Science.gov

Sample records for operational safety enhancement

  1. Enhancement of pressurizer safety valve operability by seating design improvement

    SciTech Connect

    Moisidis, N.T.; Ratiu, M.D.

    1994-12-31

    Operating conditions specific to Pressurizer Safety Valves (PSVs) have led to numerous problems and have caused industry and NRC concerns regarding the adequacy of spring loaded self-actuated safety valves for Reactor Coolant System (RCS) overpressure protection. Specific concerns are: setpoint drift, spurious actuations and leakage. Based on testing and valve construction analysis of a Crosby model 6M6 PSV, it was established that the primary contributor to the valve problems is a susceptibility to weak seating. To eliminate spring instability, a new spring washer was designed, which guides the spring and precludes its rotation from the reference installed position. Results of tests performed on a prototype PSV equipped with the modified upper spring washer has shown significant improvements in valve operability and a consistent setpoint reproducibility to less than {+-}1% of the PSV setpoint (testing of baseline, unmodified valve, resulted in a setpoint drift of {+-}2%). Enhanced valve operability will result in a significant decrease in operating and maintenance costs associated with valve maintenance and testing. In addition, the enhanced setpoint reproducibility will allow the development of a nitrogen to steam correlation for future in-house PSV testing which will result in further reductions in costs associated with valve testing.

  2. Enhancement of pressurizer safety valve operability by seating design improvement

    SciTech Connect

    Moisidis, N.T.; Ratiu, M.D.

    1995-08-01

    Operating conditions specific to pressurizer safety valves (PSVs) have led to numerous problems and have caused industry and NRC concerns regarding the adequacy of spring-loaded self-actuated safety valves for reactor coolant system (RCS) overpressure protection. Specific concerns are: setpoint drift, spurious actuations, and pressure protection. Specific concerns are: setpoint drift, spurious actuations, and leakage. Based on testing and valve construction analysis of a Crosby model 6M6 PSV (Moisidis and Ratiu, 1992), it was established that the primary contributor to the valve problems is a susceptibility to weak seating. To eliminate spring instability, a new spring washer was designed, which guides the spring and precludes its rotation from the reference installed position. Results of tests performed on a prototype PSV equipped with the modified upper spring washer has shown significant improvements in valve operability and a consistent setpoint reproducibility to less than {+-}1% of the PSV setpoint (testing of baseline, unmodified valve, resulted in a setpoint drift of {+-} 2%). Enhanced valve operability will result in a significant decrease in operating and maintenance costs associated with valve maintenance and testing. In addition, the enhanced setpoint reproducibility will allow the development of a nitrogen to steam correlation for future in-house PSV testing which will result in further reductions in costs associated with valve testing.

  3. Earth based approaches to enhancing the health and safety of space operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koller, A. M., Jr.

    1985-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the current state of our earth based knowledge of space safety hazards; identification of several key areas of concern for space operations; and proposed approaches to providing technology enhancement and information needed to improve the health and safety to those conducting space operations. Included are a review of the identified hazards for space oeprations by hazard classification; a summarization of the information currently available on space experiences and an assessment of potential hazards for long duration spaceflight; a discussion of potential failure modes and their significance for Space Station work: and an assessment of current work which indicates additional research and experimentation which can only be accomplished in actual space missions.

  4. Nuclear Powerplant Safety: Operations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Energy, Washington, DC. Nuclear Energy Office.

    Powerplant systems and procedures that ensure the day-to-day health and safety of people in and around the plant is referred to as operational safety. This safety is the result of careful planning, good engineering and design, strict licensing and regulation, and environmental monitoring. Procedures that assure operational safety at nuclear…

  5. Integration of the advanced transparency framework to advanced nuclear systems : enhancing Safety, Operations, Security and Safeguards (SOSS).

    SciTech Connect

    Mendez, Carmen Margarita; Rochau, Gary Eugene; Cleary, Virginia D.

    2008-08-01

    The advent of the nuclear renaissance gives rise to a concern for the effective design of nuclear fuel cycle systems that are safe, secure, nonproliferating and cost-effective. We propose to integrate the monitoring of the four major factors of nuclear facilities by focusing on the interactions between Safeguards, Operations, Security, and Safety (SOSS). We proposed to develop a framework that monitors process information continuously and can demonstrate the ability to enhance safety, operations, security, and safeguards by measuring and reducing relevant SOSS risks, thus ensuring the safe and legitimate use of the nuclear fuel cycle facility. A real-time comparison between expected and observed operations provides the foundation for the calculation of SOSS risk. The automation of new nuclear facilities requiring minimal manual operation provides an opportunity to utilize the abundance of process information for monitoring SOSS risk. A framework that monitors process information continuously can lead to greater transparency of nuclear fuel cycle activities and can demonstrate the ability to enhance the safety, operations, security and safeguards associated with the functioning of the nuclear fuel cycle facility. Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) has developed a risk algorithm for safeguards and is in the process of demonstrating the ability to monitor operational signals in real-time though a cooperative research project with the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA). The risk algorithms for safety, operations and security are under development. The next stage of this work will be to integrate the four algorithms into a single framework.

  6. N Reactor operational safety summary

    SciTech Connect

    Franz, G.R.; Quapp, W.J.; Ogden, D.M.

    1988-08-01

    This report is a safety summary of the N Reactor. Beginning with its conceptual design in the mid-1950`s, and throughout its 23 years of operation, continuous efforts have been made to ensure safe N Reactor operation and protection of the public health and safety. The N Reactor Updated Safety Analysis Report, completed in 1978(UNC1978), and its subsequent amendments document the safety bases of N Reactor. Following the April 1986 Chernobyl accident in the Soviet Union, a major effort to confirm N Reactor safety and further increase its safety margin was initiated. This effort, called the Safety Enhancement Program, reassessed the N Reactor using the latest accepted analysis techniques and commercial light-water reactor guidelines, where applicable. 122 refs., 38 figs., 10 tabs.

  7. Effectiveness of Enhanced Safety Management

    SciTech Connect

    Waterfall, K.W. )

    1988-01-01

    This paper discusses the development of an Enhanced Safety Management (ESM) campaign to improve safety and reduce risk in oil and gas exploration. The essentials of ESM are summarized by the author. The paper addresses the method developed to implement ESM and how the control of process designs to control operations minimizes the risk of a major accident.

  8. Dynamic stabilization of a bistable suspension system attached to a flexible host structure for operational safety enhancement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Kai; Harne, R. L.; Wang, K. W.; Huang, Hai

    2014-12-01

    In engineering applications, a suspension system may be attached to a flexible host structure, e.g. spacecraft truss, to provide vibration isolation for sensitive instrumentation, where the suspension and host structure dynamics are strongly coupled. For linear suspensions, a resonance normally occurs adjacent to the roll-off frequency band, which significantly and detrimentally amplifies vibration transmission. To avoid the adverse resonance for operational safety enhancement, this research proposes a nonlinear bistable suspension and evaluates its performance when attached to a flexible host structure. Dynamic models of the bistable and comparable linear suspensions attached to the host structure are formulated, and steady-state responses are predicted using analytical and numerical methods. Results show that the bistable suspension can eliminate the harmful resonance via a dynamic stabilization phenomenon, and simultaneously retains the favorable isolation performance in the roll-off bandwidth as compared to the linear suspension. Series of experimental investigations support the analytical and numerical findings and help define design guidelines for operational safety improvement.

  9. Non-technical skills: enhancing safety in operating theatres (and drilling rigs).

    PubMed

    Flin, Rhona

    2014-03-01

    On April 20th 2010, a large Transocean drilling rig called the Deepwater Horizon was operating in the Gulf of Mexico to drill the Macondo well, for the oil company BP. The job was six weeks behind schedule and $58 million over budget and had not been without difficulty: it was a high pressure well, 2.5 miles below the seabed. At 5.45 am, the Halliburton cementing engineer sent an email to say: 'We have completed the job and it went well'. At 9.43 pm, 16 hours later, there was a release of hydrocarbons into the well bore and the drilling rig experienced a catastrophic blowout as the high pressure oil and gas escaped onto the rig and into the ocean. The resulting explosions and fire killed 11 of the crew of 126, injured many more and created an enormous oil spill across the Gulf. PMID:24720059

  10. Operating safety of automatic objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maiorov, Anatolii Vladimirovich; Moskatov, Genrikh Karlovich; Shibanov, Georgii Petrovich

    Operating-safety assurance for automatic objects (aircraft, spacecraft, and underwater vehicles) is considered in the framework of safety-automata theory and automatic-control considerations. The interaction between the operator and the safety-assurance facilities is considered. Methodological recommendations are presented on the specification of reliability requirements for the vehicles considered, as well as on automata synthesis and analysis considerations, test planning, and the analysis of test results.

  11. Reactor operation safety information document

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    The report contains a reactor facility description which includes K, P, and L reactor sites, structures, operating systems, engineered safety systems, support systems, and process and effluent monitoring systems; an accident analysis section which includes cooling system anomalies, radioactive materials releases, and anticipated transients without scram; a summary of onsite doses from design basis accidents; severe accident analysis (reactor core disruption); a description of operating contractor organization and emergency planning; and a summary of reactor safety evolution. (MB)

  12. Another Approach to Enhance Airline Safety: Using Management Safety Tools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lu, Chien-tsug; Wetmore, Michael; Przetak, Robert

    2006-01-01

    The ultimate goal of conducting an accident investigation is to prevent similar accidents from happening again and to make operations safer system-wide. Based on the findings extracted from the investigation, the "lesson learned" becomes a genuine part of the safety database making risk management available to safety analysts. The airline industry is no exception. In the US, the FAA has advocated the usage of the System Safety concept in enhancing safety since 2000. Yet, in today s usage of System Safety, the airline industry mainly focuses on risk management, which is a reactive process of the System Safety discipline. In order to extend the merit of System Safety and to prevent accidents beforehand, a specific System Safety tool needs to be applied; so a model of hazard prediction can be formed. To do so, the authors initiated this study by reviewing 189 final accident reports from the National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) covering FAR Part 121 scheduled operations. The discovered accident causes (direct hazards) were categorized into 10 groups Flight Operations, Ground Crew, Turbulence, Maintenance, Foreign Object Damage (FOD), Flight Attendant, Air Traffic Control, Manufacturer, Passenger, and Federal Aviation Administration. These direct hazards were associated with 36 root factors prepared for an error-elimination model using Fault Tree Analysis (FTA), a leading tool for System Safety experts. An FTA block-diagram model was created, followed by a probability simulation of accidents. Five case studies and reports were provided in order to fully demonstrate the usefulness of System Safety tools in promoting airline safety.

  13. Operational safety enhancement of Soviet-designed nuclear reactors via development of nuclear power plant simulators and transfer of related technology

    SciTech Connect

    Kohut, P.; Epel, L.G.; Tutu, N.K.

    1998-08-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE), under the US government`s International Nuclear Safety Program (INSP), is implementing a program of developing and providing simulators for many of the Russian and Ukrainian Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs). Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) manage and provide technical oversight of the various INSP simulator projects for DOE. The program also includes a simulator technology transfer process to simulator design organizations in Russia and Ukraine. Training programs, installation of new simulators, and enhancements in existing simulators are viewed as providing a relatively fast and cost-effective technology transfer that will result in measurable improvement in the safety culture and operation of NPPs. A review of this program, its present status, and its accomplishments are provided in this paper.

  14. Enhanced safety by means of clear information on hazards and operational disturbances by a plain language communication device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muench, W.; Gebhardt, H. E.

    1984-03-01

    A plain language communication device is presented. It offers a means of automatic paging of events reported electrically by any number of monitoring stations by providing comprehensive and clear information on events to persons directly concerned with operation procedures. It consists of a sound-tape cassette with the spoken message to be put through. Duration and content of the message are freely selectable. The spoken text can be selected via a logic allocation system, called off and then be paged over any distance at any number of outstations (e.g., loudspeaker or telephone). In case of power breakdowns the device is capable of bridging critical situations by spoken information using a buffer storage battery. Test results in underground operations are successful.

  15. Central waste complex interim operational safety requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Bendixsen, R.B.; Ames, R.R., Fluor Daniel Hanford

    1997-03-20

    This Interim Operational Safety Requirements document supports the authorization basis for interim operations and identifies restrictions on interim operations for the disposal and storage of solid waste in the Central Waste Complex. The Central Waste Complex Interim Operational Safety Requirements provide the necessary controls on operations in the Central Waste Complex to ensure the radiological and hazardous material exposure will be acceptable from an overall health and safety standpoint to the worker, the onsite personnel, 1327 the public and the environment.

  16. Safety aspects of cryochamber operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chorowski, M.; Piotrowska, A.; Sieron, A.; Stanek, A.

    2014-01-01

    Local and whole body cryotherapy is well recognized, developed and appreciated both from medical and technical point of view. Poland is a country with a highest number of medical cryochambers in operation (above 200) and more than 3 millions of whole body cryotherapeutic sessions have been performed since 1989. Cryogenic temperatures applied for whole-body apart from medical effects have also significant influence on patient's psyche. A number of cryochambers is constantly increasing in hospitals, sport centers and spas. A temperature inside a cryochamber should be below 150 K. To achieve and stabilize such low temperature, either cascade compressor unit or liquid cryogens evaporation (N2 or synthetic air) are used. This paper presents safety oriented review of cryochamber design and constructions.

  17. Safety aspects of cryochamber operation

    SciTech Connect

    Chorowski, M.; Piotrowska, A.; Sieron, A.; Stanek, A.

    2014-01-29

    Local and whole body cryotherapy is well recognized, developed and appreciated both from medical and technical point of view. Poland is a country with a highest number of medical cryochambers in operation (above 200) and more than 3 millions of whole body cryotherapeutic sessions have been performed since 1989. Cryogenic temperatures applied for whole-body apart from medical effects have also significant influence on patient's psyche. A number of cryochambers is constantly increasing in hospitals, sport centers and spas. A temperature inside a cryochamber should be below 150 K. To achieve and stabilize such low temperature, either cascade compressor unit or liquid cryogens evaporation (N{sub 2} or synthetic air) are used. This paper presents safety oriented review of cryochamber design and constructions.

  18. Safety management of complex research operators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, W. J.

    1981-01-01

    Complex research and technology operations present varied potential hazards which are addressed in a disciplined, independent safety review and approval process. Potential hazards vary from high energy fuels to hydrocarbon fuels, high pressure systems to high voltage systems, toxic chemicals to radioactive materials and high speed rotating machinery to high powered lasers. A Safety Permit System presently covers about 600 potentially hazardous operations. The Safety Management Program described is believed to be a major factor in maintaining an excellent safety record.

  19. Enhancing knowledge--improving safety.

    PubMed

    Baillie, Jonathan

    2012-01-01

    With the opening of a new 1.4 m sterling pounds training facility at its Charlton House head office site in Cheltenham, steam system specialist, Spirax Sarco, believes it is now in a better position than at any time in its history to offer specialist steam system training that will enable those operating and maintaining such equipment in environments such as hospital plant rooms to optimise its performance and efficiency, cut their energy bills and carbon footprint, and ensure the safety of their staff. As HEJ editor Jonathan Baillie reports, around 10-15% of those trained to date in the new facility, and at the previous training centre, are from the healthcare engineering and estates management sector. PMID:22332315

  20. Fiber optical sensors for enhanced battery safety

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, Jan; Nedjalkov, Antonio; Doering, Alexander; Angelmahr, Martin; Schade, Wolfgang

    2015-05-01

    Over the last years, battery safety becomes more and more important due to the wide spread of high-capacity lithium ion batteries applied in e.g. consumer electronics and electrical power storages for vehicles or stationary energy storage systems. However, for these types of batteries, malfunctions could be highly dangerous and all aspects of safety issues are not sufficiently considered, yet. Therefore, the improvement of the battery safety behavior is one of the most important issues discussed in actual research projects. In this paper the application of fiber optical sensors for enhanced battery safety is presented. The temperature is one of the most critical parameters indicating a failure of the cell, but even state-to-the-art battery management systems (BMS) are not able to monitor and interpret the distributed temperature field of a total battery storage system sufficiently. Furthermore, the volume expansion of the battery cell, which could be monitored by the strain on the cells' surfaces, is one additional parameter not considered up to now. Both parameters could be simultaneous monitored by fiber optical sensor arrays, consisting of discrete fiber Bragg grating (FBG) elements. The FBG sensors are directly attached on the surface of the cell, recording the temperature as well as the strain distribution highly accurate and close-meshed. Failures and malfunction such as overcharging, gassing, and thermal runaway can be early predicted and avoided to extend the battery lifetime and enhance the operational battery safety. Moreover, battery aging effects lead to variations in the volume change behavior which can be detected additionally. Hence, a battery fully equipped with fiber optical sensor arrays in combination with an appropriate BMS enables a safe and continuous utilization of the energy storage system even under harsh conditions like rapid charging.

  1. Safety management of complex research operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, W. J.

    1981-01-01

    Complex research and technology operations present many varied potential hazards which must be addressed in a disciplined independent safety review and approval process. The research and technology effort at the Lewis Research Center is divided into programmatic areas of aeronautics, space and energy. Potential hazards vary from high energy fuels to hydrocarbon fuels, high pressure systems to high voltage systems, toxic chemicals to radioactive materials and high speed rotating machinery to high powered lasers. A Safety Permit System presently covers about 600 potentially hazardous operations. The Safety Management Program described in this paper is believed to be a major factor in maintaining an excellent safety record at the Lewis Research Center.

  2. Operation Safety Activities for JEM System and Payload Operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takada, Satomi; Iwata, Yoshihiro; Kato, Mitsuyasu

    2010-09-01

    The Japanese Experiment Module(JEM), "KIBO", which is a part of the International Space Station(ISS) is the first Japanese manned space experimental facility. JEM system and payloads have made the birth of an era of operation. The JAXA Human Space S&MA(JAXA S&MA) assures safety of JEM module and JAXA payloads not only during assembly phase but also operation phase. During the safety critical operation for JEM system and payloads, JAXA S&MA is on ESR S&MA console to monitor the operation related to safety. Safety check list is made for each safety critical task to identify the useful information such as hazard control, operational constraints and flight rules, and so on. It is a support tool for JAXA S&MA to monitor the operation overall. JAXA S&MA has the responsibility of assessing the safety related updates or changes of operational documents. JAXA S&MA will continue to support the JEM operation as long as the operation is continued.

  3. Aircraft Safety and Operating Problems. [conference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    Results of NASA research in the field of aircraft safety and operating problems are discussed. Topics include: (1) terminal area operations, (2) flight dynamics and control; (3) ground operations; (4) atmospheric environment; (5) structures and materials; (6) powerplants; (7) noise; and (8) human factors engineering.

  4. Modified Fittings Enhance Industrial Safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2012-01-01

    Kennedy Space Center is not only home to one of the largest buildings in the world - the massive Vehicle Assembly Building - it also hosts a number of one-of-a-kind facilities. The more than 30-mile-long campus has witnessed every launch from the Space Shuttle Launch Pad, as well as many homecomings at the Shuttle Landing Facility. Just as important, the Space Station Processing Facility (SSPF) has seen each element of the International Space Station (ISS) that passes through Kennedy before it goes into orbit. The SSPF is where ISS components are checked, tested, and adjusted before being packed into the Space Shuttle for transport. In an environment like the SSPF - spanning 457,000 square feet of processing areas, operational control rooms, laboratories, logistics areas, and office space - large workstands and equipment used to support the processing of ISS components need to be moved around the facility. One of the devices employed for this task is an air pallet. An air pallet moves on cushions of air instead of wheels. Compressed air inflates the cushions underneath the pallet and is then expelled through exhaust holes. This forms a thin film of air between the cushions and the floor, lifting the platform off the floor and making it easy to move the heavy workstands, equipment, and ISS components. Concerned with the safety of the connections on the pressurized air hoses used for the air pallets, engineers at Kennedy modified an existing commercial cam and groove fitting to control the air supply hose in the event of an accidental release of a pressurized hose. This modification prevented the hose from detaching and, propelled by compressed air, striking workers or equipment. "At the time, these were not available on commercial coupling halves, so NASA made a modification and then put them into use. If a worker were to accidentally try to remove a pressurized hose from the pallet, it no longer rapidly separated, and it safely relieved the pressure," says Paul

  5. Transportation Safety Excellence in Operations Through Improved Transportation Safety Document

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Michael A. Lehto; MAL

    2007-05-01

    A recent accomplishment of the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Materials and Fuels Complex (MFC) Nuclear Safety analysis group was to obtain DOE-ID approval for the inter-facility transfer of greater-than-Hazard-Category-3 quantity radioactive/fissionable waste in Department of Transportation (DOT) Type A drums at MFC. This accomplishment supported excellence in operations through safety analysis by better integrating nuclear safety requirements with waste requirements in the Transportation Safety Document (TSD); reducing container and transport costs; and making facility operations more efficient. The MFC TSD governs and controls the inter-facility transfer of greater-than-Hazard-Category-3 radioactive and/or fissionable materials in non-DOT approved containers. Previously, the TSD did not include the capability to transfer payloads of greater-than-Hazard-Category-3 radioactive and/or fissionable materials using DOT Type A drums. Previous practice was to package the waste materials to less-than-Hazard-Category-3 quantities when loading DOT Type A drums for transfer out of facilities to reduce facility waste accumulations. This practice allowed operations to proceed, but resulted in drums being loaded to less than the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) waste acceptance criteria (WAC) waste limits, which was not cost effective or operations friendly. An improved and revised safety analysis was used to gain DOE-ID approval for adding this container configuration to the MFC TSD safety basis. In the process of obtaining approval of the revised safety basis, safety analysis practices were used effectively to directly support excellence in operations. Several factors contributed to the success of MFC’s effort to obtain approval for the use of DOT Type A drums, including two practices that could help in future safety basis changes at other facilities. 1) The process of incorporating the DOT Type A drums into the TSD at MFC helped to better integrate nuclear safety

  6. Safety assessment for TA-48 radiochemical operations

    SciTech Connect

    1994-08-01

    The purpose of this report is to document an assessment performed to evaluate the safety of the radiochemical operations conducted at the Los Alamos National Laboratory operations area designated as TA-48. This Safety Assessment for the TA-48 radiochemical operations was prepared to fulfill the requirements of US Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5481.1B, ``Safety Analysis and Review System.`` The area designated as TA-48 is operated by the Chemical Science and Technology (CST) Division and is involved with radiochemical operations associated with nuclear weapons testing, evaluation of samples collected from a variety of environmental sources, and nuclear medicine activities. This report documents a systematic evaluation of the hazards associated with the radiochemical operations that are conducted at TA-48. The accident analyses are limited to evaluation of the expected consequences associated with a few bounding accident scenarios that are selected as part of the hazard analysis. Section 2 of this report presents an executive summary and conclusions, Section 3 presents pertinent information concerning the TA-48 site and surrounding area, Section 4 presents a description of the TA-48 radiochemical operations, and Section 5 presents a description of the individual facilities. Section 6 of the report presents an evaluation of the hazards that are associated with the TA-48 operations and Section 7 presents a detailed analysis of selected accident scenarios.

  7. Operational reliability of standby safety systems

    SciTech Connect

    Grant, G.M.; Atwood, C.L.; Gentillon, C.D.

    1995-04-01

    The Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) is evaluating the operational reliability of several risk-significant standby safety systems based on the operating experience at US commercial nuclear power plants from 1987 through 1993. The reliability assessed is the probability that the system will perform its Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) defined safety function. The quantitative estimates of system reliability are expected to be useful in risk-based regulation. This paper is an overview of the analysis methods and the results of the high pressure coolant injection (HPCI) system reliability study. Key characteristics include (1) descriptions of the data collection and analysis methods, (2) the statistical methods employed to estimate operational unreliability, (3) a description of how the operational unreliability estimates were compared with typical PRA results, both overall and for each dominant failure mode, and (4) a summary of results of the study.

  8. High consequence operations safety symposium 2: Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Isbell, D.

    1998-07-01

    From July 29 to 31, 1997, the Surety Assessment Center at Sandia National Laboratories hosted the second international symposium on High Consequence Operations Safety, HCOSSII. The two and one-half day symposium allowed participants to share strategies, methodologies, and experiences in high consequence engineering and system design. The symposium addressed organizational influences on high consequence safety, assessment and analysis processes, lessons-learned from high consequence events, human factors in safety, and software safety. A special session at the end of the symposium featured a presentation by Federal Nuclear Center--All Russian Research Institute of Experimental Physics and Sandia National Laboratories personnel on their joint efforts to establish the International Surety Center for Energy Intensive and High Consequence Systems and Infrastructures.

  9. Safety Pedal for Foot-Operated Machinery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garcia, G. D.

    1985-01-01

    Ninged structure prevents inadvertent use. Forward motion of foot on yoke plate necessary to operate brake pedal. Downward force on yoke plate turns locking/releasing laver, which then pushes locking pin into indexing hole. New pedal improves both productivity and safety of power brakes and such other machines as metal shearers and punch presses.

  10. 78 FR 3311 - Safety Enhancements, Certification of Airports

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-16

    ...) on Safety Enhancements Part 139, Certification of Airports (76 FR 5510). In the NPRM, the FAA... period until May 13, 2011, (76 FR 20570) because we learned that a number of airport operators were not... again reopened the comment period until July 5, 2011, (76 FR 32105) because several industry...

  11. 78 FR 53790 - Public Forum-Safety Culture: Enhancing Transportation Safety

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-30

    ... SAFETY BOARD Public Forum--Safety Culture: Enhancing Transportation Safety On Tuesday and Wednesday, September 10-11, 2013, the National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) will convene a forum titled, ``Safety Culture: Enhancing Transportation Safety.'' The forum will begin at 9:00 a.m. on both days and is open...

  12. Nuclear criticality safety evaluation of Spray Booth Operations in X-705, Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Sheaffer, M.K.; Keeton, S.C.

    1993-09-20

    This report evaluates nuclear criticality safety for Spray Booth Operations in the Decontamination and Recovery Facility, X-705, at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant. A general description of current procedures and related hardware/equipment is presented. Control parameters relevant to nuclear criticality safety are explained, and a consolidated listing of administrative controls and safety systems is developed. Based on compliance with DOE Orders and MMES practices, the overall operation is evaluated, and recommendations for enhanced safety are suggested.

  13. FFTF A History of Safety & Operational Excellence

    SciTech Connect

    NIELSEN, D L

    2002-06-26

    The Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) is a 400-megawatt, sodium-cooled, fast neutron flux reactor owned by the United States Department of Energy (DOE) at the Hanford Site. The reactor was designed and built in the late 1970s and brought on line in 1982 during a period when world interest in development of a liquid metal breeder reactor was high. For approximately 10 years, FFTF operated successfully as a national research facility testing advanced nuclear fuels, materials, components, active and passive reactor safety technologies, and gaining operating experience for the next generation of nuclear reactors. FFTF also produced a wide variety of high purity medical isotopes, made tritium for the U.S. fusion research program, and provided international testing support. The reactor was last operated in 1992 and is proceeding with deactivation.

  14. Propulsion Health Monitoring for Enhanced Safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butz, Mark G.; Rodriguez, Hector M.

    2003-01-01

    This report presents the results of the NASA contract Propulsion System Health Management for Enhanced Safety performed by General Electric Aircraft Engines (GE AE), General Electric Global Research (GE GR), and Pennsylvania State University Applied Research Laboratory (PSU ARL) under the NASA Aviation Safety Program. This activity supports the overall goal of enhanced civil aviation safety through a reduction in the occurrence of safety-significant propulsion system malfunctions. Specific objectives are to develop and demonstrate vibration diagnostics techniques for the on-line detection of turbine rotor disk cracks, and model-based fault tolerant control techniques for the prevention and mitigation of in-flight engine shutdown, surge/stall, and flameout events. The disk crack detection work was performed by GE GR which focused on a radial-mode vibration monitoring technique, and PSU ARL which focused on a torsional-mode vibration monitoring technique. GE AE performed the Model-Based Fault Tolerant Control work which focused on the development of analytical techniques for detecting, isolating, and accommodating gas-path faults.

  15. RFID authentication protocol to enhance patient medication safety.

    PubMed

    Kaul, Sonam Devgan; Awasthi, Amit K

    2013-12-01

    Medication errors can cause substantial harm to patients. Automated patient medication system with RFID technology is purposely used to reduce the medication error, to improve the patient safety, to provide personalized patient medication and identification and also to provide counterfeit protection to the patients. In order to enhance medication safety for patients we propose a new dynamic ID based lightweight RFID authentication protocol. Due to low storage capacity and limited computational and communicational capacity of tags, only pseudo random number generator function, one way hash function and bitwise Xor operation are used in our authentication protocol. The proposed protocol is practical, secure and efficient for health care domain. PMID:24122350

  16. Aviation safety and operation problems research and technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Enders, J. H.; Strickle, J. W.

    1977-01-01

    Aircraft operating problems are described for aviation safety. It is shown that as aircraft technology improves, the knowledge and understanding of operating problems must also improve for economics, reliability and safety.

  17. Use of a Web Site to Enhance Criticality Safety Training

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, S T; Morman, J

    2003-08-04

    Currently, a website dedicated to enhancing communication and dissemination of criticality safety information is sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Nuclear Criticality Safety Program (NCSP). This website was developed as part of the DOE response to the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (DNFSB) Recommendation 97-2, which reflected the need to make criticality safety information available to a wide audience. The website is the focal point for DOE nuclear criticality safety (NCS) activities, resources and references, including hyperlinks to other sites actively involved in the collection and dissemination of criticality safety information. The website is maintained by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) under auspices of the NCSP management. One area of the website contains a series of Nuclear Criticality Safety Engineer Training (NCSET) modules. During the past few years, many users worldwide have accessed the NCSET section of the NCSP website and have downloaded the training modules as an aid for their training programs. This trend was remarkable in that it points out a continuing need of the criticality safety community across the globe. It has long been recognized that training of criticality safety professionals is a continuing process involving both knowledge-based training and experience-based operations floor training. As more of the experienced criticality safety professionals reach retirement age, the opportunities for mentoring programs are reduced. It is essential that some method be provided to assist the training of young criticality safety professionals to replenish this limited human expert resource to support on-going and future nuclear operations. The main objective of this paper is to present the features of the NCSP website, including its mission, contents, and most importantly its use for the dissemination of training modules to the criticality safety community. We will discuss lessons learned and several ideas

  18. Enhancing the Flight Safety Culture Through Training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kanki, Barbara G.; Rosekind, Mark R. (Technical Monitor)

    1996-01-01

    In the 1970's, flight safety professionals became profoundly concerned about the prevalence of crew-caused accidents and incidents, and the role of human error in flight operations. As result, they initiated a change in the flight safety culture which has grown to significant proportions today. At the heart of the evolution were crew concepts such as flightdeck management, crew coordination, and cockpit resource management, concepts which seemed to target critical deficiencies. In themselves, the concepts were not new but their incorporation into training as a direct means of changing the flight safety culture was an untried, almost 'grassroots' approach. The targeted crew concepts and skills were not an integral part of the typical training program; the methods, curriculum, media, and even course content itself, would have to be developed and implemented from the bottom up. A familiar truism in the pilot culture is that you should 'Train the way you fly; Fly the way you train'. In short, training was expected to provide the pilot with practical operational skills that were consistent with the performance standards they were required to maintain and the operational demands they met on a daily basis. In short, one could not simply command crews to use good CRM; one would have to research and define these skills operationally as well as develop and implement a consistent and effective training program. Furthermore, one would need active support and collaboration among the research, industry and government communities in order to ensure acceptance and continued commitment. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  19. New safety rules challenge U. K. operators, regulators

    SciTech Connect

    Hudson, J. )

    1994-08-15

    Offshore safety regulations based on lessons learned from the Piper Alpha blast of 1988 have been in operation in the U.K. for a year. The Offshore Installations (Safety Case) Regulations 1992 make operators of fixed and mobile installations (the duty holders'') responsible for producing a formal safety assessment, or safety case, for each installation. After the end of November 1995 it will be an offense to operate an installation without a safety case which has been approved by the government's Health and Safety Executive (HSE). Producing safety cases for installations is a major task for duty holder, while assessing them is a huge under taking for HSE's Offshore Safety Division (OSD). This paper reviews how HSE has established management arrangements to handle safety cases, considers progress in assessment, highlights some of the important lessons learned, and look to the future.

  20. An Operational Safety and Health Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uhorchak, Robert E.

    1983-01-01

    Describes safety/health program activities at Research Triangle Institute (North Carolina). These include: radioisotope/radiation and hazardous chemical/carcinogen use, training, monitoring, disposal; chemical waste management; air monitoring and analysis; medical program; fire safety/training, including emergency planning; Occupational Safety and…

  1. Incorporating Safety into a Unit Operations Laboratory Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Julia A.

    1998-01-01

    Details the incorporation of safety procedures and issues into the curriculum of an undergraduate chemical engineering unit operations laboratory course. Includes checklists and sample reporting forms. (DDR)

  2. Tactile displays for enhanced performance and safety

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castle, Heidi; Dobbins, Trevor D.

    2004-09-01

    Platform performance and safety are dependent on operator situational awareness. This is traditionally achieved via visual and audio displays but an intuitive alternative is the tactile display. A familiar tactile display is the vibrating alert function of the mobile telephone but more complex tactile display applications have been demonstrated in a number of scenarios, including fixed and rotary wing aircraft, high-speed boats, diving, and assisting the visually impaired. The major applications include orientation, navigation, and communication. A recent NATO Research & Technology Organisation symposium on spatial disorientation (La Coruna, Spain, 2002) stated that; 'The most important advance of recent years with the potential to combat spatial disorientation has been the use of tactile stimuli to give information on spatial orientation'.

  3. 78 FR 54510 - New Entrant Safety Assurance Program Operational Test

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-04

    ... Process'' on May 13, 2002 (67 FR 31978), which became effective January 1, 2003. Subpart D of 49 CFR part... determine if the carrier is exercising basic safety management controls. On December 16, 2008 (73 FR 76472... TRANSPORTATION Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration New Entrant Safety Assurance Program Operational...

  4. Operational Safety Requirements Neutron Multiplier Facility in 329 Building

    SciTech Connect

    EA. Lepel

    1992-10-01

    The operational safety requirements (OSRs) presented in this report define the conditions, safe boundaries and management control needed for safely operating the Neutron Multiplier Facility in the 329 Building Annex.

  5. Fuel Supply Shutdown Facility Interim Operational Safety Requirements

    SciTech Connect

    BENECKE, M.W.

    2000-09-06

    The Interim Operational Safety Requirements for the Fuel Supply Shutdown (FSS) Facility define acceptable conditions, safe boundaries, bases thereof, and management of administrative controls to ensure safe operation of the facility.

  6. Verification and Implementation of Operations Safety Controls for Flight Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smalls, James R.; Jones, Cheryl L.; Carrier, Alicia S.

    2010-01-01

    There are several engineering disciplines, such as reliability, supportability, quality assurance, human factors, risk management, safety, etc. Safety is an extremely important engineering specialty within NASA, and the consequence involving a loss of crew is considered a catastrophic event. Safety is not difficult to achieve when properly integrated at the beginning of each space systems project/start of mission planning. The key is to ensure proper handling of safety verification throughout each flight/mission phase. Today, Safety and Mission Assurance (S&MA) operations engineers continue to conduct these flight product reviews across all open flight products. As such, these reviews help ensure that each mission is accomplished with safety requirements along with controls heavily embedded in applicable flight products. Most importantly, the S&MA operations engineers are required to look for important design and operations controls so that safety is strictly adhered to as well as reflected in the final flight product.

  7. Agricultural Safety. FMO: Fundamentals of Machine Operation. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    John Deere Co., Moline, IL.

    This manual is intended to provide students with basic information on the safe operation of farm machinery. The following topics are covered in the individual chapters: safe farm machinery operation (the importance of safety, the role of communication in safety, and types of farm accidents); human factors (human limitations and capabilities;…

  8. Waste Encapsulation and Storage Facility interim operational safety requirements

    SciTech Connect

    COVEY, L.I.

    2000-11-28

    The Interim Operational Safety Requirements (IOSRs) for the Waste Encapsulation and Storage Facility (WESF) define acceptable conditions, safe boundaries, bases thereof, and management or administrative controls required to ensure safe operation during receipt and inspection of cesium and strontium capsules from private irradiators; decontamination of the capsules and equipment; surveillance of the stored capsules; and maintenance activities. Controls required for public safety, significant defense-in-depth, significant worker safety, and for maintaining radiological consequences below risk evaluation guidelines (EGs) are included.

  9. Fire safety concerns in space operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friedman, Robert

    1987-01-01

    This paper reviews the state-of-the-art in fire control techniques and identifies important issues for continuing research, technology, and standards. For the future permanent orbiting facility, the space station, fire prevention and control calls for not only more stringent fire safety due to the long-term and complex missions, but also for simplified and flexible safety rules to accommodate the variety of users. Future research must address a better understanding of the microgravity space environment as it influences fire propagation and extinction and the application of the technology of fire detection, extinguishment, and material assessment. Spacecraft fire safety should also consider the adaptation of methods and concepts derived from aircraft and undersea experience.

  10. The Implementation of Payload Safety in an Operational Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cissom, R. D.; Horvath, Tim J.; Watson, Kristi S.; Rogers, Mark N. (Technical Monitor); Vanhooser, T. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to define the safety life-cycle process for a payload beginning with the output of the Payload Safety Review Panel and continuing through the life of the payload on-orbit. It focuses on the processes and products of the operations safety implementation through the increment preparations and real-time operations processes. In addition, the paper addresses the role of the Payload Operations and Integration Center and the interfaces to the International Partner Payload Control Centers.

  11. Fuel supply shutdown facility interim operational safety requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Besser, R.L.; Brehm, J.R.; Benecke, M.W.; Remaize, J.A.

    1995-05-23

    These Interim Operational Safety Requirements (IOSR) for the Fuel Supply Shutdown (FSS) facility define acceptable conditions, safe boundaries, bases thereof, and management or administrative controls to ensure safe operation. The IOSRs apply to the fuel material storage buildings in various modes (operation, storage, surveillance).

  12. 14 CFR 417.121 - Safety critical preflight operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Safety critical preflight operations. 417.121 Section 417.121 Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL SPACE TRANSPORTATION, FEDERAL AVIATION... operator must conduct operations and coordinate with weather organizations, as needed, to obtain...

  13. Engineering and Safety Partnership Enhances Safety of the Space Shuttle Program (SSP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duarte, Alberto

    2007-01-01

    Project Management must use the risk assessment documents (RADs) as tools to support their decision making process. Therefore, these documents have to be initiated, developed, and evolved parallel to the life of the project. Technical preparation and safety compliance of these documents require a great deal of resources. Updating these documents after-the-fact not only requires substantial increase in resources - Project Cost -, but this task is also not useful and perhaps an unnecessary expense. Hazard Reports (HRs), Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEAs), Critical Item Lists (CILs), Risk Management process are, among others, within this category. A positive action resulting from a strong partnership between interested parties is one way to get these documents and related processes and requirements, released and updated in useful time. The Space Shuttle Program (SSP) at the Marshall Space Flight Center has implemented a process which is having positive results and gaining acceptance within the Agency. A hybrid Panel, with equal interest and responsibilities for the two larger organizations, Safety and Engineering, is the focal point of this process. Called the Marshall Safety and Engineering Review Panel (MSERP), its charter (Space Shuttle Program Directive 110 F, April 15, 2005), and its Operating Control Plan emphasizes the technical and safety responsibilities over the program risk documents: HRs; FMEA/CILs; Engineering Changes; anomalies/problem resolutions and corrective action implementations, and trend analysis. The MSERP has undertaken its responsibilities with objectivity, assertiveness, dedication, has operated with focus, and has shown significant results and promising perspectives. The MSERP has been deeply involved in propulsion systems and integration, real time technical issues and other relevant reviews, since its conception. These activities have transformed the propulsion MSERP in a truly participative and value added panel, making a

  14. Apprenticeships enhance patient safety and care.

    PubMed

    Smith, Sue

    Poor standards of numeracy and literacy pose a danger to patient safety. Recruiting staff through the modern apprenticeship programme can address this. Staff are tested for numeracy and literacy when they enter and complete the programme, and problems they may experience during their apprenticeship can be immediately addressed. Training days and regular feedback from senior nurses to ward staff about audits of clinical care can also contribute to building a culture of safety at a trust. PMID:21560938

  15. Hydraulic actuator motion limiter ensures operator safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steinmetz, C. P.

    1971-01-01

    Device regulates action of hydraulic linkage to control column to minimize hazard to operator. Primary components of device are flow rate control valve, limiter accumulator, and shutoff valve. Limiter may be incorporated into other hydraulic systems to prevent undue wear on hydraulic actuators and associated components.

  16. Improve safety with pilot operated relief valves

    SciTech Connect

    Emerson, G.

    1996-10-01

    A weakness inherent in balanced bellows pressure relief valves (PRVs) that can cause premature failure can be avoided by using pilot operated PRVs as an alternative. Now better able to handle adverse service conditions, pilot operated PRVs are suitable for a wide range of gas, liquid and mixed-phase services. Traditionally, however, balanced bellows PRVs have been applied as overpressure protection for three notable reasons: a constant PRV set pressure with the presence of variable, superimposed back pressure (at the PRV outlet prior to its opening); valve stability and adequate capacity when built-up back pressure (at the PRV outlet during its relief cycle) exceeds 10%; and spring and guided parts barriered from the process fluid. With these benefits in mind, balanced bellows PRVs have been generally adapted by many hydrocarbon processing companies that have experienced costly, and often dangerous, premature bellows failures. Corrosion, valve instability and/or bellows flutter are causes of these failures.

  17. Developing operational safety requirements for non-nuclear facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Mahn, J.A.

    1997-11-01

    Little guidance has been provided by the DOE for developing appropriate Operational Safety Requirements (OSR) for non-nuclear facility safety documents. For a period of time, Chapter 2 of DOE/AL Supplemental Order 5481.lB provided format guidance for non-reactor nuclear facility OSRs when this supplemental order applied to both nuclear and non-nuclear facilities. Thus, DOE Albuquerque Operations Office personnel still want to see non-nuclear facility OSRs in accordance with the supplemental order (i.e., in terms of Safety Limits, Limiting Conditions for Operation, and Administrative Controls). Furthermore, they want to see a clear correlation between the OSRs and the results of a facility safety analysis. This paper demonstrates how OSRs can be rather simply derived from the results of a risk assessment performed using the ``binning`` methodology of SAND95-0320.

  18. Solenoid operated safety valve and submersible pump system

    SciTech Connect

    Deaton, T.M.; Perkins, D.H.

    1989-01-17

    A submersible pump and solenoid operated safety valve system is described for use in a borehole, comprising: a submersible pump driven by an electric motor positioned down in a borehole and connected to conduit means to produce a flow of well fluids within the borehole toward the surface; a solenoid operated safety valve connected to interrupt the flow of well fluids toward the surface in response to the interruption of current to the solenoid holding the safety valve in an open condition; a surface control unit; a downhole control unit positioned down in the borehole and connected to the surface control unit and to the motor of the pump by means of an electrical cable; means for supplying AC electrical power from the surface unit down the conductors of the cable; and means mounted within the downhole control unit for providing electric current for operating the solenoid to open the safety valve.

  19. Application safety enhancement model using self-checking with software enzymes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subramaniam, Chandrasekaran; Ravishankar, Arthi; Gopal, Deepthi; Subramanian, Dhaarini

    2011-12-01

    The objective of the paper is to propose a safety enhancement model for application software in accelerating the respective self checking strategies similar to bio enzymatic actions. The application software components which are safety critical may have to be assessed periodically or on demand to achieve not only the functional correctness but also the safety specifications or features while getting executed. The design and deployment of such software modules can be formally verified for possible safety flaws using self checking capabilities and software enzymatic actions. The self checks must sense the safety holes in the software and decide to activate the built-in software components called enzymes to do the safe guard operations in a timely manner to mitigate the safety faults using the proposed enzyme calculus. The various application hazards due to the boolean faults in the functional and behavioral model that lead to software safety issues are considered in this approach.

  20. Technical specifications - enhancing the safety impact

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-11-01

    This report documents the work of an interoffice, interdisciplinary, NRC Task Group established in August 1983 to identify the scope and nature of problems with surveillance testing in current Technical Specifications and to develop alternative approaches that will provide better assurance that surveillance testing does not adversely impact safety. The Task Group concluded that some of the Technical Specifications have the potential for adversely affecting safety and some do not appear to be cost effective. The Task Group developed five recommendations for improvement. 15 references.

  1. The 1980 Aircraft Safety and Operating Problems, part 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stickle, J. W. (Compiler)

    1981-01-01

    It is difficult to categorize aircraft operating problems, human factors and safety. Much of NASA's research involves all three and considers the important inter-relationships between man, the machine and the environment, whether the environment be man-made or natural. Topics covered in 20 papers include terminal-area operations; avionics and human factors; and the atmospheric environment.

  2. Applying lessons from commercial aviation safety and operations to resuscitation.

    PubMed

    Ornato, Joseph P; Peberdy, Mary Ann

    2014-02-01

    Both commercial aviation and resuscitation are complex activities in which team members must respond to unexpected emergencies in a consistent, high quality manner. Lives are at stake in both activities and the two disciplines have similar leadership structures, standard setting processes, training methods, and operational tools. Commercial aviation crews operate with remarkable consistency and safety, while resuscitation team performance and outcomes are highly variable. This commentary provides the perspective of two physician-pilots showing how commercial aviation training, operations, and safety principles can be adapted to resuscitation team training and performance. PMID:24215731

  3. Effectiveness evaluation methodology for safety processes to enhance organisational culture in hazardous installations.

    PubMed

    Mengolini, A; Debarberis, L

    2008-06-30

    Safety performance indicators are widely collected and used in hazardous installations. The IAEA, OECD and other international organisations have developed approaches that strongly promote deployment of safety performance indicators. These indicators focus mainly on operational performance, but some of them also address organisational and safety culture aspects. However, operators of hazardous installations, in particular those with limited resources and time constraints, often find it difficult to collect the large number of different safety performance indicators. Moreover, they also have difficulties with giving a meaning to the numbers and trends recorded, especially to those that should reflect a positive safety culture. In this light, the aim of this article is to address the need to monitor and assess progress on implementation of a programme to enhance safety and organisational culture. It proposes a specific process-view approach to effectiveness evaluation of organisational and safety culture indicators by means of a multi-level system in which safety processes and staff involvement in defining improvement activities are central. In this way safety becomes fully embedded in staff activities. Key members of personnel become directly involved in identifying and supplying leading indicators relating to their own daily activity and become responsible and accountable for keeping the measurement system alive. Besides use of lagging indicators, particular emphasis is placed on the importance of identifying and selecting leading indicators which can be used to drive safety performance for organisational and safety culture aspects as well. PMID:18241983

  4. Changing Safety Priorities from Payload Development to Onboard Payload Operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kreimer, J.; Biemann, W.; Festa, F.

    2012-01-01

    Safety Analyses for Payload development phases are typically based o n well defined fixed configurations. From safety point of view the main focus during the development phase is on t he design features that will ensure inherent safe launch, on-board installation and usage of the payload in the planned configuration. The complete payload verification including the safety verification and the flight certification is based on that expected scenario. Once the payload is launched and installed on-orbit the focus moves to safe operations in constantly changing configurations over the life-time due t o upgrades, preventive, and corrective maintenance activities. A broader assessment and preparation for recovery procedures would help to streamline this aspect. It would also support the new extended ISS utilization scenario and the changes of the logistic fleet available to the ISS. The challenge to move the safety focus from payload development and design safety features to permanently modified configurations, different upload capabilities and extending life-cycles/time during the operations phase of the payloads can be supported by early definition of operational envelops and resulting safety approval of wider operational flexibility.

  5. Using computer graphics to enhance astronaut and systems safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, J. W.

    1985-01-01

    Computer graphics is being employed at the NASA Johnson Space Center as a tool to perform rapid, efficient and economical analyses for man-machine integration, flight operations development and systems engineering. The Operator Station Design System (OSDS), a computer-based facility featuring a highly flexible and versatile interactive software package, PLAID, is described. This unique evaluation tool, with its expanding data base of Space Shuttle elements, various payloads, experiments, crew equipment and man models, supports a multitude of technical evaluations, including spacecraft and workstation layout, definition of astronaut visual access, flight techniques development, cargo integration and crew training. As OSDS is being applied to the Space Shuttle, Orbiter payloads (including the European Space Agency's Spacelab) and future space vehicles and stations, astronaut and systems safety are being enhanced. Typical OSDS examples are presented. By performing physical and operational evaluations during early conceptual phases. supporting systems verification for flight readiness, and applying its capabilities to real-time mission support, the OSDS provides the wherewithal to satisfy a growing need of the current and future space programs for efficient, economical analyses.

  6. Using computer graphics to enhance astronaut and systems safety.

    PubMed

    Brown, J W

    1985-02-01

    Computer graphics is being employed at the NASA Johnson Space Center as a tool to perform rapid, efficient and economical analyses for man-machine integration, flight operations development and systems engineering. The Operator Station Design System (OSDS), a computer-based facility featuring a highly flexible and versatile interactive software package, PLAID, is described. This unique evaluation tool, with its expanding data base of Space Shuttle elements, various payloads, experiments, crew equipment and man models, supports a multitude of technical evaluations, including spacecraft and workstation layout, definition of astronaut visual access, flight techniques development, cargo integration and crew training. As OSDS is being applied to the Space Shuttle, Orbiter payloads (including the European Space Agency's Spacelab) and future space vehicles and stations, astronaut and systems safety are being enhanced. Typical OSDS examples are presented. By performing physical and operational evaluations during early conceptual phases. supporting systems verification for flight readiness, and applying its capabilities to real-time mission support, the OSDS provides the wherewithal to satisfy a growing need of the current and future space programs for efficient, economical analyses. PMID:11542840

  7. Enhancing the safety of tailings management facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Meggyes, T.; Niederleithinger, E.; Witt, K.J.; Csovari, M.; Kreft-Burman, K.; Engels, J.; McDonald, C.; Roehl, K.E.

    2008-07-01

    Unsafe tailings management facilities (TMFs) have caused serious accidents in Europe threatening human health/life and the environment. While advanced design, construction and management procedures are available, their implementation requires greater emphasis. An integrated research project funded by the European Union was carried out between 2002 and 2005 with the overall goal of improving the safety of TMFs (Sustainable Improvement in Safety of Tailings Facilities - TAILSAFE, http://www.tailsafe.com/). The objective of TAILSAFE was to develop and apply methods of parameter evaluation and measurement for the assessment and improvement of the safety state of tailings facilities, with particular attention to the stability of tailings dams and slurries, the special risks inherent when such materials include toxic or hazardous wastes, and authorization and management procedures for tailings facilities. Aspects of tailings facilities design, water management and slurry transport, non-destructive and minimally intrusive testing methods, monitoring and the application of sensors, intervention and remediation options were considered in TAILSAFE. A risk reduction framework (the TAILSAFE Parameter Framework) was established to contribute to the avoidance of catastrophic accidents and hazards from tailings facilities. Tailings from the mining and primary processing of metals, minerals and coal were included within the scope of TAILSAFE. The project focused on the avoidance of hazards by developing procedures and methods for investigating and improving the stability of tailings dams and tailings bodies.

  8. NCRP Program Area Committee 2: Operational Radiation Safety.

    PubMed

    Goldin, Eric M; Pryor, Kathryn H

    2016-02-01

    Program Area Committee 2 of the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements provides guidance for radiation safety in occupational settings in a variety of industries and activities. The Committee completed three reports in recent years covering recommendations for the development and administration of radiation safety programs for smaller educational institutions, requirements for self-assessment programs that improve radiation safety and identify and correct deficiencies, and a comprehensive process for effective investigation of radiological incidents. Ongoing work includes a report on sealed radioactive source controls and oversight of a report on radioactive nanomaterials focusing on gaps within current radiation safety programs. Future efforts may deal with operational radiation safety programs in fields such as the safe use of handheld and portable x-ray fluorescence analyzers, occupational airborne radioactive contamination, unsealed radioactive sources, or industrial accelerators. PMID:26717157

  9. Physician Attitudes towards Pharmacological Cognitive Enhancement: Safety Concerns Are Paramount

    PubMed Central

    Banjo, Opeyemi C.; Nadler, Roland; Reiner, Peter B.

    2010-01-01

    The ethical dimensions of pharmacological cognitive enhancement have been widely discussed in academic circles and the popular media, but missing from the conversation have been the perspectives of physicians - key decision makers in the adoption of new technologies into medical practice. We queried primary care physicians in major urban centers in Canada and the United States with the aim of understanding their attitudes towards cognitive enhancement. Our primary hypothesis was that physicians would be more comfortable prescribing cognitive enhancers to older patients than to young adults. Physicians were presented with a hypothetical pharmaceutical cognitive enhancer that had been approved by the regulatory authorities for use in healthy adults, and was characterized as being safe, effective, and without significant adverse side effects. Respondents overwhelmingly reported increasing comfort with prescribing cognitive enhancers as the patient age increased from 25 to 65. When asked about their comfort with prescribing extant drugs that might be considered enhancements (sildenafil, modafinil, and methylphenidate) or our hypothetical cognitive enhancer to a normal, healthy 40 year old, physicians were more comfortable prescribing sildenafil than any of the other three agents. When queried as to the reasons they answered as they did, the most prominent concerns physicians expressed were issues of safety that were not offset by the benefit afforded the individual, even in the face of explicit safety claims. Moreover, many physicians indicated that they viewed safety claims with considerable skepticism. It has become routine for safety to be raised and summarily dismissed as an issue in the debate over pharmacological cognitive enhancement; the observation that physicians were so skeptical in the face of explicit safety claims suggests that such a conclusion may be premature. Thus, physician attitudes suggest that greater weight be placed upon the balance between

  10. Physician attitudes towards pharmacological cognitive enhancement: safety concerns are paramount.

    PubMed

    Banjo, Opeyemi C; Nadler, Roland; Reiner, Peter B

    2010-01-01

    The ethical dimensions of pharmacological cognitive enhancement have been widely discussed in academic circles and the popular media, but missing from the conversation have been the perspectives of physicians - key decision makers in the adoption of new technologies into medical practice. We queried primary care physicians in major urban centers in Canada and the United States with the aim of understanding their attitudes towards cognitive enhancement. Our primary hypothesis was that physicians would be more comfortable prescribing cognitive enhancers to older patients than to young adults. Physicians were presented with a hypothetical pharmaceutical cognitive enhancer that had been approved by the regulatory authorities for use in healthy adults, and was characterized as being safe, effective, and without significant adverse side effects. Respondents overwhelmingly reported increasing comfort with prescribing cognitive enhancers as the patient age increased from 25 to 65. When asked about their comfort with prescribing extant drugs that might be considered enhancements (sildenafil, modafinil, and methylphenidate) or our hypothetical cognitive enhancer to a normal, healthy 40 year old, physicians were more comfortable prescribing sildenafil than any of the other three agents. When queried as to the reasons they answered as they did, the most prominent concerns physicians expressed were issues of safety that were not offset by the benefit afforded the individual, even in the face of explicit safety claims. Moreover, many physicians indicated that they viewed safety claims with considerable skepticism. It has become routine for safety to be raised and summarily dismissed as an issue in the debate over pharmacological cognitive enhancement; the observation that physicians were so skeptical in the face of explicit safety claims suggests that such a conclusion may be premature. Thus, physician attitudes suggest that greater weight be placed upon the balance between

  11. Safety signals as instrumental reinforcers during free-operant avoidance

    PubMed Central

    Urcelay, Gonzalo P.; Mar, Adam C.; Dickinson, Anthony; Robbins, Trevor W.

    2014-01-01

    Safety signals provide “relief” through predicting the absence of an aversive event. At issue is whether these signals also act as instrumental reinforcers. Four experiments were conducted using a free-operant lever-press avoidance paradigm in which each press avoided shock and was followed by the presentation of a 5-sec auditory safety signal. When given a choice between two levers in Experiment 1, both avoiding shock, rats preferentially responded on the lever that produced the safety signal as feedback, even when footshock was omitted. Following avoidance training with a single lever in Experiment 2, removal of the signal led to a decrease in avoidance responses and an increase in responses during the safety period normally denoted by the signal. These behavioral changes demonstrate the dual conditioned reinforcing and fear inhibiting properties of the safety signal. The associative processes that support the reinforcing properties of a safety signal were tested using a novel revaluation procedure. Prior experience of systemic morphine during safety signal presentations resulted in an increased rate of avoidance responses to produce the safety signal during a drug-free extinction test, a finding not seen with d-amphetamine in Experiment 3. Morphine revaluation of the safety signal was repeated in Experiment 4 followed by a drug-free extinction test in which responses did not produce the signal for the first 10 min of the session. Instrumental avoidance in the absence of the signal was shown to be insensitive to prior signal revaluation, suggesting that the signal reinforces free-operant avoidance behavior through a habit-like mechanism. PMID:25135197

  12. Safety signals as instrumental reinforcers during free-operant avoidance.

    PubMed

    Fernando, Anushka B P; Urcelay, Gonzalo P; Mar, Adam C; Dickinson, Anthony; Robbins, Trevor W

    2014-09-01

    Safety signals provide "relief" through predicting the absence of an aversive event. At issue is whether these signals also act as instrumental reinforcers. Four experiments were conducted using a free-operant lever-press avoidance paradigm in which each press avoided shock and was followed by the presentation of a 5-sec auditory safety signal. When given a choice between two levers in Experiment 1, both avoiding shock, rats preferentially responded on the lever that produced the safety signal as feedback, even when footshock was omitted. Following avoidance training with a single lever in Experiment 2, removal of the signal led to a decrease in avoidance responses and an increase in responses during the safety period normally denoted by the signal. These behavioral changes demonstrate the dual conditioned reinforcing and fear inhibiting properties of the safety signal. The associative processes that support the reinforcing properties of a safety signal were tested using a novel revaluation procedure. Prior experience of systemic morphine during safety signal presentations resulted in an increased rate of avoidance responses to produce the safety signal during a drug-free extinction test, a finding not seen with d-amphetamine in Experiment 3. Morphine revaluation of the safety signal was repeated in Experiment 4 followed by a drug-free extinction test in which responses did not produce the signal for the first 10 min of the session. Instrumental avoidance in the absence of the signal was shown to be insensitive to prior signal revaluation, suggesting that the signal reinforces free-operant avoidance behavior through a habit-like mechanism. PMID:25135197

  13. Safety Enhancements for TRU Waste Handling - 12258

    SciTech Connect

    Cannon, Curt N.

    2012-07-01

    For years, proper Health Physics practices and 'As Low As Reasonably Achievable' (ALARA) principles have fostered the use of glove boxes or other methods of handling (without direct contact) high activities of radioactive material. The physical limitations of using glove boxes on certain containers have resulted in high-activity wastes being held in storage awaiting a path forward. Highly contaminated glove boxes and other remote handling equipment no longer in use have also been added to the growing list of items held for storage with no efficient method of preparation for proper disposal without creating exposure risks to personnel. This is especially true for wastes containing alpha-emitting radionuclides such as Plutonium and Americium that pose significant health risks to personnel if these Transuranic (TRU) wastes are not controlled effectively. Like any good safety program or root cause investigation PFNW has found that the identification of the cause of a negative change, if stopped, can result in a near miss and lessons learned. If this is done in the world of safety, it is considered a success story and is to be shared with others to protect the workers. PFNW believes that the tools, equipment and resources have improved over the past number of years but that the use of them has not progressed at the same rate. If we use our tools to timely identify the effect on the work environment and immediately following or possibly even simultaneously identify the cause or some of the causal factors, we may have the ability to continue to work rather than succumb to the start and stop-work mentality trap that is not beneficial in waste minimization, production efficiency or ALARA. (authors)

  14. Safety-related operator actions: methodology for developing criteria

    SciTech Connect

    Kozinsky, E.J.; Gray, L.H.; Beare, A.N.; Barks, D.B.; Gomer, F.E.

    1984-03-01

    This report presents a methodology for developing criteria for design evaluation of safety-related actions by nuclear power plant reactor operators, and identifies a supporting data base. It is the eleventh and final NUREG/CR Report on the Safety-Related Operator Actions Program, conducted by Oak Ridge National Laboratory for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The operator performance data were developed from training simulator experiments involving operator responses to simulated scenarios of plant disturbances; from field data on events with similar scenarios; and from task analytic data. A conceptual model to integrate the data was developed and a computer simulation of the model was run, using the SAINT modeling language. Proposed is a quantitative predictive model of operator performance, the Operator Personnel Performance Simulation (OPPS) Model, driven by task requirements, information presentation, and system dynamics. The model output, a probability distribution of predicted time to correctly complete safety-related operator actions, provides data for objective evaluation of quantitative design criteria.

  15. Safety review of the design, operation, and radiation sections of the General Electric Morris Operation Consolidated Safety Analysis Report

    SciTech Connect

    McBride, J.P.

    1981-01-30

    A safety review was made of Sections 4 through 9 of the Consolidated Safety Analysis Report (CSAR) for the GE Morris Operation spent-fuel storage facility. The sections reviewed include Design Criteria and Compliance, Facility Design and Description, Radiation Protection, Accident Analysis, and Conduct of Operations. The safety review was performed in accordance with the Code of Federal Regulations, Title 10, Part 72, ''Licensing Requirements for the Storage of Spent Fuel in an Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installation'' and contains independent estimations of source terms and dose-commitments from postulated accidents in the storage facility and a structural analysis of the Morris Operation cranes as an appendix. The review confirms that the features of the facility as described in Sections 4 through 9 of the CSAR fulfilled the safety requirements of 10 CFR 72, and it is concluded that spent-fuel handling and storage at the Morris Operation do not present significant risks to public health and safety. 15 refs., 3 tabs.

  16. Safety and emergency preparedness considerations for geotechnical field operations

    SciTech Connect

    Wemple, R.P.

    1989-04-01

    The GEO Energy Technology Department at Sandia National Laboratories is involved in several remote-site drilling and/or experimental operations each year. In 1987, the Geothermal Research Division of the Department developed a general set of Safe Operating Procedures (SOPs) that could be applied to a variety of projects. This general set is supplemented by site-specific SOPs as needed. Effective field operations require: integration of safety and emergency preparedness planning with overall project planning, training of field personnel and inventorying of local emergency support resources, and, developing a clear line of responsibility and authority to enforce the safety requirements. Copies of SOPs used in recent operations are included as examples of working documents for the reader.

  17. Understanding Current Safety Issues for Trajectory Based Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feary, Michael; Stewart, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Increases in procedural complexity were investigated as a possible contributor to flight path deviations in airline operations. Understanding current operational issues and their causes must be embraced to maintain current safety standards while increasing future functionality. ASRS data and expert narratives were used to discover factors relating to pilot deviations. Our investigation pointed to ATC intervention, automation confusion, procedure design, and mixed equipment as primary issues. Future work will need to include objective data and mitigation strategies.

  18. 68. VIEW OF CONSOLE CONTAINING OPERATIONS AND CHECKOUT, RANGE SAFETY, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    68. VIEW OF CONSOLE CONTAINING OPERATIONS AND CHECKOUT, RANGE SAFETY, AND BATTERY CLOCK PANELS SHOWING INDEPENDENT POWER SUPPLY IN CABINETS BENEATH PANELS. FOOT PEDAL FOR CONTROLLING COMMUNICATIONS HEADSET VISIBLE IN FRONT OF LEFT CABINET. THIS CONSOLE LOCATED NEAR THE MIDDLE OF THE WEST WALL OF SLC-3E CONTROL ROOM. - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Operations Building, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  19. Operational Safety Requirements and Operating Specification Documentation compliance instrumentation matrices: 200 East Area Tank Farms

    SciTech Connect

    Story, D.R.

    1995-03-01

    This document contains information about matrices complied of instrumentation used to comply with the existing Operational Safety Requirements from Safety Analysis Reports and Operating, Specification Documentation requirements for 200 East Area Tank Farms. These matrices contain the primary instrumentation needed to comply with each OSR and/or OSD requirement as well as any backup instrumentation that may be used should the primary device be out of service. The referenced matrices are provided as attachments to this document.

  20. Safety Signals as Instrumental Reinforcers during Free-Operant Avoidance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernando, Anushka B. P.; Urcelay, Gonzalo P.; Mar, Adam C.; Dickinson, Anthony; Robbins, Trevor W.

    2014-01-01

    Safety signals provide "relief" through predicting the absence of an aversive event. At issue is whether these signals also act as instrumental reinforcers. Four experiments were conducted using a free-operant lever-press avoidance paradigm in which each press avoided shock and was followed by the presentation of a 5-sec auditory safety…

  1. Implementation of Enhanced Propulsion Control Modes for Emergency Flight Operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Csank, Jeffrey T.; Chin, Jeffrey C.; May, Ryan D.; Litt, Jonathan S.; Guo, Ten-Huei

    2011-01-01

    Aircraft engines can be effective actuators to help pilots avert or recover from emergency situations. Emergency control modes are being developed to enhance the engines performance to increase the probability of recovery under these circumstances. This paper discusses a proposed implementation of an architecture that requests emergency propulsion control modes, allowing the engines to deliver additional performance in emergency situations while still ensuring a specified safety level. In order to determine the appropriate level of engine performance enhancement, information regarding the current emergency scenario (including severity) and current engine health must be known. This enables the engine to operate beyond its nominal range while minimizing overall risk to the aircraft. In this architecture, the flight controller is responsible for determining the severity of the event and the level of engine risk that is acceptable, while the engine controller is responsible for delivering the desired performance within the specified risk range. A control mode selector specifies an appropriate situation-specific enhanced mode, which the engine controller then implements. The enhanced control modes described in this paper provide additional engine thrust or response capabilities through the modification of gains, limits, and the control algorithm, but increase the risk of engine failure. The modifications made to the engine controller to enable the use of the enhanced control modes are described, as are the interaction between the various subsystems and importantly, the interaction between the flight controller/pilot and the propulsion control system. Simulation results demonstrate how the system responds to requests for enhanced operation and the corresponding increase in performance.

  2. Enhancing the NASA Expendable Launch Vehicle Payload Safety Review Process Through Program Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palo, Thomas E.

    2007-01-01

    The safety review process for NASA spacecraft flown on Expendable Launch Vehicles (ELVs) has been guided by NASA-STD 8719.8, Expendable Launch Vehicle Payload Safety Review Process Standard. The standard focused primarily on the safety approval required to begin pre-launch processing at the launch site. Subsequent changes in the contractual, technical, and operational aspects of payload processing, combined with lessons-learned supported a need for the reassessment of the standard. This has resulted in the formation of a NASA ELV Payload Safety Program. This program has been working to address the programmatic issues that will enhance and supplement the existing process, while continuing to ensure the safety of ELV payload activities.

  3. Stage Right operational safety analysis and evaluation of Pantex personnel operations

    SciTech Connect

    Rountree, S.L.K.; Whitehurst, H.O.; Tomlin, E.H.; Restrepo, L.F.; White, J. |

    1995-01-01

    This report documents a study (Stage Right Operational Safety Analysis) that was performed to evaluate the effects of new Stage Right operations on the safety of Pantex personnel who perform the operations and maintain the equipment. The primary concern of the evaluation was for personnel safety during Stage Right operations, but operations equipment damage and degradation also were taken into account. This analysis evaluates safety of the work process in the staging of dismantled nuclear weapon pits within the modified Richmond magazines only. This Stage Right Process and Operational Safety Analysis includes the following processes: moving the pelletized drums from the pallet trailer to the pallet turner, staging of pallets and removal of pallets from the magazine, recovery from an incident in a magazine, setting up, opening, and closing a Zone 4 magazine, inventory of pelletized drums in the magazines, transporting pelletized drums from Zone 12 to Zone 4, and maintenance on the shielded lift truck that involves removal of the cab shielding. The analysis includes the following undesirable consequences: injury to personnel, breach of an AL-R8 container, drop of a loaded pallet, damage to equipment, and equipment unreliability.

  4. Circuits Enhance Scientific Instruments and Safety Devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    Since its founding in 1958, NASA has pioneered the use of different frequencies on the electromagnetic spectrum - including X-ray, microwave, and infrared wavelengths - to gather information about distant celestial bodies. During the 1962 Mariner 2 mission, NASA used microwave radiometers that operated in the range of 15-23 gigahertz (GHz) to assess the surface temperature of Venus and to determine the percentage of water vapor in its atmosphere. Today, there is another area on the spectrum proving uniquely useful to scientists: the terahertz (THz) range, spanning from about 100 GHz-10,000 GHz. (1 THz equals approximately 1,000 GHz.) Terahertz frequencies span the lesser-known gap on the electromagnetic spectrum between microwave radiation and infrared (and visible) light, falling within the spectral range where most simple molecules resonate. This molecular resonance makes terahertz particularly useful for chemical spectroscopy and the remote sensing of specific molecules. In the 1990s, NASA began using frequencies above 300 GHz (more than an order of magnitude higher than the instrumentation on Mariner 2) to perform spectral analysis of molecular clouds and planetary atmospheres. Instruments using these higher frequencies have included the Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS), deployed from 1991-2001, and the Microwave Instrument for the Rosetta Orbiter (MIRO), launched in 2004. With UARS-MLS, NASA used advanced terahertz receivers to measure the emission signatures from atmospheric molecules, providing researchers with valuable data about the changes in the Earth s protective ozone layer. MIRO, set to rendezvous with the comet 67P Churyumov-Gerasimenko in 2014, will use terahertz instrumentation to analyze the comet s dust and gases. Although NASA has been a driving force behind the development of terahertz technology, scientific equipment for terahertz research - including transmitters, receivers, and basic test and

  5. Verification and Implementation of Operations Safety Controls for Flight Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Cheryl L.; Smalls, James R.; Carrier, Alicia S.

    2010-01-01

    Approximately eleven years ago, the International Space Station launched the first module from Russia, the Functional Cargo Block (FGB). Safety and Mission Assurance (S&MA) Operations (Ops) Engineers played an integral part in that endeavor by executing strict flight product verification as well as continued staffing of S&MA's console in the Mission Evaluation Room (MER) for that flight mission. How were these engineers able to conduct such a complicated task? They conducted it based on product verification that consisted of ensuring that safety requirements were adequately contained in all flight products that affected crew safety. S&MA Ops engineers apply both systems engineering and project management principles in order to gain a appropriate level of technical knowledge necessary to perform thorough reviews which cover the subsystem(s) affected. They also ensured that mission priorities were carried out with a great detail and success.

  6. Using Total Lightning Observations to Enhance Lightning Safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stano, Geoffrey T.

    2012-01-01

    Lightning is often the underrated threat faced by the public when it comes to dangerous weather phenomena. Typically, larger scale events such as floods, hurricanes, and tornadoes receive the vast majority of attention by both the general population and the media. This comes from the fact that these phenomena are large, longer lasting, can impact a large swath of society at one time, and are dangerous events. The threat of lightning is far more isolated on a case by case basis, although millions of cloud-to-ground lightning strikes hit this United States each year. While attention is given to larger meteorological events, lightning is the second leading cause of weather related deaths in the United States. This information raises the question of what steps can be taken to improve lightning safety. Already, the meteorological community s understanding of lightning has increased over the last 20 years. Lightning safety is now better addressed with the National Weather Service s access to the National Lightning Detection Network data and enhanced wording in their severe weather warnings. Also, local groups and organizations are working to improve public awareness of lightning safety with easy phrases to remember, such as "When Thunder Roars, Go Indoors." The impacts can be seen in the greater array of contingency plans, from airports to sports stadiums, addressing the threat of lightning. Improvements can still be made and newer technologies may offer new tools as we look towards the future. One of these tools is a network of sensors called a lightning mapping array (LMA). Several of these networks exist across the United States. NASA s Short-term Prediction Research and Transition Center (SPoRT), part of the Marshall Spaceflight Center, has access to three of these networks from Huntsville, Alabama, the Kennedy Space Center, and Washington D.C. The SPoRT program s mission is to help transition unique products and observations into the operational forecast environment

  7. Safety and Health Hazard Observations in Hmong Farming Operations

    PubMed Central

    Neitzel, R. L.; Krenz, J.; de Castro, A. B.

    2014-01-01

    Agricultural workers have a high risk of occupational injuries, illnesses, and fatalities. However, there are very few standardized tools available to assess safety and health in agricultural operations. Additionally, there are a number of groups of agricultural workers, including Hmong refugees and immigrants, for which virtually no information on safety and health conditions is available. This study developed an observation-based methodology for systematically evaluating occupational health and safety hazards in agriculture, and pilot-tested this on several small-scale Hmong farming operations. Each observation assessed of range of safety and health hazards (e.g., musculoskeletal hazards, dust and pollen, noise, and mechanical hazards), as well as on factors such as type of work area, presence of personal protective equipment, and weather conditions. Thirty-six observations were collected on nine farms. The most common hazards observed were bending at the back and lifting <50 pounds. Use of sharp tools without adequate guarding mechanisms, awkward postures, repetitive hand motions, and lifting >50 pounds were also common. The farming activities observed involved almost no power equipment, and no pesticide or chemical handling was observed. The use of personal protective equipment was uncommon. The results of this assessment agreed well with a parallel study of perceived safety and health hazards among Hmong agricultural workers. This study suggests that small-scale Hmong farming operations involve a variety of hazards, and that occupational health interventions may be warranted in this community. The study also demonstrates the utility of standardized assessment tools and mixed-method approaches to hazard evaluation. PMID:24911689

  8. Safety and health hazard observations in Hmong farming operations.

    PubMed

    Neitzel, R L; Krenz, J; de Castro, A B

    2014-01-01

    Agricultural workers have a high risk of occupational injuries, illnesses, and fatalities. However, there are very few standardized tools available to assess safety and health in agricultural operations. Additionally, there are a number of groups of agricultural workers, including Hmong refugees and immigrants, for which virtually no information on safety and health conditions is available. This study developed an observation-based methodology for systematically evaluating occupational health and safety hazards in agriculture, and pilot-tested this on several small-scale Hmong farming operations. Each observation assessed of range of safety and health hazards (e.g., musculoskeletal hazards, dust and pollen, noise, and mechanical hazards), as well as on factors such as type of work area, presence of personal protective equipment, and weather conditions. Thirty-six observations were collected on nine farms. The most common hazards observed were bending at the back and lifting <50 pounds. Use of sharp tools without adequate guarding mechanisms, awkward postures, repetitive hand motions, and lifting >50 pounds were also common. The farming activities observed involved almost no power equipment, and no pesticide or chemical handling was observed. The use of personal protective equipment was uncommon. The results of this assessment agreed well with a parallel study of perceived safety and health hazards among Hmong agricultural workers. This study suggests that small-scale Hmong farming operations involve a variety of hazards, and that occupational health interventions may be warranted in this community. The study also demonstrates the utility of standardized assessment tools and mixed-method approaches to hazard evaluation. PMID:24911689

  9. How beam driven operations optimize ALICE efficiency and safety

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinazza, Ombretta; Augustinus, André; Bond, Peter M.; Chochula, Peter C.; Kurepin, Alexander N.; Lechman, Mateusz; Rosinsky, Peter

    2012-12-01

    ALICE is one of the experiments at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), CERN (Geneva, Switzerland). The ALICE DCS is responsible for the coordination and monitoring of the various detectors and of central systems, for collecting and managing alarms, data and commands. Furthermore, it's the central tool to monitor and verify the beam status with special emphasis on safety. In particular, it is important to ensure that the experiment's detectors are brought to and stay in a safe state, e.g. reduced voltages during the injection, acceleration, and adjusting phases of the LHC beams. Thanks to its central role, it's the appropriate system to implement automatic actions that were normally left to the initiative of the shift leader; where decisions come from the knowledge of detectors’ statuses and of the beam, combined together to fulfil the scientific requirements, keeping safety as a priority in all cases. This paper shows how the central DCS is interpreting the daily operations from a beam driven point of view. A tool is being implemented where automatic actions can be set and monitored through expert panels, with a custom level of automatization. Some routine operations are already automated, when a particular beam mode is declared by the LHC, which can represent a safety concern. This beam driven approach is proving to be a tool for the shift crew to optimize the efficiency of data taking, while improving the safety of the experiment.

  10. A COMPUTER-ASSIST MATERIAL TRACKING SYSTEM AS A CRITICALITY SAFETY AID TO OPERATORS

    SciTech Connect

    Claybourn, R V; Huang, S T

    2007-03-30

    In today's compliant-driven environment, fissionable material handlers are inundated with work control rules and procedures in carrying out nuclear operations. Historically, human errors are one of the key contributors of various criticality accidents. Since moving and handling fissionable materials are key components of their job functions, any means that can be provided to assist operators in facilitating fissionable material moves will help improve operational efficiency and enhance criticality safety implementation. From the criticality safety perspective, operational issues have been encountered in Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) plutonium operations. Those issues included lack of adequate historical record keeping for the fissionable material stored in containers, a need for a better way of accommodating operations in a research and development setting, and better means of helping material handlers in carrying out various criticality safety controls. Through the years, effective means were implemented including better work control process, standardized criticality control conditions (SCCC) and relocation of criticality safety engineers to the plutonium facility. Another important measure taken was to develop a computer data acquisition system for criticality safety assessment, which is the subject of this paper. The purpose of the Criticality Special Support System (CSSS) is to integrate many of the proven operational support protocols into a software system to assist operators with assessing compliance to procedures during the handling and movement of fissionable materials. Many nuclear facilities utilize mass cards or a computer program to track fissionable material mass data in operations. Additional item specific data such as, the presence of moderators or close fitting reflectors, could be helpful to fissionable material handlers in assessing compliance to SCCC's. Computer-assist checking of a workstation material inventory against the

  11. Implementation of an Enhanced Measurement Control Program for handling nuclear safety samples at WSRC

    SciTech Connect

    Boler-Melton, C.; Holland, M.K.

    1991-01-01

    In the separation and purification of nuclear material, nuclear criticality safety (NCS) is of primary concern. The primary nuclear criticality safety controls utilized by the Savannah River Site (SRS) Separations Facilities involve administrative and process equipment controls. Additional assurance of NCS is obtained by identifying key process hold points where sampling is used to independently verify the effectiveness of production control. Nuclear safety measurements of samples from these key process locations provide a high degree of assurance that processing conditions are within administrative and procedural nuclear safety controls. An enhanced procedure management system aimed at making improvements in the quality, safety, and conduct of operation was implemented for Nuclear Safety Sample (NSS) receipt, analysis, and reporting. All procedures with nuclear safety implications were reviewed for accuracy and adequate detail to perform the analytical measurements safely, efficiently, and with the utmost quality. Laboratory personnel worked in a Deliberate Operating'' mode (a systematic process requiring continuous expert oversight during all phases of training, testing, and implementation) to initiate the upgrades. Thus, the effort to revise and review nuclear safety sample procedures involved a team comprised of a supervisor, chemist, and two technicians for each procedure. Each NSS procedure was upgraded to a Use Every Time'' (UET) procedure with sign-off steps to ensure compliance with each step for every nuclear safety sample analyzed. The upgrade program met and exceeded both the long and short term customer needs by improving measurement reliability, providing objective evidence of rigid adherence to program principles and requirements, and enhancing the system for independent verification of representative sampling from designated NCS points.

  12. Implementation of an Enhanced Measurement Control Program for handling nuclear safety samples at WSRC

    SciTech Connect

    Boler-Melton, C.; Holland, M.K.

    1991-12-31

    In the separation and purification of nuclear material, nuclear criticality safety (NCS) is of primary concern. The primary nuclear criticality safety controls utilized by the Savannah River Site (SRS) Separations Facilities involve administrative and process equipment controls. Additional assurance of NCS is obtained by identifying key process hold points where sampling is used to independently verify the effectiveness of production control. Nuclear safety measurements of samples from these key process locations provide a high degree of assurance that processing conditions are within administrative and procedural nuclear safety controls. An enhanced procedure management system aimed at making improvements in the quality, safety, and conduct of operation was implemented for Nuclear Safety Sample (NSS) receipt, analysis, and reporting. All procedures with nuclear safety implications were reviewed for accuracy and adequate detail to perform the analytical measurements safely, efficiently, and with the utmost quality. Laboratory personnel worked in a ``Deliberate Operating`` mode (a systematic process requiring continuous expert oversight during all phases of training, testing, and implementation) to initiate the upgrades. Thus, the effort to revise and review nuclear safety sample procedures involved a team comprised of a supervisor, chemist, and two technicians for each procedure. Each NSS procedure was upgraded to a ``Use Every Time`` (UET) procedure with sign-off steps to ensure compliance with each step for every nuclear safety sample analyzed. The upgrade program met and exceeded both the long and short term customer needs by improving measurement reliability, providing objective evidence of rigid adherence to program principles and requirements, and enhancing the system for independent verification of representative sampling from designated NCS points.

  13. Enhanced vision systems: results of simulation and operational tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hecker, Peter; Doehler, Hans-Ullrich

    1998-07-01

    Today's aircrews have to handle more and more complex situations. Most critical tasks in the field of civil aviation are landing approaches and taxiing. Especially under bad weather conditions the crew has to handle a tremendous workload. Therefore DLR's Institute of Flight Guidance has developed a concept for an enhanced vision system (EVS), which increases performance and safety of the aircrew and provides comprehensive situational awareness. In previous contributions some elements of this concept have been presented, i.e. the 'Simulation of Imaging Radar for Obstacle Detection and Enhanced Vision' by Doehler and Bollmeyer 1996. Now the presented paper gives an overview about the DLR's enhanced vision concept and research approach, which consists of two main components: simulation and experimental evaluation. In a first step the simulational environment for enhanced vision research with a pilot-in-the-loop is introduced. An existing fixed base flight simulator is supplemented by real-time simulations of imaging sensors, i.e. imaging radar and infrared. By applying methods of data fusion an enhanced vision display is generated combining different levels of information, such as terrain model data, processed images acquired by sensors, aircraft state vectors and data transmitted via datalink. The second part of this contribution presents some experimental results. In cooperation with Daimler Benz Aerospace Sensorsystems Ulm, a test van and a test aircraft were equipped with a prototype of an imaging millimeter wave radar. This sophisticated HiVision Radar is up to now one of the most promising sensors for all weather operations. Images acquired by this sensor are shown as well as results of data fusion processes based on digital terrain models. The contribution is concluded by a short video presentation.

  14. Progress in reliability of fast reactor operation and new trends to increased inherent safety

    SciTech Connect

    Merk, Bruno; Stanculescu, Alexander; Chellapandi, Perumal; Hill, Robert

    2015-06-01

    The reasons for the renewed interest in fast reactors and an overview of the progress in sodium cooled fast reactor operation in the last ten years are given. The excellent operational performance of sodium cooled fast reactors in this period is highlighted as a sound basis for the development of new fast reactors. The operational performance of the BN-600 is compared and evaluated against the performance of German light water reactors to assess the reliability. The relevance of feedback effects for safe reactor design is described, and a new method for the enhancement of feedback effects in fast reactors is proposed. Experimental reactors demonstrating the inherent safety of advanced sodium cooled fast reactor designs are described and the potential safety improvements resulting from the use of fine distributed moderating material are discussed.

  15. The application of image enhancement techniques to remote manipulator operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gonzalez, R. C.

    1974-01-01

    Methods of image enhancement which can be used by an operator who is not experienced with the mechanisms of enhancement to obtain satisfactory results were designed and implemented. Investigation of transformations which operate directly on the image domain resulted in a new technique of contrast enhancement. Transformations on the Fourier transform of the original image, including such techniques as homomorphic filtering, were also investigated. The methods of communication between the enhancement system and the computer operator were analyzed, and a language was developed for use in image enhancement. A working enhancement system was then created, and is included.

  16. Criticality safety enhancements for SCALE 6.2 and beyond

    SciTech Connect

    Rearden, Bradley T.; Bekar, Kursat B.; Celik, Cihangir; Clarno, Kevin T.; Dunn, Michael E.; Hart, Shane W.; Ibrahim, Ahmad M.; Johnson, Seth R.; Langley, Brandon R.; Lefebvre, Jordan P.; Lefebvre, Robert A.; Marshall, William J.; Mertyurek, Ugur; Mueller, Don; Peplow, Douglas E.; Perfetti, Christopher M.; Petrie Jr, Lester M.; Thompson, Adam B.; Wiarda, Dorothea; Wieselquist, William A.; Williams, Mark L.

    2015-01-01

    SCALE is a widely used suite of tools for nuclear systems modeling and simulation that provides comprehensive, verified and validated, user-friendly capabilities for criticality safety, reactor physics, radiation shielding, and sensitivity and uncertainty analysis. Since 1980, regulators, industry, and research institutions around the world have relied on SCALE for nuclear safety analysis and design. SCALE 6.2 provides several new capabilities and significant improvements in many existing features for criticality safety analysis. Enhancements are realized for nuclear data; multigroup resonance self-shielding; continuous-energy Monte Carlo analysis for sensitivity/uncertainty analysis, radiation shielding, and depletion; and graphical user interfaces. An overview of these capabilities is provided in this paper, and additional details are provided in several companion papers.

  17. Pre-operational safety appraisal Tritiated Scrap Recovery Facility, Mound facility

    SciTech Connect

    Dauby, J.J.; Flanagan, T.M.; Metcalf, L.W.; Rhinehammer, T.B.

    1996-07-01

    The purpose of this report is to identify, assess, and document the hazards which are associated with the proposed operation of the Tritiated Scrap Recovery Facility at Mound Facility. A Pre-operational Safety Appraisal is a requirement as stated in Department of Energy Order 5481.1, Safety Analysis and Review System. The operations to be conducted in the new Tritiated Scrap Waste Recovery Facility are not new, but a continuation of a prime mission of Mound`s i.e. recovery of tritium from waste produced throughout the DOE complex. The new facility is a replacement of an existing process started in the early 1960`s and incorporates numerous design changes to enhance personnel and environmental safety. This report also documents the safety of a one time operation involving the recovery of tritium from material obtained by the Department of Energy from the State of Arizona. This project will involve the processing of 240,000 curies of tritium contained in glass ampoules that were to be used in items such as luminous dial watches. These were manufactured by the now defunct American Atomics Corporation, Tucson, Arizona.

  18. Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy applied to food safety.

    PubMed

    Craig, Ana Paula; Franca, Adriana S; Irudayaraj, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) is an advanced Raman technique that enhances the vibrational spectrum of molecules adsorbed on or in the vicinity of metal particles and/or surfaces. Because of its readiness, sensitivity, and minimum sample preparation requirements, SERS is being considered as a powerful technique for food inspection. Key aspects of food-safety assurance, spectroscopy methods, and SERS are briefly discussed in an extended introduction of this review. The recent and potential advances in SERS are highlighted in sections that deal with the (a) detection of food-borne pathogenic microorganisms and (b) the detection of food contaminants and adulteration, concentrated specifically on antibiotics, drugs, hormones, melamine, and pesticides. This review provides an outlook of the work done and a perspective on the future directions of SERS as a reliable tool for food-safety assessment. PMID:23297774

  19. EU Funded Research Activities on NPPS Operational Safety

    SciTech Connect

    Manolatos, P.; Van Goethem, G.

    2002-07-01

    The 5. framework programme (FP-5), the pluri-annual research programme of the European Union (EU), covers the period 1998-2002. Research on nuclear energy, fusion and fission, is covered by the EURATOM part of the FP-5. An overview of the Euratom's research on Nuclear Reactor Safety, managed by the DG-RTD of the European Commission (EC), is presented. This concerns 70 multi-partner projects of approximately euro 82.5 million total contract value that have been selected and co-financed during the period 1999-2001. They form the three clusters of projects dealing with the 'Operational Safety of Existing Installations'. 'Plant Life Extension and Management' (PLEM), 'Severe Accident Management' (SAM) and 'Evolutionary concepts' (EVOL). Emphasis is given here to the projects of the PLEM cluster. (authors)

  20. Automatisms in EMIR instrument to improve operation, safety and maintenance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández Izquierdo, Patricia; Núñez Cagigal, Miguel; Barreto Rodríguez, Roberto; Martínez Rey, Noelia; Santana Tschudi, Samuel; Barreto Cabrera, Maria; Patrón Recio, Jesús; Garzón López, Francisco

    2014-08-01

    EMIR is the NIR imager and multiobject spectrograph being built as a common user instrument for the 10-m class GTC. Big cryogenic instruments demand a reliable design and a specific hardware and software to increase its safety and productivity. EMIR vacuum, cooling and heating systems are monitored and partially controlled by a Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) in industrial format with a touch screen. The PLC aids the instrument operator in the maintenance tasks recovering autonomously vacuum if required or proposing preventive maintenance actions. The PLC and its associated hardware improve EMIR safety having immediate reactions against eventual failure modes in the instrument or in external supplies, including hardware failures during the heating procedure or failure in the PLC itself. EMIR PLC provides detailed information periodically about status and alarms of vacuum and cooling components or external supplies.

  1. 10 CFR 63.112 - Requirements for preclosure safety analysis of the geologic repository operations area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Requirements for preclosure safety analysis of the... Criteria Preclosure Safety Analysis § 63.112 Requirements for preclosure safety analysis of the geologic repository operations area. The preclosure safety analysis of the geologic repository operations area...

  2. 10 CFR 63.112 - Requirements for preclosure safety analysis of the geologic repository operations area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Requirements for preclosure safety analysis of the... Criteria Preclosure Safety Analysis § 63.112 Requirements for preclosure safety analysis of the geologic repository operations area. The preclosure safety analysis of the geologic repository operations area...

  3. Cockpit Displays for Enhancing Terminal-Area Situational Awareness and Runway Safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hyer, Paul V.; Otero, Sharon; Jones, Denise R. (Technical Monitor)

    2007-01-01

    HUD and PFD displays have been developed to enhance situational awareness and improve runway safety. These displays were designed to seamlessly transition through all phases of flight providing guidance and information to the pilot. This report describes the background of the Langley Research Center (LaRC) HUD and PFD work, the steps required to integrate the displays with those of other LaRC programs, the display characteristics of the several operational modes and the transitional logic governing the transition between displays.

  4. Monitoring, safety systems for LNG and LPG operators

    SciTech Connect

    True, W.R.

    1998-11-16

    Operators in Korea and Australia have chosen monitoring and control systems in recent contracts for LNG and LPG storage. Korea Gas Corp. (Kogas) has hired Whessoe Varec, Calais, to provide monitoring systems for four LNG storage tanks being built at Kogas` Inchon terminal. For Elgas Ltd., Port Botany, Australia, Whessoe Varec has already shipped a safety valve-shutdown system to a new LPG cavern-storage facility under construction. The paper describes the systems, terminal monitoring, dynamic approach to tank management, and meeting the growing demand for LPG.

  5. Safety analysis, 200 Area, Savannah River Plant: Separations area operations

    SciTech Connect

    Perkins, W.C.; Lee, R.; Allen, P.M.; Gouge, A.P.

    1991-07-01

    The nev HB-Line, located on the fifth and sixth levels of Building 221-H, is designed to replace the aging existing HB-Line production facility. The nev HB-Line consists of three separate facilities: the Scrap Recovery Facility, the Neptunium Oxide Facility, and the Plutonium Oxide Facility. There are three separate safety analyses for the nev HB-Line, one for each of the three facilities. These are issued as supplements to the 200-Area Safety Analysis (DPSTSA-200-10). These supplements are numbered as Sup 2A, Scrap Recovery Facility, Sup 2B, Neptunium Oxide Facility, Sup 2C, Plutonium Oxide Facility. The subject of this safety analysis, the, Plutonium Oxide Facility, will convert nitrate solutions of {sup 238}Pu to plutonium oxide (PuO{sub 2}) powder. All these new facilities incorporate improvements in: (1) engineered barriers to contain contamination, (2) barriers to minimize personnel exposure to airborne contamination, (3) shielding and remote operations to decrease radiation exposure, and (4) equipment and ventilation design to provide flexibility and improved process performance.

  6. DIII-D safety procedures and operational experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petersen, Peter I.; Savercool, Richard L.; Taylor, Peter L.

    1989-06-01

    The DIII-D research tokamak, which has near reactor dimensions, has been operating for approximately ten years. The hazards at the facility include high voltages, high currents, cryogenics, radiation, and normal industrial hazards. Procedures have been developed for operating the device, minimizing both the hazards to personnel and the damage caused by equipment failures, and for logging of failures. The machine and the neutral beamlines have been operated in hydrogen and are now starting operation in deuterium to expand the machine capabilities to reactor relevant regimes. Deuterium operation creates a significant amount of neutrons and therefore a neutron shield is being built around the machine area to reduce personnel radiation to As Low As Reasonably Achievable (ALARA) and to keep radiation at the site boundary at or below a limit of 20 mrem per calendar year. Gamma radiation shielding walls have been in place since the initial machine construction. The safety procedures for the DIII-D facility will be outlined and the accident experience will be discussed together with the neutron radiation monitoring program being developed.

  7. Long-term safety issues associated with mixer pump operation

    SciTech Connect

    Kubic, W.L. Jr.

    1994-12-31

    In this report, we examine several long-term issues: the effect of pump operation on future gas release events (GREs), uncontrolled chemical reactions, chronic toxic gas releases, foaming, and erosion and corrosion. Heat load in excess of the design limit, uncontrolled chemical reactions, chronic toxic gas releases, foaming, and erosion and corrosion have been shown not to be safety concerns. The effect of pump operation on future GREs could not be quantified. The problem with evaluating the long-term effects of pump operation on GREs is a lack of knowledge and uncertainty. In particular, the phenomena governing gas retention, particle size distribution, and settling are not well understood, nor are the interactions among these factors understood. There is a possibility that changes in these factors could increase the size of future GREs. Bounding estimates of the potential increase in size of GREs are not possible because of a lack of engineering data. Proper management of the hazards can reduce, but not eliminate, the possibility of undesirable changes. Maintaining temperature within the historical limits can reduce the possibility of undesirable changes. A monitoring program to detect changes in the gas composition and crust thickness will help detect slowly occurring changes. Because pump operation has be shown to eliminate GREs, continued pump operation can eliminate the hazards associated with future GREs.

  8. 14 CFR 415.127 - Flight safety system design and operation data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flight safety system design and operation... Expendable Launch Vehicle From a Non-Federal Launch Site § 415.127 Flight safety system design and operation... system and subsystems design and operational requirements. (c) Flight safety system diagram. An...

  9. Worker health and safety in concentrated animal feeding operations.

    PubMed

    Mitloehner, F M; Calvo, M S

    2008-04-01

    A trend in consolidating livestock and poultry operations into concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) potentially increases farm worker exposure to the hazards associated with high animal density conditions. The two main contributors of documented injury (fatal and non-fatal) are related to accidents with machinery and animals. Tractor rollovers are the leading accident in the area of farming machinery issues; kicks, bites, and workers being pinned between animals and fixed objects are non-machinery issues typically caused by inadequate precautions taken in the vicinity of livestock. These types of accidents are well documented; however, recommended safety strategies continue to be studied to reduce the risks and numbers of injuries associated with both machines and animals. Unlike accidents involving machinery and animals, air emission exposure and potential health effects from CAFOs are not well documented. CAFOs have the potential to show higher gaseous and particulate matter emissions compared to smaller farms. Pollutants like hydrogen sulfide, ammonia, volatile organic compounds, particulate matter, and endotoxin are emitted on CAFOs and can potentially affect worker health. These specific air emissions, their sources, and some of their harmful capabilities have been identified, and regulations have been implemented to create improved work environments on CAFOs. Despite such precautions, farm workers continue to report respiratory health symptoms related to their work environment. Air pollutant exposure and its health effects on farm workers require focused research to arrive at improved safety strategies that include mitigation techniques and protective gear to minimize adverse effects of working in CAFOs. PMID:18524283

  10. Safety approaches for high power modular laser operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Handren, R. T.

    1993-03-01

    Approximately 20 years ago, a program was initiated at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) to study the feasibility of using lasers to separate isotopes of uranium and other materials. Of particular interest was the development of a uranium enrichment method for the production of commercial nuclear power reactor fuel to replace current more expensive methods. The Uranium Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (U-AVLIS) Program progressed to the point where a plant-scale facility to demonstrate commercial feasibility was built and is being tested. The U-AVLIS Program uses copper vapor lasers which pump frequency selective dye lasers to photoionize uranium vapor produced by an electron beam. The selectively ionized isotopes are electrostatically collected. The copper lasers are arranged in oscillator/amplifier chains. The current configuration consists of 12 chains, each with a nominal output of 800 W for a system output in excess of 9 kW. The system requirements are for continuous operation (24 h a day, 7 days a week) and high availability. To meet these requirements, the lasers are designed in a modular form allowing for rapid change-out of the lasers requiring maintenance. Since beginning operation in early 1985, the copper lasers have accumulated over 2 million unit hours at a greater than 90% availability. The dye laser system provides approximately 2.5 kW average power in the visible wavelength range. This large-scale laser system has many safety considerations, including high-power laser beams, high voltage, and large quantities (approximately 3000 gal) of ethanol dye solutions. The Laboratory's safety policy requires that safety controls be designed into any process, equipment, or apparatus in the form of engineering controls. Administrative controls further reduce the risk to an acceptable level. Selected examples of engineering and administrative controls currently being used in the U-AVLIS Program are described.

  11. Enhanced Engine Control for Emergency Operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Litt, Jonathan S.

    2012-01-01

    C-MAPSS40k engine simulation has been developed and is available to the public. The authenticity of the engine performance and controller enabled the development of realistic enhanced control modes through controller modification alone. Use of enhanced control modes improved stability and control of an impaired aircraft. - Fast Response is useful for manual manipulation of the throttles - Use of Fast Response improved stability as part of a yaw rate feedback system. - Use of Overthrust shortened takeoff distance, but was generally useful in flight, too. Initial lack of pilot familiarity resulted in discomfort, especially with yaw rate feedback, but that was the only drawback, overall the pilot found the enhanced modes very helpful.

  12. Safety concerns for first entry operations of orbiting spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Steven H.; Limero, Thomas F.; James, John T.

    1994-01-01

    The Space Station Freedom crew will face operational problems unique to the spacecraft environment due to the absence of convection currents and the confined atmosphere within the habitable modules. Airborne contaminants from the materials offgassing or contingency incidents like thermodegradation may accumulate until they reach hazardous concentrations. Flow modeling and experiences from previous space flight missions confirm that caution must be exercised during first-entry operations. A review of the first-entry procedures performed during the Skylab Program will be presented to highlight the necessity for carefully planned operations. Many of the environmental conditions that can be expected on the Space Station are analogous to those which exist in confined storage or work spaces in the industrial setting. Experience with closed-loop environmental operations (e.g., atmospheric control of submarines) have also demonstrated that the buildup of trace contaminant gases could result in conditions that lead to mission termination or loss of crew. Consequently, some first-entry issues for the Station can be addressed by comparing them to familiar techniques developed on Earth. The instruments of the Environmental Health System (EHS) will provide the necessary monitoring capability to protect crew health and safety during the planned first-entry procedures of the MTC phase of the SSF Program. The authors of this paper will describe those procedures and will cite an example of the consequences when proper first-entry procedures are not followed.

  13. National plan to enhance aviation safety through human factors improvements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foushee, Clay

    1990-01-01

    The purpose of this section of the plan is to establish a development and implementation strategy plan for improving safety and efficiency in the Air Traffic Control (ATC) system. These improvements will be achieved through the proper applications of human factors considerations to the present and future systems. The program will have four basic goals: (1) prepare for the future system through proper hiring and training; (2) develop a controller work station team concept (managing human errors); (3) understand and address the human factors implications of negative system results; and (4) define the proper division of responsibilities and interactions between the human and the machine in ATC systems. This plan addresses six program elements which together address the overall purpose. The six program elements are: (1) determine principles of human-centered automation that will enhance aviation safety and the efficiency of the air traffic controller; (2) provide new and/or enhanced methods and techniques to measure, assess, and improve human performance in the ATC environment; (3) determine system needs and methods for information transfer between and within controller teams and between controller teams and the cockpit; (4) determine how new controller work station technology can optimally be applied and integrated to enhance safety and efficiency; (5) assess training needs and develop improved techniques and strategies for selection, training, and evaluation of controllers; and (6) develop standards, methods, and procedures for the certification and validation of human engineering in the design, testing, and implementation of any hardware or software system element which affects information flow to or from the human.

  14. An enhanced Planetary Radar Operating Centre (PROC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catallo, C.

    2010-12-01

    Planetary exploration by means of radar systems, mainly using GPRs is an important role of Italy and numerous scientific international space programs are carried out jointly with ESA and NASA by Italian Space Agency, the scientific community and the industry. Three experiments under Italian leadership ( designed and manufactured by the Italian industry) provided by ASI within a NASA/ESA/ASI joint venture framework are successfully operating: MARSIS on-board MEX, SHARAD on-board MRO and CASSINI Radar on-board Cassini spacecraft: the missions have been further extended . Three dedicated operational centers, namely SHOC, (Sharad Operating Centre), MOC (Marsis Operating Center) and CASSINI PAD are operating from the missions beginning to support all the scientific communities, institutional customers and experiment teams operation Each center is dedicated to a single instrument management and control, data processing and distribution and even if they had been conceived to operate autonomously and independently one from each other, synergies and overlaps have been envisaged leading to the suggestion of a unified center, the Planetary Radar Processing Center (PROC). In order to harmonize operations either from logistics point of view and from HW/SW capabilities point of view PROC is designed and developed for offering improved functionalities to increase capabilities, mainly in terms of data exchange, comparison, interpretation and exploitation. PROC is, therefore, conceived as the Italian support facility to the scientific community for on-going and future Italian planetary exploration programs, such as Europa-Jupiter System Mission (EJSM) The paper describes how the new PROC is designed and developed, to allow SHOC, MOC and CASSINI PAD to operate as before, and to offer improved functionalities to increase capabilities, mainly in terms of data exchange, comparison, interpretation and exploitation aiding scientists to increase their knowledge in the field of surface

  15. ASME Nuclear Crane Standards for Enhanced Crane Safety and Increased Profit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parkhurst, Stephen N.

    2000-01-01

    The ASME NOG-1 standard, 'Rules for Construction of Overhead and Gantry Cranes', covers top running cranes for nuclear facilities; with the ASME NUM-1 standard, 'Rules for Construction of Cranes, Monorails, and Hoists', covering the single girder, underhung, wall and jib cranes, as well as the monorails and hoists. These two ASME nuclear crane standards provide criteria for designing, inspecting and testing overhead handling equipment with enhanced safety to meet the 'defense-in-depth' approach of the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC) documents NUREG 0554 and NUREG 0612. In addition to providing designs for enhanced safety, the ASME nuclear crane standards provide a basis for purchasing overhead handling equipment with standard safety features, based upon accepted engineering principles, and including performance and environmental parameters specific to nuclear facilities. The ASME NOG-1 and ASME NUM-1 standards not only provide enhanced safety for handling a critical load, but also increase profit by minimizing the possibility of load drops, by reducing cumbersome operating restrictions, and by providing the foundation for a sound licensing position. The ASME nuclear crane standards can also increase profit by providing the designs and information to help ensure that the right standard equipment is purchased. Additionally, the ASME nuclear crane standards can increase profit by providing designs and information to help address current issues, such as the qualification of nuclear plant cranes for making 'planned engineered lifts' for steam generator replacement and decommissioning.

  16. Safety and performance enhancement circuit for primary explosive detonators

    DOEpatents

    Davis, Ronald W.

    2006-04-04

    A safety and performance enhancement arrangement for primary explosive detonators. This arrangement involves a circuit containing an energy storage capacitor and preset self-trigger to protect the primary explosive detonator from electrostatic discharge (ESD). The circuit does not discharge into the detonator until a sufficient level of charge is acquired on the capacitor. The circuit parameters are designed so that normal ESD environments cannot charge the protection circuit to a level to achieve discharge. When functioned, the performance of the detonator is also improved because of the close coupling of the stored energy.

  17. Core Subcriticality as a Tool of Safety Enhancement

    SciTech Connect

    Bokov, Pavel M.

    2005-11-15

    Core subcriticality can play an important role if the safety enhancement of a nuclear system is necessary, in particular, when minor actinides submitted for transmutation cause essential degradation of the reactivity feedback effects or/and significant reduction of the delayed neutron fraction. The present work shows that core subcriticality together with thermohydraulics optimization can compensate for the possible degradation of the Doppler effect and the reduction of the delayed neutron fraction. The particular dependence of the spallation neutron yield allows the creation of a supplementary negative feedback effect in case of accelerator coupled hybrid systems. A number of quantitative examples are provided in this context.

  18. WEB-BASED RESOURCES ENHANCE HYDROGEN SAFETY KNOWLEDGE

    SciTech Connect

    Weiner, Steven C.; Fassbender, Linda L.; Blake, Chad; Aceves, Salvador; Somerday, Brian P.; Ruiz, Antonio

    2013-06-18

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s Fuel Cell Technologies Program addresses key technical challenges and institutional barriers facing the development and deployment of hydrogen and fuel cell technologies with the goal of decreasing dependence on oil, reducing carbon emissions and enabling reliable power generation. The Safety, Codes & Standards program area seeks to develop and implement the practices and procedures that will ensure safety in the operation, handling and use of hydrogen and hydrogen systems for all projects and utilize these practices and lessons learned to promote the safe use of hydrogen. Enabling the development of codes and standards for the safe use of hydrogen in energy applications and facilitating the development and harmonization of international codes and standards are integral to this work.

  19. Proceedings of the High Consequence Operations Safety Symposium

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-12-01

    Many organizations face high consequence safety situations where unwanted stimuli due to accidents, catastrophes, or inadvertent human actions can cause disasters. In order to improve interaction among such organizations and to build on each others` experience, preventive approaches, and assessment techniques, the High Consequence Operations Safety Symposium was held July 12--14, 1994 at Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico. The symposium was conceived by Dick Schwoebel, Director of the SNL Surety Assessment Center. Stan Spray, Manager of the SNL System Studies Department, planned strategy and made many of the decisions necessary to bring the concept to fruition on a short time scale. Angela Campos and about 60 people worked on the nearly limitless implementation and administrative details. The initial symposium (future symposia are planned) was structured around 21 plenary presentations in five methodology-oriented sessions, along with a welcome address, a keynote address, and a banquet address. Poster papers addressing the individual session themes were available before and after the plenary sessions and during breaks.

  20. Operation QUICKSILVER. Onsite radiological safety report, October 1978-September 1979

    SciTech Connect

    Mullen, O.W.; Eubank, B.F.

    1980-02-01

    QUICKSILVER was the name assigned to the series of underground nuclear experiments conducted at the Nevada Test Site from October 1, 1978 to September 30, 1979. Remote radiation measurements were taken during and after each nuclear experiment by a telemetry system. Monitors with portable radiation detection instruments surveyed reentry routes into ground zeroes before other planned entries were made. Continuous surveillance was provided while personnel were in radiation areas and appropriate precautions were taken to protect persons from unnecessary exposure to radiation and toxic gases. Protective clothing and equipment were issued as needed. Complete radiological safety and industrial hygiene coverage was provided during drilling and mineback operations. Telemetered and portable radiation detector measurements are listed. Detection instrumentation used is described and specific optional procedures are defined.

  1. Music in the operating room: is it a safety hazard?

    PubMed

    Shambo, Lyda; Umadhay, Tony; Pedoto, Alessia

    2015-02-01

    Noise is a health hazard and a source of stress, and it impairs concentration and communication. Since 1960, hospital noise levels have risen around the world. Nowhere in the healthcare setting is noise more prevalent than in the operating room (OR). The genetic makeup of humans does not evolve at the rate of technology. Noise exposure, sensory overload, and the capacity to adapt without physical and psychological consequences are absent from the human condition. The World Health Organization has recognized environmental noise as harmful pollution that causesadverse effects on health. Although noise in the OR is unavoidable, music is a choice. The purpose of this literature review is to provide further insight into the ramifications of the presence of music in the OR, evaluate its appropriateness in relation to care and safety for the patient and staff, and provide information for future research. PMID:25842633

  2. Reducing non-collision injuries in special transportation services by enhanced safety culture.

    PubMed

    Wretstrand, Anders; Petzäll, Jan; Bylund, Per-Olof; Falkmer, Torbjörn

    2010-04-01

    Previous research has pointed out that non-collision injuries occur among wheelchair users in Special Transportation Services (STS - a demand-responsive transport mode). The organization of such modes is also quite complex, involving both stakeholders and key personnel at different levels. Our objective was therefore to qualitatively explore the state of safety, as perceived and discussed within a workplace context. Focus groups were held with drivers of both taxi companies and bus companies. The results indicated that passengers run the risk of being injured without being involved in a vehicle collision. The pertinent organizational and corporate culture did not prioritize safety. The drivers identified some relatively clear-cut safety threats, primarily before and after a ride, at vehicle standstill. The driver's work place seemed to be surrounded with a reactive instead of proactive structure. We conclude that not only vehicle and wheelchair technical safety must be considered in STS, but also system safety. Instead of viewing drivers' error as a cause, it should be seen as a symptom of systems failure. Human error is connected to aspects of tools, tasks, and operating environment. Enhanced understanding and influence of these connections within STS and accessible public transport systems will promote safety for wheelchair users. PMID:19786361

  3. Recent Enhancements to the National Transonic Facility (Mixed Mode Operations)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kilgore, W. Allen; Chan, David; Balakrishna, S.; Wahls, Richard A.

    2006-01-01

    The U.S. National Transonic Facility continues to make enhancements to provide quality data in a safe, efficient and cost effective method for aerodynamic ground testing. Recent enhancements discussed in this paper include the development of a Mixed-mode of operations that combine Air-mode operations with Nitrogen-mode operations. This implementation and operational results of this new Mixed-mode expands the ambient temperature transonic region of testing beyond the Air-mode limitations at a significantly reduced cost over Nitrogen Mode operation.

  4. 30 CFR 250.802 - Design, installation, and operation of surface production-safety systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... production-safety systems. 250.802 Section 250.802 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL... SHELF Oil and Gas Production Safety Systems § 250.802 Design, installation, and operation of surface production-safety systems. (a) General. All production facilities, including separators,...

  5. 30 CFR 250.802 - Design, installation, and operation of surface production-safety systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... production-safety systems. 250.802 Section 250.802 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL... SHELF Oil and Gas Production Safety Systems § 250.802 Design, installation, and operation of surface production-safety systems. (a) General. All production facilities, including separators,...

  6. 14 CFR 415.127 - Flight safety system design and operation data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Expendable Launch Vehicle From a Non-Federal Launch Site § 415.127 Flight safety system design and operation... expendable launch vehicle that uses a flight safety system to protect public safety as required by § 417.107... before bringing any launch vehicle to a proposed launch site. (b) Flight safety system description....

  7. 76 FR 7107 - Quarterly Listings; Safety Zones, Security Zones, Special Local Regulations, Drawbridge Operation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-09

    ... Bridge.... Safety Zones (Part 165)...... 11/9/2009 USCG-2008-0700 Portland, OR Safety Zones (Part 165... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Parts 100, 117, 147, and 165 Quarterly Listings; Safety Zones, Security Zones... temporary safety zones, security zones, special local regulations, drawbridge operation regulations...

  8. 47 CFR 27.1330 - Local public safety build-out and operation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... broadband spectrum at any time, provided the public safety entity has received the written approval of the Public Safety Broadband Licensee and operates its independent network pursuant to a spectrum leasing... Public Safety Broadband Licensee and the public safety entity may proceed with a spectrum...

  9. 14 CFR 437.51 - Rest rules for vehicle safety operations personnel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Rest rules for vehicle safety operations... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION LICENSING EXPERIMENTAL PERMITS Safety Requirements § 437.51 Rest rules for vehicle safety operations personnel. A permittee must ensure that all vehicle...

  10. 14 CFR 437.51 - Rest rules for vehicle safety operations personnel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Rest rules for vehicle safety operations... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION LICENSING EXPERIMENTAL PERMITS Safety Requirements § 437.51 Rest rules for vehicle safety operations personnel. A permittee must ensure that all vehicle...

  11. 14 CFR 437.51 - Rest rules for vehicle safety operations personnel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Rest rules for vehicle safety operations... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION LICENSING EXPERIMENTAL PERMITS Safety Requirements § 437.51 Rest rules for vehicle safety operations personnel. A permittee must ensure that all vehicle...

  12. 14 CFR 437.51 - Rest rules for vehicle safety operations personnel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Rest rules for vehicle safety operations... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION LICENSING EXPERIMENTAL PERMITS Safety Requirements § 437.51 Rest rules for vehicle safety operations personnel. A permittee must ensure that all vehicle...

  13. 14 CFR 437.51 - Rest rules for vehicle safety operations personnel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Rest rules for vehicle safety operations... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION LICENSING EXPERIMENTAL PERMITS Safety Requirements § 437.51 Rest rules for vehicle safety operations personnel. A permittee must ensure that all vehicle...

  14. Enhanced heat pipe theory and operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ernst, D. M.; Eastman, G. Y.

    Heat pipes to extract heat from the cores of compact fast reactors are discussed. They require unusually high power densities. This performance appears to be feasible, but necessitates more detailed exploration of theoretical and operational limits than has then carried out to date. Closely aligned to heat pipes for heat removal from the core are the low mass high performance, high temperature radiator heat pipes. The areas requiring the greatest attention are the startup and shutdown characteristics of long heat pipes, the limits on wick augmented thin film evaporation (burn out heat flux) and the prediction of the true temperature profile along the heat pipe. It will also almost certainly require exploration and analysis of higher capacity capillary wicks.

  15. Operational earthquake forecasting can enhance earthquake preparedness

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jordan, T.H.; Marzocchi, W.; Michael, A.J.; Gerstenberger, M.C.

    2014-01-01

    We cannot yet predict large earthquakes in the short term with much reliability and skill, but the strong clustering exhibited in seismic sequences tells us that earthquake probabilities are not constant in time; they generally rise and fall over periods of days to years in correlation with nearby seismic activity. Operational earthquake forecasting (OEF) is the dissemination of authoritative information about these time‐dependent probabilities to help communities prepare for potentially destructive earthquakes. The goal of OEF is to inform the decisions that people and organizations must continually make to mitigate seismic risk and prepare for potentially destructive earthquakes on time scales from days to decades. To fulfill this role, OEF must provide a complete description of the seismic hazard—ground‐motion exceedance probabilities as well as short‐term rupture probabilities—in concert with the long‐term forecasts of probabilistic seismic‐hazard analysis (PSHA).

  16. Enhancing Cassini Operations & Science Planning Tools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Castello, Jonathan

    2012-01-01

    The Cassini team uses a variety of software utilities as they manage and coordinate their mission to Saturn. Most of these tools have been unchanged for many years, and although stability is a virtue for long-lived space missions, there are some less-fragile tools that could greatly benefit from modern improvements. This report shall describe three such upgrades, including their architectural differences and their overall impact. Emphasis is placed on the motivation and rationale behind architectural choices rather than the final product, so as to illuminate the lessons learned and discoveries made.These three enhancements included developing a strategy for migrating Science Planning utilities to a new execution model, rewriting the team's internal portal for ease of use and maintenance, and developing a web-based agenda application for tracking the sequence of files being transmitted to the Cassini spacecraft. Of this set, the first two have been fully completed, while the agenda application is currently in the early prototype stage.

  17. Use of DRACS to Enhance HTGRs Passive Safety and Economy

    SciTech Connect

    Haihua Zhao; Hongbin Zhang; Ling Zou

    2011-06-01

    This paper discusses the use of DRACS to Enhance HTGRs Passive Safety and Economy. One of the important requirements for Gen. IV High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactors (HTGR) is passive safety. Currently all the HTGR designs use Reactor Vessel Auxiliary Cooling System (RVACS) for passive decay heat removal. [1] The decay heat first is transferred to core barrel by conduction and radiation, and then to reactor vessel by thermal radiation and convection; finally the decay heat is transferred to natural circulated air or water systems. RVACS can be characterized as a surface based decay heat removal system. Similar concepts have been widely used in sodium cooled fast reactor (SFR) designs, advanced light water reactors like AP1000. The RVACS is especially suitable for smaller power reactors since small systems have relatively larger surface area. RVACS tends to be less expensive. However, it limits the largest achievable power level for modular HTGRs due to the mismatch between the reactor power (proportional to volume) and decay heat removal capability (proportional to surface). When the relative decay heat removal capability is reduced, the peak fuel temperature increases, even close to the design limit. Annual designs with internal reflector can mitigate this effect therefore further increase the power. Another way to increase power is to increase power density. However, it is also limited by the decay heat removal capability. Besides safety, HTGRs also need to be economical in order to compete with other reactor designs. The limit of decay heat removal capability set by using RVACS has affected the economy of HTGRs. Forsberg [2] pointed out other disadvantages of using RVACS such as conflicting functional requirements for the reactor vessel and scaling distortion for integral effect test of the system performance. A potential alternative solution is to use a volume based passive decay removal system, call Direct Reactor Auxiliary Cooling Systems (DRACS), to remove

  18. Oxidized Metal Powders for Mechanical Shock and Crush Safety Enhancers

    SciTech Connect

    GARINO, TERRY J.

    2002-01-01

    The use of oxidized metal powders in mechanical shock or crush safety enhancers in nuclear weapons has been investigated. The functioning of these devices is based on the remarkable electrical behavior of compacts of certain oxidized metal powders when subjected to compressive stress. For example, the low voltage resistivity of a compact of oxidized tantalum powder was found to decrease by over six orders of magnitude during compaction between 1 MPa, where the thin, insulating oxide coatings on the particles are intact, to 10 MPa, where the oxide coatings have broken down along a chain of particles spanning the electrodes. In this work, the behavior of tantalum and aluminum powders was investigated. The low voltage resistivity during compaction of powders oxidized under various conditions was measured and compared. In addition, the resistivity at higher voltages and the dielectric breakdown strength during compaction were also measured. A key finding was that significant changes in the electrical properties persist after the removal of the stress so that a mechanical shock enhancer is feasible. This was verified by preliminary shock experiments. Finally, conceptual designs for both types of enhancers are presented.

  19. Safety management of a complex R&D ground operating system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connors, J. F.; Maurer, R. A.

    1975-01-01

    A perspective on safety program management has been developed for a complex R&D operating system, such as the NASA-Lewis Research Center. Using a systems approach, hazardous operations are subjected to third-party reviews by designated area safety committees and are maintained under safety permit controls. To insure personnel alertness, emergency containment forces and employees are trained in dry-run emergency simulation exercises. The keys to real safety effectiveness are top management support and visibility of residual risks.

  20. Safety management of a complex R and D ground operating system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connors, J. F.; Maurer, R. A.

    1975-01-01

    A perspective on safety program management was developed for a complex R&D operating system, such as the NASA-Lewis Research Center. Using a systems approach, hazardous operations are subjected to third-party reviews by designated-area safety committees and are maintained under safety permit controls. To insure personnel alertness, emergency containment forces and employees are trained in dry-run emergency simulation exercises. The keys to real safety effectiveness are top management support and visibility of residual risks.

  1. Enhancing Patient Safety Using Clinical Nursing Data: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jeeyae; Choi, Jeungok E

    2016-01-01

    To enhance patient safety from falls, many hospital information systems have been implemented to collect clinical data from the bedside and have used the information to improve fall prevention care. However, most of them use administrative data not clinical nursing data. This necessitated the development of a web-based Nursing Practice and Research Information Management System (NPRIMS) that processes clinical nursing data to measure nurses' delivery of fall prevention care and its impact on patient outcomes. This pilot study developed computer algorithms based on a falls prevention protocol and programmed the prototype NPRIMS. It successfully measured the performance of nursing care delivered and its impact on patient outcomes using clinical nursing data from the study site. Results of the study revealed that NPRIMS has the potential to pinpoint components of nursing processes that are in need of improvement for preventing patient from falls. PMID:27332171

  2. 49 CFR 242.111 - Prior safety conduct as motor vehicle operator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Prior safety conduct as motor vehicle operator... CONDUCTORS Program and Eligibility Requirements § 242.111 Prior safety conduct as motor vehicle operator. (a... prior conduct as a motor vehicle operator. (c) A railroad shall initially certify a person as...

  3. (Instrumentation and controls technology and reactor operational safety)

    SciTech Connect

    White, J.D.

    1990-12-17

    While on vacation, the traveler participated as a co-chairman of a panel of instrumentation and controls specialists visiting nuclear establishments in Europe. The purpose of the visit was to assess the status of instrumentation and controls technology for nuclear power in Europe. A list of the sites visited and the personnel contacted is included in this trip report. The visit was sponsored by Loyola College working under contract to the National Science Foundation. All costs were paid by Loyola College, for whom the traveler was a consultant. This was an outside activity approved by DOE. The traveler was surprised by the high level of automaton present in the German Konvoi nuclear power plants built by Siemens AG KWU. The claim was that this was done to improve the safety of the plant by keeping the operator out of the loop'' for the first 30 minutes of some transients or accidents. The traveler was also surprised by the high level of man-machine interface R D in the USSR.

  4. Modeling Characteristics of an Operational Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA)

    SciTech Connect

    Anoba, Richard C.; Khalil, Yehia; Fluehr, J.J. III; Kellogg, Richard; Hackerott, Alan

    2002-07-01

    Probabilistic Safety Assessments (PSAs) are increasingly being used as a tool for supporting the acceptability of design, procurement, construction, operation, and maintenance activities at nuclear power plants. Since the issuance of Generic Letter 88-20 and subsequent Individual Plant Examinations (IPEs)/Individual Plant Examinations for External Events (IPEEEs), the NRC has issued several Regulatory Guides such as RG 1.182 to describe the use of PSA in risk informed regulation activities. The PSA models developed for the IPEs were typically based on a 'snapshot' of the the risk profile at the nuclear power plant. The IPE models contain implicit assumptions and simplifications that limit the ability to realistically assess current issues. For example, IPE modeling assumptions related to plant configuration limit the ability to perform online equipment out-of-service assessments. The lack of model symmetry results in skewed risk results. IPE model simplifications related to initiating events have resulted in non-conservative estimates of risk impacts when equipment is removed from service. The IPE models also do not explicitly address all external events that are potentially risk significant as equipment is removed from service. (authors)

  5. Managing Risk in Safety Critical Operations - Lessons Learned from Space Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gonzalez, Steven A.

    2002-01-01

    The Mission Control Center (MCC) at Johnson Space Center (JSC) has a rich legacy of supporting Human Space Flight operations throughout the Apollo, Shuttle and International Space Station eras. Through the evolution of ground operations and the Mission Control Center facility, NASA has gained a wealth of experience of what it takes to manage the risk in Safety Critical Operations, especially when human life is at risk. The focus of the presentation will be on the processes (training, operational rigor, team dynamics) that enable the JSC/MCC team to be so successful. The presentation will also share the evolution of the Mission Control Center architecture and how the evolution was introduced while managing the risk to the programs supported by the team. The details of the MCC architecture (e.g., the specific software, hardware or tools used in the facility) will not be shared at the conference since it would not give any additional insight as to how risk is managed in Space Operations.

  6. Safety significance of inadvertent operation of motor operated valves in nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Ruger, C.J.; Higgins, J.C.; Carbonaro, J.F.; Hall, R.E.

    1994-05-01

    This report addresses concerns about the consequences of valve mispositioning which were brought to the forefront following an event at Davis Besse in 1985 (NRC, 1985a). The concern related to the ability to reposition ``position changeable`` motor operated valves (MOVs) in the event of their inadvertent operation from the control room and was documented in Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Bulletin 85-03 (NRC, 1985b) and Generic Letter (GL) 89-10 (NRC, 1989). The mispositioned MOVs may not be able to be returned to their required position due to high differential pressure (dP) or high flow conditions across the valves. The inability to reposition such valves may have significant safety consequences as in the Davis Besse event. However, full consideration of such mispositioning in safety analyses and in MOV test programs can be labor intensive and expensive. Industry raised concerns that consideration of position changeable valves under GL 89-10 would not decrease the probability of core damage to an extent which would justify licensee costs. As a response, Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) has conducted separate scoping studies for both Boiling Water Reactors (BWRS) and Pressurized Water Reactors (PWRs) using Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) techniques to determine if such valve mispositioning by itself is significant to safety. The approach utilized internal events PRA models to survey the order of magnitude of the risk significance of valve mispositioning by considering the failure of selected position changeable MOVS. The change in core damage frequency (CDF) was determined for each valve considered and the results were presented as a risk increase ratio for each of four assumed MOV failure rates. The risk increase ratios resulting from this failure rate sensitivity study can be used as a basis for a judgement determination of the risk significance of the MOV mispositioning issue for BWRs and PWRS.

  7. Evaluation of reliability assurance approaches to operational nuclear safety

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller, C.J.; Bezella, W.A.

    1984-01-01

    This report discusses the results of research to evaluate existing and/or recommended safety/reliability assurance activities among nuclear and other high technology industries for potential nuclear industry implementation. Since the Three Mile Island (TMI) accident, there has been increased interest in the use of reliability programs (RP) to assure the performance of nuclear safety systems throughout the plant's lifetime. Recently, several Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) task forces or safety issue review groups have recommended RPs for assuring the continuing safety of nuclear reactor plants. 18 references.

  8. How the Space Data Center Is Improving Safety of Space Operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelso, T. S.

    2010-09-01

    In an effort to mitigate the risks associated with satellite close approaches in the geostationary belt, satellite operators began to come together in early 2008 to establish a prototype GEO data center. That prototype provided a framework for operators to share orbital data for their fleets to be used to perform conjunction analysis and provide automated notifications of close approaches via the SOCRATES-GEO service. That service was extended to LEO operations in mid-2009 and, as of early 2010, the prototype was supporting 20 operators from over a dozen countries by automatically screening 300 satellites for close approaches twice each day. In April 2010, the prototype data center operated by the Center for Space Standards & Innovation (CSSI) was a key reason AGI was selected by the Space Data Association (SDA) to develop the SDA’s new Space Data Center (SDC). This paper will address how the SDC will use a service-oriented architecture (SOA) to support orbital operations by increasing the efficiency of analysis to mitigate the risk of conjunctions and radio frequency interference, thereby enhancing overall safety of flight.

  9. Enhancing the Safety, Security and Resilience of ICT and Scada Systems Using Action Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnsen, Stig; Skramstad, Torbjorn; Hagen, Janne

    This paper discusses the results of a questionnaire-based survey used to assess the safety, security and resilience of information and communications technology (ICT) and supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) systems used in the Norwegian oil and gas industry. The survey identifies several challenges, including the involvement of professionals with different backgrounds and expertise, lack of common risk perceptions, inadequate testing and integration of ICT and SCADA systems, poor information sharing related to undesirable incidents and lack of resilience in the design of technical systems. Action research is proposed as a process for addressing these challenges in a systematic manner and helping enhance the safety, security and resilience of ICT and SCADA systems used in oil and gas operations.

  10. 30 CFR 250.802 - Design, installation, and operation of surface production-safety systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... production-safety systems. 250.802 Section 250.802 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT... Gas Production Safety Systems § 250.802 Design, installation, and operation of surface production-safety systems. (a) General. All production facilities, including separators, treaters,...

  11. 30 CFR 250.802 - Design, installation, and operation of surface production-safety systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... production-safety systems. 250.802 Section 250.802 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT... OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Oil and Gas Production Safety Systems § 250.802 Design, installation, and operation of surface production-safety systems. (a) General. All production facilities, including...

  12. 14 CFR 415.127 - Flight safety system design and operation data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... all controls, displays, and charts depicting how real time vehicle data and flight safety limits are... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Flight safety system design and operation... Expendable Launch Vehicle From a Non-Federal Launch Site § 415.127 Flight safety system design and...

  13. 14 CFR 415.127 - Flight safety system design and operation data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... all controls, displays, and charts depicting how real time vehicle data and flight safety limits are... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Flight safety system design and operation... Expendable Launch Vehicle From a Non-Federal Launch Site § 415.127 Flight safety system design and...

  14. 14 CFR 415.127 - Flight safety system design and operation data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... all controls, displays, and charts depicting how real time vehicle data and flight safety limits are... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Flight safety system design and operation... Expendable Launch Vehicle From a Non-Federal Launch Site § 415.127 Flight safety system design and...

  15. 29 CFR 1926.1408 - Power line safety (up to 350 kV)-equipment operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Power line safety (up to 350 kV)-equipment operations. 1926.1408 Section 1926.1408 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Cranes...

  16. 29 CFR 1926.1408 - Power line safety (up to 350 kV)-equipment operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Power line safety (up to 350 kV)-equipment operations. 1926.1408 Section 1926.1408 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Cranes...

  17. A Risk Assessment Architecture for Enhanced Engine Operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Litt, Jonathan S.; Sharp. Lauren M.; Guo, Ten-Huei

    2010-01-01

    On very rare occasions, in-flight emergencies have occurred that required the pilot to utilize the aircraft's capabilities to the fullest extent possible, sometimes using actuators in ways for which they were not intended. For instance, when flight control has been lost due to damage to the hydraulic systems, pilots have had to use engine thrust to maneuver the plane to the ground and in for a landing. To assist the pilot in these situations, research is being performed to enhance the engine operation by making it more responsive or able to generate more thrust. Enabled by modification of the propulsion control, enhanced engine operation can increase the probability of a safe landing during an inflight emergency. However, enhanced engine operation introduces risk as the nominal control limits, such as those on shaft speed, temperature, and acceleration, are exceeded. Therefore, an on-line tool for quantifying this risk must be developed to ensure that the use of an enhanced control mode does not actually increase the overall danger to the aircraft. This paper describes an architecture for the implementation of this tool. It describes the type of data and algorithms required and the information flow, and how the risk based on engine component lifing and operability for enhanced operation is determined.

  18. The 1980 Aircraft Safety and Operating Problems, Part 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stickle, J. W. (Compiler)

    1981-01-01

    Terminal area operations, avionics and human factors, atmospheric environment, and operating problems and potential solutions are discussed. Other topics include flight experiences, ground operations, and acoustics and noise reduction.

  19. Report of the aviation safety review of Department of Energy helicopter operations

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-02-01

    In a memorandum dated November 27, 1991, the Secretary of Energy directed the Office of Environment, Safety and Health (EH) to lead, with Program Secretarial Office participation, an aviation safety review of the safe operation of the Department`s helicopter program. The Aviation Safety Review Team comprised of aviation experts from the US Army, the Federal Aviation Administration, private consulting organizations, and Department of Energy (DOE) staff was assembled. The scope of the Aviation Safety Review Team`s appraisals included the following as applicable: policy; operations; maintenance; crew training; previous appraisals; contract requirements; aviation safety analysis reports; refueling facilities and management; night vision goggle (NVG) operations; helicopter limited standdown initiative; Secretary of Energy Notice (SEN) -6D-91 Compliance; and, DOE/contractor organizational structures and responsibilities. The appraisals at each site included a review of aviation policy, manuals, procedures, facilities, and documentation pertaining to management, safety, operations, maintenance, and quality control.

  20. Report of the aviation safety review of Department of Energy helicopter operations

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-02-01

    In a memorandum dated November 27, 1991, the Secretary of Energy directed the Office of Environment, Safety and Health (EH) to lead, with Program Secretarial Office participation, an aviation safety review of the safe operation of the Department's helicopter program. The Aviation Safety Review Team comprised of aviation experts from the US Army, the Federal Aviation Administration, private consulting organizations, and Department of Energy (DOE) staff was assembled. The scope of the Aviation Safety Review Team's appraisals included the following as applicable: policy; operations; maintenance; crew training; previous appraisals; contract requirements; aviation safety analysis reports; refueling facilities and management; night vision goggle (NVG) operations; helicopter limited standdown initiative; Secretary of Energy Notice (SEN) -6D-91 Compliance; and, DOE/contractor organizational structures and responsibilities. The appraisals at each site included a review of aviation policy, manuals, procedures, facilities, and documentation pertaining to management, safety, operations, maintenance, and quality control.

  1. 30 CFR 250.802 - Design, installation, and operation of surface production-safety systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Design, installation, and operation of surface production-safety systems. 250.802 Section 250.802 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Oil and Gas Production...

  2. 29 CFR 1915.93 - Motor vehicle safety equipment, operation and maintenance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... requirements in 29 CFR 1910.178 continue to apply to powered industrial trucks used for shipyard employment. (b... 29 Labor 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Motor vehicle safety equipment, operation and maintenance... General Working Conditions § 1915.93 Motor vehicle safety equipment, operation and maintenance....

  3. Local Gaussian operations can enhance continuous-variable entanglement distillation

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Shengli; Loock, Peter van

    2011-12-15

    Entanglement distillation is a fundamental building block in long-distance quantum communication. Though known to be useless on their own for distilling Gaussian entangled states, local Gaussian operations may still help to improve non-Gaussian entanglement distillation schemes. Here we show that by applying local squeezing operations both the performance and the efficiency of existing distillation protocols can be enhanced. We find that such an enhancement through local Gaussian unitaries can be obtained even when the initially shared Gaussian entangled states are mixed, as, for instance, after their distribution through a lossy-fiber communication channel.

  4. Resourcing interventions enhance psychology support capabilities in special operations forces.

    PubMed

    Myatt, Craig A; Auzenne, J W

    2012-01-01

    This study provides an examination of approaches to United States Government (USG) resourcing interventions on a national scale that enhance psychology support capabilities in the Special Operations Forces (SOF) community. A review of Congressional legislation and resourcing trends in the form of authorizations and appropriations since 2006 demonstrates how Congress supported enhanced psychology support capabilities throughout the Armed Forces and in SOF supporting innovative command interests that address adverse affects of operations tempo behavioral effects (OTBE). The formulation of meaningful metrics to address SOF specific command interests led to a personnel tempo (PERSTEMPO) analysis in response to findings compiled by the Preservation of the Force and Families (POTFF) Task Force. The review of PERSTEMPO data at subordinate command and unit levels enhances the capability of SOF leaders to develop policy and guidance on training and operational planning that mitigates OTBE and maximizes resourcing authorizations. A major challenge faced by the DoD is in providing behavioral healthcare that meets public and legislative demands while proving suitable and sustainable at all levels of military operations: strategic, operational, and tactical. Current legislative authorizations offer a mechanism of command advocacy for resourced multi-functional program development that enhances psychology support capabilities while reinforcing SOF readiness and performance. PMID:23536458

  5. 77 FR 75699 - Pipeline Safety: Reporting of Exceedances of Maximum Allowable Operating Pressure

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-21

    ... Allowable Operating Pressure AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA); DOT... owners and operators of gas transmission pipelines that if the pipeline pressure exceeds maximum allowable operating pressure (MAOP) plus the build-up allowed for operation of pressure-limiting or...

  6. GIF sodium fast reactor project R and D on safety and operation

    SciTech Connect

    Vasile, A.; Sofu, T.; Jeong, H. Y.; Sakai, T.

    2012-07-01

    The 'Safety and Operation' project is started in 2009 within the framework of Generation-IV International Forum (GIF) Sodium Fast Reactor (SFR) research and development program. In the safety area, the project involves R and D activities on phenomenological model development and experimental programs, conceptual studies in support of the design of safety provisions, preliminary assessment of safety systems, framework and methods for analysis of safety architecture. In the operation area, the project involves R and D activities on fast reactors safety tests and analysis of reactor operations, feedback from decommissioning, in-service inspection technique development, under-sodium viewing and sodium chemistry. This paper presents a summary of such activities and the main achievements. (authors)

  7. Helicopter Operations and Personnel Safety (Helirescue Manual). Fourth Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dalle-Molle, John

    The illustrated manual includes information on various aspects of helicopter rescue missions, including mission management roles for key personnel, safety rules around helicopters, requests for helicopter support, sample military air support forms, selection of landing zones, helicopter evacuations, rescuer delivery, passenger unloading, crash…

  8. [Failure mechanisms in the transfusion process. Importance of anticipatory operational safety analysis].

    PubMed

    Hergon, E; Crespeau, H; Rouger, P

    1994-01-01

    The methods used for the safety previsional analysis of operations represent an interesting set of tools to follow the so-called transfusion process, defined as all the steps from donors sensitization to recipients follow-up. FMECA (Failure Mode Effects and Criticality Analysis) can be used as a prevention tool, independently of any dysfunction in the process. Of course, it can also be used following a failure, in order to analyse its causes and to apply specific corrections. Operation safety, quality insurance, epidemiologic surveillance and safety monitoring act in synergy. These three aspects of transfusion safety constitute a dynamic system. PMID:7812465

  9. Enhancing vaccine safety capacity globally: a lifecycle perspective

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Robert T.; Shimabukuro, Tom T.; Martin, David B.; Zuber, Patrick L.F.; Weibel, Daniel M.; Sturkenboom, Miriam

    2015-01-01

    Major vaccine safety controversies have arisen in several countries beginning in the last decades of 20th Century. Such periodic vaccine safety controversies are unlikely to go away in the near future as more national immunization programs mature with near elimination of target vaccine-preventable diseases that result in relative greater prominence of adverse events following immunizations, both true reactions and temporally coincidental events. There are several ways in which vaccine safety capacity can be improved in the future to potentially mitigate the impact of future vaccine safety controversies. This paper aims to take a “lifecycle” approach, examining some potential pre- and post-licensure opportunities to improve vaccine safety, in both developed (specifically U.S. and Europe) and low- and middle- income countries. PMID:26433922

  10. Enhancing vaccine safety capacity globally: A lifecycle perspective.

    PubMed

    Chen, Robert T; Shimabukuro, Tom T; Martin, David B; Zuber, Patrick L F; Weibel, Daniel M; Sturkenboom, Miriam

    2015-11-27

    Major vaccine safety controversies have arisen in several countries beginning in the last decades of 20th century. Such periodic vaccine safety controversies are unlikely to go away in the near future as more national immunization programs mature with near elimination of target vaccine-preventable diseases that result in relative greater prominence of adverse events following immunizations, both true reactions and temporally coincidental events. There are several ways in which vaccine safety capacity can be improved to potentially mitigate the impact of future vaccine safety controversies. This paper aims to take a "lifecycle" approach, examining some potential pre- and post-licensure opportunities to improve vaccine safety, in both developed (specifically U.S. and Europe) and low- and middle-income countries. PMID:26433922

  11. Enhancing Vaccine Safety Capacity Globally: A Lifecycle Perspective.

    PubMed

    Chen, Robert T; Shimabukuro, Tom T; Martin, David B; Zuber, Patrick L F; Weibel, Daniel M; Sturkenboom, Miriam

    2015-12-01

    Major vaccine safety controversies have arisen in several countries beginning in the last decades of 20th century. Such periodic vaccine safety controversies are unlikely to go away in the near future as more national immunization programs mature with near elimination of target vaccine-preventable diseases that result in relative greater prominence of adverse events following immunizations, both true reactions and temporally coincidental events. There are several ways in which vaccine safety capacity can be improved to potentially mitigate the impact of future vaccine safety controversies. This paper aims to take a "lifecycle" approach, examining some potential pre- and post-licensure opportunities to improve vaccine safety, in both developed (specifically U.S. and Europe) and low- and middle-income countries. PMID:26590436

  12. Synthetic vision enhanced surface operations and flight procedures rehearsal tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arthur, Jarvis J., III; Prinzel, Lawrence J., III; Williams, Steven P.; Kramer, Lynda J.

    2006-05-01

    Limited visibility has been cited as predominant causal factor for both Controlled-Flight-Into-Terrain (CFIT) and runway incursion accidents. NASA is conducting research and development of Synthetic Vision Systems (SVS) technologies which may potentially mitigate low visibility conditions as a causal factor to these accidents while replicating the operational benefits of clear day flight operations, regardless of the actual outside visibility condition. Two experimental evaluation studies were performed to determine the efficacy of two concepts: 1) head-worn display application of SVS technology to enhance transport aircraft surface operations, and 2) three-dimensional SVS electronic flight bag display concept for flight plan preview, mission rehearsal and controller-pilot data link communications interface of flight procedures. In the surface operation study, pilots evaluated two display devices and four display modes during taxi under unlimited and CAT II visibility conditions. In the mission rehearsal study, pilots flew approaches and departures in an operationally-challenged airport environment, including CFIT scenarios. Performance using the SVS concepts was compared to traditional baseline displays with paper charts only or EFB information. In general, the studies evince the significant situation awareness and enhanced operational capabilities afforded from these advanced SVS display concepts. The experimental results and conclusions from these studies are discussed along with future directions.

  13. Synthetic Vision Enhanced Surface Operations and Flight Procedures Rehearsal Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arthur, Jarvis J., III; Prinzel, Lawrence J., III; Williams, Steven P.; Kramer, Lynda J.

    2006-01-01

    Limited visibility has been cited as predominant causal factor for both Controlled-Flight-Into-Terrain (CFIT) and runway incursion accidents. NASA is conducting research and development of Synthetic Vision Systems (SVS) technologies which may potentially mitigate low visibility conditions as a causal factor to these accidents while replicating the operational benefits of clear day flight operations, regardless of the actual outside visibility condition. Two experimental evaluation studies were performed to determine the efficacy of two concepts: 1) head-worn display application of SVS technology to enhance transport aircraft surface operations, and 2) three-dimensional SVS electronic flight bag display concept for flight plan preview, mission rehearsal and controller-pilot data link communications interface of flight procedures. In the surface operation study, pilots evaluated two display devices and four display modes during taxi under unlimited and CAT II visibility conditions. In the mission rehearsal study, pilots flew approaches and departures in an operationally-challenged airport environment, including CFIT scenarios. Performance using the SVS concepts was compared to traditional baseline displays with paper charts only or EFB information. In general, the studies evince the significant situation awareness and enhanced operational capabilities afforded from these advanced SVS display concepts. The experimental results and conclusions from these studies are discussed along with future directions.

  14. 78 FR 53190 - Pipeline Safety: Notice to Operators of Hazardous Liquid and Natural Gas Pipelines of a Recall on...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration Pipeline Safety: Notice to Operators of Hazardous... and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA), DOT. ACTION: Notice; Issuance of...

  15. Using game technologies to improve the safety of construction plant operations.

    PubMed

    Guo, Hongling; Li, Heng; Chan, Greg; Skitmore, Martin

    2012-09-01

    Many accidents occur world-wide in the use of construction plant and equipment, and safety training is considered by many to be one of the best approaches to their prevention. However, current safety training methods/tools are unable to provide trainees with the hands-on practice needed. Game technology-based safety training platforms have the potential to overcome this problem in a virtual environment. One such platform is described in this paper - its characteristics are analysed and its possible contribution to safety training identified. This is developed and tested by means of a case study involving three major pieces of construction plant, which successfully demonstrates that the platform can improve the process and performance of the safety training involved in their operation. This research not only presents a new and useful solution to the safety training of construction operations, but illustrates the potential use of advanced technologies in solving construction industry problems in general. PMID:22664683

  16. Impact of the World Health Organization's Surgical Safety Checklist on safety culture in the operating theatre: a controlled intervention study

    PubMed Central

    Haugen, A. S.; Søfteland, E.; Eide, G. E.; Sevdalis, N.; Vincent, C. A.; Nortvedt, M. W.; Harthug, S.

    2013-01-01

    Background Positive changes in safety culture have been hypothesized to be one of the mechanisms behind the reduction in mortality and morbidity after the introduction of the World Health Organization's Surgical Safety Checklist (SSC). We aimed to study the checklist effects on safety culture perceptions in operating theatre personnel using a prospective controlled intervention design at a single Norwegian university hospital. Methods We conducted a study with pre- and post-intervention surveys using the intervention and control groups. The primary outcome was the effects of the Norwegian version of the SSC on safety culture perceptions. Safety culture was measured using the validated Norwegian version of the Hospital Survey on Patient Safety Culture. Descriptive characteristics of operating theatre personnel and checklist compliance data were also recorded. A mixed linear regression model was used to assess changes in safety culture. Results The response rate was 61% (349/575) at baseline and 51% (292/569) post-intervention. Checklist compliance ranged from 77% to 85%. We found significant positive changes in the checklist intervention group for the culture factors ‘frequency of events reported’ and ‘adequate staffing’ with regression coefficients at −0.25 [95% confidence interval (CI), −0.47 to −0.07] and 0.21 (95% CI, 0.07–0.35), respectively. Overall, the intervention group reported significantly more positive culture scores—including at baseline. Conclusions Implementation of the SSC had rather limited impact on the safety culture within this hospital. PMID:23404986

  17. Ensuring Food Security Through Enhancing Microbiological Food Safety

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikš-Krajnik, Marta; Yuk, Hyun-Gyun; Kumar, Amit; Yang, Yishan; Zheng, Qianwang; Kim, Min-Jeong; Ghate, Vinayak; Yuan, Wenqian; Pang, Xinyi

    2015-10-01

    Food safety and food security are interrelated concepts with a profound impact on the quality of human life. Food security describes the overall availability of food at different levels from global to individual household. While, food safety focuses on handling, preparation and storage of foods in order to prevent foodborne illnesses. This review focuses on innovative thermal and non-thermal technologies in the area of food processing as the means to ensure food security through improving food safety with emphasis on the reduction and control of microbiological risks. The antimicrobial efficiency and mechanism of new technologies to extend the shelf life of food product were also discussed.

  18. Study on safety operation for large hydroelectric generator unit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Z. G.; Cui, T.; Zhou, L. J.; Zhi, F. L.; Wang, Z. W.

    2012-11-01

    Hydroelectric generator unit is a complex mechanical system which is composed of hydraulic turbine and electric generator. Rotary system is supported by the bearing bracket and the reinforced concrete structures, and vibration problem can't be avoided in the process of operating. Many large-scale hydroelectric units have been damaged because of the vibration problem in recent years. As the increase of the hydraulic turbine unit capacity and water head, the safe operation of hydraulic turbine has become a focus research in many countries. The operating characteristics of the hydraulic turbine have obvious differences at different working conditions. Based on the combination of field measurement and theoretical calculation, this paper shows a deep research on the safe operation of a large-scale Francis turbine unit. Firstly, the measurements of vibration, swing, pressure fluctuation and noise were carried out at 4 different heads. And also the relationships between vibrations and pressure fluctuations at different heads and working conditions were analysed deeply. Then the scientific prediction of safe operation for the unit at high head were done based on the CFD numerical calculation. Finally, this paper shows the division of the operating zone for the hydroelectric unit. According to the experimental results (vibrations, swings, pressure fluctuations and noise) as well as the theoretical results, the operating zone of the unit has been divided into three sections: prohibited operating zone, transition operating zone and safe operating zone. After this research was applied in the hydropower station, the security and economic efficiency of unit increased greatly, and enormous economic benefits and social benefits have been obtained.

  19. Morphological operators for enhanced polarimetric image target detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romano, João. M.; Rosario, Dalton S.

    2015-09-01

    We introduce an algorithm based on morphological filters with the Stokes parameters that augments the daytime and nighttime detection of weak-signal manmade objects immersed in a predominant natural background scene. The approach features a tailored sequence of signal-enhancing filters, consisting of core morphological operators (dilation, erosion) and higher level morphological operations (e.g., spatial gradient, opening, closing) to achieve a desired overarching goal. Using representative data from the SPICE database, the results show that the approach was able to automatically and persistently detect with a high confidence level the presence of three mobile military howitzer surrogates (targets) in natural clutter.

  20. 48 CFR 252.246-7004 - Safety of Facilities, Infrastructure, and Equipment for Military Operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ..., Infrastructure, and Equipment for Military Operations. 252.246-7004 Section 252.246-7004 Federal Acquisition..., Infrastructure, and Equipment for Military Operations. As prescribed in 246.270-4, use the following clause: Safety of Facilities, Infrastructure, and Equipment for Military Operations (OCT 2010) (a)...

  1. 48 CFR 252.246-7004 - Safety of Facilities, Infrastructure, and Equipment for Military Operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., Infrastructure, and Equipment for Military Operations. 252.246-7004 Section 252.246-7004 Federal Acquisition..., Infrastructure, and Equipment for Military Operations. As prescribed in 246.270-4, use the following clause: Safety of Facilities, Infrastructure, and Equipment for Military Operations (OCT 2010) (a)...

  2. 48 CFR 252.246-7004 - Safety of Facilities, Infrastructure, and Equipment for Military Operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., Infrastructure, and Equipment for Military Operations. 252.246-7004 Section 252.246-7004 Federal Acquisition..., Infrastructure, and Equipment for Military Operations. As prescribed in 246.270-4, use the following clause: SAFETY OF FACILITIES, INFRASTRUCTURE, AND EQUIPMENT FOR MILITARY OPERATIONS (OCT 2010) (a)...

  3. 77 FR 36015 - Atomic Safety and Licensing Board; Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc. (Indian Point Nuclear...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-15

    ... FR 55,834 (Oct. 1, 2007). \\2\\ Establishment of Atomic Safety and Licensing Board, 72 FR 60,394 (Oct... and 3); Notice of Atomic Safety and Licensing Board Reconstitution, 77 FR 22,361 (Apr. 13, 2012). On... Renewal of Facility Operating License Nos. DPR-26 and DPR-64 for an Additional 20-Year Period, 72 FR...

  4. 47 CFR 27.1335 - Prohibition on discontinuance of public safety operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... CARRIER SERVICES MISCELLANEOUS WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS SERVICES 700 MHz Public/Private Partnership § 27... Operating Company and the Network Assets Holder are prohibited from discontinuing or degrading the broadband network service provided to the Public Safety Broadband Licensee or to public safety entities...

  5. 47 CFR 27.1335 - Prohibition on discontinuance of public safety operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... CARRIER SERVICES MISCELLANEOUS WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS SERVICES 700 MHz Public/Private Partnership § 27... Operating Company and the Network Assets Holder are prohibited from discontinuing or degrading the broadband network service provided to the Public Safety Broadband Licensee or to public safety entities...

  6. 78 FR 67086 - Safety Zone, Submarine Cable Replacement Operations, Kent Island Narrows; Queen Anne's County, MD

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-08

    ...The Coast Guard proposes to establish a temporary safety zone encompassing certain waters of Kent Island Narrows in Queen Anne's County, MD. This action is necessary to provide for the safety of mariners and their vessels on navigable waters during submarine cable replacement operations at the Kent Island Narrows (MD-18B) Bridge. This action is intended to restrict vessel traffic movement to......

  7. 48 CFR 246.270 - Safety of facilities, infrastructure, and equipment for military operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Safety of facilities, infrastructure, and equipment for military operations. 246.270 Section 246.270 Federal Acquisition Regulations... ASSURANCE Contract Quality Requirements 246.270 Safety of facilities, infrastructure, and equipment...

  8. 48 CFR 246.270 - Safety of facilities, infrastructure, and equipment for military operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Safety of facilities, infrastructure, and equipment for military operations. 246.270 Section 246.270 Federal Acquisition Regulations... ASSURANCE Contract Quality Requirements 246.270 Safety of facilities, infrastructure, and equipment...

  9. 48 CFR 246.270 - Safety of facilities, infrastructure, and equipment for military operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Safety of facilities, infrastructure, and equipment for military operations. 246.270 Section 246.270 Federal Acquisition Regulations... ASSURANCE Contract Quality Requirements 246.270 Safety of facilities, infrastructure, and equipment...

  10. 48 CFR 246.270 - Safety of facilities, infrastructure, and equipment for military operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Safety of facilities, infrastructure, and equipment for military operations. 246.270 Section 246.270 Federal Acquisition Regulations... ASSURANCE Contract Quality Requirements 246.270 Safety of facilities, infrastructure, and equipment...

  11. 78 FR 11094 - Safety Zone; Lake Worth Dredge Operations, Lake Worth Inlet; West Palm Beach, FL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-15

    .... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Table of Acronyms DHS Department of Homeland Security FR Federal Register NPRM Notice... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Lake Worth Dredge Operations, Lake Worth... Guard is establishing a temporary safety zone on Lake Worth Inlet, West Palm Beach, Florida, to...

  12. Using tablet technology in operational radiation safety applications.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Andrew; Linsley, Mark; Houser, Mike

    2013-11-01

    Tablet computers have become a mainstream product in today's personal, educational, and business worlds. These tablets offer computing power, storage, and a wide range of available products to meet nearly every user need. To take advantage of this new computing technology, a system was developed for the Apple iPad (Apple Inc. 1 Infinite Loop Cupertino, CA 95014) to perform health and safety inspections in the field using editable PDFs and saving them to a database while keeping the process easy and paperless. PMID:24077083

  13. Enhanced catalyst stability for cyclic co methanation operations

    DOEpatents

    Risch, Alan P.; Rabo, Jule A.

    1983-01-01

    Carbon monoxide-containing gas streams are passed over a catalyst to deposit a surface layer of active surface carbon thereon essentially without the formation of inactive coke. The active carbon is thereafter reacted with steam or hydrogen to form methane. Enhanced catalyst stability for long term, cyclic operation is obtained by the incorporation of an alkali or alkaline earth dopant in a silica binding agent added to the catalyst-support additive composition.

  14. ADVANCED COMPRESSOR ENGINE CONTROLS TO ENHANCE OPERATION, RELIABILITY AND INTEGRITY

    SciTech Connect

    Gary D. Bourn; Jess W. Gingrich; Jack A. Smith

    2004-03-01

    This document is the final report for the ''Advanced Compressor Engine Controls to Enhance Operation, Reliability, and Integrity'' project. SwRI conducted this project for DOE in conjunction with Cooper Compression, under DOE contract number DE-FC26-03NT41859. This report addresses an investigation of engine controls for integral compressor engines and the development of control strategies that implement closed-loop NOX emissions feedback.

  15. 14 CFR 417.121 - Safety critical preflight operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... must satisfy the requirements of § 417.307(b). (i) Unguided suborbital rocket preflight operations. For the launch of an unguided suborbital rocket, in addition to meeting the other requirements of...

  16. 14 CFR 417.121 - Safety critical preflight operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... must satisfy the requirements of § 417.307(b). (i) Unguided suborbital rocket preflight operations. For the launch of an unguided suborbital rocket, in addition to meeting the other requirements of...

  17. 14 CFR 417.121 - Safety critical preflight operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... must satisfy the requirements of § 417.307(b). (i) Unguided suborbital rocket preflight operations. For the launch of an unguided suborbital rocket, in addition to meeting the other requirements of...

  18. 14 CFR 417.121 - Safety critical preflight operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... must satisfy the requirements of § 417.307(b). (i) Unguided suborbital rocket preflight operations. For the launch of an unguided suborbital rocket, in addition to meeting the other requirements of...

  19. The Advantages, Potentials and Safety of VTOL Suborbital Space Tourism Operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ridzuan Zakaria, N.; Nasrun, N.; Abu, J.; Jusoh, A.; Azim, L.; Said, A.; Ishak, S.; Rafidi Zakaria, N.

    2012-01-01

    Suborbital space tourism offers short-time zero gravity and Earth view from space to its customers, and a package that can offer the longest duration of zero- gravity and the most exciting Earth view from space to its customer can be considered a better one than the others. To increase the duration of zero gravity time involves the design and engineering of the suborbital vehicles, but to improve the view of Earth from space aboard a suborbital vehicle, involves more than just the design and engineering of the vehicle, but more on the location of where the vehicle operates. So far, most of the proposed operations of suborbital space tourism vehicles involve a flight to above 80km and less than 120km and taking-off and landing at the same location. Therefore, the operational location of the suborbital vehicle clearly determines the view of earth from space that will be available to its passengers. The proposed operational locations or spaceports usually are existing airports such as the airport at Curacao Island in the Caribbean or spaceport specially built at locations with economic interests such as Spaceport America in New Mexico or an airport that is going to be built, such as SpaceportSEA in Selangor, Malaysia. Suborbital vehicles operating from these spaceports can only offer limited views of Earth from space which is only few thousand kilometers of land or sea around their spaceports, and a clear view of only few hundred kilometers of land or sea directly below them, even though the views can be enhanced by the application of optical devices. Therefore, the view of some exotic locations such as a colorful coral reef, and phenomena such as a smoking volcano on Earth which may be very exciting when viewed from space will not be available on these suborbital tourism packages. The only possible way for the passengers of a suborbital vehicle to view such exotic locations and phenomena is by flying above or near them, and since it will not be economic and will be

  20. Analytical Chemistry Laboratory (ACL) procedure compendium. Volume 7, Safety operation procedure for hot cell

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-08-01

    This volume contains the interim change notice for the safety operation procedure for hot cell. It covers the master-slave manipulators, dry waste removal, cell transfers, hoists, cask handling, liquid waste system, and physical characterization of fluids.

  1. Facility Safety Plan B360 Complex Biohazardous Operations CMLS-412r0

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, G

    2007-01-08

    This Addendum to the Facility Safety Plan (FSP) 360 Complex describes the safety requirements for the safe conduct of all biohazardous research operations in all buildings within the 360 complex program areas. These requirements include all the responsibilities and authorities of building personnel, operational hazards, and environmental concerns and their controls. In addition, this Addendum prescribes facility-specific training requirements and emergency controls, as well as maintenance and quality assurance requirements for ES&H-related building systems.

  2. The need to optimize inservice testing and inspection to enhance safety

    SciTech Connect

    Perry, J.A.

    1996-12-01

    Welcome to the Fourth U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission and American Society of Mechanical Engineers (USNRC/ASME) Symposium on Valve and Pump Testing in Nuclear Power Plants. This symposium provides a forum to exchange information on technical and regulatory issues associated with the testing of valves and pumps used in nuclear power plants. Progress made since the last symposium will be discussed along with various methods for in service testing of valves and pumps. Active participation by industry representatives, regulators and consultants will entail discussion of a broad array of ideas and points of view regarding how to improve the in service testing of valves and pumps at nuclear power plants. One of the challenges faced is the need to optimize the in service testing and inspection to enhance safety, operability and reliability. The author addresses this challenge from an ASME Nuclear Codes and Standards point of view.

  3. Radiation safety for anaesthesia providers in the orthopaedic operating room.

    PubMed

    Rhea, E B; Rogers, T H; Riehl, J T

    2016-04-01

    In many orthopaedic operating rooms, anaesthesia providers routinely wear lead aprons for protection from radiation, but some studies have questioned whether this is needed. We conducted a systematic review to identify studies that measured the amount of radiation that anaesthetists were exposed to in the orthopaedic operating room. Multiple studies have shown that at 1.5 m from the source of radiation, anaesthetists received no radiation, or amounts so small that a person would have to be present in an unreasonable number of operations to receive cumulative doses of any significance. Radiation doses at this distance were often at the limits of the sensitivity of the measuring dosimeter. We question the need to wear lead protection for anaesthesia providers who are routinely at 1.5 m or a greater distance from standard fluoroscopy units. PMID:26874074

  4. SAFETY AND EFFICIENCY OF MODULATING PARACELLULAR PERMEABILITY TO ENHANCE AIRWAY EPITHELIAL GENE TRANSFER IN VIVO

    EPA Science Inventory


    ABSTRACT

    We evaluated the safety of agents that enhance gene transfer by modulating paracellular permeability. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and cytokine release were measured in polarized primary human airway epithelial (HAE) cells after luminal application of vehicle, ...

  5. Applying lessons learned to enhance human performance and reduce human error for ISS operations

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, W.R.

    1999-01-01

    A major component of reliability, safety, and mission success for space missions is ensuring that the humans involved (flight crew, ground crew, mission control, etc.) perform their tasks and functions as required. This includes compliance with training and procedures during normal conditions, and successful compensation when malfunctions or unexpected conditions occur. A very significant issue that affects human performance in space flight is human error. Human errors can invalidate carefully designed equipment and procedures. If certain errors combine with equipment failures or design flaws, mission failure or loss of life can occur. The control of human error during operation of the International Space Station (ISS) will be critical to the overall success of the program. As experience from Mir operations has shown, human performance plays a vital role in the success or failure of long duration space missions. The Department of Energy{close_quote}s Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) is developing a systematic approach to enhance human performance and reduce human errors for ISS operations. This approach is based on the systematic identification and evaluation of lessons learned from past space missions such as Mir to enhance the design and operation of ISS. This paper will describe previous INEEL research on human error sponsored by NASA and how it can be applied to enhance human reliability for ISS. {copyright} {ital 1999 American Institute of Physics.}

  6. Applying lessons learned to enhance human performance and reduce human error for ISS operations

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, W.R.

    1998-09-01

    A major component of reliability, safety, and mission success for space missions is ensuring that the humans involved (flight crew, ground crew, mission control, etc.) perform their tasks and functions as required. This includes compliance with training and procedures during normal conditions, and successful compensation when malfunctions or unexpected conditions occur. A very significant issue that affects human performance in space flight is human error. Human errors can invalidate carefully designed equipment and procedures. If certain errors combine with equipment failures or design flaws, mission failure or loss of life can occur. The control of human error during operation of the International Space Station (ISS) will be critical to the overall success of the program. As experience from Mir operations has shown, human performance plays a vital role in the success or failure of long duration space missions. The Department of Energy`s Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) is developed a systematic approach to enhance human performance and reduce human errors for ISS operations. This approach is based on the systematic identification and evaluation of lessons learned from past space missions such as Mir to enhance the design and operation of ISS. This paper describes previous INEEL research on human error sponsored by NASA and how it can be applied to enhance human reliability for ISS.

  7. Differential evolution enhanced with multiobjective sorting-based mutation operators.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jiahai; Liao, Jianjun; Zhou, Ying; Cai, Yiqiao

    2014-12-01

    Differential evolution (DE) is a simple and powerful population-based evolutionary algorithm. The salient feature of DE lies in its mutation mechanism. Generally, the parents in the mutation operator of DE are randomly selected from the population. Hence, all vectors are equally likely to be selected as parents without selective pressure at all. Additionally, the diversity information is always ignored. In order to fully exploit the fitness and diversity information of the population, this paper presents a DE framework with multiobjective sorting-based mutation operator. In the proposed mutation operator, individuals in the current population are firstly sorted according to their fitness and diversity contribution by nondominated sorting. Then parents in the mutation operators are proportionally selected according to their rankings based on fitness and diversity, thus, the promising individuals with better fitness and diversity have more opportunity to be selected as parents. Since fitness and diversity information is simultaneously considered for parent selection, a good balance between exploration and exploitation can be achieved. The proposed operator is applied to original DE algorithms, as well as several advanced DE variants. Experimental results on 48 benchmark functions and 12 real-world application problems show that the proposed operator is an effective approach to enhance the performance of most DE algorithms studied. PMID:24802378

  8. Design, Operations, and Safety Report for the MERIT Target System

    SciTech Connect

    Graves, Van B; Spampinato, Philip Thomas

    2007-09-01

    The Mercury Intense Target Project (MERIT) is a proof-of-principal experiment to determine the feasibility of using a free-jet of Hg as a spallation target in a Neutrino Factory or a Muon Collider facility. The 1-cm-diameter, 20-m/sec jet will be generated inside a 15-Tesla magnetic field, and high-speed optical diagnostics will be used to photograph the interaction between the Hg jet and a 24-GeV proton beam.The experiment is scheduled to be conducted at CERN in 2007. ORNL is responsible for the design, fabrication, and testing of a system to deliver the Hg jet within the confines of the 15-cm magnet bore. This report documents the functional and safety requirements of the Hg system along with descriptions of its interfaces to the other experimental equipment.

  9. 33 CFR 150.380 - Under what circumstances may vessels operate within the safety zone or area to be avoided?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... vessels operate within the safety zone or area to be avoided? 150.380 Section 150.380 Navigation and...: OPERATIONS Vessel Navigation § 150.380 Under what circumstances may vessels operate within the safety zone or area to be avoided? (a) Table 150.380(a) of this section lists both the areas within a safety...

  10. Achieving health, safety, and performance improvements through enhanced cost visibility and workplace partnerships.

    PubMed

    Grant, Katharyn A; Garland, John G; Joachim, Todd C; Wallen, Andrew; Vital, Twyla

    2003-01-01

    Reduction in the environment, safety, and occupational health (ESOH) component of operational costs requires not only a better understanding of ESOH costs and requirements, but also the formation of effective partnerships between ESOH professionals, financial analysts, and shop workers to identify viable improvements to current practices. This article presents two case studies of efforts to enhance productivity and ESOH in corrosion control facilities at Randolph Air Force Base (AFB), Texas, and Robins AFB, Ga. At each site, activity-based cost models were created to increase the visibility of ESOH-related costs and target improvement opportunities. Analysis of the strip-and-paint processes for the T-38 aircraft at Randolph and the F-15 radome and C-141 aft cowl at Robins revealed that a large proportion of operating costs were tied to ESOH requirements and practices (22 and 39%, respectively). In each case ESOH professionals teamed with shop personnel to identify potential improvements in personal protective equipment use, waste disposal, tool selection, and work methods. This approach yielded alternatives projected to reduce total shop costs by 5 to 7%. This case study demonstrates how workplaces can identify cost-saving and efficiency-enhancing practices by partnering with ESOH professionals in planning and decision-making activities. PMID:14521429

  11. Enhanced Flight Vision Systems Operational Feasibility Study Using Radar and Infrared Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Etherington, Timothy J.; Kramer, Lynda J.; Severance, Kurt; Bailey, Randall E.; Williams, Steven P.; Harrison, Stephanie J.

    2015-01-01

    Approach and landing operations during periods of reduced visibility have plagued aircraft pilots since the beginning of aviation. Although techniques are currently available to mitigate some of the visibility conditions, these operations are still ultimately limited by the pilot's ability to "see" required visual landing references (e.g., markings and/or lights of threshold and touchdown zone) and require significant and costly ground infrastructure. Certified Enhanced Flight Vision Systems (EFVS) have shown promise to lift the obscuration veil. They allow the pilot to operate with enhanced vision, in lieu of natural vision, in the visual segment to enable equivalent visual operations (EVO). An aviation standards document was developed with industry and government consensus for using an EFVS for approach, landing, and rollout to a safe taxi speed in visibilities as low as 300 feet runway visual range (RVR). These new standards establish performance, integrity, availability, and safety requirements to operate in this regime without reliance on a pilot's or flight crew's natural vision by use of a fail-operational EFVS. A pilot-in-the-loop high-fidelity motion simulation study was conducted at NASA Langley Research Center to evaluate the operational feasibility, pilot workload, and pilot acceptability of conducting straight-in instrument approaches with published vertical guidance to landing, touchdown, and rollout to a safe taxi speed in visibility as low as 300 feet RVR by use of vision system technologies on a head-up display (HUD) without need or reliance on natural vision. Twelve crews flew various landing and departure scenarios in 1800, 1000, 700, and 300 RVR. This paper details the non-normal results of the study including objective and subjective measures of performance and acceptability. The study validated the operational feasibility of approach and departure operations and success was independent of visibility conditions. Failures were handled within the

  12. Enhanced and synthetic vision for terminal maneuvering area NextGen operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kramer, Lynda J.; Bailey, Randall E.; Ellis, Kyle K. E.; Norman, R. Michael; Williams, Steven P.; Arthur, Jarvis J., III; Shelton, Kevin J.; Prinzel, Lawrence J., III

    2011-06-01

    Synthetic Vision Systems and Enhanced Flight Vision System (SVS/EFVS) technologies have the potential to provide additional margins of safety for aircrew performance and enable operational improvements for low visibility operations in the terminal area environment with equivalent efficiency as visual operations. To meet this potential, research is needed for effective technology development and implementation of regulatory and design guidance to support introduction and use of SVS/EFVS advanced cockpit vision technologies in Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) operations. A fixed-base pilot-in-the-loop simulation test was conducted at NASA Langley Research Center that evaluated the use of SVS/EFVS in NextGen low visibility ground (taxi) operations and approach/landing operations. Twelve crews flew approach and landing operations in a simulated NextGen Chicago O'Hare environment. Various scenarios tested the potential for EFVS for operations in visibility as low as 1000 ft runway visibility range (RVR) and SVS to enable lower decision heights (DH) than can currently be flown today. Expanding the EFVS visual segment from DH to the runway in visibilities as low as 1000 RVR appears to be viable as touchdown performance was excellent without any workload penalties noted for the EFVS concept tested. A lower DH to 150 ft and/or possibly reduced visibility minima by virtue of SVS equipage appears to be viable when implemented on a Head-Up Display, but the landing data suggests further study for head-down implementations.

  13. Enhanced and Synthetic Vision for Terminal Maneuvering Area NextGen Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kramer, Lynda J.; Bailey, Randall E.; Ellis, Kyle K. E.; Norman, R. Michael; Williams, Steven P.; Arthur, Jarvis J., III; Shelton, Kevin J.; Prinzel, Lawrence J., III

    2011-01-01

    Synthetic Vision Systems and Enhanced Flight Vision System (SVS/EFVS) technologies have the potential to provide additional margins of safety for aircrew performance and enable operational improvements for low visibility operations in the terminal area environment with equivalent efficiency as visual operations. To meet this potential, research is needed for effective technology development and implementation of regulatory and design guidance to support introduction and use of SVS/EFVS advanced cockpit vision technologies in Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) operations. A fixed-base pilot-in-the-loop simulation test was conducted at NASA Langley Research Center that evaluated the use of SVS/EFVS in NextGen low visibility ground (taxi) operations and approach/landing operations. Twelve crews flew approach and landing operations in a simulated NextGen Chicago O Hare environment. Various scenarios tested the potential for EFVS for operations in visibility as low as 1000 ft runway visibility range (RVR) and SVS to enable lower decision heights (DH) than can currently be flown today. Expanding the EFVS visual segment from DH to the runway in visibilities as low as 1000 RVR appears to be viable as touchdown performance was excellent without any workload penalties noted for the EFVS concept tested. A lower DH to 150 ft and/or possibly reduced visibility minima by virtue of SVS equipage appears to be viable when implemented on a Head-Up Display, but the landing data suggests further study for head-down implementations.

  14. Comparison of effectiveness and safety of operations on the pericardium

    SciTech Connect

    Palatianos, G.M.; Thurer, R.J.; Kaiser, G.A.

    1985-07-01

    A ten-year experience with operations on the pericardium in 71 consecutive patients was reviewed. The patients ranged in age from nine months to 75 years old. Fifty-three patients were operated upon for pericardial effusion and 14 for pericardial constriction. Sixty-seven patients had pericarditis: 21 of them underwent subxiphoid tube drainage; ten, limited pericardiectomy; and the remaining 36, extensive pericardiectomy. There were two trauma victims who underwent diagnostic pericardiotomy. Two patients underwent excision of pericardial cysts. There was one operative death during extensive pericardiectomy for constrictive tuberculous pericarditis. Thirty-day mortality was three of 21 patients after subxiphoid tube drainage, three of ten after limited pericardiectomy and five of 36 after extensive pericardiectomy. Postoperative complications consisted of pulmonary problems in four patients (two after pericardiectomy and two after extensive pericardiectomy), cardiac arrhythmia in one patient after tube drainage and postpericardiotomy syndrome in one patient after extensive pericardiectomy. Mean follow-up was 3.2 years. Recurrent pericardial effusion occurred in two patients; one had limited pericardiectomy but did not require reoperation and one had diagnostic pericardiotomy without drainage. Six patients with persistent postirradiation pericardial effusion were treated effectively with extensive pericardiotomy. Experience indicates that subxiphoid tube drainage is effective for the treatment of pericardial effusion and safer than limited pericardiectomy, while extensive pericardiectomy is the operation of choice for pericardial constriction and radiation-related pericardial effusion.

  15. Enhancing public confidence in vaccines through independent oversight of postlicensure vaccine safety.

    PubMed

    Salmon, Daniel A; Moulton, Lawrence H; Halsey, Neal A

    2004-06-01

    The National Immunization Program of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention is responsible for controlling infectious diseases through vaccination, but the program also plays a key role in postlicensure vaccine safety assessment. The time has come to separate postlicensure vaccine safety assessment from vaccine risk management as recommended by the National Research Council of the National Academy of Sciences.The National Transportation Safety Board offers a useful model for developing an independent National Vaccine Safety Board that would have the authority to leverage resources and expertise of various government agencies, academia, and industry to oversee postlicensure vaccine safety investigations. Such a board would have been useful in recent vaccine safety concerns, and its independence from government programs would ensure optimal vaccine safety and enhance public confidence in vaccines. PMID:15249296

  16. Assessment of Offshore Wind System Design, Safety, and Operation Standards

    SciTech Connect

    Sirnivas, S.; Musial, W.; Bailey, B.; Filippelli, M.

    2014-01-01

    This report is a deliverable for a project sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) entitled National Offshore Wind Energy Resource and Design Data Campaign -- Analysis and Collaboration (contract number DE-EE0005372; prime contractor -- AWS Truepower). The project objective is to supplement, facilitate, and enhance ongoing multiagency efforts to develop an integrated national offshore wind energy data network. The results of this initiative are intended to 1) produce a comprehensive definition of relevant met-ocean resource assets and needs and design standards, and 2) provide a basis for recommendations for meeting offshore wind energy industry data and design certification requirements.

  17. Applications of advanced intervention technologies to enhance microbial food safety

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Food safety issues may arise due to chemical and/or microbial contaminations. Foodborne pathogens typically are the major reasons in food related outbreaks that result in human sickness/death, product disposal/waste and other economic losses. The food industry is continuously seeking better interv...

  18. Current Interventions for Enhancing Produce Safety and Security

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The USDA-ARS produce safety project conducts research to understand pathogen microbial ecology and its effects on decontamination efficacy, to develop biological-based intervention strategies for pathogen reduction and to develop new effective chemical and physical decontamination interventions and/...

  19. Simulator platform for fast reactor operation and safety technology demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    Vilim, R. B.; Park, Y. S.; Grandy, C.; Belch, H.; Dworzanski, P.; Misterka, J.

    2012-07-30

    A simulator platform for visualization and demonstration of innovative concepts in fast reactor technology is described. The objective is to make more accessible the workings of fast reactor technology innovations and to do so in a human factors environment that uses state-of-the art visualization technologies. In this work the computer codes in use at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) for the design of fast reactor systems are being integrated to run on this platform. This includes linking reactor systems codes with mechanical structures codes and using advanced graphics to depict the thermo-hydraulic-structure interactions that give rise to an inherently safe response to upsets. It also includes visualization of mechanical systems operation including advanced concepts that make use of robotics for operations, in-service inspection, and maintenance.

  20. Improved nuclear power plant operations and safety through performance-based safety regulation.

    PubMed

    Golay, M W

    2000-01-01

    This paper illustrates some of the promise and needed future work for risk-informed, performance-based regulation (RIPBR). RIPBR is an evolving alternative to the current prescriptive method of nuclear safety regulation. Prescriptive regulation effectively constitutes a long, fragmented checklist of requirements that safety-related systems in a plant must satisfy. RIPBR, instead, concentrates upon satisfying negotiated performance goals and incentives for judging and rewarding licensee behavior to improve safety and reduce costs. In a project reported here, a case study was conducted concerning a pressurized water reactor (PWR) emergency diesel generator (EDG). Overall, this work has shown that the methods of RIPBR are feasible to use, and capable of justifying simultaneous safety and economic nuclear power improvements. However, it also reveals several areas where the framework of RIPBR should be strengthened. First, researchers need better data and understanding regarding individual component-failure modes that may cause components to fail. Not only are more data needed on failure rates, but more data and understanding are needed to enable analysts to evaluate whether these failures become more likely as the interval between tests is increased. This is because the current state of failure data is not sufficiently finely detailed to define the failure rates of individual component failure modes; such knowledge is needed when changing component-specific regulatory requirements. Second, the role of component testing, given that a component has failed, needs to be strengthened within the context of RIPBR. This includes formulating requirements for updating the prior probability distribution of a component failure rate and conducting additional or more frequent testing. Finally, as a means of compensating for unavoidable uncertainty as an obstacle to regulatory decision-making, limits to knowledge must be treated explicitly and formally. This treatment includes the

  1. Enhancing the Remote Variable Operations in NPSS/CCDK

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sang, Janche; Follen, Gregory; Kim, Chan; Lopez, Isaac; Townsend, Scott

    2001-01-01

    Many scientific applications in aerodynamics and solid mechanics are written in Fortran. Refitting these legacy Fortran codes with distributed objects can increase the code reusability. The remote variable scheme provided in NPSS/CCDK helps programmers easily migrate the Fortran codes towards a client-server platform. This scheme gives the client the capability of accessing the variables at the server site. In this paper, we review and enhance the remote variable scheme by using the operator overloading features in C++. The enhancement enables NPSS programmers to use remote variables in much the same way as traditional variables. The remote variable scheme adopts the lazy update approach and the prefetch method. The design strategies and implementation techniques are described in details. Preliminary performance evaluation shows that communication overhead can be greatly reduced.

  2. Safety enhancement of oil trunk pipeline crossing active faults on Sakhalin Island

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tishkina, E.; Antropova, N.; Korotchenko, T.

    2015-11-01

    The article explores the issues concerning safety enhancement of pipeline active fault crossing on Sakhalin Island. Based on the complexity and analysis results, all the faults crossed by pipeline system are classified into five categories - from very simple faults to extremely complex ones. The pipeline fault crossing design is developed in accordance with the fault category. To enhance pipeline safety at fault crossing, a set of methods should be applied: use of pipes of different safety classes and special trench design in accordance with soil permeability characteristics.

  3. Use of safety scalpels and other safety practices to reduce sharps injury in the operating room: What is the evidence?

    PubMed Central

    DeGirolamo, Kristin M.; Courtemanche, Douglas J.; Hill, Warren D.; Kennedy, Angie; Skarsgard, Erik D.

    2013-01-01

    Background The occupational hazard associated with percutaneous injury in the operating room (OR) has encouraged harm reduction through behaviour change and the use of safety-engineered surgical sharps. Some Canadian regulatory agencies have mandated the use of “safety scalpels.” Our primary objective was to determine whether safety scalpels reduce the risk of percutaneous injury in the OR, while a secondary objective was to evaluate risk reduction associated with other safety practices. Methods We used evidence review methods described by the International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation and conducted a systematic, English-language search of Ovid, MEDLINE and EMBASE using the following search terms: “safety-engineered scalpel,” “mistake proofing device,” “retractable/removable blade/scalpel,” “pass tray,” “hands free passing,” “neutral zone,” “sharpless surgery,” “double/cutproof gloving” and “blunt suture needles.” Included articles were scored according to level of evidence; quality; and whether they were supportive, opposed or neutral to the study question(s). Results Of 72 included citations, none was supportive of the use of safety scalpels. There was high-level/quality evidence (Cochrane reviews) in support of risk reduction through double-gloving and use of blunt suture needles, with additional evidence supporting a pass tray/neutral zone for sharps handling (4 of 5 articles supportive) and use of suturing adjuncts (1 article supportive). Conclusion There is insufficient evidence to support regulated use of safety scalpels. Injury-reduction strategies should emphasize proven methods, including double-gloving, blunt suture needles and use of hands-free sharps transfer. PMID:23883497

  4. Condition concern: an innovative response system for enhancing hospitalized patient care and safety.

    PubMed

    Baird, Sylvia K; Turbin, Lynn Bobel

    2011-01-01

    Patient safety is rapidly becoming everyone's responsibility. Bedside clinicians, physicians, and ancillary and administrative staff are well aware of their roles in patient safety, but patients and their families are becoming increasingly knowledgeable about potential safety issues related to hospitalization. This article describes how a Midwestern regional health care system enhances safety for its hospitalized patients through a program called "Condition Concern," designed to provide patients and their families/friends with a quick, convenient method for reporting unattended care concerns. The program's structure is described along with postimplementation findings to date. PMID:21233769

  5. Nuclear safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buden, D.

    1991-01-01

    Topics dealing with nuclear safety are addressed which include the following: general safety requirements; safety design requirements; terrestrial safety; SP-100 Flight System key safety requirements; potential mission accidents and hazards; key safety features; ground operations; launch operations; flight operations; disposal; safety concerns; licensing; the nuclear engine for rocket vehicle application (NERVA) design philosophy; the NERVA flight safety program; and the NERVA safety plan.

  6. 78 FR 44436 - Safety Zone; Joint Operations Exercise, Lake Michigan, IL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-24

    ... Department of Homeland Security DOD Department of Defense FR Federal Register NPRM Notice of Proposed... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Joint Operations Exercise, Lake Michigan... vessels from a portion of Lake Michigan due to a joint operations exercise involving the Department...

  7. 4-H Tractor Operator Program Teaches Employability Skills and Safety to Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrett, Debra K.

    2013-01-01

    For Michigan State University Extension, the Berrien County 4-H Tractor Operator Program has provided tractor safety education to teens for over 30 years. The certification training satisfies current requirements for operation of a 20 PTO HP or greater agricultural tractor by 14- and 15-year-old youth employed on property "not" owned,…

  8. 29 CFR 1915.93 - Motor vehicle safety equipment, operation and maintenance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... requirements in 29 CFR 1910.178 continue to apply to powered industrial trucks used for shipyard employment. (b... initially used after August 1, 2011 is equipped with a safety belt for each employee operating or riding in... belt, securely and tightly fastened, at all times while operating or riding in a motor vehicle. (3)...

  9. 29 CFR 1915.93 - Motor vehicle safety equipment, operation and maintenance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... requirements in 29 CFR 1910.178 continue to apply to powered industrial trucks used for shipyard employment. (b... initially used after August 1, 2011 is equipped with a safety belt for each employee operating or riding in... belt, securely and tightly fastened, at all times while operating or riding in a motor vehicle. (3)...

  10. 76 FR 50433 - Regulatory Guidance: Applicability of the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Regulations to Operators...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-15

    ... vehicles (76 FR 31279). Recognizing that changes in regulatory guidance (if implemented by a State) could... the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Regulations to Operators of Certain Farm Vehicles and Off-Road...) to operators of farm vehicles: first, the interpretation of interstate commerce as it applies...

  11. 46 CFR 15.817 - Global Maritime Distress and Safety System (GMDSS) radio operator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Global Maritime Distress and Safety System (GMDSS) radio... (GMDSS) radio operator. Every person in the required complement of deck officers, including the master... part, must provide evidence of a valid STCW endorsement as GMDSS radio operator....

  12. Fusion of Synthetic and Enhanced Vision for All-Weather Commercial Aviation Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, Randall E.; Kramer, Lynda J.; Prinzel, Lawrence, III

    2007-01-01

    NASA is developing revolutionary crew-vehicle interface technologies that strive to proactively overcome aircraft safety barriers that would otherwise constrain the full realization of the next-generation air transportation system. A piloted simulation experiment was conducted to evaluate the complementary use of Synthetic and Enhanced Vision technologies. Specific focus was placed on new techniques for integration and/or fusion of Enhanced and Synthetic Vision and its impact within a two-crew flight deck during low visibility approach and landing operations. Overall, the experimental data showed that significant improvements in situation awareness, without concomitant increases in workload and display clutter, could be provided by the integration and/or fusion of synthetic and enhanced vision technologies for the pilot-flying and the pilot-not-flying. During non-normal operations, the ability of the crew to handle substantial navigational errors and runway incursions were not adversely impacted by the display concepts although the addition of Enhanced Vision did not, unto itself, provide an improvement in runway incursion detection.

  13. AACE: an innovative partnership to enhance aircraft safety

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shurtleff, William W.

    1999-01-01

    The Federal Aviation Administration established the Airworthiness Assurance Center of Excellence (AACE) in September 1997, through a cooperative agreement grant with Iowa State University (ISU) and The Ohio State University (OSU). A technical support contract with the Center is now in place as well. Initially the Center has five areas of concentration supporting advances in airworthiness assurance. These are 1. Maintenance, inspection, and repair, 2. Propulsion and fuel systems safety, 3. Crashworthiness, 4. Advanced materials, and 5. Landing gear systems performance and safety. AACE has nine core members who provide guidance to the Program Management Office at ISU/OSU through a Board of Directors. The core members are: Arizona State University, Iowa State University, Northwestern University, The Ohio State University, University of Dayton, University of Maryland, University of California - Los Angeles, Wichita State University, and Sandia National Laboratories. The organization also includes numerous academic affiliates, industry partners, government laboratories and other organizations. The Center now has over thirty technical projects supporting technical advances in airworthiness assurance. All these projects have industry guidance and support. This paper discusses the current technical program of the center and the highlights of the five-year plan for technical work. Also included is a description of the factors that make the Center an innovative partnership to promote aircraft safety.

  14. Romanian Experience for Enhancing Safety and Security in Transport of Radioactive Material - 12223

    SciTech Connect

    Vieru, Gheorghe

    2012-07-01

    The transport of Dangerous Goods-Class no.7 Radioactive Material (RAM), is an important part of the Romanian Radioactive Material Management. The overall aim of this activity is for enhancing operational safety and security measures during the transport of the radioactive materials, in order to ensure the protection of the people and the environment. The paper will present an overall of the safety and security measures recommended and implemented during transportation of RAM in Romania. Some aspects on the potential threat environment will be also approached with special referring to the low level radioactive material (waste) and NORM transportation either by road or by rail. A special attention is given to the assessment and evaluation of the possible radiological consequences due to RAM transportation. The paper is a part of the IAEA's Vienna Scientific Research Contract on the State Management of Nuclear Security Regime (Framework) concluded with the Institute for Nuclear Research, Romania, where the author is the CSI (Chief Scientific Investigator). The transport of RAM in Romania is a very sensible and complex problem taking into consideration the importance and the need of the security and safety for such activities. The Romanian Nuclear Regulatory Body set up strictly regulation and procedures according to the Recommendation of the IAEA Vienna and other international organizations. There were implemented the adequate regulation and procedures in order to keep the environmental impacts and the radiological consequences at the lower possible level and to assure the effectiveness of state nuclear security regime due to possible malicious acts in carrying out these activities including transport and the disposal site at the acceptable international levels. The levels of the estimated doses and risk expectation values for transport and disposal are within the acceptable limits provided by national and international regulations and recommendations but can increase

  15. 30 CFR 250.1165 - What must I do for enhanced recovery operations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What must I do for enhanced recovery operations... Requirements Other Requirements § 250.1165 What must I do for enhanced recovery operations? (a) You must promptly initiate enhanced oil and gas recovery operations for all reservoirs where these operations...

  16. Patient safety in the operating room: an intervention study on latent risk factors

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Patient safety is one of the greatest challenges in healthcare. In the operating room errors are frequent and often consequential. This article describes an approach to a successful implementation of a patient safety program in the operating room, focussing on latent risk factors that influence patient safety. We performed an intervention to improve these latent risk factors (LRFs) and increase awareness of patient safety issues amongst OR staff. Methods Latent risk factors were studied using a validated questionnaire applied to the OR staff before and after an intervention. A pre-test/post-test control group design with repeated measures was used to evaluate the effects of the interventions. The staff from one operating room of an university hospital acted as the intervention group. Controls consisted of the staff of the operating room in another university hospital. The outcomes were the changes in LRF scores, perceived incident rate, and changes in incident reports between pre- and post-intervention. Results Based on pre-test scores and participants’ key concerns about organizational factors affecting patient safety in their department the intervention focused on the following LRFs: Material Resources, Training and Staffing Recourses. After the intervention, the intervention operating room - compared to the control operating room - reported significantly fewer problems on Material Resources and Staffing Resources and a significantly lower score on perceived incident rate. The contribution of technical factors to incident causation decreased significantly in the intervention group after the intervention. Conclusion The change of state of latent risk factors can be measured using a patient safety questionnaire aimed at these factors. The change of the relevant risk factors (Material and Staffing resources) concurred with a decrease in perceived and reported incident rates in the relevant categories. We conclude that interventions aimed at unfavourable

  17. Addressing the unique safety and design concerns for operating tower-based scientific field campaigns.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steele, A. C.

    2006-12-01

    Scientific field campaigns often require specialized technical infrastructure for data collection. NASA's LBA- ECO Science Team needed a network of towers, up to 65 meters in height, to be constructed in the Amazon forest to serve as platforms for instrumentation used to estimate carbon dioxide and trace gas fluxes between the forest and the atmosphere. The design, construction, and operation of these scientific towers represented unique challenges to the construction crews, the logistics support staff, and the scientists due to operational requirements beyond tower site norms. These included selection of safe sites at remote locations within a dense forest; building towers without damaging the natural environment; locating diesel generators so that exhaust would not contaminate the measurement area; performing maintenance on continuously energized towers so as not to interrupt data collection; training inexperienced climbers needing safe access to towers; and addressing unique safety concerns (e.g. venomous animal response, chainsaw safety, off road driving). To meet the challenges of the complex field site, a comprehensive safety and site operation model was designed to ensure that NASA field safety standards were met, even under extreme conditions in the remote forests of the Amazon. The model includes all phases of field site safety and operation, including site design, construction, operational practices and policies, and personnel safety training. This operational model was employed over eight years, supporting a team of nearly 400 scientists, making several thousand site visits, without loss of life or major injury. The presentation will explore these concerns and present a model for comprehensive safety plans for NASA field missions.

  18. US Department of Energy DOE Nevada Operations Office, Nevada Test Site: Underground safety and health standards

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-05-01

    The Nevada Test Site Underground Safety and Health Standards Working Group was formed at the direction of John D. Stewart, Director, Nevada Test Site Office in April, 1990. The objective of the Working Group was to compile a safety and health standard from the California Tunnel Safety Orders and OSHA for the underground operations at the NTS, (excluding Yucca Mountain). These standards are called the NTS U/G Safety and Health Standards. The Working Group submits these standards as a RECOMMENDATION to the Director, NTSO. Although the Working Group considers these standards to be the most integrated and comprehensive standards that could be developed for NTS Underground Operations, the intent is not to supersede or replace any relevant DOE orders. Rather the intent is to collate the multiple safety and health references contained in DOE Order 5480.4 that have applicability to NTS Underground Operations into a single safety and heath standard to be used in the underground operations at the NTS. Each portion of the standard was included only after careful consideration by the Working Group and is judged to be both effective and appropriate. The specific methods and rationale used by the Working Group are outlined as follows: The letter from DOE/HQ, dated September 28, 1990 cited OSHA and the CTSO as the safety and health codes applicable to underground operations at the NTS. These mandated codes were each originally developed to be comprehensive, i.e., all underground operations of a particular type (e.g., tunnels in the case of the CTSO) were intended to be adequately regulated by the appropriate code. However, this is not true; the Working Group found extensive and confusing overlap in the codes in numerous areas. Other subjects and activities were addressed by the various codes in cursory fashion or not at all.

  19. Combustion Enhancement in Scramjet-Operation of a RBCC Engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadatake Tomioka, By; Ryohei Kobayashi; Murakami, Atsuo; Shuichi Ueda; Komuro, Tomoyuki; Katsuhiro Itoh, And

    Combination of a scramjet (supersonic combustion ramjet) flow-pass with embedded rocket engines (the combined system termed as Rocket Based Combined Cycle engine) are expected to be the most effective propulsion system for Booster stage of space launch vehicles. At hypersonic regime, it will be operated at rather high rocket engine output for final acceleration with some Isp gains due to air-breathing effects. In this regime, attaining thrust at this high-speed regime becomes very difficult, so that parallel injection of the fuel for scramjet combustion is favorable as the momentum of the injection can contribute to the thrust production. Thus, embedded rocket chamber was supposed to the operated as fuel rich gas generator at very high output. This configuration was tested at simulated flight Mach number of 7-11 at High Enthalpy Shock Tunnel (HIEST) with detonation tube as the source of the simulated rocket exhaust. However, combustion of the residual fuel in the rocket exhaust with airflow could not be attained. Direct-connect combustor tests were performed to evaluate effectiveness of a combustion enhancement technique termed auxiliary injection, i.e., a portion of fuel to be directly injected into airflow to provide ignition source for the residual fuel. Results of both the engine model tests at HIEST and the direct-connect tests are summarized and presented, and modification to the engine model for combustion enhancement was proposed.

  20. 78 FR 59632 - Oil and Gas and Sulphur Operations on the Outer Continental Shelf-Oil and Gas Production Safety...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-27

    ... proposed rulemaking on production safety systems on August 22, 2013 (78 FR 52240). The proposed rule would... Bureau of Safety and Environmental Enforcement 30 CFR Part 250 RIN 1014-AA10 Oil and Gas and Sulphur Operations on the Outer Continental Shelf--Oil and Gas Production Safety Systems AGENCY: Bureau of Safety...

  1. Preliminary Assessment of Operational Hazards and Safety Requirements for Airborne Trajectory Management (ABTM) Roadmap Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cotton, William B.; Hilb, Robert; Koczo, Stefan, Jr.; Wing, David J.

    2016-01-01

    A set of five developmental steps building from the NASA TASAR (Traffic Aware Strategic Aircrew Requests) concept are described, each providing incrementally more efficiency and capacity benefits to airspace system users and service providers, culminating in a Full Airborne Trajectory Management capability. For each of these steps, the incremental Operational Hazards and Safety Requirements are identified for later use in future formal safety assessments intended to lead to certification and operational approval of the equipment and the associated procedures. Two established safety assessment methodologies that are compliant with the FAA's Safety Management System were used leading to Failure Effects Classifications (FEC) for each of the steps. The most likely FEC for the first three steps, Basic TASAR, Digital TASAR, and 4D TASAR, is "No effect". For step four, Strategic Airborne Trajectory Management, the likely FEC is "Minor". For Full Airborne Trajectory Management (Step 5), the most likely FEC is "Major".

  2. Using computer graphics to enhance astronaut and systems safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, J. W.

    1982-01-01

    The Operator Station Design System (OSDS), a technique of applied computer graphics featuring a flexible interactive software package, is presented in terms of man-machine analyses, flight operations, and systems engineering. In man-machine analyses, the OSDS was used to determine if viewing from the Shuttle Remote Manipulator System was satisfactory and to identify requirements for a pallet-mounted television camera. In another study, extravehicular activity was analyzed using the example of emergency access to latches should they fail in orbit. In terms of flight operations, OSDS can be used to evaluate array monitoring of a solar array power system complex and to provide animated scenarios of mission operations. The most important application of OSDS is in relation to systems engineering, as OSDS can be used to analyze spacecraft and payload design and integration. Payload configurations are included.

  3. Major safety and operational concerns for fuel debris criticality control

    SciTech Connect

    Tonoike, K.; Sono, H.; Umeda, M.; Yamane, Y.; Kugo, T.; Suyama, K.

    2013-07-01

    It can be seen from the criticality control viewpoint that the requirement divides the decommissioning work into two parts. One is the present condition where it is requested to prevent criticality and to monitor subcritical condition while the debris is untouched. The other is future work where the subcritical condition shall be ensured even if the debris condition is changed intentionally by raising water level, debris retrieval, etc. Repair of damages on the containment vessel (CV) walls is one of the most important objectives at present in the site. On completion of this task, it will become possible to raise water levels in the CVs and to shield the extremely high radiation emitted from the debris but there is a dilemma: raising the water level in the CVs implies to bring the debris closer to criticality because of the role of water for slowing down neutrons. This may be solved if the coolant water will start circulating in closed loops, and if a sufficient concentration of soluble neutron poison (borated water for instance) will be introduced in the loop. It should be still noted that this solution has a risk of worsening corrosion of the CV walls. Design of the retrieval operation of debris should be proposed as early as possible, which must include a neutron poison concentration required to ensure that the debris chunk is subcritical. In parallel, the development of the measurement system to monitor subcritical condition of the debris chunk should be conducted in case the borated water cannot be used continuously. The system would be based on a neutron counter with a high sensitivity and an appropriate shield for gamma-rays, and the adequate statistical signal processing.

  4. Step-tapered operation of the FEL: Efficiency enhancement and two-colour operation

    SciTech Connect

    Jaroszynski, D.A.; Prazeres, R.; Glotin, F.

    1995-12-31

    We present new measurements of the temporal and spectral properties of radiation produced from two step-tapered undulator free-electron lasers (FEL), CLIO in France and FELIX in the Netherlands. Using a two section undulator with independently adjustable deflection parameters (K) the FEL will operate either with enhanced efficiency and improved spectral properties (with a small positive {Delta}K step) or will operate simultaneously at two frequencies (for large {Delta}K). The first experiments demonstrating at two-colour operation were restricted to a maximum wavelength difference, {delta}{lambda}/{lambda} < 0.15 because of the influence of optical dispersion in the cavity introduced by a dielectric output coupling plate. Using a dispersion-free hole output coupler the maximum {delta}{lambda}/{lambda} has been extended to more than 0.6. We present these new dispersion-less two-colour operation results and show that quenching of one of the wavelength unless the optical cavity is detuned significantly so that the FEL operates with reduced efficiency and lower intracavity power. To overcome this problem a larger fraction of the radiation will need to be coupled in the future to limit the intracavity power. To determine the temporal distribution of the optical radiation at the two wavelengths we have carried out second order autocorrelation measurements using a nonlinear crystal and established that the optical pulses are very short, a few hundreds of femtoseconds long, and overlapping. To establish how the two colours build up in the cavity we have also measured the spectral and temporal evolution of the macropulse. To establish the efficiency over a wide range of {Delta}K values we have measured the electron spectra of the electrons leaving the undulator and find that the efficiency is enhanced significantly over normal undulator operation.

  5. The use of interactive computer vision and robot hand controllers for enhancing manufacturing safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marzwell, Neville I.; Jacobus, Charles J.; Peurach, Thomas M.; Mitchell, Brian T.

    1994-01-01

    Current available robotic systems provide limited support for CAD-based model-driven visualization, sensing algorithm development and integration, and automated graphical planning systems. This paper describes ongoing work which provides the functionality necessary to apply advanced robotics to automated manufacturing and assembly operations. An interface has been built which incorporates 6-DOF tactile manipulation, displays for three dimensional graphical models, and automated tracking functions which depend on automated machine vision. A set of tools for single and multiple focal plane sensor image processing and understanding has been demonstrated which utilizes object recognition models. The resulting tool will enable sensing and planning from computationally simple graphical objects. A synergistic interplay between human and operator vision is created from programmable feedback received from the controller. This approach can be used as the basis for implementing enhanced safety in automated robotics manufacturing, assembly, repair and inspection tasks in both ground and space applications. Thus, an interactive capability has been developed to match the modeled environment to the real task environment for safe and predictable task execution.

  6. Safety Verification of the Small Aircraft Transportation System Concept of Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carreno, Victor; Munoz, Cesar

    2005-01-01

    A critical factor in the adoption of any new aeronautical technology or concept of operation is safety. Traditionally, safety is accomplished through a rigorous process that involves human factors, low and high fidelity simulations, and flight experiments. As this process is usually performed on final products or functional prototypes, concept modifications resulting from this process are very expensive to implement. This paper describe an approach to system safety that can take place at early stages of a concept design. It is based on a set of mathematical techniques and tools known as formal methods. In contrast to testing and simulation, formal methods provide the capability of exhaustive state exploration analysis. We present the safety analysis and verification performed for the Small Aircraft Transportation System (SATS) Concept of Operations (ConOps). The concept of operations is modeled using discrete and hybrid mathematical models. These models are then analyzed using formal methods. The objective of the analysis is to show, in a mathematical framework, that the concept of operation complies with a set of safety requirements. It is also shown that the ConOps has some desirable characteristic such as liveness and absence of dead-lock. The analysis and verification is performed in the Prototype Verification System (PVS), which is a computer based specification language and a theorem proving assistant.

  7. National Ignition Facility start-up/operations engineering and special equipment construction health and safety plan

    SciTech Connect

    Huddleston, P C

    1998-05-08

    This document sets forth the responsibilities, interfaces, guidelines, rules, policy, and regulations for all workers involved in the S/O and SE construction, installation, and acceptance testing. This document is enforced from the first day that S/O and SE workers set foot on the NIF construction site until the end of the Project at Critical Decision 4. This document is applicable only to site activities, which are defined as those that occur within the perimeter of the fenced-off NIF construction zone and the Target Chamber Assembly Area (Helipad). The associated Special Equipment laydown and construction support areas listed in Appendix B are not under this plan; their safety provisions are discussed in the Appendix. Prototype and other support activities, such as the Amplifier Laboratory and Frame Assembly Unit assembly area, are not included in this plan. After completion of the Operational Readiness Review, the Facility Safety Procedure, Operational Safety Requirements, and Operational Safety Procedures are the governing safety documents for the operating facility. The S/O and SE project elements are required to implement measures that create a universal awareness of and promote safe job practices at the site. This includes all Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Los Alamos National Laboratory, Sandia National Laboratories, University of Rochester, supplement labor organization, and subcontractor employees; visitors; and guests serving the S/O and SE effort.

  8. Safety management in multiemployer worksites in the manufacturing industry: opinions on co-operation and problems encountered.

    PubMed

    Nenonen, Sanna; Vasara, Juha

    2013-01-01

    Co-operation between different parties and effective safety management play an important role in ensuring safety in multiemployer worksites. This article reviews safety co-operation and factors complicating safety management in Finnish multiemployer manufacturing worksites. The paper focuses on the service providers' opinions; however, a comparison of the customers' views is also presented. The results show that safety-related co-operation between providers and customers is generally considered as successful but strongly dependent on the partner. Safety co-operation is provided through, e.g., training, orientation and risk analysis. Problems encountered include ensuring adequate communication, identifying hazards, co-ordinating work tasks and determining responsibilities. The providers and the customers encounter similar safety management problems. The results presented in this article can help companies to focus their efforts on the most problematic points of safety management and to avoid common pitfalls. PMID:23759189

  9. 76 FR 5510 - Safety Enhancements Part 139, Certification of Airports

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-01

    ... in the Federal Register published on April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477-78) or you may visit http://Dockets... statements concerning an AOC. Specifically, the FAA proposes a new Sec. 139.155 that prohibits the making of... suspend or revoke an AOC for violation of any of these prohibitions by an owner, operator, or other...

  10. 76 FR 1504 - Pipeline Safety: Establishing Maximum Allowable Operating Pressure or Maximum Operating Pressure...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-10

    ...PHMSA is issuing an Advisory Bulletin to remind operators of gas and hazardous liquid pipeline facilities of their responsibilities, under Federal integrity management (IM) regulations, to perform detailed threat and risk analyses that integrate accurate data and information from their entire pipeline system, especially when calculating Maximum Allowable Operating Pressure (MAOP) or Maximum......

  11. Enhanced operator perception through 3D vision and haptic feedback

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edmondson, Richard; Light, Kenneth; Bodenhamer, Andrew; Bosscher, Paul; Wilkinson, Loren

    2012-06-01

    Polaris Sensor Technologies (PST) has developed a stereo vision upgrade kit for TALON® robot systems comprised of a replacement gripper camera and a replacement mast zoom camera on the robot, and a replacement display in the Operator Control Unit (OCU). Harris Corporation has developed a haptic manipulation upgrade for TALON® robot systems comprised of a replacement arm and gripper and an OCU that provides haptic (force) feedback. PST and Harris have recently collaborated to integrate the 3D vision system with the haptic manipulation system. In multiple studies done at Fort Leonard Wood, Missouri it has been shown that 3D vision and haptics provide more intuitive perception of complicated scenery and improved robot arm control, allowing for improved mission performance and the potential for reduced time on target. This paper discusses the potential benefits of these enhancements to robotic systems used for the domestic homeland security mission.

  12. Risk-based configuration control: Application of PSA in improving technical specifications and operational safety

    SciTech Connect

    Samanta, P.K.; Kim, I.S.; Vesely, W.E.

    1992-11-01

    Risk-based configuration control is the management of component configurations using a risk perspective to control risk and assure safety. A configuration, as used here, is a set of component operability statuses that define the state of a nuclear power plant. If the component configurations that have high risk implications do not occur, then the risk from the operation of nuclear power plants would be minimal. The control of component configurations, i.e., the management of component statuses, to minimize the risk from components being unavailable, becomes difficult, because the status of a standby safety system component is often not apparent unless it is tested. Controlling plant configuration from a risk-perspective can provide more direct risk control and also more operational flexibility by allowing looser controls in areas unimportant to risk. Risk-based configuration control approaches can be used to replace parts of nuclear power plant Technical Specifications. With the advances in probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) technology, such approaches to improve Technical Specifications and operational safety are feasible. In this paper, we present an analysis of configuration risks, and a framework for risk-based configuration control to achieve the desired control of risk-significant configurations during plant operation.

  13. Risk-based configuration control: Application of PSA in improving technical specifications and operational safety

    SciTech Connect

    Samanta, P.K.; Kim, I.S. ); Vesely, W.E. )

    1992-01-01

    Risk-based configuration control is the management of component configurations using a risk perspective to control risk and assure safety. A configuration, as used here, is a set of component operability statuses that define the state of a nuclear power plant. If the component configurations that have high risk implications do not occur, then the risk from the operation of nuclear power plants would be minimal. The control of component configurations, i.e., the management of component statuses, to minimize the risk from components being unavailable, becomes difficult, because the status of a standby safety system component is often not apparent unless it is tested. Controlling plant configuration from a risk-perspective can provide more direct risk control and also more operational flexibility by allowing looser controls in areas unimportant to risk. Risk-based configuration control approaches can be used to replace parts of nuclear power plant Technical Specifications. With the advances in probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) technology, such approaches to improve Technical Specifications and operational safety are feasible. In this paper, we present an analysis of configuration risks, and a framework for risk-based configuration control to achieve the desired control of risk-significant configurations during plant operation.

  14. (iv) Enhancing the safety and reliability of joint replacement implants

    PubMed Central

    Jennings, Louise M.; Al-Hajjar, Mazen; Brockett, Claire L.; Williams, Sophie; Tipper, Joanne L.; Ingham, Eileen; Fisher, John

    2012-01-01

    A new Stratified Approach For Enhanced Reliability (SAFER) pre-clinical simulation testing of joint prostheses is presented in this article. The aim of this approach is preclinical systematic testing of wear performance in the much wider envelope of conditions found clinically rather than relying only on the standard testing conditions that are currently used. The approach includes variations in surgical delivery, variations in kinematics, variations in the patient population and degradation of the biomaterial properties. Clinical experience of existing prostheses has been used to validate the new in vitro methods. PMID:23335949

  15. Enhancing Global Competitiveness: Benchmarking Airline Operational Performance in Highly Regulated Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowen, Brent D.; Headley, Dean E.; Kane, Karisa D.

    1998-01-01

    Enhancing competitiveness in the global airline industry is at the forefront of attention with airlines, government, and the flying public. The seemingly unchecked growth of major airline alliances is heralded as an enhancement to global competition. However, like many mega-conglomerates, mega-airlines will face complications driven by size regardless of the many recitations of enhanced efficiency. Outlined herein is a conceptual model to serve as a decision tool for policy-makers, managers, and consumers of airline services. This model is developed using public data for the United States (U.S.) major airline industry available from the U/S. Department of Transportation, Federal Aviation Administration, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, the National Transportation Safety Board, and other public and private sector sources. Data points include number of accidents, pilot deviations, operational performance indicators, flight problems, and other factors. Data from these sources provide opportunity to develop a model based on a complex dot product equation of two vectors. A row vector is weighted for importance by a key informant panel of government, industry, and consumer experts, while a column vector is established with the factor value. The resulting equation, known as the national Airline Quality Rating (AQR), where Q is quality, C is weight, and V is the value of the variables, is stated Q=C[i1-19] x V[i1-19]. Looking at historical patterns of AQR results provides the basis for establishment of an industry benchmark for the purpose of enhancing airline operational performance. A 7 year average of overall operational performance provides the resulting benchmark indicator. Applications from this example can be applied to the many competitive environments of the global industry and assist policy-makers faced with rapidly changing regulatory challenges.

  16. Using RFID yoking proof protocol to enhance inpatient medication safety.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chin-Ling; Wu, Chun-Yi

    2012-10-01

    The low birth rate has led to an aging society; the burgeoning number of elderly patients may affect the medical quality and result in negative medical incidents. There are many factors that lead to medical errors, such as similar medication names, erroneous labels and packaging, as well as staff shortages, fatigue and carelessness. Determining how to reduce medical errors has become an important issue. As RFID exhibits powerful identification characteristics, it can help nurses to quickly identify patients and their corresponding medicine. Currently, there are numerous practical applications for improving the efficiency of Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) systems. In this paper, we use an RFID yoking proof mechanism which conforms to EPCglobal Class 1 Generation 2 standards to improve patient safety and reduce medical errors. Our scheme can achieve different goals such as resist numerous known attacks, achieve mutual authentication, anonymity and non-repudiation. It also provides a practical medical care and offer higher quality of medical care. The pharmacist cannot deny that this prescription was confirmed for the patient and the nurse cannot also deny he or she dispensed this medicine to the patient for protecting the patients' interests. PMID:21811800

  17. Safety aspects related to the operation of the Cabril L/ILW disposal facility

    SciTech Connect

    Ruiz, M.C.; Alonso, J.A.

    1993-12-31

    In October 1992 the Spanish Ministry of Industry granted the operating permit to the Centro de Almacenamiento de El Cabril (C.A. El Cabril). The Annex 1 to this permit contains the limits and conditions related to safety and to radiological health protection, set by nuclear regulatory authority, the Consejo de Seguridad Nuclear (CSN). The main aspects of the operation regulated in the permit as well as their technical basis and practical meaning are discussed in this paper.

  18. Safety testing and operational procedures for self-developed radiofrequency coils.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, Jens; Henning, Anke; Giapitzakis, Ioannis A; Scheffler, Klaus; Shajan, G; Pohmann, Rolf; Avdievich, Nikolai I

    2016-09-01

    The development of novel radiofrequency (RF) coils for human ultrahigh-field (≥7 T), non-proton and body applications is an active field of research in many MR groups. Any RF coil must meet the strict requirements for safe application on humans with respect to mechanical and electrical safety, as well as the specific absorption rate (SAR) limits. For this purpose, regulations such as the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) standard for medical electrical equipment, vendor-suggested test specifications for third party coils and custom-developed test procedures exist. However, for higher frequencies and shorter wavelengths in ultrahigh-field MR, the RF fields may become extremely inhomogeneous in biological tissue and the risk of localized areas with elevated power deposition increases, which is usually not considered by existing safety testing and operational procedures. In addition, important aspects, such as risk analysis and comprehensive electrical performance and safety tests, are often neglected. In this article, we describe the guidelines used in our institution for electrical and mechanical safety tests, SAR simulation and verification, risk analysis and operational procedures, including coil documentation, user training and regular quality assurance testing, which help to recognize and eliminate safety issues during coil design and operation. Although the procedure is generally applicable to all field strengths, specific requirements with regard to SAR-related safety and electrical performance at ultrahigh-field are considered. The protocol describes an internal procedure and does not reflect consensus among a large number of research groups, but rather aims to stimulate further discussion related to minimum coil safety standards. Furthermore, it may help other research groups to establish their own procedures. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:25851551

  19. Nuclear electric propulsion operational reliability and crew safety study: NEP systems/modeling report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karns, James

    1993-01-01

    The objective of this study was to establish the initial quantitative reliability bounds for nuclear electric propulsion systems in a manned Mars mission required to ensure crew safety and mission success. Finding the reliability bounds involves balancing top-down (mission driven) requirements and bottom-up (technology driven) capabilities. In seeking this balance we hope to accomplish the following: (1) provide design insights into the achievability of the baseline design in terms of reliability requirements, given the existing technology base; (2) suggest alternative design approaches which might enhance reliability and crew safety; and (3) indicate what technology areas require significant research and development to achieve the reliability objectives.

  20. 14 CFR 417.411 - Safety clear zones for hazardous operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Safety clear zones for hazardous operations. 417.411 Section 417.411 Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL SPACE TRANSPORTATION, FEDERAL AVIATION... that accounts for the potential blast, fragment, fire or heat, toxic and other hazardous energy...

  1. 77 FR 74784 - Safety Zone for Recovery Operations for East Jefferson Street Train Derailment, Mantua Creek...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-18

    ...) 366-9826. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Table of Acronyms DHS Department of Homeland Security FR Federal... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone for Recovery Operations for East Jefferson Street Train Derailment, Mantua Creek; Paulsboro, NJ AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary...

  2. 47 CFR 90.1430 - Local public safety build-out and operation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... network in that area at its own expense so long as the network is capable of operating on the Shared... Safety Broadband Licensee that it will build out the shared network in the area within a reasonable time... separate exclusive network in that area, provided that the Upper 700 MHz D Block licensee and the...

  3. 77 FR 6007 - Quarterly Listings; Safety Zones, Security Zones, Special Local Regulations, Drawbridge Operation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-07

    ...This document provides required notice of substantive rules issued by the Coast Guard and that were made temporarily effective between May 2011 and November 2011, and that expired before they could be published in the Federal Register. This notice lists temporary safety zones, security zones, special local regulations, drawbridge operation regulations and regulated navigation areas, all of......

  4. 43 CFR 3275.12 - What environmental and safety requirements apply to facility operations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false What environmental and safety requirements apply to facility operations? 3275.12 Section 3275.12 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) GEOTHERMAL RESOURCE LEASING...

  5. 76 FR 31279 - Regulatory Guidance: Applicability of the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Regulations to Operators...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-31

    ...FMCSA requests public comment on: (1) Previously published regulatory guidance on the distinction between interstate and intrastate commerce in deciding whether operations of commercial motor vehicles within the boundaries of a single State are subject to the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Regulations (FMCSRs); (2) the factors the States are using in deciding whether farm vehicle drivers......

  6. 78 FR 33449 - FirstEnergy Nuclear Operating Company; Establishment of Atomic Safety and Licensing Board

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-04

    ... Opportunity for a Hearing,'' see 78 FR 16,876, 16,883 (Mar. 19, 2013), a hearing request was filed on May 20... in August 2007. See 72 FR 49,139. Issued at Rockville, Maryland this 28th day of May 2013. E. Roy... COMMISSION FirstEnergy Nuclear Operating Company; Establishment of Atomic Safety and Licensing Board...

  7. 77 FR 20853 - Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc.; Establishment of Atomic Safety and Licensing Board

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-06

    ... COMMISSION Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc.; Establishment of Atomic Safety and Licensing Board Pursuant to delegation by the Commission dated December 29, 1972, published in the Federal Register, 37 FR 28,710 (1972...-filing rule, which the NRC promulgated in August 2007 (72 FR 49,139). The Commission has requested...

  8. 76 FR 56242 - Duke Energy Carolinas, LLC; Southern Nuclear Operating Company; Establishment of Atomic Safety...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-12

    ... Register, 37 FR 28,710 (1972), and the Commission's regulations, see, e.g., 10 CFR 2.104, 2.105, 2.300, 2... NRC promulgated in August 2007 (72 FR 49,139). Dated: Issued at Rockville, Maryland, this 6th day of... Energy Carolinas, LLC; Southern Nuclear Operating Company; Establishment of Atomic Safety and...

  9. 75 FR 53985 - Southern Nuclear Operating Company Establishment of Atomic Safety And Licensing Board

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-02

    ... COMMISSION Southern Nuclear Operating Company Establishment of Atomic Safety And Licensing Board Pursuant to delegation by the Commission dated December 29, 1972, published in the Federal Register, 37 FR 28,710 (1972... accordance with the NRC E-Filing rule, which the NRC promulgated in August 2007 (72 FR 49,139). Issued...

  10. 76 FR 57635 - Restrictions on Operators Employing Former Flight Standards Service Aviation Safety Inspectors...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-16

    ... Flight Standards Service Aviation Safety Inspectors'' (76 FR 52231). In that final rule the FAA.... SUMMARY: The FAA is correcting a final rule published on August 22, 2011 (76 FR 52231). In that final rule...-7] RIN 2120-AJ36 Restrictions on Operators Employing Former Flight Standards Service Aviation...

  11. 49 CFR 242.111 - Prior safety conduct as motor vehicle operator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Prior safety conduct as motor vehicle operator. 242.111 Section 242.111 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION QUALIFICATION AND CERTIFICATION OF CONDUCTORS Program and Eligibility Requirements §...

  12. 76 FR 44803 - Quarterly Listings; Safety Zones, Security Zones, Special Local Regulations, Drawbridge Operation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-27

    ...This document provides required notice of substantive rules issued by the Coast Guard and temporarily effective between December 2008 and July 2010, that expired before they could be published in the Federal Register. This notice lists temporary safety zones, security zones, special local regulations, drawbridge operation regulations and regulated navigation areas, all of limited duration and......

  13. 29 CFR 1926.1408 - Power line safety (up to 350 kV)-equipment operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... person with respect to electrical power transmission and distribution confirms that a line is insulated... or registered professional engineer who is a qualified person with respect to electrical power... 29 Labor 8 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Power line safety (up to 350 kV)-equipment operations....

  14. 29 CFR 1926.1408 - Power line safety (up to 350 kV)-equipment operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... person with respect to electrical power transmission and distribution confirms that a line is insulated... or registered professional engineer who is a qualified person with respect to electrical power... 29 Labor 8 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Power line safety (up to 350 kV)-equipment operations....

  15. 47 CFR 27.1335 - Prohibition on discontinuance of public safety operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Prohibition on discontinuance of public safety operations. 27.1335 Section 27.1335 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES MISCELLANEOUS WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS SERVICES 700 MHz Public/Private Partnership §...

  16. NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) Enhanced Melamine (ML) Foam Acoustic Test (NEMFAT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McNelis, Anne M.; Hughes, William O.; McNelis, Mark E.

    2014-01-01

    The NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) funded a proposal to achieve initial basic acoustic characterization of ML (melamine) foam, which could serve as a starting point for a future, more comprehensive acoustic test program for ML foam. A project plan was developed and implemented to obtain acoustic test data for both normal and enhanced ML foam. This project became known as the NESC Enhanced Melamine Foam Acoustic Test (NEMFAT). This document contains the outcome of the NEMFAT project.

  17. Space Station Initial Operational Concept (IOC) operations and safety view - Automation and robotics for Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bates, William V., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    The automation and robotics requirements for the Space Station Initial Operational Concept (IOC) are discussed. The amount of tasks to be performed by an eight-person crew, the need for an automated or directed fault analysis capability, and ground support requirements are considered. Issues important in determining the role of automation for the IOC are listed.

  18. [Surgical safety cheklist at the management of the hybrid operating room].

    PubMed

    Cherkashin, M A; Berezina, N A; Kuplevatsky, V I; Serov, A V; Mefodovsky, A A

    2016-01-01

    An essential aspect of the work of the operating room is the provision of safety of both the patient and staff. The organization of the activity of the surgical service requires serious elaboration of each of its stage, as well as standardization in using various validated instruments. When speaking of a hybrid operating room with the use of intraoperative magnetic resonance tomography, such an approach becomes not merely a recommendation but rather forced and justified necessity. Simultaneous use of various technologies of imaging and treatment with the engagement of physicians of various specialties requires especially thorough control. A generally accepted international standard of the work of the operating block is the use of checklists, and since 2008 the initiative of the World Health Organization "Safe Surgery Saves Lives" has globally been working to promote implementation of the WHO Surgical Safety Checklists (SSCL) to the real clinical practice. The intraoperative MR-diagnostic stage dictates rigid requirements for proper inventory of ferromagnetic and nonmagnetic surgical tools, verified logistics, and routing of the patient in the conditions of high and extremely high (1.5-3.0 T) magnetic field. A separate and not less important problem is anaesthesiological support during MRT. In order to optimise the patient's movements and adequate monitoring of his/her safety inside the operating department, the authors have modified the standard WHO Surgical Safety Checklist. Implementation of the modified checklist for the MRT-equipped hybrid operating room should improve the control over the processes, as well as increase safety of both the patient and personnel. PMID:27336334

  19. Split-Intron Retroviral Vectors: Enhanced Expression with Improved Safety

    PubMed Central

    Ismail, Said I.; Kingsman, Susan M.; Kingsman, Alan J.; Uden, Mark

    2000-01-01

    The inclusion of retrovirus-derived introns within retrovirus-based expression vectors leads to a fraction of the resulting transcripts being spliced. Such splicing has been shown to markedly improve expression (W. J. Krall et al., Gene Ther. 3:37–48, 1996). One way to improve upon this still further might involve the use of more efficient introns instead of those from the provirus. Currently, however, incorporation of such introns remains self-defeating since they are removed in the nucleus of the producer cell. In the past, elaborate ways to overcome this problem have included the use of alphaviruses to make the vector transcripts within the cytoplasm, thus avoiding the nuclear splicing machinery during vector production (K. J. Li and H. Garoff, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 95:3650–3654, 1998). We now present a novel design for the inclusion of introns within a retroviral vector. In essence, this is achieved by exploiting the retroviral replication process to copy not only the U3 promoter but also a synthetic splice donor to the 5′-long-terminal-repeat position during reverse transcription. Once copied, synthesized transcripts then contain a splice donor at their 5′ end capable of interacting with a consensus splice acceptor engineered downstream of the packaging signal. Upon transduction, we demonstrate these vectors to produce enhanced expression from near fully spliced (and thus packaging signal minus) transcripts. The unique design of these high titer and high-expression retroviral vectors may be of use in a number of gene therapy applications. PMID:10666267

  20. Split-intron retroviral vectors: enhanced expression with improved safety.

    PubMed

    Ismail, S I; Kingsman, S M; Kingsman, A J; Uden, M

    2000-03-01

    The inclusion of retrovirus-derived introns within retrovirus-based expression vectors leads to a fraction of the resulting transcripts being spliced. Such splicing has been shown to markedly improve expression (W. J. Krall et al., Gene Ther. 3:37-48, 1996). One way to improve upon this still further might involve the use of more efficient introns instead of those from the provirus. Currently, however, incorporation of such introns remains self-defeating since they are removed in the nucleus of the producer cell. In the past, elaborate ways to overcome this problem have included the use of alphaviruses to make the vector transcripts within the cytoplasm, thus avoiding the nuclear splicing machinery during vector production (K. J. Li and H. Garoff, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 95:3650-3654, 1998). We now present a novel design for the inclusion of introns within a retroviral vector. In essence, this is achieved by exploiting the retroviral replication process to copy not only the U3 promoter but also a synthetic splice donor to the 5'-long-terminal-repeat position during reverse transcription. Once copied, synthesized transcripts then contain a splice donor at their 5' end capable of interacting with a consensus splice acceptor engineered downstream of the packaging signal. Upon transduction, we demonstrate these vectors to produce enhanced expression from near fully spliced (and thus packaging signal minus) transcripts. The unique design of these high titer and high-expression retroviral vectors may be of use in a number of gene therapy applications. PMID:10666267

  1. Operational real-time GPS-enhanced earthquake early warning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grapenthin, R.; Johanson, I. A.; Allen, R. M.

    2014-10-01

    Moment magnitudes for large earthquakes (Mw≥7.0) derived in real time from near-field seismic data can be underestimated due to instrument limitations, ground tilting, and saturation of frequency/amplitude-magnitude relationships. Real-time high-rate GPS resolves the buildup of static surface displacements with the S wave arrival (assuming nonsupershear rupture), thus enabling the estimation of slip on a finite fault and the event's geodetic moment. Recently, a range of high-rate GPS strategies have been demonstrated on off-line data. Here we present the first operational system for real-time GPS-enhanced earthquake early warning as implemented at the Berkeley Seismological Laboratory (BSL) and currently analyzing real-time data for Northern California. The BSL generates real-time position estimates operationally using data from 62 GPS stations in Northern California. A fully triangulated network defines 170+ station pairs processed with the software trackRT. The BSL uses G-larmS, the Geodetic Alarm System, to analyze these positioning time series and determine static offsets and preevent quality parameters. G-larmS derives and broadcasts finite fault and magnitude information through least-squares inversion of the static offsets for slip based on a priori fault orientation and location information. This system tightly integrates seismic alarm systems (CISN-ShakeAlert, ElarmS-2) as it uses their P wave detections to trigger its processing; quality control runs continuously. We use a synthetic Hayward Fault earthquake scenario on real-time streams to demonstrate recovery of slip and magnitude. Reanalysis of the Mw7.2 El Mayor-Cucapah earthquake tests the impact of dynamic motions on offset estimation. Using these test cases, we explore sensitivities to disturbances of a priori constraints (origin time, location, and fault strike/dip).

  2. Enhanced Flight Vision Systems and Synthetic Vision Systems for NextGen Approach and Landing Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kramer, Lynda J.; Bailey, Randall E.; Ellis, Kyle K. E.; Williams, Steven P.; Arthur, Jarvis J., III; Prinzel, Lawrence J., III; Shelton, Kevin J.

    2013-01-01

    Synthetic Vision Systems and Enhanced Flight Vision System (SVS/EFVS) technologies have the potential to provide additional margins of safety for aircrew performance and enable operational improvements for low visibility operations in the terminal area environment with equivalent efficiency as visual operations. To meet this potential, research is needed for effective technology development and implementation of regulatory standards and design guidance to support introduction and use of SVS/EFVS advanced cockpit vision technologies in Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) operations. A fixed-base pilot-in-the-loop simulation test was conducted at NASA Langley Research Center that evaluated the use of SVS/EFVS in NextGen low visibility approach and landing operations. Twelve crews flew approach and landing operations in a simulated NextGen Chicago O'Hare environment. Various scenarios tested the potential for using EFVS to conduct approach, landing, and roll-out operations in visibility as low as 1000 feet runway visual range (RVR). Also, SVS was tested to evaluate the potential for lowering decision heights (DH) on certain instrument approach procedures below what can be flown today. Expanding the portion of the visual segment in which EFVS can be used in lieu of natural vision from 100 feet above the touchdown zone elevation to touchdown and rollout in visibilities as low as 1000 feet RVR appears to be viable as touchdown performance was acceptable without any apparent workload penalties. A lower DH of 150 feet and/or possibly reduced visibility minima using SVS appears to be viable when implemented on a Head-Up Display, but the landing data suggests further study for head-down implementations.

  3. Safety of an Enhanced Recovery Pathway for Patients Undergoing Open Hepatic Resection

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Clancy J.; Ali, Shahzad M.; Zaydfudim, Victor; Jacob, Adam K.; Nagorney, David M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Enhanced recovery pathways (ERP) have not been widely implemented for hepatic surgery. The aim of this study was to evaluate the safety of an ERP for patients undergoing open hepatic resection. Methods A single-surgeon, retrospective observational cohort study was performed comparing the clinical outcomes of patients undergoing open hepatic resection treated before and after implementation of an ERP. Morbidity, mortality, and length of hospital stay (LOS) were compared between pre-ERP and ERP groups. Results 126 patients (pre-ERP n = 73, ERP n = 53) were identified for the study. Patient characteristics and operative details were similar between groups. Overall complication rate was similar between pre-ERP and ERP groups (37% vs. 28%, p = 0.343). Before and after pathway implementation, the median LOS was similar, 5 (IQR 4–7) vs. 5 (IQR 4–6) days, p = 0.708. After adjusting for age, type of liver resection, and ASA, the ERP group had no increased risk of major complication (OR 0.38, 95% CI 0.14–1.02, p = 0.055) or LOS greater than 5 days (OR 1.21, 95% CI 0.56–2.62, p = 0.627). Conclusions Routine use of a multimodal ERP is safe and is not associated with increased postoperative morbidity after open hepatic resection. PMID:26950852

  4. An Operational Safety and Certification Assessment of a TASAR EFB Application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koczo, Stefan; Wing, David

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of a Traffic Aware Strategic Aircrew Requests (TASAR) Electronic Flight Bag application intended to inform the pilot of trajectory improvement opportunities while en route that result in operational benefits. The results of safety analyses and a detailed review of Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) regulatory documents that establish certification and operational approval requirements are presented for TASAR. The safety analyses indicate that TASAR has a likely Failure Effects Classification of “No Effect,” and at most, is no worse than “Minor Effect.” Based on this safety assessment and the detailed review of FAA regulatory documents that determine certification and operational approval requirements, this study concludes that TASAR can be implemented in the flight deck as a Type B software application hosted on a Class 2 Portable Electronic Device (PED) Electronic Flight Bag (EFB). This implementation approach would provide a relatively low-cost path to certification and operational approval for both retrofit and forward fit implementation, while at the same time facilitating the business case for early ADS-B IN equipage. A preliminary review by FAA certification and operational approvers of the analyses presented here confirmed that the conclusions are appropriate and that TASAR will be considered a Type B application.

  5. North Alabama Total Lightning Climatology in Support of Lightning Safety Operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stano, G. T.; Schultz, C. J.; Koshak, W. J.

    2015-12-01

    The North Alabama Lightning Mapping Array (NALMA) was installed in 2001 to observe total lightning (cloud-to-ground and intra-cloud) and study its relationship to convective activity. NALMA has served as ground-truth for the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission Lightning Imager (TRMM-LIS) and will again for the GOES-R Geostationary Lightning Mapper (GLM). Also, NASA's Short-term Prediction Research and Transition Center (SPoRT) has transitioned these data to National Weather Service Weather Forecast Offices to evaluate the impact in operations since 2003. This study focuses on seasonal and diurnal observations from NALMA's 14 year history. This is initially intended to improve lightning safety at Marshall Space Flight Center, but has other potential applications. Improvements will be made by creating a dataset to investigate temporal, spatial, and seasonal patterns in total lightning over the Tennessee Valley, compare these observations to background environmental parameters and the TRMM-LIS climatology, and investigate applying these data to specific points of interest. Unique characteristics, such as flash extent density and length of flashes can be investigated, which are unavailable from other lightning networks like the National Lightning Detection Network (NLDN). The NALMA and NLDN data can be combined such that end users can use total lightning to gain lead time on the initial cloud-to-ground flash of a storm and identify if lightning is extending far from the storm's core. This spatial extent can be analyzed to determine how often intra-cloud activity may impinge on a region of interest and how often a cloud-to-ground strike may occur in the region. The seasonal and diurnal lightning maps can aid with planning of various experiments or tests that often require some knowledge about future weather patterns months in advance. The main goal is to develop a protocol to enhance lightning safety everywhere once the Geostationary Lightning Mapper (GLM) is on orbit

  6. Analysis of Operational Hazards and Safety Requirements for Traffic Aware Strategic Aircrew Requests (TASAR)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koczo, Stefan, Jr.

    2013-01-01

    Safety analyses of the Traffic Aware Strategic Aircrew Requests (TASAR) Electronic Flight Bag (EFB) application are provided to establish its Failure Effects Classification which affects certification and operational approval requirements. TASAR was developed by NASA Langley Research Center to offer flight path improvement opportunities to the pilot during flight for operational benefits (e.g., reduced fuel, flight time). TASAR, using own-ship and network-enabled information concerning the flight and its environment, including weather and Air Traffic Control (ATC) system constraints, provides recommended improvements to the flight trajectory that the pilot can choose to request via Change Requests to ATC for revised clearance. This study reviews the Change Request process of requesting updates to the current clearance, examines the intended function of TASAR, and utilizes two safety assessment methods to establish the Failure Effects Classification of TASAR. Considerable attention has been given in this report to the identification of operational hazards potentially associated with TASAR.

  7. Postharvest intervention technologies for safety enhancement of meat and meat based products; a critical review.

    PubMed

    Sohaib, Muhammad; Anjum, Faqir Muhammad; Arshad, Muhammad Sajid; Rahman, Ubaid Ur

    2016-01-01

    Globally, the demand for safe, healthy and nutritious meat and allied products possesses improved taste with extended shelf life is mounting. Microbial safety is among the imperative challenges that prevails in meat products because they provide an ideal medium for the growth of microorganisms particularly pathogenic bacteria. The incidence of these microbes can result quality deterioration of products leading towards food borne diseases when consumed by peoples. Several preservation technologies like chemical and biological interventions are effective to retard or inactivate the growth of micro-organisms most commonly related to food-borne diseases. Despite these, innovative approaches like hydrostatic pressure processing, active packaging, pulse electric field, hurdle approach and use of natural antimicrobials can be deployed to enhance the safety of meat and meat products. The objective of review is to describe the current approaches and developing technologies for enhancing safety of meat and allied meat products. PMID:26787929

  8. Creating and Maintaining Safe College Campuses: A Sourcebook for Enhancing and Evaluating Safety Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Jerlando F. L., Ed.; Terrell, Melvin Cleveland, Ed.

    2007-01-01

    This book serves as a sourcebook to enhance and evaluate safety programs, generate new solutions and interventions, comply with new legislation, and present practical steps and guidelines to establish best practices. It pays particular attention to the factors that may give rise to crime, considering high-risk drinking and examining the…

  9. ACCE Submission to Public Consultation to "Enhancing Online Safety for Children"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Michael; de Zwart, Melissa

    2014-01-01

    This article represents the submission of the "Australian Council for Computers in Education's" (AACE) response to the Australian Government's Department of Communications' initiative for "Enhancing Online Safety for Children." Henderson and de Zwart agree that children and their educators and caregivers are in serious need…

  10. Preliminary Evaluation of an Aviation Safety Thesaurus' Utility for Enhancing Automated Processing of Incident Reports

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barrientos, Francesca; Castle, Joseph; McIntosh, Dawn; Srivastava, Ashok

    2007-01-01

    This document presents a preliminary evaluation the utility of the FAA Safety Analytics Thesaurus (SAT) utility in enhancing automated document processing applications under development at NASA Ames Research Center (ARC). Current development efforts at ARC are described, including overviews of the statistical machine learning techniques that have been investigated. An analysis of opportunities for applying thesaurus knowledge to improving algorithm performance is then presented.

  11. Study on the operational safety of high-speed trains exposed to stochastic winds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Meng-Ge; Zhang, Ji-Ye; Zhang, Ke-Yue; Zhang, Wei-Hua

    2014-06-01

    The characteristic wind curve (CWC) was commonly used in the previous work to evaluate the operational safety of the high-speed trains exposed to crosswinds. However, the CWC only provide the dividing line between safety state and failure state of high-speed trains, which can not evaluate the risk of derailment of high-speed trains when exposed to natural winds. In the present paper, a more realistic approach taking into account the stochastic characteristics of natural winds is proposed, which can give a reasonable and effective assessment of the operational safety of high-speed trains under stochastic winds. In this approach, the longitudinal and lateral components of stochastic winds are simulated based on the Cooper theory and harmonic superposition. An algorithm is set up for calculating the unsteady aerodynamic forces (moments) of the high-speed trains exposed to stochastic winds. A multi-body dynamic model of the rail vehicle is established to compute the vehicle system dynamic response subjected to the unsteady aerodynamic forces (moments) input. Then the statistical method is used to get the mean characteristic wind curve (MCWC) and spread range of the high-speed trains exposed to stochastic winds. It is found that the CWC provided by the previous analytical method produces over-conservative limits. The methodology proposed in the present paper can provide more significant reference for the safety operation of high-speed trains exposed to stochastic winds.

  12. 14 CFR 437.31 - Verification of operating area containment and key flight-safety event limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... and key flight-safety event limitations. 437.31 Section 437.31 Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL SPACE... operating area containment and key flight-safety event limitations. (a) An applicant must identify, describe... requirements of § 437.59 to conduct any key flight-safety event so that the reusable suborbital...

  13. 14 CFR 437.31 - Verification of operating area containment and key flight-safety event limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... and key flight-safety event limitations. 437.31 Section 437.31 Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL SPACE... operating area containment and key flight-safety event limitations. (a) An applicant must identify, describe... requirements of § 437.59 to conduct any key flight-safety event so that the reusable suborbital...

  14. 14 CFR 437.31 - Verification of operating area containment and key flight-safety event limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... and key flight-safety event limitations. 437.31 Section 437.31 Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL SPACE... operating area containment and key flight-safety event limitations. (a) An applicant must identify, describe... requirements of § 437.59 to conduct any key flight-safety event so that the reusable suborbital...

  15. Safety illusion and error trap in a collectively-operated machine accident.

    PubMed

    de Almeida, Ildeberto Muniz; Nobre, Hildeberto; do Amaral Dias, Maria Dionísia; Vilela, Rodolfo Andrade Gouveia

    2012-01-01

    Workplace accidents involving machines are relevant for their magnitude and their impacts on worker health. Despite consolidated critical statements, explanation centered on errors of operators remains predominant with industry professionals, hampering preventive measures and the improvement of production-system reliability. Several initiatives were adopted by enforcement agencies in partnership with universities to stimulate production and diffusion of analysis methodologies with a systemic approach. Starting from one accident case that occurred with a worker who operated a brake-clutch type mechanical press, the article explores cognitive aspects and the existence of traps in the operation of this machine. It deals with a large-sized press that, despite being endowed with a light curtain in areas of access to the pressing zone, did not meet legal requirements. The safety devices gave rise to an illusion of safety, permitting activation of the machine when a worker was still found within the operational zone. Preventive interventions must stimulate the tailoring of systems to the characteristics of workers, minimizing the creation of traps and encouraging safety policies and practices that replace judgments of behaviors that participate in accidents by analyses of reasons that lead workers to act in that manner. PMID:22317204

  16. Enhanced/synthetic vision and head-worn display technologies for terminal maneuvering area NextGen operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arthur, Jarvis J., III; Prinzel, Lawrence J., III; Williams, Steven P.; Bailey, Randall E.; Shelton, Kevin J.; Norman, R. Mike

    2011-06-01

    NASA is researching innovative technologies for the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) to provide a "Better-Than-Visual" (BTV) capability as adjunct to "Equivalent Visual Operations" (EVO); that is, airport throughputs equivalent to that normally achieved during Visual Flight Rules (VFR) operations rates with equivalent and better safety in all weather and visibility conditions including Instrument Meteorological Conditions (IMC). These new technologies build on proven flight deck systems and leverage synthetic and enhanced vision systems. Two piloted simulation studies were conducted to access the use of a Head-Worn Display (HWD) with head tracking for synthetic and enhanced vision systems concepts. The first experiment evaluated the use a HWD for equivalent visual operations to San Francisco International Airport (airport identifier: KSFO) compared to a visual concept and a head-down display concept. A second experiment evaluated symbology variations under different visibility conditions using a HWD during taxi operations at Chicago O'Hare airport (airport identifier: KORD). Two experiments were conducted, one in a simulated San Francisco airport (KSFO) approach operation and the other, in simulated Chicago O'Hare surface operations, evaluating enhanced/synthetic vision and head-worn display technologies for NextGen operations. While flying a closely-spaced parallel approach to KSFO, pilots rated the HWD, under low-visibility conditions, equivalent to the out-the-window condition, under unlimited visibility, in terms of situational awareness (SA) and mental workload compared to a head-down enhanced vision system. There were no differences between the 3 display concepts in terms of traffic spacing and distance and the pilot decision-making to land or go-around. For the KORD experiment, the visibility condition was not a factor in pilot's rating of clutter effects from symbology. Several concepts for enhanced implementations of an unlimited field

  17. Enhanced/Synthetic Vision and Head-Worn Display Technologies for Terminal Maneuvering Area NextGen Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arthur, Jarvis J., III; Prinzell, Lawrence J.; Williams, Steven P.; Bailey, Randall E.; Shelton, Kevin J.; Norman, R. Mike

    2011-01-01

    NASA is researching innovative technologies for the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) to provide a "Better-Than-Visual" (BTV) capability as adjunct to "Equivalent Visual Operations" (EVO); that is, airport throughputs equivalent to that normally achieved during Visual Flight Rules (VFR) operations rates with equivalent and better safety in all weather and visibility conditions including Instrument Meteorological Conditions (IMC). These new technologies build on proven flight deck systems and leverage synthetic and enhanced vision systems. Two piloted simulation studies were conducted to access the use of a Head-Worn Display (HWD) with head tracking for synthetic and enhanced vision systems concepts. The first experiment evaluated the use a HWD for equivalent visual operations to San Francisco International Airport (airport identifier: KSFO) compared to a visual concept and a head-down display concept. A second experiment evaluated symbology variations under different visibility conditions using a HWD during taxi operations at Chicago O'Hare airport (airport identifier: KORD). Two experiments were conducted, one in a simulated San Francisco airport (KSFO) approach operation and the other, in simulated Chicago O'Hare surface operations, evaluating enhanced/synthetic vision and head-worn display technologies for NextGen operations. While flying a closely-spaced parallel approach to KSFO, pilots rated the HWD, under low-visibility conditions, equivalent to the out-the-window condition, under unlimited visibility, in terms of situational awareness (SA) and mental workload compared to a head-down enhanced vision system. There were no differences between the 3 display concepts in terms of traffic spacing and distance and the pilot decision-making to land or go-around. For the KORD experiment, the visibility condition was not a factor in pilot's rating of clutter effects from symbology. Several concepts for enhanced implementations of an unlimited field

  18. 76 FR 6087 - Draft Weapons Safety Assessment on the Use of Enhanced Weapons; Notice of Availability and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-03

    ... COMMISSION 10 CFR Part 73 RIN 3150-AI49 Draft Weapons Safety Assessment on the Use of Enhanced Weapons... guidance document entitled ``Weapons Safety Assessment'' (WSA). This guidance would be used by licensees and certificate holders applying to the NRC to obtain enhanced weapons under the NRC's proposed...

  19. 75 FR 73014 - Notice of Public Meeting: Updating the Flight Instructor Renewal Process To Enhance Safety of Flight

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-29

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 61 Notice of Public Meeting: Updating the Flight Instructor Renewal Process To Enhance Safety of Flight AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION... to improve the Certificated Flight Instructor (CFI) biennial renewal process to enhance the safety...

  20. Safety implications of cultural and cognitive issues in nuclear power plant operation.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Paulo V R; Dos Santos, Isaac L; Vidal, Mario C R

    2006-03-01

    This research project was designed to investigate cultural and cognitive issues related to the work of nuclear power plant operators during their time on the job in the control room and during simulator training (emergency situations), in order to show how these issues impact on plant safety. The modeling of the operators work deals with the use of operational procedures, the constant changes in the focus of attention and the dynamics of the conflicting activities. The paper focuses on the relationships between the courses of action of the different operators and the constraints imposed by their working environment. It shows that the safety implications of the control room operators' cognitive and cultural issues go far beyond the formal organizational constructs usually implied. Our findings indicate that the competence required for the operators are concerned with developing the possibility of constructing situation awareness, managing conflicts, gaps and time problems created by ongoing task procedures, and dealing with distractions, developing skills for collaborative work. PMID:15993375

  1. Radiation safety aspects of the operation of first three synchrotron beam lines of Indus-2.

    PubMed

    Nayak, M K; Nair, Haridas G; Bakshi, A K; Sahani, P K; Singh, Sunil; Khan, Saleem; Verma, Dimple; Dev, Vipin; Sahu, T K; Khare, Mukesh; Kumar, Vijay; Bandyopadhyay, Tapas; Tripathi, R M; Sharma, D N

    2015-04-01

    Five synchrotron radiation beam lines are commissioned and now under regular operation at the Synchrotron Radiation Source, Indus-2 at Raja Ramanna Centre For Advanced Technology (RRCAT), Indore, India. Nine beam lines are under trial operation, and six beam lines are in the installation stage. In the early phase of installation of beam lines on Indus-2, three bending magnet beam lines, Extended X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (EXAFS, BL-8), Energy Dispersive X-ray Diffraction (EDXRD, BL-11) and Angle Dispersive X-ray Diffraction (ADXRD, BL-12), were installed and commissioned, after approval from Atomic Energy Regulatory Board (AERB), India. These beam lines are pink (BL-8), white (BL-11) and monochromatic (BL-12), which are housed in specially designed shielded hutches. In order to ensure safety of users and other working personnel from ionizing radiations present in these beam lines, several safety systems are incorporated and safety procedures are followed. The paper describes the radiological safety aspects of the three beam lines during its initial commissioning trials and also the measurements on radiation levels carried out in and around the beam line hutches. PMID:25209995

  2. Securing Operating Data From Passive Safety Tests at the Fast Flux Test Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Wootan, David W.; Omberg, Ronald P.; Makenas, Bruce J.; Nielsen, Deborah L.; Nelson, Joseph V.; Polzin, David L.

    2011-06-01

    The Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) is the most recent Liquid Metal Reactor (LMR) to operate in the United States, from 1982 to 1992. The technologies employed in designing and constructing this reactor, along with information obtained from tests conducted during its operation, are currently being secured and archived by the Department of Energy’s Office of Nuclear Energy Fuel Cycle Research and Development Program. This report is one in a series documenting the overall project efforts to retrieve and preserve critical information related to advanced reactors. A previous report summarized the initial efforts to review, retrieve and preserve the most salient documents related to Passive Safety Testing (PST) in the FFTF. Efforts continue to locate, secure, and retrieve record copies of original plant data tapes for the series of passive safety tests conducted between 1986 and 1991.

  3. Securing Operating Data From Passive Safety Tests at the Fast Flux Test Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Wootan, David W.; Omberg, Ronald P.; Makenas, Bruce J.; Nielsen, Deborah L.; Nelson, Joseph V.; Polzin, David L.

    2011-06-01

    The Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) is the most recent Liquid Metal Reactor (LMR) to operate in the United States, from 1982 to 1992. The technologies employed in designing and constructing this reactor, along with information obtained from tests conducted during its operation, are currently being secured and archived by the Department of Energy's Office of Nuclear Energy Fuel Cycle Research and Development Program. This report is one in a series documenting the overall project efforts to retrieve and preserve critical information related to advanced reactors. A previous report summarized the initial efforts to review, retrieve and preserve the most salient documents related to Passive Safety Testing (PST) in the FFTF. Efforts continue to locate, secure, and retrieve record copies of original plant data tapes for the series of passive safety tests conducted between 1986 and 1991.

  4. 76 FR 11961 - Safety Zone, Dredging Operations; Delaware River, Marcus Hook, PA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-04

    ...The Coast Guard is establishing a temporary safety zone on the waters of the Delaware River while the Dredge Pullen conducts dredging operations at the Sunoco Marcus Hook docks in the vicinity of the Marcus Hook Range near Marcus Hook, PA. This action is necessary to maintain the 42 ft. berth draft in this portion of the Delaware River. The dredging action will facilitate commerce and safe......

  5. New geometric design consistency model based on operating speed profiles for road safety evaluation.

    PubMed

    Camacho-Torregrosa, Francisco J; Pérez-Zuriaga, Ana M; Campoy-Ungría, J Manuel; García-García, Alfredo

    2013-12-01

    To assist in the on-going effort to reduce road fatalities as much as possible, this paper presents a new methodology to evaluate road safety in both the design and redesign stages of two-lane rural highways. This methodology is based on the analysis of road geometric design consistency, a value which will be a surrogate measure of the safety level of the two-lane rural road segment. The consistency model presented in this paper is based on the consideration of continuous operating speed profiles. The models used for their construction were obtained by using an innovative GPS-data collection method that is based on continuous operating speed profiles recorded from individual drivers. This new methodology allowed the researchers to observe the actual behavior of drivers and to develop more accurate operating speed models than was previously possible with spot-speed data collection, thereby enabling a more accurate approximation to the real phenomenon and thus a better consistency measurement. Operating speed profiles were built for 33 Spanish two-lane rural road segments, and several consistency measurements based on the global and local operating speed were checked. The final consistency model takes into account not only the global dispersion of the operating speed, but also some indexes that consider both local speed decelerations and speeds over posted speeds as well. For the development of the consistency model, the crash frequency for each study site was considered, which allowed estimating the number of crashes on a road segment by means of the calculation of its geometric design consistency. Consequently, the presented consistency evaluation method is a promising innovative tool that can be used as a surrogate measure to estimate the safety of a road segment. PMID:23176754

  6. Assessing Dual Sensor Enhanced Flight Vision Systems to Enable Equivalent Visual Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kramer, Lynda J.; Etherington, Timothy J.; Severance, Kurt; Bailey, Randall E.; Williams, Steven P.; Harrison, Stephanie J.

    2016-01-01

    Flight deck-based vision system technologies, such as Synthetic Vision (SV) and Enhanced Flight Vision Systems (EFVS), may serve as a revolutionary crew/vehicle interface enabling technologies to meet the challenges of the Next Generation Air Transportation System Equivalent Visual Operations (EVO) concept - that is, the ability to achieve the safety of current-day Visual Flight Rules (VFR) operations and maintain the operational tempos of VFR irrespective of the weather and visibility conditions. One significant challenge lies in the definition of required equipage on the aircraft and on the airport to enable the EVO concept objective. A motion-base simulator experiment was conducted to evaluate the operational feasibility, pilot workload and pilot acceptability of conducting straight-in instrument approaches with published vertical guidance to landing, touchdown, and rollout to a safe taxi speed in visibility as low as 300 ft runway visual range by use of onboard vision system technologies on a Head-Up Display (HUD) without need or reliance on natural vision. Twelve crews evaluated two methods of combining dual sensor (millimeter wave radar and forward looking infrared) EFVS imagery on pilot-flying and pilot-monitoring HUDs as they made approaches to runways with and without touchdown zone and centerline lights. In addition, the impact of adding SV to the dual sensor EFVS imagery on crew flight performance, workload, and situation awareness during extremely low visibility approach and landing operations was assessed. Results indicate that all EFVS concepts flown resulted in excellent approach path tracking and touchdown performance without any workload penalty. Adding SV imagery to EFVS concepts provided situation awareness improvements but no discernible improvements in flight path maintenance.

  7. Safety considerations in the design and operation of large wind turbines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reilly, D. H.

    1979-01-01

    The engineering and safety techniques used to assure the reliable and safe operation of large wind turbine generators utilizing the Mod 2 Wind Turbine System Program as an example is described. The techniques involve a careful definition of the wind turbine's natural and operating environments, use of proven structural design criteria and analysis techniques, an evaluation of potential failure modes and hazards, and use of a fail safe and redundant component engineering philosophy. The role of an effective quality assurance program, tailored to specific hardware criticality, and the checkout and validation program developed to assure system integrity are described.

  8. Tritium handling safety and operating experience at the Tritium Systems Test Assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, R.V.

    1989-01-01

    The Tritium Systems Test Assembly (TSTA) at Los Alamos National Laboratory is a facility designed to develop and demonstrate, in full scale, technologies necessary for safe and efficient operation of tokamak fusion reactors. TSTA currently consists of systems for pumping DT gas mixtures; for removing impurities; for separating the isotopes of hydrogen; for storage of hydrogen isotopes; for gas analysis; and for assuring safety by the necessary control, monitoring, and detritiation of effluent gaseous streams. TSTA also has several small scale experiments to develop and test new equipment and processes necessary for fusion reactors. Tritium was introduced into TSTA in June 1984. Current inventory is approximately 100 grams. Approximately 10{sup 9} Curies of tritium have been processed in closed loop operation at TSTA. Total tritium releases from the facility stack have been less than 75 Curies. Total operating personnel exposures are less than 500 person-mrem. Exposures to the general public from TSTA tritium releases are extremely small (less than 10{sup {minus}2} mrem). Total tritium buried as waste is less than 36,000 Curies. In this paper, data on component reliability, failure types and rates, and waste quantities are presented. Operational experience under normal, abnormal, and emergency conditions is presented. The DOE requirements for the operation of a tritium facility like TSTA include personnel training, emergency preparedness, radiation protection, safety analysis, and preoperational appraisals. 4 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  9. Commercial Flight Crew Decision-Making during Low-Visibility Approach Operations Using Fused Synthetic/Enhanced Vision Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kramer, Lynda J.; Bailey, Randall E.; Prinzel, Lawrence J., III

    2007-01-01

    NASA is investigating revolutionary crew-vehicle interface technologies that strive to proactively overcome aircraft safety barriers that would otherwise constrain the full realization of the next-generation air transportation system. A fixed-based piloted simulation experiment was conducted to evaluate the complementary use of Synthetic and Enhanced Vision technologies. Specific focus was placed on new techniques for integration and/or fusion of Enhanced and Synthetic Vision and its impact within a two-crew flight deck on the crew's decision-making process during low-visibility approach and landing operations. Overall, the experimental data showed that significant improvements in situation awareness, without concomitant increases in workload and display clutter, could be provided by the integration and/or fusion of synthetic and enhanced vision technologies for the pilot-flying and the pilot-not-flying. During non-normal operations, the ability of the crew to handle substantial navigational errors and runway incursions were neither improved nor adversely impacted by the display concepts. The addition of Enhanced Vision may not, unto itself, provide an improvement in runway incursion detection without being specifically tailored for this application. Existing enhanced vision system procedures were effectively used in the crew decision-making process during approach and missed approach operations but having to forcibly transition from an excellent FLIR image to natural vision by 100 ft above field level was awkward for the pilot-flying.

  10. Integrating Safety, Operations, Security, and Safeguards (ISOSS) into the design of small modular reactors : a handbook.

    SciTech Connect

    Middleton, Bobby D.; Mendez, Carmen Margarita

    2013-10-01

    The existing regulatory environment for nuclear reactors impacts both the facility design and the cost of operations once the facility is built. Delaying the consideration of regulatory requirements until late in the facility design - or worse, until after construction has begun - can result in costly retrofitting as well as increased operational costs to fulfill safety, security, safeguards, and emergency readiness requirements. Considering the scale and scope, as well as the latest design trends in the next generation of nuclear facilities, there is an opportunity to evaluate the regulatory requirements and optimize the design process for Small Modular Reactors (SMRs), as compared to current Light Water Reactors (LWRs). To this end, Sandia has embarked on an initiative to evaluate the interactions of regulations and operations as an approach to optimizing the design of SMR facilities, supporting operational efficiencies, as well as regulatory requirements. The early stages of this initiative consider two focus areas. The first focus area, reported by LaChance, et al. (2007), identifies the regulatory requirements established for the current fleet of LWR facilities regarding Safety, Security, Operations, Safeguards, and Emergency Planning, and evaluates the technical bases for these requirements. The second focus area, developed in this report, documents the foundations for an innovative approach that supports a design framework for SMR facilities that incorporates the regulatory environment, as well as the continued operation of the facility, into the early design stages, eliminating the need for costly retrofitting and additional operating personnel to fulfill regulatory requirements. The work considers a technique known as Integrated Safety, Operations, Security and Safeguards (ISOSS) (Darby, et al., 2007). In coordination with the best practices of industrial operations, the goal of this effort is to develop a design framework that outlines how ISOSS

  11. Sentinels of safety: service dogs ensure safety and enhance freedom and well-being for families with autistic children.

    PubMed

    Burrows, Kristen E; Adams, Cindy L; Spiers, Jude

    2008-12-01

    Children with autism might display unpredictable and volatile behavior that places them in considerable physical danger and creates stress for the family. Families of autistic children often have limited freedom and experience difficulty with everyday activities. In this qualitative ethology study, we examined the effect of integrating service dogs into ten families with an autistic child. Data included participant observation, video recordings of family-parent-dog interaction, and semistructured interviews with the parents. The themes were (a) the dog as a sentinel of safety, (b) gaining freedom through enhanced safety, facilitating public outings and family activities, and (c) improving social recognition and status, in which the presence of the dog promoted awareness of autism and affected social interaction. The triadic relationship between parent, autistic child, and service dog constantly evolves. This research provides valuable information for parents interested in having a service dog for their autistic child, and has implications for long-term human-animal companionship for children with special needs and their caregivers. PMID:18955467

  12. Protection of Operators and Environment - the Safety Concept of the Karlsruhe Vitrification Plant VEK

    SciTech Connect

    Fleisch, J.; Kuttruf, H.; Lumpp, W.; Pfeifer, W.; Roth, G.; Weisenburger, S.

    2002-02-26

    The Karlsruhe Vitrification Plant (VEK) plant is a milestone in decommissioning and complete dismantling of the former Karlsruhe Reprocessing Plant WAK, which is in an advanced stage of disassembly. The VEK is scheduled to vitrify approx. 70 m3 of the highly radioactive liquid waste (HLW) resulting from reprocessing. Site preparation, civil work and component manufacturing began in 1999. The building will be finalized by mid of 2002, hot vitrification operation is currently scheduled for 2004/2005. Provisions against damages arising from construction and operation of the VEK had to be made in accordance with the state of the art as laid down in the German Atomic Law and the Radiation Protection Regulations. For this purpose, the appropriate analysis of accidents and their external and internal impacts were investigated. During the detailed design phase, a failure effects analysis was carried out, in which single events were studied with respect to the objectives of protection and ensuring activity containment, limiting radioactive discharges to the environment and protecting of the staff. Parallel to the planning phase of the VEK plant a cold prototype test facility (PVA) covering the main process steps was constructed and operated at the Institut fuer Nukleare Entsorgung (INE) of FZK. This pilot operation served to demonstrate the process technique and its operation with a simulated waste solution, and to test the main items of equipment, but was conducted also to use the experimental data and experience to back the safety concept of the radioactive VEK plant. This paper describes the basis of the safety concept of the VEK plant and results of the failure effect analysis. The experimental simulation of the failure scenarios, their effect on the process behavior, and the controllability of these events as well as the effect of the results on the safety concept of VEK are discussed. Additionally, an overview of the actual status of civil work and manufacturing of

  13. Safety and Mission Assurance Knowledge Management Retention: Managing Knowledge for Successful Mission Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Teresa A.

    2006-01-01

    Knowledge Management is a proactive pursuit for the future success of any large organization faced with the imminent possibility that their senior managers/engineers with gained experiences and lessons learned plan to retire in the near term. Safety and Mission Assurance (S&MA) is proactively pursuing unique mechanism to ensure knowledge learned is retained and lessons learned captured and documented. Knowledge Capture Event/Activities/Management helps to provide a gateway between future retirees and our next generation of managers/engineers. S&MA hosted two Knowledge Capture Events during 2005 featuring three of its retiring fellows (Axel Larsen, Dave Whittle and Gary Johnson). The first Knowledge Capture Event February 24, 2005 focused on two Safety and Mission Assurance Safety Panels (Space Shuttle System Safety Review Panel (SSRP); Payload Safety Review Panel (PSRP) and the latter event December 15, 2005 featured lessons learned during Apollo, Skylab, and Space Shuttle which could be applicable in the newly created Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV)/Constellation development program. Gemini, Apollo, Skylab and the Space Shuttle promised and delivered exciting human advances in space and benefits of space in people s everyday lives on earth. Johnson Space Center's Safety & Mission Assurance team work over the last 20 years has been mostly focused on operations we are now beginning the Exploration development program. S&MA will promote an atmosphere of knowledge sharing in its formal and informal cultures and work processes, and reward the open dissemination and sharing of information; we are asking "Why embrace relearning the "lessons learned" in the past?" On the Exploration program the focus will be on Design, Development, Test, & Evaluation (DDT&E); therefore, it is critical to understand the lessons from these past programs during the DDT&E phase.

  14. Strategies for Navigating Common Ethical Dilemmas Encountered by Operational Radiation Safety Professionals.

    PubMed

    Emery, Robert J; Rios, Janelle

    2016-02-01

    Because operational radiation safety professionals can encounter ethical dilemmas in the course of their work, codes of ethics and professional standards of conduct are maintained by the Health Physics Society (HPS) and the American Academy of Health Physics (AAHP). While these works provide valuable guidance, they do not operationalize the types of ethical dilemmas radiation safety practitioners might encounter. For example, consider the ethical conundrum of “dual loyalty,” defined as the situation in which an individual holds simultaneous obligations to two or more parties. In the case of radiation safety, practicing professionals hold obligations to the workers being protected and to the leaders of the organization. If these obligations are in conflict, serious difficulties can arise. The conundrum of dual loyalty is described and a strategy for reducing its effect is discussed. Two other common ethical issues; “confidentiality” and “organizational dissent” are similarly presented. A foundation from which to launch an ongoing dialogue about ethical issues within the radiation safety profession is also proposed. PMID:26710164

  15. Design, operation, and safety of single-room interventional MRI suites: practical experience from two centers.

    PubMed

    White, Mark J; Thornton, John S; Hawkes, David J; Hill, Derek L G; Kitchen, Neil; Mancini, Laura; McEvoy, Andrew W; Razavi, Reza; Wilson, Sally; Yousry, Tarek; Keevil, Stephen F

    2015-01-01

    The design and operation of a facility in which a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanner is incorporated into a room used for surgical or endovascular cardiac interventions presents several challenges. MR safety must be maintained in the presence of a much wider variety of equipment than is found in a diagnostic unit, and of staff unfamiliar with the MRI environment, without compromising the safety and practicality of the interventional procedure. Both the MR-guided cardiac interventional unit at Kings College London and the intraoperative imaging suite at the National Hospital for Neurology and Neurosurgery are single-room interventional facilities incorporating 1.5 T cylindrical-bore MRI scanners. The two units employ similar strategies to maintain MR safety, both in original design and day-to-day operational workflows, and between them over a decade of incident-free practice has been accumulated. This article outlines these strategies, highlighting both similarities and differences between the units, as well as some lessons learned and resulting procedural changes made in both units since installation. PMID:24497105

  16. Development of a Reliability Program approach to assuring operational nuclear safety

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller, C.J.; Bezella, W.A.

    1985-01-01

    A Reliability Program (RP) model based on proven reliability techniques used in other high technology industries is being formulated for potential application in the nuclear power industry. Research findings are discussed. The reliability methods employed under NASA and military direction, commercial airline and related FAA programs were surveyed with several reliability concepts (e.g., quantitative reliability goals, reliability centered maintenance) appearing to be directly transferable. Other tasks in the RP development effort involved the benchmarking and evaluation of the existing nuclear regulations and practices relevant to safety/reliability integration. A review of current risk-dominant issues was also conducted using results from existing probabilistic risk assessment studies. The ongoing RP development tasks have concentrated on defining a RP for the operating phase of a nuclear plant's lifecycle. The RP approach incorporates safety systems risk/reliability analysis and performance monitoring activities with dedicated tasks that integrate these activities with operating, surveillance, and maintenance of the plant. The detection, root-cause evaluation and before-the-fact correction of incipient or actual systems failures as a mechanism for maintaining plant safety is a major objective of the RP.

  17. Steam generator tube degradation at the Doel 4 plant influence on plant operation and safety

    SciTech Connect

    Scheveneels, G.

    1997-02-01

    The steam generator tubes of Doel 4 are affected by a multitude of corrosion phenomena. Some of them have been very difficult to manage because of their extremely fast evolution, non linear evolution behavior or difficult detectability and/or measurability. The exceptional corrosion behavior of the steam generator tubes has had its drawbacks on plant operation and safety. Extensive inspection and repair campaigns have been necessary and have largely increased outage times and radiation exposure to personnel. Although considerable effort was invested by the utility to control corrosion problems, non anticipated phenomena and/or evolution have jeopardized plant safety. The extensive plugging and repairs performed on the steam generators have necessitated continual review of the design basis safety studies and the adaptation of the protection system setpoints. The large asymmetric plugging has further complicated these reviews. During the years many preventive and recently also defence measures have been implemented by the utility to manage corrosion and to decrease the probability and consequences of single or multiple tube rupture. The present state of the Doel 4 steam generators remains troublesome and further examinations are performed to evaluate if continued operation until June `96, when the steam generators will be replaced, is justified.

  18. Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The results of the Panel's activities are presented in a set of findings and recommendations. Highlighted here are both improvements in NASA's safety and reliability activities and specific areas where additional gains might be realized. One area of particular concern involves the curtailment or elimination of Space Shuttle safety and reliability enhancements. Several findings and recommendations address this area of concern, reflecting the opinion that safety and reliability enhancements are essential to the continued successful operation of the Space Shuttle. It is recommended that a comprehensive and continuing program of safety and reliability improvements in all areas of Space Shuttle hardware/software be considered an inherent component of ongoing Space Shuttle operations.

  19. A coupled nuclear reactor thermal energy storage system for enhanced load following operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alameri, Saeed A.

    Nuclear power plants usually provide base-load electric power and operate most economically at a constant power level. In an energy grid with a high fraction of renewable energy sources, future nuclear reactors may be subject to significantly variable power demands. These variable power demands can negatively impact the effective capacity factor of the reactor and result in severe economic penalties. Coupling the reactor to a large Thermal Energy Storage (TES) block will allow the reactor to better respond to variable power demands. In the system described in this thesis, a Prismatic-core Advanced High Temperature Reactor (PAHTR) operates at constant power with heat provided to a TES block that supplies power as needed to a secondary energy conversion system. The PAHTR is designed to have a power rating of 300 MW th, with 19.75 wt% enriched Tri-Structural-Isotropic UO 2 fuel and a five year operating cycle. The passive molten salt TES system will operate in the latent heat region with an energy storage capacity of 150 MWd. Multiple smaller TES blocks are used instead of one large block to enhance the efficiency and maintenance complexity of the system. A transient model of the coupled reactor/TES system is developed to study the behavior of the system in response to varying load demands. The model uses six-delayed group point kinetics and decay heat models coupled to thermal-hydraulic and heat transfer models of the reactor and TES system. Based on the transient results, the preferred TES design consists of 1000 blocks, each containing 11000 LiCl phase change material tubes. A safety assessment of major reactor events demonstrates the inherent safety of the coupled system. The loss of forced circulation study determined the minimum required air convection heat removal rate from the reactor core and the lowest possible reduced primary flow rate that can maintain the reactor in a safe condition. The loss of ultimate heat sink study demonstrated the ability of the TES

  20. Operational Safety Assessment of Turbo Generators with Wavelet Rényi Entropy from Sensor-Dependent Vibration Signals

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiaoli; Wang, Baojian; Chen, Xuefeng

    2015-01-01

    With the rapid development of sensor technology, various professional sensors are installed on modern machinery to monitor operational processes and assure operational safety, which play an important role in industry and society. In this work a new operational safety assessment approach with wavelet Rényi entropy utilizing sensor-dependent vibration signals is proposed. On the basis of a professional sensor and the corresponding system, sensor-dependent vibration signals are acquired and analyzed by a second generation wavelet package, which reflects time-varying operational characteristic of individual machinery. Derived from the sensor-dependent signals’ wavelet energy distribution over the observed signal frequency range, wavelet Rényi entropy is defined to compute the operational uncertainty of a turbo generator, which is then associated with its operational safety degree. The proposed method is applied in a 50 MW turbo generator, whereupon it is proved to be reasonable and effective for operation and maintenance. PMID:25894934

  1. Operational safety assessment of turbo generators with wavelet Rényi entropy from sensor-dependent vibration signals.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaoli; Wang, Baojian; Chen, Xuefeng

    2015-01-01

    With the rapid development of sensor technology, various professional sensors are installed on modern machinery to monitor operational processes and assure operational safety, which play an important role in industry and society. In this work a new operational safety assessment approach with wavelet Rényi entropy utilizing sensor-dependent vibration signals is proposed. On the basis of a professional sensor and the corresponding system, sensor-dependent vibration signals are acquired and analyzed by a second generation wavelet package, which reflects time-varying operational characteristic of individual machinery. Derived from the sensor-dependent signals' wavelet energy distribution over the observed signal frequency range, wavelet Rényi entropy is defined to compute the operational uncertainty of a turbo generator, which is then associated with its operational safety degree. The proposed method is applied in a 50 MW turbo generator, whereupon it is proved to be reasonable and effective for operation and maintenance. PMID:25894934

  2. Enhancing Science and Automating Operations using Onboard Autonomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sherwood, Robert; Chien, Steve; Tran, Daniel; Davies, Ashley; Castano, Rebecca; Rabideau, Gregg; Mandl, Dan; Szwaczkowski, Joseph; Frye, Stuart; Shulman, Seth

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we will describe the evolution of the software from prototype to full time operation onboard Earth Observing One (EO-1). We will quantify the increase in science, decrease in operations cost, and streamlining of operations procedures. Included will be a description of how this software was adapted post-launch to the EO-1 mission, which had very limited computing resources which constrained the autonomy flight software. We will discuss ongoing deployments of this software to the Mars Exploration Rovers and Mars Odyssey Missions as well as a discussion of lessons learned during this project. Finally, we will discuss how the onboard autonomy has been used in conjunction with other satellites and ground sensors to form an autonomous sensor-web to study volcanoes, floods, sea-ice topography, and wild fires. As demonstrated on EO-1, onboard autonomy is a revolutionary advance that will change the operations approach on future NASA missions...

  3. 30 CFR 550.1165 - What must I do for enhanced recovery operations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... BOEM) and supporting data as required in § 550.1167, 30 CFR 250.1167, and any additional information... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What must I do for enhanced recovery operations... Requirements. Other Requirements § 550.1165 What must I do for enhanced recovery operations? (a) (b)...

  4. 30 CFR 550.1165 - What must I do for enhanced recovery operations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... BOEM) and supporting data as required in § 550.1167, 30 CFR 250.1167, and any additional information... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What must I do for enhanced recovery operations... Requirements. Other Requirements § 550.1165 What must I do for enhanced recovery operations? (a) (b)...

  5. 30 CFR 550.1165 - What must I do for enhanced recovery operations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... BOEM) and supporting data as required in § 550.1167, 30 CFR 250.1167, and any additional information... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false What must I do for enhanced recovery operations... Requirements. Other Requirements § 550.1165 What must I do for enhanced recovery operations? (a) (b)...

  6. Satellite monitoring of ice features to ensure safety of offshore operations in the Arctic seas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smirnov, V. G.; Bychkova, I. A.

    2015-12-01

    Methods for processing satellite data on ice features that pose a threat to the safety of offshore operations in the Arctic seas are considered. They are divided into interactive, automated, and automatic methods. The methods are illustrated by examples of archival satellite data on the Russian Arctic sector. Radar and optical data have been used as the satellite information source. It is shown that the successful satellite monitoring of dangerous ice features requires the optimal combination of satellite observations at various stages that provide for a synergistic approach to the data assimilation of different spectral bands obtained using different spacecraft.

  7. Operational Retrieval Of Sea-Surface Dynamics From SAR Data For Safety And Security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carvajal, Gisela; Eriksson, Leif E. B.; Kononov, Anatolii; Dokken, Sverre

    2010-04-01

    The European Community’s Seventh Framework Programme project SECTRONIC will provide information on safety and security to maritime infrastructures at a global scale. Focus of this paper is on two implemented algorithms that employ data from Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) sensors. The first algorithm retrieves wind direction directly from the SAR image using standard image processing techniques. Wind speed is estimated by the inversion of a geophysical model function (GMF), having wind direction estimates as an input. Operational implemetation of mentioned algorithms is described and an example of results is provided.

  8. Pacific Northwest Laboratory: Annual report for 1986 to the Assistant Secretary for Environment, Safety and Health: Part 5, Nuclear and operational safety

    SciTech Connect

    Faust, L.G.; Kennedy, W.E.; Steelman, B.L.; Selby, J.M.

    1987-02-01

    Part 5 of the 1986 Annual Report to the Department of Energy's Assistant Secretary for Environment, Safety and Health presents Pacific Northwest Laboratory's progress on work performed for the Office of Nuclear Safety, the Office of Operational Safety, and for the Office of Environmental Analysis. For each project, as identified by the Field Task Proposal/Agreement, articles describe progress made during fiscal year 1986. Authors of these articles represent a broad spectrum of capabilities derived from three of the seven research departments of the Laboratory, reflecting the interdisciplinary nature of the work.

  9. 49 CFR 244.13 - Subjects to be addressed in a Safety Integration Plan involving an amalgamation of operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Subjects to be addressed in a Safety Integration Plan involving an amalgamation of operations. 244.13 Section 244.13 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION REGULATIONS ON SAFETY INTEGRATION PLANS...

  10. 49 CFR 244.13 - Subjects to be addressed in a Safety Integration Plan involving an amalgamation of operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Subjects to be addressed in a Safety Integration Plan involving an amalgamation of operations. 244.13 Section 244.13 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION REGULATIONS ON SAFETY INTEGRATION PLANS...

  11. 29 CFR 1926.1410 - Power line safety (all voltages)-equipment operations closer than the Table A zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... accessories) to a complete stop; wind conditions; degree of sway in the power line; lighting conditions, and... 29 Labor 8 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Power line safety (all voltages)-equipment operations... FOR CONSTRUCTION Cranes and Derricks in Construction § 1926.1410 Power line safety (all...

  12. 29 CFR 1926.1410 - Power line safety (all voltages)-equipment operations closer than the Table A zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... accessories) to a complete stop; wind conditions; degree of sway in the power line; lighting conditions, and... 29 Labor 8 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Power line safety (all voltages)-equipment operations... FOR CONSTRUCTION Cranes and Derricks in Construction § 1926.1410 Power line safety (all...

  13. 29 CFR 1926.1410 - Power line safety (all voltages)-equipment operations closer than the Table A zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...; wind conditions; degree of sway in the power line; lighting conditions, and other conditions affecting... 29 Labor 8 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Power line safety (all voltages)-equipment operations... FOR CONSTRUCTION Cranes and Derricks in Construction § 1926.1410 Power line safety (all...

  14. 29 CFR 1926.1410 - Power line safety (all voltages)-equipment operations closer than the Table A zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... accessories) to a complete stop; wind conditions; degree of sway in the power line; lighting conditions, and... 29 Labor 8 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Power line safety (all voltages)-equipment operations... FOR CONSTRUCTION Cranes and Derricks in Construction § 1926.1410 Power line safety (all...

  15. 47 CFR 80.159 - Operator requirements of Title III of the Communications Act and the Safety Convention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Operator requirements of Title III of the Communications Act and the Safety Convention. 80.159 Section 80.159 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS... Communications Act and the Safety Convention. (a) Each telegraphy passenger ship equipped with a...

  16. Magellan Project: Evolving enhanced operations efficiency to maximize science value

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheuvront, Allan R.; Neuman, James C.; Mckinney, J. Franklin

    1994-01-01

    Magellan has been one of NASA's most successful spacecraft, returning more science data than all planetary spacecraft combined. The Magellan Spacecraft Team (SCT) has maximized the science return with innovative operational techniques to overcome anomalies and to perform activities for which the spacecraft was not designed. Commanding the spacecraft was originally time consuming because the standard development process was envisioned as manual tasks. The Program understood that reducing mission operations costs were essential for an extended mission. Management created an environment which encouraged automation of routine tasks, allowing staff reduction while maximizing the science data returned. Data analysis and trending, command preparation, and command reviews are some of the tasks that were automated. The SCT has accommodated personnel reductions by improving operations efficiency while returning the maximum science data possible.

  17. Researching hospital patient data to enhance operational management.

    PubMed

    Heslop, Liz; Gardner, Brendon; Athan, Dean; Diers, Donna; Taylor, Catherine

    2004-01-01

    For the purposes of funding and policy development, the Victorian Department of Human Services expects Victorian health care institutions to capture patient data at all levels. These data can be extracted from hospital information systems and potentially offer a business role within a health service organisation. However, there are many issues to be addressed at the organisational level in order that operational directors can be enabled to use hospital data to solve health service operational problems. In this paper, we discuss some of those considerations and give practical examples of how patient data can be used for research and management purposes. PMID:19468148

  18. Handling and safety enhancement of race cars using active aerodynamic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diba, Fereydoon; Barari, Ahmad; Esmailzadeh, Ebrahim

    2014-09-01

    A methodology is presented in this work that employs the active inverted wings to enhance the road holding by increasing the downward force on the tyres. In the proposed active system, the angles of attack of the vehicle's wings are adjusted by using a real-time controller to increase the road holding and hence improve the vehicle handling. The handling of the race car and safety of the driver are two important concerns in the design of race cars. The handling of a vehicle depends on the dynamic capabilities of the vehicle and also the pneumatic tyres' limitations. The vehicle side-slip angle, as a measure of the vehicle dynamic safety, should be narrowed into an acceptable range. This paper demonstrates that active inverted wings can provide noteworthy dynamic capabilities and enhance the safety features of race cars. Detailed analytical study and formulations of the race car nonlinear model with the airfoils are presented. Computer simulations are carried out to evaluate the performance of the proposed active aerodynamic system.

  19. TECHNOLOGIES TO ENHANCE OPERATION OF THE EXISTING NATURAL GAS COMPRESSION INFRASTRUCTURE

    SciTech Connect

    Anthony J. Smalley; Ralph E. Harris; Gary D. Bourn

    2003-10-01

    This report documents work performed in the fourth quarter of the project entitled: ''Technologies to Enhance Operation of the Existing Natural Gas Compression Infrastructure''. The project objective is to develop and substantiate methods for operating integral engine/compressors in gas pipeline service, which reduce fuel consumption, increase capacity, and enhance mechanical integrity. The report describes the following work: second field test; test data analysis for the first field test; operational optimization plans.

  20. Safety of high speed ground transportation systems. High speed passenger trains in freight railroad corridors: Operations and safety considerations. Final report, September 1993-April 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Ullman, K.B.; Bing, A.J.

    1994-12-01

    This report presents the results of a study into some operations and technical issues likely to be encountered when planning for high-speed rail passenger service on corridors that presently carry freight or commuter traffic. The study starts with a review of corridors designated under Section 1010 of the Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act (ISTEA) of 1991, a potential future high-speed corridors. After a review of signal, train control and braking systems presently used in the United States and elsewhere, the study provides analyses of the safety and operations impacts of introducing high-speed rail service on the hypothetical corridor. The safety analysis established a safety performance target based on present intercity rail safety performance, and reviewed the need for and benefits from safety improvements for high speed operation. The operations analysis concentrated on the impacts on track capacity and train delays of introducing a high-speed rail service on three hypothetical existing corridors with different track layouts and signal systems.

  1. Operation Sculpin: Onsite radiological safety report for announced nuclear tests, October 1990--September 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Hernandez, G.M.

    1992-06-01

    Sculpin was the name assigned to the series of underground nuclear experiments conducted at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) from October 1, 1990, through September 30, 1991. This report includes those experiments publicly announced. Remote radiation measurements were taken during and after each nuclear experiment by a telemetry system. HPD Radiation Protection Technicians (RPTs) with portable radiation detection instruments surveyed reentry routes into ground zeros (GZ) before other planned entries were made. Continuous surveillance was provided while personnel were in radiation areas and appropriate precautions were taken to protect persons from unnecessary exposure to radiation and toxic gases. Protective clothing and equipment were issued as needed. Complete radiological safety and industrial hygiene (IH) coverage was provided during drilling and mineback operations. Telemetered and portable radiation detector measurements are listed. Detection instrumentation used is described and specific operational procedures are defined.

  2. Operation Aqueduct: Onsite radiological safety report for announced nuclear tests, October 1989--September 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Hernandez, G.M.; Jacklin, A.K.

    1992-01-01

    Aqueduct was the name assigned to the series of underground nuclear weapons tests conducted at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) from October 1, 1989, through September 30, 1990. This report includes those experiments publicly announced. Remote radiation measurements were taken during and after each nuclear event by a telemetry system. Reynolds Electrical & Engineering Co., Inc. (REECO) Health Protection Department (HPD) Radiation Protection Technicians (RPTS) with portable radiation detection instruments surveyed reentry routes into ground zeros (GZ) before other planned entries were made. Continuous surveillance was provided while personnel were in radiation areas and appropriate precautions were taken to protect persons from unnecessary exposure to radiation and toxic gases. Protective clothing and equipment were issued as needed. Complete radiological safety and industrial hygiene (IH) coverage was provided during drilling and mineback operations. Telemetered and portable radiation detector measurements are listed. Detection instrumentation used is described and specific operational procedures are defined.

  3. Operation Aqueduct: Onsite radiological safety report for announced nuclear tests, October 1989--September 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Hernandez, G.M.; Jacklin, A.K.

    1992-01-01

    Aqueduct was the name assigned to the series of underground nuclear weapons tests conducted at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) from October 1, 1989, through September 30, 1990. This report includes those experiments publicly announced. Remote radiation measurements were taken during and after each nuclear event by a telemetry system. Reynolds Electrical Engineering Co., Inc. (REECO) Health Protection Department (HPD) Radiation Protection Technicians (RPTS) with portable radiation detection instruments surveyed reentry routes into ground zeros (GZ) before other planned entries were made. Continuous surveillance was provided while personnel were in radiation areas and appropriate precautions were taken to protect persons from unnecessary exposure to radiation and toxic gases. Protective clothing and equipment were issued as needed. Complete radiological safety and industrial hygiene (IH) coverage was provided during drilling and mineback operations. Telemetered and portable radiation detector measurements are listed. Detection instrumentation used is described and specific operational procedures are defined.

  4. Operation Cornerstone onsite radiological safety report for announced nuclear tests, October 1988--September 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-08-01

    Cornerstone was the name assigned to the series of underground nuclear experiments conducted at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) from October 1, 1988, through September 30, 1989. This report includes those experiments publicly announced. Remote radiation measurements were taken during and after each nuclear experiment by a telemetry system. Radiation Protection Technicians (RPT) with portable radiation detection instruments surveyed reentry routes into ground zeros (GZ) before other planned entries were made. Continuous surveillance was provided while personnel were in radiation areas and appropriate precautions were taken to protect persons from unnecessary exposure to radiation and toxic gases. Protective clothing and equipment were issued as needed. Complete radiological safety and industrial hygiene coverage were provided during drilling and mineback operations. Telemetered and portable radiation detector measurements are listed. Detection instrumentation used is described and specific operational procedures are defined.

  5. A Secure ECC-based RFID Mutual Authentication Protocol to Enhance Patient Medication Safety.

    PubMed

    Jin, Chunhua; Xu, Chunxiang; Zhang, Xiaojun; Li, Fagen

    2016-01-01

    Patient medication safety is an important issue in patient medication systems. In order to prevent medication errors, integrating Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) technology into automated patient medication systems is required in hospitals. Based on RFID technology, such systems can provide medical evidence for patients' prescriptions and medicine doses, etc. Due to the mutual authentication between the medication server and the tag, RFID authentication scheme is the best choice for automated patient medication systems. In this paper, we present a RFID mutual authentication scheme based on elliptic curve cryptography (ECC) to enhance patient medication safety. Our scheme can achieve security requirements and overcome various attacks existing in other schemes. In addition, our scheme has better performance in terms of computational cost and communication overhead. Therefore, the proposed scheme is well suitable for patient medication systems. PMID:26573649

  6. Thinking in three's: changing surgical patient safety practices in the complex modern operating room.

    PubMed

    Gibbs, Verna C

    2012-12-14

    The three surgical patient safety events, wrong site surgery, retained surgical items (RSI) and surgical fires are rare occurrences and thus their effects on the complex modern operating room (OR) are difficult to study. The likelihood of occurrence and the magnitude of risk for each of these surgical safety events are undefined. Many providers may never have a personal experience with one of these events and training and education on these topics are sparse. These circumstances lead to faulty thinking that a provider won't ever have an event or if one does occur the provider will intuitively know what to do. Surgeons are not preoccupied with failure and tend to usually consider good outcomes, which leads them to ignore or diminish the importance of implementing and following simple safety practices. These circumstances contribute to the persistent low level occurrence of these three events and to the difficulty in generating sufficient interest to resource solutions. Individual facilities rarely have the time or talent to understand these events and develop lasting solutions. More often than not, even the most well meaning internal review results in a new line to a policy and some rigorous enforcement mandate. This approach routinely fails and is another reason why these problems are so persistent. Vigilance actions alone have been unsuccessful so hospitals now have to take a systematic approach to implementing safer processes and providing the resources for surgeons and other stakeholders to optimize the OR environment. This article discusses standardized processes of care for mitigation of injury or outright prevention of wrong site surgery, RSI and surgical fires in an action-oriented framework illustrating the strategic elements important in each event and focusing on the responsibilities for each of the three major OR agents-anesthesiologists, surgeons and nurses. A Surgical Patient Safety Checklist is discussed that incorporates the necessary elements to

  7. Thinking in three's: Changing surgical patient safety practices in the complex modern operating room

    PubMed Central

    Gibbs, Verna C

    2012-01-01

    The three surgical patient safety events, wrong site surgery, retained surgical items (RSI) and surgical fires are rare occurrences and thus their effects on the complex modern operating room (OR) are difficult to study. The likelihood of occurrence and the magnitude of risk for each of these surgical safety events are undefined. Many providers may never have a personal experience with one of these events and training and education on these topics are sparse. These circumstances lead to faulty thinking that a provider won’t ever have an event or if one does occur the provider will intuitively know what to do. Surgeons are not preoccupied with failure and tend to usually consider good outcomes, which leads them to ignore or diminish the importance of implementing and following simple safety practices. These circumstances contribute to the persistent low level occurrence of these three events and to the difficulty in generating sufficient interest to resource solutions. Individual facilities rarely have the time or talent to understand these events and develop lasting solutions. More often than not, even the most well meaning internal review results in a new line to a policy and some rigorous enforcement mandate. This approach routinely fails and is another reason why these problems are so persistent. Vigilance actions alone have been unsuccessful so hospitals now have to take a systematic approach to implementing safer processes and providing the resources for surgeons and other stakeholders to optimize the OR environment. This article discusses standardized processes of care for mitigation of injury or outright prevention of wrong site surgery, RSI and surgical fires in an action-oriented framework illustrating the strategic elements important in each event and focusing on the responsibilities for each of the three major OR agents-anesthesiologists, surgeons and nurses. A Surgical Patient Safety Checklist is discussed that incorporates the necessary elements to

  8. Simulation of an enhanced TCAS 2 system in operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rojas, R. G.; Law, P.; Burnside, W. D.

    1987-01-01

    Described is a computer simulation of a Boeing 737 aircraft equipped with an enhanced Traffic and Collision Avoidance System (TCAS II). In particular, an algorithm is developed which permits the computer simulation of the tracking of a target airplane by a Boeing 373 which has a TCAS II array mounted on top of its fuselage. This algorithm has four main components: namely, the target path, the noise source, the alpha-beta filter, and threat detection. The implementation of each of these four components is described. Furthermore, the areas where the present algorithm needs to be improved are also mentioned.

  9. Enhanced networks operations using the X Window System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Linares, Irving

    1993-01-01

    We propose an X Window Graphical User Interface (GUI) which is tailored to the operations of NASA GSFC's Network Control Center (NCC), the NASA Ground Terminal (NGT), the White Sands Ground Terminal (WSGT), and the Second Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS) Ground Terminal (STGT). The proposed GUI can also be easily extended to other Ground Network (GN) Tracking Stations due to its standardized nature.

  10. Validation and Verification of Future Integrated Safety-Critical Systems Operating under Off-Nominal Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Belcastro, Christine M.

    2010-01-01

    Loss of control remains one of the largest contributors to aircraft fatal accidents worldwide. Aircraft loss-of-control accidents are highly complex in that they can result from numerous causal and contributing factors acting alone or (more often) in combination. Hence, there is no single intervention strategy to prevent these accidents and reducing them will require a holistic integrated intervention capability. Future onboard integrated system technologies developed for preventing loss of vehicle control accidents must be able to assure safe operation under the associated off-nominal conditions. The transition of these technologies into the commercial fleet will require their extensive validation and verification (V and V) and ultimate certification. The V and V of complex integrated systems poses major nontrivial technical challenges particularly for safety-critical operation under highly off-nominal conditions associated with aircraft loss-of-control events. This paper summarizes the V and V problem and presents a proposed process that could be applied to complex integrated safety-critical systems developed for preventing aircraft loss-of-control accidents. A summary of recent research accomplishments in this effort is also provided.

  11. Tokamak operation with safety factor q95 < 2 via control of MHD stability.

    PubMed

    Piovesan, P; Hanson, J M; Martin, P; Navratil, G A; Turco, F; Bialek, J; Ferraro, N M; La Haye, R J; Lanctot, M J; Okabayashi, M; Paz-Soldan, C; Strait, E J; Turnbull, A D; Zanca, P; Baruzzo, M; Bolzonella, T; Hyatt, A W; Jackson, G L; Marrelli, L; Piron, L; Shiraki, D

    2014-07-25

    Magnetic feedback control of the resistive-wall mode has enabled the DIII-D tokamak to access stable operation at safety factor q(95) = 1.9 in divertor plasmas for 150 instability growth times. Magnetohydrodynamic stability sets a hard, disruptive limit on the minimum edge safety factor achievable in a tokamak, or on the maximum plasma current at a given toroidal magnetic field. In tokamaks with a divertor, the limit occurs at q(95) = 2, as confirmed in DIII-D. Since the energy confinement time scales linearly with current, this also bounds the performance of a fusion reactor. DIII-D has overcome this limit, opening a whole new high-current regime not accessible before. This result brings significant possible benefits in terms of fusion performance, but it also extends resistive-wall mode physics and its control to conditions never explored before. In present experiments, the q(95) < 2 operation is eventually halted by voltage limits reached in the feedback power supplies, not by intrinsic physics issues. Improvements to power supplies and to control algorithms have the potential to further extend this regime. PMID:25105626

  12. The effects of risk perception and flight experience on airline pilots' locus of control with regard to safety operation behaviors.

    PubMed

    You, Xuqun; Ji, Ming; Han, Haiyan

    2013-08-01

    The primary objective of this paper was to integrate two research traditions, social cognition approach and individual state approach, and to understand the relationships between locus of control (LOC), risk perception, flight time, and safety operation behavior (SOB) among Chinese airline pilots. The study sample consisted of 193 commercial airline pilots from China Southern Airlines Ltd. The results showed that internal locus of control directly affected pilot safety operation behavior. Risk perception seemed to mediate the relationship between locus of control and safety operation behaviors, and total flight time moderated internal locus of control. Thus, locus of control primarily influences safety operation behavior indirectly by affecting risk perception. The total effect of internal locus of control on safety behaviors is larger than that of external locus of control. Furthermore, the safety benefit of flight experience is more pronounced among pilots with high internal loci of control in the early and middle flight building stages. Practical implications for aviation safety and directions for future research are also discussed. PMID:23680497

  13. The Safety of Using High Frequency, Low Intensity Ultrasound to Enhance Thrombolysis

    SciTech Connect

    Soltani, Azita

    2006-05-08

    The EKOS Ultrasound Infusion Systems (EKOS Corporation, Bothell, WA) use high frequency, low intensity ultrasound to accelerate thrombolysis by enhancing clot permeability and lytic drug penetration into thrombus. These systems are designed to provide efficacious catheter-directed treatment for the management of stroke, peripheral arterial occlusion and deep vein thrombosis. The in vitro and in vivo results of investigating the stability of therapeutic and diagnostic compounds used in combination with EKOS devices, the potential for adverse biological effects and the clot fragmentation confirmed the safety of EKOS ultrasound infusion systems in thrombolysis treatment.

  14. The Safety of Using High Frequency, Low Intensity Ultrasound to Enhance Thrombolysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soltani, Azita

    2006-05-01

    The EKOS Ultrasound Infusion Systems (EKOS Corporation, Bothell, WA) use high frequency, low intensity ultrasound to accelerate thrombolysis by enhancing clot permeability and lytic drug penetration into thrombus. These systems are designed to provide efficacious catheter-directed treatment for the management of stroke, peripheral arterial occlusion and deep vein thrombosis. The in vitro and in vivo results of investigating the stability of therapeutic and diagnostic compounds used in combination with EKOS devices, the potential for adverse biological effects and the clot fragmentation confirmed the safety of EKOS ultrasound infusion systems in thrombolysis treatment.

  15. An adaptive controller for enhancing operator performance during teleoperation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carignan, Craig R.; Tarrant, Janice M.; Mosier, Gary E.

    1989-01-01

    An adaptive controller is developed for adjusting robot arm parameters while manipulating payloads of unknown mass and inertia. The controller is tested experimentally in a master/slave configuration where the adaptive slave arm is commanded via human operator inputs from a master. Kinematically similar six-joint master and slave arms are used with the last three joints locked for simplification. After a brief initial adaptation period for the unloaded arm, the slave arm retrieves different size payloads and maneuvers them about the workspace. Comparisons are then drawn with similar tasks where the adaptation is turned off. Several simplifications of the controller dynamics are also addressed and experimentally verified.

  16. Enhancing private sector engagement: Louisiana's business emergency operations centre.

    PubMed

    Day, Jamison M; Strother, Shannon; Kolluru, Ramesh; Booth, Joseph; Rawls, Jason; Calderon, Andres

    2010-07-01

    Public sector emergency management is more effective when it coordinates its efforts with private sector companies that can provide useful capabilities faster, cheaper and better than government agencies. A business emergency operations centre (EOC) provides a space for private sector and non-governmental organisations to gather together in support of government efforts. This paper reviews business-related EOC practices in multiple US states and details the development of a new business EOC by the State of Louisiana, including lessons learned in response to the May 2010 oil spill. PMID:20826386

  17. Effects of enhanced cathode electron emission on Hall thruster operation

    SciTech Connect

    Raitses, Y.; Smirnov, A.; Fisch, N. J.

    2009-05-15

    Interesting discharge phenomena are observed that have to do with the interaction between the magnetized Hall thruster plasma and the neutralizing cathode. The steady-state parameters of a highly ionized thruster discharge are strongly influenced by the electron supply from the cathode. The enhancement of the cathode electron emission above its self-sustained level affects the discharge current and leads to a dramatic reduction in the plasma divergence and a suppression of large amplitude, low frequency discharge current oscillations usually related to an ionization instability. These effects correlate strongly with the reduction in the voltage drop in the region with the fringing magnetic field between the thruster channel and the cathode. The measured changes in the plasma properties suggest that the electron emission affects the electron cross-field transport in the thruster discharge. These trends are generalized for Hall thrusters of various configurations.

  18. Effects of Enhanced Eathode Electron Emission on Hall Thruster Operation

    SciTech Connect

    Y. Raitses, A. Smirnov and N. J. Fisch

    2009-04-24

    Interesting discharge phenomena are observed that have to do with the interaction between the magnetized Hall thruster plasma and the neutralizing cathode. The steadystate parameters of a highly ionized thruster discharge are strongly influenced by the electron supply from the cathode. The enhancement of the cathode electron emission above its self-sustained level affects the discharge current and leads to a dramatic reduction of the plasma divergence and a suppression of large amplitude, low frequency discharge current oscillations usually related to an ionization instability. These effects correlate strongly with the reduction of the voltage drop in the region with the fringing magnetic field between the thruster channel and the cathode. The measured changes of the plasma properties suggest that the electron emission affects the electron cross-field transport in the thruster discharge. These trends are generalized for Hall thrusters of various configurations.

  19. Enhanced turret mooring system for harsh environment operation

    SciTech Connect

    Sanna, P.; Askestad, S.; Schoemaker, J.; Hansen, R.E.

    1994-12-31

    Framnaes Engineering AS together with Norsk Hydro AS have developed an enhanced turret mooring system based on proven of the shelf technology for permanent moored production ships with high oil and gas production rates and multi production risers and umbilical systems suitable for harsh weather and North Sea type environmental conditions. The main elements in the turret named FETurr are patented. The design described in this document is for an imaginary field with a production rate of 12000sM3 accommodating 12 risers, however the configurations can be adjusted to fields with more complex subsea systems and higher/lower number of wells. Designs have been performed for up to 24 risers, 9 umbilicals and 12 mooring lines.

  20. Considerations for polymers in enhanced oil recovery operations

    SciTech Connect

    Ruschau, G.R.

    1997-08-01

    Enhanced oil recovery (EOR) processes are implemented to increase the recoverable reserves from a given field. They generally function by chemically dislodging the oil from the formation rock and/or lowering the oil`s viscosity. However, because important downhole and facility materials are based on organic polymers, the effect of EOR on these materials can be similar to the effect on oil, namely disbonding and solubilizing them. Commonly affected oilfield polymers include elastomers, protective coatings, fiberglass pipe, and thermoplastic liners. In some cases the EOR has no direct effect but some necessary additional processes, such as chemical treatment of water flood lines, results in carryover of treatment chemicals to pipelines, valves, and storage tanks with polymers not compatible with the treatment chemical.

  1. Enhancing and expanding remote photonic entanglement via local filtering operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xing, Hai-Bo; Yang, Ming; Dong, Ping; Fang, Shu-Dong; Cao, Zhuo-Liang

    2014-06-01

    We present an entanglement distillation scheme for enhancing remote two-photon polarization entanglement of mixed states. Although the main idea of the current scheme is based on Gisin's work (Phys. Lett. A 210 (1996) 151 [21]), there are new advantages in our new scheme, which are guaranteed by the nondemolition measurement of photonic state and the re-distillation of the garbage states. This entanglement distillation scheme not only can enhance the remote entanglement of mixed states, but also can expand two-photon entangled states to four-photon entangled states. So this scheme is an apparently feasible way for preparing multi-photon entangled states. The main idea is based on the principle of the cross-Kerr nonlinearity and the parity-check measurements (a nondemolition measurement) on photonic states. Two distant users Alice and Bob first start with one shared but less entangled photon pair, and with the help of local auxiliary photons, parity-check measurements and classical communication they can get a four-photon highly entangled states with a high success probability. For the fail result, although the garbage state is less entangled than the initial one, there is still entanglement in it. So these garbage states can be re-collected and distilled again instead of being discarded. In this sense, we can see that this protocol has a high yield, and the fidelity (with respect to the Bell state) of the initial state is not required to be bigger than 1/2 (a common threshold of the standard entanglement purification theory). In addition, post-selection measurements on the entangled photons are not needed here because of the nondemolition measurement. The nondemolition character of the measurement allows further processing of the resulting states. These advantages make the current scheme more feasible within the current technology.

  2. Use of artificial intelligence to enhance the safety of nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Uhrig, R.E.

    1988-01-01

    In the operation of a nuclear power plant, the sheer magnitude of the number of process parameters and systems interactions poses difficulties for the operators, particularly during abnormal or emergency situations. Recovery from an upset situation depends upon the facility with which the available raw data can be converted into and assimilated as meaningful knowledge. Plant personnel are sometimes affected by stress and emotion, which may have varying degrees of influence on their performance. Expert systems can take some of the uncertainty and guesswork out of their decisions by providing expert advice and rapid access to a large information base. Application of artificial intelligence technologies, particularly expert systems, to control room activities in a nuclear power plant has the potential to reduce operator error and improve power plant safety and reliability. 12 refs.

  3. FEASIBILITY AND SAFETY OF CONTRAST-ENHANCED ULTRASOUND IN THE DISTAL LIMB OF SIX HORSES.

    PubMed

    Seiler, Gabriela S; Campbell, Nigel; Nixon, Britton; Tsuruta, James K; Dayton, Paul A; Jennings, Samuel; Redding, W Rich; Lustgarten, Meghann

    2016-05-01

    Vascular alterations play important roles in many orthopedic diseases such as osteoarthritis, tendonitis, and synovitis in both human and equine athletes. Understanding these alterations could enhance diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment. Contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) could be a valuable method for evaluation of blood flow and perfusion of these processes in the equine distal limb, however no reports were found describing feasibility or safety of the technique. The goal of this prospective, experimental study was to describe the feasibility and safety of distal limb CEUS in a sample of six horses. For each horse, CEUS of the distal limb was performed after intravenous injections of 5 and 10 ml, as well as intra-arterial injections of 0.5 and 1 ml contrast medium. Vital parameters were monitored and CEUS images were assessed qualitatively and quantitatively for degree of contrast enhancement. None of the horses had clinically significant changes in their vital parameters after contrast medium injection. One horse had a transient increase in respiratory rate, and several horses had mild increases of systolic blood pressure of short duration after intravenous, but not after intra-arterial injections. Intra-arterial injection was possible in all horses and resulted in significantly improved contrast enhancement both quantitatively (P = 0.027) and qualitatively (P = 0.019). Findings from this study indicated that CEUS is a feasible and safe diagnostic test for evaluation of the equine distal limb. Future studies are needed to assess the clinical utility of this test for horses with musculoskeletal diseases. PMID:26765518

  4. Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education in Science, 1996

    1996-01-01

    Discusses safety issues in science, including: allergic reactions to peanuts used in experiments; explosions in lead/acid batteries; and inspection of pressure vessels, such as pressure cookers or model steam engines. (MKR)

  5. A report on training equipment enhancements for the U.S. Special Operations Command

    SciTech Connect

    1996-04-01

    Training support systems - including devices, simulators and simulations - significantly improve training. Of course this is important for all military units. But for Special Operations Forces, such improvements are critical. Special Operations Forces must be prepared to operate in the most difficult, least forgiving of environments and do it right on the first try. The objective of this project is to report on the latest state-of-the-art training devices and systems which can enhance the training of Special Operations Forces.

  6. 14 CFR 437.31 - Verification of operating area containment and key flight-safety event limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...(a) to contain its reusable suborbital rocket's instantaneous impact point within an operating area... limits on the ability of the reusable suborbital rocket to leave the operating area; or (2) Abort... requirements of § 437.59 to conduct any key flight-safety event so that the reusable suborbital...

  7. 14 CFR 437.31 - Verification of operating area containment and key flight-safety event limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...(a) to contain its reusable suborbital rocket's instantaneous impact point within an operating area... limits on the ability of the reusable suborbital rocket to leave the operating area; or (2) Abort... requirements of § 437.59 to conduct any key flight-safety event so that the reusable suborbital...

  8. 78 FR 54417 - Oil and Gas and Sulphur Operations on the Outer Continental Shelf-Oil and Gas Production Safety...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-04

    ... Operations on the Outer Continental Shelf--Oil and Gas Production Safety Systems Correction In proposed rule....802 Design, installation, Sec. 250.819 Specification and operation of surface production- for surface... features. Sec. 250.803 Additional production Sec. 250.850 Production system requirements....

  9. Safety, effectiveness and economic evaluation of intra-operative radiation therapy: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Najafipour, Farshad; Hamouzadeh, Pejman; Arabloo, Jalal; Mobinizadeh, Mohammadreza; Norouzi, Amir

    2015-01-01

    Background: Intra-operative radiation therapy (IORT) is the transfer of a single large radiation dose to the tumor bed during surgery with the final goal of improving regional tumor control. This study aimed to investigate the safety, effectiveness and economic evaluation of intra-operative radiation therapy. Methods: The scientific literature was searched in the main biomedical databases (Centre for Reviews and Dissemination, Cochrane Library and PubMed) up to March 2014. Two independent reviewers selected the papers based on pre-established inclusion criteria, with any disagreements being resolved by consensus. Data were then extracted and summarized in a structured form. Results from studies were analyzed and discussed within a descriptive synthesis. Results: Sixteen studies met the inclusion criteria. It seems that outcomes from using intraoperative radiation therapy can be considered in various kinds of cancers like breast, pancreatic and colorectal cancers. The application of this method may provide significant survival increase only for colorectal cancer, but this increase was not significant for other types of cancer. This technology had low complications; and it is relatively safe. Using intra-operative radiation therapy could potentially be accounted as a cost-effective strategy for controlling and managing breast cancer. Conclusion: According to the existing evidences, that are the highest medical evidences for using intra-operative radiation therapy, one can generally conclude that intra-operative radiation therapy is considered as a relatively safe and cost-effective method for managing early-stage breast cancer and it can significantly increase the survival of patients with colorectal cancer. Also, the results of this study have policy implications with respect to the reimbursement of this technology. PMID:26793649

  10. Thermoregulatory models of safety-for-flight issues for space operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pisacane, V. L.; Kuznetz, L. H.; Logan, J. S.; Clark, J. B.; Wissler, E. H.

    2006-10-01

    This study investigates the use of a mathematical model for thermoregulation as a tool in safety-of-flight issues and proposed solutions for mission operations of the Space Shuttle and the International Space Station. Specifically, this study assesses the effects of elevated cabin temperature and metabolic loads on astronauts wearing the Advanced Crew Escape Suit (ACES) and the Liquid Cooled Ventilation Garment (LCVG). The 225-node Wissler model is validated by comparison with two ground-based human subject tests, firefighters, and surrogate astronauts under anomalous conditions that show good agreement. Subsequent simulations indicate that the performance of the ACES/LCVG is marginal. Increases in either workload or cabin temperature from the nominal will increase rectal temperature, stored heat load, heart rate, and sweating leading to possible deficits in the ability of the astronauts to perform cognitive and motor tasks that could affect the safety of the mission, especially the safe landing of the Shuttle. Specific relationships are given between cabin temperature and metabolic rate that define the threshold for decreased manual dexterity and loss of tracking skills. Model results indicate that the most effective mitigation strategy would be to decrease the LCVG inlet temperature. Methods of accomplishing this are also proposed.

  11. FAST FLUX TEST FACILITY (FFTF) A HISTORY OF SAFETY & OPERATIONAL EXCELLENCE

    SciTech Connect

    NIELSEN, D L

    2004-02-26

    The Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) is a 400-megawatt (thermal) sodium-cooled, high temperature, fast neutron flux, loop-type test reactor. The facility was constructed to support development and testing of fuels, materials and equipment for the Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor program. FFTF began operation in 1980 and over the next 10 years demonstrated its versatility to perform experiments and missions far beyond the original intent of its designers. The reactor had several distinctive features including its size, flux, core design, extensive instrumentation, and test features that enabled it to simultaneously carry out a significant array of missions while demonstrating its features that contributed to a high level of plant safety and availability. FFTF is currently being deactivated for final closure.

  12. The Human Bathtub: Safety and Risk Predictions Including the Dynamic Probability of Operator Errors

    SciTech Connect

    Duffey, Romney B.; Saull, John W.

    2006-07-01

    Reactor safety and risk are dominated by the potential and major contribution for human error in the design, operation, control, management, regulation and maintenance of the plant, and hence to all accidents. Given the possibility of accidents and errors, now we need to determine the outcome (error) probability, or the chance of failure. Conventionally, reliability engineering is associated with the failure rate of components, or systems, or mechanisms, not of human beings in and interacting with a technological system. The probability of failure requires a prior knowledge of the total number of outcomes, which for any predictive purposes we do not know or have. Analysis of failure rates due to human error and the rate of learning allow a new determination of the dynamic human error rate in technological systems, consistent with and derived from the available world data. The basis for the analysis is the 'learning hypothesis' that humans learn from experience, and consequently the accumulated experience defines the failure rate. A new 'best' equation has been derived for the human error, outcome or failure rate, which allows for calculation and prediction of the probability of human error. We also provide comparisons to the empirical Weibull parameter fitting used in and by conventional reliability engineering and probabilistic safety analysis methods. These new analyses show that arbitrary Weibull fitting parameters and typical empirical hazard function techniques cannot be used to predict the dynamics of human errors and outcomes in the presence of learning. Comparisons of these new insights show agreement with human error data from the world's commercial airlines, the two shuttle failures, and from nuclear plant operator actions and transient control behavior observed in transients in both plants and simulators. The results demonstrate that the human error probability (HEP) is dynamic, and that it may be predicted using the learning hypothesis and the minimum

  13. PROBABILISTIC SAFETY ASSESSMENT OF OPERATIONAL ACCIDENTS AT THE WASTE ISOLATION PILOT PLANT

    SciTech Connect

    Rucker, D.F.

    2000-09-01

    This report presents a probabilistic safety assessment of radioactive doses as consequences from accident scenarios to complement the deterministic assessment presented in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Safety Analysis Report (SAR). The International Council of Radiation Protection (ICRP) recommends both assessments be conducted to ensure that ''an adequate level of safety has been achieved and that no major contributors to risk are overlooked'' (ICRP 1993). To that end, the probabilistic assessment for the WIPP accident scenarios addresses the wide range of assumptions, e.g. the range of values representing the radioactive source of an accident, that could possibly have been overlooked by the SAR. Routine releases of radionuclides from the WIPP repository to the environment during the waste emplacement operations are expected to be essentially zero. In contrast, potential accidental releases from postulated accident scenarios during waste handling and emplacement could be substantial, which necessitates the need for radiological air monitoring and confinement barriers (DOE 1999). The WIPP Safety Analysis Report (SAR) calculated doses from accidental releases to the on-site (at 100 m from the source) and off-site (at the Exclusive Use Boundary and Site Boundary) public by a deterministic approach. This approach, as demonstrated in the SAR, uses single-point values of key parameters to assess the 50-year, whole-body committed effective dose equivalent (CEDE). The basic assumptions used in the SAR to formulate the CEDE are retained for this report's probabilistic assessment. However, for the probabilistic assessment, single-point parameter values were replaced with probability density functions (PDF) and were sampled over an expected range. Monte Carlo simulations were run, in which 10,000 iterations were performed by randomly selecting one value for each parameter and calculating the dose. Statistical information was then derived from the 10,000 iteration

  14. Program desk manual for occupational safety and health -- U.S. Department of Energy Richland Operations, Office of Environment Safety and Health

    SciTech Connect

    Musen, L.G.

    1998-08-27

    The format of this manual is designed to make this valuable information easily accessible to the user as well as enjoyable to read. Each chapter contains common information such as Purpose, Scope, Policy and References, as well as information unique to the topic at hand. This manual can also be provided on a CD or Hanford Internet. Major topics include: Organization and program for operational safety; Occupational medicine; Construction and demolition; Material handling and storage; Hoisting and rigging; Explosives; Chemical hazards; Gas cylinders; Electrical; Boiler and pressure vessels; Industrial fire protection; Industrial hygiene; and Safety inspection checklist.

  15. TECHNOLOGIES TO ENHANCE OPERATION OF THE EXISTING NATURAL GAS COMPRESSION INFRASTRUCTURE

    SciTech Connect

    Anthony J. Smalley; Ralph E. Harris; Gary D. Bourn

    2004-03-01

    This report documents work performed in Phase I of the project entitled: ''Technologies to Enhance Operation of the Existing Natural Gas Compression Infrastructure''. The project objective is to develop and substantiate methods for operating integral engine/compressors in gas pipeline service, which reduce fuel consumption, increase capacity, and enhance mechanical integrity. The report describes a number of potential enhancements to the existing natural gas compression infrastructure that have been identified and qualitatively demonstrated in tests on three different integral engine/compressors in natural gas transmission service.

  16. TECHNOLOGIES TO ENHANCE OPERATION OF THE EXISTING NATURAL GAS COMPRESSION INFRASTRUCTURE

    SciTech Connect

    Anthony J. Smalley; Ralph E. Harris; Gary D. Bourn

    2004-08-01

    This report documents work performed in Phase I of the project entitled: ''Technologies to Enhance Operation of the Existing Natural Gas Compression Infracture''. The project objective is to develop and substantiate methods for operating integral engine/compressors in gas pipeline service, which reduce fuel consumption, increase capacity, and enhance mechanical integrity. The report describes a number of potential enhancements to the existing natural gas compression infrastructure that have been identified and tested on four different integral engine/compressors in natural gas transmission service.

  17. Health and safety plan for operations performed for the Environmental Restoration Program

    SciTech Connect

    Trippet, W.A. II ); Reneau, M.; Morton, S.L. )

    1992-04-01

    This document constitutes the generic health and safety plan for the Environmental Restoration Program (ERP). It addresses the health and safety requirements of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA); Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) 29 CFR 1910.120 standard; and EG G Idaho, Inc. This plan is a guide to individuals who must complete a health and safety plan for a task performed for the EPR. It contains a task specific addendum that, when completed, specifically addresses task specific health and safety issues. This health and safety plan reduces the time it takes to write a task specific health and safety plan by providing discussions of requirements, guidance on where specific information is located, and specific topics in the Addendum that must be discussed at a task level. This format encourages a complete task specific health and safety plan and a standard for all health and safety plans written for ERP.

  18. Thermal safety of ultrasound-enhanced ocular drug delivery: A modeling study

    SciTech Connect

    Nabili, Marjan; Geist, Craig E-mail: zderic@gwu.edu; Zderic, Vesna E-mail: zderic@gwu.edu

    2015-10-15

    Purpose: Delivery of sufficient amounts of therapeutic drugs into the eye for treatment of various ocular diseases is often a challenging task. Ultrasound was shown to be effective in enhancing ocular drug delivery in the authors’ previous in vitro and in vivo studies. Methods: The study reported here was designed to investigate the safety of ultrasound application and its potential thermal effects in the eye using PZFlex modeling software. The safety limit in this study was set as a temperature increase of no more than 1.5 °C based on regulatory recommendations and previous experimental safety studies. Acoustic and thermal specifications of different human eye tissues were obtained from the published literature. The tissues of particular interest in this modeling safety study were cornea, lens, and the location of optic nerve in the posterior eye. Ultrasound application was modeled at frequencies of 400 kHz–1 MHz, intensities of 0.3–1 W/cm{sup 2}, and exposure duration of 5 min, which were the parameters used in the authors’ previous drug delivery experiments. The baseline eye temperature was 37 °C. Results: The authors’ results showed that the maximal tissue temperatures after 5 min of ultrasound application were 38, 39, 39.5, and 40 °C in the cornea, 39.5, 40, 42, and 43 °C in the center of the lens, and 37.5, 38.5, and 39 °C in the back of the eye (at the optic nerve location) at frequencies of 400, 600, 800 kHz, and 1 MHz, respectively. Conclusions: The ocular temperatures reached at higher frequencies were considered unsafe based on current recommendations. At a frequency of 400 kHz and intensity of 0.8 W/cm{sup 2} (parameters shown in the authors’ previous in vivo studies to be optimal for ocular drug delivery), the temperature increase was small enough to be considered safe inside different ocular tissues. However, the impact of orbital bone and tissue perfusion should be included in future modeling efforts to determine the safety

  19. Safety Goals at NASA: How Safe is Safe Enough and How to Get There

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stamatelatos, Michael

    2010-01-01

    NASA is developing and implementing safety improvements in all its activities including mission design, mission operations, and occupational safety. Decisions regarding where and how improvements are implemented to optimally enhance safety are discussed.

  20. Safety analysis -- 200 Area Savannah River Plant, F-Canyon Operations. Supplement 4

    SciTech Connect

    Beary, M.M.; Collier, C.D.; Fairobent, L.A.; Graham, R.F.; Mason, C.L.; McDuffee, W.T.; Owen, T.L.; Walker, D.H.

    1986-02-01

    The F-Canyon facility is located in the 200 Separations Area and uses the Purex process to recover plutonium from reactor-irradiated uranium. The irradiated uranium is normally in the form of solid or hollow cylinders called slugs. These slugs are encased in aluminum cladding and are sent to the F-Canyon from the Savannah River Plant (SRP) reactor areas or from the Receiving Basin for Offsite Fuels (RBOF). This Safety Analysis Report (SAR) documents an analysis of the F-Canyon operations and is an update to a section of a previous SAR. The previous SAR documented an analysis of the entire 200 Separations Area operations. This SAR documents an analysis of the F-Canyon and is one of a series of documents for the Separations Area as specified in the Savannah River Implementation Plans. A substantial amount of the information supporting the conclusions of this SAR is found in the Systems Analysis. Some F-Canyon equipment has been updated during the time between the Systems Analysis and this SAR and a complete description of this equipment is included in this report. The primary purpose of the analysis was to demonstrate that the F-Canyon can be operated without undue risk to onsite or offsite populations and to the environment. In this report, risk is defined as the expected frequency of an accident, multiplied by the resulting radiological consequence in person-rem. The units of risk for radiological dose are person-rem/year. Maximum individual exposure values have also been calculated and reported.

  1. Feedback-assisted extension of the tokamak operating space to low safety factor

    SciTech Connect

    Hanson, J. M. Bialek, J. M.; Navratil, G. A.; Olofsson, K. E. J.; Shiraki, D.; Turco, F.; Baruzzo, M.; Bolzonella, T.; Marrelli, L.; Martin, P.; Piovesan, P.; Piron, C.; Piron, L.; Terranova, D.; Zanca, P.; Hyatt, A. W.; Jackson, G. L.; La Haye, R. J.; Lanctot, M. J.; Strait, E. J.; and others

    2014-07-15

    Recent DIII-D and RFX-mod experiments have demonstrated stable tokamak operation at very low values of the edge safety factor q(a) near and below 2. The onset of n = 1 resistive wall mode (RWM) kink instabilities leads to a disruptive stability limit, encountered at q(a) = 2 (limiter plasmas) and q{sub 95} = 2 (divertor plasmas). However, passively stable operation can be attained for q(a) and q{sub 95} values as low as 2.2. RWM damping in the q(a) = 2 regime was measured using active MHD spectroscopy. Although consistent with theoretical predictions, the amplitude of the damped response does not increase significantly as the q(a) = 2 limit is approached, in contrast with damping measurements made approaching the pressure-driven RWM limit. Applying proportional gain magnetic feedback control of the n = 1 modes has resulted in stabilized operation with q{sub 95} values reaching as low as 1.9 in DIII-D and q(a) reaching 1.55 in RFX-mod. In addition to being consistent with the q(a) = 2 external kink mode stability limit, the unstable modes have growth rates on the order of the characteristic wall eddy-current decay timescale in both devices, and a dominant m = 2 poloidal structure that is consistent with ideal MHD predictions. The experiments contribute to validating MHD stability theory and demonstrate that a key tokamak stability limit can be overcome with feedback.

  2. Plant Operations. OSHA on Campus: Campus Safety Officers Discuss Problems and Potentials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuchta, Joseph F.; And Others

    1973-01-01

    The Occupation Safety and Health Act (OSHA) has presented campus safety officers with new problems, but it is also offering them new potentials, which were explored at the recent national conference on Campus Security. (Editor)

  3. Peer groups and operational cycle enhancements to the performance indicator report

    SciTech Connect

    Stromberg, H.M.; DeHaan, M.S.; Gentillon, C.D.; Wilson, G.E.; Vanden Heuvel, L.N.

    1992-12-01

    Accurate performance evaluation and plant trending by the performance indicator program are integral parts of monitoring the operation of commercial nuclear power plants. The presentations of the NRC/AEOD performance indicator program have undergone a number of enhancements. The diversity of the commercial nuclear plants, coupled with continued improvements in the performance indicator program, has resulted in the evaluation of plants in logical peer groups and highlighted the need to evaluate the impact of plant operational conditions on the performance indicators. These enhancements allow a more-meaningful evaluation of operating commercial nuclear power plant performance. This report proposes methods to enhance the presentation of the performance indicator data by analyzing the data in logical peer groups and displaying the performance indicator data based on the operational status of the plants. Previously, preliminary development of the operational cycle displays of the performance indicator data was documented. This report extends the earlier findings and presents the continued development of the peer groups and operational cycle trend and deviation data and displays. This report describes the peer groups and enhanced PI data presentations by considering the operational cycle phase breakdowns, calculation methods, and presentation methods.

  4. A cell engineering strategy to enhance the safety of stem cell therapies

    PubMed Central

    Oricchio, Elisa; Papapetrou, Eirini P.; Lafaille, Fabien; Ganat, Yosif M.; Kriks, Sonja; Ortega-Molina, Ana; Mark, Willie H.; Teruya-Feldstein, Julie; Huse, Jason T.; Reuter, Victor; Sadelain, Michel; Studer, Lorenz; Wendel, Hans-Guido

    2014-01-01

    The long-term risk of malignancy associated with stem cell therapies is a significant concern in the clinical application of this exciting technology. We report a cancer-selective strategy to enhance the safety of stem cell therapies. Briefly, using a cell engineering approach we show that aggressive cancers derived from human or murine iPS and ES cells are strikingly sensitive to temporary MYC blockade. On the other hand, differentiated tissues derived from human or mouse iPS cells can readily tolerate temporary MYC inactivation. In cancer cells, endogenous MYC is required to maintain the metabolic and epigenetic functions of the embryonic and cancer-specific pyruvate kinase M2 isoform (PKM2) (Vander Heiden et al., 2009; Yang et al., 2012). In summary, our results implicate PKM2 in cancer’s increased MYC dependence and indicate dominant MYC inhibition as a cancer-selective failsafe for stem cell therapies. PMID:25242333

  5. An efficient RFID authentication protocol to enhance patient medication safety using elliptic curve cryptography.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zezhong; Qi, Qingqing

    2014-05-01

    Medication errors are very dangerous even fatal since it could cause serious even fatal harm to patients. In order to reduce medication errors, automated patient medication systems using the Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) technology have been used in many hospitals. The data transmitted in those medication systems is very important and sensitive. In the past decade, many security protocols have been proposed to ensure its secure transition attracted wide attention. Due to providing mutual authentication between the medication server and the tag, the RFID authentication protocol is considered as the most important security protocols in those systems. In this paper, we propose a RFID authentication protocol to enhance patient medication safety using elliptic curve cryptography (ECC). The analysis shows the proposed protocol could overcome security weaknesses in previous protocols and has better performance. Therefore, the proposed protocol is very suitable for automated patient medication systems. PMID:24733525

  6. Male enhancement Nutraceuticals in the Middle East market: Claim, pharmaceutical quality and safety assessments.

    PubMed

    ElAgouri, Ghada; ElAmrawy, Fatema; ElYazbi, Ahmed; Eshra, Ahmed; Nounou, Mohamed I

    2015-08-15

    The global market is invaded by male enhancement nutraceuticals claimed to be of natural origin sold with a major therapeutic claim. Most of these products have been reported by international systems like the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). We hypothesize that these products could represent a major threat to the health of the consumers. In this paper, pharmaceutical evaluation of some of these nutraceutical products sold in Egypt under the therapeutic claim of treating erectile dysfunction, are discussed along with pharmacological evaluation to investigate their safety and efficacy parameters. Samples were analyzed utterly using conventional methods, i.e.: HPLC, HPTLC, NIR, content uniformity and weight variation and friability. The SeDeM system was used for quality assessment. On the basis of the results of this research, the sampled products are adulterated and totally heterogeneous in their adulterant drug content and pharmaceutical quality. These products represent a major safety threat for the consumers in Egypt and the Middle East, especially; the target audience is mostly affected with heart and blood pressure problems seeking natural and safe alternatives to the well-established Phosphodiesterase 5 Inhibitors (PDE-5Is). PMID:26165612

  7. A Lithium-Ion Battery with Enhanced Safety Prepared using an Environmentally Friendly Process.

    PubMed

    Mueller, Franziska; Loeffler, Nicholas; Kim, Guk-Tae; Diemant, Thomas; Behm, R Jürgen; Passerini, Stefano

    2016-06-01

    A new lithium-ion battery chemistry is presented based on a conversion-alloying anode material, a carbon-coated Fe-doped ZnO (TMO-C), and a LiNi1/3 Mn1/3 Co1/3 O2 (NMC) cathode. Both electrodes were fabricated using an environmentally friendly cellulose-based binding agent. The performance of the new lithium-ion battery was evaluated with a conventional, carbonate-based electrolyte (ethylene carbonate:diethyl carbonate-1 m lithium hexafluorophosphate, EC:DEC 1 m LiPF6 ) and an ionic liquid (IL)-based electrolyte (N-butyl-N-methylpyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide-0.2 m lithium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide, Pyr14 TFSI 0.2 m LiTFSI), respectively. Galvanostatic charge/discharge tests revealed a reduced rate capability of the TMO-C/Pyr14 TFSI 0.2 m LiTFSI/NMC full-cell compared to the organic electrolyte, but the coulombic efficiency was significantly enhanced. Moreover, the IL-based electrolyte substantially improves the safety of the system due to a higher thermal stability of the formed anodic solid electrolyte interphase and the IL electrolyte itself. While the carbonate-based electrolyte shows sudden degradation reactions, the IL exhibits a slowly increasing heat flow, which does not constitute a serious safety risk. PMID:27159254

  8. Comparison of the efficacy and safety of laparoscopic-assisted operations and open operations for Hirschsprung’s disease: evidence from a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Bin; Liu, Tao; Li, Qinghao

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the efficacy and safety of laparoscopic-assisted operations compared with open operations, used for the treatment of Hirschsprung’s disease (HD). Methods: Pertinent studies were identified by searching of PubMed and Web of Science. We analyzed dichotomous variables by estimating odds ratios (OR) with their 95% confidence interval (CI) and continuous variables using the weighted mean difference (WMD) with the 95% CI. The random effect model was used to combine the results. Results: Nine articles involving a total of 421 patients were included in this meta-analysis. For operation time of patients with HD, pooled data demonstrated a significantly shorter time in the laparoscopic operations group compared with open operations group (WMD = -0.27, 95% CI = -0.49, -0.05). The intraoperative blood loss was fewer in the laparoscopic operations group than open operations group (WMD = -1.05, 95% CI = -1.56, -0.54). The length of postoperative hospital was significantly shorter in the laparoscopic operations group. The number of complications was significantly lower in laparoscopic operations group than open operations group. Conclusions: Our results suggested that laparoscopic-assisted operation is generally safer and more reliable than open operation for patients with HD. PMID:26550215

  9. Use of intron-disrupted polyadenylation sites to enhance expression and safety of retroviral vectors.

    PubMed

    Ismail, S I; Rohll, J B; Kingsman, S M; Kingsman, A J; Uden, M

    2001-01-01

    Normal mRNA polyadenylation signals are composed of an AAUAAA motif and G/U box spaced 20 to 30 bp apart. If this spacing is increased further, then polyadenylation is disrupted. Previously it has been demonstrated that insertion of an intron will similarly disrupt this signal even though such introns are removed during a nuclear splicing reaction (X. Liu and J. Mertz, Nucleic Acids Res. 21:5256-5263, 1993). This observation has led to the suggestion that polyadenylation site selection is undertaken prior to intron excision. We now present results that both support and extend these observations and in doing so create a novel class of retroviral expression vector with improved qualities. We found that when an intron-disrupted polyadenylation signal is inserted within a retroviral expression vector, such a signal, although reformed in the producer cell, remains benign until transduction, where it is then preferentially used. Thus, we demonstrate that upon transduction these vectors now produce a majority of shortened subgenomic species and as a consequence have a reduced tendency for subsequent mobilization from transduced cells. In addition, we demonstrate that the use of this internal signal leads to enhanced expression from such vectors and that this is achieved without any loss in titer. Therefore, split polyadenylation signals confer enhanced performance and improved safety upon retroviral expression vectors into which they are inserted. Such split signals may prove useful for the future optimization of retroviral vectors in gene therapy. PMID:11119589

  10. Use of Intron-Disrupted Polyadenylation Sites To Enhance Expression and Safety of Retroviral Vectors

    PubMed Central

    Ismail, Said I.; Rohll, Jonathan B.; Kingsman, Susan M.; Kingsman, Alan J.; Uden, Mark

    2001-01-01

    Normal mRNA polyadenylation signals are composed of an AAUAAA motif and G/U box spaced 20 to 30 bp apart. If this spacing is increased further, then polyadenylation is disrupted. Previously it has been demonstrated that insertion of an intron will similarly disrupt this signal even though such introns are removed during a nuclear splicing reaction (X. Liu and J. Mertz, Nucleic Acids Res. 21:5256–5263, 1993). This observation has led to the suggestion that polyadenylation site selection is undertaken prior to intron excision. We now present results that both support and extend these observations and in doing so create a novel class of retroviral expression vector with improved qualities. We found that when an intron-disrupted polyadenylation signal is inserted within a retroviral expression vector, such a signal, although reformed in the producer cell, remains benign until transduction, where it is then preferentially used. Thus, we demonstrate that upon transduction these vectors now produce a majority of shortened subgenomic species and as a consequence have a reduced tendency for subsequent mobilization from transduced cells. In addition, we demonstrate that the use of this internal signal leads to enhanced expression from such vectors and that this is achieved without any loss in titer. Therefore, split polyadenylation signals confer enhanced performance and improved safety upon retroviral expression vectors into which they are inserted. Such split signals may prove useful for the future optimization of retroviral vectors in gene therapy. PMID:11119589

  11. Neutron-Absorbing Coatings for Safe Storage of Fissile Materials with Enhanced Shielding & Criticality Safety

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, J; Farmer, J; Lee, C; Fischer, L; Boussoufi, M; Liu, B; Egbert, H

    2007-07-03

    Neutron-absorbing Fe-based amorphous-metal coatings have been developed that are more corrosion resistant than other criticality-control materials, including Al-B{sub 4}C composites, borated stainless steels, and Ni-Cr-Mo-Gd alloys. The presence of relatively high concentration of boron in these coatings not only enhances its neutron-absorption capability, but also enables these coatings to exist in the amorphous state. Exceptional corrosion resistance has been achieved with these Fe-based amorphous-metal alloys through additions of chromium, molybdenum, and tungsten. The addition of rare earth elements such as yttrium has lowered the critical cooling rate of these materials, thereby rendering them more easily processed. Containers used for the storage of nuclear materials, and protected from corrosion through the application of amorphous metal coatings, would have greatly enhanced service lives, and would therefore provide greater long-term safety. Amorphous alloy powders have been successfully produced in multi-ton quantities with gas atomization, and applied to several half-scale spent fuel storage containers and criticality control structures with the high-velocity oxy-fuel (HVOF) thermal spray process. Salt fog testing and neutron radiography of these prototypes indicates that such an approach is viable for the production of large-scale industrial-scale facilities and containers. The use of these durable neutron-absorbing materials to coat stainless steel containers and storage racks, as well as vaults, hot-cell facilities and glove boxes could substantially reduce the risk of criticality in the event of an accident. These materials are particularly attractive for shielding applications since they are fire proof. Additionally, layers of other cold and thermal sprayed materials that include carbon and/or carbides can be used in conjunction with the high-boron amorphous metal coatings for the purpose of moderation. For example, various carbides, including boron

  12. Operating personnel safety during the administration of Hyperthermic Intraperitoneal Chemotherapy (HIPEC).

    PubMed

    Kyriazanos, Ioannis; Kalles, Vasileios; Stefanopoulos, Anastasios; Spiliotis, John; Mohamed, Faheez

    2016-09-01

    Cytoreductive surgery (CRS) and Hyperthermic Intraperitoneal Chemotherapy (HIPEC) is increasingly used in the treatment of peritoneal malignancies. The administration of HIPEC after complete cytoreduction offers the combination of the pharmacokinetic advantages inherent to the intraperitoneal delivery of cytotoxic chemotherapy, with the direct cytotoxic effects of hyperthermia, and has been reported to offer significantly improved patient outcomes. As a result, this novel method disseminates rapidly, with many surgical teams having developed peritoneal malignancy treatment programs. Protocols are needed for the introduction, handling, and management of chemotherapeutic agents in the operating room to minimize risk to the staff involved in the procedure. The personnel exposure during CRS and HIPEC may arise from different routes, such as air contamination, direct contact, manipulation of perfusates or chemotherapy solutions, and manipulation of objects/tissues exposed to chemotherapeutics. Guidelines for safe administration of HIPEC including environmental contamination risk management, personal protective equipment, and occupational health issues are yet to be established. This review summarizes the existing evidence regarding the safety considerations of HIPEC administration. PMID:27566037

  13. Can we predict SPEs before solar surface events? For the safety operation of manned space activities-

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomita, F.

    It is foregone conclusion that human activities in space will become more varied and more frequent as we move through the 21st century. Space tourism is now becoming practical realities, and manned Moon base or manned mission to Mars is also now considered feasible. For the safety operations of these manned space activities, the prediction of the Solar energetic Particle Events (SPEs) around the manned missions is one of the most important requisite. A typical SPE will start at 1 AU after a few tens of minutes when we identify the monstrous event near the solar surface by the observations of the peak flux and structure of the X-ray event, and/or brightness and structure of the coronal mass ejection (CME) / flare, and/or special spectral type of solar radio bursts. Consequently, it takes a few hours to reach maximum level. This maximum SPE level is sometimes lethal for the aurora watching space tourists, out-door activities at the Moon base, and extra vehicular activities during Mars explorations. The lead-time of about 2.5 hour or less for lethal SPEs may not be safe enough for future manned space activities. For our children and ground-children, we have to discover most reliable precursors of CME / flare, or think out the most practical prediction tools that are faster than the speed of light.

  14. Modified Universal Design Survey: Enhancing Operability of Launch Vehicle Ground Crew Worksites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blume, Jennifer L.

    2010-01-01

    Operability is a driving requirement for next generation space launch vehicles. Launch site ground operations include numerous operator tasks to prepare the vehicle for launch or to perform preflight maintenance. Ensuring that components requiring operator interaction at the launch site are designed for optimal human use is a high priority for operability. To promote operability, a Design Quality Evaluation Survey based on Universal Design framework was developed to support Human Factors Engineering (HFE) evaluation for NASA s launch vehicles. Universal Design per se is not a priority for launch vehicle processing however; applying principles of Universal Design will increase the probability of an error free and efficient design which promotes operability. The Design Quality Evaluation Survey incorporates and tailors the seven Universal Design Principles and adds new measures for Safety and Efficiency. Adapting an approach proven to measure Universal Design Performance in Product, each principle is associated with multiple performance measures which are rated with the degree to which the statement is true. The Design Quality Evaluation Survey was employed for several launch vehicle ground processing worksite analyses. The tool was found to be most useful for comparative judgments as opposed to an assessment of a single design option. It provided a useful piece of additional data when assessing possible operator interfaces or worksites for operability.

  15. 77 FR 50855 - Oil and Gas and Sulphur Operations on the Outer Continental Shelf-Increased Safety Measures for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-22

    ... Energy Management, Regulation, and Enforcement (BOEMRE) published the Interim Final Rule (75 FR 63346... 14, 2010 (75 FR 63346). The IFR was effective immediately, with a 60-day comment period. On October 1... Part 250 Oil and Gas and Sulphur Operations on the Outer Continental Shelf-- Increased Safety...

  16. 75 FR 76632 - Oil and Gas and Sulphur Operations in the Outer Continental Shelf-Increased Safety Measures for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-09

    ... and Sulphur Operations in the Outer Continental Shelf--Increased Safety Measures for Energy Development on the Outer Continental Shelf; Correction AGENCY: Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Regulation... oil and gas exploration and development on the Outer Continental Shelf. This document contains...

  17. 76 FR 11079 - Oil and Gas and Sulphur Operations in the Outer Continental Shelf-Safety and Environmental...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-01

    ... 250, Subpart S--Safety and Environmental Management Systems, in the Federal Register (75 FR 63610... Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Regulation and Enforcement 30 CFR Part 250 Oil and Gas and Sulphur... and Environmental Management Systems (SEMS) for oil and gas and sulphur operations in the...

  18. A Fire Safety Certification System for Board and Care Operators and Staff. SBIR Phase I: Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Bonnie L.

    This report describes the development and pilot testing of a fire safety certification system for board and care operators and staff who serve clients with developmental disabilities. During Phase 1, training materials were developed, including a trainer's manual, a participant's coursebook a videotape, an audiotape, and a pre-/post test which was…

  19. Safety and health compliance for hazmat. The "HAZWOPER" (Worker Protection Standards for Hazardous Waste Operations and Emergency Response) standard.

    PubMed

    Golden, J M

    1991-10-01

    With as many as 1.8 million workers at risk for hazardous-materials exposure, OSHA and the EPA have recently published rules regulating hazmat safety operations. This article summarizes these rules, commonly referred to as HAZWOPER, and addresses their impact on EMS agencies and employees. PMID:10116021

  20. 49 CFR 244.13 - Subjects to be addressed in a Safety Integration Plan involving an amalgamation of operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... drug testing programs as required under 49 CFR part 219. (3) Qualification and certification of... engineers under 49 CFR part 240. (4) Hours of service laws. Each applicant shall identify the procedures for... development projects for signal and train control operations. (f) Track Safety Standards and bridge...

  1. 49 CFR 244.13 - Subjects to be addressed in a Safety Integration Plan involving an amalgamation of operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... drug testing programs as required under 49 CFR part 219. (3) Qualification and certification of... engineers under 49 CFR part 240. (4) Hours of service laws. Each applicant shall identify the procedures for... development projects for signal and train control operations. (f) Track Safety Standards and bridge...

  2. 49 CFR 244.13 - Subjects to be addressed in a Safety Integration Plan involving an amalgamation of operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... drug testing programs as required under 49 CFR part 219. (3) Qualification and certification of... engineers under 49 CFR part 240. (4) Hours of service laws. Each applicant shall identify the procedures for... development projects for signal and train control operations. (f) Track Safety Standards and bridge...

  3. 49 CFR 240.111 - Individual's duty to furnish data on prior safety conduct as motor vehicle operator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Individual's duty to furnish data on prior safety conduct as motor vehicle operator. 240.111 Section 240.111 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... CERTIFICATION OF LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERS Component Elements of the Certification Process § 240.111...

  4. 33 CFR 165.110 - Safety and Security Zone; Liquefied Natural Gas Carrier Transits and Anchorage Operations, Boston...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...; Liquefied Natural Gas Carrier Transits and Anchorage Operations, Boston, Massachusetts. 165.110 Section 165... Limited Access Areas First Coast Guard District § 165.110 Safety and Security Zone; Liquefied Natural Gas.... Deepwater port means any facility or structure meeting the definition of deepwater port in 33 CFR...

  5. 33 CFR 165.110 - Safety and Security Zone; Liquefied Natural Gas Carrier Transits and Anchorage Operations, Boston...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...; Liquefied Natural Gas Carrier Transits and Anchorage Operations, Boston, Massachusetts. 165.110 Section 165... Limited Access Areas First Coast Guard District § 165.110 Safety and Security Zone; Liquefied Natural Gas.... Deepwater port means any facility or structure meeting the definition of deepwater port in 33 CFR...

  6. 33 CFR 165.110 - Safety and Security Zone; Liquefied Natural Gas Carrier Transits and Anchorage Operations, Boston...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...; Liquefied Natural Gas Carrier Transits and Anchorage Operations, Boston, Massachusetts. 165.110 Section 165... Limited Access Areas First Coast Guard District § 165.110 Safety and Security Zone; Liquefied Natural Gas.... Deepwater port means any facility or structure meeting the definition of deepwater port in 33 CFR...

  7. 33 CFR 165.110 - Safety and Security Zone; Liquefied Natural Gas Carrier Transits and Anchorage Operations, Boston...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...; Liquefied Natural Gas Carrier Transits and Anchorage Operations, Boston, Massachusetts. 165.110 Section 165... Limited Access Areas First Coast Guard District § 165.110 Safety and Security Zone; Liquefied Natural Gas.... Deepwater port means any facility or structure meeting the definition of deepwater port in 33 CFR...

  8. 33 CFR 165.110 - Safety and Security Zone; Liquefied Natural Gas Carrier Transits and Anchorage Operations, Boston...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...; Liquefied Natural Gas Carrier Transits and Anchorage Operations, Boston, Massachusetts. 165.110 Section 165... Limited Access Areas First Coast Guard District § 165.110 Safety and Security Zone; Liquefied Natural Gas.... Deepwater port means any facility or structure meeting the definition of deepwater port in 33 CFR...

  9. Safety evaluation report related to the renewal of the operating license for the research reactor at North Carolina State University

    SciTech Connect

    1997-04-01

    This safety evaluation report (SER) summarizes the findings of a safety review conducted by the staff of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation (NRR). The staff conducted this review in response to a timely application filed by North Carolina State University (the licensee or NCSU) for a 20-year renewal of Facility Operating License R-120 to continue to operate the NCSU PULSTAR research reactor. The facility is located in the Burlington Engineering Laboratory complex on the NCSU campus in Raleigh, North Carolina. In its safety review, the staff considered information submitted by the licensee (including past operating history recorded in the licensee`s annual reports to the NRC), as well as inspection reports prepared by NRC Region H personnel and first-hand observations. On the basis of this review, the staff concludes that NCSU can continue to operate the PULSTAR research reactor, in accordance with its application, without endangering the health and safety of the public. 16 refs., 31 figs., 7 tabs.

  10. TECHNOLOGIES TO ENHANCE OPERATION OF THE EXISTING NATURAL GAS COMPRESSION INFRASTRUCTURE

    SciTech Connect

    Anthony J. Smalley; Ralph E. Harris; Gary D. Bourn

    2004-10-01

    This quarterly report documents work performed under Tasks 10 through 14 of the project entitled: Technologies to Enhance Operation of the Existing Natural Gas Compression Infrastructure. The project objective is to develop and substantiate methods for operating integral engine/compressors in gas pipeline service, which reduce fuel consumption, increase capacity, and enhance mechanical integrity. The report documents the second series of tests performed on a GMW10 engine/compressor after modifications to add high pressure Fuel and a Turbocharger. It also presents baseline testing for air balance investigations and initial simulation modeling of the air manifold for a Cooper GMVH6.

  11. TECHNOLOGIES TO ENHANCE OPERATION OF THE EXISTING NATURAL GAS COMPRESSION INFRASTRUCTURE

    SciTech Connect

    Anthony J. Smalley; Ralph E. Harris; Gary D. Bourn

    2004-07-01

    This quarterly report documents work performed in Phase I of the project entitled: ''Technologies to Enhance Operation of the Existing Natural Gas Compression Infrastructure''. The project objective is to develop and substantiate methods for operating integral engine/compressors in gas pipeline service, which reduce fuel consumption, increase capacity, and enhance mechanical integrity. The report documents the second series of tests performed on a turbocharged HBA-6T engine/compressor. It also presents baseline testing for air balance investigations and initial simulation modeling of the air manifold for a Cooper GMVH6.

  12. 76 FR 70342 - Quarterly Listings; Safety Zones, Security Zones, Special Local Regulations, Drawbridge Operation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-14

    ... (Part 165). 11/13/2010 USCG-2010-1031 Miami, FL Security Zone (Part 165). 12/30/2010 USCG-2010-1037 Lake........... Safety Zone (Part 165)... 11/31/10 USCG-2010-1075 Clearwater, FL Safety Zone (Part 165)... 12/30/2010... USCG-2011-0365 San Francisco, CA......... Safety Zone (Part 165)... 6/10/2011 USCG-2011-0376 Nevada,...

  13. Enhancing Physics Operations and Increasing Physics Productivity at DIII-D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hyatt, A. W.; Humphreys, D. A.; Johnson, R. D.; Walker, M. L.; Ferron, J. R.; Scoville, J. T.; Wade, M. R.

    2008-11-01

    Having begun operation in 1986, DIII-D is a mature tokamak with highly effective physics operations procedures to plan and execute discharges, monitor machine status, and train personnel. A desire to maximize physics productivity per discharge has driven an ongoing process to enhance physics operations. Developments in modeling and simulation software and data-driven improved fault monitoring allow continuing improvement. Productivity enhancements include use of control design and simulation tools to reduce machine time needed to develop new algorithms, ongoing training programs for physics operators, improved physics and control-related trouble reporting, and deployment of new status reporting displays in the DIII-D Control Room. Use of the DIII-D Plasma Control System at other devices such as NSTX, EAST, and KSTAR have provided solutions for use at DIII-D as well. Results of this ongoing process and lessons learned for next generation devices such as ITER will be discussed.

  14. Visual enhancements in pick-and-place tasks: Human operators controlling a simulated cylindrical manipulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Won S.; Tendick, Frank; Stark, Lawrence

    1989-01-01

    A teleoperation simulator was constructed with vector display system, joysticks, and a simulated cylindrical manipulator, in order to quantitatively evaluate various display conditions. The first of two experiments conducted investigated the effects of perspective parameter variations on human operators' pick-and-place performance, using a monoscopic perspective display. The second experiment involved visual enhancements of the monoscopic perspective display, by adding a grid and reference lines, by comparison with visual enhancements of a stereoscopic display; results indicate that stereoscopy generally permits superior pick-and-place performance, but that monoscopy nevertheless allows equivalent performance when defined with appropriate perspective parameter values and adequate visual enhancements.

  15. Visual enhancements in pick-and-place tasks - Human operators controlling a simulated cylindrical manipulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Won S.; Tendick, Frank; Stark, Lawrence W.

    1987-01-01

    A teleoperation simulator has been constructed with vector display system, joysticks, and a simulated cylindrical manipulator, in order to quantitatively evaluate various display conditions. The first of two experiments thus conducted investigated the effects of perspective parameter variations on human operators' pick-and-place performance, using a monoscopic perspective display. The second experiment involved visual enhancements of the monoscopic perspective display, by adding a grid and reference lines, by comparison with visual enhancements of a stereoscopic display; results indicate that stereoscopy generally permits superior pick-and-place performance, but that monoscopy nevertheless allows equivalent performance when defined with appropriate perspective parameter values and adequate visual enhancements.

  16. Improvement of operational safety of dual-purpose transport packaging set for naval SNF in storage

    SciTech Connect

    Guskov, Vladimir; Korotkov, Gennady; Barnes, Ella; Snipes, Randy

    2007-07-01

    Available in abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: In recent ten years a new technology of management of irradiated nuclear fuel (SNF) at the final stage of fuel cycle has been intensely developing on a basis of a new type of casks used for interim storage of SNF and subsequent transportation therein to the place of processing, further storage or final disposal. This technology stems from the concept of a protective cask which provides preservation of its content (SNF) and fulfillment of all other safety requirements for storage and transportation of SNF. Radiation protection against emissions and non-distribution of activity outside the cask is ensured by physical barriers, i.e. all-metal or composite body, shells, inner cavities for irradiated fuel assemblies (SFA), lids with sealing systems. Residual heat release of SFA is discharged to the environment by natural way: through emission and convection of surrounding air. By now more than 100 dual purpose packaging sets TUK-108/1 are in operation in the mode of interim storage and transportation of SNF from decommissioned nuclear powered submarines (NPS). In accordance with certificate, spent fuel is stored in TUK-108/1 on the premises of plants involved in NPS dismantlement for 2 years, whereupon it is transported for processing to PO Mayak. At one Far Eastern plant Zvezda involved in NPS dismantlement there arose a complicated situation due to necessity to extend period of storage of SNF in TUK- 108/1. To ensure safety over a longer period of storage of SNF in TUK-108/1 it is essential to modify conditions of storage by removing of residual water and filling the inner cavity of the cask with an inert gas. Within implementation of the international 1.1- 2 project Development of drying technology for the cask TUK-108/1 intended for naval SNF under the Program, there has been developed the technology of preparation of the cask for long-term storage of SNF in TUK-108/1, the design of a mobile TUK-108

  17. Evaluation of the food safety training for food handlers in restaurant operations

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sung-Hee; Kwak, Tong-Kyung

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the extent of improvement of food safety knowledge and practices of employee through food safety training. Employee knowledge and practice for food safety were evaluated before and after the food safety training program. The training program and questionnaires for evaluating employee knowledge and practices concerning food safety, and a checklist for determining food safety performance of restaurants were developed. Data were analyzed using the SPSS program. Twelve restaurants participated in this study. We split them into two groups: the intervention group with training, and the control group without food safety training. Employee knowledge of the intervention group also showed a significant improvement in their score, increasing from 49.3 before the training to 66.6 after training. But in terms of employee practices and the sanitation performance, there were no significant increases after the training. From these results, we recommended that the more job-specific and hand-on training materials for restaurant employees should be developed and more continuous implementation of the food safety training and integration of employee appraisal program with the outcome of safety training were needed. PMID:20198210

  18. The possibilities of applying a risk-oriented approach to the NPP reliability and safety enhancement problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komarov, Yu. A.

    2014-10-01

    An analysis and some generalizations of approaches to risk assessments are presented. Interconnection between different interpretations of the "risk" notion is shown, and the possibility of applying the fuzzy set theory to risk assessments is demonstrated. A generalized formulation of the risk assessment notion is proposed in applying risk-oriented approaches to the problem of enhancing reliability and safety in nuclear power engineering. The solution of problems using the developed risk-oriented approaches aimed at achieving more reliable and safe operation of NPPs is described. The results of studies aimed at determining the need (advisability) to modernize/replace NPP elements and systems are presented together with the results obtained from elaborating the methodical principles of introducing the repair concept based on the equipment technical state. The possibility of reducing the scope of tests and altering the NPP systems maintenance strategy is substantiated using the risk-oriented approach. A probabilistic model for estimating the validity of boric acid concentration measurements is developed.

  19. Enhancing VHTR passive safety and economy with thermal radiation based direct reactor auxiliary cooling system

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, H.; Zhang, H.; Zou, L.; Sun, X.

    2012-07-01

    effective in removing decay heat. By removing the limit on the decay heat removal capability due to the limited available surface area as in a RVACS, the reactor power density and therefore the reactor power can be significantly increased, without losing the passive heat removal feature. This paper introduces the concept of using DRACS to enhance VHTR passive safety and economics. Three design options with different cooling pipe locations are discussed. Analysis results from a lumped volume based model and CFD simulations are presented. (authors)

  20. Further safety enhancement of a specialized power assisted tricycle for a child with osteogenesis imperfecta type III and design of an adjustble hand power tricycle.

    PubMed

    Geu, Matthew; Madsen, Robert; Weber, Erica; Burnett, Michael; Barrett, Steven

    2006-01-01

    Several tricycles, one a customized power assisted tricycle, and the second a hand powered tricycle were developed, which offered a unique opportunity to serve multiple purposes in several children's development throughout Wyoming. In Both cases these tricycles provide the children with the opportunity to gain muscle mass, strength, coordination, and confidence. The power assisted tricycle was completed as a senior design project in 2002, and over time safety enhancements have been completed to make the tricycle safer for operation. Unfortunately, the safety system enhancements were not acceptable for it to be released for use. For this reason the tricycle was further redesigned to include more redundant safety systems which will allow the tricycle to be safe for the child's use. The second tricycle was designed to allow for a group of children who have limited use of their legs, to be able to use the same tricycle to give them more upper body strength. A gear system using multiple gear sprockets was adapted to a preexisting tricycle to provide hand power rather than foot power. Without these improvements, the children would not have the opportunity to use these tricycles to help with their development. PMID:16817593

  1. Summary of Tiger Team Assessment and Technical Safety Appraisal recurring concerns in the Operations Area. DOE Training Coordination Program

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-01-01

    Fourteen Tiger Team Assessment and eight Technical Safety Appraisal (TSA) final reports have been received and reviewed by the DOE Training Coordination Program during Fiscal Year 1992. These assessments and appraisals included both reactor and non-reactor nuclear facilities in their reports. The Tiger Team Assessments and TSA reports both used TSA performance objectives, and list ``concerns`` as a result of their findings. However, the TSA reports categorized concerns into the following functional areas: (1) Organization and Administration, (2) Radiation Protection, (3) Nuclear Criticality Safety, (4) Occupational Safety, (5) Engineering/Technical Support, (6) Emergency Preparedness, (7) Safety Assessments, (8) Quality Verification, (9) Fire Protection, (10) Environmental Protection, and (11) Energetic Materials Safety. Although these functional areas match most of the TSA performance objectives, not all of the TSA performance objectives are addressed. For example, the TSA reports did not include Training, Maintenance, and Operations as functional areas. Rather, they included concerns that related to these topics throughout the 11 functional areas identified above. For consistency, the Operations concerns that were identified in each of the TSA report functional areas have been included in this summary with the corresponding TSA performance objective.

  2. The End-To-End Safety Verification Process Implemented to Ensure Safe Operations of the Columbus Research Module

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arndt, J.; Kreimer, J.

    2010-09-01

    The European Space Laboratory COLUMBUS was launched in February 2008 with NASA Space Shuttle Atlantis. Since successful docking and activation this manned laboratory forms part of the International Space Station(ISS). Depending on the objectives of the Mission Increments the on-orbit configuration of the COLUMBUS Module varies with each increment. This paper describes the end-to-end verification which has been implemented to ensure safe operations under the condition of a changing on-orbit configuration. That verification process has to cover not only the configuration changes as foreseen by the Mission Increment planning but also those configuration changes on short notice which become necessary due to near real-time requests initiated by crew or Flight Control, and changes - most challenging since unpredictable - due to on-orbit anomalies. Subject of the safety verification is on one hand the on orbit configuration itself including the hardware and software products, on the other hand the related Ground facilities needed for commanding of and communication to the on-orbit System. But also the operational products, e.g. the procedures prepared for crew and ground control in accordance to increment planning, are subject of the overall safety verification. In order to analyse the on-orbit configuration for potential hazards and to verify the implementation of the related Safety required hazard controls, a hierarchical approach is applied. The key element of the analytical safety integration of the whole COLUMBUS Payload Complement including hardware owned by International Partners is the Integrated Experiment Hazard Assessment(IEHA). The IEHA especially identifies those hazardous scenarios which could potentially arise through physical and operational interaction of experiments. A major challenge is the implementation of a Safety process which owns quite some rigidity in order to provide reliable verification of on-board Safety and which likewise provides enough

  3. Probabilistic cost-benefit analysis of enhanced safety features for strategic nuclear weapons at a representative location

    SciTech Connect

    Stephens, D.R.; Hall, C.H.; Holman, G.S.; Graham, K.F.; Harvey, T.F.; Serduke, F.J.D.

    1993-10-01

    We carried out a demonstration analysis of the value of developing and implementing enhanced safety features for nuclear weapons in the US stockpile. We modified an approach that the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) developed in response to a congressional directive that NRC assess the ``value-impact`` of regulatory actions for commercial nuclear power plants. Because improving weapon safety shares some basic objectives with NRC regulations, i.e., protecting public health and safety from the effects of accidents involving radioactive materials, we believe the NRC approach to be appropriate for evaluating weapons-safety cost-benefit issues. Impact analysis includes not only direct costs associated with retrofitting the weapon system, but also the expected costs (or economic risks) that are avoided by the action, i.e., the benefits.

  4. Toward an understanding of the impact of production pressure on safety performance in construction operations.

    PubMed

    Han, Sanguk; Saba, Farzaneh; Lee, Sanghyun; Mohamed, Yasser; Peña-Mora, Feniosky

    2014-07-01

    It is not unusual to observe that actual schedule and quality performances are different from planned performances (e.g., schedule delay and rework) during a construction project. Such differences often result in production pressure (e.g., being pressed to work faster). Previous studies demonstrated that such production pressure negatively affects safety performance. However, the process by which production pressure influences safety performance, and to what extent, has not been fully investigated. As a result, the impact of production pressure has not been incorporated much into safety management in practice. In an effort to address this issue, this paper examines how production pressure relates to safety performance over time by identifying their feedback processes. A conceptual causal loop diagram is created to identify the relationship between schedule and quality performances (e.g., schedule delays and rework) and the components related to a safety program (e.g., workers' perceptions of safety, safety training, safety supervision, and crew size). A case study is then experimentally undertaken to investigate this relationship with accident occurrence with the use of data collected from a construction site; the case study is used to build a System Dynamics (SD) model. The SD model, then, is validated through inequality statistics analysis. Sensitivity analysis and statistical screening techniques further permit an evaluation of the impact of the managerial components on accident occurrence. The results of the case study indicate that schedule delays and rework are the critical factors affecting accident occurrence for the monitored project. PMID:24184131

  5. SACRD: a data base for fast reactor safety computer codes, operational procedures

    SciTech Connect

    Forsberg, V.M.; Arwood, J.W.; Greene, N.M.; Raiford, G.B.

    1980-09-01

    SACRD (Safety Analysis Computerized Reactor Data) is a data base of nondesign-related information used in computer codes for fast reactor safety analyses. This document reports the procedures used in SACRD to help assure a reasonable level of integrity of the material contained in the data base. It also serves to document much of the computer software used with the data base.

  6. Criticality Safety Evaluations on the Use of 200-gram Pu Mass Limit for RHWM Waste Storage Operations

    SciTech Connect

    Chou, P

    2011-12-14

    This work establishes the criticality safety technical basis to increase the fissile mass limit from 120 grams to 200 grams for Type A 55-gallon drums and their equivalents. Current RHWM fissile mass limit is 120 grams Pu for Type A 55-gallon containers and their equivalent. In order to increase the Type A 55-gallon drum limit to 200 grams, a few additional criticality safety control requirements are needed on moderators, reflectors, and array controls to ensure that the 200-gram Pu drums remain criticality safe with inadvertent criticality remains incredible. The purpose of this work is to analyze the use of 200-gram Pu drum mass limit for waste storage operations in Radioactive and Hazardous Waste Management (RHWM) Facilities. In this evaluation, the criticality safety controls associated with the 200-gram Pu drums are established for the RHWM waste storage operations. With the implementation of these criticality safety controls, the 200-gram Pu waste drum storage operations are demonstrated to be criticality safe and meet the double-contingency-principle requirement per DOE O 420.1.

  7. 30 CFR 250.1165 - What must I do for enhanced recovery operations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...? 250.1165 Section 250.1165 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT, REGULATION, AND... engineering and economic principles. (b) Before initiating enhanced recovery operations, you must submit a... and engineering overview, Form MMS-127 and supporting data as required in § 250.1167, and...

  8. Operating experience with California's first coal fired enhanced oil recovery steam generator

    SciTech Connect

    Waldman, G.B.

    1983-11-01

    This article discusses the experiences of operating Pyropower Corporation's ''Pyroflow'' circulating fluidized bed steam generation plant in Bakersfield, California. The Pyroflow plant is shown to be demonstrating its ability to provide a reliable source of steam for enhanced oil recovery. Actual operating problems have been minimal, and those which have occurred have involved plant auxilliary equipment rather than the steam generator itself. Fluidized bed combustion is the only practical means of burning coal in environmentally sensitive areas such as California without the use of flue gas scrubbing for sulfur dioxide control. This plant operates on the circulating bed concept as distinct from conventional fluidized beds which have a fixed bed depth.

  9. Sense and Avoid Safety Analysis for Remotely Operated Unmanned Aircraft in the National Airspace System. Version 5

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carreno, Victor

    2006-01-01

    This document describes a method to demonstrate that a UAS, operating in the NAS, can avoid collisions with an equivalent level of safety compared to a manned aircraft. The method is based on the calculation of a collision probability for a UAS , the calculation of a collision probability for a base line manned aircraft, and the calculation of a risk ratio given by: Risk Ratio = P(collision_UAS)/P(collision_manned). A UAS will achieve an equivalent level of safety for collision risk if the Risk Ratio is less than or equal to one. Calculation of the probability of collision for UAS and manned aircraft is accomplished through event/fault trees.

  10. TECHNOLOGIES TO ENHANCE THE OPERATION OF EXISTING NATURAL GAS COMPESSION INFRASTRUCTURE

    SciTech Connect

    Anthony J. Smalley; Ralph E. Harris; Gary D. Bourn; Danny M. Deffenbaugh

    2006-01-24

    This quarterly report documents work performed under Tasks 15, 16, and 18 through 23 of the project entitled: ''Technologies to Enhance the Operation of Existing Natural Gas Compression Infrastructure''. The project objective is to develop and substantiate methods for operating integral engine/compressors in gas pipeline service, which reduce fuel consumption, increase capacity, and enhance mechanical integrity. The report presents results of design analysis performed on the TCVC10 engine/compressor installed at Dominion's Groveport Compressor Station to develop options and guide decisions for reducing pulsations and enhancing compressor system efficiency and capacity. The report further presents progress on modifying and testing the laboratory GMVH6 at SwRI for correcting air imbalance.

  11. TECHNOLOGIES TO ENHANCE THE OPERATION OF EXISTING NATURAL GAS COMPRESSION INFRASTRUCTURE

    SciTech Connect

    Anthony J. Smalley; Ralph E. Harris; Gary D. Bourn; Danny M. Deffenbaugh

    2005-10-27

    This quarterly report documents work performed under Tasks 15, 16, and 18 through 23 of the project entitled: ''Technologies to Enhance the Operation of Existing Natural Gas Compression Infrastructure''. The project objective is to develop and substantiate methods for operating integral engine/compressors in gas pipeline service, which reduce fuel consumption, increase capacity, and enhance mechanical integrity. The report first summarizes key results from survey site tests performed on an HBA-6 installed at Duke Energy's Bedford compressor station, and on a TCVC10 engine/compressor installed at Dominion's Groveport Compressor Station. The report then presents results of design analysis performed on the Bedford HBA-6 to develop options and guide decisions for reducing pulsations and enhancing compressor system efficiency and capacity. The report further presents progress on modifying and testing the laboratory GMVH6 at SwRI for correcting air imbalance.

  12. Development of a portable bicycle/pedestrian monitoring system for safety enhancement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Usher, Colin; Daley, W. D. R.

    2015-03-01

    Pedestrians involved in roadway accidents account for nearly 12 percent of all traffic fatalities and 59,000 injuries each year. Most injuries occur when pedestrians attempt to cross roads, and there have been noted differences in accident rates midblock vs. at intersections. Collecting data on pedestrian behavior is a time consuming manual process that is prone to error. This leads to a lack of quality information to guide the proper design of lane markings and traffic signals to enhance pedestrian safety. Researchers at the Georgia Tech Research Institute are developing and testing an automated system that can be rapidly deployed for data collection to support the analysis of pedestrian behavior at intersections and midblock crossings with and without traffic signals. This system will analyze the collected video data to automatically identify and characterize the number of pedestrians and their behavior. It consists of a mobile trailer with four high definition pan-tilt cameras for data collection. The software is custom designed and uses state of the art commercial pedestrian detection algorithms. We will be presenting the system hardware and software design, challenges, and results from the preliminary system testing. Preliminary results indicate the ability to provide representative quantitative data on pedestrian motion data more efficiently than current techniques.

  13. The SHIELD (Safety & Health Improvement: Enhancing Law Enforcement Departments) Study: Mixed Methods Longitudinal Findings.

    PubMed

    Kuehl, Kerry S; Elliot, Diane L; MacKinnon, David P; O'Rourke, Holly P; DeFrancesco, Carol; Miočević, Milica; Valente, Matthew; Sleigh, Adriana; Garg, Bharti; McGinnis, Wendy; Kuehl, Hannah

    2016-05-01

    The SHIELD (Safety & Health Improvement: Enhancing Law Enforcement Departments) Study is a worksite wellness team-based intervention among police and sheriff departments assessing the program's effectiveness to reduce occupational risks and unhealthy lifestyle behaviors. The SHIELD program focused on improving diet, physical activity, body weight and sleep, and reducing the effects of unhealthy stress and behaviors, such as tobacco and substance abuse. The SHIELD team-based health promotion program was found to be feasible and effective at 6 months in improving diet, sleep, stress, and overall quality of life of law enforcement department personnel. Both intervention and control groups were followed for 24 months, and we report those durability findings, along with qualitative group interview results that provide insight into the changes of the long-term outcomes. Long-term effects were observed for consumption of fruits and vegetables, and there was some evidence for effects on tobacco and alcohol use. Assessment of dietary habits, physical activity behaviors, weight loss maintenance, and substance use is rare more than 1 year following an intervention, and in general, initial positive changes do not persist in prior research. The SHIELD program was feasible, effective, and durable for improving dietary changes. PMID:27158956

  14. Enhancing patient safety through the management of Clostridium difficile at Toronto East General Hospital.

    PubMed

    Tomiczek, Arladeen; Stumpo, C; Downey, James F

    2006-01-01

    In 2005 Toronto East General Hospital experienced a steady increase in the number of C. difficile cases diagnosed within the hospital. This was identified as a patient safety issue, and several areas of the hospital came together to address the problem. Pharmacy immediately started a medication review of past cases. Environmental services took the lead on the environmental cleaning, and a process was put into place with Infection Control so that housekeeping knew of every room that contained a patient with C. difficile and enhanced cleaning could be practised. Staff, including nursing, housekeeping and porters, were educated on C. difficile and the methods of transmission. A business case was developed for a disposable bedpan system, and this was approved by the senior team. A new washable product was tried out with success for the overhead patient light pulls and bathroom call bell systems. Infection rates were shared with staff through a variety of venues. As a result of the initiatives, the hospital has seen a decrease of 50% in the rates of C. difficile. A bonus was that our MRSA rates dropped as well. PMID:17087168

  15. Historical data enhances safety supervision system performance in T1DM insulin therapy risk management.

    PubMed

    Hughes-Karvetski, Colleen; Patek, Stephen D; Breton, Marc D; Kovatchev, Boris P

    2013-02-01

    Safety measures to prevent or mitigate hypoglycemia are an important component of open loop, closed loop, and advisory mode insulin therapy control settings in type 1 diabetes. In recent work, we introduce a method for the automatic, gradual attenuation of the insulin pump delivery rate when a risk of hypoglycemia is detected, a method that we refer to as brakes. In the methods presented here, we demonstrate the use of historical glucose measurement data to inform and enhance the ability of the brakes to prevent hypoglycemia in real-time. The updated brakes are based on a patient-specific, time-varying model that reflects the typical trajectory of glycemic fluctuations throughout the day. Historical heightened risk of hypoglycemia throughout the day prompts an increase in the aggressiveness of insulin attenuation as compared to the original brakes that are based on real-time data alone. Through the use of available real-time data supplemented with historical glucose information to assess hypoglycemic risk, we are able to better anticipate and prevent hypoglycemia. PMID:22342221

  16. Novel PEPA-functionalized graphene oxide for fire safety enhancement of polypropylene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    You Xu, Jia; Liu, Jie; Li, Kai Dan; Miao, Lei; Tanemura, Sakae

    2015-04-01

    Polypropylene (PP) is a general-purpose plastic, but some applications are constrained by its high flammability. Thus, flame retardant PP is urgently demanded. In this article, intumescent flame retardant PP (IFRPP) composites with enhanced fire safety were prepared using 1-oxo-4-hydroxymethyl-2,6,7-trioxa-1-phosphabicyclo [2.2.2] octane (PEPA) functionalized graphene oxide (PGO) as synergist. The PGO was prepared through a mild chemical reaction by the covalent attachment of a caged-structure organic compound, PEPA, onto GO nanosheets using toluene diisocynate (TDI) as the intermediary agent. The novel PEPA-functionalized graphene oxide not only improves the heat resistance of GO but also converts GO and PEPA from hydrophobic to hydrophilic materials, which leads to even distribution in PP. In our case, 7 wt% addition of PGO as one of the fillers for IFRPP composites significantly reduces its inflammability and fire hazards when compared with PEPA, by the improvement of first release rate peak (PHRR), total heat release, first smoke release rate peak (PSRR) and total smoke release, suggesting its great potential as the IFR synergist in industry. The reason is mainly attributed to the barrier effect of the unburned graphene sheets, which protects by the decomposition products of PEPA and TDI, promotes the formation of graphitized carbon and inhibits the heat and gas release.

  17. Multivariate qualitative analysis of banned additives in food safety using surface enhanced Raman scattering spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Shixuan; Xie, Wanyi; Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Liqun; Wang, Yunxia; Liu, Xiaoling; Liu, Yulong; Du, Chunlei

    2015-02-01

    A novel strategy which combines iteratively cubic spline fitting baseline correction method with discriminant partial least squares qualitative analysis is employed to analyze the surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectroscopy of banned food additives, such as Sudan I dye and Rhodamine B in food, Malachite green residues in aquaculture fish. Multivariate qualitative analysis methods, using the combination of spectra preprocessing iteratively cubic spline fitting (ICSF) baseline correction with principal component analysis (PCA) and discriminant partial least squares (DPLS) classification respectively, are applied to investigate the effectiveness of SERS spectroscopy for predicting the class assignments of unknown banned food additives. PCA cannot be used to predict the class assignments of unknown samples. However, the DPLS classification can discriminate the class assignment of unknown banned additives using the information of differences in relative intensities. The results demonstrate that SERS spectroscopy combined with ICSF baseline correction method and exploratory analysis methodology DPLS classification can be potentially used for distinguishing the banned food additives in field of food safety.

  18. Multivariate qualitative analysis of banned additives in food safety using surface enhanced Raman scattering spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    He, Shixuan; Xie, Wanyi; Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Liqun; Wang, Yunxia; Liu, Xiaoling; Liu, Yulong; Du, Chunlei

    2015-02-25

    A novel strategy which combines iteratively cubic spline fitting baseline correction method with discriminant partial least squares qualitative analysis is employed to analyze the surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectroscopy of banned food additives, such as Sudan I dye and Rhodamine B in food, Malachite green residues in aquaculture fish. Multivariate qualitative analysis methods, using the combination of spectra preprocessing iteratively cubic spline fitting (ICSF) baseline correction with principal component analysis (PCA) and discriminant partial least squares (DPLS) classification respectively, are applied to investigate the effectiveness of SERS spectroscopy for predicting the class assignments of unknown banned food additives. PCA cannot be used to predict the class assignments of unknown samples. However, the DPLS classification can discriminate the class assignment of unknown banned additives using the information of differences in relative intensities. The results demonstrate that SERS spectroscopy combined with ICSF baseline correction method and exploratory analysis methodology DPLS classification can be potentially used for distinguishing the banned food additives in field of food safety. PMID:25300041

  19. Enhanced Component Performance Study: Motor-Operated Valves 1998–2012

    SciTech Connect

    T. E. Wierman

    2013-10-01

    This report presents an enhanced performance evaluation of motor-operated valves (MOVs) at U.S. commercial nuclear power plants. The data used in this study are based on the operating experience failure reports from fiscal year 1998 through 2012 for the component reliability as reported in the Equipment Performance and Information Exchange (EPIX). The MOV failure modes considered are failure to open/close, failure to operate or control, and spurious operation. The component reliability estimates and the reliability data are trended for the most recent 10-year period while yearly estimates for reliability are provided for the entire active period. No statistically significant increasing trends were identified in the MOV results. Statistically significant decreasing trends were identified for failure to open/close and operation demands.

  20. Latency features of SafetyNet ground systems architecture for the National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System (NPOESS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duda, James L.; Mulligan, Joseph; Valenti, James; Wenkel, Michael

    2005-01-01

    A key feature of the National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System (NPOESS) is the Northrop Grumman Space Technology patent-pending innovative data routing and retrieval architecture called SafetyNetTM. The SafetyNetTM ground system architecture for the National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System (NPOESS), combined with the Interface Data Processing Segment (IDPS), will together provide low data latency and high data availability to its customers. The NPOESS will cut the time between observation and delivery by a factor of four when compared with today's space-based weather systems, the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) and NOAA's Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellites (POES). SafetyNetTM will be a key element of the NPOESS architecture, delivering near real-time data over commercial telecommunications networks. Scattered around the globe, the 15 unmanned ground receptors are linked by fiber-optic systems to four central data processing centers in the U. S. known as Weather Centrals. The National Environmental Satellite, Data and Information Service; Air Force Weather Agency; Fleet Numerical Meteorology and Oceanography Center, and the Naval Oceanographic Office operate the Centrals. In addition, this ground system architecture will have unused capacity attendant with an infrastructure that can accommodate additional users.

  1. Analysis of Material Handling Safety in Construction Sites and Countermeasures for Effective Enhancement

    PubMed Central

    Anil Kumar, C. N.; Sakthivel, M.; Elangovan, R. K.; Arularasu, M.

    2015-01-01

    One of many hazardous workplaces includes the construction sites as they involve several dangerous tasks. Many studies have revealed that material handling equipment is a major cause of accidents at these sites. Though safety measures are being followed and monitored continuously, accident rates are still high as either workers are unaware of hazards or the safety regulations are not being strictly followed. This paper analyses the safety management systems at construction sites through means of questionnaire surveys with employees, specifically referring to safety of material handling equipment. Based on results of the questionnaire surveys, two construction sites were selected for a safety education program targeting worker safety related to material handling equipment. Knowledge levels of the workers were gathered before and after the program and results obtained were subjected to a t-test analysis to mark significance level of the conducted safety education program. PMID:26446572

  2. Strengthening safety compliance in nuclear power operations: a role-based approach.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Córcoles, Mario; Gracia, Francisco J; Tomás, Inés; Peiró, José M

    2014-07-01

    Safety compliance is of paramount importance in guaranteeing the safe running of nuclear power plants. However, it depends mostly on procedures that do not always involve the safest outcomes. This article introduces an empirical model based on the organizational role theory to analyze the influence of legitimate sources of expectations (procedures formalization and leadership) on workers' compliance behaviors. The sample was composed of 495 employees from two Spanish nuclear power plants. Structural equation analysis showed that, in spite of some problematic effects of proceduralization (such as role conflict and role ambiguity), procedure formalization along with an empowering leadership style lead to safety compliance by clarifying a worker's role in safety. Implications of these findings for safety research are outlined, as well as their practical implications. PMID:24495145

  3. A systematic process for assessing human spacecraft conceptual designs in terms of relative safety and operational characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Higdon, Kevin Paul

    The research efforts in this dissertation are focused on reducing uncertainty in the conceptual design phase through a process of establishing a minimum functionality baseline before trading Safety and Operability in proposed spacecraft configurations. The challenge in human spacecraft development is how to combine the parts into a working design that complies with many requirements for top level mission objectives, safety, and mission success. The design methodologies presented here provides designers and decision makers with additional methods that provide an overall view of candidate design concepts. This work establishes a definition for a minimum functional design and is the first to group the fundamental mass parameters of a human spacecraft in the categories of Physics, Physiology, Safety, and Operability. The minimum functional baseline configuration described in this work is different from previous approaches because it eliminates the bias toward a minimum set of requirements. The amount of Safety in the spacecraft is the mass dedicated to safety through similar or dissimilar redundancy, safety components, margins, and dispersions. The amount of Operability in the spacecraft is the mass used to perform mission objectives and make functions easier or efficient. Because human spacecraft are highly coupled systems, the introduction of mass in one subsystem has downstream effects on other subsystems that are not easily recognized by designers and the use of rapidly reconfigurable prototypes allows designers and multidisciplinary teams to utilize Boundary Objects as a means of communication for maturing designs. The mass addition process coupled with the minimum functionality approach creates a tradespace of spacecraft configurations and provides designers with an overall view of how various levels of Safety or Operability will affect the overall spacecraft mass. The decisions made in the conceptual design phase are critical to the success of the program and

  4. 76 FR 40860 - Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Assessment for Pedestrian Safety Enhancement Act of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-12

    ...\\ NHTSA said that it recognized that quieter cars, such as hybrid-electric vehicles in low-speed operation... requiring electric and hybrid vehicles to be equipped with a pedestrian alert sound system that would... intends to propose a Federal motor vehicle safety standard requiring electric and hybrid vehicles to...

  5. FOCUS: the Society of Cardiovascular Anesthesiologists' initiative to improve quality and safety in the cardiovascular operating room.

    PubMed

    Barbeito, Atilio; Lau, William Travis; Weitzel, Nathaen; Abernathy, James H; Wahr, Joyce; Mark, Jonathan B

    2014-10-01

    The Society of Cardiovascular Anesthesiologists (SCA) introduced the FOCUS initiative (Flawless Operative Cardiovascular Unified Systems) in 2005 in response to the need for a rigorous scientific approach to improve quality and safety in the cardiovascular operating room (CVOR). The goal of the project, which is supported by the SCA Foundation, is to identify hazards and develop evidence-based protocols to improve cardiac surgery safety. A hazard is anything that has the potential to cause a preventable adverse event. Specifically, the strategic plan of FOCUS includes 3 goals: (1) identifying hazards in the CVOR, (2) prioritizing hazards and developing risk-reduction interventions, and (3) disseminating these interventions. Collectively, the FOCUS initiative, through the work of several groups composed of members from different disciplines such as clinical medicine, human factors engineering, industrial psychology, and organizational sociology, has identified and documented significant hazards occurring daily in our CVORs. Some examples of frequent occurrences that contribute to reduce the safety and quality of care provided to cardiac surgery patients include deficiencies in teamwork, poor OR design, incompatible technologies, and failure to adhere to best practices. Several projects are currently under way that are aimed at better understanding these hazards and developing interventions to mitigate them. The SCA, through the FOCUS initiative, has begun this journey of science-driven improvement in quality and safety. There is a long and arduous road ahead, but one we need to continue to travel. PMID:25232690

  6. Safety impacts of platform tram stops on pedestrians in mixed traffic operation: A comparison group before-after crash study.

    PubMed

    Naznin, Farhana; Currie, Graham; Logan, David; Sarvi, Majid

    2016-01-01

    Tram stops in mixed traffic environments present a variety of safety, accessibility and transport efficiency challenges. In Melbourne, Australia the hundred year-old electric tram system is progressively being modernized to improve passenger accessibility. Platform stops, incorporating raised platforms for level entry into low floor trams, are being retro-fitted system-wide to replace older design stops. The aim of this study was to investigate the safety impacts of platform stops over older design stops (i.e. Melbourne safety zone tram stops) on pedestrians in the context of mixed traffic tram operation in Melbourne, using an advanced before-after crash analysis approach, the comparison group (CG) method. The CG method evaluates safety impacts by taking into account the general trends in safety and the unobserved factors at treatment and comparison sites that can alter the outcomes of a simple before-after analysis. The results showed that pedestrian-involved all injury crashes reduced by 43% after platform stop installation. This paper also explores a concern that the conventional CG method might underestimate safety impacts as a result of large differences in passenger stop use between treatment and comparison sites, suggesting differences in crash risk exposure. To adjust for this, a modified analysis explored crash rates (crash counts per 10,000 stop passengers) for each site. The adjusted results suggested greater reductions in pedestrian-involved crashes after platform stop installation: an 81% reduction in pedestrian-involved all injury crashes and 86% reduction in pedestrian-involved FSI crashes, both are significant at the 95% level. Overall, the results suggest that platform stops have considerable safety benefits for pedestrians. Implications for policy and areas for future research are explored. PMID:26476596

  7. Enhancing VHTR Passive Safety and Economy with Thermal Radiation Based Direct Reactor Auxiliary Cooling System

    SciTech Connect

    Haihua Zhao; Hongbin Zhang; Ling Zou; Xiaodong Sun

    2012-06-01

    inner graphite reflector blocks. There will be gaps between these cooling pipes and their corresponding surrounding graphite surfaces. Graphite has an excellent heat conduction property. By taking advantage of this feature, we can have a volume-based method to remove decay heat. The scalability can be achieved, if needed, by employing more rows of cooling pipes to accommodate higher decay heat rates. Since heat can easily conduct through the graphite regions between the holes made for the cooling pipes, those cooling pipes located further away from the active core region can still be very effective in removing decay heat. By removing the limit on the decay heat removal capability due to the limited available surface area as in a RVACS, the reactor power and power density can be significantly increased, without losing the passive heat removal feature. This paper will introduce the concept of using DRACS to enhance VHTR passive safety and economics. Three design options will be discussed, depending on the cooling pipe locations. Analysis results from a lumped volume based model and CFD simulations will be presented.

  8. Minimum Equipment Lists, Flight Rules and ... Past, Present and Future of Safety Pre-Determined Decisions for Operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herd, A.; Wolff, M.

    2012-01-01

    Extended mission operations, such as human spaceflight to Mars provide an opportunity for take current human exploration beyond Low Earth Orbit, such as the operations undertaken on the International Space Station (ISS). This opportunity also presents a challenge in terms of extending what we currently understand as "remote operations" performed on ISS, offering learning beyond that gained from the successful moon- lander expeditions. As such there is a need to assess how the existing operations concept of ground support teams directing (and supporting) on-orbit ISS operations can be applied in the extended mission concept. The current mission support concept involves three interacting operations products - a short term plan, crew procedures and flight rules. Flight rules (for ISS operations) currently provide overall planning, engineering and operations constraints (including those derived from a safety perspective) in the form of a rule book. This paper will focus specifically on flight rules, and describe the current use of them, and assess the future role of flight rules to support exploration, including the deployment of decision support tools (DSTs) to ensure flight rule compliancy for missions with minimal ground support. Taking consideration of the historical development of pre-planned decisions, and their manifestation within the operations environment, combined with the extended remoteness of human exploration missions, we will propose a future development of this product and a platform on which it could be presented.

  9. Workflow Enhancement (WE) Improves Safety in Radiation Oncology: Putting the WE and Team Together

    SciTech Connect

    Chao, Samuel T.; Meier, Tim; Hugebeck, Brian; Reddy, Chandana A.; Godley, Andrew; Kolar, Matt; Suh, John H.

    2014-07-15

    Purpose: To review the impact of a workflow enhancement (WE) team in reducing treatment errors that reach patients within radiation oncology. Methods and Materials: It was determined that flaws in our workflow and processes resulted in errors reaching the patient. The process improvement team (PIT) was developed in 2010 to reduce errors and was later modified in 2012 into the current WE team. Workflow issues and solutions were discussed in PIT and WE team meetings. Due to tensions within PIT that resulted in employee dissatisfaction, there was a 6-month hiatus between the end of PIT and initiation of the renamed/redesigned WE team. In addition to the PIT/WE team forms, the department had separate incident forms to document treatment errors reaching the patient. These incident forms are rapidly reviewed and monitored by our departmental and institutional quality and safety groups, reflecting how seriously these forms are treated. The number of these incident forms was compared before and after instituting the WE team. Results: When PIT was disbanded, a number of errors seemed to occur in succession, requiring reinstitution and redesign of this team, rebranded the WE team. Interestingly, the number of incident forms per patient visits did not change when comparing 6 months during the PIT, 6 months during the hiatus, and the first 6 months after instituting the WE team (P=.85). However, 6 to 12 months after instituting the WE team, the number of incident forms per patient visits decreased (P=.028). After the WE team, employee satisfaction and commitment to quality increased as demonstrated by Gallup surveys, suggesting a correlation to the WE team. Conclusions: A team focused on addressing workflow and improving processes can reduce the number of errors reaching the patient. Time is necessary before a reduction in errors reaching patients will be seen.

  10. Enhanced vision flight deck technology for commercial aircraft low-visibility surface operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arthur, Jarvis J.; Norman, R. M.; Kramer, Lynda J.; Prinzel, Lawerence J.; Ellis, Kyle K.; Harrison, Stephanie J.; Comstock, J. R.

    2013-05-01

    NASA Langley Research Center and the FAA collaborated in an effort to evaluate the effect of Enhanced Vision (EV) technology display in a commercial flight deck during low visibility surface operations. Surface operations were simulated at the Memphis, TN (FAA identifier: KMEM) airfield during nighttime with 500 Runway Visual Range (RVR) in a high-fidelity, full-motion simulator. Ten commercial airline flight crews evaluated the efficacy of various EV display locations and parallax and minification effects. The research paper discusses qualitative and quantitative results of the simulation experiment, including the effect of EV display placement on visual attention, as measured by the use of non-obtrusive oculometry and pilot mental workload. The results demonstrated the potential of EV technology to enhance situation awareness which is dependent on the ease of access and location of the displays. Implications and future directions are discussed.

  11. TECHNOLOGIES TO ENHANCE THE OPERATION OF EXISTNG NATURAL GAS COMPRESSION INFRASTRUCTURE

    SciTech Connect

    Anthony J. Smalley; Ralph E. Harris; Gary D. Bourn; Danny M. Deffenbaugh

    2005-01-28

    This quarterly report documents work performed under Tasks 15, 16, and 18 through 23 of the project entitled: ''Technologies to Enhance the Operation of the Existing Natural Gas Compression Infrastructure''. The project objective is to develop and substantiate methods for operating integral engine/compressors in gas pipeline service, which reduce fuel consumption, increase capacity, and enhance mechanical integrity. The report first documents a survey test performed on an HBA-6 engine/compressor installed at Duke Energy's Bedford Compressor Station. This is one of several tests planned, which will emphasize identification and reduction of compressor losses. Additionally, this report presents a methodology for distinguishing losses in compressor attributable to valves, irreversibility in the compression process, and the attached piping (installation losses); it illustrates the methodology with data from the survey test. The report further presents the validation of the simulation model for the Air Balance tasks and outline of conceptual manifold designs.

  12. TECHNOLOGIES TO ENHANCE THE OPERATION OF EXISTING NATURAL GAS COMPRESSION INFRASTRUCTURE

    SciTech Connect

    Anthony J. Smalley; Ralph E. Harris; Gary D. Bourn; Danny M. Deffenbaugh

    2005-07-27

    This quarterly report documents work performed under Tasks 15, 16, and 18 through 23 of the project entitled: ''Technologies to Enhance the Operation of Existing Natural Gas Compression Infrastructure''. The project objective is to develop and substantiate methods for operating integral engine/compressors in gas pipeline service, which reduce fuel consumption, increase capacity, and enhance mechanical integrity. The report first documents a survey site test performed on a TCVC10 engine/compressor installed at Dominion's Groveport Compressor Station. This test completes planned screening efforts designed to guide selection of one or more units for design analysis and testing with emphasis on identification and reduction of compressor losses. The report further presents the validation of the simulation model for the Air Balance tasks and outline of conceptual manifold designs.

  13. Enhanced Amplification and Fan-Out Operation in an All-Magnetic Transistor.

    PubMed

    Barman, Saswati; Saha, Susmita; Mondal, Sucheta; Kumar, Dheeraj; Barman, Anjan

    2016-01-01

    Development of all-magnetic transistor with favorable properties is an important step towards a new paradigm of all-magnetic computation. Recently, we showed such possibility in a Magnetic Vortex Transistor (MVT). Here, we demonstrate enhanced amplification in MVT achieved by introducing geometrical asymmetry in a three vortex sequence. The resulting asymmetry in core to core distance in the three vortex sequence led to enhanced amplification of the MVT output. A cascade of antivortices travelling in different trajectories including a nearly elliptical trajectory through the dynamic stray field is found to be responsible for this amplification. This asymmetric vortex transistor is further used for a successful fan-out operation, which gives large and nearly equal gains in two output branches. This large amplification in magnetic vortex gyration in magnetic vortex transistor is proposed to be maintained for a network of vortex transistor. The above observations promote the magnetic vortex transistors to be used in complex circuits and logic operations. PMID:27624662

  14. Enhanced Vision Flight Deck Technology for Commercial Aircraft Low-Visibility Surface Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arthur, Jarvis J., III; Norman, R. Michael; Kramer, Lynda J.; Prinzel, Lawrence J., III; Ellis, Kyle K. E.; Harrison, Stephanie J.; Comstock, J. Ray

    2013-01-01

    NASA Langley Research Center and the FAA collaborated in an effort to evaluate the effect of Enhanced Vision (EV) technology display in a commercial flight deck during low visibility surface operations. Surface operations were simulated at the Memphis, TN (FAA identifier: KMEM) air field during nighttime with 500 Runway Visual Range (RVR) in a high-fidelity, full-motion simulator. Ten commercial airline flight crews evaluated the efficacy of various EV display locations and parallax and mini cation effects. The research paper discusses qualitative and quantitative results of the simulation experiment, including the effect of EV display placement on visual attention, as measured by the use of non-obtrusive oculometry and pilot mental workload. The results demonstrated the potential of EV technology to enhance situation awareness which is dependent on the ease of access and location of the displays. Implications and future directions are discussed.

  15. Cytoplasm enhancement operator of peripheral blood smear images that are instable-stained and overexposed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Xin; Wang, Guoyou; Liu, Jianguo

    2015-12-01

    Nucleus and cytoplasm are both essential for white blood cell recognition but the edges of cytoplasm are too blurry to be detected because of instable staining and overexposure. This paper aims at proposing a cytoplasm enhancement operator (CEO) to achieve accurate convergence of the active contour model. The CEO contains two parts. First, a nonlinear over-exposure enhancer map is yielded to correct over-exposure, which suppresses background noise while preserving details and improving contrast. Second, the over-exposed regions of cytoplasm in particular is further enhanced by a tri- modal histogram specification based on the scale-space filtering. The experimental results show that the proposed CEO and its corresponding GVF snake is superior to other unsupervised segmentation approaches.

  16. Heuristics-enhanced dead-reckoning (HEDR) for accurate position tracking of tele-operated UGVs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borenstein, Johann; Borrell, Adam; Miller, Russell; Thomas, David

    2010-04-01

    This paper introduces a new approach for precision indoor tracking of tele-operated robots, called "Heuristics-Enhanced Dead-reckoning" (HEDR). HEDR does not rely on GPS, or external references; it uses odometry and a low-cost MEMS-based gyro. Our method corrects heading errors incurred by the high drift rate of the gyro by exploiting the structured nature of most indoor environments, but without having to directly measure features of the environment. The only operator feedback offered by most tele-operated robots is the view from a low to the ground onboard camera. Live video lets the operator observe the robot's immediate surroundings, but does not establish the orientation or whereabouts of the robot in its environment. Mentally keeping track of the robot's trajectory is difficult, and operators easily become disoriented. Our goal is to provide the tele-operator with a map view of the robot's current location and heading, as well as its previous trajectory, similar to the information provided by an automotive GPS navigation system. This frees tele-operators to focus on controlling the robot and achieving other mission goals, and provides the precise location of the robot if it becomes disabled and needs to be recovered.

  17. Pre- and post-exposure safety and efficacy of attenuated rabies virus vaccines are enhanced by their expression of IFNγ

    SciTech Connect

    Barkhouse, Darryll A.; Faber, Milosz; Hooper, D. Craig

    2015-01-01

    Consistent with evidence of a strong correlation between interferon gamma (IFNγ) production and rabies virus (RABV) clearance from the CNS, we recently demonstrated that engineering a pathogenic RABV to express IFNγ highly attenuates the virus. Reasoning that IFNγ expression by RABV vaccines would enhance their safety and efficacy, we reverse-engineered two proven vaccine vectors, GAS and GASGAS, to express murine IFNγ. Mortality and morbidity were monitored during suckling mice infection, immunize/challenge experiments and mixed intracranial infections. We demonstrate that GASγ and GASγGAS are significantly attenuated in suckling mice compared to the GASGAS vaccine. GASγ better protects mice from lethal DRV4 RABV infection in both pre- and post-exposure experiments compared to GASGAS. Finally, GASγGAS reduces post-infection neurological sequelae, compared to control, during mixed intracranial infection with DRV4. These data show IFNγ expression by a vaccine vector can enhance its safety while increasing its efficacy as pre- and post-exposure treatment. - Highlights: • IFNγ expression improves attenuated rabies virus safety and immunogenicity. • IFNγ expression is safer and more immunogenic than doubling glycoprotein expression. • Co-infection with IFNγ-expressing RABV prevents wild-type rabies virus lethality. • Vaccine safety and efficacy is additive for IFNγ and double glycoprotein expression.

  18. 78 FR 76391 - Proposed Enhancements to the Motor Carrier Safety Measurement System (SMS) Public Web Site

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-17

    ...: Background On November 5, 2013 (78 FR 66420), FMCSA published a notice in the Federal Register requesting... System (SMS) Public Web Site AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA), DOT. ACTION... Safety Measurement System (SMS) public Web site. On December 6, 2013, Advocates ] for Highway and...

  19. 48 CFR 252.246-7004 - Safety of Facilities, Infrastructure, and Equipment for Military Operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Safety of Facilities... Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE CLAUSES AND FORMS... the requirements of the applicable inspection clause in this contract, that the...

  20. Risk decision making in operational safety management - experience from the Nordic benchmark study

    SciTech Connect

    Holmberg, J.; Pulkkinen, U. ); Poern, K. ); Shen, K. )

    1994-12-01

    Technical Research Centre of Finland (VTT) and Studsvik AB, Sweden, have simulated decision making of the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate and a power company by applying decision models in a benchmark study. Based on the experience from the benchmark study, a decision analysis framework to be used in safety related problems is outlined. By this framework both the power companies and the safety authorities could be provided with a more rigorous, systematic approach in their decision making. A decision analytic approach provides a structure for identifying the information requirements of the problem solving. Thus it could serve as a discussion forum between the authorities and the utilities. In this context, probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) has a crucial role of expressing the plant safety status in terms of reactor core damage accident probability and of risk contributions from various accident precursors. However, a decision under uncertainty should not be based solely on probabilities, particularly when the event in question is a rare one and its probability of occurrence is estimated by means of different kinds of approximations. 26 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

  1. 77 FR 30559 - Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc.; Establishment of Atomic Safety and Licensing Board

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-23

    ... delegation by the Commission dated December 29, 1972, published in the Federal Register, 37 FR 28,710 (1972... accordance with the NRC E-filing rule, which the NRC promulgated in August 2007 (72 FR 49,139). Issued at..., Washington, DC 20555-0001. Richard F. Cole, Atomic Safety and Licensing Board Panel, U.S. Nuclear...

  2. 77 FR 30029 - Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc.; Establishment of Atomic Safety and Licensing Board

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-21

    ... delegation by the Commission dated December 29, 1972, published in the Federal Register, 37 FR 28,710 (1972... accordance with the NRC E-filing rule, which the NRC promulgated in August 2007 (72 FR 49,139). Issued at..., Washington, DC 20555-0001. Richard F. Cole, Atomic Safety and Licensing Board Panel, U.S. Nuclear...

  3. Preliminary Accident Analysis for Construction and Operation of the Chornobyl New Safety Confinement

    SciTech Connect

    Batiy, Valeriy; Rubezhansky, Yruiy; Rudko, Vladimir; shcherbin, vladimir; Yegorov, V; Schmieman, Eric A.; Timmins, Douglas C.

    2005-08-08

    Analysis of potential exposure of personal and population during construction and exploitation of the New Safe Confinement was made. Scenarios of hazard event development were ranked. It is shown, that as a whole construction and exploitation of the NSC are in accordance with actual radiation safety norms of Ukraine.

  4. OPERATING PARAMETERS TO MINIMIZE EMISSIONS DURING ROTARY KILN EMERGENCY SAFETY VENT OPENINGS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Certain designs of hazardous waste incinerator systems include emergency safety vents (ESVs). ESVs (also called dump stacks, vent stacks, emergency by-pass stacks, thermal relief valves, and pressure relief valves) are regarded as true emergency devices. Their purpose is to vent ...

  5. Relating safety, productivity and company type for motor-manual logging operations in the Italian Alps.

    PubMed

    Montorselli, Niccolò Brachetti; Lombardini, Carolina; Magagnotti, Natascia; Marchi, Enrico; Neri, Francesco; Picchi, Gianni; Spinelli, Raffaele

    2010-11-01

    The study compared the performance of four different logging crews with respect to productivity, organization and safety. To this purpose, the authors developed a data collection method capable of providing a quantitative analysis of risk-taking behavior. Four crews were tested under the same working conditions, representative of close-to-nature alpine forestry. Motor-manual working methods were applied, since these methods are still prevalent in the specific study area, despite the growing popularity of mechanical processors. Crews from public companies showed a significantly lower frequency of risk-taking behavior. The best safety performance was offered by the only (public) crew that had been administered formal safety training. The study seems to deny the common prejudice that safety practice is inversely proportional to productivity. Instead, productivity is increased by introducing more efficient working methods and equipment. The quantitative analysis of risk-taking behavior developed in this study can be applied to a number of industrial fields besides forestry. Characterizing risk-taking behavior for a given case may eventually lead to the development of custom-made training programmes, which may address problem areas while avoiding that the message is weakened by the inclusion of redundant information. In the specific case of logging crews in the central Alps, the study suggests that current training courses may be weak on ergonomics, and advocates a staged training programme, focusing first on accident reduction and then expanding to the prevention of chronic illness. PMID:20728656

  6. Implementation of an Error-Reporting Module Within a Biorepository IT Application to Enhance Operations

    PubMed Central

    Washington, M.K.

    2014-01-01

    The Collaborative (formerly the Cooperative) Human Tissue Network (CHTN) is a federally funded service oriented grant that provides high-quality biospecimens and services to the research community. The CHTN consists of six institutions located throughout the United States to assist investigators in obtaining research specimens required for basic research. The CHTN divisions have similar operating goals: however, each division is responsible for maintaining operations at their local institutions. This requires the divisions to identify ways to maintain and sustain operations in a challenging federally funded environment, especially when the number of investigators requesting services drives the operation. Sustainability plans and goals are often times patched together out of necessity rather than taking a thoughtful approach by clearly defining and aligning activities with business strategy and priorities. The CHTN Western Division at Vanderbilt University Medical Center (CHTN-WD) has responded to this challenge of biospecimen resource sustainability in the face of diminished funding by continually identifying ways to innovate our processes through IT enhancements and requiring that the innovation produce measurable and relevant criteria for credibly reporting our operations progress and performance issues. With these overarching goals in mind, CHTN-WD underwent a Lean Six Sigma (LSS) series to identify operational inefficiencies that could be addressed with redesigning workflow and innovating the processes using IT solutions. The result of this internal collaborative innovation process was the implementation of an error-reporting module (ERM) hosted within our biorepository donor IT application, which allowed staff to report errors immediately; determine the operational area responsible; assess the severity of the error; determine course of action; determine if standard operating procedure (SOPs) revisions were required; and through automated e-mails, alert the

  7. Implementation of an error-reporting module within a biorepository IT application to enhance operations.

    PubMed

    Wiles, Kerry R; Washington, M K

    2014-12-01

    The Collaborative (formerly the Cooperative) Human Tissue Network (CHTN) is a federally funded service oriented grant that provides high-quality biospecimens and services to the research community. The CHTN consists of six institutions located throughout the United States to assist investigators in obtaining research specimens required for basic research. The CHTN divisions have similar operating goals: however, each division is responsible for maintaining operations at their local institutions. This requires the divisions to identify ways to maintain and sustain operations in a challenging federally funded environment, especially when the number of investigators requesting services drives the operation. Sustainability plans and goals are often times patched together out of necessity rather than taking a thoughtful approach by clearly defining and aligning activities with business strategy and priorities. The CHTN Western Division at Vanderbilt University Medical Center (CHTN-WD) has responded to this challenge of biospecimen resource sustainability in the face of diminished funding by continually identifying ways to innovate our processes through IT enhancements and requiring that the innovation produce measurable and relevant criteria for credibly reporting our operations progress and performance issues. With these overarching goals in mind, CHTN-WD underwent a Lean Six Sigma (LSS) series to identify operational inefficiencies that could be addressed with redesigning workflow and innovating the processes using IT solutions. The result of this internal collaborative innovation process was the implementation of an error-reporting module (ERM) hosted within our biorepository donor IT application, which allowed staff to report errors immediately; determine the operational area responsible; assess the severity of the error; determine course of action; determine if standard operating procedure (SOPs) revisions were required; and through automated e-mails, alert the

  8. Enhanced Vision for All-Weather Operations Under NextGen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, Randall E.; Kramer, Lynda J.; Williams, Steven P.; Bailey, Randall E.; Kramer, Lynda J.; Williams, Steven P.

    2010-01-01

    Recent research in Synthetic/Enhanced Vision technology is analyzed with respect to existing Category II/III performance and certification guidance. The goal is to start the development of performance-based vision systems technology requirements to support future all-weather operations and the NextGen goal of Equivalent Visual Operations. This work shows that existing criteria to operate in Category III weather and visibility are not directly applicable since, unlike today, the primary reference for maneuvering the airplane is based on what the pilot sees visually through the "vision system." New criteria are consequently needed. Several possible criteria are discussed, but more importantly, the factors associated with landing system performance using automatic and manual landings are delineated.

  9. Developing and establishing the validity and reliability of the perceptions toward Aviation Safety Action Program (ASAP) and Line Operations Safety Audit (LOSA) questionnaires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steckel, Richard J.

    Aviation Safety Action Program (ASAP) and Line Operations Safety Audits (LOSA) are voluntary safety reporting programs developed by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) to assist air carriers in discovering and fixing threats, errors and undesired aircraft states during normal flights that could result in a serious or fatal accident. These programs depend on voluntary participation of and reporting by air carrier pilots to be successful. The purpose of the study was to develop and validate a measurement scale to measure U.S. air carrier pilots' perceived benefits and/or barriers to participating in ASAP and LOSA programs. Data from these surveys could be used to make changes to or correct pilot misperceptions of these programs to improve participation and the flow of data. ASAP and LOSA a priori models were developed based on previous research in aviation and healthcare. Sixty thousand ASAP and LOSA paper surveys were sent to 60,000 current U.S. air carrier pilots selected at random from an FAA database of pilot certificates. Two thousand usable ASAP and 1,970 usable LOSA surveys were returned and analyzed using Confirmatory Factor Analysis. Analysis of the data using confirmatory actor analysis and model generation resulted in a five factor ASAP model (Ease of use, Value, Improve, Trust and Risk) and a five factor LOSA model (Value, Improve, Program Trust, Risk and Management Trust). ASAP and LOSA data were not normally distributed, so bootstrapping was used. While both final models exhibited acceptable fit with approximate fit indices, the exact fit hypothesis and the Bollen-Stine p value indicated possible model mis-specification for both ASAP and LOSA models.

  10. The Safety and Health Improvement: Enhancing Law Enforcement Departments Study: Feasibility and Findings

    PubMed Central

    Kuehl, Kerry S.; Elliot, Diane L.; Goldberg, Linn; MacKinnon, David P.; Vila, Bryan J.; Smith, Jennifer; Miočević, Milica; O’Rourke, Holly P.; Valente, Matthew J.; DeFrancesco, Carol; Sleigh, Adriana; McGinnis, Wendy

    2014-01-01

    This randomized prospective trial aimed to assess the feasibility and efficacy of a team-based worksite health and safety intervention for law enforcement personnel. Four-hundred and eight subjects were enrolled and half were randomized to meet for weekly, peer-led sessions delivered from a scripted team-based health and safety curriculum. Curriculum addressed: exercise, nutrition, stress, sleep, body weight, injury, and other unhealthy lifestyle behaviors such as smoking and heavy alcohol use. Health and safety questionnaires administered before and after the intervention found significant improvements for increased fruit and vegetable consumption, overall healthy eating, increased sleep quantity and sleep quality, and reduced personal stress. PMID:24847475

  11. Efficacy of chlorine dioxide gas sachets for enhancing the microbiological quality and safety of blueberries.

    PubMed

    Popa, Iuliano; Hanson, Eric J; Todd, Ewen C D; Schilder, Annemiek C; Ryser, Elliot T

    2007-09-01

    In response to increasingly stringent microbial specifications being imposed by purchasers of frozen blueberries, chlorine dioxide (ClO2) gas generated by a dry chemical sachet was assessed for inactivation of Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella spp., and Escherichia coli O157:H7 as well as five yeasts and molds known for blueberry spoilage. Fresh blueberry samples (100 g) were separately inoculated with cocktails of L. monocytogenes, Salmonella, E. coli O157:H7 (three strains each), or yeasts and molds (five strains each) to contain approximately 10(6) CFU/g and exposed to ClO2 (4 mg/liter, 0.16 mg/g) for 12 h in a sealed 20-liter container (99.9% relative humidity) at approximately 22 degrees C. After gassing, 25 g of blueberries was added to 225 ml of neutralizing buffer, pulsified for 1 min, and plated using standard procedures to quantify survivors. This treatment yielded reductions of 3.94, 3.62, 4.25, 3.10, and 3.17 log CFU/g for L. monocytogenes, Salmonella, E. coli O157:H7, yeasts, and molds, respectively. Thereafter, 30 lugs of uninoculated blueberries (approximately 9.1 kg per lug) were stacked on 1.2 by 1.2-m pallets (5 lugs per level x six levels), tarped, and exposed to ClO2 (18 mg/liter, 0.13 mg/g) for 12 h. After gassing, significant (P < 0.05) reductions of 2.33, 1.47, 0.52, 1.63, and 0.48 log CFU/g were seen for mesophilic aerobic bacteria, coliforms, E. coli, yeasts, and molds, respectively, compared with non-gassed controls. No significant differences (P > 0.05) in microbial inactivation were seen between lug levels and, with one exception (mesophilic aerobic bacteria), between the bottom and top surface of individual lugs. Based on these findings, ClO2 sachets may provide a simple, economical, and effective means of enhancing the microbial shelf life and safety of blueberries. PMID:17900086

  12. Radiation Safety Aspects for Pulsed Photonuclear Assessment Techniques in Outdoor Operations

    SciTech Connect

    Daren R. Norman; James L. Jones; Brandon W. Blackburn; Allen Fisher; Scott M. Watson; Kevin J. Haskell; Alan W. Hunt; Mark Balzer

    2007-08-01

    As many pulsed photonuclear assessment (PPA) technologies are being developed for contraband detection within cargo container configurations, the radiation safe operation of source linacs for outdoor operations needs to be addressed. Idaho National Laboratory along with Idaho Accelerator Center are conducting field operations with high energy linacs in open outdoor configurations. The relevant information pertaining to the radiation regulations and dosimetry studies for these configurations will be presented for a prototypical 10 MeV PPA nuclear material detection system.

  13. Health, safety, and environmental management system operation in contracting companies: A case study.

    PubMed

    Nassiri, Parvin; Yarahmadi, Rasoul; Gholami, Pari Shafaei; Hamidi, Abdolamir; Mirkazemi, Roksana

    2016-05-01

    Systematic and cooperative interactions among parent industry and contractors are necessary for a successful health, safety, and environmental management system (HSE-MS). This study was conducted to evaluate the HSE-MS performance in contracting companies in one of the petrochemical industries in Iran during 2013. Managers of parent and contracting companies participated in this study. The data collection forms included 7 elements of an integrated HSE-MS (leadership and commitment; policy and strategic objectives; organization, resources, and documentation; evaluation and risk management; planning; implementation and monitoring; auditing and reviewing). The results showed that mean percentage of the total scores in seven elements of HSE-MS was 85.7% and 87.0% based on self-report and report of parent company, respectively. In conclusion, this study showed that HSE-MS was desirably functioning; however, improvement to ensure health and safety of workers is still required. PMID:26418847

  14. Safety analysis--200 Area Savannah River Site: Separations Area operations Building 211-H Outside Facilities. Supplement 11, Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-01-01

    The H-Area Outside Facilities are located in the 200-H Separations Area and are comprised of a number of processes, utilities, and services that support the separations function. Included are enriched uranium loadout, bulk chemical storage, water handling, acid recovery, general purpose evaporation, and segregated solvent facilities. In addition, services for water, electricity, and steam are provided. This Safety Analysis Report (SAR) documents an analysis of the H-Area Outside Facilities and is one of a series of documents for the Separations Area as specified in the SR Implementation Plan for DOE order 5481.1A. The primary purpose of the analysis was to demonstrate that the facility can be operated without undue risk to onsite or offsite populations, to the environment, and to operating personnel. In this report, risks are defined as the expected frequencies of accidents, multiplied by the resulting radiological consequences in person-rem. Following the summary description of facility and operations is the site evaluation including the unique features of the H-Area Outside Facilities. The facility and process design are described in Chapter 3.0 and a description of operations and their impact is given in Chapter 4.0. The accident analysis in Chapter 5.0 is followed by a list of safety related structures and systems (Chapter 6.0) and a description of the Quality Assurance program (Chapter 7.0). The accident analysis in this report focuses on estimating the risk from accidents as a result of operation of the facilities. The operations were evaluated on the basis of three considerations: potential radiological hazards, potential chemical toxicity hazards, and potential conditions uniquely different from normal industrial practice.

  15. Strategies for enhancing perioperative safety: promoting joy and meaning in the workforce.

    PubMed

    Morath, Julianne; Filipp, Rhonda; Cull, Michael

    2014-10-01

    Workforce safety is a precondition of patient safety, and safety from both physical and psychological harm in the workplace is the foundation for an environment in which joy and meaning can exist. Achieving joy and meaning in the workplace allows health care workers to continuously improve the care they provide. This requires an environment in which disrespectful and harmful behaviors are not tolerated or ignored. Health care leaders have an obligation to create workplace cultures that are characterized by respect, transparency, accountability, learning, and quality care. Evidence suggests, however, that health care settings are rife with disrespectful behavior, poor teamwork, and unsafe working conditions. Solutions for addressing workplace safety problems include defining core values, tasking leaders to act as role models, and committing to becoming a high-reliability organization. PMID:25260671

  16. TECHNOLOGIES TO ENHANCE OPERATION OF THE EXISTING NATURAL GAS COMPRESSION INFRASTRUCTURE

    SciTech Connect

    Anthony J. Smalley; Ralph E. Harris; Gary D. Bourn; Danny M. Deffenbaugh

    2005-01-01

    This quarterly report documents work performed under Tasks 10 through 14 of the project entitled: ''Technologies to Enhance Operation of the Existing Natural Gas Compression Infrastructure''. The project objective is to develop and substantiate methods for operating integral engine/compressors in gas pipeline service, which reduce fuel consumption, increase capacity, and enhance mechanical integrity. The report first documents tests performed on a KVG103 engine/compressor installed at Duke's Thomaston Compressor Station. This is the first series of tests performed on a four-stroke engine under this program. Additionally, this report presents results, which complete a comparison of performance before and after modification to install High Pressure Fuel Injection and a Turbocharger on a GMW10 at Williams Station 60. Quarterly Reports 7 and 8 already presented detailed data from tests before and after this modification, but the final quantitative comparison required some further analysis, which is presented in Section 5 of this report. The report further presents results of detailed geometrical measurements and flow bench testing performed on the cylinders and manifolds of the Laboratory Cooper GMVH6 engine being employed for two-stroke engine air balance investigations. These measurements are required to enhance the detailed accuracy in modeling the dynamic interaction of air manifold, exhaust manifold, and in-cylinder fuel-air balance.

  17. Risk-based configuration control: Application of PRA in improving technical specifications and operational safety

    SciTech Connect

    Samanta, P.K.; Kim, I.S. ); Vesely, W.E. )

    1991-01-01

    The objective of risk-based configuration control is to detect and control plant configurations form a risk perspective. The configurations of particular interest involve components which are down during power operation. Controlling plant configurations from a risk-perspective can provide more direct risk control and also more operational flexibility by allowing looser control in areas unimportant to risk.

  18. Risk-based configuration control: Application of PRA in improving technical specifications and operational safety

    SciTech Connect

    Samanta, P.K.; Kim, I.S.; Vesely, W.E.

    1991-12-31

    The objective of risk-based configuration control is to detect and control plant configurations form a risk perspective. The configurations of particular interest involve components which are down during power operation. Controlling plant configurations from a risk-perspective can provide more direct risk control and also more operational flexibility by allowing looser control in areas unimportant to risk.

  19. Impacting Space Station Freedom design with operations and safety requirements - An availability process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garegnani, Jerry J.; Schondorf, Steven Y.

    1990-01-01

    The unusually long mission duration of Space Station Freedom leads to operations costs that have significant impacts on life-cycle cost relative to previous manned space programs. Maintaining an affordable program requires that operations costs be considered throughout the design process. An appropriate means of impacting the design with operations concerns is to specify requirements that ensure operational effectiveness when implemented. The Space Station Freedom Program has developed a process defining such requirements. It focuses on specifying functional profiles and allocating resources such that designers gain a better understanding of the operational envelope in which their systems must perform. This paper examines the details of the process, where it came from, and why it is effective.

  20. PRACA Enhancement Pilot Study Report: Engineering for Complex Systems Program (formerly Design for Safety), DFS-IC-0006

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Korsmeyer, David; Schreiner, John

    2002-01-01

    This technology evaluation report documents the findings and recommendations of the Engineering for Complex Systems Program (formerly Design for Safety) PRACA Enhancement Pilot Study of the Space Shuttle Program's (SSP's) Problem Reporting and Corrective Action (PRACA) System. A team at NASA Ames Research Center (ARC) performed this Study. This Study was initiated as a follow-on to the NASA chartered Shuttle Independent Assessment Team (SIAT) review (performed in the Fall of 1999) which identified deficiencies in the current PRACA implementation. The Pilot Study was launched with an initial qualitative assessment and technical review performed during January 2000 with the quantitative formal Study (the subject of this report) started in March 2000. The goal of the PRACA Enhancement Pilot Study is to evaluate and quantify the technical aspects of the SSP PRACA systems and recommend enhancements to address deficiencies and in preparation for future system upgrades.

  1. Enhanced Component Performance Study: Air-Operated Valves 1998–2012

    SciTech Connect

    T. E. Wierman

    2013-10-01

    This report presents an enhanced performance evaluation of air-operated valves (AOVs) at U.S. commercial nuclear power plants. The data used in this study are based on the operating experience failure reports from fiscal year 1998 through 2012 for the component reliability as reported in the Equipment Performance and Information Exchange (EPIX). Results (beta distributions for failure probabilities upon demand and gamma distributions for rates) are used as inputs to the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission standardized plant analysis risk models of U.S. commercial nuclear power plants. The AOV failure modes considered are failure-to-open/close, failure to operate or control, and spurious operation. The component reliability estimates and the reliability data are trended for the most recent 10-year period while yearly estimates for reliability are provided for the entire active period. No statistically significant increasing trends were identified in the AOV results. Statistically significant decreasing trends were identified in two areas: AOV operation demands less than or equal to 20 demands per year and greater than 20 demands.

  2. Critical Drivers for Safety Culture: Examining Department of Energy and U.S. Army Operational Experiences - 12382

    SciTech Connect

    Lowes, Elizabeth A.

    2012-07-01

    Evaluating operational incidents can provide a window into the drivers most critical to establishing and maintaining a strong safety culture, thereby minimizing the potential project risk associated with safety incidents. By examining U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) versus U.S. Army drivers in terms of regulatory and contract requirements, programs implemented to address the requirements, and example case studies of operational events, a view of the elements most critical to making a positive influence on safety culture is presented. Four case studies are used in this evaluation; two from DOE and two from U.S. Army experiences. Although the standards guiding operations at these facilities are different, there are many similarities in the level of hazards, as well as the causes and the potential consequences of the events presented. Two of the incidents examined, one from a DOE operation and the other from a U.S. Army facility, resulted in workers receiving chemical burns. The remaining two incidents are similar in that significant conduct of operations failures occurred resulting in high-level radioactive waste (in the case of the DOE facility) or chemical agent (in the case of the Army facility) being transferred outside of engineering controls. A review of the investigation reports for all four events indicates the primary causes to be failures in work planning leading to ineffective hazard evaluation and control, lack of procedure adherence, and most importantly, lack of management oversight to effectively reinforce expectations for safe work planning and execution. DOE and Army safety programs are similar, and although there are some differences in contractual requirements, the expectations for safe performance are essentially the same. This analysis concludes that instilling a positive safety culture comes down to management leadership and engagement to (1) cultivate an environment that values a questioning attitude and (2) continually reinforce expectations

  3. Dual enhancement of electroluminescence efficiency and operational stability by rapid upconversion of triplet excitons in OLEDs

    PubMed Central

    Furukawa, Taro; Nakanotani, Hajime; Inoue, Munetomo; Adachi, Chihaya

    2015-01-01

    Recently, triplet harvesting via a thermally activated delayed fluorescence (TADF) process has been established as a realistic route for obtaining ultimate internal electroluminescence (EL) quantum efficiency in organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). However, the possibility that the rather long transient lifetime of the triplet excited states would reduce operational stability due to an increased chance for unwarranted chemical reactions has been a concern. Herein, we demonstrate dual enhancement of EL efficiency and operational stability in OLEDs by employing a TADF molecule as an assistant dopant and a fluorescent molecule as an end emitter. The proper combination of assistant dopant and emitter molecules realized a “one-way” rapid Förster energy transfer of singlet excitons from TADF molecules to fluorescent emitters, reducing the number of cycles of intersystem crossing (ISC) and reverse ISC in the TADF molecules and resulting in a significant enhancement of operational stability compared to OLEDs with a TADF molecule as the end emitter. In addition, we found that the presence of this rapid energy transfer significantly suppresses singlet-triplet annihilation. Using this finely-tuned rapid triplet-exciton upconversion scheme, OLED performance and lifetime was greatly improved. PMID:25673259

  4. Self-powered wastewater treatment for the enhanced operation of a facultative lagoon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ewing, Timothy; Babauta, Jerome T.; Atci, Erhan; Tang, Nghia; Orellana, Josue; Heo, Deukhyoun; Beyenal, Haluk

    2014-12-01

    The goal of this study was to harness the redox gradients in facultative lagoons using a lagoon microbial fuel cell (LMFC) to enhance autonomously the delivery of oxygen to the lagoon through aeration and mixing by operating an air pump. To enhance the usability of the low power generated by the LMFC, a power management system (PMS) was used to harvest power continually while only operating the air pump intermittently. Here we demonstrate the LMFC as an alternative energy source for self-powered wastewater treatment systems by treating both artificial wastewater and dairy wastewater in large laboratory-scale simulated lagoons. For comparison, we also used a lagoon treatment system without self-aeration. We show that the integrated LMFC and PMS system was able to improve chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal time by 21% for artificial wastewater and by 54% for dairy wastewater. The LMFC-PMS wastewater treatment system operated for over a year and proved to be robust and provide a measure of sustainability. The LMFC-PMS combination offers an innovative and low-tech approach to increasing the capacity of lagoons for rural communities. We believe that the technology developed in this research is the first step towards providing sustainable self-powered wastewater treatment systems.

  5. Dual enhancement of electroluminescence efficiency and operational stability by rapid upconversion of triplet excitons in OLEDs.

    PubMed

    Furukawa, Taro; Nakanotani, Hajime; Inoue, Munetomo; Adachi, Chihaya

    2015-01-01

    Recently, triplet harvesting via a thermally activated delayed fluorescence (TADF) process has been established as a realistic route for obtaining ultimate internal electroluminescence (EL) quantum efficiency in organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). However, the possibility that the rather long transient lifetime of the triplet excited states would reduce operational stability due to an increased chance for unwarranted chemical reactions has been a concern. Herein, we demonstrate dual enhancement of EL efficiency and operational stability in OLEDs by employing a TADF molecule as an assistant dopant and a fluorescent molecule as an end emitter. The proper combination of assistant dopant and emitter molecules realized a "one-way" rapid Förster energy transfer of singlet excitons from TADF molecules to fluorescent emitters, reducing the number of cycles of intersystem crossing (ISC) and reverse ISC in the TADF molecules and resulting in a significant enhancement of operational stability compared to OLEDs with a TADF molecule as the end emitter. In addition, we found that the presence of this rapid energy transfer significantly suppresses singlet-triplet annihilation. Using this finely-tuned rapid triplet-exciton upconversion scheme, OLED performance and lifetime was greatly improved. PMID:25673259

  6. Dual enhancement of electroluminescence efficiency and operational stability by rapid upconversion of triplet excitons in OLEDs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furukawa, Taro; Nakanotani, Hajime; Inoue, Munetomo; Adachi, Chihaya

    2015-02-01

    Recently, triplet harvesting via a thermally activated delayed fluorescence (TADF) process has been established as a realistic route for obtaining ultimate internal electroluminescence (EL) quantum efficiency in organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). However, the possibility that the rather long transient lifetime of the triplet excited states would reduce operational stability due to an increased chance for unwarranted chemical reactions has been a concern. Herein, we demonstrate dual enhancement of EL efficiency and operational stability in OLEDs by employing a TADF molecule as an assistant dopant and a fluorescent molecule as an end emitter. The proper combination of assistant dopant and emitter molecules realized a ``one-way'' rapid Förster energy transfer of singlet excitons from TADF molecules to fluorescent emitters, reducing the number of cycles of intersystem crossing (ISC) and reverse ISC in the TADF molecules and resulting in a significant enhancement of operational stability compared to OLEDs with a TADF molecule as the end emitter. In addition, we found that the presence of this rapid energy transfer significantly suppresses singlet-triplet annihilation. Using this finely-tuned rapid triplet-exciton upconversion scheme, OLED performance and lifetime was greatly improved.

  7. Flight Simulator Evaluation of Enhanced Propulsion Control Modes for Emergency Operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Litt, Jonathan, S; Sowers, T.; Owen, A., Karl; Fulton, Christopher, E.; Chicatelli, Amy, K.

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes piloted evaluation of enhanced propulsion control modes for emergency operation of aircraft. Fast Response and Overthrust modes were implemented to assess their ability to help avoid or mitigate potentially catastrophic situations, both on the ground and in flight. Tests were conducted to determine the reduction in takeoff distance achievable using the Overthrust mode. Also, improvements in Dutch roll damping, enabled by using yaw rate feedback to the engines to replace the function of a stuck rudder, were investigated. Finally, pilot workload and ability to handle the impaired aircraft on approach and landing were studied. The results showed that improvement in all aspects is possible with these enhanced propulsion control modes, but the way in which they are initiated and incorporated is important for pilot comfort and perceived benefit.

  8. Private-public sector co-operation to improve pesticide safety standards in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Ellis, W W

    1998-01-01

    This paper draws on the author's experiences of the pilot phase of the Safe Use Project (SUP) in Thailand; this project is a part of a major GIFAP initiative carried out in some developing countries. The SUP's objectives were; i) to raise awareness and compliance in the safe handling and storage of pesticides within the industry, the medical profession and the end-users; ii) to reduce the incidence of pesticide poisoning; iii) to protect the environment; iiii) to help relevant government agencies with resources, expertise and training. To achieve those objectives, the SUP used local-language training resources, provided basic training, lobbied for changes in governmental policies and regulations, and acted as a focal point for pesticide safety-related information. The SUP targeted the whole distribution chain, from importer/formulator, through to the endusers. Also medical profession, teachers and school students were targeted. On the base of independent audit and surveys, a general improvement in awareness has been shown within targeted groups; a longer time frame is required to detect meaningful changes in farmer practice. The SUP key programmes have been: I) training of trainers, retailers and farmers; II) schools programme; III) medical training; IV) protective clothing; V) industry standards; VI) model farm. The main conclusions of the pilot phase were: i) pesticide safety needs to be addressed by all concerned agencies in a joint effort; ii) a rural development perspective must be adopted in improving pesticide safety; iii) integrated pest management training programmes must include precautionary advice for proper handling, use and disposal of pesticides, wherever these are necessary. PMID:10217932

  9. Avoidance behavior: a free-operant lever-press avoidance task for the assessment of the effects of safety signals.

    PubMed

    Fernando, Anushka B P; Mar, Adam C; Urcelay, Gonzalo P; Dickinson, Anthony; Robbins, Trevor W

    2015-01-01

    This protocol details a free-operant avoidance paradigm that has been developed to evaluate the relative contribution of different sources of reinforcement of avoidance behavior that may play an important role in the development and maintenance of human anxiety disorders. The task enables the assessment of the effects of safety cues that signal a period free from danger on lever-press avoidance behavior. Avoidance behavior trained using this protocol has been shown to be sensitive to both behavioral and pharmacological manipulations and has been optimized so that it takes approximately 1 month for rats to perform at high levels of stable avoidance responding. PMID:25559006

  10. The Safety Course Design and Operations of Composite Overwrapped Pressure Vessels (COPV)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saulsberry, Regor; Prosser, William

    2015-01-01

    Following a Commercial Launch Vehicle On-Pad COPV (Composite Overwrapped Pressure Vessels) failure, a request was received by the NESC (NASA Engineering and Safety Center) June 14, 2014. An assessment was approved July 10, 2014, to develop and assess the capability of scanning eddy current (EC) nondestructive evaluation (NDE) methods for mapping thickness and inspection for flaws. Current methods could not identify thickness reduction from necking and critical flaw detection was not possible with conventional dye penetrant (PT) methods, so sensitive EC scanning techniques were needed. Developmental methods existed, but had not been fully developed, nor had the requisite capability assessment (i.e., a POD (Probability of Detection) study) been performed.

  11. Safety and Mission Assurance (SMA) Automated Task Order Management System (ATOMS) Operation Manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wallace, Shawn; Fikes, Lou A.

    2016-01-01

    This document describes operational aspects of the ATOMS system. The information provided is limited to the functionality provided by ATOMS and does not include information provided in the contractor's proprietary financial and task management system.

  12. Aircraft fire safety research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Botteri, Benito P.

    1987-01-01

    During the past 15 years, very significant progress has been made toward enhancing aircraft fire safety in both normal and hostile (combat) operational environments. Most of the major aspects of the aircraft fire safety problem are touched upon here. The technology of aircraft fire protection, although not directly applicable in all cases to spacecraft fire scenarios, nevertheless does provide a solid foundation to build upon. This is particularly true of the extensive research and testing pertaining to aircraft interior fire safety and to onboard inert gas generation systems, both of which are still active areas of investigation.

  13. Analysis of overtone flexural modes operation in quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Tittel, Frank K; Sampaolo, Angelo; Patimisco, Pietro; Dong, Lei; Geras, Antonina; Starecki, Tomasz; Spagnolo, Vincenzo

    2016-03-21

    A detailed investigation of a set of custom quartz tuning forks (QTFs), operating in the fundamental and first overtone flexural modes is reported. Support losses are the dominant energy dissipation processes when the QTFs vibrate at the first overtone mode. These losses can be decreased by increasing the ratio between the prong length and its thickness. The QTFs were implemented in a quartz enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy (QEPAS) based sensor operating in the near-IR spectral range and water vapor was selected as the gas target. QTF flexural modes having the highest quality factor exhibit the largest QEPAS signal, demonstrating that, by optimizing the QTF prongs sizes, overtone modes can provide a higher QEPAS sensor performance with respect to using the fundamental mode. PMID:27136886

  14. Management improvement could enhance enforcement of Coast Guard marine safety programs

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-08-15

    In managing its marine safety programs, the Coast Guard periodically inspects and boards vessels entering the United States to determine compliance with safety regulations. The Coast Guard uses data on vessels' enforcement history to assist it in determining those warranting inspection and boarding. The Coast Guard also relies on data from its field units to assist it in making personnel resource determinations. GAO found that the Coast Guard used inaccurate and incomplete information in its oversight of enforcement activities at the field level. Accordingly, GAO is recommending that the Coast Guard improve its collection, analysis, and use of information on marine industry activities to execute its marine safety responsibilities more effectively. The Department of Transportation said that the Coast Guard is aware of the GAO identified weaknesses and has taken steps to improve many of the issues brought out in this report.

  15. Strengthening the evidence-policy interface for patient safety: enhancing global health through hospital partnerships

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Strengthening the evidence-policy interface is a well-recognized health system challenge in both the developed and developing world. Brokerage inherent in hospital-to-hospital partnerships can boost relationships between “evidence” and “policy” communities and move developing countries towards evidence based patient safety policy. In particular, we use the experience of a global hospital partnership programme focused on patient safety in the African Region to explore how hospital partnerships can be instrumental in advancing responsive decision-making, and the translation of patient safety evidence into health policy and planning. A co-developed approach to evidence-policy strengthening with seven components is described, with reflections from early implementation. This rapidly expanding field of enquiry is ripe for shared learning across continents, in keeping with the principles and spirit of health systems development in a globalized world. PMID:24131652

  16. Ceramic separators based on Li+-conducting inorganic electrolyte for high-performance lithium-ion batteries with enhanced safety

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Yun-Chae; Kim, Seul-Ki; Kim, Moon-Sung; Lee, Jeong-Hye; Han, Man-Seok; Kim, Duck-Hyun; Shin, Woo-Cheol; Ue, Makoto; Kim, Dong-Won

    2015-10-01

    Flexible ceramic separators based on Li+-conducting lithium lanthanum zirconium oxide are prepared as thin films and directly applied onto negative electrode to produce a separator-electrode assembly with good interfacial adhesion and low interfacial resistances. The ceramic separators show an excellent thermal stability and high ionic conductivity as compared to conventional polypropylene separator. The lithium-ion batteries assembled with graphite negative electrode, Li+-conducting ceramic separator and LiCoO2 positive electrode exhibit good cycling performance in terms of discharge capacity, capacity retention and rate capability. It is also demonstrated that the use of a ceramic separator can greatly improve safety over cells employing a polypropylene separator, which is highly desirable for lithium-ion batteries with enhanced safety.

  17. Safety culture in the operating room of a public hospital in the perception of healthcare professionals1

    PubMed Central

    Carvalho, Paloma Aparecida; Göttems, Leila Bernarda Donato; Pires, Maria Raquel Gomes Maia; de Oliveira, Maria Liz Cunha

    2015-01-01

    Objective: to evaluate the perception of healthcare professionals about the safety culture in the operating room of a public hospital, large-sized, according to the domains of the Safety Attitudes Questionnaire (SAQ). Method: descriptive, cross-sectional and quantitative research, with the application of the SAQ to 226 professionals. Descriptive data analysis, instrument consistency and exploratory factor analysis. Results: participants were distributed homogeneously between females (49.6%) and males (50.4%); mean age of 39.6 (SD±9.9) years and length of professional experience of 9.9 (SD±9.2) years. And Cronbach's ( of 0.84. It was identified six domains proposed in the questionnaire: stress perception (74.5) and job satisfaction (70.7) showed satisfactory results; teamwork environment (59.1) and climate of security (48.9) presented scores below the minimum recommended (75); unit's management perceptions (44.5), hospital management perceptions (34.9) and working conditions (41.9) presented the lowest averages. Conclusions: the results showed that, from the perspective of the professionals, there is weakness in the values, attitudes, skills and behaviors that determine the safety culture in a healthcare organization. PMID:26625994

  18. Weak operator binding enhances simulated Lac repressor-mediated DNA looping.

    PubMed

    Colasanti, Andrew V; Grosner, Michael A; Perez, Pamela J; Clauvelin, Nicolas; Lu, Xiang-Jun; Olson, Wilma K

    2013-12-01

    The 50th anniversary of Biopolymers coincides closely with the like celebration of the discovery of the Escherichia coli (lac) lactose operon, a classic genetic system long used to illustrate the influence of biomolecular structure on function. The looping of DNA induced by the binding of the Lac repressor protein to sequentially distant operator sites on DNA continues to serve as a paradigm for understanding long-range genomic communication. Advances in analyses of DNA structures and in incorporation of proteins in computer simulations of DNA looping allow us to address long-standing questions about the role of protein-mediated DNA loop formation in transcriptional control. Here we report insights gained from studies of the sequence-dependent contributions of the natural lac operators to Lac repressor-mediated DNA looping. Novel superposition of the ensembles of protein-bound operator structures derived from NMR measurements reveals variations in DNA folding missed in conventional structural alignments. The changes in folding affect the predicted ease with which the repressor induces loop formation and the ways that DNA closes between the protein headpieces. The peeling of the auxiliary operators away from the repressor enhances the formation of loops with the 92-bp wildtype spacing and hints of a structural reason behind their weak binding. PMID:23818216

  19. Synthetic Vision Enhanced Surface Operations With Head-Worn Display for Commercial Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arthur, Jarvis J., III; Prinzel, Lawrence J., III; Shelton, Kevin J.; Kramer, Lynda J.; Williams, Steven P.; Bailey, Randall E.; Norman, R. M.

    2007-01-01

    Experiments and flight tests have shown that airport surface operations can be enhanced by using synthetic vision and associated technologies, employed on a Head-Up Display (HUD) and head-down display electronic moving maps (EMM). Although HUD applications have shown the greatest potential operational improvements, the research noted that two major limitations during ground operations were its monochrome form and limited, fixed field-of-regard. A potential solution to these limitations may be the application of advanced Head Worn Displays (HWDs) particularly during low-visibility operations wherein surface movement is substantially limited because of the impaired vision of pilots and air traffic controllers. The paper describes the results of ground simulation experiments conducted at the NASA Langley Research Center. The results of the experiments showed that the fully integrated HWD concept provided significantly improved path performance compared to using paper charts alone. When comparing the HWD and HUD concepts, there were no statistically-significant differences in path performance or subjective ratings of situation awareness and workload. Implications and directions for future research are described.

  20. Pilot program to identify valve failures which impact the safety and operation of light water nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Tsacoyeanes, J. C.; Raju, P. P.

    1980-04-01

    The pilot program described has been initiated under the Department of Energy Light Water Reactor Safety Research and Development Program and has the following specific objectives: to identify the principal types and causes of failures in valves, valve operators and their controls and associated hardware, which lead to, or could lead to plant trip; and to suggest possible remedies for the prevention of these failures and recommend future research and development programs which could lead to minimizing these valve failures or mitigating their effect on plant operation. The data surveyed cover incidents reported over the six-year period, beginning 1973 through the end of 1978. Three sources of information on valve failures have been consulted: failure data centers, participating organizations in the nuclear power industry, and technical documents.