. the values for 1.45, p = 0.003). There is a significance in terms of developed hypertrophy of the heart cavities (BVH) between the two groups. The most common accidental murmur was classic vibratory Still’s murmurs (55.43%) and the most common congenital heart defects was ASD (36.8%). Conclusions: A heart murmur itself, should not be the purpose of auscultation. One of the tasks of pediatricians, pediatric cardiologists in particular

  12. Describing the Stem Cell Potency: The Various Methods of Functional Assessment and In silico Diagnostics

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Vimal K.; Saini, Abhishek; Kalsan, Manisha; Kumar, Neeraj; Chandra, Ramesh

    2016-01-01

    Stem cells are defined by their capabilities to self-renew and give rise to various types of differentiated cells depending on their potency. They are classified as pluripotent, multipotent, and unipotent as demonstrated through their potential to generate the variety of cell lineages. While pluripotent stem cells may give rise to all types of cells in an organism, Multipotent and Unipotent stem cells remain restricted to the particular tissue or lineages. The potency of these stem cells can be defined by using a number of functional assays along with the evaluation of various molecular markers. These molecular markers include diagnosis of transcriptional, epigenetic, and metabolic states of stem cells. Many reports are defining the particular set of different functional assays, and molecular marker used to demonstrate the developmental states and functional capacities of stem cells. The careful evaluation of all these methods could help in generating standard identifying procedures/markers for them. PMID:27921030

  13. Infective Arthritis: Bacterial 23S rRNA Gene Sequencing as a Supplementary Diagnostic Method

    PubMed Central

    Moser, Claus; Andresen, Keld; Kjerulf, Anne; Salamon, Suheil; Kemp, Michael; Christensen, Jens Jørgen

    2008-01-01

    Consecutively collected synovial fluids were examined for presence of bacterial DNA (a 700-bp fragment of the bacterial 23S rRNA gene) followed by DNA sequencing of amplicons, and by conventional bacteriological methods. One or more microorganisms were identified in 22 of the 227 synovial fluids (9,7%) originating from 17 patients. Sixteen of the patients had clinical signs of arthritis. For 11 patients molecular and conventional bacterial examinations were in agreement. Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus dysgalactiae subspecies equisimilis and Streptococcus pneumoniae, were detected in synovial fluids from 6, 2 and 2 patients, respectively. In 3 patients only 23S rRNA analysis was positive; 2 synovial fluids contained S. dysgalactiae subspecies equisimilis and 1 S. pneumoniae). The present study indicates a significant contribution by PCR with subsequent DNA sequencing of the 23S rRNA gene analysis in recognizing and identification of microorganisms from synovial fluids. PMID:19088916

  14. Does restorer need a scanner? Optical methods in canvas painting diagnostic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Górecka, Katarzyna; Rzeszutek, Aleksandra

    2015-09-01

    The principal rule of the conservation process is an individual approach to every piece of art. Easel paintings are varying regarding their forms (shape), technique and technology and behave differently in various conditions. In order to carry out initial researches of the particular object several noninvasive analyzes are performed. However, none of these methods give information about geometric shape of the object and metric analysis of its surface. This gap in the field of initial optical analysis, may be filled with optical 3D scanning. From conservators' point of view, we may say that a laser scanner slowly becomes an indispensable and daily work tool in the diagnosis and conservation methodology of the canvas paintings.

  15. Applying Automated MR-Based Diagnostic Methods to the Memory Clinic: A Prospective Study.

    PubMed

    Klöppel, Stefan; Peter, Jessica; Ludl, Anna; Pilatus, Anne; Maier, Sabrina; Mader, Irina; Heimbach, Bernhard; Frings, Lars; Egger, Karl; Dukart, Juergen; Schroeter, Matthias L; Perneczky, Robert; Häussermann, Peter; Vach, Werner; Urbach, Horst; Teipel, Stefan; Hüll, Michael; Abdulkadir, Ahmed

    2015-01-01

    Several studies have demonstrated that fully automated pattern recognition methods applied to structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) aid in the diagnosis of dementia, but these conclusions are based on highly preselected samples that significantly differ from that seen in a dementia clinic. At a single dementia clinic, we evaluated the ability of a linear support vector machine trained with completely unrelated data to differentiate between Alzheimer's disease (AD), frontotemporal dementia (FTD), Lewy body dementia, and healthy aging based on 3D-T1 weighted MRI data sets. Furthermore, we predicted progression to AD in subjects with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) at baseline and automatically quantified white matter hyperintensities from FLAIR-images. Separating additionally recruited healthy elderly from those with dementia was accurate with an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.97 (according to Fig. 4). Multi-class separation of patients with either AD or FTD from other included groups was good on the training set (AUC >  0.9) but substantially less accurate (AUC = 0.76 for AD, AUC = 0.78 for FTD) on 134 cases from the local clinic. Longitudinal data from 28 cases with MCI at baseline and appropriate follow-up data were available. The computer tool discriminated progressive from stable MCI with AUC = 0.73, compared to AUC = 0.80 for the training set. A relatively low accuracy by clinicians (AUC = 0.81) illustrates the difficulties of predicting conversion in this heterogeneous cohort. This first application of a MRI-based pattern recognition method to a routine sample demonstrates feasibility, but also illustrates that automated multi-class differential diagnoses have to be the focus of future methodological developments and application studies.

  16. Diagnostic Applications and Methods to Isolate Circulating Tumor Cells (CTCs) from Blood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Cha-Mei

    2013-03-01

    Each year a million new cancer cases are diagnosed in the United States. Ninety percent of the deaths will be the result of metastasis, not from the primary tumor. Tissue biopsy is a universally accepted tool for cancer diagnosis and determination of treatment. The procedure varies, but is invasive, costly, and can be fatal, and for these reasons is seldom repeated after initial diagnosis. Monitoring of treatment response and for possible relapse is usually done by CT or MRI scan, both of which are expensive and require the tumor to change size perceptibly. Further, cancer can mutate or develop resistance to therapeutics and require modification of the treatment regimen. The initial tissue biopsy often cannot reflect the disease as it progresses, requiring new biopsy samples to determine a change of treatment. All carcinomas, about 80% of all cancer, shed tumor cells into the circulation, most often at the later stages when treatment is more critical. These circulating tumor cells (CTCs) are the cause of metastasis, and can be isolated from patient blood to serve as ``liquid biopsy''. These CTCs contain a valuable trove of information that help both patient and clinician understand disease status. In addition to counting the number of CTCs (known to be a prognostic indicator of survival), CTCs can provide biomarker information such as protein expressions and gene mutations, amplifications, and translocations. This information can be used to determine treatment. During treatment, the number of intact and apoptotic CTCs can be measured on a repeated basis to measure the patient's response to treatment and disease progression. Following treatment, liquid biopsy can be repeated at regular intervals to watch for relapse. Methods to isolate CTCs can be grouped into three categories: i) immunocapture based on surface markers of CTCs, ii) size exclusion based on CTC size, typically larger than blood cells, and iii) negative selection utilizing red blood cell lysis, white

  17. Prevalence and Comparison of Diagnostic Methods for Trichomonas vaginalis Infection in Pregnant Women in Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Menghi, Claudia I.; Coppolillo, Enrique F.; Gatta, Claudia; Eliseth, Martha Cora; de Torres, Ramón A.; Vay, Carlos A.; Famiglietti, Angela M. R.

    2010-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to conduct a prevalence survey of trichomoniasis in pregnant women and to evaluate the utility of different methods for its diagnosis. A total of 597 vaginal exudates from pregnant women who were examined at the Hospital de Clinicas in Buenos Aires, Argentina from 1 August 2005 to 31 January 2007, were prospectively and consecutively evaluated. The investigation of Trichomonas vaginalis was made by different microscopic examinations, and culture on liquid medium. The sensitivity and specificity of the microscopic examinations were assessed considering culture on liquid medium as the "gold standard". The prevalence of T. vaginalis obtained by culture on liquid medium was 4.0% (24/597). The prevalence of T. vaginalis obtained by direct wet smear, prolonged May-Grunwald Giemsa staining, and sodium acetate-formalin (SAF)/methylene blue staining-fixing technique was 1.8%, 2.3% and 2.5%, respectively. The sensitivity of the direct wet smear was 45.8%, that of the prolonged May-Grunwald Giemsa staining was 58.3%, and that of the SAF/methylene blue method was 62.5%. Considering the 3 microscopic examinations altogether, the sensitivity rose to 66.7% and the specificity was 100% for all of them. This is the first time that the prevalence data of T. vaginalis by culture in pregnant women are published in Argentina. Due to the low sensitivity obtained by microscopy in asymptomatic pregnant women, the use of the liquid medium is recommended during pregnancy, in order to provide an early diagnosis and treatment. PMID:20333287

  18. Searching for an Operational Definition of Frailty: A Delphi Method Based Consensus Statement. The Frailty Operative Definition-Consensus Conference Project

    PubMed Central

    Féart, Catherine; Mann, Giovanni; Viña, Jose; Chatterji, Somnath; Chodzko-Zajko, Wojtek; Gonzalez-Colaço Harmand, Magali; Bergman, Howard; Carcaillon, Laure; Nicholson, Caroline; Scuteri, Angelo; Sinclair, Alan; Pelaez, Martha; Van der Cammen, Tischa; Beland, François; Bickenbach, Jerome; Delamarche, Paul; Ferrucci, Luigi; Fried, Linda P.; Gutiérrez-Robledo, Luis Miguel; Rockwood, Kenneth; Rodríguez Artalejo, Fernando; Serviddio, Gaetano; Vega, Enrique

    2013-01-01

    Background. There is no consensus regarding the definition of frailty for clinical uses. Methods. A modified Delphi process was used to attempt to achieve consensus definition. Experts were selected from different fields and organized into five Focus Groups. A questionnaire was developed and sent to experts in the area of frailty. Responses and comments were analyzed using a pre-established strategy. Statements with an agreement more than or equal to 80% were accepted. Results. Overall, 44% of the statements regarding the concept of frailty and 18% of the statements regarding diagnostic criteria were accepted. There was consensus on the value of screening for frailty and about the identification of six domains of frailty for inclusion in a clinical definition, but no agreement was reached concerning a specific set of clinical/laboratory biomarkers useful for diagnosis. Conclusions. There is agreement on the usefulness of defining frailty in clinical settings as well as on its main dimensions. However, additional research is needed before an operative definition of frailty can be established. PMID:22511289

  19. Measurement and Analysis of Olfactory Responses with the Aim of Establishing an Objective Diagnostic Method for Central Olfactory Disorders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uno, Tominori; Wang, Li-Qun; Miwakeichi, Fumikazu; Tonoike, Mitsuo; Kaneda, Teruo

    In order to establish a new diagnostic method for central olfactory disorders and to identify objective indicators, we measured and analyzed brain activities in the parahippocampal gyrus and uncus, region of responsibility for central olfactory disorders. The relationship between olfactory stimulation and brain response at region of responsibility can be examined in terms of fitted responses (FR). FR in these regions may be individual indicators of changes in brain olfactory responses. In the present study, in order to non-invasively and objectively measure olfactory responses, an odor oddball task was conducted on four healthy volunteers using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and a odorant stimulator with blast-method. The results showed favorable FR and activation in the parahippocampal gyrus or uncus in all subjects. In some subjects, both the parahippocampal gyrus and uncus were activated. Furthermore, activation was also confirmed in the cingulate gyrus, middle frontal gyrus, precentral gyrus, postcentral gyrus, superior temporal gyrus and insula. The hippocampus and uncus are known to be involved in the olfactory disorders associated with early-stage Alzheimer's disease and other olfactory disorders. In the future, it will be necessary to further develop the present measurement and analysis method to clarify the relationship between central olfactory disorders and brain activities and establish objective indicators that are useful for diagnosis.

  20. Comparative analysis of the methods of drug and protein delivery for the treatment of cancer, genetic diseases and diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Todorova, Roumiana

    2011-11-01

    The methods of protein and drug delivery for the treatment of cancer, genetic diseases and diagnostics were summarized. The potential of protein transduction is discussed and the recent developments in the field are reviewed. An overview is provided of the non-viral delivery methods such as liposomes, polymer-based delivery, cell-penetrating peptides, bacterial secretion, cells, virosomes, physical methods including electroporation, microinjection, osmotic lysis, nanoparticles, sonoporation to locally inject therapeutic molecules. The characteristic properties of non-viral vectors and their use for the delivery of therapeutic molecules for the diagnosis and treatment of disorders and to target tumors are also discussed. The potential of the transduced peptides and proteins was used as new therapeutic compounds against infectious diseases, to complement deficiencies in specific genes, to specifically kill tumour cells, for gene therapy. The protein delivery vectors can enhance the transfection at low concentrations and help to develop future gene delivery systems with reduced toxicity. Vitamin B12, folic acid, biotin, and riboflavin are essential in the treatment of cancer. Ultrasound has a potential in the delivery of therapeutic agents. The new developing technologies of drug delivery and targeting offer the possibility to improve the therapeutic possibilities of the existing drugs and to develop novel therapeutics.